A Short vievv of the Persian Monarchie, and of Daniels weekes: Beeing a peece of Beroaldus workes: with a cen­sure in some points.

LONDON Imprinted by Thomas Orwin. 1590.

A short view of the Persian Monarchie, and of Daniels weekes: being a peece of Be­roaldus workes.

THe Persian Monarchie is first named siluerie, because the people of God (after the Temple restored, and the Citie Ierusalem walled) liued peaceablie vnder the Persians. But how long this continued, or how manie Kings it had, neither the Historiographers of our time, nor the prophane doo sufficientlie know: which thing they doo declare in their diuers and vn­certaine Histories, showed foorth and publi­shed by them to the world of these matters. But wee, because we know the former Persian Kings out of the holie Scripture, and the latter the prophane histories dooth mention of this matter: therefore we are able more certainlie to determine, than either Herodotus or Iosephus or Manetho, or Metastenes, or Ctesias from whō the true report of these matters is vsed to be ci­ted. Concerning the time and continuance of the Persian Monarchie we cannot doubt, seing the beginning is apparāt out of the holy scrip­ture, and wee vnderstand from prophane Sto­ries [Page 2] the ouerthrowe to bee by Alexander the Great. Therefore let vs first speake of the time wherein the Persian Empire bare sway; then of the Kings who gouerned that siluer Empe­rie, which succeeded the golden Monarchie of the Babylonians.

The Persian Monarchie begins from that yeare, in the which Cyrus the great was first aduaunced by God to the rule of Asia, after Darius the Mede, whom the holie Oracles call the King of Persia; and endeth and is determi­ned in the death of Darius the sonne of Arsa­nes: for then (no man resisting) the Wealth of the Persians came to Alexander the great, and Asia (which before obeied the Persians) be­came subiect to him. Now, the first yeare of Cyrus the greater, or of the King of the Persi­ans, falls into the third yeare of the fourescore Olympiade; which was from the beginning of the world, three thousand foure hundred se­uentie two; and was the yeare since Rome was built 295. fortie yeares after the Kings were banished and exiled the Citie: which wee vn­derstand to be certaine, laying down the times in order, as they bee expounded in the holie Scripture; and the Olympiades conferred and laide together with these, and also the yeares of the continuance of the Citie of Rome. And those things which haue been otherwise de­fined by prophane Writers and Writers of our time, we haue obserued to be vnture. Yet [Page 3] the death of Darius the last King of the Persi­ans, the prophane Historie referres to the first yeare of the hundred & thirteenth Olympiade; and that yeare is the fift of Daniels nineteenth weeke; and the yeare of the Citie built foure hundred and fiue & twentie; and the yeare of the world three thousand three score & two. From which account of time we vnderstand, that the Persian Monarchie is to haue allotted to it for the continuance a hundred and thiritie yeares, although otherwise hereof other men haue determined.

But we cannot misse, because we haue the time of the deliuerance from Babilon (which is the beginning of the Persian Empire) certain­lie set downe and defined by the holie Scrip­ture; and the times which follow, as the death of Darius the last King of Persia, and of Alex­ander the great, set downe faithfullie; & those who dissent from vs, we are able by good rea­son to disprooue: & that especiallie seeing the exact time is set downe in the Scripture, when Cyrus the greater began his Empire, and the death of Alexander the great (which fell in the next Olympiade from the death of Darius) is a­greed, confessed and determined of manie Hi­storiographers. For then there was a more as­sured obseruation of the Greekish Historie, manie learned and notable men hauing com­prehended them in their writings, agreeing in the setting downn of the accoūt of those times. [Page 4] But those things which fell out before these times, haue not so faithfullie been by Writers collected: whereby it commeth to passe, that the prophane storie is verie obscure: which obscuritie we are able to dispearse & to make cleere, by that computation of time which we haue laide downe; because this is grounded from a most vndoubted obseruation, gathered from holie scripture: which is not necessaire for vs at this time to handle more at large, see­ing it hath been handled before. In the which treatise, we haue set downe the exact account of time, determined in the holie scripture: which as it may bee referred to prophane sto­ries, if it hath little beene obserued by former Writers, may yet now bee vnderstood by the table of this Chronicle, continued and succes­siuely drawen downe from the beginning of the world, euen vnto our times.

Now concerning the Kings of Persia, who ruled these hundred & thirtie yeares, the place of Daniel which is in his eleuenth chapter and second verse, is of great vse to the vnderstand­ing of the truth: which is in this sort; Beholde yet three Kings shall stand vp in Persia, and the fourth shall be richer than they all: and when he is growen great through his riches, hee shall stirre vp all against the King of Graecia. From this place of Daniel, wee vnderstand that Persian King, which afflicted Graecia with warre, to bee the fift Monarch of the Persians fromRather, from Darius, named in vers. 1. Cyrus the [Page 5] greater: but the fift King in order from Cyrus, by those things which he did, & from the mo­numents of prophane Writers, wee doo finde to bee Xerxes: for the Angel opened these things to Daniel, in the third yeare of King Cy­rus, as it is cap. 10. ver. 2. Because therefore, be­sides Cyrus, there were yet to bee 3. Kings of Persia, after whom the fourth was to inuade Graecia by warre, whom al prophane histories doo witnes to be Xerxes; by good right ther­fore we say, that Xerxes the terror of Graecia, was theThat he was the 4. it shalbe shewed hereaf­ter. 5. Emperor of the Persians from Cy­rus the greater. Now who were Kings in the times which fell out betwixt these, the holie writings doo suggest vnto vs: who doo pur­sue and faithfullie expound the Historie of those Mesne times; so farre as their knowledge concernes the Church of God, by these names of Assuerus, Darius, Artaxerxes: There be seue­rall Kings of those names: but for time in this order. Ar­taxerxes, to whom an epi­stle was writ­tenn against the Iewes soone af­ter their re­turne: Assue­rus, and Dari­us Artaxerxes. wee haue these Kings expressed in holy Writ, who that they may be distinguished from other Kings, who had likewise the same names, they are to be assigned and set out by those epithites and surnames, which may bee most agreeable and fit the present matter and historie which wee repeate out of Esdra and Nehemiah. To As­suerus therefore wee will adde the surname of Artaxerxes, Darius we will name Assyrius, and we will surname Artaxerxes Pius: for he bestowed a great care on the Church of God, as afterwards shalbe vnderstood.

[Page 6] And that wee may proceede orderlie, let vs first handle Assuerus, who is made knowen vnto vs from Esdras historie.There Artax­erxes & Assu­erus are seue­rall men: and the former is named last: be­cause to him was ioyned the narration of the letter which caused the temples worke to bee staied. In the which hi­storie the 4. chapter and 6. verse, The Enemies of the people of God are said in the beginning of the reigne of Assuerus, to haue written an accusation against the Inhabitants of Iuda and Ierusalem: whereby it came to passe, that thorough the Edict of the same Assuerus (to whom wee haue ad­ded the surname of Artaxerxes, because after­ward the scripture nameth him by the same name) the worke of the house of God ceased. Now there is often and vsuall mention of this As­suerus Artaxerxes in the booke of Ester: whō by this we vnderstand to succeede immedi [...] ­lie Cyrus in gouernment because in the 4. of Esdr. the 5. vers. the work of the house of the Lord is said to be hindred vnder Assuerus, all the dayes of Cyrus King of Persia, euen to the reigne of Darius the King of Persia. Now that this Assuerus succeeded Cyrus in gouernment (whose Viceroy before he had been in Persia, and Vicegerent in Cyrus name) we may gather out of the beginning of the first of Ester. Where in the first chapter and third verse ac­cording to the Hebrew, it is said, that the strength of Persia and Media was before him: and it is said, that there were in presence before him in his Court Noble men and Princes or Rulers ouer Prouinces 127. ouer whom hee gouerned: whome many moneths he entertained with princely enter­tainment. [Page 7] But the greater and more able part of the strength of Persia and Media, which was then said to be in the Court of Assuerus, was before in expedition with Cyrus the grea­ter. Now after Assuerus wee place Darius, whom we haue named Assyrius, for a diffe­rence from others, who are called in the said Monarchie, Darius: because in the 6. of Ezra the 11. the Iewes are said to haue kept a solemn feast of sweete bread seuen dayes in mirth, be­cause the Lord had made their hearts glad, and had turned the hart of the King of Assur to­wards them,The Ebrewes, (who shoulde haue skill in their owne sto­ries) hold this Darius to bee the sonne of E­ster. to helpe their hands in the work of the house of the God of Israel. But this Da­rius Assyrius is mentioned in the beginnings of the prophecies of Aggey and Zacharie, vn­der whom the building of the temple of God was begun anew. Whose praise is, that the building of the temple (intermitted vnder As­suerus Artaxerxes) by his authority was begun againe and finished.This Artaxer­xes and Assue­rus (whom be­ing two, he na­meth one per­son) may bee known, not on­ly by this Au­thour, but also by Dan. 10. 11 to haue had a short reigne: and Darius (vnder whom the Temple was built) was of anti­quitie holden most commonly, (excepting some one or two learned) to begin his reigne no whit aboue thirtie yeares from Babels fall: but rather shorter much, though a shorter time should hardly be graunted. But 107. yeares frō Cyrus (as some would) should be too much for 50000. (being men at Cyrus Monarchie) to be workefull for the Temple. Which we gather from the Prophecie of Aggey and Zacharie; but chieflie we vnderstand it from the historie of Esdras: for in the fourth chapt. 24. verse it is said, that the house of the Lord was intermit­ted vnder Asserus, nor begun againe before [Page 8] the 2. yeare of Darius the King of Persia: but in the 6. chapt. & 14. vers. it is thus spoken of the house of God, built vnder Darius Assyri­us; But the Elders of Iuda built and prospered according to the prophecie of Aggey the prophet, and Zacharie the sonne of Addo: and they edified and built, the God of Israel commaunding them, and Cyrus and DariusHeere And might be held as the Hebrues holde it, for which is. and Artaxer­xes Kings of Persia.Here his iudg­mēt staggreth. Any man may know by the text and the time that Da­rius also Arra­xerxes grāting authoritie to build the tem­ple, the worke being finished in Darius sixt yeare, & after that Ezra the the sonne of Saraiah com­ming to Ieru­salem frō Ba­bel is the sea­uenth of Ar­taxerxes: ei­ther the two termes must needes (as He­brues assured­ly hold) signi­fie one person: or the two must reigne at once. Now, he in this verse, who is in the last place cal­led Artaxerxes, seemeth to be As­suerus Artaxerxes, by whom it hath been saide before the worke of the Lord was hindred; vnlesse our coniecture deceiue vs: because by reason of Hester and Mardochey he fauoured the proceedings of the people of GOD, the which before he greatly misliked. For perad­uenture, when he now waxed old, Darius As­syrius beeing consorted in gouernment with him, he also commaunded the temple of God to be built, Darius chieflie busying himselfe thereabouts, as the diuine Oracles haue wit­nessed to vs. Also that Artaxerxes may be he whom we name Pius, vnder whome by Nehe­mias the Citie was compast about with a wal, and the temple obtained his ornaments. O­thers referre the word Artaxerxes toThis is most holden and plaine. Darius Assyrius, as if and were put in stead of of; that is to say, because the surname of Artaxerxes was proper to the kings of Persia, as Caesar was a common name to the Emperours of Rome, [Page 9] and Pharao to the auncient Kings of Egypt, as after Alexander the great the name of Ptolomey was attributed to all the Kings of Egypt, till E­gypt was reduced to the form of a prouince by the Romanes. But to Darius Assyrius, wee ad­ioyned in succession Artaxerxes Pius, The selfe same man: as by the Scripture examined, anie may see: and Hebrues with maine Latines holde. of whō there is mention made as it were in a new hi­storie, in the seuenth chapter and first verse af­ter this manner. After these words, In the king­dome of Artaxerxes the King of Persia, Esdras the sonne of The time for the yeare seauenth, vpon the sixt: and the name of Artaxerxes that went be­fore in the se­cond of Darius graunting the building of the Temple: show the two names signifie but one King, as was touched before. Seraias case best discusseth the whole time of the Persiās. For seeing Seraias was killed by Nabucadnezzar 52. yeares be­fore Cyrus tooke Babylon: and Esdras is commonly graunted to haue seene the Persians last reigne. It is as much as olde age can suffer in one mans life (aged 50. yeares before) that the Persians should reigne in that mans life 130 yeares more. For so he must match Isaacks yeares 180: and that so hee did or came neare it, may be proued by manie likelihoods. It is but a bare con­jecture, for to imagine that Esdras omitted his father or grandfathers, two or three, betwixt him and Seraias. No man hath authoritie to forme more than is, to the Bible. Seraias; there is added: This Esdras went vp from Babilon, and he was a sleight Scribe in the lawe of Moses, which the Lord God gaue to Israel. And the King gaue vnto him all his request according to the hand of the Lord which was vpon him. For (as it shalbe touched afterwards) Iu­dea did then seeme (Zorobabel was aliue the yere before, and yonger than he. Zorobabel being dead) to want a Ruler. For which cause, in the seuenth yeare of Artaxerxes Pius, Esdras is sent into Iudea, with commaundement to compound the causes of the people of God. For so in the said 7. chap. 24. vers. it is said, But thou Esdras according to the wisedome of thy God, which is in thy hand, appoint Iudges and Gouernours to iudge [Page 10] the people which is beyond the Riuer, to wit, those that knowe the Lord; yet also teach freelie those which are ignorant. Who was also Darius Pius & Longimanus: & seemeth to be that brother of Xerxes, of whose quiet reigne Iustine writeth. Hero­dotus writeth, that the sonne of Atossa (E­ster is she) gate the Kingdom, though he took one brother for the other. From the same Artaxer­xes Pius afterwards Nehemias is sent into Iudea to compound ecclesiasticall causes in the twē ­tieth yeare, as it is largely expounded in the se­cond of Nehemias. Seeing therefore Artaxer­xes Pius is thus knowen vnto vs out of the Hi­storie of Esdra & Nehemia we haue made him to succeede Darius Assyrius. Wherefore we know from the holie Scripture, these Kings to wit Cyrus Maior, Assuerus Artaxerxes, Dari­us Assuerus, & Artaxerxes Pius, whom Xer­xes the terrour of Graecia succeedeth, the fifth in succession from Cyrus Maior.

And thus we haue named the former kings of Persia, staying our selues vpon the authori­tie of holie Scripture, carelesse in the meane while of Herodotus and Ctesias, and of others, who follow Herod. or Ctesias of whom we wil speake afterwardes. Now who those Kings were, who succeeded this Xerxes in Persia, we collect out of the prophane storie.

This would not soone be graunted, nor at all: he was elder than Lō ­gimanus and ruler of the wars of Greece and not with the Iewes. Ez­ra. 4. Xerxes was the sonne of Artaxerxes Ma­crochir, that is, the long handed: whome hee succeeded in the Kingdome. From whose twentie yere, they who reckon the beginning of Daniels Seuens, may now perceiue how far they are from the truth, when they take this Artaxerxes Longimanus the sonne of Xerxes, for Artaxerxes Pius; who peraduenture was [Page 11] the grandfather of Artaxerxes Longimanus. But after Artaxerxes Longimanus, Darius Nothus (begotten by him) succeeded in the Kingdom, Artaxerxes Mnemon (that is by surname, the Rememberer) succeeded Darius Nothus, beeing his bastard; whose brother was Cyrus, called, the lesser, (famous in the Greeke historie, and in Xenophon) who was fellow in Armes with him against Artaxerxes. After Artaxerxes Mnemon, Ochus his sonne reigned ouer the Persians. Then Arses the sonne of Ochus, who (being destroyed with his whole familie) had for his successor, Darius the last king of Persia; whom Diodorus Siculus in his 17. booke sayth to be the sonne of Arsanes, who was the bro­ther of Ochus; yet Iustine in his 10. booke, na­meth him Codomanus. Against this Darius, A­lexander the great made warre, hauing trans­ferd to him the power and Monarchie of the Persians, according as it was appointed by God, and foretolde to come to passe in Daniels visions; that we may thinke no change in go­uernments nor in the rest of our life, to bee without the prouidence of God.

These therefore are the Kings of Persia, knowen vnto vs, partly out of the holie Scrip­ture, partly out of the prophane Historie of Herodotus, Thucidides, Xenophon, Ctesias, & Di­odorus Siculus, whom also Eusebius doth other­wise order and name: wee will yet neuerthe­lesse [Page 12] stand to the iudgement of those forena­med authors, and will insist in this description and Catalogue. From the holie Scripture acknowledged, these are the fiue former Kings of Persia.

  • 1
    The parti­cular Kings of Persia, neuer were, & neuer will be knowen by Writers. For times tou­ching scripture of 49. yeares: for the chiefe worke of wal­ling lerusalem to that Aben Ezra wilagree: and no Hebrue wil grant that they reigned a­boue 130. yeres but rather cōe farre short. And flout ma­nie closely in Seder Olam, as grosely de­ceaued that giue the Persi­ans 250. yeares though not the most part were so much decei­ued. The fiue generations of Iosuahs posteritie to Iuddue, will compell them to graunt nere that somme: but to more than that, no likelihood can vrge.
    Cyrus Maior.
  • 2 Assuerus Artaxerxes.
  • 3 Darius Assyrius.
  • 4 Artaxerxes Pius.
  • 5 Xerxes the terror of Graecia.

The rest from prophane stories are made knowen to vs vnder these names.

  • 6 Artaxerxes Longimanus.
  • 7 Darius Nothus.
  • 8 Artaxerxes Memor.
  • 9 Ochus.
  • 10 Arses, who also is Arsanes.
  • 11 Darius Codomanus, the sonne of Arsanes, the brother of Ochus.

This somme will not soone be disprooued, though the particular Kings be not agreed vpon: which yet [...] neuer agreed vpon: not anie learned Christians, for the Bible is compelled to take notice of.These eleuen Kings gouerned the Persian [Page 13] Monarchie for a hundred and thirtie yeares as before hath been declared. But to these Kings we doo not adde their yeares: because we want the certaine knowledge of the Per­sian historie. For albeit in the holy scriptures certaine yeares are reckoned of the former Kings, to wit, of Cyrus, Assuerus, Artaxeres, Darius Assyrius, and Artaxerxes Pius; yet we cannot from these, certainlie define the yeares of their gouernment, because that is not the purpose of the Scripture, to teach how long they reigned: therefore it is not greatly neces­sarie to enquire more curiouslie after them. But because our time vseth much Iosephus in these histories, as also Metasthenes, Metastenes a forged author, yet deceaued manie. and I know what fragments added to him of incertain au­thors scarce of good credite; therefore they are especiallie to bee admonished of those er­rors, which Iosephus admitteth in this Historie in the eleuenth booke of his antiquities or old affaires. For partly out of Herodotus, who did not so much purpose to write a historie, as to reteine and recreate the Reader with plea­sant narrations, partlie out of authors I know not what (for they are almost infinite, who haue handled Persian affaires) they reckon the Persian Kings in this sort: first Cyrius, then Cā ­bises the sonne of Cyrus, then Magus, after him Darius the sonne of Histaspis, then Xerxes: af­ter Xerxes they name another Cyrus, whome he will haue to be the sonne of Xerxes, who [Page 14] amongst the Graecians is said to be Artaxerxes, vnder whom (hee saith) the historie of Ester fell out. From thence he passeth to Alexander the great: who subdued Darius the last King of the Persians: which how discordant they be from holy scripture, is manifest from those things which before haue been spoken, that there neede be no stay made to confute this.

Furthermore (as before we haue said) nei­ther Herodotus, nor Ctesias, or they from who these broached their stories, we haue follow­ed in the enumeration of the former Kings of Persia; because we haue certaine testimonies out of the Scriptures, of these kings who reig­in Persia vnto Xerxes. So, after Cyrus we doo not name Cambyses, nor after him Magus, nor after him Darius Histaspis: which names, be­cause they are neuer found in Scripture, by vs are pretermitted. For we must wholly rest in the authoritie of holie Scripture, which hand­leth theNot all the Kings, because they touch not the common weale. historie of these times, & neither to Herodotus, nor anie other whosoeuer hee bee, that saith he bringeth a true Historie from the Persian Records, as Ctesias is bolde to professe of himselfe. Who being taken in the warre of Cyrus the lesser by Artaxerxes Memor, be­cause he was a Phisician, was admitted into the Kings Court; in the which liuing long, he grew more skilfull (as he himselfe saith) of the Persian estate, than either Herodotus or any other, who (before him) intreated of the Per­sian [Page 15] affaires: yet he after Xerxes nameth Ar­taxerxes the sonne of Xerxes, whom they call Longimanus, after whom they reckon Xerxes the sonne of Longimanus; who when he reig­ned some moneths, was slaine by the treache­rie of Secundianus another sonne of Artaxer­xes, but a bastard: who therefore reigned af­ter Xerxes the second, but yet a short time, be­cause another sonne of Artaxerxes Longima­nus (called Darieus or Darius) made him away, by the same pollicie as he made away his bro­ther. For they say, that Darius the sonne of Artaxerxes by his concubine, trusting to the learning of the Persians, contended for the Kingdome with Isogeus the legitimate sonne of Artaxerxes Longimanus; and that both of them referred the cause to the Councell of Persia; in the which Darius Nothus or bastard, became victor, and got the vpper hand: from whom (afterwards) the Persian Kings are line­allie deriued. For Artaxerxes was the sonne of this Darius Nothus named Memor, for a dif­ference from the other called Longimanus; then Ochus the sonne of Artaxerxes Memor, whō Arses succeeded, surnamed by Iustine Codoma­nus, as before we haue said. In the rehearsing of the genealogie of the Kings of Persia, wee haue pretermitted Xerxes the second, and Se­cundianus (whom some cal Sogdianus) because either of them reigned but a few moneths, al­though Diodorus Siculus remembreth thē out [Page 16] of Ctesias, whom neuerthelesse others passe o­uer. The yeares of these Kings vncertaine & ill reckoned in prophane historie, we haue not particularlie remembred, because the Histori­ographers confound them. Therefore we are cōtent with the somme of their yeares, which they reigned in all, which wee haue obserued to be certain from those things, which before haue been propounded.

But before we giue ouer this historie of the Kings of Persia, because there is nothing in it so illustrious, as Xerxes going downe into Graecia, let vs see in what Olympiade he by war inuaded Graecia: for this is handled by manie Greeke Historiographers; but how truely, that we are now to see. Pausanias setteth down in Arcadie, that then Xerxes passed ouer into Graecia with that infinit hoast, (which the Hi­storians report of, that the Medes at one dinner dranke vp all the Riuers) when Gelon gouer­ned in Syracusa; whom the Athenians and the Laced aemonians (by their Embassadors) sollici­ted to take part with them against Xerxes, as it is in Herodotus in his 7. booke. The same Pausanias in Eliac, affirmeth the same Gelon to haue obtained the gouernement of Syracusa, in the second yeare of the seuentie two Olym­piade. Moreouer he affirmeth in his Eliac, that those Persians which Xerxes left behinde him in Graecia with Mardonius, were ouerthrowen at Platea, in the 75. Olympiade. But Diodorus [Page 17] Siculus in the eleuenth booke of his Librarie, affirmeth Xerxes to haue mooued war against the Graecians in the 75. Olympiade; in which time he saith, Gelon gouerned in Syracusa. Po­lybius Megapolitanus is of the same opinion in his 5. booke with Diodorus Siculus: who saith that the Romanes first ioyned league with the Carthaginians. After the Kings were exiled Rome, the Consulls had ruled the Common-weale eight and twentie yeares before the first passage of Xerxes into Graecia. But Rome was in subiection to Kings 243. yeare (as Sextus Rufus maketh computation) deducting the times of the Kings. From that time (if you reckon 28. yeare) we shall come to the 3. yeare of theTo teach the vanitie of this consent: wee may mark out of Pausanias other accounts for men of that age: as Oebo­tas is in Olym­piade the sixt: and Xenophō in 25. but in Triclinius in 79. both winners of the footerace. Of Xenophō Pin­darus made an Ode. Infinite varietie of Writers disa­nulleth this cō ­sent. 74. Olympiade. Now it is manifest and apparant by this, that Pausanias and Diodorus Siculus, as also Polybius, moreouer Dionisius Ha­licarnasseus who is of their iudgment, & others who haue likewise noted these times vnto vs, haue all erred: because Cyrus Maior (King of Persia) ruled the Kingdome after Darius the Mede, in the third yeare of the 80. Olympiade, as the times determined by the testimonie of ho­lie Scripture doo conclude. And after Cyrus, these three Kings succeeded in Persia, Assue­rus Artaxerxes, Darius Assyrius, and Artax­erxes Pius. But the 20. yeare of Artaxerxes Pi­us the Temple was whollie restored, and it is noted that the Citie Ierusalem was compassed with a wall, as afterwards will appeare out of [Page 18] the historie of the seuen first seuens of Daniel. But the seuenth seuē, which is the limit of this time, is ended in the third yeare of the 92. O­lympiade.

Moreouer there is reckoned the 32. yeare of Artaxerxes Puis in the 13. of Nehem and the 6. vers, which falleth out in the third yeare of the 95. Olympiade. So it appeareth how farre these Writers are from the true obseruing of the times; seeing it may seeme, that the passing of Xerxes into Graecia, was only about the 90. Olympiade: because Artaxerxes Pius must haue reigned in Persia before Xerxes the terrour of Graecia: Nay rather later in part than he, for he seemeth to touch the Per­siās ouerthrow to haue been for hindring of the Temple. Ezra. 6. 13. & Dan. 11. The power of Persia raised against Greece, was to look for a sharp punishment frō him whose eies were a flame of fire: for the sorrow caused to Da­niels people. as it is apparant out of the Prophecie of Daniel: in whose eleuenth chaper and 2. verse it is plainlie said; After Cyrus 3. Kings shall rule in Persia before Xerxes, who shal trouble all Graecia. Yet Xerxes might goe downe into Graecia vnder Artaxerxes Pius, when hee was elected King. For euen as vnder Cyrus reig­ned Assuerus, so vnder Artaxerxes Xerxes might reigne: and the Persian Monarchie (euē as the Romanes) at one time might haue manie Imperators.

By this it appeares, that the errors admitted by prophane Historiographers, and the Chro­nicles of our time, in the supputation of times, may be espied, and in some part amended: But it is requisite for vs for this time to pretermit that care, & to referre it vnto some other time least by handling of other matters, we may [Page 19] seeme to haue forgot our own purpose. These things haue been thus laid downe by vs out of the holie Scriptures concerning the Persian Monarchie, and the Monarchs of Persia, to lay open (in some part) the truth of the Persian Historie, and to purge it from fables.

But now we are to come to theThe terme weekes much entangleth the weake, and re­quireth a com­ment in Eng­lish: for a terme plaine in Ebrue or Greeke. seuens of Daniel, which in the chapter going before, we haue taught to haue been deuided by the An­gell into three parts; yet so, as he hath selected seuen out of them, & hath appointed them to the restoring of the Temple and the Citie. Then he dooth enumerate sixtie two: in the which the Church of God was afflicted di­uerslie. In the third place, the last which is the seuentieth, hath been set downe: which hath with it the conclusion and end of all the cere­moniall of the lawe. But the seuen forena­med seuens in the first place, because they sig­nifie a yearely time, doo make fortie and nyne yeres, for that number seuen times seuen doth amount vnto: the Historie whereof, the wri­tings of Nehemias and Esdras doo conteine; which the Latins comprehend in one volume: so as the booke of Nehemias, they call the se­cond booke of Esdras. And Ierome in his E­pisle to Paulinus concerning the books of ho­ly scripture, saith that Esdras & Nehemias were streightned into one volume: from the which this present Historie of seuen seuens or weeks is to be deriued. And in the first chapter of [Page 20] Esdras, the Edict of Cyrus is laid downe, by the which the people of God isDaniel prai­ed for restoring of the Citie, and the Angel accordingly ioineth to the grant ofre­turne the buil­ding of the Ci­tie: that wee should not seek for sundrie times to take the beginning of our account: vnles whē God maketh a thing plaine, we will be fin­ding out in­uentions. restored to his li­bertie after 70. yeares captiuitie in Babylon. The people being returned into their Country, the third chapter teacheth, that the Altare was first built, in the which they offered sacrifices to God, which giueth vs also to vnderstand, that in the second yeare after the returne into their Countrey, the foundations of the temple were laid by Zorobabel the sonne of Salathiel Prince of Iuda, and by Iosua the sonne of Iosedeck the high Priest. In the fourth chapter, Esdras tea­cheth that the building of the Temple was hin­dred by the commandement of Assuerus Ar­taxerxes, nor begun again to be builded before the second yeare of Darius Assyrius. But in the sixt chapter he sheweth, the Temple was fi­nished in the sixt yeare of Darius Assyrius, Zorobabel and Iosua, imploying and busying themselues chiefely about it, being thereunto incited by the Prophets Aggey and Zacharie. The Temple being restored and almost finish­ed, Zorobabel Prince of Iudea may be thought to die, because Esdras is sent to Iuda from the King of Persia as Viceroy, with agreat com­panie of voluntarie Iewes: who remained in Chaldea after the Edict of Cyrus, and the depar­ture of their Countrey men; who beeing by God awakened, had rather leaue their wealth in Babylon to liue in their owne countrey, than by enioying it to liue in a strange Countrey. [Page 21] Yet Esdras is sent to Iudea, chiefly to constitute Rulers & Iudges, who might minister iustice to the people, thereby to establish the state of the Iewes Commonweale: which is done in the seuenth yeare of Artaxerxes Pius, as it is in Esdr. the 4. & the 24. After Esdras, the same Artaxerxes Pius sendeth (as his Embassador) Nehemias, with authoritie and commaunde­ment for couering the gates of the Temple, that is, for finishing the building of the Tem­ple, as also for walling the Citie Ierusalem, as it is in 2. Nehem and the 8. Now Nehemias had this Embassage in the twentieth yeare of Ar­taxerxes Pius, as it is in the first verse of the 8. chapter; which was 13. yeres after Esdras was sent Embassador to Iuda. Yet Nehemias was ruler and protector ouer Iuda 12. yeares, as it is declared in the 5. chap. and 14. verse. But how great paines Nehemias tooke in fortefying the Citie Ierusalem and compassing it with a wal, is declared from the second chapter to the sea­uenth. And in the 6. chapter and 15. vers. is de­clared, the great diligence which both hee and the Iewes vsed in fortefying the Citie Ierusa­lem, so great a worke being finished within fif­tie and two dayes, being the fiue & twentieth of the moneth Elul, which in our account is August. And thus we haue the first seuen se­uens fullie ended, that is in the twentieth yeare of Artaxerxes Pius, in the which Nehemias came to Iuda. For so the Angel foretold, Dan. [Page 22] chap. 9. verse. 25. that to the building againe of streete and walls, should be seuen seuens, and that in a troublesome time. The hostile attempts of the aduersaries of the people of God, and their detestable counsels practised against the good; also the niggardlines of the rich towards the poore: all which are described verie largely of Esdra and Nehemias, doo manifest the troubles and miseries of these times.

The twentieth yere therefore of Artaxer­xes Pius walleth Ierusalem & finisheth the tem­ple with all his appurtenances; to the finishing whereof, Nehemias had gotten and obtained stuffe of the King. By reason whereof, the Iewes say trulie in the second of Iohn and the twentieth verse: This Temple was in building fortie and sixe yeares; and wilt thou raise it vp a­gaine in three dayes? Which trulie the Iewes may be thought to speake, as thereby to men­tion the twentieth yeare of Artaxerxes Pius, rather than the sixt yeare of Darius Assyrius. For by what reason that place may receiue o­ther construction I vnderstand not, vnlesse we will say,The very mat­ter dooth still driue him to grāt these two names to mean one King: or two beginning reigne together Esters sonne he shuld be thoght that so fauored the Iewes. that Darius Assyrius and 1. [...]axerxes Pius (whom by the Scripture we vnderstand to be diuers kings) to haue reigned at one time, and in the meane time to haue fauoured the people of God, and to haue taken that care vp­on them, because they were deuoted to Reli­gion. This not withstanding we shalbe alwaies cōpelled to affirme, that the Temple was built [Page 23] in the sixt yeare of Darius Assyrius, as it is in Esdras 6. and 15. ver. to the complement wher­of, manie things wanted, which were added vnder Artaxerxes Pius: If any cā speak better thā this to the text of Daniel, he shall doo verie well to helpe the world with it. vnder whom (in his twentieth yere) we will say that Ierusalem was fortified, as we doo vnderstand out of the 2. of Nehemias the 2. vers. and the 6. cap. and 15. ver. Wherefore we will thinke (and not without reason) that the Temple was finished with all his adiuncts (which before were wanting) vn­der Artaxerxes Pius, as peraduenture there might bee additions to the Temple for the roomes of the Priests ministring by course in the Tabernacle of the Lord, & barnes or gar­ners for to lay vp the first fruites and tythes of the Priests. And wee may say, that the same time the Citie Ierusalem attained her fortifica­tion.

But the place of the Gospel before remem­bred is not to be past ouer; whereby the au­thoritie of Iosephus, Iosephus re­garded custom of speach, ra­ther thā truth, sometimes vn­wares he spea­keth well: thē he is voide of parcialitie. Of­ten he foloweth heathen: or of malice crosseth prophecies and his whole nati­on: thē his au­thoritie is no­thing. Writer of the Iewish sto­rie (whom our time too greatly esteemeth of) is to be diminished: who trulie in manie places sheweth himselfe to be ignorāt of those things which he handleth, and argueth himselfe to be a stranger in his owne Common wealth. And it is requisite for this which we haue in hand, to shew himto bee scarce aduised and circum­spect, nay, most notable impudent and a liar, that we may vnderstād that his writings must be more narrowlie lookt into and examined [Page 24] of vs. For he in the 15. booke of the Iewish antiquitie, the 14. chapt. saith, That Herode the sonne of Antipater erected the Temple from the foundation farre more sumptuouslie and largelie than it was: and to haue finished it with his addi­tions and gates, in eight yeares and a halfe. But the Iewes that liued in that age, conuince him of lying, who (casting their eyes to the old buil­ding) say, that that was built in the space of 40 and 6. yeares. Besides, we know that the secōd Temple, that is, that Temple which Zorobabel (with Iosua) built, and the rest of the Compa­nie of the Iewes, which returned frō the capti­uitie of Babylon; to haue been ouerthrowen & subuerted, about fortie yeres after the death of Christ, with all the pompe of the ceremonies of the lawe: which theAnd the Tal­mud Zoar, and commentaries commonly. Iewish Historiogra­phers also doo acknowledge, to haue bin done by Titus, referring the destruction of the se­cond Temple, to the Romanes and their Impe­rator Titus. And wee know by the certaine predictions of the prophets, that the same Tē ­ple stood when Christ Iesus our Lord beeing man, conuersed in mount Sion. For Aggey saith in the 2. chapt. 10. verse. That the glorie of the second Temple built by Zorobabel, should be farre greater than that was of Salomons Temple, looking vnto the presence of Christ the Lord, who was therewith to beautefie their Tem­ple. Yet if (as Iosephus saith) Herode had built that Temple in which our Lord was conuer­sant, [Page 25] that should not haue been the second tem­ple, but the third; the forme whereof shoulde haue been farre otherwise, as Ezechiel descri­beth it in the latter end of his prophecie. Ther­fore manie of our time are to bee condemned of sloth and ignorance, who stand so affected to the writings of Iosephus, and the like Wri­ters, that presentlie they assent vnto them, and beleeue those things to, be true which are pro­pounded by them; the book of the holy scrip­ture in the meane while past ouer and neglect­ed, and the diuine histories carelesly read ouer: which histories must be first and chieflie lear­ned; by the which all other are to bee iudged of & examined, none but a most vniust iudge will denie.

But because it is said, the second Temple was finished in sixe and fortie yeares: and yet neuerthelesse seuen seuens which amounteth vnto fortie nine yeares, is assigned to the abso­lute finishing of the temple: therefore it must thus be vnderstood, That the Temple was ab­solutely finished, with the Citie walled about in the nine and fortieth yeare after the libertie restored by Cyrus. Yet sixe and fortie yeares to be onely bestowed in the building of the tem­ple: because three whole yeares were passed before Zorobabel & the other, which returned out of captiuitie, came to doo that worke. For after Cyrus Edict published for the libertie and restoring of the people of GOD, a great time [Page 26] was requisite to consult of the manner of their returne, and for to compell those that should returne, and to settle their affaires, who deter­mined to leaue Chaldea, to retourne to their Countrey. Let vs therefore graunt a yere for these matters: which being ended, let vs admit the Iewes returners, to haue begun their iour­ney the second yeare from the publishing of the Edict; and so we shall vnderstand these re­turners to haue come into their Countrey a yeare and almost a halfe after the Edict of Cy­rus. For from Babylon to Iudea, the iourney to those that haue lets, is of foure moneths tra­uell, as it is written in the 7. of Esdr. 8. verse, in this sort. And they came to Ierusalem the fift moneth, which is the seuenth yeare of the King: be­cause they begun to goe from Babilon in the first day of the first month: and came into Ierusalem the first day of the fift moneth, according to the good fauour of God towards them. Now, the foundations of the Temple were not layd as soone as they came to Ierusalem: for we read in the third of Esdr. and the 8. verse, that this was not done till the second yere after their return. From whēce we gather, that there wereTo the foun­dation in some plain forward­nes: wherefore in the 3. of Cy­rus, Daniel was in heaui­nesse for the worke hindred. three yeares from the Edict of Cyrus, to the founda­tions of the Temple laid: to the which, if we adde sixe and fortie yeares, we haue nine and fortie yeares which are assigned to the first se­uen seuens, which ended and expounded, ac­cording as they were propounded by the An­gel [Page 27] wee must passe ouer to the sixtie and two seuens which follow:Iosephus in Euseb, dem. 8. to the full fini­shing of the Temple, recko­neth 49. yeres. which we will handle shortly, least we be tedious.

The sixtie two seuens, which succeede the seuen before spoken of, begin from the twen­tie and one yeare of Artaxerxes Pius, which is the fourth yeare of the ninetie two Olympiade, Though hee make some ac­count of a nū ­ber certaine in Olympiades: he might rather for this than anie thing else blame the hea­then of vncer­taintie. from whence beginneth the eight of Daniels seuens. But this time is ended and compassed in the beginning of the seuētieth seuen, which falleth into the second yeare of the hundred & one Olympiade, when Quintus Tiberius Nero reigned in Rome after Octauius Augustus, the yeare from the Citie built, seuen hundred sea­uentie eight. Now what was the state of the church in these seuentie two seuens, is opened and taught by the visions of Daniel, as before we haue said. Therefore in the seuenth chap­ter of Daniel, foure Monarchies are propoun­ded vnder foure terrible beasts; vnder whom the people of GOD was diuerslie afflicted. Whom although earthlie and sen suall men desired to destroy & consume, yet they could neuer remooue the people of God from their constancie and faith, God miraculouslie pre­seruing and defending his Church. But the Iewes Commonwealth liued prosperouslie e­nough vnder Artaxerxes Pius; when that Per­sian King (vnto whom the rest of Asia and Sy­ria obeyed) cared for it and the people of God. For hee (after the death of Zorobabel) com­pounded [Page 28] and established the Church causes, as may be vnderstood by the Commentaries of Esdras and Nehemias. After this Artaxerxes Pius, wee haue taught the Empire of the East, or the Persian Empire, to succeed to Xerxes the terror of Graecia: but from this Xerxes imme­diately to Alexander the great doth the Angel passe, passing ouer the other Kings of Persia, because they were inferiour in renowme to Xerxes, neither greatlie regarded the causes of the Church, but suffering them to passe accor­ding to the time; being ouer seriouslie busied exacting and gathering vp of tributes, and the yearely reuenue.

By the going downe of Alexander into Syria, it might be thought, that the Church of God should sustaine great dammage, by reason of his warre against Tyrus, and against Egypt: for the going downe out of Phoenicia into E­gypt, is through Iudea; and Alexander the great was verie angrie with the Iewes, because they had denied him aid and prouision, and because they tooke the Persians part, whome they then obeyed. Besides, religion and true godlinesse, dissenting from others who were idolaters, prouoked wicked men and contemners of God, against the people of God. But God (in whose hand are not onely the hearts of Kings, but of all men) reconciled Alexander to his people; and brought the insolencie of a foo­lish and proud yong man (intollerable through [Page 29] successe of his victories) to a moderation, and caused him to performe great signes and argu­ments of fauour to those with whom hee see­med to be most displeased. Therefore in this Historie, we may obserue the same, which we vnderstand to haue fallen out in the first times of the Church of Israel, betweene Laban and Iaacob. Gen. 31. 24. For Laban with an exaspe­rate minde and with a great band pursued Iaa­cob (who fled from him), in hope to finde Iaa­cob vnprouided, & to ouerthrow his substāce. Yet this boldnesse of Laban God in a wonder­full manner kept vnder, forbidding him, not onely not to deale rashlie with Iaacob, but not so much as to speake rashlie to him; so God repressed this furious man, and compelled him to seeke his friendship, whom he went about to destroy. In the same manner, God made A­lexander the great (an insolent and proud king, displeased with his people (that is) the Iewes, whom in hope he had now deuoured and de­stroyed) so quiet as a sheepe, and brought him to wonder at thē, and to preserue them whom he went to destroy.

But the Successors of Alexander, some of whom ruled Asia, & some Egypt, afflicted the Iewes afterwards with diuers miseries, be­cause when the one lay in waite for the others life, wealth and Kingdome, and destroyed thē ­selues through mutuall warres, both of them aimed at Iudea, as a reward of victoire. These [Page 30] Histories which Daniel hath set downe in few words, prophane Writers haue at large layde downe in their Writings:In the Image legs, chapt 2. fourth beast chap. 7 buckes hornes chap. 8. and in a proper speach, chapt. 11. and 12. from which wee vnderstand the word of God to be most true, and all things to be gouerned by diuine decree and prouidence. Neither doo we acknow­ledge the Church of God to bee subiect vnto the iniuries of tyrants, without his certaine ap­pointment. And there are extant learned inter­pretations vpon Daniel, not onely of auncient Diuines, but also of later, and of our time, by the which his Visions and the Histories there­too pertaining are expounded. There are also added to Daniels writings, certaine mens Cro­nicles, by the which manie histories of Scrip­ture are opened and explaned: wherefore we neede not (in this place) be anie longer in the expounding of the Greeke and Romane Mo­narchies,There is no word in Dani­el which hand­leth the Ro­manes dealing against the lewes: vntill they denie and kill Christ, af­ter the 490. Y. for which time their citie was called, the holy Citie. There onely the Ro­manes be no­ted, and tear­med a wing or campe of Infi­dels, or abho­minable. which are handled shortly in Daniels writings; yet to those Monarchies Iudea be­came subiect, euen as to the Persian Monarchy these sixtie and two seuens. But we will one­ly by the way note this in this argument, that the Greekish Monarchie is called that power of Alexander the great and his Successours, which was afterwards ouerthrowen by the Romans: as afterwards also the Romans (which obscured all others) was ouerthrowen by the Gothes. But it is therefore callec the Greekish Monarchie, because in the 8. of Daniel, the 21. vers. the Goate bucke (which is Alexander the [Page 31] great) is said to bee the King of the Graecians. For by a common consent of all Graecia, at a Councell helde at Corinth, Alexander the great was declared Emperour of Graecia to pursue the Persians by warre.The not able horne in the forehead of the Bucke is the first King of Iauan Dan. 8. Whereby it came to passe, that the Macedonian Empire of Alexāder is named in Scripture the Graecian, long before that Alexander was borne. But Philip the Fa­ther of Alexander the great, hauing ouercome the Graecians at Chaeronea, commaunded him­selfe to be called (not the King, but) the Duke of Graecia, as Iustine in his ninth booke decla­reth: whose example Alexander the great fol­lowing, summoning the Cities of Graecia to appeare at Corynth, after he had setled the state of the Kingdome, hee caused himselfe to bee chosen Duke of Graecia in his fathers place, as Iustine declareth in his eleuenth. Therefore be­ing chosen the Reuenger of Graecia (so often­times inuaded by the Persians) inuaded Asia: which he subdued with that speede, as the ho­lie Oracles before opened to Daniel, and had declared and denounced; that those who mer­uaile at the felicitie of Alexander, His Kingdome is a Leopard with 4. wings. Dan, 7. and (as it is commonly called) the fortune, are to be sent to the diuine decrees ouer Kingdomes, and to be admonished of the diuine will & prouidence; on which the condition & state of all men de­pendeth. Therefore, what the Kingdome of Alexander the great was like to be, & how to bee diuided vnto maine, it is easie to bee found [Page 32] out of Daniel. In the which, it is to be marked, that by reason of the scituation of Iudea, the Kings of the North are said to be the Kings of Asia, and the Kings of the South are called the Kings of Egypt, proceeding from Ptolome­us the sonne of Lagus.

Now there resteth & is remaining one sea­uen, which is the last & the seuentith; wherof also sme thing must be said, seeing it compre­hendeth the Ministerie of Christ the Lord & his death,Ephes, 1. in which is the fulnes of times. Of the which it is thus prophecied in the 9. of Daniel the 27. ver. But he shall confirme the coue­nant for many in The Hebrue might be bet­ter translated for plaines but for smal things men should not fight. one seuen, & in the half of the last seuen shall cease offring & sacrifice, and in the Tē ­ple shalbe abhomination of desolation, and desolati­on shall continue vntill a consummation and ende. Which words in part are rather taken out of some Greeke Interpreter, than out of the He­brue text; and whether they be taken out of the seuentie Interpreters, the proper interpre­tation of this verse in the Greeke Copies prin­ted at Strausburge in the yeare of our Lord 1526. maketh somewhat doubtfull.

If anie enquire after the Hebrue,The Greek & Hebrue are o­mitted (which bare English men neede not to be troubled with) though he set them downe. and desi­reth to know, let them heare and vnderstand that the words may be thus translated, And one seauen shall confirme the couenaunt for manie: and the halfe of that seuen shall cause to cease Sacrifice and Offering, and euerie one shall bee a­mazed, for the extremitie of abhomination & de­solation [Page 33] shall drop vpon the astonished,Whereas Mat. Beroaldus ex­poundeth the halfe seuen, & not onely the time of our Lords death, to conteine the ministerie of doctrine, which maketh strong the couenaunt for many, that is, the heathē: and the same time to cause sacrifice to cease: as well by the doctrine teaching of that, as by the Lords verie death: Of this the reader is to be admonished least he should thinke him to say, that Christ should die in halfe that sea­uen: whereof he is of some vniustly bla­med: as also an other of his iudgement.euen vnto a certaine destruction.

But in this place, wee must chieflie looke vnto the Hebrue, because the Latine & Greek doth expound and signifie, in the halfe of that last seauen the sacrifices shall cease. Which was not so, neither doo the Hebrew wordes teach that: which say, The halfe of that last seuen will adde an ende to the sacrifice and ceremonies of the lawe. But the halfe of that seauen, signifieth those things which are done in the last seauen of all, which brought an ende to the ceremo­niall lawe of Moses, the eternall couenaunt of God, concerning our saluation by Christ the Lord, being declared stable and firme. But af­terwards there was nothing to be lookt for to the Citie Ierusalem & to the vnbeleeuers (who contemned God calling them) but a beadroule of miseries, which should destroy Ierusalem, & enwrap the Iewish people, rebellious and dis­obedient to God, in infinite calamities.

But those things brought an ende to the ce­remonies of the lawe, which were done in the halfe of the last seauen; which teach that Ie­sus Christ was made manifest, Iohn Baptist be­ing the publisher & foremessenger of so great a good. To whom God spake whilest hee li­ued in the desert, giuing him commandements which he should put in practise, then when it was the 15. yeare of Tiberius Caesars Empire, as it is written in the third of Luke: where these [Page 34] things are thus set downe; But in the 15. yeare of the reigne of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being Lieutenant of Iudea, and Herode Tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip Tetrarch of Iturea and of the Region of Traconitis, and Lysama Tetrarch of Abilena, Ananias and Cai­phas beeing the high Sacrificers, the word of the Lord came vnto Iohn the sonne of Zacharie, being in the wildernesse: And he came into all the coun­trey of Iordan, preaching the baptisme of repen­tance for remission of sinnes. It appeareth there­fore out of these words of the Euangelist Luke that after his commission & commaundement giuen from heauen, Iohn came into all the Re­gion nere Iordan, preaching the baptisme of repentance for remission of sinnes: who whi­lest he baptised the people, washeth Christ the Lord (beginning to be thirtie yeare olde) with the washing of baptisme, as it is taught in the same third chapter of Luke the Euangelist, in these words; And it came to passe when all the people was baptized, and Iesus had been baptized and was praying, the heauen opened: And the holy Spirit descended in a corporall forme as a Doue vpon him, and a voice came from heauen; Thou art my sonne, in thee I am well pleased. And Iesus be­gan to be as it were thirtie yeare olde.

Now this obseruation of the age of the Lord, and of the Romane Emperour Tiberius is not lightlie to bee passed ouer, because from thence is the certaine knowledge of the death [Page 35] of the Lord and his age, as also of the ende of the seuentie seuens of Daniel. Now wee haue alreadie shewed the death of our Lord Iesus Christ, to be the limit and ende of Daniels sea­uentie seauens, which wee can easelie gather into what instance of time they fall out. And we know from the historie of the Gospel, that Christ the Lord was crucified that day in the which the Passeouer was to be offered by eue­rie familie; which was the fourteenth day of the first moneth, that is March, as the account of the olde yeare was vsuallie taken, as before hath been declared in the account of moneths and yeares. Therefore the 14. day of the mo­neth of March (which to the Hebrues is Ni­san, and is the first moneth of the ciuile yeare amongst the people of God) is the ende and conclusion of the seauentie seauens; because then the Lord is dead: whom Daniels Prophe­cie witnesseh (in the time of the halfe last sea­uen) to haue performed amongst men the du­tie of a true teacher and sauiour. Also the hi­storie of the gospel, which remembreth foure feasts of Easter after his baptisme (as Andreas Osiander hath learnedly gathered and expoun­ded in his edition of the Harmonie of the gos­pell) frō whence is gathered both the certaine age of Christ while he liued vppon earth, and the certaine time of his death. For because Christ the Lord was baptised the 15. yeare of Tiberius Caesar, & was then baptised, when he [Page 36] began to bee thirtie yeares of age, (as it is ex­pounded in Luke the Euangelist the 3. chapter) trulie he must suffer death for vs on the crosse the eighteenth yere of Tiberius, then when he was three and thirtie yeares olde; that is, when he had fullie accomplished thirtie two yeares and a halfe: for the halfe of the last seauen cō ­teineth three yeares and a halfe; in which is anoynted the Holie of Holiest, Christ Iesus, and declared King of his heauenlie Father vp­on Mount Sion, by whom our sinnes were thē to be purged. Moreouer, the sacrifices of the Lawe were to be taken away by the death of the immaculate Lambe; that is, the Lord le­sus Christ, after hee had on earth finished the dutie of a true teacher and prophet. But he be­gan to teach and to manifest himselfe to be the true Messias or Christ, when he began his 30. yeare, but in that function he spent three yere and a halfe. From whence the thirtieth yeare of his age is the first of his Ministerie, then the 31. the second, and the 32. the third: in the which Christ the Lord was the Minister of circumcision. From whence the thirtie & three yeare of his age, in the midst where of he fullie finished his ministerie, shalbe said the halfe yeare of the last half seauen, in the which were fulfilled all the prophecies of the Pro­phetes concerning our saluation purchased by Christ the Lord the three and thirtieth yere of his age. But that three & thirtieth yeare of the [Page 37] Lord vnexpired, falleth into the eighteenth Y. of Tiberius Caesar; because in the fifteenth yere of Tiberius, beginneth the thirtie of the Lord: whereby the one and thirtieth yeare of our Lord falleth into the sixteenth yeare of Tibe­rius, and his thirtie two yeare runneth into the seuenteenth yeare of Tiberisn, then the three and thirtieth yeare of the Lord, must needes be referred to the eighteenth yeare of Tiberius: which because they be grounded on the testi­monies of holie Scripture, and not on the vn­certaine opinions of men, they appeare to bee true and certaine.

But that the Lord Iesus Christ accompli­shed two and thirtie yeares & a halfe on earth, the auncient Church also acknowledged, as reuerent Bed a hath witnessed in his booke of the Nature of things, the fortie seuenth chap­ter: whose words are these; For the faith of the Church (if I am not deceiued) embraceth this, that the Lord liued in the flesh somewhat more than two and thirtie yeares vnto the time of his passion; be­cause he was baptized at thirtie yeres, as the Euan­gelist Luke witnesseth, and preached three Y. & an halfe after his baptisme, as Iohn teacheth in his Gospel, not onely by the time of the Passeouer, but also in his Reuelation. Daniel also in his vision ap­pointeth the very same propheticallie. Surely the holy & apostolike Church of Rome testifieth, that she reckoneth this faith euen by those notes, which she vseth yerely to write in her waxe things: In Cere [...]. where [Page 38] calling into the peoples minde the time of the Lords passion, noteth alwaies three and thirtie yeare lesse than Dionysius reckoneth from his incarnation. These things Beda deliuereth of the age of the Lord Iesus. But I am ignorantCarthusia­nus ap. 11. ex­poundeth Beda That by dayes 1260. must bee vnderstood all the time of the Euangel call lawe: because Christ had preached so long a time: Beda vnder­stood that time to haue been an allusion to the time of our Lords prea­ching. what place of the Reuelation teacheth it: but we may think that this was confessed in olde time by some receiued Cabala or tradition. Eusebius in his 8. booke & second chapter of the demonstration of the Gospell confirmeth this, saying; Surely it hath been recorded in written Storie, that all the time of the teaching and dooing of miracles of our Sauiour was three yeares and a halfe: which is truly the halfe of one seauen. In a sort Iohn the E­uangelist will declare this to them who shall atten­tiuely consider his Gospell. Thus farre Eusebius. Afterwards Abbas Vspergensis saith in the life of Tiberius; The three and thirtieth yeare of his incarnation, our Lord Iesus suffered in his flesh and rose again. Also Nicephorus Callistus concludeth the first booke of his histories thus; This first booke of histories conteineth three & thirtie yeres, the beginning taken from the two and fortieth yere of the reigne of Augustus Caesar now wexing old; in the which our Lord Iesus Christ (with flesh) came foorth of the holie Virgine: but the ende ending in the eighteenth yeare of Tiberius Caesars reigne: which truly is from the creatiō of the world He followeth the Greekes most grosse er­rour by mista­king the Sep­tuaginta vpon Gen. 15▪ & 11 5538. but was from the birth of our Lord three and thir­tie. These out of manie may suffice: from which it is apparant that the time of the life of [Page 39] the Lord Iesus on earth was well knowen to the auncient Fathers. Whereof yet the Di­uines of our time doo so dispute, that a matter of it selfe plaine enough, they doo so enwrap and infolde, that it is very hard for them to vn­loose themselues from their trifling lets.

Therefore in the eighteenth yeare of Tibe­rius, and the three and thirtieth of Christ the Lord, we haue concluded the seuentie seuens of Daniel; which, to what yeares of the Olym­piades, The 4 yeare of the Olympiad 202. supposing his owne ac­cōpt to be true, as he placed Cyrus: other­wise Olympi­ades are of no certaintie. or to the Citie of Rome, or to the creati­on of the world they are to bee referred, may most certainly be gathered out of the continu­ance and comparison of times, determined by the authoritie of holie Scripture as is noted in the Table. But the eighteenth yere of Tiberius is the fourescore & 4. yeare from the building of Rome; 784. but of the world created three thou­sand nine hundred sixtie one:For one yeares difference, a modest student will not striue. which notation of time to be diligentlie considered, and not to be ouerpassed careles or slothfullie, the oracles of the Prophets concerning these matters doo declare.A speciall point. For if by proper scrip­ture from A­dam deriued, our Lords time of suffering might not be shewed, a mat­ter most need­ful & wished of al, had been omitted, but God omitteth nothing good for vs. But so diligent a care and careful­nesse which the Scripture vseth in noting downe these times shuld sharpen our diligence and shake out of vs all sluggishnes; wherefore there is no reason why this our paines should be despised of anie or misliked, seeing it consi­steth and is grounded on the word of GOD, and not on the traditions or opinions of men. But by this we vnderstād that the knowledge [Page 40] of these times do chieflie concerne vs, because they were written for vs, who are come to those acceptable times & to that grace, which we haue also obteined; which trulie now lōg agoe hath been prophecied by the oracles and foretellings of the Prophets. For as the Apo­stle Peter saith in the first chapter of his first e­pistle; Of this saluation the Prophets enquired & searched, who prophecied of the grace to come on you, searching in what time, or after what season the spirit of Christ which was in thē, did foretel the suffrings which should come to Christ, and his glorie to come: to whom it was reuealed, that not for themselues but for vs they did showe those things which now are declared vnto vs by thē who preach the Gospel vnto vs, the holie spirit hauing been sent from heauen, which things the Angels desire to be­hold. So Peter the Apostle commendeth the greatnes of the grace communicated vnto vs in his time, foretold and foreended by the Pro­phets; that the Angels also doo admire it, and doo desire to behold the complement thereof; whereof that the elect be not defrauded, wee must striue by all meanes.

The fruite also which floweth from these times is not to be omitted, because theThe Iewes feare dispu­ting vpon this text: more than anie o­ther, and lest meddle with it in their com­ments. Iewes by the demonstration of them, may be cōuin­ced, to yeeld yet at the length vnto Christ, and rest themselues in Christianitie, and leaue off to blaspheame. To which purpose wee must not onelie ioyne Daniels seuens, but also Iaa­cobs [Page 41] prophecie, which is in this sort in the 49. of Genesis 10. The Scepter shall not be taken from Iuda, nor a Ruler out of his loynes till Silo come: that is his son, to wit Iuda, and he shalbe the ex­pectation of the Gētiles. Zoar vpō that place doth con­fesse the na­ture of God conteined in Shiloh, and most Rabbines expound that place of Christ. For that this ver. is thus to be interpreted the Rabbines also confesse, the truth compelling them: for they say, Silo signi­fieth Beno, that is, His sonne; which is the Mes­sias Christ the Lord, the sonne of Iuda. For Christ the Lord rose from Iuda, as is confir­med and taught by the Scriptures. Heb. 8. 14. To this the Prophecie and testimonie of Ag­gey the Prophet beeing added is of no small force, in which the ancient Rabbines acknow­ledge the presence of Christ the Lord to bee signified, with the which hee was to beautefie the second Temple, which place is cited out of the 2. Aggey the 8. And I will mooue all Na­tions, and the desired shall come to all the Gentiles, and I will fill the house with glorie saith the Lord of hoasts. Thus farre Beroaldus.

Now that the said seauens of Daniel may the more easelie be vnderstood, because many Interpreters both Graecians & Latines, haue in certaine places departed from the Hebrue text, shall be added in this place an interpretation as neere answering the Hebrue words as we can Dan. 9. 24.Because it is not good to haue differing translations for smal points is one kingdom this for his, was borrowed from a defen­der of his iudg­ment. SEVENTIE SEVENS (of yeares) are cut out, for thy people, and for thy holy Ci­tie: to consume wickednes, & to abolish sinnes, and to make reconciliation for iniquitie, and to [Page 42] bring righteousnes euerlasting, and to seale Vi­sion and Prophet, & to shew CHRIST the HO­LIE of HOLIE. Know then & marke: from the outgoing of the Word, to returne & to build Ierusalem, vnto CHRIST the GOVERNOVR, shal be seuen seuens (of yeares) and sixtie & two seuens: in the other it shalbe restored and build­ed, Streete and Wall: and troublous shall these times be.Though these words be not in the text: yet for light of the argument, they may well be vsed: so doo the best that profes folowing of the Hebrue. They think it no departing from the He­brue to adde words for ex­plication, and nothing is more vsuall. It is maruell that some of iudgement blame so vsuall and lawfull a matter. In that after the sixtie and two seuens CHRIST shalbe killed, and not for himselfe: thereupon the Citie and holy place shall hee de­stroy, the GOVERNORS own people to come: and their ende shalbe with a Flood: and at the ende of warre, it shall haue a finall iudgement to desolation. But he shal confirme the Testament for manie the last Seauen: when in HALFE THAT SEAVEN he shall finish the Sacrifice & Oblation. Afterwards by an Armie abhomina­ble he shall make a desolation: euen till vtter de­struction and finall Iudgement flowe vpon the desolate.

The iudgement of Henrie Wolphius touch­ing Beroaldus, may fitly be ioyned here.

THe fourth Article of the time changed, be­ing the seuenth of the olde testament, con­teineth foure hundred and ninetie yeares, Da­niels seauentie weekes. It beginneth from the first yeare of Cyrus, and endeth in the ioyfull & most famous Iubilee of all Iubilees, in the yeare wherein Christ suffred, being the truth of that type or figure.

[Page 43] Daniels words concerning those seauentie seauen are diuerselie interpreted by the lear­ned: but in my iudgement of all other most learnedlie and most truelie hath Matthew Be­roald, in his Cronicle deliuered the minde of the Prophet. The seuentie begins from the go­ing foorth of the Word, to repaire and reedi­fie Ierusalem, to wit of that Word which is set down in the second of the Chr. and the last. verse. Neither frō anie other time can this be­ginning be set down: for the Citie & Temple are not repayred in one yere.

Furthermore, when the Prophet diuideth the seuens into two parts, into seuen and sixtie and two seauens: the first Seuen he referres to the troublesome times, in the which the street & ditch are said to be renued and built againe: which is certainlie knowen to haue been fini­shed in fortie and nine yeares. Thirdly, he doth so interpret the words of the Prophet (that is, And after sixtie and two seauens Christ shalbe kil­led) that he saith these seuens be ended in the passion of Christ, and after this that there was nothing to be looked for, but a finall destructi­on and desolation of the Citie and Temple; all which are most notorious. And in the 24. ver. he doth so describe the ende of the seuens, that it cannot otherwise be vnderstood then to fall out in the passion of Christ. For he saith, To consume impietie, to shut vp sinne, to purge iniqui­tie, to bring in euerlasting iustice, to fulfil vision & [Page 44] prophet, & to annoint the Holie of Holiest. Who knoweth not that these things wer performed when Christ said, All things are finished? To conclude that which is said, And in the halfe of the seauen he shall cause to cease oblation and sacri­fice, is trulie expounded of Christs preaching which he began in the fourth yeare of the last seauen.

To this may be added a parcell of Bucholce­rus words touching the exposition of the last halfe seuen for the vse of them that little are acquainted with this part of Scripture: but some words of his where the matter well suffereth, shalbe omitted: such as would require a long speach vpon them.

LEt vs come to the declaration of the residue of the 9. of Daniel, in the which the ende of the seuentie seuens is described. The first seauen seauens are 49. yeares, because euerie seauen cō ­teineth seauen yeares. Those former 49. yeares runne out vnder Esdra and Nehemias reedifying the Temple. To these let there be added sixtie and two seauens, that is to say 434▪ yeare, & they surmouut vnto sixtie and nine weekes, or 483. There remaineth one seauen, that is the last sea­uen: in the halfe whereof Christ did teach three yeare & a halfe, till by his death vpon the crosse he purged sinne and ended the seuens.

Diuersitie of exposition grewe by reason of this; He shall confirme the couenant for manie in one [Page 45] seauen. For that the seauenth yeare, or last of the last seauen might be complete: manie haue ex­tended the ende of the seauens, vnto the preach­ing of the Apostles, and to the 4. yeare after the death of Christ. Others haue been of another opinion.

We (by their fauour) doo thinke that Dani­el plainlie pointed out the person and the course of life of the onely Messias, & that by great ad­uise the last seuen is deriued from all the former. For the halfe of the last seauen doth belong vnto the Messias and to his wonderfull workes: that seauen tolde the Messias to be come, in that sea­uen Christ the Annoynted began to teach, he esta­blished a new lawe and abrogated the olde, hee tooke away sinne, cleansed iniquitie, fulfilled the prophecies, he finished the work of redemption and brought eternall righteousnes. Neither can these seuens which Daniel here mentioneth, be ascribed vnto the Apostles, that is, to cleanse sinne, to take away iniquitie, to bring righteous­nes; for this is the dutie of the onely Messias: to the finishing whereof, Daniel saith the last seuen is appointed: and he saith this twice, first gene­rallie and then speciallie. Generallie, He shal con­firme the couenant in one seauen. Speciallie, In the halfe of the seauen he shall make to cease the Sacrifice. So that is generall, After 62. weekes Christ shalbe slaine. Where it might be doubted, whether im­mediately after the 62. weekes fullie ended, the Messias was to be slaine. The particular there­fore which teacheth the confirmation of the co­uenant or Christs preching to be tied to the half of the last seuen, expoundeth the generalitie of both. Therefore it is not Daniels meaning, He will confirme the couenant in one seauen, that is to say, [Page 46] the last yet running out and continuing. Yet least the time of Christs ministerie shuld be referred vn­to all the last seauen, or to the beginning there­of; he addeth by way of correction, in the halfe of the last seauen: that at once hee might teach Christs ministery should bee referred to the last half of the last seauen.Though ma­ny Translaters runne on the middle of the seauen: yet many the eldest and the late, follow the pro­prietie of the Hebrue word: which most of­ten is taken for halfe, & neuer for middle, but when the mat­ter forceth that significa­tion. But the whole sum of 490. yeare here suffreth it not to be wrested. Otherwise, if 3. yere & a halfe be reckoned from the beginning of that seauen, and be ended in the midst thereof; sea­uentie weekes should not be accomplished but 69. seauens & a halfe that is 487. yere, not 490.

Reuerent Beda saw this: who in his booke of the account of times the 7. chapter, writeth af­ter this manner; Christ was not staine immediately after the 62. seauens, but in the ende of the seuentieth seauen: which so farre as we can coniecture he separa­ted from the other, because he was to speak more of this hereafter. For both Christ was crucified in that, and of a faithlesse people he was denied, not onely at his pas­sion, but continuallie from the time when Iohn began to preach him. The halfe of the last seauen was the 15 yeare of Tiberius Caesar, when after the baptisme of Christ, the cleansing by sacrifices amongst the faith­full began to be contemned. Thus farre Beda. More of Bucholcerus the Reader may fetch frō himself.

The Conclusion.

This Treatise was thought needfull in this time, wherein some would make this Prophecie of Dan. 9 to bee worse than nothing: as speaking of a certaine number of yeres, to mens o­pinion hethertoo, but not so to bee vnderstood. Therein the Iewes woulde triumph ouer all Christians, that viged this prophecie for describing Christs time: and Christian should ken small thankes for that newe opinion, as also little to them that cannot see this point to be of speciall vse. Here Stran­gers opinions were brought, to stay the rashnes of the vnlear­ned, who thinke all things new that they know not. The Wri­ter of the obseruations vpon this, translated by I▪ A. (a friend of his) in an Apologie of his owne writeth more at large vppon that. The Lord giue iudgement in all points.


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