THE VARIETIE of Memorable and worthy matters.

By Walter Owsolde.


Imprinted at London by I. R. for Ieffery Charl­ton and are to be solde at his shoppe, at the great North doore of Paules. 1605.

To the Right vvorshipfull Sir Willi­am Romney, Knight and Alderman of the Cittie of London.

RIght Worshipfull, you may iustly thinke I am very bold, be­ing in respect a stranger vnto you, to offer vp these lines to your fauorable censure, yet the loue & good affection which I owe to your worship for some sufficient causes: may fully excuse my rashnes in that behalfe: and considering withall your gen­tle disposition, hoping you will take in good part this meane gift, not respecting the value therof but the good will of the giuer, as did that woorthy King accepting with gentle hart a draught of water of a simple hind, so I expecting you will curteously vouchsafe the patro­nizing of these simple collexions, although there be nothing woorthy your reviewing contained therein, yet if you grant it but the rea­ding, you may finde some matter which may eyther delight you, by bringing into your remembrance such memorable & worthy things as haue hapned in former ages, or driue other drousie thoughts out of your mind: which if it so come to passe, I shall haue the ful scope of my desires, and be the more bolde an other time to offer to your view some thing of better worth. And so I leaue you to the merci­full protection of Almighty God, whom I beseech to blesse you with increase of worship, long life, and eternall happines.

Yours to commaund Walter Owsold.

To the curtious Reader.

WHen I consider with my selfe gentle Reader, of the sundry kinds of delights which men of diuers natures take pleasure in: as som in reading ancient histories, whereof there are many sorts and kinds containing the amorous discourses of young gallants, with the liues of their enamored Mistresses, liuely disciphering foolish dotage in old men & stale widdowes, with the inconuenience of matching old age and wilfull youth together, and againe: some take pleasure in reading Chronicles, declaring the fa­mous and worthy acts of valiant Captaines, and famous Go­uerners, with the changes and alterations of former times, which may much profite men of all sorts. Therfore I thought good to publish this small Treatise, taken and collected out of diuers ancient learned and well approoued authors, not vn­necessary to be had in remembrance, which I hope the learned will take in good part, because it saueth them a labour in per­using ouer diuers volumes, to find the time and place where and when the matters heerein expressed, were begonne, per­formed, continued, and ended; and as for the other sort I hope they cannot mislike it, treating of matters which with­out this booke they should neuer haue knowne: and so I leaue it to your fauourable censure.

Yours as you like this Booke, W. O.

The Table.

  • THE foure parts of the World. page, 1.
  • The foure Monarchies. page, 1.
  • The sixe ages of the World. page, 2.
  • The seauen wonders of the World. page, 4.
  • The seauen Wisemen of Greece. page, 5.
  • The tenne Sibylls. page, 6.
  • The twelue Apostles with theyr martyrdoms. page, 9.
  • The ten persecutions of Christians vnder the Romaine Em­perours. page, 11.
  • The eight times that Rome hath been taken. page, 11.
  • The seauen Electors of the Emperours of Germanie. pa. 14.
  • The three Crownes of the Emperour. page, 14.
  • The twelue Peers or Pairs of Fraunce. page, 14.
  • The eyght Parliaments of Fraunce. page, 15
  • The seauen Saxon Kingdoms that England was once deui­ded into. page, 17
  • Fiue Orders of Chiualrie which continue at this day among Princes. page, 8
  • The xiij. Cantons of Swisserland. pag. 22.

The foure parts of the world.

ASIA, so called of the Daughter of Ocean and Thetis, or as some say, of Asia the son of Ma­neé King of Lidia: is seperated from Europe by the riuer Tanais, nowe called Don, by the sea called in time past Palus Meotides, now Mare de Zabache: and by Pontus Euxinus, now Mer maiour: and by part of the Mediterranian sea: and frō Africk by the riuer of Nile.

Europe, that old Writers coniecture to be so called of Eu­ropa, daughter of Agenor King of Libia, is seperated from Asia as is already showne; and from Africk by the Mediter­ranean Sea.

Africke, which some say is so called of one Affer, of the line of Abraham, is seperated from Europe by the Mediterra­nean sea, and from Asia by the riuer of Nile.

America, or West-India, so called of Americus Vespusius, but first found out by Christopher Columbus of Genua, the yere of our Lord 1492. It is in manner of an Iland, round about enuironed with the great Ocean sea.

The foure Monarchies.

THE first Monarchie was of the Assirians, founded by Ninus about the yere of the World 2220. augmented by the Queene Semiramis, and after it had endured the terme of 1300 yeeres, it was translated by Arbactus vnto the Medes: and there hauing endured 350 yeeres, it was lost by Astia­ges, and conquered by Cyrus.

The second Monarchie was of the Persians, founded by Cyrus, the yeere of the World 3425, which after it had endu­red 191 yeere, was lost by Darius, and subdued by Alexander the great.

[Page 2]The third Monarchie was of the Grecians, founded by A­lexander the great, in the yeere of the world 3634, and before Christ 320 yeeres; after whose death it was deuided among the Prefects, which in his life time he had appointed in diuers countries: by which diuision Seleucus was King nf Syria, Pto­lomeus of Egipt, Antigonus of Asia, Cassander of Macedonia & Greece: all which coūtries were after subdued by the Romans.

The fourth Monarchie or Empire was of the Romans, foun­ded by Iulius Caesar, the yere of the world 3914, after the buil­ding of Rome 706 yeeres, and before Christ 47 yeeres. This Monarchie florished about the space of 470 yeeres, till that af­ter the death of Theodosius the great, it was deuided by his two sons into two Empires: Arcadius was Emperour of Constanti­nople, which Empire endured (though afterwards much dimi­nished by the inuasions of barbarous nations) vntill the yeere of our Lord 1453, and then was quite lost by Constantine, and conquered by Mahomet second king of Turks. Honorius was Emperor of Rome, which Empire shortly after, in the yeere of our Lord 475, & about the ninth month of the raine of Au­gustus, was vtterly ruinated by Othacar king of Goths. And long after, the yere of our Lord 801 it was restored by Charles the great, and by him vnited to the crowne of France: and by his successors translated into Germanie, where it yet remaineth as a shadow onely, or representation of the greatnes and ma­iestie of the ancient Romaine Empire.

The sixe ages of the World.

IN the deuiding of these ages, there is great contrarietie of opinions among Writers: for that some follow the com­putation of the 72 Interpreters, & some follow the Hebrues, and the cōmon text of the Bible. The first age from the crea­tion of the world till the vniuersall flood, endured according to the Hebrues 1656 yeeres, which agreeth with the saying of Saint Hierom, Bede, Filo, and the common text of the Bible. The Seauentie two Interpreters, and Eusebius hold that it en­dured 2242 yeeres, and Saint Austine is of opinion, that it endured 2272. Of this age few or no things are recited wor­thy [Page 3] of memory.

The second age from Noe his floud till the birth of Abra­ham, endured according to the 72 Interpretours, Eusebeus, and the greatest part of writers 942: and according to the Hebrewes but 292 yeares: Saint Austin counteth 172 yeares. In this age was builded The tower of confusion: the Em­pire of the Assirians beganne, and the great Citty of Niniue was builded, which contained in circuit three daies iour­ney.

The third age from Abraham to Dauid, endured by the agreement of all Authors 942 yeares. During this age was the peregrination of Abraham: the beginning of the Amazones, Sodom and Gommorre were destroyed: Ioseph was sold to the Egiptians: Moises passed the red Sea: Iob the iust: Iason con­quered the golden Fleece: the destruction of Troy: the La­tins beganne to raigne in Italie.

The fourth age from the beginning of the raigne of Da­uid, till the peregrination of the Iewes into Babilon, endured 485 yeares: during this age the Empire of Assirians was trans­lated to the Medes, the Olimpiades of the Grecians beganne: Carthage was builded by Dido, & Rome by Romulus: Byzance was also builded: the distruction of Ierusalem by Nabucodono­zor, and thereupon the captiuitie of the Iewes.

The fift age from the transmigration of Babilon to the com­ming of Christ, endured by the agreement of all, 589 yeares. During this age Cyrus beganne the Monarchie of the Persi­ans: the 70 yeare of this age the Iewes returned to their Coun­trie: Consuls began to rule in Rome: Zerxes inuaded Greece with an armie of 1000000 men: Plato, Aristotle, and De­mostenes flourished with many other worthy Philosophers: Alexander wonne the Monarchie of the world: the distructi­on of Carthage by the Romaines: Caesar vsurped the Empire of Rome.

The Sixt age beganne at the birth of our sauiour Christ, which yet endureth, and shall endure to the end of the world.

The seauen wonders of the world.

THe first, were the walls of Babilon, built by Semiramis, of stone ioyned together with a strange kind of slimie and gluish morter, which groweth in the mines of those Coun­tries, and especially in the lake where stoode in time past So­dome and Gommorre, now called Asfaltide. These walls accor­ding to the towne, were built in quadrangle, and contained in circuit (as sayeth Plinie in the 26 Chapter of his sixt booke) 60 miles; so that euery square was fifteene mile long; they were 200 foote high, and fiftie foote thicke: and to builde these walls were hired by Semiramis, out of diuers Countries for a long space, 300000 men.

The second, was the Piller of the sonne, offered by the Gen­tiles vnto Iupiter. This Piller stoode in the Ile of Rodes, and was made of yron, in the forme of a man of incredible great­nesse; in so much that a man might scarce fadom the great finger thereof. After it had stood 56 yeares, it fell downe by reason of an earthquake, and so lay till the Iland was wonne by the Souldan of Egipt; who carried so much mettell away, as loaded 900 Camels.

The third, were the Piramides of Egipt: among the which there is one especially noted, about the Cittie of Memphis, now called the great Caire; this Piramis couered about 40 acres of land, at the foote or foundation thereof; it was all built of marble stone, and in the building thereof were im­ployed continually, for the space of 20 yeares, 3600000 men: and for the sustenance of these workmen, was disburst in ra­dish and such other rootes 1800 talents, which according to our reckening is the summe 1880000 crownes: this might seeme vncredible, were it not that it is affirmed by so many authors of authoritie.

The fourth, was the Mausol, of Mausol King of Caria, and husband to Artemisia so called: this woman for the great loue she bare to her spouse, burned his dead corps, and dranke the pouder thereof, thinking no Sepulcher so worthy thereof, as her owne body; and the rest of the pouder she buried in this [Page 5] famous Tomb, the stone whereof was of an excellent kind of marble: it was 411 feete in circuit, and 25 cubits high, and was enuironed about with 36 Pillers of stone, wonderfully well carued.

The fift, was the Temple of Diana, builded by the Ama­zones: it was 455 foote long, and 220 foote broad, and in it stood 127 marble Pillers, each of them being 70 foote high: the worke thereof was so wonderfull curious, that it was 220 yeares a making.

The sixt, was the image of Iupiter Olimpique, in Achaie; all of Porfire, an infinite number of little peeces ioyned together: this image beside the excellencie of the worke, is especially noted for the greatnesse thereof, and was the more famous by reason of the gamigs, called Olimpiades, there kept.

The seauenth, was the Tower Faros, nigh vnto Alexandria in Egipt, builded by Ptolomée Philadelphe King of Egipt, to direct the passengers which came to take hauen thereabouts, by burning of pitch, or other like things in the toppe: this Tower was of a meruailous height, and singuler workman­ship; the building whereof cost according to our money 480000 crownes. Some authors put for the seauenth won­der, the Gardens and Orchards vpon the walls of Babilon. O­thers put the Obelisque of Semiramis, which differreth in no­thing frō a Piramis, sauing that it is all of one stone: the Obe­lisque, Semiramis caused to be wraught, and taken out of the mountaines of Armenia: it was a hundreth and fifty foote high, and euery square was foure and twenty foote braod at the bottome; so that it contained in circuit 96 foote.

The seauen wise men of Greece.

Blas borne in the hauen Towne of Prieme, in the Coun­trie of Ionia.

Solon borne in the Iland of Salamine. Chilo borne in Lacede­monia. Cleobulus borne at Lind in the Ile of Rhodes. Pittacus borne at Mycilene in the Ile of Lesbos. Thales borne at Mileto in Greece. Periander King of Corinth.

The tenne Sibylles.

THe first was of Persia, called Samberta: which among o­ther Prophecies sayd. The womb of the Virgine shall be the saluation of Gentiles.

The second was of Libia, one of her Prophecies were. The day shall come that men shall see the King of all liuing things, and a Virgine Lady of the world shall hold him in her lap.

The third was Themis, surnamed Delphica, because shee was borne and prophecied, at Delphos. A Prophet shall bee borne of a Virgine.

The fourth was Cuméa, borne at Cimerie a Cittie of Campa­nia in Italia: who prophecied, that God should be borne of a Virgine, and conuerse among sinners.

The fift was the famous Erithraea, borne at Babilon: who especially prophecied a great part of our Christian religion, in certaine verses recited by Eusebeus; the first letters of euerie which verses being put together, make these words, Iesus, Christ, Son of God, Sauiour. These verses are translated into Latine by Saint Austine Lib. 18, and 23, de ciuitate dei: the substance whereof followeth. The earth shall sweate signe of iudgement: from heauen shall come a King which shall raigne for euer, that is to say, in humaine flesh, to the end that by his presence he iudge the world, so the vnfaithfull aswell as the faithfull shall see God with their eies aloft among his Saints; and in the end of the world, the soules of men with their bodies shall appeare; whom hee shall iudge when the roundnesse of the earth, vntilled shall be full of clods of earth and grasse, men shall cast away their idols, and all their preci­ous Iewels, the world shall be consumed with fire, hee shall pierce the inferiour parts, and breake the gates of darke hell: then to the flesh of Saints shall be giuen free and cleere light, and the euill shall be burned with eternall fire, all secrets shall be opened, and euery one shall knowe the secret of his neigh­bour, and God shall discouer the consciences and harts of all men: then shall there be lamentation and gnashing of teeth, the Sunne and Starres shall loose their light, the firma­ment [Page 7] shall be dessolued, & the Moone shall be darkened, the mountaines shall be throwne downe, and the valeis shall bee made equall with them, there shall bee nothing in the world higher or lower then another, mountaines and valleis shall be made plaine, all things shall cease; the earth shall be dryed vn­to pouder and dust, the fountaines and riuers shall be burned likewise, then shall a trumpet sound from heauen in wofull & horrible manner, and the opening of the earth shall discouer confused and darke hell, with the torments and paines of the miserable condemned, and heere before the iudge shall come euery King: a riuer of fire & brimstone shal fall from heauen. Diuers other things were prophecied by this Sibylle: and be­cause they were obscure, and therefore not to be comprehen­ded by the Gentiles before they came to passe, she sayed of her selfe these words. They shall thinke me a false and blind Prophetisse; but when they shall see these things come to passe, they will remember me & call me no more a false Pro­phetisse, but a Prophetisse of the almighty God.

The sixt was called Samia, borne in the Ile of Samos, which said: Hee beeing rich shall be borne of a poore mayde; the creatures of the earth shall adore him, and praise him for euer.

The seauenth was called Cumana, because shee prophecied at Cumas a towne of Campania in Italie: shee prophecied that he should come from heauen, and raigne heere in pouerty: hee should rule in silence, and be borne of a virgen.

The eight was called Helespontica, borne at Marmise in the territorie of Troy. A woman shall descend of the Iewes called Marie, and of her shall be borne the sonne of God, named Iesus, and that without carnall copulation: for shee shall be a Virgen before and after his birth: he shall be both God and man, he shall fulfill the lawes of the Iewes, and shall adde his owne lawe thereunto: and his kingdome shall remaine for e­uer.

The ninth was of Frigia, and prophecied in the towne of Ancire, one of her sayings were; The Highest shall come frō heauen, and shall confirme the counsaile in heauen, and a vir­gen shall be shewed in the valleis of the deserts.

The tenth was Albunea, surnamed Tiburtina, because she [Page 8] was borne at Tiber, 15 mile from Rome. The inuisible Word shall be borne of a virgin: hee shall conuerse among sinners, and shall of them be despised. Lactantius Firmianus reherseth diuerse of their prophecies, without making any particular mention of them: they are to be referred specially notwith­standing (as it should seeme) vnto Sybilla Samberta, who wrote 24 Bookes in verse; chiefely intreating of the cōming, miracles, and life of Christ, whereunto, the sayings of all the other Sibylles are conformable.

S. Austine likewise in the 23 chapter of his 18 booke De ciuitate Dei, reciteth those prophecies as followeth. Then hee shall be taken by the wicked hands of the Infidels, and they shall giue him buffets on his face with theyr sacriledge hands, and they shall spit vppon him with theyr foule and cursed mouthes. Hee shall turne vnto them his shoulders suffering them to be whipped; yea hee shall holde his peace without speaking ere a word, to the end that none shall knowe from whence his words proceedeth. He shal also be crowned vvith thornes; they shall giue him gall to eate, & vineger to drinke: behold the feast that they shall make him: in so much that thou ignorant and blind people shall not know thy God con­uersing among men, but thou shalt crowne him with thornes, mingling for him gal and vineger. Then the vaile of the tem­ple shal rend, and at midde day it shal be darke night for the space of three houres. So the iust shal die the death, and his death or sleepe shall continue three dayes: and when he shall haue been in the bowels of the earth, hee shal resuscit and re­turne to life.

Lactantius moreouer, lib. 4. chap. 15. reherseth these pro­phecies of them. Hee shal raise the dead, the impotent and lame shall goe, and runne nimbly, the deafe shall heare, the blind shal see, the dumbe shall speake freely. And a little be­fore that, sayeth, with fiue loaues and two fishes, he shal nou­rish in the Deserts 5000 men, and the fragments thereof shall be sufficient to satisfie many more. Many other thinges were foretold by these Sibyls, as well of the ruines of great States as of Christ.

The twelue Apostles with theyr martyrdome.

IAmes the sonne of Zebedee, called maior, for that hee vvas chosen to be an Apostle, was sent to conuert Spayne, from whence by reason of the obstinacie of the people, (for he con­uerted in all but nine persons) hee returned shortly againe to preach in Iudea. Where by the enuy of a Iewish Bishop called Abiathar, he was accused, and beheadded by the consent of Herod Agrippa. His body was conuaied by his disciples first to Ierusalem, and from thence to Spayne, where it yet remaineth in Compostella a famous pilgrimage.

Iames the sonne of Alphey, called minor, for that hee vvas last chosen, hee was the first Bishop of Ierusalem, and that by the space of thirty yeeres: and then as he was preaching in the Temple, hee was throwne headlong downe by the Pharises, and by them stoned to death. He was buried by the Temple.

Simon by Christ called Peter, through the indignation of Nero, because he had ouercome Simon Magus, was crucified with his head downeward, according as he desired.

Saul, after his conuersion called Paul, after hee had endu­red and escaped many dangers and torments, as beating with rods, and put in the stocks by Philippus; stoned in Listria, de­liuered to wilde beasts in Ephesis, bound and beaten in Ierusa­lem, and many others: lastly came to Rome, whereby the com­maundment of Nero, hee was beheaded (because hee was a Romaine borne) the same day that Peter was crucified. Paule in steade of Iohn, because hee ended not his life with martir­dome.

Phillip, after hee had preached through the whole Countrie of Scythia, and conuerted a great part thereof in the space of 20 yeares, was at the last in the Cittie of Ierapolis (when hee had there extirped the heresie of the Hebeonits) fastened to the crosse, and so died.

Bartholmew went to preach in India, and afterward cam to Albania a Cittie of Armenia the greater, where he conuerted the King of that Cittie, and destroyed the idols, wherefore by the commaundment of Astiagus brother to the King Po­lemius, whom hee had conuerted, hee was flead quicke. His bodie was afterwards brought to Italie, and is as some say at [Page 10] Rome.

Andrew, Simon Peters brother, went first to preach in A­chaia, and afterward preached in Scithya: but lastly hee was taken at Patras a Cittie of Achaia, by Egeas, Proconsull of that Prouince: who because he had conuerted his wife Maximilla, cast him in prison, where he was sore beaten, and lastly stret­ched out and bound on a slope crosse, to augment his tor­ment, and so died.

Thomas preached the Gospell to the Parthians, Medes, Persi­ans, Hyrcanians, Bragmans, and conuerted a great part of India. He was by the infidells throwne into a burning furnace, and came out vnhurt. Finally, because he prayed God to destroy the idole of the sonne, which the infidells would haue com­pelled him to worship, hee was by them thrust through with speares and swords.

Mathew, after he had preached much in Iudea, he went in­to Ethiopia, & there conuerted the greatest part of that Coun­trie. Finally, hauing newly ended his prayers, and lefting vp his hands to heauen by the altar, certaine spies came behinde him, and ranne him through with their swords: which was donne by the commaundment of a King of those Countries.

Iudas, called also Thadeus, after the assention of our Lord, was sent by Thomas to heale Abagar King of Edissa: after­wards he preached in Ponte, and Mesopotamia, and conuerted many cruell and barbarous people. Lastly, hee came to Persia, where for counfounding of their idols, was suddenly runne vppon, and murdered by the Paymin Bishops of that Coun­trie. He is buried at Netre a Cittie of Armenia.

Simon, called Chananeus, brother to Thadeus, and Iames the lesse; after he had preached in Egipt, returned to Ierusalem, whereof by the consent of the Apostles, he was made Bishop after the martirdome of his brother Iames. As touching his death and martirdome, some say that he sufferred with his bro­ther Iudas Thadeus in Persia, others, that he was through the enuie of Heretikes, accused to bee a Christian afore the Con­sull Atticus, and therefore crucified, as his maister was.

Mathy, after the ascention of Christ, chosen by the Apo­stles to supply Iudas [...]ome, was borne at Bethlem, & descended [Page 11] of the Tribe of Iuda, he preched altogether in Iudea, where lastly he was accused by his enemies of periurie or rather blas­phemie, and therefore hee was condemned to be stoned to death by two men, during which torment, one smote him with a hatchet, and so he suffered martyrdome.

The tenne persecutions vnder the Romaine Emperors.

THe first beganne in the 13 yeere of the raigne of Nero, in such sort, that the Christians were faine to hide thēselues in caues of the earth.

The second began in the 12 yeere of the raigne of Domici­an, who caused S. Iohn the Euangelist to be put in a vessell of burning oyle, whereof he receiued no hurt.

The third began in the tenth yeere of the raigne of Traian, which ceased afterwards by the pitty and meanes of Plinie, 2. prefect of the Empire.

The fourth beganne vnder Marcus Antoninus, and Aurelius Commodus Empire.

The fift began at the commaundement of the Emperour Seuerus.

The sixt began by the indignation of Maximinus, who e­specially persecuted the Clergie.

The seauenth began vnder the Emperour Decius, and con­tinued cruelly.

The eight began vnder the Emperor Ʋalerius, who though at the first he were a Christian, yet afterwards beeing corrup­ted by certaine herericks, he became a most cruell persecuter of Christ his Church.

The ninth began vnder the Emperour Aurelianus.

The tenth began by the commandement of the Emperors Dioclesianus and Maximianus Herculeus: this persecution was farre more cruell and generall then any of the rest: insomuch that Dioclesianus in the orient, and Maximianus in the occi­dent, destroyed all Churches, and tormented the Christians with all strange torments.

The eyght times that Rome hath beene taken.

ROme was first taken by the Gaules, vnder the conduct of theyr captaine Brennus, the yeere of the foundation of [Page 12] the Cittie about 365, the yeere of the world 4835, & the yere before Christ 364. This Brennus is by the Britain & English Chronicles reported to be a Britain, and brother to Belinus king of Britain; but neither the Chronicles of Rome nor of Gaule doe speake of any such matter.

Rome was secondly taken by Alaricke king of Gothes, after he had held his siege to it the space of two yeeres, which befell the yeere of the foundation of the Citty 1164, the yere of our Lord 412, and the 25 yeere of the Empire of Honorius. It is written in the Chronicles of Constantinople, and in other pla­ces, that as Alaricke (beeing a Christian,) marched with his host towards Rome, a certaine Munck, of holy life and great authority, came vnto him, who hauing audience, admonished and counsailed him to breake of that euill purpose, and to re­member that he was a Christian, and that for Gods sake hee would moderate his wrath, and that he should not take plea­sure in the shedding of Christian blood, sith that Rome had not in any respect offended him. Vnto whom Alaricke aun­swered him, Thou must vnderstand man of God, that it pro­ceedeth not of mine owne will that I goe against Rome: but contrarily I assure thee, that euery day there commeth vnto me a man, which constraineth and importuneth me thereun­to, saying vnto me, Hasten thee, goe against Rome, destroy it vtterly, and make it desolate. At which wordes the religious man beeing astonished, durst not reply: and so the King fol­lowed his enterprise.

Rome was thirdly taken by Gensericke king of Ʋandales, the yeere of the foundation of the citty 1208. the yeere of Christ 456. who sacked and burned it in many places, which befell in the Empire of Marcian.

Rome was fourthly taken by Totila King of Gothes, vvho because hee could not obtaine peace of the Emperour Iusti­nian, (who trusted too much in the power of his Lieutenant Bellisarius) commaunded the Cittizens to auoyde the Cittie, and afterward burned, sacked, and destroyed almost all the Cittie, walls, and the Capitall, and made it altogether desolate: in so much that neuer since it could be repayred according to the first forme, although a while after Bellisarius peopled and [Page 13] repaired a great part thereof, and calling againe the old inha­bitants, fortified and strengthned much the walls. This deso­lation, and of all other most lamentable, happened the yeare after the foundation of the Citty 1300: afther Christ 548, & the 21 yeare of the Empire of Iustinian.

Rome was fiftly taken by the same Totila, King of Goths; after that Bellisarius had repeopled & repayred it: but where­as before he had almost destroyed it, hee now called againe the Cittizens, which were fled at his comming, and trauailed all he could to restore and repaire that which he had destroy­ed: and behaued himselfe towards his subiects, and especially towards the Romaines, not like a stranger but a father. This happened but three yeares after he had destroyed it.

Rome was sixtly taken by the Mores & Sarrazins, followers of Mohomet his law, which in great multitude came into Ita­ly, and in the yeare of our Lord 833, sitting in Rome, Gregorie the fourth, & gouering the Empire Lewis the first; besieged, tooke, and sacked Rome, prophaning the Temple of Saint Peter: which donne they returned to their shippes, charged with prayes and prisoners.

Rome was seauenthly taken by Henry the fourth of that name, Emperour of Germanie, sitting in Rome, Gregorie the seauenth: this time Rome was most cruelly destroyed, by rea­son that both the armies of the Pope and the Emperour scur­mished, and fought long within the Cittie, and the Capitole, which had beene before (destroyed) was now againe (repay­red) which befell the yeare of our Lord 1082: authors write that Rome neuer was so much endomaged at any thing, as at this, for the lamentable destruction that was donne by the Normans on the Popes side, and Germaines for the Emper­our.

Rome was last taken by Charles, the last Duke of Bourbon: who being slaine as he scaled the walls at the first assaut, and by that chance, the souldiers being in libertie and without a head, pittifully destroyed the Cittie, and committed all kind of enormities, and barbarous cruelties, sauing that they burned not the Churches, although they spoyled and robbed them to the vttermost, for a great part of the armie were Germaines, [Page 14] and most of the Germaines Lutherans. This aduersitie happe­ned to Rome the yeare of our Sauiour 1527, sitting at Rome Clement the seauenth: and gouering the Empire Charles the fift.

The seauen Electors of the Emperour of Germanie.

THree Ecclesiasticall: that is to meane, the Archbishoppe of Magonce, called the Archchancelour of Germanie: the Archbishoppe of Colen, called the Archecancelour of Italie: and the Archbishoppe of Treues, called the Archechancelour of France. Foure Temporall: the Marquis of Brandebourg, great Chamberlaine of the Empire: the Duke of Saxonie, beareth the sword before the Emperour: the Earle Palatin of Rhene, Dapifer, of carrying the plate: the King of Baeme, Taster to the Emperour, or Karuer. These Electors were first ordained by the Emperour Othon third of that name, in the yeare of our Lord 1000, to take away the dissention which before times had beene for the choosing of Emperours: and ordained moreouer, that being chosen by these seauen Elec­tors, he should be called Caesar, but being afterwards crowned by the Bishop of Rome, he should be called Augustus.

The three crownes of the Emperour.

THe first Crowne is of siluer, for the Realme of Germaine, and is kept at Aix the Chappell. The second Crowne is of yron, for the Realme of Lombardie, and is kept at Modene, a little Towne not farre from Milan. And the third of gold, for the Empire of Rome, where it is kept.

The xij. Peers, or Pairs of Fraunce.

IN the Realme of France to be a Peer, is the greatest digni­tie vnder the King, for that in many thinges they haue al­most equall authority with the King; for Peer in the French tongue signifieth equall. But because it might be too prolixe a matter to speak of theyr prerogatiues, it shall suffice to num­ber them, and each of theyr offices at the sacring or coronati­on of a new King. These ancient Peers are twelue in num­ber; whereof sixe are of the Clergy, and sixe are Lay men: [Page 15] the sixe of the Clergie with theyr offices at the corronation, are the Archbishop and Duke of Reins, which hath his accu­stomed charge to oynt and consecrate the King, the Bishop and Duke of Laon, who office is to bring the holy Ampoule, or diuine water, wherwith the King is annointed: the Bishop and Duke of Langres, whose office is to bring the scepter & the hand of iustice; the Bishop and Earle of Beauuais, bring­eth the Kings cloake; the Bishop & Earle of Chaalons, bring­eth the Kings Ring; the Bishop and Earle of Noyon, bring­eth the Kings gyrdle. The sixe temporall Peers with theyr offices at the corronation, are the Duke of Burgundie, Deane or chiefe of the rest, whose office is to bring the kings crowne: the Duke of Guyen bringeth the first square banner: the duke of Normandie bringeth the second square banner: the Earle of Earle of Tolowze bringeth the Kings spurres: the Earle of Champaine bringeth the kingly banner, or the standart of warre: and the Earle of Flaunders bringeth the Kings sword. And although the fiue first temporall Peerdoms be vnited to the crowne, and the sixt bee subiect to another Prince, yet at at the Kings corronation, there are other noble men appoin­ted to supply theyr roome and offices. These be the twelue ancient Peers, although since theyr creation others haue been made, which though they haue like authoritie to iudge in the Court of Parliament, yet they want offices at the Kings coro­nation, and beare not that maiestie that the other Pees doe, for that they are not of so great antiquitie.

The eyght Parliaments of Fraunce.

THE chiefe & generallest iustice of the realme of France, is continually kept in eyght Citties, wherein are Pallaces made expresly for that purpose: and this generall kind of iu­stice is deuided into eyght parts, according to the eyght Cit­ties, and euery of them are called Parliaments, which differ very little from our Termes: but whereas these are but foure times in a yeere, those are continually kept, each of them ha­uing in stead of our Lord Chancelor, a chiefe President.

The first and chiefest of these Parliaments is that of Paris, called the Court of the Peers of Fraunce: and to the equitie [Page 16] and iudgement of this Parliament, many forraine Kings and Princes haue submitted themselues in matters of greatest im­portance, as to the most venerable and chiefest Senate of iu­stice in the world. Such were the Emperor Fredericke the se­cond, called Barberousse, king of both Sicils, when he submit­ted himselfe to the iudgement of this Court of Parliament, as touching all the controuersies of his Empire and kingdoms, which he had against Pope Innocent the fourth: Philip prince of Tarente, and the Duke of Burgundie, who sumbitted them selues to this Parliament, for the controuersie betwixt them vpon the expences of the recouery of the Empire of Constan­tinople. The Duke of Lorraine subiect to the Empire, and the Lord Guy of Chastillon, who submitted thēsēlues to the iudge­ment of this Court, as concerning the limitation of their lands and possessions: the Daulphin of Ʋienne, & the Earle of Sa­uoy summitted themselues to the iudgement of this Parlia­ment, concerning the sute betwixt them, for the homage of the Marquisat of Saluces. Moreouer, without the consent of this Parliament, it hath not beene seene that the Kings of Fraunce haue done or passed any matter of importance tou­ching the state of the Realme, so much is it respected both within the Realme and abroad. This Court of Parliament was first ordeyned by Phillip the fayre, King of France.

The second Parliament is at Bordeaux, for the countries of Gwyen, Gascoine, Zaintonge, Perigort, part of Poictou, and o­thers: and was first ordained by Charles the seauenth.

The third Parliament is at Rouën, for the Dukedome of Normandie, first made Exchequer by Phillip the fayre, and af­terwards continuall Parliament by Lewes the twelfth.

The fourth Parliament is at Toulowze, first ordained for certaine times of the yeere by Phillip the fayre, and afterwards made continuall by Charles the seauenth, for the Country of Languedoc.

The fift Parliament is at Grenoble, for the country of Daul­phine, instituted by Lewes the xj.

The sixt Parliament is at Dijon for the Dukedome of Bur­gundie, it was likewise ordained by the sayd Lewes the xj.

The seauenth Parliament is at Aix, for the Earledome of [Page 17] Proueme, appointed by Lewes the xij.

The eyght Parliament is at Renes in Britaine, ordained by Henry the second. Of all these Parliaments Paris Parliament is the chiefe; and certaine cases are reserued to be iudged only at the Parliament of Paris.

The seauen Saxon Kingdomes that England was once deuided into.

THe first, was the Kingdome of Kent: which had his be­ginning of the Saxon Hengist, in the yeare of our Lord 476: and the fift yeare of Ʋortiger King of Britaine his last raigne (for he had beene deposed) the Kingdome continued 342 yeares, till that Egbert King of Westsaxons vanquished Baldred last King thereof, and ioyned it to his owne King­dome.

The second Kingdome was of Sussex, or Southsaxons, which began by the Saxon Ella, in the yeare of our Lord 482: and the second yeare of Aurelambrose King of Britaine. This kingdome continued not aboue 112 yeares.

The third kingdome was of Estangles, or east Englishmen, and contained Northfolke and Southfolke: it was first begunne by the Saxon Ʋffa, about the yeare of our Lord 492: and the 11 yeare of Aurell Ambrose king of Britaine. This kingdome continued 376 yeares; the last king whereof was Saint Ed­mond martired by the Danes.

The fourth was the kingdome of Westsaxons, containing the West countrie of England, and had his beginning by the Saxon Cerdicus, the yeare of our Lord 522: and the fift yeare of Arthur the great king of Britaine, and endured from the first yeare of Cerdicus to the last of Alured, the tearme of 378 yeares. The kings of this Countrie subdued at length all the other sixe kingdomes, which Egbert beganne, and Alured finished, making of all the South part of this Iland one Mo­narchie.

The fift was the kingdome of Northumberland, containing the Countries betwixt the Riuer of Humber and Scotland, had his beginning of the Saxon Ida, king of Brenicia; the yeare of our Lord 547: and the second or last yeare of the raigne of Aurele Canon, king of Britaine. This kingdome of Northum­berland [Page 18] was at the first deuided into two kingdomes, the one was called the Brenicia, which bended towards the North, & the other Deyra (about) the Countrie of Durham: and this kingdome continued some while vnder one king, sometime vnder two, the tearme of 409 yeares: first vnder the Saxons, and then vnder the Danes.

The sixt kingdome was of the East Saxons, or Essex, which beganne by the Saxon Sobert, the yeare of our Lord about 614: & continued from the beginning of the raigne of Sebert till the eight yeare of Edward the elder, 293 yeares.

The 7. kingdome was of Mercia, containing Huntington­shire, Hertfortshire, Glocestershire, and others: and was the greatest of all the other, taking his beginning of the Saxon Penda, in the yeare of our Lord 626: after the comming of Hengist 126 yeares: during the raigne of Cadwan king of Bri­tain, and continued from Penda till that Edward the elder cha­sed out the Danes, about 280 yeeres. These 7. kingdoms of the Saxons, beside that of Walles & Scotland, were all contained at once in this Iland of Britaine, and continued along space.

Fiue Orders of Chiualrie, which continue at this day among Princes.

THe first and ancientest of these Orders of Chiualrie, or Knighthood, is the Order of the Garter, instituted the yere of our Lord 1348 in Bordeaux, chiefe Citty of the duke­dome of Guyne in Fraunce, by Edward the third, king of Eng­land, and then possessor of that Dukedome: which order hee consecrated, and dedicated to S. George, though the motiue of the institution thereof, proceeded of the losse of a Garter, which he supposed to haue been the Countesse of Salsburies, but I referre the Reader to the Chronicle. And it hapned in this manner: as one day he was entertaining her with pleasant talke, a Garter chanced to vnlose and fall downe, the King endeuouring to take it vp, wittingly caused such a iest as moo­ued the Noble-men to laughter: the Countesse thereat blu­shing, and blaming that more then seemely familiaritie of the King, for that he had caused such a iest among the assistance, [Page 19] said sharply to him, and the rest, Honi soit qui mal y pense: which englished, is, diffamed be hee which euill therein thinketh. And the King in recompence of his rashnes, said forth-with, that before it were long, those Noble men which had made a iest and laughing at the Garter fallen downe, should esteeme themselues much honored to weare it for a marke of honour and chiualrie, and thereupon ordayned the saide Order, and dedicated it to S. George, and made thereof 26 Knights, and ordained that they should weare their clokes of violet cullour Veluet; their hoods of redde Veluet, lined with white Da­maske, theyr bases of redde Veluet, and vnder the left knee a blew Garter, buckled with golde, garnished with precious stones, and about it wrought the wordes of the Countesse of Salisbury, HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE, and a coller of gold full of red & white Roses, with an Image of S. George hanging thereon: & about these Roses are writ­ten those words which are in the Garter. This Order is cele­brated on S. George his day, beeing the 23 of Aprill.

And although it was first ordained at Bordeaux, yet the said King Edward the third, would that the siedge and place of the solemnising thereof should be at the Church of Winsor, heere in England, where at the same time he founded Chanons or a Chanonry, for the better prosperitie of the Knights of his or­der.

The second order in antiquitie, is the order of the Annun­tiation, instituted anno dom. 1356 by Amé the sixt of that name, Earle of Sauoye, and surnamed the greene Knight. The Knights of this order weare a great collor of gold, made wyn­ding with three laces which are called of loue, wherein are enterlaced these words, FERT, FERT, FERT, euerie letter importing his Latin word, thus, F. fortitudo, E. eius, R. Rhodum, T. tenuit: that is, his force hath conquered Rhodes: and at this Collor hangeth an image of our Lady, and of an Angell saluting her, and for that occasion is called the Order of the Annuntiation. This Earle ordained this Order in me­mory of Amé the great, Earle of Sauoye, which succoured the Knights of Saint Iohn, when they conquered the Ile of Rhodes vpon the Turkes, in the yeare of our Lord 1310.

[Page 20]The third in antiquitie is the Order of the golden Fleece founded vpon the fable of the golden Fleece, that Iason with the other Argonautes went to seeke in the Ile of Colohos, which is to meane, that hee went to the mine of gold: and ordained by Phillip the second, surnamed the good Duke of Burgundie, in the yeare of our Lord 1430: the complete number of which Order are 24 Knights: and weare their cloakes and hoods of Scarlat, garded with imbroderie, made with flames of fire, and a Collor of gold, made with fire stones sparkling out fire, whereat hangeth a Fleece of gold: and appointed for the celebrating of that Order Saint Andrewes day, being the 30 of Nouember. But the Emperour Charles the fift (heyre of the house of Burgundie, and chiefe of that Order) changed their apparell, and ordained that their clokes should bee of crimson Veluet, and their hoodes of violet coullor Veluet, and that vnderneath they should were a Cassoke of cloath of siluer.

The fourth in antiquitie is the Order of Saint Michaell the Archangell, instituted by Lewis the 11, King of France, the first day of August, in the yeare of our Lord 1469: and or­dained that of that Order there should be 36 Knights, gentle­men of name and of armes without reprooch, of whom hee himselfe was chiefe and Soueraigne, and after him his suc­cessors Kings of Fraunce. And the brothers or companions of this order were bound, at the receiuing thereof, to forsake and leaue all other Orders, if any they had, either of a Prince or any companie, onely excepting Emperours, Kings, and Dukes, which beside this Order, might weare that Order whereof they weare chiefe, with the agreement and consent of the King and confrarie of the sayd Order: and in like man­ner the sayd Kings of Fraunce might weare beside his owne, the Order of other Emperours, Kings, and Dukes. And for the connoissance of this Order, and the Knights thereof, hee gaue to euery of them a Coller of gold, wrought with Coc­quell shells, enterlacing on another with a double pointing Ribon of silke, with golden Tagges, which King Francis the first, because his name was Francis, changed into a white Friers or Franciscans girdle, made of a twisted corde: and [Page 21] hangeth on that Collor a tablet of Saint Michaell vppon a Rocke: of the institution of this Order is made a booke con­taining 98 Articles, wherein are set downe the things where­vnto the Knights of this Order are subiect.

The fift Order is that of the holy Ghost, instituted by Hen­ry the third, King of Fraunce at this present, on New yeares day in the yeare of our Lord 1579: of this also is written a booke, containing the Articles whereunto the Knights there­of are bound. Among the which I haue principally noted one, that is, to defend and sustaine the Clergie: for the king doth giue to euery of them the rent of certaine Abbeys, religi­ous houses, or other spiritually Lands, whereof they shall a­low a certaine stipend, to the entertaining of a certaine num­ber of religious persons, in euery religious house vnder him; and for that benefite, are sworne at their entring into the sayd Order, alwaies to defend the spiritualitie, and maintaine the Clergie in their priuiledges: but how they keepe their oath, it is well seene in euery place of their spirituall possessions: and thereof my selfe haue often times had oculare experience, for trauelling in that Countrie, and passing often times by good­ly religious houses, I haue sometimes for recreation (hauing wel tried the curtious demeanor, that cōmonly religious men vse towards strangers that come to view their houses) entred into sundry of them: where I haue diuers times beene suffici­ently enformed by the religious, how the king had giuen the rents and possessions of their houses to the Knights of his Or­der, with the conditions already rehearsed, which Knights a­low them such bare exhibitation, that by reason it is not suffi­cient to entertaine the fourth part of the number by them ap­pointed, almost all of them are constrained either to forsake their houses, & begge, or else there to starue: through which occasion, many goodly religious houses are of late fallen in decay for want of reparation, trimming vp, and inhabiting, and will doe more and more without a redresse. And this haue I learned in diuers religious houses, beside the common murmering of the Clergie: and so wee may see, how these Knights, called, of the holy spirit, for to defend and maintaine the spiritualitie, doe vnder pretence thereof, rob, and prodi­gally [Page 22] wast the spirituall possessions: so that it may seeme only to be a pollicie (vnder the correction of better iudgement) put in the kings head, to diminish spirituall liuings (which in that Country are wonderfull great) & satisfie his prodigall minde, in rewarding by that meanes his flatterers; because through his exceeding lauishnesse, hee is scarce able otherwise to re­ward them. The Bishop of Rome considering what dismem­bring of Church-lands, and decay of Gods seruice, commeth through this Order, in the Realme of Fraunce; will not grant the confirmation thereof, although the King hath beene in­stant for the same: but notwithstanding the Popes misliking thereof, the Order is maintained, though to the great weake­ning of the religion in that Country. Yea at the last celebra­tion thereof, which was on New-yeeres day eeuen, 1581, I saw three Bishops were admitted into that Order, the connis­sance wherof is a Doue, representing the holy Ghost, wraught in Orenge tauny Veluet, garnished about with siluer beames, which the Knights of that Order weare cōmonly vpon their clokes, before their hart.

The 13 Cantons of Swisserland.

THE inhabitants of Heluetia or Swisserland, after they had emancipated themselues from the yoke of the Empire, and expelled the nobilitie of the Emperiall faction, began to make leagues and confederacies one towne with another, to fortifie themselues by that meanes against forraine inuasions, if any hapned. And in processe of time, within little more then an hundred yeeres, are increased to the number of 13, which they call Cantons, by which the whole Country of Swisse is gouerned and defended. And heere (according to theyr an­tiquitie) I place them the first that confederated together, and gaue example to the rest, were Ʋri, Swits. Ʋnderuard, Villa­ges: and these three by little and little, haue drawne to theyr faction all the rest that followeth, Lucerne, Zurich, Citties: Glaris, Zug, Villages: Berne, Fribourg, Soullcurre, Basle, Schaffouse, Citties: Appensel, village. Whereof 7. professe the Romish religion, j. Ʋri, Swits, Vnderuard, Zug, Lucerne, Fri­bourg, [Page 23] and Soullcurre, the rest are Zuinglians: which diuersitie of religion hath caused dissention, and mortall warres of late yeeres among them, although they be all sworne together to defend theyr liberties against strangers.

FINIS. Non munus sed animus.

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