• 1. Common places of Religion.
  • 2. More generall doctrines.
  • 3. Questions determined.
  • 4. Places of Scripture, either expounded, or cleered from corruption.
REVEL. 3.11. Behold, I come shortly: hold that which thou hast, that no man take away thy crowne.

LONDON, Printed by FELIX KYNGSTON for THOMAS MAN, dwelling in Pater noster row, at the signe of the Talbot. 1606.

TO THE RIGHT HO­NORABLE WILLIAM LORD RVSSEL, BARON OF THORNEHAVGH: Grace and all good blessings from God our Father, and our Lord Iesus Christ.

RIght Honorable, as it cannot be but true, which Truth it selfe hath vttered: 1. Sam. 2.30. Him that honoureth me, I will honour; no more can it be but sure pay­ment which such a creditor hath vndertaken, and not by any suretie, but by himselfe to be per­formed. Bootlesly had the world been betrusted with such a charge; which by suffering some to walke through dishonour, and by powring out contempt vpon others, vnwittingly suiteth the condition of the ser­uants to the case of the Sonne, who said: Ioh. 8.49. I honour the Father, but ye dis­honour me. Well then is it with vs, that he whose bare word is aboue all bonds, hath said, I will honour: not those who by treading downe his honour, honour themselues, neither whom men honour, nor who ho­nour men; but those who honour him: by Mal. 1.6. louing him as a Father, and [...]eaing him as a Lord. Not that any man can inlarge his honor; the Iob. 11.7. in­finit perfection whereof is in it selfe vncapable of any accession: nor [...]hat any can of himselfe expresse this honour; seeing himselfe Philip. 2.13. worketh [...]th such willes and deeds also, of his owne good pleasure: neither that if any [...]ould, hee might merit the returne of honour; for all that Luk. 17.10 were but his [...]utie: nor that if any could and would, hee should thereby profit God, [...]o whom Psal. 16. [...] mans goodnes is not extended: nor lastly, if any could, and [...]ould not; God should thereby be disprofited; for Iob. 35.6.7. if one be wicked he [...]teth not him: but because the Lord, who delighteth to be the portion [...]f Iacob, is pleased to accept the broken and homely seruice of his chil­ [...]en, as an high honour done vnto himselfe; and themselues as honorers [...]f him, and such as he (by crowning his owne worke in them) cannot [...]ut honour.

But Ester 6.6. what shall be done to the man whom this King will honour? Ans. If Baltazer King of Babel were to promise his highest honours:Dan. 5.7. if Ester 6.8. Ha­ [...]an were to aduise Ahashuerosh King of 27. Prouinces, in the bestowing [...] what honours himselfe could wish or hope: if Gen. 41.43. Pharaoh should call [...]gaine his Nobles to consultation, how to enlarge Iosephs aduance­ [...]ents: no more could be either promised, expected or performed, than [...]at such a one should be arraied with royall attyre, as cloath of purple, [...] fine linnen; with a golden chaine about his necke, the Kings Ring [...] his hand, his princely Diadem set vpon his head, and withall by pro­ [...]mation published the third man or Viceroy in the kingdom. Which [...]

infinite in recitall: and partly for that these haue most valiantly like Dauids worthies broken thorough these Philistims forces, and brought vnto vs in de­spight of them the pure water of the well of life; among whom this our Author last named was not the least, nor of so small note through the Christian world, that I can thinke by my penne to adde any moment vnto his: whose writings so sauory and so innocent haue sufficiently proclaimed his profound knowledge in all lear­ning, his prudent zeale, his mature iudgement, with an admirable dexteritie and facilitie, yea I may say felicitie, (for herein hee raigned, that I may vse the phrase of the reuerend Deane of his Maiesties Chappel, properly applied vnto him at his funerals, which with singular approbation he performed) in the direct re­soluing the obscurest doubts of Diuinitie, and the acute loosing and dissoluing the hardest knots of Papists, so briefly and yet so perspicuously, as that his most pole­micall writings,Reformed Catholike. being first by himself in our vulgar tongue published, could scarce meete euen amongst our common people, with such an vncapeable reader (if any whit catechised) into whom they might not conuey some competent conceit and vnderstanding of the deepest and darkest differences betweene the Papists, those patrons and defenders of darknes, and our selues. But besides these, such a tongue of the learned had the Lord God giuen him, that he knew to minister, and ministred according to knowledge a word in due time to him that was weary: Isa. 50.4. the which most weighty duty of the Ministery was so familiar vnto him, that he made it his holidayes exercise (as his recreation) to resolue cases of conscience. In his ordinary Ministry how powerfull was he? Which of his hea­rers cannot confesse that he spake as one hauing authority? Adde now vnto these his labours, an holy and harmelesse life: for why should I disioyne them, seeing they were so happily combined in him? betweene which two (both of them conspiring to the glory of God, and his cause) was such a sweete harmonie and concent, that in reading his writings any man might see the manner of his life, and in seeing his life, he might also therein reade his writings: for his life spak [...] what his pen writ, and his person was the president of his written precepts. Bu [...] when these vnweariable labours had quickly worne out such a candle, who so free [...]ly spent himselfe to giue others light; such a life was not shut vp, but by a propor [...]tionall, euen a religious and christian death: of the which when God made (wit [...] some others) my selfe a beholder, I could not but conceiue him a messenger on [...] of a thousand, singled out by God to giue directions to others, both how to liue and that well, as also in the right manner of dying well, who himselfe wa [...] so trained to a blessed death by a holy life, whereby he became both in life an [...] death a most happie and blessed man, for whose written precepts concerning both the whole Church is bound to blesse God with vs: but especially we his ordinar [...] hearers in Cambridge, who besides were also the beholders of both, cannot be [...] so much the more strengthned and confirmed (our owne heedlesse ingratitude [...] resisting or withstanding vs) by how much the eye is quicker then the eare, an [...] the sight a more certaine sense then can be the hearing. But we will leaue hi [...] with God, and omit those worthie works which himselfe whilest he liued (acco [...]ding as the relaxation both from the weekely labours of his calling, and the day [...] weakenes of his body would permit) did publish, not only for the watering of th [...] famous Seminary where he liued, but euen out of his abundance and full bucke [...] to the refreshing of all the heritage of God, and come to our owne purpose. It is [...] now to be wished; but bewailed rather, that all his works were not finished by hi [...]selfe before his owne course, seeing the orphane writings of the learned publish [...] by others are commonly lesse polished: for sometimes the Authors mind is not [...]ken, and sometimes his matter is mistaken, otherwhiles his forme is inuert [...] [Page] and not seldome either his owne elegances and proprieties which are like goads we neglected, or something besides his owne is iniuriously inserted: but yet the Lord hauing loosed him from his labours, the christian care of his executors com­mendeth it selfe to the Church herein, that before it should be depriued of any part of his paines so profitably employed, desirous they are to communicate them, [...]f not altogether in such exact manner as they would, yet as perfectly as they can, contented rather to hazzard the due regard of the author himselfe, by commit­ting vnto his schollers hands the publishing of his labours, then that the Church should want them by their holding and hiding them with themselues. As for my selfe, my wish was to haue bene spared in these paines, both because of my owne weekely imployments, and that in this place wherein the busines might haue bene committed to diuers others farre better furnished with gifts, and fitted with opor­tunitie then my selfe: but especially seeing how safe and wise a thing it is to sit si­lent where a man need not speake, and that in these dayes wherein euery mans [...] is in euery mans boate, and most men are become left-handed in receiuing things which are reached vnto them with the right;Iudg. 20.16 too like the 700. left-handed Beniamites, whose sole commendation seemeth to stand in this, that they can throw stones and darts against others at a haire-breadth and not faile: yet not­withstanding considering my calling hereunto, as also being after a sort reared [...] by the Poets rule, [...]. Eu­ripid. not doubting but that the matter following is farre better then silence, I was contented at the instant intreatie of the Authors executors to [...]ndertake the publishing of this Epistle, which himselfe had in his hart (if God had giuen him longer time) to haue with his owne hand set and sent out in it [...] natiue beauty and perfection: wherein what my paines haue bene, they only [...] who haue fathered other mens posthumous writings. I haue not troden in their steps who make the grounds of the authors serue their owne discourses (for so should I haue made this exposition conteining in it the summe of 66. Sermons, exceed the measure euen of a tedious Commentary) but in the Authors owne, who was wont to transcribe out of the notes of some of his hearers, the heads, and [...]rrow of things more largely in publike deliuered, explaining the points which [...]ere more obscure, and with a second hand polishing and perfecting things so ex­plained. Yea herein imitating not onely the Author of the Commentarie, but [...] of the text and Epistle, the Apostle Iude himselfe: who perceiuing the men [...]f his daies quickly waxing wearie of hearing or reading Sermons or Epistles, if [...]tended to any length or prolixitie, condiscended so farre to their infirmitie as [...] contract, and abridge much matter into a very short and summarie Epistle. Vpon the same consideration also haue I studied breuitie, so farre as in such mul­ [...]plicitie of matter I might auoide obscuritie: hauing herein employed my best p [...]es, that it might appeare that though I may haue failed in other comple­ments, yet so farre as my endeuour could erect me, not in faithfulnes to the Au­thor either of the text or Commentarie. The fitnes and seasonablenes of this ex­position may seeme to pleade for the more gracious acceptance of it: which being [...]eathed out by the Apostolicall spirit against the heretikes, and heresies which [...]ere to infect, and infest the last ages of the world, may by Gods blessing in the due [...] hereof, strengthen the people of God in the land, in the discerning and [...] both the wicked seducers themselues daily sent in amongst vs: those Popish instruments (I meane) who (like so many diuels compassing the earth) [...] so diligent to compasse sea and land to make carnall Protestants Popish Prose­ [...]es, and so seuen-fold more the children of the diuell than they were before; as [...] their diabolicall doctrines which euery where it meeteth withall. Let them [Page] out of their malice (as that foule mouthed Franciscane Feuerdentius, Out of [...]el­sa [...]us a [...]un­nagate Frier. who hath not throughout his booke passed many lines without some egregious lie or other) applie the scope of the Epistle to blacke the doctrines and liues of those most excel­lent instruments of God the restorers of true religion, Luther, Caluin, Beza, &c. yet as a milstone rolled vp a mountaine, or as a ball tossed against a brasen wall; so returneth and recoyleth it vpon themselues, as this graue Diuine hath through this Exposition in particular diuinely prooued. Reade it (Chri­stian Reader) with diligence, faithfully consider and remember what thou readest, and the Lord giue thee vnderstanding in all things, and build thee vp further vpon thy most holie faith.

Thine in the Lord Iesus, THO. TAYLOR.

A briefe view of the whole Epistle, drawne according to the Authors owne method.

The Epistle containeth three parts:

  • 1. Salutation, wherein are considered the
    • Person saluting described by his
      • Name: Jude.
      • Office: a seruant of Iesus Christ.
      • Alliance: brother of James.
    • Persons saluted, members of the militant Church, which are
      • Called,
      • Sanctified of God the Father,
      • Reserued to Iesus Christ.
    • Forme of salutation, vz. a prayer for
      • Blessings,
        • Mercie.
        • Peace,
        • Loue.
      • Increase of blessings: be multiplied.
  • 2. Exhortation, wherein are considered th [...]
    • Motiues exciting the Apostle, vz.
      • 1. His Loue. Beloued.
      • 2. His Readie minde: Gaue diligence, enlarged by three arguments.
        • 1. All diligence.
        • 2. To vvrite vnto you (when he could not speak [...].)
        • 3. Of most waightie matters: Of the common saluation.
      • 3. The present necessitie: It was needfull for me.
    • Matter.
      • Propounded, vz. to maintaine the faith: wherein are considered the
        • 1. Parties
          • Maintaining: Saints.
          • Oppugning: Seducers.
        • 2. Meanes of maintenance, vz. By fight: the
          • 1. Kinde: Spirituall.
          • 2. Weapons.
            • 1. Doctrine.
            • 2. Confession.
            • 3. Example.
            • 4. Prayer.
      • Confirmed by
        • 1. The state of the Church in his time pe­stered with enemies, described by their
          • 1. Hypocrisie: Crept in.
          • 2. State before God: Ordained of old to this condemnation.
          • 3. Religion: Vngodly men they are.
          • 4. Doctrine: vvhich turne the grace of our God into vvantonnes.
          • 5. Liues: and denie God the only Lord, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
        • 2. A prolepsis answered in a perfect forme of syllogisme, consisting of a
          • 1. Proposition, vz. Whosoeuer taketh libertie to sin shall be destroyed: proued by example of
            • Men. Here consider the
              • Persons destroyed: the people, vz. Israelites.
              • Time: after he (God) had deliuered them out of Egypt.
              • Cause: vvich beleeued not.
            • Angels, here consider the
              • 1. Persons sinning: the Angels.
              • 2. Sin it selfe, and in it the
                • 1. Author set downe
                  • Negatiuely: not God.
                  • Affirmatiuely: but themselues▪ [...]
                • 2. Parts
                  • Negatiue: vvhich kept not their first [...].
                  • Affirmatiue: but left their ovvne habitation.
                • 3. Measure of their fall: A totall defection.
              • 3. Punishment in two degrees.
                • 1. Custodie: Reserued in chaines vnder darken.
                • 2. Full punishment: vnto the iudgement of the [...]
            • Cities with their
              • 1. Names: Sodome and Gomorrha, and the cities about them.
              • 2. Sins
                • 1. According to Nature
                  • 1. Committed fornication.
                  • 2. Followed strange flesh.
                • 2. Against Nature
                  • 1. Committed fornication.
                  • 2. Followed strange flesh.
              • 3. Punishment: wherin
                • Vse, set foorth for example.
                • Matter, suffered vengeance of eternall fire.
          • 2. Assumption, vz. But these seducers take libertie to sin: prooued by e­numeration of their sinnes in their
            • 1. Ground or fountaine Dreamers.
            • 2. Kind [...].
              • 1. Vncleannes: They defile the flesh.
              • 2. Contempt of Magistracie.
                • 1. Proued from their
                  • Affection or iudgement: They despise gouernment.
                  • Speech or practise: speake euill of them that are in authoritie.
                • 2. Amplified three waies.
                  • 1. They blaspheme glories and dignities
                  • 2. By comparison from the greater, thus: Michael durst not raile [...] enlarged by the
                    • 1. Persons contending
                      • 1. Michael [...]
                      • 2. [...].
                    • 2. Cause: about the bodie of Moses.
                    • 3. Speech of Michael: The Lord rebuke [...]
                  • 3. They speake euill of a thing they know not.
              • 3. Intemperance in it, the
                • Cause: naturall knovvledge.
                • Worke: corrupt themselues as beasts vvithout reason.
              • 4. Crueltie against Gods people, comparatiuely called Cains vvay.
              • 5. Couetousnes by similitude from Balaam with the
                • Measure: they are powred out, or cast avvay.
                • Ground: Hope of reward, or vvages.
              • 6. Ambicious gainsaying of the truth, illustrated by
                • Comparison: with that of Core.
                • The end of that: Perished in it as he did.
              • 7. Riotousnes; prooued by exampl [...] and instance from Loue-feasts, in which.
                • 1. Sin: Fed themselues with neglect of the
                  • [...]
                  • [...]
                • 2. Ground of it: vvithout feare, vz. of God.
                • 3. Fruit of it: makes them spots in the [...] [...]
              • 8. Vnprofitablenes in their places: Clowds vvithout vvater.
              • 9. Vnconstancie: Carried about vvith euery vvinde, as light clowds.
              • 10. Ba [...]renne [...] in themselues, illustrated by a comparison, and described by foure degrees of naughtines, vz.
                • 1. Corrupt trees, that is, without good fruite,
                • 2. Altogether fruitlesse, that is, vvithout any fruite.
                • 3 Hopelesse of fruite: tvvice dead, that is, certainly.
                • 4. Hopelesse of life it selfe: Plucked vp by the [...].
              • 11. Impatience: raging vvaues of the Sea, foaming out their owne shame.
              • 12. Vnstablenes in doctrine: vvandring starres.
              • 13. Murmuring.
              • 14. Complaining, which proceedes from
                • Discontentment with their outward present estate.
                • The frowardnes of their owne disposition.
              • 15. VValking after their ovvne lusts.
              • 16. Proud boasting.
              • 17. Admiration of mens persons.
              • 18. Couetousnes: for aduantage.
          • 3. Conclusion, inserted in verses 13.14.15. vz Therefore these seducers shall be destroyed. This conclusion is
            • Propounded vers. 13. For vvhom is reserued black darknes.
            • Confirmed vers. 14.15. and that by an ancient testi­monie, in it consider the
              • 1. Author. Enoch not the fourth, but the seuenth from Adam Cains sonne▪ of Seth.
              • 2. Preface. He prophecied of such, saying.
              • 3. The testimonie it self, wherein
                • 1. The Lords comming to iudgement.
                • 2. His iudgement be­ing come, which is
                  • Generall, to iudge all [...]
                  • Speciall
                    • Persons all [...]
                    • Manner, [...] conuince.
                • 3. Cause of this iudgmēt 2. fold.
                  • Deedes de­scribed by
                    • Qualitie: [...]
                    • Manner of [...] vngodlily.
                  • Words set out by 2. properties.
                    • Cruell.
                    • Vttred [...] him. i. [...]
        • 3. An Apostolical testimonie that such there shuld be in it.
          • 1. A preface: But ye beloued remember, &c. vers. 17.
          • 2. The testimonie it selfe, and in it are two things.
            • 1. The time when these wicked men shall abound: in the last times.
            • 2. What manner of persons they shall be, described by two properties.
              • 1. Mockers.
              • 2. Fleshly, walking af­ter their owne lusts.
          • 3. The application of it to these persons, who are indeed
            • 1. Mockers, common to makers of Sects.
            • 2. Fleshly, hauing not the spirit.
        • 4. A direction in some meanes tending to this maintenance of faith in 5. rules cōcerning
          • 1. Faith, on which as vpon a foundation they must build vp themselues, inforced by
            • A motiue: most holy faith.
            • The meanes: praying in the Holy Ghost.
          • 2 Loue of God, in which they must keepe themselues.
          • 3. Hope: looking for the mercie of God, &c. and in it three things, the
            • 1. Person on whom the Saints must waite by hope, vz. our Lord Iesus Chri [...]
            • 2. Thing for which they must waite, vz. Gods mercie in Christ.
            • 3. End of their hope: Eternall life.
          • 4. Christian meeknes in recouering weake offenders, in which consider the
            • 1. Way to begin this recouerie: in putting difference.
            • 2. Manner of performance: Haue compassion of some.
          • 5. Christian seueritie in gaining of obstinate sinners: in it the
            • 1. Rule it selfe: Others saue vvith feare.
            • 2. Manner of it: Pulling them out of the fire.
            • 3. Caueat for better obseruation of it: and hate euen the garment vvhich is spotted by the flesh.
  • 3. Epilogue or conclusion, consisting on a praising of God: wherein three things.
    • 1. Person praised: Christ Iesus.
    • 2. Inducements mouing to praise him, drawne from
      • 1. His power.
        • Propounded here: To him which is able, &c.
        • Amplified by foure effects.
          • 1. Keeping the Saints that they fall not.
          • 2. Presenting them faultlesse, that is, iustifying them.
          • 3. Presenting them in the iudgement day before the presence of his glorie.
          • 4. Possessing them with ioy euerlasting.
      • 2. His wisedome: To God only wise.
      • 3. The work of our redēption: our Sauiour.
    • 3. Forme of praise, wherein foure things.
      • 1 What things are ascribed to God, vz Glorie, maiestie, dominion, povver.
      • 2. That these belong to Christ only.
      • 3. The circumstance of time, novv and for euer.
      • 4. The affection of the heart euer needfull in the worship of God: in the word, Amen.

[Page] [Page 1]A GODLIE AND LEAR­NED EXPOSITION VPON THE EPISTLE OF IVDE, EXPLAINED IN PVBLIKE LECTVRES BY that reuerend man of God, M. WILLIAM PERKINS, and now published for the vse of the Church of God.

Vers. 1. ‘Iude (or Iudas) a seruant of Ie­sus Christ, and brother of Iames, to them which are called and sanctified of God the father, and reserued to Iesus Christ.’

THe generall ayme and scope of this Epistle, is partly to de­clare the dutie of all Christi­ans, and partly to set out the corruptions of those, and these dayes and times; in both which euery one may receiue edification, who are desirous ei­ther to follow the former, or auoid the latter. In which generall consideration, we are to note three things concerning this Epistle, before we come to shew the parts of it in particular.

First the Authoritie, Secondly the Su­perscription, Thirdly the Argument or sub­stance of it.

First concerning the Authoritie, two questions are to be answered.

The first question, whether this Epistle be canonicall scripture.

And secondly, how we may know the certeinty of it.

Concerning the former: Luther and others, who acknowledge it to be a pro­fitable w [...]iting, denie it to be Canonicall scripture, and alleage foure reasons.

Obiect. 1.First they say, Iude calleth himselfe a seruant of Iesus Christ, and not an A­postle, but all the new Testament was penned or approued by some Apostle.

[...]This hindreth not but that he was one of the Apostles, who also called them­selues seruāts of Iesus Christ, as Paul Rom. 1.1. and Peter, 2. Pet. 1.1. Secondly, by this reason the Epistles to the Philip. and Philemon, as also of Iames, Iohn &c. might be reiected.

Thirdly he calleth himselfe as much as an Apostle.

Iude writeth of such things as the A­postles themselues had formerly fore­tolde,Obiect. 2. vers. 17. Therefore hee was no A­postle.

Iude liued after the Apostles Paul and Peter, Answere. who with Iohn were the last of the Apostles, and liuing after their decease (who were the principal) might very wel put them in minde of those things they had foretolde.

In the ninth verse,Obiect. 3. hee bringeth in a profane Author, concerning the strife and disputation betweene Michael the Archangell, and the diuell, about Moses body, which cannot be found in Canoni­cal scripture; as also of Enoch the seauenth from Adam, out of profane writers.

By this reason,Answere. neither should the E­pistle of Titus bee Scripture, seeing Paul makes mention of the profane Poet Epi­menides, Titus 1.12. nor the epistle to the Corinthes, where is brought in the speech of Menander, 1. Cor. 15.33. nor the Actes of the Apostles: where Aratus the Poet is cited. Actes 17.21.

This Epistle is taken out of Saint Peter from whom this Author hath borrowed both the matter and manner.Obiect. 4. Therfore this Iude was no Apostle, but some schol­ler of theirs.

If this were sufficient to proue this E­pistle not authenticall,Answere. then the whole bookes of Samuel, the Kinges, and Chro­nicles should be cast out of the Canon by the same reason: which take the matter from Ciuill Chronicles: Now if it be law­full to take matter out of Ciuill Chroni­cles, why may not one Scripture be taken out of another? wee must therefore (not­withstanding [Page 2] these weake allegations) esteeme this Epistle to bee the Canoni­call Scripture, and the eternall word of God, as our Church, and the Church in all ages hath receiued it. And now in the second place see how wee may come to be resolued that it is so to be al­lowed:Quest. 2. which wee may in this resem­blance. An Indenture betweene man and man is knowne to bee sufficient two waies. First by the matter and contentes therin, which plainly shewes an acte pas­sed, and done: secondly, by adding and annexing thereunto certaine outward signes and testimonies, as the handes and seales of the parties, the handes and names of the witnesses corroborating and strengthening the same: the first is good in it selfe (though not so confirmed to the parties) without the second: but the second is nothing without the first: but if both th [...]se shall concurre and bee specified in the Indenture, then it is ab­solutely authenticall, both in it selfe, and vnto the parties. If this be applied to the scripture, it shall be apparant to bee no lesse ratified then such an Indenture. For first consider but the Contentes and mat­ter it selfe of it, it will speake the certeinty and truth of it: read ouer the Epistle, you shall finde the whole matter agreed vp­on by the Prophets and Apostles: and for the testimonie, the Catholike and com­mon consent of the Church, or greatest part since the Apostles dayes, hath set to her hand and seale that it is the truth of God, no lesse assured then other bookes of the Canon: which assent of the church, though it cannot make vs, yet may moue vs accordinglie to entertayne it. Besides, if we consider the endes, as also the effects of this scripture (which are the same with any part of the Canonicall) wee cannot but confesse that it is the holy and sacred truth of God, all of it conspiring with all the other to the aduancing of Gods glorie, and furthering of mans salua­tion. So much of the authoritie of this Epistle.

The second point is the Superscription, which is in these words: The Catholique Epistle of Iude. This title seemes to bee prefixed rather by some Scribe after­wards, then by Iude himselfe: first because this title (Catholique) was not heard of in the Church whilest the Apostles liued; so as it is not so ancient as the Epistle.

Secondly the title seemes to bee vnfit for this and other Epistles intitled after the same manner, and may be well for­borne; as the Epistles of Peter are called Canonicall, which are no more Canoni­call then others.

Thirdly, most of the Post-scripts are vncerteine, if not false: as of that after the second Epistle to Timothie: in which Ti­mothie is called an elect Bishop of Ephesus, and yet commaunded to doe the worke of an Euangelist, 2. Timoth. 4.5. which cannot stand together, to be the Bishop of one place, and also vniuersally to preach vnto the whole world following the A­postles, as the Euangelistes duty was: and so of others. This title then was not ad­ded by the Apostle, but by some Scribe that copied out the Epistle: it is not there­fore holy Scripture as the Epistle is.

The third point concerning the Epistle in generall, is the argument: which doth exhort all Christians to constancie and perseuerance in their profession of the Gospell. Secondly, to beware and take heede of false teachers, and deceiuers which craftely creepe in amongst them: And thirdly these deceiuers are liuely set out in their colours; and with them their destruction.

Now concerning the Epistle it selfe, and the speciall partes of it.

Of it there be three partes: first a Salu­tation in the 1. and 2. verses: Secondlie an Exhortation, from the 3. verse, to the end of the 23. Thirdly, a Conclusion, from that to the end of the Chapter. In the Salutation consider three thinges.

First the person that wrote this Epistle: Iude.

Secondly, the persons to whom hee wrote: to those which were called, sanctified of God the father, and reserued to Iesus Christ.

Thirdly the Prayer, ordinarie in Apo­stolicall salutations: mercie vnto you, &c.

Concerning the first, namely the wri­ter of this Epistle, obserue three thinges, first his name, Iude, secondly his office, a seruant of Iesus Christ. Thirdly his Ally­ance, and brother-hood, being of the kindred of Christ himselfe.

First of his name, Iude or Iudas, which I was the name of two of the Disciples of Christ: the first was Iudas the sonne of Alpheus, the brother of Iames, and so neare allyed vnto Christ; who was the writer of this Epistle. The other was Iu­das Iscariot, or Iudas the traytor the sonne [Page 3] of Simon who could not write this Epistle because he died before Christ.

In this name consider two thinges. First the occasion of it, and secondly the varie­tie of his name. The occasion of this name is set downe with the reason of it in the 29. of Gen. 35. When Leah had borne three sonnes vnto Iacob, shee conceiued againe and bare a fourth sonne, saying, Now I will praise the Lord, therefore shee called his name Iudah, which signifieth praise or confession: so no doubt did Alpheus the father of this Iude at his birth giue him such a name as might moue not only himselfe but his child after him to thankfulnes and confession of Gods goodnes. So ought euery father in im­posing his childrens names with Alpheus, and euery mother with Leah make such choice of names as themselues and their children may bee put in minde, yea, and stirred vp to good duties, euen so often as they shal heare or remember their own names. The second point in this name is the variety of the names of Iude, hee was called Thaddeus, Mark. 3.18: and Leb­beus, Matth. 10.3: all which signifie the same thin, gand all put in minde of the same dutie. Here two Questions may bee asked. [...] ▪ 1. [...]. First why was he called by so ma­ny names? Some thinke he had all these names giuen him by the people and mul­titude, as signifying all one thing: others (which is more probable) that hee was thus called by the Apostles themselues rather then by his owne name, that the horrible fact of Iudas in betraying his Maister should bee vtterly with his name forgotten.

[...]. 2.A second question is, whether may a man change his name, or no?

[...]If the change thereof be no preiuidce to any man; much lesse hurtefull to the Church or common-welth, nor offendeth the faithfull, but wholy tendeth to the glory of God, and good of men, it may be altred and changed: As Saul a great persecutor, being called to be a publisher and Patron of the Gospell, changed his name into Paul: as also Salomon was at the first called by his Mother Iedidiah: Peter, at first called Simon Bariones, Christ afterwards gaue him a new name, and he accepted it. Yet hence the too common practise of the world cannot bee warran­ted, who for fraud and deceite doe alter their names: which when it is not inten­ded may warrantably bee done: as in time of persecution in the raigne of King Edward the 6. Bucer changed his name,Beza writ two Homi­lies concer­ning the sa­crament vnder the title of Na­thaniel Ne­sekins: and Caluins In­stitutions printed vn­der the name of Alcninus the Master of Charles the Great, Anno 1534. and both called himselfe, and suffered o­thers to call him Aretius Felinus: so did diuerse other worthie men in those dayes seeking no other then the glory of God, and good of the Church in their owne saftie: and that the Papists not knowing their names might reade their writinges without preiudice.

The second thing in the person writing, is his office: being called [a seruant of Ie­sus Christ] which is not so generallie to be vnderstood as ment of euery professor of Christ and beleeuer, who is a seruant of the Lord Iesus: but of a speciall seruice, namely of Apostleship, to which he was deputed.II

Wherein consider two thinges. First, that he was called to bee an Apostle and seruant of Christ to plant the Church of the Gentiles: Secondly, that he did faith­fully execute his function, and performed his seruice.

First he pleades his calling; for two causes: first in regard of others, and se­condly in respect of himselfe. First that his doctrine might with more attention, and reuerence be receiued of others, see­ing he run not vnsent but was called, and that to an Apostleship; and therefore he spake not of himselfe, but whollie and immediately directed by God.

Secondly for the confirming and com­forting of himselfe, that the Lord who had called him would stand by him, both in protecting his person, and prospering his worke in his hand.

Vse. Seeing the Apostle Iude before he writeth laieth down his calling; so ought all Ministers to make their calling the foundation of all their proceedings, con­taining themselues within the compasse thereof, euen as they are to teach the same dutie vnto all sortes of men, that they tempt not the Lord, by passing the bonds and limites of their calling.

Secondly, in that Iude, though he was of the same Tribe, yea of neare allyance vnto Christ, yet hee passeth by all these respectes which hee might haue stood vpon, and contenteth himselfe with the title of a [seruant of Christ:] We learne to make more account, and e­steeme it a greater priuiledge to be a ser­uant of Iesus Christ, than to bee of the kindred of Kinges, and allyed to the grea­test Monarchs of the world: Christ him­selfe [Page 4] shewes vs what kindred should take vp our chiefe delight, when hee turned himselfe from his Mother, and Brethren, and beholding his hearers said, those were his mother, sisters and brethren that heare the word of God, and keepe it: this al­liance in the faith was neerer and dearer vnto him then that in the flesh. If then thou standest vpon thy preferment, striue to be the seruant of Christ, which is more honorable then to be the sonne of a King, to be a follower of Chist, is more then to goe before the Rulers of the earth. But if thou aske how shall I come to this pre­ferment? Himselfe answereth thee, thou must giue vp thy selfe to heare his word and doe it, that is, learne to know, and o­bey his will, this is the maine dutie of a seruant, endeuour to please the Lord in keeping faith and good conscience thou art in the way of preferment, and art ad­mitted a seruant of Christ.

Thirdly: If wee bee admitted the ser­uantes and followers of Christ, wee must serue no other Maister, but keepe our selues from being intangled either with the offences, or affairs of the world, as to be vassals thereto: no man can serue two, much lesse more Maisters of such contra­rie commaundes. Let none pretend to bee the seruant of Christ, who by louing pleasure more thē God, or seeking earth more then heauen, disgrace such a profes­sion.

The third thing in the person writing, III is the allyance [Brother of Iames] of which name there were two, first, Iames the son of Zebedeus, whose death is mentioned in the 12. of the Actes by Herod: the second was the son of Alpheus, here mentioned:

First, that he might distinguish himselfe from the other Iudas the traytour. Se­condly, that he might winne further cre­dit and attention to his doctrine, seeing hee was no vnknowne person, but one that came of the worthiest stock that was vpon the face of the earth; and for this cause hee mentioneth his brother Iames, who was better knowne, as being the President of the Councell at Ierusalem and a choise pillar of the Church in his time, Act. 15.13: not to credit himselfe, but this Scripture (which otherwise is in it selfe sufficiently powerful) by the men­tion of him.

Now followes the second thing in the Salutation: that is, the person to whom Iude wrote, in these words [vnto those who are called, and sanctified by God the father, The Scrip [...]tures writ [...]ten proper [...]ly for the Church, that it might be ga [...]hered and streng [...]thened thereby. and preserued by Iesus Christ] it is, the mili­tant Catholique Church, which is liuelie described to be the number of beleeuers dispersed thorough the face of the whole world; who are effectually called, and sanctified and preserued vnto life euer­lasting: Out of which description note:

First, who and what they bee that are members of this Church: namely no wic­ked or profane persons, but onely the e­lect, such as are chosen vnto life euerlast­ing, who after receiue their calling vnto holines, and therein are assuredly preser­ued vnto life▪ which priuiledges no wic­ked person, no vnrepentant sinner can be partaker of, but onely the Church of the first borne, as in Heb. the 12; whose names are written in the booke of life, and who receiue daily spirituall increase: for howsoeuer in the Catholike Church there be two sorts of men professing reli­gion: the one, of them that do vnfained­ly beleeue, and are sanctified; the other, of them who make a shew of faith, but in­deede beleeue not, but remaine in their sinnes: of the former doth the Catholike Church consist, and not of the latter, who are no members s [...]t into the head of this body, though they may seeme so to bee.

Secondly, this confuteth the Romish Church, who teach and hold that a repro­bate may be a member of this Church.

Thirdly, that none can bee the head of this Church and Catholique congregati­on but onely Christ, for he only knoweth them, who and where they be thorough the face of the whole earth: not the Pope or any other creature hath any headship ouer this companie who are giuen and properly appertaine vnto the Sonne of God.

Fourthly, that this Catholique Church is inuisible and cannot by the eie of flesh be discerned; for what eye (except of faith) can see or discerne the depth of Gods election or whom he hath effectu­ally called? yea and who can infalliblie determine of the things that are within a man? and therefore this is a matter of faith, not of sense, an Article of our be­leefe, not the obiect of our sight, seeing faith is an euidence of thinges not seene: which againe ouerthroweth that Romish doctrine, which teacheth that the Catho­like Church is visible and apparent vp­on earth, and so destroy that Article of our faith.

[Page 5]Fiftly, that this Catholike Church be­ing preserued by God the Father to life euerlasting, cannot vtterly perish and bee dissolued: all other congregations and particular Churches being mixed, and the greatest part not predestinate may faile, yet this cannot be ouercome, Rom. 11.7. this election of God shall obtaine, though the rest be hardened. The gates of hell shall not preuaile against the faith of the Church, because faithfull and true is hee that hath spoken, and who will preserue in this Church a succession of wholsome and sound doctrine, and heauen and earth shall be sooner dissolued, than on iote of the same shall faile and perish.

Obiect.But though that faile not, the Church may fall from that, and so faile.

[...]That particular Churches, and of them the most famous, haue been ruined, yea and fallen away, and so may doe, is eui­dent by the Churches of Ephesus, Co­rinth, Galatia, &c. and no maruell, seeing these consisted euer of mixed persons, but the Catholique Church consisting onelie of a number elected and called, though it also (not being as yet without wrinkle) may erre and faile in some smaller points: yet being preserued by God to life, can­not possibly faile in the maine and foun­dation.

This doctrine affordeth strong conso­lation to the elect of God, both in regard of their frequent falles and infirmities, whereby they might feare to cast them­selues quite out of fauor; as also in regard of the manifold assaultes, and bickerings, which in the world they doe and shall endure, whereby they might seeme to the outward veiw to perish: yet the truth is, neither of both need so dismay them, but that their faith and hope may still bee re­uiued and strengthened, seeing they are preserued to saluation.

Sixtly, here are better notes of a true Church then the Papistes Antiquity, Suc­cession, Multitude, &c. which can bee no notes. Frst for Antiquitie: in the begin­ning was a true Church, but no Antiqui­tie. Secondly, succession failes: for what men soeuer are called and sanctified, are the Church: Thirdly, multitude no note: for if there be a calling and sanctification of men, there is a Church, be there many or few:The church [...] to persons or places, but [...] Christs [...]. But the true notes are the meanes of calling to the faith by the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles, and obedi­ence thereunto, proceeding forward in sanctification, euen vntill death; without which notes none can truly say they are of the Catholique Church▪ By which we may know the Church of England to be the true visible Church of God, called and sanctified in the truth, Ioh. 8.31.

Now to proceede, wee are in the next place to intreate of the order which God obserueth in bringing men by degrees to life euerlasting: And first of the calling mentioned; which is a worke of God, who of his meere fauour and grace cal­leth vile and miserable men out of the world, and inuiteth them to life euerla­sting: to vnderstand which we must know that the calling of God is two fold. The first is generall, when God calles a whole Nation, kingdome, and countrie, that is, when hee offers them saluation in the meanes; as when hee sends his word a­mongst them, affordes them the Sacra­ments to seale the Couenant, giue [...] leaue to approch him in prayer, and all this in the Ministrie of men, that man might call man▪ yea when hee vouchsafeth pri­uate meanes farre inferior to the former, yet often seruing for a generall calling, a [...] is the reading of the Scriptures, yea of mens writings, and some time report [...], as in Rahab [...] example, and the woman of Samaria; by these meanes the Lord gene­rally calleth men, offering, but often not giuing grace offered, in great iudgement turning away from a froward people.

If God offer, but giue not grace,Obiect. it is a deluding of men:

No,Answere. for first a man was once able to receiue it: secondly, hereby hee maketh them without execuse whom he will de­stroy: thirdly, hereby he keepes the wic­ked in outward order.

Vse: Considering to be called of God is the first step to life euerlasting, and we in this Church of England are thus called, it remaines that euery man should answere this calling.

How shall this be done?Question.

Frame thy heart to answere God,Answere. as Dauid did when God bad him seeke his face: Thy face O Lord will I seeke: see also Marke 9.23.24. of the father of the pos­sessed child, and Psal. 40.6.7. whē Dauids eare was pearced, hee answered: Lord I come: this ought to be the Answer of our hartes to the Lords voice sounding in the Ministry.

The second calling is more speciall, when grace is not only offered, but giuen [Page 4] [...] [Page 5] [...] [Page 6] also by God, thorough the effectuall working of his spirit in our hearts: which is the beginning of grace in vs, hee him­selfe laying the first foundation of it: by giuing power to receiue the word, to mingle it with faith, and bring forth the fruites of new obedience; for the bet­ter conceiuing of the nature of it consider sixe pointes.

First the ground and foundation of it, namely Gods eternall free election of vs vnto life euerlasting, as 2. Tim. 1.9. when I say free, I exclude not only whatsoeuer man can imagine within himselfe as vaine in procuring such good vnto him­selfe, as not of works, saith Paul, least any should boast; but also placing the ground of all our good out of our selues in the counsell of God, which the Apostle calles his good purpose, Rom. 8.28: yea to shew the freenes of this grace, it is thence denominated and called the election of grace.

Secondly the meanes of this calling, which in the Lords hands are diuers; whereof some prepare to calling, other­some are instruments of it: as first the reading of the Scriptures, seruing to be­ge [...] [...] generall historicall faith. Secondly, afflictions in bodie, goods, name, friends or otherwise tending to humble a man and prepare his heart as soft ground. Thirdly, the denouncing of Gods iudge­ments, and threats of the law which sends to hell, but giues no grace: these are generall preparatiues: others are in­struments to effect inward calling, as the preaching of the glad tidings of the Gospell, which is the most principall and effectuall meanes of this speciall and ef­fectuall vocation: and to this Paul a­scribes it, as 2. Thess. 2.14. whereunto he called you by our Gospell: that this is true, consider a two fold worke of this Mini­sterie, when it is powerfully applied to the hearts of men. First it openeth the very heart of a man, and laies him out to the beholding of himselfe, shewing him that by his detestable sins he hath made himselfe more vgly in Gods eyes than any Toade can be in mans: whereby he is prepared not to lie asleep in this estate, but vnto the second worke, which is to apprehend and applie the blood and me­rits of Christ (exhibited in the Gospell) for the washing and bathing of his sin­full soule, that so he may be saued from wrath.

Thirdly, the persons that are called: those are mentioned, Rom. 30. namely those whom hee had before predestinate, those he called: which seemes to be ex­pounded in Acts 13.48. So many as were ordained to life euerlasting beleeued, that is, were called vnto the faith: all therefore are not called.

It pleaseth some to teach another do­ctrine, namely that God for his part calls all men effectually, and giues them a po­wer to beleeue if they will; but the diffe­rence, say they, is in the will of man; to prooue which they bring this compari­son: The Sunne shines on waxe and clay equally, the waxe is softned, but the clay is hardened. But this is not true out of the Scriptures: for it is not giuen to all to vnderstand the mysteries of the king­dome, Matth. 13.11. these things are hid from most of the wise of the world, and reueiled vnto babes, Matth. 11.25. Know­ledge is giuen to some, not to others, and consequently faith: for they which haue not knowne cannot beleeue.

Fourthly, the time of this calling. The particular time of any mans calling is not reueiled, but laid vp in the secret counsell of God, in whose hands times and seasons are: yet the extent of the time is large enough though stinted, euen the time of this life, some at the sixt houre, some at the ninth, and others at the eleuenth, &c. but not after, because that then all means of calling men cease. Now because men know not the date of their daies, it behoues them out of hand to striue to enter, not to deferre from day to day, alleaging that some are called at the twelfth houre, but accept of ye Lords call while it is yet the acceptable time. If the Lord now say, Seeke my face, let thy heart answere as an eccho which [...]akes the word out of the mouth, thy face O Lord I will seeke, Psalm. 27.8. such a plea­sant harmonie God is delighted with. If he say (as the Prophet speaketh) Behold now my people, they are presently readie to answere: Behold now our God; and the ra­ther because the Lord will be free, and not stinted by thee, that either he should call thee in thy crooked yeeres, or not at all: he will not be prescribed vnto extra­ordinarily to call thee at the twelfth houre, as he did the theefe on the crosse, when thou howlest vpon the bed of thy sorrow, and gaspest vpon thy death-bed. Therefore while it is called to day let vs [Page 7] heare the voyce, and harden our hearts no more.

Fiftly, wherein doth this effectuall cal­ling stand?

Answ.Both in the outward and inward cal­ling, because the former is often in the meanes giuen to Nations people, [...] men, at least to make them without all excuse: but the second being secret and inward, whereby the Lord makes a mans heart inwardly answere the outward calling, possesseth him with a willing mind sted­fastly to beleeue in the Lord Iesus, and with an endeuour to please the Lord in all things: thus is the heart pearced, Psal. 40.6. the heart of stone changed in­to an hart of flesh, that is, made tractable and pliable, Ezech. 11.19. and an heart which is a sacrifice accepted of God; such an hart was Lydia [...], Act. 16.15. when God had opened it, it was heedfull and attentiue to the words of Paul: this hart can rellish the sweete promises of the Gospell, and no other.

Sixtly, the excellencie of this calling: which wee shall perceiue by these consi­derations. First, in that it is a great work, as was the creation of man at the first, Rom. 4.18: so the Apostle maketh it, 2. Cor. 4.6. he that at the beginning cal­led light out of darknes, the same hath shined in our hearts, &c. that as God cals the first time and dead creatures come foorth to life: so with no lesse powerfull voyce the Lord cals the second time the heart of man dead in sinne, and it is quickened with the life of God.

Secondly, this effectuall calling goes beyond the worke of our creation: for here a man is taken out of the first Adam, and set into the second, and at the same instant power is giuen to beleeue, being in time both together, though in order faith is first, and then ingrafting, wherein is not onely a bare priuation as in the creation when God called things that were not, as though they were: but here is a plaine resistance and rebellion, God calling not onely things that are not, but things that would not and refuse to be. Thus to raise a man out of the blood of Christ, is more than to raise Eue out of Adams side▪ to raise a dead soule from the death of sinne farre more glorious and powerfull, than to raise a dead bodie from bodily death; to raise a man to su­pernaturall life, farre greater than to a na­turall onely.

Thirdly, this calling ratifies all our couenants with God. Men in their Bap­tisme enter couenant with God, but of­ten start from it, and will not stand to it, so as the couenant is onely made: but when as a man is effectually called, the couenant is not onely made but truly ac­complished, and that on mans part.

Vse. Seeing we are called of God him­selfe in the ministerie of the word, (for Paul calles it, Phil. 3.14. an high calling) we must labour to ioyne the inward cal­ling with it which is higher than that, by hauing first a griefe because we cannot beleeue: secondly, a readie mind: third­ly, an endeuour to beleeue: fourthly, a sorrow because we beleeue no more, and faile so much in the seruice of God; which if we want we must labour for thē; and if wee haue them, be thankfull vnto God for them.

2. Vse. Learne the dutie laid downe by the Apostle, Ephes. 4.1. that we should walke worthie of our calling. To doe which, first we must looke that we frame our liues holily, being holy in our whole conuersation, as he that hath called vs is ho­lie. Secondly, there must be the same end of our liues which is of Gods calling, that is, to bring vs to heauen. The end of our being in the world is to be called out of the world, and (as Abraham) to obey God, as looking for a citie in heauen not made with hands.

Now we proceede to the second step of life eternall, which is sanctification: Sanctifica­tion follow­eth effec­tuall cal­ling. this name is taken from the Latins, and by it is vnderstood Regeneration, renouation, new creation, and to be sanctified is to be made holie and be borne anew. That wee the better know this grace consider sundrie points.

First, what sanctification is: It is an in­ward change of a man iustified, whereby the image of God is restored in him. For the opening of which description marke that first I call it a change of a man, to put a difference betweene it and ciuill con­uersation, which is a gift of God likewise as this is, but farre different from it; be­cause this onely restraineth the corrup­tion of the heart, whereas sanctification reneweth the heart: and thus the gifts of God are of two sorts: first, restraining, which doe keepe in the wickednes of the heart, such as are all ciuill vertues. Se­condly, renuing or altering the minde, which not only represseth but abolisheth [Page 8] corruption; of this kinde is sanctifica­tion.

Secondly, I call it an inward change, namely in the minde, will, affections, as working vpon the inward corruptions and lusts of the heart: to distinguish it from outward sanctification which a wicked man may haue, whereby he re­formeth his outward man and cariage by the ministerie of the word, such are they whom the Apostle speakes of, Heb. 10.27. which tread vnder their feet [...] the blood of Christ, whereby they were sanctified, name­ly externally: this is of another kinde working the inward change of the heart.

Thirdly, I adde of a man iustified: for two causes: first, to shew that iustifica­tion and sanctification are two diuers gifts of God, and their difference may appeare in three things: first, in that iu­stification is out of a man; sanctification is within him. Secondly, iustification ab­solues a sinner, and makes him stand righteous at the barre of Gods iudge­ment; sanctification cannot doe this. Thirdly, iustification brings peace of conscience; so doth not sanctification, but followeth that peace.

Thus the Apostle hath them distinct, 1. Cor. 6.11. Ye are washed, ye are iusti­fied and sanctified: as also 1. Cor. 1.30. Christ is made to vs righteousnes and san­ctification. Secondly, because iustifica­tion goes with sanctification, though iu­stification be before in nature, yet they are wrought at the same time. For when God accepts a mans person, then is hee made iust, who is also sanctified. Fourth­ly, I say the image of God is hereby resto­red, the which that we may know where­in it consisteth, consider the three-folde estate of man; the first of innocencie, the second after the fall, and the third vnder Christ. First, in innocencie man had three things: first, substance of bodie & soule: secondly, the faculties of soule, as reason and vnderstanding: thirdly, the image of God standing in the conformitie of the whole man, to the will of God. Se­condly, in the state after the fall man hath two of these: first, substance of bo­die and soule: secondly, faculties as be­fore. But the third is wanting, standing in righteousnesse and holinesse, and in stead of it is found in euery man original sinne, which distempereth and disorde­reth the whole man, his minde, will and affections, and carrieth him against the will of God. In the third condition vn­der Christ wee haue three things: first, substance of bodie and soule: secondly, faculties of the reasonable soule: third­ly, a new created holines and righteous­nesse, before lost, but now restored by grace aboue nature; and this is a renew­ed conformitie to the will of God, and the image of God againe restored.

Where note that sanctification is such a gift of God, as changeth the man, not the substance of the bodie, or the facul­ties of the soule, but the corruption,Religion rectifieth affection [...] but aboli­sheth th [...] not. dis­order and sinfulnes of man; it rectifieth, but abolisheth not affections: if a man be of sad disposition, it neither increa­seth nor taketh away, but moderates his sorrow, and keepes it in order: so if a man bee of a merrie disposition, it de­priues him not of his mirth, but corrects it, that it exceede not: so in Choler and other complexions. Then those that feare to labour in their sanctification, because then they must be solitarie, sad, and can­not be merrie, and those that thus obiect against those who endeuour ouer their owne reformation, may see themselues deceiued, seeing it onely tempereth the affections to such moderation as be­commeth holines.

The second point is:Questio [...] Whence haue we our sanctification? whether from our pa­rents, or from what originall?

No, it cannot flow from the parents,Answere. no although they be holy; Who ca [...] bring a cleane thing out of filthine [...] there is n [...] one. Iob. 1.13. the new birth is not of blood, nor the will of flesh, nor of man: for parents must bee considered two waies: first, as they are men, children of Adam. Thus they bring their children, and conuey no more to their children than Adam did, which is nature, together with the corruption of it.

Holy parents haue no sinne,Obiect. for it is mortified in them, therefore they cannot deriue it to their children?

Notwithstanding their sanctification they conuey the nature and sinne of A­dam: which comes thus to passe.Answere. God in the beginning gaue this law, that what­soeuer Adam receiued, he should receiue it for himselfe and his posteritie; and whatsoeuer he lost, he should lose from himselfe and all his posteritie: by vertue of which law parents sanctified bring foorth children vnsanctified, which may appeare by this cōparison. Take wheate, make it as cleane as you can, sow it, and [Page 9] it will come vp not as it was sowen, but in stalke blade and eare, and it brings vp as much chaffe as euer it did, though none were sowen with it; what is the reason hereof but onely the order set in nature by God at the first? So parents, let them be neuer so holie, by vertue of the former lawe bring foorth vnholie children.

Secondly, parents must be considered as holy men, sonnes of the second Adam by a second birth: and thus they produce not their children, nor deriue their holi­nes into them, although their holinesse may be a meanes to bring them within the Couenant.

Whence note that ye soule of the child is not deriued frō the soule of the father, as the body is frō his body, for then shuld they haue the same properties with the soule of the parents: so euery regene­rate man should deriue a regenerate soule vnto the infant, which is false not onely in many examples, but in that ori­ginall sinne infecteth euery infants soule, aswell of the beleeuing as vnbeleeuing parent.

But if sanctification be not from the parent,Question. whence is it?

From Christ, who is made of God vnto vs sanctification, Answere. 1. Cor. 1.30. 1. Coloss. 22. In him are hid all the treasures of it, of whose fulnes we receiue grace for grace, 1. Ioh. 16. wherein two further points are to be knowne: first, what thing in Christ is the roote of our sanctification: namely Christ his holines as he is man, euen as Adams vnrighteousnes is the roote of our corruption.

Secondly, that seeing he is the root of our sanctification, it is necessarie there be a coniunction and vnion betweene him and vs, before we can partake of his ho­lines, and it is the bond of faith which knits vs as members vnto him the head: in which regard the Apostle saith, he is made of God our sanctification, 1. Cor. 1.30. that is, the roote and author of it.

A third point is, the measure of our san­ctification, which is but in part giuen vs in this life, the most regenerate man being partly flesh and partly spirit, appearing in this comparison: Take a vessell full of water, let a portion be taken out and an equall portion of hot water put in, it be­come [...] luke-warme all of it, partly hote and partly cold: euen so euery man is a vessell of water filled with corruption to the brim, if a part of his corruption be taken away, and a proportionall part of holines put in stead of it, the whole man becomes partly holy, partly vnholy: of which wee haue an example in Moses, Num. 20.8.9. who in smiting the rock so as the water gushed out, bewrayed the mixture of faith with vnbeleefe in the same action; he takes the staffe, therein he obeyed God; but he strikes the Rocke twice, being commanded only to speake to it, and therein he disobeyed, for which the Lord was angrie.

A fourth point is, touching the parts of sanctification, which may be diuided two waies: first it is diuided into mortifica­tion and viuification.

Mortification is a part of sanctifica­tion, whereby the power,The first diuision of sanctifica­tion. tyrannie and strength of originall sinne is weakned, and also by little and little abolished, which be cōsidered to be not in one part onely, but throughout; so as when one part of originall sinne decaieth, so doth also the rest, the ground of which is the vertue and efficacie of Christs death: which if any aske what it is, and what power it can haue since it is ended: I an­swere, it is that power of his Godhead whereby on the crosse hee sust [...]ined his Manhood, and so made his death a satis­faction to the iustice of God for mans sinne.

It will be further asked,Question. how come we to be partakers of this vertue of Christs death, and to feele the power of it in our hearts?

So soone as any man by faith begins to be vnited vnto Christ,Answere. his death is ap­plied vnto him, so that by meanes of our coniunction with Christ, we as truly par­take of that power of his, as he himselfe was on the crosse susteined by it: then he feeles sin wounded in him and dying dailie, to which hee cannot liue as be­fore.

The second part of sanctification, is viuification, or quickning, and it is when Christ dwels and raignes in our hearts by his spirit; so as we can say, we henceforth liue not, but Christ in vs: the foundation of which is the vertue of Christs resurre­ction: which is nothing else but the po­wer of his Godhead raising his Man­hood, and freeing him from the punish­ment and tyrannie of our sinnes: this power is conueied from him vnto all his members, who being mystically conioy­ned [Page 10] with him, are thereby raised from the graue of their sinnes.

The second diuision.The second diuision is taken from the faculties of man: which are seauen in number: 1. The Minde: 2. Memorie: 3. Conscience: 4. Will: 5. Affections: 6. Appetite: 7. The life it selfe. In all which this grace of God must appeare.

Minde.1 The Minde is that part of man which frameth the reason: this Paul calleth E­phes. 4.5. the spirit of our minde, which must be renewed; the sanctification of which is called, Reu. 3. the eye salue; it is a grace cleering the darke minde and dimme vnderstanding: containing in it these three things. First, sauing know­ledge, 1. Cor. 2.12. whereby we know the things giuen vs of God. Some will say, what be they? Ans. This knowledge may be referred to two heads. The first is the knowledge of God. The second is the knowledge of our selues. The former of these hath two branches: first, that know­ledge of the true God, which is life euer­lasting, Ioh. 17.3. Secondly, to know the mercie of God in Christ to my selfe in particular, Ephes. 3.18. This is to know the height, length, and depth of the loue of God to me in special; as that God the Fa­ther is my father; God the Sonne my Sauiour; God the holy Ghost my San­ctifier: this is the sauing knogledge of God.

The second head of this sauing know­ledge is to know a mans selfe, when hee sees the secret corruptions of his heart a­gainst the first and second Table, to see and to feele this is a worke of grace, and an argument of an heauenlie light en­lightening the soule.

The second thing in the sanctification of the minde is (after the knowledge of these) to approoue the things of God: that is, to minde and meditate on things spirituall, Rom. 8.5. to sauour the things of the spirit, namely things pertaining to the kingdome of God. Contrarie to the pra­ctise of them whose glory is their shame, yea whose end is damnation, Phil. 3.19. who minde earthly things.

The third thing is a setled purpose in the minde, not to offend God in any thing, but to endeuour the doing of his will, and the pleasing of him in al things▪ this is called the turning of the mind, and is the substance of true repentance.

Memorie.2 The Memorie: the sanctification of it, is an aptnes by grace to keepe good things, specially the doctrine of saluation, by which Dauid was preserued from sin­ning, Psal. 119.11: and Mary pondred things concerning Christ, and laid them vp in her heart, Luk. 2.15.

3 The sanctification of the Conscience is an aptnes to testifie alwaies truly that a mans sinnes are pardoned,Consciē [...] and that hee preserueth in his heart a care to please God, 2. Cor. 1.12. This testimonie was Pauls reioycing: and Hezekias comfort on his death-bed was the testimonie of his conscience of his vpright walking be­fore God: yea this conscience is apt also to checke and curb vs when wee encline to euill: so Dauid saith, Psal. 16. his r [...]ines did correct him in the night season: and to stirre vs vp to good, as the voyce behind vs saying; Here is the way, walke in it, E­say 30.21.

4 The Will is sanctified when God giues grace truly to will good;Will. as to be­leeue, feare, obey God; when a man can say, that though he finde not to performe that which is good, yet to will good is pre­sent with him, Rom. 7.18. This is much ac­cepted of God: for where the minde and other faculties faile in their dutie, then comes this will and supplies their want; which being willing to doe much more then it can, the Lord of his mercie accepts it for the deede it selfe.

5 For the Affections, some of them concerne God, some our Neighbour,Affectio [...] and some our selues. Sanctified affections concerning God are first fe [...]re of God, when a man stands in awe of Gods pre­sence, and in regard of his Commande­ments. Secondly, a contentment and quietnes of minde in all conditions of life, when a man at all times can submit his will vnto the will of God, Iob 1. The Lord hath giuen and taken away, blessed be his name: and Dauid, Psal. 39.2. I held my tongue and said nothing, because thou Lord didst it. Thirdly, loue to God in Christ, and to Christ in man, 2. Cor. 5.14. Rom. 9.3. Fourthly, an high estimation of Christ and his blood aboue all things in the world: Philip. 3.8. I count all things d [...]ng for Christ.

Secondly, the affections towards our Neighbour is to loue him, because hee is Gods childe in my iudgement, 1. Epist. Ioh. 3.14. and in Christ my brother.

Thirdly, concerning our selues, to haue a base estimation of our selues in regard of our knowne sinnes and corruptions: [Page 11] Paul cried out that he was the head of all sinners: so the prodigall sonne; I am not worthie to call thee father: Dauid, Haue mercie on me according to the multitude of thy mercie.

[...]6 The sanctification of Appetite stands in the holie ordering of our desires in meate, drinke, apparell, riches, &c. and in the practise of three maine vertues: first, Sobrietie: secondly, Chastitie: thirdly, Contentation: by which the appetite must be gouerned.

[...]7 Sanctification of life stands princi­pally in three things: first, in an ende­uour to doe the will of God, that here­in wee may testifie our thankfulnes. Se­condly, in testifying our loue to God in man. Thirdly, in deniall of our selues: which is, first, when wee hold God to be wiser than we a [...], that so wee should be both directed and disposed of by him. Secondly, when wee account him more carefull for vs, than we our selues can be, and so rest well satisfied with what con­dition of life so euer he sets vs in. Thus are we to practise this grace through our whole conuersation: for wee may not measure it, nor iudge of it by one action good or bad; but looke to the whole course of life, if that be good, the heart is sanctified.

V The fifth point is, how sanctification is here ascribed to God the Father, see­ing all outward workes are common to the whole Trinitie. Ans. Sanctification is attributed and that truly to all the three persons, who haue all stroke in the worke of it, but diuersly. The Sonne san­ctifieth by meriting sanctification; the holy Spirit sanctifieth by working it, and by creating the new heart; the Father sanctifieth, by sending his sonne to merit, and giuing his spirit to work it. And here the worke is thus ascribed vnto him, as being the ground and first author of it.

Vse. Labour for the speciall grace of God. The meanes wee are to vse is laid down in Rom. 6.1. to the 14 verse, name­ly, to beleeue that we were crucified with Christ, buried with him, yea and rose a­gaine with him; because he was vpon the crosse, in the graue, as also in rising from thence in our stead and roome, sustaining our persons vpon him: this is the foun­dation of our holinesse. Some will aske how this can be a ground of our holines? I make it plaine in this comparison: As a Traitour arraigned, and hanged accor­ding to law, is then freed from his fact, the Iudge ceaseth to punish him, and he ceaseth to be a Traitour, committeth no more misdemeanour: so the sinner being arraigned at the barre of Gods iustice, and attainted of high treason, is accor­ding to Gods law condemned and exe­cuted in Christs condemnation and exe­cution, is now as a dead man vnto sinne, and cannot thencefoorth liue thereunto any more.

Now followes the third degree of life eternal, in these words [and reserued to Ie­sus Christ.] The meaning of which words is plaine in the 1. Epist. of Peter, the 1.5: where he saith, that the elect are kept by the power of God vnto saluation: in the ad­ding of which words to the former, wee are taught that with the gifts of true faith, calling and sanctification, is ioyned vnse­parably the grace of perseuerance vnto the end: of which truth we will consider foure maine grounds.4. Grounds to prooue the perse­uerance of the elect.

The first ground is, the election of God: that is, his decree wherby he setteth some apart to life. This decree is as vnchange­able as God himselfe is; and as election is vnchangeable, so is the fruite of it in vs, in respect of the ground: and hence fol­loweth it that faith and sanctification are vnchangeable, Rom. 8.3: the predestinate are glorified, Matth. 24.24. the exception sheweth it impossible the elect should be deceiued.

The second ground is the promise of God in the Euangelicall couenant, which is largely propounded in Ierem. 32.40. where is promise made of two things: first, the Lord promiseth that he will not turne from them to doe them good, which is a promise of eternall mercie, shewing the pardon of sinne, being once giuen, is gi­uen for euer. Secondly, that he will put his feare into their hearts, there is promised continuance of faith and sanctification, for they shall not depart from it.

The third ground, is the office of Christ: in it consider first his Priesthood, second­ly his kingly office. First, he was a Priest, partly to offer sacrifice▪ partly to make in­tercession for euery beleeuer: so hee did for Peter, Luk. 22.32. that his faith might not fa [...], and not onely for him, but as ap­peares in that worthy prayer recommen­ded in Ioh. 17. for all the Disciples, and not for them onely, but for all beleeuers through their word. The same request is in that Chapter repeated thrice. Second­ly [Page 12] for his kingdome; as he is the head of his Church, his office is 1. to keepe all that are giuen him vnto life, Ioh. 10.28. I giue vnto them life: and none can plucke them out of my hands. 2. To giue spirituall life to his members, Rom. 6.8.9. If Christ the head died but once, and liueth for euer, then all his members die but once to sin, and after alwaies liue to righteousnes: for this life admits of no corruption nei­ther in nor out of temptation.

The fourth ground is the qualitie of grace, as of faith, sanctification, &c. whose nature is to endure to life euerlasting: for he that once beleeues, remaines euer a beleeuer, 1. Ioh. 3.9. He that is borne of God sinneth not, because the seed [...] remaineth in him. Now if that remaine whereby he is borne of God, himselfe must also still remaine borne of God: vpon which foure grounds we may perswade our selues of the gift of perseuerance.

Obiect.It is alleaged, nothing is vnchangeable but God, and therefore grace is change­able.

Answere.Euery gift is changeable in it selfe, so man in himselfe considered may fall a­way: but God hath promised a second grace confirming the first, by vertue whereof a man cannot fall away.

Obiect.It will be further said, that the child of God when he falleth into a grieuous sin, (as Dauid did) is guiltie of death, and therfore is not iustified, and consequent­ly falleth away.

Answere.When Dauid fell hee was guiltie of death but onely in regard of that sinne into which he was now fallen, all his for­mer sinnes being pardoned: yea that sin also was pardoned (though not actually to him before his repentance) yet in Gods counsell; so as that sinne being on Gods part pardoned, he remaines still in the fauour of God.

Obiect.But in time of persecution many fall a­way.

Answere.If any fall quite away they neuer had true faith: which stands in three things: 1. Knowledge: 2. Assent: 3. Apprehension of Christ. The two former they might haue, but the third was wanting vnto them. Againe, those that fall off in perse­cution, if they haue true faith they fall not wholy, because the seed of God remaines in them; nor finally, because in time they shall returne vnto the Lord againe.

Obiect.But this doctrine leades men to secu­ritie.

No,Answere [...] it leades a man from securitie vn­to a new life and watchfulnes: seeing grace is added vnto grace to keepe vs in the state of grace.

Vse. First, in yt the gift of perseuerance is ioyned with true faith; I gather that the doctrine of the Papists is not of God but a doctrine of diuels, which teacheth that he which is chosen of God, who hath true faith and is iustified, may in regard of his present right fall away: for how can that be if hee that be chosen be called, sanctified, and preserued vnto life?

Secondly, it is false that a man trulie iustified may lose his grace, seeing with iustification is ioyned preseruation: nei­ther that which teacheth, that a true be­leeuer may fall wholy, though not final­ly, is true.

Thirdly, those also are deceiued who thinke that mans saluation is pinned vp­on his owne sleeue, and hangeth vpon his owne will; for God would haue all sa­ued, Christ died for all, the holy Ghost giues grace to all: why then are some sa­ued, some not? It is (say they) from their owne wil, grace in some preuailes against flesh, and they are saued; but flesh against grace in the other, who therfore are dam­ned: but this scripture shewes that to be but a deuice of man, seeing whosoeuer are once elected are called, sanctified and preserued to life; and what malice is able to resist this will of God?

2. Vse. Note here the vnspeakeable goodnes of God in the worke of Rege­neration; in that he not only giues a new life, but preserues it in vs. Adam once had this life of grace betrusted vnto him and had it in keeping, but he quickly lost it from himselfe and his posteritie. Now God hath restored this life againe to be­leeuers; but that they might be sure of it he will now keepe it for them himselfe.

And reserued vnto Christ that is, to be presented and set before Christ, and that partly in the day of death, partly in the day of iudgement holie and without blame, Ephes. 5.27. Whence note: first, beleeuers need not feare the day of death or iudgement; nay rather they may re­ioice in it, as the day of their redemption, yea and of triumph. What an honor was it for Pharaohs daughter to be presented to Salomon, and Hester to become the spouse of A [...]asuerus? much more glorie is it for the faithfull thus to stand before Christ at that day.

[Page 13]Secondly, wee must all our life long prepare and fit our selues to be presen­ted as pure spouses to our Bridegrome: both these duties are laid downe Reuel. 19.7. Be glad and reioyce, for the marriage of the Lambe is come, and his wife hath made her selfe readie. This preparation stands in two things: first, we must be­troth our soules to Christ; this is done when God giues Christ, and we receiue him by faith, cleaue vnto him alone, de­pend on him as the spouse vpon whom her soule loueth. Secondly, wee must beautifie our soules hauing giuen them to Christ: this is done when the holie Ghost sanctifieth the same, and we daily labour in the renewing of our owne hearts.

Thirdly, we must hence be stirred vp to prayer for this gift of preseruation to life euerlasting, & reseruation to Christ, hungring for grace after grace, to bee strengthened in temptation, especially in this last and declining age, wherein the Gospell takes little place in our hearts.

Vers. 2. Mercie vnto you, and peace, and loue be multiplied.] In these words is laid downe the third point in the saluta­tion; namely, the prayer vsually obser­ued in Apostolical salutations. In which first he prayeth for three things; mercie, peace, and loue. Secondly, that these may be multiplied; that is, continued and in­creased in and vpon them. First, of the multiplying of mercie: The mercie of God towards the creature is taken in Scripture two waies; generally, and spe­cially: Gods general mercie is that, wherby he is inclined to helpe the crea­ture in miserie, Luk. 6.36. Gods speciall mercie (called riches of mercie, whereby he will haue mercie on whom he will, Rom. 9 15.) is that, by which is granted pardon of sinne, and acceptance in Christ to life euerlasting: and for this hee prayeth in this place. Now because this speciall mercie cannot be multiplied in it selfe, being infinite in God, as himselfe is in­finite, therefore by mercie wee must vn­derstand the fruites and effects thereof. And for our better instruction herein, three things are to be considered.

[...] christ [...] in the [...] place, [...] bee [...] for aboue all things in the world.First, that mercie is asked in the first place, before peace and loue: teaching vs, that the mercie of God in Christ is to be sought for aboue al things in the world. Psal. 4.6. Many say, who will shew vs any good I but Lord lift th [...] vp the light of thy countenance vpon vs. Psal. 119.77. Let thy tender mercie come vpon me, that I may liue. This is the foundation of all bles­sing.

Secondly, note the persons for whom he thus prayeth. To you]: that is, as in the first verse, to those who were called, sanctified, and reserued to Christ; not for vnbeleeuers, vnrepentant, and Aposta­tates: whence we learne, first, that a man iustified, sanctified, and made heire of life, cannot merit any thing at Gods hands: for merit and mercy cannot stand together, & he that still stands in need of mercie can neuer merit; which doctrine must be maintained against the Romane Church, which teacheth, that a man may put his trust in the merit of his workes, so he doe it soberly. Secondly, that men effe­ctually called and sanctified, because they still stand in neede of mercie, must be in their owne eyes still vile and mise­rable. Abraham being to speak to God, tearmes himselfe dust and ashes. Iacob acknowledged that he was lesse than the least mercie. Iob cries out that he was vile, and abhorres himselfe. After these examples we must euer keep our hearts as emptie vessels, readie to receiue more mercie.

Thirdly, note the measure of mercie asked; he praies for continuance and increase of mercie to those who had al­readie the riches of mercie. Whence we learne, first, that all the good we haue, or can doe, is of meere mercie; not onely for the beginning and continuance, but also for the increase thereof: as grace is no grace vnlesse it be euery way grace; so also of mercie. Which takes away all conceit of merit, seeing mercie filleth vp all the roome, and leaues no place for merit. Secondly, that the Apostle here also cōfirmeth the former grounds of our perseuerance: for by this prayer, grace is to be added to the former gra­ces, yea multiplied: so the Lord dea­leth, not giuing ouer when he hath gi­uen one grace: for first, he giues his ser­uant power to beleeue: secondly, he giues an execution of this power. Neither there giues ouer, but by a third grace giues continuance of that power: yea and addes a fourth, which is an execu­tion of that continuance. Thus he deales with all true beleeuers, not onely in re­spect of faith, but of obedience also: [Page 14] Phil. 2.13. God worketh both the will and the deed. Philip. 1.6. He that hath begun this good worke in you, will performe i [...] vn­till the day of Christ. So as this may well be called a multiplication of grace, seeing euery beleeuer hath one grace more than Adam had; he had power to obey; so the renewed haue. Secondly, he had the act of obedience; so they also haue. Thirdly, hee had power to perseuere; which they likewise haue: but hee had not the act of perseuerance; which they hauing, therein farre excell him.

The second thing desired in the pray­er is peace; namely the peace of God, whereof he is the author; and it is the vniti [...] and concord of man with God, and with the creatures. Touching this peace, note three things; the foundation of it, which is Christ the second Adam; euen as the first Adam was the author of dis­cord and emnitie, Ephes. 2.14. Second­ly, the manifestation of it; this peace is offered in the preaching of the Gospel, which therefore is called the glad tidings of peace, Rom. 10.15. and the Ministers of it, the Embassadors of peace, 2. Cor. 5.20. Thirdly, the kindes of this peace, it is two-fold: first, betweene person and persons: secondly, betweene person and things. The former hath sixe heads, I. Peace betweene man and God, the Father, Sonne, and holie Ghost, proper­ly called reconciliation, whereby God in Christ is at one with man, and man tho­rough Christ at one with God, of which when man is once perswaded in his heart, then comes this peace, Rom. 5.1. from which springs another, namelie tranquillitie of minde, when the mind is quieted in all things that befall, with­out grudging or impatience, and that because it is the reuealed will of God, Philip. 4.11. II. Peace with the good Angels, Ephes. 1.10: for men being at peace with God, the Angels are become seruants and ministring Spirits vnto them, Hebr. 1.14. III. Peace with a mans self, consisting in two things: first, when the conscience sanctified ceaseth to accuse, and in assurance of Gods fa­uour beginneth to take his part, to ex­cuse, and speake for him before God. Secondly, when the will, affections, and inclinations submit themselues to the enlightened minde: of which if either be wanting, man is at warre with him­selfe, and the peace of God ruleth not in his heart, Coloss. 3.15. IV. Peace of true beleeuers among themselues, who before they beleeued were as Lions, and Cock [...]trise [...], Esai. 11.6. but now in the kingdome of Christ haue put off that sauage nature, and become peaceable; as Act. 4.32. the number of beleeuers were all of one heart. V. Peace of the faithfull with professed enemies; namely, when they endeuour to haue peace with al men, Rom. 12.17.18. not requiting euill with euill. VI. Concord of the enemies themselues, with the true Church: for often the Lord restraineth the malice and rage of his enemies, and inclines them to peace. Thus Iacob and Iosephs familie were preserued in Egypt, and Daniel was brought in fauour with the chiefe Eunuch, Dan. 1.9.

The second branch of this peace, is when al things, & creatures conspire and agree for the good of the godly. This is called good successe; promised Psal. 13. Whatsoeuer the righteous man doth, it shall prosper.

Vse. First, in that mercie is first asked and then peace, wee are by the order taught that peace and good successe are grounded on mercie: so as men for the most part take a preposterous course, who would haue good successe in health, wealth, peace, honour, learning▪ &c. in that they seeke it out of assurance of mercie in the pardon of sin; whereas this ground must first bee laid as the foundation of al blessing and good suc­cesse.

Secondly, we must endeuour that this peace grounded vpon mercie may haue place in our hearts, that wee may haue boldnes in regard of God, comfort in our consciences, peace with our bre­thren, quietnes and contentednes in all conditions of life, &c. This peace shall preserue our hearts in all things, Philip. 4▪ 7. This was Dauids securitie in the middest of his enemies, and danger of death, he would now lie downe in peace, because the Lord did sustaine him, Psal. 4. vers. 8. This grace preserueth the heart vndanted in many afflictions, euen as a souldier that takes the enemies Ensigne, cares for no blowes or wounds so hee may carrie a­way the Ensigne; so hee that preserues the peace of God in his heart, makes light of afflictions, seeing hee holdeth that which counteruaileth all of them.

The third grace desired in the prayer [Page 15] is loue, which is a most excellent vertue, preferred 1. Cor. 13. before faith and hope, in some respects, and made 1. Tim. 1.5 the end of the Comma [...]dement. Loue is diuersly taken in the Scripture; sometime it signifieth the loue of God to the creature; and some­time, the loue of man to God and man; and so it is taken in this place, being set after mercie and peace as a fruite of them.

In the handling of this vertue consi­der three points in generall, before wee come to the speciall parts of it: First, what this loue is; The loue of God and man is a certaine diuine and spirituall mo­tion in the heart, causing it to be well plea­sed in the thing loued, and mouing it to affect communion therewith: in these two consists the nature of true loue to God and man.

Secondly, Whence hath loue his begin­ning? A. Not from nature, for the [...]. 8.7. wise­dome of the flesh is emnitie with God: yea there is in euery mans nature a disposi­tion to hate God and man when occa­sion is offered; let the naturall man say neuer so often he loueth God, herein he lieth and deceiueth himselfe: for vrge him to frame and conforme himselfe vnto the word wherein he should testifie his loue, here his wicked heart hating to be reformed, resisteth plainly; saying, I will not haue this man to rue ouer me, I de­sire none of his waies. This loue then comes from grace, 1. Ioh. 4.7. Loue com­meth from God, 1. Tim. 1.5. it hath his beginning from a pure heart, true faith and good conscience. Which must bee maintained against the Papists, who say that nature affoordeth the inclination, but grace the practise; whereas indeed grace giueth both.

Thirdly, consider the vse of loue; It is the instrument and companion of true faith, which worketh by loue, Galath. 5.6. The proper worke of faith is to lay hold on Christ, this faith as a hand can of it selfe doe; but when it commeth to the practise of morall duties, it can no more worke without the grace of loue, then a hand (which can lay hold alone and of it selfe receiue and retaine) can cut any thing without an instrument. Whence it appeareth, that faith in iustification is alone, but in the life of man it worketh by loue: and whereas it hath bin taught for many hundred yeeres that loue is the life of faith ▪ that is vn [...]rue, for it only te­stifieth that faith hath life. It is alleaged, that as the bodie without the spirit is dead, Iam. 2.26. euen so faith without workes is dead: ther­fore workes are the soule, and giue life to faith. But this consequence from this comparison is not good, because the soule is not properly the soule of the bodie but of the man, and so it proueth not that loue is the soule of faith. Again, the word Spirit there betokeneth the breath, without which the body is dead, and thus is the comparison to be retur­ned; that as breath maketh not a man liuing, but sheweth him to be aliue, so loue maketh not faith liuing, but testi­fieth it so to be; yea indeed is the fruite and effect of faith, as breath is of life.

More particularly this grace of loue is two-fold: first, that whereby man lo­ueth God: secondly, that whereby man loueth man. In the former note two points: first, what it is; namely, a motion of the heart, whereby it is affected to God, causing it to be well pleased in God, and his workes for himselfe; as also to seeke fellow­ship with God so much as it can. Second­ly, note the measure of this loue, which in Scripture is double: first, that which the law requireth, and that is the full measure of loue, loue in the highest de­gree, when man loueth God with all his soule, with all his strength, and all the powers of the whole man, so as in man no loue can be aboue it; vnto this all men are bound, yet no man since the fall can attaine. Secondly, that which the Gospell describeth, standing in an vnfained will, and true endeuour to loue God, with all the heart, all the strength, and all the powers; which is a smaller measure than the former, yea and a qua­lification and moderation of it, yet to none but those that are in Christ. Wher­by we come to the right vnderstanding of diuers places of scripture; as 2. King. 23.25. of Iosiah: 2. Chron. 15.15. all Iu­dah sought the Lord with their whole hart. These and such other places must be vn­derstood as they are qualified by the Gospell, in that they willed and ende­uoured by all good meanes to seeke God; yea this text also must be vnder­stood of this second measure, seeing the former being in the highest degree, can­not be multiplied, no not if men were glorified.

The second kinde of this loue is that whereby man loueth his neighbour: which is a certaine diuine and spirituall mo­tion, [Page 16] causing the heart (as the former) both to be wel pleased in man for God, (that is, because he is Gods image and his owne flesh) as also to powre out it selfe and communicate goodnes to his neighbour, in wishing, speaking, and hoping the best of him. Wherein by the way obserue a plaine difference be­tweene faith and loue: faith is a hand, but to pull Christ to our selues: loue is a hand also, but opening it selfe and gi­uing foorth vnto others.

In this loue of the neighbour consi­der 1 these three things: first, the order of it: The order that hath been taught for many hundred yeeres is, that first wee must loue our selues, and then others, from this ground, Thou shalt loue thy neighbour as thy selfe; for the rule (say they) must goe before the thing ruled. But this is not found, seeing worthie then haue been commended in Scrip­tures for louing others as well, yea and better than their owne selues; so Dauid loued Ionathan, 1. Sam. 20.17. Christ lo­ued his enemies better than himselfe; these began not with themselues: yea indeed the right beginning of loue is in God, and then as a man is a more prin­cipall instrument of Gods glorie, hee must be for God preferred in our loue aboue our selues. Thus euery man is bound to loue and preferre the life of his Prince aboue his owne; see the per­fect rule of direction herein, Ioh. 13.34. 2 Secondly, note the manner of it, set downe in that precept: Thou shalt loue thy neighbour as thy selfe: that is, as wee are cheerfull, and free to practise the du­tie of loue to our selues, so must we doe it to others: for this precept aimeth at the manner, rather than the rule of our loue to man; for that is, as Christ hath loued vs. Thirdly, the kindes of it: it is 3 two-fold: first single, when men loue o­thers, but are not repaid with loue a­gaine; yea when a man loues his ene­mie, but is not loued again. The second is mutuall loue, that is, when loue is re­quited with loue, called in Scripture bro­therly loue; see Philip. 2.2. 1. Cor. 1.10▪ when men are of one iudgement, like min­ded, speak [...] one thing; and one soule is as it were in many bodies.

The second point is the multiplication of loue, which the Apostle prayeth for vpon good ground, because it ioyneth man to God, and man to man, and so becommeth as it is called the bond of per­fection, the bond of the Church, Com­mon-wealth, & of al societies. 1. Cor. 13. Loue ed [...]fieth, that is, it helpeth to build the kingdome of God, yea it constrai­neth men to all good duties in their par­ticular callings. Qu. But how shall this loue be multiplied? Ans. By certaine me­ditations, and practises. The meditations are many; first on Gods cōmandement: Be seruants one to another in loue, Gal. 5.13. Secondly, of Gods image, which al men should beare in loue, 1. Ioh. 3.16. Thirdly, of the fellowship of the faith­full, hauing all one father, one brother, one saluation, all linked by one spirit, Ephes. 4.4. Fourthly, of the loue of God, Ioh. 13.35. which hereby we shall be as­sured of, 1. Ioh. 3.14. The practises also are diuers: first, wee must labour to be assured of Gods loue to vs, and encrea­sed vpon vs, Ephes. 5.2. Secondly, the law of nature must teach vs to doe as we would be done vnto. Thirdly, our care must be more to loue, than be loued: for to loue is a vertue in our selues, to be lo­ued i [...] the vertue of another. Fourthly, pray daily for multiplication of loue towards God and man, yea towards our enemies; seeing the more this is multi­plied the happier is our estate, yea and the condition of the Church vpon earth.

Vers. 3. Beloued, when I gaue [...] dili­gence to write vnto you of the common sal­uation, it was needfull for me to write vnto you that ye should earnestly contend, for the faith which was once giuen vnto the Saints.]

Here begins the second part of this Epistle, which is the Exhortation, reach­ing to the end of the 23. verse. In this verse two things are contained. First, the causes which mooued the Apostle to write the Epistle. Secondly, the matter of his exhortation. The causes of his writing are three. First his loue, noted in the word Beloued. Secondly, his readie and willing minde of himselfe, noted in the word diligence, which signifieth a carefull endeuour and studie to doe the Church good, and it is enlarged by three arguments: first, in that he gaue all dili­gence, and not some part onely, to fur­ther the Church. Secondly, when hee could not speake to ye Catholike church, he gaue diligence to write. Thirdly, he writeth not of small matters, but of things most weightie, such as concern [...] [Page 17] their saluation: against which seeing it might be obiected, that he was not able to write of such a weightie matter, hee therefore calles it common saluation to cut oft that surmise, as also to shew that it is common to himselfe and the whole Church, of which therefore hauing a share therein he is not ignorant.

The third cause in the word [needfull] 3 a necessitie was laid vpon him in that he was called to bee an Apostle, and so bound to further the saluation of the Catholike Church.

Out of these three motiues which caused the Apostle to write, obserue; 1 First, that euery Minister that would de­liuer the word faithfully, must haue three things to excite him thereto: first, loue towards the Church to which he is called. Secondly, a readie minde to fur­ther the saluation of their soules. Third­ly, the bond of his calling, stirring him vp to faithfulnes and diligence. All these three concurred in Paul: first, his loue ap­peared, 2. Cor. 5.14. Secondly, his readie minde was not wanting, Philip. 2.17. Thirdly, for his calling that vrged him see 1. Cor. 9.16.

Note hence also, that whosoeuer 2 would heare the word, or reade it to sal­uation, must bring three things in his heart: first, a loue to the word deliue­red: This caused Dauid often to muse thereupon, Psal. 119.97. Secondly, a rea­die and diligent minde to receiue and reteine it: this was in the Bereans, Act. 17.11. and in the Galathians, when they receiued Paul as an Angell of God, Gal. 4.14. Thirdly, a consideration of the great necessitie of hearing and reading the word; Prou. 29.18. Where vision failes, people perish.

3 Thirdly, in this example of the A­postle, all Pastors must learne diligence in all good meanes for the furtherance of the saluation of their flock: for which cause they are called Watchmen, because they are to watch ouer their soules. Yea Sauiours, Obadiah 21. to put them in minde, that they are to bothe meanes of sauing men. They had no [...] need then be entangled with many charges, and o­ther businesses.

4 Fourthly, as the Apostle writeth of the [common saluation] of which he hath good experience; so euery Minister must see that he haue experience in himselfe of that he teacheth others; and haue a taste of that in his owne heart which he would haue others seasoned withall, els his teaching shall be cold.

The second part of this verse is the exhortation: the whole matter and sub­stance may be reduced to three heads. First, that faith is a notable treasure, which hath many enemies. Secondly, that the Saints are the keepers of it. Thirdly, that the office of euery member of the Ca­tholike Church is to hold and maintaine this treasure. For the first, that faith is a treasure, appeareth 2. Pet. 1.1. where it is called pretious faith: 2. Cor. 4.7. a trea­sure in earthly vessels; and by this, that a fight is here inioyned against the ene­mies of it. For the cleering of which, consider two things: first, what it is. Se­condly, who be the enemies of it, against whom we must fight; and them we shal ioyntly obserue with the seueral groūds of faith. For the first, this faith is nothing els but ye holesome doctrine of the Gos­pel, called by Paul to Titus 1.1. the truth according to godlines. So 1. Tim. 4.1: this faith, which many shall denie, is op­posed to the doctrine of Diuels. Now for our more orderly proceeding, wee must consider that this doctrine of faith admitteth a distinction, which Paul himselfe maketh 1. Cor. 3.11.12. Some doctrines are of the foundation, without which religion cannot stand, such as are set downe Hebr. 6.1. Others pertaine to the foundation, but are not of it, as gold and siluer built vpon the foundation. It shall not be amisse here to stand a while to set downe the holesome doctrine of saluation which is fundamentall, redu­ced by the Apostle to two generall heads, Faith and Loue. 2. Tim. 1.13 The wholesome doctrine of faith, containes things need­full to be beleeued. The wholesome do­ctrine of loue containes things necessa­rily to be practised. And both these are expresly set downe in Scripture, as wee shall s [...]ew in their order.

Grounds of doctrine to be beleeued.

First,1. Ground. That all the doctrine of the Pro­phets and Apostles [...] giuen by diuine inspi­ration: 2. Tim. 3.16. All Scripture is giuen by diuine inspiration: that is, all the do­ctrine both for matter, stile, and words of Scripture is deliuered by the inspira­tion of the holy Ghost. Hence it follow­eth that all Scripture is authenticall, as [Page 18] hauing the authoritie from God, yea and must be beleeued as if God from heauen should speake; without dispu­tation, or calling any part of it into que­stion. This ground must first be laid. If it be said,Obiect. the Scripture may be prooued by reason, and by the generall consent of the Church.Answere. Ans. That is vntrue, for reason cannot settle the conscience to beleeue,Obiect. in any point. But scripture tel­leth there is a God, which reason proo­ueth.Answere. Ans. Reason out of nature teach­eth there is a God, but by the word of God only I doe beleeue it: inducements to faith may be brought out of nature, but Gods word onely causeth true be­liefe. Secondly, for the authoritie of the Church; I beleeue not because the Church saith so, but because the Scrip­ture saith it; and the Church I beleeue so farre as she consents with the word and speaketh out of it.

The aduersaries of this ground against whom we must fight.

First the Turkes, and Turkish religion, who denie scripture to bee giuen by in­spiration, and denie the bookes of the Prophets and Apostles, and in stead of them stand to their Alcaran. Secondly the Iewes, who refuse the bookes of the new Testament. Thirdly the Atheist, who will beleeue nothing of all this. Fourthly,Papists e­nemies to Hebrew and Greek. the painted aduersarie the Pa­pist, who vndermines this ground; first, saying that the Hebrew and Greeke text is corrupted, so as wee may not build vpon it, that thereby they might bring their Latin Bible into credit as most au­thentical; and yet (that they might make the sentence of their Church the rule of faith) the most learned of al that Church hold that the Latin Bible is also corrupt; so indeede they couertly renounce all scripture that the sentence of the Church may obtaine the chiefe stroke. Second­ly, in teaching that the authoritie of the Church in regarde of vs, is aboue the Scriptures, because wee knowe not the sense thereof, but by the Church: Thus putting downe the true and principall ground of Scripture, that they might more easily set vp their own dotages.

2. Ground.The second ground concerneth the sufficiencie of scripture, and is this: The Scripture of the Prophets and Apostles is a perfect rule of faith and manners: It is of all things to be beleeued or done to sal­uation. 2. Tim. 3.16. The Scripture is pro­fitable to teach, improue, correct, instruct in righteousnes, to make the man of God abso­lute, yea perfect in euery good worke. If it make him perfect in al kind of teaching, it is also able much more to make euery man perfect to all the duties of his cal­ling; Gal. 1.8. If an Angell should teach otherwise, that is, diuerse or besides, though not contrary to that which is taught, hee shall bee accursed; many do­ctrines indeed of Artes and other things are diuers and besides it; but the mea­ning is, that no doctrine of saluation must be brought, no not besides it, ther­fore the bookes of the Prophets and Apostles containe a perfect rule.Obiect. Many things which cannot bee found in scrip­ture may be supplied by tradition?Answere. Ans. Traditions can neuer settle the consci­ence, for though diuerse of them are found in the writings of the fathers, yet they were subiect to error, and so might and did erre in them.

Aduersaries of this ground to bee contended with.

First, all men by nature; Iob. 22.14. Who say to the Almightie, Departe from vs, for wee desire not the knowledge of thy waies: yea our common Protestants▪ who in iudgement acknowledge this rule, yet in their life they leaue it, and take the leaden rule of naturall reason; sense, sight, and feeling, and few there be that liue by faith.

Secondly, the Romish Church, for first, they make the written word a thing ruled by setting vp another Rule; saying, that there are two kindes of Scripture: The first is inward,The myst [...]rie of ini­quitie sup [...]ported by mysticall Scriptur [...] written in the heart of all Catholikes, which is the vniuersall consent of the Church: The second is outward, written by the Prophets and Apostles, an inken scripture (say they) and a dead letter without the former. Whereas the cleane contrarie is true, the true rule being the scripture of the Pro­phets and Apostles; and the other in the heart in this life, but an imperfect patterne drawne according to the for­mer. Secondly, they ouerturne the 2 ground, in ioyning to the written word vnwrittē tra [...]tions; so making it but half a rule, and indeed as good no rule: but where are these traditions? In the wri­tings [Page 19] of Fathers they say: But how shall we know them to be scripture? Because the Fathers say so: But how shall wee know they say true? Here must they flie to man, whereof yet no man can assure 3 vs. Thirdly, in teaching that the true sense of scripture cannot be found with­out the Churches determination, and so indeede make it no rule, because a right rule both ruleth it selfe, and is plaine to rule other things also.

[...] Ground.The third ground is: There is one true God. By one, I meane one in number, not two: 1. Cor. 8.6. To vs there is but one God, that is, to the Church, to vs that looke to bee saued: which is plaine by this reason, for there can be but one in­finite, and if there were two or moe Gods, there should be two or moe infi­nites, which is impossible.

Aduersaries to this ground.

First, the common Protestant, who in iudgment holdeth one God, yet in heart and life he setteth vp two or moe: some riches, some pleasure, some one sinne or other: for where a mans heart is, there is his God. Paul saith, some make their bellie their God: and that the Diuell is the God of the world.

Secondly, the maine Enemie is the Popish Church, Popery a [...]onster [...] heads, [...] many Gods. which in word holdeth one God, but diuers waies set vp diuers gods. As first the Pope himselfe, who (by their reformed Canon law) is to iudge all, and to be iudged of none. Who ma­keth himselfe a forgiuer of sinnes and that properly: yea, a maker of lawes to binde conscience aswell as Gods lawes, which is horrible blasphemie. Second­ly, the Virgin Mary, whom they make a Goddesse as Christ a God: as Christ a King, so her a Queene; as he a Lord, so her a Ladie: yea they set Christ below her, whom they desire to commaund her sonne by the right of a mother: yea and in some of their reformed Seruice bookes, they trust in her for saluation.

Thirdly, the Saints whom they pray vnto; wherein they attribute vnto them the knowledge of the secrets of mens hearts, and omnipresence, for they must also be in all places; which are things proper vnto God alone.

4. Ground.The fourth ground is, that God is all sufficient in himselfe: Gen. 17.1. I am all sufficient: that is, he hath in himselfe all perfection: for first, he taketh being from none, but giueth being to all. Secondly, for substance he is a Spirit of perfect na­ture. Thirdly, euery way infinite, in re­gard of time, place, attributes. This may well be called a ground, for whosoeuer placeth any want or imperfection in God, denieth God, and maketh him no God.

Aduersaries hereof.

First, the common people, who con­ceiue a God made all of mercie without his iustice.

Secondly the Papist,Papists rob God of his mercy and iustice. who robbeth God of his perfection two waies: first, they attribute an imperfect iustice vnto him, namely, such a one as may be satis­fied by mans satisfaction. Secondly, an imperfect mercie, whereof our own me­rits must make a supplie: teaching that indeed Christ must make vs iust: but we must make our selues more iust and me­rit saluation.

The fifth ground is:5. Ground. There be three in heauen, the Father, Sonne, and holy Ghost, and th [...]se three are one God, 1. Ioh. 5.7. How can it be that three are one God?Quest. Ans. It is a mysterie,Answere. which the ancient Church answered thus: They be three in person and one in substance; so wee also say they be three in manner of sub­sisting, but one in nature and Godhead: Three they be distinguished in person, the Father not being the Sonne, nor the holy Ghost, and so in the other persons, 3. subsistences in one nature. Ioh. 17.2. This is life euerlasting, &c. This is a groūd because wee must worship one God in three persons, neither can wee aright thinke of God out of the Trinitie.

Aduersaries of this ground.

First, Heretikes innumerable whose memorie is accursed; as Arians of for­mer and later times, denying the God­head of Christ. Secondly, the Turke and Iew, who hold an absolute God out of the persons. Thirdly, our common peo­ple, who pray to such a God in their owne names out of the Sonne and holie Ghost. Fourthly, the Popish Church,Papists be­come An­ [...]itrinitaries which denieth by their doctrine the three persons: for hee that denieth the Sonne, denieth the Father and holy Ghost. 1. Ioh. 2.23. Now they denie the Sonne [Page 20] both in his natures abolishing his Man­hood in their doctrine of the Sacrament, as also his offices of King, Priest and Prophet, for which we must vtterly se­parate from them.

6. Ground.The sixth ground is: That nothing commeth to passe without the special decree, will and prouidence of God: Matth. 10.23. A sparrow falleth not to the ground without his will. Obiect. Ob. Sinne is against Gods will, and therefore commeth to passe with­out his will.Answere. Ans. That which is against the will of God is not without his will. Quest. How can this be?Question. Ans. No sinne commeth to passe but God decreeth the permitting and being of it:Answere. now to per­mit sinne and the being of it, is neither the causing of sinne, nor the doing of it, but the not hindring of it, to which he is not bound. This ground being denied chance will be brought in, and God himselfe denied.

7. Ground.The seuenth ground is: That God hath chosen some men before the world was, to be partakers of the riches of his mercies, and passed by others because it was his will, Ro­man. 9.18. He will haue mercie on whom he will, Ephes. 1.4. 1. Pet. 2.9. Some are a chosen generation, and therfore some are not chosen. Againe, whom he will he har­deneth: he hideth the mysteries of the kingdome from some: why? because his pleasure was such, Matth. 11.25. And of this there is good reason, for in na­ture the first cause ordereth the second causes, and not the second the first. Now Gods will is cause of all causes; which therefore must rule all as the supreme, and not be ruled by any other. That this is a ground appeareth, 2. Tim. 2.19. The foundation of God remaineth sure, the Lord knoweth who are his: and indeede none other can bee the ground of grace and happines vnto vs, than the counsaile of God in electing vs, called therefore of the Apostle a foundation.

Aduersaries hereof.

First, our common people that thus abuse this doctrine: If I be chosen to sal­uation I shall be saued, therefore I may liue as I list. They might as well reason thus: The tearme of my life is stinted, none can lengthen or shorten it, I will there­fore neither eate nor drink, nor vse Phy­sicke, nor other meanes of prolonging my daies: which what were it else but to murther the bodie? So these from the same ground become murtherers of their soules; whereas men chosen to the end, will prease after the meanes and conclude otherwise, and say, I will vse meanes that I may come to life. Secondly, others more learned are aduersaries to this ground, who teach that God for his part hath chosen all men to life; and for his part would haue all saued, and that Christ for his part hath redeemed all, and the holy Ghost giueth or offereth grace to all. If wee aske, why then are not all saued? They answere, because God foresawe those who would be­leeue, whom hee appointed to salua­tion: he foresaw also others who would not beleeue, and adiudged them to damnation. But by this doctrine shall Gods will hang on the will of man, and bee ruled by it, seeing hee would haue men saued, but man will not; and so this ground is in part rased.

The eighth ground is:8. Ground▪ That God made the heauens and the earth, and all things that haue being in them: Col. 1.16. By him were created all things which are in heauen and in earth. This is a principle: for if creatures had no beginning, then are they become Gods; which would ouer­throw the Godhead. But all things were not made besides God.Obiect. For the highest heauen the Throne of God is eternall as God himselfe is. Ans. The Throne of God is a creature as well as the rest:Answere. Heb. 11.10. He looked for a citie hauing a foundation, whose builder and maker is God. Obiect. In the world are many euils which could not be from God, the foundation of all goodnesse. Ans. Euill is of three sorts: first naturall, Answere. which commeth by nature corrupted, as sicknes, diseases, plagues, and death it selfe. Secondly, materiall euils, as hurtfull beasts, poisons in trees, plants, beasts; these are created, and the very poison of them is a crea­ture. Thirdly, morali euils, which be trās­gressions against the Morall law and Commandement of God. Of the two former God is the author and cause: Esai. 45.7. I create euill: that is, naturall and materiall: but of the third, that is, morall euils which be sinne, God is no cause.Obiect. Ob. But God is the cause of all things, and sinne is some thing. Ans. Sin is no creature,Answer [...] but the destruction of Gods image which is a creature, effe­cted by the creature: for though the [Page 21] creature cannot make a creature, yet it can destroy a creature.

The aduersarie to this ground is the Atheist, who holdeth the creatures to haue been from euerlasting, and so by denying one God, hee maketh manie thousands.

[...] Ground.The 9. ground is, that God made man according to his owne image, Gen. 1.27. For by creation man had three things: first, the substance of bodie and soule. Secondly, in them the powers and facul­ties of minde, will, affections, &c. Third­ly, an excellent conformitie of all these to the will of God: This is the image of God, called in the Scripture righteousnes and holinesse. This is a ground: for the image of God is the substance and body of the law; hee therefore that denieth this, denieth the law, the fall from it, and restoring vnto it by Christ.

[...] GroundThe 10. ground is, that by Adam, sinne and death entred into the world, and in him all meere men sinned, Rom. 5.12. To the conceauing of which wee must know, that the first sinne of Adam was eating the forbidden fruite; the next was, the putting out of Gods image, in stead of which corruption of heart tooke place so farre, as (the seede of all sinne being within him) he was prone and readie to euery sinne. Now Adam being a pub­like person, and hauing receiued what­soeuer hee had for himselfe and his po­steritie either to hold for, or lose from both; hence is it that both those sinnes are become the two first sinnes in our conception, he sinning wee sinned, and with him haue the seeds of all sin within vs by nature, no sinne excepted, no not the sinne against the holy Ghost. Yea no otherwise is it with vs than with a noble man practising treason, whose whole blood is therby stained. Ob. But Christ came of Adam, therefore he in Adam sinned. Ans. God made this law with Adam, that all who came of him by or­dinarie generation should be guiltie of his sinne: but Christ was extraordinarily conceiued by the holy Ghost, and took of Mary Adams nature; but not Adams sinne. Againe, Christ came of Adam, but from him as a beginning, and not by him as by a father; whereas all other men are both from Adam and by him. This is a maine ground of our religion, without which there could bee no re­demption.

Aduersaries hereof are:

First, our common people, who say they euer kept Gods law, and loued him with al their heart, and their neighbours as themselues, and thinke hence all is well: but were it so as they dreame, they had neuer fallen in Adam, and so A­dams sin had not gone ouer all men.

Secondly, the Popish Church: first, in teaching that the Virgin Mary (who came of Adam by ordinary generation) was conceiued without sinne:Papists controule the Apo­stle where he saith, that sin en­tred by one ouer all. notwith­standing she was saued, not by her bea­ring of Christ in her wombe, but by be­leeuing on him with her heart. Second­ly, in that they teach that men are not wholy dead in sinne, but in part, or halfe dead, yea that being a little holpen they can keepe the law; as though by sinne men had not been wholy depriued of the glorie of God.

The 11. ground is,11. Ground that the Law and Gospell are two parts of the word of God, and are diuers kindes of doctrine. By the law I vnderstand that part of Gods word which promiseth life to the obeyer. By the Gospell that part which promiseth it to the beleeuer. These I say are diuers kindes of doctrine; to the cleering of which consider first, their consent and a­greement. Secondly, their dissent and difference. First, the Law and Gospell consent: first in the Author; of both which is God. Secondly, in their gene­rall matter, for both require iustice and righteousnesse to saluation. Thirdly, in their end, namely the glorie of God. Se­condly, they dissent in sixe things: First, the Morall law is written in nature by creation; yea and since the fall we haue some remainder of it in vs. Rom. 2.15. The Gentiles shew the effect of the law writ­ten in their hearts: but the Gospell is not in nature, but aboue the reach of nature created, much more corrupted. The ground of the law is the image of God; but the ground of the Gospell is Iesus Christ. Secondly, the Law will haue vs doe something that we may be saued by it, and that is to fulfill it. The Gospel re­quireth no doing of vs, but onely belee­uing in Christ.Obiect. Ob. But beleeuing is a worke to be done.Answere. Ans. The Gospell re­quireth it not as a worke, but as it is an instrument and the hand of the soule to lay hold vpon Christ, Rom. 4.5. and 3.21 [Page 22] and 10.5. Hence is it that the Law re­quireth righteousnes inherent; but the Gospell, imputed. Thirdly, the Law is propounded to the vnrepentant sinner to bring him to faith: but the Gospell to the beleeuer to the begetting and in­crease of faith. Fourthly, the Law shew­eth sinne, accuseth and reuealeth iustice without mercie; but the Gospell coue­reth sinne, and is a qualification of the rigour of the Law. The Law saith, Cursed is euery one &c. The Gospell qualifieth that and saith, Except he beleeue and re­pent, euery man is accursed. Thus the Law which onely manifesteth iustice is mo­derated by the Gospell, which mingleth mercie and iustice together: iustice vp­on Christ, mercie vnto vs. Fiftly, the law telleth vs what good workes must bee done; the Gospell, how they must bee done: the former declareth the matter of our obedience, the latter directeth vs in the manner of obeying: the former is pleased with nothing but the deede, the latter signifieth that God is pleased to accept the will and vnfained endeuor for the deede it selfe. Sixtly, the Law is no worker of grace and saluation, no not instrumentally, for it is the ministe­rie of death; the Gospell preached wor­keth grace onely, though the Law may be a hammer to breake the heart and prepare the way to faith and repen­tance.

Aduersaries hereof are▪

The Papists, who hold that they are one doctrine only, but herein differing, that the Law is more darke, the Gospell more plaine, the former more hard to fulfill, the latter more easie; that is as the roote of a tree, this as the bodie & bran­ches: by which premises they would conclude Christ to be no Sauiour, but an instrumēt rather for vs to saue our selues by, he giuing vs grace to keepe the Law: for a sinner must needes bee saued by works, if there be no difference between the Law and the Gospell, and if the Law which requireth workes were not mo­derated by the Gospel, which requireth not workes but faith.

The 12. ground is, The word was made flesh, 12. Ground Ioh. 1.14. This is a maine ground, as in 1. Ioh. 4.3. Euery spirit that doth not confesse that Christ is come in the flesh, that is, euery doctrine in which Christ is de­nied to be come in the flesh, is not of God but of Antichrist. Now by [word] I vnderstand the eternall sonne of God, the second person in Trinitie, the very substantiall word of the Father. It is ad­ded [was made] not as though the sonne of God was turned into flesh and ceased to bee Gods sonne, but as Heb. 2.16. in that he tooke not the seede of Angels, but of Abraham. The meaning then is, that the Sonne of God [...] abiding still the word tooke (that is) receiued into his person our nature; Phil. 2.7. He tooke vpon him the forme of a seruant. The word [flesh] signifieth first mans nature which Christ tooke vnto him, namely a true nature of man, not phantasticall or apparant one­ly. Secondly, the whole nature of man consisting of true and perfect soule and bodie, with all things that belong to the entire nature of man; for if he had taken mans nature only in part, he had redee­med it but in part. Thirdly, the proper­ties of man in soule, minde, will, affe­ctions, in body, breadth, length, circum­scription, &c. Fourthly, the infirmities and frailties of mans nature without sin; where must be noted, that Christ tooke not all infirmities of mans nature, as sin and corruption, neither euery personall infirmitie of euery person, as blindnes, Gowte, or this and that particular dis­ease. Here by the way it may be asked, whether Christ had obliuion in his ago­nie, as some haue thought? To which may be answered: That euen whē he vt­tered those words [Father if it be thy will let this cup &c.] it is not fit to attribute obliuion vnto him, which properly is a forgetfulnes of those things which we are bound to remember, for thus wee should draw sinne vpon him: but rather to ascribe it to suspending of the memo­rie: which is when a man neither for­getteth nor remembreth. For as in the will be three things, 1. willing, 2. nilling, 3. suspending of the will, which is nei­ther of the former; so also is it in me­morie, which remembreth, forgetteth, and suspendeth memorie for a time. Now the summe of the whole ground is; That the Sonne of God, the second person and so abiding, tooke vnto him the perfect nature of man, in all things being like vnto vs, sinne onely excep­ted: for the further cleering of which, consider these foure conclusions: first, The Sonne of God made man is not [Page 23] two persons distinct, but one alone. Quest. How can this be?Quest. for as he is the Sonne of God he is a person; and as he is a man he is a particular person, as eue­ry seuerall man is, and therefore hee is two persons.Answere. Ans. Euery particular man is a person, because he subsisteth of him­selfe; but the manhood of Christ subsi­steth not in it selfe, but in the second per­son onely, so that Christ God and man is but one person: for euen as body and soule make one man, so Godhead and Manhood make but one Christ. Second­ly, this one person consisteth of two di­stinct natures, the Godhead, and the Manhood standing of bodie and soule. Thirdly, these two natures are vnited and ioyned into one person, for the Godhead doth take the Manhood and support it. Fourthly, these two natures after coniunction remaine distinct, the Godhead is not the Manhood, neither on the contrary: but still distinguished, first in regard of themselues. Secondly of their properties; for the properties of the one are not the properties of the other. Thirdly of their actions; for the actions of the Godhead are not com­municated to the Manhood, neither is the worke of one nature the worke of another.

Aduersaries hereof are;

First, Heretikes innumerable which are not knowne to all; but knowne ene­mies are: first, Jewes, who denie Christ to come in the flesh. Secondly, some Jewish Arrians compounded heretikes, who haue withstood Christs incarna­tion; some of which haue suffered a­mongst vs. Thirdly, the Papists, the sub­stance of whose doctrine robbeth Christ of his humane nature, [...] though they con­fesse him incarnate: for since his death (they teach) his bodie is become inui­sible, and in innumerable places at once; so they abolish the Manhood of Christ, and turne it into the Godhead, seeing it is become infinite and vncircumscri­bed. Ob. They alleage,Obiect. God can make it to be in many places at once.Answere. Ans. We may not dispute what God can doe, but what he will doe; so farre as he hath re­uealed. Secondly, it stands not with the power of God to doe some things, as those which imploy contradictions to be true at the same time. Of which na­ture this is to make a true bodie to be in many places at once▪ yea to be in hea­uen, and also euery where on earth. But his bodie is glorified,Obiect. and therefore may be in many places at once.Answere. Ans. The words [this is my bodie] were spoken be­fore his glorification. Secondly, glorifi­cation taketh away the corruption; but not the true properties of his bodie, as length, breadth, thicknes, and circum­scription. Ob. But things ioyned toge­ther must be in the same place,Obiect. and can­not be seuered; and therefore his Man­hood being ioyned to his Godhead, must needes be euery where. Ans. The antecedent is false:Answere. for things ioyned together may bee the one in one place, the other in another; as the bodie of the Sunne is ioyned with his beames and light, and yet the bodie of the Sunne is in heauen, but the beames and light in the earth also.

The 13. ground is, that Iesus is Christ. 13. Ground 1. Ioh▪ 2.22. Who is a lier but he that deni­eth that Iesus is Christ, the same is the An­tichrist: From which place wee may ga­ther two thinges. First, That Iesus is Christ. Secondly, That it is a ground susteyning our whole saluation. For whosoeuer denieth it is Antichrist; see 1. Cor. 3.10. The meaning of the ground by Christ I vnderstand the annointed Sauiour and Redeemer; who is a King, Priest, and Prophet. First, as he is a king his power manifesteth it selfe in three thinges; First, in sauing and destroying not the body onely as other kinges, but the soule also. Secondly, in pardoning sinnes or reteyning them. Thirdly, in making lawes to bind consciences. Se­condly, his Priestly office standeth in two thinges: First, in a power to offer sacrifice propitiatorie for the sinnes of whole mankind. Secondly, in ma­king intercession to God for mankind: Thirdly, his Propheticall office consi­steth in three thinges: First, in reuealing to man the will of his father. Secondly, in enlightining of the mind to vnder­stand that will reuealed. Thirdly, in framing of the harte to performe obedi­ence vnto it, together with the setling of it in the truth. Thus he is the Christ, that is the annoynted of God.

But we must yet here goe further and vnderstand by Christ a perfect Christ, a perfect Redeemer, without any partner, fellow, or deputy: for if hee haue a part­ner, [Page 24] he is but halfe a redeemer, and if he haue a fellow or deputie, how is he om­nipotent, or omnipresent? This is plaine by testimonie of Scripture; There is none other name, Actes 4.12. therefore there is no fellow or partner. There is one Me­diatour, that is but one, 1. Tim. 2.3. yea by himselfe he purged our sinnes, [...]. Heb. 1.3. without fellow or deputy: whose Priest­hood is such as cannot passe from him­selfe to another. Heb. 7.24. Obiect. But Ministers haue power to remit and re­taine sinne, hauing the keyes giuen them. Answ. The keyes are not giuen to Mini­sters to pardon men properly, but Mini­sterially to pronounce and declare that God in heauen doth pardon them. Ob. The Saints shall iudge the world, Obiect. and ther­fore not Christ onely.Answere. Answ. They shall not iudge by pronouncing a soueraigne sentence of absolution or condemnati­on, which is proper to Christ the Iudge; but by assisting him (as Iustices vpon the bench) both by witnessing and assenting vnto that righteous iudgement. Obiect. Psal. 45.7. He is annoynted with oyle of gladnes aboue his fellowes: Obiect. therefore hee hath fellowes.Answere. Answ. All that beleeue in Christ are the fellowes of Christ: but in his annoynting, that is in grace, though not in office.Obiect. Obiect. But Mini­sters are Christs deputies.Answere. An. Ministers are properly no deputies, but instru­ments to declare the will of God,Ministris vtitur Chri­stus non Vi­carijs. [...]ucer de regno Christ. cap. 2. and can go no further then to teach the eare: for it is Christ himselfe that enlighte­neth the mind. But it will bee said that Kinges are Christs deputies on earth. Answ.Obiect. Answere. They are his deputies as hee is God equall to his father, not as hee is Mediatour.

Aduersaries of this maine ground are;

The Romish Church, who rob Christ of all these three offices.Papists wor [...]. than the [...]oul­die [...]s in pa [...] ting christs garments. For first, his kingly office they giue part of it to the Pope, in making him to remit sinnes properly; to make lawes to bind consci­ence properly, as Gods lawes do, which is a power equall to Christs, & so they make him check-mate with Christ. Se­condly, his Priestly office is giuen to the Masse-priest, who by their doctrine hath power to offer a propitiatorie sacrifice for the sinnes of the quicke and dead; ye [...] euery Papist hath a peece of it, be­cause euery one of them may satisfie the iustice of God for hi [...] sins by his owne merit. And for his intercession, the se­cōd work of his Priesthood, that is dealt among the Saints (among whom the Virgin Mary hath the greatest part) who are inuocated as intercessors, not onely by their prayers, but by their merits in heauen. Thirdly, his Propheticall office is bestowed likewise vpon euery Pope, who is without scripture to determine infallibly, by an inward assistance of the Spirit locked vp in his breast, of all mat­ters concerning faith & manners, which is the proper office of him who is the proper Doctor of his Church. Therefore this Romish doctrine established by the Councell of Trent, is an hereticall and Antichristian doctrine, making God an Idoll God, which is concluded out of the place alleaged, thus: He that denieth Iesus to be Christ, is Antichrist. And a­gaine, He that hath not the Sonne, hath not the Father. The [...] Church [...] Iesus [...] be Christ. But the Romish Church de­nie Iesus to be Christ, and hath not the Sonne, because it ouerturneth his person and oppugneth all his offices: and ther­fore neither haue they the Father, but an Idoll God, and so consequently their doctrine is Antichristian and hereticall. For which cause the reformed Churches haue iustly separated from them, and ought euer, so long as they denie this ground, so to doe.

The 14. ground is:14. Grou [...] He that beleeueth in Christ shall not perish, but haue life euer­lasting ▪ Ioh. 3.16. God so loued the world, &c. For the better handling of it consi­der first for the meaning, what this faith is. Secondly, that it is a maine ground of true religion. Thirdly, the enemies of it. For the first: In this faith are two things: first, knowledge. Secondly, application of the thing knowne. The knowledge is, of Christ and his benefits; of which some measure must be had, or else there can be no faith. Esay 53.11. By his know­ledge shall my righteous seruant iustifie many. Ioh. 17.3. This is life eternall, &c. And this stands with reason, that the thing to bee beleeued must first bee knowne: for faith without knowledge is fancie. The Romane Church hath then erred,The cast [...] of Romish faith hang [...]eth in the ayre with­out foun­dation. which teach that there is a faith to saluation whereto knowledge is not re­quired, such a one as standeth only in an assent to the faith of the Church. The se­cond thing in faith (which is the more [Page 25] principall) is an application of things knowne: namely of Christ and his be­nefits vnto our selues in particular. And herein standeth the very substance of true faith, which is not caused by any naturall affection of heart, or action of will, but by the supernaturall action of the minde enlightened by the spirit of God, resoluing vs that Christ and his merits belong vnto vs in particular. That this true particular application is required in true faith is proued by these reasons: First, that which wee lawfully aske by prayer wee must beleeue by a speciall faith: but in prayer we lawfully aske the pardon of our sinnes in particu­lar, and life euerlasting by Christ; there­fore we must beleeue the pardon of our sinnes and life euerlasting by Christ. The aduersaries can denie nothing but the first part of this reason, which is the very word of God it selfe. Mark. 11.24. What­soeuer ye desire when you pray, beleeue yee shall haue it, and it shall be done vnto you. Where in euery petition of prayer our Sauiour requireth two things: first, a de­sire of things promised. Secondly, a par­ticular faith of things desired, standing in assurance that they shall be granted. Secondly, whatsoeuer the holie Ghost doth infallibly testifie to vs particularly, that wee must beleeue particularly: but the holy Ghost doth particularly testifie by infallible testimonie to euery belee­uers conscience, his owne adoption and pardon of sinne, and acceptance to life euerlasting; and therefore it must be par­ticularly beleeued.Obiect. Here the Papist ex­cepteth and saith, that this testimonie of the spirit of God, is not certain but pro­bable onely, and a man may be decei­ued in it.Answere. But the Apostle Rom. 8.16. answereth this allegation: The spirit of God testifieth with our spirits that we are the children of God: and cleereth this testimonie of fearfulnes and weaknes in the former words: where he saith, it is not the spirit of feare which wee haue re­ceiued but such a spirit as maketh vs cri [...] Abba, [...] father, and with a strong voyce: yea and for the further assuring vs in this testimonie, it is called the 1▪ Cor. 1. [...] s [...]ale, and ear­nest penny of the spirit in our hearts, than which things what are more sure and certain ratifications among men, whose testimony (though it be but of two men, but much more of three) seale or earnest if it be sufficient confirmatiō vnto men, how much more sure is the testimonie▪ seale, and earnest, of the spirit of God vnto vs? Thirdly, that which God offe­reth and giueth vs particularly, we must particularly receiue: but God offereth and giueth vs Christ and all his benefits particularly in the Word & Sacraments, and therefore wee must haue particular faith to receiue him. It will here be said,Obiect. we grant all this, we must receiue Christ and his benefits in speciall; but we doe it by hope; as the Papists reach to hope well. Ans. It is a work of faith alone:Answere. Ioh. 1.12. As many as receiued him, &c. Who were they? The next words shew, euen they that beleeued on his name. Againe, in the Sacrament of the Supper, Christ is offered as the bread and water of life to euery one in particular: and therefore euery beleeuer must haue something in his soule proportionall to a hand and mouth, for the receiuing and feeding vpon him; which is nothing else but faith specially applying Christ and his benefits: see Ioh. 6.35. Fourthly, the example of beleeuers in the Scriptures prooue the same truth. Abraham be­leeued by a particular faith, which was imputed to him for righteousnes, Rom. 4.23. So also Paul, Galat. 2.20. I liue by the faith of the Sonne of God, who loued me, and hath giuen himselfe for me. Now both these are patternes and presidents for vs to follow, that as they beleeued, and particularly applied Christ to them­selues, so must we: see Rom. 4.14. 1. Ti­moth. 1.16. Now frō these two, namely knowledge and application, followeth Confidence, whereby wee trust and relie our selues vpon Christ and his merits thus knowne and applied vnto salua­tion; which because it inseparably fol­loweth faith, is often in the Scripture put for faith it selfe: I distinguish it from faith, because it hath been said (though falsely) that it is a part of faith, which in­deed is a fruite and a follower of faith▪ and the Apostle Ephes. 3.12. doth mani­festly distinguish them; By whom we haue boldnes and entrance with confidence by faith in him.

The second point in this ground is the weight of it. That it is a maine ground of Religion, appeareth thus: If the inheritance of life (saith Paul) be not by faith, it is not s [...]re, Rom. 4.15. For if we were intitled by workes, the promise should not be certaine: he then that op­pugneth [Page 26] this ground of particular faith, ouerthroweth the Gospel, as which can­not assure a man of saluation. Second­ly, in the Catechisme of the Primitiue church, faith in God is made one groūd, Heb. 6.1. Thirdly, this ground being the most maine promise of the Gospell, whosoeuer ouerthroweth it, hee depri­ueth men of all comfort of religion.

Aduersa­ries.The aduersaries of this ground are, first the common people, who for the most part professe that they are not certaine of the pardon of their sinnes; they hope well, because God is merciful; but to be certaine they thinke it impossible: as though there can bee hope and confi­dence where is no assurance: but spe­ciall hope alwaies presupposeth speciall faith. Secondly the Papists, for they con­demne speciall faith for these reasons: First, where is no word, there (say they) can be no particular faith; but there is no word that saith,Indeed no word [...] thou [...] Pope Iohn the 2 [...] shalt be [...]aued. thou Cornelius, Pe­ter, Iohn, &c. shalt be saued. Ans. It is true indeede, there is no particular faith where there is no particular word, or which is proportionall: but the Minister truly applying the generall promise to this & that particular man, it is as much as if a mans name were registred in the scripture. Secondly, wee haue in sub­stance a particular word, in that God who hath giuen the promise, hath giuen also a commandement, to euery belee­uer to applie the same vnto himselfe. 1. Ioh. 2.23. This is his commandement, that we beleeue in the name of his sonne Ie­sus Christ, which is equiualent to a par­ticular word. As a King giues a pardon to a thousand men, but nameth neuer one of them: yet euery of them trulie applying the pardon, according to the Kings intention haue the benefit of it, as surely as if all their names had bin set therein.

Obiect.II. Obiect. Many that applie the ge­nerall promise to themselues are decei­ued and faile; yea euery wicked man saith he beleeueth in the sonne of God, wherein he is deceiued.

Answere.Ans. Many indeede faile in their spe­ciall application, but it is onely vnbe­leeuers: but they must proue that none truly can applie the promise speciallie, which all true beleeuers doe.

Obiect.III. Obiect. They say: In regard of God wee must beleeue, but in regard of our selues we must doubt.

Ans. Yea in regard of our selues wee must not onely doubt but despaire:Answere. yet beleeuers being found not in them­selues but in Christ, may proue themselues whether they are in the faith or no, 2. Cor. 13.5. For whosoeuer repenteth, know­eth that he doth repent: We know we are of God, 1. Ioh. 5.19.Obiect. Ob. But all men in the world are full of doubting, and how can doubting stand with certaintie of saluation?Answere. Ans. Consider faith first as it is in it selfe, so it is certaine. Secondly, as it is in vs, & so it is mingled with much doubting, which is not of the nature of faith, but contrary vnto it; and yet these may and must stand together in the be­leeuer, for doubtings may disturbe, but not destroy true faith: for the Lord (not­withstanding them) accepteth our weak faith as perfect, and our will to beleeue for beleefe it selfe, where he seeth griefe conceiued for doubtings, strife against them, and endeuour to haue our faith increased.Obiect. Ob. But to beleeue pardon of our sinnes, is to enter into Gods coun­sell. Ans. That is false, because pardon of our sinnes is reueiled.Answere Obiect. Ob. But your Church (say they) abhorreth reuelation. Answ. Neither the scripture nor our Church condemneth Reuelations con­tained in the scripture,Answere▪ but those that are without, beside, or against scripture: E­phes. 1.7. The spirit is called the spirit of Reuelation: see also 1. Cor. 2.12. As for this reuelation of pardon of sinne to the beleeuer it is contained in the scripture, and is no more a prying into Gods counsell, than it is for a Traytour to be­leeue that he is pardoned, when certaine newes of his pardon is brought vnto him from the King, of whom none can say he entreth into the Kings counsell. Hence we conclude, that seeing the do­ctrine of the Papists ouerthrow this maine ground, wee must take heede of ioyning our selues vnto them.

The 15. ground is: That a sinner is iu­stified by faith, 15. Grou [...] without the workes of the Law, Rom. 3.28. Wherein consider first the meaning; secondlie the weight; thirdly the aduersaries. For the meaning three things must bee knowne. First, what it is to be iustified. Secondly, what it is to bee iustified by faith. Thirdly, what workes are to bee excluded from iustification. Concerning the first. In iu­stification there be three distinct actions of God: first, the freeing of a sinner from [Page 27] his sins for the merits of Christ: Act. 13.39. From all things from which they could not be iustified by the law of Moses, by him euery one that beleeueth is iustified: that is, acquited from them. Paul opposeth it thus to condemnation, Rom. 8.33. which is nothing else, but a binding of a man to iust punishment. The second action is, the reputing and the accep­ting of a sinner as iust for the merit of Christ. Esay 5.23. Woe vnto him that iu­stifieth a wicked man: that is, not to make but accept him iust; and in the Gospell, Wisedome is iustified of her children, that is, approoued and acknowledged. The third is, the acceptation of a sinner to life euerlasting in Christ. For after that God hath absolued a sinner, and repu­ted him as iust, there must follow this acceptation to life, which is therfore cal­led the iustificatiō of life, [...]. 5.18. with the reason rendred in the same place: for that like as Adams sinne is imputed vnto all, by which death entred; so Christs obe­dience imputed to beleeuers, bringeth life and iustification. Out of which three actions wee may gather a true descrip­tion of iustification, to wit, It is an action of God the Father, absoluing a sinner from all his sinnes, for the merit of Christ, ac­counting him as iust, and accepting him to life euerlasting.

II. Point. What it is to be iustified by faith. For the cleer vnderstanding of this waighty point, we must answere 2. que­stions. First, what is the very thing for which a sinner is iustified? Ans. It is the obedience of Christ the Redeemer and Mediatour, passiue and actiue: the for­mer standing in suffering the death of his bodie, and the paines of the second death in his soule; the latter, in fulfilling the law. The truth of this answer appea­reth thus: Since our fall we owe to God a double debt: we breake the law, and are bound to make satisfaction. Second­ly, being creatures wee must fulfill the rigour of the law, and performe what it requireth: neither parcell of which debt, seeing we (being bankcrupts) are able to pay, wee flie to our suertie who must pay both for vs: the former hee doth by his death, being made a curse for vs, and so redeemed vs from the curse, Galath. 3.13. the latter by perfect obe­dience vnto the law, that so in him wee doing these things, might liue in them. vers. 12. The second question is: See­ing the obedience of Christ is the matter of our iustification, and is out of our selues; how commeth it to bee made ours? Ans. To make it ours, first God must giue it vs: secondly wee must re­ceiue it. First, God giueth it vnto vs, when he giueth vs Christ himselfe, for it is giuen with him, and it is made ours when God in mercie esteemeth, iudg­eth, and accounteth it to be ours, for it is ours by imputation: which appeareth by these two reasons: First, as Christ is made out sinne, so are we made his righ­teousnes, 2. Cor. 5.21: but hee is made our sinne by imputation, and therefore his iustice being inherēt in him, is made ours by imputation. Secondly, as the first Adams disobedience is made ours, so Christs the second Adams obedience is ours, Rom. 5.17.18. but that is ours by imputation, and therefore Christs obe­dience also. Secondly, to make this obe­dience ours, we must receiue it, and that can be onely by faith, which is the hand of the soule receiuing into it the things that are giuen vs of God: where note by the way,Note. that a sinner is not iustified by the dignitie of his faith, but as it is an in­strument whereby Christs obedience is applied vnto the soule.

III. Point. What workes are exclu­ded from iustification. Ans. The workes of Morall and Ceremoniall law, workes of nature and grace. That euen workes of grace are excluded, appeareth by these reasons. First, a sinner must so bee iustified, that all cause of boasting may be cut off, Rom. 3.27. But if a man were iustified by workes of grace, he might boast still, yea though hee acknowledge the workes to be of God: see the Phari­sies example, Luk. 18. Secondly, if a man were iustified by the workes of the law, then our iustification should stand by the law; but that it doth not, Rom. 4.14. for then the promise were made voide; yea the tenour of that whole Chapter prooueth, that Abraham ha­uing store of good workes, was yet iu­stified by faith without the works of the law; the which thing also that obiection in chap. 6.1. witnesseth: What then, shall we continue in sinne? drawne out of the fiue former chapters thus: If a man may be iustified by faith without workes, we may continue in sinne; which obiection were no obiection if that had not been the intent of the Apostle, to prooue iu­stification [Page 28] by faith onely, without the workes of the law. Thirdly, Paul was not iustified by any workes: 1. Cor. 4.3. I know nothing by my selfe, yet am I not ther­by iustified: where he noteth two things of himselfe: first, that hee had a good conscience within him: secondly, that he was not thereby iustified; where hee debarreth all works of grace. Fourthly, we are saued by grace without workes: these workes excluded are workes of grace, for they are all such as God hath prepared to walke in, Ephes. 2.8. Fiftly, a man must first be iustified before he can doe a good worke: and therfore works follow iustification, and cannot cause it. Yea and as all workes are excluded, so al vertues also (excepting faith) are here reiected. For as in a man that standeth to receiue a gift, no part doth any thing to receiue it but the hand, yet hauing recei­ued it, all other parts testifie thankful­nes, the tongue, the feete, and all the bo­die: euen so wee receiue the matter of our iustification by faith alone, not by hope or loue; but after the receiuing of Christ, these with the other graces work and shew themselues.

The second point in this ground is the weight of it, appearing herein, that he that ouerthroweth it, ouerturneth the faith: Rom. 4.14. If they of the law be he [...]res of life, faith is made voide, and the promise of none effect. And Galath. 2.21. If we be iustified by workes, Christ died in vaine.

Aduersa­ries.Aduersaries hereof. First, the home-aduersarie is the common sort of igno­rant people and all naturall men, who with the young man say, What shall I doe to be saued? They say they will be saued by faith in Christ, but when it commeth to the point, they will be doing some­what, and stand much vpon their good meaning and righteous dealing. Se­condly, the forreine enemie is the Po­pish doctrine & Romish religion, which teacheth that there be two iustifications. First, when a man of an euil man is made a good man; this is by grace of the ho­ly Ghost put into the heart: the latter is whereby a man is made of good, better, which is by good workes. But what Church soeuer holdeth this,The Po­pish church fallen from grace. is fallen from grace. This is a peremptorie sen­tence (will some say) and no generall Councell hath so determined. Ans. The more is the pitie. But Gods word hath peremptorily determined it: Galat. 5.4. They are abolished from Christ and fallen from grace, whosoeuer will be iustified by the law, as the Romane Church at this day.Obiect. They say our doctrine maintaineth loosenes of life, by excluding all workes from iustification.Answere. Ans. Though we ex­clude the best works from iustification, yet we debarre them not from Christian conuersation, but therein require them as fruits of the spirit plentifully.Obiect. Ob. But it is absurd (say they) that one man may be iustified by the righteousnes of ano­ther. Ans. Adams sinne is made ours,Answere. and they marueile not at it; what grea­ter absurditie is it, that the second A­dams obedience, answering to the first Adams sinne, should bee ours in like manner?

The 16. ground is this:16. Grou [...] Except a man be borne anew, of water and of the hol [...]e Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdome of God, Ioh. 3.5. In which obserue first the meaning, secondly the weight, third­ly the aduersaries. In the first consider two points: first, what it is to be borne againe: secondly, of what necessitie it is. For the former, wee must know, that there must bee in him that is borne a­gaine three things: first, a reall change from one estate to another. Secondly, there must be a roote from whence this change may arise. Thirdly, a new life. First, the chaunge is, when a man of a meere naturall man is made a new man: not in regard of his bodie or soule, or powers of them, all which a man retai­neth the same after his regeneration, but in regard of Gods image restored, and renewed by Christ, Ephes. 4.24. This is the restoring of that new qualitie of righteousnes and holines lost in Adam, for so the Apostle describeth this new birth in the place alleaged. This change is attributed to water and the holy Ghost, wherein [by water] our Sauiour alludeth to some speeches of the old Testament; as Ezech. 36.25. where the Prophet spea­keth of the clensing of the Church, by powring cleane water vpon it: that is, in­fusing new graces into the heart, which take place of the old corruption. And by the holy Ghost, he sheweth that this clensing of vs is by the inward working of the holy Ghost. Obiect.Obiect. But it will be said, if a man bee a new man, hee must haue a new soule.Answere. Ans. This new quali­tie of righteousnes and holines is as it [Page 29] were a new soule, for in a regenerate man, there is a bodie soule, and besides the spirit, which is the grace of sanctifi­cation, opposed to flesh, and corruption of nature, Rom. 8.10. This is as it were the soule of a soule renewed.

Secondly, that a man may come to this estate, there must be some root and beginning, whence this change may a­rise, and that is no other than Christ cru­cified, the Redeemer and Mediatour, of whose bodie beleeuers are members, of his flesh and of his bones, Ephes. 5.30. for looke as Eue was made of the side of Adam, so is euery beleeuer of the blood of Christ; and as euery man, so farre as he is a sinfull man, springeth from the first Adam, so doth euery man, so farre as he is renewed, spring from the second Adam Christ Iesus. Now that a man may spring out of Christ, he must first (being taken out of the wilde Oliue the old Adam, Rom, 6.5.) be set and ingraf­ted into the second Adam as a new stocke, and that by faith wrought in the heart by the spirit of God: by which in­cision hee receiueth from Christ two things: first, in regard of his soule, ho­lines: secondly, in regard of bodie, in­corruption, seeing that the whole man is vnited vnto Christ, and so both soule and body receiue immortalitie and glo­rie.

Thirdly, in this new birth there must be a new life, by which if any liue not, he is not borne again: for the distinct know­ledge of which life wee must distinguish of life: life is vncreated, and created: vn­created life is the life of God, yea God himselfe; of which kind this is not. Crea­ted life, is either naturall, or spirituall: Naturall, is that which we liue by natu­rall meanes, as meate, drinke, sleepe, phy­sicke &c. of which kind this new life is not: but this is that spirituall life, where­by a man in this life is ruled by the spirit of God according to the word; and it standeth in two thinges: First, when the spirit dwelleth in the heart; Secondly, when the spirit ruleth the hart: or more plainely, this life hath two degrees: First, when a man beginneth to sauour, affect, and will spirituall things, loueth them, and chiefely affecteth them, Rom. 8.5. when they haue some sauour and rellish vnto him. Secondly, when a man in all estates liueth by a iustifying faith, and ordereth his life thereby. The iust man (saith Abacuke) liueth by faith, and this is, as it is truly called, life eternall; the be­ginning and first degree of which euerie beleeuer hath possession of, euen in this life.

The second point in this ground is, the weight of it; for which obserue the necessitie of the new birth, in the former words where it is said, that without it a man shall neuer see the kingdome of God, much lesse enter into it. No man is in Christ (and so consequently out of state of saluation) who is not a new creature, 2. Cor. 5.17. No outward prerogatiue can bring a man in request with God, vnlesse hee be a new creature, Gal. 6.15. It is a constant truth of Christ, Ioh. 13.8. If I wash thee not, thou hast no part in me.

The third point is: The Aduersaries:Aduersa­ries. who are, first, euery man by nature, the wisedome of whom herein is enmitie with God. For euery one naturally is wil­ling to yeeld vnto God some externall seruice, and ceremoniall worship; as in the Church to draw neere to God with their lippes: but when they should come to their renewing, and the mortifying of their lusts, O then they storme and swell, and cast off this yoke, because they say it abridgeth them of their ease, libertie and pleasure, and they cannot bee their owne men for it. Secondly, the Romane religion, which for many hundred yeres hath stood in ceremoniall and bodily actions, rites, gestures, apparrell, and most of all in outwarde penance, bor­rowed partly of the Iewes, and partly of the Heathens: but all this doctrine of the new birth,Romane religion leadeth not to the new birth, and therefore goe not to heauen. of mortifying hidden lusts, and deniall of a mans selfe, is dead and buried among them, little hereof is spoken or written in the great volumes of their greatest Clerks. But ye doctrine which is from God is spirituall, as God himselfe is, and most concerneth the in­ner man. Secondly, they are great ad­uersaries hereof, in teaching that man (though captiue to sinne) hath a power in his nature, whereby, if the holy Ghost free him, he can of himselfe will and doe that which is good: which if it were so, then he is but in part new, and so is no new man. Secondly, a regenerate man must be a new creature: now creation is a framing of something out of no­thing, not of something into somthing. Thirdly, thus a man should be but halfe dead, and so could not be borne againe, [Page 30] but onely strengthened, euen as a man in a swoune, of whom wee cannot say properly he is reuiued, because hee was not dead, but recouered.

17. GroundThe 17. ground is out of Galath. 5.1. Stand fast in the libertie wherewith Christ hath made you free. For the meaning of which we must know, that Christian li­bertie which wee are exhorted to main­taine, standeth in a double freedome: First, from the Morall law: secondly, from the Ceremoniall. From the Morall law two waies: first, from the curse of the law, Rom. 8.1. There is no condemna­tion to them that are in Christ. Secondly, from the rigour of it, which requireth personall and perfect obedience: this rigour is moderated by Christ; whence followeth a freedome also from iustifi­cation by workes, Rom. 5.1. Galath. 5.4. The second freedome is, from the Cere­moniall law, which hauing an end put to it by Christ, bindeth no man: but our libertie is procured to vs in meates, drinkes, and all things indifferent with good conscience, seeing to the pure all things are pure, Tit. 1.25. Where we are commaunded to stand fast, wee see the weight of it to be such, as it may not be departed from, nor forsaken, for then we become debters againe to the whole law, and so are fallen from Christ.

Aduersa­ries.Aduersaries hereof, are first the Liber­tines; as the Family of loue, who being (as they say) deified, are so carried by the holie Ghost that they cannot sinne, no though they should commit fornica­tion: but no man is freed from obedi­ence to the law by Christ, although hee be from the curse and rigour of it. Se­condly, all that take libertie to sinne, be­cause they say, God in Christ is mercifull: but Christ freed from sinne, not vnto it. Thirdly,Poperie maketh moe sinnes than euer God made. the Romane Church, holding that the Pope hath power to make lawes binding conscience properly, pre­scribing such things to be done, the ob­seruing of which is the worship of God, and meritorious; as on the Popish fa­sting daies, yea and Wednesdaies and Fridaies, not to eate flesh, euen this law bindeth the conscience of a Papist, and such abstinence (they say) is a worke of merit, and a worship of God. But it will be said, that Princes and Magistrates make such lawes, of meates, drinkes, ap­parell, and must be obeyed. Ans. These lawes bind not conscience,Answere. but the out­ward man. Secondly, they do not abro­gate our libertie, but moderate the ouer common vse for the common good: but Popish doctrine accounteth the breach of any of these mortall sin.Obiect. Ob. Yea, but they forbid flesh for tempe­rance sake, because it stirreth vp lust. Answ. But they forbid not the hotest wines, spices, Conserues,Answere. & such meates and drinkes, which more stirre vp lust than flesh: and therefore this is but a shift.

The 18. ground is in Matth. 18.18.18. Groun [...] Whatsoeuer the Church bindeth in earth, is bound in heauen; and whatsoeuer it loo­seth in earth, is loosed in heauen. In which ground obserue first the meaning, se­condly the moment, thirdly the aduer­saries. First, to know the meaning, two things are to be handled: first, what i [...] this power of binding and loosing, which the Church hath. Secondly, what is the ratification and efficacie of this power out of those words, is bound and loosed in heauen. Concerning the former: This power of binding and loosing is that authoritie giuen by God to his Church on earth, whereby it pardoneth or retai­neth vnpardoned the sinnes of men: for mens sinnes are cords and bands which binde them, Prou. 5.22. and chaines of blacke darknes, wherein men are reserued vnto damnation, 2. Pet. 2.4. and hence fitly when mens sinnes are pardoned, are they said to be loosed, and bound if they be not. This power is called Matth. 16. the power of the keyes of the kingdome of heauen, for mens sinnes are as lockes, yea bars and bolts, shutting vpon them the doores of heauen: and hence also when the Church pardoneth sinnes, the doores of heauen are said to be opened, and when it retaineth them, heauen is shut against the sinner. Indeede pardon of sinne is properly granted and giuen by God; but yet men are truly said to pardon and retaine sinne, when ministe­rially they pronounce that God pardo­neth, or doth not pardon.Obiect. Ob. It will be said, that men vpon earth know not whose sins God will pardon, and whose he will not.Answere. Ans. It is possible for man to know whose sinnes God wil pardon, and whose hee will not; for God hath generally made knowne that he will re­mit the sinnes of all beleeuers and re­pentant sinners, but will retaine their sinnes, who goe on in the same. Now we [Page 31] may know particularly who these bee that doe repent and beleeue; for the tree is knowne by the fruite, according vnto which the Church may pronounce a true sentence. Further, to know more distinctly what this power is, the parts of it are to bee considered, and they bee two; for it standeth partly in the mini­sterie of the word, and partly in the iu­risdiction of the Church vpon earth. The ministery of the word is either pub­like or priuate. First, the publike mini­sterie of the word is called the preach­ing of it; in which is this binding and loosing, opening and shutting, it being an ordinance of God, in which Mini­sters are called of God to pronounce in the name of God pardon of sinne to the penitent, and condemnation to the ob­stinate: and here must bee noted, that this binding and loosing in the publike Ministerie is generall vnto all, but with exception of faith and repentance.Obiect. Ob. But seeing it is generall it is of no great force.Answere. Ans. It is: for euery hearer must applie this general doctrine to his owne person, and say with the Virgin Mary, applying to her self the Angels speech: Be it vnto me according to thy word; this maketh it forcible in the conscience. The priuate Ministerie standeth in two things: first, priuate admonition: se­condly, priuate comfort. Priuate admo­nition is Gods ordinance, whereby the Minister in Gods name bindeth a man to iudgement for his sinne, except hee repent: thus Peter dealt with Simon Ma­gus, Act. 8.21.22. Priuate comfort is, when vpon true repentance the Minister pronounceth vpon the beleeuer pardon of sinne without condition. Thus dealt Nathan with Dauid, 2. Sam▪ 12.22. Da­uid said, I haue sinned; Nathan hereupon telleth him his sinnes are forgiuen. Se­condly, concerning the Iurisdiction of the Church; It is a power giuen of God to the Church, whereby it vseth corre­ction vpon open sinners for their salua­tion, and it standeth in excommunica­tion and absolution. Excommunication is a sentence excluding open and obsti­nate sinners out of the kingdome of God, and consequently from the socie­tie of the Church; for this followeth the former, If he will not heare the Church, let him be an heathen. Paul calleth this sen­tence a giuing vp of a man vnto Satan. Ob. But no man can exclude another from the kingdome of God. Ans. The Church excludeth not properly, but by declaring that God hath excluded such. Ob. But the true childe of God may bee excommunicated,Obiect. and yet is not shut out of heauen.Answere. Ans. In some sort and for a time he may be said to be shut out of heauen, but conditionally and vntill repentance. The contrarie hereof is publike absolution, when open sinners re­penting, are by the Church openly de­clared to be members of the kingdome of heauen, and so admitted and receiued againe into the Church. This power of the Church differeth from the power of the Ciuill Magistrate in foure things. First, the power of the Church is orde­red onely by the word; but Ciuill po­wer by other ciuill lawes also. Second­ly, the former correcteth only by voice, in admonition, suspension, and excom­munication; the latter by reall and bo­dily punishments. Thirdly, all spirituall correction, as excommunication it selfe, standeth at the repentance of a sinner, and proceedeth no further: but the pu­nishments of Ciuill power stay not at repentance, but proceede on euen to the death of the malefactor (notwithstan­ding his repentance) if he be a man of death. Fourthly, in the Ciuill power bee three degrees of proceeding: first, the knowledge of the cause. Secondly, the giuing of the sentence. Thirdly, the exe­cution of the punishment. In Ecclesia­sticall are the two former, but the last belongeth to God alone.

The second thing in the meaning is, to know what the ratification of this po­wer is: namely, to be bound and loosed in heauen; that is, when the Churches iudg­ment, following the iudgement of God, doth acquite, or condemne a sinner, God in heauen hath done it alreadie and ratifieth it. For in absolution (as also in the other) pardon of sinne is first giuen in heauen: secondly, the Church pro­nounceth this according to Gods will: & thirdly, God ratifieth it thereupon in heauen, and confirmeth it as sure as if on earth he had pronounced the pardon.

The second point. The weight of this ground may appeare, Mat. 16.18. where the maine promise of the Gospell for the stablishment of the Church is con­tained: Vpon this rocke I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not pre­uaile against it: and the ground of our [Page 32] assurance thereof, is added vers. 19. I will giue thee the keyes of the kingdome. This maketh the Church preuaile against the gates of hell, because it openeth & sh [...] ­teth heauen. Secondly, hereby the word and Sacraments are preserued from pol­lution and prophanation, the soules of men pulled out of the snares of the Di­uell, and Gods kingdome set open vn­to them: which being taken away, there will be no difference left betweene the kingdome of God and the kingdome of the Diuell. Which power of the keyes in opening and shutting heauen by the ministerie of the word, seeing wee haue established by the lawes of the land, we haue the state of a true Church, and therefore no man can in good consci­ence separate from vs as no Church and people of God: indeed if it had not the power to open heauen vnto men, it were time to separate from it.

3. The Aduersaries of this ground, are first the ignorant people, who po­pishly thinke that this power is onely giuen to Peter, whose office now is to open and shut heauen. But this power was giuen to all the Apostles as well as Peter, and in them to al Ministers, Chur­ches and Congregations: yea, and it is not exercised in heauen but in earth. Se­condly, all Atheists and Epicures that contemne and skorne the Word, Sacra­ments, and all holy things, yea euen the power of the Church it selfe. Thirdly, all Papists and the Romish religion; who abolish all binding and loosing in the publike Ministerie,In stead of the two keyes, Po­perie hath deuised the picklock of Shrift. and haue brought al to a priuate shrift, and absolution, which in truth is nothing else but a racke and a gibbet to the conscience: for first, men must seeke for it at the hands of the Priest: secondly, they must confesse all their sinnes to the Priest: thirdly, they must make satisfaction to the iustice of God, euen such as the Priest shall en­ioyne them. But all this is directly con­trary to ye word: for first, Ministers must offer pardon of sin before it bee sought for. Secondly, in Christ pardon is offe­red freely, wee neede no satisfaction of our owne. Thirdly, they impose a hea­uier yoke, than euer Christ or his A­postles did vpon men, when they en­ioyne them to an enumeration of all their sinnes, before they can be pardo­ned: the depth of which policie hath been sounded. Secondly, that Religion hath turned this power Ecclesiasticall to a Ciuill power, whereby they take vpon them to excommunicate Kings & Em­perours, not only out of the Church,That i [...] n [...]thing the Pope shal [...] be vnlike the diuell, he saith with him, All these are mine, and I giue them to whom I will. [...] also out of their kingdomes and Em­pires, whom (they say) they may set vp and depose at their pleasure, as hauing power to wrest the Scepter out of the hands of whatsoeuer Monarch shall not stoope vnder their Popes authoritie. These bee the maine enemies of this ground, against whom we must for euer contend.

The 19. ground of faith is: There is, 19. Groun [...] hath been, and euer shall be a Church, one of which is no saluation. This is an Article of our faith, and a maine ground of reli­gion: for if there be not euer a Church of God, Christ is sometime no Redee­mer, no King, because there should be no people redeemed, nor subiects to the rule of his word and spirit. Of which consider two things: first, what this Church is: secondly, who be the aduer­saries of this ground. For the first: The Church is a companie of men, chosen to sal­uation, called, vnited to Christ, and admit­ted into euerlasting fellowship with him. See Hebr. 12.23. and 1. Pet. 2.9. Compare these two places, and this discription wil easily bee gathered. The properties of this Church are these sixe which follow.Sixe pro­perties of the churc [...] First, being the Spouse of Christ, she is one onely indeed, although distinguish­ed in regard of time, as the Church of the old Testament and of the new. Se­condly of place, as of England, Scotland, &c. Thirdly of condition, as the Militant and triumphant: all these make but one bodie of Christ. Secondly, it is inuisible, not to bee seene but beleeued: for ele­ction, vocation, redemption, can onely be beleeued; yet some parts of it are vi­sible, as in the right vse of the Word and Sacraments appeareth. Thirdly, to this assemblie and no other belong all the promises of this life, and the life to come, especially forgiuenes of sins and life euerlasting. Fourthly, it consisteth onely of liuing members, quickened by the spirit of Christ, not of any hypocrites or wicked persons. Fiftly, no member of it can be seuered or cut off frō Christ, but abide in him and with him for euer. Sixtly, it is the ground & pillar of truth; that is, the doctrine of true religion is al­waies safely kept and maintained in it. Obiect. The Churches in earth are true [Page 33] Churches, and yet in these are many hy­pocrites and Apostata [...]s, who fall from their profession. And therefore all are not liuing members. Answ. In visible Churches are two sortes of men: lust men, and hypocrites; who although they bee within the Church, yet the Church is not so called of them, but in regard of them onely who are truly ioy­ned vnto Christ, who are the better part, although not the greater: Euen as a heape of wheate and chaffe together is called an heape of wheate, or a Corne heape, of the better part.

Aduersa­ries.Aduersaries hereof are Papists, who frame not the Church by these true pro­perties, but by other deceitfull markes, as succession, [...] take [...] marks [...] multitude, antiquitie, and consent: for when ye Church first began there could be none of those, at least not the three former, and yet was there a true Church. Secondly, all these agree to Heretikes, as among the Iewes what was more challenged than these? and yet Christ saith, they were blind leaders of the blinde. But the true marke is the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles truly taught and beleeued. A note of Christs sheep is the hearing of his voice, Ioh. 10.27. And, Ye are in the Father and the Sonne, if ye abide in the word which yee haue heard from the beginning, 1. Ioh. 2.24. See Ephes. 2.20.

[...]. GroundThe 20. ground is: That there shall be a resurrection of the dead in the end of the world. This was one of the sixe grounds of Catechisme in the daies of the Apo­stles, Heb. 6.2. Hymeneus and Philetus de­stroyed the faith of certaine, in teaching that the Resurrection was past alreadie.

Aduersa­ [...]es.Aduersaries hereof, are the Familie of loue, who hold that there is no Resurre­ction but only in this life.

21. GroundThe last ground of doctrine is: There shall be a generall iudgement of all flesh. It is one of the grounds, Heb. 6.2. In which iudgement euery mans workes shall be tried, and euery man accordingly shall receiue sentence of life or death eter­nall.

Aduersa­ries.The aduersaries hereof, are first the Atheist, who denieth God himselfe, and consequently his iudgement. Secondly the drowsie Protestants, who in iudge­ment denie not the last iudgement, but yet plainly shew in their liues that they are not perswaded of it, for then would they make more conscience of sin, and of pleasing God in all thi [...]. These are the maine grounds of beleefe, vnto which all other may be reduced. Now follow the grounds of obedience and practise.

The first ground of practise is,1. Ground. Luke 13.3. Except ye repent ye shall perish. In which two things are to bee obserued. First the dutie required, that is, Repen­tance, the necessitie of which appeareth, in that without it men perish. Secondly the aduersaries. Concerning repentance two things must be taught: first, what it is: secondly, what is the vse of it. For the first;Act. 26.20. Repentance (as Paul describeth it) is a conuersion whereby a sinner turneth himselfe vnto God, and bringeth foorth fruites worthie amendement of life. There be two kindes of conuersion of a sinner: first, that whereby God turneth man. Secondly, that whereby a man being turned by God, turneth himselfe by grace: the former is not repentance properly, but the latter. Iere. 31.18. Con­uert thou me, and I shall bee conuerted. Surely after that I conuerted I repented. Quest. In what part is this conuersion made? Ans. It beginneth in the minde, but it is of the whole man, the minde laying off all purpose of sinning, the conscience calling backe from sinne, the will not seeking to fulfill the lusts of it; but the whole man endeuouring to please God thorough his whole con­uersation: further, repentance is atten­ded with diuers fruites, worthie newnes of life. These are the duties of the Mo­rall law, performed in faith and truth without hypocrisie: which because they proceede from the same beginning, are approoued of God as repentance is. The second point in this dutie is, the vse of repentance, and that is not to be [...] cause of saluation, but only a way, wher­in men must walke to life euerlasting. We are slandered by the Popish church, while they exclaime that our doctrine requireth nothing but faith to be saued by, and so wee become enemies to all good workes. But this is not our do­ctrine, for we hold the workes of repen­tance to be the way of saluation. Indeed when we speak of the instrument wher­by we lay hold vpon Christ, that we say is faith onely, not hope, loue, or any workes: but when wee speake of a way to life, then faith is not alone, but re­pentance is required, hope, the feare of [Page 34] God, and e [...]y good worke. So women are said to be saued thorough bearing of children, 1. Tim. 2.15. namely, as a way wherein they practise their faith and o­bedience. Thus Abrahams faith and workes went together, Iam. 2.22.

Secondly: The Aduersaries of this ground, are first professors of Religion, who content themselues with a fained repentance: for most men being pricked and stung with the sense of their sinnes, for a while will hold downe their heads like a bulrush, breake off their compa­nie, come to Church, pray, heare the word, and performe other duties: but when the remorse is once past, they re­turne to their former course of licen­tiousnes, and this is thought a sufficient repentance; whereas it is but ceremo­niall, and a fig leafe whereby men seeke to couer themselues: for true repentance changeth the minde, will, affections, conscience, yea all the actions of life.

Secondly, the Romish Church, which for many hundred yeeres hath ouer­turned this doctrine: as first in generall aboue these 500. yeeres, penance and publike confession of persons excom­municated, hath bin by them taken and deemed to be repentance it selfe; any o­ther hath been scarse taught or knowne in these partes of the world. Secondlie, repentance is by them turned into a iu­diciall proceeding and sentence of the court,A patterne of Popish penitence. wherein ye Minister must be iudge, the sinner must come vnder confession; the Minister must passe sentence, and the other must make satisfaction according­ly; which is an high abuse of this do­ctrine. Thirdly, they hold the workes of Contrition, Confession, and Satisfaction, to merit, yea and to conferre pardon of sinne, and so abolish the merit and satis­faction of Christ. Secondly, the world hath bin by that Church deceiued in di­uers particulars concerning this do­ctrine; as namely, first it hath bin taught that repentance, for the originall of it, is partly from nature, partly from grace; partly from God, partly from our selues: which is a false foundation, ioyning light with darkenesse, it being wholy from grace. Secondly, remorse of conscience (which the very diuels may haue) is made a parte of repentance; Saul him­selfe, nay Iudas wanted not this contriti­on, which is no grace, but a preparation vnto it. Thirdly, they make Auricular Confession, whereby euery man is bound to confesse all and euery one of his sins, with their circumstances in the Priests eare, so necessarilie vnto repentance, as without which he cannot haue pardon; which is a very gibbet to the conscience. Fourthly, they turne their Canonicall sa­tisfaction into satisfaction of Gods i [...]stice for sinne, wherein blasphemously they ouerthrow the most perfect satisfa­ction of the Sonne of God. We are ther­fore to praise God who hath taken from our neckes this yoke of the Roman Church, which neither wee not our fa­thers were able to beare.

The second ground of practise is con­cerning the exercise of repentance,2. Groun [...] Luk. 9.23. If any man wil come after me, let him deny himselfe, and take vp his crosse and follow me. In which ground we will con­sider three thinges: first the meaning, secondly the moment, thirdly the aduer­saries against whom wee must contend. For the meaning; If any man wil follow me ▪ that is, will bee my Disciple, (for Dis­ciples vsed to follow their Maisters and teachers) hee must learne three duties: First, Le [...] him denie himselfe: Secondlie, take vp his crosse: Thirdlie, follow mee: To the deniall of our selues three things are required: First, we must for the mag­nifying of the grace of God ab [...]se our selues euen to nothing. An example whereof wee haue in Paul, 1. Cor. 3.7. I I haue planted, Apollo hath watred: but neither is he that planteth any thing, nei­ther he that watreth, but God that giueth increase: If the planter bee nothing, much lesse the planted. We are not able as of our selues to think a good thought. And againe, All our sufficiencie is of God. Secondly, wee must renounce our owne reason and will, and bring them vnder subiection to the will of God, wee must not striue to haue willes of our owne, but let Christs will be sufficient for vs, his wisedome must be our reason. Third­ly, wee must esteeme all things as dung for Christ, and preserue within vs a rea­dines to leaue and forsake friends, ri­ches, honours, yea ou [...] libertie and life it selfe (if need be) for his sake and a good conscience.

The second dutie is, To take vp our crosse daily: vnto which two things are required: first, euery member of the Church must make reckoning of, and looke for daily crosses, priuate and par­ticular [Page 35] in his calling and in his profes­sion. Secondly, when the crosse com­meth it must be taken vp cheerfully, and borne with reioycing: Matth. 5.12. Re­ioyce and be glad, namely euen when men reuile and persecute you: Rom. 5.3. Iusti­fied persons are able to reioyce in tribu­lations; according to the exhortation, Iam. 1.2. Count it a [...] exceeding ioy. An ex­ample of the Saints, Hebr. 10.34. who suffred with ioy the spoyling of their goods.

The third dutie of a Disciple is: after the two former to follow Christ. For when Christ saith, And follow me, it is as though he had said: I goe before bearing my crosse, let my Disciples follow me step by step in bearing of this crosse. This containeth in it the maine duties of Christian religion: to the performing of which two things are to be done: first, wee must beare the crosse in obedience, as Christ did, who most willingly abased himselfe to the death, euen the death of the crosse, in obedience to his Fathers will. Qu. But wherein stood this obe­dience of Christ? Ans. In the practise of three speciall vertues: first, Meekenes, he opened not his mouth, hee reuiled not being reuiled, reuenged not when hee might. Secondly, Patience, he grudged not to suffer those bitter torments for his very enemies. Thirdly, Loue, he pray­ed for those that pierced him, and shed his heart blood: in all which it is our part to imitate him. Secondly, wee must be conformable vnto Christ being our head; which conformitie consisteth in crucifying our body of corruption, euen as he was crucified vpon his crosse. We must arme our selues with Peters exhor­tation, 1. Pet. 4.1. to suffer in the flesh, as Christ suffered in the flesh. Which whoso­euer doth, he ceaseth from sinne: he liueth not henceforth after the lusts of men, but after the will of God, vers. 2. The learning of this dutie helpeth forward our obe­dience vnder the crosse, which many cannot attaine vnto (who in the time of their peace are in some sort obedient) because they beare not about in their bodies the dyings of Christ daily. 2. Cor. 4.

The second point. The moment and weight of this ground, appeareth Luk. 9 24. He that will saue his life, shall lose it, that is, that will not take vp his crosse to follow Christ, shall neuer be saued. A­gaine, Baptisme is a maine ground, Heb. 6.1. namely, as it is ioyned with inward baptisme, for els outward baptisme may be wanting, so it be without contempt; but both together are a maine ground▪ especially in regard of that stipulation we make, and that profession which wee receiue vpon vs thereby, of forsaking euen our selues and following of Christ, without which can bee no saluation: which being the matter and substance of this ground, sheweth euidently the im­portance of it.

The third point. Aduersaries of this ground are, first among our selues, such as are content to make Christ a Sauiour and Redeemer, but not a patterne and example of imitation in his vertues: but Christ will not be made a packhorse on­ly to beare sinnes, seeing hee hath pro­pounded himselfe a president to be fol­lowed of those who looke for saluation by his sufferings; they must first bee his Disciples, before he be their Redeemer. Secondly,Popish do­ct [...]ine suffe­reth not a man to set one foote forward towards Christ, be­cause it re­sisteth de­niall of a mans selfe. a more wicked enemie with­standing this doctrine is the Church of Rome. In exalting nature, and extenua­ting the grace of God; as first, holding that all sinnes deserue not not death, but may bee done away with a little knock­ing on the breast, or such light sorrow. Secondly, that by nature a man hath free will in his conuersion, and being helped by the holy Ghost, can moue himselfe vnto saluation. Thirdly, that after iustifi­cation there is nothing in a man that God can hate. Fourthly, that a man may merit life, and performe workes of sa­tisfaction to God; which diuellish do­ctrines what else doe they but make the heart swell with pride, so as it can neuer be brought to the deniall of it selfe.

The third ground is taken from the Morall law:3. Ground. Thou s [...]alt haue no other God before my face. The scope and meaning of which law is to direct vs in chusing the true God onely to bee our God; which is done, first, when we know and acknowledge him as hee hath reuealed himselfe in his word: secondly, when wee giue our hearts vnto him, according to that precept; My sonne giue me thy heart. Now the heart is giuen to God when he is loued and feared aboue all, when he is alone trusted in, relied on in danger, when we ascribe all power vnto him, beleeue in him, subiect our selues vnto him in our very conscience; for whatsoeuer hath these is become our God. Secondly, that this is a ground [Page 36] cannot bee doubted: for whosoeuer ta­keth not the true God for his God, is out of all way to saluation, seeing there is no couenant betweene God and him, and being out of the couenant, can haue no part not inheritance in Gods king­dome.

Thirdly, Aduersaries of this ground are,No [...] if that religion teach to de­nie honour and allea­geance due to our earthly Go [...]s. first the Romish doctrine, which com­mitteth high treason against God, in gi­uing his honour to other things: as to Saints and dead men, whom they make Gods, by teaching inuocation to bee due vnto them, and so attributing an infinite power, wisedome, or presence vnto them, which are Gods proprieties. Secondly, in teaching that men can me­rit, they make them Gods. For if Christ himselfe had bin a meere man, he could not haue merited. Thirdly, in ascribing to dead creatures the vertue of the holie Ghost; as to water, the power of sancti­fication, driuing away diuels, and wash­ing a [...]ay sinnes. Fourthly, in setting vp the woodden Crosse for a God, which must be worshipped with the same wor­ship and affection as God himselfe is. The Virgin Mary they make a God­desse, and Queen of heauen, whom they pray to commaund her sonne. And last­ly, the Pope, to whom they giue power to pardon sinne properly, and to make lawes to binde conscience, as properly as Gods lawes doe.

The second aduersarie is the comm [...] Protestant, who carrieth an outward profession of Christ, but in his heart set­teth vp many Gods, as the belly, wealth, pleasure, yea the Diuell is the god of ma­ny men, as Phil. 3.19. 2. Cor. 4.4: others set all their hearts and studie for the ac­complishment of their sinnes; now sin hauing the hold in their hearts, is be­come their God. Yea and it is a com­mon practise of many Protestants i [...] their crosses to put off their confidence in God, and betake themselues to cun­ning men and Southsayers; so leauing the liuing God, and trust for thei [...] helpe in the diuell himselfe.

4. Ground.The fourth ground of practise con­cerneth the worship of God: Exod. 20.5. Thou shalt not make to thy selfe any [...] image, &c. The first point. The meaning: This Commandement hath two parts: the former forbidding the making of I­mages: the latter, the worshipping of them. The former in these words: Thou shalt not make vnto thy selfe &c. In which is not simply forbidden the making of I­mages, as if they bee for politicall or hi­storicall vse, [...]ut the making of them in way of religion or conscience, to put vs in remembrance of God, or to worship God in, by, or at the same. The latter in these words: Thou shalt not bow downe &c. That is, thou shalt not so much as bow downe thy bodie before such an I­mage made by others, neither to wor­ship it, no [...] the true God in it: which exposition because it is oppugned by a great part of the world, I will prooue by some reasons: First, that which was the sinne of the Israelites in making Images, is here forbidden: but their common sinne in the vse of Images, was to make them representations of the true God, and to worship the true God in them, as appeareth Exod. 32.4.5. The Israelites hauing made a golden Calfe, said: These be thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt: that is, this is a representatiō of that God who brought thee out of Egypt: for they should haue been worse then mad men, if they had called that Calfe which was but one day old, that God which brought them ma­ny daies before out of Egypt: besides that, Images true or false are vsually cal­led by the name of Gods, as being so in the reputation of the worshippers. F [...]r­ther, Aaron said,Vers. 5. To morrow shall be the holy day of the Lord: signifying that the Calfe was made to represent the true God, whom in the Calfe they were to worship. Againe, Iudg. 17.3. Michae [...] mother sheweth that her intent was to worship God in the Image, when shee saith, that shee had dedicated eleuen hundred shekels of siluer to the Lord, to make a grauen and molten Image; and hauing made the Image, she saith, Now will the Lord blesse me: Vers. 13. though his fact was grosse Idolatrie, yet he sheweth that he worshipped the Lord in the Image, whose blessing he boasted of. Esai 40.18 To whom will y [...] [...]ken God? whence it is plaine, they made Images of the true God to worship him in. Iudg. 2.11. The Israelites were sore afflicted for seruing Baal and [...], that is, Idols fetched from the Heathen: but herein their in­tent was to worship the true God in them, as appeareth Hose 2.16. Thou shalt call me no more [...]. Yea the ve­ry Heathen themselues worshipped the [Page 37] true God in their Images, Rom. 1.23. They turned the glorie of the true God into the similitude of a corruptible creature; much more then the Israelites who took their Idolatrie from them: and there­fore in the second Commandement is forbidden the making of Images of the true God, and not of false onely, as the Papists would falsely teach vs. The se­cond reason is in Deut. 4.15.16. where Moses making a Commentarie vpō this cōman [...]ement, and forbidding to make any representation of any figure, addeth this reason: Ye saw no image in the day that the Lord spake out of Horeb: and there­fore Moses vnderstood the Comman­dement as we doe, namely not to make any Image of the true God. The third reason is in the words, Thou shalt not make the image of any thing that is in hea­uen aboue. &c. Seeing then that God is in heauen aboue, as also the Saints and Angels, wee must make no Image to re­present them: for euen Images of the true God are Idols, hated of God, and condemned in the Scriptures: so the golden Calfe is called an Idoll, Act. 7.41.

The second point is the weight of this ground standing herein, that who­soeuer ouerthroweth this ground, ouer­turneth this religion. For first, whosoe­uer resembleth God in any Image, and worshippeth him therein, he denieth the true God, Rom. 1.25 The wisest of the Heathē worshipping God in their Ima­ges, turned the truth of God into a lie: so whatsoeuer mē may beleeue of worship­ping ye true God in an Image, the truth is, it will proue no better than a lie vnto them. [...] Cor. 10. [...] The Apostle affirmeth, that what­soeuer the Gentiles sacrificed to Idols, they sacrificed it vnto Diuels, and not vnto God. Some may aske, how can this be, seeing their intent was to sacrifice vnto God? I answere, that by offering to an Image, they denied God, and so not ser­uing him, they became sacrificers to the Diuels: for whosoeuer conceiueth of God otherwise than he will be concei­ued of, conceiue an Idoll, and not God; and he that wil remember him in things wherein he will not be remembred, for­getteth him, as the Israelites, Psal. 106.21. Secondly, professed Idolatrie ma­keth a separation betweene God and his people, as adulterie doth betweene man and wife. For as a wife that seeketh to strangers, denieth her proper hus­band; so the Church, which is the spouse of God, going a whoring after Images and strange Gods, denieth God her hus­band, and procureth the Bill of diuorce: see Hose 2. and Ierem. 3.8.

Thirdly, the aduersaries of this ground are, the professed Papists: first, in allow­ing making of Images for Religions sake; as the Image of Christ crucified,If the Pope had been with Mo­ses in the mount, he would haue demurred vpon the admittance of the se­cond com­mande­ment. which they call the Crucifixe; and of Christ glorified, which they call Agnus Dei: also Images of the Virgin Mary, and other Saints; yea cursing and con­demning all those that forbid the ma­king of them, & so curse euen the Lord himselfe: yea and most blasphemouslie in former times they were wont to make Images of the Trinitie, picturing the Fa­ther like an old man, the Sonne like a childe, the holie Ghost like a Doue, and yet much more blasphemously than that, otherwise: but they are now asha­med of such wicked pictures. Second­ly, they maintaine, yea and commaund the worship of Christ in an Image, and condemne them who deny the worship­ping of Images, whether they be Ima­ges of God, or of Saints, Angels, and dead men. Thirdly, they teach that a man is to worship the Crucifixe religi­ously, yea with the same worship and deuotion with which Christ is worship­ped, wherewith also they worship their breaden God.

In former times their consciences se­cretly checking them of their Idolatries, caused them to leaue out the whole se­cond Commandement, and diuide the last into two, to fill vp the number: but of later daies, seeing they are constrai­ned to retaine the Commaundement, they haue found out some shift, which we will examine. First, they say, there is a difference be [...]weene an Idoll and an Image, as the one is a Greeke word,Obiect. 1. the other a Latin: the former is a represen­tation of the true God, the latter of false Gods. Ans. The difference is but in the word, for indeed they be both one,Answere. Acts 7.41. The Calfe was an Image and an Idoll too.Obiect. 2. Ob. They make difference al­so of worship, which they say is of two sorts: the first is Latreia, [...]. this is a wor­ship and reuerence due to God onely: the second is Dulia, and this is a seruice due vnto Saints, to ye Crucifixe, [...]. &c. Ans. But besides that ye Scripture make these both one,Answere. they herein bewray their fol­lie, [Page 38] in that if either be greater, it is Dulia, which is a kind of seruice most submisse, and that properly which vassals were wont to yeeld their Lords who had ta­ken them in warre, and yet this must be giuen to Saints, and the wooden Crosse, being the greatest subiection.Ob [...]ect. 3. Ob. 3. But they intend to worship not the image of the Crosse,Answere. but Christ in it. Ans. No in­tention of man can institute a true wor­ship of God, without warrant from God himselfe, who neuer authorized men to worship him in Images.Obiect. 4. Ob. 4. English­men kneele downe to the Chaire of E­state, the King not being in presence, and therefore wee may much more to Saints and Angels.Answere. Ans. First, this is a ci­uill and politique worship, testifying the subiects alleageance: but kneeling to Saints is religious. Secondly, the King appointeth his Chaire of Estate to be a signe of his presence, and willeth it; but no Papist can proue that euer Christ ap­pointed a Crucifixe to bee a signe of his presence: or that God willeth their I­mages to bee signes of his presence. Thirdly, the Chaire of Estate is a signe only in the Kings absence; for himselfe being present, the ciuill worship is per­formed to himselfe: but Christ is neuer absent from his Church, and yet in his presence they set vp an Image to re­member him by. Thus that Church be­ing an open Idolater must not bee ioy­ned with; for she is not ioyned to Christ any longer, but is a professed harlot; neither i [...] it so indifferēt (as some think) to finde saluation there as well as by our Religion.

5. Ground.The fifth ground is, Matth. 4.10. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him on­ly shalt thou serue. That this is a chiefe ground needes no proofe; and therefore wee will consider first the meaning, se­condly the aduersaries against whom wee must contend. To know the mea­ning, the words going before will af­foord vs some direction; wherein Sa­tan hauing moued Christ to fall downe and worship him with bodily worship only, and requiring not the maine wor­ship due to God, but a little bowing of the bodie; betokening that he was the disposer of the kingdomes of the world: this Christ denieth him with this reason ratified by Scripture, that it is a worship and seruice proper to God, and to bee tendred to him onely. Secondly, the words themselues are to bee weighed: By [worship] is properly signified bodily▪ [...] worship in a bodily gesture: the mea­ning then is, thou shalt with thy bodie adore the Lord, for so it is sutable to Sa­tans demaund. The word [serue] signi­fieth all worship due to God both in­ward and outward. [Only] This word ap­pertaineth to both the members, and so to the whole sentence; for else there should bee no direct deniall of Satans temptation, requiring onely the former and not the latter. But some will say,Obiect. we may serue men lawfully, how then is ser­uice proper to God only?Answere. There be two kindes of worship; religious, and ciuill. Religious, is an action or actions of re­uerence and subiection, whereby a man doth acknowledge the Godhead it self, or the properties thereof, either in God himselfe truly, or in the creature falsely. These properties of God are, first, to bee an absolute Lord. Secondly, to bee Al­mightie. Thirdly, to be present in al pla­ces at all times. Fourthly, to heare all men in all places at all times. Fiftly, to know all things past, present, and to come, yea and the hearts of men. Sixtly, to be giuer of all good things, and the preuenter of all euill. Now, any action of reuerence in signification of any of these properties is a religious worship; the very intent of the minde in religious worship being, to ascribe either God­head or diuine properties to the thing worshipped. Ciuill or politique wor­ship is, when men performe actions of reuerence and subiection to others, as acknowledging them to bee preferred aboue themselues in gifts or authoritie. Thus bowing of the bodie is sometime religious, when it is done to God, in ac­knowledging his properties; and some­time ciuil, performed to a man in respect of his eminency in gifts or gouernment. But these words of Christ are meant on­ly of the former, and not of the latter, which belongs vnto man. This ground thus truly conceiued, affoordeth vs these two maine points of Religion: first, that God is to be worshipped with religious wor­ship. Secondly, that all religious worship is proper to God, and due to him alone. Now religious worship is two-fold: first, in­ward, standing in two things; faith and inward obedience. Secondly, outward, when this inward worship is outwardly testified, consisting of three principall [Page 39] parts: first, in preaching, hearing, and reading the word: secondly, in receiuing the two Sacraments: thirdly, in prayer and thanksgiuing publike and priuate.

Aduersa­ [...] C [...]holik [...], [...] Catho­ [...] depra­ [...] of Gods wor­ [...].The Aduersaries hereof are the Pa­pists, who pretend the Catholike Reli­gion, but indeed ouerthrow it, in depra­uing the outward worshippe of God, wherein the inward is testified. The first part whereof standing in the preaching, hearing, and reading of the word, they de­praue: first, by mingling the pure word of God with mans word and writings; and authorising bookes Apocryphall as Canonicall Scripture. Secondly, by ma­king vnwritten Traditions Apostolicall and Ecclesiasticall (as they say) of equall authoritie with the Scripture. Thirdly, in that they teach in their Catechismes, that the worship of God doth stand in obeying the Commandements of the Church, as wel as the Commandements of God themselues, and are necessarily to be practised vnto saluation, & so they worship God in vain, Mat. 15.9. Fourth­ly, in that they allow no Bible to be [...]u­thenticall, but onely the Latin transla­tion of Iere [...]ie, renouncing both the He­brew and Greeke fountaines: and ye [...] learned Papists confesse that their Latin text i [...] corrupted, and that therefore the true sense is to bee fetched from the Popes determination, and from Coun­cels, and no other sense to be admitted. Fiftly, in that they make Images Lay mens bookes and teachers; and debarre the people of the Scriptures publikely and priuately in the vulgar tongue, and suffer it only to be read by them and vn­to them in the Latin tongue vnknowne vnto them.

The second part of outward wor­ship standing in administration of Sacra­ments, they likewise corrupt and abolish: for howsoeuer Baptisme is preserued for the substance of it in the Romish Church, which (as a lanterne carrieth the light) it retaineth not for it owne, but for the hidden Churches sake within it; yet haue they abolished the Lords Supper for the substance of it: first, of a Sacra­ment they haue made it [...] reall sacrifice. Secondly, they haue turned the Com­munion into a priuate Masse, where the Priest alone receiueth all, and the people nothing▪ Thirdly, although in a Sacra­ment the [...]e must bee a distinction be­tween the signe and the thing signified, yet they make none, but ouerthrow all such signification of the signes by their transubstantiation. Fourthly, they haue turned the bodie of Christ into a brea­den God, which they carrie about in boxes and worship; which is as vilde an idolatrie as euer was among the Hea­then, not inferiour to the worshipping of Cats and Buls as gods among the E­gyptians. Fiftly, they haue added to Christs Institution fiue Sacraments, viz. Penance, Confirmation, Orders, Matri­monie, and annoynting. But indeede Bap­tisme is a Sacrament of Penance: the Lords Supper of Confirmation: and fur­ther are they deceiued in the other.

The third part of outward worship concerneth Prayer and thankesgiuing: this they ouerthrow likewise: first, they mocke God in praying in an vnknowne tongue, not knowing what they aske, much lesse seriously addressing them­selues vnto the dutie; which euen earth­ly Kings would disdaine. Secondly, in prayer must bee brought sense of want and contrition of heart, this they cannot bring who are taught that they merit by prayer. Thirdly, prayer must be made in particular faith, but this they make pre­sumption. Fourthly, they allow praying to creatures, & the mediation of Saints, and so denie the very substance of pray­er, which is to make request to God on­ly in the alone mediation of Christ.

The second maine poin [...] of Religion out of this ground is this; That religious worship is due to God alone▪ for wee may not giue apparance of religious wor­ship to creatures. Cornelius is reprooued for giuing to Peter excesse euen of ciuill worship, Acts 10.25. for he knew Peter to bee a man and not God; and so see­med to mingle a kinde of religious wor­ship with ciuill. This is a maine ground also, which whosoeuer denieth he hol­deth no [...] the head Christ, Col. 2.18.19.

The Aduersaries of this ground also are the professed Papists,Aduersa­ries. Popish prayers, fit­ter to be preferred to dead men than the liuing God. who worship Saint [...] and Angels, not onely by knee­ling before them, but praying also vnto them; which cannot be denied to bee a religious worship, seeing it attributeth vnto them to heare the prayers of all men [...] all times, in all places, ye [...] and to know the hearts of men vpon earth. Se­condly, they maintaine religious wor­ship of Images, they goe on pilgrimage vnto them, offer Incense, creepe vnto [Page 40] them, and kneele before them. Yea, they worship the Crucifixe with the same worshippe whereby they would adore Christ, if hee were liuing vpon earth, as also the reliques of Saints. Out of all which wee see what to thinke of that Church which onely hath the name of a Church, she holdeth not the head Christ, seeing for so many hundred yeeres she hath displaied her fornication, in wor­shipping Saints, Angels, Images, and the Virgin Mary, so as her Bill of diuorce­ment is iustly giuen her, 2. Thess. 2.10. Reuel. 13.8. from whom we must sepa­rate, if we would not partake with her in her plagues.

6. Ground.The sixth ground of practise is Esai. 8.13. Sanctifie the Lord of hostes: which words contain the substance of the third Commaundement: in which consider first the meaning, secondly the weight, thirdly the Aduersaries. For the mea­ning: A thing is said to bee sanctified two waies; either when it is made holy; or when it is acknowledged to bee holie. Now this latter must bee heere vnder­stood, for Gods name cannot be made holie, which is holinesse it selfe, and the first cause of all holinesse; but it is san­ctified of vs when wee acknowledge it holie: and this our sanctification of God either respecteth God himselfe, or the gifts of God. Our sanctification of God himselfe (the thing intended in this ground) is done two waies: first, when in our mind we acknowledge and praise him in his attributes, of wisedome, mer­cie, louing kindnes, power, prouidence, and such like. 1. Pet. 3.15. Sanctifie the Lord God in your hearts; that is, acknow­ledge him in his wisedome, power, and other his attributes: Look as good sub­iects speaking of, and mentioning their Prince, will put off their hats in reuerent opinion of him; so we religiously should thinke and speake of these.Iob. 1.5. Iob fearing only and but suspecting, that his sonnes in their feastings had dishonoured this name of God, sanctified them. When Hez [...]k [...]h heard ye blasphemies of Rab­shak [...]h against God, be humbled himself, rent his cloathes and put on sackcloath, 2. King. 19.1. Yea wicked Ahab hauing heard (though falsely) that Nab [...] had blasphemed God, he rent his cloathes and proclaimed a fast: which sheweth (whatsoeuer his fact was) the vse and manner of holy men in his time, when Gods name was dishonoured and blas­phemed. Secondly, wee sanctifie God himselfe, when wee with reuerence ac­knowledge his titles, as God, Lord, Ieho­ua, Father, Christ, Iesus, Holy Ghost; and not without religious and obedient af­fection speaking or thinking of them. Our sanctification of Gods gifts, which are many, as the Word preached, Prayer, Sacraments, Meate, Drinke, and all things seruing for the good of bodie or soule, is not by giuing or adding any holines vnto them, which in themselues are all holie; but when we acknowledge them holie, by preparing our selues to a holie vse of them, and vse them accordingly with good conscience: for euery crea­ture of God hath a double vse: first, a lawfull vse when God permits a general vse of his creatures, thus all may vse meate, drinke, apparell, &c. Secondly, a holy vse, when a creature in his lawfull vse is vsed in a holy manner, for this in­cludeth the former, though that may be without this. For example, all the Iewes kept the Passeouer lawfully, but onely those celebrated it holily, who prepared themselues according to the comman­dement: which holy vse is obtained by the word and prayer, 1. Tim. 4. The word directeth vs to vse these gifts of God in obedience; and prayer obtaineth grace to vse them according to the worde vn­to which holy vse of Gods creatures we are to be mooued by these reasons: first, we must distinguish our selues from the bruite beasts; the swine in the forrest [...] ­teth vp the maste, but looketh not vp to heauen, no not to the tree whence it fal­leth. Secondly, because we haue lost our title to all the creatures in Adam, which onely is in this vse restored. Thirdly, be­cause they are the gifts of God, we must thus acknowledge them to be his, and in him learne to vse them. Fourthly, that vice may auoide the common abuse of them, whereby hee is prouoked to dis­pleasure.

The second point is the weight of this ground: which may appeare in the con­ [...]rie; seeing the blasphemer doth what hee can to ouerthrow the Godhead it selfe;Leuit. 24.14.16. whence euery such one is called by such a name as signifieth a [...] of God, or one that thrusteth God tho­rough: and therefore the sanctification of God is a ground of moment. Second­ly, the first petition of the Lords Prayer [Page 31] is, sanctified be thy name: wherein wee are taught to preferre and pray for the hallowing of Gods name before our own saluation. Thirdly, the scope of the third Commandemēt is the same, which whosoeuer obserueth not, reuerseth both the former. And lastly, the Lord is so iealous of his glorie, that he will bee sanctified of all them that come neere him, else hee will sanctifie himselfe in their confusion, Leuit. 10.3.

Aduersa­ [...].Thirdly: The Aduersaries of this ground are, first, though (by Gods mer­cie) the religion of the Church of Eng­land is no aduersary vnto it, yet the liues of the most fight against it: for although when we mention earthly Princes wee can vse all reuerence, yet Gods name is most fearfully abused, and tossed in wic­ked mens mouthes by oathes and cur­sed speakings; besides that, many abuse the same to Charmes, and Spels in their sorceries, and men thinke all is well, be­cause herein they vse good words: but the truth is, the better the words be, the greater is the sinne; yea it is noted to be a signe of a low and base spirit not to sweare and blaspheme vpon any occa­sion: many souldiers thinke they can­not be couragious enough, vnlesse they pierce God & rent Christ by detestable oathes, such as would cause wicked A­hab himselfe to rend his cloathes at the hearing.

Secondly, the great aduersarie is the Papist, and that diuers waies: first, in that they teach that the very doing of some worke is a sanctification of God; as the outward worke of Baptisme, yea in it the very action of the Minister is a worship of God, and doth confer grace, ex opere operat [...]; this was their old do­ctrine, which now they colour with this addition: If the partie be well and rightly disposed: but besides the vse, yea the lawfull and common vse, there is by this ground required an holy vse of any thing to make it acceptable to God, or rightly profitable to the doer himselfe. Secondly,Popish hal­l [...]ing of the crea­ [...]res, dis­honoureth the Crea­ [...]. their hallowing of Water, Bels, Palmes, Ashes, Spettle, is a meere mockerie of God, seeing they haue nei­ther word nor promise from God, that these creatures should thus be hallowed to preserue from euill, bodie or soule. Thirdly, they erre in the foundation of religion diuer [...] waies; euery which such error is blasphemie. Fourthly, that reli­gion oppugneth the sanctification of Gods name in the vse of a lawfull oath, teaching first that the Pope hath power to dispense with an oath. Secondly, that men may sweare by the Masse, and so doing make it a God. Thirdly, euen the learned among them with one consent hold, that a man may sweare ambigu­ously, euen when he knoweth the thing to be otherwise.

The seuenth ground is, Galath. 5.14.7. Ground. The whole law is fulfilled in this one word, Thou shalt loue thy neighbour as thy selfe. The meaning is not that we should loue our neighbour equally with our selues, and with no lesse affection, or degree of loue; but that with the same cheereful­nes, willingnes, and truth of heart that we perform duties of loue to our selues, ought wee also to reach them out vnto others. The weight of this ground ap­peareth, in that not onely Christ saith, It is like the great Commandement, but also in that it is the summe of the whole law: for the first table must be practised in the second, and the loue of God testified in loue to men.

The Aduersaries of this ground bee the Popish Church,Aduersa­ries. A fit prin­ciple for that religi­on, which wholy see­keth it selfe who thus expound it▪ First loue thy self, and then thy neigh­bour; making the loue of our selues the foundation of the loue of others: but sometime wee may loue our neighbour aboue our selues; as Ionathan loued Da­uid more than his own soule, and Christ loued his enemies more than his owne life. Secondly, it teacheth that a man must not loue particularly his particular enemie, nor salute him in particular, but generally, as if hee salute a whole com­panie together, his enemie being there.

The eighth ground: Exod. 20.12.8. Ground. Honour thy father and thy mother, &c. In the words two things are to be conside­red: first, an ordinance of God: second­ly, the meanes to preserue it. The ordi­nance is, that all men must not be equall in degree, but there must bee orders of men, of whom some are to be in higher degree, as superiours; some in lower condition, as inferiours: the former are aboue others in regarde of power to command and to punish: the latter are in subiection vnder others, by whose discretion and will they are to be gouer­ned. This ordinance is described, Rom. 13.1. Let euery soule be subiect to the supe­riour power: that is, be content to be vn­der [Page 32] others which are above him in po­wer: so here, some must bee as fathers, and mothers, some must bee subiected vnto them. The meanes to preserue this ordinance is, the yeelding of honour vnto whom it belongeth, which stan­deth in three things: first, in reuerence towards the persons of superiours. Se­condly, in obedience to their iust com­mandements. Thirdly, in thankefulnes for their paines in gouerning: thus is that golden sentence to be expounded, Matth. 22. Giue vnto C [...]sar the things that are Caesars; that is, giue him reuerence, obedience, thankfulnes, according to that, Rom. 13.7. Giue feare vnto whom feare belongeth, honour to whom honour, tribute to whom tribute.

The weight of this ground is plaine, because without it can be no practise of true religion: for first, by it stand the three things, the Familie, the Church, and Common-wealth; all which are maintai­ned by gouernment, and subiection: wherefore the Lord set this Comman­dement the first of the second Table, as whereupon he would found all humane societies. Secondly, gouernour [...] in any of these societies, are the keepers of both Tables, without whose helpe and authoritie Gods kingdome could haue no abiding on the earth.

Aduersa­ries.Aduersaries of this Commandement, are the Papists, who weaken the autho­ritie of the Magistrate,Such is the carriage of the Romish Clergie, as they had need keep [...] the [...]iu [...]ll Magistrate o [...] them, and bee their owne iudges. in exempting their Clergie from all Ciuill power of Magistracie in causes both iudiciall (that is, matters controuersall) and criminall, that is, matters of trespasse, although the Apostle saith, Let euery soule be subiect. Secondly, that Church hath set vp a po­wer to bring into order and subiection all the Kings vpon earth, namely the po­wer of the Pope, who challengeth to himselfe to ouerrule, yea and to depose at his pleasure Kings and Queenes, who in their dominions are aboue al and on­ly vnder God. Thirdly, that religion lesseneth the power of parents: for in the Councel of Trent they establish, first, Mariages, and Contracts made by chil­dren without consent of parents. Se­condly, Vowes also made by children vnder age and without consent of pa­rents, are held lawful, and not to be bro­ken.

9. Ground.The ninth ground is, Micha. 6.8. He hath shewed thee O man what is good, and what the Lord requireth of thee▪ surely to do iustly, to loue mercie, to humble thy selfe, and to walke with thy God. The meaning. Three vertues are here required: first, Iust d [...]aling: secondly, Mercie: thirdly, Humilitie. Touching the first, wee are commanded to do [...] iustly: and this exe­cution of iustice between man and man hath fiue substantiall parts: First, to giue honor to whom honor is due. Secondly, by thought word and deed to preserue the body and soule of our neighbour, that is, his life spirituall and temporall. Thirdly, his chastitie, which is the honor of bodie and soule in single life and Ma­trimonie. Fourthly, his worldly estate. Fiftly, his good name. This is the scope of all the Commandements of the se­cond Table.

Now because the due execution of iustice must bee tempered with mercie, therefore is mercie required of man in the second place, which is a readinesse to relieue the miserie of the distressed. And thirdly, because iustice and mercie without godlinesse are but ciuil vertues, we are in the last place commaunded to walke in humilitie with our God, which containeth the summe of the first table, and standeth in three things: first, wee must acknowledge our sinnes: second­ly, intreate for pardon: thirdly, purpose not to offend God any more, but ende­uour to preuent sinne to come.

Concerning y weight of this ground, it appeareth in Micha. 6.7. where the Lord testifieth himselfe to be more de­lighted with the practise of loue and mercie, than with oblations of thousands of Rammes, and tenne thousand riuers of oyle: and elsewhere, I will haue mercie, and not sacrifice. Yea Titus 2.12. This is made the end of the appearing of the grace of God, that we should liue soberly in regard of our selues, iustly in regard of others, and godly in regard of God. These vertues are so respected of God, that they are said to go immediatly be­fore his face, Psal. 89.14. and so necessarie among men, that without them no so­cietie can be preserued.

The aduersaries hereof are, first,Aduersa­ries. the liues of most men, who seeke their own things, and not to maintaine the liues, goods, name, chastitie of others: yea too many preferre their priuate gaine before the common good of men in Church and Common-wealth. Secondly, the [Page 33] maine aduersarie is the Romane Reli­gion, [...] re­l [...]on an [...] to all [...]. which defendeth the greatest iniu­stice that can be, by establishing a Mo­narchy among themselues, not onely controlling the soueraigne authoritie of Princes in their owne kingdomes, but also exempting their subiects from their alleageance at their pleasure. Of which vsurped power deba [...]e them once, and that counterfeit Religion will fall with it, because it is onely vnderpropped by it. Secondly, that Religion ouerthrow­eth iustice in chastitie: for first, it giueth power to the Pope to dispense with ma­riages within degrees of nature; it licen­seth the brother by that dispensation to marrie his brothers wife, and so is a pa­trone of horrible incest. Secondly, it de­fendeth the toleration of Stewes. Third­ly, by solemne decree it forbiddeth ma­riages to sundrie orders of men, which Paul calleth a doctrine of diuels, 1. Ti­moth. 4. Yea they binde certaine men and women from mariage, and yet call it a Sacrament. Fourthly, the last Coun­cell of Trent affirmeth, that all mariages not solemnized by a Masse-priest, and in the faith of the Romish Church, are of none effect. Thirdly, that Religion tea­cheth, that to steale a small thing, is a ve­niall sinne; whereas the thought of stea­ling deserueth the curse of the law. Se­condly, it defendeth begging, yea and placeth holines in it; whereas the word teacheth that there should be no begger in Israel. Fourthly, it teacheth that a spor­ting lie, or a beneficial lie are venial sins, flat against the ninth Commandement. Lastly, against the tenth Commande­ment it teacheth iniustice, namely, that hurtfull motions intended against our neighbour (if there bee no consent of will) are no sinne. Whence wee may see what to thinke of that Religion; yea Christ himselfe sheweth, Mat. 5.19. Who­soeuer breaketh the least of these Comman­dements, and teach men so to doe, he is the least in the kingdome of heauen, that is, he hath no part therein. But the Romane Church breaketh them, yea and teach­eth men to doe so, and therefore it is not of God, and the peremptorie teachers thereof haue no part (without repen­tance) in the kingdome of heauen.

10. GroundThe tenth ground is, 1. Cor. 7.20. Let euery man abide in that calling in which hee was called. First the meaning. The scope of the words sheweth, that among the Corinths some who were sla [...]es and seruants, but cōuerted to the faith (their masters still remaining Infidels) thought that now they were free from their Ma­sters, and might relinquish their seruice, and hence tooke occasion to liue as they listed; against which conceit of licen­tiousnesse the Apostle Paul opposeth himselfe, and wisheth that this be refor­med, and that those who being called to the faith vnder vnbeleeuers, abide in that same calling wherein they were called. In which verse two things are contai­ned: First, that euery man that would liue religiously must haue a double cal­ling: first, the generall calling of a Chri­stian: secondly, some particular voca­tion and calling wherein to conuerse. Secondly, that euery man must abide in his particular calling: which that a man may doe, first he must be contented and well pleased with his calling. Secondly, hee must walke diligently in the duties thereof; for these reasons: first, the com­mandement of God, Genes. 3.19. In the sweate of thy face shalt thou eate thy bread: which words though they be a threat­ning, yet they include a commaunde­ment bounded with a promise of bles­sing, Psalm. 128.2. The man that feareth God shall eate the labours of his own hands, and blessed shall he be: Exod. 20. Sixe daies shalt thou labour, enforced by Gods owne example, for in sixe daies the Lord made heauen and earth. Quest. May we not vse recreation in the sixe daies? Ans. Yea, so it be moderate, and help to make vs fitter for our callings; for labour it selfe being commaunded, euery thing also which vpholdeth it, is commanded. Such commandements are vsuall in the New Testament also: Ephes. 4.28. Let him that stole steale no more, but rather let him labour with his hands the thing that good is. So 2. Thess. 3.12. men are com­manded to eate their owne bread. Se­condly, Examples in the Scripture: God enioyned Adam in the state of inno­cencie this double calling: first to serue him: secondly to dresse the garden. The second Adam Christ himselfe while he led a priuate life till his baptisme, which was the space of thirtie yeeres, liued in his father Iosephs calling. The Angels themselues are ministring spirits for the good of the godly, and ascend and de­scend vpon the sonne of man, and liue not out of their calling. Thirdly, it is [Page 32] [...] [Page 33] [...] [Page 34] the ordinance of God that men should be his instruments for the commō good of the societies wherein they liue; euen as euery member in the bodie endeuou­reth it selfe not onely for it owne good, bu [...] for the benefit of the whole. So should euery member of the bodie po­litique.

This ground is of great weight for the maintaining of the three maine so­cieties: for neither familie, Church nor Common-wealth can stand without di­stinction of particular callings and la­bour in the same; for which cause the Apostle would not haue him to eate, that will not labour, 2. Thes. 3.3.

Aduersa­ries.The aduersaries hereof are, first, ma­ny amongst vs, as those who spend their liues in gaming, and they who spend their wealth in bezeling and drinking: and they also who being strong to labor spend their time in begging: all which are vile courses of life, and enemies to all good societies. Secondly, the Roman religion: first, in maintaining a Mon­kish life, whereby a man cutteth himselfe off from all societie, and liues in prayer and fasting: but wee are taught not onely to practise duties of the first table, but of the second also, and without the speciall calling the generall is nothing. Second­ly, In maintaining loosenes of life and idlenes, for God hauing appointed 52. Sabbaths in the yeere, wherein men are to lay aside their ordinarie callings, and no moe, they haue added (as may ap­peare in their callender) fiftie two moe, which they call holy daies, and so spend more than a quarter of a yeere in rest and idlenes, whereby they become aduersa­ries of this ground.

The eleuenth ground is 1. Tim. 1.19. Keepe faith and good conscience. 11. Ground The mea­ning: By faith we must vnderstand the wholesome doctrine and religion deli­uered in the writings of the Prophets and Apostles: further, this faith must not goe alone, but must haue his compani­on, which is a good conscience; the pro­pertie of which is to excuse and iustifie a man in al callings before God and man: and it is knowne by a two-fold testimo­nie: first of the life past: secondly, of the life present and to come. The testimony of the life past is, that a man hath repen­ted him of all his sinnes past, and is tur­ned vnto God. The testimonie of the life present and to come is, first, that a man hath a purpose neuer to offend God, but endeuours to please him in all things. Secondly, that when hee hath slipped and sinned against Go [...], it was not wittingly and willingly, but of hu­mane infirmitie. Thirdly, that a man hath his generall testimony which is re­quired to a good conscience. Psal. 119.6. I shall not be confounded, when I haue re­spect to all thy Commandements Iam. 2.5. He that breaketh one Commandement, i [...] guiltie of all: that is, hee that wittingly and willingly against the knowledge of his conscience breake one of the Com­mandements of God, will, if occasion be offered, willingly and of knowledge break them all: so as a good conscience must testifie on a mans side concerning all sinnes and all obedience. Examples whereof we haue in Hez [...]kiah, Esai. 38.3. Remember Lord how I haue walked be­fore thee with a perfect heart. And in Paul, 1. Cor. 4.4. I know nothing by my selfe. The weight of the ground appeareth in the wordes following, where the Apostle saith, that while some put away good con­science, they haue made shipwracke concer­ning the faith: where he compareth our conscience to a ship, our religion and faith to our treasures laid in it. Now as a hole in the ship loseth the treasures by sinking the ship: so cracke the consci­ence, and the treasures of religion suffer shipwracke: whence it is that Timothie is willed to keepe the mysterie of faith i [...] pure conscience, 1. Tim. 3.9.

The aduersarie of this ground is the Romish Religion,Aduersa­ries. who ouerthroweth true testimonie of conscience, which is euer ioyned with true humiliation and repentance for sinnes past; in teaching, that many sinnes are in themselues ve­niall, or no sinnes, as those lusts against the last Commaundement, which killed Paul himselfe; and in extenuating mans corruption, and extolling nature, wher­by (they say) a man may worke his sal­uation, being holpen by the holy ghost: whereas indeede no true peace of con­science is to bee found till nature bee wholy debased, & grace take the whole place. Secondly, they teach that a man cannot bee certaine of his saluation in this life, but may coniecture and hope well; which is the very racke and tor­ment of the conscience. Thirdly, while they teach that a man must merit his sal­uation by his workes, they torture the [Page 35] conscience, and leaue it destitute of this testimonie: for how can the conscience quiet it selfe, when it knowes not how many workes will serue the turne, nor when it hath sufficiently satisfied the iu­stice of God? and this is to bee marked, that the chiefest of that religion, what­soeuer they hold in their life time; yet when they lie on their death-bed, they flie from their owne merits to the merit of Christ.And Sir Christo­pher Bl [...]nt [...] exe­ [...]ion. Notable is that speech of Ste­phen Gardiner at his death to conuince it, who hauing been a great persecutor, and being much perplexed on his death-bed, by a friend of his visiting him, was put in minde of that iustification which is by the meere mercy of God in Christ: to whom hee answered; You may tell me, and those who are in my case of this doctrine, but open not this gap to the people: So as they are glad to entertain our doctrine for the true peace of their conscience, which in their owne do­ctrine they can neuer finde.

Thus haue wee shewed in part that faith is a most pretious treasure, beset with many enemies, against whom wee must alwaies contend, which wee shall yet more clearely see in beholding the vse of this treasure, which is two-fold: first, to r [...]ueil [...] from God vnto man all things needfull vnto saluation concer­ning doctrine or manners: wherein it excelleth all man [...] learning: for first, all the lawes and learning of men reueile the Morall law only in part, and mingle it with superstitions, and ceremonies: but they reueale no part of the Gospell: onely this doctrine of faith reuealeth in the full perfection both the Law and Gospell. Secondly, the lawes and lear­ning of men know nothing (much lesse reueale) of m [...]ns miserie, neither the cause nor the remedie thereof; but this doctrine of faith knoweth and reueileth both; namely, the first cause to bee the sinne of our first parents, and the proper and perfect remedie to be the death of Christ. Thirdly, mens lawes and learning speake at large of temporall happinesse; but know nothing of eternall▪ but this doctrine not onely knoweth the true happines of men, but teacheth and de­scribeth the readie way thereunto. The second vse of this doctrine of faith is, that it is a most perfect instrument of the holy Ghost for the working of all gra­ces in the hearts of men; I meane not the letters and syllables, but the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles taught, and beleeued. Paul calleth it the power of God to saluation: and Christ himselfe saith, that his word is spirit and life, that is, the instrument of the Spirit, whereby life eternall is procured: for which two notable vses it is a most pretious trea­sure. Whence we learne, first, to be swift to heare this doctrine taught in the pub­like Ministerie, as Iames counselleth, chap. 1.19. because in it God openeth his treasure to dispence the same vnto vs. Secondly, it being a pretious treasure wee must hide the same in the coffers of our hearts: Psal. 119.11. I haue hid thy word in my heart. It must be an ingrafted word in them, Iam. 1.21. And this dutie we practise first, when wee haue care to know it: secondly, to remember it: thirdly, when wee set the affections of our hearts vpon it, as men do vpon their treasures. Thirdly, if it be the treasure of the Church, then it bringeth to the pos­sessors of it, wealth, honour, and pleasure, as other treasures doe. For as the house of Obed-edom was blessed for the Arke; so is that heart which holdeth true wise­dome within it: see Prou. 3.13.14. &c. We in this land haue good experience of this truth, who by Gods blessing haue aboue fourtie yeeres enioyed wealth, peace, honour, and aboue all, Gods pro­tection: and whence haue these flowed but from the true faith and religion set downe in the Prophets and Apostles, maintained and defended amongst vs? which if we would haue continued, we must also continue to hold and affect this truth as a treasure vnto the end.

The second point or head of the Ex­hortation is; that the Saints are the kee­pers of this treasure of faith, to whom it was [...] giuen. Whence we may learne, first,The true treasure of the Church commit­ted to the saints, is the true doctrine of saluation, and not [...] ­lik [...] or me­rits of dead men. that it is an infallible note of the true Church of God, to keep, maintaine, and defend the wholesome doctrine of Religion, deliuered by the Prophets and Apostles. It was noted to bee the chiefe prerogatiue of the Iewes, that to them the Oracles of God were committed, Ro­man. 3. Hence 1. Tim. 3.15. the Church is called the ground and piller of truth, be­cause in her publike Ministery she main­taineth and preserueth the same, Cant. 3. [...]. [...] Christ where she shalbe sure of him▪ and not mi [...]e of finding him in her necessitie: he maketh answere, she shall [Page 36] be sure of him in the Te [...]s of shepheards. Whence may bee truly concluded, that neither are the assemblies of Turkes nor Heretikes the Churches of God, because they fight against the truth; neither is the Church of Rome a true Church of God, because the truth of doctrine is for substance reuersed amongst them. As al­so we may be confirmed that our Chur­ches are the true Churches of Christ by this infallible note: A Register is known by his Records; so our Church is known to be Gods Register, because it keepeth faithfully the records of the Prophets and Apostles. Secondly, that it stands vs in hand to whom this treasure is now committed, so faithfully to keepe it, that it be not taken from vs, and giuen to o­thers who will keepe it better: which we shall do by making this vse of it, that wee bring foorth the fruites of it in a­mendement of life, else our vnthankful­nes shall iustly bereaue vs of it. Concer­ning that circumstance in the text [once giuen] and not often, it may b [...]are a double sense: first, it was giuen (a [...] wee say) once for all, that is, perfectly, suffi­ciently, as neuer after needing any alte­ration or addition. Whence wee note, first, that all reuelations in matter of sal­uation and religion giuen since, are fri­uolous and superstitious; for there is but one edition of true faith, and no [...] edition of Reuelation besides or with­out the word; such as the Papists haue deuised, to confirme their Purgatorie, prayer and almes for the dead, Masse, &c. seeing all necessarie doctrine to salua­tion was once giuen perfectly. Second­ly, that all Church traditions in matter of religion and doctrine of saluation, are meere prophanations of true do­ctrine, and argue it to bee vnperfect▪ as those of the Masse: of receiuing the Communion in one kind; of the Popes supremacie; of workes of satisfaction, and many moe. Secondly, it may bee thus vnderstood, Once giuen to the Saints, that is, not in writing, but in the hearts of the Saints, when they are truly enligh­tened; and therefore if after enlighte­ning it bee quite lost, it is not giuen the second time, and consequently cannot be recouered. Heb. 6.4. If a man who hath bin once enlightened and tasted of the good word of God, fall away, it is impossible th [...] he should be renewed againe by repen­tance. From which wee must learne, to beware of Apostasie, and falling from the faith, yea and of al steps and degrees leading thereunto, as of declining from our grounds of religion: for better [...] it been for vs neuer to haue knowne the way of truth, than after the knowledge of it to forsake the holy Commaunde­ment, 2. Pet. 2.22. Which is the more to bee remembred, because religion hath been more cherished than now it is, and the declining from it a great deale lesse. If it be asked, how may wee preuent A­postasie? I answer, neuer call any ground into question. Here Cyprians rule is to be learned, that diuine matters admit no deliberation.

The third point of the Exhortation is; the office of the Church of God and euery member of it; and that is to main­taine, yea to The word is not [...], but [...] signifying, an instant conten­tion. The wea­pons of ou [...] warfare are not car­nall. [...]. Cor. 10. [...] fight for the maintenance of this [...]reasure; and this is not a bodilie fight by strength of arme or bow, but a spirituall fight by spiritual duties, which euery member of the Church must take vp; and namely by foure duties. First, by doctrine; for euery man in his place and calling must be a Prophet; as Ioel 2.28. and must teach all vnder him: the father must teach the children, the Master his seruants▪ and thus keepe out Satan and al Satani [...] doctrines. Secondly, by con­fession; euery man being called must stand against the ga [...]es of hell, by con­stant witnessing of the [...]ruth. [...]. Pet. 3.15. Sanctifie God in your hearts, and be ready alwaies to giue an account of the [...] that is in you. Thirdly, by example of a good life and vnblameable, sutable to the doctrine. Philip. 2.15. This maketh men shine as lights in the world. Fourth­ly, by prayer, that the Lord would send forth labourers into his haruest to with­stand al false doctrines and heresies, that so the faith and religion wherewith hee hath honoured vs these many yeeres, may bee maintained vnto vs, and conti­nued vnto ours for euer.

Vers. 4. ‘For there are certain men crep [...] in, which were of old before ordained to this condemnation; vngodly men they are which turne the grace of our God into [...]; and denie God the onely Lord and our Lord Iesus Christ.’

HEre the Apostle proceedeth to confirme his exhortation, by a rea­son drawne from the state of the Church [Page 37] in his time, and it is thus briefly framed. There bee certaine men which secretly seeke to vndermine and ouerthrow the faith, therefore you ought the more ear­nestly to contend for it. And that these aduersaries lurking amōgst them might the better bee descried, hee describeth them by fiue seuerall adiuncts: first, by their hypocrisie, in creeping in. Second­ly, by their estate before God, they are of old ordained to this condemnatiō. Thirdly, by their religion; vngodly men they are. Fourthly, by their doctrine; they turne the grace of our God into wantonnes. Fiftly, by their liues; they denie the onely Lord. For the first, There are certaine men crept in] That is, there be men who secretly haue insinuated themselues into your socie­ties, professing themselues to be teachers of the true faith, but are indeede the de­stroyers and disturbe [...]s of it. In which words two sins are la [...]d to their charge: first, that they cunningly ioyned them­selues vnto the Church, pretending themselues to be the seruants of Christ and of the Church, and yet were ene­mies to both. Here marke the subtiltie of Satan, who causeth prophane men to ioyne themselues to the societies of the Saints, that by this meanes mingling his instruments with the members of the Church, he may by degrees corrupt the faith and ouerthrow the Church. The Parable, Matth. 13. sheweth, that where­soeuer the good husbandman soweth his good seede, this malicious man scat­tereth his tares. In Abrahams house shal be an Ismael; in Isaaks, an Esau; in the Arke, a cursed Cham; in Christs familie a Iudas. In the Primitiue Church the di­uell raised vp of all sorts of Heretikes great numbers. In our owne Church the Diuell stirreth vp daily troopes of A­theists and Papists, to the corrupting and deprauing of true faith and Reli­gion.

1 Vse. First, wee must not take offence when we see vngodly men in ye Church, much lesse cut our selues from it by se­paration: but rather conceiue of the po­licie of Satan, who for the hindrance of the faith thrusteth them in. When the Israelites entred into the land of Canaan they must not dwell alone, but be ming­led with the Cananites the enemies of the Church, least y land being too much dispeopled, wild beasts should preuaile and deuoure the people of God: So the Lord (ordering the malice of Satan to the good of the Church) suffereth sedu­cers in the Church both to exercise the faith and patience of his, as also to pre­uent greater dangers, which they might in their secure condition fall into. Se­condly,2 hence wee see that such hypo­crites as these be, though they be in the Church, yet are they not of it; they are no members of that bodie (as the Ro­mish Church teacheth) for they onely creepe into it.

The second fault that is laid to their charge is, that they are intruders, thru­sting themselues into the office of tea­ching, not being called thereto, but [...], Quasi aliud agendo in­gressi. creepe into the calling. Whence wee note, that it is most necessarie that those who are to teach publikely in the church should bee first called thereunto. Rea­sons. First, besides the auoiding of this sinne of creeping into the Church, it is the order that God hath set in the same; that he that is to teach should first be sent, Rom. 10.14. And, No man taketh this honour (that is lawfully) to himselfe, ex­cept he be called as Aaron was. Second­ly, the Ministerie is Gods, and not mans, because the Minister standeth in Gods roome, and speaketh in his name; which he can neuer doe truly, vnlesse God send him and depute him in his stead. Third­ly, the Minister must maintaine that which he teacheth; vnto which he had neede (as in all the parts of his calling) of Gods speciall protection; for the which hee must bee alwaies instant in prayer, which hee can neuer be assured of, if he be not perswaded of the truth of his calling. Fourthly, the people can­not heare with comfort and profit, if they bee not perswaded that God hath called the teacher to instruct them: Rom. 10.14. How can they heare &c. This truth extendeth it selfe also to all other offi­ces as well Ciuill as Ecclesiasticall; all which are to bee welded and executed by men lawfully called vnto the same. All entrance then into any office in Church or Common-wealth by money, fauour of men, or any vnlawful meanes, is intrusion; and such are not called of God, but are to be ranged among these seducers, who creepe into places, and come not in by Gods call or approba­tion.

The second adiunct whereby the se­ducers are described, is their estate be­fore [Page 48] God; being men of old [...]. ordained to this condemnation.] That is, they were be­fore all times, locked, enrolled, or billed vnto condemnation, euen as though their names had been set downe in a booke. By condemnation is meant iudge­ment, as the particle This doth plainly shew: which maketh this the plaine meaning: They were of old ordained to this iudgement in this life, to trie, to ex­ercise and molest the Church of God, and so consequently to procure vnto themselues at length their own iust con­demnation.

In which words we are taught: first, that God keepeth his bookes of Regi­strie and records, in which all things are set downe, the persons, behauiours and eternall estate of all men: which bookes are of three sorts: first, the booke of his Prouidence, containing all particulars of things past, present and to come, in which the Lord saw the members of Dauid when he was yet vnformed, Psal. 139.16. In the same booke, the number of the haires of our heads, and the falling of sparrowes to the ground, are recorded. The second booke, is of the last iudgement; in which the persons and sinnes of all men al enrolled. Dan. 7▪9.10. The thrones were set vp, the ancient of daies did sit: thousand thousands ministred vnto him, and [...]enne thousand thousands stood before him: the iudgement was set, and the bookes opened. Reu. 20.12. I saw all great and small stand before God; and the bookes were ope­ned, and another booke was opened. The third is the booke of life, in which are writ­ten the names of those who are to be sa­ued. Phil. 4.3. Paul saith of Clement and other his fellowe labourers, that their names were written in the booke of life. Now by these books we may not grosse­ly conceiue materiall bookes, such as men note what they would remember in: but the counsell, election, proui­dence, pleasure, and knowledge of God, wherein all these things are so certainly set downe, as if any man should write them in a booke.

Out of which wee note two things: first, that in regard of God there is no chance, neither any euent by it; in re­gard of men indeed who know not the causes of things, many chances may be: but Gods prouidence, and chance are contrarie; he hauing all things written before him with their causes. Secondly, that nothing comes to passe without the decree of God, no not the wicked ac­tions of men. Which God not onely foreseeth, but decreeth: for this Iude in­sinuateth, saying, they were ordained to this iudgement; and euen that which is against the will of God, commeth not to passe without his will, God willing the being of that which he willeth not to effect; and though hee esteeme not euill to be good, yet hee accounteth it good that euill should be.

Further, where hee saith [ordained of old to this condemnation] we learne, that as God hath before all worlds decreed the electing of some to saluation: so he hath decreed the refusall and reiecting of others to condemnation. 1. Pet. 2.8.Predesti­nation the [...] is not only to be refer­red to the elect. Many were disobedient▪ vnto the which they were euen ordained. 1. Thess. 5.9. God hath not ordained you to wrath, but to ob­taine saluation through Christ: shewing that some are ordained to wrath, who are not to obtaine saluation through Christ. Rom. 9.22. God is compared to a potter, framing vessels of honour and dishonour, vessels of mercie, and vessels of wrath. In the same place, I haue loued Ia­cob, and hated Esau; that is, I haue de­creed so to doe. For the whole chapter speaketh of Gods counsel & vnchange­able decree.Obiect. Ob. If this be so (will some say) then God dealeth iniustly, that ab­solutely ordaineth some men to con­demnation and perdition.Answere. Ans. We must know, that wee are creatures, and may not presume to prescribe a law of iustice to the Creator; whose will is iustice it selfe (whatsoeuer we may conceiue) and maketh the things willed good, because it is willed, and not willed because it is good. Secondly, though God refuse and reiect men, yet hee doth it in most wise order and iust proceeding, in these two degrees: first, hee vouchsafeth to some men the riches of his grace tending to life euerlasting; which speciall abun­dant grace hee denieth to some other passing by them, who being left of him vnto themselues fall into sinne. Second­ly,Home [...]on damnatur propter de­cretum, sed propter pec­catum. for sin God decreeth iudgement and condemnation, so as he doth not simp­ly and absolutely ordaine his creature to hell, but in regard of sinne: not that sinne is a cause of the decree moouing him vnto it, but that hee decreeth not condemnation without respect of sinne and relation vnto it: which speech wee [Page 49] neede not feare to speake, because the holie Ghost so speaketh.

Vse. First, if some men be passed by of God, we must humble our selues vn­der his mightie hand: and with feare and trembling worke our saluation. Ro­man. 11.20. Some are cut off, thou standest by faith, be not high minded but feare. Se­condly, wee may not be offended when we see the Gospell not receiued, yea ha­ted of men, and the professors of it per­secuted: for many are of old ordained to be vnderminers of the truth euen to this condemnation, which by disobe­dience they hasten vpon themselues. If the Gospell be hid to any, it is to them that perish. Thirdly, many Diuines ouershoot themselues, that seeke to obscure or o­uerthrow this doctrine of reprobation, teaching that God for his part electeth all, and that man himselfe is the cause of reprobation; so as man is either the sa­uiour or damner of himselfe, by recei­uing or refusing grace offered; whereas the Scripture speaketh otherwise: and here teacheth vs, that some men were enrolled to certen iudgement by God before all worlds. The darkning of this doctrine breedeth securitie of spirit, wherein grace is made so large, and sal­uation so easie, that if men will they may be saued: whereas our doctrine leadeth to the feare of God, and a care to walke as in his presence continually.

Lastly, in that it is added, they were preordained of old, note first the time of the reiection of some men: namely, be­fore all worlds. Secondly, the proper cause of the decree of God, which must needes be in himselfe, because it was be­fore the creature was. Rom. 9.11. Before they had done good or euill. That is, before he considered of their good or euill in his decree, he decreed to loue the one, and hate the other. So Ephes. 1.9. whom hee chuseth, he chuseth in himselfe. Not in­forming his iudgement, nor framing his counsels as man doth from outward re­spects, he goeth not out of himselfe for any motiue to chuse or refuse, but as Matth. 11.25. because his good pleasure was such. This confuteth the Popish er­ror, which affirmeth that God did de­cree according to his foresight of faith or infidelitie, the sauing of some, and re­fusing of other: but this cannot stand, seeing Gods decree is in order and time before the creature; which being the latter, cannot bee the cause of the for­mer.

The third adiunct or property of these seducers is: their want of religion. [Vn­godly men they are] Vngodlines is a sinne much spoken of, but not so wel known, and therefore it is requisite to shew the nature of it, that wee may know who an vngodly man is; the rather because it is a grieuous sinne, much greater than any of the seauen deadly sins of the Papists, being the ground of them all. Secondly, because it is rooted in the bottome of the heart, and cannot be so easily discer­ned as others, though as dangerous as any. Thirdly, because it is a sinne more spirituall against the first Commande­ment of the first table, directed against God himselfe, robbing him of his due honour. For the cleere knowledge of which, consider three maine parts or properties of vngodlinesse: first, that it denieth God the honour due vnto him, and that three waies: first, by ignorance it causeth the vngodly man to rob him of his honour, in that he acknowledgeth not the Godhead, but in his heart he in­wardly denieth the prouidence, the pre­sence, the iustice, mercie, power, and the other attributes of God. Psal. 14.1. The thought of the heart of the foole, that is, of euery vngodly man, is, that there is no God: not that in conscience he is not conuin­ced of the contrarie, but by reason of his wicked heart, vpon occasion offered he is willing to acknowledge none. Se­condly, by not subiecting the consci­ence and life to the written will and word of God, but reiecting and renoun­cing subiection thereunto. Thus Iob bringeth in the vngodly man, saying to the Almightie, Depart from vs, wee will haue none of thy waies: which is too out­ragious to [...]ee the speech of the tongue, but of the heart casting off the Lords yoke. To whom the King shall say: Those mine enemies that would not haue mee to raigne ouer them, bring them hither and slay them before me, Luk. 19.27. Thirdly, by not lifting vp the heart by inuoca­tion of God for blessings needfull, and in thanksgiuing for benefits receiued; the property of the vngodly man is, that he calleth not vpon God, Psalm. 14.4. This point of Atheisme maketh a man like a beast, which looketh not vp from whēce his food falleth.

The second propertie of vngodlines [Page 50] is, to attribute and giue this honour, which it denieth God, vnto some thing else than God: as when the vngodlie man setteth his loue, ioy, feare, or any o­ther affection vpon any thing besides God. Thus the couetous man becom­meth an Idolater. And 2. Tim. 3. in the last times men shall be louers of plea­sures more than of God.

The third propertie of it is, when it giueth God his due honour, to denie him the true manner; which causeth the vngodly man to content himselfe with a forme and shew of godlines, outward­ly bearing himselfe as godly, but in­wardly wanteth the power of it;2. Tim. 3.5. the heart is not single, but full of fraud, of doubling and deceit before God, who looketh into it, and delighteth not with the approching of the lippes, when the heart is remoued. By which wee see the practise of the vngodly man, sundrie waies robbing God of his due honour, which one sinne entertained, breedeth and nourisheth sinnes of all sorts: and so much wee are giuen to vnderstand in the placing of it here, as the first sinne of the seducers producing a great number of sins more, noted in them through the Epistle; neither can any other be looked for but that the life should be plentifull in all sinnes, where the heart is possessed of this vngodlines. Rom. 1.26. The Gen­tiles acknowledged not God, and ther­fore he gaue them vp to vile affections, and this was the ground of all those sins reckoned there, aboue twentie in num­ber. Abraham thought not amisse that he might easily bee slaine for Sarah his wife (whom therefore he durst not con­fesse) if the feare of God were not in A­bimilech [...] Court, Genes. 20. giuing vs to know, that where the feare of God is not in the heart, there is no bones made of any sinne in the life, no not of murther it selfe.

Vse 1. Wee are hence taught to spie out in our selues this hidden and secret sinne, and heartily to bewaile it aboue all other sinnes, as the mother sinne of the rest. But some may say: We are not tainted with this sinne, we abhorre to be counted vngodly. Ans. It is too com­mon a sinne among all sorts: wee haue indeede an outward forme of godlines; we come to heare the word, to pray, to receiue the Sacraments, but the most want the power of it in their hearts: for first, the lawes binde our outward man to this outward forme: but the hearts of men remaine secure, seldome thinking of their sinne and damnable estate by it, and seldome sorrowing for the same, and saying, What haue we done? Second­ly, many haue the forme of godlinesse, whose hearts are filled with the cares of this life, which choke vp the power of godlinesse, and will not suffer it to fea [...]e it self there, seeing the loue of the world and the loue of God cannot stand toge­ther. Thirdly, many hauing this forme cannot abide to subiect their hearts and liues vnto the lawes of God: yea they would exempt their speeches and affe­ctions from such strictnes, and count it too much precisenes: these are al fruites of the vngodly heart, of which the fewer wee can see in our selues the more they be, and the more to be bewailed.

2. Vse. Further, hence wee are to take out that lesson which the Apostle tea­cheth, 1. Tim. 4.7. To exercise our selues vnto godlinesse: for if vngodlinesse bee such a mother sinne, we must endeuour our selues to the contrarie. For which purpose, we must first prepare our selues thereunto (else wee shall faile in the whole exercise) by learning to acknow­ledge Gods prouidence, presence, mer­cie and iustice in euery thing. Gal. 4.8. When the Galathians know not God, they worshipped them which by nature were no gods: no godlinesse can stand with the ignorance of God, neither can it be exercised in particular actions, vn­lesse we behold him thus in the particu­lars. Secondly, to this exercise of god­linesse wee must first inwardly worship God in our spirits, soules, hearts, & affe­ctions, not in lips only, speeches, & out­ward actions: For the Ioh. 4.23. right worshippers, worship him in spirit and truth: Paul Rom. 1.9. ser­ued God in his spirit. Qu. How shall a man doe this? Ans. True inward worshippe standeth in two things: first in faith, se­condly in the actions of faith. Faith is that whereby a man generally belee­ueth the whole word of God, contai­ning the Law and the Gospell, to be the truth of God it selfe; and particularly concerning himselfe three things: first, Gods mercie in the forgiuing of his owne sinnes. Secondly, his presence in all his actions. Thirdly, his prouidence ouer all euents good or bad that befall him. The actions of faith are two: first, [Page 51] subiection of the heart vnto God, in three respects: first, to Gods iudgement, that seeing hee passeth sentence against our sinnes, we also should call our selues to account for them, confesse them, con­demne our selues for them, [...] must condemne [...] owne [...]es, least God con­ [...]ne vs [...]. and intreate for mercie. Secondly, to his word and lawes of both Tables, by heartie and conscionable obedience; willingly ta­king vp his yoke, & suffering our selues to be directed by all his lawes. Thirdly, to the good pleasure of God knowne by the euent, whether sicknes or health, want or abundance, in departing from our owne wils, and patiently yea thank­fully submitting them vnto his blessed will. The second action of faith is, the eleuation or lifting vp of the heart vnto God incessantly, both in suing for his grace and aide in the seasonable supplie of our necessities: as also in blessing him for blessings receiued. In these stand the practise of the true worship of God in the spirit, which is true godlinesse: vnto which wee may be incited by these rea­sons: first, because this godlinesse hath the promise of this life and the life to come, 1. Tim. 4. that is, the godly man hath title to all blessings of all kindes. Secondly, Godlines is great gaine, 1. Ti­moth. 6. Euery man affecteth gaine; but if any man would attaine it, let him bee godlie. Men are often crossed in the world, and things succeede not with them, they are not prospered in their callings and duties of it, and seeing no reason of it, marueile why they should not thriue as well as others: whereas indeede being vngodly men they want that which should bring in their gaine. Thirdly, le [...] the consideration of the last iudgement ioyned with the dissolution of heauen and earth moue vs hereunto? 2. Pet. 3.11. Seeing all these things shall be dissolued, what manner of persons ought we to be in holy co [...]rsation and godlines? As though h [...] had said, seeing nothing else shall stand v [...] in stead but godlines, how are we to [...] our selues to the practise of it. Fourthly, the appearing of grace teacheth vs to denie all vngodlines, and to liue [...] in this present world, Tit. 2.12. If this be the end of the Gos­pels appearing, and we ha [...]e been they to whom [...] hath appeared with peace and prosperitie aboue fourtie yeeres▪ how can wee bee but vnexcuseable and speechlesse before God, if wee remaine vntaught in this dutie, but continue still in the waies of vngodlinesse?

The fourth adiunct whereby the se­ducers are described, is their doctrine, in these words; They turne the grace of God to wantonnes. In which consider two points: first, the sinne or vice here con­demned. Secondly, the du [...]ie or contra­rie vertue commanded. Before wee can know the former, we must search out the meaning of the words. And first by [grace] is meant the doctrine of the Gospel, called in the former verse by the name of faith; so it is called, Titus 2.11. The grace of God hath appeared, teaching vs &c. because it teacheth vs that remis­sion of sinnes, and life euerlasting, are obtained onely by the meere grace of God in Christ. By wantonnes] is properly vnderstood that sinne whereby men ad­dict themselues wholie to intempe­rance, incontinencie, and vnlawful plea­sures; but here it must be taken general­ly for a licentious prophane kinde of li­uing and libertie of sinning. Turne] that is, they displace the grace of God, ap­plying it from a right to a wrong end, and that not onely in practise of life, but in propounding of doctrine tending thereunto. As though hee had more plainly said, that whereas the doctrine of grace in the Gospell, teacheth men free iustification by faith in Christ with­out the workes of the law, these men peruert this gratious doctrine, and teach that therefore men may liue as they list, and so themselues doe also: by which same sinne such seducers are elsewhere noted in the Scripture. Rom. 3.8. Some gathered from Pauls doctrine the same libertie, saying, Why doe wee not then euill that good [...]ay come of it? And 2. Pet. 2.19. some such are mentioned, who beguiled diuers with wantonnes through th [...] lusts of the flesh, promising vnto them libertie. Ecclesiasticall histories mention in any such who sprung vp after the Apostles daies▪ [...] the Libertines, Simon Magus and his disciples, who [...]ught that men might lawfully commit fornication. So also the disciples of [...]a [...]ilides, Eu [...]omius: and the [...]osticks. Heretikes who taught that men might liue as they list, seeing [...]ow such libertie was procured them, being freed from being vnder the Law any longer: which sinne died not with those cursed heretikes▪ but the Diuell hath in these last daies reuiued it, espe­cially [Page 52] in foure sorts of men: first, the Li­bertines of this age, who hold with the former, that being vnder grace wee are free from the obedience of the Law. Se­condly, the Anabaptists, who (vpon the consideratiō of abundant grace & peace in the new Testament, and of the libertie obtained by Christ) teach, that Ciuill iu­risdiction and Magistracie is vnlawfull: as also to make warre, and to take an oth before a Magistrate; which sort of men are not so well knowne here as in other Churches, but are daungerous enemies (wheresoeuer) both to the grace of God and good of man: for where the Ciuill sword doth cease, there can no societie stand in safetie. Thirdly, another kind of Libertines are the Papists, and the Po­pish Church, with the whole Romane Religion, themselues being open ene­mies vnto the grace of God, and their whole religion turning it into wanton­nes and libertie of sinning, and that di­uers waies. First, God hauing of his grace giuen vnto the Church a power of the keyes to open and shut heauen, that re­ligion hath turned it into an instrument: first, of prophanenesse, in setting vp an new Priesthood to absolue and lose men sins properly, in offering a sacrifice for the quicke and the dead, so abolishing the sacrifice of Christ. Secondly, of iniustice: for by it they depose Kings and Prin­ces, they free subiects from their allea­geance, they stirre them vp and encou­rage them to conspiracies, rebellions; and maintaine in other states, factions, ciuill warres, and seditions, and al by ver­tue of their power. Thirdly, of horrible couetousnes: for by it they sell pardons for thousands of yeeres, the which sales haue brought to the Church of Rome the third part of the reuenewes of al Eu­rope:The Ro­mish mart maketh sale of all sorts of sins for readie mony. which one practise, if there were no moe, prooueth plainly, that that Church turneth the grace of God to the libertie of sinne.

Secondly, their whole Religion is a corrupted Religion, and maketh the re­ceiuers of it the children of Satan more than before: for first it maketh men hy­pocrites, requiring nothing but an ex­ternall, bodily and ceremoniall worship, without any inward power of it▪ as in fasting, it requireth onely a shew of it, as to abstaine from flesh and white meates, but they may vse most delicate fishes, the strongest wines, and sweetest spices: and in other parts of their religion is no lesse hypocriticall. Secondly, it maketh men proud and arrogant, teaching the freedome of will vnto good, if the holie Ghost doe but a little help it; that a man can merit by his workes; that hee can satisfie Gods iustice by suffering for sin; yea that hee can performe some workes of supererrogation: who can hold these points and be humble? Thirdly, it ma­keth men secure, teaching that they may haue full pardon of all their sins by the power of their keyes for mony; and that though they haue no merits of their owne, they may buy the merits of other men; yea although in their death they faile of repentance, yet for some mony they may be eased in Purgatorie. What shall any rich man now care how he liue or die, seeing all shall be well with him for a little mony? Fourthly, it maketh men in their distresse desperate, teaching that no man can be assured of his salua­tion without some reuelation. Fiftly, it reuiueth the old sinne of these seducers, teaching that diuers men and women may not marrie, that were adulterie; and yet openly tolerating stues and vnclean­nes. Which what is it else but to main­taine wantonnes? whereby the chiefe teachers of that Church witnesse them­selues the right successors; not of the A­postles (as they pretend) but of these seducers and other wicked heretikes old and new.

The fourth sort of Libertines are car­nall and formall Protestants; who first turne the counsell of Gods election in­to wantonnes, by reasoning thus: If I be elected to saluation, I shall be saued let me liue as I will; or if not I cannot be saued, doe what I will or can; because Gods counsels are vnchangeable: and thus conclude to spend their daies in all wantonnes. Secondly, they turne the mercie of God into wantonnes, thus reasoning in their hearts; Because God is mercifull, therefore I will deferre my repentance as yet; for at what time soe­uer a sinner repenteth, God will put a­way all his sins out of his remembrance: what? yong Saints, old Diuels. Thus the timely acceptance of Gods mercie offe­red, is become a reproch: besides many moe, who, because the Lord deferreth punishment, set their hearts to doe euill. Thirdly, others vnder pretence of bro­therly loue, mispend all that they haue [Page 53] in wantonnes, riot, excesse, companie keeping, gaming, to the beggering of themselues, and vndoing of their owne families, vnto which they ought to shew their loue in the first place. Fourthly, o­thers vnder pretext that the Iewish Sab­bath is abrogated, and that Christ hath brought such libertie as hath abolished distinctions of times, take libertie to keepe no Sabbath at all: whence many tradesmen will do what they list on this day, and dispatch those businesses, which they can finde no time for in the weeke daies. Fiftly, some because they would humble themselues, commit diuers sins and continue in others; these say in themselues, Let vs continue in sinne that grace may abound: all these sortes of men turne the grace of God into wan­tonnes, and practise the vice here con­demned.

The 2. thing to be considered is, the contrary vertue; and y is to make a god­ly & holy vse of the grace of God, and to applie it to the right end for which God vouchsafeth it vnto vs, to wit, that wee might be thankful vnto him, and testifie the same in obedience to all his lawes. Which appeareth, first, by testimonie of Scripture, Luk. 1.74.75. We are deliuered [...] of the hands of our spirituall enemies, to serue him in holinesse and righteousnesse. Rom. 6.16. We are vnder grace, therefore let vs giue vp the members of our bodies, weapons of righteousnesse. Tit. 2.11. The grace of God hath appeared, teaching vs to denie vngodlines. Secondly, the end of all Gods graces is, that wee should be fur­thered in holinesse of life; we are elected that wee might be holy: the end of our calling is, that we may be Saints; Iustifi­cation freeth from punishment of sinne; Sanctification from corruption and sinne it selfe; Faith purifieth the heart; Loue containeth vs in obedience; he that hath hope purgeth himselfe: and so of all o­ther graces.Christ hath not meri­ted the life of glory for any who [...] liueth [...] the life of grace. Thirdly, Christ is a Media­tour two waies: first by merit, to pro­cure life and worke our saluation: se­condly, by efficacie, that is, whereby his death is powerfull to cause vs to die to sinne, and his resurrection to raise vs from the graue of sinne to a new life, and he is no Mediatour by his merit to those who are destitute of this effica­cie.

Vse. We haue in this land been many yeeres partakers of this grace of God, our dutie then is to make a holie vse of it, and walke thankfully before God. Rom. 12.1. I beseech you by the mercies of God (which he had in the former chapter mentioned) that ye giue vp your selues a holie sacrifice to God: no more forcible argument can be vrged to stirre vp men to thankfull obedience than this, for if Gods mercie in Christ cannot mooue, what will? Let this then perswade vs likewise; If we beleeue God to bee our Father, that is a great grace. Let this grace moue vs to walke as children be­fore him: let the grace of our redemp­tion mooue vs to walke as redeemed ones, rescued out of such captiuitie wherein wee were inthralled to sin and Satan, seeing it were a madnes to re­turne to such bondage againe. If Christ be dead for vs, let that grace moue vs to die to sinne; if hee being risen againe sit at Gods right hand, that wee might sit there with him, let that grace mooue vs to walk as those that are risen with him, and haue our conuersation in heauen, seeking (euen while wee are below) the things that are aboue; and so of the rest.

Further, the Apostle to make those se­ducers more odious, saith not simplie they turne the grace of God: but [of our God] into wantonnes, which noteth the indignitie of their fact, in which consi­der three things: first, by what meanes God becomes our God: and that is not by any merit of ours, but by meanes of the gratious couenant propounded in the Gospell, promising pardon and re­mission of sin in and by Christ. Iere. 31.31. This is called the new couenant which the Lord contracteth with his people, where writing his law in their inward parts, he becommeth their God, and they his people. Secondly, what must wee doe to say truly and in assurance that God is our God? Ans. Wee must for our parts make a couenant with him, vnto which is re­quired a consent on either partie: first, on Gods part, that he will be our God; which we shall finde, not in any reuela­tion besides the Scriptures; but general­ly in the word, and more specially in the ministerie of the Gospell and admini­stration of the Sacraments, annexed as seales vnto the Couenant: in which God doth as surely couenant with vs, as if hee should from heauen speake vnto vs. Secondly, on our part is required [Page 54] consent, of which there be two degrees: first, when we make an outward profes­sion of faith, heare the word, receiue the Sacraments, Baptisme and the Lords Supper, which serue to distinguish vs from Iewes, Turkes, &c. this is some­what, but not sufficient to make God our God, seeing it is common to the ve­ry hypocrites themselues. Secondly, see­ing hee is not a Iew which is one out­wardly, but which is a Iew within, there is required in our consent a further de­gree, which standeth in an inward con­sent of the heart, whereby a man taketh God for his God; which is then begun when first a man acknowledgeth and bewaileth his sinnes. Secondly, when he endeuoureth to bee reconciled to God. Thirdly, when he purposeth neuer to sin againe: when this couenant is thus con­cluded by consent of both parties, a man may safely and truly say that God is his God.

Now seeing wee know these things, our dutie is to labour to be setled and assured in our conscience that God is our God: for first, in this assurance is the foundation of all true comfort; all the promises of God are hereupon grounded, and herein accomplished, that God is our God: see Isai. 41.10. Be not afraid, I am thy God: yea Christ being vpon the Crosse, hauing the pangs of hel vpon him, herein staied himselfe, My God, my God: so Dauid, Psalm. 22.1. and being readie to be stoned to death, com­fort [...]d himselfe in the Lord his God, 1. Sam. 30.6. And not onely is it the foundation of all our comfort in this life, but of our happines after death it selfe, being the ground of those two maine Articles of our faith, the resurrection of the bodie, and the immortalitie of the soule: for by vertue of this Couenant alone shall wee rise againe after death to life, glorie, and immortalitie; as Christ himselfe dispu­ting against the Sadduces, from hence prooueth the resurrection, in that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob. Se­condly, it is the ground of al obedience; Psal. 95.7. the Prophet exhorting men thereunto, vseth this as a reason: For he is the Lord our God, and wee are the people of his hands: the preface of the Morall law enforcing obedience laieth the same ground; For I am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the land of Egypt: see also Psal. 50.71. and whosoeuer is truly perswaded that God is his God, cannot but obey him.

The fift propertie of these seducers is, That they deny God the onely Lord, and our Lord Iesus Christ.] Thus are they descri­bed by their manners. The Translators of this Epistle were (as it seemeth) of o­pinion, that these words are properly spoken of God the Father, and of God the Sonne also: but by the tenour of the words in the originall, it seemeth that they are all to bee vnderstood of Christ, and not of the Father; and are thus to be read: Which denie that onely Ruler who is God and our Lord Iesus Christ. Again, the tenour of the words being borrowed from the Epistle of Peter, may thence be rightly expounded: now Peter spea­king of the same sinne of these seducers, applieth it only to be a denial of Christ, 2. Pet. 2.1. They denie the Lord that bought them. In the words then consider two things: first, the sinne here condemned, namely, to denie Iesus Christ. Secondly, a description of Christ. For the first, To denie Iesus Christ is, to renounce and for­sake Christ, and so much as in a man li­eth to make his death voyd, and of none effect. Now because this deniall presup­poseth a redemption (as Peter mentio­neth) they denying the Lord that bought them; this question is to be cleered, how these men being reprobates, can be said to bee redeemed by Christ? Answ. Wee must not thinke that they were in Gods decree euer redeemed, for then had they been saued: (he doing whatsoeuer he wil­leth, Psal. 115.3.) but it is to be meant in regard of themselues and other men: for both in their owne conceit & iudge­ment they were redeemed, as also in the iudgement of others, who are to bee led by the rule of charitie in passing their iudgement vpon men, and to account of them as redeemed, leauing all secret iudgements to God. Secondly, the de­scription of Christ, by three things: first, that he is a Ruler, yea an only ruler, a Lord and ruler ouer all things in generall, in heauen, earth, and hell: and more spe­cially a Lord ouer his elect onely: and in that he is said to be an onely ruler, it must not bee meant as excluding the Father and holie Ghost, but all false gods, and false Christs; as Ioh. 17.3. the Father is called the onely God: for all outward ac­tions of the Trinitie are common to all the persons. Secondly, that hee is God: [Page 55] which is a notable place against all Ar­rians to prooue the Godhead of Christ. Thirdly, he is said to be our Lord: Ours in two respects especially: first, of the free donation of his Father, who gaue to him a people to be Lord and King ouer before all worlds. Secondly, in regard of his worke of redemption which hee wrought for them, who were of the Fa­ther giuen vnto him.

Out of that which hath bin here said, we may note these two points: first, how these seducers denie Christ: namely, not openly and plainly, for then the Church should haue espied them; neither in word nor speech, for in word they pro­fessed him: but in their deedes denied him, liuing after their owne lusts, and en­couraging others in the same course, Ti­tus 1.16. And this sinne is reuiued and renewed in this our age, wherein too many outwardly and in word professe Christ, come to the Word and Sacra­ments; but couertly and in their deedes denie him, whose liues are very full of epicurisme, and earthlines, and mouthes filled with blasphemies and reproches against true obedience, which of them is counted too much nicenes, and precisenes. These are the disciples of the old Here­tiques, whom (without repentance) the like fearefull iudgements awaite, which befell them. Secondly, we may obserue in what regards they deny Christ; name­ly, first in regard of his Godhead, by withstanding the meanes of that power of Christ, whereby (hauing redeemed them) he would sanctifie their hearts to obedience.We easily acknow­ledge Christ a Ie­ [...], but hardly a Lord. The merit of his redemption is welcome to them, but they will none of the efficacie of it, which sanctifieth and reneweth the inner man, subdueth sinne, and quickneth the life of God in them. Secondly, in regard of his Lord­ship, by denying him obedience, which as to a Lord is due vnto him: A Redee­mer they would haue him, but not a Lord; so euery man would haue portion in Christs redemption, but their lusts must be their Lords, and they seruants to sinne and Satan: but these bee those enemies that will not that he should raigne ouer them, [...]. 19.27. who shall be brought and slaine before him. Our part then is (if euer wee would finde comfort in Christ) to make him our Lord▪ his counsell is, that those that are laden should come vnto him for ease;Mat. 11.29. but the next words are, take my yoke vp [...] thee; and if wee would haue him our iustification, let him become al­so our sanctification.

Vers. 5. ‘I will therefore put you in re­membrance, for as much as ye once know this, how that the Lord after that he had de­liuered the people out of Egypt, destroyed them afterward which beleeued not.]’

THe Apostle hauing propounded his principall exhortation to contend and fight for the faith, vers. 3. with the reason thereof, vers. 4. doth here begin to answere a secret obiection which might bee made against that reason, thus: These seducers professe Christ, and looke for saluation by him; what dan­ger then can redound if we should ioyne our selues vnto them? This obiection is answered from this fifth verse vnto the twentith; in all which verses hee dispu­teth at large that there is great daunger herein, seeing their end shall be destru­ction: the summe of which disputation is contained in this reason: All such per­sons as giue themselues libertie to sinne▪ shal be destroyed: But these seducers giue them­selues libertie to sinne; and therefore shall be destroyed. The former part of which reason is contained in the 5.6.7. verses; and the latter from the 8. vnto the 20. The former proposition is not plainly set downe in so many words, but the proofe of it onely by an induction and enumeration of examples of sinners, which haue bin destroyed; and they be three in number: first of the Israelites, in the 5. verse: secondly of the Angels, in the 6. verse: thirdly, of Sodom and Go­morrha, in the 7. verse.

In this 5. verse are two things to bee considered: first the preface, in these words: I will therefore put you in remem­brance, for as much as you once kn [...]w this. Secondly, the first example whereby the point in hand is prooued in the words following. The preface serueth to pre­uent an obiection which might be made by the Church reading these examples; that Iude teacheth them nothing but things which they knew well enough before: to which he answereth, that his intent is not to teach them any new thing, or any vnknowne thing, but to bring knowne things to their remem­brance▪ and in it three things are to bee obserued: First, the Apostles practise: I [Page 56] will therefore put you in remembrance.] Where note the office of all Pastors and Teachers, which is not onely to teach thing [...] vnknowne, but to repeate and to bring into remembrance things known before. This was Peters care, 2. Pet. 1.12. though they had knowledge to put them in remembrance: and chap. 3.1. to stirre vp and war [...]e their pure mindes; giuing vs to vnderstand, that knowledge in the minde lieth as embers vnder ashes, and needes daily stirring vp. Which admo­nisheth all hearers not to be offended if they heare the same thing often, seeing it is the dutie of Ministers to teach the same thing often. Yea hearers which haue vnderstanding in the Scriptures, must be content if they heare nothing but that which they haue bin out of the Scriptures acquainted with before, see­ing the Apostle thinketh it meet to teach nothing else.

Secondly, in this preface obserue the propertie of the Church, which is to know the histories and examples of Scripture. Christ commanded his hea­rers to search the Scriptures: the Apostle wisheth that the Scriptures dwell plenti­ously in m [...]n: which exhortations (no doubt) stirred them vp to haue the scrip­tures familiar vnto them, euen as Timo­thie knew the Scriptures of a childe. The state of our times is farre otherwise; for Ministers cannot say as Iude speaketh, for as much as you know these things, I will put you in remembrance: but our people pleade and professe ignorance, yea that the knowledge of the scriptures belongeth not vnto them (they being not booke learned) but to schollers and Ministers that liue by it. But wee ought to account it a propertie of euery Saint of God, who is iustified and sanctified, to know the Scriptures, which onely are able to make them wise vnto salua­tion.

The third point in the preface is a se­cond propertie of the Saints, namely that they once know] that is, they know certainly, vnchangeably, and once for all, neuer to reuoke or alter this know­ledge: which first informeth vs what to thinke and iudge of those men, who be­cause of diuersitie of opinions, will be of no religion, nor beleeue any thing vntill it be determined by some generall Councell; these want this propertie of the Saints, and are plaine Atheists. Se­condly, it teacheth vs to hold our reli­gion certainly, receiuing it once for all vnchangeably. In humane things wee may often without danger chaunge our mindes and deliberate; but grounds of Religion must be out of al question, and admit no deliberation.

Now followeth the first example, whereby the first part of the former rea­son is prooued, and that is of the Israe­lites, who wittingly and willingly sin­ning against God were destroyed, as ap­peareth Numb. 14. In which example consider foure things: first, who were destroyed, [the people]. Secondly, the time when [after that hee had deliuered them out of Egypt]. Thirdly, for what cause, [which beleeued not]. Fourthly, the manner of the speech. For the first, the persons who were destroyed were the people; by which word is meant a spe­ciall people, a peculiar and chosen peo­ple, the seede of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, a people priuiledged aboue all people of the earth; to whom belonged the couenant, sacrifices, worshippe, of whom Christ came according to the fles [...], Rom. 3.2. and 9.4. notwithstanding all which prerogatiues the Lord de­stroyed them. If it had been a Heathen people against whom this destruction had preuailed, it had been worthie ob­seruation, but much more when it is a­gainst Gods owne people.

Here then we learne, that no outward priuiledge can auaile vs; nor any o [...] ­ward meanes of saluation bee effectuall or fruitful to our good, out of their right vse in faith and repentance. Rom. 2.25. Circumcision is nothing, He is a [...] that is [...] within. vnlesse thou keepe the law. Gal. 6. Neither Circumcision a­uaileth, nor vncircumcision, but a new creature. Iudas had many great priuiled­ges, and yet perished. This made Paul, though he had many priuiledges, to ac­count them all as dung, in regard of the knowledge of Christ, Phil. 3.8. We must not then content our selues with the meanes of saluation in the Word and Sacraments, but vse them aright in faith and repentance; otherwise they (being out of their holy vse enioyed) shall turne to our destruction and greater condem­nation, as they did to this people who (notwithstanding them) were destroied.

The second thing in the example is, the time when the Israelites were de­stroyed, that is, after their deliuerance out [Page 57] of Egypt. God had diuersly testified his loue to this people, hauing chosen them out of all the people of the earth, he cal­led himselfe their God, and hee gaue them many pledges of his loue, but especially in that their great deliuerance out of the bondage of Egypt by such an outstretched arme: yet for all this not long after they sinning against him, hee destroyed them. Whence learne, that af­ter many great blessings, men not wal­king worthie of them,Great ven­geance fol­loweth the [...]ankful [...] of [...] bles­ [...]ngs. but prouoking the Lord by their sins, commeth a great vengeance. The whole booke of the Iud­ges is a worthie proofe of this truth, where wee shall see the people still for­getting their deliuerance, and are forth­with left to Tyrants to bee afflicted for tenne, twentie, fourtie yeeres together. The same appeareth in the Common-wealth of Israel vnder the Kings: In the daies of Salomon the state was most flo­rishing and glorious, enioying a most happie peace: but Salomon once for­getting the Lord and his Commande­ments, and falling to the Idolatrie of his outlandish wiues, there followed most fearefull accidents; as the diuision and rent of the tenne Tribes from Iudah, a long dissention and hot warre between Reh [...]boam and Ieroboam, whose Idola­tries brought much euill vpon their se­uerall lands, and at last vtter desolation; the tenne Tribes being carried into Sy­ria captiues, and there ended their daies, the other two Tribes into Babylon, and there remained 70. yeeres, which iudge­ments ouertook them about 400. yeeres after. Iacob when hee went ouer Iordan made a vow to the Lord, that if God would blesse him, and giue him but food and raiment, he would in way of thank­fulnes returne to the Lord the tenth part of his goods, Gen. 28.22. God blesseth him so farre as hee became a mightie man, hauing the substance of a Prince; in this abundance he forgat his vow, or neglected it: but what followed of it? was there not horrible confusion in his familie? Dina [...] was deflowred; Ruben ascended to his fathers bed, Hamor was slaine, and the Lord is glad to call to minde hi [...] vow, Gen. 35.1.

Vse. This doctrine concerneth vs neerely in this land, who by Gods mer­cie haue enioyed many of his best bles­sings in this our long peace, hauing bin deliuered from the Egypt of Rome, and haue [...] vnder the Lords protection all the day long:Englands sinne. but as ou [...] blessings haue been and are many and great, so haue been and are our rebellions raging a­mongst vs, especially that sinne of fal­ling from our first loue, so as l [...]sse loue of God and religion is to bee found a­mongst vs than heretofore; besides that our peace causeth men to make their heauen here vpon earth, and to embrace and affect things below: these sins vnre­pented of, will bring vpon vs daies of af­fliction, wee hauing no more priuiledge than this people had, who after their de­liuerance were destroyed.

The third point in this destruction is the cause of it: namely, because they beleeued not: here first obserue what kind of vnbeleefe this was. To the an­swere of which, we must know, that first God had promised to Abraham, that after 430. yeeres hee would giue to his posteritie the land of Canaan for their inheritance: this promise they all knew well inough. Secondly, it was often re­peated, & renued, and namely to Moses; vnto whom the Lord promised that he should be their guide, yea and that him­selfe would pro [...]ect them in their iour­nie, and safely conduct them thither. Thirdly, God sealed this promise by many and sundrie signes and miracles, both in Egypt, at the red sea, and in the wildernesse: yet for all this they belee­ued not, that God would accomplish these promises vnto them, to bring them to that good land: and further, seeing the land of Canaan was a type of that heauenlie Canaan, they beleeued not that God would bring them to hea­uen, and giue them inheritance in that eternall rest by meanes of the Messias. This vnbeleefe then of the promises of God was the cause of their destru­ction.

Secondly, why are they destroyed for vnbeleefe, rather then for their mur­muring, fornication, and diuerse other sinnes which we [...] reade of to haue been rise among them? Ans. Although they murmured, blasphemed, tempted God, reuiled their guides, [...] cau­sa [...]. &c. yet this sinne of vnbeleefe was the foundation and ground of them all; the which doth the more displease God, in that it was the first sinne that euer was in the world, and the mother of all transgression. Se­condly, this sinne in a more speciall [Page 60] manner dishonoreth God in making him a lyer; and so toucheth his honour more neerely.

Thirdly, what was this destruction? An. It was the destruction of their soules and bodies, for their carcasses were left in the wildernesse where they fell; and their soules haue their portion in the lake prepared for vnbeleeuers, Reuel. 21. For the fur [...]her hatred of this sinne, see 2. Kings 7.19. the Prince who would not beleeue the word of the Lord was tro­den to death: and Moses not waiting, but failing in his faith, was barred the land of Canaan, and onely saw it a farre off.

Vse. Seeing destruction followeth vn­beleefe, we must labour to see our vnbe­le [...]fe, and take out that exhortation, Heb. 3.12. Take heede least there be in any of vs an euill heart of vnbeleefe, to depart away from the liuing God: which place well considered, sheweth what are the degrees of falling away which are stu­diously to bee declined: as first, when a man is deceiued by sin, and giueth him­selfe libertie thereunto. Secondly, when the heart is hardened and made an euill heart. Thirdly, when infideliti [...] taketh possession of the hart to rule it, and cause it to call in question Gods promises, and prouidence. Fourthly, then follow­eth apostasie and departure from God: now wee must beware of the least and lowest of these degrees of this defection and departure from God. Secondly, if they were destroyed for vnbeleefe, wee must on the contrarie exercise our faith daily, and inure it in the daily apprehen­sion of Gods prouidence, power, prote­ction, iustice, and mercie: and thus wal­king vndismaid, we which haue thu [...] be­leeued shall enter into the rest prepared for the people of God, when as many shall not enter for vnbeleefes sake, Heb. 4.3. and 6. Euen as Caleb and Iosua only entred into that good land, because they beleeued that God could and would bring his people thither. Thirdly, this must teach vs obedience▪ for vpon this ground that they were destroyed for vn­beleefe▪ Dauid inferreth this cōsequent▪ Psal. 95. To day therefore if y [...] heare his voyce, harden not your hearts: which Moses also maketh the ground of his exhortation to the people [...]o feare the Lord, because [...] destroyed for vn [...]eleefe, Deut. 1. [...]. &c. Fou [...]hly, in that destruction of bodie and soule followes of vnbeleefe, let such persons as (when iudgements are vpon them­selues, wiues, or children) runne to Wit­ches, and Wizards for ease, as though they were bewitched, and make that the ground of their harmes, bee enformed that their owne wretched hearts haue bewitched them;The wret­ched hear [...] of vnbelee­uers is the witch which af­flicteth th [...] which being full of vnbeleefe, bring plagues of al kinds not onely vpon their bodies▪ but their soules also. Art thou strangely diseased? the witch that hath brought it vpon thee, is thy owne wicked heart, which knoweth not to relie it selfe on Gods promises and protection. Fiftly, were they de­stroyed because of their vnbeleefe? let not vs iudge of our sinnes by the croo­ked rule of our owne reason, but by the law of God: wee can iudge murther, theft, and adulterie, great sins; but wee neuer espie the mother sin of all, which is our infidelitie, the maine sinne of the first Table, and the nurcerie of other sins, we neuer bewaile it, we account lightly of it, and therefore the Lord taketh the reuenge of this sin into his owne hands, and punisheth it with destruction both of soule and bodie; so odious it is in his eyes, and ought therefore to bee as hai­nous in ours also.

The fourth thing in the example is the manner of the speech, which at the first seemeth to bee generall, as though all they had been destroyed which be­leeued not; whereas indeed it is special, for all that beleeued not were not de­stroyed, seeing that all vnder twentie yeeres were exempted and saued, Num. 14.29. who were reserued that God might still haue his Church among thē, and that there might be of them a peo­ple left to possesse the good land, accor­ding to the promise: where note that to bee true which Habacu [...]ke ascribeth to God, that in his iustice he remembr [...]th mercie;Habac. 3.2▪ by which mercie the younger so [...] are here spared; which warranteth vs to pray in common iudgements, that the Lord powre not ou [...] his whole wrath vpon vs; neither in our temptations vt­terly forsake vs, and giue vs ouer to Sa­tans malice, seeing hee hath manifested such goodnes towards his Church, that in iudgements he h [...]th remembred his m [...]rcie. But here it may bee asked, [...] this can stand with equitie that e [...]en th [...]se men should bee destroyed▪ for it [Page 61] seemeth that they repented of this sin? Numb. 14.40. yea they confessed it and mourned for it, and offered to passe into Canaan▪ yea and were very readie to ha­sten into the land? Ans. They repented indeed, but fainedly, it was farre from true and sincere repentance and sorrow; for euen in the very same place it appea­reth that they disobeyed God; for when he had passed sentence against their sin, commanding that they should returne into the wildernes of Arabia, vers. 25. and there abide fourtie yeeres and die there; they would not submit themselues to that sentence, but in all haste they would goe forward to Canaan, according to the promise; although against a parti­cular commandement: yea Moses him­selfe could not stay them: but that brought on their neckes a more speedie destruction, as appeareth in the end of the Chapter. Whence note the wicked nature of the deceitfull heart of man, which in distresse when Gods hand is stretched out against it, can faine a false repentance, and counterfeite humilia­tion: which causeth many a man in sick­nes to vow amendement of life, if euer God raise him againe; and yet as soone as the scourge is ouerpassed, he forget­teth the hand of God, his owne vowes and promises, and falleth backe into the same bad courses againe: which consi­deration may mooue vs to watch ouer our hearts, and suspect them of this de­ceit, whereby they can frame and faine a false repentance, when indeede there is nothing lesse then soundnes in it.

The fifth point in this iudgement is the generall vse of it; namely, that wee should frame our selues to repentance for this particular sin of vnbeliefe, vpon which we behold such a fearefull destru­ction in Gods owne people. To the pra­ctise and performance of which we must doe foure things: first, laying aside the common perswasion of the fulnes of perfection of our faith, we must come to the discerning of this sin in our selues, which is the first step to repent of it, and the rather because it is our mother sin. Now because this sinne is so inward and secret,Vnbeleefe [...] many particulars. and so hardly to be discerned, for our helpe herein some directions may be giuen for the especiall of it in some signes and fruites thereof; which euery man shall find in himselfe lesse or more. For first, we beleeue not as we ought the particular presence of God in all places and times towards vs: for we are asha­med to doe and speake many things in the presence of men, which in the pre­sence of God (men not being by) wee make no bones of, either to speake or doe; so as mans presence keepeth vs in some awe, which Gods presence cannot doe.

Secondly, wee beleeue not the parti­cular prouidence of God, watching o­uer vs; but either not regard it at all, or not as wee ought; which appeareth by these three things: first, if wee haue health, wealth, friends, fauour & means, we are well contented, we can think our selues very well, and can then relie our selues on God: but if God take these a­way; oh th [...]n wee are troubled, much disquieted and discontented; the rea­son whereof is, because the heart is not setled in the perswasion of Gods special prouidence: which if it haue a pledge of God, can trust him; otherwise not at all: but as the Vsurer trusteth not the man, but his pawne; so men relying themselues on these pledges, trust nei­ther God himselfe, nor for himselfe. Se­condly, in any distresse let our friend promise vs helpe, wee are well cheered; but let God in his word promise supply of all good, and ease in our troubles, we reape little or no comfort from thence; this is a manifest fruite of inbred vnbe­leefe. Thirdly, in sicknes or any iudge­ment, any meanes is vsed for case and freedome; yea there is too common running and riding to Witches, Char­mers, Cunning men, and women; for men waite not on God, nor expect the same hand in healing them which hath smitten them. He that beleeueth maketh not haste (saith the Prophet) which if it be true, then this hastines to be disbur­dened of the hand of God, is a token of distrustfulnes of God, and want of faith. Nay, this practise argueth not only want of a true faith, but a presence of a false and Satanicall faith: for if there bee no faith in the Charme, it will not worke.

Thirdly, wee beleeue not the Lord to be the Lord of bodie and soule, as one hauing soueraigne Lordship and power, to saue and destroy: for let any ciuill man be pressed by temptation vnto sin, he will bee easily brought to make no bones of very dangerous sinnes: what other is the reason hereof, but that hee [Page 62] esteemeth not the Lord to be his Lord? and accounteth of his commandements but as dreames, not serious or giuen in earnest? whereas if Gods Lordship were rightly acknowledged, sinne would not be so ripe and rife as it is.

Fourthly, wee beleeue not the mercie of God in the pardon of our sinne as we ought: for howsoeuer in our peace wee thinke our faith strong enough for any encounter, yet let a temptatiō assaile vs, then we begin to doubt whether we be the children of God or no, and are full of impatiencie. Example hereof we haue euen in Iob himself, who before his triall thought himselfe safe in his nest; but when Gods hand was heauy vpon him, then he brake foorth in speeches full of impatiencie; as that God was his ene­mie; and did write bitter things against him: wherein he bewraied his want of faith, and his crooked and cankered in­credulitie: and the same weakenes may the dearest & strongest of Gods childrē one time or other espie in themselues.

Fiftly, wee know not as we should the agonie and passion of Christ; he suffe­red the first death and the paines of the second death for our sinnes, they were the speares that pearced his heart; but we carrie vp our heads, and can take de­light in them, as though there were no danger in them: whereas the remem­brance of them should make our hearts to bleede, and faith in the heart should cause vs die to sinne, seeing those who are Christs are crucified with him: but be­cause men wil not depart from their sins which are not killed, but liue and are strong in them, and no man saith what haue I done? it is a plaine euidence that the life of faith is not to be found in the liues of most men.

Sixthly, wee beleeue not that wee did rise with Christ, and ascended with him into heauen: because in this our long peace, our thoughts are set vpon the world, and we mind earthly things still; whereas if we were risen with Christ, we would seeke the things that be aboue, Co­loss. 3.1.

Seuenthly, we doe not beleeue as we ought the last iudgement: because wee are not smitten with feare and reuerence in speaking and meditating of it. Paul speaking of it, calleth it, the terrors of the Lord, 2. Cor. 5.11. and this made him so forward in al good duties; yea this same consideration of the last iudgemēt made him endeuour to keepe a good consci­ence before God and all men: but men make no conscience of their waies.

Eightly, wee beleeue not aright our owne death and resurrection in the last day: for men commonly deferre their repentance and amendement of life, till the last day of their daies, and then they crie and call on the bed of their sor­rowes; which argues a counterfeit faith: for if a man did beleeue his death, it would driue him to the daily amende­ment of his life. By these notes we may easily discerne this secret sinne of vnbe­leefe within our selues.

Secondly, when wee haue thus found out this sinne wee must bewaile it, an [...] mourne for our vnbeleefe, as being the mother of all our sinnes, confesse it be­fore God, and craue increase of faith, as the man in the Gospell, Lord I beleeue, helpe my vnbeleefe: and with the Di­sciples, Lord increase our faith.

Thirdly, we must set before our eyes and acquaint our selues with the promi­ses of the pardon of sinne and life euer­lasting by Christ: as also all other de­pendant promises, whereof some con­cerne our prosperous successe in our waies, and Gods protection in our la­bours and callings: and others concerne afflictions, promising happie issue and deliuerance therefrom, with strength in temptation, to the which all promises may be referred: which we must alwaies haue in our eye, that our faith may ground it selfe vpon them.

Fourthly, we must truly relie and rest our selues in these promises, settle and content our hearts in them: that looke as the earth hangeth without proppe or pillar in the middest of the world, onely by the word of God; so must our hearts be staied in the same word and promise of God: yea if wee should see nothing but destruction before our eies, our faith must then be our subsistence: and when our vnbeleefe would vnloosen our hold, and make vs giue backe, let our faith in these promises make resistance: as Da­uid, Psal. 42.5. My soule why art thou so disquieted within me? trust still in God: especially seeing wee haue promises which assure vs in our troubles, either of their mitigation or remouall: after all these followeth the subiection of faith, when the heart and life are conformed [Page 63] to the obedience of all the Commande­ments of God. And thus we purging our harts of vnbeleefe, shall escape such fearefull iudgements, as this first exam­ple hath put vs in minde of.

Vers. 6. ‘The Angels also which kept not their first estate, but left their owne habi­tation, hee hath reserued in euerlasting chaines vnder darknes, vnto the iudge­ment of the great day.’

THese words comprehend the se­cond example, whereby the first part of the former reason is confirmed: namely, that whosoeuer giue them­selues libertie to sinne, shall be destroy­ed; here prooued by this example of the Angels themselues. In which con­sider three points: first, the persons that sinned; The Angels.] Secondly, the sinne or fall of the Angels; which kept not their first estate, but left their owne habi­tation.] Thirdly, their punishment; he hath reserued in euerlasting chaines.] In the persons sinning wee haue sundrie considerations; as first, that it pleaseth the spirit of God to chuse this example of the Angels to prooue his purpose, and that most fitly: because they are the excellencie of all creatures, for so the Scriptures euery where speake of them: as when the highest praise that belon­geth to inferiour creatures is attributed vnto them in Scripture; the speech is drawne from the glorie of Angels. Gen. 3 3. Iacob commending the fauou­rable countenance of Esa [...], being re­conciled vnto him, saith he saw his face as the face of an Angell. So Manna is cal­led Angels foode: Psal. 78. [...]5. that is, a most excel­lent foode, that if those excellent crea­tures should neede foode, they could wish no better. 1. Cor. 13.1. Though I should speake with the tongue of men and Angels. Signifying that if Angels had tongues, they must needs bee most ad­mirable, diuine, and excellent. Dauid speaking of the glorie that man once had, and in admiration of it, being not able to containe himselfe, breaketh out into a speech full of passion:Psal. [...].5. O Lord what is man that thou art so mindfull of him I thou hast made him little inferiour to the Angels. Shewing that the chiefe glorie of men in their best estate is in­feriour to the excellent condition of Angels. Yea further, it is a part of the glorie of God to be attended of them, and a part of our glorie after the resur­rection to be like them. Whence note the scope of the Apostle, which is hence to teach vs, that no glorie, beautie, or excellencie of the creature can exempt it from the punishment of sin, when it falleth thereinto: nay, the more glori­ous the sinfull creature is, the more grieuous punishment may it expect, if sinne be found therein; as the Angels here: which may instruct those who are in these schooles of the Prophets, in which many men excell in rare gifts, of whom in regard of their wisedome and knowledge may bee said, as the woman of Tekoah said of Dauid, 2. Sam. 14.17. My Lord is as an Angell of God to heare good and bad. And they are the Angels of the Lord of hostes, Malac. 2.7. Yet for all this let them not be puffed vp here­by, but walke in feare and trembling, not emboldening themselues to sinne: for bee it they were as the Angels in gifts; yet if they sinne, they shall be as Angels in punishment also.

Secondly, hence note that Angels are substances, though inuisible, hauing be­ing, life, sense, and vnderstanding, and are not onely qualities; for pure quali­ties neither can sin, nor be capable of punishment, as the Angels are here said to be. Ob. It will be said, seeing they are capable of punishment, they must be bodily substances. Ans. No: it is suffi­cient they be substances to be capable of punishment, though spirituall; for the punishment of hell is spirituall. Where wee see the Sadduces and o­thers euen of our daies are deceiued, who thinke Angels to be nothing but Motions, and melancholy passions: and the Libertines also who thinke they are nothing but good and bad successe.

Thirdly, [...] &c. Heb. 2.10. the name Angell is not a name of nature, but of office: which signifieth that their office was to be the messengers of God, who were to stand round about him as attendants, readie to be sent foorth at his pleasure, for the execution of his will, in all the parts of the world. In which function of theirs they are propounded patternes to vs, and examples for our imitation: who ought accordingly to set our selues e­uer in the presence of God, as prest, and readie to performe his will: for so wee pray daily, Let thy will be done in earth, [Page 64] as it is in heauen; that is, Giue vs grace with cheerefulnes and readines to per­forme thy will here on earth, as the An­gels in heauen do: for whosoeuer would be like the Angels in heauen, must be herein like them first in earth. Now in that this name is here giuen to the Di­uels and wicked spirits, it sheweth two things: first, what their office was in the creation, vnto which they were fitted and deputed. Secondly, the iustice of their punishment for the neglect of the execution of the same.

Fourthly, obserue the distinction of Angels; of which some kept their first estate, others (of which hee here spea­keth) left their first condition: some stoode, and some fell: the ground of which distinction Paul mentioneth 1. Tim. 5.21. I charge thee before God and his elect Angels. Some therefore are ele­cted, and (because election presuppo­seth a refusall) others are reiected; no other cause of this distinction is known to man, but the will of God, and his good pleasure. Ob. If any man say, it was because God foresaw that some would fall, and others would stand. I answere, that is no cause: for God did not onely foresee the fall of some, but decreed also before all worlds to con­firme some in their state, and to passe by others in his iustice: so as the cause shall euer rest in his good will, which willing the same maketh it most iust, not giuing vs any leaue otherwise to dispute of this doctrine, or curiously to search out the secrets of it, but rather to stand in admiration, and say with Paul: O the depth of the riches both of the wise­dome and knowledge of God! Rom. 11.33 how vn­searchable are his iudgements, and his waies past finding out!

Now followeth the second point, namely, the fall of the Angels: in which obserue three points: first, the cause: se­condly, the parts: thirdly, the measure of the fall. The cause of their fal in these words; which kept not their first estate, but left their habitation; themselues were the cause of their own fall; which is thus prooued: Either God must be the cause of their sin, or man, or them­selues; but neither God nor man: and therefore themselues. First, God cannot be the cause: for that were iniustice to condemne them for that which him­selfe caused; how vnrighteous were it, first to cause them to fall, and then to punish them for falling? Obiect. But it will be said, that God did foresee their fall, and might haue preuented it, and so not hindring it hee seemeth to bee a cause of it. Ans. Whosoeuer foreseeth an euill, and hindreth it not when hee may, is accessarie vnto it, so be he be bound to hinder it: but God was not bound to hinder it, being a most abso­lute Lord, not bound to any of his crea­tures further than he bindeth himselfe. Ob. But God did not confirme them in that grace which he gaue them; where­upon they fell: whereas if he had con­firmed them they had stood; whence carnall reason concludeth God to bee the cause of the fall. Answ. God gaue them grace in creating them righte­ous, but confirmed them not therein; he gaue them a power to will to perse­uere, but gaue them not the will not perseuerance it selfe, and yet he is not to bee blamed, because he would not doe it. Quest. Why would hee not? Ans. I answere with the Apostle, What art thou O man that disputest with God? Rom. 9.2 [...] Let vs without further reasoning stay our selues in these two conclusions: first, that God is an absolute Lord▪ nei­ther bound to any action, neither to giue reason of any: secondly, that hee doth all to the glorie of his name, in the manifestation of his mercie and iu­stice. Secondly, as God is no cause or author of this fall of Angels, no more is man; for the Angels fell first, and were the cause of mans fall, and therefore themselues were the proper cause of their owne fall. Qu. How can this be? Ans. The Angels had in themselues the proper cause, and beginning of their own fall; and that was a free & flexible will, whereby for the present they wil­led that which was good, and might will to perseuere in it: but that will be­ing mutable, they might also will euill and so fall from God, this being the same will that Adam had in the state of innocencie.

Obiect. Good trees cannot bring foorth euill fruite: therefore the Angels being good, could not sinne of them­selues. Answ. A good tree remaining good bringeth foorth good fruite; but being changeable may bring forth e­uill. So much of the cause of the fall of Angels.

[Page 65]The second thing in their fall is the parts of it, which here are two: first, They kept not their first beginning. Se­condly, They left their owne habitation. First they fell from their first estate: which words are expounded Ioh. 8.44. they stood not in the truth. By this truth is meant the image of God in righte­ousnes and true holines, Eph. 4.24. and this image is truly called [truth] because it neuer deceiueth men, as vnrighte­ousnes doth; which maketh a glorious shew of pleasure, or profit, but indeede it deceiueth men, who finde nothing lesse therein. Secondly, because herein is no hypocrisie, it maketh no shew or appearance of other, than indeed it is, as the manner of falsehood is. The sense then is, that the Angels voluntarily de­parted from their originall condition, and stood not in that image of God wherein they were created. The second part of this one sinne is, that they left their habitation; which a man might e­steeme but a small matter, but yet the sinne is not small: for God in the be­ginning appointed most excellent pla­ces for his seuerall creatures; wherein they were to performe their seruice and homage vnto God; as Heauen was the proper place assigned to Angels: to man Paradise in his innocencie; as after his fall the families of the Patriarches: before and in Christs time the Temple: since that time, the societies and con­gregations of the faithfull are these pla­ces appointed for man to set [...] the speciall praises of the Creator in. Now the Angels leauing their place incurred two grieuous sinne [...]: first, they left the presence of God: secondly, their office and calling, in which they ought for e­uer to haue been employed in the glo­rifying of God. Ob. But doe not the Diuel [...] keepe in the ayre? Ans. Some of them doe by Gods permission, but not as in their proper place, or first ha­bitation, for that was in the comfor­table presence of God in heauen. The third point in this sinne is the measure of it: They left: that is, wholly and to­ [...]ally [their condition,] they quite for­sooke God, his image, heauen it selfe, and that office which therein they were assigned vnto. Obiect. Here it may bee obiected: If the Angels in their inno­cencie and excellencie f [...]ll wholy and vtterly from God, much more [...] sin­full man, although beleeuers, wholy fall from God, and vtterly cut themselues by [...] from Christ. Ans. But hereun­to I answere, that there is not the same reason of the grace of creation, as i [...] of the grace of regeneration: for that com­meth farre short of this: by the former the creature hath a power either to stand or fall, to abide with God, or de­part from him, and this power is in it selfe: but by this latter grace of regene­ration, such feare of God is put into the hearts of the regenerate, that they shall not depart from God, Iere. 32.40. and this power of not falling is in them indeed, but not from themselues: nei­ther is it strange that there should bee such difference betweene the state of nature and that which is aboue nature. Againe, as the grace of creation and regeneration is different; so there is a difference of the will created, and rege­nerate. So called, not because the other is not also created, but because this is in the subiect by creation, as the other is not.Created will hath a freedome to will that which is good: so hath the will regenerate also. Secondly, crea­ted will hath a power to will to perse­uere in that which is good: so also hath the will regenerate. The created will hath not the will it selfe, neither the act of perseuerance; wherein it differeth from the will regenerate, which hath both these. Heere the Schoolemen de­ceiued themselues and others, in that they taught that in the conuersion of a sinner the will hath a freedome to re­ceiue grace, or not to receiue it; so pla­cing it in the will of man, and putting it in his own hand and power to beleeue, or not beleeue. But the truth is, that in the first conuersion of a sinner the will rebelleth and [...]: For none commeth to the Sonne, vnlesse the Father draw him: it is not the will it selfe, but the conuer­sion of it that frame [...] i [...] [...] willingnes, making it of vnwilling▪ willing to [...] ­tertaine that which i [...] truly good. I [...] is vntrue that the will of man is now as the will of Angels was before their fall, hauing a power to fall▪ or not fall.

Vse. First, in th [...] the Angels were condemned for forsaking their first be­ginning, we must bewaile this [...] sin in our selues, for we also had the same first beginning with them: the same image of God [...] vpon [...], which wee haue willingly departed [...] that remaineth for vs to doe, which belongeth not [...] them▪ to vs [...] all [Page 64] meanes to obtaine ou [...] first beginnings againe, that this image may be restored vnto vs, and renued vpon vs; vnto which three things are required: first, that our spirituall vnderstanding be cleered, and enlightened: secondly, that a good heart and conscience bee gotten and preserued: thirdly, a subiection in our whole conuersation vnto all the lawes and commandements of God.

Secondly, though we haue the same beginning by creation, which is lost by our fall; yet wee haue another begin­ning, by a new birth and regeneration, which they want; we haue been borne, baptized, and brought vp many yeeres in the true faith, and profession of Christ; now our dutie is to bee more wise than before, to be warie lest wee fall from this beginning, as wee haue done from the former; but cleaue to our faith, and stand to our vow made in our Baptisme: for otherwise our e­state becommeth as remedilesse as the condition of the Angels themselues, who are shut vp in the chaines of con­demnation for euer.

Thirdly, we see how farre the Scrip­tures may bee said to bee sufficient to cleere all doubtes and determine all controuersies,We ought rather to be serious in considera­tion of our owne fall, than cu­rious in theirs. seeing here it onely pro­poundeth a generall sinne of Angels, and nameth no particular, as Peter al­so saith, they sinned; and Iohn, that they stood not in the truth. Thus contenting it selfe with generall tearmes, with­out particularizing the proper sinne deseruing this iudgement; and deter­mineth not that great question con­trouerted among Diuines, of whome some say it was a [...] in thought: o­ther [...], that it was actuall: others, that it was enuie: some, Pride, &c. which ma­keth the Papists saye, that the Scrip­tures are not sufficient to determine all hard questions. But we must not ima­gine the Scriptures to be such a iudge [...] decideth all doubts, which the curi­ositie of mans braine may cast within it selfe; whereof there are [...] among the ancient Schoolemen, such as this i [...] by scripture indeterminable: nay of purpose the holy Ghost [...]u [...] ­teth [...] all cause of such curiositie by silence in such [...]nnecessarie matters, that [...] the rather [...] to [...]re ne [...]ssarie [...] yet is the Scripture a iudge sufficie [...]tly able to resol [...]e thy spirituall minded man in any case con­cerning conscience [...] or in any matter concerning saluation; all which it is the sole and proper determiner of: now as for the particular sin of Angels it is not necessarie to saluation to know it; but seeing the Scripture concealeth it, it is a safe and learned ignorance to be rested in, without further desire to know that which the Lord hath hid in secret with himselfe.

Fourthly, wee are hence taught to seeke to enter into our habitation and true resting place, which is not the earthly Paradise, for that was our dwel­ling place before the fall; but Heauen it selfe, which since the fall is assigned and prepared to be a rest for the people of God: this was the citie which Abraham looked for, Heb. 11. so the Saints depar­ted are said to be at home with the Lord being in heauen. [...]. Cor. 5. Christ telles his Dis­ciples he goeth to prepare them these dwellings in heauen, Ioh. 14. which else­where he calleth euerlasting habitations. Make you friends of vnrighteous ma [...] ­man, &c. Now for our better practise hereof, this must be marked, that how­soeuer this our habitation be in heauen,The [...] heauen [...] set open here vpo [...] earth. yet the suburbes and the gate of it is here in earth; for all the assemblies of the people of God are the [...] and gates of heauen it selfe, ye [...] the [...]ery en­try into it. Iacob when he saw the testi­monies and tokens of Gods presence and fauour, built a [...] Altar in the place for his worship, and called it B [...]thel, and said it was the very gate of heauen, Gen. 28.17. and therefore we must while we li [...]e here seeke to enter, if we would be ad [...]i [...]ted within that glorie hereafter▪ Qu. But what [...] may wee vse to help vs forward herein? Ans. These fiue▪ First, wee must alwaies endeuour to be found readie to enter into that heauen­ly habitation; for which purpose our hate [...] must be at this our ho [...]e, y [...] our whole conuersation must be in heauen, w [...]lest our [...] are vpon earth, our walking must bee in the path of life e­uerlasting▪ [...]ll containing ourselues in the waies of repentance, obedience, and daily mortification, whereby wee denie our selues, take vp our crosse and follow Christ. Secondly, [...] loue [...] assemblie of Gods people, and [...]oy [...]e our selues vnto th [...] i [...] th [...] holy vse of the Word and sacra­ments, [Page 67] whereby wee draw neere vnto heauen it selfe: yea and keepe at the gates of this Citie, and with Dauid thinke it a speciall priuiledge to be a doore-keeper in the house of God, Psal. 84. Moses chose rather to suffer with the people of God great affliction, than to en­ioy the treasures and honors of Phara­ohs Court: yea euen wicked Cain him­selfe thought of this as the greatest part of his punishment, and which he most complained of, that hee was cast out from the face of God, that is, out of Adams familie, where Gods face was to be seene in his worship. Thirdly, we must weine our affections from our earthly inheritances, which are but Tents, that they may be fixed vpon this sure habitation in heauen; without the assurance of which, all earthly reuenews and treasures can adde but little com­fort to the heart. Cain built a Citie, hee had besides great lands and faire pos­sessions; but yet euen then the holy Ghost brands him with the name of a Vagabond; because he was cut off from Gods people, and cared not to ioyne himselfe vnto them againe by repen­tance. Fourthly, we must euery day ad­dresse and prepare our selues to our death, seeing our death is a meanes to bring vs home to this habitation: e­uery new day must occasion vs to re­new this our preparation: and this will cause vs neither to feare our owne, nor excessiuely to sorrow at the departure of our faithfull friendes, seeing they haue passed these first things, and are onely gone before to their longed-for habitation. Fiftly, if God call vs here­unto, wee must bee contented to leaue and forsake goods, friends, natiue coun­trie, and all for assurance of inheritance in this our countrie; and if we cannot finde the doores hereof in our owne countrie, wee must seeke them else­where, where we may enioy them, ma­king light reckoning of all things for this one thing of highest account.

The last vse of this doctrine is, to teach vs from this sinne of the Angels our contrarie dutie; they by their office were to doe homage vnto God, and performe all dutie as children to their father; for so Iob calleth them the sonnes of God; but this office they departed from▪ we now being by adoption the sonnes and daughters of God, being called vnto holinesse, are to take heede of this sinne of forsaking our calling; yea on the contrarie to walke worthie thereof, as the sonnes of God, approo­uing our faithfulnes vnto him. And it standeth vs in hand so to do, seeing the contrarie hath such iust vengeance at­tending vpon it, as now in this example we are in the next place to behold.

The third point in this example is the punishment of the Angels, which hath two degrees: first, their custodie, in these words: He hath reserued them] namely in durance. Secondly, their full punishment: vnto the iudgement of the great day.] The former is set foorth in two things: first, in that they are reser­ued in chaines. Secondly, vnder darke­nes. By these chaines are signified first that mightie power of God▪ which bridleth and restraineth the might and malice of the Diuels themselues; as Reu. 20. the old Dragon was bound for a thousand yeeres: the power of God was the chaine that curbed and ouer­mastred him; and this is one part of his present punishment. Secondly, the chaines signifie also that guiltines of the Angels, which by the tenour of Gods iustice bindeth them ouer to de­struction: these bonds be vpon the con­sciences of the wicked Angels, they know they are adiudged to damnation for their sinne; so a [...] let them be where they will, in the earth or ayre, or where­soeuer, these chaines of guiltie con­sciences binde them ouer to iudge­ment: where we are taught two things, first, to beware of guiltie and accusing consciences; for these are Gods chaines binding bodie and soule vnto euerla­sting vengeance: and therefore for time past, if thy conscience accuse thee, seek in due time to be loosed and freed by Christ, that thou maist be able to say with Paul; I knowe nothing by my selfe: and for time to come beware of sinne, euen small sinnes as well as great: for so many sinnes as thou committest, are so many chaines binding thee ouer to iust damnation. Secondly, hence wee also learne,Christs yoke is ea­sie, and Gods ser­uice is per­fect liberty. that the seruice of God is a most happie and sweete libertie, any li­bertie else is straite bondage: men thinke that to be tied to the daily ser­uice of God is a yoke and bondage in­tolerable, and they must need [...] haue li­bertie to sinne: but they deceiue them­selues, [Page 68] for while they seeke for libertie, by this meanes they plunge themselues into captiuitie, and lay chaines vpon themselues, yea bolts which hold them in eternall bondage. The libertie which is sweet vnto those who are freed by Christ is, that they can walke before God in the compasse of their callings, without those accusing consciences, which continually vexe and torment the wicked men and Angels them­selues. Further, these chaines are called here eternall,] because the wicked An­gels stand guiltie for euer without hope of recouerie or redemption; seeing Christ tooke not vpon him the seede and nature of Angels to redeeme them, but Abrahams seede: where note Gods in­finite mercie to mankinde, who being fallen, haue found a meane of redemp­tion published in the ministrie of the word; whereby Gods people (being bound before) are loosed from their chaines; but the Angels, those glorious creatures, being fallen, found no Saui­our, nor any meanes giuen by God to loose them, for their chaines are eternall: which infinit mercie towards vs, should stirre vp our dead hearts to thankful­nes, and continuall praise of Gods free mercie, who hath giuen vs the blood of his Sonne to loose these chaines; when wee as little deserued it, as the Angels vnto whom such fauour was denied.

The second part of their custodie is, that they are kept vnder darknes: which darkenes signifieth the wrath and an­ger of God, and want of the blessed fauour which Dauid prayed for: and calleth it by the contrarie name; the light of his countenance, Psalm. 4. and as these Angels are said to be in darknes: so the Saints are saide to bee in light, Col. 1.12. that is, in Gods fauour. Ob. But the wicked Angels are not wholy cast out of Gods fauour, for they haue faith, and therefore some fauour and grace of God. Ans. The Diuels indeede beleeue, but they haue not their faith by the gift of illumination as men haue, but it riseth of the remnant of naturall light and vnderstanding left in them since their fall: whereby they can perswade themselues of the truth of the word of God: so [...] their faith is not from any grace since their fall, neither common, nor speciall. Besides, this re­serued light lighteneth not nor easeth, but increaseth their torment.

Vse. Seeing the miserie of the An­gels is, to be kept vnder darknes, which is to bee cast out of Gods fauour; wee learne to place all our happines in the fruition and enioying of this fauour of God, and instantly to pray that the Lord would still lift vp the light of his countenance vpon vs; in that our whole felicitie must be placed in the appre­hension of Gods mercie, in the pardon of sinne, and life euerlasting.

The second degree of their punish­ment is, that they are reserued vnto the iudgement of the great day, wherein the fulnes and extremitie of their torment is expressed; for by iudgement is meant that fearefull and finall condemnation and torment which they are adiudged vnto, which abideth them, and is reser­ued for them. Where we see that how­soeuer the Diuels are alreadie entred into diuers degrees of their punish­ment; yet their full punishment, and the full wrath of God is not powred vpon them till the last iudgement; this themselues know, as Matth. 8. Art thou c [...]me to torment vs before the time. That time is called here the [great day, The great workes which sha [...] be perfor­med on th [...] great day.] be­cause the greatest workes of God shall be accomplished in that day. For first, an assemblie of all men and Angels shall be made by the sound of a Trum­pet, who shall all be cited before Gods iudgement seate, though they were re­solued into dust many thousand yeeres before. Secondly, all the workes and in­tentions of men good or bad shall be in that day reueiled, Eccl. 12.14. Thirdly, another great worke is, the giuing of a most vpright sentence vpon all men of absolution vnto the godly, and of con­demnation vpon the wicked Angels and men. Fourthly, the reward shal be giuen to euery man according to his worke: to the godly free reward of life and glo­rie: to the wicked deserued condemna­tion. Fiftly, then shall Christ God and man giue vp his kingdome vnto his Fa­ther, and shall cease to raigne, not as God, for he shall bee still equall [...]o his Father; but as Mediatour; for an end shall be put to all families, societies, Ci­uill, and Ecclesiasticall distinctions and gouernments, so as in regard of ou [...] ­ward gouernment and administration this his kingdome shall cease.

[Page 69]Vse. Let the remembrance of this great day strike vs with feare and re­uerence of it. Shall euery worke bee brought vnto iudgement? Then let vs feare God, and keepe his commandements; it is the vse that Salomon maketh, Ec­cles. 12. and considering those terrors of the Lord, what manner of men ought wee to bee in all holy conuersation? saith the Lord. Yea the Diuels them­selues beleeue and tremble in remem­brance of this terrible and great day: but how many Atheists be there worse than the Diuels themselues that make a mocke of these great workes,Atheists [...] at [...] [...]hich [...] the [...] Diuels [...]. not fea­ring nor acknowledging the Scrip­tures, Heauen, Hell, God, Diuell, nor this great iudgement day? but experi­ence shall teach such fooles, who in the meane time might learne so much of the Diuell himselfe (but that God hath giuen them into his hand to bee led by his will) to tremble at the remem­brance of this dreadfull day; and let all that loue the Lord shake off securitie, and stand in awe, and feare with ano­ther feare: let their hearts bee smitten with a reuerent feare, that this day ouer­take them not vnawares.

Vers. 7. ‘Euen as Sodome and Gomor­rha, and the cities about them, which, in like manner as they did, committed, and followed strange flesh, are set foorth for an example, and suffer the vengeance of eter­nall fire.’

IN this verse is laid downe the third and last example, proouing the first part of the former reason, and it is the first part of a similitude. The words [E­uen as] signifying that the holy Ghost here instituteth a comparison, the for­mer part or proposition whereof is in this verse, and the reddition or second part in the two next following. In the example consider three things: first, the people who were destroyed. Secondly, the sin for which they were destroyed. Thirdly, the destruction or punishment it selfe. First, the people destroyed were Sodome and Gomorrha, and the rest of the cities about them; which cities are named, Deut. 29.23. Admah and Z [...]b [...] ­im: the reason of whose destruction is noted by the Apostle; because they fol­lowed the sinnes of Sodome and Go­morrha: They sinned in like manner; so as they being found in the same sinnes, they were wrapped vp in ye same iudge­ments. Here first marke that the holie Ghost mentioneth not the persons who were destroyed, but their Cities, to signi­fie an vniuersal destructiō, an vtter ruine, and a total ouerthrow of thē; the which heaping vp of so many words, expres­sing the same thing, giueth vs likewise to vnderstand that place in 2. Pet. 2.6. he turned their cities into ashes, condemned them, and ouerthrew them. Whence we may note that there is a difference be­tweene the people of God, & those who will not be obedient to his word, these meet with vtter destruction. Gods peo­ple may be destroyed indeed, but not vtterly: for we must alwaies beleeue the Catholike Church vpon earth. Elias in his time could not behold it; but yet there were 7000. reserued from that ge­neral apostasie of those daies. When the Lord visiteth his owne house in iudge­ment, his manner is to leaue some rem­nants whom he saueth, lest their destru­ction should be like this of Sodome and Gomorrha. So Isaiah acknowledgeth:Isai. 1.9. Except the Lord of hostes had reserued vnto vs euen a small remnant, wee had been like to Sodome and the people of Go­morrha. Vse. This may teach vs true hu­mility in regard of our own deseruings, and true thankfulnes in regard of Gods gratious dealing with vs: both of which must be often acknowleged of euery member of the Church, and euery man must confesse and say with the Church, Lam. 3. It is the Lords mercies that wee are not vtterly consumed. Secondly, in these people obserue the iustice of God, and his seuerity in such an vniuersall de­struction, sparing none, but destroying euen the children with the parents, who sinned not in following strange flesh as their fathers did, which maketh this a strange and vnsearchable iudge­ment: whence the Atheists condemne these bookes of Moses (whence this iudgement is fetched) as attributing to God crueltie, and iustifying in him iniustice. But herein to cleere the iust proceeding of the most righteous God, we are to know, first, that the childe is Gods creature, and the life of it is Gods (hee being the Lorde of life) so as hee may take it away when he pleaseth, ha­uing power to doe with his owne as hee will. Secondly, children are part [...] of the [Page 70] parents, and therefore the Lorde may iustly infold them in the punishment of their fathers sinne, to manifest his grea­ter detestation of it. Thirdly, children are borne in originall sinne, and there­fore God may iustly inroll them with their parents, not onely in temporall punishments, but in euerlasting con­demnation also.

Thirdly, in this people who are made examples, note that as wicked a people as these haue had mercie offe­red them. Isai. 1.10. The Prophet calles the Iewes Princes, the Princes of So­dome, and their people the people of Gomorrha, that is; such Princes and people as matched Sodome and Go­morrha themselues in wickednes; and yet hee inuiteth them vnto repent [...]nce, with proffer of mercie and promise of pardon: yea though their sins were as red as scarlet, he would then make them white as snow, vers. 18. Whence we may learne, that the mercie of God euery way matcheth his iustice; in iustice he ouerthroweth Sodome and Gomorrha, and in mercie saueth those who were e­uery whit as wicked as they, his free grace bringeth those to heauen, who by their sinne equalled themselues to those whom his iustice had detruded into hell. Yea it offereth and giueth re­pentance to them which are holden in the snare of the diuell, and ruled at his will, 2. Tim. 2.25. Manasseh himselfe who broke off his couenant with God, by making league with the Diuell, found mercie with God vpon his repentance.2. Chro. 33. Vse. Let not the greatnes of our sinnes dismay vs from seeking the Lord, thy sinnes are not aboue the sinnes of So­dome and Gomorrha, for which mer­cie hath been obtained; vse thou also meanes to turne vnto God and there is mercie in store: but see thou abuse not this mercie vnto sinne.

Fourthly, note that in the same time this people of Sodome and Gomorrha was destroyed, Lot escaped, though he was in Sodom: for at the time of the execution the Angell led him out from among them, and not before. Which teacheth, that although the Lord seeme sometime to neglect his deare seruants, and leaue them in tribulation: yet the instant time of their necessitie sheweth his gratious and seasonable regard and remembrance of them. The Israelites had a promise, that after foure hundred and thirtie yeeres they should be deli­uered from their bondage in Egypt: which promise the Lord was not vn­mindfull of, neither for the substance nor circumstance of time; for in the ve­ry same night that the time was expired, their deliuerance was wrought accor­ding to the promise. Our dutie hence is to learne in the middest of our afflicti­ons, with quiet hearts to rest and relie our selues vpon God, waiting his time wherein hee will come in mercie vnto vs.

Fifthly, note that with this people of Sodom and Gomorrha, the other Cities Admah and Zeboim, because they fol­lowed their sinnes were likewise de­stroyed.Follow not the multi­tude to euill: nei­ther let a common error pre­iudice the truth. Where we learne to auoide the wicked manners and fashions of the world, not imitating these lesser Cities, which imitated the greater in their wic­ked manners; but on the contrarie, fol­low the example of Dauid, in shedding riuers of teares when hee beheld men not keeping the lawes of God. Wee should not with drie eyes behold mens impieties: ye [...] for this end our hearts should be like vnto Lots; when wee see the sinnes of our people breake out as the sinnes of Sodom and Gomorrha, our righteous hearts should be vexed within vs in the daily seeing and [...]aring of such vncleannes. So much of the people punished.

Now followeth the second point in the example: namely, the sinnes for which Sodom and Gomorrha were de­stroyed, in these words: They commit­ted fornication, and followed strange flesh. First, they committed fornication. Se­condly, they committed sinnes against nature it selfe, following strange flesh. To vnderstand the vilenes of these sinnes consider two things: first, the cause and occasion of them: and that was abun­dance of prosperitie, and plentifulnes of Gods blessings. For Sodom was as a Garden of God, enriched with varietie of profits and pleasures: this caused Lot to chuse Sodom to dwell in. This ground nourished foure bitter rootes, from which these sinnes of fornication and following strange flesh did spring, reckoned, vp by Ezechiel, chap. 16.49. The sins of thy sister Sodom were first Pride, by reason of prosperitie. Second­ly, fulnes of bread: that is, they gaue [Page 71] themselues to eating and drinking ex­cessiuely: for so saith Luk. 17.28. Third­ly, Idlenes, which was the daughter of their securitie. Fourthly, Vnmercifulnes, and contempt of the poore: and these must needs nourish all sinnes of vncleannes: vnto which adde a fifth sinne, mentio­ned Gen. 19.9. and 14. that is, contempt of heauenlie admonition and instru­ction; for they scorned Lot while hee warned them of their danger.

The second thing in their sinne is the measure of it. They sinned in like manner, &c. The originall signifieth and impli­eth not onely a bare committing of sin, but a giuing of themselues ouer to commit their filthie lusts, [...]. and that im­pudently and shamelesly: which the Prophet Esay noted also chap. 3.9. They declare their sins at Sodom, they hide them not: shewing that they were past all shame in these most shamefull sinnes. Yea they boasted and gloried in them: both which may be gathered in Gene­sis 19. [...]. and 9.

Doctr. 1. By these sins we are taught to take a view of the sinnes of these last times vnto which that of Ezechiel vnto Ierusalem may bee properly applied: Thou hast iustified thy Sisters (namely Samaria and Sodom) in all their abomi­nations. So these last times iustifie So­dome in her abominations, which I prooue thus: First▪ the Church of Rome is that Sodome wherein the two Pro­phets were slaine, Reuel. 11.8. It is there so called because it matcheth Sodom in her sinnes, in that it teacheth the sins of Sodom, in making lawes to inhibite lawfull mariage in sundry sorts of men▪ to tole [...]ate fornication, and such filthi­nesse; yea not onely by the Scriptures, but, in many other sundrie ancient, and some of their owne recordes, it is manifest that Rome is a Sodome. Whence wee see not onely the dutie of euery Lot, and righteous person, name­ly to hasten out of her, but also the end and destruction that abideth her, to be euerlasting [...] ▪ Secondly, againe in these times i [...] must bee verified, and is also, which was applied by Christ vnto them of his age, Luk. [...]7.28. It is in these latter times as it was in the daies of Lot, men eate and drinke, buy and sell, mar­rie, and giue in marriage, and thinke of nothing; and [...] the wonderfull [...] of many [...] that many [...] in the midst of the Church here­in may match, if not exceede euen So­dom & Gomorrha themselues. Third­ly▪ whoso [...]uer (saith Christ) shall not beleeue and obey the doctrine of the Gospell,Mat. 10.15. it shall be easier for Sodome and Gomorrha in the day of iudgement, than for them. Which sentence might moue most men to tremble, who whilest they take themselues freed from Sodomes sins▪ fornication▪ and following strange flesh, they nourish a sinne within them, which maketh them as farre off their saluation as Sodom it selfe is, and that is the not receiuing of the Gospell as they ought: most men content them­selues to liue ciuilly, and out of danger of humane lawes; but as for the do­ctrine of religion, and yet much more the power and life of it, it lieth horribly neglected. But Sodom it selfe shall bee saued before such men.

Doct. 2. In that fornication and fol­lowing strange flesh are the sinnes of Sodom; wee are taught to auoide this sinne of fornication and al sinnes of vn­cleannes. For first, the heauie curse of God is passed not only against Sodom and Gomorrha for th [...]se sinnes; but wh [...]esoeuer they be found they be sins that burne to destruction, Iob. 3 [...].22. they set families on fire, and deuoure them vtterly, waste and consume them. A­gaine, no fornicators, adulterers, wantons, 1. Cor. 6.9. b [...]gga [...]ers, shall euen be admitted into the kingdome of heauen: and in verse 13. the same Apostle propoundeth sixe reasons why we should flie fornication: first, our bodies are the Lords, and must be seruiceable vnto him. Secondly, wee looke they should be raised to glorie in the last day, and therefore wee must in the meane time keepe them honorable. Thirdly, they are the mēbers of Christ, we may not th [...]n make them the mem­ber [...] of an [...]. Fourthly, whereas all other sinnes are without the body, this directly is against the body. Fifthly, the body is the [...] of the holy Ghost, and th [...]se sinnes make it the Diuels [...] and [...]. Sixthly, our bodies are bought with a price, and it is sacriledge [...] glorifie God in the body as well [...] soule, [...] both are alike his. Now if any man [...] solicited by temp­tation vnto [...], and would know how [...] might ouermaster them, hee must begin with his heart, and obteine [Page 72] and reteine within it the feare of God, which onely is able to ouerrule him. This grace alone preserued Ioseph, be­ing daily inticed by Po [...]iphars wife. How should I doe this wickednes and sin against God? Gen. 39.9.

The third point in this example is the punishment it selfe▪ in which three things may bee noted: first, the matter of it; they suffered the punishment of eter­nall fire: by fire, we must not vnderstand our fire, no [...] such materiall and bodily fire as ours is, but an eternall fire: that is, the endlesse and comfortlesse appre­hension of Gods wrath for sinne eter­nally burning, that is, alwaies terribly tormenting the sinner, called fire, be­cause as burning of fire is the most hor­rible and sensible torment vnto nature, so much more terrible is this torment▪ which elsewhere is called by other names, as the worme that neuer dieth, &c. Where in the fearefulnes of the pu­nishment marke the grieuousnes of this sinne: it were therefore to bee wished that whoredome might bee punished with death. The theefe doth not more, if so much harme against families and Common-wealths, as sinners of this kinde and qualitie. The second thing is the [...] of their punishment, [...] when they gaue themselues wholie to fornication, & were come to the height in their sins. Where note, that though the Lord be slow to wrath,The Lord is slow to anger, but much [...] wrath. yet hee re­compenseth that slownes with the hea­uines of it when hee commeth; seeing▪ he commeth not till he must needs, and that is not till sin bee at the height and most of necessitie bee taken downe: as appeareth in those foure hundred yeres allotted for the filling vp of the Amo­rites sinnes.Gen. 15.16 Let vs then beware of abu­sing Gods patience, by adding to our sinnes; for then he is adding vnto, and heaping his iudgements, and wee shall finde that though he come slowly,To auoide Gods stroke strike down thine owne sinnes. yet he will strike surely, if we giue not [...] a stroke to our sinnes by repentance, as in [...] his iudgements may bee preuerned. The third thing noted here is the vse of this punishment; namely, [...] they [...] an example to the whole world. Which [...] that [...] so [...] all [...] of the son [...] for God teacheth not [...]nely [...] by his word [...] of it,Gods iudg­ments are his real ser­mons. but really also by his workes in the execution of his iudgements. Iob saith that God speaketh to men once or twice, therein teaching that corrections are the speeches of God in mens [...] so as no person or people can go cleere away with that plea, that they wanted all meanes of instruction, seeing the whole earth is filled with the iudge­ments of God.

Vers. 8. ‘Likewise notwithstanding these dreamers also defile the flesh, and despise gouernment, and speake euill of them that are in authoritie.’

NOw the Apostle commeth to the proofe of the second part of the former reason: namely, that these sedu­cers are they which take libertie to [...]: and therefore they shall be destroyed. This is prooued in this, and some verses following, by a particular rehearsall of certaine sinnes apparant in these men.

In this verse three things are offered to be considered of vs: first, the [...] downe of two vices vnto which these men were addicted: first, they [...] flesh: secondly, they despise gouernment. Secondly, the fountaine of these and other their sins in this word [...]. Thirdly, the manner of their sinnes in these two words; Likewise notwithstan­ding; namely in two things: first, as Sodome and Gomorrha sinned, so [...] ­ned these likewise, no otherwise than they. Secondly, they did not only sinne as they of Sodome did▪ but notwith­standing they knew what had befallen Sodom and Gomorrha, they not being afraide of these iudgements rush into these sinnes: and hereby they are con­uinced to bee dreamers, seeing they sleepe securely in the middest of such iudgements.

In handling the words wee will first speak of the fountain, because it is first in nature, and then secondly of their sinnes flowing from thence. The origi­n [...]ll of these sinnes is that they are drea­mers; [...]. which worde leadeth vs to a double cause of them: first, that they are sleepers made [...] with sleepe▪ and secondly, in this sleepe of theirs they are deluded with dreames▪ We are then to vnderstand first what th [...] sleepe is: and in the next p [...]ce, what bee the dreame [...] which in [...] sleepe [...] [Page 73] them. This sleepe is not that naturall sleepe which oppresseth the bodie; but a spirituall sleepe, like vnto that in di­uers things going ouer the soule, bin­ding vp the faculties of the same, and bringing a heauines or deadnes rather into all the powers of man; so far forth as they ought to be mouing in spiritual actions and affaires. It causeth the mind neuer to thinke seriously of God or a mans owne estate: the conscience ne­uer or seldom to accuse for sinne com­mitted: the will neuer or seldome to will that which is truly good: the affe­ctions neuer or seldome to be mooued at Gods word or workes. Thus it goeth ouer the whole soule, and casteth it in a dead sleepe, so as it is altogether vnfit to goe about the actions of an heauen­ly life. Example hereof we haue in the old world, they eat and dranke, &c. and knew nothing till the flood came: they dreamed continually of many other things, but neuer of their owne destru­ction. Diues also was cast on such a sleepe; he f [...]red deliciously euery day, hee neuer thought of heauen, for he was neuer to come there; nor of hell fire till he felt the flame. This spirituall sleep is three-fold [...] first, the naturall sleepe of heart by which euery one is ouertaken; so as by nature no man can so much as moue himselfe to the least good, till God awake him, and say to him, Awake thou that sleepest, and stand vp from the dead. Eph 5.14. The second sleepe is a slumber, and indeed the remainders of this natu­rall sleepe in the children of God, be­ing awakened out of their dead sleepe; for euen they are ouertaken often with a spirituall slumber, by reason of re­mainders of sin in them. So the spouse acknowledgeth Cant. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh. The third sleepe is the in­crease of that naturall sleepe and dead­nes of heart by the custome of sinne, when as the heart is made past feeling, and altogether senselesse through con­tinuance in sinne, Ephes. 4.19. This last kind is that which is attributed here to these deceiuers, for so the word [not­withstanding] importeth: for although they knew the iudgements of God a­gainst sinne, yet they are senselesse and carelesse in the middest of them.

Now in the next place let vs see what these dreames are here spoken of, and they bee nothing else, but wicked, car­nall, and vaine imaginations, arising from an impure heart, and conceiued in a corrupted mind, which in the end de­ceiue and delude men no otherwise than a dreame, which while a man slee­peth seemeth to haue some truth in it, but as soone as one awaketh it vanish­eth away, and indeed hath in it nothing lesse. An example whereof wee haue in the rich man, Luk. 12.19. who in his ful­nes and encrease of riches dreamed of an happinesse and a continuance in it many yeeres: when that night his soule was taken away. The Angell of the Church of Laodices dreamed▪ that hee was rich, encreased with wealth, and stood in need of nothing; whereas hee knew not that hee was blinde, poore, miserable, and naked, Reue. 3.17. So the Pharisee dreamed that he was another manner of man than the poore sinfull Publicane; but it was but a meere dreame, for the other departed away iustified.

Doct. Hence we may note the cause why so few entertaine the doctrine of the Gospell, so few forsake their sinnes and turne vnto God, and that is be­cause men are dreamers, being cast and lulled asleepe in their sinnes, and there­in deluded with many false imagina­tions which draw them from God. As first,Dreames of men wa­king. some pleade that they were neuer booke learned, they could neuer write nor reade, therefore they must be excu­sed in their ignorance, as not being bound to know the word of God; they need not frequent so many sermons, or if they doe, they are not greatly to care to carrie them away. Secondly, others dreame that because they haue liued thus long, and yet had neuer any such crosse, as they see befall others, therfore they are most happie men, and God lo­ueth them; they finde the blessing of God vpon them in euery thing, and therefore they serue God well enough, or so much as serueth their turne. Third­ly, others haue learning and know­ledge, and begin to dreame that there­fore they want nothing, they blesse themselues in their naked knowledge, and neuer haue care in their hearts to receiue Christ. Fourthly, others are prophane, and dreame that the Master will not come yet; God will not yet call them, they shall haue time enough to repent in; for they craue but one [Page 74] houre on their death-beds, and that shal they haue; in the meane time they giue themselues ouer to riot and excesse, ne­uer regarding though all the world crie shame vpon them, vntill their Master take them vnawares. Lastly, it is a com­mon dreame amongst men that the promise of life eternal is but a dreame,Most men dreame, that the doctrine of the Gospell is but a dreame. and so many make but a dreame of the whole word of God, and all religion: that looke as Sarah did not so much re­gard the promise as she ought to haue done, because she tooke it for a dreame, and made a matter of laughter of it, Gen. 18.12. and as those who were re­duced from ye captiuity of Babylon, en­tertained the promise of their returne but as a dreame, by their own confessi­on, Psal. 126. and Peter whē he was deli­uered by the Angel out of prison, could not bee perswaded that it was so, but that he had seene a vision, or dreamed a dreame, Act. 12.9. Euen so, men hold the doctrine of the Gospell but as a dreame, seeing they can hold it in opi­nion, but neuer endeuour to reforme their liues by it: but such dreames dis­appoint men commonly of saluation; which while men bring to the hearing of the word, it is no marueile if we haue such iust cause of complaint for want of profiting vnder it, as appeareth euery where at this day. The most powerfull Ministrie shall little preuaile, so long as men come with their hearts ful fraught with their carnall imaginations, and with such heauines of spirit. Secondly▪ in that these dreames are made the cau­ses of all sinnes, we are taught to learne the lesson of the Apostle, Ephes. 5.14. Awake thou that sleepest, and stand vp from the dead. And 1. Thess. 5.6. Let vs not sleepe as others doe: which that wee may doe, consider first the reasons, and meanes which may bee effectuall to a­waken vs: and secondly, the notes to know when wee are wakened. For the former, consider first the infinite iustice and wrath of God against the least sin, which made the Apostle say,Heb. 10.13 It is a fear­full thing to fall into the hands of God. Se­condly, the greatnes of our sinnes, and the number which is like the sand vpon the sea shore. Thirdly, ye vncertaintie of the day & houre of our death, which as it leaueth vs, so shall the last iudgement finde vs. Fourthly, our vow in Baptisme; wherein we promise to forsake the Di­uell▪ and all our owne lusts. Fifthly, Christs passion and his bloodie sweate, not for his owne, but our sinnes, which made him crie: My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken mee? Sixthly, that the night is past, and it is n [...]w day, the sunne is vp, euen the sunne of Righteousnes is risen vpon vs; and therefore we are to be raised out of our sleepe, and walke as children of the light, Rom. 13.12.13.

Secondly, if a man would know whe­ther he begin to be awakened, let him obserue whether his heart haue begun to moue in spirituall actions or no. For that bodie is wakened out of bodily sleepe, which can moue it selfe in bodi­ly actions. Quest. When doth the heart begin thus to mooue it selfe, and how shall I know it? Answ. When thou be­ginnest to turne thy eyes inwardly into thy selfe, and canst finde, and espie the priuie corruptions which lurke within thee. Secondly, when thou art inwardly and heartily displeased with thy selfe, and grieued for thy sins. Thirdly, when thou canst humbly and heartily sue to God for pardon, and canst hunger and thirst after Christ and his merits aboue all earthly things. Fourthly, when thou beginnest to endeuour to doe the will of God, and please him in all things; then assure thy selfe thou art wakened out of thy sleepe of sinne, and not be­fore.

Thirdly, if dreaming be the fountain of all sinne, we must learne the contrary vertue, namely, that being once awake­ned, wee striue to watch and be sober, 1. Thess. 5.6. For the practise of which dutie these rules are to be marked▪ first, wee must daily and diligently obserue our selues, our hearts, and sinnes; and seeing what sinnes wee are most prone vnto, there must wee double our care and watchfulnes: for otherwise where we are weakest Satan soonest maketh a breach, for there he makes his greatest assaults. Secondly, we must daily looke for an euill day, so as wee forecast euery day to endure the worst that it can bring foorth against vs and our profes­sion: out of which forecast in vaine shal any man purpose to keepe faith and a good conscience. Wee may not crie peace, peace; for then commonly sud­den desolation commeth vpon vs. Thirdly, wee must esteeme of euerie day as our last day, that so wee may be [Page 75] Lye euery day, that thou maist [...] once [...]ell on thy dying day. [...] did, of which wee haue spoken in the seuenth verse, and therefore passe this sinne ouer without further hand­ling. Onely let this one thing bee here remembred, that seeing it is a sinne of Sodome to defile the bodie with the sinnes of the seuenth Commandement, our dutie is to reserue within vs that speciall care whereby our bodies may bee preserued in holines and honour▪ 2. Thess. 4.3.4. This is the will of God▪ The bodie must be giuen vp as an holy sacrifice to God, else it shall not be ac­ceptable, Rom. 12.1. Wouldest thou haue thy bodie rise vp vnto glorie and fellowship with God and Christ at the last day? then let thy [...]are bee to lay it downe in the grant in honour, by pre­seruing i [...] a pure member of Christ: for without holinesse, no man shall euer see God, that is, haue fellowship with him being a most holy and cha [...] spirit: yea the contrarie things ought not to be named in the Church of God, Eph. 5.5.

The second sinne followeth, in these words; [...] despise gouernment, and speake [...].] In which words [...] [...]. [...] refuse and put away, yea and so [...] as they can put downe all Lord­ship, gouernment, ciuill power and dominion. Secondly, in their practise [...]. First, in their iudge­ [...] they put downe gouernment, by [...]eaching (for otherwise they could not) and maintaining that after men were conuerted to the faith, being now be­come Christians and beleeuers, they were no longer to be vnder Magistra­cie or authoritie; but their neckes were to be eased from that yoke: and this errour was dangerously sowne by the malitious m [...]n in the Primitiue Church, and called some trouble and labour vp­on the Apostles themselues in their [...]; as appeareth 1. Cor. 7.11. where the Apostle answereth this case, which seruants themselues were hold to call in question being conuerted. Art thou called a seruant▪ care not for it. So Ti­tus 3.1. Put them in remembrance that they be subiect to principalities and powers. So as it [...] a lesson not well learned in those first ages of the Gospell. This was the iudgement and opinion of the false Teachers, which euen the word [despise] implieth & presupposeth. Now where­as some might say, that they must needs (will they [...]ill they) be vnder authority: for Rulers and Princes would and did keepe them vnder: The Apostle addeth, [and speake euill &c.] that is, although they cannot shake off gouernment so easily as they would, yet they can ea­sily manifest their malice against it, in reuiling them that are in authoritie.

First then we are to speake of their doctrine, and then of their practise. In the former consider three things: first, what is this rule or gouernment which they despise: secondly, vpon what ground refuse they to be vnder autho­ritie: thirdly, vpon what ground doth Iude condemne them for this refusall. First, to know what this authoritie is, we must distinguish all gouernment in­to diuine and humane: The Apostle Peter acknowledgeth this distinction, 1. Pet. 2.13, Submit your selues to eue­ry humane ordinance. Diuine gouern­ment is the absolute power of God, [Page 76] whereby he maketh lawes to binde the conscience, and that vnder paine of life and death eternall. This is the power of all the Trinitie; but the administration of it is giuen to the Sonne. This power is not here meant; for had they denied this, they could not haue carried a face or shew of Christians. The other (which here is vnderstood) is humane or ciuill rule and dominion, whereby man is set ouer man: which may be thus descri­bed: Ciuill gouernment is a state of su­perioritie, consisting in the power of commanding, and in the power of the sword for the common good of man­kinde. That it is a state of superioritie, appeareth Rom. 13.1. Let euery soule be subiect to the higher power. Further, I say it consisteth in a double power: first of commanding ▪ that is, of making edict [...] and lawes, of calling and conuenting. Secondly of the Sword, and that in foure things: first, in arresting: secondly, im­prisoning: thirdly, putting to death; fourthly, making warre in way of pro­tection or otherwise. This second po­wer, namely of the Sword, is added▪ first, to put a difference betweene the authoritie of the Magistracie and Mini­strie: which difference standeth in three things: first, the Magistracie hath a power in it selfe, whereby the Ciuill Magistrate may commaund in his own name.The autho­ritie of the Magistrate and Mini­ster farre different. The Ministrie hath power onely to pronounce what God commandeth, and that in his name. Secondly, the au­thoritie of the Ciuill Magistrate is in himselfe; the authoritie of the Minister not in himselfe but in Christ; so as the Ciuill Magistrate may command obe­dience to himselfe, but the Minister commandeth it to God. Thirdly, the Ciuill gouernment hath an absolute power to compell, and enforce the out­ward man; but the Ministrie hath po­wer only to counsell, perswade, exhort. Secondly, this power of the Sword is added to distinguish it from all priuate power, as in Schooles, families, which haue a power of commanding, but not of the Sword. Lastly, I adde for the common good of mankind, Rom. 13.4. The Magistrate is the minister of God, for thy wealth, that is, procuring the wel­fare of soule and body: which standeth in two things: first, true Religion: se­condly, ciuill iustice; both which are by Magistracie maintained. It may be here demanded▪ [...] Church appeareth, in that the [...] preparation and performance of the same, 2. Chron. 35. and [...] here two differences in this authoritie must be marked. First, that ciuill [...] doth not after the same [...] order causes ecclesiasticall as [...] in ciuill causes is ord [...]th all, and [...] all likewise; but in ecclesiasticall it hath power to order all, but not [...] execute them. The Magistrate indeed ordereth and prescribeth in all, but the Minister is [...]e that executeth in ecclesia­sticall causes. Secondly▪ that ciuill au­thoritie hath power ouer all the things of men, but not ouer the things of [...] ▪ as the Wo [...]d and Sacrament [...], faith, con­science, the graces of God in [...] Ci [...]ill power hath no rule ouer these; concerning which Christ comm [...]nded to giue vnto God the things of God and vnto Caesar Caesars. Secondly, this au­thoritie extendeth it selfe to all persons as well Ecclesiasticall as Ciuill, but so, as it stretcheth onely vnto the [...] man, to the bodie, life, [...] ▪ and outward things, but not to the soule and conscience, of which God is the onely Lord and gouernour. [...] asked what are the kinds of this power▪ I answere, it is of three sort [...]: first, in one person man or woman, which is a Mo­narchie: secondly in moe, when the go­uernment is in a few states and [...] ▪ thirdly, in the bodie of the people, which is a popular gouernment by one of these three is euery Common-wealth gouerned. These are the Gouernment [...] despised by these seducers.

The second point followeth, [...] vpon what grounds they despised go­uernment? Ans. Their grounds may be knowne by the Heretikes of th [...] time the Anabaptists, who are giuen vp to the same [...]; and they [...] be [...] [Page 77] to these foure heads: First, subie­ction (say they) came in with sinne; and therefore Christ hauing taken away sinne, hath taken away subiection also. The former part they prooue out of Gen. 1.26. Man in innocencie was to rule ouer the fish of the sea, the fowles of heauen, ouer the beasts, the earth, and all creeping things; but not ouer man: but after the fall Eue is put vnder sub­iection to Adam, Genes. 3. Ans. There bee two kindes of subiection: the first Seruile, the second Ciuill. The former is the subiection of a slaue or vassall, who is onely to seeke the proper good of his Lord and Master. The latter whereby one man is subiect to another for the common good. The former came in by sinne: the latter was before sinne in in­nocencie. Eue was subiect to Adam in innocencie: thus the Apostle reasoneth 1. Tim. 2.12. Let the woman be subiect to the man: for she was taken out of the man. Againe, in innocencie it was said, Increase and multiplie; and therefore in the light of nature is a plaine distincti­on betweene the father and sonne, and an inequalitie.

The first place is misalleaged Genes. [...].26. because it was spoken not of man alone, but of all mankinde, euen wo­men as well as men; who haue also do­minion giuen ouer the vnreasonable creatures. As for the second place, Gen. 3.15. He shall rule, and thou shalt be sub­iect. It is not spoken because the ordi­nance of God simply considered in it selfe was not before the fall: but be­cause now the subiection was ioyned with feare, griefe, and sorrow, which it wanted in innocencie: for then it was a pleasure, and this makes subiection a curse in some respect; but is not so (no not since the fall) in it selfe consi­dered.

Secondly, they reason thus: Euery beleeuer is in the kingdom of heauen, euen in this life: Now in heauen there is no King but God; and therefore no beleeuer is to bee subiect to any but God and Christ. Ans. There bee two kindes of gouernments vpon earth; one is spirituall and inward, this is the kingdome of heauen and of Christ within man, standing in peace of con­science and ioy in the holy Ghost: in regard of which regiment of Christ, there is no distinction of persons, no difference of bond or free, Master, ser­uant, father, sonne; but all are one in Christ. The other is a ciuill regiment, wherein orders and distinctions of men must be maintained; as some must bee Princes, some subiects, some fathers, some children, some Masters, some ser­uants. Whence it is that euery man su­steines vpon him two persons: and is to be considered first as a beleeuer, and as a member of the kingdome of Christ: thus is he equall to any beleeuer, and any beleeuer equall to him. Secondly, as a member of the Common-wealth wherein he liueth; thus he is either a superiour or inferiour. Their reason were somewhat, if euery beleeuer were onely in the kingdome of heauen: but euery of them liuing here in earth is also a member of some Common-wealth.

Thirdly,Obiect. Ciuill gouernment is full of crueltie, which hauing the power of the sword destroyeth the bodies and soules of offenders, in not giuing them time of repentance: and therefore is intole­rable among Christians.Answere. Ans. Moses and the Leuites by Gods commande­ment flew 3000. of the Israelites for worshipping their golden Calfe,Exo. 32.2 [...] and neuer gaue them space to repent. Se­condly, the malefactor that is not mo­ued to repentance at the sentence of present death, there is little hope that euer hee would repent after if hee had longer time. Thirdly, Gods wisedome and commaundement must take place of mans reason; he commaundeth that the Malefactor should die,Pereat v­nus potiùs quam vni­tas. and thereby that the euill be taken away; better it is that one should bee destroied than an vnitie; better that one bee remoued, than a multitude by the contagion of his example infected.

Fourthly,Obiect. they plead liberty by some places and testimonies of Scripture: Gal. 5.1. Stand fast in the libertie where­in Christ hath set you free. Answer. Ans. The li­bertie which Christ hath procured vs is libertie of conscience, freedome from the power of sin, Satan, death, hell, and condemnation; and therefore spiritu­all: but not from temporall and ciuill subiection.

Ob. Rom. 13.8.Obiect. Owe nothing to any man but loue: therefore not obedience.Answere. Ans. There bee two kindes of debt: first, a ciuill debt, occasioned by con­tract [Page 78] and bargaining between man and man: the second is a debt to which we are bound by Gods law and couenant; the place is meant of the former, so far as it lies in our power: but wee are bound still to obedience and subiecti­on by the latter.

Obiect.Ob. Matth. 17.26. The Kings sonnes are free from tribute; and therefore from subiection.Answer. Ans. Christ speaketh that of himselfe, who by his birth was heire to the Crowne and kingdome of the Iews: and therefore by right was to pay none; neither did but for auoiding of offence: what is this to free other men from obedience to the Magistrate?

Obiect.Obiect. 1. Cor. 7. Ye are bought with a price, Answere. be ye not the seruants of men. Ans. The meaning is, that seruants should not subiect themselues to men as to ab­solute Lords; for wee must doe seruice one to another for Gods sake; and not onely for God but in God.

Obiect.Ob. Beleeuers are gouerned by the spirit of God, and so are able to gouerne themselues euery way, and need not a­ny gouernment of man.Answere. Ans. One thing it is what wee doe, another what wee ought to doe: we ought indeede so to liue, as not to need gouernours, but we doe not; yea and if beleeuers could, yet were the reason naught, for the Church containes as well bad as good; hypo­crites as well as sincere Christians; and therefore the best Churches neede Ma­gistracie for the punishment of the euill doers, and the praise of them that doe well. Yea the Church lying open to the malice of Satan and the wicked, stan­deth euer in neede of Magistracie to protect it by force and warre, or other­wise.

The third generall point is; vpon what ground doth the Apostle here blame and condemne these seducers for despising ciuill gouernment? Ans. The ground is, because it is a solemne ordinance of God; called therefore by Peter a creation or creature, which bin­deth euery soule vnto subiection to the higher power, Rom. 13.1. and that for conscience sake, which respecteth not so much the rule it selfe as Gods com­mandement, subiecting not only ciuill but all ecclesiasticall persons thereun­to. Christ himselfe taking vpon him mans nature, was subiect vnto authori­tie, submitting himselfe vnto Caiphas, and Pilate, yea to apprehension, ar­raignment, condemnation, and execu­tion, Matth. 26. Paul himselfe whose A­postolicall authoritie and spiritual wea­pons, were able to bring downe euerie opposition: yet acknowledged that he must be iudged by Caesar, Act. 25.11.

Ob. Ierem. 1.10.Obiect. I set thee ouer na­tions and kingdoms to plant and pluck vp: the Prophets therefore and their successors are not to be subiect vnto ci­uill Magistracie.Answere. An. The Prophet is set ouer nations & kingdomes, not to go­uerne by the ciuil sword, but the sword of the Spirit in his mouth; and he is to plant and plucke vp kingdomes no o­therwise, than by declaring that God would plant or pluck them vp.

Ob. Esay 60.10.Obiect. Kings shall come and serue the Church in the new Testa­ment; and therefore the Church is not to be subiect vnto Princes, but they vn­to it. Ans. In the Church are two things:Answere. first, the persons of men: secondly the things of God.Regni mun­di & regni Christi est m [...]tua sub­iectio. Bu­cer. Now Kings are subiect to the Church; but how? not to the persons of beleeuers, but to the things of God, namely the Word, Sacraments, faith, &c.

Obiect.Obiect. Kings and Magistrates are as sheepe; Ministers are Pastors and shep­heards: therefore they are vnder the Ministers, as the flocks vnder the shep­heards. Ans. In the Prophets, Pastors,Answere. and Ministers, consider two things: first their persons: secondly, their ministe­rie. In regard of their persons all of them are subiect to their owne Princes, and that for conscience sake: but in re­gard of their Ministerie, Princes and Magistrates are to bee subiect thereun­to, as wherein the Word is taught and Sacraments administred: euen as a meane man being a Sergeant, may ar­rest a Baron, Earle, or Duke, who may not resist him, because hee commeth with the Princes authoritie, vnto which he must yeeld himselfe, though not vn­to the person of the Sergeant: so must Magistrates to the Ministers comming not in their owne, but in the name of God. For this also must be marked, that Magistrates are not simply subiects to the Ministerie, but so farre as the word is rightly taught, and Sacraments du [...]ie administred: for else they haue power either to reforme, or depose such Mini­sters as shall faile in their administra­tion: [Page 79] for euen in this regard themselues are shepheards. As Isai. 44.1. Cyrus is cal­led a shepheard, though otherwise he be a sheepe, so far as he is truly taught and directed by the Minister. So much of the ground.

Vse. By this doctrine we may disco­uer the wickednes and horrible rebel­lion of sundrie persons in this age. First of the Bishop of Rome that most anci­ent Rebell,The Pope the arch­rebell of the world. who hath for many hundred yeeres taken vpon him an vsurped su­premacie ouer all ciuill gouernment in the earth; which is the highest rebel­lion which euer the world hath heard of, seeing there is not a soule which must not bee subiect to the higher po­wer.Obiect. Ob. Yea but that place is meant of those that are to be subiect, but the Popes themselues are exempted. Ans. But besides that the text commandeth euery soule to bee subiect,Answere. it is made a note of Antichrist, to exalt himselfe a­boue God, and all that is called God; that is, all Magistrates.

Obiect.Ob. But they alleage the example of Vzziah the King, 2. Chron. 26.20. who taking vpon him presumptuously the office of the Priest, Azariah the Priest resisted him, cast him out of the temple, and deposed him from his kingdome. Ans. Azariah resisted the King not by force,Answere. or violence, but by word onely and admonition, whereby hee caused him to depart the Temple: neither did he depose him from his gouernment; but being by God striken suddenly with a leprosie, he was by the law shut out from the companie and societie of men, and so disabled to gouerne; al­though the right of it still belonged vnto him.

Obiect.Ob. They alleage likewise the ex­ample of Iehoiadah the high Priest, who deposed Queene Athaliah from her kingdome, and set vp yong Ioash to be King, 2. Chron. 23. therefore the Pope hath authoritie to depose Kings and Emperours.Answere. Answ. Iehoiadah the high Priest was next to the King in blood, 2. Chro. 22.11. and was one of the states of the land; who deposed her not a­lone, but by the common consent of all the states and Peeres of the land; as chap. 23.1.2. He indeede is chiefly na­med, because he was the chiefe of them in blood; neither did he set vp Ioas, but helped to maintaine his [...]ight, which was vsurped by Attaliah: in a word, he protected the right heire, but could not himselfe, nor did not dispose the kingdome vnto him. And of this kinde are all their allegations: which yeeld no patronage at all to that vsurped Pa­pall authoritie, but euen the Pope him­selfe ought to bee subiect to his Empe­rour, if hee would auoide his most iust title of a most vniust vsurper.

Vse. 2. Hence also may be obserued that the exemptiō or immunitie of the Clergie from the authoritie of the Ci­uill Magistrate is wicked, and a kinde of rebellion: and this is the condition of the whole Romane Clergie.Obiect. Ob. They pleade that Kings and Princes of their bountie haue granted these priuiledges vnto them.Answere. Ans. The law of nature ac­knowledgeth a ciuill subiection: the law of God straitly enioyneth it, and no law of any man may offer violence, or derogate from either of these.

Thirdly, the Pope vsurping a power to free subiects from their alleageance, and their oath of obedience, hath been for many hundred yeeres a most wic­ked instrument of rebellion, as the kingdomes of Europe haue had too wofull experience of. If here they say, the Pope may dispense with the lawes of kingdomes. I answere, were it so that he could dispense with humane lawes of Kings and Princes in their Countries and Prouinces, (which is grosse vsur­pation) yet with what face dare he chal­lenge to dispense with the lawes of God and nature?

Fourthly, wee see hence what we are to esteeme of the Romane Religion: namely, as of a Religion to bee abhor­red, as are these seducers themselues, because it is cleane contrarie to Chri­stian Religion: which teacheth to feare God and honour the King: but the Romane Religion pretendeth to [...]each men to feare God, but putteth downe the honour of the King:Popish re­ligion vr­geth mē to forsweare the honor of the king. nay he that professeth that Religion, must sweare the flat contrarie to the Kings honour.

Fifthly, wee are hence directed what to thinke of that oath of the suprema­cie vnto the Bishop of Rome, namely to be such a one as fighteth directly a­gainst the law of God and nature; see­ing it giueth all ecclesiasticall gouern­ment vnto the Pope, which belongeth [Page 80] properly to Kings and Princes in their seuerall dominions.

Sixthly, if euery man must be subiect to the power of the Magistrate for con­science sake, then all wandring beg­gars and rogues, that passe from place to place, being vnder no certaine Ma­gistracie or Ministrie, nor ioyning thē ­selues to any set societie in Church, or Common-wealth, are the plagues and banes of both, and are to bee taken as maine enemies of this ordinance of God: and seeing a most excellent law is prouided to restraine them, it is the part of euery good subiect or Christian to set themselues for the executing, strengthening and vpholding of the same.

And speake euill of them which are in authoritie.] In these words the Apostle sheweth how these false teachers pull down authoritie by their practise, as in the former they did by their iudgmēt: for when they cannot quite put downe all authoritie and Magistrates, they speake euill of them, and blaspheme those that exercise the same: that is (as the word signifieth) those that are in dignities and glories: [...]. for that is his meaning, when hee calleth Princes by the name of Glories. Here two things are to bee considered: first their sinne, [speake euill▪] secondly, the amplifica­tion of their sinne, partly in this verse, and partly in the next. The sin is men­tioned and condemned in Exod. 22.28. Thou shalt not speake euill of the Rulers of thy people. Eccles. 10. Curse not the King, no not in thy heart, for the birds of the ayre shall bewray it. Which sinne wee should be so farre from, as that wee should not receiue any accusation against any El­der, vnder two or three witnesses, 1. Ti­moth. 5 If we may not receiue slanders against Rulers, much lesse may we raise them.

Vse. 1. See here as in a glasse the com­mon sinne of these daies, wherein the common practise, yea and table talke of men is the censure of the doings of the Magistrate, and the doctrine of the Minister. Paul when he called Ananias a painted wall;Act. 13.5. being reprooued, an­swered, that he knew him not to be the high Priest, for then he would not haue reproched him: that is, he acknowled­ged him not, but knew him rather to be an vsurper, which made him vse that boldnes. Secondly, if a man may not speake euill of a Ruler, then much lesse may any priuate man take a sword in hand to take away the life of a Prince or Magistrate. Dauid knew that he was to succeed Saul in the kingdome, and that Saul sought his life daily, and yet his heart smote him when finding Saul at aduantage that he cut off but the lap of his garment, whereas he might haue as easily taken away his life; the ground of his griefe was, because hee was the Lords annointed. 1. Sam. 24. Where take notice of the spirit that leadeth and ruleth those Romish vassals, who are sent out into Christian lands with Commission to take away the liues of the Lords an­nointed ones,Romish vas­sals autho­rized to take away the liue [...] of the Lords annoynted ones, the lappes of whose gar­ments they ought not to touch. who will not stoope vnto that Antichristian tyranny. Instruments of Satan they are, inflamed by Diaboli­call furie; fighting for their Babylon with the weapon of most monstrous and vnnaturall crueltie. Thirdly, we are on the contrarie taught hence to blesse our Magistrates, especially the Lords annointed ouer vs: as also other infe­riour Magistrates; who although their persons may bee meane, yet are vnder the supreame, as hee vnder God is a Steward and Deputie for our wealth. The Apostle Paul willeth that prayers be made for all men, but especially for Kings and Princes;1. Tim. 2.1. and those that are vnder them in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godlinesse and honestie. Ieremy wisheth the people in captiuitie to pray for Nebuchadnez­zar an Heathen King, that vnder him they might haue peace. Hence is that good order commended vnto vs, wher­by in our publike prayers we make so­lemne mention of our lawfull Magi­strates, testifying both our desire of their good, and our thankfulnes for their gouernment.

Secondly, the amplification of their sinne standeth partly herein, that they speake euill of Dignities, Glories, Ma­iesties, that is, of those whom God hath adorned with these: in detracting and detaining from them their due ho­nour.

It may bee here asked, why doth the Holie Ghost call Magistrates by the names of glorie and dignitie? Ans. For two causes: first, because the Lord hath set them in his owne roome and place, and accordingly honoureth them with [Page 81] titles befitting the same. Psal. 82.1. God standeth in the assemblie of Gods, that is, of Magistrates; called Gods, not onely because he hath set thē in his place; but also because they haue receiued a parti­cular charge and commandement, and therwith a power of executing his own iudgements amongst men vpon earth as his deputies. 2. Chro. 19.6. They exe­cute not the iudgements of man, but of the Lord. Secondly, these titles are giuen them, because the Lord doth vsually furnish them with worthie and peculiar gifts (though not alwaies of sanctifica­tion) yet of regiment and gouernment to bee answerable to their former de­signement, as of wisedome, courage, zeale, &c. 1. Sam. 10.9. when Saul was made King, the Lord gaue him such princely gifts, as it is said, God gaue him another heart, his heart was changed in regard of other gifts than formerly he had: so when Dauid was annoynted King, and when Samuel had powred the horne of oyle vpon his head, it is said, 1. Sam. 16.13. that the spirit of the Lord came vpon him, which furnished him with gifts and graces both of rege­neration and regiment also. In like manner the Lord tooke of the spirit of Moses, and put it on the seuenty Elders, Numb. 11.17. whereby they were fur­nished with gifts of gouernment, and enabled to beare rule▪ and iudge iustly as Moses was: such titles therefore as these, are not ascribed vnto them with­out iust cause. Yea, how can they be fit­lier called than Glories? seeing there is no greater glorie in earth than to sup­plie Gods roome, and to bee enabled with gifts for the sufficient discharge of it.

Hence learne, that it is lawfull for Princes to beare an outward pompe, in diet, buildings, costly apparell, and troopes of men, for they are dignities, and their dignitie being outward in re­gard of men, they may maintaine it by outward pompe, to procure more reue­rence and awe of men thereunto. So Agrippa and Bernice came with great pompe and entred into the common hall: Act. 25.23. which pompe is not there discommen­ded, but rather approued, as by the cir­cumstances of the text appeareth.

Secondly, Magistrates ought espe­cially to honour God, because he espe­cially honoureth them; this must they doe by discountenancing and punish­ing vice, and by setting vp and maintai­ning true religion and vertue.

Thirdly, being in Gods place they are to execute iustice, without corrup­tion or partialitie, in the face and feare of God. 2. Chro. 9.7. Seeing the iudge­ment is the Lords, let the feare of God bee vpon you, take heede and doe it. Deut. 1.17. Ye shall haue no respect of per­sons in iudgement, but shall heare the small as well as the great: ye shall not feare the face of man, for the iudgement is Gods: and herein stands a great part of their glorie.

Fourthly, we are in all lawfull things to yeeld free subiection and obedience vnto our Magistrates and gouernours, euen as vnto God himselfe, whose roome they are in; which duty the child oweth also to his father, the seruant to his Master, because they also are set o­uer them in Gods stead.

Fifthly, hence also is it lawfull for vs to giue to Princes the titles of Maiestie and Grace, because it hath pleased the holy Ghost to ascribe them vnto them, and by their titles to commend their persons and places vnto vs; yea and to furnish them with such gifts of Magi­stracie, as that they become not onely naked titles, but iust significations of the true honour which God hath gra­ced them withall.

Vers. 9. ‘Yet Michael the Archangell when he stroue against the Diuell, and dis­puted about the bodie of Moses, durst not blame him with cursed speaking, but said: The Lord rebuke thee.’

IN this verse is laid downe another reason, amplifying their sin of these seducers, by a comparison from the greater to the lesse: and thus it stan­deth: Michael the Archangell durst not so much as raile on the Diuell himselfe, much lesse may these vpon Magistrates who are Gods: and consequently their sinne is hainous, who dare open their mouthes to reuile Princes and Magi­strates. Here one question is mooued, namely: whence the Apostle had this historie of the disputation betweene Michael and the Diuell, concerning the bodie of Moses, seeing it is not to bee found in the Scriptures? I answere, the substance of it is in the Scripture, al­though [Page 82] though not the circumstances. For in Deut. 34.6. is said, that the Lord buried Moses, but no man knoweth of his sepul­chre till this day. There is the ground of the historie: the other particular con­cerning the contention of the Archan­gell and the Diuell, wi [...]h this manner of rebuking, is not found in the old Testa­ment. Quest. Where then had he this? Ans. Either from some booke then ex­tant among the Iewes, which is not now to bee found: or else from some tradition which passed amōg the Iewes from hand to hand, as many things did: as that 2. Timot. 3.8. where the Apostle saith, that Iannes and Iambres withstood Moses; the historie of which is not found in the old Testament.

Hence the Papists conclude, that the word written is not sufficient and per­fect in and of it selfe, vnlesse the vnwrit­ten word be added vnto it, that is, that word which is giuen by tradition, both which (say they) make a perfect word, but neither is perfect or sufficient alone; grounding their opinion hence, that Iude alleageth an example out of a tra­dition which is not found in Scripture. But that is an hereticall doctrine and vntrue, seeing the perfection of a thing is not to bee measured by euery thing that is wanting vnto it, but by the per­fect end of it: for perfection is taken from the end. Whence I reason thus: If the written word be perfect and suf­ficient to the end to which it is ordai­ned, it is euery way perfect. But it is perfect and sufficient to that end: name­ly to the glorie of God in working out perfectly the faith & saluation of man: and is in nothing wanting for the at­chieuing of this end, but sufficiently teacheth all things to be beleeued and done, and giueth perfect direction con­cerning faith and manners. Ioh. 20.31. These things are written that they might beleeue, and beleeuing might haue life tho­rough his name. Rom. 15.4. Whatsoeuer things are written, are written for our lear­ning, that wee through patience and com­fort of the Scriptures might haue hope: and therefore the word written is euery way most sufficient and absolutely per­fect, and neede no addition or tradition to helpe forward this end.

Ob. This place is a tradition and not written, and many other true traditions were neuer written: besides that the Church may make traditions. Ans. We grant many true traditions are not in Scripture, but such they are as a man may be ignorant of, and not preiudice his saluation. Againe, the Church hath a power, and hath had priuiledge to make constitutions and lawes, which were to be knowne and receiued: but these are such as only concerne the or­derly gouernment of the Church, and are not necessarie to saluation.

Ob. But some traditions are neces­sarie to saluation, which are not con­tained in the written word, and they al­leage two: first, in Rom. 12.6. that Gods word must be tried by the rule of faith, and so also by the same rule expoun­ded. This rule of faith is nothing else (by their exposition) but a general con­sent in the hearts of all true Catholikes; together with the Pope assenting with them, which of necessitie wee must be­leeue; and yet (say they) it is not in the Scripture: and therefore some things must of necessitie bee beleeued which are not in the Scripture. Ans. The rule of faith is not such a crooked rule as they would thrust vpon the world by their wicked exposition; but the right rule of faith is the plaine word of God, euery way absolutely directing in all points of faith and loue, 2. Tim. [...].5. Paul wisheth Timothy to keepe the true patterne of wholesome words in faith and loue: which is nothing else but the te­stimonie of Scripture, in points of faith and loue, comprised in the Decalogue and Apostles Creede. The rule of faith therefore in expounding Scripture is Scripture it selfe. The second thing ne­cessarie by their doctrine to be belee­ued, not contained in Scripture, is, that the Canonical Scripture is Gods word: which truth is absolutely necessarie to saluation to be beleeued, but cannot o­therwise bee knowne or beleeued but onely by the tradition of the Church. Ans. As euery other Arte and Science hath certaine principles of truth to proue all other precepts by: but them­selues are to bee prooued by none▪ so also hath Diuinity the chiefe of al other Sciences: of which kinde this is one principle; that Canonicall Scripture is Gods word, which not granted, infer­reth a destruction of all other diuine rules: this is a truth therefore confir­med, not a thing testified from some [Page 83] other, but as a ground of it selfe. Se­condly, in diuine matters saith goeth before knowledge, which in humane things is cleane contrarie: for if a man would know whether fire bee hot, let him put his hand vnto it, he shall haue experience of it, and then he shall be­leeue it: but in diuine things first a man giueth credit, and yeeldeth consent to the word, and then hath experimentall knowledge: for although faith hath his knowledge,Rom 4.18. yet experimentall know­ledge followeth faith. Abraham belee­ued aboue hope, here faith went before knowledge. Ioh. 7.27. If ye do the will of my Father, yee shall know whether the doctrine bee of God, nor no. Thus then we may conceiue it, the tenour of the word of God is this: Thus saith the Lord. If the question now be whether the Lord said thus or no: I answere, to beleeue the Church herein before God is sacriledge: but herein we are first to yeeld assent vnto God, and then after this experimentall knowledge will fol­low, that Canonicall Scripture is the word of God. Thirdly, wee know that Scripture is Gods word, by Scripture, and not by the Church: out of which being in humilitie taught and acquain­ted with the excellent matter of it and manner of writing, the end the glorie of God, and our owne saluation; wee cannot but haue sufficient perswasion of the author of it, and that it can pro­ceede from none other but God him­selfe. Thus notwithstanding the alle­gations of the aduersaries, the written word retaineth that perfection, which needeth no tradition to strengthen or further it in that end to which it is ap­pointed. Now to the reason it selfe, am­plifying this sinne in this verse which containeth three points to be conside­red. First, the person that durst not raile. Secondly, the goodnes of his cause, which was very iust, and yet he durst not raile vpon the Diuell himselfe. Thirdly, the manner of his speech: The Lord rebuke thee.

The person that durst not raile was Michael the Archangell, whom some affirme to bee Christ himselfe: others, that he is some chiefe, arch and princi­pall Angel; which opinion is more pro­bable. For first, the Apostle speaketh of him as one in subiection, and standing in awe, not daring to breake the law of God, for he durst not reuile the Diuell. Secondly, in 1. Thess. 4.16. The Lord Christ shall come to iudgement with the sound of a Trumpet, and the voyce of an Archangell; where is a plaine di­stinction betweene Christ who should come in the clowdes, and the Archan­gell. Thirdly, Peter explaineth it, spea­king the same thing, and saith: The An­gels giue not railing iudgement against them, 2. Pet. 2.11. It is more probable then that by Michael was meant a prin­cipall Angell, rather than Christ.

Doctr. First, from the person wee learne that there be distinctions and de­grees of Angels; there bee Angels and an Archangell. Quest. Is there but one Archangell? Ans. The Scripture spea­king of Archangels, vseth alwaies the singular number, neuer mentioning more than one: and where the Scrip­ture resolueth not, we are not to deter­mine: yet I condemne not those who haue probably held that there are more than one. Secondly, wee haue here an example of Angelicall meeknes and modestie, Tit. 3.1. Put them in remem­brance that they bee subiect to princi­palitie, and speake euill of no man▪ but shew all meeknes vnto all [...] ▪ the contra­rie practise of railing, slandering, and obtrecting is a propertie of the Diuell, whence he hath his name, Reu. 12.10. the Accuser of the brethren: and the Aduersarie. 2. Pet. 5 8. who is euer rea­die with one accusation or other to stand vp against euery man: the mali­tious man, whose malice caused him to stand vp against Iob, and falsely accuse him of hypocrisie vnto Gods own face. Let slanderers and backbiters of their brethren see hence whom they imitate, and most liuely resemble.

Secondly, consider the goodnesse of Michaels cause, which was this: It was the wil of God that Moses body should be buried in a secret place vnknown to any man, to preuent and auoid al occa­sion of superstition and Idolatrie amōg the Iewes. The Diuell on the contrarie would discouer it, that so the Israelites might fall to Idolatrie before it; herein the Archangell resisted him, and stroue with him for the performance of the will of God and the maintenance of his true worship: and yet in this good cause Michael durst not reuile the Diuel him­selfe. In this cause consider two things. [Page 84] First, the fight and contention betweene Michael and the Diuell. Secondly, the cause and occasion of it about Moses bodie. In the former wee may obserue that there is a sharp and serious conten­tion betweene good and bad Angels;In these conflicting daies of ours not men only but the An­gels haue their com­bat [...]. in which the good Angels labour to de­fend all that are in Christ, against the rage and furie of the Diuell and his an­gels. As Psal. 34.8. The Angels of the Lord pitch their tents round about those that feare him. And on the contrarie, the Diuell and wicked spirits cast about how to destroy the bodies and soules of men. 1. Pet. 5. Our aduersarie the Di­uell goeth about continually seeking whom he can deuoure. This combat concerneth and is conuersant about either first the persons, or secondly the societies of men. The fight about the persons con­cerneth either infants, or men of yeres. First, for infants the Diuell seeketh how to spoyle and destroy them (especially those of elect and faithfull parents) in regard of their weaknes and tendernes both of minde and bodie: but the An­gels of the Lord haue charge giuen thē to defend them against this malice of Satan. As Psal. 91.12. They shall beare thee vp in their armes, that is, they shall bee as nurces to beare them in their armes, preseruing them from danger. Mat. 18.10. Despise not one of these little ones: for their Angels alwaies behold the face of my father which is in heauen. Second­ly, concerning men of yeeres, the diuell and his angels striue to driue them out of their waies and callings, and to leade them into crooked paths; as he would haue had Christ to haue leapt frō off the top of the pinacle, although he had an or­dinarie way to go downe: and haue made stones bread: but the good Angels on the other side are giuen vs to keep vs in all our waies, Psal. 91. and so vnder the protection of the Almightie. The se­cond strife, namely about societies, con­cerneth either first families, secondly Churches, or thirdly Common wealths; all which the Diuell striueth to ouer­turne: as the good Angels to preserue and maintaine them. First, the Diuels endeuour is vtterly to ouerthrow all families, of Christian men especially: he robbed Iob of all his substance, slew his seruants, and children: but the good Angels guard and defend them. Iacob had the Angels of God defending him and his familie from the furie of Esau, Gen. 31.1. Psal. 91.10. when the plague and pestilence preuaileth against the vngodly, the good Angels keepe it off from comming neere the tabernacles of the righteous. Secondly, in Churches and congregations, the wicked Angels striue to corrupt the word, Sacraments, and all the Ministerie; or to make it fruitlesse, euery way to their power hin­dring the good successe thereof. The Diuell offereth himselfe to bee a lying spirit in the mouth of all Ahabs Pro­phets.1. King. 2 [...]. Zach. 3.1. He standeth at Iehoshuah his right hand, to withstand him in his office. He seweth tares in the field where the good seede of the word is sowne, Mat. 13. Hence are those false doctrines of forbidding meates, and marriages, cal­led the doctrine of diuels, 1. Tim. 4.1. He hindred Paul once or twice from his iourney to the Thessal. to confirme them, 1. Thess. 2.18. He raiseth persecu­tion against the Church: for hee is said to cast some of the Church at Smir [...]a into prison, Reu. 2.10. The good Angels on the contrarie fight against them, for the good of the Church, the furtherance of the Gospell, and preseruation of the true worship of God. The Law was gi­uen by their ministrie, Galat. 3. The ti­dings of saluation and the doctrine of the Gospell was first preached by An­gels, Luk. 2.9. The Angell brought Phi­lip to instruct the Eunuch, Act. 8.26. as also to baptise him, vers. 38. deliuered Peter out of prison, Act. 12.11. Thirdly, the wicked Angels seeke to supplant Common-wealths and kingdomes. Sa­tan moued Dauid to number the peo­ple, by which sinne he wasted 70000. of his people. The good Angels fight in their defence. The Angell told Da­niel that hee fought against the Prince of the kingdom of Persia for the Iewes, Dan. 10.13. The Angell smote of Zena­cheribs armie in one night, an hundred fourescore and fiue thousand, who were enemies to the Church, 2. King. 19. Ob. How can the Diuell thus furiously fight against persons and societies, seeing he was neuer seene, neither can this fight be perceiued of vs? Ans. As he is a spi­rit, so his fight is spirituall, not easily di­scerned by the eye of flesh: for we fight not against flesh and blood,Eph. 6.12. but against principalities, and spirituall wickednes­ses. Againe, he fighteth not onely in his [Page 85] owne person, [...] by his instruments and complices, whom hee daily raiseth vp against the persons of men, and all humane societies and this fight we may in part perceiue.

Vse. First, note hence the dignitie of euery beleeuer, who haue the Angels, yea and as here the Archangels, to put themselues in garrison for their de­fence▪ for from Christ it is. Secondly, we are with all thankfulnes to acknow­ledge Gods prouidence and protectiō especially in this land▪ whose peace and prosperitie hath bin so long established vnto our persons and societies, our fa­milies, Church and Common-wealth▪ wheras if Satā had might to his malice, no [...] one of these should stand a mo­ment. Thirdly, in all dangers our com­fort must hence bee raised, that though Satans crueltie bee neuer so great▪ yet we haue the guard and defence of the good Angels to keep vs in al our waies▪ and these are too many, and too strong for him, and all the power hee can raise against vs. Thus was Elis [...]s seruant comforted: There be more with vs than against vs ▪ the good Angels are more powerfull for our good▪ than the wic­ked are to harme and hurt vs. Fourthly, [...]nce learne to make conscience of e­uery sinne in thought, word, and deed: for admitting and commi [...]ing any sin, wee trecherously turne against those that fight for our defence, and do what we can to grieue and driue them away from vs, and so put our selues in the po­wer of Satan to bee led at his pleasure into sinne, as also into the dangers of it.

The second point in this cause of contention is, the occasion of it, name­ly▪ it was about Moses his bodie. Mi­chael would not suffer the Diuell to re­ueile where Moses bodie was laid, so to sow the seedes of Idolatrie, whereby Gods true worship might be ouertur­ned: for hee cared not for the bodie of Moses, but to bring in Idolatrie by meanes of it. Hence note that the wic­ked Angels fight not so much against the bodies of m [...], as against their soules▪ nor contend so much to ouerthrow them in their outward es [...]ate, or to de­priue them of their goods, [...], drink, &c. as in their inward, to [...]est from them their spirituall things, namely Gods true worship and the things and meanes which [...] to the maintaining and [...] We haue to fight [...] in high places▪ Ephes. 6. [...]2. But [...] may as well [...] in spirituall things▪ for therein bend they their principall forces. The [...] of the diuell is to blinde the mindes of Infidels, that the light of the glorious Gospell of Christ should not shine vnto them. 2. Cor. 4.4. This same Serpent that be guiled Eue thorough his subtiltie▪ seeketh how to corrupt mens minde [...] from that simplicitie which is in Christ▪ 2. Cor. 11.3.

Vse. First, we must keepe that which is committed vnto vs. 1. Tim. 6.20. The treasure which God hath put into our hands is his true worship▪ sound do­ctrine, right vse of Sacraments: al which seeing Satan most desireth to breake off or corrupt▪ wee ought accordingly to striue▪ how wee may preserue them to our selues, and haue them continued in their puritie to our posteritie. Second­ly, in that Satan seeketh to depriue the soule of spiritual things, we must [...] our graces, and become more vigilant in maintaining, and adding also vnto our knowledge, faith, loue, hope, and o­ther our graces; seeing Satan will si [...]t v [...] to make vs [...]chaffe, we must watch and pray that our faith faile not.

Thirdly, marke who is the author of Idolatrie, namely the diuell himselfe, and of that especiall part of it,The diuell hath pre­uailed with the Papists and drawn them to that idola­trie which he could not bring among the Iewes. which then he could not effect; but hath now obtained in that Idolatrous Church of Rome, namely, in worshipping of Ima­ges, stocks and stones, relikes of Saints, and of the woodden Crosse; yea armes, legges, hands, feet, and fingers of Mar­tyrs: whence is al this but from the di­uell himselfe, who for the same purpose would haue reueiled where Moses bo­die was buried by God? Yea so farre haue they gone on in this delusion, that they are become spectacles of follie to the whole world: for if Iohn Baptist had had so many heads as the Papists brag of, he had been a monster of men: be­sides▪ though the Crosse wheron Christ was crucified was no greater than as ordinarie man might beare; yet so ma­ny seuerall peeces thereof they pretend themselues to haue in seuerall places as would load a shippe. Ob. They say they had all those [...]likes by reuelation [Page 86] [...] Ans. These [...] are but [...] illusion [...] to main­taine Idolatrie: besides that [...] (the word being [...] perfect [...] in all matters to bee beleeued or done) vn­written reuelations are no proofes of doctrine, but are lu [...]ly to be suspected.

The third thing in the verse is the manner of his speech, in which obserue three things: first, what speech the Archangell would not vse: He would not speake euill. Secondly, what speech he vsed; The Lord rebuke th [...] ▪ Thirdly, the reason or cause of both; because he durst not speake euill.

First of this cause, as being first in na­ture, which is s [...]d to bee feare. Now to know what kinde of feare it was, consi­der that the [...] is a three-fold feare: first, from entire nature: secondly, from the corruption of nature: thirdly, from grace. The first is a naturall propertie, whereby the creature seek [...] to preserue it selfe, and to shunne danger: which feare is not [...] in it selfe; for it was in Christ when he said his soule was heauie euen vnto the death: and, if [...] possible let this cup passe from me: but this is not here meant. The second feare procee­ding from corruption of nature in men and Angels, is that seruile feare when the creature feareth nothing but due and deserued punishment, the consci­ence being guiltie vnto it selfe and ac­cusing for sinne, and the heart desti­tute of faith and loue of God; which if it were present would cast out this sla­uish feare; which is no other than the feare euen of the Diuels themselues: who beleeue and tremble, Iam. 2.19. but neither was this the feare of the Angell. The third feare is from grace, and it is a gift of the spirit of God (who therefore is called the spirit of feare) working in men and Angels a care to please, and a feare of displeasing God in all things: this is the feare here meant which was in the Angell. In which consider three things further: first, the beginning of it, which is faith euen in the Angels them­selues; whereby they beleeue the po­wer, iustice, soueraigntie, and Lordship of God ouer them; and that they must be subiect and obedient thereunto: but in man it is a faith, apprehending the mercie and fauour of God reconciled by Christ: this feare in Angels and men therefore is the fruite of their faith. Se­con [...]y, the propertie of [...] is to make the subiect of it to feare the of­fence of God [...] euill of the world, to [...] properly▪ [...] of all▪ because by it God is displeased: and in the next [...] of iudgement consequently, but [...] the first place. Psal. 119.12. [...] trembleth for feare of thee, and I [...] stand of thy iudgements. This was the re­ligious feare of Dauid ▪ first, a fearing of Gods offence, and then a standing in awe of his iudgements: thirdly, the vse of it: which is to make man and Angel make conscience of sin. Exod. [...] the Midwiues spare the Hebrew [...] ▪ it will not suffer the Angell hereto re­uile the Diuell. The feare of God (saith Salomon) causeth to [...] euery [...] way▪ yea it frameth to obedience,Psal. 19.9. and i [...] [...], because it keepeth the heart from defiling it selfe. Our dutie hence is to pray that the Lord would put into our heart [...] this religious feare, which they containe vs in awe of his Maiestie, and so keepe vs from offences, wherein wee may resemble this Angell: as also to be a welspring of life vnto vs, Prou. 14.27 not onely [...] escape the snares of death, but to quic­ken and prouoke vs in the w [...]es of life euerlasting. Secondly, wee must auoide the sinne which the Angell was [...] of, namely the boldnes of sinning espe­cially in these daies wherein then ad­uenture and rush vpon sinne without feare or shame.

The second point herein is, what speech the Archangell would not vse, that is, cursed speaking, or railing iudge­ment. Which to know what it is, ob­serue the differences of iudgement; which is two-fold, either publique or priuate. Publique iudgement i [...] when a man is called by God to iudge the crea­ture; and this is two-fold: first of the Magistrate; secondly of the Minister. The Magistrate is called by God to seeke out the misdemeanours of men, and according to the offence is to pro­nounce a righteous sentence, [...] to the taking away (if the cause [...]) of the temporall life it selfe. The Mini­ster is also in the name of God to pro­nounce the curse of the law vpon vnre­pentant sinners; and the promise of the Gospell vnto the penit [...]nt. Secondly, priuate iudgement is, when the crea­ture passeth iudgement against [...]o­ther, [Page 87] without calling from God, but vpon priuate grudge, anger, stomacke, and reuenge; this is here called railing iudgement; and it is practised three waies: first, in speaking falsehoods and vntruths against others. Second­ly, in speaking truths, but with intent of slandering and detracting from the good name of others. Thirdly, in mis­construing mens sayings and doings to the worst part, when they may be ta­ken in the better: this railing speech the Angell durst not vse.

Hence we learne to make conscience of this sinne of slandering, reproching, and reuiling others, from which the Archangell abstained dealing euen with the Diuell himselfe: but many of vs who can vtter the prouerbe, That it is a shame to belie the Diuell; are con­tented, yea and readie to belie, and de­tract from the children of God our brethren by this railing iudgement. Some will say, what may we neuer vse this kind of iudgement? Ans. Neuer, no not against the Diuell: but if wee would take vp iudgement against any creature, let it bee against our owne selues for our sinnes; here we may passe sentence freely, and so escape the iudgement of God: as for others wee are to iudge by the iudgement of loue, which hopeth, speaketh, thinketh, and suspecteth the best, and couereth the worst, euen a multitude of sinnes.

The third point is the speech which the Archangell vsed in these words: The Lord rebuke thee. Which words are a forme of prayer, in which he com­mendeth and remitteth reuenge vnto God, desiring that the Lord, to whom iudgement belongeth, would restraine, correct and repay the Diuell for his malice. Here it may bee asked: what shall we doe when wee are wronged? Ans. Learne of the Angell not to re­quite and repay euill for euill, neither in action, speech, or affection; but leaue all reuenge vnto the Lord. Zachariah being stoned to death vniustly, desi­red no reuenge,1. Chro. 24.22. but said: The Lord see and require it. Christ himselfe being accused before Pilate, answered nothing; and when he died he prayed for those who crucified him, Matth. 17. Againe, when a man will needs reuenge him­selfe of a wrong done against him, hee takes vpon him the person of the ac­cuser, witnesse, Iudge, and executio­ner; which is against all iustice and e­quitie: besides that the Lord challen­geth this as his own prerogatiue; Ven­geance is mine, and I will repay.

Ob. But did not Elias pray for fire from heauen in way of reuenge, where­by he destroyed his enemies? Ans. He did: but by instinct from God, which is as much as a commandement.

Ob. But Christ when he was smit­ten, said: If I haue well said, why smitest thou me. Ans. We must put a difference betweene lawfull defence of our selues in our good cause, and the offence of our aduersaries. Farre was Christ herein from reuenge, and so must we.

Ob. But this is hard and impossible vnto flesh and blood. Ans. Yea but we professe our selues to bee children of our Father in heauen, and therefore we are to haue more than flesh and blood in vs; euen that grace of God which carrieth beleeuers further in Christs schoole, than flesh and blood can leade them. Vse. Schollers and learned men that are to defend Gods cause and the truth of religion, yea euen against very heretikes, must abstaine from reuiling speeches; if wee be reuiled by the pe [...] of the aduersarie, we must commit the iniurie to God. Secondly, people that goe to law with others, for most part herein offend, that they doe it in way of reuenge, and to wrecke their malice vpon their aduersarie; whereas the right vse of sui [...]e in law is only to de­fend a mans right, all reuenge laid aside. Thirdly, hence men of valour are taught not to take a challenge into the field, it is an honour not to accept of it, seeing reuenge is to bee left vnto God, let the wrong bee neuer so great. Fourthly, when men be at oddes and difference, it is not lawfull to chide, braule, contend, crie, and lift vp the voyce in threatnings, seeing all these are degrees and kindes of reuenge, which wee must leaue vnto God. Qu. What must a man doe that is to in­counter with the Diuel, either by temp­tation, possession, or otherwise? Ans. Hee must follow the practise of the Archangel, euen flie to God by prayer, and intreate him to rebuke him. The like practise must be taken vp by those who are to deale with heretikes, who seeke the ouerthrow of religion: The [Page 88] Lord must be intreated to restraine the malice of the Diuell, that he may not in himselfe or instruments preuaile to corrupt or represse; much lesse suppresse or supplant the truth.

Vers. 10. ‘But these speake euill of those things which they know not, and whatsoe­uer things they know naturally, as beasts which are without reason; in those things they corrupt themselues.’

IN the former part of this verse is laid downe a third argument, which am­plifieth the sinne of these deceiuers; thus framed: For a man to giue sen­tence, and condemne that which hee knoweth not, is a point of great iniu­stice and rashnes: But these men con­demning Magistracie, condemne a thing they know not: and therefore are iustly accused of rashnes and iniustice. The like s [...]ne of these seducers hath been too vsuall in all ages. In the daies of the Apostles themselues, the Gen­tiles accounted the doctrine of the Go­spell but foolishnes: the Iewes, an offence; and yet neither of them knew what it was. The same rashnes is at this day to bee descried in the Church of Rome, who haue denounced the sen­tence of excommunication against our Churches, and condemne the Prote­stants for heretikes, when the most of them neuer knew our doctrine, nor ne­uer heard what wee could say for our selues; yea most iniuriously they mi­stake vs in sundry maine points of do­ctrine; as when wee teach that workes doe not iustifie a man before God, they crie out and say we condemne all good workes. The same fault is exceeding rise amongst vs in these daies: for let a man make conscience of his waies and endeuour to please God, he is presently branded with names of reproch, by those whose tongues are nimble to speake euill of things they neuer knew; who are to know that a man cannot be too precise in keeping the commaun­dements of God, and that themselues haue made a promise in Baptisme to walke in no other waies, and ought to renew the same so often as they come to the Lords table.

And whatsoeuer things they know na­turally.] In the rest of this verse is set downe the third sinne of these decei­uers, which is the sinne of intempe­rance, standing in the immoderate vse of meate and drinke, apparell, &c. Tou­ching this sinne two things are pro­pounded: first, the proper cause of it, that is naturall knowledge, in these words: Whatsoeuer they know naturally.] Secondly, the sinne it selfe, or the pro­pertie of it: In those things they corrupt themselues. The cause is, because they are guided with a naturall knowledge, like the bruite beasts which are with­out reason. There be three kindes of knowledge incident vnto the creature; first, naturall knowledge, arising from the instinct of nature common to man and beast, and consisting in the senses of sight, taste, touching, &c. by the benefit whereof the beast it selfe can discerne what is food fit for it selfe, and what is not; what is profitable, and what is hurtfull and vnprofitable for it: vnto which is ioyned a naturall appetite, by the benefit of which the creature can chuse or refuse his food and meate in season. The second is reasonable know­ledge proper to man, and is nothing els, but the light of vnderstanding, where­by he reacheth farre higher, and dis­cerneth meate, drinke, apparell, and rest, to be Gods good gifts, and kno­weth the ciuill vse of them; with the which is ioyned election of will, where­by hee can chuse or refuse the ciuill or vnciuil, honest, or dishonest vse of them. This knowledge is in all men, for euen the Gentiles themselues doe by nature the things contained in the law, Rom. 2.14. that is, ciuilly and outwardly: thus many of the Heathen haue excelled in ciuill carriage, and practise of iustice, temperance, and other ciuill vertues. The third is spirituall knowledge, not proceeding either from naturall in­stinct, or reason it selfe; but from the enlightening of the spirit of God: and it hath sundrie fruits. First, it enableth men to know these things in their right causes, as that these giftes of meates, drinks, & such like proceed from God, not as he is the God of nature only; but as by grace in Christ he is our God, yea our Father, & so they become pledges of his speciall mercie; seeing they are now restored againe to the beleeuer, hauing been formerly lost in Adams fall. Secondly, this knowledge causeth men to know them in the due measure [Page 89] of their goodnes and excellencie, right­ly discerning them from spirituall bles­sings: so as the heart shall not be set vpon them in the first place, but vpon the other as of farre higher esteeme; yea they shall bee counted as dung in regard of these. Thirdly, it instructeth men in the right vse of them, namely when it worketh this perswasion in their hearts, that til their persons please God they can neuer vse them well; and then onely hee is pleased in their vse of these, when as their persons first please him. Qu. What is the thing then con­demned in these seducers? Ans. The very sin condemned is, that in the vse of the creatures of God they are not guided by reasonable, much lesse this spirituall knowledge; but onely by na­ture, sense, and appetite, as the beast is, and no otherwise, which is the cause of all intemperance.

Hence note the proper cause of the abuse of all Gods blessings vnto coue­tousnes, pride, surfetting, drunkennes, and other sinnes of that kinde: namely, because though men haue by nature the vse of reason; yet in the vse of these things they lay it aside, and follow their own sense and appetite: so farre are they from being guided by that higher knowledge which is wrought by the spirit of God.

Secondly, from the reprehension we are taught to labor for spirituall know­ledge, whereby we may be led into the right vse of these temporall things; for then and not before shall we vse them as pledges of Gods mercie in Christ vnto vs (as the beasts cannot) and shall hardly be drawne to their abuse in riot and intemperance, as these seducers were.

Thirdly, in that they are said to bee guided only, as the beast which is with­out reason, that is by nature, sense, and appetite: note the practise of the Diuel which is to keep men (if he can) in their naturall knowledge, and will not suffer them to attaine to that which is spiri­tuall: yea and which is more, hee cor­rupteth also that naturall knowledge which men haue. A notable experience hereof we haue in the Church of Rome; which of a famous Church is become hereticall, and schismaticall; the reason of it is, because the Diuell hath turned all their religion and doctrine, into a natural doctrine & religion: the maine points whereof are grounded vpon na­turall reason, and the learning and Phi­losophie of the Heathen and Gentiles. As iustification by workes, merits, Pur­gatorie, with the rest. Others not a few amongst our selues also are deluded by this subtilty of Satan; who suffereth ma­ny men to liue ciuilly and honestly a­mong their neighbours, but will not brooke that they rise any higher: they must content themselues to liue by na­turall knowledge: Hence many men plead they know enough, namely to loue God aboue all, and their neigh­bour as themselues: and that God is mercifull, &c. which is nothing but a sleight of the Diuell still to hold them in their naturall knowledge, and so within his owne power.

The second point is the sinne it selfe, and propertie of it: In those things they corrupt themselues.] This sin of intem­perance causeth men in the abuse of meate, drinke, and apparell, to corrupt themselues: here then are two things to be spoken of, wherein the whole na­ture of intemperancie is sufficientlie comprised. First of the abuse of the crea­tures: secondly of his corruption that thus abuseth them. Concerning the for­mer; the abuse of the creatures is foure waies: first, in excesse, whē men vse them beyond their calling, habilitie, or that which nature requireth; this maketh the heart heauie: forbidden by Christ, Luk. 21.34. Secondly, in curiositie, when men are not content with ordinarie meate, drink, apparell; but deuise new fashions of apparell, and new kindes of waies of stirring vp and whetting of appetite. Thirdly, in affection, when men so ad­dict themselues to meates and drinks, as they cannot bee without them. The Minister must not be one that loueth to sit at the wine, nor giuen to wine. 1. Tim. 3.3 1. Cor. 7.30 The affection is here condemned, when he cannot sit without the pot at his elbow; for else it is indifferent, & for his health sake he may drinke a little wine. Paul willeth that the ioy in the creature bee as no ioy. Those also are reproued that drinke not for strength,Eccles. 10.17. but for drinke sake: for although they neither are drunke nor surfet, yet this very affection is a sinne. Fourthly, in time, when these good creatures are vsed vnseasonably. Eccles. 10.16. Wee be to the land whose [Page 90] Princes rise early to eate. A woe is also denounced against those, that rise early to drinke wine, Isai. 5.11. that is, out of sea­son. The rich man for that he was clad in purple, and fared deliciously euery day, is branded with a note of intempe­rance, in not obseruing this distinction of times. These bee the waies whereby the creatures are abused.

The second point is, how intemperate persons in these things corrupt thēselues: namely foure waies: first, in regard of their bodies, vpon which by their sin of intemperance they call sundrie sicknes­ses, diseases, yea and hasten their death. Secondly, they deface Gods image, ma­king themselues worse than the beasts themselues. Thirdly, they destroy their soules; for no drunkard, or riotous per­son shal inherit heauen, 1. Cor. 3. Fourth­ly, they ouerthrow their families in wa­sting th [...]ir substance, to the maintaining of their intemperance, and so bring ru­ine to the places where they liue.

Vse. In these seducers we haue a glasse, wherein to behold the state of our daies and times; in which intemperance hath taken place not only in prophane hou­ses, but euē in religious places, & where reformation is professed. A common practise it is to drink with glasses, with­out feete, which must neuer rest; also by the bell, the die, the douzen, the yard, and other measures, & then vse Tabac­co or other meanes to sharpen appetite still an horrible sin exceeding this sin of these seducers themselues. Secondly, seeing intemperance bringeth iust cor­ruption, and in the end destructiō vpon the offenders, we must make conscience of sobrietie and temperance: this is the end of Gods grace which hath appea­red, to teach vs to liue soberly, Tit. 2.12. And whosoeuer cannot obtaine thus much of himselfe to deny the abuse of creatures, will neuer attaine to the deni­all of himselfe for Christ his sake, and is as yet a man of no religion.

But for the defending of this mur­thering sinne, some things are alleaged.

No face is so [...] but shall [...] pain­ter.1. Ob. Gen. 43. vlt. Ioseph and his bre­thren did eate & drink, and were drunke together. Hagge 1.6. The people are threatned to drinke, but not to drunken­nes: wherfore drunkennes is not vnlaw­full; yea it is a curse to drinke and not to be drunke. Ans. These places may in­deed be thus translated; but then drun­kennes is taken two waies: first, for ex­cesse in drinking: of which the places alleaged speake not. Secondly, for libe­rall or plentifull drinking, and this may bee done in a holie manner. So Ioseph with his brethren eat and dranke libe­rally and plentifully; but not excessiue­ly: so the people were threatned in Hagge to drinke, but not to sa [...]ietie and plentifulnes.

2. Ob. Ioh. 2. It is said the guests had well drunke; yet Christ turned water into wine still, and commaunded the Ministers to draw forth. Ans. This only sheweth what we may doe, namely, vse the creatures of God in plentifull and liberall manner, vpon such occasions as this; but iustifieth not intemperance, or excesse in the vse of them.

3. Ob. It is an ancient rule, that in some olde and lingering diseases it is good to be drunke; therefore it is law­full vpon some occasion to be drunke. Ans. This cannot be done in good con­science, being an vnlawfull meanes to cure any disease, though old and vsed.

4. Ob. But some say they can drinke and neuer be drunke, they can beare more away than two or three. Ans. W [...]e vnto them that are strong to drinke wine and strong drinke;Isai. 5.22. there is a curse of God against them who vse needlesse drin­king, though they neuer surfet nor be drunke. Q [...]. For what ends may we vse the creatures, and in what manner? Ans. The lawful end of their vse is two-fold: first, for necessitie to preserue life and health: secondly, for our lawful and ho­nest delight. Psal. 104.14. God giueth bread to strengthen the heart, and oyle also to make his countenance glad. Christ suf­fered a woman to powre a boxe of pre­tious oyntment vpon his head: himself was at a feast in Galeley and forbad not the liberal vse of wine. Secondly, for the manner and measure we must knowe that one man cannot herein be a rule to another, one mans stomack and health craueth more, another lesse. But euery man must obserue this rule of sobrietie: that he haue alwaies an eye to spirituall exercises; as praier, hearing of the word, meditation, as also to the workes and duties of his speciall calling; and so much as fitteth a man vnto these is his measure: and when a man by the crea­tures maketh himselfe heauie and vnfit for these, he hath exceeded his measure.

Vers. 11. ‘W [...]e vnto them, for they haue followed the way of Caine, and are cast a­way by the deceit of Balams wages, and pe­rish in the gainsaying of Core.’

IN the former words of the verse, [W [...]e vnto them] is laid downe the conclu­sion of the principall argument of the Epistle, namely, that these seducers shall be destroyed: hauing taken vnto themselues libertie of sinning; which he hath alreadie prooued by a particu­lar enumeration of the sinnes, vnto which they were addicted: and further amplifieth that second part of the rea­son, by the reckoning vp of diuers o­ther sinnes, both in this verse, and in the rest vnto the twentith. First of the con­clusion; W [...]e vnto them.] Here first it may bee demaunded, why or how the A­postle dare pronounce such a peremp­torie sentence against them, and that of euerlasting condemnation; seeing the Archangell durst not passe iudge­ment, no not against the Diuell him­selfe? Ans. There be two grounds of this practise: first, God giueth to all Prophets, Apostles and Ministers the power of the keyes; whereby they re­taine and binde vp some mens sinnes to destruction, as also to remit and loose the sins of some others: in both which they pronounce iudgement ge­nerally. Secondly, God gaue yet a fur­ther power vnto Prophets and Apo­stles (which is denied now to ordinarie Ministers) whereby reuealing vnto them his speciall iudgements against particular persons, hee made them his instruments to pronounce these his iudgements against men, euen in parti­cular. Thus Dauid, Psal. 109. cursed par­ticular persons. Paul curseth Alexan­der the Coppersmith, 2. Tim. 4. and Gal. 5.12. Would to God they were euen cut off that trouble you: and by the same spirit of reuelation the Apostle discer­ned this woe most certainly to befall these seducers. Vse. Hence the Papists conclude, that Prophets, and Apostles, and cōsequently the Popes, may make laws to binde the conscience, because they haue power ouer it; it being law­full for them to curse bodie and soule. Answ. A creature may bee cursed two waies: first, by imposing a curse and in­flicting it vpon the bodie, soule, or con­science: this is the peculiar curse of God, resting in his power alone, and is not committed to Prophets, Apostles, or Ministers; for it argueth such a power ouer the soule as may saue or destroy it. Secondly, by foretelling and pronoun­cing a curse to come, which God will inflict; and this is that which belongeth to Prophets, Apostles, and Ministers: but this argueth no power at al ouer the conscience. Secondly, some hence may conceiue that they haue warrant to curse other creatures, man or beast, see­ing the Apostle vseth it. Ans. This pra­ctise of the Apostle (hauing an extraor­dinary spirit of reuelation) is no rule for any man, no not for the Minister ordi­narily called. Our rule left vs by Christ is to blesse, and not curse, Mat. 5.44. Rom. 12.14. which must be vnderstood of par­ticular persons, for otherwise the Mini­ster hath authoritie to accurse impeni­tent sinners in generall; but not this or that particular person; no not in Gods cause: for he knowes not what shall be the future estate of this or that man in particular: much lesse may priuate men in priuate causes vse cursings or impre­cations against others: which condem­neth their wicked practise, who in their anger and impatience breake out into cursing of their childrē, seruants, friends, yea or enemies; our contrary duty must be to blesse, as we are called vnto blessing. Thirdly,Christian meeknes must bee tempered with Chri­stian zeale▪ marke the Apostles dispositi­on; they were themselues most meek in dealing with men, who called others vnto meeknes; their own patient minds were knowne vnto all men in all the matters of men: but when Gods glorie was called into question, and the salua­tion of men likely to be hindred, they lay aside their meekenes, and put on seueritie, and roughnes, their zeale in Gods matters would not admit such lenitie and patience, as towards men in mens matters they were willing to ex­ercise. They had an Apostolicall r [...]d, which in such cases they vsed against offenders. Moses the meekest man vp­on the earth, when he saw the Israelites worship the golden Calfe, was so in­censed with wrath, that hee brake the Tables which were in his hands, and tooke his sword, and together with the Leuites slew three thousand of them the same day, Exod. 32.27. Christ him­selfe though hee would not breake a [Page 92] brused reede; yet dealing with the Scribes and Pharisies, who had corrup­ted the whole lawe, laded them with woes and curses, Matth. 23. Paul, who otherwise was all things to all men; yet when Gods glory was impared by Ely­mas his withstanding of him, he strook him blinde: and cursed Alexander out of a rightly ordered and holie zeale: all which examples teach vs the like reli­gious affection, that when Gods honor is in hazard, our zeale should be infla­med; when mans saluation is likely to be hindred, our meeknes must be for the time set aside, that the zeale of Gods house may euen consume vs, Psalm. 69.9. as it did Christ himselfe when he saw his Fathers house disho­noured, and of a house of prayer made a denne of theeues, vnto whom we are daily to be conformed.

They haue followed the way of Caine.] In these words the Apostle returneth to the former part of the reason, whereby he hath alreadie by three forenamed sinnes proued, that these seducers are they which take libertie to sinne; and vnto them addeth this fourth: That they haue followed the way of Caine. In which, first we will shew the meaning of the words; and then obserue the doctrines. In the former consider two things: first, what is the way of Caine: secondly, why they are said to walke in this way of Caine. The way of Caine is that course of life which Caine took vp to himself, in following the lusts of his owne heart against the will of God. It is described in Gen. 4. of which way there be seuen steps or degrees, but euery one out of the right way. The first step was his hy­pocrisie: he worshipped God by offring sacrifice as Abel did, but his heart was not a beleeuing heart as Abel [...] was; his worship was outward & ceremonious, but not in spirit and truth, for his heart was an euill heart of vnbeleefe. The se­cond, his hatred of his owne, onely, and naturall brother, prosecuting him with wrath and indignation, testified by the casting downe of his countenance vp­on him: the reason of all which was, be­cause his own works were euill, and his bro­thers good, 1. Ioh. 3.12. so as (his brothers offering being accepted, and his reie­cted) he feared that Abel might get the birthright, and become the Priest, Prophet, and King in the familie, and euery way (as he deserued) be preferred before him; for thus much is signified in these words, Genes. 4.7. that if he did well, Abels affection should bee subiect vnto him, and he should hold his rule ouer him. The third, his murther, where­by hee slew his righteous brother. The fourth, his lying vnto God, saying, he knew not where his brother was, hauing slaine him, and extenuating his sinne, denied himselfe to be his brothers kee­per. The fifth, his desperation, after that God had conuicted him and pronoun­ced sentence against him: for being cursed for his sinne, he cutteth himselfe off from the mercie of God, in saying: My punishment is greater than I am able to beare. The sixth, his securitie and care­lesnes, hee regardeth not his sinne, nor the conscience of it, but busieth him­selfe in building a Citie, and calleth it after the name of his child: that seeing his name was not written in heauen, he might yet preserue his name and me­morie in the earth. The seuenth and last, which was the highest step of his way, was his prophanenes; for from thence­foorth he cast off, and contemned all the care and practise of Gods worship: which appeareth Gen. 4.26. Then men began to call vpon the name of the Lord. Which wordes haue relation to the whole chapter going before concer­ning Caine and his posteritie, who had vtterly reiected the seruice of God, and betaken themselues to other affaires: Caine himselfe to his building; Lamech to his lust, being the first founder of Po­lygamie; for hee tooke vnto him two wiues: Iabal to the framing and pitch­ing of Tents: Iubal to Musicke: Tubal Caine to other curious works. But when Enoch was borne, then men began to affect better things, to call vpon the name of the Lord; then the true wor­ship of God (formerly neglected) be­gan to bee restored. This is the path wherein Caine walked.

The second point is, in what regard these seducers are said to follow Cain [...] way, and that is in regard of all these seuen sinnes: but especially in the ha­tred and crueltie which he practised a­gainst his brother: for as he was bloo­dily, and maliciously minded towards his brother, though he gaue him good words, till he saw his time conuenient to execute his conceiued malice: so is [Page 93] it with these seducers, they may seeme for the season otherwise affected, yet indeed they carrie a hatefull affection to the Church of God, and against those also that endeuour in the buil­ding vp of the same.

Doct. Hence first note that the way of Caine is the high and broad way of the world. The Turks and Iews follow Caines footsteps in the profession and practise of all prophanenes, in that they denie and despise the Messias the Sonne of God, yea and persecute with a deadly hatred all Christians, and are neuer satisfied with the spilling of their blood.The way of Caine beaten in Poperie, as is seene in infinite causelesse massacres and cruell [...]urthers of Prote­stants. The way of the Papists also is the way of Caine, carrying within them the same heart towards Protestants, which Caine did towards Abel; with­out any conuiction of them either of heresie, or of wickednes; and (no other­wise than Caine) they now carrie them­selues quietly and silently till opportu­nitie may serue them: which if it were offered, we should feele and haue feare­full experience of the fruits of a Cainish heart in them, as Abel did. Besides, the doctrine of the Romish Church teach­eth the way of Caine, for it stādeth who­ly in outward Ceremonies, borrowed partly from the Iewes, partly from the Heathen; yea it traineth vp men to bee hypocrites, because it is onely a dumbe and dead shew, without any power or life of godlines. Againe, it teacheth de­speration, in that by it no man ought to be assured of his saluation (for that were presumption) as also that a man must satisfie the iustice of God for his sinnes, and can neuer obtaine pardon without confession of all his sinnes in the eare of the Priest. And to come neerer home euen among our selues, this way of Cain is not vnbeaten; our hypocrisie, lying, malice, but aboue all, our prophanenes will conuince vs hereof. Doe not men goe backward in religion, as those that shake off the waies of God? Is not the Gospell of farre lesse reckoning among vs, than it hath been heretofore? Is that wholsome doctrine not lesse respected now, than it was twentie yeeres agoe? and much lesse therfore obeyed? which is a manifest argument that Caines way is generally the beaten way of this age.

2. Doct. Secondly, wee must be war­ned to turne out of the way of Caine, in­to the waies of God. Qu. Which is the way of God that wee may walke in it? Ans. It is altogether contrarie to the way of Caine: for first in Gods way is sinceritie. God is worshipped in the spi­rit, and not in hypocrisie. Secondly, loue of God and men, testified in word, and deede; opposed to Cains hatred. Third­ly, in Gods way is faith, which resteth vpon Gods mercie and prouidence, euen against feeling, both in life and death; opposed to Caines desperation. Fourthly, wisedome, whereby the heart is stirred vp to seeke Gods kingdome, peace of conscience, inward ioy, and in the second place for the things of this life. Fifthly, in Gods way is faithfulnes and constancie, men that begin in the spirit end not in the flesh, but are faith­full to the death: whereas the way of Caine is to begin with sacrifice, but end in profanenes. This is the way of God in which we must walke: vsing all good meanes whereby wee may be both set and contained therein; especially the word preached and the Sacraments; which meanes the very Pharisie him­selfe could acknowledge when he said to Christ, Master thou teachest the way of God truly. So the Prophet Esay saith: Ye shall heare a voyce behind you, say­ing, This is the way, walk in it: this voice is nothing but the voice of the spirit in the ministrie of the word.

3. Doct. Thirdly, note what these se­ducers are blamed for, namely for two things: first, for making choise of Cains way: secondly, for walking and going on forward in it; which is a propertie of the wicked. It is true that the childe of God by the frailtie of the flesh may slip into Caines way, as Dauid did in slaying Vriah; but hee doth not stand, goe on, and keepe a course in that way, as the wicked doe, being branded to be such, as stand in the way of sinners, Psal. 1. We on the contrarie must preserue a care to recouer our selues out of the way of Caine, if at any time we shall be misled into it: that if we cannot keepe from al sinne, yet we may be kept from a course and trade in sinning. Let this Christian care preserue our paths in the waies of God, and returne vs vnto the obedience of his will, when through many weaknesses and slips we often are turned aside: and the rather because Caines and attendeth Caines whole course; who was haunted with an euill [Page 94] and accusing conscience, whose sinne lay at the doore as a wilde beast readie to teare him, and pull out the throte of his soule: besides that he was accursed­ly cast from the presence and face of God; that howsoeuer hee was a Prince and mightie amongst men, yet he was a vagabond and runnagate on the face of the earth: which curses let them not looke to auoide whosoeuer will follow his way, no more than Caine himselfe could.

And are cast away by the deceit of Ba­laams wages.] In these wordes is set downe the fifth sinne of these seducers: the meaning of which is first to bee knowne. [...]. Cast away. The word signifi­eth they are powred out, or powred a­way: which forme of speech is taken from water, the which distilleth not out of a vessell drop by drop; but is pow­red out in abundance, till so all is quick­ly spent. Whereby the Apostle would giue vs to vnderstand, that in the affe­ction of their hearts they were violent, and euen carried headlong to commit their wickednesse. By the deceit of Ba­laams wages: that is, they are thus for­cibly carried to doe euill vpon hope of wages; of which hope notwithstanding they are disappointed and defeated as Balaam was. So as this fifth sinne is co­uetousnes, propounded in a similitude or comparison, of which there are two branches: first, as Balaam was carried headlong to curse the people of God in hope of wages; so these wicked men vpon hope of reward are set to falsifie and corrupt the doctrine of the Pro­phets and Apostles. Secondly, as Ba­laam was deceiued and frustrated of the reward hoped for, as Numb. 31.8. hee lost his reward, yea and after his life (for returning home hee was slaine by the Midianites) so shall these lose their re­ward which they expect, for falsifying that doctrine which they teach: And so much for the meaning. That which was the sinne of these seducers, is the sinne of these times of ours, wherein that prophesie of Peter is accomplish­ed;2. Pet. 2.3. where is foretold that false teachers should come in the latter times, who through couetousnes, with fained words should make merchandise of mens soules. Quest. But where shall we finde these couetous teachers? Ans. They are too easily found euery where, but espe­cially within the precincts of the church of Rome. The Bishop of Rome and the guides of that Church are the Archse­ducers, who through couetousnes make merchandise of mens soules, teaching first that a man must confesse all his sinnes, or else hee cannot be forgiuen; and when he hath reckoned vp all, hee must satisfie for them in that manner as they will prescribe: who commonlie enioyne men to bestow so much land, or such a summe or pension of money vpon this or that Church, or Abbey,The craftie conueyan­ces of Po­perie dete­cted. that so they may buy out a pardon. By which wicked doctrine through coue­tousnes they haue (by encroching vpon Countries and kingdomes) enriched themselues, and purchased, or rather craftily conueyed to themselues the greatest part of the reuenewes of all Europe. Secondly, they through coue­tousnes maintaine the distinction be­tweene mortall and veniall sinnes; be­tweene the fact and the punishment, and hold that the sinne may be remit­ted, but not the punishment: for which purpose the fire of hell is changed by them into a milder fire of Purgatorie, to bee suffered after this life; of which the Pope is Lord and King, indulgent to whom he please: especially to those that can pay well for the merits of o­thers, or masses of their own. This pain­ted fire hath a long time kept the fire of the Popes kitchin so bright burning, which if it should goe out, his state were shaken. Thirdly, through couetousnes they forbid many degrees of men from marriage, which God forbiddeth not, that so they may the oftner dispense with those degrees which themselues haue forbidden: for the more dispensa­tions, the more wealth haue they com­ming in. And thus is their whole reli­gion contriued and plotted for gaine, compacted of falsehood and couetous­nes. So as Peters prediction is most ful­ly accomplished in these Balaamites of Rome: but especially herein the Pope is become a second Balaam, The Pope a second Balaam. in that as Balaam cursed Gods people for gaine; so to maintaine his owne pompe and state, by his Buls and thunderbolts hath he assaied to curse euen Kings and Prin­ces, and some whole kingdomes, yea all such as haue shaken off his intolerable Antichristian yoke. The same accusa­tion may be lustly intended against ve­rie [Page 95] many that professe godlinesse and true religion; for these be the last daies and perilous times, wherein men shall be louers of themselues, couetous, &c. 2. Tim. 3.2. Such as Ieremy complained of, Iere. 6.13. From the least to the grea­test euery one is giuen to couetousnes; from the Prophet vnto the Priest they deale all falsely. The vsuries, oppressions, iniustice, the common craft and customable de­ceit in all trades, crie out of this sinne of couetousnes in all estates. But some will perhaps here say; Yea but you wrong Christians to charge them thus deeply with Balaams sinne, for they haue bet­ter things in them. Ans. But it is no in­iustice, for Balaam had some as good things in him as many Christians: for when he was first solicited of Balaak to curse the people of God, he would not till he asked leaue of God; and when God had denied him leaue, he answe­red him that he would not go with him if hee would giue him his house full of gold and siluer. Further, he desired ear­nestly to die the death of the righteous, and that his end might be like his. Iu­das also had many good things in him, he left all to follow Christ; he became a preacher of the truth, none of the Di­sciples could accuse him, or could espie any thing in him, and yet was carried away with couetousnes: so let no man obiect the good things in many Chri­stians, which I grant they may haue, and yet too eagerly hunt after the world, yea and be powred out also after filthie lucre no otherwise than Balaam was.

Now for the auoiding of this sinne, let vs obserue three things, which the Apostle admonisheth in the words. First, in that he saith they are powred out, we are giuen to vnderstand that the af­fection of couetousnes is a most violent headstrong affection,Couetous­nes a vio­lent and [...]ead [...]e sin. carrying a man headlong to sinne euen against consci­ence, as it did Balaam: and causing him to powre out his heart vnto wickednes. Achans couetousnes could not be cur­bed, no not by Gods speciall comman­dement,Iosh. 7. the wedge of gold and the Ba­bylonish garmēt did so sway with him. Ahab was sicke of couetousnes, no phy­sicke could recouer him, but Naboths vineyard and life. Iudas for thirtie pee­ces of siluer was carried against al sense to the betraying of his Master, and that after diuers admonitions. Ananias and Saphira to saue but a little money, make no bones of lying vnto the holy Ghost. What is the cause of all treacheries, and those most cruell murthers, of fathers, of mothers, of seruants, and strangers, but the couetous heart set vpon the bootie, saying to it selfe; by this fact, this house, that land, such a summe of money shall be mine? which obiect in the eye putteth out all the light of reli­gion, reason, and sometimes of nature it selfe. Thus the heart is easily powred out vnto euill, when as first it is posses­sed with couetousnes, which Paul cal­leth the roote of all euill.

Secondly, the Apostle would haue vs consider how hard a thing it is to be re­couered from this sinne, seeing such a sinner is powred out and cast away by the deceit of it: and indeede little hope is there of the repentance of a couetous man, of whom Christ was bold to say, that as easie it is for a Camell to goe tho­rough the eye of a needle, as a rich man to enter into heauen: the reason is, because his couetous cares choke and hinder the word from taking place in his hart, and so hee frustrateth all meanes of his saluation. Againe, he hath renounced the true God, and set vp another god in his heart. The Idols in our Church are defaced and destroyed by the Magi­strate; but the Diuell setteth vp Idols still in the hearts of men, which ought to bee Gods temples, euen Riches the god of greedie men.

Thirdly, obserue that in Gods iust iudgement the couetous man is disap­pointed of his hope, his wages are the wages of deceitfulnes: for either he at­chieueth not,Gods iu­stice a­gainst mās iniustice. or retaineth not the things expected, as in the former examples: of Achan, who for the wedge lost his life with it; so neither Ahab himselfe, nor his posteritie euer enioyed Naboths vineyard. Iudas brought backe the thir­tie peeces of siluer, and hanged him­selfe. Ananias and Saphira desirous to keepe a part of their possession, lost with the possession both their liues: or else if hee retaine the bootie, and get and keepe also wealth fraudulently gotten and heaped vp by oppression; yet ha­uing the thing, he hath not the vse of it; his couetous heart keepeth the key of it, and locketh it from his comfortable vse: yea, and be it that he haue some vse of it, yet his gaine is small for which he [Page 96] loseth his soule: Thou foole this night shal they fetch away thy soule.

Vse. We are all hence admonished, especially aged and rich persons, to be­ware of this dangerous sinne. It becom­meth Saints not to haue couetousnes once named among them, Ephes. 6. Our practise is to varnish it ouer with termes of thriftines and good husbandrie, and the worst it heareth of vs is scarse a smal dislike: so as when wee speake of a wreched worldling, we say he is an ho­nest man, but somewhat hard or world­ly: so as this sinne is in no disgrace a­mong the most, as it deserueth, being both so odious vnto God, and hurtfull vnto the sinner himselfe. But let vs con­sider first that it easily draweth a man vnto perdition, and enwrappeth him in the Diuels snare. 1. Tim. 6.9. Those that will be rich fall into many temptations and snares. Wheresoeuer it ruleth, that man respecteth not commandement, rea­son, conscience, no nor common hone­stie it selfe. Secondly, wee professe our selues to be members of Christ, the sons and daughters of God; now such a base sinne beseemeth not such an high pro­fession: for a Noble man or a Prince apparent to spend and trifle away his time in buying and selling pinnes and points were a madnes; what a base fol­lie were it for vs that hope to bee heires of the kingdome of glorie to bee still po [...]ing on earth and earthly things? whose hearts and affections should be raised vp higher, and taken vp with hea­uenly meditations, vsing weanedly this world as though we vsed it not. Third­ly, Nature is contented with a little, and is surfetted with abundance: and yet grace is pleased with lesse: and there­fore if we haue food and raiment for vs and ours, let vs bee there with contented, 1. Tim. 6.8. Qu. But what shall we doe then? doe not all men thus, and may not wee seeke wealth as others doe? Ans. The rule of the word must bee our direction herein, and not the manner of the world: and that aduiseth vs to make God our portion: which lesson God himselfe taught Abraham, Gen. 15.1. I am thy buckler, and thy exceeding great reward. Dauid had learned this lesson, Psal. 16. The Lord is my portion. This is done by setting our loue, our ioy, our principall care, yea our hearts and affe­ctions vpon the Lord, as men doe vpon their treasures. By which meanes if ri­ches increase, our hearts shall not be set vpon them, for they are not our por­tion; and if we be pinched and pressed with aduersitie, want, or losses, yet shall we not be oppressed; for we want no­thing but that we may well be without, and haue not as yet lost any part of our portion.

Further, in the phrase which the A­postle vseth; They are powred away,] note a difference between the child of God, and a wicked man; when both of them are found in the same sinne, but the one powreth out himselfe to wickednes, gi­ueth himselfe leaue to sin with full con­sent, without restraint, yea with greedi­nes: the other sinneth with consent, but not full consent; for being regene­rate hee is not all flesh as the wicked man, but partly, flesh, partly spirit: and therefore partly willeth and consenteth to sin, partly nilleth & consenteth not, he is not powred out without restraint, as the other is, but at length recouereth himselfe by repentance, and obtaineth reconciliation with God. Secondly, we must beware of powring out our selues to wickednes, but rather with Annah powre out our soules before the Lord in humble confession of sinne, and pe­tition for pardon, that so the Lord may powre foorth his mercie vpon vs, and shed his loue abroad in our hearts. Thirdly, we may not content our selues with a few or some good things; for the hart may notwithstanding be pow­red foorth to sinne, as Balaam and Iu­das; but seeke carefully to haue our hearts truly seasoned with grace, with the loue and feare of God, which for the present will cause vs to decline eue­rie euill way; yea to detest and hate euery sinne, and for time to come with a resolute and constant purpose, and endeuour neuer to offend God againe: for otherwise a shew of some good things may often deceiue and delude vs, and wee may perish for all them, as Balaam did. Lastly, we are hence taught neuer to giue reines to our affections and desires, but curbe, crucifie and mor­tifie them carefully: for if once they get head, and bee yeelded vnto, they will not easily be subdued, nor suffer a mā quiet til he haue powred forth him­self vnto all wickednes, and so brought him into the high way of perdition.

[Page 97] And are perished in the gainsaying of Core. In these words the Apostle laieth downe the sixth sinne of these seducers: to vnderstand the meaning whereof, consider two things: first the historie it selfe: secondly, the application of it. The historie is recorded in Numb. 16. wherin Moses mentioneth three things concerning Corah: first, the cause of his sinne, which was ambition and pride; for Core (being a Leuite) affected the Priesthood of Aaron: and Dathan and Abiram (being heads of the tribe of Ruben) stroue to take the gouernment of the people out of Moses his hand, who was appointed by God as King o­uer the Israelites, Deut. 33.5. Secondly, the sinne it selfe, namely in this their discontentment, they enterprised an in­surrection against Moses and Aaron: they stood vp against them, contradi­cted and gainsaid them in their offices; and charged them first that they vsur­ped authoritie, and tooke too much vp­on them, and lifted vp themselues a­boue the congregation without the Lord, vers. 3. and therefore they would not obey Moses commaundement, vers. 12. and secondly, that Moses had dealt deceitfully with the people; and (onely in policie to make himselfe a King) had promised them a land flow­ing with milk and honey, whereas they saw no such matter: nay rather hee had brought them out of Egypt to destroy them in the wildernes, ver. 13.14. Third­ly, their punishment for their sin, which was an horrible destruction vpon them, and their companie, being all of them partly swallowed vp of the earth; part­ly deuoured by fire from heauen, verse 32.35.

Secondly, the historie of Corah, Da­than, and Abiram, is applied to these false teachers by way of comparison, and they are compared in two things. First, as Core and his companie most ambitiously and proudly gainsaid Mo­ses and Aaron; so doe these false tea­chers the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles. Secondly, as they were de­stroyed for their such resistance; euen so shall these perish in their gainsaying of the truth. Thus the meaning of the words is made plaine. This Epistle was writtē for a warning vnto the last times, euen vnto vs vpon whom the ends of the world are come: and therfore that which is affirmed of these men, is veri­fied in sundrie sorts of men in this age. For example: first,The Pope the foremā of Cores companie. the Bishop of Rome is the next follower of Core: for looke as Core gainsaid Moses and Aaron, in regard of their lawfull authoritie▪ so doth the Pope gainsay Christian Kings and Princes, in striuing to take out of their hands all their power and autho­ritie in causes Ecclesiastical within their owne dominions: nay herein he goeth beyond Core, in that hee vsurpeth that power ouer them which the Lord hath put into their owne hands, and so (be­ing inuested in their own persons) most rightfully belongeth vnto themselues. Secondly, his shauelings, and Masse-priests, not onely gainsay and contra­dict Christ in his doctrine; but also at­tempt to vsurpe his office in offring a real and proper sacrifice of attonement for the sinnes of the quicke and dead: yea, and (wherein they strip Core) they take vpon them to become mediatours betweene Christ and the Father, in pray­ing the Father that he would accept the sacrifice of his Sonne, as hee did the sa­crifice of Abel. Thirdly, of this sort are all Traytors and Rebels, either Priests or Iesuits, or other traiterously minded men at home or abroad, who (no other­wise than Core) gainsay the ordinance of God, and stand out in deniall or re­sistance of their lawfull and naturall Prince, whom he same punishment shall assuredly finde out, which consu­med Corah and his companie in the end of their conspiracie. Fourthly, many a­mongst vs who professe the Gospel, yet walke in the gainsaying of Core, of whō some wil openly say they [...] not what the Ministers speake; whatsoeuer it is they will withstand it: yea many wret­ched creatures who come to the Lords Table, will not sticke to say, that they hope to see the day when they shall bee hanged; which argueth them to bee abetter [...] in the wicked conspiracie of Gore. Lastly it were to bee wished that some of our students euen of Diuinitie, had not a spice of this sinne of Core: for within this sixe or seuen yeeres, diuers haue addicted themselues to studie Po­pish writers, and Monkish discourses, despising in the meane time the wri­ting [...] of [...]hose famous instruments and cleere lights, whom the Lord raised vp for the raising and restoring of true re­ligion; [Page 98] such as Luther, Caluin, Bucer, Be­ [...]a, Martyr, &c. which argueth that their mindes are alienated from the sinceri­tie of the truth; because the writings of these (the soundest expositors of the Scriptures raised since the Apostles) are not sauourie vnto them; yea some can reuile these worthie lights themselues, which is a spice of Cor [...] his sinne.

2. Doctr. Secondly, hence wee are taught to beware of ambition, and stu­die to bee contented with that condi­tion of life wherein God hath placed vs, not seeking things beyond our e­state. Dauid would not meddle with things beyond his reach, Psal. 131.1. Paul had learned in euery estate to bee con­ted,Philip. 4. to be abased as well as to be exalted. Our first parents in the ambitious con­ceit of further highnes, fell from a most happie condition, and brought ruine vpon themselues, and vs their posteri­tie. The vertue of contentation is in­deed necessarie for al men, but especial­ly let students seeke it at the hands of God; and the rather, because that with­in these few yeeres diuers of them (not possessing the benefit of this vertue) be­ing frustrated here of their expected preferments, which they thought were due to their gifts, haue departed away discontented, and haue growne to reso­lution in heresie, Papistrie, treason [...], and most desperate attempts. Now that e­uery man may learne to bee contented with his conditiō, be it better or worse, let him think well vpon these two con­siderations: first, that the present estate and condition of life, wherin euery man is set by God, is the best estate for him: health is best in time of health, and sick­nes in time of sicknes: riches when they are enioyed, pouertie and want when the Lord changeth his hand: life whi­lest he liueth, yea and death it self is the best when as that change befalleth: and all this is because the Lord so ordereth and disposeth vnto euery man out of his wise prouidence, which wee for our parts must in all our thoughts be sub­mitted vnto. Secondly, that in regard of our sinnes we are lesse than the least of Gods mercies; vnworthie to draw breath in the common ayre or to tread vpon the earth: and therefore (being so vnworthie) if we haue but small & few blessings, wee may well content our selues: for by our deserts wee cannot challenge so much as wee haue. Iacob herein staied himselfe in his want that he was vnworthie of the least mercie of God: the basest calling is too good for the best man, if hee looke at his desert. Ob. But euery man is preferred before me, and yet I deserue as well as they, or some of them. Ans. Herein content thy self, God hath called them to such con­dition; stay till he call thee: distract not thy thoughts herewith, but rest in his reuealed will.

3. Doct. Thirdly, it may seeme strange that Core & his companie should gain­say Moses and Aaron, and their autho­ritie, especially beholding all the mi­racles whereby their calling was confir­med, the one to be Prince, the other the high Priest; and yet we see it to be so: for his affection had blinded his con­science;Vnrecti­fied affe­ctions o­uercast re­ctified iudgement and vnder­standing. hee knew very well that they were called by God: he saw their whole religious course, the great miracles in their hands: but yet the disordred affe­ctions of his hart were they which blin­ded the vnderstanding of his minde. In like manner, men may marueile that so many learned Papists, otherwise so wise and prudent, should maintaine so many grosse errors, and heresies, and those a­gainst the foundation of religion: but the case is with them as it was with Co­re; for let them bee neuer so learned, graue, and wise, yet their wicked heart [...] and ambitious affections ouercast their iudgement and knowledge, and ouer­carrie them against conscience: yea and often reason it selfe they reade the Bible the word of truth, but see not the truth therein contained, because the clowd of corrupt affections hath ouerspread and darkned their vnderstandings. Whence wee may learne, that if at any time wee would with fruite heare, reade, studie of learne the word of God, we must bring with vs not only quick vnderstandings, sharpe conceits, and firme memories, but honest hearts, calme and tempered affections: without which it shall bee with vs as wish the Iewes, who saw in­deed and yet perceiued not.

Fourthly, here Magistrates and Mini­sters must learne, not to be discouraged if they be gainsaid and contradicted by such as Core, Datha [...], and Abiram, who were great men in their Tribes; it was Moses and Aarons lot. Christ himselfe was a rocke of offence, and [...] stum­bled [Page 99] at him; he was made a wonder of men, and few of the great beleeued his doctrine: yea few there were that did not gainsay it: it is not well with men when all men speake well of them; meeke Moses shall haue his patience tried by very many such in the world.

The worst kinde of discontent­ment is in things con­cerning mans sal­uation.Fifthly, Students especially of Diui­nitie, must take heede of this spirit of contradiction and gainesaying, where­by no wholesome doctrine can easily please them; which was Cores sinne: and content themselues with that truth of doctrine, and those sound grounds of Diuinitie, which are propounded in the writings of those famous and excel­lent instruments aforenamed, who were the restorers of pure religion; prefer­ring them before all Popish writers and corrupt postillers (in whom a man shall meete with nothing sooner than error and vnsoundnes) and reading seriously their workes and writings, as the soun­dest and best grounds of Diuinitie, and expositions of the Scriptures, which haue been set out since the daies of the Apostles.

Sixthly, let inferiours hence learne obedience, and silent subiection vnto superiours; the seruant or subiect must not be a gainsaier, nay not an answerer againe, Tit. 3. This cutteth off all dispu­tation betweene the Master and ser­uant, father and childe, prince and sub­iect: for the very appearance of Cores sinne must be auoided.

Seuenthly, Core gainsaieth both Mo­ses and Aaron; the one in regard of his Magistracie, the other of his Priest­hood.Whosoe­uer resi­steth Mo­ses despi­seth Aaron also. These two sinnes goe hand in hand: he that opposeth himself to Mo­ses, despiseth Aaron also; he that hono­reth not the King, feareth not God; he that careth not for the word, is not loy­all to his Prince: a rebell to God, is a rebell to his Prince. Seeing then loyal­tie towards God and the King are so linkt together in themselues, let vs not sunder them, but rather conioyne them in our practise, as the Apostle hath cou­pled them in one precept, commanding vs to feare God, and honour the King.

Eightly, it may be here demaunded, whether haue we done well in gainsay­ing and contradicting the Church of Rome, seeing our Church before the time of K. Henry the 8. was a member of that Church? Ans. When two are at strife both are not be blamed, but the partie in whom the cause is conuinced to be: we haue indeede departed from them; but the cause of our departure was not in vs, but in themselues: we haue depar­ted from them, as the Israelites by Gods commandement from the Tents of Co­re [...] they haue first a long time gainsaid Christ,We haue departed from the Papists as the Israe­lites from the tents of Core by Gods com­mandemēt. Numb. 16.22. and therefore we haue well done to gainsay them: we are not therefore the schismatikes, neither blame wor­thie; but they in whom the cause of schisme is: no more than Moses was here to be blamed, the cause resting in Core.

Lastly, it will be asked, what did Mo­ses all this while that he was gainsaid? Ans. He fell on his face, and prayed vnto the Lord. Wherein he became a fit presi­dent for vs in this land, who haue been aboue fourtie yeeres assaulted by Po­pish Cores, enemies and rebels, without and within vs: from whom we haue bin defended not so much by the sword, as by Gods protection, obtained by the prayers of his seruants: which teacheth vs for time to come to turne vs to this most ready course, of subduing al gain­saiers and enemies of our peace: for the direct way to discouer conspiracies, to subdue treasons, and rebels, and to purchase tranquillitie to a Church and land, is to commend the safetie there­of vnto the Lords fauourable protecti­on, whose eyes are euer watchfull ouer his people. And thus much of Core his sinne.

The last point is their punishment: in which it may be asked how they pe­rished? Ans. It is commonly thought that Core, Dathan and Abiram were swallowed vp of the earth: but I take it, that all the men of Core, al his substance and his Tents; Dathan also and Abi­ram were swallowed vp of the earth: but that Core himselfe was burned with fire from heauen, with the 250▪ men that of­fered incense, vers. 35. for in the histo­rie, Numb. 16.27.32. it is said that Da­than and Abiram and the men of Core were swallowed vp; but Core himselfe is not mentioned: so Deut. 11.6. and Psal. 106.17. In both which places Da­than and Abiram are said to be swal­lowed vp with their households; but in neither place is Core mentioned. Se­condly, Dathan and Abiram were in their Tents, and so were the men of Core [Page 100] also, when the earth opened and swal­lowed them, vers. 17. But Corah and the two hundred and fiftie men were at the doore of the Tabernacle with their Censors, fire and incense, and were de­uoured with fire from heauen, vers. 19. Ob. Num. 26.10. The earth opened her mouth and swallowed them (that is, Da­than and Abiram) with Core. Ans. The learned expound that place not of Co­res person, but his substance & retinue.

Marke here the iust iudgement of God: Corah had abused himselfe (being a Leuite) his office, and those sacrifices which he offered by fire; and the Lord destroied him by fire. The same was the dealing of God with Nadab and Abi­hu, Note. Leuit. 10.2. Looke in what things men sin and dishonour God, by those for the most part the Lord reuengeth himselfe vpon them: so men glorie in abusing the creatures of God, as meats, wine, and strong drink, the Lord in the meane time secretly turneth the same to their owne destruction; that those which are his good gifts and ordained for the preseruation of nature, being by [...] men abused, through Gods iust iudge­ment are turned to the choking and o­uerturning of nature.

Secondly, hence learne the wise coun­sell of Salomon, Prou. 24.22. Feere God, honour the King, and meddle not with the seditions; or with them that make alte­rations. For although it be lawfull for a subiect (being called) to shew his minde,Priuate men may not attēpt to controle publike cō ­stitutions. what he thinketh meete for the Church or Common-wealth; yet for a priuate man to attempt vpon his owne head to alter any thing, standing by Gods and the Princes law, is no better than sedition, and is a branch of Corah his sinne.

Thirdly, although Corah, Dathan and Abiram are destroyed for this sinne, yet Cores children are not destroyed, but spared, Numb. 26.11. God in iustice re­membring his mercie, his care for the Ministerie was such as could not suffer the Leuites race to bee rooted out, but preserued for the vse of the Tabernacle. Let Gods care teach vs our dutie in this behalf, namely to applie our best ende­uours for the maintaining and preser­uing the Schooles of learning, for the vse and seruice of the Church. Com­mendable hath been the care of many Kings and Princes in this behalf, whom wee should imitate in preseruing these seed-plots of the Ministerie: for herein they imitate the great King euen God himselfe.

Vers. 12. ‘These are spots in your feasts of loue, when they feast with you, without all feare feeding themselues.’

IN these words the Apostle setteth downe the seuenth sin of these sedu­cers: to know the meaning whereof the better, consider foure things: first, what is meant by feasts of loue and charitie. Ans. In the Primitiue Church it was a custome and manner to haue a feast be­fore the Lords Supper, made by the Communicants; vnto which some brought hony, some bread, some wine, some milke, and euery one according to their abilitie contributing somthing thereunto. These were here meant and called Loue-feasts, because they were herein to testifie their mutuall loue a­mong themselues; as also to the poore, who hereby were relieued; and to the Ministerie it selfe, which was by these feasts partly sustained. Secondly, what is meant where these seducers are cal­led spots in these feasts, or rocks; for the word signifieth either, and more pro­perly the latter; they are rocks, because as rocks are perceiued a farre off by the seafaring men: euen so the infection of these wicked men spreads it selfe very farre: and againe, as rockes are dange­rous and troublesome to them; so are these as rockes and stumbling blockes to the weake, hindring them from the profitable progresse in godlines: they are also rightly called spots, because as a spot defaceth the countenance; so their presence is an eye sore & a disgrace vnto these Loue-feasts. The third thing is the cause why they are thus called: that is, because in these Loue-feasts they feede themselues: for laying aside all care of the poore, & of the Ministrie, for whose sake this contribution was made, they pampered and fed themselues, riotously wasting the goods of the Church. The fourth is the cause of this their riot [without feare] that is, because they haue cast off the feare of God and man. In these words therefore the Apostle char­geth these false teachers not only with intemperance in generall, but also with a special kind of riot in mispending and [Page 101] wasting the contribution pertaining to the poores maintenance, and the sustai­ning of the Ministerie.

Vse. That which is spoken of these mē, may be applied to these last times, wherein diuers men riotously abuse the goods specially prouided for the main­tenance of the Ministerie and poore: as first the Romish Clergie,The Ro­mish Cler­ [...]ie hath better fa­cultie in feeding themselues than others those Locusts that come foorth of the mouth of the beast; idle bellies, and slow backes, the most of which want learning, and are vnable to teach the people; yet feede themselues without feare, so as their eyes are swollen with fatnes: wealth they want not, hauing craftily conueied vn­to themselues the third part of the re­uenewes of Europe; but with it do no­thing but pamper themselues. Second­ly, such Patrones are here included as feede themselues with Church-liuings, appointed for ye relieuing of the poore, and maintenance of the Ministerie▪ in such sort as Gods people cannot bee faithfully and sufficiently taught: they can bee content to depart from some ten pounds a yere to some vnable man, so as they may of the rest feede them­selues without feare, or else (as some doe) serue their lusts, in mispending the Churches reuenewes vpon Hawkes, Hounds, and other improfitable raue­nous creatures. Thirdly, such Students whether Fellowes or Schollers of or in Colledges as mispend their time in idlenes, gaming, or other improfitable exercises, come also within the com­passe of the Apostles reprehension, as feeders of themselues with that salarie or liuing which was giuē for the main­tenance of the Ministerie.

Here a question may be demaunded; namely, whether those whom wee call lay men, hauing Church lands & liuings impropriate vnto them, may bee said with these seducers to feede themselues without feare; or whether can any man impropriate any Church goods or li­uings, without sacriledge? Ans. The an­swer hereof is two-fold: first, though no good member of the Church can in good conscience seeke the harme and preiudice of the same; yet the plaine truth is, that the Church goods and lands may bee sometimes vpon some occasions alienated: the groūd of which answere is this rule; namely, that the gouernours of the Church are to con­tent themselues with things necessarie. For when the people had brought suffi­cient for the building of the tabernacle, Moses biddeth them bring no more,Exod. 30.6.7. seeing (saith he) there is enough: so as when the Church hath too much and excesse (as the Romish Church & these Churches of Europe gotten by Masses, Purgatorie, Dirge [...], Sacrament of Pe­nance, &c.) there may be admitted alie­nation and impropriation of Church goods and l [...]nds; but so as two conditi­ons must be necessarily obserued: first, there must be iust cause: and that which is so alienated must bee employed to some good vse in the Church or Com­monwealth; and this is foure waies: first in case of present necessitie; for tenths haue bin in some cases of necessity law­fully paied in way of tribute, and other­wise neither Church nor Common-wealth could haue been preserued. Se­condly, in way of exchange when the alienation of some lands shall be rather more conuenient both to the Church it selfe, and to whom such lands are alie­nated. Thirdly, when as some great pro­fit shal ensue vnto the Church and com­mon-wealth: vpon which ground King Henry the 8. of famous memorie most iustly alienated most of ye Church lands called Abbey lands; that Monks, Friers, Abbots, and such like idle Drones should neuer haue more footing in this our land▪ Fourthly, in way of reward: for Kings and Princes that are the Pa­trons & protectors of the Church may alienate Church lands (where there are excesse) vnto such as haue bin faithfull in the defence of Church or Common-wealth▪ and that in way of requitall and reward of their seruice. The second con­dition is, that there must bee reserued a sufficient reliefe for the poore, and maintenance for an able Ministerie. Some there are which teach otherwise, and they reason thus: Tenths (say they) standing by Gods law are not to bee a­lienated: but the goods and lands of the Church stand chiefly in tenths, and therefore admit no alienation. Ans. In England tenths stād not by Gods laws, but by the positiue lawes of the land; so as if it please the King he may appoint eights, or more or lesse as well as they: which if it were not so, no Minister were to meddle with the tenths of his Parish: for by Gods law tenths were [Page 102] brought to the storehouse of the ouer­seers, and distributed by them to the Leuites, according as euery man had neede; but the Leuites themselues ne­uer medled with thē. Againe, if tenths stood now by the law of God, then the poore should haue euery third yeere all the tenths of the earth: for so it was a­mong the Iewes while they stood in force by Gods law. Secondly, they ob­iect that in the Prouerbs, chap. 20.25. It is a snare to deuoure tenths. Ans. The place is to be vnderstood of tenths thē standing in force by Gods law, not of ours which stand by mans. Thirdly, they alleage that some decrees were made in the Primitiue Church, that the alie­nation of Church lands should become sacriledge. Ans. But those decrees con­cerned priuate persons who might not, not may not on their owne heads im­propriate the Church goods; as also they debarred the taking away of ne­cessaries from the Church, for then the Church was farre from that superflui­tie which sithence it hath obtained: so that for a lay man to hold lands impro­priate, the former conditions obserued, is no sacriledge. Now if the question be concerning the impropriations of Colledges, whether they lawfully hold them or no: then I answere secondly, that I take it, they hold them by a more speciall right; for they being giuen at the first vnto the Church, they are not (being impropriate to Colledges) ge­nerally and wholie alienated from the Church; but remaine in this speciall vse of the Church for the maintaining of the Seminaries of it; without which the Church must needs decay: and this see­meth a sufficient cause of reseruing vn­to them this maintenance, so as ca [...]e be had of the people and poore for their reliefe & instruction. Secondly, where­as the Primitiue church first feasted, and then receiued the Lords Supper, wee note first the lawfulnes of feasts, so as the poore be regarded, superfluitie and riot auoided, and the right end inten­ded, which is the praise and glorie of God expressed in thankfulnes for the abundance of his good blessings. So af­ter the sacrifices & offrings Aaron and the Elders of Israel came to feast with Ie­thro before God, Exod. 18.12. So Ezra. 8. Goe your waies, eate the fa [...] and drinke the sweete, and send part to them for whom none is prepared; for this is the day of the Lord. Secondly, the Papists are decei­ued, who teach it necessarie to come to the Sacrament of the Supper fasting, for these feasted before it. Thirdly, in the Primitiue Church, and in the Apostles daies, there was no priuate Masse in which one Priest should eate vp all a­lone; but there were feastings, which cannot bee performed by one man a­lone, but the whole congregation. Fourthly, hence wee may note the end of the Lords Supper to be the increase of our fellowship & communion with Christian men, as well as our vnion with God▪ and that wee are to come toge­ther in loue and Christian vnitie▪ for the testifying of which charitable affection, the ancient beleeuers in the Apostles daies had these feasts of loue before they came to the Lords table.

Further, in that these seducers are called [spots in these feasts] I note first that open offenders should be hindred and repelled from the Sacraments, be­ing as spots in the face; which because they are blemishes, must bee washed away: so ought these by the censure of excommunication to be (vntill their re­pentance) cut off from the face of the congregation. Secondly, that euery one that professeth the faith is not a true member of the Catholike Church, as the Papists erroneously hold; that let a man be what he will, if he professe the faith, it is sufficient to make him a member of the Catholique Church. Whereas open offenders are to be ac­counted as spottes, which no man will say are true parts of the bodie, but ble­mishes to bee pared away, that their bodie may be the more perfect and en­tire.

Feeding themselues without feare. Doctr.] In feasting we are to preserue feare within our hearts, which is two-fold: first of God, secondly of man. The former is seene Exod. 18.12. The men of Israel feasted before the Lord. Iobes feare was, lest his sonnes should cast this feare of God out of their hearts in their fea­sting, and so offend God. The latter is prescribed Prou. 23.1. [...]. When thou fittest to meate before a Ruler, put the knife to thy throte, that is, bridle thine appetite; haue respect not to passe the limits of sobrietie, tempetance, and moderation. And as wee are to [Page 103] eate and drinke, so also to season all o­ther our actions with the feare of God and men: which one grace would cut off many gracelesse practises euery where raigning amongst men. But a speciall thing here aimed at, is, that we should neuer come to eate the Lords Supper without feare and reuerence: which because the Corinths wanted, Paul complaineth that one came hun­grie, another drunke, and so prophaned that holy institution, 1. Cor. 11.21. Ob. But in that place it seemeth Paul con­demneth these Loue-feasts, which Iude here dispraiseth not, where hee saith, euery man eateth his supper before, vers. 21.22. Ans. These Loue-feasts were in­different, and might bee vsed or not; Paul condemneth the great abuse of them in Corinth, because some were made by them drunke, and vnfit for the Lords Supper, and the rich deceiued the poore: but Iude commendeth them, because they were in other Churches rightly and religiously vsed.

Clowdes they are without water, car­ried about of windes.] These words con­taine the eighth and ninth sinnes of these wicked men: which the better to know what they are, let vs a little con­sider the meaning of them. [Clowdes they are without water,] I [...] pleaseth the Spirit of God in many places of the old Testament, to compare Prophets and Teachers vnto clowdes; and their do­ctrine vnto the dropping and distilling of the raine and sweet showers falling from these clowds. [...]zech. [...]0.46. So the Prophet Eze­chiel is commaunded to set his face to­wards the way of Teman, and drop his word toward the South, and his prophecie towards the forrest. Deut. 32.2. My do­ctrine shall drop as the raine, and my speech shal distill as the dew, as the shower vpon the herbes, and as the great raine vpon the grasse. Mich. 2.7. and 11. The word translated [...] prophecie, signifieth properly to drop or distill: The reason of which comparison is rendred Isai. 55.10.11. Because as the raine falleth vpon the earth, and returneth not in vaine, but moistneth it, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may giue seed to the sower, and bread to him that eateth: so the word in the mouth of the Ministers returneth not voide, but accomplisheth the Lords will, and prospereth in the thing where­to it is sent; in becomming the sauour of life to the saluation of some, and of death vnto the death of them that pe­rish. The words then standing vpon this similitude beare this sense; Though the propertie and vse of clowdes is to carrie water and raine for the vse of the earth, yet some clowdes are without water: euen so, though all Teachers ought to bee filled and fitted with store of whol­some doctrine, to powre it out for the vse of the Church; yet these seducers are vtterly destitute thereof. And againe, as those clowdes without water are light, and fitter for nothing than to be carried about with euery winde: so these are al­together variable and vnconstant, carri­ed about with euery blast of strange do­ctrine. The former of these similitudes condemneth their sinne of barrennes and vnfruitfulnesse: the latter their ninth sinne of inconstancie and vari­ablenesse.

Concerning the former, seeing that the Apostle taketh it for granted that the clowdes are naturally ordained, to containe water; it may be demanded how it can be cōceiued that the clowds aboue being heauie with water should not fall to the earth; seeing euery heauie thing naturally descendeth and tendeth downward? Ans. The clowdes are hea­uie indeed; for euen the windes them­selues (being by many degrees lighter than they) haue their weight, Iob. 28.25. No man therefore by wit or reason can resolue this doubt, but onely from the word of God: which teacheth that it is by vertue of Gods commandement gi­uen in the creation, that the clowdes fall not. Gen. 1.6. Let the firmament separate the waters from the waters: by force of which commanding word, the water hangeth in the clowdes, and the clowds in the ayre, and need no other suppor­ters. Iob setting out the Maiestie and greatnes of God in his works, here be­ginneth; That he hangeth the earth vp­on nothing, he bindeth the waters in the clowdes, and the clowd is not bro­ken vnder them. Philosophie is too de­fectiue to yeeld the true reason of this great worke of God, which commonly attributeth too much to nature, and too little to the God of nature; whose pro­uidence and power is herein to be ac­knowledged, in that by his word he or­dereth all his creatures, vnto which he speaketh the word and they obey.

[Page 104]Secondly, hence wee learne to con­ceiue the right meaning of that place, Gen. 1.7. Let the firmament separate the waters that be beneath, from the waters that be aboue. By the firmament is meant the ayre, or the distan [...] betweene the earth and the starrie skie: by the waters vnder this firmament are meant the seas and floods; and the waters aboue, are the watrie clowdes, which are diuided by the firmament or ayre in which wee breathe, called the firmament of heauē: for it is the lowest of the three heauens, which the Scripture maketh mention of, [...]eaching to the starres; the second being the sta [...]ie heauen, the third be­ing the heauen of heauens, the seate of God, where hee reuealeth his glorie to his Saints and Angels. Those then are deceiued who out of this place dreame of a wat [...]ie heauen aboue the starres.

Now further in that these seducers are called Clowds without water, Ioh. 4▪ [...]low [...]es w [...]hout w [...]er keep [...]ds [...] fruitlesse and barren. because they are destitute of wholesome do­ctrine; wee learne first that Ministers ought to bee such as are able to teach wholesome and sound doctrine, 1. Tim. 3.2. Malach. 2.7. The Priests lips should preserue knowledge: otherwise they are as clowdes without water, keeping the field of God barren & fruitlesse: which abilitie supposeth, yea and imposeth the performance of diligence herein; or else whether they haue knowledge or not, they come vnder the rank of them whom Esay 56.10. calleth dumbe dogs; which cannot, or doe not barke. In for­mer ages I grant indeede there were readers appointed in the Church, who could not otherwise teach: but yet none were called for Teachers into the Church, but such as had this abilitie of watring Gods church by doctrine more or lesse, vntill heresie and schisme came in. Secondly, Ministers ought so to teach as they drop and instill the graces of faith, repentance, and obedience in­to the hearts of the hearers: euen as the clowds drop water vpon the drie earth which sinketh into the same. This was Pauls desire to see the Romanes, that he might bestow some spirituall grace vpon them, Rom. 1.11. This is the right handling and diuiding of the word, when men shew not words but power, 1. Cor 4.14. That Teacher sheweth lear­ning that sheweth men Christ, and can bee a meanes to distill Gods graces in­to their soules: let this be the scope of those who are set apart vnto this holy Ministrie; else shall they be as vnpro­fitable as clowdes which containe no water in them at all. Thirdly, if the Mi­nisters must be as clowdes hauing wa­ter in them; then must the people be as drie ground,Men must be as drie ground, not in bar­rennes, but in regard of their thirst after the drops of grace. not in regard of barren­nes, but of thirst and desire after these drops & dewes of grace distilling from the Ministerie. Psal. 143.6. My soule de­sireth after thee, euen as the thirstie land: vnto which disposition wee are to pre­serue two things within vs: first, look as in drie land parcht with the heate of the Sunne, there is a great want of moy­sture; so in our soules must bee retai­ned a sense of the want of the graces of God, with an heartie sorrow for our want. Our hearts must bee perswaded that in vs, and of our selues there is no good thing, that God can take delight in: yea and the griefe conceiued must not bee small, but wee must feele our selues euen dried and parched with the heate of his wrath due vnto our sinnes, vntill these sweete waters flowing from vnder the threshold of the Sanctuarie haue graciously refreshed vs. Mary saith, that God filleth the hungrie with good things: Luk. 1.13. by the hungrie are meant those who feele themselues voide of grace, yea as it were pined and starued for want of it. Christ telleth the woman of Canaan that he came to the lost sheep of the house of Israel: that is,Mat. 15.24. hee that knoweth himselfe not a wādring sheep, but quite lost, euen in the lions paw ready to be deuoured: such doth Christ take vpon his necke, and like a good shepheard bring backe to his fold. For hee was sent to preach the acceptable yeere; not to the mightie and states of [...]he world, but to prisoners and captiues, that is, such as could grieue and mourne for their captiuitie. Secondly, as drie land parched with drought gapeth and openeth it selfe wide, as if it would swallow vp the clowdes for raine: so must our hearts preserue within them an earnest appetite, and insatiable de­sire after Christ and his merits, aboue all the things in the world: more hungring after him, than after wealth, gold, siluer, honours, health, or whatsoeuer is de­lightfull and highest prized among the sonnes of men. And this will follow of the former: for if wee bee once at the [Page 105] point, that wee are out of all conceit of our owne goodnes, we will seeke ear­nestly for it at the hands of him who is the fountaine of al goodnes: if we feele our spirituall pouertie once, we cannot but couetously hunt after those true treasures which onely inrich our soules to all eternitie. The woman of Sama­ria did but prattle with Christ til he had told her of her sinne, and of her hus­bands: and that he which was now her husband was none of her [...]: then could she humble her selfe, and confesse him to bee a Prophet, and quickly after came to acknowledge him the Mes­siah, and al her cauelling was laid aside: so till we be humbled we doe but cauel at the word, and receiue it not as drie land doth the showers which fall; but let the heart once bee touched, it is tur­ned presently vpside down, and we are become other manner of men than be­fore.

The ninth sinne blamed in these se­ducers is, that they are inconstant and vnstable, carried like light clowds with the windes of strange doctrine: whence Teachers must learne to hold constant­ly the doctrine of saluation, Titus 1.9. holding fast the faithfull word: people also must not reuolt or depart from it, nay not bee vnstable, or soone remoued to another Gospell. Gal. 1.6. Eph. 4.14. Be no more children wauering and carried aboue with euery wind of doctrine: but both Teachers and hearers must beware least we (being by Gods blessing freed from the spiritual Egypt, where we were ma­ny hundred yeeres detained) now after fourtie yeeres and moe,Beware of looking behinde thee toward So­d [...], out of which thou art esca­ped. looke backe a­gain, and fall from that faith into which we haue been baptised.

Corrupt trees and without fruite, twice dead and plucked vp by the roots.] In these words is the tenth sinne of these sedu­cers set down, and that is their incurable hypocrisie; illustrated and amplified by a comparison or similitude, from bad and barren trees: containing foure steps or degrees of naughtines, euery one worse than other. The first step, they are corrupt trees; which must be vnder­stood not in regard of their substance, but in regard of their corrupt fruits: for the word translated [...]. corrupt, properly is applied to trees that beare no fruite, but in the fall of the leafe, which with the leaues fall off, being neglected and wither away, neuer comming to any good or gathering. The second degree, they are without fruite: which words are a correction of the former; for they are not onely without good fruite, but vtterly destitute of any fruite at all. Thirdly, they are twice dead: that is, cer­tainly dead, hopelesse of any fruite. Fourthly, they are plucked vp by the roots, that is, vtterly without hope, not of fruite, but of life it selfe; they are past liuing, and much more past fruite. This similitude then chargeth these seducers (to whom it is fitly applied) first, that al their workes are but hypocriticall. Se­condly, that they are vtterly destitute of all good workes, which truly are good. Thirdly, that they haue no heauēly and spirituall life or sappe in them. And fourthly, that they are out of Christ, not rooted in him, but plucked vp: and therfore they are most hopelesse of euer bearing fruite vnto life▪ being procee­ded so farre in the high way vnto per­dition. So much of the meaning.

Doct. In that these false teachers are iustly condemned for this sinne of be­ing corrupt trees without fruite: wee on the contrarie must striue to become good trees of Gods delight; Isai. 5.7. Iudah is the plant of my delight: trees of righteousnes; Isai. 60.21. The planting of the Lord, laden with the fruites of righteousnesse: which that we may be, foure things are required of vs: first, that we be well rooted: secondly, that wee liue in the roote: thirdly, that wee beare fruite: fourthly, that wee beare good fruite.

First we must be rooted. In this roo­ting two things are required: first, there must bee a roote: this roote is Christ, Ioh. 15.1. He is the vine, wee the bran­ches. Rom. 5.6. If wee bee planted into him, Col. 2.7. rooted in him. Here wee must consider Christ not as God alone, or man alone, or the Son of God alone, but as God-man; as God made man; as an Immanuel, God with vs, euen our Mediatour and Redeemer. Thus he is our roote, in whom are hid the treasures of graces, Col. 2.3. and of whose fulnes we all receiue grace for grace, Ioh. 1.16. The second thing in this rooting is in­grafting: for trees of righteousnesse grow not by nature. Psalm. 1. A good man is as a tree planted: for by nature the best men are but wilde oliues, and [Page 106] must be transplanted from the first A­dam into the second. The author of this ingrafting is God himselfe, who doth it by two actions: first, he giueth Christ truly and really in the word and Sacra­ments, not out of the word, but in and by it. So 1. Cor. 3. Paul planteth, Apollo watereth; that is, God by their mini­strie ingrafted the Corinthians into Christ. Secondly, when on his part hee giueth Christ, hee giueth also a power to the beleeuer to apprehend him, and receiue him with his merits vnto salua­tion, and that by the only hand of faith. Ob. But this can bee no ingrafting, see­ing Christ is in heauen, we are on earth. Ans. It is not indeede a naturall ingraf­ting, which cannot be but by the fit ap­plying of two bodies one to the other, but spirituall, yet as sure and as straight as that is. We see in nature, the minde is present and ioyned with the thing it thinketh of, although it be distant ma­ny thousand miles: if this can bee true in nature, then much more in faith which is a worke supernaturall, and far aboue the reach of nature. Againe, a man hath land giuen him in Spaine, Turkie, or America, many thousand miles off him, he was neuer at it, he ne­uer saw it, and yet is truly the Lord of it, and may say of it, it is his owne, by vertue of the donation. Euen so God in his word giueth Christ and his merits to the beleeuer, who as he hath receiued him by faith, so he retaineth him by grace: by vertue of which donation, and acceptation, a man may as truly say, Christ is his, as though he were now in heauen alreadie with him; yea so firme and certaine is this ingrafting, that it once being made can neuer be dissolued, but is euerlasting: for the root liuing and abiding for euer, so also doe the branches, being set into the same, and that by the hand of the good hus­bandman God himselfe.Ioh 15.1.

The second thing required in a tree of righteousnes is life, which is not the naturall life of other plants, but spiri­tuall and eternall; for eternall life be­ginneth euen in this life. Galath. 2.20. Now I liue, yet not I now, but Christ li­ueth in me, and this life is by the faith in the Son of God, and then wrought in vs, when the same minde which was in Christ whilest hee was vpon earth is also in vs, Philip. 2.5. for hee conueyeth his owne disposition into his members in part, who are daily made confor­mable vnto him: of which conformitie the Apostle maketh two parts, Rom. 5.6. First, a conformitie vnto him in his death; that looke as he died for sinne, so ought his members vnto sin: and as he by his death subdued sinne, and obtai­ned victorie ouer it; so ought they dai­ly to be nibling in the abolishing, and mortifying of that sinne which presseth them downe, and hangeth so fast vpon them, vntill the day of their full con­quest and finall deliuerance. Secondly, a conformitie vnto him in his Resurre­ction; that as he rose againe from the graue, so should they from the graue of their sinnes: and as hee rose to liue for euer, so ought they by vertue of his re­surrection to liue to God in newnes of life, as those that looke to liue foreuer with him. Thirdly, the tree of righte­ousnesse must bring foorth fruites, to testifie the life of it, called Galath. 5.22. fruites of the spirit, and there reckoned vp; Loue, peace, ioy, long suffering, gentle­nes, goodnes, faith, meekenes, temperance. Phil. 1.11. Paul prayeth that the Philip­pians might be filled with the fruites of righteousnes, that is, the duties of the Morall law contained in the first and se­cond Table. Fourthly, a tree of righte­ousnes must bring foorth good fruites, such as are pleasing vnto God. Quest. How shall a Christian bring forth good fruits? Ans. First, good fruit must come from a good heart, an heart penitent, and truly turned to God. Mat. 3. Bring foorth fruites worthie amendement of life. 1. Timot. 1.5. Loue out of a pure heart. Secondly, it must be brought forth with intention, will, purpose, and endeuour to obey God in his commandements, which the heart must respect. Thirdly, the end of this fruite must be the glorie of God, not seeking our selues but Gods honour. In Leuit. 19.23. God re­quireth that the trees should bee cir­cumcised, which was thus performed: The three first yeeres the fruite was to be cast, or fall away;Trees of righteous­nes must circumcise their harts, seeing trees were to be cir­cumcised by the law. the fourth it was to bee dedicated to the Lord, and the fifth yeere the Israelites might eate of the fruite: euen so wee must first cast a­way in respect of our selues our fruites, and dedicate them vnto the Lord, so he shall taste of them with delight, and not before. Fourthly, it must bee brought [Page 107] foorth to the good of others; as trees beare fruites not for themselues, but for men: so our fruites must bee intended not so much for our priuate good, as the common good of the Church and Common-wealth.

Doct. 2. Seeing the faithfull are not such corrupt trees, but of Gods owne planting, they haue here first a ground of comfort in the middest of sorrow, sicknes, yea and death it selfe; for be­ing ingrafted into Christ, the whole man is preserued safe & found in him: yea the dying bodie, nay the dead bo­die, and that which is rotting in the graue is planted into him, and is to liue againe in him who alwaies liueth, and will raise it to life eternall at the last day. Trees in winter are dead to mans sense; yet because the rootes of them liue, and haue in them sappe and moy­sture, in the spring they shall bud, blos­some, and beare fruite againe: euen so the rotten body at the time of refresh­ing shall reuiue againe and become a glorious plant, putting off mortalitie and corruption, no more to be subie­cted thereunto againe, than the roote into which they are set; who hath for his members chased them away. Se­condly, seeing we must be planted, and cannot attaine this growth by nature: we must detest, and abhorre our selues in dust and ashes, renounce, and be­waile our naturall condition, and be at no rest till wee feele our selues set into Christ, by liuing the life of the Sonne of God: For know we not that Christ li­ueth in vs, except we be reprobates? Third­ly, our Church hath herein resembled Iudah; hauing been for many yeres a plant of Gods delight, who hath hed­ged and fenced it by his fauourable protection: but many, yea the most branches are barren, bearing no fruite; others beare lesse fruite than they haue done, being withered and fallen back: what will be (thinke we) the end here­of? Surely the axe being alreadie laid to the roote of the tree, shall cut downe whatsoeuer branches beare not foorth good fruite, and they shall be cast into the fire. It standeth vs then in hand to become more fruitfull before we be cut downe. Fourthly, hence let euery man learne subiection vnto God in all his crosses and afflictions; wee are trees or branches at least, of the Vine, the Father is the husbandman, and looke a [...] the husbandman loppeth, cutteth [...] pru­neth, yea and almost cutteth downe his trees to make them more fruitfull? so dealeth the Lord with his children, who therein are to rest well contented; for he chasteneth them for their good; that although no chastisement seemeth ioy­ous for the present, yet it bringeth after­ward the pleasant fruite of righteousnes to those that are exercised thereby.

Twice dead and plucked vp.] Some hence gather this, that wee are once dead in Adam by originall sinne; and secondly after regeneration or ingraf­ting into Christ by some grieuous sinne wounding the conscience to death: and hence conclude that a man rege­nerate may die againe, and fall from grace: vrging for their purpose that in Rom. 11.20. Through vnbeleefe they were broken off, and thou standest by faith; be not high minded but feare. But this can­not be so vnderstood: for by twice dead, is meant dead certainly; or dead twice, once in Adam by originall sinne, and the second time dead by their owne actuall sinne. As for that place in Rom. 11. I answere, there are two kindes of planting: first outward: secondly in­ward. The outward is when God gi­ueth the word vnto a people with other his ordinances, and they publikely pro­fesse it. The inward is when God giueth true faith, whereby men are set into Christ. Now the Iewes whom the A­postle speaketh of, were implanted by the former onely, and therefore might be broken off: the other is euerlasting. 1. Ioh. 2.19. They went out from vs, but were not of vs: for if they had been of vs, they should haue continued with vs. Fur­ther, where it is said, Plucked vp:] hence is gathered by some that they were once in the roote, and therefore a man rooted and set in Christ may perish fi­nally. Ans. But we must know that this phrase in the Scripture signifieth a ma­nifestation of the things to be done, ra­ther than the doing of them; they are therfore said to bee plucked vp, whom God manifesteth neuer to haue been rooted: as also men are said to be blot­ted out of the booke of life; not that they were euer written therein, but in that God manifesteth and maketh knowne to men that they were neuer written in it.

Vers. 13. ‘They are raging waues of the sea, foaming out their owne shame: they are wandring starres, for whom is reserued the blacke darknes for euer.’

THe Apostle in this verse procee­deth on in the further discouerie of these wicked men by sundry other sins; set downe after the same manner as the former by way of similitude and com­parison. And first he compareth them to the raging waues of the sea; and se­condly to wandring starres. And in the end of the verse: For whom &c. the con­clusion is againe repeated, of which we haue spoken in the 11. verse. The former comparison hath three expositions: for some will haue their grosse hypocrisie hereby signified; and then the compa­rison standeth vs: Looke as the waues of the sea rage and swell, rising vp to­wards the heauens, as though they would swallow and ouerflow the earth, which they seeme to threatē; but draw­ing to the shore, they are broken to a little foame: so these seducers make a great shew of godlinesse, and pietie, as though they onely would goe to hea­uen; yet is the matter nothing so, all is but froth, seeing they want the power and practise of religion, and godlines in the middest of such pretenses. Se­condly, others hereby expresse their vn­profitablenes and deceitfulnes in their doctrine, thus: As the waues of the sea rise very huge and high, especially be­ing stirred by the windes, and yet their effect is nothing but a little foame and mire, which they cast vp: so these lewd men being puffed vp in themselues, promise great matters to their follow­ers: as much libertie, many blessings and great good things; and yet the ef­fect of all their shewes is but to make men much more the seruants of sinne than before. And thus Peter speaketh of them:2. Pet. 2.18. In speaking swelling words of va­nitie they beguile with wantonnes, through the lusts of the flesh, them which were cleane escaped from them. This was truly spoken of them, and may as truly be ap­plied vnto diuers of our times: as first the Libertines and Familists, fondly as­suring their disciples that they shall bee illuminate and deified, such great mat­ters they promise: whereas they make them the children of the diuell seuen fold more than they were before. Se­condly,Romish sea casteth out nothing but fo [...]m [...] and mire. the Romish Clergie haue been as large in their promises vnto their hearers: teaching them that they shall be able to satisfie the iustice of God for their sinnes, yea and merit life euerla­sting, and that many of them can per­forme works of supererrogation, which the law of God bindeth them not vn­to: but what is this but to foame out dirt and mire, and to teach men that for a little mony they may breake al Gods Commandements? The third exposi­tion is this: As the Sea stirred by the windes and weather rageth, and from the foundation casteth vp nothing but froth: so these men stirred and mooued by the hand of God correcting them, amend not, nor profit thereby: but ra­ther vnder the same, discouer the wic­kednes and vnbeliefe of their hearts: which is the most agreeable and fittest exposition; explained in Isai. 57.20. The wicked are like the raging sea that cannot rest, whose waters cast vp mire and dirt. From this sense consider these two things: first, a worke of God: second­ly, a practise of man. First the wil, work, and appointment of God is, that men shall be troubled, stirred, mooued, and set out of quiet, and haue within them such disquietnes, as if the raging waues of the sea were within their soules. The minds of men both godly and wicked, their willes and affections are often so distempered, as is the sea whē it is trou­bled with boisterous windes and tem­pests. Iere. 49.23. The Lord shall trouble Damascus, so she shall become as a fearfull sea that cannot rest. Iosh. 7. Ioshua said to Achan; Thou hast troubled Israel, and the Lord shall trouble thee. Iob saith, The Almightie troubled him, chap. 23.16. Yea Christ himselfe, although hee was without sinne, had his soule troubled in his agonie, in which his minde, will and affections were disturbed: and this trouble God bringeth on men diuers waies; sometimes by those of a mans owne house, as Iacobs sonnes troubled him, Genes. 34. Sometimes they of his companie, as Achan, Iosh. 7. Somtimes by the Lords withdrawing of himselfe, Psal. 30.7. Thou diddest hide thy face, and I was troubled. Sometimes a mans own heart and conscience will rage against him, as Baltazar seeing the hand wri­ting vpon the wall, was troubled, and [Page 109] there was no life in him, Dan. 5. What then wil some say, is there no difference betweene the godly and the wicked herein? Ans. Yes: for euery little crosse vnto the wicked is a tempest breaking the rockes: which maketh them to storme and rage, and send foorth foame and mire: but the crosses of the godly are as calme windes, a little shaking them indeed, & for a little time: but are blowne ouer when they haue a little exercised their faith and graces, so as they are bettered, yea and furthered by them. 1. King. 19. Elias standing on Mount Horeb, there passed by him a mightie tempest which rent the rocks; and then an Earthquake, then fire: but God was not in any of these: afterward there came a still and soft voyce, and God was in the voyce. Afflictions are like that tempest, earthquake and fire, namely to the wicked, against whom the Lord commeth to shake and con­sume them: but to the godly are as a still voyce to teach and instruct them: vnder which they quietly content thē ­selues, because God is in that still voice, namely, by his grace and presence sup­porting and sustaining them euen in the middest of their troubles.

Secondly, the practise of a wicked man is, when hee is troubled and stirred by God to foame out his owne shame; euen as the sea his froth. Experience teacheth, that if a wicked man haue any wrong or disgrace offered him, pre­sently he discouereth the corruption of his heart, and breaketh out into railing, cursing, reuiling, and all manner of re­uenge: so if Gods hand bee vpon him by sicknes, or vpon his familie, he can­not couer his want of loue of God, he cannot hide the infidelitie of his heart: for hee betakes himselfe the next way to the Sorcerer,As Adam fled from God vpon his sinne: so many a one flieth to the diuell vpon the punish­ment of it. Figure-caster, or the next Wizard, so flieth from God as fast as his feete will carrie him: and euery way the same violent affections bewray themselues, which these seducers are charged withall.

Vse. Seeing this is the propertie of a wicked man being troubled, to foame out his owne shame, let the childe of God in his trouble quiet himselfe, restraine and bridle his corruptions; yea let him shew foorth his faith, obedience, meek­nes and subiection vnto God; let him repaire vnto God by prayer: as Iehosa­phat being in a great streight on euery side turned his eyes vnto the Lord,2. Chro. 20.12. say­ing: I know not what to doe, but our eye [...] are towards thee. And Dauid [...] from Absalom his sonne reuiled him not, nor [...]tormed against him, but tur­ned to the Lord, saying▪ If I please thee not, Lord here am I, doe with me [...] at thou pleasest.

The second comparison followeth in these words: They are wandring s [...]ars. By which words wee may not vnder­stand the Planets in the heauens: nei­ther the fixed starres which keepe a di­rect and constant course: but such as wee call shooting, falling, or gliding starres; which haue some light, but it is soone obscured. The sinne then is, that which was before mentioned, namely their false and instable doctrine, which can neuer direct men to heauē, no more than these shooting starres can direct either sailers by sea, or trauellers by land. Hence learne two things: first, that all true Teachers must be starres. Secondly, they must bee fixed and not wandring starres: first they must bee starre [...]. Ob. This cannot be, seeing they haue no light of their owne. Ans. Christ is the light which inlighteneth euery man that commeth into the world; cal­led therefore the Sunne of righteous­nes, and the day starre, from whom all Ministers receiue their light. Againe, they may bee fit instruments to carrie light vnto others (which is their office) although they haue none of their own, saue that onely which is conueied from Christ vnto them: as a Lanthorne hath no light in it selfe but what men put in­to it.

Doct. First, all true Teachers must first haue the Sunne of righteousnes to shine in their owne hearts, before they can enlighten others with his light: for as Paul was himselfe comforted that he might be able to comfort others, 2. Co­rinth. 1. so no man can teach others, till himselfe first bee taught. Secondly,Ministers as starres must shine to mens hearts, and not onely sound to the eares. if they be starres they must shine to som­what, and that is, to the hearts of men: so as the principall care of Ministers ought to bee herein placed, that they may enlighten the minds, consciences, wils, and affections of men, so becom­ming the meanes of the rising of the Sunne of righteousnes in mens hearts, not that they may fill the care with [Page 110] words, but the heart with light, com­fort, and refreshing. This was the scope of Pauls preaching, 2. Cor. 4.2. in the de­claration of the truth to approoue him­selfe to euery mans conscience in the sight of God: so as if his Gospell were yet hid, it was not his fault; but of those men whose eyes the God of the world had blinded, that the light of the glo­rious Gospel of Christ should not shine vnto their hearts.

Vse. This teacheth that all men by nature are the children of darknesse, without the knowledge of God; as vn­to whō God hath appointed Teachers to be as shining stars to enlightē them. We neede not to go farre to proue this truth, for euen our owne countrey wit­nesseth that in the daies of former Prin­ces, our forefathers wanting this light and these stars, sowed and reaped their fields, brought home their corne, baked their bread: which serued them partly for foode, and partly to make a brea­den god of; a more palpable darknes than that of Egypt which might haue been felt. Secondly, seeing that darknes is chased away, and wee haue the light, and many bright starres to direct vs, take the exhortation Ephes. 5.8. Ye are now light, walk as children of light, name­ly by accepting, entertaining and em­bracing of the light. That wee may doe this, first wee must know the light, and behold it with the loue and affection of our hearts vnto it; that as when the Sunne shineth, euery man openeth his doores and windowes to receiue the comfort of it: so wee should open the doores of our hearts to entertaine,Open the doore of thy heart, that the Sunne of righteous­nes may shine into the house of thy soule and retaine the light of Christ, to haue them filled therewith: for then Gods fauou­rable countenance is shining vpon vs. Secondly, hauing the light, we must doe the workes of the light, that is of obe­dience: when the Sunne is vp and shi­neth euery man walketh in his calling, and whilest our Sunne of grace is ouer our heads, wee are to walke as becom­meth the calling of Christianitie, to make conscience of all sinne; a shame is it at noon day to stumble & fall, and rush into a pit: so now is it for Christian men in such a sunne shine of the Gos­pell, to betake them to euery worke of darknes, and be betaken with euery snare of sin, as though they had no light to direct them, but were left in darknes.

Secondly, true Teachers must not onely be starres, but fixed starres, that is, constant & stable in the doctrine which they teach, and deliuer out of the Pro­phets, and Apostles: for if the starres and Sea markes should chaunge their places, and remoue to & fro, the poore passengers that looke for constant di­rection from them, are likely to be car­ried and cast vpon quicke sands and rockes, and so bee ouerthrowne and drowned: in like manner if Teachers bee variable, and changelings in their doctrines, the soules of their hearers (not knowing where to haue sure dire­ction) are as likely to suffer shipwracke and sinke into the pit of hell.

Vse. People ought to haue their hearts stablished, and setled vpon the doctrine of religion taught, and proued vnto them out of the word; by the di­rection whereof they are to bee passed vnto the hauen of happines. If this bee learned of the bodie of this land, our peace and prosperitie shall be stable, within our walles and palaces: ye [...] Gods protection shall be a wall of fire round about vs. So much of that verse.

Vers. 14. ‘And Enoch also the seuenth from Adam prophecied of such, saying: Behold the Lord commeth with thousands of his Saints.’

THe Apostle hauing in the latter part of the former verse repeated the conclusion of the reason, which is, that these seducers shall be destroyed, (the blacknes of darknes being reserued for them) hee confirmeth that conclu­sion by a worthie testimonie of Enoch; who prophecied that the Lord would giue iudgement against all vngodlie men: and therefore these vngodly men vers. 4. must needes be destroyed. In this testimonie consider two things: first the preface before it: secondly, the te­stimonie it selfe. In the preface he na­meth the author; who was Enoch: and commendeth him in that he was the se­uenth from Adam. Here two questions are to bee answered: first, whence had Iude this historie, seeing it is no where recorded in the Scriptures? and how knew he it to be Enochs? I answere two waies: first, he either had it and learned it to bee his by some tradition which went from hand to hand: (or else writ­ten [Page 111] by some Iew) or secondly, he lear­ned it out of some booke which went vnder Enochs name: then extant in the daies of the Apostles, though now lost: it is certaine that one of these waies hee had it.

Hence the Papists gather that the Iewes had vnwritten traditions, and consequently all their traditions are to be obserued. Ans. We denie not all vn­written traditions, of which some are true and profitable: but wee renounce and denie all those traditions which are made articles of faith, & rules of Gods worship, necessarie to saluation, (for all such doctrines are written in the books of the Prophets and Apostles, which containe perfect direction and rules concerning faith & manners) of which kind the Romane Church holdeth their traditions to be: this is of another kind, it being no article of faith, nor necessary to saluation to knowe whether Enoch writ this prophecie or no. Againe, from the second answere, others who are no Papists, conclude, that some bookes of Canonicall Scripture are perished and lost. But this is vntrue; for then first the fidelitie of the Church, which is the kee­per of these Oracles, should be called in question: and secondly, in the bookes Canonicall extant, not one sentence, or tittle, no not the sense of any sentence is lost: how then should whole bookes come to be lost?

It is alleaged that the books of Salo­mon are most of them lost. Answ. The bookes of Salomon which were lost, were bookes of humanitie and Philo­sophie: for hee writ of all beasts, birds, trees, euen from the Cedar in Libanus to the hyssop vpon the wall: the books of humane truth might faile, but no part of Canonicall Scripture.

Ob. Mention is made in the Scrip­ture of the bookes of the Chronicles of the Iewes or Kings of Iudah; but these are perished. Ans. They were politique histories, as are the Chronicles of Eng­land, or other Countries.

Ob. The bookes of Nathan, Gad, Idd [...], Shemaiah, and other Prophets are perished. Ans. All these (as is though by the learned) are contained in the bookes of the Kings, Chronicles, and Samuel.

Ob. This book of Enoch is lost. Ans. First, it is doubted whether it was a booke or no, or went by a tradition. Se­condly, if it was a booke, it was no part of Scripture: for Moses was the first penman of Scripture, who liued long after Enoch.

The second question: why doth the Apostle make choise of this testimonie of Enoch, rather than some other Pro­phet? Answ. Himselfe giueth two rea­sons. First,He was not the fourth from Adam Ca [...] son, Gen. 4.17. but the seuenth of the posteri­tie of Seth: Gen. 7.18. he was the seuenth from A­dam: it is therefore an ancient testimo­nie, to be receiued and reuerenced for the antiquitie: but withall it sheweth what is true antiquitie; namely▪ when a doctrine of religion can bee prooued from some Prophet or Apostle: (for this testimonie was a prophecie) and therefore that antiquitie which the Church of Rome challengeth to her re­ligion and doctrine is but counterfeit; because they are not able to iustifie the maine pointes thereof from any Pro­phet or Apostle: yea in these wherein they dissent from vs they cannot bring their proofe and descent from within the first hundred yeeres after Christ. It is then a vaine plea and false pretence of them to boast of the antiquitie of their religion. The second reason is in the word prophecied: for Enoch spoke not this of his owne head or motion, but from God; for no creature, Angell, or man, can foretell things to come; it being a prerogatiue properly belon­ging vnto God. Ob. Yes, but the lear­ned Physition can truely foretell the death of the patient to come. Ans. He doth not properly herein foretell a thing to come: for the death of the par­tie is present in the signes and causes of it. Ob. But the Diuell could foretell Sauls death, 1. Sam. 28.19. To morow shalt thou be with me and thy sonnes. Ans. The Diuell could not properly foretell it, but might see it in the causes and signes. Againe, hee might speake so to Saule; because God had made him an instrument for the execution of that iudgement and destruction: so as God only properly foretelleth that which is simply to come, and no man or Angell.

The second point is the testimonie it selfe. Behold the Lord commeth &c.] In which obserue three points: first, the comming of the Lord: secondly, the iudgement of the Lord: thirdly, the cause of it in the 15. verse: To giue iudgement against al men, &c. First of the party com­ming: [Page 112] Behold the Lord commeth.] Where the Apostle speaketh in the time pre­sent, which is put for the time to come: which forme of speech sheweth the cer­taintie of Christs comming to iudge­ment; who shall as certeinly come, as if he were now alreadie comming. Con­cerning which certaintie, it may be de­maunded first, whence commeth this comming of Christ to be so certaine? Ans. From the vnchangeable will of God, which hath certainly decreed the same.Act. 17.31. For he hath appointed a day in the which he will iudge the world in righte­ousnes. And thus are all other the ar­ticles of our faith most certaine, in that they are grounded on the vnchange­able will and word of God.

Secondly, how or from whence may we know this will of God to be so cer­taine? Ans. From the manner of pro­pounding the doctrine of it; wherein the euidence of the spirit plainly appea­reth, saying peremptorily; the Lord com­meth: euidently expressing the certain­tie as if it were now present. And the same may be spoken of the whole scrip­ture, which in it selfe is most sure and certain, because it is the most vnchange­able will of God: but how do we know it so to be will some say? I answere, by the euidence of the spirit, the authoritie, puritie, maiestie, effect, and ends of the doctrine: it neede not seeke euidence elsewhere than from it selfe, not from man or the Church it selfe. The Romish Church confesseth it is of it selfe, and in it selfe sufficiently certaine, but not to me or thee, except the Church say so: but this is a false position. The Scripture is certaine both in it selfe and vnto vs, and we know it so to be though neuer a man would acknowledge it: the heart seasoned with grace will make the mouth confesse it.

Secondly, the Apostle speaking in this forme, he commeth, for he will come: wee learne to set before our eyes the comming of the Lord Iesus to iudge­ment, and to make account of euery present day as the day of his comming: the Scriptures euery where commend watchfulnes vnto vs, which is to do no­thing else but to make reckoning con­tinually of this day. But some will say, we cannot make account daily of it, for we see it commeth not: neither may we enquire into the time of it. Answ. Al­though wee cannot exactly make ac­count of that daye of generall iudge­ment, yet may we well reckon vpon the day of our particular iudgement, and the day of our owne death, that so wee may be fitted thereto: For as this shall leaue vs, so that shall finde vs. A neces­sarie doctrine and dutie to be enforced in these drowsie daies, wherein euery man almost putteth off the euill day, and maketh league and couenants with death and hell: the young man presu­meth of length of daies: the olde man dreameth he may liue one yeere longer: both of them deferre hereupon their re­pentance, in that they both are of one minde, namely, that their Master will yet deferre his comming. Thirdly, we must not only carrie within vs a conceit and opinion of this day; but also must be inwardly affected with it, that we may walke in awe and reuerence before God in regard of it. 2. Cor. 5.11. Know­ing therefore the terrors of the Lord, we perswade men &c.

Now in the latter part of this verse, the attendants of the Lord in his com­ming are mentioned in these words: With thousands of his Saints: which must be vnderstood not only of Angels, but men also, 1. Thess. 3.13▪ at the comming of the Lord Iesus Christ with all his Saints. Qu. How can this be, and how shall the Saints come with him? Ans. All men shall rise with their owne bodies, good & bad, at the sound of the Trum­pet: then shall the Saints be taken vp into the clowdes to meete Christ, and shall be made a part of his attendance: but the wicked shal stand vpō the earth, wishing the mountaines and hils to fall vpon them, and hide them from the pre­sence of the Iudge. Which affoordeth a most speciall comfort vnto all them who know themselues to be the mem­bers of Christ, they shall not need to be dismaied at that day, nor feare the face of the wicked, seeing they shall be re­ceiued in the clowdes, into fellowship with Christ before the iudgement be­gin: which manner of proceeding the Apostle hauing described, concludeth with the same:1. Thess. 4.16.17. Wherefore comfort your selues one another with these wordes, vers. 18. Here also may bee noted the power, maiestie, and omnipotencie of Christ in his second comming, although his first comming was base and in [Page 113] the forme of a seruant; now he shall come with many millions of Angels and Saints; whom all creatures cannot resist: let no wicked man thinke then either to absent himselfe, or escape his fearefull wrath: the only way to auoide it is in thy life time to meete him by re­pentance.

Vers. 15. ‘To giue iudgement against all men, and to rebuke all the vngodly among them, of all their wicked deedes, which they haue vngodlily committed: and of all their cruell speakings, which wicked sinners haue spoken against him.’

THe second point in the testimonie, is the iudgement of the Lorde, which together with the cause is in this verse described. Concerning the iudge­ment wee must knowe, that it is either generall or speciall: both of them here mentioned: the former in these wordes: To giue iudgement against all men; the latter in these words follo­wing: And to rebuke all the vngodly a­mong them.]. In the generall iudge­ment it may be asked how Christ can bee said to giue iudgement against all men; seeing the Saints shall come with him, and hee will passe no sentence a­gainst them? Ans. The meaning is, he will giue iudgement vpon all men: for the godly shall receiue and heare a sen­tence, but of absolution: and amongst all men he will rebuke the vngodly: all persons shall come vnto iudgement without exception, of what age, sexe, or state soeuer they be. This vniuersall iudgement teacheth vs, first, to redresse before this day come whatsoeuer with­in vs would when it commeth con­found vs, for euery man must appeare in his owne person: no Procter shall be allowed to speake or solicite for a­ny man; the secrets of all hearts must bee disclosed, and euery man shall re­ceiue accordingly to that he hath done. It standeth men therefore in hand to reforme things amisse before hand, for they shall appeare nakedly euen as they are.We must be cōdem­ned by our selues, or by the Lord. Quest. How shall this bee done? Ans. 1. Cor. 11.21. Iudge thy selfe before hand, and thou shalt not bee iudged of the Lord; arraigne, examine, cast and condemne thy selfe, sue for pardon as for life and death, and thou shalt escape that fearefull iudgement: For hee that confesseth his sinnes and forsaketh them, shall finde mercie, Prou. 28.13. Thus doe and mercie be­longeth vnto thee. Vpon the same ground Paul raiseth the same dutie, ad­monishing all men euery where to re­pent, because he hath appointed a day in which hee will iudge the worlde in righteousnes, Act. 17.30.31. Secondly, seeing there is a day of vniuersall iudg­ment, seeke in the meane time to stop the mouth of thy conscience, that it may then stand with thee to excuse and acquite thee, and neuer dare to offend againe and wound it, for it is a deputie Iudge vnder God; which if it con­demne thee, much more shall God the great Iudge, being greater than thy conscience. Thirdly, hence in all acti­ons our care should be to approoue our hearts vnto God, especially in hea­ring and speaking the word, prayer, vse of the Sacraments, yea and all our en­deuours should be to please and obey him; who one day will giue an vpright sentence vpon them all. Thus the con­sideration of the iudgement to come, made the Apostle Paul endeuour to approoue all the actions of his life vnto God, 2. Cor. 5.11. So Peter 2. Epist. 3.11 seeing all these things shall be dissolued, what manner of men ought we to be in holy conuersation and godlines, loo­king for the hasting vnto the comming of the day of the Lord?

The speciall iudgement is laid down in the next words, and they containe two things: first, the persons who shall be iudged; All the vngodly among them. Secondly, the manner of their iudge­ment in the word rebuke or conuince. The persons are set out by their proper­tie of vngodlinesse, which is a sinne dire­ctly against God: and the vngodly man is he who denieth God the honour due vnto him: of whom (that we might the better know him) the Scripture hath gi­uen fiue notes or properties: as first, that he knoweth not, or acknowledgeth not the true God aright according to his word. Psal. 10.4. All their thoughts be that there is no God, that is, they acknow­ledge him not, in his presence, proui­dence, iustice, or mercie. Secondly, he subiecteth not his body, soule, and con­science to the laws of God in al things: but taketh libertie to liue as hee list. Iob. 21.14. They say to the Almightie, [Page 115] Depart from vs, we will none of thy waies. Psalm. 50.16. They hate to be reformed. Thirdly, in heart and life he dependeth not himselfe vpon the will, power, pro­uidence, and good pleasure of God; but on something out of God in himself, or some other creature; Abac. 2.4. whereas the iust man liueth by faith, the wicked man exalteth himselfe, and is puffed vp as bearing himself vpon something be­sides the Creator. Fourthly, he worship­peth not from his heart the true God, he lifteth not vp his soule in prayer, or thanksgiuing: but as a beast receiueth blessings contenting himselfe within himselfe, neuer looking higher to the hand reaching them out vnto him. Iob. 21.15. Who is the Almightie that wee should serue him, and what profit is it to call vpon him? Psal. 14. He neuer calleth vpon God. Fifthly, he hateth the Church and people of God, and when occasion shall serue he will testifie it by persecu­ting the same. For he that loueth not God, loueth not his adherents. Psa. 44.5. They smite downe thy people O Lord, and trouble thine heritage. These be the notes of them against whom sentence shall passe when they shall be iudged: from whence two duties are to be lear­ned. First, to denie all vngodlines, and to put farre from vs all the properties thereof. Secondly, to exercise our selues vnto godlines and all the duties therof: as first to learne to know God aright, both in his owne attributes, and also in his affection to vs ward, neuer quieting our selues till wee know him to be our Father, our Redeemer, our Sanctifier: and this knowledge of him is life eter­nall. Secondly, to subiect our selues, our liues, wils, affections, speeches, and a­ctions, to all his lawes: for to shake off the yoke of obedience to any part of his word is rebellion. Thirdly, to goe out of our selues, as being nothing in our selues; and in our hearts depend vpon the will and good pleasure of God, li­uing by faith, making him our rocke, our tower, our fortresse, and strong de­fence in all estates, yea in life and in death our aduantage. Fourthly, to wor­ship him not only outwardly (as hypo­crites may doe) but to serue him in our spirits, giuing him our whole hearts. Fifthly, to loue all men, but especially Gods Saints, and the householde of faith; affecting the particular congre­gations; and chiefly delighting in the Saints vpon earth that excell in vertue. Thus walking with God, as Enoch did, we shall escape this most wofull sen­tence which shall bee pronounced a­gainst the vngodly ones of the earth.

The second thing in this special iudg­ment is the manner of it in the word re­buke.] God rebuketh two waies: first in mercie, when as in iustice he remēbreth mercie, Hab. 3. Secondly in iustice, yea in anger and wrath: Psal. 6.1. O Lord re­buke me not in thy wrath: and this latter is here meant. So as thus much is here sig­nified, that the Lord will powre out his fury, and his wrathful indignation vpon al the vngodly of the earth. This wrath­ful rebuke hath two parts: first, the con­uicting of the vngodly in their own cō ­sciences, of all their wicked thoughts, words and works; and this the word al­so signifieth, Reu. 20. The books shal be opened, and all mens sinnes shall be laid o­pen: that is, they shall be so discouered, as they (being conuinced) shall not be able to denie them. Secondly, the pu­nishment that shall follow that conui­ction. So Dauid prayeth, Psa. 6. Neither chastice me in thy heauie displeasure.

Doct. Hence we learne that al things are fully and perfectly knowne vnto God; and all things are open before him: Heb. 4.13. yea they are naked, and as it were vnquartered before his eyes: for the Apostle alludeth to the cutting vp of a beast, or the anatomizing of the creature, wherein men are curious to finde out euery little veine, or muskle, though they lie neuer so close: euen so the Lord shall finde out euery trans­gression, although neuer so secretly conceiued and concealed, and that in such sort as hee shall conuince the vn­godly man, whose mouth shall be shut so soone as euer his booke is open: which should teach vs, first, in matter of religion to auoide all dissembling and hypocrisie.Be as thou seemest, or seeme as thou art. Be that in deede what thou seemest to be: for though thou maiest delude men, thou canst not de­ceiue the Almightie, but hee shall con­uince thee. Secondly, let thy dealing before men be plaine, simple, without fraud, couin or deceit; for though thou maist glose with men, who cannot con­uince thee, yet the righteous Lord shall rebuke thee for want of righteousnes in thy dealings. Thirdly, humble thy [Page 115] selfe before God alwaies for all thy knowne sinnes; yea and for thy vn­knowne sinnes also: for though they be vnknowne to thy selfe, yet they are knowne vnto him, who will one day conuince thee of them all, except thou preuent him by thy repentance.

The third thing propounded in the testimonie, is the cause of the iudge­ment, in these words: Of all their wicked deeds which they haue vngodlily cōmitted, and of all their cruell speakings, which wic­ked sinners haue spoken against him.] The cause is two-fold, the deedes and words of men: the deedes are distributed, first, by the propertie of them, being workes of vngodlines. Secondly, by the manner of performing them, they are vngodlily cōmitted. By vngodly works are meant all sinnes against any part of the law of God, whether in the first or second Table: for euery sinne (though it be di­rectly against man) hath in it a defect, and [...]. withdrawing of some dutie due to God. Secondly, for the manner, these workes being vngodly and failing a­gainst the law, are done after an vngod­ly manner: and that worke is done vn­godlily which proceedeth from an vn­repentant heart, and a minde addicted and deuoted to vngodlines, which is knowne and discerned to be such a one by three notes: first, because it purpo­seth to commit sinne before hand. Se­condly,Notes of an vngodly and vnre­pentant heart. in the committing of sinne it is delighted and taketh pleasure in it. Thirdly, after sin it walketh in the same course, yea runneth on in the same waies without remorse or repentance: and this clause seemeth to be added to put a difference between the godly and wicked, who both of them may com­mit vngodlines and be found in vngod­ly actions; but not both committing them in an vngodly manner: for the childe of God before he sinne hee pur­poseth it not, yea he hath a purpose not to sinne; so as he may say it is not only besid [...], but against his purpose. Second­ly, in his sinne he hath a resisting, and strife against it, and is not wholy swal­lowed vp in the pleasure of it. Thirdly, he lieth not in it, but reneweth and re­couereth himselfe againe by faith and repentance: so as though hee doe wic­kednes, yet hee doth it not wickedly, but weakely, being ouercome and foy­led by corruption. And hence is it that this wicked worke being found in the hands of Gods children, though it de­serue death: yet through grace it shall be no cause of his condemnation.

Doct. The principall cause of con­demnation is not this or that sinne, but the lying and trading therein, which ar­gueth an vngodly heart: to commit vn­godlines indeede, maketh men subiect to condemnation; but to commit it vn­godlily, this bringeth swift iudgement. Secondly,The godly commit vngodli­nes, but not vngodlily as the wic­ked. a wicked man sinneth not of infirmitie, for he committeth vngodli­nes in an vngodly manner, and tradeth in wickednes, wickedly: the sinnes of infirmitie befall not the gracelesse sin­ner, but the regenerate only, in whom frailty faileth grace for a time: the drun­kard may excuse himselfe and say his sinne is his infirmitie; yet is it not, but a wickednes, wickedly committed: so of the couetous person and other sinners. Thirdly, marke Gods great mercy with much thankfulnes: in that the regene­rate doing wicked actions aswell as the wicked, are not condemned for them as the wicked are: For there is no con­demnation to them that are in Christ Ie­sus, Rom. 8.1.

The second cause of the iudgement is the speeches of the wicked, set out by two properties: first, they are cruell: se­condly, they are vttered against God. An example of such speech we haue in La­mech, Genes. 4. Whosoeuer killeth Caine shall be reuenged seuen fold: but whosoe­uer offendeth me, I wil reuenge my selfe se­uentie times seuen fold; a cruell and bloodie speech vanting it selfe euen a­gainst God himselfe.

Vse. First, hence it followeth that wicked words and works are causes of lust condemnation. Ob. Then good words and workes are causes of salua­tion. Ans. The reason is not good: for wicked mens sins be perfectly wicked, but the actions of the regenerate are not perfectly good. Secondly, we are hence to bewaile the vngodly words and workes that haue passed vs, which binde vs ouer to condemnation, and a­boue all things in the world to sue to God by prayer for pardon: yea to giue our selues no rest, till we haue within vs the witnes of Gods spirit, witnessing to our spirits that we are graciously ac­cepted, and that our vngodly workes are remoued out of his sight. Thirdly, [Page 116] wee are to marke those persons whose liues and mouthes abound with vngod­lines, and communicate not with such; but mourne for them as Lot did, whose righteous soule was vexed, not onely in seeing the wicked workes, but also in hearing the filthy speeches of the vn­cleane Sodomites.Psal. 42.3. My teares (saith Da­uid) haue bin my meate day and night, while they daily say vnto me, where is thy God? Fourthly, our dutie is to auoide euery wicked way and word, and ende­uour to haue our speech seasoned with salt, and ministring grace to the hea­rers. Fifthly, consider hence what we in this land may iustly be afraid of, seeing vngodlines so exceedingly aboundeth, godlines decreaseth: the godly are ta­ken away, the wicked reproch those that are left euen for religions sake, and for such religious practises as stand both by Gods law, and the lawes of the land, by such speeches as these: Thou art one that runnes to sermons; doest thou learne this and that there? thou art full of the holie Ghost, the Diuell is within thee. And such like most wret­ched and vngodly speeches, iustly de­seruing fearefull iudgements: The wic­kednes of inhabitants ouerturne whole kingdomes, Prou. 28.2. It behoues vs then to betake our selues to speedie re­pentance; lest speedie vengeance ouer­take vs vnawares.

Vers. 16. ‘These are murmurers, com­plainers, walking after their owne lusts, whose mouthes speake proud things; hauing mens persons in admiration, because of ad­uantage.’

IN this verse the Apostle returneth a­gaine to his former purpose, and still continueth the rehearsall of the sinnes and vices of these false teachers, against whom he writeth; and against whom he hath alreadie alleaged twelue seue­rall sinnes; and in this verse addeth sixe more, of which some notwithstanding haue been touched in the sins formerly condēned. Herein we will first shew the nature of the vices themselues, and se­condly lay downe the contrarie duties so farre as they shall concerne vs.

These are murmurers,] By murmuring wee are to vnderstand a certaine fruite of impatience, whereby men shew themselues displeased with the worke of Gods prouidence, especially when his hand is vpon them, and they are vn­der the crosse. Example whereof wee haue in the Israelites, who when Moses had brought them out of Egypt, they murmured and repined that they were fed with Manna only, and wanted their flesh-pots which they had in Egypt: see Deut. 1.26.27. where this sinne is called rebellion against God; and therefore is no small sinne. For the auoyding and preuenting of which sinne, wee must learne two duties: first, in silence and subiection to calme and quiet our harts in the reueiled will of God vpon vs, though therein our owne willes bee crossed. Psal. 4.4. Examine your selues, and be still. Psal. 37.7. Be silent vnto God, and waite on the Lord. Which is al one as if he had plainly said: Let Gods will be your will also. Isai. 30.15. In quiet­nes and confidence shall be your strength. Herein our strength must be exercised, not in resisting, but enduring the hand of God. Secondly, wee must shew our selues truly thankfull to God in all things befalling vs: yea, euen in euill things, which otherwise may be occa­sions of murmuring. Iob. 1. The Lord hath giuen, and the Lord hath taken, bles­sed be his name. Ob. But this may seeme harsh and contrary to reason to blesse God for crosses. Ans. Not a whit, if we conceiue that according to our deserts, he might plunge vs into the pit of hell: and therefore if he mitigate of that iu­stice, and remember his mercie more easily correcting vs, herein all the praise of mercie is due vnto him.

Complainers] So called for two cau­ses: first, because they are discontented with their present outward estate wher­in God hath placed them; the portion that God hath allotted thē liketh them not; they are displeased that they are not as others be, and that they haue not as others haue. Secondly, because vpon the frowardnes of their dispositiō they are easily displeased, and hard to please again, soone incensed, and not so soone satisfied; and thereupon are common­ly complaining of the hard measure they seeme to receiue at mens hands. But especially they are so called in re­spect of the former reason. This is not the sinne of that age onely, neither on­ly of those persons, but is euen a com­mon sinne of our times, and that of the [Page 117] richer sort: for these are the poorest a­mongst men, euer whining, and com­plaining that their state is not so good as others, nor as they would haue it: and although they know (as we say) no end of their wealth, yet know they no end of their wishings and desires. We on the contrarie are hence to learne, first, to thinke well and speake well of that estate in which God in his proui­dence hath setled vs, bee it better or worse. Phil. 4.11. In what estate soeuer, I haue learned therewith to be contented. Heb. 13.5. Be content with that you haue. First, carrie not couetous, aspiring, and malicious mindes and affections: but if thou must needes bee desiring, satisfie thy selfe with Iacobs desire: Onely the Lord be with me, and if hee giue me foode and raiment in this my iourney, it is suffi­cient. Secondly, our hearts must be set to obey God euen in pouertie and affli­ction,Gods will must be o­beyed, in being both done and suffered of [...]. and beare aduersitie with an e­quall and moderate minde, our obe­dience must not onely be actiue in do­ing; but passiue also in suffering his wil. Phil. 4.12. I can want and abound, I can doe all things through Christ that streng­theneth me. Hebr. 10.34. The faithfull could with ioy suffer the spoyling of their goods. Thirdly, wee must endeuour to shew all meekenes to all men vpon all occasions, putting off all morositie, wai­wardnes and difficultie to bee satisfied and appeased. Christs voyce was not life vp in the streetes; he endured all wrongs, forgaue all iniuries; and all the mem­bers of his bodie put off likewise their wooluish dispositions: they cease to be Tigers, Lions, Cockatrises: and become Kids,Isai. 11.16. Lambes, little children, easie to be handled, hardly offended, and quicklie pleased: which disposition we must put vpon vs.

The third sinne; [walking after their owne lusts] is fitly expounded in Eccles. 11.9. where the young man is ironical­ly willed to walke in the waies of his owne heart, and in the sight of his own eyes, &c. euen so these men liue in their sinnes, according to the leading and lu­sting of their owne corrupted hearts: which sin is before in the fourth verse touched; and somewhat also is further to bee spoken of it in the rest of the E­pistle. Our contrarie dutie is two-fold: first, if at any time by frailtie we fall in­to any sin, neuer to goe on in the same, but break it off, and returne vnto God: for to walke after his owne hearts lusts, is a note of a wicked person and an enemie of God. Psal. 68.21. Surely God wil wound the head of his enemies, and the hairie pa [...] of him that walketh on in sinne. Secondly, wee are to frame our liues cleane against the lusts and incli­nations of our owne hearts; waging battell continually against them, euer crossing and thwarting them: Rom. 13.14. Take no thought to fulfill the lusts of the flesh. Galath. 3. They that are Christs haue crucified the flesh, with the lusts ther­of: for whosoeuer beleeueth truly the pardon of his sinnes by Christs death, cannot but mortifie the lusts of his wic­ked heart; besides that the whole course of Christianitie is nothing else but a continuall conuersion and turning vn­to God.

The fourth sin. Whose mouthes speake proude or swelling things.] That is, they boast themselues of knowledge, holi­nes, and things not to be found in thē. The same with the Diuels sinne, Luk. 4. All this will I giue thee, for they are mine, and I giue them to whom I will: wherein he sheweth himselfe the father of lying and boasting. It is noted also to bee the property of Antichrist, as to whom was giuen a mouth which spake great things and blasphemies, Reu. 13.5. which was meant of the Emperour indeed, but so as the second beast, which is that Anti­christ, should doe all things which the first beast could doe before him, ver. 12. It is also the noted vice of all heretikes and seducers, 2. Cor. 10.12. to exalt and praise themselues. The contrarie duties are, first, In common speech neither to praise, nor dispraise our selues, for vani­tie lurketh in both: besides that, mode­stie will not suffer the former; and the latter is to occasion others to praise vs, which is but vanitie. Secondly, when in speech wee compare our selues with o­thers our equals, wee must euer thinke and speake better of them than our selues. Phil. 2.3. Let euery man esteeme other better than himselfe. Paul compa­ring himselfe with the Apostles, said he was the least of them all; because he had been a persecutor, 1. Cor. 15.9. Thirdly, if any speake of his owne wants, when iust occasion is offered, hee must speake euen the most against himself. As Paul, that he was the head and chiefe of all sin­ners. [Page 118] Fourthly, if a man vpon iust occa­sion bee moued to commend himselfe, first he must doe it in all humilitie and modestie: so Paul speaketh of himself in another person: 1. Cor. 12.1. I knew a man in Christ which was taken vp into Paradise, &c. And in nothing was I infe­riour vnto the very chiefe Apostles, though I be nothing, vers. 11.

The fifth sinne. Hauing mens persons in admiration,] The word person in scrip­ture signifieth the face, and outward ap­parance of a man, and consequently the things belonging vnto the person, as riches, honours, dignities, for the which these false teachers haue men in admi­ration. Qu. Is it not lawfull to admire a Prince, or other Potentates at all? Ans. Yes: but when men admire them only for their person, riches, honours, nobi­litie, without respect of the feare of God, or true vertue, this is vnlawfull, and the sinne of these men: wherein is also included the contempt of the reli­gious poore, yea and also of the rich themselues, if they trulie feare God. Iam. 2.1. My brethren, haue not the faith of our Lord Iesus Christ in respect of per­sons: teaching vs that it will not stand with true Religion, nor with the faith of Christ to honour men only because they are rich or noble.

First, note here that no man carrieth so base a minde, and such slauish affe­ctions, as the proud ambitious person; he magnifieth the great man, and is ser­uilly addicted vnto him euen for out­ward respects, not esteeming him for that which is indeede worthie to be re­spected. Secondly, the condition of great men (for the most part) is mise­rable,A great miserie of great men to be most admired, but least admonish­ed. who haue many to admire them, but few to amonish them: rich men are admired for wisedome, whereas the same men, if they were poore, would carrie away no praise thereof. Ahab had foure hundred false prophets who thus admired his person, but onely one Micha who faithfullie admonished him. Thirdly, our dutie is to honour them that feare God, rich or poore, high or low: it being a note of a childe of God to contemne a vile person that is a wretched sinner,Psal. 15.4. but to honour them that feare the Lord, bee they neuer so base: and yet the honourable much more, if they bee found in the waies of religion.

The sixth sin. Because of aduantage.] That is, for profits sake: where their co­uetousnes, which before was touched, is here againe taxed: the effect of which affection is to blind the minde that it cannot iudge aright of persons or things: it maketh a man account an e­nemie of God rightly honourable, and to deeme the things below of highest regard. Let vs weede out of our hearts this bitter roote of couetousnes, which otherwise will so blind vs, as we cannot truly discerne the people and things of God, but take Egyptians for Israelites, and accept of the red pottage in stead of the blessing.

Vers. 17. ‘But, ye beloued, remember the words which were spoken before of the A­postles of our Lord Iesus Christ.’

IN these words the Apostle goeth a­bout to answere an obiection that might be made by the Church after this manner: We cannot bee resolued that these men against whom yee write, are so vngodly as you would make them: The answere whereto is framed in the 17.18. & 19. verses. The effect of which is, that in the last times there shall bee mockers, and these be no other than the men of whom he writeth: and lest they should yet doubt of the truth of that he spake, he bringeth in the testimonie of the Apostles in the confirmation of the same: so as his doctrine was no other than that which was before by them deliuered. Where three things are to be considered: first, a preface to the te­stimonie, vers. 17. Secondly, the testi­monie it selfe, vers. 18. Thirdly, the am­plifying of it, vers. 19.

For the Preface. But, yee beloued, re­member &c.] First, the Apostle Iude set­teth out his owne dutie and practise, in that whatsoeuer he speaketh it procee­deth of loue: and he is not carried away in speaking or writing with sinister af­fections; and therefore he calleth them Beloued. This ought to be ye practise of al Teachers, who out of their inward loue to Gods people committed vnto them, are to vtter whatsoeuer they teach: yea and no man in any other calling may lay aside this affection in the discharge of the duties therof, seeing it is the end of all the Commandements.

In the second word remember] is laid [Page 119] downe the dutie of the Church & faith­full people of God, which is to remem­ber the words spoken by the Apostles of the Lord Iesus Christ. Which we also in this age are to bee exhorted vnto for very weightie reasons: first, it is a no­table remedie against al sinne, and espe­cially the forenamed sinnes: Psal. 116.11. In my haste I said all men are liars; that is, whē I remembred not the word of God; but forgat my own dutie, and was carried away with the streame of my owne affections against faith, then I failed and was foiled. Psal. 119. I haue hid thy testimonies in my heart, that I should not offend against thee. Secondly, this remembrance is a notable remedie against heresies, and schismes, and all false doctrines, and is of much vse in these our daies, wherein wee are in dan­ger to bee seduced, partly by Atheists, partly by Papists, and partly by carnall Gospellers; against all whom wee had need to bee well fenced, and armed by the reading, knowing, beleeuing, and remembring the wordes of the Pro­phets and Apostles, which onely are as Dauids sling to ouerthrow the great Goliahs. Thirdly, it is an excellent meanes to settle the conscience in the truth by perswading the same: and the rather to be enforced, because many al­leage that there are so many Religions and opinions, that they wil be of none, for they knowe not which to betake themselues vnto. But if these were dili­gent in the words of the Prophets and Apostles in reading, searching and sif­ting out the truth in humilitie, they should finde wherein to settle them­selues.

Secondly, by this second word all Teachers are to take notice of their du­tie, which is to whet the word of the Apostles vpon the hearts, mindes, and memories of their hearers, so as they may learne and remember them: and the rather because in former ages reli­gion was destroyed, and superstition preuailed, because that men laid away the Scriptures out of their hands, and betooke themselues to the exposition of other mens writings; and to glosse vpon the sayings of their ancestors: whereby they brought a black darknes ouer these parts of the world. The Pro­phets and Apostles giue another dire­ction. Malachy the last of the Prophets referreth vnto Moses and the former Prophets; and Iude the last of the A­postles vnto the former Apostles, shew­ing what ought to bee the scope of all Teachers that would follow their steps.

Thirdly, hence all Students of Diui­nitie are taught what they must most re­member, namely the words and wri­tings of the Apostles: for these are the key of the olde Testament and of the whole Scripture; which dutie if it were well obserued, Popery, superstition and Atheisme could not so farre preuaile, but fall downe to the ground, as Dagon before the Arke.

Thirdly, he nameth the authors of the testimony, who were the Apostles of our Lord Iesus Christ, implying their autho­ritie; and taking it for granted, that whatsoeuer they spake or writ must be receiued as an infallible truth, and may not be contradicted. Now the better to know both what the Apostles were, and what this authoritie is, consider three points: first, their calling, and the greatnes thereof; They were called by Christs owne mouth, Ioh. 20.21. As the Father sent me, so I send you: by which comparison hee designeth them to a particular and weightie calling, stan­ding in these points: first, as Christ was immediatly called by the Father, so were the Apostles immediatly called by himselfe. Secondly, as Christ was sent from the Father to preach to the whole world, being the great Prophet and Doctor of his Church; so Christ sendeth them into the whole world, for the whole worlde was their charge. Thirdly, as Christ was sent to reueile his Fathers will, which before was hid to the greatest part of the world; so they were sent by Christ to reueile the Fathers will, partly in making things more fully knowne, which were before but darkly shadowed: and partly in foretelling things to come, they all be­ing Euangelicall Prophets. In these three standeth that comparison: in re­gard of which manner of the [...] sending they are aboue euen the Angel [...] them­selues, nay the Angels were as it were but their schollers. Eph. 3.10. Now vnto principalities and powers in heauenly pla­ces is made knowne by the Church the ma­nifold wisedome of God, that is, by the mi­nistrie of the Apostles, the mysteries of God concerning mans redemption, [Page 120] haue bin reueiled to the Angels them­selues.

Secondly, consider their Authoritie, which was most authenticall, seeing that neither in teaching or writing they could erre, being specially priuiledged therefrom: Matth. 10.19. It shall be gi­uen you in that houre what ye shall say. The peculiar promise of direction belong­ing to the Apostles is recorded in Ioh. 16.13. The spirit of truth shall leade you into all truth; in which regard they were bold to ioyne themselues with the holy Ghost.Act. 15.28. It seemeth good to the holy Ghost and vs, namely in ordering the Church affaires: yet here that distinction which is falsely applied to the Pope, is true in the Apostles, by reason of this assistance; that as they were priuate men, and in o­ther causes they might, and did erre, but not as Apostles in performing their office Apostolicall.

Thirdly, their worke or office, they were Master builders of the Church of the new Testament: yea founders ther­of, both by teaching doctrines, and in­forming the manners of men: farre pas­sing all Euangelists, Pastors, Teachers, or ordinarie Ministers since their daies. 1. Cor. 3.10. As a skilfull Master builder▪ I haue laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. For the furthering of which great worke in their hands, they had giuen them first a power to worke miracles for the confirming of their doctrine. Secondly, of giuing the holie Ghost by imposition of hands. Third­ly, an Apostolical rod to strike, and cor­rect obstinate offenders; by the which Peter smote Ananias and Saphira with present death: and Paul Elymas with blindnes.

Vse. Marke that now the Pope clai­ming authoritie Apostolicall from Pe­ter: it is but a false challenge; for that authoriti [...] ceased with that office, and seru [...] onely to lay the foundations of the Church withall, being both extra­ordinarie as [...] calling was: and per­sonall, ceasing with the persons of the Apostles. So as if the Pope succeeded Peter in any thing,The Pop [...] succeedeth Peter onely in deniall of Christ. it is in the denying of Christ: it cannot be in founding the Church, which was done to his hand so many hundred yeeres before him▪

Vers. 18. ‘How that they told you that there should be mockers in the last time, which should walke after their owne vn­godly lusts.’

THis verse containeth the testimo­nie it selfe, the preface of which was laid downe in the former: wherein two things are to bee noted: first, the time when wicked men shall abound in the Church: in the last time.] Secondly, what maner of persons they are; name­ly, described by two properties: first, they are mockers: secondly, fleshly.

For the time: It is called the last time: which is the time from the Ascension of Christ vnto the end of the world. It may be asked, how could this be called the last time, seeing it is sixteene hun­dred yeeres agoe? Ans. It is so called for two causes: first, because it goeth next before the end of the world, and shall be closed vp of the last day: 1. Co­rin. 10.11. To admonish vs vpon whom the ends of the world are come. Secondly, in regard of former times, according to the seuerall ages of it, in which God al­tered the condition of his Church, and renewed his couenant from time to time vnto the same: as first plighting it with Adam, and afterward renewing it to Noah: thirdly to Abraham often re­peating it: fourthly to Dauid: fifthly, at the returne out of the Babylonish captiuitie: sixthly, at the comming of Christ. But now Christ being come, and that fulnes of time wherein the former prophecies are fulfilled and accom­plished, the shadows & ceremonies are abolished, & the new couenant of grace established; there remaineth no re­newing thereof, neither any other alte­ration of it: but as Christ hath alreadie appeared in his humilitie by his first comming; so nothing is to be expected now but his second comming in glo­rie: and this is the proper and princi­pall cause why this is called the last time.

Secondly, concerning the persons of the vngodly mē they are described, first to bee mockers. These are described by Peter, 2. Epist. 3.3. In the last times shall come mockers, which will walke after their lusts, and say, Where is the promise of his comming: that is, those that shall scorne all religion, and make a mocke of God, godlines, and godly men: than which there is not a greater height of wickednes: of whom Salomon speaketh [Page 121] as being so far gone, that they are past all admonition,Pro. 9.8. and therefore would not haue them admonished: and Da­uid maketh this the highest degree of a wicked mans proceeding in his sinne, to sit him downe in the chaire of scar­ners, Psal. 1.

Vse. This part of the testimonie is most truly verified in our age.Popish do­ctrine a mockery of Christian religion. First in the Romish Church whose religion setteth vp a plain [...] mockerie of God, and of Christ, of Scripture and of true religion. First, for Christ they make but a mocke of him: the true Christ is a King, and so they say, but the Pope must controule him, both in making lawes of his owne to binde the conscience, as also in ad­ding and detracting from Christ lawes what hee will: the true Christ is a Saui­our; but they make euery man a saui­our of himselfe, by meriting saluation: for they teach that Christ merited, that we might merit our own saluation: yea the true Christ is a Mediatour, but yet Saints must bee intercessors: and his Mother, whom they intitle the Queene of Heauen, must commaund her sonne by the right of a Mother, to heare their prayers, and forgiue their sinnes; what is this but to make his Mother Media­tour in his stead? Secondly, as for the Scriptures, they renounce the originall Bible, and the Greeke and Hebrew text as corrupt, and will admit of none as authenticall, but the Latin translation: yea and of that allow no sense, but that which the Pope authoriseth, and setteth downe: what is this else but to make a mockerie of the Scriptures? no Bible, no sense will serue, nor must stand, but the Popish sense, which is indeed to reduce all scripture to the Popes will and de­termination.

Secondly, if wee come home to our selues, we shall finde this scripture veri­fied among the swarmes of Atheists, which make but a scorne of the word and Religion: tell any man almost of his dutie, he will be readie to say; How know you these to be Moses writings? and these to bee the Apostles writings which goe vnder their names, and may not falsehood bee written as well as truth? These are most prophane and blasphemous scorners: but such as were prophecied of before by the Apostles themselues.

Againe, amongst those that professe religion are many scorners; that let a man make but a shew of goodnes, and begin to make conscience of his waies, if he will not blaspheme and sweare as he was wo [...]: if he will not drinke with the drunkard: if he refuse such compa­nie as he conuersed with before, or will not doe as others doe, hee is presently condemned for a precise foole, or with such reprochfull tearmes; how then is not this prediction of the Apostle ac­complished, when euen the perfor­ming of morall duties, yea and such as stand by the lawes of God and the land is scoffed at, as a blemish? When scor­ners are so rife, and bold euen in the face of the Church? when where God hath his little flocke, the diuell hath a large kingdome? let vs not be offended too much, when we heare and see these scorners▪ but then acknowledge the accomplishment of this prophecie, and contrarily loue and reuerence the word of God as a most pretious treasure.

The second sinne whereby these vn­godly men are described, is, that they walke after the lusts of their owne hearts, wherein two things are included: first, that these vngodly men shall haue their hearts filled with vngodly lusts. Second­ly▪ that they shall walk after these lusts. Concerning the former sundrie things are to be knowne: First, what this lust or concupiscence is. Ans. In the Scrip­ture it is of two sorts, either originall, or actuall: or it may be considered two waies: first, as it is the fountaine or of­spring of all other sinnes; or secondly, as it is a fruite of the corruption of our hearts. The former is an impotencie of the heart, whereby it is inordinatelie disposed to the desire of this or that e­uill: of which Iames speaketh, chap. 2.14. Euery man when hee is tempted, is drawne away by his owne concupiscence: hence is the whole corruption of the heart, or originall sinne called lust, be­cause it principally sheweth it selfe in these lusts. The latter is actuall lust, that is, euery inordinate and euill motion of the inner man against the law of God, which proceedeth as a branch or fruite from the fromer roote. Rom. 6.12. Let not sinne raigne in your mortall bodies, that ye should obey it in the lusts of it: where, by lusts, are meant the flames and mo­tions of lusts springing from the for­mer fountaine. This lust I call first an [Page 120] [...] [Page 121] [...] [Page 122] inordinate motion, to distinguish it first from a holy lusting in the regenerate. Dauid lusted after and desired the com­mandements of God,Psal. 119.127. yea aboue gold and siluer; and there is a lust of the spi­rit against the flesh,Gal. 5.17. as wel as of the flesh against the spirit. Secondly, from a na­turall lusting, which is an appetite after meate, drinke, &c. which in it selfe is no sinne. Lazarus desired without sinne the crummes vnder Diues his table. These lusts then are not to be condem­ned, but only lusts inordinate. Second­ly, I say euery euill motion; because lust in the Scripture comprehendeth all thoughts and motions against Gods law, so is the Commandement to bee vnderstood: Thou shalt not lust, Eph. 2.3. Among whom also we had our conuer­sation in times past in the lusts of the flesh, in fulfilling the will of the flesh, and of the minde. Where the Apostle inlargeth it vnto all motions, inclinations, pas­sions, and perturbations of the heart, minde, will or affections: so farre as they are not directed by the law of God. This text must be vnderstood of actuall lust: of which there be two de­grees: for sometime it is sudden, and sometimes voluntarie: the former is the first motion of the minde concei­ued, but without consent. The latter is the motion conceiued, but with con­sent, purpose and deliberation; which may be made plaine in this similitude. The eye is sometimes cast vpon an ob­iect on a sudden, without any purpose or intention of the minde: but some­times purposely and steadily vpon the same: and as in the twinkling of the eye it is often shut without thought or purpose: but sometimes againe of pur­pose and deliberation to preuent some hurt: so is it in the minde; the heart is a furnace of lust, the flames whereof arise sometimes vpon the sudden, and some­times vpon leisure and deliberation; both these degrees must here bee vn­derstood. Concerning which lusts there be three things further here to be con­sidered: First, the qualitie and nature of these lusts; in that they are said to bee vngodly lusts; such as their root is, such are these branches: and therefore are in their nature properly sins, yea princi­pall and master sinnes, yea and sinning sinnes, causing men to goe on in sinne. Qu. If they be sinnes, what Comman­dement of the ten condemneth them? Ans. Sudden lust before consent of will is condemned in the tenth: but volun­tarie with consent is condemned in all the nine former. If this distinction bee not held, we cannot make tenne Com­mandements. For in all the Comman­dements lust is forbidden; necessarie then it is that lust should be thus distin­guished, and also referred, as wee haue said. Quest. Some may aske: In what Commandement is original sinne con­demned? Ans. Some say it is forbidden in the whole law, which is not vntrue; but yet it seemeth to be directly con­demned in the first and last Comman­dements: for these two concerne pro­perly the heart of man: the first respe­cting the hart directly so farre as it con­cerneth God: the last so farre as it con­cerneth man, whether himselfe, or o­thers.

Vse. This teacheth vs to detest the Popish error, which teacheth vs that inordinate lusts be no sinnes, if consent of will be not added: but that is false: for if they bee conceiued in the minde, they are the sinnes of the minde, con­demned in the tenth commandement. Ob. But they say, there can be no sinne properly produced without consent of will. Ans. In ciuill matters the reason is good, that none can be accessarie vnto sinne, vnlesse consent of will be added: but in diuine matters and in the Court of Conscience it is farre otherwise.

Secondly, in the lusts note the pro­pertie of them, in these words: Which walke after; their propertie is to raigne in men, and to cause men to giue atten­dance vpon them: yea and to walke after them. Where they are not resisted and repressed, they make that man a vassall and slaue vnto them. Rom. 6. Let not sinne raigne in your mortall bodie, to obey the lusts of it. Where the Apostle insinuateth so much that they force and compell men to the obedience of thē: the whole order and course of which regiment is liuely described, Iam. 1.14.15. by fiue degrees: first, lust tempteth, and that two waies: first, by withdraw­ing the heart from God: secondly, by intising, and intangling the minde with some delight of sinne. Secondly, lust conceiueth, when it causeth the will to consent, and resolue vpon the wicked­nes thought vpon. Thirdly, it bringeth [Page 123] foorth when it forceth a man to put in execution the things consented vnto and resolued vpon. Fourthly, it perfe­cteth the birth of sinne, vrging a man to adde sinne vnto sinne, vntill he come to a custome, which is a ripenes and per­fection in sinning. Fiftly, it bringeth forth death, that is, euerlasting vengeance and destruction: in all which hee alludeth vnto the beginnings, proceedings and end of a man; who after he is past his full strength, decaieth againe and dieth: by these degrees the lusts of the heart rise vnto this raigne and regiment in the heart of euery wicked and naturall man, where grace ouercommeth not nature.

Thirdly, obserue the number of these lusts. After vngodly lusts.] Where he speaketh in the plurall number as of many: for originall concupiscence is the seede of all sinne in euery man: and looke how many sinnes there be in the world, so many lusts are there in the hearts of men: so as seeing there is no number of the euils in the world, euen so are the lusts of the heart innume­rable. Therefore truly may wee con­clude, that vngodly men haue their hearts filled with vngodly lusts.

The second point in the words is, that these vngodly men shall walke af­ter their lusts; which is then done, when men first suffer their hearts to be with­drawne from God by euill lusts and motions: secondly, giue assent thereun­to: thirdly, practise them: fourthly, keepe a course and trade in sinning, which is the perfection of it. Thus a man denieth the true God, and exclu­deth him out of his heart, and setteth vp the diuell, yea his owne lusts for his God, vnto which hee becommeth a slaue; so as this is no small sinne.

Doct. Hence note a difference be­tweene the regenerate and the repro­bate: for if the childe of God be enticed and drawne away from God, he grie­ueth for it, and giueth not readie con­sent vnto the temptation. Secondly, if through frailtie he bee ouercarried to giue consent, yet it is not full consent; but he doth it against his will and pur­pose, for his purpose is not to sinne. Thirdly, if he put lusts in execution, he lieth not in them, he will not walke af­ter them; but recouereth himselfe, be­cause he is incorporated into Christ: he hath the roote of grace, which shall not vtterly die in him, the seede abideth in him, which at last shall sproute vp to re­pentance and amendement of life: and hereby may a man know whether he be the childe of God or no.

Vse. First, whereas all men good and bad haue innumerable lusts in them, we are to take notice of the vilenes and vn­cleannes of our nature, which is com­mon to the good and bad, betweene whom there is no difference but by grace: our endeuour must bee to see more and more these lusts stirring and moouing themselues against God and man. Secondly, to mourne and bewaile them. Thirdly, to pray that God would burie them all in the death and graue of his Sonne, that they stand not vp in iudgement against vs; being euery of them sufficient to procure our eternall destruction.

Secondly, we must not suffer sinne to raigne in vs,Sinne will dwell in vs while we dwel in the flesh, but it may not raigne as a comman­der in vs. for this is the part of an vn­godly person: true it is that lusts will be in the heart whilest a man is in the flesh: but they must bee resisted, that they may not raigne and rule the heart. Quest. How shall we keepe vnder the lusts of the heart from raigning ouer vs? Ans. Seeing sinne raigneth in the minde by euill thoughts, our thoughts on the contrarie must bee framed ac­cording to the word, and ordered by the counsell thereof: according to the Apostles aduice, Phil. 4.8. If any thing be honest, vertuous, of good report, we must thinke of these things. Coloss. 3.16. Let the word of God dwell plentiously in you. Again, lust raigneth in the memorie, by remembring vanities, wrongs, and wic­ked speeches and actions: wee must therfore remember our sinnes, the num­ber and greatnes of them, the curse of the law against them, the day of our owne death, and the generall iudge­ment; the remembrance of which shall be able to keepe out, or at least to keepe vnder these vngodly lusts. Further, see­ing it raigneth in the affections of pride, reuenge, hatred, &c. wee must learne the exhortation, Phil. 2.5. Let the same minde be in you that was in Iesus Christ: that looke as Christ was most milde, meeke, humble, patient, full of loue to­wards God and man, so ought our vn­ruly affections to bee conformed vnto his. And lastly, seeing it raigneth in the [Page 124] bodie by idlenes, ease, sleepe in excesse, which make the bodie an instrument of sinne, wee must alwaies diligently inure our selues to the duties of our cal­lings; vsing fasting, watching, and prayer: by which meanes well obser­ued, the lusts in the heart may still trouble and molest vs; but they shall not rule and raigne ouer vs.

Vse. 3. If it be the propertie of a wic­ked man to follow after vngodly lusts, wee ought to purge our selues from all the lusts of the flesh and spirit, 2. Cor. 7.1. lest these defile our bodies and soules in the powers and parts of them: to doe which the better,Matth. 5.8. remember that blessed are the pure in heart: secondly, to inure our selues vnto the feare of God, seeing the feare of God is cleane, Psal. 19. that is, it clenseth the heart, and breaketh the necke of all noysome lusts.

Vers. 19. ‘These are makers of sects, fleshly, not hauing the spirit.’

THis verse containeth the applicati­on of the former testimonie vnto the particular persons whom it concer­neth: setting downe who they be that are scorners and followers of their lusts: namely, scorners are they that make sects, separating themselues from the people of God: and followers of their lusts be those who are fleshly, and with­out the spirit: which words being appli­ed to these seducers, fasten two sinnes more vpon them. The first whereof is, that they are makers of sects. The second, that they haue not the spirit. For the for­mer, the word signifieth a singling and separating of themselues from the Church and people of God, and conse­quently the making of sects to them­selues: neither may this seeme strange that there should be such persons that make such separation; seeing it is the nature of euery sinner to flie from the presence of God, as Adam did: and Pe­ter when he had seene a part of the glo­rie of Christ, bad him depart from him for he was a sinner. The prodigal sonne must haue his portion apart, and will not be perswaded to liue with his father; and euery vngodly man withdraweth himselfe vnto perdition, Heb. 10.38.

Doct. First, it is a great sinne for a man to separate himselfe from the as­semblies of Gods people: because first it is a flying from God and his pre­sence, whose face euery one is comman­ded to seeke; seeing he presenteth him­selfe in the Word and Sacraments, and wheresoeuer two or three are assembled in his name, &c. Secondly, it is a con­tempt of Gods ordinance, which who­soeuer despiseth, despiseth God him­selfe. Thirdly, out of the Catholike Church is no saluation: the saying is true, Whosoeuer will not haue the Church for his Mother, shall not haue God for his Father. Fourthly, the con­gregations of Gods people on earth are the suburbes and gates of the king­dome of heauen; whosoeuer therefore shutteth the gates of this kingdome of grace against himselfe here, shall neuer enter into the gates of the kingdome of glorie hereafter.

Vse. Our dutie hence is to ioyne our selues to the assemblies of the faithfull, not forsaking the fellowship that we haue among our selues, Heb. 10.25. but kee­ping the vnitie of the spirit in the bond of peace, Ephes. 4.3. being like minded one towards another, Rom. 15.5. spea­king one thing as those that are knit to­gether in one minde and one iudge­ment, 1. Cor. 1.10. And if we would se­parate our selues, then let vs depart from the Atheists and Papists in their corrupt doctrines and wicked conuer­sation. Secondly, such are iustly repre­hended who seldome come to heare the word, receiue the Sacraments, and to call vpon God in the congregation: for so much as they can they cut them­selues from the kingdome of God, in reiecting the meanes of their saluation. Ob. They alleage for themselues that if they should come, they should heare but a weake man like themselues speak vnto them; and if Christ himselfe or some Angell should preach vnto them, they would heare willingly. Ans. Lay aside all disputing, and yeeld vnto the wisedome of God, whose ordinance it is that men should be taught by men, and not otherwise. Ob. They say fur­ther that they haue the Bible, and the sermons of the Prophets and Apostles at home, and none can make better sermons than they: and againe, that they can get knowledge enough to saluation by themselues: and some say they haue knowledge sufficient and neede no more. Ans. First, Gods ordi­nance [Page 125] must be acknowledged, and re­uerenced in the publike Ministerie, and in the middest of the assemblies: and priuate duties must giue place to pub­like. Secondly, the word is not only to be knowne but affected: now although knowledge may bee gained priuately; yet the affections must bee wrought and mooued in the publike Ministerie. Thirdly, those that know the most, know but in part; and the Ministerie is instituted, not onely to initiate and be­gin men, but to confirme them in grace, and leade them to perfection: for which end the Lord hath giuen Pa­stors and Doctors of the Church to teach men, vntill they come vnto a ripe age in Christ, which is not till death.

Now for the further cleering of this point, two questions are to be resolued. 1. Quest. Seeing it is a sinne for a man to seuer himselfe from the Church of God; where and what Church is that to which a man may for euer ioyne him­selfe with a good conscience? Ans. That people which heare, beleeue, and obey the doctrine of the Prophets and A­postles, are the true people and Church of God, vnto which a man may safely ioyne himselfe. Diuers notes there be, but the infallible notes of the true Church are, knowledge, faith, and obe­dience vnto that doctrine; these were the notes of the Primitiue Church next after Christ: Act. 2.42. First, they conti­nued in the Apostles doctrine. Second­ly, in fellowship, wherein the duties of loue are comprehended. Thirdly, in breaking of bread, that is, the admini­stration of Sacraments; for the cele­bration of the Supper is put for both. Fourthly, in prayer, that is, inuocation of God with thankesgiuing. In that Commission of the Apostles giuen for the gathering together of the Church of God,Mat. 28.19. they are enioyned first to teach all Nations: that is, to make them Dis­ciples, namely by the doctrine Pro­pheticall and Apostolicall. Secondly, to baptise them, that is, to bring and admit them into the house of God. Thirdly, to teach them to performe all things which they were commanded. In which Commission two of these notes are ex­pressed. Ephes. 2.19. The Church is foun­ded vpon the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles. Ioh. 8.31. If ye abide in my word, ye are truly my Disciples. Ioh. 10.27. My sheepe heare my voyce and followe mee. Psal. 147.19. He sheweth his lawes to Ia­cob, and his statutes to Israel, he dealeth not so with euery nation. Hence we note, that wee may not ioyne our selues with the Iewes or Turkes, who renounce the words of the Prophets and Apostles: neither yet with the Papists; for though in word and speech they holde this word, yet in deede and in the sense they corrupt it, euen in the founda­tion.

The second question. But what if there be errors in the Church, or things amisse; may wee not then separate our selues? Ans. Things that may be amisse in the Church must be distinguished: for some faults concerne the matter of religion: some the manner: the for­mer respecteth doctrine principally: the latter the manners of men. First, for things amisse in the manners of men wee may not separate; but with Lot haue our righteous hearts vexed, and grieued with the wicked conuersation of those among whom wee liue. The Scribes and Pharisies sitting in Moses chaire, teaching Moses his doctrine must bee heard, howsoeuer the corrup­tions of their manners be such as they may not bee imitated, Matth. 23.1. Yet here obserue further,Whom we may not se­parate from in publike assemblies, wee neede not priuat­ly conuerse with. that although we may not separate our selues from such corrupt persons in the publike assem­blies, yet in priuate conuersation wee may abstaine from them. 1. Cor. 5.11. If any that is called a brother be a forni­cator, or couetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, with such a one eat [...] not: that is, eate not priuately. Secondly, if the Church erre in matter of religion, then must we con­sider whether the error be in a more weightie and substantiall point, or in matter of lesse importance. If it be in smaller points (the foundation being kept) wee may not separate our selues. 1. Cor. 3.15. If any mans worke burne, he shall lose, but himselfe shall be safe, yet as if it were by fire. Now if the error of the Church bee in substance of doctrine, or in the foundation, then we must consi­der whether it erre of humane frailtie, or of obstinacie: if of frailtie we may not separate. The Church of Galatia was through frailtie quickly turned to ano­ther Gospell, and erred in the foundati­on, holding iustification by workes: yet [Page 126] Paul writeth vnto it as vnto a Church of God. So likewise the Church of Corinth erred grieuously, and ouerthrew the Article of the Resurrection: and yet Paul behaued himselfe accordingly vn­to it. But if the Church erre in the sub­stance of religion obstinately, then with good conscience separation may be made. 1. Tim. 4.5. If any man teach o­therwise, and consent not to the wholesome doctrine, from such separate thy selfe. An example hereof we haue in Act. 19.9. when Paul had preached in the Syna­gogue of the Iewes, and could not pre­uaile with them, but they began to blas­pheme and speake euill of the waies of God, then he withdrew himselfe and separated from them. 1. Chro. 11.14.16. when Ie­roboam had set vp the two Calues to be worshipped, many of the best disposed Iewes departed from him and came to Rehoboam, and ioyned themselues with Iu­dah and Ierusalem in the true worship of the God of their Fathers. Whence wee see that no man may with good conscience separate himselfe from the Church of England; seeing it teacheth, beleeueth, and obeyeth the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles.

Further, consider the manner of the separation of these wicked men: there be three sorts of separation: First, by apostasie, when a man falleth wholy from his religion, from the Church, and from common grace. Heb. 6.4. It is im­possible that they which were once en­lightened, if they fall away, &c. Second­ly, by heresie, when men erre in the sub­stance of doctrine and religion, and that of obstinacie. Thirdly, by Schisme; and that is when men hold the same faith and foundation, and yet disagree and separate in regard of order and cere­monie. These seducers separated them­selues by heresies: their heresies were these: first, that men being in Christ might liue as they list, and so they were Libertines. Secondly, that among the people of God there ought to be no ci­uil Magistracie, and so they became also Anabaptists. Here obserue that euen in the Apostles time and daies were many heretikes; among whom was Hymene­us and Philetus, 2. Tim. 2.17. and many wolues entred euen in their daies which spared not the flocke. Which may serue to stablish our mindes against the Pa­pists, who obiect that our religion is the foundation of al heresies: as at the rising of which many heresies were reuiued: in so much as they call all our religion heresie, and the professors of it here­tikes: by which reason they might as strongly prooue, that the doctrine of the Apostles themselues was heresie, and that the Primitiue Church in the Apostles time was hereticall and no Church: for in the first hundred yeeres after Christ the Church swarmed with heresies, sowen by Sathans instruments, to the choaking of that holy doctrine which was sowne by the Apostles and their successors in the fielde of the Church: nay rather we conclude our re­ligion to be Apostolicall, because the same heresies which arose vp in the A­postles times against their doctrine, now reuiued againe vpon the reuiuing of our religion.

The second sinne of these seducers in this verse is, that they are fleshly, or natu­ral men. For so it is explained in the last words [not hauing the spirit] wherin con­sider two things: first, who is a naturall man: secondly, that it is a sinne to be a naturall man, for it is noted as a maine sinne in these seducers. Touching the former, a naturall man is he who liuing a naturall life is endued with a reaso­nable soule, and is gouerned by nature, reason, and sense onely; without grace or the spirit of God: which may ap­peare first by the word naturall; which signifieth such a man, as in whom the best thing is nature, and in whom there is nothing more excellent than his rea­sonable soule, though corrupted. Se­condly, by the exposition, or rather opposition in the words: wherein it is opposed vnto the spirit, who is wanting vnto such a one to leade him in the way of a heauenly life. Further, that yet wee may know this matter the better, there be three things to be found in a naturall man: 1. He hath a bodie and soule vnited together in one person. 2. In his soule he hath excellent pow­ers and faculties, as will, vnderstan­ding, affections. 3. Hee hath all the ornaments of man, yet so as without grace: such as are, strength of bo­die and minde, memorie, knowledge of Arts and Sciences, ciuill policie and vertues, as Iustice, Prudence, Tempe­rance, discretion to discerne what is meete to bee done, what not: these [Page 127] are ornaments incident to corrupt na­ture, seruing not to abolish, but to re­straine and bridle corruption, and con­taine men in order, for the preseruation of humane societie. Now he that hath these three and nothing else, is but a meere naturall man.

The second point is: that it is a sin to be a naturall man. Here it may bee as­ked, how it commeth to passe that a na­turall man, because he is a naturall man offendeth God? Ans. There bee two things in euery naturall man to bee di­stinguished: first, there is nature: se­condly, the corruption of nature: the former is from God: the latter from mans fall: which two may be indeede distinguished, but cannot now be sepa­rated: the one is not the other; but the one is not without the other; this cor­ruption is that sinne which presseth vs down, and hangeth so fast on, Heb. 12.1. which hath corrupted the whole mā, so as the whole frame of man, that is, his whole disposition and inclination is corrupted and euill from his youth, Genes. 8.21. his wisedome is enmitie to God, that is, euen the best thing that is, or can be in the flesh, is hateful to God, Rom. 8.5. himselfe is dead in sinnes and trespasses, Ephes. 2.1. hauing no more abilitie to mooue to any thing truly good, than hath a dead man to bestirre himself in and about the actions of life.

For the cleerer beholding of this cor­ruption of mans nature, marke that there bee two degrees of it: the for­mer whereof is a want of that goodnes and righteousnes which at first was, and now ought to be found in our nature. The latter is a pronenesse and disposi­tion vnto all euill, which carrieth the heart on euery occasion thereunto: this corruption must bee conceiued as an o­cean sea, sending out into euery chan­nell and veine of the soule, and whole man, streames and floods of wickednes: for looke into the principall powers of the soule, ye shall neede to goe no fur­ther for the finding of this truth. For first, in the minde is such an impotencie, as whereby it is vnable to thinke or ap­prooue of any thing that is truly good 2. Corin. 3.5. Wee are not sufficient of our selues to thinke of any good, but all our suf­ficiencie is of God. 1. Cor. 2.15. The natu­rall mā perceiueth not the things of God; which is most manifest thus: first, hee knoweth not God himselfe aright; for although hee may know God as an in­finite and eternall being, or in some o­ther attribute, yet he cannot know him as a father to himselfe. Secondly, hee knoweth not, neither conceiueth the corruption of his owne nature, nor his sinnes originall and actuall in the staine and danger of them. Thirdly, he con­ceiueth not of the remedie of sinne, the death of Christ: but accounteth it foo­lishnes that life should be brought out of death. Secondly, as his mind is blind, so a naturall mans will is rebellious, and is not subiect vnto the will of God, neither indeed can be. Ioh. 6.44. No man can come to Christ, vnlesse the Father draw him: insinuating our withdraw­ing of our selues, and resistance of his call, vntill he turne vs & make our wils, of vnwilling, willing wils to will that which is truly good: whēce the Apostle saith, that to will, namely that which is truly good, is not of our selues, it is the gift of God. Now hence wee may resolue that question: why it is a sinne to bee a naturall man? not because a man hath nature in him: but because his whole nature is tainted with ori­ginall sinne.

Ob. The naturall man may pleade that he cannot helpe it; hee was borne sinfull: why then should he be blamed? Ans. Rom. 5.12. In Adam we all sinned; for when he eat the forbidden fruit, we euen eat it in him, & are no lesse blame­worthie than he was. Ob. But it will be said; it is no reason that we should bee said to sin in him, seeing then we were not? Ans. Adam was a publike person representing all mankinde, and euery particular person descēding from him; and therefore what he did, all and eue­ry man did in him: Euen as a Burgesse in the Parliament giuing his voyce and assent, all the countrie or shire is said to giue their voices, though they be ab­sent, and not present otherwise than in his person. God then giuing a prohibi­tion vnto Adam, hee gaue it vnto all vs in him; and threatning him he threat­ned vs and all mankinde: this onely is the difference that hee being the roote or flocke, and wee the branches arising from him, hee sinned actually, and we by relation and imputation. If then the naturall man still pleade hee was no cause but was borne so, [Page 128] the answere is cleere,The natu­rall man procured that so he should be borne in Adam, and is therefore excuselesse. that himselfe is a cause, although not in himselfe, yet in Adam before he was borne he procu­red that he should be borne a naturall man.

Secondly, it may be pleaded againe: If I be a naturall man, I am Gods crea­ture as I am; why then should I be bla­med? Ans. The former distinction be­tweene nature and corruption of nature must be here retained: for by the for­mer the naturall man is Gods creature, and not in respect of the corruption of nature: for this he created not, as the other, but suffred it to passe by generati­on from man to man, for the execution of the punishment of the first sinne.

Quest. Why did not God stay this corruption in Adams person? Ans. God could haue done it; why he did it not, the reason is neither knowne, nor to be enquired; a secret it is, but yet a iust iudgement of God silently to bee with reuerence rested in, and not with curio­sitie to be searched out.

Vse. First, some may hence gather, if a man be iustly blamed for being only a naturall man, and not hauing the spi­rit of God; then euery one hath power to receiue the spirit of God? Ans. This is no good reason, but is all one, as if because a bankrout is blamed for not discharging his debts to his creditors; another man should conclude that surely he is therefore able to pay them. But these wicked men were blamed here, first▪ because they professed Christ, but yet had not his spirit: secondly, be­cause that in Adam they were the cau­ses that they were borne without the spirit of God, and so made themselues vnfit to receiue him.

Secondly, if naturall men bee iustly condemned, much more those that are worse than they, as Atheists, prophane persons, those which contemne the as­semblies, and neglect the meanes of their saluation, and yet looke for salua­tion as wel as others. The Gentiles who were without the law, doe the things of the law by nature, Rom. 2.24. and yet many that professe the name of Christ, and liue vnder the Gospell, goe not so farre as those naturall men in doing the things of the law: so as euen those Hea­thens and naturall men shall rise vp in iudgement, and condemne many a pro­fessor of Christ; of whom euen many come short of the Diuell himselfe, who beleeueth and trembleth; and yet not a few professors neither know what the Diuell beleeues; neither through h [...]rd­nes of heart can tremble at the iudge­ments of God as he can doe.

Thirdly, those come farre short that think themselues in state good enough, because they liue ciuilly and deale iust­ly and neighbourly, as they say: for the naturall man can doe this, and yet shall be condemned: no plea shall stand at the great day of the Lord, but that which assureth of the pardon of sinne sealed vp with the blood of Christ. Let a mans outward and ciuill righteousnes be neuer so great, yea if it could be e­quall to the righteousnes of the Scribes and Pharisies, which for outward ap­pearance was without all exception; yet if hee bring not a righteousnes ex­ceeding that, he can neuer be saued.

Fourthly, in that the naturall man is blamed for being a naturall man, this ouerthroweth all merits of congruitie, which the Papists boast of; because a mans person not being accepted before God, all his works are sinnes: the worke neuer pleaseth God till the worker first please him.

Fifthly, euery professor of Christ must strip the naturall man, and become a spirituall person, that is, such as the spi­rit of God dwelleth in: for first, as the Father worketh our saluation, by giuing Christ and his merits; so must the holie Ghost by applying the same vnto vs, else can we looke for no saluation. Se­condly, as the soule giueth life to the bodie, which else were dead; so the spi­rit of God is the soule of our soules, and quickneth them with new life being dead in sinne. Thirdly, wee can neuer know that wee are in Christ, or belong vnto him, but by the presence of the spirit in our hearts: 1. Ioh. 3.24. Hereby we know that he abideth in vs, euen by the spirit that he hath giuen vs.

Quest. But how shall a man know whether hee hath the spirit or no? Ans. Let him examine himselfe, first, whe­ther he inwardly loue and feare God in his word of promise and threatning: secondly, whether he subiect his heart and life vnto him: thirdly, whether his heart be continually lift vp in inuocati­on and thanksgiuing. All these are the workes of the spirit of God: and they [Page 129] which [...] of the spirit thus sauour and [...]ffect the things of the spirit, Rom. 8. Quest. But I feare I haue not the spirit, how shall I obtaine it? Ans. By vsing the meanes of reading the Word, me­ditation, and prayer especially. Luk. 11.13. Your heauenly father giueth the holy Ghost to th [...] that desire him. Psal. 143.5.6. I meditate in all thy workes; and stretch foorth my hands vnto thee.

Vers. 20. ‘But ye beloued, edifie your selues in your most holie faith: praying in the holy Ghost.’

IN this verse vnto the end of the 23. are set downe some meanes whereby all beleeuers may be fitted to the main­tenance of the faith and true religion, vnto the which the Apostle hath in the former part of the Epistle perswaded. These meanes are contained in fiue ru­les here prescribed: first, concerning Faith: secondly, Loue: thirdly, Hope: fourthly, Meekenes: fifthly, Christian seueritie: the first of which is contained in this twentith verse, which is, that they should build themselues vpon their faith; which is not barely propounded but inforced and vrged: first, by a motiue in this word, most holy faith:] secondly, by the meanes of it, which is prayer; praying in the holy Ghost.] In the rule note two things: first, that faith is a foundation: secondly, that the dutie of beleeuers is to build vp themselues vpon this foun­dation. Concerning the former: first is may be demanded what is here meant by faith? Ans. Here by faith is not so much meant the gift of faith, as the matter of it, namely the doctrine of faith and religion comprised in the writings of the Prophets and Apostles; in which sense it is said, that the Ephesi­ans were built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles, that is, vpon their doctrine, Ephes. 2. The same was the rocke confessed by Peter, vpon which Christ promised to build his Church; and yet in the second place we must not ex­clude the gift it selfe: for although the doctrine be a foundation in it selfe, yet it is not so to vs, vnlesse we beleeue it, and applie it to our selues by this gift. If any man aske what doctrine is this? I answer, the summe of it may be reduced to three heads: the first whereof con­cerneth mans miserie by his sinne, ori­ginall and actuall: as also the dange­rous fruits thereof. The second, the re­demption of man from this miserie, and his freedome by Christ. The third, the thankefulnes which man oweth for this deliuerance, and ought to testifie and expresse in newnes of life.

Hence learne first what is the infal­lible marke of the true Church, where­by it may be discerned from the false and Apostaticall Church, and that is the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles; for this being the very foundation of the Church, where it is, there the Church must needes bee: and this note of it selfe is sufficient to point out the true Church wheresoeuer. Secondly, seeing faith is the foundation of the Church, and not the Church the foundation of faith, beware hence of a damnable do­ctrine of the Popish Church, which tea­cheth that there can be no certainty of the points of religion, no nor of the Scriptures themselues, but onely by the iudgement of the present Church of Rome, and that Church must giue what sense soeuer she pleaseth to the Scrip­tures, else hath it none: wherein they play the part of preposterous builders,Papists foolish buil­ders, laying the foun­dation on the top of the house. laying the foundation in the top of the building. Thirdly, it may be demaun­ded how any doctrine becommeth a foundation vnto the saluation of men? Answ. Properly to speake, God and Christ is our foundation and rock, Psal. 18.1. but because God reueileth him­selfe and the meanes of our saluation in the word, it becommeth hence a foundation: as also secondly, because Christ, who is the proper foundation, is the summe of the doctrine therein con­tained.

Vse. First, let no creature draw vs from Christ, for then wee are drawne from our foundation. Secondly, the affections of our heart towards Christ must exceed all affections of any thing besides: our loue, feare, hope, confi­dence and trust, must settle themselues vpon him as vpon a foundation.

The second thing in this first rule is the dutie of euery beleeuer, which is to build himselfe vpon his faith; which that a man may doe sixe things are requi­red: first, hee must haue in his heart a deepe sense and feeling of his miserie in such sort, as not finding in himselfe whereon to be founded, hee may feele [Page 130] himselfe to be founded vpon God and Christ: euen as in laying strong and sure foundations, men digge deepe; and if they finde sure ground proceede on in their purpose: So this wise builder laieth his foundation on a rocke, Luk. 6.48. Se­condly, hee must haue knowledge of this doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles; for vnlesse it bee knowne it can bee no foundation. Thirdly, a holie memorie to lay vp the word of God in their heart as in a storehouse: for he that re­membreth not the doctrine of saluati­on, can neuer build vpon it. Fourthly, faith, whereby not only we beleeue the truth of it, but applie it vnto our selues; this knitteth vs vnto the foundation, without which the word shall bee no more profitable vnto vs than the Iewes, who mingled it not with faith, Heb. 4.2. for this only applieth it vnto our hearts, Iam. 1.21. Fifthly, the doctrine beleeued and applied must take a deepe rooting in the heart, it must descend into the affe­ctions, and there be imbraced vntill it hath wrought out an experience of the sweet comfort of it. Sixthly, there must be an vnfained obedience vnto the whole word of God: Not euery one that saith, Lord, Lord: but he that doth the will of my Father, Matth. 7.21. This man buil­deth wisely vpon the rocke. Quest. But what is that which must be done of vs? Ans. Whatsoeuer is to bee done of vs may be reduced to three heads: first, faith, whereby the beleeuer truly resteth himselfe vpon God; cleaueth vnto Christ for the pardon of sinne, and re­nounceth all other meanes in heauen and earth. Secondly, repentance, where­by he truly turneth from all sinne vnto God. Thirdly, new obedience, whereby hee endeuoureth to obey God in all his Commandements.

Vse. First, here is reprooued the car­nall Protestant, who holdeth his religi­on but for forme and fashion, or for feare of lawes, he is altogether without foundation, and in a pitifull condition: seeing when the great day of the Lord shall approach, whosoeuer shall want Christ, their foundation shall fall before him. Secondly, we must neuer suffer our selues to be drawne from our faith and religion; nor lose our hold of the do­ctrine of godlines, though wee should suffer losse of lands, liuings, liberties, yea or life it selfe: if this bee once wrested from vs, wee are fillen [...] the foun­dation, and haue lost [...] hold of hap­pines and life i [...] selfe. Thirdly, wee may not take any [...]est till we be builded vp­on this foundation, it being the foun­dation and ground-worke of all our sa­fetie and securitie: for Christian men are as houses built vpon the sea shore, who must looke for the wa [...]s and bil­lowes of afflictions, one in the necke of another: euen as one surge in the sea ouertaketh another; how should they hold out when this raine falleth, these floods come, these windes blow and beate vpon their house, vnlesse they be founded vpon this rocke? how else should not their fall be great? but this sure foundation establisheth the heart against all calamities of this present life, yea in the houre of death also, which otherwise is the downfall to hell, yea and in the day of iudgement the sentence shall passe on their sides, who are laid on this foundation: they shall be found worthie to stand before the Lambe, when the diuell and his angels, with all sinners and sinne it selfe shall be cast into the bottomlesse lake. Now as euery particular Christian man is to be a practiser of this dutie in his owne person, so also may it bee fitly applied to the state of the whole land, which by Gods blessing hath had for many yeeres this foundation laid within it: through the which it hath been able to withstand, yea and subdue many rebel­lions, treasons, forces, and powers, in­tended against it; and besides hath had securitie and safetie, vnder Gods prote­ction, with much peace and prosperitie. Would we now know the way to haue this peace and securitie continued to vs and ours? the way is to continue and abide vpon this foundation, not loo­king backe to Poperie or superstition; but taking out the wholsome counsell of good King Iehoshaphat: 2. Chro. 20.20. Put your trust in the Lord and yee shall be assured; be­leeue his Prophets, and ye shall prosper.

In this dutie of beleeuers marke fur­ther, first how the Apostle ascribeth po­wer to the beleeuer to build himselfe: for although by nature men want this power (for the naturall man cannot of himselfe so much as thinke one good thought) yet the regenerate whom the Lord by his spirit hath mooued, haue a power giuen them to mooue them­selues, [Page 131] and build themselues, that which was before to nature impossible, is made possible by grace.

Secondly, note further the force of the word, [...]. build vp which requireth not onely a building, but a going on, and encreasing in building: as if he had said, Build vp your selues more and more. A du­tie which neerely concernes men in these daies, wherein men decline to A­theisme, and Poperie, (which also is but a painted Atheisme) when men can cō ­tent themselues to goe backe, and fall from their former loue, and are afraid to bee found either hot or cold. This dis­ease of our daies hath this Apostle for­warned vs of in this Epistle, being one of the last farewels of the Apostles to the Church. Let vs then take notice of our declinings, and doe our first works, and goe on forward to perfection, buil­ding vp our selues daily, lest it come to passe that the Lord come against vs, spue vs out of his mouth, remoue our Candlesticke with his other blessings, and leaue vs vnto our too late and vn­timely repentance.

The motiue whereby this rule is in­forced vpon the church, is drawne from a propertie of faith, which is that it is most holy. Wherein (to vnderstand it) we will shew first what holines is properly: secondly, that faith is most holy. For the former, in this holinesse there bee two things: first, a freedome from all fault and blame: secondly, an excellencie or perfection consisting of many diuine vertues. Holinesse thus vnderstood is two-fold: vncreated, or created. Vncrea­ted is the holines of God, which is no­thing else but the perfection of his pro­perties and attributes: this holines is incomprehensible, and infinite, yea the fountaine of all other holines. Created holines is a certaine gift of God, which by some proportion resembleth this vncreated holines of God; the subiect whereof are Angels, man, and Gods or­dinances, especially the written word: so as this holines of faith is this deriued holines, and not the former.

Secondly, how is the doctrine of re­ligion most holy? Ans. First, in it selfe, being without all fault and error, and hauing sundrie excellencies, being full of diuine wisedome and truth, and the onely instrument whereby Gods infi­nite wisedome and goodnes is made knowne vnto vs. Secondly, in regard of the effect and operation, which is to make the creature, but especially man holy: Ioh. 17.17. Sanctifie them in thy truth, thy word is truth. It sanctifieth men instrumentally, in that it maketh them resemble God in many graces: by this Dauid became wiser than his Tea­chers, Psal. 129. and so resembled God in wisedome, Iam. 3.17. This wisedome which is frō aboue (of which the word is the instrument) is pure, peaceable, easie to be intreated, full of mercie and good fruites, without iudging, and without hy­pocrisie. Thus wee see how it maketh men resemble God in all these, yea and in all other vertues. Thirdly, it is most holy, because it sanctifieth all inferiour creatures to the vse of man, so as hee may vse them with good conscience: 1. Tim. 4.4. Euery creature of God is good, sanctified by the word and prayer. Where (by the way) may be noted the superstition of the Romish Church, which halloweth Bread, Salt, Water, Palmes, &c. for the curing of diseases, casting out of diuels, & working won­ders: which practise of theirs is nothing but the defiling and prophaning of the creatures, by superstitious prayer see­ming to hallow them,Papists ac­count the word su­perfluous in sanctify­ing the creatures. yet without any word or warrant, either of promise or commandement: which is the princi­pall instrument of sanctifying the crea­tures vnto their lawfull ends and vses.

Hence learne first, that the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles is from God; because it is full of wisedome, without any follie, full of truth, voide of all falsehood; as also most holy both in it selfe, and in operation and effect, and in the author, as proceeding from him who is the fountaine of all holines: it is not of men, neither needeth the e­uidence of men; by this propertie only (if it had no more) it carrieth with it, and containeth within it sufficient eui­dence against the gates of hell, that it is from God, and holy as himselfe is. Se­condly, the word being most holy, it must dwel in our hearts plentifully, and our care must be that it may be written in the tables thereof, that it may bee an ingrafted word, bearing rule ouer our wils and affections, yea ouer our whole liues: for where it ruleth it sanctifieth the whole man. Thirdly, the doctrine of true faith sanctifieth vs; but as it is [Page 132] receiued, beleeued, and applied by faith and no otherwise, when it taketh place in vs then it sanctifieth vs: it is not the rehearsing of the articles of it, nor the knowledge of it, nor carrying about with vs the words of it that can worke grace, but the hiding of it and ming­ling it with faith in the heart: from which we gather that it is a foule error of the Papists, to teach that the Sacra­ments conferre grace, by the worke wrought, and that as the penne writeth by the hand of the writer, and that of it selfe, the hand mouing it; so the Sacra­ments of themselues sanctifie, being administred by the Minister: but this is erroneous, for the Word and the Sacra­ments are both of one nature, the Sa­craments being none other but the word made visible: but the word read or vttered sanctifieth not by the worke done, but by being beleeued and ap­plied by faith: therefore no more doe the Sacraments by being administred, but by apprehending Christ in them: grace must be conferred by the spirit of grace, and not by the vertue of any ac­tion in the Sacraments.

The last point in this first rule, is the meanes whereby beleeuers are to build vp themselues in their most holy faith, and that is prayer [praying in the holie Ghost.] Wherein euery member of the Church is put in minde of a principall dutie, namely, that whensoeuer wee feare, or foresee a falling, and defection frō the faith, by reason either of weake­nes within, or persecution without, thē time it is to repaire vnto God by the prayer of faith, crauing at his hands strength, and power not onely to bee preserued from reuolt, but also to bee confirmed in the faith and doctrine wherein we stand. The Apostle hauing exhorted the Ephesians to stand fast and be strong in the Lord,Eph. 6.10. and hauing prescribed some meanes tending to that purpose; in the 18. verse hee con­cludeth the principall of the rest to bee prayer; praying alwaies with all prayer and supplication in the spirit: and that it is so, appeareth by two reasons: first, by prayer faith is exercised, yea and increa­sed, according to the increase whereof, the other graces of zeale, hope, patiēce, and constancie are likewise confirmed and animated. Secondly, faithfull pray­er hath a faithfull promise made vnto it, Ask [...] and ye shall haue, seeke and yee shall finde, knocke and it shall be opened vn­to you: these promises we must lay [...]old vpon and applie vnto our selues, for the stirring vp of continuall prayer, and strengthening of grace, especiallie in time of temptatiō, and in sense of frail­tie, and then God will be good in hea­ring and helping, as his promise is.

Now in this meanes obserue the man­ner of making prayer in these words, In the holy Ghost, which are added for foure causes: first, to giue vs to vnderstand that although a man be regenerate, yet he cannot pray as he ought, vnlesse hee be still mooued, helped, and stirred by the holy Ghost. God giueth sundrie graces in the conuersion of a sinner: first, a preuenting grace, which yet is not at all effectuall, vnlesse it be secon­ded and helped with a supplie of a se­cond grace: for that is true euen of the regenerate, without me yee can doe no­thing, Ioh. 15. God giueth first the will, and then the deede, Phil. 2.13. yea and the continuance of the doing of that which is truly good: Hee that hath begun the good worke, will performe or finish it, chap. 1.6. Here let grace be euery way grace, lest it be no grace at all; let God who is all in all haue all the glorie of all; as for the doctrine of mans merit and hu­mane satisfaction, which robbeth God, to enrich man, it here falleth to the ground. The second is, because prayer is a singular and especiall worke of the holy Ghost in vs; who stirreth vp in vs these grones and sighes which we can­not expresse, Rom. 8. and maketh vs crie Abba Father, Zach. 12.10. this spirit of grace and compassion is promised to bee powred out vpon the house of Dauid and inhabitants of Ierusalem: and from hence a man may examine and finde whether he be the childe of God or no; for if he haue the spirit of God he is his, and if he haue these holy motions and desires to pray, and can send out these cries vnto God vnfainedly, he hath the presence of the Spirit; and he that hath not this spirit in these blessed fruites of it, is none of his. Thirdly, these words are added, to teach vs that when wee pray, wee must doe it our hearts; for where the spirit of God dwelleth, thēce must prayer proceed, but his abode is in the heart, and therefore prayer (that God many acknowledge it to proceed [Page 133] from the spirit) must bee hartie: and so of all other spirituall duties: Colloss. 3. singing with grace in your hearts: Rom. 1. whom I serue in my spirit: where the A­postle expresseth a reason why prayer should proceed from the heart, because prayer is of the same nature with faith and the spirituall worship of God, yea indeede is a part of it answerable vnto God himselfe who is a spirit; but all these are seated in the heart, and spirit, and consequently prayer it selfe ought so to be: neither is it the outward action or words which is simply the worship of God, but so farre as they consent and proceed from the heart. Which teach­eth vs that whatsoeuer religious dutie wee are to turne our selues vnto, wee are first of all therein to approoue ou [...] hearts vnto God. Fourthly, that there may bee a distinction made betweene the true beleeuer and the hypocrite and carnall man. The hypocrite he prayeth outwardly for forme and fashion; the naturall man in affliction prayeth of compulsion, as a man that is racked and tormented, without any loue of God at all; both of them without any inward sense, or rectified disposition of the heart: but the beleeuer hee prayeth in the heart and in faith, the spirit of God disposing his heart aright vnto prayer.

Quest. How doth the holy Ghost di­rect the heart? Answ. By fiue waies or meanes: first, by illumination, whereby hee reueileth God to man, as also his owne estate; both of them in part. Se­condly, by conuersion, whereby hee tur­neth the heart vnto God once made knowne. Thirdly, by direction, where­by hee directeth the heart to deale as with God himselfe, taking it from out­ward meanes. Fourthly, by feruent and constant desire [...] for things spirituall or temporall. Fifthly, by faith, whereby we can rest on God for the accomplish­ment of the things wee haue heartily desired.

Quest. Whether may we not pray to the holy Ghost, seeing here it is said, praying in or by the holy Ghost? Ans. We may not onely pray in or by him, but vnto him: for although wee haue no particular example hereof in the Scripture, yet wee haue sufficient war­rant: for the three persons being vndi­uided in nature, must be also vndiuided in worship, and one being worshipped, all must be worshipped. Secondly, wee are baptized into the name of the holie Ghost, as well as of the Father and Son, and therefore hee is to be prayed vnto, euen as they are. Ob. But wee are not commanded to pray any where by the Father or Sonne, as here by the holie Ghost, which argueth that the holie Ghost is not the author of our prayers, as they are. Answ. The Apostle here would haue vs obserue an order in the working of the Trinitie, for all the three persons are authors of our prayers; the Father and Sonne make vs to pray, but by the holy Ghost; the holy Ghost ma­keth vs pray, but more immediatly, for he is the immediate author of our pray­ers: which teacheth that when we pray, it is not of our selues, but from the spi­rit which stirreth and sendeth vp hea­uenly requests for vs: herein then wee must renounce our selues, magnifie the grace of God within vs, and shew our selues thankfull by entertaining care­fully such holie motions of this most holie Spirit of God.

Vers. 21. ‘And keepe your selues in the loue of God, looking for the mercie of our Lord Iesus Christ vnto eternall life.’

THese word [...] containe the second rule of the Apostle tending to the preseruation of faith, and true religion concerning loue, and it is indeede of speciall vse, and direction for the fra­ming of our liues: Christ calleth the loue of God and men the summe of the whole law: Paul calleth it the end of the Commandements. This caused Paul to keep faith & good conscience: 2. Cor. 5.14. The loue of Christ constrai­neth vs. Now for the better informing of our vnderstandings, and our furthe­rance in obseruing this rule, fiue things are to be considered: first, what is meant by the loue of God? Ans. Wee are to vnderstand by the loue of God a diuine vertue in the hearts of the beleeuers, whereby they loue God and Christ, properly and simply for himselfe, rest in him, and cleaue vnto him as the most absolute good: for by Gods loue in this place is not meant that loue wher­by God loueth man, but whereby man loueth God. Quest. Why doth the A­postle here omit the loue of man? Ans. Because the loue of man to man is in­cluded [Page 134] and to bee vnderstood in the o­ther as a fruit necessarily flowing from it: for first, whē a man loueth his neigh­bour, herein after a sort he loueth God: for then is God loued not onely when our affection of loue is directed vnto himselfe, but also when his ordinances, his creatures, image, and other things partaining vnto him are loued. Second­ly, the Apostle Paul calleth the loue of the neighbour the fulfilling of the law;Gal. 5.14. which cannot be vnlesse we include al­so therein the loue of God, or rather it within Gods loue, and ioyne them both together. Now if the loue of man be the fulfilling of the law, how much more is the loue of God, which by the same reason must include the other? Thirdly, it is a true rule in Diuinitie, that the first Commandement must bee in­cluded and practised in all the nine fol­lowing, as being the foundatiō of them all. Now the maine dutie of the first Commandement is the loue of God, which must goe with the practise of all the other,The loue of God groweth not natu­rally in our owne grounds. so as al the duties of the other Cōmandements are included in ye same.

The second point is, whether this loue of God bee in man by nature, or giuen by grace? Ans. It is not from na­ture, but a gift of grace following faith and iustification. Ioh. 14.14. If yee loue me, yee will keepe my commandements; both which proceed from one begin­ning: as no man then can by nature keepe the Commandements, so no man can by nature loue God aright. Rom. 8.5. The wisedome of the flesh (that is mans best things, his best thoughts and affe­ctions) is enmitie to God, therefore can there be no true loue of God in nature. 1. Tim. 1.5. The end of the commandement is loue out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience and faith vnfained. Againe, wee must first beleeue that wee are lo­ued of God, before wee can loue him. 1. Epist. Ioh. 4. We loue him, because he lo­ued vs first. It will bee obiected here, Luk. 7.47. Many sinnes are forgiuen her, for she loued much: where it seemeth that loue is the cause of forgiuenes of sinnes. Ans. I answere, this word (for) doth not signifie here a cause, but a rea­son drawne from the signe, as it is also elsewhere vsed; this then is the sense, many sinnes are forgiuen her, and here­by ye shall know it, because or in that she loued much.

Note hence first that doctrine of the Church of Rome to bee false, whereby they teach that before iustificatiō there must be a disposition and aptitude in a man thereunto, standing in a feare of hell, loue of God, &c. for by this do­ctrine ye loue of God in man should go before iustification, which is a fruit and follower thereof. Secondly, that is as false, that loue is the soule and life of faith, for though in time they be both together, yet in the order of nature loue followeth after faith, & therfore cannot be the forme and soule thereof. Third­ly, it hath bin the opinion of some, that faith apprehendeth Christ by loue, and not by it self; but this is also erroneous: for loue in order followeth apprehen­ [...]on of Christ, and therefore Christ is not apprehended by loue. First we be­leeue, and being knit vnto Christ by faith, then our hearts are knit vnto God by loue.

The third point is, what is the mea­sure of loue whereby we must loue God and man. Ans. According to the two distinct parts of the word of God, are prescribed two distinct measures of loue. The measure of the law is to loue God without measure, for it requireth that wee loue God with all the powers of our bodies and soules, and with all the strength of all these powers, Luk. 10.27. This measure is not now in our power to performe, no not although wee bee borne anew: for being still flesh in part, some of the powers of our strength are withdrawne from the loue of God. The Gospell is a qualification of the law, and moderateth the rigour there­of; it freeth a man not frō louing God, but exacteth not this loue in the high­est measure and degree, but accepteth such a measure as standeth in 3. things: first, in beginning truly to loue God: secondly, in the daily increase in this loue: thirdly, in being constant in the same vnto the end: this measure the Lord accepteth for perfect loue, in those that bee in Christ, in whom the imperfection is couered. Deut. 30.6. The Lord thy God will circumcise thine heart, that thou maist loue the Lord thy God, with all thine heart, and all thy soule, that is as if the Lord had said, I will in­graft the true loue of my selfe in your hearts which you shall increase in, and constantly proceede in the same, and [Page 135] then I will account and accept of it▪ for the full measure of loue that my law re­quireth▪ which distinction is the rather to bee considered,Papists are none of them that can con­fesse that they are [...]profitable [...]hen t [...]ey haue [...]o [...]e all they can. because the Papists teach▪ that the loue which the Lord re­quireth of Christians, is the same for substance and measure which the law prescribeth: and for the perfection of our loue, they say a man may doe more than the law bindeth him vnto; as if he gaue all his goods to the poore, it is more than euer God in his law hath commanded: and if wee loue God a­boue all creatures (which they say a man may doe though imperfectly) it is the loue which the law prescribeth. But all this is most false, and so the Apostle Galath. 3.10. concludeth it, as many [...]s are vnder the workes of the law are accur­sed. If all men bee condemned by the law▪ then is no man able to performe the loue and duties which it requireth: but he taketh the former for granted, for else his argument could not hold; and therefore that none can performe the loue which the law enioyneth is true. Secondly, the common opinion of men is, that they euer loued God with all their heart, and it i [...] pitie hee should liue that doth not so: but it is a m [...]re delusion▪ for if it were so, what needed any qualification or moderati­on of the law by the Gospell?

The fourth point is, wherein standeth the loue of God? Ans. 1. Epist. Ioh. 5.3. This is the loue of God, that ye keepe his Commandements. Ioh. 14.13. He that kee­peth my Commandements is he that loueth me: the reason whereof is this, he that loueth God, loueth his word, and he that loueth his word wil bewray his loue in yeelding answerable obedi­ence thereunto; and in one word this keeping of the Commandements stan­deth in these three things: first, in faith, for it must bee the worke of a true be­leeuer: secondly, in conuersion vnto God: thirdly, in new obedience: which sheweth many a man how miserably he hath been heretofore deluded by Sa­tan▪ for euery m [...]n professeth and pre­tendeth the keeping of the Comman­dements, and yet the most are so farre from doing them that they know them not neither care to know them.

The fifth point is, how a man should preserue in him the loue of God and of m [...]n? Ans. First, the meanes whereby man may preserue himselfe in the loue of God is two-fold: first, euery one must labour daily to haue his heart set­led in the sense of Gods loue towards himselfe: for the more he shall feele Gods loue confirmed vnto him, the more shall his loue bee inflamed and increased towards God againe; euen as the more wee feele the heate of the Sunne, the warmer wee are. Secondly, wee must keepe a daily obseruation of Gods blessings spirituall and tempo­rall, which is a speciall meanes not onely to confirme and augment our loue, but preserue it constant to the end. Psalm. 18.1. I will loue thee dearely, O Lord. Why what made Dauid thus resolue himselfe? the reason is rendred in the next words; The Lorde is my rocke, my fortresse, my strength, and hee that deliuereth mee. Secondly, men must vse the meanes whereby they may preserue their loue to men; and these are of two sorts, for some stand in me­ditation, others in practise. The medi­tations are foure. The first is the consi­deration of the spirituall and neere coniunction of all those that are true beleeuers, of which number wee pro­fesse our selues all to be, who haue all one Father, God: one Mother, the hea­uenly Ierusalem the Catholike Church; all begotten of the immortall seede, the word of God▪ all liue by one faith in Christ, and all are heires of eternall life and glorie. This was Pauls motiue perswading him hereto: Ephes. 4.3.4. There is one Lord, one faith, one bap­tisme, one God and Father of all: see Phil. 2.1.2. The second meditation is, that the duties of loue which man sheweth to man, especially the faith­full, God accepteth as done to him­selfe▪ so saith the Wiseman: He that giueth to the poore, l [...]ndeth vnto the Lord. And Matth. 25. When I was hun­grie, ye fed me, &c. namely in my mem­bers vpon earth. The third meditation is the consideration of that curse, which is due to them that neglect duties of loue to man when occasion is offered: Matth. 25. Depart ye cursed, I was hun­grie, ye fed me not: to auoide this curse, we must embrace the Apostles coun­sell, to walke in loue. The fourth is, to consider that the loue of man to man is a grace of God, which leadeth a man by the hand to the first degree of hap­pines: [Page 136] 1. Ioh. 4.16. He that dwelleth in loue, dwelleth in God, and God in him; that is, hee hath entred the first degree of happines, for hee hath fellowship with God: and verse 12. If wee loue one another, Gods loue is perfect in vs. Now as nature it selfe can tell vs a happines is to be sought for; so let this grace leade vs to the degrees and be­ginnings of it.

The second sort of means stād in pra­ctise; and the rules of practise be sixe. The first is the practise of the law of na­ture, being the summe of the Law and the Prophets, by Christs own testimo­nie: Whatsoeuer ye would that men should doe vnto you, doe you the same vnto them. The meaning of which golden rule is this: Looke what we would haue other men to think, speake, and do to vs, that must we thinke, speake, and doe vnto them, and no worse: and on the con­trarie, consider what we would not that men should thinke, speake, or doe vnto vs, that wee must abstaine to speake, or thinke, or doe vnto them. The practise whereof would cut off many wrongs, contentions, fraudes, and iniuries both in word and deed.

The second rule of practise is in Gal. 5 13. Doe seruice one to another by loue: that is, let euery man in his place and calling become seruant to another, and so preserue loue by the duties of loue. The reason hereof is, because God (al­though he might if he had pleased pre­serued man without man) would haue man preserued by man, and that euery man should be his instrument for euery mans good in regard both of bodie and soule. For which end he hath furnished men with seuerall artes, sciences, trades, and callings, that one man might stand in need of the help of another. Second­ly, we are placed in the world that here we might serue God indeed, not in spe­culation onely,God will be serued of vs in our seruing of man. but also in our whole practise in our standings and callings, he will be serued of vs in our seruing of man, for these two must goe together, and as it were hand in hand, the seruice of God and the seruice of man. Who­soeuer therefore imploy their callings principally for the purchasing of their profits, pleasures, honours, and not for the good of men, they abuse their cal­lings, prophane their liues, and mistake the proper end of them, as though they were borne onely to liue vnto them­selues and serue themselues, and nei­ther God nor man besides: from which too common a practise hath that di­uellish speech sprung, and by Satan put into the mouthes of many men: Euery man for himselfe, and God for vs all. A speech well beseeming those who are at open enmitie with the duties of true loue.

The third rule is in Phil. 4.5. Let your moderate minde bee knowne vnto all men. Wherein is commended that meeknes of minde, whereby wee can with mo­deration and equitie beare with men for the preseruation of loue: see Phil. 2.3. This moderation standeth in foure actions: first, in bearing with defects and infirmities of nature, as hastines, frowardnes, desire of praise, slownes, and such weakenesses, it is the part and propertie of an equall minde, not to be seuere, or hastie against these, but rather to passe by them, as Salomon saith: It is the glorie of a man to passe by an infirmi­tie. Secondly, in couering many, yea a multitude of sinnes: yea and if a man be called to reueale and discouer them by way of testimonie, it causeth a man not to aggrauate the crime, but e­qually to speake euen as the thing i [...]. Thirdly, in construing mens meanings, words, and actions (if it be possible) in the better part, euen so farre as the word of God giueth vs libertie: for it is a fruite of malice to misconster men, to make an offence where it is not gi­uen, or not to bee taken, and that i [...] so long as the wickednesse is not appa­rant. Fourthly, in restoring him that is fallen into a fault, by the spirit of meeknes, curtesie, and humanitie: euen as a Surgeon dealeth with a broken arme or legge, not with roughnes, or anger, but with mildnes, yea and pitie towards the offender, so setting him as it were in ioynt againe.

The fourth rule is in Rom. 12.10. Be affectioned one towards another with bro­therly loue. How may that bee done? Answ. In the next words, in giuing ho­nour goe one before another, not in ta­king honour as our nature is; but in preferring others before our selues: and here wee must not conceiue of this honor as a meere ceremonie, standing in some outward gesture; but it is a re­uerent opinion conceiued inwardly in [Page 137] the heart, whereby euery man thinketh better of another than of himselfe, and accordingly yeelds him more honour. But some will say here, this is hard to doe, to esteeme of euery man better than our selues, and how may we at­taine vnto it? Ans. Whosoeuer iudgeth this so hard a lesson, let him enter into the serious examination of his owne heart, without partialitie, let him looke narrowly into himselfe, and hee shall espie such a bodie of sinne for measure and manner, as he cannot finde in any man besides; so as in the true sense of his estate he can neuer abase any man so farre as he can himselfe, whereby he shall come to iudge euery man worthie to bee preferred and honoured before himselfe.

The fifth rule is in Ephes. 4.26. Let not the Sunne set vpon your wrath. A very necessarie rule; for seeing we be but men, we cannot be without many sin­full motions, and especially of reuenge vpon occasion: but here we are counsel­led forthwith to stay and represse them▪ yea and to break them vtterly off: that although anger, wrath, and reuengefull thoughts will arise vp in our hearts, yet we must extinguish them, and not suffer them to continue with vs, no not for the space of a day. The same Christ himselfe hath taught, Mar. 11.25. When ye stand to pray, forgiue, if ye haue any thing against any man. So often then as we are to pray (which is at the least dai­ly) so often are we to forgiue iniuries offered to vs, for we pray to be forgiuen as our selues doe forgiue others: men content themselues to carry their wrath a whole yeere together, and if they for­giue once a yeere at Easter, or at the re­ceiuing of the Sacrament once a quar­ter, it is as much (they thinke) as they neede to doe: but they forget that the Sunne must not goe downe vpon their wrath.

The sixth rule, Rom. 15.2. Let euery man please his neighbour. Some will say, how can this be, for some will neuer be pleased, if wee condiscend not to their corrupt and wicked desires? Ans. The next words expound the Apostles mea­ning; for good: What is that? Ans. For his edification:Please men in God, and for good. so as the generall com­mandement admitteth this limitation; that men must be pleased, but onely so farre as it tendeth to Gods glorie, their owne good and edification. So Rom. 12.18. Haue peace with all men; but yet with a double limitation: first, if it be possible: secondly, if it be in you; or so much as lieth in you, wee must not car­rie crosse and thwart mindes, as being enemies vnto peace, but applie our selues to the preseruation of it in our selues and others: thus shall we testifie our selues to be admitted into Gods kingdome, wherein the lion and lambe play together, and the yong childe with the Cockatrice, Isai. 11. Whereby thus much is signified, that men once con­uerted shall be so changed and altered, that if they were neuer so fierce and cruell against the Church, and one a­gainst another before, yet now they shal be framed to a peaceable and meeke disposition towards all men.

Now to perswade vs to the practise of these rules: consider first that these are the last times, wherein most men are louers of themselues, 2. Tim. 2.3. and louers of men for their owne aduantage, euen so farre as by them they may attaine and retaine their wealth, pleasures, and pompe; but few are they that loue men for God, or his graces in them: now seeing the times more call for these duties, let vs bee the more care­full in them. Secondly, loue amongst men is the bond of societies; for what else linketh man to man but loue? which therefore the Apostle calleth the bond of perfection, and truly, for it maketh men speake and thinke one thing, and perfecteth their societie. Seeing then Christian societies are Gods ordinances and preserued by loue, wee are to labour the more in the preseruation of it. Thirdly, the office and action of loue is most excellent, for the manifold gifts and graces which God bestoweth on men for the vse of the Church and Common-wealth, are all hereby made profitable thereunto, all ordered hereunto aright, and all hereby applied to their right ends and vses: the gifts of knowledge, tongues, artes, wisedome and such like, without loue they puffe vp, but it is loue that edi­fieth, 1. Cor. 13. and which causeth man to applie and vse these gifts to the good of man.

The third rule for the maintenance of faith concerneth Hope, in the next word [...], looking for the mercie of our Lord [Page 138] Iesus Christ vnto eternall life.] Wherein is contained a description of hope, which is this: Hope is a gift of God, whereby we waite for the mercie of Iesus Christ to eternal life. For the better conceiuing of which grace, consider in the words three things: first, the person on whom wee are to waite by hope, namely our Lord Iesus Christ, together with the properties of this waiting, which are foure: first, it must be certaine without doubting: for the Apostle ascribeth a full perswasion and assurance vnto our hope, as wel as vnto our faith, Heb. 6.11 neither doth hope make a man ashamed by disappointing him of the thing ho­ped for, Rom. 5.5. Secondly, it must be against hope, that is, against all humane hope, reason, sense, and whatsoeuer may be grounded vpon these. Thus Abra­ham beleeued against hope, Rom. 4.18. Thirdly, it must be a patient waiting on Christ: Rom. 8.15. If we hope for that we see not, we doe with patience abide for it: for otherwise the thing hoped for de­ferred, maketh our waiting painfull and tedious. Fourthly, it must be grounded vpon the word and promises of life. Psal. 130.5. My soule hath waited, and I haue trusted in his word: Heb. 6.18. the ground and anchor of our hope is made not onely the promise, but the oath of God who cannot lie, although he should not sweare, that we might h [...]ld fast the hope that is set before vs.

The second point is, the thing for which we must waite, which is not for gold, siluer, honours, pleasures, but only for the mercie of God in Christ vnto life eternall: by which we must not vnder­stand the beginnings of mercie, for these we alreadie here enioy, and ha­uing the present hold thereof, need not hope for the same, but for the full mea­sure, and accomplishment of Gods mercies hereafter to be enioyed. The like manner of speech hath Paul, Rom. 8.20. We waite for our adoption and re­demption, not that wee are not alreadie adopted and redeemed; but that it is not as yet fully finished and accompli­shed in vs, as hereafter it shall be.

The third point is, the fruite and pro­fit of this waiting; and that is life eter­nall, and therefore is added, vnto life e­ternall, giuing vs to vnderstand, that our waiting shall bring vs vnto, and set vs in the possession of this life. So as the de­scription standeth in setting downe two effects of hope, described first, that it causeth to waite on Christ for mercie: secondly, that it doth not faile nor make a man ashamed, for he waiteth vnto e­ternall life, and in this expectation is put in possession of the same. From the former effect we learne first to put a dif­ference betweene hope and confidence: first, by hope we waite on Christ, but by confidence we rest vpon him, and quiet our hearts in him. Secondly, hope is of things to come, and confidence of things present, at least made present by faith. Matth. 9.2. Haue confidence, and thy sinnes are forgiuen thee. Whence we may discerne an error in Popish religi­on. They teach with vs that a man is to haue confidence in Christ, but they in­clude it vnder hope, and will not per­mit that it should bee referred to faith, because then they should be drawne to grant a speciall faith. But that is er­roneous, seeing confidence is not of things to come as hope is, but of things present: and therefore although confi­dence goeth with hope, yet it is no branch of it, but proceedeth from faith. Secondly, seeing this waiting is a cer­taine expectation of Christ, hence I ga­ther that there is a speciall faith; for if there bee a speciall hope, there must needes be a special faith to ground this speciall hope vpon: for wee can neuer certainly waite for that, whereof we are vncertaine whether it belong vnto vs or no: he that hath receiued the ear­nest, may certainly waite for the whole summe; but it is faith which receiueth the earnest of the spirit, from whence our hope is raised. Heb. 11.1. Now faith is the ground of things hoped for: for which cause it is that hope also hath his full assurance ascribed vnto it as well as faith. And hence wee may fur­ther take knowledge of another of their errors, whereas they teach that hope indeed is ioyned with a certain­tie, but they distinguish of certaintie, which is (they say) either of the will or vnderstanding: hope they graunt hath the certaintie of will, but not of iudgement and vnderstanding: but this is false, seeing the Apostle Heb. 12. com­mandeth to reioyce in hope; which no man can doe, vnlesse the iudgement be cer­taine and setled; he that is not certaine of mercie, can neuer hope certainly for [Page 139] mercie. Thirdly, wee learne hence to waite by our hope in Christ for life e­uerlasting euen to the death, that must be the white which must euer be in our eye, at which wee must continually di­rect our aime. We haue many examples of holy men who haue gone before vs in this dutie: Iacob when hee was ma­king his will, inserteth and as it were in­terlaceth this speech: O Lord, I haue waited for thy saluation, Gen. 49.18. Mo­ses had his eye euer vpon the recompence of reward, Heb. 11.26. Iob would trust in the Lord, yea although he should kill him, Iob. 13.15. Dauid was much and often in this expectation of the Lords mer­cie, Psal. 40.1. In waiting I haue waited on the Lord, that is, I haue instantly wai­ted: and mine eyes haue failed me, whilest I haue waited for my God, Psal. 63.3. and Psal. 16.9. My flesh shall rest in hope: his hope was that his flesh should rise a­gaine vnto life euerlasting. Obiect. But how cā we nourish this hope (will some man say) seeing we are so tossed & per­plexed with so many miseries and grie­uances in this life? Ans. Paul meeteth with this obiection, Rom. 1.3. We reioyce in tribulation. Qu. How can we doe so? Ans. When wee subiect our selues vnto God in afflictions, he sheddeth abroad his loue in our hearts, and this breedeth patience, which bringeth foorth expe­rience, and experience hope, which ma­keth not ashamed; being the helmet of saluation, and our anchor which staieth our ship in the troublesome sea of this life. Fourthly, if wee must by our hope waite on Christ; then in all our requests and petitions vnto God we must abide the Lords leisure, not limiting him, or prescribing the time vnto him of hea­ring; for herein our hope must exercise it selfe.

Further, from the obiect of this wai­ting, which is the mercie of God, we may learne diuers points: first, that there is no such merit of worke as the Papists dreame of,We must waite for mercie, and not for iu­stice, as the Papists teach by their do­ctrine of merits. for then might we waite for iustice, and of due lay claime to life e­ternall. But here we haue another lesson read vs, namely that the Saints of God iustified, sanctified, and so continuing, (for to such Iude wrote, as verse 1.) must waite for the mercie of God vnto life eternall. Yea let a man keepe all Gods Commandements hee shall merit no­thing, he doth but his dutie. In the se­cond Commandement the Lord saith he shewes mercie on thousands: but who are they? euen to them that loue me and keepe my Commandements. If Adam had stood in innocencie, he could not haue merited any better estate than hee was in; how much lesse can wee since the fall? nay Christ as hee was man alone, could not merit, nor did not, but in re­gard of the personal vnion. But the Pa­pist will here say, that life eternal is pro­mised vpon condition, and if wee can keepe the Commandements wee may merit. I answere, if wee keepe the con­dition of our selues wee may merit in­deed; but this is impossible, for euen our keeping of the condition were of mercie; and mercie and merit will ne­uer meete and stand together. Second­ly, if we waite for mercie in Christ, then must wee altogether despaire in regard of our selues of euer attaining life euer­lasting, for hope sendeth a man out of himselfe, and causeth him wholy to re­lie himselfe vpon Christ. Thirdly, if we must waite for the accomplishment of mercie, which tendeth to life euerla­sting, then much more must wee in our dangers or troubles waite for Gods mercie in our deliuerance. If wee must waite for the greater, wee may for the lesse. Hab. 2.3. At last the vision shall speake, and not lie; though it tarrie, waite. And Isai. 28.16. He that beleeueth maketh not haste. This meeteth with mans cor­ruptiō,Wicked mē in present troubles must haue present helpe, though from Satan himselfe. who in present trouble will haue present help, or else he wil fetch it from hell it selfe, from Satan and Sorcerers: but such neuer learned to waite on Gods mercie for saluation; for then could they waite his leisure in lesser matters for health and ease, and with more comfort make farre lesse haste.

Secondly, from the second effect or fruite of hope, namely, that it deceiueth not nor disappointeth him that hopeth; note first a difference betweene hu­mane or carnall, and religious or Chri­stian hope. The former often deceiueth men, at least when death commeth all such hopes perish: but the second ne­uer deceiueth a man in time of need, no not in death it selfe. Secondly, hence a man may and must beleeue his owne perseuerance in grace: for where this hope is, such a man cannot fall wholie from Christ, for then his hope should disappoint him: neither from his owne [Page 140] saluation, because this hope laies hold on the mercie of God vnto eternall life, and herein can neuer frustrate his expe­ctation, or make him ashamed. Third­ly, if our hope bring vs to the fulnes of happines, and to the accomplishment of mercie hereafter, then it bringeth vs to the beginnings of this happines euen in this life; for the beginning of life e­ternall is in this life, and standeth in the conuersion of sinners vnto God, and in amendement of life: and whosoeuer hath true hope, hee is thereby stirred vp vnto daily repentance and reformation of life: 1. Ioh. 3.3. He that hath this hope, purgeth himselfe, euen as he is pure. Now there is none of vs but wee say wee hope for life eternall, and looke to bee saued by the mercie of God in Christ: it standeth vs thē in hand to trie the truth of this hope within our selues, and ma­nifest the truth of it vnto others, and both these by this note, namely that we finde it to purge our hearts and liues, and that it conforme vs vnto Christ: for if we hope to be like him after this life, we must labour to resemble him euen in this life, by being in some measure pure, holy, innocent, meeke, louing, &c. euen as hee was: for otherwise if our liues be not in some reformation of our selues, and conformitie to our head su­table to the profession of our hope, it is but pretence of hope, and will make men in the end ashamed.

Vers. 22.23. ‘And haue compassion of some, in putting difference; and others saue with feare, pulling them out of the fire, and hate euen that garment which is spot­ted by the flesh.’

THese words containe the two last rules tending to the preseruation of the faith, both of them teaching how we may and are to recouer, and restore those who are fallen or declining from faith or good conscience. For the bet­ter vnderstanding whereof, consider in the words two things: first, the way to begin this recouerie, which is in the end of vers. 22. By putting difference. Second­ly, the manner how they are to be reco­uered; expressed in both the rules: the former concerneth Christian meeknes: Haue compassion on some,] the latter con­cerneth Christian seueritie; and other saue with feare.] Concerning the former: the way of this recouery is to put a dif­ference] that is,All errors are not of the same size. by Christian wisedome to distinguish betweene offenders. For our direction wherein, wee must know that men erre and offend two waies: first, in opinion and iudgment: second­ly, in practise and life. Againe, those that erre in opinion are also diuersly to bee distinguished, according to the di­uersitie of their errors: for some erre in the foundation of religion, and matters of greatest importance, as the Papists at this day when they teach inuocation of Saints, iustification by workes,Popish do­ctrine de­parteth frō the foun­dation. a reall sacrifice for the quicke and dead in the Supper, with other false doctrines ra­cing the foundation: others may hold the foundation, but erre in smaller pointes of lesser importance. As for ex­ample, the Anabaptists holding that warre is not to be made, nor othes to be taken, erre grossely: but yet herein (though in other points they doe) they race not the foundation. These ought wisely to be distinguished, for hee that erres in the foundation, ouerturneth his faith and religion: but he that holdeth the foundation, and erreth in smaller points, doth not. 1. Cor. 3.12. If any man build on the foundation hay or stubble, [...] worke shall burne, but himself may be safe. One thing it is to beate downe a wall, to pull downe a window, yea some one side of a house; and another to plucke vp the foundation, for this destroieth al. Which difference if it had been made and minded, many which haue separa­ted themselues frō the Church of Eng­land had still remained members of it. Secondly, of those that erre in opinion, some erre of ignorance and blinde zeale, seeing no other truth than that they hold; as the Iewes did, Rom. 10.2. who had the zeale of God, but not accor­ding to knowledge: others erre of malice, who know they are deceiued, and yet persist obstinately in their error & false opinion, lest they should lose their cre­dit, as Heretikes. Now betweene these also a difference is to be put: Tit. 3.10. An heretike after once or twice admoni­tion reiect; for such a one is condemned of his owne selfe. But if the error be of ig­norance, Paul speaketh; If any be other­wise minded, the Lord will reueile it, Phil. 3.15. But here we must alwaies remem­ber, that seeing wee can hardly discerne the ground of mens errors whether [Page 141] they proceede of ignorance or malice, wee are euer to condemne their error, but haue respect to their persons, and not passe sentence rashly against them. For the error of the vbiquitie of Christs bodie hath been held and maintained b [...] many both godly and learned Pro­testants; their error wee are alwaies able to condemne, but wee may not con­demne their persons, no not although they haue defended it of malice, or out of the pride of their hearts, seeing the Lord might giue them repentance be­fore or at their death. Thirdly, againe those that doe erre of ignorance must be distinguished: for some of them are misled of simple ignorance, as those who haue no meanes, or very small meanes to come to knowledge: others erre of affected ignorance, which is when men are willingly ignorant, hauing meanes of knowledge, but refuse the same.The igno­rance of this land more fear­full than it vvas fourty yeeres ago. As aboue fourtie yeeres agoe the people of this land erred of simple ig­norance, because they had not the meanes (which yet did not excuse thē) but now their ignorance is wilfull, and affected, neglecting at least, if not fear­fully despising so great saluation: and therefore as the sin of the land is grea­ter, so the more fearefull is the iudge­ment like to be, if it bee not seasonably preuented by repentance. Fourthly, there is also wise difference to bee put betweene the author of sects and here­sies, and those who are by them sedu­ced. The Sect-masters and leaders are to bee vsed with more seueritie, and sin more grieuously: Rom. 16.17. Obserue them which cause diuisions among you: as in a wisely ordered Common-wealth, the heads of conspiracies and authors of treasons are most aimed at.

Secondly, errors in practise or action is any actuall sinne, or offence in word or deede; and men that offend in these are not all to bee ranged in one ranke, but to bee distinguished. For of these, first some sin of ignorance, not know­ing what they doe; as Paul persecuted the Church of God ignorantly, & through a blinde zeale. Now ignorance is two-fold: first, generall ignorance, when the thing is vtterly vnknowne: second­ly speciall, when the equitie of a parti­cular fact or some speciall action is vn­knowne; as oppression and vsurie in generall are knowne to bee euill; but many particular actions vnder this kinde are vnknowne to many so to be: and sometime these two ignorances are ioyned both together, according vnto which we may put difference be­tweene the faults and offences of men. Secondly, some sinne of infirmitie, who know what they doe, but yet are ouer­carried by sudden and violent passions of anger, feare, sorrow, or such like vn­to euill. Thus Peter denied his Master vpon sudden feare of danger. Thirdly, some sinne of malice, being carried vn­to euill by the malice of their own will, not of ignorance, or passion as the for­mer, of this the Apostle s [...]keth, Heb. 10.26. If we sinne willingly, [...]ter we haue receiued the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins. Now of this malice of the will there be two degrees: first particular, when a man wittingly and willingly sinneth against some particular Commandement; as Acts 7.51. The Iewes were stiffenecked and alwaies resisted the holy Ghost: that is, the ministerie of the Prophets in some things, not in all. Secondly, ge­nerall malice, when a man is carried wittingly and willingly to oppugne all the law of God, yea Christ himselfe, true religion, and saluation by Christ, and so reuerseth all the Commande­ments. This is the sinne against the ho­ly Ghost, & of this degree the Apostle saith, there re [...]ineth no more sacrifice for sinne: this being an vniuersall and generall apostasie. Now offenders ac­cording to these differences must bee distinguished.

Further, of those that actually offend, some sinne secretly, when it is knowne but to some one onely; and priuately, when it is knowne but to some few, and the scandall is the smaller. Some sinne publikely, when the sinne is notorious and the offence giuen great. If the of­fence b [...] secret, the Apostle ruleth the case, saying; that loue couereth a mul­titude of such sinnes. For the second, if the offence be priuate, then must thou admonish the party betweene thee and him: if hee heare thee, thou hast saued and wonne him: if not, but hee persist in offending, tell the Church. But hee that offendeth publikely, must be pub­likely reprooued, that others may feare, 1. Tim. 5.20. By these differences ob­serued, a notable way is made for the [Page 142] recouerie of those that are sliding or fallen from the faith, in matter either of doctrine, or practise.

Hence wee learne first, that it is our dutie to obserue one another in our speeches and actions; or else wee can neuer put any difference in them, the end of which obseruing must be (not as the manner of many is to imitate o­thers in their euils, or traduce or floute men) but that of the Apostle, Heb. 10.24. Let vs consider one another, to prouoke vnto loue and good workes. Secondly, for the making of this difference betweene offenders, we ought to haue in vs a chri­stian wisedome, whereby wee may di­scerne aright of persons and things, and not to iudge of al alike. Our head Christ was a notable president vnto vs herein: for though many professed him, and beleeued in him, yet would hee not commit himselfe vnto them, because he knew what was in man, Ioh. 2.24. Loue indeed must hope all things,Christian loue must goe hand in hand with Chri­stian wise­dome. beleeue all things, suffer all things, 1. Cor. 8.7. but yet this Christian loue must be ordered by Christian wisedome.

The second point concerneth the manner of restoring offenders, standing in two rules: first of compassion: se­condly of seueritie. In the former con­sider two things: first, on whom com­passion is to bee shewed: the Apostle saith, on some, that is, on those that erre of ignorance, or infirmitie: on those al­so who are caried away with ye violence of some sudden passion, if they repent, yea or giue any hope of amendement: all such must be restored with the spirit of meeknes, Galath. 6.1. Secondly, the manner of shewing the compassion, which is not by winking at, or soothing men in their sinnes, but by admonitions and exhortations seasoned with com­passion: Matth. 18.15. If thy brother tres­passe against thee, goe and tell him his fault betweene thee and him: if he heare thee not, take yet with thee one or two. This is the meanes first to conuince the offen­ders, and then to bring them to repen­tance with all mercie and meeknes, and confirme them therein. Thus God him­selfe dealt with Adam, first conuinced him, and then in much mercie made that gratious promise, that the seede of the woman should bruise the Serpents head. Thus Christ looked on Peter, and mercifully restored him. Thus Paul re­stored the Galathians, being fallē from the faith by mercifull admonitions.

Ob. But if we admonish men before witnes, according to the rule of Christ, wee may draw our selues into danger, for they may take such admonitions for slanders, and vse them as witness [...] thereof against vs.

Ans. If therefore the fault bee secret, we must onely admonish our brother alone; and if that will not serue to re­claime him, leaue him to God to turne him: and if it be priuate, that is, known to some few, it is Christian wisedome to admonish him before some two of those that can testifie of this sinne, that so the partie admonished may be con­uinced, and the admonisher cleered from all shew and apparance of slaun­der.

Vse. 1. By this rule is condemned the rigour and austeritie of many in too se­uere censuring offenders and offences. This was a fault and blemish in the an­cient Church; which sometime for no faults would enioyne penance, as if a man had married the second time: yea for small and light offences were wont to enioyne a penance of two, fiue, yea and sometimes of tenne yeeres. This is the sinne also of those that are departed from our Church, condemning vs (for some wants) vtterly as no Church nor people of God, refusing to heare the word of God, to pray, and to ioyne in other religious duties with vs. It is also the sin of many of the Lutherans, who because wee dissent from them in some opinions, condemne vs and our Chur­ches to hell; and speake and write that we are limmes of the diuel. Which were too great seueritie, if wee held not the truth against them, in the things where­in we differ. Vse. 2. Wee ought on the contrarie to put on the bowels of com­passion towards offenders, if there bee any hope of amendement; following herein the footsteps of Christ himselfe, who was very tender ouer Ierusalem, so as hee wept ouer it. Moses when the Israelites had sinned in making their golden Calfe, he mourned for them, fa­sted fourtie daies and fourtie nights for them, and would not depart from God till he was intreated of him in their be­halfe. Men cannot but be compassionate towards sicke, and dangerously disea­sed, or wounded bodies; but a rare [Page 143] thing it is to be so tender ouer the sicke soules of our brethren. But blessed is hee that iudgeth wisely of the poore, whether afflicted in bodie or minde.

The second rule of restoring offen­ders, concerneth Christian seueritie: and it is the last of the fiue, laid down in the verse 23. In it the Apostle laieth downe three things: first the rule it selfe, to saue with feare. Secondly, the reason of the rule, or manner of it; pulling them out of the fire. Thirdly, a caueat for the better obseruing it: And hate euen the garment spotted by the flesh. In the rule it selfe consider two things: first, who are to be saued by feare? [...]eare must force whō loue can­not allure. namely those who otherwise are incurable, which is mani­fest in the opposition of these words with the former, some are to bee cured with mercie and compassion, as those which sinne of ignorance and infirmi­tie: but those who are hardly curable must be terrified, affrighted, and so sa­ued by terror and feare. Secondly, what this feare is? namely, not a bodily feare, as neither the meanes causing it are: but a spirituall feare, and that of euerlasting destruction. The meanes of feare are either ciuill or spirituall. The former is the power and authoritie of the Magi­strate, who carrieth not the sword in vaine against offenders; but that those that doe euill might feare, Rom. 13.4. but neither is this feare nor the meanes of it meant. The second meanes are spiri­tuall, directly respecting the soule, not the bodie, and they be reduced to three kindes or heads: first, admonition, with denunciation of Gods iudgements a­gainst the party not repenting. Second­ly, suspension, whereby offenders are de­barred from the Lords Table. Thirdly, excommunication, whereby men are de­liuered vp to Satan, and cast out of the societie of Gods people. Of these three this last is here most properly meant. Ob. But some will say, Excommunica­tion is of no force, it is lightly regar­ded, and therefore can bee no great meanes of feare to offenders. Ans. This censure vsed according to the word of God, cannot but be full of horror, and terror, and the most forcible (as the last) meanes of this feare. Matth. 18.17. If he heare not the Church, let him be to thee as an heathen. What will mooue a man if this will not, that the whole Church should account of him as a Pagan or Heathen? The incestuous person, 1. Co­rinth. 5.5. thus censured, is giuen vp to Sathan, and deliuered into the diuels power: then which what can bee more fearefull? Both these places the ene­mies of this, censure, seek to elude, that they might make it lesse forcible: for that in Matth. 18. they interpret of see­king ciuill remedie, against ciuil harme or wrong, as though the sense were thus: If thy brother iniurie thee, ad­monish him first priuately; and if hee refuse to heare thee, bring him before the Magistrate, thou maist goe to law with him, and vse him as an heathen man, in calling him before the heathen Magistrate. But this exposition cannot stand; for to shew that it is no direction of the manner to reuenge ciuil wrongs, but appertaineth vnto the conscience, it is added in the very next words, verse 18. Whatsoeuer they binde on earth, shall be bound in heauen: and what­soeuer they loose in earth, shall be loo­sed in heauen. For the other place 1. Co­rin. 5. they expound it of an extraordi­narie punishment, which might be exe­cuted in those daies by Satan vpon the bodies of such offenders: Deliuer him to Satan: that is, say they, that hee may torment his bodie. But this cannot be a bare bodily punishment, but an exclu­ding of the sinner from the Commu­nion and fellowship of the Church, and must be done in the face of the Church, by the consent of the whole Church, which appeare to bee so vers. 2. and 4. Againe, if it had been meant of some such extraordinarie punishment, Paul by his Apostolicall Rod could haue done that alone, and needed not haue troubled the whole Church with it.

The second point is the reason of this rule, taken from the danger of the delay of it: Pulling them out of the fire. They are in perill of present daunger, they must therefore presently bee sa­ued: euen as things that are in the fire must be presently pulled out violently, or else they are presently consumed: so must these offenders be presently pre­serued and pulled out of the fire of hell. Out of these two former points wee learne diuers instructions.

First, that their censure of excommu­nication is an ordinance of God, and no inuention of man: for euen in this verse wee may obserue, first, that obsti­nate [Page 144] offenders are to bee saued by ter­rible meanes, some must bee saued by feare. Secondly, violent and sudden meanes must be vsed, they must be as it were snatched out of the fire. Thirdly, they must bee separated from in regard of societie, in the next words: all which three things cannot agree to any thing but only to excommunication.

Secondly, note the end of excom­munication,The cen­sure of ex­communi­cation not to be infli­cted but in most despe­rate cases. which is to pluck men out of the fire of hell with violence; and therefore this desperate remedie is only to be vsed in desperate cases, whē there is no other way to saue the soule, and not for trifles. The Surgeon cutteth not off armes and legges, vntill the life bee disparaged; neither the Physition pre­scribeth ranke poyson, but in most de­sperate diseases. Againe, if this bee the end of it, then it respecteth the spiritual estate of men, and not the temporall; the soule properly, and not the bodie. Wickedly then doth the Pope (for the vpholding of his estate) excommuni­cate Kings and Princes, to depose them from their Crownes, and depriue them of their scepters, and by it free their subiects from their allegeance: this is no end of this censure warranted in the word. And thirdly, if there be such a ne­cessarie end and vse of it, it were to bee wished that in this end it were more v­sed against open and notorious sinner [...]; whom the word cannot preuaile with to their saluation: seeing many goe on euery where obstinately in their sinnes without amendment, to the great scan­dall of others.

Thirdly, hence we learne that many bee so wedded and addicted to their wicked waies, that although they be in the mouth of hell, yet they feare no­thing; neither God nor Diuel: nor care neither for heauen nor hell; else what neede were there of such a censure as this is? Ahab was so addicted to Na­boths vineyard that he was sicke for it: besides, he sold himselfe to worke wic­kednes. Manasses sold himselfe to Sa­tan, nothing could returne him but set­ters and captiuitie. Fruitful of such hath been, and is our barren age.

Fourthly, when gentle meanes will not serue to reclaime men, it is the will of God that terrible meanes should be vsed, if by any meanes they may bee pulled out of the fire: and thus the Lord vsed to deale with his owne people of the Iewes, proceeding with them ac­cording to that order in Rom. 2.4. first by patience by long suffering calling them to repentance: but when they hardened their hearts against these meanes, then he hoorded and treasured vp wrath for them against the day of wrath. The same hath been his dealing with vs in this land; for these fourtie yeeres and more he hath hedged vs in with peace and prosperitie, together with the liberties of his glorious Gos­pell, still expecting our further fruitful­nes, answerable to such meanes: but we become still more barren, & lesse fruit­full; hee hath often taken in hand his pruning knife, and lopped vs by fa­mine, pestilence, and other his iudge­ments, and yet behold we abound with bitter fruites of blasphemies, iniustice, prophanenes, contempt of the Gospel, which was more embraced and estee­med of twentie yeeres agoe, than now it is in these daies, which make no end of declining: that surely wee cannot now but expect that the Lord should open vpō vs the treasures of his wrath, and his storehouses of iudgements, vn­lesse wee vse meanes to preuent them, and that in due time. Some will aske, what bee they? Ans. Remember two rules, first the counsell of Amos, chap. 4.12. Prepare to meete thy God O Israel. Meanes in this land are prepared to meete our Enemies, and it is well done:Against the Iris [...] Rebels. but wee must first prepare to meete our God by vnfained repentance, and for­saking of sinne: for that is it which ma­keth the breaches of our land, & streng­theneth our enemies against vs. Second­ly, the practise of Iehosaphat, 2. Chro. 20.12. We kn [...]w not what to doe, but our eyes are towards thee O Lord. Depend vpon him alone, and nothing besides him; make him thy hiding place in life and death, shroud thy self vnder the wing [...] of his protection, and thou shalt be safe vnder his feathers.

Now followeth the third point in this last rule, that is, the caueat tending to the obseruing of it, in these words: And hate euen the garment spotted with the flesh: that is, keepe no companie, haue no fellowship or societie with them: which precept is propounded in a darke comparison or similitude, taken from the ceremoniall pollutions of the [Page 145] law: that look as men were th [...]n made vncleane▪ not onely by conuersing with persons legally vncleane; but also by touching (though it was vnware [...]) their houses, vessels, and garments, as appea­reth Leu. 15.4. and Numb. 9. and there­fore did not onely auoide such persons, but hated euen their garments: so must we vnder grace deal [...] with obstinate of­fenders, auoide their persons, sinnes, yea and societies, as occasions thereof. First then in the former part of the compa­rison two questions may bee demaun­ded. The former is this:

Why should any mans flesh bee vn­cleane, or his garments spotted, and so detestable and to be hated, seeing they are the good creatures of God? Answ. There bee three kindes of vncleannes: 1. Naturall, 2. Morall, 3. Ceremoniall. Naturall vncleannes is, whereby the creature becommeth by his corrupted nature vncleane for mans vse, I say by corrupted nature, because this vnclean­nes cannot rise from created nature, but from mans sinne and Gods curse; as the Serpents are now to mans vse vn­cleane, that is, noisome, and full of hur [...] and poison. Morall is, when any crea­ture is vsed against Gods law and com­mandement, separating i [...] from the vse of man: as to marrie within any of the degrees prohibited, Leu. 19. commeth within this vncleannes. Thus a man borne of vncleane seed is vncleane, Iob 14. Ceremoniall is, when the creature being cleane it in owne nature, yet in some other respects by vertue of Gods prohibitiō, becommeth vncleane. Thus were certaine beasts, and fowles, and dead bodies vncleane, not in their na­ture, but in some respects, which espe­cially were three: first, in regard of tou­ching: secondly, of tasting: thirdly, of sacrificing; in which respects th [...]y might not bee vsed. Now the creature might be hated, not in regard of it self, or as i [...] i [...] the good creature of God: but as farre as this ceremoniall vncleannes was fa [...]ed vnto it, it being prohibited in this or other respects by God.

2. Quest. But why should any m [...]n hate the flesh, or garments of another, seeing this ceremoniall vncleanne [...] was no sinne▪ yea to burie the dead corpes was a dutie to be performed necessari­ly: and so necessarie was it to touch them▪ and for garments they were na­turall, and no more sin to touch them than to eate or drinke? Ans. Although legall defilement was not alwaies a sin, yet i [...] was alwaies an euill, and prefigu­red the defilement of men by originall sinne: and besides, vpon Gods prohi­bition was to be hated. Secondly, al­though the defilement it selfe was no sinne; yet hee that wittingly without cause did touch or meddle wi [...] th [...] thing defiled, did sinne, because God commanded the contrarie.

Secondly, out of the second part of the similitude, in that we are to [...] the company of obstinate offenders, it may be demanded whether wee may keepe any companie, or haue any fellowship with an obstinate sinner? Ans. The fa­miliar companie with such is forbid­den, but all companie is not absolutely forbidden: for in two cases it is lawfull to accompanie with such a one, first, to doe him good with conference, instru­ction, [...] admonition; an heretike must be once or twice admonished, and if he bee not then reclaimed he must be auoided, Titus 3.10. Secondly, when a man is bound to such a one by the bond of ci­uill societie: as for example, if a man [...]re by the Church excommunicated, y [...]t a wife must performe the dutie of a wife; the childe of a childe; the seruant of a seruant: for th [...]se diuine ordinan­ces abolish not, but establish ciuill so­cieties. Then I say familiar companie must bee denied to such obstinate sin­ner [...], but not all companie; as when by the same we can either reclaime them, or else to performe some ciuill dutie toward [...] them.

Vse. First we see here what was the end of ceremoniall vncleannes▪ and that was [...]o represent that spirituall vn­cleannes in the whole man,Ceremo­niall vn­cleannes figured with spiri­tuall filthi­nes. by originall and actuall sinne in thought, word, and deede▪ Z [...]ch. 13.1. In that day shal [...]h [...]re be a fountain [...] opened to the ho [...]se of Dauid, and to the inhabitants of Ierusa­lem, for sinne and for vncleannes: where­by is signified such an vncleannes, wher­by not only our selues are defiled who­ly, but whatsoeuer we touch & meddle withall, which is infected by reason of that dwelling sinne in vs, e [...]en as it was which in the law was [...]ouched by a pol­luted and vncleane person. This consi­deration should ca [...]se vs to looke into the filthines of our hearts; which if we [Page 146] could, or did see, as it is both in it selfe, and in the vile [...] which without in­termissiō it sendeth out, it would make vs humble our selues, and neuer bee at rest vntill this fountaine of the blood of Christ were set open vnto vs, and we euen plunged into it, and so clensed from this vncleannes; whereof the vn­cleannes of the flesh was but a figure and [...]adow. 2. Vse. We learne how to vnderstand the Cōmandements of the Moral law, namely not only according to the letter, and bare words in which they are propounded, which mention the maine sinnes only against God and man; but by a Synecdo [...]he in the men­tioned sinnes, all of that kind, as all oc­casions, also motiues, and inducements thereunto, as here the Apostle wisheth the Saints to hate the flesh, yea the gar­ments spotted; so wee are to hate the sinne itselfe, yea and all the kindes, and all the occasions of the same. 3. Vse. Hence wee haue a direct way wherein all beleeuers are to walke: first, we must hate the companie and societie of ma­nifest and obstinate sinners, who will not bee reclaimed. Secondly, all their sinnes, not communicating with any man in his sinne, we must haue no fel­lowship (as with the workers so) wi [...]h the vnfruitfull workes of darknesse. Thirdly, all occasions and inducements vnto these sinnes. Fourthly, all appa­rances of wickednes, 1. Thess. 5.22. that is, which men in common iudgement account euill; and all this must, pro­ceed from a good ground, euen from a good heart ha [...]ing sinne perfectly, that is all sin, as Dauid Psal. 139. I hate them with a perfect h [...]r [...]d: and not as some who can hate some sinne, but cleaue to some other; as many can hate pride, but loue couetousnes, or some other darling sinne: but wee must attaine to the hatred of all, before wee can come to the practise of this precept▪ besides that all sinnes are hateful euen in them­selues. A needfull dutie to be heedfully regarded in these daies, wherein are so few hate [...]s of the flesh, and so many ha­ters of those that hate it: so many that are so farre from hating the appearan­ces of euill, that many sins themselues are swallowed vp and made no bones of; horrible blasphemies must now credit mens speeches: the breach and violating of the Sabbath in iourneying is [...] good a seruice of God [...] horse­backe [...] neede be, or as he requireth [...] r [...]inge, also fightings, and such work [...] of the flesh, are notes of valour and spi­rit: and so in other. Thus men who professe religion in word, denie it in deed; seeing true religion standeth not onely in the hatred of the sinnes them­selues, but euen of all occasions and ap­parances of them: because God hath commanded them to be hated. 4. Vse. As ye Iewes (being not to come neer the houses nor touch the vncleane) if they did touch any such thing they were vn­cleane and polluted: and for that cause must wash their bodies and chaunge their garments, yea if they did but sus­pect that they had defiled themselues, they were presently to bee purified: so wee being defiled with any knowne sinnes, or suspecting any vnknowne; our next course must be to the bloud of Christ the Lauer of the Church, suing vnto God by prayer that our sins may be therewith washed away: wee must put off our garments, that is, the olde man with his lusts, and put on the wed­ding garment, that is, Christ Iesus with his righteousnes, daily proceeding in the duties of sanctification; for he that hath washed himselfe, had need stil ha [...]e his feete washed, that is, daily renew his repentance, and bring daily fruits wor­thie amendement of life.

Vers. 24. ‘Now vnto him that is able to keepe you that you fall not, and to present you faultlesse before the presence of his glo­rie [...]ith ioy. 25. That is to God [...] wise, our Sauiour, be glorie, and Maiestie, and dominion, and power, both now and for e­uer. Amen.’

IN these wordes are contained the third part of the Epistle, namely the conclusion of it, and it is nothing else but a lawding and praising of God: wherein three things are to bee noted▪ first the person praised, which is Christ the second person in the Trinitie, the Sonne of the eternall Father▪ this ap­peareth by two reasons in the words: first, because he is here described to be a Iudge that doth present all men before himselfe, which is proper to the Sonne of God. Secondly, because he is called our Sauiour, which is the title of Christ, according to the name Iesus▪ And yet [Page 147] here must be noted that in this praising of the Sonne, the Father and the holie Ghost are not excluded: for as the na­ture of the three persons is all one, so is their worship all one also. The se­cond point bee the reasons or induce­ments mouing vs to praise Christ, which be three. The first drawne from his po­wer: To him which is able &c. The se­cond from his wisedome: To God onely wise. The third from the worke of our redemption and saluation: Our Sauiour. The third point is the praise it selfe, in these words: Be glorie, and maiestie, and dominion, and power, both now and for e­uer, Amen. Of these points in order. And first of the person to whom this praise is giuen.

First, note how the Apostle conclu­deth his epistle with the praise of Christ as the Iudge, as also the Sauiour of man­kinde; in whose example we are taught with willing minds to spend our daies in the honour of Christ: for that which the Saints doe in heauen, that must we doe while wee liue vpon earth; for so we pray in the Lords Prayer: but they in heauen continually doe cast downe their Crownes at the feet of the Lambe, Reu. 5.11. as worthie to receiue all honor▪ and glorie, and praise, and power; we must therefore bee readie vnto this dutie. A­gaine, he hath subiected himselfe to ex­ceeding dishonour and abasement, yea to the death, and that of the crosse: and all that we might first honour him, and then be honoured by him: how there­fore ought wee in way of thankfulnes for the great worke of our redemption, glorifie him, and aduance his honour? But in stead hereof many euen of those that professe Christ dishonour him, vsing him as a packhorse to lay vpon him all their sinnes, and so lade him with their sinnes past, and crucifie him againe with daily new sinnes, and yet they looke he should be their Sauiour to bring them to honour and immor­tall glorie.

The inducements follow. The first of which is takē from the power of Christ, vnto him who i [...] able &c. That wee may know the force of this reason, wee will first consider what this power of Christ is.The power of Christ is either ab­solute or actuall. The power of Christ is two-fold: first, absolute: secondly, actuall. By ab­solute I vnderstand that power of his, whereby hee is able to doe euen that which he will neuer do; of which Iohn Baptist speaketh: God is able euen of stones to raise vp seede to Abraham. By this power God could haue made ma­ny thousand worlds, whereas he made but one; and by the same Christ could haue commanded a legion of Angels to haue deliuered him from the hands of the Iewes, but would not. This absolute power goeth beyond his actuall power or will, yet is not greater than his will: for as what God doth, that he willeth: so what hee can doe, hee can also will: but this power is not here meant. The second, namely the actuall power of Christ, is, whereby hee doth and effe­cteth whatsoeuer he willeth, and it is of two sorts: first, his generall power which tendeth on his prouidence, whereby he ordereth all things both in heauen and earth: Psal. 115.3. Our God is in heauen, and doth whatsoeuer he will. Secondly, a more speciall power which accompa­nieth his grace, and alwaies goeth with it: of which Paul speaketh Ephes. 1.19. That we may know what is the exceeding greatnes of his power towards vs that be­leeue, according to the working of his migh­tie power. Of this power▪ working life and grace to them which beleeue, Iud [...] here speaketh. Concerning which ob­serue three conclusions.

First, that this power is giuen to Christ in time, Matth. 28. All power is giuen me in heauen and in earth. Acts 2.36. He is of God made Lord and Christ, importing that this power is giuen him to bee a Lord. Indeed the Son of God as God, is of equall power with the Father, and that from all eternitie: in which regard no power can be giuen him: but if we respect his office of mediation, to the performance of which he must lay aside his power, and become as a seruant subiecting himselfe to the death; thus this power may bee said to bee giuen him againe, namely when by his rising from the dead and ascending into hea­uen, hee was mightely declared to bee the Sonne of God: so that in Psal. 2. Thou art my sonne, this day haue I begot­ten thee, is in Acts 13. applied to the re­surrection of Christ: as if hee had said, This day haue I made manifest by thy powerfull resurrection that thou art my sonne, and that I haue begotten thee before all world [...].

The second conclusion is, that this [Page 148] power is manifested in Christ the head especially: namely, when it caused him so victoriously to ouercome death in suffering it; to rise from the graue, a­scend to heauen, & sit at the right hand of God his Father. Paul prayeth that the Ephesians might know the great­nes of this power, which raised Christ from the dead, and set him at Gods right hand in heauenly places, Ephes. 1.20.

The third conclusion: That this po­wer conueyeth it selfe from Christ the head to all his members, Ephes. 3.20. To him that is able to doe abundantly a­boue all that we aske or thinke, according to the power that worketh in vs. Coloss. 1.29. I also labour and striue according to his working, which worketh in me mighte­ly. Now being conueied vnto the mem­bers of Christ, it is not idle in them, or vnprofitable, but worketh proportio­nably in them al, as it did in Christ him­selfe: for as it caused Christ to die for our sinnes, so it maketh vs die to our owne sinnes: as this power made him to liue againe to his Father, so it maketh vs his members to liue vnto God; that as hee by vertue hereof rose againe, so it causeth vs to rise to a new life in this life, and to our eternall life in the life to come.

Further, this power is commended here by foure effects: first, it is able to keepe them that they fall not, namely into manifest sinnes ioyned with obstinacie: for of such sinnes and sinners hee had spoken in the former words; and cannot be meant of euery kinde of fall, seeing the children of God fall daily, but of such as Dauid prayed against, Psal. 19. last. Keepe thy seruant from presumptuous sins, let them not raigne ouer me. The se­cond effect is, to present you faultlesse, that is, first to iustifie beleeuers: se­condly, to sanctifie them here in part while they liue, and in death to finish and perfect that inchoate sanctificati­on. The third effect, in the day of iudg­ment to present them before the presence of his glorie. The fourth effect, with ioy, that is, to possesse them with ioy euer­lasting.

Vse. 1. In that Christ is able to keepe them that beleeue, wee may note that this his power doth order the wils of beleeuers both in and after their con­uersion. In their conuersion it frameth and turneth their wils. Ioh. 6. No man commeth to the Sonne, except the Father draw him, that is, except he incline, and turne mans will vnto his owne, and make it of an vnwilling will a willing will. Againe, after conuersion it is not an idle power in them: 1. Ioh. 3.9. He that is borne of God sinneth not, that is, addicteth not himselfe, nor setteth him­selfe to the practise of sinne; and the reason is giuen, because the seed [...] of God remaineth in him, which is all one with this power, which is able, and accor­dingly keepeth him. Whereby that Po­pish error is detected, namely that in the conuersion of a sinner it is in mans power and will, either to receiue or re­sist the grace of God: and that mans will can either applie it selfe to grace offered if it will, or else refuse it:Gods po­wer shall not order mans will, if the disor­dered do­ctrine of Poperie may ob­taine. but if this were true, the power of God should not order mans will, but mans will should order Gods grace, yea and o­uercome this omnipotent power of God. Againe, this ouerthroweth the distinction of grace into sufficient and effectuall: for sufficient grace is effectu­all, seeing that this power of Christ wai­teth vpon it to make it effectuall.

Secondly, hence wee see that this power of Christ in his members, is a continued power, neuer wholy inter­rupted, for it keepeth them in this life that they fall not into presumptuous sinnes. Secondly, it iustifieth them and sanctifieth them imperfectly in life, and perfectly in death. Thirdly, after death it presenteth them vnto their glorie. Fourthly, after the last iudgement, it possesseth them with vnspeakable ioy. Thus the righteous man by vertue of this power, becomes like a tree whose leafe neuer faileth nor fadeth, Psal. 1.3. And hence is it that hope is said to be a sure anchor, Hebr. 6. vers. 19. for this propertie hath it, not from it selfe (as also loue and faith in themselues are changeable, and nothing indeede is in it selfe vnchangeable but God) but the power of Christ is it that maketh it an anchor sure and stedfast. By which consideration, those two vncomfor­table errors are confuted: first, that the childe of God being regenerate may fall maliciously, and euen wholy a­way. Secondly, that hee may fall fi­nally: seeing God putteth his hand vnder, and this power of Christ is able to keep them that they fall not (though [Page 149] fearefully they may) yet neither wholy nor finally.

Thirdly, we must labour to haue ex­perience of this power of Christ in our selues, working in our heart [...] the death of our sins, and quickning them againe vnto the life of grace and of God: for this power of Christ consisteth not in any fancie, but in [...]n effectuall feeling in the heart of euery true beleeuer. Paul prayed that the Ephesians might feele in themselues this proportionall power to Christ his power in his death and re­surrection, Ephes. 1.19. himselfe coun­ted all things [...]ng in comparison of the knowledge of this power▪ Phil. 3. [...]0. and that he might haue experience hereof, hee will reioyce in his owne weakenes, [...]. Cor. 12.9. And what will this power be profitable vnto vs (be it neuer so powerfull in it selfe) vnlesse we finde our selues thus strengthened in grace and godlines by it?

Fourthly, wee may not content our selues with a forme and shew of godli­nes, but stri [...] to attaine the power of it▪ or else let vs neuer professe Christ, and please our selues only in such a profes­sion: for whosoeuer is truly Christs, in him this power worketh mightely in subduing [...], in striuing against temp­tations, in stirring vp zeale of Gods glorie, and in a word in making men fruitfull and abundant in all well doing [...] yea it can no more hide it selfe where it is, than can the Sunne at noone day, but it will cause men to shine as lights in the middest of a froward genera­tion: which [...] and effects, if a man cannot finde in himself, let him suspect himselfe that he is not as yet knit vn­to Christ, for then hee would bee by vertue of this power in some propor­tion conformable vnto him.

Fifthly, th [...] doctrine ministreth a stay and prop to our faith and hope, seeing that Christ [...]th such a working power as this is, whereby hee is able to make good, and accomplish whatsoeuer hee hath promised concerning our salua­ [...]ion [...] thus he strēgthened his Disciples, Ioh. 17. But be of good comfort, I haue [...] the world: and thus Abra­ham beleeued aboue hope, because he kn [...]w that God was able to performe what hee had promised, Rom▪ 4 21. teaching all the sonne [...] of [...]a [...]thfull Abraham vp­ [...] what prop they are to [...], and stay vp themselues [...] the promises are delaied. Here the Papist [...]eacheth that in regard of God indeed and his promise, we may beleeue our owne sal­uation; but in respect of our selues, and in regard of our owne indisposition we must still doubt, and it is presumption (saith he) to beleeue it. Answ. But this is false, for wee must not doubt in re­gard of our own indisposition▪ but must certainly by faith lay hold on our own saluation, seeing that Christ by his po­wer correcteth, yea and abolisheth in his members this indisposition, fitting them (notwithstanding it) and keeping them vnto life eternall.

Sixthly and lastly, we must striue to become like vnto Christ, seeing ye same power that was in him is conueied and deriued from him into euery one of his members, that as hee liued in obedi­ence vnto his Father, both doing and suffering whatsoeuer his Father enioy­ned and willed; euen so ought we: look what was his disposition and conuersa­tion whilest hee conuersed here vpon earth, so ought wee to be disposed and conuerse, resembling him in meekenes, humilitie, patience, loue towards our Father, and brethren, yea and towards our enemies: and as hee was minded, the same minde ought also to be in vs, Phil. 2.6. So much for the first reason moouing vs to the praise of Christ, drawne from his power.

The second motiue is in the verse 25. To God onely wise ▪ drawne from his wise­dome; wherein three things are to bee obserued: first, that Christ is God: se­condly, that he is wise: thirdly, that he is only wise. For the first, this is a notable testimonie and to bee obserued against the Arrians & Atheists, to confirme the Diuinitie of Christ, who like dogs most blasphemously with blacke mouthes barke against their Creator, affirming him to bee one of the great seducers of the world: against whom (that we may bee the better armed) I will first pro­pound one or two euident reasons, and then answere their allegations. The first argument: Consider that whosoeuer haue taken vpon themselues to be cal­led Gods, the iust iudgement and ven­geance of God hath befallen them, and they haue been destroyed by the hand of God. Adam and Eue because they would haue been but like God, or [Page 150] as Gods, were grieuously punished in themselues and all their posteritie. He­rod because hee was contented that the people should call him God, the hand of God was instantly vpon him, and the Angell of God smot him, and hee was eaten vp of lice. But Christ profes­sed himselfe to bee God, yea and dispu­ted Ioh. 7. against the Pharisies that he was the Sonne of God, and yet no harme befell him: nay he proued ma­nifestly by his doctrine, and miracles, by his death and glorious resurrection, that he spoke true when he said he was God and the Sonne of God.

The second reason: Christ wrought miracles, which could not be done ei­ther by naturall or Satanicall power▪ as to raise the dead, to make them which were borne blind to see; and these by a diuine and omnipotent power, and not as an instrument but as an author of them; and therfore he was true God▪ Now, if they alleadge here, that wee haue no proofe hereof, but out of the new Testament, which they reject as they doe the other Scriptures. I answer, that many of the same things in effect are extant also euen in Heathen wri­ters themselues. Ob. But they alleage against the Diuinitie of Christ, that Christ is inferiour vnto God: Ioh. 14.18. The Father is greater than I: 1. Cor. 11.3. God is the head of Christ, as the man is the womans head: and chap. 15.28. The Sonne shall be subiect vnto him that subdued all things vnder him. But as none is aboue God, so God is inferiour to none, and therefore Christ is not God. Ans. The two former places must bee vnderstood of Christ as hee is man and Mediatour: which hindreth not but that as he is God he is equall to the Father. The third place in 1. Cor. 15.28. must be thus vnderstood: that the Son is made eternally subiect vnto the Fa­ther, not as hee is God, but in regard of his humanitie. Secondly, of his my­sticall bodie, that is, the Church: so as this subiection & inferioritie of Christ, is nothing else but a manifestation of the difference of Christ as hee is Man and as he is God, and of the inferioritie of his Manhood to the Godhead: which shall bee especially reuelled at the day of iudgement. The second obiection: Acts the 20.35. It is a more blessed thing to giue, than to receiue: but Christ re­ceiueth wisedome, life, yea and his sub­stance from his Father, and so the Fa­ther is more blessed than he? Ans. That place speaketh of such a receiuing, as presupposeth want, which is more mi­serable than to bee able to giue, which argueth plentie and abundance: but Christ receiueth not thus his substance, wisedome, and life, for he neuer wanted them: when he receiued them he had them; and hauing them hee receiued them, and both had and receiued them before all worlds, and so that allega­tion is to no purpose. The third obie­ction: Christ is a Mediatour and pray­eth vnto God, and so hee is not God, for nothing prayeth to it s [...]lfe. Answ. Christ is directly a Mediatour to the Fa­ther the first person in Trinitie: now because the person [...] haue all one nature and will, therefore he is also Mediatour euen to himselfe as the second person, as also to the holy Ghost. Let vs bee still armed against these wicked [...]ell­bounds, and detest their Satanicall de­lusions and such damnable doctrine [...], derogatorie to the honour of the Son of God.

The second point in this second rea­son is, that Christ is wise. This wisdome of Christ is a propertie common to him with the Father and holy Ghost, wherby he perfectly knoweth all things as they are. Concerning which, remem­ber these eight things [...] first, that this wisedome of Christ is of it selfe, and hath the beginning from it selfe, and not from any other: for though he re­ceiueth it from the Father, yet it is all one with the Fathers, and therefore it is not begotten nor proceedeth from any, but is the fountains of all wisedom in the creatures, mē or Angels. Second­ly, we by our wisedom conceiue things by formes and app [...]rances presented to our mindes; but Christ he knoweth all things by the things themselues, and not by any representations thereof▪ he needeth no helpe from the thing it selfe to conceiue of it as we doe. Thirdly, we know and conceiue of things by sense and discourse, but Christ doth this by one simple act of [...]nderstanding. Fourthly, this wisedome of God is all one with God himselfe, for his wise­dome is his substance. In men and An­gels it is not so, but a qualitie distinct from their substances. Fifthly, this [Page 151] wisedome is infinite, for hereby God knoweth both himselfe and all other things past, present, or to come; things good and bad; things that are; and things which are not; yea the very mo­tions and thoughts of the heart. Sixtly, this is alwaies a certaine and infallible knowledge; neuer coniecturall as ours is. Seuenthly, it is most perfect, both because it doth not onely know some things, but there is nothing which it knoweth not, as also because nothing can be added vnto it, nor detracted frō it: in all which it differeth from ours. Eighthly, it is a distinct wisedome, see­ing God knoweth not in grosse and confusedly all things; but distinguish­eth euery particular thing and action, euen as they are; hee knoweth euery haire of our heads and the places there­of, euery lighting of a sparrow vpon the ground. The consideration of which points sheweth the admirable greatnes of this wisedome of Christ.

The third point is, that he is only wise.] Where is not excluded the wisedome of the Father and holy Ghost, but all the wisedome of al creatures, as Ioh. 17. This is life eternall to know thee the on­ly God; where the Sonne and holy Ghost may not bee excluded. Ob. But some will say, the creatures haue wisedome, and so the Sonne is not only wise. Ans. The wisedome of the creatures is but a created wisedome: God is onely wise by a wisedome vncreated, theirs is but an image and shadow of this. Yea com­pared thereunto it is no wisedome at al, so as still God may be said to be onely wise.

Vse. 1. Seeing Christ is affirmed to be God, note that his death although it was but momentarie and short in time, yet it was of endlesse merit. Quest. But how can this be that a short death of so few houres should counteruaile the e­ternall torment due to sinne? Ans. The person that died being God, the digni­tie of the person counteruaileth the e­ternitie of the punishment: so as the Sonne of God suffring, although it was not for halfe a day, it was as much as if all men had died for euer; so infinite and endlesse it was (though not in time) yet in merit and efficacie. 2. Vse. Seeing Christ hath such an absolute wisedome distinctly knowing all things, wee are taught to feare & tremble before him, doing all things as in his presence; he beholdeth vs with all our actions, there is not a word in our tongue but hee know­eth it wholy, yea he vnderstandeth our thoughts, and that a farre off. See Psal. 139.2.3. 3. Vse. Such as are in distresse, resting themselues vpon Gods mercie in Christ, may herein stay and vphold themselues with this comfort, that Christ is God and able to relieue them, yea hee is the only wise God, and there­fore hee knoweth all their miseries di­stinctly, he knoweth how farre foorth it is good for them to suffer, how to turne their suffering to the best vnto them, as also the best and fittest time when to deliuer them seasonably out of their trouble: and therefore patiently com­mit thy selfe into his hand, and reli [...] thy selfe vpon him as on a mercifull re­deemer. 4. Vse. If Christ bee only wise, Our wise­dome must be fetched from Christ who is on­ly wise. then we must take counsell of him, and learne wisedome of him: Learne of me. If it be asked, how shal we learne of him seeing he is in heauen? I answere, hee hath left his word with vs in the Scrip­tures, there we may learne his wisedom, there we may haue his directions. If it bee asked, what is the summe of that counsell there contained? I answere, it standeth in the hearing and doing of his Commandements, to which three things are required: first, to beleeue on him, and depend vpon him alone for saluation. Secondly, to turne vnfained­ly withall our hearts vnto him. Third­ly, to obey him in our liues and con­uersations. This is the right wisedome: for the teaching of which, Wisedome her selfe vttereth her voyce, and calleth to the children of men, Prouerbs 8. vers. 4.

The third reason is taken from the worke of our redemption, in the words Our Sauiour.] The which reason that we may rightly vnderstand, foure points are to be propounded. First, what kind of Sauiour Christ is? Ans. He must bee conceiued, first a perfect Sauiour, sauing perfectly all that are saued. Heb. 7.25. He is able to saue perfectly all that come vnto him; yea hee perfectly saueth by himself (and not by any other creature) whosoeuer attaine to saluation, for this also is required vnto his perfection: Rom. 3.25. Whom God hath set out to be a reconciliation through faith in his blood. Hebr. 1.3. By himselfe hee hath [Page 152] purged our sinnes. Where note an error in the Church of Rome▪ which teacheth that Christ did by his death merit, that we might by our owne works merit sal­uation: but this is false, Christ saueth not man by man, or by any creature but by himselfe, yea he should not so be a Sauiour, but an instrument, by whom we must saue our selues. Secondly, hēce wee learne to acknowledge him an a­lone Sauiour,Popish do­ctrine ad­mitteth not that Christ should be a Sauiour, but an in­strument whereby we must saue our selues. without any fellow, part­ner or deputie: Acts 2. There is no other name vnder heauen giuen to saue vs, but the name of Christ; and if hee haue any partner, he is but halfe a Sauiour. Hence wee see that the Romane Religion, al­though in word it honour Christ, yet in deede it denieth him, in ioyning to Christs all-sufficient satisfaction, others satisfactions: and so likewise they ioyne to his sacrifice vpon the Crosse, their sa­crifices in their Masse; to his merito­rious intercession, the intercession of the Virgin Mary and other Saints, and that not by way of request, but of the merit of their intercession. Thus they set vp many Sauiours in stead of this our perfect and alone Sauiour.

The second point is, from what dan­ger doth he saue vs? Ans. Saluation e­uer implieth perdition, so saluation by Christ implieth endlesse destruction, which is the thing from which he doth saue vs. In which endlesse perditiō note first the foundation of it, that is our sins; noted in the exposition of his name, Mat. 1. He shall saue his people from their sinnes. Secondly, the degrees, which are three: first, in this life a subiection to all kindes of miseries inward and outward; in soule, bodie, goods, name, in our selues and others. Secondly, in the end of this life, death, being in it self a curse, and an entrance into hell. Thirdly, after the first, the second death, which is euer­lasting destruction in hell fire for euer. Now Christ is a Sauiour to saue and free vs both from this foundation, our sins themselues; as also from the degrees, from the bondage to Satan by sinne: se­condly, from the first death so far forth as it is a curse: thirdly, from the second death and euerlasting destruction.

The third point is: How doth Christ saue men? Ans. According to that order which God hath set downe in the co­uenant, not of workes but of grace: wherein God promiseth to giue Christ with all his merits and graces to euery beleeuer. Now according to the tenour of this couenant, first Christ with his merits is giuen vnto the beleeuer, hee a­gaine is giuen vnto Christ: by vertue of which donation a man may say Christ is mine, his benefits are mine also, as truly and as surely as my land is my owne. Hereupon to make this mutuall donation effectuall, followeth a second thing, which is the vnion of vs with him by the bond of the spirit, and this is a mysticall but a true vnion, whereby he that is giuen vnto Christ is made one with him. After this commeth a third thing, which is a communication of Christ himselfe and all his benefits vn­to beleeuers. This is done two waies: first, by way of imputation, which is an accounting and accepting of his obe­dience and sufferings as ours, for the discharge of our sinnes, and acquiting vs from them. Secondly, by a kinde of propagation, whereby grace is deriued from his grace, and infused into those that are set into him: For as many candles receiue light from one great Torch or light, and as many streames flow from one fountain or head spring, and as from one roote proceed many branches; euen so al his members drink of his fountaines, are enriched by his treasures of wisedome and knowledge: yea indeed & liue by no other life, than that which by his spirit hee inspireth into the faces of their soules: and here­by he sheweth himselfe to bee a roote, euen that roote of Iesse and that second Adam conueying vnto all his branches righteousnes and life, as the first Adam (being a roote also) deriued corruption from himself to al his posteritie spring­ing and arising from him; so is that place 1. Cor. 1.30. to be vnderstood, He is made of God to vs wisedome, righteous­nes▪ sanctification and redemption; because he is the root and fountaine of all these graces vnto vs, of whose fulnes wee re­ceiue them.

The fourth point is: Of whom is Christ a Sauiour? Answ. Our Sauiour,] that is, a Sauiour of the Catholique Church: Eph. 5.23. The Sauiour of his bodie: that is, his Church. More plain­ly, the persons that are to be saued by him, are such as truly beleeue in him, and testifie their faith by their conuer­sion vnto God, and forsaking their sins. [Page 153] For the euidence whereof consider two things:

First, that it is most necessarie, that the person that is to be saued should be thus qualified, if hee bee of yeeres (for with infants it is otherwise) for ma [...]ke the order prescribed to be obserued in the Word and Sacraments, in which God requireth in the first place repen­tance and faith, and then afterwards maketh promise of saluation by Christ, Luk. 24.47.Repētance for sin must goe before remission of sinne. That repentance and remission of sinnes should be preached in his name. Repentance for sinne must goe before remission of sinne: Acts 2.38. Repent and be baptized, there is the first: for remission of sinnes, there is the second. This is the rather to be obserued, because many go preposterously to worke, beginning there where God endeth: comforting themselues in their Sauiour, and in the promises of life by his meanes, but let goe faith and repentance, at least de­ferre them. This is the cause of much wickednes, and a false comfort, not fetched from that order which is ap­pointed by God.

Secondly, those who bring the be­ginnings of faith and repentance (if so be the beginning be true) constant and still increasing,True grace though ne­uer so weak i [...] [...]ccep­ted. to these Christ becom­meth a Sauiour: Matth. 9. Christ came not to call the righteous, but sinners to re­pentance: that is, those who acknow­ledge themselues to bee sinners, con­fessing and forsaking their sinnes, and not such as presume of their owne righ­teousnes: Matth. 25. I am sent to the lost sheepe of the house of Israel: euen those who in their owne iudgement are lost, who are in the mouth of the lion, and in all mans iudgement lost. Isai. 45.1. The well of water of life is promised to all those that thirst: that is, such as want wa­ter and long after the welsprings of it, and wish after nothing so much: Isai. 42.3. A bruised reede he will not breake, the smoking flaxe he will not quench; euen small beginnings of grace be they ne­uer so weake nor feeble, so they be true, he despiseth not. Thus are the persons to bee qualified vnto whom Christ will become a Sauiour. Now because all men are not thus disposed, it followeth that redemption, and the worke of sal­uation is not vniuersall.

Vse. First, the multitude of our peo­ple are iustly blamed as enemies of Christ: for if they bee asked how they look to be saued; they answere, by their good seruing of God, and their iust and honest dealing among men. Now this their seruing of God is but to repeate ouer the Tenne Commandements, the Creed, and the Lords Prayer: and their good dealing is but to deceiue no man, or not to offer them open iniurie, and here they stay themselues; not all this while euer looking after Christ, as men not standing in neede of him, or of his righteousnesse, but set vp themselues for their owne Sauiours, and know not any other way to life then their owne which carrieth them from Christ. Se­condly, wee are taught to conceiue of Christ as of our Sauiour; which wee shall doe if wee bee touched with the sense of our sinne, and danger by it, and with the neede wee haue of his most precious blood, which will cause vs to prise it aboue the most precious things, which the world can conteine. When our hartes are thus affected, then wee conceiue of him as we ought. Thirdly, wee must carrie our selues as persons saued alreadie by Christ; for he is a Sa­uiour vnto vs euen in this life, and our saluation is begun and is in part here. This we doe when wee ioyne with the profession of faith a true conuersion vnto God. Reasons hereof: First, be­cause regeneration although it bee no cause, yet it is a part of our saluation: for by it a man is freed from the cor­ruption of his sinne in part, which who­soeuer looketh for remission of sinnes must atteine vnto. Secondly, whomso­euer Christ saueth from hell, he first sa­ueth them from their sinnes: he redee­meth men not only from deserued con­demnation, but also their vaine conuer­sation. If thē thou wouldest know whe­ther Christ hath saued thee from hell or no; looke into thy selfe, and trie whe­ther his death hath wrought the death of sinne in thee or no:He that is not by Christs death tur­ned from sin, is not by it saued from hell. for if thou art not turned from sin, thou art not saued from hell. Thirdly, to whomsoeuer Christ is a Sauiour by merit, to him he is a Saui­our by efficacie also, for he is a Sauiour both these waies: by the former he pro­cureth pardon of sin; by the latter hee turneth the heart of the sinner from sin vnto God: this if it bee wanting, there can be no true assurance of the other. Lastly, the saluation of a sinner standeth [Page 154] not in the fruition of riches, honours, wealth, or deliuerance from the mise­ries of this life, but properly in righte­ousnes, and life eternall, the recompēce of the same; which fruite whosoeuer would reape, he must sow the seedes thereof in righteousnesse, and cease from hencefoorth to be the seruant of sinne.

The third generall point in this con­clusion is, the praise of Christ it selfe in the last verse: Be glory, and Maiestie, and dominion, and power, both now and for euer, Amen. Which words cōtaine the forme of the praise of God and Christ; where foure things are to be considered: first, what bee the things that are here ascri­bed to Christ? and they be foure: first, Glorie: by which wee are to vnderstand an infinit and incomprehensible excel­lēcie, wherby Christ excelleth all things that euer were, are, or euer shall be. Now as there be in God two things di­stinct: first, essence, which is the God­head it selfe simply considered. Second­ly, person, as Father, Sonne, holy Ghost: so accordingly the glorie of God is two-fold: first, the glorie of essence: se­condly, the glorie of person. The glorie of essence is the Godhead it selfe, or God himselfe, who is glorie it selfe, or the excellencie of the diuine attributes is the glorie of God: Rom. 1.19. That which may be knowne of God is his wise­dome, glorie, power, iustice, and mercie. And vers. 23. They turned the glorie of the incorruptible God &c. Whatsoeuer therefore that may be knowne of God is a part of his glorie: Exodus 33.19. Moses desireth the Lord that he would let him see his glorie; the Lord answe­red him, Thou canst not see my face and liue. Where to see the face of God and his glorie is all one, and so of all diuine attributes.

The glorie of the persons is distinct from the other, as the persons them­selues are by their personall proprie­ties, as the Fathers glorie is to beget the Sonne, the Sonnes glory is to be begot­ten of the Father, the holy Ghosts is to proceed from them both. Thus Heb. 1.3. Christ is called the brightnes of the glorie, and the ingrauen forme of his Fa­thers person. Ioh. 1.14. We saw the glorie thereof as the glorie of the onely begotten Sonne of the Father. Both these are here to bee vnderstood; both which are in­comprehensible, and therefore our care must be to walke by faith, whereby wee may attaine vnto it, rather than more curiously to seeke to comprehend the knowledge of it.

The second thing attributed to Christ is Maiestie. Whereby we are to vnder­stand that highnes & greatnes of God and Christ, whereby he is in himselfe, in his workes, and euery way wonder­full, Luk. 9.43. Whē Christ had wrought a famous miracle of casting out a Di­uell, it is said they were all amazed at the mightie power of God.

The third thing is dominion; which word properly signifieth power and au­thoritie, and by consequent dominion, as the second word translated power signifieth properly dominion: but it commeth all to one. By dominion is meant an absolute power and soue­raigntie in gouerning and commaun­ding all creatures.

The fourth thing is power; which sig­nifieth that absolute might of God, whereby hee doth whatsoeuer he will. Here by the way wee must obserue that of these foure, Glorie is the chiefest, the other three are but as parts of his glo­rie, and are added to make a description of his glorie. For the glorie of God is herein manifest in that he is full of Ma­iestie, dominion, and power.

The second thing to be obserued is, that these foure are giuen to Christ a­lone; for the word only must be refer­red to the whole sentence, the Father and holie Ghost not being excluded thereby, but all false and Idoll Gods.

The third thing is the time of praise: Now and for euer: for there is no time wherein it is not to be expressed.

The fourth thing is the Affection, which is euer to be vsed in the praising of Christ in the word Amen, that is, ve­rely, or so be it: signifying that the affe­ction of the heart must euer be ioyned with this religious action of the praise of God.

Vse. First, wee learne hence, that wee are bound to giue praise and glorie to God and Christ: Psal. 65.1. O God praise waiteth for thee in Sion, it is one of his rights, properly due vnto him. 1. Cor. 5. Whether wee eate or drinke, or whatsoeuer we doe, it must all be done to his glorie. Se­condly, looke what is Gods principall end in all his actions, that ought to bee [Page 155] ours in our actions. But his principall end of all his actions is his owne glory [...] Prou. 16.4. The Lord made all things for himselfe▪ that is, for his glories sake; which end wee also must aime at in all our actions. Thirdly, the end of al Gods blessings is to mooue vs to set out the vertues of God, 1. Pet. 2.9. which is then done of vs, when with our mouth wee confesse, and in our liues we expresse his mercie, wisedome, power, and such o­ther his properties. Fourthly, that wee may not thinke that this is an arbitrarie dutie left to our owne libertie, or put in our owne power whether we will per­forme it or not▪ wee must know that it sitteth neere, or ought to sit neere vs, and is a case of necessitie to preferre the glorie of God before our liues, yea be­fore the saluation of our soules. In the Lords Prayer we are taught first to pray for the glorie of God simply without a­ny respect to ourselues, and afterwards come to the petitions concerning our selues and others. Ob. But here it will be said, God is the fulnes & perfection of all glorie, how can we then adde any glorie vnto him? Ans. The glory of God is taken two waies: first, for that infinite glorie which is in himselfe, or rather which is himselfe, to the perfection of which nothing can bee added, neither can any thing bee detracted from it to make it lesse perfect. Secondly, for that glorie of his which is in, and from vs, the which is nothing else but the ac­knowledging, confessing and praising of this his glory, in which sense we may bee said to giue him glorie, or not to giue it. Ob. But it may be alleaged that God being the perfection of glorie in himselfe, he needeth not glory or praise from vs; and therefore the dutie is not so absolute necessarie. Ans. Our praise of God is not needfull in regard of God: Psal. 16.2. O Lord my goodnes ex­tendeth not vnto thee, but it is needfull in regard of our selues being creatures, and in this respect bound to honor and glorifie our Creator. Secondly, because (although it is not his happines) yet it is our chiefe good and happines to praise him. Thus are we to take knowledge of our maine dutie, and on the contrarie of our maine sinne who herein haue so often failed, dishonouring the Lord by our wicked thoughts, speeches and ac­tions, and that continually, and so haue robbed him of his glorie, for whose glorie alone we were created.

2. Vse. In this forme of praise ob­serue the foundation of all diuine and religious worship, all which may be re­ferred vnto foure heads: first, adoration, the ground whereof is Gods Maiestie and glorie; for it followeth well if God be full of Maiestie and glorie, then wee must adore him, wee must submit our selues before him, wee must subiect our consciences to his lawes, wee must be­leeue all his promises, and tremble at al his threatnings. Secondly, faith: The ground of which is Gods dominion and power; for if he be the soueraigne Lord of life and death, if hee haue such abso­lute power to saue and destroy, then must wee place all our faith in him for our saluation. Thirdly, prayer: and fourthly thanksgiuing, both which hath their grounds and foundation in his power, dominion, and glorie; so in the Lords Prayer after the petitions, is ad­ded as the ground of prayer the reason of all the requests, for thine is kingdome, power and glorie.

3. Vse. Hence wee must learne to a­dore and reuerēce the iudgements and workes of God, howsoeuer they seeme vnto vs, and may bee harsh in our shal­low reason; for he is glorie it selfe, Ma­iestie it selfe, power it selfe, and he wor­keth that for his owne glorie which we cannot comprehend. If God therefore loue Iacob, and hate Esau, for nothing seene in themselues, but because he will so doe, which might seeme to the eye of flesh a thing vniust and partiall, let vs stop our mouthes at this most righteous iudgement of God; for he is all power and dominion, hauing soueraigntie and absolute Lordship ouer al his creatures, to make some vessels of honour, and some of dishonour; some of mercie, and some of wrath, all men being as the clay in the hand of the Potter: & there­fore the Apostle Rom. 9. so soone as hee had propounded this famous and me­moriall example, to shut the mouthes of men, which otherwise would haue been opened against this iust and in­comprehensible proceeding of God, he brought them presently to the conside­ration of the power and soueraigntie of God, vers. 17.19. We our selues think it no iniustice to kill the creatures, be­cause God hath giuen vs a Lordship [Page 156] and dominion ouer them; and shall we denie it to bee iust in God to destroy likewise his creature, ouer which hee hath infinitely more soueraigntie than man hath ouer them?

4. Vse. We are to be afraide to sinne against God; we must resigne our will vnto his whatsoeuer it is, and simplie subiect our selues vnto the obedience of the same, fearing in the least thing to offend him; and all this because of his Maiestie, power, and dominion ouer vs; for this is the liuing holy and accep­table sacrifice which he requireth of vs, Rom. 1.12. euen our reasonable seruing of him.

Further, whereas all these are to bee giuen to God alone, note first, that the wicked Astrologer with his Arte is here condemned, seeing all glorie is proper­ly belonging vnto God: but the Astro­loger arrogateth to himselfe that part of Gods glorie which consisteth in the foreknowledge of things to come, in that by erecting of a figure and the as­pect of the starres, he takes vpon him to foretel things meerely casuall and con­tingent, as of life and death, woe, or wealth, peace or warre; wherein he en­treth vpon Gods possessions. Isai. 41.23. Besides that the starres neither by crea­tion, nor by any ordinance of God, can bee any meanes to foretell things to come. Secondly, detestible is the Ro­mish doctrine, which giueth the glorie and power of God to Saints, as of hea­ring the prayers of all men in all pla­ces, and knowing the hearts. Secondly, it giueth to the Pope power to make lawes and to binde the conscience. Thirdly, it ascribeth to the Pope & hi [...] Shauelings power to forgiue sins pro­perly; all which bee incommunicable properties of the Godhead.

Now for the time for euer.] Learne that it is the duty of euery child of God to dedicate himselfe vnto the praise of God, and that continually, Psal. 119.117. For this shall be the eternall c [...] ­ling and condition of those who shall possesse the kingdome of glorie, and [...] must be begun euen in this life.

Lastly, from the affection in the word Amen.] Note that whatsoeuer wee are to performe in the seruice of God, [...] must bee not of fashion; but with the earnest affection of our hearts▪ Psalme 103.1. My soule praise the Lord, and all that is within me praise his holy name. It is said of Iosias that hee turned to God with all his soule, and all his heart, accor­ding to all the law of Moses; so wee in like manner in our conuersion to God, in our prayers, praise [...], or whatsoeuer holy worship and seruice we tender vn­to him, must beware lest in drawing neere him with our lips, wee withd [...]w our hearts from him: which wee shall the better performe, if we carry in mind his owne commandement, My sonne giue me thy heart.

FINIS. Laus Christo nesci [...] finis.


MAny excellēt points might I, as gemmes and pearles in this Commētarie, com­mend vnto thy cō ­sideratiō (Christian Reader:) but that one shall suffice to giue notice of, and direct thee vnto, as worthiest of my pen­ning and thy perusing; which, as it is most ioyned with the scope of this whole Epistle; so most seasonably is it fitted to our present cōdition, and most diligently trauased by this our Author, namely, that The seducers of the last age, especially here aimed at by the spirit of God; de [...]iers of the maine grounds of Re­ligion in doctrine, and practise, are the Pa­pists and the present Romish Church. The necessarie consequent whereof is dire­ctly prooued, namely, That we may ne­uer ioyne with them in their religion: but for euer contend against them for the faith once giuen to the Saints: Vers. 3. which wee can neuer doe if wee auoide not their doc­trines, as the rockes on which wee shall necessarily suffer shipwracke, or death it selfe, vnto which they cannot but car­rie the professors. The antecedent or former part seemeth (by the way) to be a direct and naturall answere vnto a Popish pamphlet, alreadie by three learned men sufficientlie confuted; wherein H.T. by twelue triuiall articles (in comparison) goeth about the bush to prooue, that Protestants haue neither faith nor pietie, religion nor good life. To whom our Author in the exposition of the third verse reioyndeth, and (dou­bling the number of those articles with aduantage) in the same order prooueth the Romish faith to be aduersary in sixe and twentie seuerall, solid and maine grounds vnto Christian faith and pra­ctise. I will no longer stand on this part than I haue shewed who these Papists be, meant by the Author from whom wee must depart; and that for this end, that the sequell of our separation from them may bee acknowledged most iust and necessarie. By such a Papist wee vn­derstand not euery one who in some things may bee Popishly affected, for true faith may stand with some errors, and the end of that faith be the salua­tion of mens soules: so bee the partie aberring be framed to these two rules: First, he must of necessitie h [...]ld the founda­tion, namely, that in Iesus Christ alone, and in no other name, either Angell or man, himselfe or others, saluation is to be sought for. If a man vpon this foun­dation build some wood, nay, stubble,1. Cor. 3. or chaffe, though these shall be burned, yet himselfe shal be saued, notwithstan­ding as it were through fire. Secondly, those errors must not be ioyned with either a willing, [...] wilfull ignorance, for such er­rors are desperate and bring swift dam­nation.2. Pet. 2.1. And thus where God reueiles no more but naked Christ, and where there is a subiection of the heart to the word, causing it to depend on the Mi­nistrie for further and more full instru­ction, the acknowledgement of euery diuine truth is not of such absolute ne­cessitie to saluation, but that true faith may stand with some (euen Popish) er­rors. The Ruler is said to beleeue (and that was by a iustifying faith) when as yet he was onely ouercome by the Ma­iestie of Christ;Ioh. 4.53. appearing in the miracle of raising his sonne, to assent vnto and acknowledge ye maine truth that Christ was the Messiah: but so, as himselfe and his household depended on his mouth for further instruction, and became his disciples. Yea euen the Disciples them­selues were long after their calling and conuersion very ignorant in no small points of Christianitie. Philip, of the first person in Trinitie: Lord shew vs the Fa­ther. Ioh. 14. [...]. [Page 158] Others of them cōceiued of Christ as a worldly King: whence two of them desire to sit the one at his right hand, Matth. 20. and the other at his left, when he came to his kingdome. Others of them (euen after his resurrectiō) harping on the same string, and hearkening after temporalities ex­pect it. Luk. 24.21. Act. 1.6. Others aske him when he would restore it to Israel. Peter himselfe held not as hee ought the doctrine of the passion,Mat. 16.22. seeing hee disswaded Christ frō it. Wherein marueilous ignorance de­scrieth it selfe in them being true belee­uers: but so much the more tolerable, in that first Christ reueiled no more vn­to them, either not opening the things, or their vnderstandings to apprehend them, till afterwards that hee sent the spirit of truth. And secondly this igno­rance (the mother of their errors) was accompanied with a desire of know­ledge: for they were euer questioning with him, desiring him to open vnto them his parables, and resolue their doubts, instantly listning vnto the gra­tious words of his mouth, and in a word were blessed euen in hungring and thir­sting after righteousnesse. The persons then here aimed at are absolute & per­fect Papists,Note well. Perk. Probl. pag. 1. ope­rum vlt. edit. p. 367. & pag. 741. against whom alone this graue Author dealeth in all such places of this or other his Workes, where in he may seeme seuere against them: as him­selfe here and there thorough his wri­tings hath described them, to be such as acknowledge the Pope their head: hold and maintaine the doctrines and deuices of the Councell of Trent, and therein are become ouerturners and rasers of the foundation of Chri­stian religion; members of Babylon, I­dolaters, not onely outwardly towards Saints and Images: but inwardly sacri­ficing to their own nets;Perk. ope­rum p. 431. col. 2. these zealous Papists, especially the Teachers among them, are the deceiuers so liuely descri­bed throughout the Epistle.

The second point is our consequent dutie, standing in our standing out with these aduersaries of Gods grace and Gospell: neuer offering to communi­cate with them in their cup of fornica­tions; nor once bethink vs of leaguing such abhorring natures as are light and darknes: and truth (which is of an vn­stained nature) with most foule and de­formed falsehood. For we cannot drinke of the cup of the Lord & of Diuels. 1. Cor. 10.21. Which point let me with good leaue a little further declare: not that I loue to kindle or keepe in any coales of contention, (the Lord put farre from me such vn­pleasant thoughts) but calmely to shew the ouersight of diuers mediatours, at­tempting to reconcile ours with the present religion of the Romish Syna­gogue: esteeming it to bee too much peremptorines so farre as wee doe to depart from them: yea censuring it, ei­ther as wilfulnes on the one hand, o [...] scrupulositie on the other, to bee so op­posite vnto them as we are: reputing it a matter of no difficultie to frame both sides to a meane, either side (as they say) yeelding a little: nay it is buzzed out, into the eares, by the tongues of common men, that there is no such dis­crepance and difference betweene vs in matters of moment as is made; but that the substance of both our Religions is not farre from the same: so as many are in a mammering whether way may be better: whereunto (after the Hebrew [...], [...]: Cicero. imitated also by the Greeks and Latins, that I may begin with the last for the helping of memorie) first wee may bewaile, in beholding into what a 1 fearfull (if not desperate) degree of de­clining many are alreadie come: that after so many yeeres profession of the truth, powerfully both published, and protected, they should not only admit a dangerous deliberation;Cyprian. but euen call the very maine grounds thereof into question: whereas if it bee in a motion to Idolatrie, they ought instantly to say with Sidrach; Dan. 3. We are not carefull what to answere in this matter. But this iudge­ment of God is iust vpon them, that whereas they neuer receiued the truth in loue of it, they should lose of their ground, and bee left vnto further delu­sion. Good cause haue we all to lament the remembrance of our ruine, through this Satanical stratagem: If the woman will needes bee so vnwise as (not nee­ding) to enter parley with Satan, whom she ought to haue resisted: and that in matter of such moment, as wherein Gods truth, his glorie, and her owne glorious estate must bee questionable: most iustly must she bee left of God, snared by Satan, foyled through her owne follie, throwne from her estate, (though of innocēcie) and dispossessed (not alone wee all know) euen of Para­dise [Page 159] it selfe. Besides, how farre shor [...] come these men in [...]ale to the truth, not onely of our aduersaries the Pa­pists themselues, among whome no doubts [...] questions in their grou [...] and [...] tolerable▪ but euen of the law who will admit of no dis­pute against his Religion▪ yea of the barbarous Turke himselfe, who infli­cteth d [...]ath on whomsoeuer they con­uin [...]e to haue called a word of their Alca [...]on into question▪

2 Secondly, concerning those who cannot discerne such essentiall differen­ces betweene our Religions, both of v [...] (as they say) professing saluation by the same Christ▪ and all the articles of the same faith; I wish them no worse then that their eyes were cleered with the eye salue,See Per­kins pra­ctise of a reformed Catholike, operū p. 743 that they might see, that he that seeth not such a Papist as i [...] mē ­tioned to professe a false Christ, and a false faith, seeth in Religion sc [...]rse any thing at all: neither doubt I liue (to whom malice, [...] igno [...]nt superstition shutteth not their eyes) to shew plainl [...] in few words, that whatsoeuer in words they confesse with vs, yet in doctrine and deed they altogether reuerse it and dissent from vs, in cases wherein wee may neuer consent vnto thē. And first, seemeth it a small matter of difference, that in generall they charge our whole doctrine of noueltie, whence ordinari­ly they tearme the Teachers thereof Non [...]rs ▪ and in speciall, first, that our doctrine of iustification by faith alone (for this striketh at the head, and vn­bowelleth all their shifting deuices) is but a new deuice of ours? as appeareth in their Champians challenge.Campian. But con­founded herein was he, his cause and abetters▪ our learned men at the con­ference with him in the Tower not on­ly mightely by the Scriptures conuin­cing; but out of Greeke and Latin Fa­thers also, who liued aboue a thousand yeeres ago,See the first and fourth daies con­ference ex­tant. oppressing him with those very formall words, that faith onely iu­stifieth; so driuing him to ridiculous shift [...], and newly coyned distinctiōs (so neere the Min [...] was he) before vnheard of: euen as in this controuersie being much straitned, they were forced to cast about for that as false as new distinctiō of iustification into the first and second, neuer heard of for ye space of a thousand and fiue hundred ye [...]res after Christ.

2. Let [...] ad [...]oyne hereunto the challenge of our England [...] Iewell, B. Iewell against Harding. who vndertoo [...] ▪ and performed the proofe, that in seuen and twentie points (none of them [...]) the Papists are different, not [...]nely from ours, but from the do­ctrine of the Primitiue Church▪ and that neue [...] [...] of th [...]se their new deui­ces [...] once heard of [...] receiued i [...] [...] Church of God for the space of sixe hundred yeeres after Christ. If then they chall [...]nge our doctri [...] of Nouel­tie [...] and [...] proued (they not im­proouing) that [...] of no ancient▪ and not neere Apostolicall authoritical hope this cannot seeme a circumstance [...] betweene [...] ▪ for there can be but one truth, and that is most mole [...].Antiquissi­mum veris­sim [...], [...]hil­terinq [...] quod poste­rius.

3. Againe, can it seeme so small [...] moa [...]e in the eye of any man of sight, that the sacrilegious Synod of [...] teacheth, (cursing the contrarie min­ded) that on their Romish Altars, sacri­fices propitiatorie are d [...]ly properly and truly offered for the sinnes of the quick and dead [...] seeing that this doctrine vt­terly derogateth from, yea and abroga­teth that most perfect and only [...] for all offered,Heb. 9.25.26. whereby their sinnes are [...] ­p [...]ated that shall see the Lord in the ho­lie of holies.

4. Further, let any indifferent and single eye behold, and consider whe­ther those bee but trifling differences which our reuerend Reignolds hath worthily disputed,De eccles. Rom. Idol [...] ­latria. both against Bellar­mine in his bookes intituled, The Idola­trie of the Roman Church: as also against Hart, both in the two principall que­stions concerning Peters and the Popes supremacie: (by which their doctrine they would make Kings and Princes but vassals and [...]eodataries vnto the Pope;Concil. Tri­dent sess. 14 cap. 7. Bellarm. de pontis. Rom. lib. 5. cap. 8. Stapleton saith that the Popes supremacie must bee held in paine of damnation. See 5. and 6. conclu­sions. to whom they ascribe absolute power to excomm [...]icate Kings; to discharge their subiects from their o­bedience, and allegeance; to dispense with their oathes of loyaltie, and faith­full subiection; and dispose of their Crownes at his pleasure: which no good subiect (much lesse Christian) can say is a triuiall point, or a little to bee yeelded vnto) as also in those sixe conclu­sions annexed, wherein hee hath sub­stantially and learnedly determined, that the saith professed by the present Church of Rome is not the Catholike faith. That their Church is so far from [Page 160] being the Catholike Church, that it is no sound member of the Catholike Church, and consequently that the re­formed Churches of Great Brittaine, France, Germany, &c. haue lawfully: that is, by warrant of Gods word seue­red themselues therefrom.

5. Neither may wee yeeld that to be a circumstantiall question discussed betweene our learned Whi [...]taker and Stapleton concerning the Authoritie of the holy Scriptures, which they so farre debase & subordinate to their Church: seeing through that great booke of his (neuer like to bee answered by them) he grauely prooueth that the founda­tion of Papisticall faith is laid vpon man, 1. Booke, 2. chapt. pag. 51. and not vpon God; and so it is an humane faith, and not diuine; vnto which their whole seruice is sutable, according to Durandus his description in his Ratio­nale. And lastly, none but inconside­rate men would auerre either that the most learned Protestāts of Europe haue spent their strength, and beaten their braines only for the beating of the [...]yre in matters immateriall: or that those who haue a [...] yet vncontroleably pub­lished, that the Popish Teachers haue reuersed the whole Decalogue, with the most of the Articles of the Creede, and Petitions of the Lords Prayer, haue differed and squared in points not es­sentiall: or that so many zealous Mar­tyrs, many of them of very profound knowledge should giue their liues, and most innocent blood, for matters of shadow (as is pretended) rather than of substance: for thus to impeach the la­bours of the former, or staine the suf­ferings of the latter, would scarse be­seeme any but either a Papist, or some speciall fauourite of theirs.

Thirdly, to such as are of minde that 3 a harmelesse mediation may be made; me thinkes it no other but the feeding of a fancie: besides that, it is not harder to make them preserue, and yet neither without preiudice. In which point, as I would not seeme too rigorous or au­stere,Non omnis concordia bona; est dae­monū legio concors, nec non latronū conspiratio. Muscul. in Matth. 8.2. well knowing how sweete is the name, and yet more pleasant is peace it selfe; so would I chuse an honorable warre, before a dishonorable peace; a free and iust dissention, before a base and slauish agreement, such as theirs would be: For Nahash the Ammonite will make no concord with Iab [...]sh Gilead, vnlesse euery m [...]n suffer his right eye to be pulled [...], that so he may bring some sha [...] vpon Israel. And first it seemeth to me a matter b [...]rder to bee b [...]ught about, than Loue of my shallow [...] can expect e [...]er to see effected▪ both in regard of our selues, as also of them▪ for if the truth bee with vs (as wee are bound to confesse, both in respect of i [...] selfe, and the Articles of religion set out An­no 1562. and in Par­liament ap­proued E­liz. 13. c. 12 law whereby it is esta­blished) Ier. 2.19. & 6. c. 16. th [...]n our turnings back [...] must not reprooue vs; but hauing found the old way, we are to walke in it, (without turning aside) that wee may in it finde rest for our soules. The Lords counsell to his Prophet must bee our direction in this case: Sonne of man, goe [...] th [...]n to them, but let them c [...]me to thee▪ for to lose our hold of the truth, much lesse to le [...]se any part of it, [...]s in exchange with falsehood, were not onely a wrongfull betraying of it self, but a wilful wrong­ing of our selues and posterities; whom Gods blessings for the present hath made able to [...]old it entire, not onely without danger, but with encourage­ment, power, & protection. But more hopelesse or impossible rather in re­spect of them shall out meeting in the midway seeme to be, to whomsoeuer with iudgement shall perpend these foure subsequent considerations.

First, that their faith being not Sadeel re­fut. assert. Pos [...]a [...]. c. 9. A­postolicall, their Religion a His Maie­sties late Proclama­tion and speech at the Parlia­ment. false Re­ligion, their Church a D. [...] on Iude: by 25. notes. Perk. in Matth. 4. vers. 5. & operū p. 741 false Church, and their worship a false worship: it will prooue not a matter of repairing (as requiring lesse cost and labour) but of founding their faith, before they can bee raised vnto vs: which how hard it is for them to bee brought vnto, who are so setled in their lees and dregges for so many hundred yeeres, they can­not be ignorant, who know how diffi­cult it is for a Bl [...]kem [...]re to ch [...]ge his skin, or a Leopard his spots: for so hard is it for those who are accustomed to euill, to be drawne to good.

Secondly, that so long as the Pope holdeth his headship ouer the Church, with that erroneous position, that he cannot erre; (which hee is likely to lay downe with his Crowne and Crosier, (for sooner to part with them were a foule error) if by much sweate some indifferent parley were cōpassed (him­selfe still remaining both partie and iudge, as hee was in the Councell of [Page 161] Trent) improbable, yea impossible it were that any conclusions could on their part bee passed,Noli quae­stu [...]sum vl­cus tangere Erasm. (if on any at all propounded) which any way might be derogatorie to his vsurped power and pre [...]ended supremacie.

Thirdly, their cautelous circumspe­ction, lest by any meanes the know­ledge of our doctrine might perhaps bee scattered among them, argueth an vtter auersation in them for euer ac­knowledging it, which appeareth in sundry their practises: 1. In that they bind the consciences of all Catholikes, to a perpetuall separation from all our Ecclesiasticall assemblies in religious publike duties; which is the ground of all Recusancie: to which purpose they teach it to bee a sinne to heare our ser­mons, for that were a Bristol. participation with blasphemies: and for prayer with vs so straite laced are they, as they may not say Amen in publike or priuate, (suppose at their tables) if any Prote­stant bee present. 2. In that they cen­sure most seuerely al their subiects that trauell or traffike into Protestant coun­tries, blasting them with excommuni­cation. 3. In that they haue erected in their Cities an Inquisition to examine vpon oath any forreiner or stranger, whereby they ransake not onely all his carriages, but euen his conscience also, lest he should bring any opinion with­in him; or instrument without him▪ that standeth not with their minds and liking: wherein not onely some little escape, but euen suspition it selfe proo­ueth often capitall. 4. In their warines, lest any of our books, especially of our translations of the Bible should be had, or read among them: whence it is that no bookes, which passe not the Inquisi­tion, may bee sold in Italy: to which purpose also studiously they teach it to be a sinne against the first Commande­ment to reade any of their prohibited bookes, of which they haue a large In­dex very common, and consequently being such a mortall sinne, it must ne­cessarily be confessed at time of shrift: yea as men euery way foreseeing what way our doctrines might bee induced among them, to shut vp surely euery crany and entrance, they scarsely suf­fer to see, or bee seene in the light their owne greatest Writers, such as Bellar­mine, Gr [...]gory de Valencia, &c. that our positions, allegations, and answeres (though answered by themselues) in those books may not be made known; lest perhaps it should befall others of them as it did Pighius, who reading o­uer Caluins Institutions, with purpose of refuting it, was (ere he was aware) won to the defence of the doctrine of iusti­fication by free imputation according to the Apostle. So as Spaine maketh not a more diligent annuall search that the Iewes among them haue no armes in their houses, than both Spaine and Italy vigilantly secure themselues in this be­halfe: and no marueile if our books be so auoided, seeing that they inhibite men from reading the Scriptures them­selues, lest they should become here­tikes: condemning it, and Fox, Acts and Monu­ments. bringing men in daunger of their liues for rea­ding them, as for an hereticall practise. In a word, at this day such a night doe these Owles delight to liue in, that a­mong themselues euen their Regulars (much lesse their Laicks) may not with­out licence from the Pope, or their Pre­lates, reade the Bible, no not in the Catholike translation.

Fourthly, consider their irreconci­liable hatred against ours, farre aboue all other (although most hereticall and damnable) religions; for why else can they content themselues with so stu­dious preuention of the Protestants profession onely; whereas both Iewes and Grecians euen in Rome it selfe the Popes Sea, are suffered with their Ce­remonies, Synagogues, Seruices, yea & Circumcision it self administred to the dead as well as to the liuing? which lowdly proclaimeth, that farre they are frō iudging, & deeming so indifferent­ly of our differences, as some among our selues seeme to doe: and that they would sooner be wone to the Iewes or Turkes in profession then the Prote­stants: which Renal­dus. one of them saith is in nothing better then that of the Alca­ron; and in many things far worse and more detestable. And good reason (me thinkes) they haue of suffering among them the forenamed Sectes and Here­tikes, as from whom together with the heathen, the whole body of Poperie is peecemeale patched together, and yet the name of a Protestant bee as much detested of them, as the Iewish names were of the heathen Kings. For which [Page 162] cause Daniel & his fellowes must haue all their names changed before they may bee brought into the presence of Nebuchadnezzar, whēce their ordinary practise proceedeth, that in their wri­tings, their bitternes and disdaine suf­fer them not to name, but in most re­proachfull tearmes, the first reformers and restorers of our Religion: calling them vsually, Caluinists, Puritans, Inno­uators, and Heretikes; neither doth this inbredde malice of Papists against our Religion stay it self heere, but hath bro­ken out into most barbarous butche­ries, and most cruell bloodsheddings, which yet they could neuer account sufficiently sauage: not of their owne subiects only, and within their owne Territories: but within other domini­ons: not of priuate only, but of pub­like persons: not of meaner, but of most noble, yea Royall discent: and not of persons only, but of Cities, States, Kingdomes, and Countries. But where should I begin, or if I should, where should I make an end of instācing their most matchlesse, and endlesse tyranny? (euer a note of false Religion, and inse­parable to the Romish) whose cursed rage (like that of Symeon and Leui) Gen. 34.39. and 47.7. euen fierce and cruell, causing them to stincke among the inhabi­tants of the earth, hath made the streetes of infinite Cities (which either their force, or fraud and false arts could cast open) to runne with the blood of Pro­testants, as did once Ierusalem with the blood of the Saints which Manasseh shed like water. What shall I neede to speak of that notorious bloodie inqui­sition in Spaine & Italy the chiefe seates of it? what of the many miserable mas­sacres, Canniball like conspiracies, and tragicall murthers in France and the low Countries? In our owne country, who but strangers at home are ignorāt what fiercenesse, feares, and fires, were raised to consume the innocent bodies of the Saints liuing and dead:Furor eti­am post [...]a­tae. in such sort as euery corner of the Land seemed as hot as Nebuchadnezzars furnace, euen seuen times hotter then it vsed to be: wherein were to bee cast whosoeuer would not fall downe, and worship the Image which the Romish Nebuchad­nezzar had erected? Neither yet were those fires thought furious inough for such; as might haue appeared, if the Lord had not taken the rodde out of those wicked hands in that season whē he did: & since that time;Stories de­uice of an iron cage against Protestāts turned [...]n­to an bu [...] ­dle and halter a­gainst him­selfe. what a num­ber of diuelish plots and conspiracies were attempted against the noble per­son of her late Maiestie of blessed me­morie, by Ard [...]n, Someruile, Babington, P [...]rry, Lopez, Squire, and others? and those stratagems not performed by persons exorbitant, but with the priui­tie of the Pope, and Principals of their religion, backing the same not only with their Accor­ding to his Maiesties most wise obseruati­on, his last speach at Parliamēt. doctrine, to which it is most sutable (as appeareth by sundrie their seditious positions; lately collected by Mr. Morton) but with pardons, pro­mises, paies to particular Parry Lopez. Bull [...] P [...] Qui [...]a. persons: and cōmandemēts generally to all subiects whosoeuer, as appeareth by the Popes Bull against her late Maiestie: Volumu [...] & iub [...]mus vt aduersus Elizabetham &c. subditi arma capessant. And yet (as though all were well) they can couer al the ill hearing of such traiterous practi­ses, vnder the name of Catholike pre­tenses: for the furthering of which in­tentions, what may not, and must not be attempted? Now to these purposes maintaine they innumerable Catholike intelligencers & instruments (I meane their Priestes and Iesuites) sent out by them, not only as eies to search out the secrets of states & countries, and watch their best aduantages: but as hands (full of blood) to execute whatsoeuer mis­chiefe vpon any of the Lords annoyn­ted ones, not only opposing thēselues to the Papal power; but which is more, if they be but suspected not so firme to the Pope as they wish; or (which is most of all to bee marked) though they bee their owne dead sure; yet if they shew not the [...]selues as ready to execute the Popes bloodie designes, as he to com­mand: which was the case of the late King of France, slaine treacherously for no other cause by a Iacobin. What ar­gument then can bee brought to per­swade vs of their euer according with vs in whole or part in our Religion? of which they deeme no other, then as of a peccant humor necessarily to be pur­ged out euery fewe yeares, either by murther, if it preuaile in the head: or by massacre, if in the body of any coun­trie; and rather then it should not, they will not sticke with Blas [...]s at the com­mandement of their great Gracch [...] to [Page 163] set on fire or to blow vp euen the Capi­tol it selfe:Cicero. although nature and Genti­lisme condemne such gracelesse deuo­tednes. The late most diabolicall and furious attēpt against his Maiesty & the whole state that euer was inuented; (the like wherof both in the contriuing and whole carriage could neuer be shewed, no I thinke if there were Annals and Chronicles kept in hell it selfe) cryeth out against them long ere this time in all the corners of Christendome. God Almighty still deliuer his Highnes and Royall race from them: and by his Ma­iesties meanes, vs and our Land from them. For how much better had it bin, that his Maiesty had been moued to haue banished these vipers out of his Realmes, then those who professe the same Lord Iesus,Picturer in [...]. and labour (though with acknowledgement of too much weakenes & wants,) to be found faith­full before the Lord and their Soue­raigne? But not to depart from our pur­pose: These bee the waies wherein the Popish Baalamits would mee [...]e vs, and with vs; if the Lord should not meete with thē, comming against them in e­uery corner. While then they walke in these waies of Caine, Iud. 11. what booteth it vs to speake of a peace with them? for while wee speake of peace, Psal. 130.7. they are bent to warre.

But bee it some peaceable consent and agreement were on their part pro­mised; yet that one consideration of the treacherie in their compactes, would keepe any iudicious man from setling his conceite, and affection vpon any in­genious conclusions with them: which treacherie is not only practised by the persons of faithlesse Papists: but is pre­scribed as a maine precept of that most infidell doctrine of theirs; nay which e­uen infidels themselues would blush at in this behalfe: for doth not their do­ctrine make it lawful for them to vse a­ny Aequiuocatiōs, o [...] reseruatiōs (as they terme them) with their aduersaries, al­most vpon any aduantage? yea and that (lest they should not come to the height of impiety) in giuing answere not only on their words, but vpon oath before the lawfull Magistrate, though not their liues but their least liberties only be touched? Which doctrine till it bee reuersed, how dare wee take their words or any assumpsit from them in a­ny thing werein we would not be ouer-reached? But suppose again such peace­able conclusions were not promised only, but purchased: what yet were we better thē before? what billes, or bonds would or could they lay in sure inough for our security, so long as their do­ctrine standeth in force published in word & writing,Tollet. In­struct. Sa­cerd. that fides haereticis non est seruanda, & that Leagues with them are more honorable in breaking then in making? how long can we conceiue, would the continuance of our peace last longer, then by it they could with aduantage vndermine vs?

But because I must shut vp many matters in few words, let vs see the pre­iudice which would ensue vpon such pretended mediation,Note, I speake not against the league of concord. Isay. 1.6. in matter of Re­ligion: and first seeing they are a seed of the wicked, corrupt children, hauing forsaken the Lord, in whom from the sole of the foot, to the crowne of the head, there is nothing but wounds, and swellings and sores full of corruption: and seeing themselues are become o­pen Idolaters, their Cities cages of Ido­latrie, their seruices all Idolatrous, ha­uing thus forsakē the couenant of their youth; seeing filthines appeareth on their skirts; & finally seeing by seeking their iustification by the workes of the law, they are abolished from Christ, and fallen from grace: (the which particu­lars haue been clearely proued by ma­ny our vnanswered, and vnanswerable bookes) to communicate with them by accepting; yea not absteining from the least appearance of any of these euils; were no other but to expose and lay our selues open, and naked to all man­ner of danger, of infectiō of our soules, defection from our God, & in the end of destruction both of body and soule. It was a dangerous disease which Israel brought out of Aegypt, Elephas, or Elephan­ [...]iosis, the Leprosit. hauing through their long continuance there, by reason of those marishes, and the Riuer Nilus, (to which Lucretius in a distich appro­priateth this disease) contracted the same vpon them: for the prouing,Leuit. 13. and purging wherof, the Lord instituted so many ceremonies and separations: but farre more fearefull was that inward le­prosie, euen that abhominable Idolatry which they brought forth with them, and which cost them so deare both in the wildernes and in the land of Cana­an: [Page 164] yea so habituall and inbred was the infection, that although the Lord vsed most wise preuentions euery way: yet presently vpon their deliuery out of the sea, will it burst forth, and become in the end their vtter ouerthrow.Exod. 32. It cannot be but the strangers which come with Israel out of Aegypt, being accusto­med to the Aegyptian fashion & diet, wil still be harping on their cucumbers, leekes, onyons, and garlicke: and draw the Israelites to the same lustings, though with the loathing of Manna it selfe; but such an exceeding plague shall proceed from the Lord, that in perpetuall memorie thereof, the place shall bee called the graues of lusting: Kibroth ha­taauah. and if the daughters of Moab may haue free accesse to Israel in Sitti [...], Is­rael will easilie be ioyned to Baal Peor, Num. 25.9 cōferd with 1. Cor. 10. [...] till the wrath of the Lord bee kindled, & there fall in one day, three & twentie thousand. The certeine perill and ineui­table danger wherof, the Lord wel per­ceiuing, did not only charge his peo­ple to haue nothing to doe at all with the Heathen, lest by any meanes they should bee snared: but also that they should be so opposite vnto them, that they should in all appearances and cir­cumstances (and yet none will say the Lord herein was too seuere and straite) be vnlike vnto them both in Religious and Ciuill exercises: for if they looke towards the East in their Tēples in the honor of the Sun, his people shall in his Sanctuary and Temple contrarily look to the West: and in the West shall the Sanctum Sanctorum be set. If they offer sacrifices vnto Oxen, Sheepe, Doues, Goates &c. as vnto Gods: the Lord in detestation hereof, will haue his people to consume and burne these creatures before him in sacrifice: and hence was it,Gen. 46.34 & 43.32. that euery shepherd was an abhomi­nation to the Aegyptians: with whom they might not eate and conuerse, be­cause they did kill, eate, and sacrifice those beasts, whom the other worship­ped as Gods. If they vse to eate almost none but Swines flesh, and yet neither that, before they haue sacrificed of the kind to the Moone or Bacchus: the Lord especially prohibiteth this meate of all other to his people, they shal not meddle with it, it shall be abhominatiō vnto them. If their Priests, make their Romish Balami [...]s make their pates bald, and shaue their beards. pates balde, shaue the lock [...] of their beards, & make cuttings in their flesh,Leu. [...]1.5. as Baals Priests did; the Priests of the Sonnes of Aaron may not do so. If they make glorious Altars, & plant Groues about them; the Israelites may not doe so, (especially in the Wildernesse) but either Altars of earth,Exod. 20. which presently vpon the remouall might bee demoli­shed and cast downe, left the remainds should be abused to superstition: or if of stones, they must be rough and rude, vnhewen, & vnpolished, lest any beau­tie of them should solicite their preser­uation: as for groues see Deut. 16.21. If they shall in way of superstition,Romanists reserue of the bread in the Masse, and Reliques of men su­perstitious­lie. Exod. 1 [...].10 Deut. 34.6 or worship, reserue any portion of their sacrifices: the Lord rather then he will haue any portiō of the Paschall Lambe preserued till the morrow, will haue it burnt with fire: neither shall Moses bo­die bee knowne where it is buried, lest they should make an Idoll of it. Nay which is more, and as worthy the no­ting, we may obserue how the Lord e­uen in ciuill things draggeth his peo­ple from their society and fellowship: for first Israel is charged, that they should goe no more backe to Aegypt that way; so as the danger was (if any) by their neighbours, whose countries were adiacent vnto them: the which the Lord vseth all meanes to preuent: both in that he willeth his people to nourish a perpetuall emnity with the Moabite, and Ammonite,Deut. [...]3.6. the peace and prosperity of whō they may neuer seeke all their daies: as also to debarre them from pressing into his people,Vers. 3. he chargeth that neither of them euer enter into the congregation of the Lord, to the tenth generation: inten­ding hereby that they should not rise to preferment, authoritie, or Magistra­cie among them. And as for the other strangers, though Israel seemed in pri­uate respectes to bee, if not somewhat obliged & indebted to diuers of them, yet as it were bound to peace, and to hold their hands from open hostilitie;Vers. 7. yet might they not bee admitted into the congregatiō of God, vnto the third generation. Besides this, foreseeing that the next and most direct way, whereby the heathē might league & linck in thē ­selues with his people, might bee by marriages and cōtracts: the Lord is ve­ry studious that all such meanes be cut off; and therefore would haue the di­stinctions of Tribes obserued; with [Page 165] straite prohibition, that no Iew (except the Leuite) should marry out of his owne Tribe, much lesse without his owne people: whereof although I ac­knowledge other more main causes (as the distinction of the Tribe of the M [...]s­siah from the rest; the cleare acknow­ledgement of his race; the execution of the Lords whole regiment Ecclesiasti­call and Ciuill in that policie, fitted ac­cording to that distinction to their se­uerall offices,Coniugia extera Deus & re [...]pub. causa, & conscientia vetuit. Jun. in Deut. 21. Exo. 34.16. Exo. 21.4. and possessions) yet I thinke this is one included reason not to be neglected, especially seeing they had straite charge against it. Againe, in case a seruant Iew would marry a stran­ger into his Masters house, he was not at his departure to carrie his wife and children, for they were to bee his Ma­sters: but if hee would abide still with her, hee was then shamefully to come before the Magistrate, and for euer re­nounce his libertie, vntil the Iubily re­leased him: by which straite lawes the Lord would restraine euen slaues and seruāts (who for the most part are neg­lected) from matching themselues with strangers. Such another law to this pur­pose is recorded, Deut. 21.10. that if an Israelite in warre, should see a bewtifull woman taken captiue, whom he did af­fect for his wife, it was ordered by God, that first all meanes should bee vsed for the alienating of his affection, as that hee must haue her home a mo­neth before, and not marrie vpon any sudden motion. Secondly shee must shaue her head to make her as ill fauo­red in his eies as might be. Thirdly she must nourish her nailes, to make her yet more sordid. Fourthly she must put off the garment wherin she was taken, and put on base, and neglected garments fit for a pensiue captiue. Fifthly shee must bewaile her father and mother a whole moneth, to shew how hardly, and sor­rowfully she was brought from her fa­thers house, into the power of stran­gers: and then if by al these meanes the man could not be drawn frō her loue, it was permitted to him to marrie her for his wife: which law letteth vs see how hardly the Lord endureth, & is drawne to admitte the least liberty in this be­halfe. How many ciuill things might I instance in, wherein the Lord straitened his people, that they might bee vtterlie vnlike the Gentiles in habit, manner of liuing, behauiour, and other like cir­cumstances, otherwise in themselues very indifferent? which I had heere in­serted, but that I must consider that I write an addition, not a booke; an ad­monition, & not an exposition: & if yet these ordinances of God himself, seeme in some mens opinions too straite, and not to be imitated of vs in regard of the Papists, towards whom wee are not to be so seuere, as so far to seuer our selues; that is but the seeking of a knot in a rush, and to be acute in distinguishing, where God hath not distinguished; and in effect to affirme, either that the Ido­latry of the Romish Church is not so vile and grosse, as is that of other Idola­ters: or else (seeing our people conuerse with them more then any Idolaters) that to communicate with their Idola­trie, is nothing so dangerous now, as it was for Gods people, to participate with the Idolatry of the heathē against Gods expresse Commandement. But if with any such the testimony of man, be greater then the testimony of God (as it is commonly with the Popish min­ded, who flie from the Scriptures vnto men, because their doctrine is from be­low) let them looke vnto those most auncient Councels, which were the pu­rer, for sixe hundred yeares after Christ; and they shall finde that the Church would haue her children diametrally opposed euen on lawfull things, to the Iewes, and heathen of whom they were in danger to be corrupted. Those were more famous, of Nice, An. Dom. 315. which decreed that the feast of Easter should not bee kept of Christians, at that time, and in that manner that the Iewes did: that in nothing they might agree with them. That also of Brac [...]a An. Dom. [...]10. T [...]m. 2. Can. 73. decreed, that Chri­stians should not decke their howses with bay-leaues and greene boughes, (than which what can be more indiffe­rent?) neither rest the same day frō their callings wherin they did: nor keepe the first day of euery moneth as they did. It would be too tedious, and argue for­getfulnes of my selfe, and no remem­brance of my reader to recite the testi­monies of other Councels, Fathers, and our owne principal Writers in this be­halfe: which otherwise easily had I bin carried vnto by the tenacity and stiffe­nes of many in this argument. But to end: as our Sauiour wished his hearers: [Page 166] Beware of the leauen of the Pharisies; so let euery man beware of the leauen of the Papists: for what is Popish doctrine else, but a Pharisaicall leauen, alwaies to bee purged out of Churches, and states; as the Iewes vpon some occasi­ons were to purge al leauen out of their howses. Let no man say it is but a little, and such a difference which may be to­lerated: for euen the Pharisies doctrine was much of it more true, thē this Pha­risaicall doctrine of theirs; yet was their leauen hid in it, (as in this) the nature whereof is (though it be but little) yet to sowre the whole lumpe. In a word, as Caleb & Ioshua said of Canaan, Num. 14.8. the land is a very good land; If the Lord loue vs, hee will bring vs vnto it: euen so, if the Lord loue vs, hee will expell these Gi­ants from vs, and giue vs security in our owne land from the Anakims: or if not, if any of these strangers abide with vs, our faithfull prayer and hope is, that (as Salomon numb [...]ing all the strangers in the land,2. Chron. 2.17. set them to worke in his Tem­ple, euen a hundred three & fiftie thou­sand and sixe hundred: so our wise and peaceable Salomon and Soueraigne will continue to set euen thousands of these to worship with vs in the Temple: yea and in this one circumstance passe Salo­mons wisdome,Vers. 18. in not chusing ouerseers of themselues, to cause them to wor­ship. The Lord Iesus strengthen his Highnes heart, vnto this and many mo honorable workes, and make vs happie in his long and prosperous Raigne, to his renowne and glorie in this life, and fruition of the blessed Crowne of righ­teousnes at the peaceable end of his through comfortable daies. Amen.

COMMON PLACES OF CHRISTI­an Religion more largely handled in this Commentarie.
  • 1 ACtuall sinnes. pag. 121.
  • 2 Angels, their nature and fall, pag. pag. 63.
    • The combate between good and bad Angels. pag. 84.
  • 3 Apostles and Apostleship. pag. 119.
  • 4 Bookes of God. pag. 48.
  • 5 Callings. pag. 43.
  • 6 Catholike Church. pag. 32.
  • 7 Charitie. pag. 135.
  • 8 Christ a Sauiour. pag. 151.
  • 9 Christs comming to iudgment. pag. 112.
  • 10 Christian liberty. pag. 30.
  • 11 Church, properties and markes of it. pag. 32.
  • 12 Church Censures, and excommunica­cation. pag. 143.
  • 13 Commandement
    • first. pag. 35.
    • second. pag. 36.
    • third &c. pag. 39.
  • 14 Crosse to be taken vp. pag. 34.
  • 15 Diuinity of Christ. pag. 149.
  • 16 Feare of God. pag. 85.
  • 17 Hope. pag. 138.
  • 18 Images. pag. 36.
  • 19 Intemperance. pag. 89.
  • 20 Iudgement day. pag. 68.
  • 21 Iustification by faith only. pag. 26.
  • 22 Keyes of the Church. pag. 31.
  • 23 Knowledge in the creatures
    • naturall
    • reasonable
    • spirituall.
    pag. 88.
  • 24 Loue of God towards man, & con­tra. pag. 15.
  • 25 Magistracie. pag. 76.
  • 26 Mercy of God. pag. 13.
  • 27 Naturall corruption. pag. 127.
  • 28 Peace with
    • God
    • Man
    • the creatures.
    pag. 14.
  • 29 Perseuerance. pag. 11.
  • 30 Regeneration. pag. 28.
  • 31 Repentance. pag. 33.
  • 32 Resurrection. pag. ibid.
  • 33 Reprobation. pag. 48.
  • 34 Saluation by Christ alone
    • how
    • to whom
    pag. 151.
  • 35 Sanctification. pag. 7.
  • 36 Table second. pag. 41.
  • 37 Vngodlines. pag. 49.
  • 38 Vocation. pag. 5.
  • 39 Wisdome of Christ. pag. 150.
  • 40 Worship of God. pag. 38.
DOCTRINES MORE CHOISE and generall collected and vrged in this Exposition.
  • 1 TO bee a seruant of Iesus Christ, is more honour then to bee allied to Princes. pag. 3.
  • 2 Faith is a most excellent treasure. pag. 17.
  • 3 The Saints are the keepers of this treasure, and must fight for it. pag. 45.
  • 4 It is a subtiltie of Satan to thrust the profane and wicked into the societies of the Saints. pag. 47.
  • 5 Publike teachers in the Church must of necessity be called: and why. pag. ibid.
  • 6 Gods grace may not bee turned into Wantonnesse. pag. 51.
  • 7 No outward priuiledges are profitable [...] of their right vse in faith and repentance. pag. 56.
  • 8 Great iudgements are at the beeles of great mercies if abused. pag. 57.
  • 9 Distractiō followeth vnbeliefe, which is therefore to be vnma [...]ked and a­uoided. pag. 57.
  • 10 Gods seruice is the only liberty, and freedome in sinne is to be chained in bondage. pag. 67.
  • 11 The mercy of God euery way match­eth his iustice. pag. 70.
  • 12 To take a view of the sinnes of the last times is necessarie for euery Chri­stian. pag. 71.
  • 13 Our bodies are the Lords, and there­fore must be giuen vp to his seruice, and preserued in holines. pag. 75.
  • 14 Sleepe in sinne and spirituall dreames the cause why so fewe embrace thē Gospell. pag. 73.
  • 15 A Christians dutie is to watch and be sober. pag. 74.
  • 16 Not to speake euill of, but blesse Ma­gistrates. pag. 80.
  • 17 Scripture is knowen to bee Scripture, by Scripture. pag. 83.
  • 18 The Diuel the author of Idolatry. pag. 8 [...].
  • [Page] 19 Not to requi [...]e euill for euill, a Chri­stian precept, and an angelicall pra­ctise. pag. 87.
  • 20 Christian meeknes must be tempered with Christian zeale. pag. 89.
  • 21 Caines way may not bee beaten by Christians. pag. 90.
  • 22 Couetousnes in all, but teachers espe­cially, to be auoyded, and why. pag. 96.
  • 23 Contentation a speciall ver­tue, and how atteined. pag. 98. & 117.
  • 24 In feasting Gods feare must be preser­ued in the heart. pag. 102.
  • 25 All Ministers must be able to teach sound doctrine. pag. 104.
  • 26 Hearers ought to be as parcht land to to receaue it. pag. ibid.
  • 27 Christiās being trees of righteousnes, must be 1. wel rooted: 2. liue: 3. beare fruit: 4. beare good fruite, in Christ the stocke. pag. 106.
  • 28 Wicked men are inwarly as vnquiet as the raging sea. pag. 108.
  • 29 Ministers (as startes) must receaue their light from Christ, the sonne of righteousnes. pag. 109.
  • 30 All secrets of heart and life naked be­fore God. pag. 114.
  • 31 The duty of the Church to remember the words of the Prophets and Apo­stles, and why. pag. 119.
  • 32 To mock and scorne godlines a maine sinne of the last age. pag. 121.
  • 33 It is the property of the vngodly to follow and walk after their owne vn­godly lustes. pag. 122.
  • 34 It is a great sinne to sep [...]rate from the assemblies of Gods people. pag. 124.
  • 35 To be a naturall man, a fearefull sinne, and who he is. pag. 126.
  • 36 Euery one ought to build vp himselfe vpon his most holy faith. pag. 129.
  • 37 The doctrine of faith, a most holy do­ctrine. pag. 131.
  • 38 Euery man is to preserue loue towards man, and the meanes. pag. 135.
  • 39 The duty of euery beleeuer is to re­store and recouer offenders, and the meanes. pag. 141.
  • 40 All glorie, dominion, maiestie, and power is to bee ascribed to God and Christ of all his creatures in all things for euer, Amen. pag. 154.
QVESTIONS DETERMINED AND the most of them disputed in this Commentarie.
  • 1 WHether this Epistle be Canoni­call Scripture? pag. 1.
  • 2 VVhether a man may change his name? pag. 3.
  • 3 Whether sanctification bee from the Parents? pag. 8.
  • 4 Whether sauing grace may be lost? pag. 11.
  • 5 Whether the Scripture be to beleeued for it selfe? pag. 17.
  • 6 Whether it be sufficient of it selfe? pag. 18.
  • 7 Whether God created all things? pag. 20.
  • 8 Wherein the Law and Gospell consent and dissent? pag. 21.
  • 9 Whether Christs bodie can be present in many places at once? pag. 23.
  • 10 Whether Christ as redeemer hath any partner, fellow or deputie? pag. 24.
  • 11 Whether the child of God may be assu­red of his saluation? pag. 26.
  • 12 Whether Images bee to bee worship­ped? pag. 37.
  • 13 Whether God decreed before all worlds to reprobate some men? pag. 48.
  • 14 How can God punish children with their parents, who sin not as they? pag. 69.
  • 15 Whether Magistracie be lawfull? and hereunto adde,
    • 1. Wherein doth the authority of Magi­strate, Mi­nister. differ. pag. 76
    • 2. How farre doth ciuill gouernment extend? pag. ibid.
  • 16 Whether the Pope be the archrebell of the world? pag. 79.
  • 17 Whether traditions besides the Word are needfull? pag. 82.
    • Or of necessity to be beleeued? pag. 111.
  • 18 Whether a man may not reuenge in his owne cause? pag. 87.
  • 19 Whether drunkennesse may be appro­ued? pag. 90.
  • 20 Whether the Apostle might curse the false teachers? pag. 91.
  • 21 Whether Cora [...] was swallowed vp of the earth or burned? pag. 99.
  • 22 Whether Church lands, and liuings may be impropriated without sacri­ledge? pag. 101.
  • [Page] 23 Whence had Iude the history of E­noch the 7. from Adam? pag. 110.
  • 24 Why made be choyse of that, before any other historie in the Canon? pag. 111.
  • 25 How could the Apostles daies be cal­led the last time? pag. 120.
  • 26 Which Church is that, to which a man may safely ioyne himselfe? pag. 125.
  • 27 Whether separation may bee made, if errors be found in the Church? pag. ibid.
  • 28 Why it is a sin to be a natural mā? pag. 127.
  • 29 Why prayer must bee made in the holy Ghost? pag. 132.
  • 30 VVhether wee may pray to the holie Ghost? pag. 133.
  • 31 Whether the loue of God be in man by nature? pag. 134.
  • 32 Why are wee not commanded to keepe our selues in the loue of man, aswell as of God? pag. 133.
  • 33 How should a man preserue himselfe [...] the loue of God and man? pag. 135.
  • 34 How we may recouer offenders. pag. 140.
  • 35 Whether by the deliuery of a sinner to Satan, be ment the censure of ex­communication? pag. 143.
  • 36 How can mens flesh or garments bee vncleane, and hated, seeing they bee the good creatures of God? pag. 145.
  • 37 Whether and how farre wee may keepe company with an obstinate offen­der? pag. ibid.
  • 38 Whether Christ be God? against the Arrians. pag. 149.
  • 39 How Christ can bee saide to bee only wise, seeing other creatures are wise also? pag. 151.
  • 40 How can we giue any glory to God, see­ing hee can receaue no more then he hath? pag. 155.

PLACES OF SCRIPTVRE EXPLANED AT large in this Commentarie.

Gen. 17119
Exod. 20435
Esay. 81340
Micha. 6841
Matth. 41038
Luc. 92334
Ioh. 11422
Rom. 32826
1. Cor. 72043
Gal. 5130
1. Tim. 11944
2. Tim. 31617
1. Ioh. 22223

OTHER PLACES MORE BRIEFELY EITHER EXPLA­ned or cleared from cauill and corruption.

Genes. 17104
Num. 162799
1. Sam. 2819111
2. King 232515
2. Chro. 151515
Psalm. 1061799
Esay. 601078
Ier. 11078
Hagg. 1690
Matth. 172678
Ioh. 2890
Act. 2035ibid
Rom. 13176
1. Cor. 55143
2. Tim. 1582
Titus 21151 & 53
Iames 22614
2. Pet. 21951

Christian Reader, s [...]ing my self could not attend the Pr [...]ss [...] [...] [...]oules thou maies meet with­all; but seeing they are (the most of them) literall, such as [...] the most ocul [...] and diligent Pr [...]ter; and none of them such (so farre as I find) as much change of trouble the sense, I reserue the correction of them to thine owne humanitie.


For Nesikius and Aleminus, reade Neskius and [...] and pag. 8▪ for [...] 13. reade Ioh. 1. [...]3. and pag. 165. margent, for [...].


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