THE TRIVMPHS OF NASSAV: OR, A DESCRIPTION AND RE­presentation of all the Victories both by Land and Sea, granted by God to the noble, high, and mightie Lords, the Estates generall of the vnited Netherland Prouinces. VNDER THE CONDVCT and command of his Excellencie, Prince MAVRICE of NASSAV.

Translated out of French by W. SHVTE Gent.

LONDON, Printed by Adam Islip, Anno Dom. 1613.

TO THE TRVLY NOBLE and iustly honoured Lords, WILLIAM Earle of Pembroke, and PHILIP Earle of Montgomerie.

RIght Hono.

That which slender iudgements call greatnesse, because themselues cannot compasse it, is not so, but a bumbast of titles and other shreds of fortune, wherwith the least mynds are often stuft out: But a mind well grown then best shewes it owne hight when it stands downe, and puts off the slippers of fortune. Heauen resist that this should euer befall your Lordships, because your vertues put them on, and they sit cleane on you: Yet when I sought first of what size I might make my respect, my imagination stript you of all honour till I found your worths so well set and limbd, that I could not make your estima­tion too great. I shall bee much bound to your no­ble apprehension, if out of all this circumlocution it extract this meaning, That not your fortunes but vertues begat my loue; so happily you will tol­lerat the troublesomnesse of it for the parents sake: Yet I hope it wil not be altogether a fruitlesse trou­ble [Page] for you to admit these plaine relations as a Pa­renthesis in your more serious considerations. I held them belonging in some sort to your Lord­ships, many of these actions being performed by your noble vnckles, whose honours you are to in­herit, though without need. And though much hereof bee beyond your time, yet is it not beyond your knowledge, for hee whose vnderstanding is not elder than himselfe loseth the noblest inheri­tance of his auncestors, and sticks in the worst kind of minoritie. You haue a most exact commentarie of your owne vpon this work, the all sufficient and most vnderstanding viscount Liste your noble vnckle, who hath scarce bin euer absent in any ser­uice where honour hath bin present among them. Thus humbly dedicating my selfe and best labors to your gracious protection, I wish all honour and happinesse euer to attend you.

Vnchangeably remaining your Lordships humbly deuoted, W. SHVTE.

To the Reader.

HIs errors and blots who transcribes the actions of an Age past-by out of sight, are almost indiscernable, at least incorrigible: Antiquitie of whom, and posteri­tie to whom he speakes, lye at his mercie, the same of the one, and faith of the other, often suffering mi­serably vnder him. But he that speakes to the face of a Time present, must either speake truely, or make roome in his patience to receiue the lie, and vndergoe a shamefull detecti­on. Of this second kind is mine Author, who tells thee little but what perhaps thou hast alreadie heard from the mouth of the canon, or, if the crampe of feare benumb'd not thy spirits, hadst an hand in: So that thou mayest securely hearken to him, since thy knowledge will not be so vnkind as looke on and see thy beleefe abused. Let not any mans ignorance per­suade thee that it is superfluous to read ouer this Copie, hauing the origi­nall in thy memorie: thou must lay it neerer to thee than thy memorie, in thine vnderstanding. Againe, not to endure the rehersall of thine owne actions, is an argument of their deformitie; else thou wouldst asmuch de­light to looke in this booke, as a faire woman in her glasse, or on her pi­cture. This I can safely promise, That if thy judgement can reach them, among these leaues, thou mayest find much fruit worth the tasting. In the noble and prosperous familie of Nassau thou mayest obserue, That a vertuous sonne makes an immortall father in despite of treacherie and death. In the whole course of the warre, how that deluge of bloud wherewith her enemies hoped to haue drowned the Netherlands, did like the inundation of Nile but fatten and inrich them. By the basseling and coudgelling that proud Armada, that vnlesse the Lord of Hosts be [Page] the Godfather, the name of inuincible is improper and ridiculous to any humane armie. By the Hollanders marine expeditions, that vertue like the heauenlie Spheares must neuer stand still, and that whiles shee goes not forward, she becommeth retrograde. In the English, who brake the ice of Nauigation to them and had the wind of same of them in that art, idlenesse striking the sailes of their industrie, are fallen much to Lee­ward in reputation, perhaps in sufficiencie. In the late treatie of peace, that they who beat the furnace for Innocents, are oftentimes so ouer­reacht by their owne flames, that they are faine to quench them in their derided t [...]ares. In all, that art and discipline are more potent than mul­titude, but a iust cause than both. Those escapes either of mine owne or the printers which thou shalt meet with all, furnish thee with good oc­casion to requite my paines taken for thee, by fauourably correcting them.

Farewell. W. SHVTE.

A RELATION OF ALL THE VICTORIES, BOTH BY SEA AND LAND, AT­chieued, for the States of the vnited Prouinces, vnder the conduct and gouernement of Prince MAVRICE of Nassau.

¶ A true and briefe description of the Ne­therland Prouinces.

THE Low-countries are so na­med because their situation is low,The originall name of the Low Coun­tries. in comparison of high Germanie: There are diuers Riuers in them, as the Rhyne, Meuse, Scheld, Waell, and many others, which springing forth of the high moun­taines, runne through the Countrie, and emptie themselues into the great Nor­therne Ocean, where the said Countries are situated.Her situation. The Countie of Embden and the Riuer Amisa, the Countries of Benthem, Westphalia, Cleues and Iuliers, the Bishop­ricks of Cologne and Treues, and the countries of Lorayne and France, are their limits.

The Low Countrey is commonly diuided into seuenteene Pro­uinces:It is diuided in­to 17. Prouin­ces, and their names. viz. into foure Duchies, Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg, and Guelders: eight Counties, Holland, Zeland, Flanders, Ar­tois, Haynault, Namur, Zutphen, and the Marquisat of the sa­cred [Page 2] Empire:Why they a [...]e [...]alled 17. Pro­uinces. And into fiue Seignories, viz. Malines, Vtrecht, frise, Ouer-Ysell, and Gronninghe. They are termed seuenteene Prouinces by reason of the seuenteene seuerall titles giuen to their Princes; we can giue no other sound reason for it. At any generall Assemblie, al the Prouinces are not called or summoned, nor haue voy [...]s, or doe orderly contribute to generall impositions: for the Marquisat of the sacred Empire of Antuerpe, is not reckoned a­mong the Prouinces: the Duchie of Limbourgh, with Valcken­bourgh and Dalem, belong to Brabant: Tournay and Tournesis with Lille, Douay and Orchies, are not vsually numbred among the seuenteene Prouinces, yet both of them contribute, each of them as a Prouince: The like doe Valenciennes and Drent. This Low Countrey about the yeare 1550 in the time of the Emperour Charles the fist, did graunt his demaund in a summe of 300000 Florins to be payd monethly, which was called Nouentale or Nouenaire. We find that Limbourgh, Luxembourgh, Guelders and Gronninghe being Frontiers, payd nothing towards this contribution, for they were very poore and behind hand, so as none but these 13 Prouin­ces and Townes contributed; namely Brabant, Flaunders, Artois, Haynault, Valenciennes, Lille, Douay, Orchies, Holland, Zeland, Namur, Tournay, Tournesis, Malines, and Vtrecht, yet we must not thinke that the rest are excluded from conuocations and generall Assemblies.

Her circuit.The Low Countrey is in circuit 340 Flemmish Leagues, or one thousand Italian or English miles. There are more than two hun­dred walled Cities in it,The number of townes and vil­lages. and one hundred and fifty Townes which haue the priuiledge and iurisdiction of Cities, with aboue 600 Vil­lages; but during these long warres they haue been very much les­sened and ruined. And to giue satisfaction to the curious reader, I will here set downe a generall number whereby he may know how many townes and villages there are in euery Prouince.

Namely in the foure.
How many Tow [...]es and Villages there are in euerie Prouince.

[Page 3]

In the eight
The Marquisat.  

In the fiue

In old time before the Natiuitie of Christ,Vnder what countries the Romans com­prehended the 17. Prouin­ces, & where­fore they were called Belgia. the Romans and Iu­lius Caesar comprehended this countrey vnder Gaule Belgik, or Bel­gia; a name imposed vpon it by her neighbors, because the Inha­bitants were hawty and bould people, not induring the losse of their libertie, or preiudice of their customes and priuiledges: So that as Caesar writes, they are the strongest and valiantest nation of the Gaules. They had in those dayes sundrie names, as Germans, Ba­tauians, Frisons, Aduatici, Menapians, Atrebates, Neruins and Morini &c. The Germans are at this day called Almans: the Bata­uians are the Hollanders,How highly the Romans estee­med this Nati­on: and their ancient names. and partly those of Guelders: the Fri­sons, those of Frise: the Aduatici, those of Antuerp: the Menapi­ans, partly those of Guelders and Cleue: the Atrebates, those of Arras, and places neere adioyning: the Neruins, those of Tournay: the Morini, Flemings, &c.

Concerning the scituation of the sayd countries, it is for the most part champaine,The forme of the Countrie and fertillity thereof except the Prouinces of Luxembourgh, Lim­bourg, Namur and Haynault, where the countrey is hilly: and part of Brabant, Flanders, Guelders and Ouer-Ysell is sandie. All the Prouinces are generally fruitfull, and those which lye to [Page 4] the Southward beare some vines. The higher parts of the coun­trey afford pleasant groues of all sorts of trees, the Champayne a­bounds with all kind of cattell; the woods are stored with birds & fowle; the Sea and riuers are full of fish: there are braue and good­lie horses bred in Flanders, Holland, Zeland & Friseland: though the ayre be grosse and moist, yet in all places (the Sea side except) it is good and wholesome. It is a countrey which for traffique is commodiously seated for all the chiefe countries of Europe, in re­gard of her great Riuers;The originall of some Riuers which runne through the Countrey. as the Rhyne, which descendeth from the mountaines of Swisserland, and diuiding it selfe into three bran­ches runneth through Germany & some part of the Netherlands, emptying it selfe into the German Ocean: next the Danubium, it is the greatest ryuer of Europe: the Meuse runnes from the moun­taynes of Burgundy as farre as Langres: the Scheld comes from Picardie and Vermandois. Besides, the Sea doth so fauour them as in two dayes & two nights they may saile from home to Norway, and in fiue or sixe dayes to Denmarke, and from thence to Sweth­land. Westward, they may in few houres goe into England, and from hence along the coast of Fraunce into Spayne, and to the East and West-Indies.

Holland and Zeland sur­passe all other Prouinces in shipping.For this cause the Low Countries, especially Holland and Ze­land, are very rich in shipping, wherein the greatest part of their power, all their traffique and wealth consists; so as it is almost in­credible to beleeue that sometimes there are seuen or eight hun­dred great Ships, readie to set sayle into the East, besides those which goe towards the West into England, France, Spayne, Italy, the Islands, and along the coast of Africk, and to the East & West Indies, all of them being well manned and prouided. Besides mer­chants ships, there are many hundred other, which in the countrie language are termed Buysen, Doog-booten, and Crabbens, with which they goe a fishing for Herring, Cod, and Salmon. When they goe to fish for Herrings, there will be sometime seuen or eight hundred of these Buysen or Booten; which euery yere make three voyages to Sea: so as the wealth which the Inhabitants of this coun­trey get by Sea is not to be reckoned, nor the Mariners numbred which liue thereby; for the townes and villages abound in wo­men and children which do nothing but weaue Nets, and in great multitudes of people whose occupation is to build ships.

The Netherlanders are for the most part tall, strong, faire, and [Page 5] cleane timbred. Euery Prouince doth a little participat with her neighbours dispositions; as those who dwell towards the East, doe somewhat resemble the Easterlings, those of the South the Al­mans, they in the West the French. Their apparell is comely, but not so costly as the Germans, who therein follow the curiositie and new fashions of their neighbours: they are giuen to drink, but not so much as the Almans, nor so vsually as three or fourscore yeares agoe: they are of a setled iudgement and constant in all their af­faires, seldome wauering either in prosperity or aduersity, they are witty and industrious, and apt to inuent all maner of arts, to com­prehend and teach them, and therein surpasse all other Nations: they are neuer idle but euer in action, much addicted to trade of merchandise, the which, more than other nations they seek through the whole world: they are very seruiceable to all men, and not so proud and ambitious as other people: But they are naturally spa­ring and louers of gaine, which makes them willingly see other countries,Commendation of the Nether­land women. so as in euery place a man shall find Dutchmen. The wo­men are likewise verie seruiceable, and giue themselues to all sorts of worke, which in other Countries, seruants will refuse to doe: they likewise trade in merchandise, and in al honest maner conuerse with men: they detest adultery notwithstanding that they often want their husbands companies: this may perhaps seeme strange to diuers Nations.

They soone learne and speake all maner of Tongues:Commendation of the Dutch Tongue. their anti­ent speech is high Dutch: vpon the Frontiers of France they speak Wallon, a corrupted Language: their Speech is rough, but very rich and perfect, surpassing all other Languages in antiquitie and perfection, for it hath more than 2170 words monosillables, as Simon Steuin of Bruges witnesseth in his booke called, the Rudi­ments of the art of weighing, where he sets them downe; thereunto adding a discourse concerning the worthinesse of the Low Dutch Tongue, fit to be read of all those that loue the sayd Language: which is in a maner the very same that was spoken 1700 yeres agoe in Iulius Caesars time, sauing that euery Prouince hath borrowed the sound and accent of her neighbours: a speech further extended and spoken in moe places than any other, euen from Calais in France, as farre as Norway, Swethen, Liuonia, and further. It is a Countrey where strangers are better vsed than in any other: they are a Christian people,The Netherlan­ders louers of Liberty. louers of pietie & Libertie, as all their Histo­ries [Page 6] and moderne wars testifie: for since the ouerthrow of the Ro­man Empire, they haue freed themselues from all bondage and in­uasion, and haue inuaded and mastered other Nations, as the realm of France with the Salicks and Franconians their neighbors, &c.

The Countrie being diuided into Prouinces, they haue acknow­ledged some Soueraigne Lords; but on certaine conditions, still keeping them from growing great, for feare of being subiugated by them, and therefore they especially loued them when they were young:The Princes of the Low Cou [...] ­tries haue done many valiant deedes. these Prouinces liuing thus peaceably vnder their Lords, and vniting themselues together in time of need, haue oftentimes purchased renowne by valiant actions, as well against the Ro­mans as other nations, namely against the Turks and Sarafens, as appeares by their exploits vnder the conduct of Godfrey of Bouil­lon and other Kings of Ierusalem, as also vnder Baldwin Earle of Flaunders who woon the Empire of Constantinople, with many other enterprises mentioned in their Cronicles and Histories. In a word they are a people of whom the famous Historian Cornelius Tacitus writes thus; the Gaules fought for their libertie, the Ger­mans for bootie; but the Battauians for glorie and honour. In this regard the Roman Emperors chose them to guard their own per­sons, esteeming them the valliantest and loyallest people of the world: and some of them, as the Battauians and Frisons, haue been declared friends and companions of the Romans.

Notwithstanding that all these Low Countries haue in time past beene sundrie Prouinces and Soueraignties vnder seuerall Princes, yet at last they haue beene reduced vnder foure Dukes of Bur­gundi-, afterwards vnder the Archdukes of Austria, and finally vnder one lord absolute, the Emperour Charles the fist, and his sonne Philip King of Spayne.How the Low Countries haue beene reduced vnder one Lord It shall not be amisse briefely to set down, how, when, & after what maner they became subiect to these last Princes: and let this continue in eternall memorie, that the Spanyards haue attainted the gouernment of these Low countries, not to rule them as their owne subiects, according to their Lawes, but as a free Nation, by their owne Lawes and priuiledges.

Margaret daughter to Lewis de Male marieth Philip the Hardie, on whom he begat Iohn sans peur. Lewis de Male, by his father, Earle of Flanders, Neuers, Retel, Sa­lines, Antuerp, and Malines, and by his mother, Earle of Burgon­die and Artois, had a daughter named Margaret, by Margaret his wife daughter to Iohn the third Duke of Brabant: this ladie in the yere 1369 in Gant, maried Philip of Valois surnamed the Hardie, [Page 7] Duke of Burgondie,He marieth the E [...]rle of Hol­lands daughter and begets Phillip le Bon. the yongest sonne to Iohn the French King: from these two descended Iohn (sans peur) Earle of Flanders, Bur­gondie, Artois, &c. This Iohn of Valois, did in the yere 1415 marrie the ladie Margaret daughter to the Earle of Haynault, Holland, Zeland, and Friseland; and was treacherously slayne at Montereau in Fraunce an̄ 1419 the nineteenth of September, being eight and fortie yeares old, and in the fifteenth yeare of his raigne: he di­ed (as some say) by the Dolphins command.

His onely sonne,How Phillip le Bon obtained the possession of the whole Low-countries. Phillip (le Bon) succeeded him being three and twentie yeares old, and was Duke of Burgondie, Earle of Flan­ders, Artois, Burgondie, Palatin & Marquesse of the sacred Em­pire, & lord of Salines and Malines. He did moreouer in the yere 1429 by the death of Earle Dideric of Namur, succeed him in the same Earledome, which he first bought; and by the death of Phillip Duke of Brabant, who died without heires, he did in the yeare 1430 obtaine the Dutchies of Lorraine, Brabant; and Limbourg; and by the death of Iacoba countesse of Holland &c. his neece, he got in the yeare 1436 the Earledomes of Haynault, Holland, Ze­land and Friseland. In the yere 1443, his Aunt gaue him the Duchie of Luxembourgh, first as protector thereof, and afterwards as ab­solute lord. He was the first of the house of Burgondie that insti­tuted the order of the Golden fleece at Bruges in Flaunders,He that first in­stituted the or­der of the golden fleece marrieth Isabell of Por­tugall, by whom he had a sonne called Charles the Warrior, who is acknow­ledged for lord of the Low-countries, and makes a pur­chase. when he maried Isabell of Portugall in the yeare 1450: He died at Bru­ges an̄ 1467 in the 72 yeare of his age, and 48 of his raigne. He left his onely sonne Charles of Valois surnamed the Warrior, heire to all these countries: who succeeded his father in the 34 yeare of his age: for an annuall pention, and the sum of 92000 crownes of gold, he bought the duchie of Guelderland & county of Zutphen of Arnold Earle of Egmond; who dying, did by his last will and Testament confirme the said sale, making Duke Charles his heire, disinheriting his own sonne Adolfe because he had rebelled against him.He goes about to make the Low-countries a kingdome. This Duke tooke possession of Guelderland in an̄ 1473: He sought to make the Low-countries a kingdome, and to that end promised to marrie his onely daughter to the Emperour Frederic the thirds son, and he would haue called it the kingdome of Bur­gondie; because in former time Burgondie had been a kingdome: but in regard euerie Prouince was Soueraigne, and had her priui­ledges, lawes and reueneues apart, differing in weights and mea­sures, and had neuer graunted their Princes any other but limited [Page 8] power,How and where he dyed. this motion was reiected. This braue warrior was slaine be­fore Nancy anno 1477 the fist day of Ianuarie, betrayed by an Ita­lian Earle called Campobasso that serued him (by the instigation of Lewis the eleuenth French king, the Swisses & Lorrai [...]s) after that he had woon three battailes. Three dayes after his death he was found naked in a marish which was frosen, as Philip of Comines writes in his Historie:His daughter Marie of Va­lois marrieth Maximillian of Austria, by whom she had two children. he was foure and fortie yeares old, and left one onely daughter and heire behind him, called Marie of Valois, of the age of eighteene yeares, who in anno 1477 on the eighteenth of August, married Maximillian of Austria, who recouered from the French king whatsoeuer he had taken from his wife: he reesta­blished the order of the golden fleece, which in those dayes was very contemptible; this he did in anno 1478. They had two chil­dren betwixt them, a sonne named Philip and a daughter called Margaret. Marie of Burgondie the third yeare after she was mar­ried fell from her horse,Maximillian goes about to reduce some of the Low-coun­trie Prouinces vnder the Ro­man Empire. and of that fall dyed. Maximillian for a time gouerned those countries in the behalfe of his sonne Philip, but not verie faithfully, for he went about to allienat and diuide the Prouinces of Brabant, Holland, Zeland and Friseland from the Low-countries, to giue them to his father the Emperour Frederic, and did many matters to the preiudice of those countries which to rehearse would be too long.Philip his sonne is acknowledg­ed Prince, and marrieth D. Ioan of Spaine In the yeare 1492 his sonne Philip was acknowledged Prince of the whole Low-countries, and con­firmed as hereditarie lord thereof. In an. 1496 in the Citie of Lier in Brabant he married D. Ioane of Spayne, so as the Low-coun­tries being before vnited by sundrie marriages, are lastly by this coniunction fallen to the house of Spayne; and although they haue attayned to a kind of perfect prosperitie, yet by this meanes they are fallen into a long and vnnecessarie warre, and into the troubles of ciuile broiles, to the great hurt and preiudice of the sayd countries: and hereby haue the seuenteene Prouinces beene vnder the Spanish gouernement these seuentie or eightie yeares.

How the Pro­uinces are at this day diui­ded, and who possesse them.This present yeare 1610 since the said Prouinces haue beene di­uided, the Archdukes Albert and Isabella Clara, inioy one part thereof; namely Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg, Flanders, Artois, Haynault, Namur, Lille, Douay, Orchies, Tourney and Tournesis, Malines, Valenciennes, Cambray, with part of Guelder­land, and the Seigniorie of Linguen, excepting some places of [Page 9] Brabant and Flanders, which my Lords the estates doe yet hold' wanting nothing but peace. The estates of the vnited Prouinces possesse the rest, as the three parts of Guelderland, Holland, Zealand, Friseland, Vtrecht, Gronningen, and the territories adioyning, Ouer-Ysell and Drent, with certaine parcels of Bra­bant and Flaunders, all which Countries contribute towards the warre.

We will now speake somewhat of the particular estate of these Prouinces,Countries vn­der the Arch­dukes. as they stand in this present yere 1610 during the truce: and first, of those vnder the gouernement of the Archdukes, of Brabant,Brabant. which they wholy enioy, except the Townes of Ber­ghen op Zoom, Breda, Steenbergh, Willem-stadt, Graue, and certaine Forts, all which are vnder the gouernement of the e­states of the vnited Prouinces. These Countries haue for the space of fourtie yeares, during the warres, suffered much, as well by the enemie, as their owne souldiers, mutyning often through want of pay, and in such sort oppressing the Coun­trie, as it is a wonder how the poore people still breath; vvhereby we may coniecture of the Countries power. There are diuers good Townes which are places of refuge for the di­stressed Boores. The Citie of Louayn is yet in good estate. Bruxels by meanes of the Court still prospers and flourisheth. The Towne of Boisleduke or Sertoghen busch, although it hath endured many assaults and sieges, doth neuerthelesse enioy her pristine good fortune. But the Citie of Antuerpe, renouned for her beautie and trade of merchandise, hath suffered much, hauing beene sackt, ransomed, and partly burnt, and enfor­ced to build a Cittadell which hourely keepes it in awe, by meanes whereof she hath lost her trade, so as now it is onely frequented by some few Lawyers, and receiuers of the Princes reuenewes, which doth somewhat helpe it. The people and inha­bitants of Brabant during these wrrres [...] are wasted and consumed more than the one halfe.

Malines a Soueraigne Citie and Seigniorie hath beene twice taken,Malines. and more spoyled than any other.

Limbourg,Limbourg, Valckenbourg and Namur. Valckenbourg and Dalem, haue likewise been much afflicted, together with the Citie of Namur; yet at this day they are in reasonable good estate.

Luxembourgh of all other Prouinces of the Low-countries,Luxembourg. [Page 10] hath bin least troubled, & sustained no other losse, than sometimes to giue passage to the armies.Haynault Artois. In Haynault, Artois, Valenciennes, Lille, Douay, Orchies, Tournay, Tournesis and Cambray, the chief townes at the beginning of the warres, haue been taken and sackt, and the countrey wasted and spoiled, vvhich was no noueltie to them, beeing accustomed thereunto in the French wars: they now prosper, & impositions haue done them more harme than warre.

Flanders.Flanders during these forty yeares warre hath greatest cause to complaine, hauing been masterd by the seditious vulgar, all her chiefe cities and townes haue been besieged, vvoon, and sackt, Graueling and some other few forts excepted: diuers townes and great villages haue been made heaps of earth, so as in this prouince alone, more townes, villages, castles and cloisters haue been rui­ned, than in any other, so that the countrey is halfe vnpeopled, and the inhabitants retired into other lands. The Archdukes possesse all Flanders, except the townes of Sluce, Axel, Ternheuse, the whole Isle of Katsant, Biervliedt, Ardenbourgh with some other sorts and strong places. In stead of these townes and those of Bra­bant heretofore mentioned the Archdukes possesse part of Guel­derland, and therein the towne of Ruremond, together with Gueldre, Venlo, Watchtendone, Strale and Grolle, then the towns of Lingen and Oldenzeel, in the farthest parts of the lowcountries: which by a firme and desired peace would soone recouer their for­mer wealth and beautie.

Countries vn­der the States gouernement.My Lords the states of the vnited prouinces possesse these coun­tries following, the three parts remaining of the duchy of Guel­derland, vnder which is comprehended the countie of Zutphen, and the Archdukes inioy the towne of Grolle. These countries haue been much afflicted, for all the best townes therein haue been besieged, taken, and sackt, in which regard their wealth is small in comparison of that of other prouinces.

Holland.Holland at the beginning was more ruined than any other pro­uince, her cities haue been besieged taken and burnt: but at last by warre shee hath obtained peace, increasing in great wealth and prosperitie, euen then when her neighbours confronted her: now it is so populous and so abounds in shipping, as at this day no countrie of the world can compare with it for nauigation, or flou­risheth more in trade of merchandize, as may appeare by the towns of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Encheusen, and many others.

[Page 11]Zealand after many miseries had all her townes besieged and taken by famine and other meanes,Zealand. the dikes leueld, so as by boate men passed ouer the countrey; yet at last shee hath freed her selfe from these calamities, and reflourisheth in traffique, people, and shipping, according to her Embleme, Luctor & emergo.

Frizeland hath likewise been greatly ruined,Frizeland. but it hath euer borne it selfe nobly in warre, and according to the state and pro­portion thereof, the country still flourisheth.

The duke of Alua hath done more hurt and wrong to Vtrecht than to any other Prouince,Vtrecht. and since then it hath been greatly in­daungered by discord and dissention; but Vnited vvith the other prouinces it doth by little & little recouer her former greatnesse and prosperitie, and increaseth in trafficke.

The chiefe townes of Ouer-yssell and Drenct haue been besie­ged and taken oftner than once,Ouer-yssell. and the champayne countrie rui­ned by sundry inuasions.

Gronninguen and the country adioyning together vvith her neighbours haue indured much,Gronninguen. the towne hath been besieged and taken sundry times, and the countries round about it spoiled; but they are now quiet, though somewhat burthened with impositions, the greatest part thereof being vnder contribution, vvhich they pay to the Garrisons of Linguen and Oldenzeel, by vvhich meanes the countrie is much impouerished.

Yet the vnited prouinces of the low countries are all of them in better estate than the rest,The vnited pro­uinces flourish more than any other. because the sea lies open to them, hauing many shippes, the Northerne Ocean at their command, and diuers other riuers; multitudes of people, comming thither from other prouinces vnder hope of trafficke and gaine, and for the libertie of conscience vvhich they freely enioy. These countries are by war growne rich, though it may seeme contrary to nature and reason, & do vvonderfully flourish as appeares by their fortes, number of great townes, and sumptuous buildings.

So that the low countries may generally va [...]nt to be (accor­ding to the bignesle thereof) in number of great,Conclusion. strong and vvell peopled Cities and Fortes the excellenrest countrey in the world, in vvhich for the space of fortie yeres that the warre con­tinued, the brauest soldiers of Europe haue been and yet are trai­ned vp and exercised in the schoole of Mars.

[Page 12]If any desire to reade a more ample description of these Low-countries; let him for Brabant read Adrianus Barlandus, for Flan­ders Iacobus Marchantius, for Holland Adrianus Iunius the Hol­lander, borne in Horne; or the generall description of the Low-countries, written by Lodouico Guicciardin, all which may giue him better satisfaction: For it sufficeth me to haue written thus much briefely, and as it were by the way.

¶ A description of the Hague and Court of Holland: As also by whom and when the sayd Court was builded, and to what end.

BEsides all the goodlie, rich, pleasant, and walled towns of Hol­land, there are diuers and sundrie Seigniories or townes not walled, sumptuously built, and so inriched, as in beautifull & stately building doe not onely equall many Cities, but farre excell them, being by their Princes and Lords adorned with sundrie pri­uiledges.Description of the Hague. Among which there is none more excellent, beautifull, better seated, or plesanter than the Hague of the Earles: which because it is such, was chosen by the Princes and Earles of the coun­trie for their delightfull aboad; there establishing their Priuie Councell, and Court of Iustice, where all suits, pleas, and contro­uersies of Holland and Zeland are debated and decided.

Her beautie & number of hou­ses.The Hague, in wealth, stately buildings, pleasant gardens, and great number of Nobilitie surpasseth diuers cities of Holland and Zeland: there are in it more than 2000 great and goodlie houses, and many new are daylie built, yea whole streets.

Description of the Court of Holland.Among all the great and goodly houses of the Nobilitie, in the Hague, there is none more stately and magnificent, than that which is called the Court of Holland. Which rightly may bee termed Royall,By whom and when it was built. because it was built in anno 1249 by Earle Willi­am, second of that name, and the fifteenth Earle of Holland, Ze­land, Frizeland, &c. who for his excellent vertue and valour was by the mutuall consent of the electors chosen king of Romans, and afterwards confirmed on the day of all Saints in anno 1246, as appeares by the old Cronicle of Holland in the eighteenth diuisi­on and thirteenth Chapter. This Royall Court is after the manner of Castles enuironed with Dikes, and hath sundrie gates, in which [Page 13] the Princes gards doe watch day and night. On the North side of the Court there is a large and goodlie fishpond, incompassed with many high trees, vnder whose shade it is pleasant walking in som­mer to auoid the heate of the sunne: and the place where these trees stand is called in the vulgar tongue Viuerberg, which is as much to say, as the fishponds hill.

Within this building is a large and spacious hall, built (as the auncient chronicle of Holland saith) of a certaine wood brought from Ireland which will neuer rotte, nor beare any spiders or other venimous worme. This hall is inuironed with diuers and sundry shoppes, well furnished with all manner of books in all languages, and with goodly pictures.

But the most excellent of them are, the siluer coate armours, trumpets and ensignes which hang there in great number, woon from the enemie at the defeat of Turnhout, and at the battaile of Flanders, which are hung vp in the roofe of the hall for a perpetu­all remembrance.

There is the prince or gouernor of Holland,The princes court. Zeland, & West­frize-lands court: which is the illustrious and mighty lord, Mau­rice of Nassau, prince of Orange, &c. who hath gouerned three and twenty yeeres with such fortunat successe as we may rightly terme him Pater patriae.

It is also a place dedicated to law and administration of Iustice,A place dedica­ted to Law and iustice. where the Councell (being moe in number than were the Consentes dei in times past) debate all causes, examine and iudge them: they are I say moe in number; for the councell of Consentes were but twelue; and these counsellors are foureteene beside their chiefe whom they call president. This assemblie of counsellors, who were wont to remaine at Grauesand, was transported hither by count William aboue mentioned, after that hee had receiued the title of king of Romans.

Beside this assemblie of counsellours which is called the prouin­ciall councell;By whom the [...] councel was transse [...] to the Hague. an other was established in anno 1582 in stead of the great councell of Malines, and it is a soueraigne councell of Iustice, called the great councell, whether all causes which are brought to be decided, by appeale or reformation of the sentences of the a­boue named prouinciall court and other iudges, are sentenced by finall decree, without any appeale from thence to any other, yet re­examination may be craued, and error propounded: in such cases [Page 14] the States of the Countrey appoint certaine men beside the aboue named Councell, to reuiew the pleas which haue beene iudged, and to deliuer their opinions whether there be any error in the said sentence or not: and according to their conclusion, euerie man must rest satisfied without any contradiction.

The Councell of Brabant.An other Councell is likewise established, called the Councell of Brabant, which hath power ouer that part, Townes, Villages, and inhabitants of the sayd Countrey of Brabant vnder the go­uernment of my Lords the generall States: In this Councell all matters are handled, by commission, commaundement and in­struction of the generall States, according to the ancient custome of the Chauncerie and Court fiscall of Brabant, to the end euerie man may be orderly gouerned by their Lawes and Priuiledges. Lastly beside all these there do reside in this Court of Holland, my Lords the States generall, the States of Holland and West-frize­land, the Councell of State, the masters of accounts of the Cham­ber of Accounts of Holland, the Councell of warre &c. euerie of these hauing their Chamber apart.

Description of the Parke at the Hague.Before we end this description of the Hague, it shall not be im­pertinent briefely to speake of the situation of the Parke, which is in length 1500 paces, but nothing so much in bredth: there growe Oakes, Elmes, Ash and other Trees, on whose boughes, great and small melodious Birds doe with their Songs delight and recreat the sences of the hearers: there are Deere, Hares and Conies. It is a place worthie the Muses, and where Princes, Earles, Lords, Councellors, Aduocats, and all sorts of people doe vsually walke to recreat themselues after their toyles. I might speake of many o­ther matters; but because mine intent is onely to touch them as it were by the way, I referre the curious Reader to Lodouico Guic­ciardine his description made many yeares since, which of late hath beene newly printed, augmented, and inriched with maps.

The Genealogie of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange &c. with the rehearsall of his death and funeralls.

BEfore we set downe the great and valorous actions of the most illustrious Prince, Maurice of Nassau, vve will briefely in man­ner of an introduction speake somewhat of the Genealogie, [Page 15] descent, birth, life and death of my Lord his father, William of Nas­sau of happie memorie.

William by the grace of God,The Prince of Orange his Titles.Prince of Orange, Earle of Nassau, Catzenelbogen, Dietz, Vianda &c. Marquis of Veer and Flushing; Vicount of Antuerpe and Bezanson, Baron of Breda, Diest, Grim­berg, Arley, Nozeroy &c. Lord of Castelbelin, Lieutenant generall in the Low-countries, and Gouernour of Brabant, Holland, Zeland, Vtrecht and Frize-land, Admirall of the Belgick Seas, was sonne to William of Nassau, brother to Count Henrie of Nassau, both of them sonnes to Iohn who was brother to Engelbert, to whom Iohn of Nassau was Father, [...] and Marie of Loon their mother. This William married Iulian Countesse of Stolberg, a verie wise and vertuous Ladie, by whom hee had fiue sonnes; namely William of Nassau Prince of Orange &c. Iohn of Nassau, Lodwicke, A­dolph, and Henrie, three of them vvere slayne in the Low-coun­trie vvarres; and seuen daughters, all excellently well married to Earles, and haue had many children, so that the sayd Ladie, mo­ther to my Lord of happie memorie, being 75 yeares old, did in anno 1578 see of her owne issue, 123 persons both Earles and Countesses her children, and childrens children: how the number is since encreased to me is vnknowne.

The late Prince of Orange of happie memorie was borne at Dillenbourg in anno 1533 the foureteenth of Aprill old stile.Where & when he was borne. He was of more than middle stature, the colour of his beard browne, more leaue than fat. What his inward parts were, his heroicke a­ctions testifie.His first wife daughter to Count [...]ren. Being come to mans state, he married first, the one­ly daughter and heire of Maximillian of Egmont, Earle of Buren Leerdam &c. on whom he begat Philip of Nassau Count of Buren, now Prince of Orange; and a daughter called Marie, married to Graue Hohenlo.

His second wife was Anne, His second wife daughter to the Elector of Sax­onie. sole daughter to the Elector Maurice Duke of Saxonie, by whom he had a sonne called Maurice of Nas­sau borne of Dillenbourg, in the Countie of Nassau, the thirteenth of Nouember anno 1567: by whose discreet and valorous conduct it pleased God to blesse these Low-countries, before extreamely afflicted. He had moreouer two daughters by her, the one named Anne, the other Emillia.

His third choice was the Ladie Charlotta of Bourbon,His third wife daughter to Duke Mom­pensier. daughter to Duke Mompensier of Fraunce, by whom he had sixe daughters; [Page 16] namely Louisa Iuliana, Elizabeth, Catherina Belgica, Flandrina, Char­lotta Brabantina, and Emillia Secunda.

His fourth wife daughter to Count Colligni.His fourth and last wife was, Louisa of Colligni, daughter to the Admirall of Fraunce, and widow to the Lord Telligni (both her fa­ther and husband were slaine in the masacre at Paris) by whom he had a sonne, borne in the Towne of Delft called Henrie Frederick, a Prince worthie such a father. I vvill not vvrite the life and actions of this valorous Prince: For it is not my meaning or intent to make a long discourse of all his victories and defeatures by sea and land, taking of towns, sieges, difficulties, & trauels, miseries vvhereunto this life is subiect, especially that of Princes and great men; nor likewise how often, and by sundrie wayes his enemies haue sought to murther him. Onely I vvill briefely set downe how he was trea­cherously slayne in the Towne of Delft: And if any be desirous to see a more ample description thereof, let him read the Histories of things done in the Netherlands, written by Emanuell Demetrus, Iohn Petit and others.

The manner of the Princes death.In the yeare 1584 in the beginning of May, there came to the Princes Court in the Towne of Delft, a young man of the age of seuen and twentie yeares, of a middle stature, simple countenance, and euell aspect, his name vvas Baltazar Gerard borne at Ville­sans in Burgondie, he had changed his name, and termed himselfe Francis Guyon of Besançon, sonne to Peter Guyon of Lyons vvho had beene put to death for his Religion, and for enterprising somewhat in behalfe of those of the reformed Religion. This fel­low deliuered a letter to the sayd Prince, shewing vnto him the zeale he did beare to the reformed Religion, and how desirous he was to serue him; and withall, how that passing through Luxem­bourg, he had visited a Cosin of his called Iohn du Prè, Secetarie to Count Mansfelt, vvith whom he had continued for a time, till at last he resolued for the quiet of his conscience to leaue him: The vvhich he was the sooner enforced to do, because the Iesuits began to suspect him: He told him besides how that he had gotten from his Cosen diuers blanks signed by Count Mansfelt, whereof hee thought good vse might be made for enterprising vpon certaine towns of Luxembourg & elsewhere, with many other such like dis­courses & circumstances, tending to this end to insinuat himselfe into the Princes fauour, and to enter into his seruice. He grew like­wise familliar vnder colour of Religion vvith certaine of the Prin­ces [Page 17] houshold seruants, and vvas present at Sermons and vsuall Prayers, carrying eyther a Psalme Booke Bible or Testament still in his hand.

The Prince acquainted vvith all this, answered that he thought those signed blankes would doe small good in any enterprise, but onely serue to safe-conduct messengers from Bruxels to Cam­bray, and therefore vvilled him to leaue some of them. And at vvhat time the Lord of Schoonwall vvent into Fraunce, his Excel­lencie thought good to send the sayd Baltazar vvith him to the Marshall Byron, who men thought should haue beene Gouernour of Cambray, that he might make vse of these signed blankes: And vvith him he vvent into Fraunce.

After that, he returned from Fraunce with Letters both to the Prince and States, mentioning the death of the Duke of Brabant & A njou, in vvhich regard the Prince sent for him into his Chamber as he lay in his bed, that he might particularly informe him of the Dukes death.

He hath confest since, that if his dagger had beene then about him, hee vvould haue killed him in his bed. Within a vvhile after he was commaunded to returne into Fraunce, where­upon he craued some money, shewing how his hose and shooes vvere broken: the Prince commaunded his Secretarie to giue him some on the eight day of Iulie; with this money he bought two Pistols of one of the Gard, therewith to execute his diuelish en­terprise.

The tenth of Iulie about dinner time,The Prince of Orange slayne by Baltazar Ge­rard who na­named himselfe Francis Guyon. he came to the Prince, of whom with a fearefull and trembling voice he craued a passe-port, which the Princesse (there present) did well obserue, who asked the Prince what he was, because shee saw he had a bad countenance; his Excellencie told her that he vvas a fellow that sued for a passe­port, and so gaue order for his dispatch: Whilest they were at din­ner, he was seene to walke neere the stables behind the house to­wards the Towne Rampiers: After dinner as the Prince was com­ming sorth, this murderer stood without the Hall doore, & ma­king shew as if he craued his passe-port, he discharged one of his Pistols vpon him, charged with three bullets: The Prince feeling himselfe hurt,The Prince of Orange his last words. sayd onely thus, My God, take pittie on my soule, I am sore wounded, my God, take pittie on my soule, and on this poore people. Hauing vttered these words he began to stagger, but was [Page 18] supported by Iaques Maldrè, (vvho witnesseth that he heard those words) and was set downe vpon the staires, where he grew speech­lesse: And as the Countesse of Swartsenbourg (his sister) asked him in the high Dutch Tongue if he did not recommended his soule to Iesus Christ, he aunswered in the same language, yea, and neuer afterwards spake. He was presently layed vpon a bed in the same roome where he dined; where within a while after hee gaue vp the ghost.He died on the 10 of Iulie 1584. Such was the end of this Prince, esteemed not onely of his friends but enemies, the most wise, constant, magna­nimous, patient, and excellent Prince, that liued or died in our time, according to his Embleme, Saeuis tranquillus in vndis, which is to say, quiet in the middest of troubles: A goodlie end, seeing he died for his Countrie, a thing which all godlie wise men desire, whom death neuer takes vnprouided; as also, because he was soon freed from feare and griefe; a death, whereby our great God hath since manifested, that the good successe of warre depended not on this Princes person, but on his mightie arme, seeing that the victo­rie which his enemies thought they had gained of him, sorted not according to their desire, but hath conuicted them of inhumane crueltie: for his second sonne, Maurice of Nassau Prince of Orange, did from that time (though he were not aboue 17 or 18 yeares old) resolue to follow his Fathers steps, and to serue his Countrie: And the better to incite him thereunto, [...]. he inuented an Embleme, of a Tree cut downe to the root from which issued tender young plants, which in time became Trees, and vnderneath, this motto in Latine, Tandem sit surculus arbor, viz. In time the plant becomes a Tree: inferring thereby that they had not yet woon all by his fathers death, represented by the cut Tree, but that the plants which sprouted forth, might in time let them that cut the Tree, know, how worthie their rash and bloudie attempt is, to be deri­ded by the whole world.

The Princesse his wife (there present) was greatly grieued, crying out, and intreating God to giue her the gift of patience, seeing it had pleased him to take her father, first husband, & now the prince, from the world.

The murderer sought to haue escaped by a back way, & in run­ning let fall the other Pistoll, hauing alreadie passed the stables, and running through the Schol-street, towards the Rampiers, thought to leape from the walles downe into the Dike, which was [Page 19] full of water, hauing two bladders and a quill to blow wind into them, which he thought to make vse of for his better swimming ouer: But he was ouertaken and stayed by two of the Princes ser­uants. At first he was perplext and daunted, but when he perceiued they did not hurt him, he began to take courage, hoping perhaps to haue his fact allowed, and by some meanes to escape; and sayd that he had done nothing but that which the King his master had commaunded him. He was carried before the Magistrats of Delft to be examined; There he craued paper, penne and inke, promi­sing (seeing he was prisoner) to vnfold the truth of the matter, which he did not, but mingled many lyes among some true points, as it afterwards appeared.

He confessed,The murderers [...] con­fession [...] in writing. that his name was Baltazar Gerard of Ville sans in Burgondie, and that for the space of sixe yeares he had a desire to kill the Prince, which he imparted to diuers, who reprehended him for it. But, some three yeres past vnderstanding that the Prince of Orange stood attainted and condemned by the King of Spayn, he vsed meanes to come hither to execute that sentence: yet hea­ring that a certaine Biscan had alreadie dispatcht him, he put him­selfe into the seruice of Iohn du Prè, Secretarie to Count Mansfeldt: but within a while after hauing notice that the Prince still liued, he resolued to kill him whatsoeuer should happen, hoping to find meanes of secret departure from Count Mansfeldts Campe, to the Prince, and by seeming to be of his Religion, to present him certain blankes of the sayd Earles signed and sealed with red wax, and so to watch a time to kill him with lesse daunger. But at last being hinde­red by sundrie occasions, in March he left his master and came to Treues, where he confest himselfe to a Iesuit, vnto whom he bewray­ed his designe, intreating him after Easter to acquaint Count Mans­feldt therewith. This Iesuit aduised him to impart it likewise to the Prince of Parma, which he afterwards did by letter in the Citie of Tournay, but he durst not tarie for an answer fearing least he would take the carrying of those blankes in bad part; with which hee went to Delft to put his plot in executiō: But finding no fit opportunitie to doe it, he went into Fraunce with the Lord Caron, from whence he was sent backe with letters both to the Prince and States, contai­ning the death of the Duke of Anjou: and afterwards he watcht all occasions to performe his diuellish enterprise, thinking it the fittest time to dispatch him, either at a Sermon, or when he should bee at [Page 20] meat: and that thereupon he had bought two Pistols, and charged them, the one with three bullets wherewith he shot the Prince, and the other with two which he could make no vse of, being hindered by the Gard, for which he was verie sorie, affirming that if at that time he had beene two thousand miles from thence, he would haue returned backe to kill him. All this did he voluntarily and without torture confesse and set downe in writing. Afterwards be­ing in Prison, he confest at sundrie times that which followeth, and perseuered in it to the verie death.

First, (without any torture) he declared that not long before he vnderstood the Kings proscription against the Prince, being in May last at Delft, he would haue done the deed, if he could haue found a fit time, and meanes to escape: Afterwards he sued to car­rie letters of the Dukes death, and that the day before, he thought to haue slayne him, but that he durst not then attempt it, because he saw no meanes of escape. But the same day he did it, he wholly resolued to contemne all daunger and to kill the Prince, though he were inuironed with fiftie thousand men.

Concerning his declaration to the Iesuit he persisted in his for­mer confession: and how that being in Fraunce, this businesse did so torment him as he could not rest night nor day: Where­upon, he quarrelled with some of his fellow seruants, that he might the sooner be dispatched away with letters; And if in that journey he should haue missed his purpose, his meaning was to haue re­turned into Fraunce and to haue become one of the reformed re­ligion in some Congregation or other; and to haue so delt with the Consistorie, as he would haue obtayned letters of recommendati­on to get him accesse to the Prince, and by that meanes to perform the deed. Being tortured, & likewise before, he confest that he had acquainted Doctor Gery Warden of the Friers at Tournay with his purpose. After his torture he confessed that the sayd Frier had in­couraged him, and giuen him his blessing, promising to pray to God for him. That the Iesuit of Treues had likewise assured him, that if he died in the attempt, he should be reckoned in the number of martyrs. He had likewise imparted the same to 3 other Iesuits.

Parma by As­sonuille encou­rageth him to this diuelish en­terprise.Being againe tortured, he sayd that he was a poore fellow, see­king some means to aduance himselfe: That he had acquainted the Prince of Parma with his plot, who appointed the Counsellor As­sonuille to conferre with him: who vpon the difficultie of the mat­ter [Page 21] told him, that he should doe great good seruice to the King of Spayne, and that the Prince of Parma allowed thereof, so as if he performed it, he should receiue the recompence proposed in the proscription; but if he shold be taken, he aduised him by no means to make any mention of the Prince of Parma. He told Assonuille that he would change his name, and call himselfe Francis Guyon son to Peter Guyon put to death for Religion and his goods confiscat, and so being a poore fellow and wanting meanes, but yet affectio­nat to Religion he would goe to the Princes Court, and the better to insinuat, hee would present him his seruice and those sealed Blankes: all this did Assonuille consent to, and vehemently exhorted him to performe it; intreating him againe not to make any men­tion of the Prince of Parma, for diuers respects, and perceiuing him resolute in the attempt, he sayd vnto him, Goe my sonne, if thou performe this, the King will keepe his promise with thee, and thou shalt purchase immortall fame: He should beside haue the Prince of Parma for his friend; that the sayd Prince had seene those blankes and was content they should be vsed, but Count Mansfeldt should change and alter his seale, and haue it no more engrauen in the forme of a Lozenge; with diuers other instructi­ons which Assonuille gaue him: Whereupon the sayd Baltazar aun­swered, that he hoped so well to counterfeit himselfe to be of the reformed Religion, as to get into the seruice of some Secreta­rie, thereby to find some oportunitie, to present letters to the Prince to signe, and in the meane time to kill him with his ponyard. After his torture, he still continued in one mind; that he was not sorie for the fact, but if it were againe to be done he would attempt it though it should cost him a thousand liues.

All these confessions, both those that he had voluntarily set down in writing, and those that he made vpon the torture, seen & heard, my Lords of the great Councell & those of the Prouinciall, appoin­ted to examin and judge the prisoner, together with the magistrats of Delft, pronoūced sentence against the said Baltazar, as followeth.

Baltazar Gerard borne at Villesans in the franche county of Bur­gondie,Sen [...]ence pro­nounced against Baltazar Ge­rard the 14 of Iulie. hauing confest to haue attempted to kill the illustrious and mightie Lord the Prince of Orange, and, to this end, obtayned certaine Blankes from Count Mansfeldt, and conferred with the Counsellour Assonuille in Tournay sent to him by the Prince of Parma, who had promised him, that if the Prisoner should execute [Page 22] the sentence of proscripion against the Prince of Orange, the King of Spayne, should pay him the recompence proposed in the sayd proscription, together vvith the summe of fiue and twen­tie thousand Ducats: that the sayd prisoner should call him­selfe Frauncis Guyon, and make shew of beeing affectionat to the reformed Religion, to haue the better accesse to the Princes Court. That the sayd Prisoner according to this re­solution came thither vnder the name of Frauncis Guyon, and, on the ninth of Iulie, bought two Pistols, which on the tenth day he charged whilest my Lord the Prince was at dinner, and returning, hung them at his girdle, and hid them vn­der his Cloke: And as the sayd Prince after dinner was going forth of the Hall to ascend the staires leading to his Cham­ber, he discharged one of the Pistols, wherewith he slew the sayd Lord Prince. This being an execrable deed, and abhominable treacherie, perpetrated against the person of so illustrious a Prince of happie memorie, the offendor ought not to escape vnpunished, but is to be seuerely chastised, to serue for an example to all o­thers.

In this regard, my Lords aboue named, hauing well and ma­turely weighed the confession of the sayd prisoner, and conside­red euerie circumstance thereof, haue by these presents condem­ned and doe condemne the sayd Baltazar Gerard to be led to a scaffold erected before the State-house of the sayd Citie; there first to haue his right hand, wherewith he committed this so exe­crable fact, burned betwixt two burning yrons, and afterwards his flesh to be burnt and torne off with burning pincers in sixe seue­ral parts of his bodie, as legges, armes, and other fleshie places, and lastly to be quar ered aliue, his bowels and heart to be taken forth and throwne in his face, his head cut off, and his quarters to be set vpon the foure Bulwarkes, and his head vpon a pole to stand vpon the Schoole-Tower behind the Princes house, and all his goods to be confiscat. This sentence was pronounced in the State-house of the Citie of Delft the 14 of Iulie, anno 1584. Signed, A vander Moer.

The execution and death of Baltazar Ge­rard.On Saturday the foureteenth of Iulie, hee was publikely brought to a scaffold set vp in the Market place of Delft, where he was executed according to the sentence, with admirable patience, shewing the same courage and resolution he had at first: he would [Page 23] not conferre with any Minister; when his hand and flesh was burnt and torne off, he made no noyse, nor seemed at all to be moued: and in this manner was quartered, and his head set vpon a pole, which was afterward secretly stollen away.

After this illustrious Prince was thus slayne by the hand of this wretched Bourguignon;A description of the Prince of Orange his funeral's. his bodie, by the commaundement of my Lords the States of Holland, Zealand, Frize land & Vtrecht, was magnificently buried in the new Church of Delft, where his tombe is now to be seene. His funerals were solemnized after this maner. First the Burguers of Delft armed, went before, next them the Trumpets, after them followed eight horse, trapped with black downe to the ground, behind euerie horse went a Gentleman bea­ring a banner representing the Armes of the sayd Lord Princes Signiories, with Scutchions on euerie Horse. The first Horse was led by two Gentlemen, the one called Gerard de Schoten, and the other Paule Wijts, representing the Citie of Breda: The banner with the Armes of Breda was borne by Philip of Grutere Lord of Direxland. The second was conducted by the Lord vander Delft and the Lord N. de Roules: And the Lord Iohn of Egmont carried the banner with the Armes of the Marquisat of Terueer and Flu­shing. The third by the Lord of Sprangen, and the Lord Iohn of Oestrum, Captaine of the Castle of Woerden: And the Lord of Rosuè carried the banner with the Armes of Chalon. The fourth was conducted by the Lord Floris Serclays, and the Lord Peter of Roon, baylie of Putte: and the Lord Iasper of Poelgeest carried the banner with the Armes of Diest. The fist by the Lord Iacob of Al­mond and the Lord N. of Raephorst: and the Lord Gerard v [...]n­der Aa bore the banner with the Armes of Vianden. The sixt was led by the Lord of Wijngaerd, and the Lord of Linden: and the Lord Lancelot carried the banner with the armes of Catzenelbo­gen. The seuenth was borne by Philip vander Aa, and the Lord Harman of Outenhorst: and the Lord Cornelius de Swete carried the banner with the armes of Nassau. The eight was conducted by the Lord Iohn Baex, Captain of the Castle of Heusden, & the Lord Dieric of Dvuenuoord baylie of the Briell: and the Lord of Mar­quet, carried the banner with the armes of Orange. All these Lords were clad in blacke with long Clokes downe to the foot. Next fol­lowed the Lord of Mansardt bearing the Cornet, the Lord of Ri­houen the Guidon, and the Lord of Naeltwijck the banner, in eue­rie [Page 24] of which was the Princes Embleme. After them followed foure Scutcheons of the Princes foure Signiories, viz. Nassau, Stol­bourg, Hessen, and Conningstein borne by the Barons of Peter­schen and Deure, the Lord Wencelij of Botselaer, and Iohn of As­sendelst, Lord of Cralingen. The lord Iohn of Egmond lord of Ke­nensbourg, followed bearing his armes with his crest and colors. After him followed the Lord Daniell of Botselaer Lord of Mervve bearing the Helme; the Lord Duits Captaine of the Gard bearing the sword, and the Lord Wolfart of Brederode with the Coat-ar­mor. Next, the Lord of Brecht and the Sr. of Malderè led the mourning Horse trapped with black Veluet down to the ground. The Earle of Ouerstein followed carrying a drawne sword, and the Baron of Creange a Coronet of Gold; these were attended by three Stewards or masters of houshold, to witt, the Lords vander Aa, Audenfort, and Viry with white staues in their hands: after them followed twelue men carrying the Beere wherein was the Princes bodie hung with the Princes armes. On each side of the bodie, went the Lord Iohn of Burgondie Lord of Froymont: the Lord Walraue, Lord of Brederode, the Lord of Merode and the Signior de Soeterwoude. After the bodie and Heraulds of Armes, followed Prince Maurice of Nassau sonne to the Prince in a mourning robe, the trayne whereof was borne by the Lord of Sonsfelt, his Tutor. On his right hand went the Elector Truxses of Cologne, & on the left, Count Hohenlo. After them followed Count William of Nassau, Count Philip of Nassau, and the Earle of Solms, each of them going alone. They were followed by my Lords, the generall States, the Councell of State, the States of Holland, the Presidents and Coun­cellors of the great Councell, and of the prouinciall Councell of Holland, with their Secretaries. Next them, the Pretor, Burgo­masters, and all the Magistrats of Delft; after them followed mi­nisters, the Princes Captaines and Officers confusedly attended by multitudes of people.

These funerals were solemnised with incredible sorrow of the whole towne of Delft. There was nothing seen & heard that day ouer the whole citie but sighs, teares, and lamentations for the death of this good and vertuous Prince, the people beseeching God to preserue and defend these Countries from greater daun­gers and difficulties, which by this Princes death seemed to threa­ten them.

At what time Prince Maurice of Nassau receiued the go­uernment of these Countries.

MY Lords the States of Holland,What moued my Lords the States to make Prince Maurice Gouernour. Zeland, Friseland, and V­trecht (well weighing the good & faithful seruice which my Lord the Prince of Orange had done to these Countries both by his counsell and actions, in no sort sparing his owne person, but had alwayes beene present at sundrie daungers and difficulties, the better to effect his designes; considering besides, that the sayd Prince had not onely spent all his substance in those bloudie wars, but all his brethrens wealth, and not alone lost his owne life there­in, but also three of his brethren, viz. Counts, Lodwicke, Adolph, and Henrie) gaue the gouernment of these countries, with the Ad­miraltie of the sea, to his sonne Prince Maurice of Nassau in recom­pence and acknowledgement of all his merits; appointing Philip Earle of Hohenlo for his Lieutenant.

So as in the yeare 1584 my Lord Prince Maurice of Nassau, of the age of seuenteene yeares, succeeded my Lord his father in the gouernement; a Prince whom God ha [...]h made an instrument to reuenge his fathers cruell death vpon the bloudie Spaniards and their adherents, and to let the world see, that it is he alone, who with the father lie eye of mercie beholding these wretched and op­pressed Prouinces, hath freed and set them at libertie; and that it is he which derideth all our enemies enterprises and determinati­ons, who thought that when this illustrious and valiant Prince was dead, they should easily subdue these poore afflicted countries, be­ing then (as they supposed) without a Head, and with their bloudie hands ruine it. But their hope was vaine; for from this goodlie tree which was cut downe God hath raised a plant, which, as a man may say, is sprouted vp to heauen: so as the accessaries to this murther haue by experience seene the contrarie of their vaine imaginati­ons. For the whole world knowes, and I hope to shew it in this de­scription, what victorious blessings God hath giuen and granted to these countries by meanes of this Gedeon.

Before the Earle of Leycesters arriuall, whom the Queene of England sent to be Gouernour, my Lords the generall States gaue an instruction to his Excellencie Maurice of Nassau, concerning the [Page 26] gouernement of Captaine-Generall and Admirall of Holland, Ze­land, and Frizeland, but on condition to carie all respect to the Go­uernour Generall whom the Queene of England should send; which hauing accepted, he honourably discharged. In anno 1586, vnder the commaund of the sayd Gouernour, he went accompani­ed by Sir Philip Sidney, His Excellencie goe [...]h into Flanders. Gouernour of Flessigue, with two or three thousand men, into Flanders, to Ter-Neusen, as well to diuert the Prince of Parma from the siege of Nuys, as because la Motte did sore oppresse the towne of Ostend, hauing made a sort in S. Kathe­rines churchyard, vsing meanes by secret intelligence to make him­selfe master thereof, which by corrupting and drawing diuers by money to his partie, he had almost effected. But his Excellencie made another attempt vpon the towne of Axel, in this maner.

The taking of the towne of Axel in Flaunders.

THe sixteenth of Iulie anno 1586, his Excellencie and Sir Philip Sidney, with their souldiers and prouisions did secretly in the night depart from the sort of Ter-Neuse towards the towne of Axel in Flanders, a mile and halfe distant from Hulst, and foure miles from Gaunt. It is a small towne, and not altogether encom­passed with walls,His Excellencie takes the towne of Axel. which by passing secretly oner a wall they tooke without any great slaughter: there were foure companies of soul­diers in it. Within a few dayes after they tooke all the forts round about it; and for the safer keeping of the sayd towne, they broke downe the causies, so as the whole towne was enuironed with wa­ter. The taking of Axel did somewhat trouble them of Flanders and Brabant, fearing some greater mischiefe would ensue; so as they forthwith wrot to the Prince of Parma lying before Nuys, entrea­ting him to come from thence to ayd them; sending him vvord, That it vvas more honourable and necessarie to preserue their own countrey, than to besiege and vvin an Imperiall citie forth of the jurisdiction and limits of the Low Countries. The Prince notwith­standing would not quit the siege, but sent la Motte Gouernour of Graueling, to besiege and recouer the sayd towne of Axel; but his labour was lost, the towne being (as hath beene said) all enuironed with water.

The Earle of Leycester leaues the Low Countries, and goes into England. Maurice of Nassau is made Go­uernour Generall.

AFter that Robert Dudley, The Earle of Leycester goes forth of the Low Countries into England. Earle of Leycester, in the later end of the yere 1587, was gone into England, leauing the Netherlands in great troubles and dissention, and that Sir William Stanley had on the nine and twentieth of Ianuarie deliuered vp the towne of Deuenter to Taxis, and Rowland Yorke the fort of Zutphen, the generall States were much perplexed, fearing that the English which lay in other townes and forts would doe the like, following the example of the French in Brabant in the Duke of Anjous time, did in an assembly at the Hague, on the sixt of Februarie, establish and declare by prouiso, by vertue, and according to the Soueraign­tie belonging vnto them,The generall States make Prince Mau­rice Gouernour Generall. Prince Maurice, besides his Admiraltie in generall, and place of Gouernour of Holland, Zeland, and Frize­land, Gouernour generall in the sayd Earle of Leycesters absence, with charge and instruction of the preheminences, rights, and pri­uiledges, for the profit and conseruation of the countries townes, and inhabitants, to maintaine and defend the exercise of the refor­med Religion, to administer justice by aduice of the Counsellors and Presidents, with authoritie to change Magistrats, to chuse Bur­gomasters and Sherifes according to the auncient custome; in a word, to doe whatsoeuer a Gouernour Generall might doe: and all this by prouiso, &c. joyning with him, because of his youth, Count Hohenlo as his Lieutenant.

Hitherto we haue briefely set downe how and when his Excel­lencie attained the gouernment of these Prouinces; wee will now come to the description of the victories which it hath pleased God to grant him.

The towne of Medenblicke is enforced to submit it selfe to his Excellencie, and to my Lords the States.

ALthough the Earle of Leycester had resigned, and deposed himselfe from the gouernement of these vnited Prouinces, ac­cording [Page 28] to an Act granted at London on the 17 of December 1587, to my Lords the generall States: yet they likewise caused it to bee published and proclaimed in forme following.

The Estates generall of the vnited Prouinces of the Low Countries, to all those to whom these presents shall come, greeting. As it hath pleased her Maiestie of England to conferre with the Commissioners and Embassa­dors of the said Prouinces, and in the end to make a certaine Treatie, bea­ring date the tenth of August 1585: Whereby on either side it was con­cluded, That during the warre against the enemies of the said countries, as strangers, malecontents, and their adherents, her Maiestie will at her owne cost entertaine (beside the garrisons of the townes and forts promi­sed to her Maiestie for assurance of repaiment of such summes of money as she shall disburse to releeue and succour the sayd Prouinces, and maintaine them in the true christian religion, their franchises, priuiledges, & laws) the number of six thousand foot and one thousand horse, conducted by a Gouernour Generall, being a Lord of name and qualitie, and of the refor­med Religion, together with other good Captaines; on condition that the sayd Prouinces generally, and euerie of them in particular, shall be bound and obliged to repay vnto her Maiestie the sayd summes by a certaine limi­ted time after the warre: and for assurance of the said perfect and entire paiment, the townes & forts of Briell, Flessingue, & the castle of Ramme­kens, should be consigned to her sayd Maiestie: the which by her or her successors (the said payment once made) should, without any difficultie or claime to them, be restored to the aboue mentioned States and Prouinces, without deliuering them to the King of Spain, or other enemies of the said countries, or to any other Prince or Lord; but should in the meane time be kept for her Maiesties assurance, and profit of the States of the said coun­tries. The which Gouernour, with two other men of note sent from her Maiestie, and being her subiects, should haue place in the Councell of State of the vnited Prouinces, together with it to manage the affaires concer­ning the common defence & vnion of the said countries. According to this Treatie the foresayd towns & forts being consigned to her Maiestie, it hath pleased her to send hither with Commission of Gouernor Generall of her troupes, the illustrious and mightie Lord, Robert Earle of Leycester, Ba­ron of Denbigh, &c. And we haue besides thought good, to require, ac­cept, and make him Gouernour and Captaine Generall ouer all the vnited Prouinces, townes, and associated members thereof: which place his aboue named Excellency hauing accepted, with reseruation of his homage and fe­altie due vnto her Maiestie, all Gouernours of Prouinces, townes, and [Page 17] members thereof, likewise all Officers, Iustices, and Souldiers, were by oath bound vnto his Excellencie, as Gouernour and Captaine Generall of the Low Countries, both in generall and particular. But as it hath plea­sed her Maiestie to call home his said Excellencie, to imploy him for other seruices in her owne kingdome, so as vpon this occasion he being no longer able to gouerne these countries, or accomplish the tenor of his Commission, according as the present necessitie of these countries doe require, hath dis­charged and vnburthened himselfe of the said office of Gouernour and Captaine Generall of these vnited Prouinces, and from the Commission which we gaue him, and deliuered it vp againe to vs, as appeares by an Act signed and sealed with his owne hand, made in the citie of London, and dated the seuenteenth of December 1587. That it hath likewise plea­sed her Maiestie, by Commission dated the foure and twentieth of the said month to appoint Peregrin Lord Willoughbie, &c. Gouernor Generall of her troupes in these countries. And considering that in the present state and necessitie of these countries, they cannot but be greatly endangered, wanting a Gouernour Generall. Therefore it hath pleased vs in regard of these aforesaid reasons, and after sound and mature deliberation, to make it knowne to all men by these presents, That his aboue named Excellencie hath accordingly quitted the sayd Commission. And we, according to her Maiesties and his Excellencies pleasure, holding him displaced, haue taken vnto our selues the generall gouernement of the sayd countries in matters which concerne the common defence and vnion thereof, that we may ob­serue the Treatie made with her Maiestie, in the administration of the Councell of State of the sayd countries, to the end that all matters concer­ning the common defence and vnion thereof against their common enemies, may be managed and conducted by the aboue mentioned Lord Willough­bie, Gouernour Generall of her Maiesties forces, The Gouernours of the respectiue vnited Prouinces, and the two Counsellors chosen by her Maie­stie, being her owne subiects, brought in, or yet to be brought in to that end, into the sayd Councell, according to the aboue named Treatie, and like­wise the Counsellors of the vnited Prouinces, whom we haue appointed, or may hereafter appoint: Therefore we certifie all Gouernors and Captains of Prouinces, townes and members thereof, all Admirals, Vice admirals, all Colonels, Captaines, and souldiers, both by sea and land, and moreouer, all Presidents, Counsellors, Officers, Treasurers, Receiuers, Bailifes, Scouts, Marshals, Iustices, Magistrats, Gentlemen, Vassals, Bourguers, and other subiects and inhabitants of these countries, of what estate or condition soe­uer they be, that they are all together, and euerie of them in particular, ac­quitted, [Page 28] [...] [Page 17] [...] [Page 30] freed, and discharged from the oath made to the Earle of Leyce­ster his Excellencie, concerning his authoritie in these countries: straitly commaunding them by these presents, to account themselues freed, acquit­ted and discharged; the oath neuerthelesse continuing still in full force and power as they haue respectiuely made it, and thereby obliged to conti­nue loyall to the aboue mentioned vnited Prouinces, States, Townes, and members thereof, and to be obedient to those superiours whom wee haue appointed ouer them, or may hereafter appoint. The which oath we com­maund them faithfully to keepe and discharge, euen as they will answer be­fore God and these countries. And for want of doing hereof, we will pro­ceed against the transgressors according to the laws of marshal discipline. And as these countries haue not otherwise treated, concluded, or determi­ned with her Maiestie of England, than in the maner abouesaid, and that we likewise are assured from her Maiestie, by sundry declarations, that she pretends no further claime or title to these countries, townes, members thereof, nor craues nothing more of them but the obseruing of the aboue mentioned Treatie, which we likewise for our part haue euer, and still doe desire, faithfully to accomplish in euery point, and to her Maiesties good content, who hath likewise at sundrie times expresly declared, That it would be much against her good wil & meaning, if any dissention, breach, or disunion, should vnder her name be caused or made. This notwithstan­ding, we find that sundrie inhabitants of the said Prouinces, being badly informed of the aboue mentioned Treatie, imagining matters that are not, and forgetting their duetie, haue done diuers bad offices, to the preiudice of the quiet and vnion of the said Prouinces both in generall and particu­lar, and that vnder this colour sundrie other malicious persons, for the most part strangers, and come hither from other Prouinces, hauing little or nothing to lose here, haue gone about by their turbulent disposition, and desire tending to sedition, by secret practises and false pretence, to seduce the inhabitants of the said countries, to disunite others, and to stirre them vp to rebell, inciting the souldiers paid by the countrey to mutinie, and af­ter that to commit treason, falsely therein vsing her Maiesties name and authoritie. That diuers likewise, borne in other countries, haue calumnia­ted the state of these Prouinces, townes, and members thereof, discoursing of it as if they were naturall subiects, according to their owne rashnesse and seditious affection, and as if it were lawfull for them there to enter­prise any noueltie, not considering that they more than any other ought mo­destly to containe themselues, and to remaine quiet, enioying the protection and defence of these countries in as ample manner as the naturall inhabi­tants; [Page 31] and all this vnder colour of her Maiesties name and authoritie, who is highly offended therewith, the same being cleane contrarie to her intent and meaning: all which is like to procure the generall ruine of the said Prouinces. For the conseruation whereof all good and loyall inhabi­tants and subiects of the said countries, who being driuen forth of other Prouinces for religion, are retired hither, haue indured much, liuing peace­ably vnder their lawfull Magistrats both in prosperitie and aduersitie. So that now by these presents expresse prohibition is made to euerie one, of what nature or condition soeuer he be, henceforth neither by words, secret practises, writings or deeds, to enterprise any alteration, noueltie, or sedi­tion, in the state of these countries, among the Burguers, inhabitants, and souldiers, seruing by land or water, be it vnder colour of her Maiesties name and authoritie, or that of the Earle of Leycester his Excellencie, or to attempt, solicite, or performe it by any other, on paine that wee the States of the respectiue Prouinces, or Officers, Iustices, and Magistrats of the countries and townes, will proceed without respect of persons, or any fraud or dissimulation, against them, according to the lawes and customes of the countrey, ordained and obserued against disturbers of the publike peace, that they may serue for example to others.

And because no man herein shall pretend cause of ignorance, wee ex­presly commaund, That this present Declaration be proclaimed and publi­shed in all accustomed places, that we will proceed, and cause to be procee­ded against the transgressors hereof, and adiudge them to punishment, without any fauour or respect of persons. The which we haue found to be expedient for the preseruation and vtilitie of these countries.

And a little lower, By decree of my Lords the generall States.
And signed,C. Aerssens.

All this hauing beene thus done, diuers and sundrie persons in these countries, which did affect and depend vpon him, wisht for his returne, or that his resignation might be delayed; and for the better hindering thereof did by these and other meanes raise great dissention in the countrey and townes, stirring vp the souldiers to mutinie against my Lords the States, and especially at Geertruden­bergue, Medenblick, Narde, Worcum, Heusden, Braeckel, and in many other places: which the said Lords States, and his Excellen­cie, did by all good meanes seeke to preuent, both by faire promi­ses [Page 32] and constraint. But they could not preuaile with General Senoy, whom the late Prince of Orange had made Gouernour of North Holland, neither by faire meanes, or mediation of sundrie great Lords, so as he could not be brought to giue obedience to his Ex­cellencie as Gouernour Generall, nor yet to my Lords the States as chiefe Lords: Whereupon they were constrained to vse force, because that to reduce him to obedience did greatly import the countries. And for that we wil set downe euerie thing according to truth, we will adde in this place, in manner of an introduction, the reasons which moued my Lords the States and his Excellencie so to do, euen as it was printed by their owne Printer in anno 1588.

It is knowne to all men, that the most illustrious, high, and mightie Lord, the Prince of Orange of happie memorie, was so affectionat to the wealth and commoditie of the Netherlands, and especially of Holland, Ze­land, and West Frizeland, vnder his owne gouernement, as he hath for the conseruation of those Prouinces offered and exposed not onely his own substance, and that of his kinsmen, but euen his owne person, and those of my Lords his brethren, and others of his kindred; so that the said Lord Prince (being pursued by the King of Spaine by all hostile meanes, for the cause abouesaid, and by the Duke of Alua during his tyrannie in the Low Countries) perceiuing the state of these countries to be wonderfully op­prest, he hath shewed so many honourable, commendable, and heroicke markes and testimonies of his affection to the good of these Prouinces, as during his absence from thence the inhabitants thereof, and namely the countries of Holland, Zeland, and West Frizeland, did mutually determin to free themselues from the tyrannie of the said Duke of Alua, to embrace the Christian and reformed Religion, and to liue free vnder the lawfull gouernement of the abouesaid Lord Prince. And for the maintenance of the sayd resolution, he did at the beginning of the warre appoint and send into sundrie parts and townes of the afore mentioned countries vnder his gouernement, such persons as himselfe thought fit for the seruice of the countrey, with such Commission as the affaires of the time then required: and among others sent the Generall Senoy into North Holland and West Frizeland, who vpon his Excellencies commission was willingly & with­out any contradiction receiued there, the inhabitants of the said countries hauing no respect to the person of the man (who was a stranger, vn­knowne, and borne forth of the countrey) but onely for loue which they bare to the said Lord Prince, and for that they were there desirous to shew what honour and respect they did beare to his commaundements. It [Page 33] is a matter likewise knowne, that euer since that time the sayd Generall hath beene verie honourably respected by his Excellence of happie memo­rie, and by the countrey: as also that after the lamentable death of his said Excellencie, the States of Holland and West Frizeland, and the high and mightie Lord Maurice Prince of Orange, Earle of Nassau, and Marquesse of Vere, Fiessingue, &c. son to the aboue named Prince, after that he had receiued the gouernement of Captaine Generall of the countries of Holland, Zeland, and West Frizeland, haue continued and maintained the said Generall in the same office and authoritie in the sayd place, as he had before his Excellencies lamentable death. And although the sayd General ought to haue acknowledged these benefits receiued from the countrey, at the least not to enterprise anything contrarie to the lawes thereof, or to his Excellencies Commission, as Gouernor general of Holland, Zeland, and West Frizeland; especially seeing that the sayd gouernement was solemnely giuen to his Excellencie vpon sound consideration, & part­ly in signe of acknowledgement of the good and commendable seruices done by the late Lord Prince his father. Neuerthelesse, meanes hath bin made by some men (for the most part borne forth of the countries, badly affe­cted to them, and vngratefull to the house of Nassau) that the said Gene­rall hath obtained a certaine ample Commission from the Earle of Leyce­ster (whom the generall States had made Gouernour Generall of the Low Countries) vnknowne to the States of Holland and West Frizeland, or to his Excellencie of Nassau, absolutely to commaund in all matters concer­ning the state and gouernement of the countries and townes of North Holland, and West Frizeland, as Gouernour and Lieutenant to the sayd Earle of Leycester: And besides this, hath likewise obtained other Com­missions directly contrarie to the priuiledges and lawes of the sayd coun­tries, and authoritie of the Gouernour thereof: By vertue whereof hee hath likewise begun to appoynt new Receiuors of the reuenewes of the countrey, vsing forcible meanes to commit them into the possession of their pretended Commissioners. Of which the States of Holland & West Frize­land being aduertised, they haue (according to the charge of their calling, for the defence and confirmation of the vnion and lawes of the said coun­tries, as also of the gouernment and authority of his said Excellency) writ­ten to the sayd Generall, to acquaint them with the sayd Commissions, and not in vertue therof, attempt any thing without the knowledge of his Ex­cellencie and States. But all this being to no purpose with him, the States of Holland, Zeland, and West Frizeland, complained to the Earle of Lei­cester concerning the graunt of the sayd Commissions, as hurtfull to the [Page 34] lawes and customes of the said countries, and to his Excellencies authori­tie, and by consequence repugnant to the oath made by the said Earle of Leycester; crauing a reuocation thereof. Whereupon the said Lord Earle at his first departure into England, on the foure & twentieth of Nouem­ber 1586, did vpon mature deliberation and knowledge of the matter, de­clare, That he was content, if the Commissions of the sayd Generall were preiudicious to the countrey, and to the authoritie of his Excellencie of Nassau, that the States should take order therein: Which Declaration be subsigned with his owne hand. Hereupon, within a while after, the States and his Excellencie of Nassau wrot to the sayd Generall to come and bring those Commissions to the Hague, that order might be taken therein, for the conseruation and vnion of the customes and priuiledges of the countrey, as also for his Excellencies gouernement and authori­tie. Vpon this commaundement the sayd Generall, in Ianuarie 1587, came to the Hague to his Excellencie and my Lords the States, and deliuered his Commissions aswell concerning the sayd gouernement, as Captaineship of the Castle of Medenblick, into the hands of his Ex­cellencie. Which Commissions being well perused, were directly found to be contrarie to the customes of the sayd countries and townes, ten­ding to dissention and disunion, and likewise contrarie to the authoritie of the Gouernour and Captaine generall of Holland and West Frizeland. His Excellencie and certaine chiefe Lords appointed to administer iu­stice in the sayd countries, and verie zealous in the true Christian and reformed Religion, together with many Noblemen of the coun­trey and townes of Holland, did acquaint him with the loue and affe­ction which his Excellencie of Nassau and my Lords the States did beare vnto him; and that they were desirous to continue him in the same authoritie and commaund which he had had ouer the troupes now pre­sent, and which were hereafter to be appointed for defence of the townes and forts of North Holland, in the time of his late Excellencie of hap­pie memorie, and to giue him Commission to that end, with this re­seruation, That, seeing at all times the conseruation and assurance of all the Townes, forts, and quarters of Holland and West Frizeland had beene vnder commaund of the Gouernour and Captaine Gene­rall of the sayd countries, who for conseruation and assurance of them, hath euer appointed such Commaunders, Captaines, and souldiers, as hee thought fit to defend them against all men, the Generall Senoy was bound, for the conseruation of the rights and vnion of the coun­tries, as also of the gouernement thereof, to respect and obey his Ex­cellencie [Page 35] in the same manner as hee had done the late Prince of Orange, his father, to receiue Commissions from him, and to be sworne to him. All this the sayd Generall accepted, and promised to obserue. And though at his owne request his former Commissions were restored vn­to him, yet before the restitution of them hee made a solemne promise, neuer afterwards in any sort to make vse of them. At the same time the sorrowfull newes were brought, of the sale of the town of Deuenter, and forts before Zutphen, by the traitors Sir William Stanley, and Rowland Yorke, together with the forts vnder their commaund, by reason whereof time would not permit the sayd Generall to tarrie so long at the Hague till his Excellencie of Nassau had dispatched the sayd Commission, and taken his oath. But his Excellencie relying on his word, and desiring nothing more than the preseruation of those countries, did presently after these sad newes commaund the Gene­rall to depart into North Holland, to prouide, as many shot as need should require, for the safetie of the towns ther, & namely to send more aid to the townes and forts of Guelderland and Ouer-Yssell (where certaine troups of his Regiment alreadie were.) Whereupon his Excellencie promised to send him two Companies in their stead which should be sent forth of the townes of North Holland, and West Frizeland, to the townes and forts of Guelderland, ouer whom his Excellencie was content he should commaund, as well as ouer those that were alreadie in garri­son in the sayd townes. Hereupon the Generall departed, promising, That hauing once receiued his Commission, hee would remaine in the countrey, and bee obedient to his Excellencie, vnto whom for confir­mation thereof he gaue his hand. And because that, after the treacherie v­sed at Deuenter and forts before Zutphen, the principall cause of that losse was found to be, for that the Commaunders, Captaines, and souldi­ers that were there, would not acknowledge any superiours in these coun­tries, nor obey the States Generall, Councell of State, nor Gouernor of the countries wherein they liued, nor yet her Maiestie of Englands Ge­nerall that was in the Low countries; but sayd, That they were one­ly vnder commaund of his Excellencie the Earle of Leycester, who was forth of the countrey, and had crost the seas, and could not haue any command of the gouernement of the countrey, nor prouide for the pre­seruation thereof: and also for that diuers aduertisements were giuen, That vpon occasion they would propound the same to other Captaines and souldiers. So as by that meanes diuers other townes would bee deliuered vp to the enemie. Whereupon the Sates of Holland, West Frizeland, [Page 36] and Zeland, being assembled, did with mature deliberation determine, that it was necessarie for the defence of the sayd countries and townes, that all the regiments vnder the commaund and pay of the sayd coun­tries, besides their oath made to the Earle of Leycester, as Gouernour Generall appointed and committed by the States in these countries, should likewise make oath to be loyall and obliged to the vnited Prouinces, and namely to the countries of Holland, West Frizeland, and Zeland, and to the townes thereof: And that they being in any townes or places belong­ing to the gouernement of his Excellencie of Nassau, and Lieutenant Ge­nerall of the sayd countries, should be obedient to them in whatsoeuer they should be commaunded for the seruice of the sayd countries. All which points were for the most part comprehended in the oath made, and whol­ly agreed with that which had beene treated of with his Excellencie the Earle of Leycester, at what time he receiued the gouernment: For allTreaties, Commissions, and Instructions, imported loyaltie to the coun­tries and townes both in generall and particular, which namely had beene done by the Earle of Leycester; and the verie words of the oath made, (by which they promised to obey the Commaunders which were appointed) contained obedience to the Gouernour and Captaine Generall, as like­wise to the Lieutenant Generall of the sayd countries of Holland, Zeland, and Frizeland; seeing it is a thing most certaine, that a Gouernour or Captaine Generall of a Prouince, hath the commaund of all souldiers ser­uing there. This resolution taken, and his Excellencie hauing beene in­treated to execute it ouer all his gouernmēt, beside the promised Commissi­on, his Excellencie sent a Commissarie to the sayd Generall to take his oath of obedience: He likewise sent, according to his promise, a band of soul­diers, whose Captaine, Officers, and souldiers, were for the most part borne in Holland; and had giuen order that the sayd Companie should re­maine in the towne of Medenblick in their steads who after the yeelding vp of Deuenter had beene sent into the countries of Guelderland and O­uer-Yssel, for the better defence of the townes and forts there. And not­withstanding the Generalls former promise, he would not suffer the sayd Companie, nor yet the Captaine Arent of Duvenuord, to come into the towne. The said Generall likewise, contrarie to his former promise, refu­sed to make oath: And although hee had his Excellencie of Nassau his Commission, yet would he not gouerne himselfe thereby. Whereat his Ex­cellencie being moued (as one that expected better dealing from the sayd Generall) thought it fit, by the States consent, to goe himselfe in person to Medenblick, as well to vnderstand the Generalls intent, as to prouide [Page 37] all things needfull for the assurance, conseruation, and quiet of the sayd towne, and others in North Holland, and West Frizeland. But going thither accompanied by Count Hohenlo, and diuers other Lords and Commissioners of the townes, with the ordinarie traine of his haushold, hauing no forces at all with him, the said Generall would not suffer his Excellencie in person to come into the towne, to the great griefe and dis­content of the Burgomasters and inhabitants of Medenblick: which is a thing neuer before heard of in Holland and West Frizeland. And not­withstanding that his said Excellencie of Nassau had iust cause in this re­gard to conceiue sinisterly of him, yet did he in no sort alter his affection towards the said Generall: and therefore sent certaine trustie persons to the Generall at Medenblick, to demaund of him the reason of his procee­dings. And vnderstanding by them, that the said Generall had entertai­ned some idle impression and imagination on no sure ground, his Excellen­cie did againe send some of the most eminent persons of the countrey, men verie zealous to the reformed Christian Religion, & louers of their coun­trey, to bring him to some reason, and to persuade him to doe whatsoeuer was needfull for the good of the countrey, and maintenance of the true re­formed Religion, together with the rights, priuiledges, franchises, and laudible customes of the said Prouinces: and to diuert him from any sini­ster conceit of his Excellencies true meaning, who desired to perfect the worke begun in these countries by my Lord his father of happie memorie, and to proceed no otherwise with the Generall but in louing, iust, and friendlie manner, promising to forget all former vnkindnesses. And though the said Generall, vpon the remonstrance of these Commissioners, did not absolutely condescend to that which his Excellencie required of him for the seruice of the country, because he said that he had aduertised the Earle of Leycester thereof, whose answer he daily expected, yet in regard hee had by prouiso both by word of mouth and writing, declared that he was sorie for denying entrance to his Excellencie of Nassau into Medenblick, vnto whom and to the States of Holland and West Frizeland, he confest himselfe to be much obliged; and that therefore he would not deliuer the towne of Medenblick to any, without commaundement from his Excellen­cie and my Lords the States. But concerning the acceptance of his Commis­sion, and taking the oath which his Excellencie commaunded, hee therein craued delay for a time. So that his Excellencie and my Lords the States wrot vnto him, That they did relye vpon his aboue mentioned Declara­tion, and were willing for a time to deferre that which they had required of him, so that vpon mature deliberation he would make a more ample [Page 38] Declaration thereupon. He was moreouer requested to continue his loyall seruice, and not to charge the townes and citizens of Medenblick with too great garrisons, which would breed confusion in the state of the countrey. Two monethes after this the Generall made no farther Declaration, and in the meane space the truth of that came to light, which his Excellencie of Nassau and my Lords the States had long before doubted; namely, that the good of those countries, by the apparent losse of the true, Christian, and Reformed Religion, together with the rights and franchises, were in great hazard, by a determination held to treat with the enemie. Where­upon his Excellencie and my Lords the States thought good, being well and amply informed of the said apparent danger, to aduertise the sayd Gene­rall thereof, by a man verie trustie, and zealous of true religion, and ve­rie inward with him, and to intreat him, That he would weigh the sayd dangers, and at last resolue vpon that which they hadso often craued of him for the good of the countrey, or else that he would come to the Hague to his Excellenie, to conferre with him concerning these affaires, to the end the said dangers might be preuented.

The Generall, vpon his Excellencies word and promise, being come to the Hague, was by him so louingly entertained and respected, as if none of all this had euer beene. And being fully instructed concerning all mat­ters, and of his Excellencies intention, he continued his former Declarati­on and promise, requiring for the rest, that they would delay it for a while longer, promising that he would make suit, so soone as the Earle of Leyce­ster should returne, to be discharged of the Commission which he had gi­uen him. And thereupon his Excellencie of Nassau and my Lords the States, gaue him free leaue to returne wishing him to haue a care for the good of the countrey, and not to ouerburthen the towne and citizens of Medenblick; and that in so doing he should be well assured of his Excel­lencie and my Lords the States affection, as well to the common good of those countries, as particularly to himselfe. The Earle of Leycester retur­ning afterwards into these countries, his Excellencie and my Lords the States did for many monethes expect the true performance of the Gene­rals promise: but as nothing ensued thereupon, but on the contrarie di­uers things so handled, as there was great likelihood that misprisions, brea­ches, and diuisions, would ensue, and so by consequent the ruine of those countries, rather than the preseruation of them. The States and his Ex­cellencie did at last request the Councell of State and the Earle of Leyce­ster (as he from whom be had receiued his Commission) openly to declare what they were to expect of that which for an whole yeare had been held [Page 39] doubtfull and vncertaine. Whereupon the sayd Councell declared, That the Commission granted by the Earle of Leycester to the said Generall, was repugnant to the authoritie and Commission of his Excellencie of Nassau, and contrarie to the vnion and customes of the countrey. Whereof they likewise hauing written to the Earle of Leycester, they thought good to send for the said Generall, to conferre with him thereupon, and to that end gaue him all assurance. But the Generall making a slight excuse to the Councell, would not come himselfe, but sent William Mostaert in his stead: vnto whom the said Councell declared, That they vnderstood that the Generalls Commission was contrarie to his Excellencie of Nassaus au­thoritie, and that he was alreadie discharged thereof by his Excellencie the Earle of Leycesters owne Declaration, dated the foure and twentieth of Nouember: That the said Generall was likewise bound to receiue his Commission from his Excellencie of Nassau, and to respect and obey him. Whereupon the said Mostaert made a Declaration in the Generalls be­balse, how that he doubted not but that the Generall would be well plea­sed so to doe, prouided, that the Commission might be made to his own con­tent. And as the Councell commaunded the said Mostaert to set downe in writing, vpon what points the Generall would haue his Commission made, he deliuered them as they are hereafter inserted: wherein, as likewise by that which hath beene added to it, may be seene how vnreasonable a mat­ter it was. In the meane time the generall States, the Councell of State, his Excellencie of Nassau, as Gouernor and Captain Generall of Holland, Zeland, and West Frizeland, together with the Gouernours and Com­maunders of other chiefe Prouinces, for the assurance of the state of the countries, had giuen order for the munition of the frontire townes and forts: wherein, to preuent all outward confusion, it was among other mat­ters thought fit, that the towne of Medenblick should be ordinarily man­ned with an hundred and fiftie souldiers, and no more: And because the Generall kept fiue or six hundred souldiers there, contrarie, or at least without the commaundement of his Excellencie and Councell of State; and that the Councell of State had oftentimes commaunded him from the Earle of Leycester his Excellencie, to send the souldiers ouer & aboue the two hundred that were there, forth of the towne, for the countries ser­uice, hee thereupon made an impertinent answer, how that he could not dismise his souldiers, but that it behoued him to retaine them for the de­fence of his owne person. In this regard the said generall States, the Councell of State, his Excellencie of Nassau in qualitie aboue said, toge­ther with the States of Holland and West Frizeland, did on the 28 and [Page 40] 29 of Ianuarie last past, determine to write to the said Generall, That according to the said order he should keepe but an hundred and fiftie soul­diers in the towne, and send the rest to gard the frontiers. An order was likewise taken the same day, that the hundred and fiftie souldiers appointed to remaine in Medenblick, and others going to their appointed garrisons, should presently receiue a moneths pay: Concerning which, my Lords the States generall, the Councell of State, his Excellencie of Nassau, and the States of Holland, dispatched letters on the twentie ninth and thirtieth of the said moneth, among which the contents of the Councell of States let­ters was, That the Generall should obey his Excellencie of Nassau. So that it seemes, that indirectly and in contempt, to hinder the effect of the said commaundement, the Generall, according to his former actions and rash speech, boasted, That he had conquered and kept the townes of North Holland: Words not onely tending to the diminution of the late Lord Prince of Orange his reputation, by whose meanes and good conduct those countries had beene defended and preserued, but to the great dishonour of all good people of the townes and countrey of North Holland, and West Frizeland, who in regard of the Generall his Commission, and for the said late Lord Princes sake, had willingly receiued and entertained him then when he wanted and was vnprouided of all things, and who according to his owne speech had verie valiantly defended themselues; saying not long before, That he had rather see the ruine of the countrey, than to desist from his determination and purpose: so as he raised sedition and mutinie among the souldiers in the towne of Medenblicke (the which hee was not ashamed to write of to the Councell of State) which spread it selfe so far abroad, as the Commissarie that was sent thither the same day of the stir, to craue the execution of the said commaundements, receiued an answer from the Generall, That he could not rule the troupes being so disordered. And the souldiers who since their last pay had receiued more monethes means than the other Ensignes, and whose monethlie pay still ran on, said, That they would not goe forth of the town till they had first receiued their full pay for seuentie two monethes; of which seuentie two monethes they had alreadie receiued the two third parts, according to the generall reso­lution made anno 1581, by the generall States, in the towne of Amster­dam, in presence, & by the consent of my Lord the Prince of Orange. The Burguers of Medenblick (who for the good of the countrey had euer borne themselues loyally, and were to be defended by the souldiers) were by them disarmed, and enforced without delay to carrie their armes to the towne­house, where the Generall was: and not the souldiers alone, but the Cap­taines [Page 41] and Officers were constrained to giue weekely as much as their entertainment amounted to. This disobedience, riot, disorder, rebellion, and mutinie, in Medenblick, without any vrgent necessitie, caused the gar­risons of other townes and places (which were worse paid) to doe the like, so as the whole countrey was in a verie dangerous estate. And after that his Excellencie of Nassau and my Lords the States of Holland and West Frizeland, were aduertised that matters did euerie day grow worse and worse at▪ Medenblick (the said Generall giuing them no aduertisement thereof) his Excellencie and the States of Holland and West Frizeland, who were most interessed therein, thought good to send, beside his Excel­lencie, certaine noble men, to the townes of those countries, to prouide for the redresse of those disorders. His Excellencie being come to the towne of Alckmaer, did by letters request the said souldiers to send some among them to him, to treat of their affaires and end them. But at the same time, name­ly on the sixteenth of Februarie, anno 1588, the Generall, with the Cap­tains Christal and Wolfswinckel, being in the said towne (the better to deceiue the souldiers vnder a fauourable pretence, for the maintenance of his particular designe, and to keepe them at his owne deuotion) made a ma­nifest complot, That none of them either in whole or part should go forth of the towne, till such time as not onely they, but likewise all the said Gene­ralls regiment, being partly in Guelderland, Frizeland, and Ouer-Yssell, had receiued their full and entire paiment: whereof by letters they like­wise aduertised the Captaines that lay in Harderwijc, Campen, and other townes, which were signed and sealed by the Generall, and the said Cap­taines Chrystall and Wolfswinckell: and those whom they had sent forth of Medenblick with the said complot and treatie, were enioyned to induce other Captaines and souldiers to doe the like. For a second colour the Generall persuaded the Captaines and souldiers, that they were sworne to the Queene of England; which, without direct vsurpation on the State of the countrey, could not be true, seeing that her Maiestie neuer would pretend any right to these countries; for she onely promised to aid these countries during the warre, with certaine forces of horse and foot, vnder promise, that the money lawfully by her disbursed, and knowne to the Com­missioners, should by the States be repaied vnto her; and thereupon the towne of Briell, and forts thereunto belonging, with the towne of Fles­singue, and castle of Rammekins, haue beene deliuered ouer to her Maie­stie as cautions, onely for her assurance; which she still keepes for the States of the country, her Maiestie pretending no right to the said towns, other than for assurance, as plainely appeares by the contents of the trea­tie [Page 42] made with her: wherein is expressly conditioned, That the Gouernours, Captaines, Officers, and souldiers, Burguers, and inhabitants of the towns should not only sweare vnto her Maiestie, for assuraance of the restituti­on of the money which she was to disburse, but likewise to the States, for conseruation of their right in all other matters, which they had expresly reserued to themselues, forth of the said assurance. And as concerning her Maiesties promise for greater aid, beside the garrisons of the cautionarie townes (seeing that the same was onely promised by her Maiestie for the seruice of the countrey) it was expresly conditioned in the last article of the said Treatie, That both the Generall, Colonels, Captaines, Officers, and others, should take the oath of fidelitie to the States alone, as they had done before any Treatie was made with her Maiestie, reseruing onely the homage which was due vnto her. And with this reseruation the Colonels Morgan, Chester, Generall Norris, with other English Colonels & Cap­taines, haue successiuely since the beginning of the warre embraced the ser­uice of these countries: So that it is a verie strange thing to see any man so rash, as to dare to say contrarie to the said Treatie, That himselfe or soul­diers, being in the pay of the said countries, are tyed by oath to her Maie­stie. And touching the oath made to the Earle of Leycester, he was in no sort sworne vnto, as hauing authoritie and Commission from her Maiestie, seeing that himselfe vpon the same Commission was bound to sweare vnto the States of the countrey as well as others: but it was done vpon the Commission and authoritie giuen (besides the Treaty made with her Maie­stie) by the States to the said Lord Earle, as Gouernor generall. These two pretences concerning the complot & their entire paiment, and persuading the souldiers that they were sworne to her Maiestie of England, and so by consequent should receiue their full pay from her, caused letters to be sent back in the soldiers names of Medenblick, answering those of his Excellen­cie; by which they craued to haue some Commissioners sent vnto thē, to vn­derstand the businesse together with the soldiers intentions. Thereupon his Excellencie sent the Lord of Famars, General of the Artillery, the Lord of Sweuezeel, Peter Kyes, Burgomaster of Harlem, & master Adrian An­thonie, Burgomaster of Alckmaer; who being come thither acquainted the soldiers with his Ex. & my Lords the States good meaning, exhorting thē to their dutie according to their oth, honor, & bond, and requested them to submit themselues to reason, and to be ruled by the power of the countrey. The soldiers answered them, That they would be wholly paid, not onely for themselues, but for the said Generals whole regiment: so that these Com­missioners iourny was in vain. They wrot afterwards to the soldiers, That [Page 43] his Excellencie and the States Commissioners were resolued to make them some reasonable offer, and that for the well vnderstanding thereof, they should vnder good assurance, which was promised them, send Commissio­ners to Hoorne: the which was denied, so as they did againe demand new Commissioners. Whereupon the States wrot backe, That they ought to re­lye on his Excelencie and the States Commissioners, and that therefore they were to send theirs at the countries charge. Whereunto the souldiers answered, That they would send none, and that they had alreadie declared their intent; demaunding moreouer, that his Excellencie would send o­ther Commissioners to them, vnto whom they offered safeconduct. Which his Excellencie & the States Commissioners vnderstanding, thought good to set downe some reasonable offers in writing, whereby they promised the souldiers to giue them their present pay, & a moneths wages before hand: and promised them moreouer, that concerning the rest that was behind, they should be paid as much, and at the same time, as others that serued the countrey, and should be as well dealt with as the best. They did like­wise declare vnto them, That it was not in the countries power to doe more, and that they ought to rest contented seeing they had been best paid, and that they being for the most part borne in the country, they ought more to loue their honour and credit, than by demanding impossibilities, to seeke the ruine of the Prouinces; with protestation, That if they would not con­descend to reason, his Excellencie and my Lords the States would hold themselues excused before God and the world, of the inconueniences which might ensue thereof. And to make them this offer, to shew them the equi­tie of it, and to persuade the souldiers to reason, his Excellencie and the Commissioners sent Master Nicholas Brunine, Coūsellor to his Excellen­cie, and Bartholdus Guillelmi Minister of the word of God in Hoorne, to Medenblick, who (notwithstanding all their labour) receiued no other answer of them, but that they would be wholly paid. And as it was well perceiued by their answer, that the aboue mentioned mutinie was made for the reasons heretofore alledged, and that their desire was vniust and im­possible; so as other souldiers which had done better seruice vpon the ene­mie, and had beene without comparison badlier paid and dealt with than they, would desire the like, which would not be effected with fiftie times an hundred thousand Florins: That the said souldiers had likewise vaun­ted, That they knew how to raise their pay vpon the countrey, and that they would haue it by force. Whereupon the Generall had alreadie procee­ded, and in effect fortified himselfe against the countrey, tyrannizing o­uer the villages neere to Medenblicke. His Excellencie by the aduice of the [Page 44] States found it necessarie, both for the preseruation of the countrey, and to bring the Generall and souldiers to some reasonable accord, and hinder their bad determination, to prouide for the besieging of the same towne, and therein to make vse, beside the souldiers that were then readie, of certaine Burguers and harquebusiers forth of some townes of North Holland, as from Alckmaer, Hoorne, Enckhuysen, Edam, Monickendam, and Purmereynde, with certaine boores of the countrey. Before the siege, the Lord Barbese, Counsellor of State to his Excellencie, and one of the Commissioners, was intreated once more to goe to Medenblick, to let the Generall and souldiers know the wrong they did to themselues, and to trie if he could reduce them to their dutie: who told the Generall both in pub­like and priuatly, That the Councell of State knew, that himselfe as Ge­nerall could not make vse of his Excellencie of Leycesters Commission, and that he did wrong to that of Nassau, in not obeying him according to his duetie: Likewise, that those souldiers who were better dealt with than any other, whom they might haue sent against the enemie (yet suffered to liue in garrison where victualls were good cheape) did much forget them­selues, by doing things tending to the countries ruine: intreating them to vnderstand reason, and to desist from their bad and pernitious enterprise, with promise that all matters shold be forgotten, and themselues verie ho­nourably dealt with. All this notwithstanding, he could get none other answer, either from the Generall or souldiers, than that which they had made to the former Commissioners. Within a while after the Generall be­haued himselfe as an open enemie, burning and wasting the countrey at his pleasure: in regard whereof no man ought to thinke it a strange matter, if his Excellencie and the States make vse of those means which God hath giuen them, for furtherance of the good of these countries, against the dis­obedience, rebellion, and vniust proceedings of those which enterprise a­gainst these Prouinces. Which they thought fit and necessarie to be publi­shed to the world, that euery man vnderstanding the condition of the af­faires, and causes of the said proceedings, may rightly iudge thereof, and impute the inconueniences which may arise thereupon, to those who by their great ingratitude to the house of Nassau, haue been authors thereof; especially seeing the said familie hath suffered and done so much for the pre­seruation of these countries, with so great expence of meanes and bloud, by whom the said Generall, from low condition, was raised to such high e­state, and exceeding great wealth, who by his ingratitude to the countrey and inhabitants thereof (which had louingly receiued him, and inriched him with their meanes) had shewen so great obstinacy & rebellion there­in [Page 45] in continuing one whole yeare, vttering proud and swelling speeches, to the preiudice of the house of Nassaus Princelie reputation, and against the state of these countries, which he threatened with ruine and destruction, making vse of the souldiers appointed to serue the countrey, for defence of his owne person, disarming the good citizens of Medenblick, whom hee ought to haue defended, afflicting them with seruitude and intollerable burthens. The which Generall, spurred forward by his owne auarice and ambition, from one sinne to another, shall by Gods assistance be brought to shame and confusion; so that all good souldiers which loue Gods word and their countrey, will detest the obstinacie, rebellion, rashnesse, and malicious proceedings of the said Generall, and for that cause will againe take vp­on them the defence of their deere countrey, as in former time: and we ve­rily hope, that the souldiers of Medenblick being well informed, That Ge­nerall Senoy by his proceedings hath none other intent, but onely to shew vnder these two false pretences (namely of an oath made to her Maiesty, or to the Earle of Leycester in her name, and that he would be a meanes to procure them the full paiment of all arrerages) his hatred and ill groun­ded quarels against the countrey and house of Nassau (by which, from a poore estate, he was made rich) will not consent to any thing against their countrey and house of Nassau, and will not hazard, to their owne shame, and dishonour of their friends, the losse of their honour and reputation, nay of their own liues: Especially seeing that by quitting Generall Senoys priuat and vniust quarell, they may be reconciled to their countrey and his Excellencie of Nassau, and preserue their liues, goods, honour, reputation, and whatsoeuer be, which hath nothing but what he hath gotten by these countries, and the house of Nassau, doth deceitfully promise them.

Generall Senoy likewise did on the one and twentieth of Ianua­rie 1588, present certaine Articles to the Councell of State, in forme following; to euerie of which in particular my Lords the States added their answer.

Articles presented in behalfe of Generall Senoy to the Councell of State, by his deputie William Mostaert.

FOr as much as General Senoy hath done many good,Article. trustie, and notable seruices, since the beginning of these warres, vnder the commaund of his late Excellencie the Prince of Orange of happie memorie, and likewise since his death, to the aduancement [Page 46] of Christian Religion, and libertie of the Countrie, especially in the parts of North-Holland. And that the sayd Generall Senoy, for the aboue mentioned causes, doth rather merit encreasement of his Commission and authoritie (if need should bee) than di­minution thereof.

Answer. Generall Senoy, for his seruice done, hath beene as honourably, and to his owne profit, delt with, as any other that hath done seruice to these Countries, which is very well knowne to himselfe.

Artic.In vvhich regard, it is just and reasonable that his Excellencie, Count Maurice, should, by his Commission, suffer the sayd Gene­rall Senoy to vse the title and authoritie of his Excellencies Lieu­tenant, and Gouernour Generall, in the parts of North-Holland, as my Lord his father had done.

Ans. In as much as my Lords the State of Holland, Zeland, and West­frizeland, did, in anno 1577, make a Decree for the preseruation of the vnion and gouernement of the sayd Countries, that there should be but one Gouernour in Holland, Zeland, and West-frizeland, to wit, my Lord the Prince of Orange, of happie memorie, and that all particular gouernements should cease; which hath beene alreadie practised for the space of tenne yeares, according to the auntient custome and manner of the Countries: It is not reasonable that the sayd resolution (for any loue to the Generall) contrarie to the Laws and vnion of the Countrie, should be altered.

Ans.That the sayd Senoy, vvill keepe good correspondence with his Excellencie of Nassau concerning all difficulties which may arise, and to preuent them in time, as need shall be.

Ans. We vnderstand, that the Generall ought to be bound to doe more than keepe correspondence with his Excellencie, otherwise, he must needes be his equall.

Artic.That he will remayne in those parts, and take care for the vvell ordering, preseruation, defence, and assurance thereof, against the power, secret practises and enterprises of the enemie.

Ans. We neuer meant to call the Generall away from those parts.

Artic.To this end he will still keepe the regiment of souldiers, which he now hath, and bestow them in the Townes and Forts, which till now haue beene committed vnto him, according as he shall thinke fit, for the safe keeping of them, and seruice of the Countrie.

Ans. Our meaning hath beene that the sayd Senoy should commaund all the souldiers, in the Townes and Forts vnder his commaund, in qualitie of [Page 47] Generall: And, concerning the changing of Garrisons, the Generall is to behaue himselfe therein according to his Excellencies commaundements.

Artic.Retayning authoritie to change the Garrisons, when, and after what manner he shall see to be expedient. And if the necessitie of the Countrie require to haue some companies drawn from thence for the Countries seruice, that his Excellencie shall write to him thereof, as hauing authoritie so to doe, that he may leuie and send them, according as opportunitie will permit him.

Ans. We meane herein to vse our owne discretion, and not to graunt the Ge­nerall the prerogatiues belonging to the Gouernour, and so by consequent to his Excellencie.

Artic.He will likewise vse all speciall care and diligence for the ad­uauncement of the reformed Religion, ouer all his gouernement, prohibiting all Popish false doctrine, and will haue a care that no Ministers, shall be brought in, or suffered, contrarie to the order of the reformed Churches, or without permission, & admission of the Congregations from whence they come, and will also prouide that the sayd Ministers shall be well and duely payd.

Ans. Because that, according the resolution of my Lords the States, the dis­posing of matters heretofore mentioned, belongeth to his Excellencie as Gouernour, to the States Commissioners, to the President and prouinciall Councell, and other ordinarie officers of the Countrie: His Excellencie giues him to vnderstand, that he will himselfe take order therein accor­ding to the necessitie of the affaires, for the aduauncement of Gods word, and good of the Countries.

Artic.He will likewise haue a warie eye on all Schole-masters, that none be admitted or receiued, but such as are of the reformed Re­ligion, who shall teach no other doctrine, in their Scholes, nor a­ny Bookes contrarie thereunto: He will in like manner (as much as in him lyes) prouide, that in all townes, Colledges, and places of his gouernement, good officers, Magistrats and Regents be esta­blished, who stand well affected to the reformed Religion, and to the good of the publique affaires, and to this end, shall hereafter be appointed, committed, and continued by himselfe.

Ans. Forasmuch as officers and Magistrats are appointed in Townes and places, according to the prerogatiues respectiuely giuen to the Lords, Townes, Villages, by the Princes of these Countries: In this regard we cannot violate them. But his Excellencie for the better seruice of these Countries, will prouide that the Magistrats and officers bee honest and [Page 48] well qualified people. And for that which concerneth the establishment of Counsellors, Commissioners of Townes and Colledges; His Excellencies meaning is, to conferre with the States about these matters, as he shall find it to be expedient for the seruice and commoditie of the Countrie.

Artic.He will likewise giue order that the Townes and Forts of Block­zijl and Cuyndert shall be fortified, maintayned, garded and pro­uided of all necessaries.

He will by all meanes preuent and hinder, that no sedition arise among the inhabitants.

Ans. This belongs to the Gouernour of the Prouinces, and to the ordinarie officers and Magistrats thereof.

Artic.And because the Commission for Captaineship of the Castle of Medenblick was by his Excellencie graunted onely by Prouiso, he intreats his Excellencie to giue and confirme it absolutely vnto him.

Ans. Forasmuch as the Captaineship of the of Castle Medenblick, is an ordi­officenarie of the Countrie, which according to the priuiledges therof, can­not be administred but by any such an one as is born in the Low countries, his Excellencie cannot graunt it, contrarie to the sayd priuiledges, seeing that the Generall was not borne there.

and subsigned,
By me William Mostaert

Disorder in Medenblick.All this thus done, those of Medenblick continued obstinat, the souldiers mutined, and would not depart till they had receiued the arrerages. They disarmed the Burghers, and caried their armes to Gouernour Senoys house, and enforced them euerie weeke to giue them pay.The States send Commissioners thither who doe no good. My Lords the States sent the Lords of Famas and Swevenseell, Peter Kyes Burgomaster of Harlem, and Master A­drian Antonie Burgomaster of Alckmaer, to them, who presented the arrerages to the mutinous souldiers, and greater pay than to a­ny other that serued the States: but they would neither giue audi­ence to these Commissioners, nor to other which were sent after them, but went a boothaling vp and downe the Countrie, constray­ning the Boores in hostile manner to pay them their entertaine­ment: which to speake truely was a matter of great consequence, and might easily haue ruined all North-Holland, if my Lords the States had not in time preuented it, who resolued by force to ma­ster these mutines, giuing ample power to his Excellencie to put it [Page 49] in execution: who together with the Marshall Villers, who was newly set at libertie from his imprisonment, brought certaine com­panies of souldiers,Medenblick is besieged. Burghers of neighbour towns, and some ships of warre before the Towne, who did in such sort besiege and nere­ly presse it, as those within it, began to remember themselues, and so to consider the present daunger, as they began in some sort to change their minds. And perceiuing that the Earle of Leycester had wholly giuen ouer the gouernement, and had surrendred in­to the generall States, whose authoritie by their resolution did dayly increase, and that they could not but expect some great mischiefe in recompence of their obstinacie, the matter was at last so handled by meanes of Sir Henrie Killegrew, It yeelds to his Excellencie through the in­tercessiō of some English Lords. the Lord Willough­by, and other English Lords, as those of Medenblick, hauing beene besieged till the Moneth of Aprill, the Generall Senoy and his sol­diers made an accord with his Excellencie, and deliuered the Towne into his hands. The Generall and souldiers went forth of the Towne with passeport, which his Excellencie and his troopes entred, where he ordered all matters necessarie for the better assu­rance of the Towne. Generall Senoy went to Alckmaer, where with sundrie reasons hee would haue excused himselfe. Those of Medenblick and others, did greatly endammage him in his goods: whereupon in anno 1590, he went into England to make his com­plaint to her Maiestie,Senoy goes into England to com plaine to the Queene. who in the yeare 1592 propounded his case to my Lords the States by her Agent Thomas Bodley, on the fist day of Iulie, which propositions were by them amply & resolutely answered, to the Agents satisfaction.

During these ciuile and intestine troubles as well in Hol­land, Zeland, and other Prouinces, by certaine innouators, and some English, who sought their owne particular profit more than their Queenes honour, newes was brought that on the twentie ninth of May 1588, the dreadfull, renouned, mightie, and inuincible Spanish Armada lanched forth of the hauen of Lis­bone and sayled towards the Groyne, to execute her King and Councels Commission. And because it was so extraordinarie and potent a fleet as (to speake indifferently thereof) it was sufficient to haue destroyed and subuerted whole Kingdomes and Coun­tries, we will as well as we can make a description thereof, which we haue taken forth of the most autentick Authors; to the glorie of God, who looking vpon these countries in the middest of their [Page 50] troubles (with the eyes of his mercie) did free and preserue his ser­uants from so mightie a fleet, and from so many bloudie hands: thereby shewing how weake humane strength is when it is not fortified and supported by his strong and mightie arme: who bee­ing Lord of all creatures, can onely by his winds and tempests ru­iue and ouerwhelme the hautie and proud resolution, together with the King of Spaines whole power. So as verie few ships of so potent a fleet returned safe home into their Countries.

A true description of the most mightie Armada, set forth by Philip the se­cond, King of Spaine, which being assembled in the Riuer before Lisbone, the chiefe citie of Portugall sailed towards the Low-countries, the 29 and 30 of May 1588, vnder the conduct and commaund of the Duke de Medina Sidonia, appointed by the King of Spaine as Cap­taine Generall thereof.

PHilip the second of that name, King of Spayn, hauing with small aduantage made war in the Low-countries for the space of 21 yeres, did with his Councel resolue once more to inuade those Countrie [...] by sea, supposing that notwithstanding he had in former time attempted to make himself master therof by sea, & had bin e­uer enforced to retreat, because he had not attempted it with pow­er sufficient, for this cause he was desirous at once to imploy all his forces, the rather because England was his enemie: so as he resolued first to inuade England, which Escouedo Secretarie to D. Iohn of Au­stria, & some other malitious Spanyards, together with some rebel­lous Englishmen supposed would be sooner won than Holland & Zeland, maintaining it to be more profitable for the king to inuade England and the Low-countries by sea, than continually to enter­taine a mightie fleet for defence of the voyages to the East & West Indies against the English and Hollanders. For execution of which resolution, each of the Kingdomes in Spayne for their part, haue rigd and mand as many gallions, galleasses, gallies & other vessels, as the King and his Councell commaunded them to furnish.

And for the better and more ample description thereof, it shall not be impertinent to set downe the number both of the Ships, souldiers, mariners, and munitions, commaunders, Nobilities and [Page 51] their followers, as likewise of other things necessarie for the equi­page of this fleet, as it was written and imprinted in the Spanish Tongue, in the Citie of Lisbone, the twentieth of May 1588, by the King of Spaynes commaund, reuiewed and signed by his owne Se­cretarie, and translated into Dutch by Michaell Eitsinger the sixt of August, certaine names omitted, and diuers superfluous rehersals excepted.

The number of the Gallions of Por­tugall.

THe Gallion S. Martin, as Captaine Generall and Principall of the fleet, was of the burthen of one thousand tunne, there were in her three hundred choyce souldiers, one hundred & seuenteene mariners, and shee carried fiftie pieces of ordi­nance.

S. Iohns Gallion called the Admirall Generall, of the burthen of one thousand and fiftie tunne, had in her two hundred thirtie one souldiers, one 179 mariners, and fiftie canon.

S. Marks Gallion, of the burthen of seuen hundred ninetie two tun, with 292 souldiers, and one hundred and seuenteen mariners.

The Gallion S. Philip, of eight hundred tunne, foure hundred & fifteene souldiers, 117 mariners, and fortie canon.

The Gallion S. Lewis, of eight hundred and thirtie tunne, with 376 souldiers, 116 mariners, and fortie canon.

S. Mathews Gallion, of seuen hundred and fiftie tunne, with two hundred seuentie seuen soldiers, 200 mariners, & fortie canon.

S. Iames his Gallion, of fiue hundred and twentie tunne, with three hundred souldiers, 100 mariners, and thirtie canon.

The Gallion of Florence, of 961 tunne, with foure hundred soul­diers, one hundred mariners, and fiftie two canon.

S. Christophers Gallion, of three hundred fiftie two tunne, with three hundred souldiers, 90 mariners, and thirtie canon.

S Bernards Gallion, of three hundred fiftie two tunne, two hun­dred and eight souldiers, 100 mariners, and thirtie canon.

The ship called Zabra Augusta, of one hundred sixtie sixe tun, with fiftie fiue soldiers, 57 mariners, and thirteene canon.

[Page 52]The other Zabra, called Iulia, of 166 tunne, with 50 souldiers, 72 mariners, and 14 canon.

The whole bodie of the Portugall fleet, consisted of 12 vessels, viz. tenne Galeons, and two Zabras, the whole burthen whereof made vp the number of 7737 tunne, and 3330 souldiers, 1233 mari­ners, and 350 canon, with all other necessaries, as bullets, powder, match, &c.

The fleet of Biscay commaunded by the Generall D. Iean Martinez de Ricalde.

THe Admirall, called S. Anne, of 768 tunne, with 323 souldi­ers, 114 mariners, and 30 canon.

The Admirall Grangrina, of 1160 tunne, with 300 soldi­ers, 100 mariners, and 36 canon.

S. Iago. of 666 tunne, with 250 souldiers, 102 mariners, and 30 canon.

The conception Zebeleu, of 468 tunne, 100 soldiers, 70 mari­ners, and 20 canon.

The conception of Iean, of 418 tunne, 164 souldiers, 70 mari­ners, and 24 canon.

The Magdalen of Iean Francesco d'Ayala, of 530 tunne, 200 souldiers, 70 mariners, and 22 canon.

S. Iean, of 350 tunne, 130 souldiers, 100 mariners, and 24 ca­non.

A Ship called the Marie, of 163 tunne, 180 souldiers, 100 mari­ners, and 24 canon.

Another called, the Manuel, of 520 tunne, 130 souldiers, 43 mariners, and 16 canon.

A ship called S. Maria de Monte Major, of 707 tunne, 220 soul­diers, 50 mariners, and 16 canon.

Other vessels belonging to this fleet called Pinnaces.

THe Pinnace called the Marie of Aguirra, of 70 tunne, 30 souldi­ers, 23 mariners, and tenne canon.

[Page 53]A ship named Isabella, of 71 tunne, 30 souldiers, 23 mariners, and 12 canon.

The pinnace called the Miguell de Susa, of 96 tunne, 30 souldi­diers, 26 mariners, and 12 canon.

The pinnace of S. Steffano, of 78 tunne, 30 souldiers, 26 mari­ners, and 12 canon.

This whole fleet consisted of 14 vessels, 10 great, and foure lesser ones, called Pinnaces, their whole burthen amounted to 6567 tun, 2037 souldiers, 863 mariners, which together make vp 2802: Also, 200 canon, 1190 bullets, 467 quintalls of powder, euerie quintall accounted for 125 weight, 140 of bullets, and 89 of match.

The fleet of Castille, whereof Diego Flores de Val­des was Generall.

THe Gallion Generall called the Christopher, of 700 tunne, ha­uing in her 205 souldiers 120 mariners, and 40 canons.

The Gallion S. Iohn Baptist, of 750 tunne, which 250 soul­diers, 140 mariners, and 30 canon.

The Gallion S. Peter, of 530 tunne, with 130 souldiers, 140 ma­riners, and 40 canon.

S. Iohns Gallion, of 530 tunne, with 170 souldiers, 120 mariners, and 40 canon.

The Gallion S. Iago el Major, of 530 tunne, with 230 souldiers, 132 mariners, and 30 canon.

The Gallion S. Philip and S. Iago, of 530 tunne, with 150 souldi­ers, 116 mariners, and 30 canon.

The Gallion of S. Medela and Celedonia, of 530 tunne, with 170 souldiers, 110 mariners, and 30 canon.

S. Annes Gallion, of 250 tunne, with 100 souldiers, 89 mariners, & 24 canon.

Our Ladie of Vigonia, of 750 tunne, with 190 souldiers, 100 mariners, and 30 canon.

The ship called the Trinitie, of 780 tunne, with 200 souldiers, 122 mariners, and 30 canon.

The S. Catharina, of 862 tunne, with 200 souldiers, 160 mariners and 30 canon.

[Page 54]The S. Iohn Baptist, of sixe hundred fiftie two tunne, with two hundred souldiers, and 130 mariners, and thirtie canon.

Our Ladie of Rosaria, called the pinnace, with thirtie souldiers, twentie sixe mariners, and twentie foure canon.

The pinnace called S. Anthonie of Padua, with thirtie souldiers, fortie sixe mariners, and 16 canon.

The number of this whole fleet of Castille consisted of foureteen Gallions, and two Pinnaces; their entire burthen amounting to eight thousand seuen hundred thirtie foure tunne, hauing in it two thousand foure hundred eightie fiue souldiers, one thousand seuen hundred and nineteene mariners, together amounting to foure thousand one hundred seuentie seuen men, and three hundred eightie foure canon, with all other necessaries, as bullets, powder & match.

The Equipage of the Ships of Andeluzia, commaunded by the Generall D. Pedro Valdes.

THe Admiral ship of one thousand one hundred and fiftie tun, hauing in it fiftie souldiers, one hundred and eighteene mari­ners, with fiftie canon.

The S. Francis, of nine hundred and fifteene tunne, with two hun­dred and thirtie souldires, sixtie mariners, and thirtie canon.

The Gallion S Iohn Baptist, of one hundred & ten tun, with two hundred and fiftie souldiers, twentie mariners, and fortie canon.

The S. Iohn Gargaren, of fiue hundred and nine tunne, with one hundred and seuentie souldiers, sixtie mariners, & twentie canon.

A ship called the Conception, of eightie tunne, with two hun­dred souldiers, sixtie fiue mariners, and twentie fiue canon.

The Beare, or ship called the Duchesse S. Anne, of nine hundred tunne, with three hundred souldiers, eightie mariners, and thirtie canon.

The S. Catharine, of seuen hundred and thirtie tunne, with two hundred and fiftie souldiers, eightie mariners, and thirtie ca­non.

The Trinitie, of filtie tunne, with two hundred souldiers, twentie mariners, and thirtie canon.

[Page 55]The S. Maria de Iuncar, of 730 tunne, with 240 souldiers, 80 ma­riners, and 24 canon.

The S. Bartholomew, of 976 tun, with 250 soldiers, 80 mariners, and 30 canon.

A Pinnace called the holie Ghost, with 40 soldiers, 33 mariners, 10 canon, & well stored with bullets, powder, & other necessaries.

This fleet consisted of ten Gallions, one Pinnace, which in bur­then amounted altogether to 8702 tun, hauing in it 2400 souldiers, 800 mariners, 260 canon, and all other necessaries thereunto be­longing.

The fleet of Guypuscoa, commaunded by D. Mi­chell de Quendo.

THe Generals ship called S. Anne, of 1200 tun, hauing in it 30 souldiers, 90 mariners, and 50 canon.

The Admirall, called our Ladie of Roses, of 945 tun, with 230 souldiers, 64 mariners, and 30 canon.

The S. Sauiour, of 958 tun, with 330 souldiers, 80 mariners, & 30 canon.

The S. Stephen, of 936 tunne, with 200 souldiers, 70 mariners, & 30 canon.

The S. Martha, of 548 tunne, with 180 souldiers, 70 mariners, & 25 canon.

The S. Barba, of 525 tunne, with 160 souldiers, 50 mariners, and 15 canon.

The Marie, of 291 tunne, with 120 souldiers, 40 mariners, and 15 canon.

The S. Crosse, of 680 tunne, with 150 souldiers, 40 mariners, and 20 canon.

The Vrsa Doncella, of 500 tunne, with 60 souldiers, 40 mariners, and 18 canon.

The Pinnace called the Ascention, of 600 tunne, with 30 souldi­ers, 20 mariners, and 12 canon.

The Pinnace called S. Barnabie, and another, named our Ladie of Guadalupa, with the pinnace called the Magdalen, these three in burthen, souldiers, mariners, canon, and other necessaries, equalled the Pinnace of the Ascention.

[Page 54]There were in this fleet of Guypuscoa 14 vessels which were in burthen altogether 6991 tunne, and had in it 2092 souldiers, 670 mariners, making vp the number of 2708 men, 277 canon, with all other necssaries.

The fleet of Easterne Ships, called Leuantiscas, whose Ge­nerall was Martin de Vertendona.

THe Generals Ship, called Regazone, of 1294 tun, hauing in it 350 souldiers, 90 mariners, and 35 canon.

The Admirall Ship called la Laua, of 728 tunne, with 210 soldiers, 80 mariners, and 30 canon.

La Rata S. Marie the crowned, of 820 tunne, with 340 souldiers, 90 mariners, and 40 canon.

The S. Iohn of Cilicia, of eight hundred and eightie tunne, with two hundred and seuentie souldiers, seuentie mariners, and thirtie canon.

The Trinitie Valencera, of one thousand one hundred tun, with two hundred and fortie souldiers, ninetie mariners, and fortie sixe canon.

The Annunciade, of seuen hundred and three tunne, with two hundred souldiers, 90 mariners, and 30 canon.

The S. Nicholas Predaneli, of eight hundred thirtie foure tunne, with two hundred and eightie souldiers, eightie foure mariners, & 30 canon.

The Iuliana, of 800 tunne, with 330 souldiers, 80 mariners, and 36 canon.

The S. Marie of Pison, of sixe hundred sixtie sixe tunne, with two hundred and fiftie souldiers, eightie mariners, and twentie two ca­non.

The Trinitie of Escala, of ninetie tunne, with three hundred and two souldiers, ninetie mariners, and twentie fiue canon.

This whole fleet consisted of tenne Shippes, whose burthen was seuen thousand seuen hundred and fiue tunne, and had in it 2880 souldiers, eight hundred and seuen mariners, three hundred and e­leuen canon, with all other necessaries.

The fleet of Ships called Vreas, whose Generall was Lopez de Medina.

THe Generals ship called the great Griffin, of sixe hundred and fiftie tunne, hauing in it 250 souldiers, 60 mariners, and fortie canon.

The Admirall called S. Sauiour, of 650 tun, with 230 souldiers, 60 mariners, and 30 canon.

A ship called the Pedro Martino, of 200 tun, with 80 souldiers, 30 mariners, and 30 canon.

The white Falcon, of 500 tun, with 170 souldiers, 40 mariners, and 18 canon.

The blacke Castle, of 750 tun, with 250 souldiers, 50 mariners, and 27 canon.

A Barke of Hambourge, with 600 souldiers, 50 mariners, and 25 canon.

La Cassa de Par-grand, together with S. Pedro el Major, the Sampson, and S. Pedro el minor, of as great burthen as the Barke of Hambourg.

The Barke of Danske, of 450 tun, with 210 soldiers, 50 mariners, and 25 canon.

The white Falcon Mediana, of 300 tun, with 80 souldiers 30 ma­riners, and 18 canon.

The S. Andrew, of 400 tunne, with 150 souldiers, and 40 mari­ners.

La Cassa de var Chica, of 350 tunne, with 170 souldiers, 40 ma­riners, and 15 canon.

La Cuerbo Bolante, of 400 tun, with 210 souldiers, 40 mariners, and 18 canon.

The white Polonia, of 250 tun, with 60 souldiers, 30 mariners, and 12 canon.

The Aduenture, and S. Barba, which were as much in burthen as the S. Iago, of 600 tunne, with 60 souldiers, 40 mariners and 19 canon.

The ship called El gatto, of 400 tun, with 50 souldiers, 30 mari­ners, and 9 canon.

[Page 58]The S. Gabriell, of 280 tunne, with 50 souldiers, and twentie fiue mariners.

The Esayas, of like burthen.

So that these 25 Vrcas are in burthen 10271 tunne, and carried 3221 souldiers, 708 mariners, and 410 canon, with all necessaries, as powder, lead, and match.

Pinnaces and Zabras, commaunded by D. Antonio de Mendoza.

THe Generals ship, called our Ladie del Pilar de Zaragossa, of three hundred tunne, with 120 souldiers, 54 mariners, and 12 canon.

La Caridad Inglese, of 180 tunne, 80 souldiers, 30 mariners, and 12 canon.

S. Andrew d'Estoches, of 130 tunne, 51 souldiers, 30 mariners, & 12 canon.

The Pinnace of the crucifix, of 150 tun, with 50 souldiers, 30 ma­riners, and 18 canon.

A ship called our Ladie del Puerto, contayning as much as the Pinnace of the crucifix.

The conception of Carassa, and of our Ladie de Beguoa.

The conception of Capitillo, with the S. Ieronimo, are of 60 & 70 tunne, with 50 souldiers, and thirtie mariners and eight canon.

Our Ladie of Grace, the conception of Francis Lastero, our La­die of Guadalupa, the conception of the Holie Ghost, and our La­die of Fresneda; these ships contain just as much, as those aboue mentioned.

Moreouer, a ship, called Zabra la Trinidad, with an other Zabra S. Andrew the conception, together with the conception of Som­marriba, S. Catharine, S. Iohn de Carassa, and the Assumption, con­tayne as much as those that went next before.

The whole number of 22 Pinnaces & Zabras, were in burthen one thousand one hundred thirtie one tun, and had in them 479 souldiers, fiue hundred seuentie foure mariners, & 193 canon, with all other necessaries.

The foure Galleasses of Naples commaunded by D. Vgo de Moncado.

THe Generals Galleasse, called San Lorenzo, with two hun­dred and seuentie souldiers, 130 mariners, 300 slaues, and 50 canon.

The Galleasse Patrona, with one hundred and eightie soldiers, one hundred and twelue mariners, three hundred slaues, & fiftie canon.

The Galleasse Gyrona, with 170 soldiers, 120 marines, 300 slaues, and 50 canon.

The Neapolitan Galleasse, with one hundred twentie foure sol­diers, 300 slaues, and fiftie canon.

These foure Galleasses, carried altogether 870 souldiers, 468 ma­riners, 200 canon, and 1200 Gallislaues.

The foure Gallies of Portugal vnder the commaund of D. Diego de Medrana.

THe Generall Gallie with 110 souldiers, 106 mariners, 100 slaues, and 50 canon.

The Princesse Gallie, the Gallie Diana, the Gallie Vazana, contayning as much as the Generall Gallie.

The briefe and Generall account of the whole Fleet.

THe whole fleet together was composed, of twelue Gallions of Portugal, in burthen seuen thousand seuen hundred thirtie seuen tunne, carying foure thousand three hundred and thir­tie souldiers, 1233 mariners, 400 canon, with amunition of bul­lets, powder and match.

[Page 60]Of 14 ships of Biscay, commaunded by Iohn Martinez de Rical­do: these ships altogether were of the burthen of 6567 tunne, and ca­ried two thousand and fiftie souldiers, nine hundred mariners, and 270 canon.

Of 16 Gallions of Castille, in burthen 8700 tunne, carying two thousand fiue hundred and sixtie souldiers, and foure hundred & twentie canon.

Of eleuen ships of Andaluzia, in burthen 8762 tun, and in them two thousand fiue hundred twentie fiue souldiers, 900 mariners, & 260 canon.

Of 14 ships of Guipuscoa, in burthen 6991 tunne, and in them two thousand one hundred and two souldiers, 718 mariners, & 280 canon.

Of the Easterne fleet with tenne ships, in burthen seuen thou­sand seuen hundred and fiue tunne, carying 2900 soldiers, 867 ma­riners, and 310 canon.

Of the fleet of Vrcas, 23 in number, in burthen 10271 tunne, and in them three thousand three hundred and twentie one souldiers, 708 mariners and 400 canon.

Of 22 Pinnaces of Zabras, in burthen 1221 tunne, and in them three hundred seuentie sixe souldiers, fiue hundred seuentie foure mariners, and 110 canon.

Of foure Galleasses of Naples, carrying 864 souldiers, 500 mari­ners, 200 canon.

Of foure Gallies, which carried foure hundred souldiers, and 20 canon.

In the foure Galleasses there were likewise 1200 Galley-slaues, and in the foure Gallies 888, which together make vp the number of 2088 persons: And beside the aboue mentioned powder, there was beside, if any daunger or necessitie should happen, 600 quin­tals of powder.

So as in the whole fleet there was 130 ships, viz. 65 Gallions or great ships, 25 Vrcas of the burthen of 500 and 700 tun, 19 Pin­naces, of the burthen of 70 and 100 tun, 13 Zabras, with two of Por­tugal, 4 Galleasles, and as many Gallies, of the burthen of 57868 tun, and in them 19295 soldiers, and 8450 mariners, with 2630 Gal­ley slaues, and 2630 pieces of ordnance of all sorts, among which were great and middle Culuerings and some great canons.

There was likewise 20 small vessels called Caruels for the seruice [Page 61] the fleet, and tenne Faluas with sixe oares a piece.

There were in this fleet, 124 voluntaries, attended by foure hun­dred fiftie and sixe seruants bearing armes, and 238 entertained by the King, with 163 seruants.

There was 177 persons appointed to wait vpon the ordnance, with two Ingeneers, one phisition one Surgeon and thirtie ser­uants.

Fourescore and fiue both phisitions and Surgeons, with 180 Churchmen, all Dominicans, Franciscans, Flagellans or Iesuits.

The Colonell Regiments or Tertios, payed by the King in this fleet, with the number of men vnder e­uerie Regiment.

DOn Francisco de Bouadilla seruing the King as Campe-master generall.

The Regiment of Sicilie, commanded by D. Diego Pimen­tell, vnder whom were 24 Captaines.

The Regiment or Tertio, commaunded by D. Francisco de Tole­do, vnder whom were 25 Captaines.

The Regiment of D. Alonzo Luzon, vnder whom were 26 Cap­taines.

The Regiment of Yssa, commaunded by D. Augustino Mexia, vn­der whom were 26 Captaines.

Diuers companies or free bands, some of which were drawne from the troopes of Castille, by D. Iuan de Guzman: the others from Portugal by Gaspar Sossa & Antonio Perira: And those which are called the Suelti or new bands, were conducted by the Duke of Sossa. So that there were in the aboue mentioned Regiments or Tertios, and in the Companies Suelti 171 Ensignes, amounting to the number of 18973 souldiers, with thirtie more to make vp the number of 19295, with diuers Ministers and officers both of ju­stice, and belonging to the Dukes Court, to the number of 185 persons. In a word, the whole fleet consisted of 18937 footmen, 8650 mariners, 224 voluntaries, with 455 seruants that were allow­ed, and 238 other seruants on one part, and 163 on an other. 167 persons appointed to attend the canon, 85 for the Hospitall or sick [Page 62] persons, 180 Churchmen of all Orders, 22 Gentlemen of the Dukes Court, fiftie seruants, seuenteene Superintendents Generall of the Armie, one hundred seruants belonging to them and to the offi­cers of justice: so that in the whole Armie there were 28687 per­sons, besides two thousand eight hundred and eight Gallie-slaues that tugd the oare in the Galleasses and Gallies.

Prouision of food and nourishment for the sayd Shippes.

THere was in it 11000 quintals of bisket, allowing halfe a quin­tall monethly to euerie man, which proportion would last for sixe moneths, foureteen thousand one hundred and seuentie pieces of wine for sixe moneths, 6500 quintals of bacon for sixe moneths, three thousand foure hundred thirtie three quintals of Cheese, eight thousand quintals of all sorts of dryed fish, three quintals of Ryce, beanes and pease for sixe moneths, 11398 jarres of Oyle sufficient for sixe moneths, twentie three thousand eight hundred and seuentie jarres of vineger for 6 moneths, with 11851 Pipes of water.

The sayd fleet was likewise furnished with diuers other things, as with many tunnes of water, spoones, dishes, woodden cups and other vessels, to giue euerie man his allowance, candle sticks, lan­ternes, okum and other matter fit to stop the shippes, if the sea or enemies canon should endaunger them.

Great number of Leather sackes to keepe powder in, linkes, tor­ches, tallow candles to put in lanternes, sackes of Fustian and Can­uas, woodden hoopes for the vessels, eight thousand vessels to draw water and wine in, fiue thousand payre of shooes which the Spanyards call Zapatos, and eleuen thousand paire of other shooes which they terme Alpargates.

There was likewise all necessarie prouision for the ordnance at Sea, with other necessaries, as wheeles for carriages if the canon should happen to be laden, with other engines for the easier vn­shipping thereof: there was likewise store of Banderols and En­signes, with the Kings Armes in them, and the portraits of Christ and the Virgin Marie.

[Page 63]There was seuen thousand Harquebuses a crock, with all things belonging vnto them 1000 muskets, 10000 launces, 1000 partisans and Halberds, & 6000 short launces or halfe pikes.

Beside, prouision of spades, shouels and pickaxes, with other tooles for seuen hundred pioners.

Printed at Lisbone the 20 of May, anno 1588.

Hauing thus far made a large description of this mightie Spa­nish Armada,Parma makes preparations to ayde the Spanyards. wee will for the better strengthening there­of adde therunto the Dukes of Parmas fleet or armie which he had prepared in the Low countries, both in the Hauens of Dunkirke, Grauelin, Sluce, and other places, which he intended to haue joy­ned with the Spanish fleet, for the better execution of the King of Spaines resolution and designe.

The Duke of Parma, with many thousands of men, had caused great and deepe channels to be digd in Flanders, as the channell called Iperlee, the better to conuey certaine boats from Autuerpe, by Gant to Bruges, where he had prouided more than an hundred boates called Heudes, which he laded with victuals and muniti­on, supposing to send them from Sluce to Sea, or else through the channell of Iperlee, into other Hauens of Flanders.

He had likewise prepared seuentie flat bottomed vessels in the little Riuer at Waten, each of them beeing able to carrie thirtie horse, with Bridges fit to ship them: he had likewise two hundred more of these Boates (though not so big) readie in the Hauen of Newport.

He had rigd two and thirtie ships of warre at Dunkirke, & wan­ting mariners, he drew diuers from Hambourg, Breme, and Emb­den.

He had two thousand emptie vessels readie at Grauelin, which in a short space might be soon fastened together in maner of a bridge, with all prouision to make bridges, to choake vp hauens, and to found them; and neere to the Hauen of Newport hee had prepared great heapes of Fagots, and other substance to make Ga­bions: in many of his Boates, were two Ouens to bake bread: he had likewise great numbers of Saddles, Bridles and furniture for horse with all sorts of ordnance, and munition necessarie there­unto.

Beside, he had a Campe readie not farre from Newport com­maunded [Page 64] by Camillo the Campe-Master, and thirtie Ensignes of Italians, tenne of Walons, eight of Scots, eight of Burgonians, in all fiftie sixe Ensignes, euerie Ensigne an hundred men compleat. Neere to Dixmuyde hee had sixtie Spanish Ensignes, sixtie of Almans, and seuen of reuolted English vnder the commaund of of Sir William Stanley. The Earle of Westmerland and the Lord Paget, English fugitiues, were there likewise readie to imbarke. In the suburbs of Courtray, he had foure thousand horse, 900 horse at Watene with the Marquesse of Guastos Cornet who was Generall of the horse.

Pope Sixtus the fist, the better to strengthen the sayd Armie, and weaken the Queene of Englands power, did for his part doe all he could, imploying his spirituall armes (as they terme it) published his Croizades and Bulls for the aduancement of this enterprise, and gaue great pardons, which were printed and distributed abroad: He had likewise (as it is reported) giuen the Realme of England to the King of Spaine with this Title, of Defender of the Christian faith, commaunding him to surprise it, on condition, that if he should win it, he should enioy it as a seodatarie to the See of Rome, and to this end, the Pope contributed a million of gold or ten ne hundred thousand ducats, the one halfe in hand, and the other when eyther England, or some famous Hauen should bee woon.

And for the better furtherance thereof the Pope sent an English Doctor (called Allen) into the Low-countries, who should haue had the managing of all Ecclesiasticall affaires: He, caused a decla­ration of the Popes to be Printed at Antuerpe, confirming his pre­decessors sentence of excommunication, deposing and degrading the Queen of England from all her titles and dignities as an vsur­per, which, for the aduauncement of the enterprise, he would haue published in England.

The Spanyard, the better to couer and conceale his practises, or else peraduenture to make the world beleeue that his designe was rather for the vnited Prouinces than for England, made a solemne treatie of peace with the Queen at Bourbourg in Flanders. But the Prouinces Towns and Forts neere to the Sea, gaue aduertisements, protested and sought all meanes to hinder and breake off this trea­tie of peace, aduising the English rather to stand upon their Gard: Yet some in England stood fast for peace or truce, as most necessa­rie [Page 65] & profitable for the State of their countrie, as well for their traf­fique & nauigation, as to cut off the great expence of a long & te­dious war; others by this meanes thought to diuert the fleet from them & so to auoid the tempest. In a word, Parma hereby did lull full diuers Englishmen a sleep, who were desirous of peace in the Low countries; himselfe thinking on nothing lesse than peace, studying how he might conquer England, which he had alreadie promised to himselfe. Whereupon the English & the vnited prouinces, were in some sort prepared for defence, against the force of this fleet, but not according to the greatnesse of the danger: for it was giuen out that this great Armada was onely to conuey the Spanish fleet to the Indies, and bring it safe home againe; which was the rather belie­ued, because the ships being so great, some thought that the Spani­ards would not hazard them in the narrow seas, nere to England.

In May the French King sent a message to the Queene of Eng­land,The Queene of of England pre­pares a fleet. by which hee aduised her to prepare for defence, for that he was truly enformed that this tempest wold light vpon her. Wher­upon, the Queene speedily prepared a fleet of her owne ships, and that of her subjects, & sent part thereof to Plimmouth, in the West parts, vnder the commaund of the Lord Admirall, Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, now Earle of Nottingham, together with Sir Francis Drake, Vice-Admirall, to the number of 100 saile. An other fleet lay betwixt Douer and Calais vnder the commaund of the Lord Henrie Seymer, sonne to the Duke of Somerset, to the number of 40 or 50 saile.

All England was in Armes vnder valiant and trusty Captaines. And because it was reported that the Spanyards, conjoyned with Parma, would come vp into the Riuer of Thames, a Campe was made nere Grauesend, with forts on both sides the Riuer by Frede­ric Ienibelli an excellent Ingeneir. The Queene came in person to the Campe, like a second Tomyris or Pallas; other Camps were like­wise placed in other parts.

As for the vnited Prouinces of Holland, Zeland &c. they by a mutuall consent resolued to doe the like. But because they vnder­stood that the Spanish ships were too bigge to come nere their shallow shoares, they were more afraid of Parma and his flat bot­tomed Boats, & notwithstanding their own incessiue broiles, they made readie a fleet of ninetie vessels, which they sent to gard al the Hauens of Flaunders, euen from the Scheld and Lillo as farre as [Page 66] Grauelin, and had placed strong Garrisons in all their Sea Townes.

And to make some opposition against the Spanish fleet, they sent Captaine Cornelis Lonck of Rosendael with fiue and twentie or thirtie vessels to joyne with the Lord Henrie Seymer, and to lye be­twixt Calais and Antuerpe. But the ships were by Tempest and Northerlie winds enforced to quit the coast of Flanders, and to re­turne into England, yet when the tempest ceased, they returned, with Iustinus of Nassau, who was there in person with George le More Vice-Admirall of Zeland, being in number fiftie fiue vessels great and small, of 80 and two hundred and fiftie tunne, excellent­ly well mand with souldiers and mariners, beside one thousand two hundred old choyce musquetiers drawne from all the Regi­ments, who were resolute and skilfull in Sea fight. This was dore to keepe Parmas fleet from comming forth of the Hauens, which was a matter of most importance.The Spanish fleet set sayle on the 29 of May. In the meane time, on the nine and twentieth day of May 1588 the aforesaid mightie Nauie sayled forth of the Hauen of Lisbone, vnder conduct of the Duke of Me­dina, to the Groine in Galicia, which is the nearest Hauen to Eng­land, where it tooke in more men and munition. By the way, a tempest arose which scattered them. The Duke and some eightie sale kept together, the rest followed by little and little, except 8 which had spent their masts. Of foure Portugal Gallies one escaped, the rest were taken by an Englishman called Dauid Guyn, wherein D. Diego de Medrena was slaine.

The fleet being refreshed at the Groyne, & commanded daily by the Kings Letters to depart, did set fayle on the 21 of Iulie, and held on it course till it came within kenning of England: from thence by small boats they sent word to the Duke of Parma of their arriuall, aduising him to embarke his forces for England.

They were discouered by an English Pinnace, at the same time whē the English fleet lay at Plimmouth, who supposed that the for­mer tempest wold delay the enterprise of the Spanish Nauie, wher­upon the Lord Admiral of England receiued letters from the Qu, how she had intelligence, that the Spanish fleet wold not come for­ward, or at least not in a lōg time, & that therfore the Admiral shold do well to discharge some of the great ships, and send them away.

But he, hauing receiued newes of their approch on the 29 of Iu­lie, at foure of the clocke in the afternoone, gaue speedie comaun­dement [Page 67] that the whole fleet should put forth of the hauen, & that the souldiers should bee embarked, which was not done but with great difficultie. The Lord Admirall the same night came in to the road with sixe ships, and the next day by noone which was the 30 of Iulie, they descried the Spanish Nauie, which with a South West wind bent it course (as it seemed) directly towards Plimmouth, but when they perceiued the English were forth of the hauen, they passed on forward.

Here (according to the opinion of some sufficient and vnderstan­ding men) the Spanish fleet committed a great error: for D. Alonso de Leyuas aduice was, to haue gone and assaulted Plimmouth, for therein was great likelihood of good successe, seeing that the Eng­lish were vnprepared, & had bad intelligence of the Spanish Na­uie, whereby they might haue surprised them on the sodaine: That the hauen was verie fit and commodious for the aduauncement of their design & that there they might haue made some trial of their valor, & had some proose of the strength of the English fleet, & the peoples affection, and that by giuing an alarme to those parts, the chiefe strength of the countrie would haue bin drawne thither, and Parma therby haue had better meanes to haue come forth with his forces. But their instructions from their king and his Councel for­bad it, who expresly commāded them not to enterprise any thing by the way, but onely to joyne with Parma, and together with his troopes and vessels to make an attempt vpon Margate, which they thought might bee easily done; which would haue so amazed the English & Low-countrie fleet, as each of them would haue with­drawne themselues to their own defence, to keep their countries & Hauens from inuasion.

It is reported that some of the chief of the Spanish commanders which were skilful in Nauigation among whom were the Vice Ad­miral D. Iuan Martin de Ricaldo, & Diego Flores de Valdez & others, had protested that it would bee an hard matter to follow those in­structions, especially in a Commission with such restrictions, al­leging that in such enterprises, many matters were to be consi­dered, as the wind, time, and tyde to come forth of the Hauens of Flaunders into England, with the places, roads, and deepe­nesse thereof, which are subject to wind, & other hazards, & ther­fore verie dangerous. But they were strictly tied to their cōmission, which was to come to an anker before Calais, where the prince of [Page 68] Parma should meet them with his flat bottomed boats and other munition, which, vnder the couert and protection of the great Nauie, should passe on, and land their forces in some part of the downes.The Spanish Armies proiect. But, as some of the Spanish prisoners reported, their prin­cipall project was vpon the Riuer of Thames, where they might on each shoare land their men, and by passing vp the Riuer sur­prise the Citie of London the Metropolis of the kingdome, whe­ther the lesser vessels might follow them, seeing that London not strong, but rich, mightie, and populous, and the inhabitants ther­of vnacquainted with warre, might at the first encounter bee easily terrified. They did likewise hope that the Queene should be bad­ly obeyed, and that some discontented faction might arise of Ro­man Catholikes. According to their instruction and commission they went forward, often aduertising the Duke of Parma of their arriuall and intention, and so vpon the thirtieth of Iulie they pas­sed Plimmouth. The English forthwith followed and got the wind of them, by which meanes they might assaile the Spanish fleet, & themselues not be assailed by it, so that the two fleets made towards one another. The next day beeing the one and thirtieth of Iulie, the English came within musquet shot of the Spanish fleet: The English admiral thundred with his ordnāce vpon the Spanish Vice-Admiral, who perceiuing themselues to be greatly annoyed by the English Canon, fell into a close forme of an halfe moone, hoysting their sailes but halfe mast high, because they would not fall soule one of an other. Anon, one of the Galleasses was fore opprest by certaine ships,The fleet aban­dons D. Pedro Valdez his ship which bad spent her most on the 31 of Iune. and their battaile so assailed, as the chiefe Gallion of Sicile, wherein was D. Pedro Valdez, which D. Basco de Sylua, and D. Alonzo de Sayas with diuers other noble men, brake her mast against another ship, so as she could not follow, and the fleet would not stay to rescue her, but left her behind. The English Admirall looking on Valdez ship, and supposing that there were no men in her, went on with as many ships as hee had neere him, beeing loth by night to loose the fleet. For Sir Frauncis Drake who that night carried the lanterne gaue chase to fiue great ships diui­ded from the fleet, and finding them to be Merchants of Norway let them goe; so as the English Admirall, did all that night, follow the Spanish lanterne, thinking himselfe among his owne men, and in the morning finding that he was in the middest of his enemies, he withdrew himselfe from so great daunger. The morrow after, [Page 69] which was the first of August, Sir Francis Drake met with Valde [...] ship wherein himselfe and foure hundred and fiftie men were, and sent to hale her. Valdez for his owne honor would haue propoun­ded certaine conditions, which hee sent to Drake; who aunswered that he would not spend the time in treaties, but if he would yeeld he should find fauour: and on the contrarie, if he would fight, hee should find him a souldier. Valdez and his people, perceiuing that they were fallen into Drakes hands, and moued by report of his fame, yeelded themselues and found fauor. Valdez with his gentle­men and some fortie or fiftie followers, went aboord Drake, and the rest were carried to Plimmouth where they remayned a yeare and halfe, till they had payed their ransome or were exchanged for others.

Valdez comming into Drakes presence kissed his hands, & told him that they had all resolued to die, if they had not bin so happie to fall into his hands, whom hee knew to bee noble and curteous, and famous for dealing well with his vanquished enemie, so as he doubted vvhether his enemies had more cause to loue him for his valour, or feare him for his fortunate exploits, which had alreadie attained to the highest degree. Sir Francis Drake did curteously im­brace him, and caused him to eat at his owne Table and sleepe in his owne Cabbin, where Valdez reported vnto him their strength, how that the four Gallies were dispersed, & that they had thought to haue entred the hauen of Plimmouth, without feare of the Eng­lish Nauie, which they supposed durst not haue made resistance, and so haue become masters at sea: They likewise admired the va­lor of the English, who durst with so few & small vessels approch their inuincible Nauie, & get the wind of it, with other such like dis­courses. Valdez and his followers were afterward carried into Eng­land: he was a man much respected in his countrie, kinsman to the same Valdez who in an. 1573 had besieged Leyden in Holland. In his ship some of the kings treasure was, amounting to the summe of 55000 Ducats in siluer, which was all pillaged.

The same day, the Vice-Admirall Oquendo his ship was fired, where was great store of powder and munition, all the vpper deck was burnt, with all the men, of whom few were saued It was taken and carried into England with many men in her, halfe burnt, and yet all the powder which was in hold was saued, which was a matter to be admired. In the meane time the English Lord Admiral in his [Page 70] ship called the Arke had that night so far followed the Spanyards, as in the morning he found himselfe in a manner alone in the mid­dest of his enemies, so as it was foure a clocke after noone ere all his fleet came vp to him. Some say that D. Hugo de Moncada Generall of the foure Galleasses did at the same time with great earnestnesse intreat the Duke of Medina to giue him leaue to boord the Lord Admirall, which the Duke would in no sort permit being loth to passe the bounds of his Commission.

Tewsday, the second of August, the fleet being before Portland, the wind turned to the North, so, as the Spanyards had a prospe­rous gale; but the English did againe get the wind of them, their ships being lighter and of better saile. By this meanes the Spani­ards then seemed more to incline to fight than before; & to speake truth, that dayes fight was most fierce and bloudie. In the middest of the fight the English Admirall cried out aloud to Captaine George Semmer, saying, ô George what dost thou, wilt thou now for­sake me, or wilt thou deceiue my opinion of thy valour? which words did so inflame him, as hee assayled the enemie so furiously, as that day he woon greatest commendation. But the English ha­uing with all sorts of ordnance sought with them from morning, & yet ceased not, the Spanyards did againe inclose themselues in or­der of battaile, whereby their enemies perceyued that they one­ly sought meanes to defend themselues, and to goe to their ap­pointed place nere to Dunkirke, there to joȳne with the Duke of Parma, who vnder protection of those great vessels might execute his designe with more safety. In this fight a great Venetian Argo­zey perished.

The English fleet in the meane time did dayly encrease & grew strong by ships and men that came to it forth of all hauens, seeking to win honour, and to doe good seruice to their Countrie, among whom were diuers noble men, and others of great note, as the Earles of Oxford, Cumberland, & Northumberland, of Knights, Sir Thomas Cecill, William Hatton, Walter Raleigh, Horacio Palauici­no, Gentlemen, Henrie Brooke, Robert Carie, Charles Blunt, Ambrose Willoughbie, Henrie Nowell, Thomas Gerard, Robert Dudley, Edward Darcy, Arthur Gorges, Thomas Wood, William Haruey, & many other noble gentlemen, so as they were in number some hundred saile, & being come nere to Douer they were increased to an 120, which for the most part were too small to boord the Spanyards, except [Page 71] some twentie two of the Queenes great ships. The mariners and souldiers amounted to the number of eleuen thousand men.

The third of August,The 3 of August the Sea being calme and without wind, the fight was onely betwixt the English & the Galleasses, which were rowed with oares & therin had the vauntage, but it did them small good. The English were busied in making Chain shot wherwith to cut a sunder their oates, & tackings, they likewise sent a shoare for more powder which they extreamely wanted, hauing at the beginning spent much in vayne, of which they afterwards com­plained.

The same day a Councell was held, wherein was resolued, That the English fleet should be diuided into foure squadrons, the one vnder my Lord Admirals conduct, the other vnder Sir Frauncis Drakes, the third vnder Hawkins, & the fourth vnder Captaine Fro­biser. The Spanish ships in sayling kept a close order of 3 or 4 ships in ranke, not farre one from another, and the greater vessels enclo­sed them.

The fourth of August,The 4 of August the fleet beeing come before the Isle of Wight, the English Lord Admirall did fiercely assaile the Spani­ards, with his best ships, as the Lyon wherein was the Lord Tho­mas Howard, now Earle of Suffolke, the Elizabeth Ionas, wherein were the Lord Sheffield, and Sir Robert Southwell the Lord Admi­rals sonne in law, the Beare; and Victorie, commaunded by Iohn Hawkins, and the Gallion Leycester by Captaine George Fenner: All these made vp directly towards the Spanish Admirall who with the greatest part of his ships lay in the middest of the fleet, where a fierce fight was begun, for beeing within 3 or 400 paces nere to one another, they gaue each other their broad sides, and discharged all their ordnance: at last, the Spaniards got the wind and once againe joyned themselues together. In the meane time Martin Frobiser Captaine of the Triumph, with some few others, had brauely performed a daungerous fight with the Spanyards; the Admirall came to reskew him, and found that he had valiantly be­haued himselfe, and made a discreet retreat, without any great losse.

So as the next day (being the fist of August)The 5 of August the Admiral knigh­ted him and diuers others

Saturday,The sixt of Au­gust they came to an anker be­fore Calais. the 6 of August, towards night, the Spanyards came to an anker before Calais: it seemed they resolued to stay there to [Page 72] joyne with the Duke of Parmas forces. The next day, being the se­uenth of August, the moone was at full, so that at twelue a clocke it was full sea at Calais, and at eleuen at Dunkirke.

The English likewise ankored within Canon shot of them, whe­ther the Lord Henrie Seymer brought his fleet of twentie vessels.

Whilest the fleet lay there, the Duke of Medina sent aduertize­ment to Parma, & diuers Gentlemen went on shore to refresh thē ­selues, & among others, the Prince of Ascoli, a braue young Lord, who (as some say) was base sonne to King Philip, who went to land in a happie houre, because the ship wherein he came from Spaine did within a while after perish in Ireland with all her men.

The Duke of Parma hauing intelligence that the fleet lay vpon the coast of England, made great hast to make one in person in that enterprise, resigning the gouernement generall of the Coun­trie to old Count Mansfelt: Himselfe went on Pilgrimage into Haynault to our Ladie of Halles, and from thence returned to­wards Bruges, where hee arriued on the seuenth of August. The next day, riding towards Dunkirke where his ship tarried for him, he heard the report of the Canon betwixt the two fleets, and the same night comming to Dixmuyde, he had intelligence of the suc­cesse.

On Tewsday the ninth of August about noone, he came to Dun­kirke, euen when the fleet was alreadie past, none of his Ships da­ring to goe forth to giue them the least hope of aide, because they were afraid of the thirtie fiue Hollanders that lay in gard vnder the conduct of the Admirall Iustine of Nassau, which were excellent­ly prouided of good mariners, and beside the ordinarie souldiers, with 1200 braue musquetiers, and lay only there to keepe Parmas fleet from issuing out of the Hauen, which was a matter of greatest importance. As for the great ships, they feared them not, because the Sea was too shallow in those parts: Beside, all Parmas forces were not readie nor imbarked, onely 700 reuolted English vnder Sir William Stanleys commaund were shipt, and thought to get the aduantage by landing first in England: His other souldiers were male content and vnwilling, especially the mariners who were few in number, the prouision likewise of Beere, Bread and vi­ctuals was not yet readie nor imbarked: The mariners were so a­fraid of the Hollanders as they ran away dayly, fearing least the sol­diers would enforce them to doe that which they knew could not [Page 73] be done. Then they wanted Gallies from Spaine, which might haue beaten the Hollanders from the coasts of Flaunders.

The Spanish fleet lying thus at anker before Calice, the better to consult with the Duke of Parma concerning their enterprise, they concluded to execute their designe on Friday the twelfth of Au­gust,The stratagem of the English on the 7 of Au­gust, to driue the Spaniards from an anker. the night being darke. The Admiral of England with the chief of his Councell determined to enforce them to weigh anker, and to be gone or else to burne their fleet, whereupon, they appoin­ted eight of their vnseruiceablest vessels to bee filled with wild fire and other combustious matter, charging the ordnance in them vp to the mouth with small shot, nayles, and stone, which on Sunday, the seuenth of August, in the afternoone, they sent with the wind and tyde (after that the men that were in them had forsaken and fired them) directly vpon the Spanish fleet, which fire did in the night so terrifie them (supposing them to be some of those internall ships full of powder and wild fire with the In­geueer Frederic Ionibelli had made vse of some three yeares before at Antuerpe, against the Prince of Parmas bridge ouer the Scheld) as crying out, The fire of Antuerpe, the fire of An­tuerpe, they presently cut their cables, and in confusion did put to Sea.

In this amazement,The Galleasse of D. Hago de Moncada, vp­pon the sands before Calice. the Captaine of the great Galleasse fell soule of the cables of another ship and lost her tudder, and bee­ing not able to saile without it, was carried by the force of the Sea vpon the sands just before Calice, whether it was pursued by certayne English Pinnaces, which plaid vpon her vvith their ordnance, but durst not boord her; which the Lord Admirall perceiuing sent his great Pionace with two hundred souldiers vnder the commaund of Captaine Preston, who all of them to­gether boorded the Galleasse, where the Generall D. Hugo de Moncada made braue defence for a while, hoping of some suc­cour from land; but at last he was shot in the head and slaine, and diuers other Spaniards with him, part of whom leapt into the Sea thinking to escape by swimming, who were all drowned. The visitor Generall D. Antonio de Manriques with some others es­caped, and carried the first newes home into Spaine. This great Galleasse wherein vvere three hundred slaues, and foure hun­dred souldiers, was for three houres pillaged, wherein fiftie thousand Duckets of the Kings vvere found. The English [Page 74] would at last haue burnt her; but Gor [...]n, the Gouernour of Ca­lice, would not permit it, as a matter tending to the hurt and pre­judice of his Towne and Hauen, and with his canon plaid vpon the English.

Fight, before Graueling on [...] the 8. of AugustThe same day, being the eight of August, as the Spanish fleet sell againe into order, it was again fiercely assailed by the English, right ouer against Graueling, where they voluntarily lost their aduaun­tage of the wind, chosing rather to let the wind driue them before Dunkirke, than to open themselues or change their order, resol­uing onely on defence.

Though the English had gallant tall ships, yet but 22 or 23 of them were comparable to the Spanish, which were ninetie. But the English had the aduantage by being lighter & better of saile: so, as they came oftentimes within a pikes length of them and dischar­ged their whole tyre of ordnance vpon them, and then their smal shot, continuing it the whole day, till their powder and shot began to faile; and then, they held it no discretion to boord the Spaniards who still kept themselues together in close order, the English bee­ing satisfied with chasing them from before Calice and Dunkirke, and keeping them from joyning with the Duke of Parma.

The Spaniards the same day, receiued much hurt, losing ma­ny men, and had diuers of their ships shot through: They like­wise with their ordnance plaid fiercely vpon the English, but did them no great hurt,The English re­ceiue smal losse for they lost few men, and neuer a Shippe or man of note; and in all that time, and in the whole journey, they lost but an hundred men, and yet Sir Frauncis Drakes ship had beene shot aboue fourtie times, and his Cabbin twice shot through: And towards the end of the fight, a Gentlemans bed whereupon hee rested himselfe, beeing weatie, was taken from vnder him by a great shot: And as the Earle of Northumber­land, and Sir Charles Blunt, afterwards Lord Mountioy, and Master Henrie Nowell sat at meate, a demie Culuerins shot flew through the cabbin, and ouerthrew 2 men. The like accidents hap­pened in other ships which wold be tedious to recite, yet it appears that God did wonderfully assist the English: For as the Lord Ad­mirall wrote to the Queene, there was no likelihood that the Eng­lish (in mans judgement) and according to the apparance of the circumstances should haue dared to approch the Spani­ards, but that God had an admirable hand therein, vnto whom [Page 75] they willingly ascribed all the honour of their magnanimitie and valor, for that he had confounded their enemies in their own deui­ses and counsell.

The same day, so many Spanish ships were shot through, as that night and the next day three of them sanke. Among others Captain Crosse fought with and sank a great Biscan ship, forth of which some few escaped, who reported that the chiefe in the ship flew one ano­ther, because one among thē spake of yeelding, who thereupon was slaine, and his death presently reuenged by his brother, and in the meane time the ship sunke vnder him.

Two Gallions of Portugal of seuen or eight hundred tun a piece, were the same night forsaken by the fleet, viz the S. Philip, and S. Mathew, which had verie great leakes in them. In the S. Philip was D. Francisco de Toledo, brother to the Earle of Orgas, Campe master, or Colonell of 32 ensignes, with other Gentlemen, who sought to run a ground on the coasts of Flaunders, their masts being broken; but being not able to doe it, the chiefe of them escaped in a boat to Newport, and the ship was taken by the Flushingers.

In the S. Mathew was the Campe-master D. Diego, Colonell Ge­neral likewise of 32 ensignes, and brother to the Marquesse of Tan­nares, with many other Gentlemen and Captaines. This ship was none of the greatest, but most strong, for onely twentie shot of in­finit numbers that plaid vpon her, did pierce her. In the sight be­fore Graueling it was shot, and receyued a leake, whereupon the Captaine sent word thereof to the Duke of Medina, who sent him a boat for himself & some of the chief to escape, which for his own honor he refused: the same night she tooke in such abundance of water, as fiftie men did continually plie the pompe to keepe her from sincking, and finding her selfe forsaken of her Admirall the Captaine sought to runne her a ground vpon the coast of Flaun­ders, and for sauing his owne life, craued the helpe of poore Fi­shermen. But being descried by foure or fiue men of warre that lay vpon the coast, they made towards him, haling him vp, and wil­ling him to yeeld, which hee refusing, they discharged all their ordnance vpon him, and slew aboue forty men, so as hee was en­forced to yeeld himselfe prisoner to Peter Vander Does, who car­ried the sayd vessell and the other likewise into Zeland,Peter Vander Does takes D. Diego Fimen­tell prisoner, & carries his ship into Zeland. which afterward through carelesnesse and negligence sanke. The sayd Peter Vander Does, a verie notable man, did for a perpetuall [Page 76] memorie cause a banner of an exceeding length which he had ta­ken forth of one of these ships to be hung vp in the great Church of Leyden where he was Scowt, which teached from the verie roofe downe to the ground, and yet the banner was halfe foulded vp.

An other lesser ship was likewise enforced to run a shore at the same time nere to Blanken burrow in Flaunders; but Sir Iohn Con­way gouernor of Ostend with those of his Garrison, seeing this ship, sent three fisher boats thither well manned, who perceyuing that the Spaniards were gone forth of her, & that they had landed two pieces of ordnance, enforced the Spaniards to quit them, and pilla­ged the vessell, and carried it to Ostend.

In this manner it pleased God not onely to shew vnto England, but likewise to Zeland, their enemies great vessels, to haue them see and confesse how weake they were against so great a power, had not he giuen them discretion and courage, and in sundrie manner fought for them.

The 8 of August the Spanish fle [...] [...] on fight.The same Munday (the eight of August) the Spanish fleet, beeing thus assailed, it resolued, seeing they had sufficiently discharged their Commission, to returne homewards, & to that end the whole fleet passed on vvith halfe saile before Dunkirke, to whom the Eng­lish with a South-West wind gaue chace. And the morrow after, beeing onward on their way, they clapt on more sayles, making no shew as if they were desirous to fight but onely of flight; so as the Lord Henrie Seymer sent backe the lesser vessels, to assist the Hollan­ders, to keepe in the Prince of Parmas forces, and himselfe with the greater ships gaue them chace till the eleuenth and twelfth of Au­gust, not fighting with him because he wanted powder and shot, fearing least they should goe into Scotland.

But the 12 of August, the wind waxing high, and the Spaniards making way with ful sailes taking their course Northward towards Norwey, leauing Scotland on the left hand, making shew onely of flight, exposing themselues to so dangerous a nauigation being al­readie come to sixe and twentie degrees and seuenteene minutes;The English on the 12 of Au­gust giue ouer pursuing, the Spanish fleet. the English would not share with them in their danger, who wan­ting all maner of prouision, especially powder and shot, returned towards England, leauing onely some smal vessels to follow them, & to giue notice what course they held, & so arriued at Harwich, on the foureteenth of August, with great daunger, a mightie tem­pest [Page 77] arising which lasted two or three dayes, which vndoubtedly did great harme to the Spaniards.

The English did presently make prouision of victuals, powder, shot, and other necessaries, to be in readinesse vpon any occasion: But hauing intelligence of the Spaniards course, they resolued not to goe seeke them out in Northerne Seas, but to leaue them to the mercie of the winds.

In those Seas, the Spaniards tooke a fisher boat of Zeland, with twelue men in her, belonging to Zirickzee, who were brought a boord the Admirall the Duke of Medina to serue him, and suffered the boat to goe at aduenture: These fishermen went into Spaine, and afterwards returned home, & reported that whilest the Eng­lish fleet pursued the Spaniards, they saw them readie to hang forth a white flag,The Sp [...]nish fleet in dessaire. to craue a parley or else to yeeld; fearing the passage of those Northerne Seas. But certaine Clergie men, nere the Duke, (who should haue beene most timerous) crost it, saying that it would dishonour them to yeeld so easily, without one fight more; but perceiuing themselues to bee no more pursued, they gaue ouer that resolution.

The sayd Fishermen did likewise report that in the Dukes ship there was a place so wel fortified, as it was canon proose, wherin du­ring the fight, the Duke with tenne more retired themselues: That there were 1200 men in her, 300 of whom were dead and hurt, and that they had seene 18 chests full of money to be vnshipt in Bis­cay, which (as they sayd) were stuft with double pistolets.

In this manner the Spanish Nauie, perceyuing that it had alrea­die lost foure of fiue thousand men, had many that were sicke and wounded, that it likewise wanted tenne or twelue of their chiefe ships, went to counsell (after that the English had left them) what was best to be done; & perceiuing that they wanted victuals, water, tackling, cables, masts, sailes and such like things, and despairing of the Prince of Parmas aide, who (firmely beleeuing that they would returne) continued his preparations, they resolued (seeing the wind serued them) to returne homeward by the North, round about England, Scotland and Ireland.

And vnderstanding that order was likewise taken in Scotland that small aide should be giuen them there, and that Norway could yeeld them but bad assistance; they tooke certaine fisher boats in Scotland, and carried away the men to serue them for pilots and [Page 78] fearing to want water, they threw all their horse and mules into the Sea, & so sayling with a faire wind they passed on betwixt the Or­cades & the farthest part of Scotland, landing in no place, & bent their course Northward to the height of 62 degrees, still keeping 80 leagues from land.

There the Duke of Medina (the Generall) gaue commaunde­ment that euerie ship should direct her course towards Biscay, and himselfe with twentie or fiue and twentie of the best ships proui­ded with all necessaries, sayled more to Sea ward and so arriued in Spaine; but the others, to the number of fortie saile or more, with the Vice-Admirall bent their course towards Ireland, hoping there to take in water, and to refresh themselues. But the God of Ar­mies, who abateth the pride of great ones, & raiseth vp the humble, and hath all authoritie ouer his creatures, who commaundeth the Seas, windes and tempests, caused the Sea to swell and a terrible tempest to arise on the first of September, from the South-West, which dispersed them for the most part into sundrie places of Ire­land, where many of them perished, and among others the Gallion of Michaell of Oquendo, one of the great Galleasses, two great Ve­netian Argozies, the Ratta, and the Balanrara, with diuers others to the number of 38 saile, and all their men. Some of them with a Westerlie wind came againe into the English Seas; & some others into England, and other some were taken by the Rochellers.

One great Galleasse, the tempest carried into Fraunce to New­hauen, where they found ships full of women who had followed the fleet: There remained two likewise in Norwey, but the men es­caped. To conclude, of one hundred foure and thirtie saile that came from Spaine, some three and fiftie of all sorts returned home, to wit, of foure Galleasses, and as many Gallies, there returned of each, one; of ninetie one great Gallions, eight and fiftie were lost, and thirtie three returned; of Pinnaces, seuenteene were lost, and eighteene returned: So that in all, fourescore and one Galleasses, Gallies, and other Ships great and small perished. Two of those Gallions that returned home, lying in the Hauen, were by casual­tie set on fire and burnt, and others since then met with the like mischiefe.

Of 30000 men, that were in the fleet, the greatest part of them were slaine or drowned, and most of those that returned home di­ed, by reason of the miseries they had indured.

[Page 79]The Duke of Medina Sydonia being a braue Lord and well ex­perienced, vpon whom they had imposed that burthen much a­gainst his will, laid the fault vpon his Pilots, and on want of the Duke of Parmas forces which were not readie.

He was suffered to goe home to his own house, but not to come to Court, where it was thought he had much to doe to purge him selfe from the calumnious accusation of his enemies. Many other noble men died soone after, as D. Iuan Martines de Ricaldo, D. Diego de Valdez, Michel Oquendo, D. Alonso de Lieua, D. Diego de Maldona­do, D. Francisco Bouadillo, D. Georgio Manriques, all of the Councell of warre. Diuers were drowned, as among other, Thomas Perenot of Granuell of Cauteroy, nephew to Cardinall Granuell. D. Diego Pimentel Campe-master, and Colonell of thirtie two Ensignes re­mayned prisoner in Zeland, with diuers others, taken in the same ship. D. Pedro Valdez a man much respected in his Countrie was prisoner in England, with D. Vasco de Sylua, and D. Alonzo de Say­as. Many Gentlemen were drowned in Ireland, and many slaine by the Irish. Sir Richard Bingham Gouernour of Conach, had receiued two hundred of them to mercie, but vnderstanding that a troope of 800 of them were landed and in armes, he thought it fit for his owne better safety to kill the 200, of whom some escaping, carried tidings to the 800 who were likewise going to craue mercie (as they sayd) but thereby despairing, they returned and made readie an old decayed, vessell in which they put to Sea, where they were all drowned, and many Gentlemen with them. Yet, D. Alonso de Luson, Colonel of thirtie two ensignes of the Tertios of Naples, with D. Rodrigo de Lasso, and two noble men of the house of Cordu­ba were from thence sent into England, who were deliuered to Sir Horace Paluicin, by them to set the Lord Odet of Teligin at libertie, who had beene taken nere to Antuepe, and lay in prison in the Castle of Tournay. In a word, therere was no noble house in Spain, which in this fleet, lost not, either, a son, brother, or kinsman. There were aboue 1200 souldiers and mariners, prisoners in sundrie pla­ces in England, with 30 Gentlemen and commaunders, whom the Queene released for meane ransome.

Those ships, which escaped from the English and Hollanders, and from the Irish rockes and tempests of the Ocean, being few in number, did after much labour, miserie and daunger, returne in­to Spaine, leauing behind them (as hath beene alreadie sayd) so [Page 80] many ships of sundrie sorts, so many Lords of note, Gentlemen, braue souldiers, good mariners, and others, such store of ord­nance and warlike munition, money, plate, jewels and other wealth, which if it should be seuerally reckoned, would amount to an incredible summe of money. But by how much this fleet was great, strong and potent, by so much more likewise was the victorie great, and greater occasions haue these two countries to be thankefull to that great and inuincible God, to honor and serue him all the dayes of their life, for preseruing and defending them from so great daunger. In this regard, the Queene of England and my Lords the States of the vnited Prouinces, did, whilest the fleet houered vpon their coasts appoint sundrie dayes of prayer and fa­sting, beseeching God to turne away so great & imminent danger from them and their countrie, and not to looke vpon their sinnes which had deserued such a punishment, but to aide and assist them for the glorie of his name, and for or Iesus Christs sa ke, seeing it was his owne cause, which the Pope and King of Spaine sought to ex­terminat. And because these praiers were made to Gods glorie, and in praise of his inuincible power, he therefore heard them, and graunted their requests.

And a good while after the fleet was gone, namely vpon the 19 of Nouember, the Queene in England, and my Lords the States in the Low-countries, appointed a solemne day for thanksgiuing, which was spent in preaching, praying, and hearing the word of God.

The Queene of England, for so great a deliuerance, made a Chri­stian triumph in the citie of London, and went with all the Lords and officers of her Kingdome in solemne manner vpon a trium­phant Charriot from her Palace to the Cathedrall Church of Saint Paule, where the Spanish ensignes and banners were hung vp. The citizens of London in their liueries stood on both sides the street as she passed along. Her maiestie and Lords, gaue thankes vnto God, and were present at a publike Sermon made in the Church­yard, tending onely to thansgiuing and so with great acclamations of people that besought God to graunt her a long and prospe­rous life to his honour and ruyne of her enemies, shee returned in the same manner as she came.

In this manner did this magnificent, great, and mightie Arma­da, termed, the inuincible, and such an one as in many hundred of [Page 81] yeares the like had not beene seene vpon the Ocean, vanish into aire, to their great confusion which sent it forth in an̄ 1588. Where­upon, the Queene of England was congratulated by all Princes, her friends and neighbours, and many millions of verses compo­sed in her honour.

The Prince of Parma in 1588 besiegeth Berghen-op-Zoom: And ray­seth his siege and departeth the same yeare.

BErghen-op-Zoom, is a Towne in the Duchie of Brabant, the first and chiefest of the 17 Prouinces in the Low-countries.

In time past it was but a Seignorie, but in anno 1533 the Em­perour Charles the fist honoured it with the title of Marquisat. It is the first Towne which yee leaue vpon the left hand as yee goe from Roomerswaell and Tholen (which are townes of Zeland) towards Antuerpe. It hath beene a Merchant Towne, not onely in our predecessors dayes, but there are yet some liuing that haue so knowne it in their time, whether, Spanyards, Frenchmen, Al­mans, English, and Scots, came to traffique. It is seated in the middest of the mightie Nertherland Prouinces, viz. of Brabant, Flaunders, Holland and Zeland. It i [...] not the least part of the first, for it is within sixe houres journey of Antuerpe, the chiefe Mer­chant Citie of the Prouince. The three other are opposit to it, viz. Flaunders, towards the South, Holland towards the North, and Zeland towards the West. It hath also a verie good Hauen, which diuides the South Countrie from that of the North (for so are both the countries named, scituate on each side of the Hauen) which lieth but 535 foot from the towne, where it turneth towards the West, and diuiding it selfe into two armes it openeth it selfe & runneth into the towne. One of the Armes, towards the South, ser­ueth certaine water mils and salt pits, which now are within the town, & that towards the North makes the towns Hauen, Berghen is in circuit 10175 foot beside the Bulwarks: There is a verie high earthen rampier, & dikes round about it, it is likewise in some pla­ces fortified with palisadoes, & in other parts which hedges & wals on top of the rampiers: there are also diuers new bulwarks made for the towns defēce. And though it be now miserably dissigured by the [Page 82] breaking downe of many faire and goodlie houses, yet it hath at this day aboue 1000 that are inhabited, diuers others, ruined by war are daily new built to be made haibtable: there are faire and large streets in it, 3 faire market places, the great market, fish mar­ket, and corne market; there is likewise a goodlie Church in it.

The Marquis his court, is a great ornament to it. The rich Cloy­ster of Nuns is cōuerted to an Hospital: for the hōspital without the towne together with other buildings were ruined in time of war.

After that all Brabant (Berghen-op-Zoom excepted) by the duke of Parmas conduct was reduced vnder the Spanish gouerne­ment, the troopes of his Excellencie and my Lords the States made diuers incursions into the countrie, especially then when the Duke of Parma had assembled all his forces at Dunkirke, there waiting for the Spanish fleet. Those of Brabant, Flaunders, and other prouinces vnder the kings obedience, seeing and vnder­standing the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and feeling to the quicke the spoyle which the souldiers of Berghen daily made, protested against the Duke of Parma, and made complaint that all the townes of Brabant obeyed the King (Berghen-op-Zoom ex­cepted) which was a verie nest of theeties and receptacle of ras­kals, from whence forces were daily sent to surprise poore tra­uellers and merchants that brought prouision: that the same mis­chiefe did likewise often light vpon their Burghers, who were vndone by imprisonment and great ransomes: yet this might in some sort be tollerated, prouided, they might liue securely in their Townes; but Be [...]ingh in the Countrie of Liege, Viluord, and Geldernack in Brabant could witnesse the contrarie, ha­uing beene taken and sackt: That by reason of Berghen, all the Villages were vnder contribution, and those that refused to pay it were burnt, their houses ransackt, cattell carried away, and themselues made prisoners. Yet, if the Duke of Parma would bring his victorious Campe before Berghen, wherewith hee had woon so many Townes, the enemies joy conceiued by the retreat of the Spanish fleet vvould bee soone conuerted to sorrow: And, Berghen once taken a way, would then lie open to surprise the Islands of Zeland one after an other; at least Berghen and the Isle of Terthole might bee taken both at once. These vvere the Barbanders complaints. It is not to be doubted but that the Duke of Parma vvas much grieued [Page 83] at the flight of the Spanish fleet, and for that he could not swallow England which he had alreadie deuoured in conceipt, as appeares by the preparation which he caried with him to Dunkirke, seruing rather to be carried away in triumph into England, than by force to surprise so mightie a kingdome. He was likewise badly beloued in the court of Spaine, for not assisting the fleet in necessitie. Now that he might in some sort wipe off this staine which blotted his re­putation: he enterprised to reduce the towne of Berghen vnder his commaund. From that time, diuers reports thereof were cur­rant, not onely in the Low-countries but also in England: whereof her Majestie aduertised my Lords the States by letters dated at Greenwich the seuen and twentieth of August 1588. At the begin­ning of September when there was no more hope of the fleets re­turne, and that the Duke of Parma was come backe from Flaun­ders into Brabant, all men held it for certaine that some attempt would be made vpon Berghen.

Certaine horsemen of Bacx his companie, sent forth for disco­uerie, brought backe with them two prisoners, who confidently reported that there was nothing more certaine, than that Ber­ghen should be besieged. One of the prisoners was a Gentleman, and an officer belonging to the ordnance; and the other was master of the munition: when our men tooke them nere to Eckeren castle, and askt them whether they were going, they answered that they went to the kings camp that lay before Berghen. Being brought to the towne, they assured vs that all things were in readinesse to be­siege vs: that before they were taken the armie was on the march, and that they verily thought to haue found it before the town, and wondered to find the contrarie: they likewise affirmed, that there were 36000 men horse and foot in Parmas campe.

The 9 of the said moneth of August the lord Willoughby, General of the English, came to Berghen, and had made Sir William Drury knight, gouernor of the towne. The next day they mustered, & had in all 12 ensignes of foot, 9 of which lay in the towne & the other 3 in the forts; besides 4 cornets of horse. The Dutch captaines were Paul & Marcelis Bacx brethren, the English were commaunded by captain Parker & captain Pooly who was cornet to my lord Willough­by: From Holland they receiued a certaine quantitie of powder. The Forts whereof we now spake, are vpon the hauen; which being too farre off from the townes defence, sundrie Forts were made [Page 84] to secure it: For the hauens mouth lieth 532; foot from the towne: from S. Iames his gate, it extends 535 foot towards the North, and from thence falleth into the Scheld. In this turning stands the first, which is called the little Fort, because it is lesser than any of the rest. The other Fort lieth 3320 foot from the head, and is called Valkenbourg, by the first Captaines name that kept it: from thence ye goe to the North Fort, distant from the Houdt-port two thou­sand nine hundred and sixtie foot.

In Southland nere to Valkenbourg stands the new Fort, diui­ded onely from Valkenbourg by the Dike, and this Fort lies open behind. By a conduit they can emptie the water of the Dike into the hauen, or keepe it in at their pleasure. From the new Fort they haue made a new dike as farre as the towne, which is commonly called the new hauen. Right ouer against the lesser Fort, the sluces of the hauen of Northland were opened to keepe the enemie from accesse to the North fort. The Lord Willoughby went into Holland to my Lords the States to take order for al necessarie prouisions for the town: But before his departure, he conferred with the Magistrat, and appointed the towne to be diuided into eight quarters, and e­uerie quarter to be commanded by a sherife, to ouersee the Burgh­ers and to looke that they laboured in the fortifying of those parts of the towne that were weakest.

The Burgomasters for that yeare were Frauncis Manteau, and Peter Suidlants: the Sherifes were, William Frauncis the old Bur­gomaster, Cornelius Iohn, Cornelius Denis, Marke Martin, Adrian Iohn, Iohn Clarke, and Cornelius of Heusden. The receiuers were, Marin Nicholas the old Burgomaster, & Nicholas de Ranst. When the sherifs vpon important businesse could not ouersee the work­men, then some of the chiefe Burghers of euerie quarter supplied their places.

Foure dayes after the Lord Willoughbies departure, the Burghers began at S. Iames his gate, as ye go from the head to the new worke, making first a trench vpon the bank or causey which leads from the same gate to the new hauen. All along the hedge, which is planted from the powder tower to the woodden gate, fortifications were likewise made in manner of trenches, they did also labor verie dili­gently, in other places. On the high way from Wouwe, some of the enemies horse were descried, wherupon, the sentinel on the watch tower, rang the alarm bell. Sir William Drury the gouernour made [Page 85] a sallie, and caused the enemie to retire. All the horse troopes in the towne followed the gouernour, who with those forces that sailled with him pursued the enemie euen to Wouwe: part of the horse and foot, made a stand at the entring of the heath of Wouwe, and the Downes of Berghen. In the meane time the gouernour retur­ned hauing lost one of his horsemen and two horse; for he went as farre as the Churchyard of Wouwe, where he skirmished with many of the enemies. Diuers condemned this his attempt, saying, that he had greatly endaungered himselfe and the towne, by his too greedie desire of fight: For the enemie was superiour to him in strength, and he had too farre engaged himselfe to returne with safetie to the towne, if the enemie should haue assailed him. Retur­ning from this sallie, he caused the bridge at the Bulwarke of Hel­stede to be broken down: for they that had vndertaken the works, had made a bridge ouer the dike, to fetch earth from the hill of Varij-Bogaert to make an end of their worke.

Cornelius Iohn, the cities sherife, sent messengers from the com­minaltie of the towne, into Zeland, to aduertize my Lords the States, that the enemie threatned to besiege the towne of Berghen, and to that end lay with his campe at Wouwe, and that the towne was badly prouided of necessaries for maintenance of a siege, and that therefore, the magistrats of Berghen besought them of aid and assistance in their necessitie, as their neighbours and confederats; that the cause was common, for if Berghen should bee lost the I­slands of Zeland would bee mightily endaungered. The next day (which was the 14) a boat came from Zeland loden with plankes and other necessaries.

And because the States of Holland, Zeland, & those of the town of Dort, did, during the siege, carefully send prouision of all ne­cessaries to the towne: In that regard I will truly say, that it was wel prouided of corne, butter, cheese, salt, herring, salt fish, hay, straw, oates, powder, plankes, nayles, lead, bullets, match, pike, ozier­twigs to make gabions &c. The Zelanders sent fiue Culuerins of Portugal, each of them carrying a bullet of 26 pound weight; they were of those which Peter Vander Does Vice-Admirall of Holland found in the Gallion of D. Diego Pimentell, which he tooke nere to Blankenberg, and brought to Flushing. The enemies horse shew­ing themselues againe on the high way of Wouwe were soone put to flight by our men, because their number was not great. About [Page 86] the same time diuers fires were seene betwixt Rosendael, & Calm­thout, made by such as went from Calmthout towards Steenber­ghen to assemble all their forces to go and inuade the land of Ter­tholen,Montigni at­tempts to enter the land of Tertholen. as it afterwards appeared: For, the night before the 17 of September, great numbers of the enemie vnder the conduct of the Lord of Montigni, went along the bank called Matreben to a place called Eendrecht, meaning to surprise the Island. All the causey of Tertholen, especially where the water is so low as the riuer may be crossed, is fortified with a trench, and forts well mand with sol­diers, are made in many needfull places. The Count of Solms was gouernour of the Island: There where the enemie thought to passe is a large extent of ground, where on Tertholens side are 3 forts, the one Southward towards Tholen, called the Botshoost, that in the middest is called Papen-mutse, or priests cap, because it is square, and the third stretching Northward, is stiled the new Weer, or passage. The water being low, certaine ensignes attempted to passe ouer to the Fort of Papen-mutse: But the water was not so shallow as they imagined, and the current was verie strong, so that diuers of them were drowned and slaine by our mens shot: some of them notwithstanding passed ouer, and being protected by the banke, made signes to their fellowes to come ouer. But all this beeing to no purpose, because the rest of them fled away, they were enforced to take the water where they were all drowned. And as those which were in the water striued to passe ouer, their fellowes who stood vpon the causey on Brabant side, shot furiously vpon those of the Island, yet they slew but one of our men, which was a com­mon soldier of Berchens companie, but the enemie lost 200 men. When the enemie first offered to passe ouer, there were scarce for­tie of our men to oppose them, but within a while after, Captaine Lagro of Tholen came thither with his companie. And though those of the Island had fortunatly repelled the enemie, yet they thought not themselues free from daunger, knowing that he had not idlely made that attempt, but that he intended to surprise the Isle of Tholen, thereby to molest those of Berghen, together with all Zeland, assuring themselues that it would not bee long ere he returned againe, and perhaps the next night following. And be­cause they wanted men, to furnish all places, they requested those of Berghen to send Adrian Guillaume, and George Brissaulx with three hundred men vnder their commaund to them. This Adrian [Page 87] Guillaume had in the first wars of Zeland beene Admirall of Zieri­czee, and was then Lieutenant General to Count Solms, ouer al the forces of Zeland: Brissaulx was son to Iames Brissaulx, a verie good & religious man, who in former time had bin Burgomaster of Bru­ges. These two were sent from the States of Zeland to Berghen, so soone as they vnderstood that the enemie meant to march towards the Towne.

The nineteenth of September the Drossart returned from Am­sterdam where he had bought great store of planks and other ne­cessaries fit for fortification:An officer, so na­med, for which we in English can giue no pro­per name. For besides his place of Drossart (which next to the Marquis is the highest degree in Berghen) the fortify­ing of the towne and sorts was committed to him. His name was Elias Lion, sonne to Doctor Albert Lion, a verie learned man, who for the space of foure and twentie yeares, had beene chiefe profes­sor of the ciuile law at Louayne, and was at that time Chauncellor of Guelderland, and chiefe Counsellor to my Lords the generall States of the vnited Prouinces. The night following, being the 20 of September, the enemie came to Raberch, and about noone re­turned to Wouwe: Nothing at that time was done on either side, for it rayned all that night, and likewise at noone after the enemies departure. The Magistrats sent certaine commissioners into Hol­land and Zeland to my Lords the States, to acquaint them with the state of the Towne, and to craue aid. Cornelius Iohn, the Townes sherife, went to Zeland, and Adrian Guillaume, the Secretarie, into Holland. The two and twentieth of the said moneth, by day break, there was an alarme, the trumpets sounded, drums were beaten, and the alarme bell was rung: For the gouernour had assembled a troope of souldiers to reenforce the morning gard, because the e­nemie was wont to make his attempts about that time when the gard is most drowsie; wherewith hee had not acquainted the horsemen who had the gard vpon the market place. Some of them going through the streets, met with these souldiers, and demanded who they were, and whether they went, but one a­mong them giuing a discourteous aunswer, they returned to their officers acquainting them therewith: they not knowing the matter, and thinking all was not well, did presently giue the alarm. The gouernor tooke this in bad part, and complained to the Cap­taines of the wrong done vnto him therein, seeing his soldiers were assembled by his commaundement. The Captaines of the horse [Page 88] answered they were ignorant that it was done by his commaund, and that they ought to haue beene made acquainted therewith, in regard of the state of the Towne: Thereupon proclamation was made, that none should dare to ring the alarme bell without ex­presse charge from the gouernour.

The next day, the souldiers spoiled Generall Fremins baggage: He, had beene gouernour of Wouwe Castle, and about a certaine quarrell that arose betwixt him and a Merchant of the same Castle, came into Holland to complaine to my Lords the States, to haue him cassierd, and likewise to make prouision of all necessaries for keeping of the sayd Fort. The States had giuen him great store of musket and faulconet bullets, match and barrels of powder. But be­fore the said Fremins returne, the Merchant had alreadie driuen all those sorth of the Castle which tooke Fremins part, and had secret­ly made an accord with the enemie. Within a while after, about the seuenteenth of Ianuarie 1589, he sold the castle to the enemie for 20000 crownes, and himselfe retired into Fraunce. Vntill then, Fremin had carefully kept all these things: But as he was readie to depart and had shipt all, the souldiers who had an inckling there­of, thinking they had found a just cause of excuse (because it was a­gainst the law of Armes to carrie away such things forth of townes besieged) seised on all the munition, together with his owne goods and made bootie of it, beeing neuerthelesse enforced to restore backe the greatest and best part thereof. The next day after, the e­nemie was discouered vpon the highway from Wouwe, mar­ching directly towards the towne. Our horse and foot made a sal­lie vpon him: but as they approched the Downes of Berghen, the enemie turned vpon the right hand and went along the sandie way towards Riselberg and Nortgeest, where he incamped. And be­cause the water of the channell, which some did improperly terme the riuer of Zoom, was kept in by the sluces of the womens gate and that of Steenberghen, all the fields betwixt Wouwes gate, and that of the women were drowned, so as none could goe from Wouwes gate to the North quarter. Our men returned againe to the towne, and fallied sorth at Steenberghen gate with displayed ensignes, alluring the enemie to fight, who had enclosed himselfe in his campe.

The morrow after, he encamped towards the South, extending his camp from S. Gertrudes hill as farre as the vale, therein compre­hending [Page 89] Burghvliet, Zudgeest, the Raberg, and part of Ber­ghens wood, which lies Eastward from the towne. The Raberg is so termed, because that Rat in the Dutch tongue signifieth a wheele whereon malefactors are broken and executed; and vpon that hill execution was commonly done. The enemie within a day or two alter his arriuall, burnt the gallowes vpon the hil, Southward from the towne, as yee goe towards Antuerpe. S. Gertrude is worshipt by superstitious people, because (as they say) she preserues them from rats and mice. In former times she was patronesse of the town, and it is said, that she was Ladie of the whole countrie of Berghen: Her chappell, which in time past stood vpon the hill nere to the drowned countrie of Southland, gaue it that name. The vale is part of the arable grounds which lie betwixt the wood, towne and champaine countrie, extending it selfe, partly towards the West, and in part towards Wouwes gate: The Southgeest is an high place, and Burghvliet was a village, where a castle stood which was burnt by the French (as hath been said.) Those of Tholen had pla­ced thirtie men in the castle of Halteten, which tooke it name from the village, not that they thought them strong enough to resist the enemie, but onely to serue for Sentinels to those of the Island, and to giue them notice of the enemies approch. The souldiers, being threatned by the enemie, yeelded vp the castle on safety of their liues and goods. The same day, two horsemen were slaine with the canon from Reigers-tower: one of them was a man of note, and was afterwards buried at Antuerpe with 800 torches.

About the same time we receiued supplies from all parts. My Lords the States, notwithstanding that the Isle of Tholen was to be prouided for, sent vs great numbers of Hollanders and Scots Those of Flushing, Briell, and Ostend, sent vs store of choice soul­diers. There came likewise fourescore men from Gertrudenbergh, conducted by an English captain called Brock: these men had for­saken the States pay, and serued among the English▪Besides all this, sixe ensignes of foot came to vs from England, about the first of Nouember. So that the number of soldiers which at the beginning of the siege were in all, both horse and foot, but one thousand fiue hundred, as appeared by the muster rolls, did before the enemies departure amount to fiue thousand. The Captaines of the horse­men perceiuing the enemie to be encamped, thought it necessarie to make some sallie forth vpon him whilest they might doe it, tel­ling [Page 90] the gouernor, Sir William Drurie, that it behoued them, now at first, to giue the enemie some affront, and that it would greatly dis­grace them, if they should not make some proofe of their valour. But others, of a contrarie opinion, sayd, that euerie victorie was vncertaine: and that if they should chance to be vanquished by the enemie, it would greatly endaunger the Towne: and that if them­selues should ouercome, the enemie might easily beare that losse: that they had to doe with a mightie and victorious enemie: that it was true that sallies are commonly thought prejudicious to the besieged, but it was only in such places where the enemies were few in number, and where the besiege might in such sort be shut in by the enemie, as he could not easily receiue new supplies: but our numbers were great enough, and we might daily receiue fresh sup­plies from the vnited Prouinces, by meanes of the commodious­nesse of our hauen. Captaine Paule Bacx made answere, We like­wise, are not ignorant (quoth he) how it behoues▪ vs to deale wise­ly therein: we know verie well that the enemie hath a mightie and victorious campe, and many men; we likewise haue often made triall what souldiers they are. But if it shall not please the gouer­nour to graunt the demaunds of the Captaines of the horse, for my part, let this mightie and victorious enemie make his approches, and at last (for I will vse his owne words) come and draw vs by the eares one by one forth of the towne into his campe. This speech being not allowed of by many, he went his way without any fur­ther talke. But the gouernour called him backe, together with the rest that were there present, and said, seeing your request tends to the good and preseruation of the Towne, I will no longer denie it. Then euerie man went and armed himselfe, no drum was beaten nor trumpet sounded, to call the troopes together, but each man gaue notice to his fellow, of the sallie, and forthwith, at the houre appointed, they were all readie together. A Gentleman of Hol­land, whose name was Vchtenbreck, cornet to captaine Paule Bacx, was sent forth to draw the enemie into the field betwixt the camp & towne, he was seconded by 14 or 15 harquebuziers, who went alto­gether towards the campe. Nere to the towne dikes there is a low way which stretcheth from Steenberghen gate as far as Helst point, and it is ouerlookt by the hill of Varigobart, which ends nere to this point, and there makes a vallie. The Lanciers went this way towards the sayd vallie, holding downe their lances, keeping them [Page 91] from the enemies sight who was encamped on the Rijsselberg, and Northgeest.Those of the towne make a sallie vpon the enemie. The Harquebuziers of Marcelis Bacx kept themselues close to the Lanciers. Captaine Paule Bacx, and his brother, led the vantgard, being followed by the lord Willoughbies cornet, & captain Parker. The enemie hauing descried this small troope, comming with Vchtenbroeck, sent certaine musketiers to encounter them. In the field where Vchtenbroeck and his soldiers lay, there were many hedges which diuided one field from another; these did the sayd musketiers make good; and whilest they skirmished with Vchten­broeck, our men which were behind Varibogart hil perceiued it, &, being verie glad of so faire an occasion, rod a full galop vpon the enemie, sound their trumpets, and with their swords and lances e­uery man did his best. The musketiers were beaten from their shel­ter, and were enforced to quit their armes, and to craue that they might be taken prisoners: many of them were slaine, and many ta­ken, for they were so encompassed by our men, as they could not escape.Certaine of the enemies muske­tiers are de­feated. The enemie taking pitie on his people, sent three cornets of horse to rescue them, who were soone put to rout by the two brethren Bacx that led the vantgard, and enforced to retire to Rijs­selberg, from whence they saw their musketiers slain and taken pri­soners. During the fight certain prisoners were sent into the towne, among whom was a young gentleman, Nephew to that Groesbeke who in former time had beene bishop of Liege, surnamed Amste­rode, and was Lieutenant generall to a Regiment of Almans, who had receiued a great wound in the face. Our men determined to returne backe to the towne so soone as they should haue executed some notable enterprise vpon the enemie, not meaning to tarrie till the whole force of the campe shold fall vpon them, being too weak to resist; and to speake truely, they had woon honour enough and might freely haue returned with their prisoners in triumph: which they had done▪ but for captain Parkers couragious resolution, who could not be satisfied with the flight of the enemies horse, which at their ease beheld the vsage of their owne men; so as charging them in a place where they had great aduantage, he repulsed them once or twice; but as himselfe was likewise constrained to retreat to the hil, where the enemie stood, to driue them thence, where the whole campe was by this time in armes, and the enemies cauallerie recey­uing both new aid, and courage, making a fierce charge vpon him, he and his troope were in danger either to haue bin oppressed with [Page 92] multitude, or to haue been taken prisoners: thrice did the ene­mie lay hold on Parker, and thrice did he free himselfe from them, and brauely defended himselfe with his sword. The brethren Bacx, and captaine Poolie, perceiuing the daunger wherein captaine Par­ker was, and being spurd forward by a desire of honour, galoped into the thickest throng of the enemies, making more account of the preseruation of so braue a souldier, than of any gaine, bootie, or prisoners: so that seuentie prisoners who had been taken at the beginning of the fight, and were not yet carried into the towne, were in all hast slayne, yet some escaped. The arriuall of our men opened Parker a large way to escape from the enemie: whilest they were busied in fight, the Lord Willoughby and the Generall Wil­ford came from Holland, who without entring into any house sal­lied forth with great numbers of foot to reskew the horse, who af­ter they had brauely executed their enterprise, returned towards the towne in good order, being pursued by the enemies who were extreamely grieued that Parker escaped from them. Parker had re­ceiued certaine musket shot on his armour, but was not hurt, be­cause it was of proofe. Where the heat of the fight had been, great heapes of dead men and horse lay. Of our horsemen some foure or fiue were slaine, but many were hurt, and the losse of horse was great. It is reported that two hundred of the enemie were slayne. This was done on the fiue & twentieth of September after dinner. Whilest the horsemen fought with the enemie, the masons broke downe a certaine wall of the remainder of the Abbie, because the enemie should not make vse of it against the towne. Presently af­ter this fight the enemie shortned and tooke in his campe, which he had at first much amplified and enlarged, & forsooke the high Northgeest, strongly fortifying and entrenching himselfe both to the South and Northward of the towne to defend himselfe from our sallies: for he expected no such dealing, and neuer thought that there had bin so great courage and valor in those of the town.

Towards euening the Drossart, Burgomasters & sherifs assem­bled themselues, with whom joyned the captaines, Vere, Scot, Ba­skeruile, & Salisburie to consult together what was necessarie for the preseruation of the town. And euer after, they obserued this or­der, that the gouernour and chiefe of the Councell of war, did once a day meet at the state house, to conferre of matters concerning the present estate of the town, which was a matter verie commendable, [Page 93] especially in a town besieged. For by this means all difficulties were at first easily remoued that did arise at such a time betwixt the soul­diers and Burghers, when any thing is done by mischaunce on one part or other to the prejudice of either.

Euer since then, the Magistrat, to shew his diligence, did daily meet twice, namely, at eight of the clocke in the morning, and two of the clocke after noone.

The lord Willoughby requested the magistrat that the Burghers might arme, & keep Corps du gard in the streets; and the matter was brought so far forward, as captaines & officers were chosen: but by reason diuers excused thēselues through want of armor, which the mutinous French had taken from them in former time, nothing ensued thereof.

On the 28 of this moneth, Sir Tho Morgan, who had bin gouernor of the town, returned from England. The Queen and my lords the states had sent him to be gouernor in Sir William Druries place. The states had a while before, sent Lancelot Parisijs commistarie of the musters, enjoining him to tel the Councel of war & magistrats, that it had pleased her Ma. to write vnto them of late, as likewise to the lord Willoughby, The Queene of England makes Morgan gouer­nor of Berghen. that it was her expresse wil & pleasure that Morgan shold be gouernor; and to this end they likewise sent her Ma. let­ters by the said Lancelot: And in this respect they wold herein doe nothing contrary to her Ma. command. The contents of whose let­ters was, that hauing intelligence how the Duke of Parma had at­tempted to besiege Berghen-op-Zoom; in that regard she thought it fit to giue the gouernement of the town to Sir Thom. Morgan, the better to assure it against the enemies power, and that her pleasure was to haue him forthwith installed in Druries stead, who had lately bin recōmended to her by the states, not that she in any sfsort doubt­ed of Druries loyaltie and valour, but Morgans long experience in war, together with the peoples loue towards him, had caused that alteration. The cause why the Queene spake thus of the peoples loue towards Morgan, and the recommending of him to my lords the states, was, because my lord Willoughby did not greatly affect Mor­gan. Sir Thom. perceiuing this, & that he could not build vpon Wil­loughbies fauor for the gouernement of Berghen, & that there were diuers that sued for it, found means to get the fauor of the magistrats and Burghers, by whose means he obtained letters of recommenda­tion to her Ma. both from the states, and comminalty of Berghen. [Page 94] The Lord Willoughby in the meane time had by sundrie practises established Drurie in the gouernement; but because it was done without the States consent, they therefore wrote vnto the Queene, that no opposition might be made against her highnesse com­maund. After Morgans arriuall, sundrie quarrels arose, not one­ly, betwixt the two Gouernours, but among the Captaines and souldiers.

The English held more with Drurie than Morgan, the Low-coun­trie men and Scots tooke Morgans part: Willoughby fauoured Dru­rie against Morgan; and therefore he gaue the gouernement of the towne to Morgan, but made Drurie captaine of the Forts, saying he did so, because her Majestie spake onely of the towne and not of the Forts. Morgan on the contrarie maintained it to be a verie absurd matter, because the towne and forts depended one vpon an other, and neuer had different gouernours.

Count Solms and Generall Villers came opportunely from Ze­land whilest the gouernors contested about the gouernement, and exhorted them to peace and concord. Yet, for all that, Drurie com­maunded the Forts of the Hauen, and Morgan the Towne. Those of Druries faction were likewise placed in the Forts. Drurie came not often into the towne, and spake seldome to Morgan, but there was still some quarrell or other; he did also highly complaine of the Magistrats and my Lords the States: who were much displeased with this discord, especially because their authoritie and command was directly contemned: euery man feared that some inconuenience would ensue.

The nine and twentieth of this moneth, the imposition vpon wine & beere was let to ferme, which was payed during the siege as in time before. The next day, Willoughby made an other sallie vpon the North side of the Campe, and though he vsed the same order and meanes as at the first sallie, yet he did no great matter; for the ene­mie behaued himselfe more wisely, and would no more be sur­prised from behind the hill of Varibogart as at first: the foot­men kept within the trenches of their Campe, or behind the bu­shes not farre off, and did no more assaile our men as before. Our footmen stood in battaile vvithin musquet shot of the Towne, yet the Cauallery incountred one an other, and the fight was sharp on both sides, our men gaue a braue charge, and the enemie made gallant resistance; each did their best. Poolies horse who [Page 95] vvas Cornet to the Lord Willoughby, was slayne vnder him, and was presently remounted to reuenge his losse. In the skirmish, Marcelis Bacx encountred a certaine Albanois, whom after hee had thrust through with his sword, he tooke by head and shoulders, & drew him and his horse by force forth of the enemies throng, notwith­standing all his resistance, and carried him away prisoner. After he had done this noble deed, his horse fell down dead vnder him, for he was shot through on both sides: the ordnance, on the bulwarke of the Friers Minors and on Steenberghen gate, plaid furiously vpon the enemie, carrying away both men and horse into the ayre. Yet this could not discourage the enemie, who was superiour to vs in number, and this fight seemed a combat for honour and not for life, so doubtfull and vncertaine was the euent thereof, which con­tinued till night and darkenesse separated them.

The Captaines, Lieutenants, Cornets, Quartermasters, Corpo­rals, and common souldiers had receiued sundrie shot vpon their armour, yet verie few of them were hurt, the greatest losse was in horse: how it went on the enemies side I know not.

Those which lay towards the South did, on the 1 day of Octo­ber, begin to draw their trenches from the Ball as far as the Hospi­tall. Two daies after, a certain Spaniard came & yeelded himselfe; he had slaine 1 of his fellowes,The strength of Parmas Campe. & for that cause came to our side. Being questioned concerning the state of the camp, he said that there were 30000 men in it, that they had already brought 6 canon with thē & did daily expect 50 more: that the enemie determined to make his batterie towards the water mill, & so confirmed the cōmon report how that 60 pieces of ordnance were comming to the campe. This Spaniard was sent to prince Maurice and the States. And because the rampier, next the water mill, was too weake to resist the Canon they fortified it and made it thicker. To this end the Magistrat sent the Burgomaster Suydland into Zeland, to the States to craue some helpe towards the fortifications, because in many places, the towne was verie weake, and vnprouided of money, workemen, and other necessaries, the enemie daily more and more enuironing it, & do­ing his best to win it.

The second day, after the Burgomasters departure, the ene­mie made a Fort there vvhere the Hospitall had stood, which was within Harquebuze shot of the towne. Then euerie man assu­red himselfe that the enemie would there likewise make a batterie. [Page 96] vpon the high way toward Calmthout great numbers of Carts and wagons were discerned, which the horse could hardly draw, so as they came but slowly on to the towne-ward. The Burghers and souldiers thought them to be the other canons which the Spa­niard talked of; so as the Burghers began to fortifie betwixt the gate of Wouwe and that of the Nuns, that the rampier might be free from the enemies smal shot. They likewise brake down the wals of Wouwe gate which were too high, that they might do no hurt when the enemie should play vpon them with his canon. A way was likewise made athwart the gardens at the foot of the rampi­ers, that the caual lerie might lie safe, if the enemie should batter the towne. But it was farre from the enemies meaning to make any bat­terie; for those carts and waggons had brought no ordnance, but onely boats, hauing some other designe, as the euent declared. The morrow after, which was the seuenth of October, fiftie two en­signes of foot came on the North side of the campe, commaunded by Count Egmont, these companies encamped on the lower part of the Northgeest.

There is a causie on Northland nere to Benmoer, called Eester­dike, because certaine trees called Eesters had beene planted there. This causie looseth it name nere to Dryanneland. It beginneth at the nether end of the Northgeest, and extends it selfe towards Northlands causie as far as the Sea, and diuides first the land from Benmoer, and next, the countrie of Dryanneland from North­land; in that manner making three wayes, as farre as the Sea-dike.

My Lords the States had alreadie of a long time pierced the sayd causie of Dryanneland, hoping that the water would enter into it, by the Geux Gullet or hole, and that entring into Northland nere to Bariebas, and so together through the Gullet of Dryannelands causie, the water would make a great breach, and thereby take all meanes from the enemie to come vpon Northlands causie. The e­nemie was often seene vpon that of Dryanneland, making good obseruations of all things. Our men presently suspected the truth of the matter; how that they intended to make a bridge ouer that Gullet, thereby to come vpon Northland causie, which done, they might then keepe our vessels forth of the hauen. Much speech was made of this causie: some were of opinion to leuell and make it e­uen; others said it was necessarie to build a fort there where the causies did meet, and for the effecting thereof, had conference with [Page 97] Count Solms. Now because the first wold haue bin too great & cost­ly a labor without any profit at all (for if the causie had bin leuelled and made plain it would haue stood the enemie in better stead than before) and that the second was not without danger, because the e­nemie was so nere that place, neither the one nor other was done. The next night after, the enemie himselfe seazed on that cau­sie, placing two great shallops in the Gullet, with which he passed ouer his souldiers, and within a while after, he made a bridge there. At the same time likewise, hee seazed on the causie of Matteberg, whereof we haue heretofore spoken in mentioning the enemies en­terprise vpon the Isle of Tholen. Vpon that causie he planted his canon, and thereby tooke all meanes from those of Tholen of go­ing into Holland.

In the gullet of Tholen, the causie was likewise pierced through in 2 places, & there they had also built a fort, called the Gueux hole.

Opposit to the gullet of Tholen, lay certaine boats of war, which the enemies canon enforced to ret [...]eat. Right ouer against Barlabas, lay the Admiral of Zeland with an other man of war. So soone as it was day, the vice-Admiral, George More, discharged two or three ca­nons: after some shot made these two ships were enforced to retire to Romerswael, being shot through in diuers places, not without losse of some souldiers and mariners. As our boats went forth of the Hauen, some towards Holland, others to Zeland, they were likewise saluted by the enemies canon. The first that went forth, not­withstanding it receiued certaine shot, went forward on her jour­ney, the two last returned backe, one of which was shot through, in which a Burghers wife with her child in her lap was slaine, and two other women hurt. These, fearing the enemie, were flying into Holland and Zeland. For at the beginning of the siege somewere so terrified, as they thought their onely preseruation to consist in getting forth of the towne. This feare was not lessened, when the people saw the verie captains send away their wiues, children, and goods. Some of those, who receiued no pay, nor were vnder any command, liuing only by bootie, in all impious and voluptuous pleasures, did in troopes forsake the towne, and spared for no cost, so they might be gone.

Toward the euening, a boat came from Holland, whereat the e­nemie made sundrie shot, yet but one soldier was slaine, who stood at the Helme.

[Page 98]The horsemen made complaint that they wanted hey & prouen­der for their horse, but that want was soone supplied from Hol­land.

About the same time, the souldiers of Geertrudenberg tooke certaine ships laden with Delfts beere, cheese, butter, herring, and oyle, which they brought into our hauen. These boats were li­cenced by my Lords the States to goe to Antuerpe and Breda. The merchants were imprisoned at Geertrudenberg, and the souldiers hung vp their passeport vpon the gallowes. Our men would haue imitated them, and tooke certaine boats; but my Lords the States, commanded them to desist. The goods were restored to the Mer­chants, by the States commandement, presently after the enemies departure; and they sent supplies of horse and foot to those of Tho­len, which were landen at Venusdam, opposit to Romerswael.

The enemie doing his best to take the Hauen from those of the Towne, the townes-men in like manner did their vttermost to keepe it, and made sundrie new workes, the first vpon the North causie some sixe hundred foot from the North Fort, called the Priests cap, extending it selfe towards the Towne. On the Ha­uens banke, nere to Helst, they made a trench. The fort called Sta­uast, was begun the foureteenth of October: vpon the Northland causie is a place called Barlabas, one thousand one hundred & fiue foot from the North fort, where the causie was pierced through in two seuerall places. These two holes hindred the enemie from bringing his canon to batter the North fort. Our men fearing that the enemie in the end would doe that there, which hee had done at the causie of Dryanneland, did themselues make good the place, & built a fort there, which the people called Stauast, because they were to stay there to free the Hauen from the enemie: and for the sooner building of it, they tooke away the Burghers fagots, e­specially from bakers and potters.

And because the sandie bank of Romerswael stretched as farre as our Hauen, and that it was verie daungerous for such boats as would at that place enter into it, because they were to hold on their course too nere the enemies Canon; to preuent this, the shippers or saylers tooke an other way behind Romerswael, and so by the South entred the hauen, where was lesse danger: For be­twixt the sandie banke, & the causie where the enemie had planted his canon, the Scheld runs, so as the boats could not auoid the ene­mies [Page 99] canon, which lay within 2000 foot of the fort of Stauast, by rea­son whereof, they could bring their canon no nearer the hauens mouth; for notwithstanding he discharged his ordnance vpon the boats which entred the Hauen, yet could he neuer touch any of them; which was a manifest worke of God.

Nere to the gullet of Tholen, lies a drownd land called Broeloose, the which confines vpon the causie called Steendijke. There did the States of Zeland make a new hauen, verie nere to the causie of Tho­len opposit to Molsgat (a Fort so named) on the riuer of Eendrecht. By this meanes the Isle was fortified, and a commodious passage found to goe to Tholen: for the Gullet of Tholen was verie dange­rous because of the enemies canon, who since that time had small vse for his ordnance.

Eight horsemen of Bacx his companie,Eight of Bacx his horsemen take three cap­taines prisoners embarked themselues on the 13 of October to go towards Lillo, landing in a certaine place, where they tooke their way as though they had come from Ant­uerpe; by which deuise they tooke 3 of the enemies captaines with their baggage, who came from Antuerpe towards the campe, and with their bootie returned to their boat.

The strife betwixt Morgan and Drurie was not yet ended. Vpon the 14 of October, at night, prince Maurice & General Villers came to Berghen. The Lord Willoughby had threatned to imprison Mor­gan, and great harme was likely to ensue about this contention. But his Excellencies arriuall pacified the matter after this manner; That Willoughbie so long as hee remayned in the Towne, should com­maund all men as her Majesties Lieutenant, and in his absence, Morgan, and that Drurie should get him gone, who neuerthelesse remayned there till the end of the siege It was reported that the e­nemie had an intent to seaze on the remainder of the causie of Southland by passing through the drownd lands at a low water, thereby to keepe boats from entring the hauen at that place. And nere to Burghvliet, the footsteps of those who had beene sent by night to view the place, were discerned.

Gabions and three piece of ordnance were planted vpon the head, the greatest of which carried a bullet of 44 pound, and the other two of sixteene pound. The canons in euerie Fort did likewise play vpon the enemie, when any boat arriued. The causie whereon the enemie lay was by the continuall raine and souldiers treading become so deepe and slipperie, as they could hardly stand vpon it. [Page 100] They had neither plankes nor straw, and the souldiers were enfor­ced to stand in the raine in the trenches without any shelter vp to the knees in water. There was daily great tempests of wind and raine, and it seemed though the enemie besieged Berghen that they themselues were besieged by raine, wind, and sundrie other grie­uous discommodities. Those of the towne began to leuell the cau­sie of Southland, but perceiuing their labour to be vaine, they gaue ouer that resolution. At the causies end was a verie broad dike; all men thought it fit there to build a Fort, because that nere to the said dike there was a great piece of ground which was commonly drie, so as the same dike might serue to defend the Fort against the enemie; the Scheld likewise is not verie broad in that place, by rea­son of the great dike opposit to Southland, where in former time the toll house of Zeland stood. There, diuers men of warre lay at anker; but if the enemie with his Shalops had brought his ord­nanceto the Southland causie, he might easily haue driuen them thence, as hee had done before Barlabas, and the Gullet of Tho­len.

George More Vice-Admirall of Zeland, hauing viewed the place, said as much: they onely wanted workemen. Willoughby would haue had the Burghers to make the Fort; but they tired with labour and trauaile, and afraid of the enemie, who lay not farre from thence on the firme land, refused to doe it, saying that he did them wrong to cause them to labour so farre from the towne, and in daunger of the enemie: For this dike was distant three thousand one hundred and thirtie foot from Valckenbourg, and Valckenbourg foure thousand foot from the towne, which together, amount to seuen thousand one hundred and thirtie foot.

The Drossart, Burgomasters, and the two preachers, namely Ia­cob Baselis the elder, and Iacob Baselis the yonger, did so farre pre­uaile with the Burghers, by remembring them of their duetie due to their country, as they voluntarily offered their labor for ending of the work, euerie man promising to be readie at the sound of the drumme. The afternoone, Sermon ended, for it was vpon Sunday, the drumme began to sound.

The Burgomaster Sudland with certain of the Magistrats, & Iacob Baselis the younger, with the elders of the Church, euerie man a shouel in his hand did, in the euening meet at the place where the fort was to be built, and were in a maner followed by all the Bur­ghers. [Page 101] A cornet of horse was sent forth to defend them from the enemie, if he should haue come downe from Burghvliet. But because the plot of the worke was not yet made, and those which should haue made it different in opinion, nothing was done that night.

The Italians that lay in campe nere to S. Geertrudes, seeing so many men assembled vpon the Southland causie right ouer against them, went forth to see what it meaned: they set Sentinels euerie where and were all of them vp in armes. The next day being the [...]7 of October, they diligently began the worke.

The eighteenth of October, our men made an other sallie on Steenberghens side: but the enemie kept himselfe within his tren­ches and would not come forth, whereupon they returned to the towne.The enemie at­tempteth to sur­prise the North Fort. On the twentieth of October, at night, the enemie cunning­ly thought to haue surprized the North Fort; the manner where­of I will set downe at large. We haue heretofore mentioned, how that our horsemen, some two or three dayes before the siege, had taken two Spaniards prisoners. These were committed to the kee­ping of an English victualler called Redhead, of whom Grimston en­signe to Baskervile bought his prouision: by this meanes, both of them fell acquainted with the prisoners, who did at last earnestly solicit them to doe some notable seruice to the king of Spaine. This did they discouer to the Lord Willoughby, and craued his ad­uice how they should proceed with the Spanish prisoners. Willough­by injoyned them to treat with them about yeelding vp the North Fort to the Duke of Parma. After sundrie conferences and consul­tations with the prisoners, they did in the end agree to deliuer vp the Fort, which was an easie matter for the ensigne to do, who was oftentimes captaine of the watch of the Fort when Baskerviles com­panie had the gard of it: This thus concluded, the ensigne and vi­ctualler feigned themselues fugitiues, and caried the prisoners let­ters to the Duke of Parma, vnto whom they had many times writ­ten about that businesse.

On the 20 of October, when it was darke, they went to the duke (who to this end, did the same night lodge at the low North­geest) telling him that all things were in readinesse for the surren­der of the Fort: It is reported, that he stood in some doubt of them, and that therefore he made sundrie demands concerning the fort, as who commaunded in it, how many souldiers it had, and by what [Page 102] meanes they would deliuer it vnto him; That he did beside, take their oath that they should deale faithfully with him therein, cau­sing them to receiue the Sacrament of the Altar (as the Papists terme it.) Being assured of their loyaltie, he gaue to each of them a chaine of gold, promising them a good summe of money the deed being once done. Then hee made choyce of a certaine number of his best souldiers, to goe and receiue the Fort in his name, and cau­sed Grimstons and the victuallers hands to be bound behind them with match, and gaue two ponyards to two souldiers commaun­ding them to kill them, if they perceiued the least suspition by the way.

The Lord Willoughby in the meane time manned the Fort with valiant soldiers, and on each side of the causies placed certain num­bers of musketiers, & in the gate whereat the enemie was to enter, he caused an yron port-cullis to be hung vp by roopes, which cut, the port-cullis would fall downe and stop the passage.

The enemie en­ [...]eth the Fort, but to his small aduantage.All these things being in readinesse, Willoughby with great de­uotion attends the enemies comming. At last they came forward passing at a low water the drowned North-land and found the gate open according to promise. There stood one likewise at the gate who in the Spanish tongue welcomed them. When some fiftie of the chiefe were entred, the Lord Willoughby with his owne hand, did cut the cords, and so stopt vp the passage that no more could enter.

Grimston & the victualler es­cape.Those within the Fort charged the enemies, most of whom were slaine, and the rest taken prisoners. Grimston and the victualler per­ceiuing hoset [...] at kept them to be amazed, escaped. Those abroad finding themselues thus deluded, did by force plucke vp the palli­zadoes and gaue a fierce assault, but all in vaine, for they could not reach the highest pallizado, & those within the sort saluted them with harquebuze shot.

The enemie flieth.The enemie being thus beguiled, threw away their armes & fled: those that were in ambush on the causie, did with great noice break forth, & charged the flying enemie, making great slaughter among them. In the meane time the tide came in, so as diuers of the ene­mies, thinking to escape, fell into the dikes of Northland and were drowned. Three hundred of them were slayne, and as many woun­ded, as was afterwards knowne by certaine prisoners.

The chiefe prisoners were D. Iuan de Mendoza, a man of good [Page 103] yeares, who afterwards died in the Hospitall of his wounds: and another D. Iuan de Mendoza, a yong man, Gregorio Vites, Christofe­ro de Porres, Godefredo Gordone, Tristano Lignicable, and Alonzo Id­iaques, all Dons (as the Spanyard termes them) and men of noble houses.

The next day no ensignes were seen wauing in both the camps, which was a signe that the enemie lamented the losse of his men: the two Spanish prisoners by sentence of the Councell of war were hanged, for that being prisoners, they had sollicited the ensigne & victualler to commit treason.

Much good ensued to vs hereby: For by this meanes we were wholly freed frō feare of treacherie, because the enemie being thus deceiued, wold neuer giue credit to any other, though they meant neuer so faithfully: and yet Grimston and the victualler were con­demned by all men for renouncing their Religion and for perju­rie, so as their owne Nation did greatly tax them. And it is credi­bly reported, that a certaine great man of England did in this ma­ner recommended them to her Majestie, vnto whom they went to craue recompence for their seruice: Madame (quoth he) there are diuers forcible reasons why these men should be honourably rewarded, for if those who onely expose their bodies doe deserue, what doe they which haue aduentured both bodie and soule?

Those of the towne had true intelligence, that the remainder of the Spanish fleet perished on the Scottish and Irish coast, so as ve­rie few of them returned into Spaine.Those of Ber­ghen g [...]ue God thankes for the dissi [...]ation of the Spanish fleet. For which, vpon the one and twentieth of October, the people by tolling of a Bell were called to Church to giue thankes vnto God, & Sermons were made both morning and euening. At night all the ordnance in the town and forts were discharged, and the souldiers vpon the rampiers thun­dred forth many volleys of small shot, so that nothing could bee heard in the towne for the noice of trumpets, drums and bels. They which had no harquebuzes fastened wispes of straw to the end of their pikes which they did set on fire holding them vp into the aire, so as the towne and forts seemed to burne: for beside the fire which the souldiers made, others were kindled on the Rampiers and in the towne. The souldiers cried out to the Spaniards how that the Spanish fleet was comming to helpe them to win the North fort: & euer after the enemie began to lose his courage.

A certaine boat laden with corne, thinking to enter the Hauen [Page 104] was by the wind driuen vpon the North head: the enemie shot at this boat, and toucht it thrice, yet no man was hurt, and at last by the mariners diligence it was brought into the towne. Euerie day there were skirmishes, and euerie houre some new matter or other was performed in the plaine betwixt the town and enemies camp: But the Burghers being tired with continuall labour, complained saying that they could doe no more; whereupon, gouernor Mor­gan aduised the magistrats to impose some tax vpon euery Burgher, and with the money hire labourers to end the worke. The Burgo­master Manteau assembled the great Councell, and propounded to them the gouernours demaund. This great Councell is compo­sed of the new Councell, viz. of the Magistrats then in authoritie, and of the old, namely, of such as haue beene Burgomasters, She­rifes, receiuers, and counsellers chosen out of euery companie, who haue a place in this great Councell. The Gouernours demand was allowed, and the Burghers were discharged from their labour, and the worke which was imperfect, was within a while finished.

There was great want of planks, so as they were enforced to teare vp diuers new floares to serue for the workes, which, after the siege, the towne paid for. But this want, together with that of other neces­saries being not fully supplied, the Burghomaster Sudland was on the sixe and twentieth of October sent into Holland, not onely to my Lords the States, but to the magistrats of the town of Dort, who during the siege, shewed themselues verie affectionat to the good of the towne. Certaine Scots lay in a Burghers house called Iohn Dyalle, who among other things fit to burne, pluckt vp a piece of timber called a summer which supported the whole frame, where­upon the whole house fell downe vpon them, and slew 3 of them: thereupon, proclamation was made on paine of life, that no souldi­er should breake vp any timber in any house.

On the Rampiers of the towne and forts, pitch barrels full of chips and straw were placed, to giue light if the enemie should in the night make any attempt vpon the towne. The seuen and twen­tieth of October the great bell was rung to publish the Faire or free Mart, not in hope that many people would come to it, but because the towne is bound so to doe for feare of loosing the priuiledge of the Mart. During this time, which continued sixe weekes, all fugi­tiues may boldly come thither (traitors, theeues, and banished men excepted:) and no man is called in question for debt, but onely for [Page 105] that which he shall fall into during the Mart. The day following, his Excellencie came into the towne, by his presence to encourage the souldiers and Burghers to view the fortifications, and to take order for all necessaries belonging to the siege. The same day, the imposition heretofore mentioned was much raised, which did in no sort please the Burghers: who vnderstanding that my Lords the States were come into the Isle of Tholen, sent the Burgo­master Manteau, and William Frauncis the old Burgomaster to them; these at tenne of clocke at night went in the companie of his Excellencies seruants to Venusdam, and preuailed so farre with my Lords the States as they promised to giue them three thou­sand florins towards the fortification of Berghen, and they recey­ued one thousand eight hundred in hand. The morrow after the Burgomasters departure, the enemie forsooke the causie of Matte­berg. Those of the Island perceiuing it, did without any noyce set fire on the enemies campe. The time was not long ere the e­nemie would be enforced with great disgrace and losse to retire: For despairing to take the towne he could expect no lesse, but to haue his campe ruined by little and little, with continuall sallies, canon shot from the towne, raine, foule weather, and sicknesse which ensued:The enemie for­sakes the North land causie and prepares to be gone. whereupon, on the thirtieth of October, hee for­sooke the Northland causie. Those of the Gueux Gullet were the first that perceiued his departure, and came with their boats to their causie, where they found none but one Alman who was fast a sleepe, who beeing awaked and perceiuing his fellowes to be gone, fell vpon his knees and sued for his life: then did our men presently breake the bridge ouer the Gullet of Dryanneland.

Vpon the thirtieth or one and thirtieth of October, at night, the enemie with fourteene great shalops went to Sea-ward to see if they could take any bootie, yet they took nothing but a poore fisherman of Romerswael, & about noone returned from whence they came; our men of warre though they were vndersaile could not ouertake them, for they still kept in the shallowest waters. His Excellencie, Count Solms, my Lords, Barne [...]velt, Egmont, Valck, Vosbergue, and diuers others did the same day come to the Towne: The souldiers, that they might shew their valours to the sayd Lords, made a fallie forth of the North side of the Towne, but in vayne, because the enemie would not come forth.

[Page 106]The Burghers Fort was not yet ended. The mony before men­tioned being graunted by my Lords the States, the imposition was lessened and certaine Boores hired to end the worke. Our men planted two canons on a certaine place called Boeten-verdriet, with which they scoured the valley betwixt the high and nether Northgeest, and shot into the enemies Campe, so as sometimes with one shot, they ouerthrew tents, barrels of wine [...], tunnes of Beere, and men all at once: The enemie to redresse this inconueni­ence made many Gabions in the valley, but to small purpose. In the meane time, a rumour was spred that the enemie had made a Mine from Holweghen, as farre as the towne Dike, to blow vp part there­of; and though most men thought it a vaine and idle reeport, yet, because the water in the South Dike was on the sixt of Nouember fallen one foot, this fable was receiued for truth. The Lord Wil­loughby with two or three other went directly to Holweghen: this way is so low, as a man from thence can scarce discerne the top of a pike, notwithstanding that he that carries it should aduaunce it as high as he could: and although the enemie was not far from them vpon S. Gertrudes mount, yet the lord Willoughbie wold not return ere he had from aboue wel viewed and considered the depth of that way, where he found no markes or signes of any Mine.

The ninth of Nouember the Earle of Northumberland and ge­nerall Norris came from England with a gallant traine of gentle­men: At their arriuall all the ordnance great and small was dis­charged, and the great Bell was rung: The Earle came to see the Low-countries and Berghen-op-Zoom: Generall Norris was by her Majestie sent to my Lords the States to procure some aid for D. Antonio King of Portugal; for the Queene prepared a mightie fleet to re-establish D. Antonio in his kingdome, from whence he had beene expulsed by the Spaniards.A skirmish with the enemie. Vchtenbroeck with fiue or sixe horse galoped forth of the gates towards the Sautwech before the enemies campe and there tooke two horse­men prisoners, and a victualler with a waggon laden with beere, who in despite of the enemie, and before his face they brought to the Towne. And to giue some delight to the Earle, the English did the next day determine to make a sallie; the footmen sal­lied vpon the enemies campe by the Mine at the powder gate, for in hast they had made a Bridge ouer the Dike: These at Holwe­ghen did skirmish with the Italians that lay vpon Saint Gertrudes [Page 107] mount: the horse sallied at Wouwe gate. Parker stayed vpon Wijngaert hill, and Poolie in the plaine towards Bourghvliet: The brethren Bacx were not there, for they had no warning of the sallie. The Almans which were encamped on the Rabergh came downe into the plaine at the foot of the hill, and made a stand not farre from Wijngaerts hill, many retired behind the hedges and bushes, others allured our men to come forward. Captaine Veer, with some thirtie souldiers, driues away the Al­mans from their place of aduauntage, Parker assailes and pursues them as farre as the Rabergh, and suffereth few of them to escape.

A young Gentleman, Captaine of a foot companie, beeing on horsebacke, and charging together with Parker, was taken prisoner, being carried by the furie of his horse into the middest of the e­nemies campe, and was afterwards exchanged for D. Iuan de Men­doza, both of them being almost of one age: All prisoners that were taken did constantly affirme that the Duke of Parma determined to raise the siege.

On the eleuenth of Nouember, a generall sallie was made on Steenberghens side by all the horse and foot, some few excepted, who here and there garded the gates and the Rampiers. Generall Balfort with sixe hundred choyce souldiers, both Dutch & Scotch, came thither at the same time from Tholen. Captain Veer conducted the free booters that were to begin the skirmish. Captaine Marce­lis Bacx with his harquebuziers marched directly towards the ene­mies camp. Balfort embattailed his troops on the highway of Steen­berghen. Those of the towne stood in the plaine on the right hand of that highway towards the West. The Lanciers went somewhat on the one side towards the Sand-Wegh. The footmen which went before with captaine Veer, shot furiously vpon the enemies, who shewed himselfe open aboue from their fortifications. Certaine of the enemies horse made a braue sallie, and were as brauely salu­ted with small shot, and forthwith enforced to returne to their campe, with losse of some of their horse. In this manner was the time spent, the enemie still continuing himselfe in his trenches which were too strong for vs to breake into. Our men retur­ned into the Towne, thinking they had woon honour enough, in that for two houres space they had dared the enemie to fight, and in a manner halfe assayled their Campe. Of Captaine Veers souldiers, foure were slayne, and 12 hurt with the enemies shot. [Page 108] On the twelfth of Nouember,The Duke of Parma raiseth his siege from before Berghen. the enemie did set fire on the North part of the campe; he likewise burnt the castle of Halteren, and the next day, about tenne of the clocke before noone, they depart from Riselberg and Northgeest, where they stood a long time in battaile till their lodgings were burnt and their bag­gage carried away to the Southward. In their march nothing was seen but their ensigns tops by reason of the said hils. But comming nere the Ball, on the high way called Habergue, which leads into Berghen wood, there they discouered themselues openly. There were they grieuously tormented by the canon from the rampier of the woodden gate. It was delightfull to behold how their battaile was broken at euerie shot our canon made, so as at last they were enforced to breake their order, and to diuide themselues. All the night following nothing was heard but the noice of drummes and trumpets to fauour the retreat of the wagoners which brought a­way the baggage. Before day breake, the campe towards the South was likewise seene all on fire, & the enemie retired towards Calm­thoudt, placing sentinels on diuers hils to giue them intelligence if the townesmen sallied forth.

Willoughbie pursues the enemie.So soone as it was day, the Lord Willoughbie went forth at Wou­we gate with one and twentie ensigne on foot, and all the caualle­rie, taking two falconets along with him. The enemies sentinels seeing this, doe presently retire: our men doe speedily seaze on the enemies trenches and campe: the fanterie makes a stand on the Raberg, the cauallerie galops after the enemie, and fell in vpon the rereward, mocking & scoffing them to prouoke them to fight. But al this being in vain, they returned: for it was enough for them to haue reproched the base retreat of so great a Kings campe, which was no better than a manifest flight: some straungers that were found in the campe were slain, two or three women excepted whose liues were saued.

The Lord Willoughbie assembled all the horse and foot compa­nies, captaine Marcellis Bacx excepted, who was absent pursuing the enemie with part of the cauallerie, whom he sent to seeke, in­tending to honour him among the rest for his valour. But being not found, and the intended ceremonie not to be delayed, because he would performe it in the enemies view, the Lord Generall tur­ned towards Veer, Knollis, Parker and Poolie his countriemen, and likewise towards captaine Paule Bacx, a Dutchman, speaking thus [Page 109] vnto them: Seeing it is an auntient and laudable vse, The Lord Wil­loughbie honou­reth the Cap­taines with the order of knight­hood. that those who haue behaued themselues valiantly in the warres, should receiue some acknowledgement of their valour, and for that mine owne eyes are wit­nesse of your prowesse, whereof I take the enemie to witnesse, who hath often, to his great losse, made triall what souldiers you are, Our illustrious Ladie the Queenes Maiestie of England (whose Lieutenant Generall I am, and whose commaundement I will now performe) doth honour each of you with the order of knighthood; and touching all of them gently with his sword vpon their shoulders, he sayd, Receiue from her Maiestie this remembrance of her good will and affection, which all of you by your valour haue deserued.

The Burghers and souldiers, men and women, young and old, went forth of the gates, and stroue who should run first into the enemies campe, visiting whatsoeuer they found there, and with admiration beheld the greatnesse of the campes circuit, the workemanship thereof, and euerie man got his bootie: for the e­nemie had left behind him, shouels, picke-axes, wagons, tunnes, muskets, harquebuses, pikes, armour, and all sorts of other proui­sions. The souldiers and poore townesmeen found wood enough to burne all winter: for the props & boords of their lodging were onely a little burnt on the out side.

The whole towne greatly rejoyced for this suddaine and vnlookt for departure of the enemie.The townesmen giue thankes to God for their deliuerance. And because it is the duetie of all good Christians to attribute the honor of all benefits to him from whom they receiue them, the sixteenth of Nouember, publique thankes was giuen vnto God for so great a deliuerance, prayers were likewise made for the prosperitie of the Church and Towne. That done, the magistrats thought good to proclaime from the towne-house, that the thirteenth of Nouember should yearely be kept holie-day, because the enemie on that day retired. At night bonefires were made. Nothing could be heard but the report of canons and small shot, sounds of drummes, trumpets and bels, and joyfull acclamations. In euerie street, and on the Rampiers, pitch barrels were burnt, and no place was free from fire workes cast vp into the ayre.

The towne made a great feast, whereunto the Lord Willoughbie, gouernour Morgan, Captaines, old magistrats, and the chiefe Bur­ghers were inuited. In a word, nothing was foregotten which was vsuall in feasts and publique triumphs. The towne did afterwards [Page 110] bestow on the Captaines great square pieces of gold, which the townes armes stampt in them, and the names to whom they were giuen, with the causes whie.

This is the true description of the whole siege, together with the sallies and other occurrents which happened during that time, and lastly, the Duke of Parmas retreat from before Berghen-op-Zoom, as it was set downe by Iacob Baselis, the younger, and imprinted in the said towne in Anno 1603.

The Towne of Tilemont in Brabant, taken and sackt.

HAuing hitherunto made a perfect description of the siege of Berghen-op-Zoom, and how the enemie raised his campe from before it; we are now to set downe the valorous acti­ons of certaine souldiers of the Garrison of Berghen, done in the yeare 1588.

The States Garrisons, and those of his Excellencie Prince Mau­rice of Nassau, lying on the frontiers, did the same yeare make sun­drie incursions into the enemies countrie, doing much harme by fetching in contribution, defeating conuois, and other such like hostile actions. Among those exploits which deserue most com­mendation, the surprisall and taking of the towne of Tilemont is to be reckoned.The situation of the towne of Tilemont. Tilemont is scituat in the Duchie of Brabant, nere to a small riuer called Geert, some 3 leagues distant from Louain and S. Tron. It is a great and spacious towne, famous in former time for trade of merchandize, as yet appeares by sundrie aunti­ent writings.By whom, how, and after what manner, Tile­mont was sur­prised. A certaine Serjeant of a band with an hundred foot, together with nine horse of Bacx his companie, which lay in Ber­ghen, had made an attempt vpon Borchloon, though with bad suc­cesse: yet being vnwilling to returne without executing some no­table exploit, they went forward through a great troope of enemies, & marched directly to the towne of Tilemont wherein were fiue or sixe ensignes of Spaniards. Notwithstanding all these forces, and that the towne was great and large, they found meanes to enter it, where they expulsed the Spaniards, tooke three ensigns from them, and carried away with them as much pillage as they could beare, [Page 111] and so left the towne. The enemie hauing notice hereof, did with foure hundred men attend their returne. Our men brauely resol­uing not to loose their bootie, did by force passe through the mid­dest of them, and with their spoile returned safe to Berghen; a matter almost incredible, and yet verie true, which braue and reso­lute souldiers should neuer forget, but still striue to imitate.

The Garrisons of Heusden and Geertrudenberg did the like with eight hundred men both horse and foot,The garrisons of He [...]sden and Geertruden­berg beat [...] enemie were to Tilbourg. euerie horseman ta­king vp a footman behind him, and in that manner went to Til­bourg nere to Boisleduc where part of the Duke of Parmas forces lay, whom they dislodged, and slew many of them, the rest fled to a Church, whom our men durst no longer pursue, fearing the Garri­sons nere adjoyning, and so with their bootie returned home.

About the same time,Certain souldi­ers of Zeland defeat a country in Flaunders. threescore and tenne souldiers, that lay in Zeland, went ouer into Flaunders, & there defeated the conuoy of Courtray strengthened with a troope of twentie horse, beside the foot, together with thirtie merchants on horsebacke, and hauing gooten a rich bootie, returned home to their garrisons.

¶ A true description of the towne and countrie of Breda in Bra­bant, together with the admirable taking thereof on the 4 of March, Anno 1590.

BEfore we come to the taking of Breda, it shall not be imperti­nent briefely to set downe the situation thereof. Breda next to the foure chiefe cities of Brabant, is among others one of the principall, hauing the same franchises as the townes of Tilemont, Louvain, and Niuelle. It stands in the land of Kempen, eight miles from Antuerpe, sixe from Boisleduc or Sertoghenbusk, sixe from Berghen-op-Zoom, and two from Geertrudenberg, in a plaine a­bounding with corne, the fields and medowes beeing inuironed with trees, and the countrie wood die: there are some woods, as Vl­peu, the New wood, and the wood of Lies, through which two small riuers runne, which emptie themselues into the Dikes of Haeghdijck, and runne vnder a water Mill into the towne. One of these two riuers will beare boats beyond Ginneken, and towards Hoochstrate it is called the Aa, within, & below Breda, the Mercke. [Page 112] We find in auntient Registers that the Danes possest and dwelt in a certaine Fort or Castle, which by permission of the Lord of the Countrie of Breda, they builded in the Crowes wood, where He­rons doe now breed. Henrie, Lord of Breda, assisted by the Lord of Weesmaell and the Marshall of Brabant, vpon some controuer­sie tooke that castle and wholly raced it in Anno 1124.

There are in it diuers goodly houses belonging to Gentlemen, a verie beautifull Church, on the North side whereof the Counts of Nassau haue built a goodly Chappell, wherein is a stately monu­ment of Renatus of Chalon: and in a vault vnderneath it the Tombes of the auntient Lords of Breda, of Count Engetbrecht, Count Henrie, and of the aboue mentioned Renatus.

The towne of Breda is of a reasonable bignesse, and beautifull structure, yet in former time it hath been much disfigured by fire, for in anno 1534 on the 23 of Iulie, a thousand houses were burnt downe to the ground. And because it was the chiefe abode of those of the house of Nassau, they haue beautified it with many goodly buildings, as especially, Count Henrie of Nassau, who was a braue and valiant Lord; he caused the towne to be fortified with large Rampiers, and in anno 1534 both in the Castle and round about the towne he caused fiue great bulwarkes to be made, which de­fended one another, together with verie deepe dikes.

During these warres, foure rauelins more haue beene made, and before euerie gate, an halfe moone, so as this towne, among those of the low or plaine Countrie is held one of the strongest in all the Netherlands. In former time, after the racing of the aboue mentioned Castle, the Lords of Breda opposit thereunto, nere to the Market place, at this day called the Herons nest, began to build a Palace and Castle where Count Henrie of Nassau afterwards (suffering part of the old building to stand stil) caused a new court and stately Palace to be built, moated round about, and without that, a verie sumptuous edifice with a verie lordlie gallerie, suppor­ted by pillers of blew stone, with a gilded frontispice: within the Court are many goodlie Chambers, a large and stately Hall buil­ded on Pillars, with an artificiall winding staires of blew stone, which cunning workemen hold for a master-piece: in the Hall there is likewise a Chappell. There is a verie goodlie Armorie sto­red with all sorts of Armour, and much ordnance, and among o­thers, diuers old cast pieces, which a king of Hungarie had in time [Page 113] past giuen to the house of Nassau in recompence of their good seruice done to him against the Turke. There were in it likewise 52 great canons and small field pieces, which the Emperour Ferdinand gaue to the last prince and Lord of Breda, which since then, haue beene taken away by Duke d'Alua.

Among the most remarkable matters of Breda, as well aunti­ent as moderne, these are much to be obserued, How that the lord and countrie of Breda (in time past a Lord and countrie diuided from the Duchie of Brabant) hath beene joyned to the said Du­chie in the time of Henrie of Lorraine &c. And the Lord Godfrey of Breda, who, in an' 1212, hauing receiued of the said Duke the moi­tie of the custome of the Sheld in Fee, together with Shakeloo and Ossendrecht, did likewise promise to his Lord that himselfe and heires with their castles countrie and people shold faithfully serue the Duke and his heires.

In this manner,The Lord Ge­rard of Ras­singem [...]old the Lordship of Bre­da to the Duke of Brabant in anno 1326. The Lord of Po­lanen buyes Breda in anno 13 [...]1. on the first of Aprill. A piece of coine so called. the Monday after S. Valenties day, the lord Gerard of Rassingem Liedekerk & Lens, hauing sold the Lordship & possessions of the whole countrie of Breda with the appurtenances to Duke Iohn of Brabant, the said duke Iohn by con­sent of his son Godeuart, and his eldest daughter Ioan Countesse of Haynault and Holland, did againe, on the first day of Aprill 1351, sell the said countrie of Breda with the appurtenances to the Lord Iohn of Polanen, the yonger, Lord of la Lecke, to enjoy it as his law­full inheritance for the summe of 3400 Hallinghen.

Breda is the chiefest Towne of the Countrie,The Priuiledges of the [...]ountrie of Breda. and among other priuiledges and iurisdictions hath an Exchequer or Court fiscall which is common and vndiuided, whereunto, the towne of Steen­berghen, and the sixteene Villages of the Countrie of Breda, with those of Eyckeren, Mercxem, Schoten, Loehout and Oostmaell make their appeales. And beside the sayd Court, there is a seat of Iustice belonging to a Sherife, before whom vpon the first sum­mons the Burghers and inhabitants are to appeare, together with those of Tettering, Molongracht, Sandberg, Vijfhuyse, and the Haegh-strate. None may appeale from the sentence giuen in either of these Courts to any other Court of justice. They haue held this priuiledge in our time. For in the daies of the Emperor Charles the 5 the said emperor only in stead of this priuiledge, granted to those of Breda the same priuiledge as other chief towns had, viz that sen­tences giuen at Breda, might be reformed, but not appealed from. [Page 114] How, and when, those of the house of Nassau obtained the lordship of Breda, doth hereafter follow.

Engelbrecht Count of Nassau marrie [...] [...] heir [...] b [...]a­n [...]n, [...] Breda [...] 141 [...].The aboue mentioned Lord, Iohn of Polanen, died in the yeare 1377, & left a son named Iohn, Lord of Lecke and Breda, who left a daughter named Ioan married to Engelbrecht Count of Nassau, in an̄ 1414 he died, & left a son called Iohn, Count of Nassau, Dietz, and Vianden who was Lord of Breda, & died in the yere 1475, leauing by his wife Marie Countesse of Loon, heire to Heinsberg, & to a 3 part of the Duchie of Iuliers, [...] of the lands of [...] house of Nassau Engelbrecht & Iohn, brethren, who di­uided the lands left thē by their parents, so as the eldest son Count Engelbrecht had for his part all the lands which were in the Low-countries on this side the Rhyne, viz. the countie of Vianden, the Lordships of S. Vijts, of Dudeldorp, and Mijllen, with all the lands in Brabant, Holland, & in the country of Liege, wherein were com­prehended the Countrie and Towne of Breda: and Earle Iohn had for his share all the countries and Lordships beyond the Rhyn, the countries of Nassau and Dietz; and by his wife, Catsenelle boguen, which was adiudged his in anno 1548. This diuision was made in this condition, that the male children should be heires to both of them, the better to vphold the house of Nassau from whence they were descended.

In this maner the town and countrie of Breda was peaceably go­uerned by their Lords the Counts of Nassau for the space of 184 yeres, flourishing in traffick vntill the 11 of Aprill 1567, when the Prince of Orange was enforced, by the Duke of Aluas comming, in great sorrow and perplexitie to abandon his subjects of Breda, & to retire into Germanie, and after his departure, the reuenues of Breda, being seazed on by the duke d'Alua, the said country & town was brought vnder the wretched gouernement of the Spaniards, and afflicted with sundrie garrisons, till that in anno 1577 the town of Breda returned againe vnder the gouernement of his lawfull Lord, and so continued for the space of 4 yeares, and being after­wards taken by the prince of Parma 1581, he kept it til the yere 1590.

We will now set downe after what maner, by Gods assistance, it was freed from the Spanish yoke. The prince of Parma & al the for­ces, being in the yere 1590 busied in the French wars, wherby his v­nited Prouinces had some rest, my Lords the States laid hold on this occasion, and by valorous dexteritie tooke the towne and castle of Breda in manner following.

[Page 115]Count Philip of Nassau gouernor at that time of Worcum,An attempt pro­pounded vpon Breda. and Louvesteyn, had by Prince Maurice his aduice, conferred with a certaine Gentleman of Cambray, called Charles Herauguieres, Cap­tain of a foot companie, about an enterprise vpon the castle & town of Breda, telling him that diuers mariners vassals to the country of Breda and house of Nassau, for loue & affection to their lord had offered their seruice herein, they being accustomed to carie turfe & wood into the castle, & vnder that color fit to make some attempt.

This was propounded to Herauguieres, who hauing well consi­dered all daungers, did, towards the later end of Februarie, goe to the Hague to Prince Maurice, where they resolued, with a certain fellow called Adrian of Berghen (that was woont to carie turfes in­to the castle) to vndertake the matter. Hereupon, Herauguieres was sent to the Lord Iohn Oldenbarneveldt, Aduocat of Holland, who conferred with him not onely concerning mony and things neces­sarie for the enterprise, but how to prouide for and keep the town, being once taken.The enterprise is resolued. Herauguieres gaue order to the shipper to make readie his boat, which was deep & flat & lay in a Dorp called Leure, a mile from Breda, that he might conuey 70 men into her. Round about and on the vpper part of the boat, rewes of Turfe like bricke were orderly placed of a good height.

Being thus prepared, they resolued to execute the enterprise on the 25 of Februarie, but the frost hindred them certaine daies, not without great daunger of being discouered.

For the execution of this enterprise, Herauguieres had chosen sixteene of Count Philips souldiers vnder the commaund of Cap­taine Iohn Logier, of Mons. de Famas souldiers that lay at Heus­den commaunded by Captaine Iohn Fernet, sixteene, two and twentie souldiers of Mons. de Liers, which lay at Klundert com­maunded by his Lieutenant Mathew Helt, and 24 of his own com­panie commanded by Gerard Preys, all yong men bold and reso­lute, Herauguieres thought to haue imbarked himselfe and men the same night, but he could not meet with the shipper, whereupon in despaire he would haue burnt the boat for feare of being discoue­red. But at last withdrawing himselfe, he returned the next night hauing aduertised Prince Maurice thereof, who with his souldiers in boats lay at Klundert. On Monday, the 26 of Februarie, at night, they entred the Boat and remayned in it till Thursday Morning, not beeing able to goe backward or forward by reason [Page 116] of the frost and a contrary wind, enduring extreame cold, and wan­ting victuals, not being prouided for any long time, so as they were enforced, in the night, to leaue the boat and to retire to Nordam. Herauguieres was enforced to endure many murmuring speeches of his souldiers, but by faire words and his owne example he ap­peased them, propounding daunger and shame, profit and honor to them, and thereby caused them to resolue to vndergoe all daun­ger with him.

Hauing well refresht themselues one whole day in the Fort of Nordam, on Thursday, the first of March, at night, they returned to the boat, staying within a quarter of a mile of Breda, and in this manner continued from Friday till Saturday Morning at tenne of the clocke, before the Herons wood nere to the Castle, where the boat went on ground, so as they were enforced to tarrie till an high water. During their abode there, the boat tooke in a leake, through which the water entred in such abundance as the souldiers stood vp to the knees in it, which had like to haue killed them all: being come into the enclosure of the Castle (the which so soone as the boat entred was shut after them) the leake miraculously stopt of it selfe.

Whilest they lay there, a Corporall came to search the boat, where finding nothing he went his way, and by Gods special pro­uidence, the souldiers coughed not, and yet many of them were so hoarse as they could hardly refraine from it.A generous act of Math Helt. Among others, Lieu­tenant Mathew Helt was so tormented with the cough, as fearing thereby least the enterprise would be discouered, he drew forth his ponyard intending to haue slaine himselfe.

The souldiers imitating the Troyans, drew in their owne ruine.The third of March, in the afternoone, at high water, the castles sluce was opened, so as the boat entred, and because the yce hin­dred and stopt it, the Italian souldiers did helpe to draw it, as the Troyans did the Greekes woodden horse. Beeing thus entred, the Serjeant Major, about euening, commaunded that turfes should be distributed to the Courts of gard, which was done, so as in a short space so great a quantitie of them was carried away, as the decke began to lie bare; this did greatly a­flict them in the boat. But the shipper, being a craftie fellow, per­ceiuing that all the Corps du gard were furnished, and pretending wearinesse, gaue money to his mate to goe and drinke with the porters, not meaning to vnlade any more till the next day; and in [Page 117] deed, the Serjeant Major had commaunded him (hauing some suspition that his Excellencie was about some enterprise) to go lie in the towne: whereupon, he went forth and aduertised Prince Maurice thereof. Some cunning spies had made the gouernor Lan­savecia beleeue that Prince Maurice determined to make an at­tempt vpon Geertrudenberg, and thereupon, he went thither with corne and other prouisions. Night being come, the watch set, and all things quiet, the other shipper to drowne the noyce which the souldiers made in the boat, did often plie the pumpe as though it had receiued a great leake by reason of the yce, thus beguiling them till towards midnight.

Now the time being come,After what ma­ner they assai­led the Castle. namely, about eleuen of the clocke at night, Herauguieres in Gods name exhorted his souldiers to be­gin their enterprise, commaunding the shipper still to plie the pumpe whilest he vnshipt his men, whom he diuided into two troopes, the one vnder the conduct of Captaines Lambert and Fre­net, commaunding them to march to the South-West part of the Hauen, and himselfe with the rest went along by the store-house towards the Gard that were at the gate which openeth into the Towne. Marching in this manner before his people, he met with an Italian souldier, vnto whose demaunds he gaue none aunswer, but tooke him by the throat, willing him to hold his peace, d [...] ­maunding of him how strong the Garrison was, who told him that there were three hundred and fiftie men in all, but he percei­uing his deceit, told him that he knew verie well that there were but fiftie men in it, and though there should be many moe, it now behoued them to fight, and so marched towards the Sentinell, who askt, Qui vala, but Herauguieres making no answer struck him through the body with an half pike, whereupon the alarm was giuen for those of the gard and round began to make resistance and to defend themselues in the Corps du gard, only an ensigne came forth and assayled Herauguieres whom he hurt in the arme, yet was by him beaten downe to the ground: he commaunded his soldiers to shoot at the gate and windowes, so, as they that were within beg­ged their liues, which in so important and dangerous a season was denied.

The alarme by this time was come to Paulo Antonio Lansavecia Lieutenant to his father;The Castle is taken. the enemie was beaten into the middle part of the Castle, which was strongly garded, from whence they [Page 118] sallied, where sixe and thirtie of Paulo Antonio his men were slaine, so as they were enforced to reenter: Fernet was likewise hurt.

Th'alarme was likewise giuen in the towne, and some began to set fire on the Castle gate, notwithstanding that Herauguieres play­ed vpon them with his shot. The place being made good, he went with his soldiers to another Corps du gard, nere to the Castles great plat-forme, where sixteene souldiers more made some resistance, who were all slaine.

His Excellen­cie entreth the Castle.This done, and a signall giuen, Count Hohenlo, two houres af­ter, came to the Castle with his Excellencies vangard, but because the vttermost gate of the Castle could not be opened by reason of the yce, his suoldiers entred nere to the Sluce by breaking down a pallisado. Hohenlo being entred, young Lansauecia made an accord with him to go his way himself & soldiers with their liues. Within a while after, Prince Maurice and his souldiers both horse and foot arriued, and with him the Earles Philip of Nassau and Solms, Sir Fraucis Veer who commanded the English, the Admiral Iustinus of Nassau, the Lords of Famas, Verdoes, and other Captaines.

The town yeelds to his Excellen­cie.And as Count Hohenlo had exhorted the Burghers to returne to the obedience of their auncient Lord, and Prince Maurice had gi­uen order to enter the towne at two gates, they sent a drumme, who craued leaue that some of the Burgomasters might come and par­ley, who in lesse than an houres space made an accord that the Bur­ghers should redeeme themselues from spoile, by paying two mo­neths wages to the souldiers, the summe amounting to 97074 flo­rins. In this manner, their armes being throwne downe, Prince Maurice sent the Lord Vander-Noot, Captaine of his gard, to seaze vpon the State-house and other places.

The same night that the first alarme was giuen in the Castle, the Marquis of Guasto, his horse companie, and fiue other ensignes of Italians being affrighted, did in disorder breake downe a gate, and basely fled forth of the towne, notwithstanding that the Burghers, who feared the spoile of their goods, promised them all ayd and assistance, if they would tarrie and defend it; but in vaine. This was a great disgrace to so noble a Nation; which the Prince of Par­ma reuenged, by reproaching the Spaniards, some of whom he im­prisoned, and beheaded certaine captaines, & among others Caesar Guitra, Iulio Gratiauo, Guastos Lieutenant, whose name was Tur­lantino, and the corporall, who had so slenderly searcht the boat.

[Page 119]The towne and castle of Breda were miraculously taken, with­out any great losse of bloud, one onely man being lost, who by reason of the darkenesse, fell into the water and was drowned: of the garrison in the castle, fortie were slaine.

For this victorie, all the vnited prouinces and townes, gaue pub­lique thankes vnto God in their Churches, made bonefires, and in memorie thereof, coyned pieces of gold, siluer, and copper, with this superscription on the one side, how that the towne of Breda had beene on the fourth of March 1590, freed from the Spanish bondage by the conduct of Prince Maurice of Nassau; and on the other side was the Dike, with the turfe boat, which carried the soul­diers, with this circumscription, Readie to win, or die, and then, The reward of an inuincible courage.

Prince Maurice, by the consent of my Lords the States, gaue the gouernement of the Towne, Castle, and Countrie of Breda to cap­taine Herauguieres, with ample commaund: to Captaine Lambert Charles, the office of Serjeant Major, and to other particular Cap­tains and soldiers, some of the sayd pieces, or med [...]ls in pure gold, with sums of money, with promise of aduauncement according to euerie mans qualitie and merit; the shippers were likewise aduan­ced and well rewarded.

The towne was forthwith prouided for, according to the Lord of Oldenbbarvelts direction, with all kind of muni [...]ion and vi­ctuals from Holland for a yeare and a halfe, and before ten dayes were expired, foure hundred horse, and twelue ensignes of foot were sent to lie in Garrison in the towne, the Burghers were like­wise diuided into fiue companies to keepe good watch. And in this manner by Gods assistance, the towne is till now preserued from the enemie.

¶ Count Mansfelt batters and assaults the Fort of Nordam, and is brauely beaten thence on the 14 of May 1590.

THe Duke of Parma perceiuing that his Excellencie of Nassau had by a cunning surprisall taken the Towne of Breda from him,The Duke of Parma sends Count Mans­felt against Breda. did, for auoyding a greater mischiefe, before March [Page 120] was expired, said Count Charles of Mansfelt with 40000 men to­wards Breda, to hinder their incursions, and secure the Countrie, who presently seazed on all the places round about it, as Ooster­hout, Tering, and other townes, wherein he placed souldiers, hee likewise tooke Seuenberghen and other towns where he vsed great crueltie.Count Mansfelt makes a Fort at Terheyden. At Terheyden which is a village betwixt Seuenberghen and Breda, seated on a little riuer called the Mercke, he caused a great Fort to be built with a bridge ouer the riuer, thereby to keep victuals from Breda, and lay there encamped till the worke was en­ded, thinking thereby to oppresse Breda.

In May following he besiged the fort of Nordam, which my lords the States hold, nere to Seuenberghen, seated nere the water, com­maunded by Captaine Mathew Helt who was in the Turfe boat at the taking of Breda:Count Mansfelt doth in vav [...] b [...] and as­sault the Fort of Nordam. And the thirteenth and foureteenth of May the sayd Count Mansfelt battered it with seuen canon, made 1200 shot vpon it, and gaue a furious assault. They did likewise at ful Sea bring a great barke before the Fort, mand with good musketiers to anoy the defendants, they had bridges likewise wheron to martch to the assault. They twice assaulted it, and were still repulsed with the losse of two Italian Captaines, the one, named Horacio Fontano of Modena, and the other, Giouan Francisco Pageno a Neapolitan, with diuers others of name and marke. Six or seauen hundred of the enemie died there, for by often shooting they fired the barke, and as many as were in her were burnt, whereupon they were en­forced to retire, to the great commendation of Captaine Mathew Helt, who thereby purchased much honour.

The vnited Prouinces in the meane time had sent a small Armie into the field vnder the conduct of Prince Maurice and Count Ho­henlo, with which in May they went to a place called Ouer-Betuwe, or High-Betuwe, encamping right ouer against Nimmeguē, where they built a strong Fort on the banke of the Riuer Waell, the bet­ter to auoy the Towne: they did it likewise to diuert Count Mans­felt from Nordam, and to draw him forth of Brabant. But Mans­felt not thinking himselfe stong enough, came nere to Nimme­guen, and hauing intelligence that Prince Maurice his forces be­gan to make a Fort on the further side of the Waell nere to the State-house, he marched towards them with his canon, beating them thence, and ouerthrew the worke new begun; an afterwards, the better to prouide his armie of victuals, he went and encamped [Page 121] on the Mase in the Land of Cuyck: So as Prince Maurice tarried there all the Summer to finish his Fort, in view & danger of the ca­non of Nimmeguen, which with the help of Count Mansfelt plaid furiously vpon the towne.

Notwithstanding all these difficulties,Why the Fo [...] termed Kno [...] ­senbourg. the Fort was made de­fensiue towards the later end of Iulie, and was called Knodsen­bourg or Maces-bourg, in disdaine of those of Nimmeguen, called, Knodsendrages, which is as much to say as Mace-bea­rers; because the Burghers when any sedition is among them, car­ried a Mace before them in the strees. The Fort was furnished with all sorts of munition, ordnance and victuals for sixe mo­neths, and mand with fiue hundred men, vnder the command of Captaine Gerard the younger.

By this meanes they fortified themselues afterward in the Betuwe, extending their bounds as farre as Waell, inten­ding to force Nimmeguen. Prince Maurice placed Garrisons vp­on the Riuer Waell, from Bommell as farre as the Tol-house or Schenksskonce, lodging them by quarters to hinder the ene­mies passage, by the helpe of certaine boats of warre: For Mans­felt did daily fortifie himselfe in the Land of Cuyck, and see­med desirous to crosse the Waell, beeing thereunto earnestly solicited by those of Nimmeguen, who were much annoyed by the sayd Fort, beeing vnwilling to subj [...]ct themselues to a strong Garrison, which the Duke of Parma would haue gi­uen them.

The States did likewise cause a new strong causie to be made ouerthwart the lower Be [...]uwe, from the Rhyne as farre as Waell beneath Nimmeguen, and chiefely by the direction of the Ampt­man or Magistrat of Thyell, called Diderich Vijch, who was at the most charge, notwithstanding that my Lords the States of Holland contributed many thousand florins, thereby to preserue the lower Betuwe, as farre as beyond Dort against the inundation of the Rhyne when it swelleth aboue the bankes. In recompence of these exploits, those of Guelderland (as much of it as belongs to the vnited Prouinces) gaue to his Excellencie Prince Mau­rice the gouernement of the said countrie and townes.

¶ The taking of the Castle of Heel, Hemert, and the towne of Steen­berguen &c. in Anno 1590.

AFter that Count Charles of Mansfelt, with great losse was en­forced to abandon the Fort of Nordam: his Excellencie, a­bout the end of September, came into the field with a suffi­cient Armie; and on the 27 of the said moneth tooke the house or castle of Hemert, the forts of Elshout & Creuecaeur nere to a place called Engelen, after some small batterie and resistance.

That done, he went from thence into Bommeleerweert, and on the 3 of October tooke he house or castle of Heel, reducing it vn­der the States obedience: from thence he made hast to the new fort of Ter-heyden, which Count Mansfelt had made to bridle those of Breda; which, notwithstanding the strength thereof, was by the canon enforced to yeeld on the 11 of October. On the 26 of the said moneth, he went from thence towards Steenberghen, which being badly prouided of all necessaries, endured but 2 shot & then yeelded, 200 souldiers departing thence on cōposition: 300 men were sent to raise the siege, but Prince Maurice his cauallerie stopt their passage, and enforced them to retire to Wouwe castle, which was thereby much strengthened, but his Excellencie in the meane time tooke the fort of Rosendall.

After these sodain exploits done, in a moneths space prince Mau­rice embarked 3000 foot, & an 100 horse, and went into Flanders, intending some enterprise vpon Dunkirke, which hee thought to haue taken in the night, by Scalado. The enterprise had bin wel cō ­sidered by colonel Nicholas Metkerke, sonne to Adolph, president of Flanders, but a contrarie wind putting thē backe twice, the attempt was suspected, then afterwards discouered & hindred: yet, landing, Metkerke shewed Count Solms & Sir Francis Veer, the place where they thought to haue assaulted the town, which, whilest they heed­fully viewed, all 3 of them were hurt: this hapned on the 1 of No­uember: whereupon, they returned with a great bootie of cattel and other things.

The garrison of Ostend, some weeke before, had surprised the towne of Oldenbourg, mand with 400 souldiers, which they burnt and sackt, but they could not get the Cloister Tower: many other pettie exploits were done the same yere, which for breuity I omit.

The siege and taking of the Towne and Fort of Zutphen, done in May 1590.

BEfore we come to set downe the siege and taking of the towne of Zutphen, which is one of the chiefe townes of the Duchie of Guelderland, and yet a countie a part, seated nere the riuer Yssell, a mile and a halfe from Doesbourg, foure miles from Arn­ham, and six from Nimmeguen: we will briefely speake of the ta­king of the Castles of Turnholt and Westerloo, which were woon a little before, as a preparatiue to the sayd siege: As also the equi­page of boats, and other warlike prouisions necessarie for a siege.

The second of Aprill,The Castle of Turnholt ta­ken on the se­cond of Aprill. the Garrison of Breda with others tooke the Castle of Turnholt, therein, making vse of a victualler who was wont to bring beere thither: He, as his cart stood vpon the bridge, did thrust the Sentinel into the water, and slew another, & in the meane time, the souldiers which were hidden in an old burnt house, stept forth, killing the rest of the gard, and so tooke the Castle. In the beginning of May,Westerloo taken in May. they likewise tooke the Castle of Westerloo notwithstanding it was vnder contribution. The young Lord of Merode made his aboad there, who beeing one day gone on hunting, they layed hold on that occasion, and by that meanes did easily become masters thereof, finding it fit and commodious to reduce the rest of Brabant vnder contribution, and there to busie their enemies whilest themselues should be em­ployed elsewhere. At the beginning of August, they did cut off a rich Conuoy going from Brussels to Namur.

The States of the vnited Prouinces hauing now built their go­uernement on a strong and sure foundation, and so reckoned their contributions, impositions and reuenues, as they could for certaine moneths in the yeare encrease the number of their souldiers, defray the charges, and send them to the field prouided of all necessaries, and were thereby able to assaile the enemies, and to make an offensiue warre: So as all the Summer they made their prouisions of Canon, great numbers of Boats, Gabions, Bridges, Powder, Bullets, Tents and other such like necessa­ries.

[Page 124]To attend vpon the canon they made choice of skilfull mari­ners, finding those men fit to ship & vnship the ordnance, to plant and transport it, and vpon necessitie and want of horse to draw it with their hands through marshes and ouer causeis; and likewise to serue sometimes in stead of gunners.

The States did likwise send with their gouernor Generall prince Maurice as chiefe commaunder of the armie, certaine of the Coun­cell of State to assist him in all affaires, as the Venetians make vse of those whom they call Prouidatori: He had likewise a skilfull Councell of warre with all manner of officers requisit in an ar­mie. Their souldiers were voluntaries, well paied, skilfull, and readie, and though they were but few, yet for that time they made vse of their old forces, not raising new, thereby to giue no cause of suspitiō; but they were verie careful to haue their companies ful & compleat, and did earnestly intreat the Queene of England, That her ayd (according to the tenor of their contract) might not bee wanting, which was commaunded by Sir Frauncis Veer, a gentle­man of a noble house, a gallant souldier, and more fauoured of the Low-countries than all other strangers whatsoeuer.

Prince Maurice thus prepared, made shew as if he intended to besiege Sertoghenbusk or Geertrudenberg, sending many souldi­ers to Breda, and diuers boats vpon the Mase: which caused the Duke of Parma to giue the more credit to it, because (as hath been sayd) that the States had alreadie taken the Castles of Turneholt and Westerloo, as places of retreat, with diuers other signes; which made him likewise to fortifie the garrison of Geertrudenberg, and commaunded those of Sertoghenbusk to fortifie their towne, but they refusing to receiue a garrison, he fortified some waies nere ad­joyning.

Prince Maurice in the meane time had secretly sent certain soul­diers, vnder the conduct of Sir Francis Veer, towards Doesbourg, commaunding him to begin the enterprise, and himself went spee­dily to Vtrecht, and from thence to Rhene and Arnham, and there crossing the Veluwe, towards Zutphen.

The Fort of Zutphen taken on the 24. of May by coun­terfeit Boores.On the three and twentieth of May, nine souldiers were sent on the further side of Yssell towards the Fort of Zutphen, foure of them clad like Boores, and the other fiue like countrie women with butter, cheese and eggs. These, at the opening of the Ports stood before the Fort nere which a sufficient number of souldiers [Page 125] were hidden: So soone as the gate was opened, the greatest part of the souldiers who had watched that night came forth, and cros­sed the water to goe to the towne: These counterfeit Boores lea­ned vpon their staues, and they which were disguised like women sat vpon the ground, offering their commodities to the gard, who beheld them without any suspition, till one of the women drew forth a Pistoll and shot one of them, which done these counterfeits threw off their disguise, assailed the enemie, and seazed on the gate: The souldiers that were hid hauing heard the report of the Pistoll, ran speedily to the rescue of their fellowes, forced the gard and gate, and so tooke the Fort, taking twelue souldiers prisoners that remained behind: this was done on the 24 of May in the Mor­ning.

The Fort thus surprised, his Excellencie did not faile the next day to enuiron and besiege the towne of Zutphen. On the sixe and twentieth of the said moneth Count William of Nassau came thi­ther, and the seuen and twentieth they were busied in shutting in the towne, intrenching themselues and making a bridge ouer the Yssell. The eight and twentieth of May, eighteene great canon were planted in three seuerall places, with such speed and dexte­ritie as is almost incredible, all these were discharged thrice, which amounted to foure and fiftie shot. Then they sent to summon the Towne; the Burghers in their answer craued time to consult, which was denied, so as they sent two Captaines to craue three dayes respit to haue an aunswer from Verdugo the townes gouer­nour, this was likewise denied, and no time of consultation giuen them: whereupon, the same day beeing the 30 of May, they made an accord, viz. that the garrison should depart the same night with their ensignes, armes, and baggage, together with all Ecclesiasticall persons, and such Burghers as were willing to be gone had free libertie so to doe: Those which would tarrie, whether they were Clergie men or others, should enjoy the same benefit as the other inhabitants of the vnited Prouinces did. A Conuoy was giuen them as farre as Deuenter, with certain horse & wagon, which their Lieutenant Colonel obliged himselfe to send backe.Count Philip of Ouersteyn slaine before Zut­phen. Young Count Philip of Ouersteyn was slaine there at the beginning, as he appro­ched too nere the gate to take a prisoner. Those of the towne were dragging away his bodie, but it was taken from them by force, and honourably buried in Arnham according to his degree. He was a [Page 126] braue and gallant young Lord. This strong towne was taken on a sodaine, vnprouided of strong garrison, there being in all but sixe hundred men in it, the circuit whereof is verie large: For they thought themselues not able to defend so great a breach as so ma­ny canons would haue made; they did likewise want powder and victuals. Prince Maurice presently entred it, at the verie same time as Count Solms brought the companies of Zeland to him.

So short a time was spent in taking the Towne and Fort, as the news thereof was sooner heard, than that of the siege.

The siege and taking of the Towne of Deuenter, together with sundrie Forts and Castles in the Land of Groenin­guen, in Anno 1591.

SO soone as his Excellencie had taken the towne of Zutphen, stored it with all necessaries, and giuen order for the gouerne­ment thereof, he made hast to pursue his victorie, laying hold on so faire an occasion, so as the verie same night, he sent to begirt the towne of Deuenter, seated two miles from Zutphen, and foure from Zwoll, on the right side of the riuer Yssell. The Canon ac­cording to the vsuall celeritie was likewise shipt, and carried to Deuenter; the whole armie presently followed. His Excellencie made two bridges ouer the Yssell, and on both sides of the riuer planted eight and twentie canons; and hauing made some shot, he sent to summon the towne; but they within would not heare tell of yeelding: so as on the ninth of Iune the batterie began, which in a short space, had beaten downe a great quarter of the wall nere to the Key. This wall was double, and on the inside thereof was a thicke earthen Rampier. It being thus beaten downe, certain flat bottomed boats were sent into the Hauen, on which a Bridge was made to goe to the assault, for which, the English, Scots, and Dutch, were in readinesse, euerie Nation vnder his commaund, striuing who should march first. All things beeing readie, the Bridge proued too short, so as they could not continue the assault: Some that went forward gaue a furious assault to the breach, on which, Captaine Lamberts ensigne first leaped, and was there shot, [Page 127] Captaine Metkerks ensigne did the like,A variant act of Captaine Metkerks en­signe. and perceiuing that he was not followed, leaped backe with his colors in his left hand and sword in the right, and escaped with his owne ensigne, and that of the other who was shot.

In the towne, were seuen companies to defend the breach, on whom the canon often plaied, and did great hurt: The gouernour Count Harman of Bergue, lost an eye, and Captaine Muller stan­ding nere him had his head shot off. Colonel Nicholas Metkerke, sonne to the president of Flanders, a braue and valiant gentleman, was shot vpon the breach: he was much lamented, for the next day after the towne was taken he died, together with another captaine.

There likewise happened a matter worthie of note,A single com­bat betwixt the Lord of Ryhoue, and an Alba­nese before De­uenter. viz. a single combat betwixt two braue souldiers, one of them was Lewis of Cathulle, Lord of Ryhoue, borne in Gant, and the other a Gallant Albanese horseman, who comming forth of the towne, made a braue, and, like Goliah, dared any man to fight, asking if none durst breake a launce with him. His Excellencie commaunded that no man should aunswer him; but the Lord of Ryhoue being not able to endure his braues, entreated the Generall to giue him no leaue to abate his pride, who presently ran vpon him, & doing great matter with their launces, they proceeded to other weapons. The Albanese vnknown to Ryhoue had a pistol, who with his sword charged the Albanese, and did almost cut his hand off that held the Pistoll, which he let fall to the ground, & was by Ryhoue taken pri­soner. The Albanese, confessing himselfe vanquished, did put his chaine of gold vpon Ryhouens necke, and was afterwards set at libertie by his Excellencie, and sent backe to the Gouernour, ha­uing receiued a just guerdon for his pride and ouerweening.

Nothing being done that day, the morrow after, the bridges were made longer, and preparation made for the assault.Those of Deuen­ter craue parley Those of the town, thereupon, craued a parley of the Lord of Famas, Master of the Ordnance, who, asking them if they meant truely, graunted it: whereupon, they sent forth two Captaines, the one a Spaniard, and the other a Walon, and on our side, the Captaines Vander­Noot and Lenimp, were appointed to capitulate. The tenth of Iune, they agreed to deliuer vp the towne, after the same manner and on such conditions as those of Zutphen, and the soldiers, both horse and foot, departed with their armes and baggage. It is repor­ted that Count Harman, notwithstanding his hurt, would not con­sent [Page 128] to yeeld, but hauing lost many men, and wanting munition, he suffered himselfe to be persuaded by the bishop, especially when he had intelligence that Count Hohenlo leuied forces in Germanie. Prince Maurice gaue kind entertainement to his cousin, saluted him and caused him to be layed in his owne couch and carried towards Groenninguen, for they were brother and sisters children.

In this manner were the two strong townes, the chiefe of two Prouinces, taken in a short space with a small armie, wherein the wisedome of the commanders, & mightie prouision of ordnance, with the souldiers willingnesse,The bodie of Rowland Yorke is hung upon the gallowes. did greatly preuaile. The bodie of Rowland Yorke, who had betrayed Zutphen, was digged vp, and hung in the coffin vpon the gallowes.

His Excellencie departs from Deuenter.His Excellencie hauing taken Deuenter, & made it sure, did on the sixteenth of Iune goe with his armie towards Frize-land, with an hundred and fiftie boats, together with the ordnance. They pas­sed along before Enchuysen and Harlingue: And vnderstanding that Verdugo with forces waited for him at Steenwijc, hee went through the Land of Groenninguen, where first he encamped, but meeting with sundri edifficulties there,He takes Delf­zyll Skonse the 12. of Julie. he raised his campe and marched towards Delfzi [...]ll, which is a skonse seated at the mouth of a Riuer which comes from Groenninguen, & runnes through a place called Dam into the Riuer Amisse, and there makes a good Hauen. In this place the canon was planted, and after some small batterie, the Skonse was summoned to yeeld, they within it when they saw the preparations, did on the twelfth of Iulie yeeld: fiue brasen canon were found there, and sixe pieces of Iron; two hun­dred and thirtie men went their way, with foure▪hundred women and children.

Those of Frize-Land fortified and enlarged this Skonse, & had an intent to haue made it a towne of great extent, and to haue gi­uen it large priuiledges, therby to draw the Burghers from Groen­ninguen:The Fort of Opslach woon. this, for diuers considerations, was not effected. From Delfzijll Skonse, the armie went to a Fort called Opslach, seated on a Riuer called New zijll, the which was likewise besieged and sum­moned to yeeld: but notwithstanding that they within it were loath to heare tell of any composition, they were enforced to de­part with white rods in their hand, being one hundred and fiftie men strong.

The Fort of I­mitill woon.From thence the campe turned towards Imitill, a Fort standing [Page 129] betwixt Zudhorne & Mid-wold on the new-dike, within a mile of Groenninguen: this fort was battered with 12 canon, and yeelded. There were 250 souldiers in it, of whom, 30 came from Delf zijll. They left all their armes behind thē, which were giuen to the Eng­lish. After that, they likewise took the Fort of Littelbert, which yeel­ded so soone as they within it saw the canon planted.

¶ The Duke of Parma is defeated in the Betuwe before Knod­senbourg on the 24 of Iulie 1591.

WHilest his Excellencie obtained all these great victories, and that Almightie God, who helpeth the afflicted, assisted these countries and augmented their meanes: as many as knew the king of Spaines strength, did not a little maruaile that the Duke of Parma did so easily loose these Forts and strong Townes without attempting their conseruation: But we (as becometh vs) doe attribute all this vnto God, and say with the kinglie Prophet, Not vnto vs o Lord, but to thee, belongeth all honour and glorie; for it hath pleased thee, by the weake forces of the Netherlands to abate the pride and arrogancie of the Spaniards.Parma makes preparations to encounter Prince Mau­rice. Yet because Parma was in some sort desirous to shew himself diligent in his gouernement, and to let the world see that he meant to recouer his lost sheepe; on the 22 of Iune, he departed from Bruxels towards Tyenen, Mae­stricht, & Ruremond to make an offensiue warre, and there had in­telligēce of the losse of Deuenter. He had likewise taken great pains to appease the Spanish Mutiners in Diest and elsewhere that he might take them along with him, but they continued obstinat. He did beside leuie what forces he could, sending the Prince of Ascoli into France to strengthen it more by words than deeds. He sought moreouer to secure the towns of Venlo, Nimmeguen, Geldres and other places, and so crossed the Rhyn, making a bridge at Rees, bor­rowing boats of those of Wesel to transport his soldiers from Nuys, Berck, and other places, the most of whom cried out for mony. The forces which were leuied in the country of Liege came to him, so as he had 5000 foot & 2500 horse, with store of ordnāce & munition. With these forces, on the thirteenth of Iulie, he went to Nimme­guen, where he made a bridge ouer the Waell, & in the night went into the Betuwe, with 3000 foot, and 400 horse, with some ord­nance, [Page 130] where he began to batter Knodsenbourg:Parma besie­geth Knodsen­bourg on the 13 of Julie. he caused the Lord of Barlaymont with his regiment to encampe towards the East, and Count Octauian of Mansfelt to the Westward, the Ca­uallerie was quartered in a village, called Lent. La Mot made his fortifications, and planted nine canon, with which, on the 22 of Iu­lie, he made 280 shot, he caused the horsemen to bring fagots with them, to fill the dikes the better to march to the assault. Those with­in the fort made braue resistance, & with their canon did beat backe the enemie, with losse of certain hundreds of them, among whom were diuers Spanish Captaines. There Count Octauian, of Mansfelt, was likewise slain, with Frederico Caraffa, the Neapolitan, & Achilles Tressino of Vincenza. For the besieged were well prouided of ord­nance, and all maner of munition. La Mot afterward, made a Mine and battered, but the besieged made a counter-batterie, and brake three of the enemies canon.

Prince Maurice in the meane time being come nere to Steenwijck, and hauing intelligence of the siege of Knodsenbourg, resolued to goe thither, leauing Count William of Nassau in Frize-land, & com­ming to Arnham, he presently made a bridge ouer the Rhyne, and caused 4 cornets of Lanciers, 2 of Carabins, and two thousand mus­ketiers and pikes, to passe into Betuwe; who entrenched them­selues, and sent certain horse to view the enemies countenance, who were put to rout; so as his Excellencie on the foure and twentieth of Iulie, laid an ambush of one thousand musketiers and pikes, to­gether with 500 horse, and so soone as it was day, Prince Maurice, Count Solms, Sir Francis Veer, and certaine horse went to Parmas trenches, where on a sodain 10 cornets of horse charged furiously vpon them; Our men, according to their instructions, fled, and drew them into his Excellencies ambuscado, who on euerie side as­sailed them, and slew 60 on the place, taking 150 prisoners. These companies following were at this charge: That of the Duke of Parma, commaunded by Pietro Francisco Nicelli, Captaine of his gard, whose Cornet was taken: That of D. Alonzo D'Aualos ba­stard brother t [...] the Marquesse of Guasto, who with his Cornet was taken prisoner: The companie of Hieronimo Caraffa, and his Lieutenant Count Decio Manfredi, together with his Cornet were taken prisoners. The companie of Antonio Padilla the Spa­niard, hurt and taken prisoner, and dyed at Arnham; All these vvere Spanish and Italian Launciers: The companie of [Page 131] Biasio Capazuca, brother to Cosma, the prince of Parmas Secreta­rie, with Antonio Smigalia, Spaniards, to the number of sixe cornets, of which diuers noble men were slain, and one hundred and fiftie horse taken, with three cornets which were caried to Arnham, and foure cornets escaped.

On the duke of Parmas cornet the image of Christ was imbro­dered, with this inscription, Hic fortium diuidet spolia, and on the o­ther side was the image of the Virgin Marie, with her young sonne in the cradell, with this inscription, Quem genui adoro. On Alonzo D'Aualos cornet, was the image of S. Iohn, shewing the Lambe of God.

Parmas selfe saw this ouerthrow from his Court in Nimmeguen (called Valckenhof) hauing intelligence likewise that ouer all Hol­land mariners were readie to come and besiege him with great numbers of boats, and that prince Maurice did what he might to come vpon the Waell to breake his bridges: therupon, he com­maunded his armie and ordnance to be transported out of the Be­tuwe, and made a trench euen to the riuer, garding it with a fort; and so, vnder the defence thereof and of the cities ordnance, he ea­sily crossed the riuer with his armie, artillerie and baggage: He ex­cused his departure, by letters which he said to haue receiued from the king of Spaine, who commaunded him to returne into Fraunce to ayd the League, and to raise the siege of that famous Merchant towne of Roan; and yet, he remained in the Low-countries 5 mo­neths after. To make Parmas departure more troublesome, those of Knodsenbourg made a sallie, and together with the mariners did so assaile him, as his escape was not without great losse.

The boats of Holland arriued the next day, but too late to doe any more hurt to Parma: For on the sixe and twentieth of Iulie he went forth of Nimmeguen, where those of Knodsenbourg in their Boats made a shew as if they intended to assault the Towne.

Thus Parma left Nimmeguen & tooke his leaue of the Burghers, making many faire promises, how that his camp shold remain ther­about, and that he would preserue the city as the apple of his eye, telling them that they needed no strong garrison, & that the mi­serable ought not to be burthened with greater miserie: Some of the Burghers sayd their power was too weake, others refused to take in more ayde; yet hee left them some small prouision: [Page 132] And this notwithstanding the common people after his departure derided him.

The Towne of Hulst is besieged, and taken on the 19 of Nouember in Anno 1591.

AFter the Duke of Parmas departure, Prince Maurice left Gar­risons in the places nere adjoyning, and being not yet satisfied with all his victories, but desirous of the countries good, and his owne honour, he was loth to loose any faire occasion, but by the aduise of his Councell, made a new attempt vpon the Towne of Hulst in the Land of Waes in Flaunders. Great pre­parations were made in Zeland, where they shipt ordnance, pow­der, ladders, bridges, and all other necessaries for a siege.

These did Prince Maurice send speedily by water, together with 4000 foot, and by Brabant seuen Cornets of horse: himselfe with other forces went vp the Riuer of Scheld, and landed in Flanders, where without delay on the 19 of September he besieged Hulst, the chiefe towne in the land of Waes, the Duke of Parma suspe­cting no such matter.

The one and twentieth of the said moneth, the canon was plan­ted, and all the Forts nere adjoyning were taken, the horse made incursions to the gates of Gaunt and Veer. By the way they en­countred certaine souldiers and Boores, who had barricadoed themselues in a Church, and would by no meanes yeeld, whereup­on they fired the Church and burnt them all. And fearing least those of Antuerpe would send forces to surprise them, they in­trenched the way, and opened the sluce of Calloo, drowning the Countrie round about.

The garrison of Hulst (from whence the gouernour a while before was gone with a Conuoy) perceiuing the Canon to bee planted, the vtter Rauelin to be battered, themselues too weake to resist so great a power, and despairing of any ayde, fell to com­position, and two hundred and sixtie men, did, on the foure and twentieth of September depart forth of the Towne with their Armes and baggage. A Spanish captaine, who supplied the gouer­nors place, whose name was Ieronimo Stribanij, was by the Duke of Parmas commaund beheaded, either because he had so soone yeel­ded [Page 133] vp the towne, or else, for that his companie which shold haue beene two hundred strong, was found to be but sixtie. The Bur­ghers capitulated to be delt with in the same maner as other towns in Holland, conforming themselues accordingly. All Ecclesiastical persons departed likewise.

Count Solms, Colonel of the Regiments of Zeland, was made gouernour both of the towne and countrie with full and ample commaund, and was well prouided of men and other necessaries. The ordinarie impositious on merchandize both inward and out­ward in the same towne, or which from thence was by land trans­ported to other places, were, for fiue moneths space, let to farme for eleuen thousand and eight hundred storms, and they hoped in time to draw great contribution from the Villages round a­bout.

But Mondragon, with Steeland, baylie of the Land of Waes, de­termined presently to fortifie some great Villages nere to Hulst, to stop our mens incursions, as the Dorp called S. Ianten-Steen, the Dorp of Steken, and S. Iames Skonse. The Spaniard in the meane time shewed himselfe before Hulst, yet he attempted no­thing.

Those of Bruges, and other townes in Flanders, craued that they might be vnder contribution to those of Zeland, because that the Zelanders garrisons made great incursions vpon them; the like did those of Ostend, Axell, Hulst, the Fort of Ternheuse. They like­wise made meanes to trade in the towne by paying customes, as they did in Antuerpe and the State of Gaunt: But the Duke of Parma wold not suffer it, notwithstanding that the Zelanders con­tinued their incursions, who in Iune went towards Gaunt, where they did beat three hundred Spaniards and Walons, and tooke ninetie prisoners. The same moneth they made an other road with greater forces, but nere to Newport they found resi­stance; so as in stead of getting bootie they were beateh and reti­red towards the Sea shore, vnder the defence of the Flushingers men of warre, and lost some 30 or fortie men.

The news of Prince Maurice entrance into Flanders was brought to Antuerpe at the same time that Parma lay there, whom the towne did feast and giue presents to. Mondragon, Captaine of the Castle, did presently assemble all his forces, and made vse of the Prince of Parma as a meanes to moue the Spaniards that lay at [Page 134] Diest and other places, to doe some notable seruice to the king in so needfull a time, the which he did both by words and promises. He did likewise there obtaine a voluntarie loane of money a great summe, of the Spanish, Portuguse, and Italian Merchants. Mon­dragon went into Flanders, where he stopt Prince Maurice his for­ces from making any further incursions into the land of Waes.

¶ The siege and taking of the Towne of Nimmeguen, on the 14 of October 1591.

HIs Excellencie of Nassau, beeing animated and encouraged by his former victories, and loath to omit any meanes to van­quish his enemies, whom, it seemed, God deliuered into his hands; perceiuing likewise that Mondragon went about to stop his further passage into Flaunders, and hauing notice that many things were in readinesse for his attempt on Nimmeguen, he resolued to quit the land of Waes, notwithstanding that many profitable and hopefull enterprises offered themselues in sundrie places & Forts of Flanders; whereupon those of Zeland did earnestly solicit him, for the better extention of their bounds. The canon being a­gaine speedily embarked, foureteene small boats by too much hast were sunke, which they were enforced to quit, so as the Spaniards at a low water burnt them.

Prince Maurice with his men and ordnance leauing Flaunders, was kindly welcomed and entertayned in Zeland, from whence he presently made hast to goe to besiege Nimmeguen, hauing in­telligence that Verdugo made incursion into the land of Iuliers and was too weake to raise the siege of Nimmeguen, part of his forces beeing gone into Fraunce, and the other halfe called away by Mondragon for the reliefe of Flaunders: Hee had likewise sound aduertizement of the State of the Towne, by Hugo the Secretarie, who had a long time beene prisoner there. These things hastened his Excellencie to besiege that town before winter, where with all his forces he arriued on the foureteenth of October, ma­king a bridge presently ouer the Waell, which was broken by the canon from S. Huberts Towers, so as he was enforced to make it [Page 135] further off from the Towne, where Captaine Rols and others were slaine. By meanes of this bridge, he soone approched the towne by his trenches, and planted foure canon nere to the gate called Hoenderport, and at the foot of the hill called Hoendenberg in a place termed Oye, sixteene, and in the Betuwe, opposit to the tower Lappentorne, twelue more, to make a breach betwixt the Court called Valckenhof and Hoenderport, where he supposed to haue most aduauntage, and best meanes to hinder them from repai­ring.

Those of Nimmeguen hereby terrified, sent to Verdugo sor ayd: there were three strong companies of foot in the towne, but verie few horse commaunded by Henrie Kieboom, alias Neuse, who had betrayed and sold Geertrudenberg to the Duke of Parma, who so soone as motion was made of parley, did on a sodaine leaue the towne, and passed through the campe to the Zelanders quarter. The Townesmen perceiuing the canon planted, did mure vp the gate of Hoendenport and intrenched the voyd place betwixt the riuer and castle, diuiding it from the towne by a rampier which they made, in which men, women, and children laboured, to the end that if that place were taken, the town might yet hold out, o­mitting nothing which valiant men might performe. The canon planted, and the towne summoned to yeeld, they aunswe­red, That Prince Maurice was a young louer, and that Nimme­guen was a Virgin to whom he made loue, which he could not so easily win, and therefore it behoued him to take more paines. But, when they were hopelesse of ayd the towne being much annoyed by the canon, especially from Knodsenbourg fort, whence many thousand shot had beene made vpon it, the Burghers ran to the State-house, complaining that the king had forsaken them, for whom they had a long time spent their goods, bloud, and hazar­ded their liues; that they had too often sent to Parma, who still had other matters in hand; so as at last they resolued to capitulate, and on good termes to compound: and Prince Maurice sending once againe to let them know that hope of succour was vaine, and that his canon was readie to play vpon them: they sent their com­missioners to the campe on the twentieth of October, requiring to haue the excercise of both religions: That the Magistrat might continue in the same state he then stood, that an easie garrison might be giuen them, with diuers other requests, which they could [Page 136] not obtaine: And therefore, the next day, they sent the Burgoma­ster Flemming with ample power to capitulate, by whose meanes they obtayned many of their demaunds, as the disposing of the Church goods, power to giue regall offices, and other matters; but, concerning religion, they were of force to conforme them­selues like to other Countries and townes of the vnited Prouin­ces; They should likewise receiue sixe ensignes of footmen, and two Cornets of horse, and the Magistrat should be altered at the discretion of his Excellencie and my Lords the States. In this man­ner, the souldiers departed to the towne of Graue. Fiue and twen­tie brasen cast pieces were found in the Towne, and twelue of I­ron.

Thus was the towne of Nimmeguen yeelded on the two and twentieth of October, and was annexed to the vnited Prouinces. Count Philip of Nassau, sonne to Count Iohn, was made gouer­nour, and Gerard, the younger, gouernour of Knodsenbourg, was appointed his Lieutenant. This done, his Excellencie sent his troopes to garrison, hauing in a short space, and in lesse than fiue moneths, woon the Fort and Towne of Zutphen, the Towne of Deuenter in the Prouince of Ouer-Ysell, the Fort of Delf-zijll, and many others in Frize-land; He enforced the Duke of Parma to raise his siege from before Knodsenbourg, and defeated his Cauallerie; He did afterwards take the Towne of Hulst, in the view of Mondragon and those of Antuerpe; And now in winter, Nimmeguen, the chiefe Towne of Guelderland, making the Wa­ell her frontier. He had another enterprise vpon Geertruden­berg in December, and departing secretly from the Hague with one thousand sixe hundred men, they mounted the wall by Scalado, but they were repulsed with losse of two Captaines. A certain place called Alpen was likewise surprized by the garrison of Nimmeguen the same yere 1591.

My Lords the States made gold, siluer, and brasse coyne, in perpetuall memorie of these victories, and taking of Zutphen, De­uenter, Hulst, Nimmeguen and other Forts, attributing the whole honour and glorie vnto God.

The towne of Steenwijck is besieged and taken in anno 1592.

HIs Excellencie of Nassau, hauing woon the towne and fort of Nimmeguen, reducing them vnder the States obedience, after that he had rested all winter, did again march into the field, & departed from the Hague, on the 10 of May 1592, accompanied with the Earles Hohenlo and Solms: his Councell of war, were, the Lord of Barchon, as Marshall of the campe; Count Philip of Nas­sau, Generall of the horse; the Lord of Famas, master of the ord­nance; Captaine Craiessonier, Serjeant Major; with other comman­ders and Colonels, as Sir Frauncis Veer, Floris of Brederode, Mor­ney, Dorp, Groenevelt, and other Captains of great experience. The Lord of Gryse was Prouidator generall. There were beside, cer­taine counsellors of State, and commissiones of the prouinces whe­ther the armie was to march, all seruing for direction and ordering of al necessaries belonging to the ordnance, ammunition, treasure, and victuals, with their dependants.

The armie consisted of 6000 foot and 2000 horse, with which his Excellencie departed towards Steenwijck with all his proui­sions, where he encamped on the 28 of May. Steenwijck is a towne in the prouince of Ouer-Yssell, standing vpon a small riuer called Blockziell, which nere to Meppell a mile from Steenwijck, empti­eth it selfe into Zuidersea: it is a passage into Frizeland, seruing for defence to a great extent of ground, being verie strong in rampiers; it was verie well manned, for there were 16 ensignes of foot, & cer­taine troopes of horse in it. The gouernour was a braue and well experienced Captaine, his name was Antonio de Quocquelle: there were diuers other Lords and Earles in it, as Count Lodwick yon­ger brother to Count Berguen, the Lord of Waterdijke, with o­men of note. The towne was well prouided, and wanted nothing but powder, whereof a great quantitie was sent forth of Germa­nie, which passing through the Countrie of Munster, was seazed on by the inhabitants, in recompence of a certaine bootie which the Duke of Parmas souldiers had taked from them.

[Page 138]Before we come to the siege of Steenwijck, we will speake of a certaine enterprise which was intended vnder colour of this siege: The Spaniards and those of Steenwijck thought to haue surprized the towne of Enchuysen, by meanes of a certain mariner that dwelt there, who was lately come from Spaine, where he had spoken with the king, and had receiued a good summe of money, both of his Majestie, and Duke of Parma, as well for his owne seruice which he was to doe, as to win other Captaines and souldiers to em­brace the enterprise. But this Burgher bewrayed all to my Lords the States and to his Excellencie, of whom he receiued such in­structions, as he persuaded the Spaniards, that the best way was, to attempt the Hauen, and to that end they should send a thou­sand men from Steenwijck, which was not farre off, which should be shipt in a night, in the beginning of May, whom he without a­ny suspition would conduct, hauing alreadie woon the captaines and chiefe of the towne, who wrote v pon their credits all things were sure. And the better to colour it, and to blind those of Steen­wijck, this Burgher offered to remaine as hostage among them, and to vndergoe all manner of punishment, if he should deale o­therwise than faithfully with them, or if matters succeeded not well according to his direction. And in the meane space, Prince Maurice should be at the same time in Enchuysen to surprise the surprisers, which might easily be done, because that the Hauen is drie at low water; and hauing taken them all prisoners, he should pre­sently send his armie before Steenwijck, to besiege it, and threa­ten them, that vnlesse they would presently deliuer this Burgher, he would hang vp all his prisoners: but somewhat croft this busi­nesse, so as the enterprise went not forward: yet Prince Maurice went on with his armie to besiege Steenwijck.

From the thirteenth of May, till the ninth of Iune, his Excel­lencie was busied in making of trenches, and finding out solid and fast ground whereon to plant his canon: he made a Cauallier of 19 foot high, on which he layd three pieces, wherewith to beat down their defences, and lay them open; fortie fiue pieces being planted, on the thirteenth of Iune the towne was battered; yet at that time they did no great matter: for they could hardly batter the curtains, notwithstanding they discarged many thousand shot. They shot wild fire into the towne, which at first did terrifie them, but it was soone quenched.

[Page 139]His Excellencie, perceiuing that the canon was to smal purpose, and that those in the towne did not greatly regard it, resolued to shoot no more, but made two mynes towards the Counter-scarp, which likewise did no great matter; they digged till they came vn­der the Counter-scarp which he woon from them, and in a certain place at the foot of the pallisado, discouered how they within la­boured in the dikes, so as to giue an assault wold be but lost labor, vnesse those within were beaten from thence: and therefore they brought certain pieces into sundrie places in the dike, to beat down the fortification at the foot of the pallizado; & being protected by their canon they came into the dike, where they shadowed them­selues so well, as the townesmen could not hurt them: so as by that means they possest the foot of the rampier of the principal Bulwark on the East side, where they digged 23 foot vnder the ground ere they came to make any chambers: they spent to daies in this work, du ring which time, the besieged made 2 sallies; in the first they tooke an ensigne, & defeated certaine Englishmen; in the 2 they slew captaine Olthof, who in the former siege had bin in the towne & defēded it, with certain others of note, & part of those which had the gard in that place. Our mē cold neuer take any of the besieged prisoners. On the 23 of Iune the besigers batered one of the towns rauelins; when those within perceiued the battery, they forsooke it.

From the 24 till the 27 of Iune, our men were busied in making a woodden tower on wheeles, which in Dutch is called Lijmstang, in English, discouer Pot, it was inuented by captain Iohn Corput of Bre­da. This Tower was square and made of Mastes fastened together by yron vices; there were nine floares in it one aboue another, each of them twelue foot high; they might at any time be taken downe and had curtaines of canuas towards the enemie. This new tower beeing brought nere the Towne Rampiers, and musketiers placed in it, they did not onely beat the besieged from the Rampiers, but shot those that went vp and downe in the streets: The townesmen, with two canons, and helpe of the wind, did in two dayes beat downe the two vttermost floares, so as no man would any more go vp vpon it.

From the 27 till the 29 of Iune, they were busied in prepayring two Mynes in the rampier vnderneath the Bulwark. The thirtieth of Iune, the Townesmen sent three Captaines to parley, viz. Bernard de Moutberck, Dauid du Wall, & an other called Vandensand, [Page 140] sonne to the Prouost of Herderwijck, and in their stead Captaine Peter Dorp, Asseurs and Buck, were sent as Hostages. They craued to depart with their armour, ensignes and baggage, which was granted on condition that they should presently crosse the Rhyn, and for sixe moneths space, serue no more in those quarters, which they refusing, the parley was broken off.

The same night, Verdugo, gouernour for king Philip, sent three hundred souldiers to the towne, each of them with a bag of pow­der of fifteene or sixteene pound weight, seuentie of whom en­tred, the rest were defeated, and taken prisoners.

The first of Iulie, his Excellencie gaue a false assault, hauing made foure hundred shot to note the behauiour of countenance of the besieged, who on euerie side were readie for defence. The se­cond of Iulie, by night, he brought all his men secretly into the trenches, intending in the morning to giue fire to the Mynes, and to make a generall assault. Euerie Captaine with his men stood in his place appointed. The third of Iulie, in the morning, after that the canon had played for foure howres, the besieged perceiuing all things readie for the assault, came to the rampiers, and then the Mynes were fired; one of them did in such sort ouerthrow the rampier, as a breach was made for tenne men to enter in front; be­ing in that place where Count William of Nassau stood with the companies of Frize-land to giue the first assault: and at the trum­pets sound, the English were to giue the second.

The other Myne towards the South-West, brake forth without, and buried many Hollanders aliue, who stood there readie for the assault: all this while, his Excellencie had giuen no signall. But Count William perceiuing the townesmen to be terrified, assaul­ted and tooke the Bulwarke which had beene ouerthrowne on the East-side, and commaunded and discouered the whole towne.

On the other side towards the South they likewise tooke a gate with great losse to the besieged, who perceiuing themselues disco­uered on euerie side, did the same night send a drumme to parley; but Prince Maurice for the time would not heare him: yet the next day, the aboue mentioned Captaines had audience, but all their demaunds were denied; in the end, they were content to imbrace whatsoeuer his Excellencie would graunt; for the canon by this time commaunded all places in the Towne, and all the houses and Churches were for the most part beaten downe, so as the people [Page 141] kept in cellers. Prince Maurice graunted to the gouernor Antonio Quocquelle, and to the Lord Waterdijke, captaines and officers of the garrison of Stenwijck, & likewise to the Clergie & Burghers, these conditions following, dated before Stenwijck the 4 of Iulie 1592.

That they should depart forth of the said towne, the gouernor, captaines, officers and souldiers, hauing first sworne and promised not to beare armes for the king of Spaine on this side the Rhyne, for the space of sixe moneths.

That they should depart with their baggage, wiues and armes, warlike munition and victuals.

Such souldiers as had reuolted, and to escape the hand of justice for enormous crimes committed, were retired to the said towne & serued there, should not enjoy the benefit of his accord.

That all prisoners should be deliuered and set at libertie, paying twelue pence a day for their expences.

That all Burghers and officers belonging to king Philip, might without molestation depart thence.

That an hundred wagons should be graunted them, according to their request to carie them to Coeuord, on condition they wold be obliged to send them back without any harme.

That the Surgeons and hurt people might remaine in the town till they were healed, and then depart whether they pleased.

His Excellencie graunted them two commissioners to conduct them beyond the Rhyne, vpon caution of the Gouernour and Captaines.

After this accord, the souldiers went their way on the fift of Iulie. Prince Maurice beside all this, in regard they were valiant souldiers, did of his princelie curtesie graunt the Gouernour his horse; the like did he to Captaine Waell, and to all his men to eue­rie one a horse, and to the soldiers their swords. Those which went away were fiue hundred and threescore footmen, most Walons, all healthful and well disposed, and two hundred that were hurt, with some sixtie or seuentie horse. There were slaine in the towne some three hundred and fiftie, & among others Count Lodwick of Ber­ghen, a young Lord of some eighteene or nineteene yeares old, together with the Captaines Blundel, Hessel, and others.

On Prince Maurice side, fiue or sixe hundred were slayne & ma­ny hurt, and among the rest, the Prince himselfe, presently after the Myne was fired, beeing desirous to see what effects it had [Page 142] wrought he was shot in the right cheeke, without any great daun­ger. At the same time Captaine William Dorp, Colonel of the Re­giment of Hollanders, was hurt whereof he died. Sir Francis Veer was likewise hurt. The souldiers beeing gone, foure companies were put into the towne, commaunded by the Captaines Berestein, Rijswick and others, and the Campe remained there till the ram­piers and Dikes were repaired. In this siege all things were more plentifull and better cheape than in any towne, by reason that pro­uision was easily brought thither, and because they payed no im­post. Certaine souldiers who had beene actors in betraying the towne of Gertrudenberg, not comprehended in the contract were taken and hanged. And thus the Towne which was thought im­pregnable was enforced to yeeld, his Excellencie hauing made more than nine and twentie thousand canon shot vpon it, and was annexed to the vnited Prouinces, being hitherunto preserued from all the enemies power and attempts.

¶ The Townes of Ootmaersen and Coevoerden are taken in anno 1592.

AFter that his Excellencie of Nassau, had taken Steenwijck, re­paired the rampiers, and taken order for the gouernement thereof, he determined to march with his armie to Coevoer­den; and appointed certaine numbers of horse to goe and begirt the little towne of Ootmaersen, whereof Alonzo de Mendoza was gouernour for the king of Spaine, hauing sixtie horse and two en­signes of foot; where Charles of Leuin, Lord of Famars, was shot, he was a valiant Lord, and one of the Commissioners to the Noble confederats, who in anno 1566 had presented the supplica­tion. He had continually borne armes for the countrie, and was now master of the ordnance, he was verie much lamented. The towne of Ootmaersen was battered with the canon and enforced to yeeld on composition, on the thirtieth of Iulie, like the towne of Steenwijck. That done, his Excellencie did in August besiege Coevoerden; those within it burnt the houses nere adjoyning; per­ceiuing that Prince Maurice with his trenches made his approch, & [Page 143] hap taken away the sluces from them, and drawne the water forth of the dikes, taken the Counter-scarp of the Castle, & broken down the bridge.

Count Frederick of Berghen, hauing prouided all places round about, did with a strong garrison enter into it himselfe; it was a strong towne and famous for the situation thereof, it was artificially fortified, on such foundations as the Lord of Senoy had formerly begun to lay.

Prince Maurice his souldiers being vpon the Counter-scarp, did for their defence make a gallerie in the dikes, vnder couert whereof they might easily come to the rampier to digge and Myne without daunger of the enemies canon, which they soone effected by the helpe of a Cauallier they made; they did also beat down a Rauelin: with much to do sundrie Mynes were made in the rampiers, which still sunke: the besieged made counter-mynes, which by taking aire were vnprofitable: yet our men did not giue ouer myning, & fired some of them: whereupon, an assault was giuen, so as they got vpon the rampiers, where by meanes of the Cauallier they for­tified themselues, & tooke from the besieged all meanes of defence, as they had done at Steenwijck. They within the towne began to be discouraged hoping still for succor, they likewise wanted water and other necessaries.

The Councell of State of the vnited Prouinces, hauing intelli­gence that the Duke of Parma made preparations to enter Frize­land, leuied a regiment of supplies vnder the commaund of Colo­nel Stolberg, who passed Muster, nere to a place called Heerenberg in the presence of Count Hohenlo: For Count Philip of Nassau was sent into Fraunce with three thousand men; and the Queene of England had likewise called away her forces to send them into Fraunce, and were alreadie departed from the armie, and gone as farre as Swoll: but vpon intelligence of the Duke of Parmas com­ming they were countermaunded. Count Philip in the meane time and his troopes returned opportunely from Fraunce, who were sent to Garrison in Holland to be refreshed. And the old Garri­sons were presently sent to the armie, and other some to Grauen­weert, the better to anoy and stop Parmas passage. The armie was but weake, and by reason of the bad waies the campe could not be well prouided of victuall and munition.

Verdugo, gouernour of Frizeland for the Spaniards, had ear­nestly [Page 144] solicited the duke of Parma for men and money, which in great abundance was at the same time sent from Italie: thereupon, Parma graunted, that the regiments of Count Charles of Mansfelt, Mondragon, Gonzaga, the two regiments of Arenberg and Bar­laymont, with certaine horse and ordnance should march to his ayd: with these he crossed the Rhyne, making a Fort on the other side of the riuer, and so marched towards Groll, and from thence to Oldenzeel, where they arriued on the third of September.

Verdugo, hauing assembled all the forces in the countrie nere adjoyning, and vnderstanding the want and extreamitie of those of Coeverden, marched towards Herderberg where he thought to haue encamped, but changing his mind on a sodaine, he went to the Dorp of Vlsen, and from thence to Imlichen in the countie of Benthem, not farre from Coeverden, in a place commodious for victuals.

Prince Maurice hauing intelligence thereof, sent three hundred horse to view and skirmish with them, but he could not draw them forth of their aduauntage; he tooke a certaine boore whom hee suspected to carrie letters to the enemie, wherein he was not de­ceiued: for the boore fea [...]ing to be hanged, deliuered them vn­to him; wherein Verdugo acquainted those of Coevoerden, how hee intended the next day to come and relieue them through Count Hohenlo and the horsemens quarter: For he was enformed of the scite and estate of his Excellencies campe, by a gentleman whose name was Iohn Steenwijck, who had told him that it was an hard matter to approch the towne: whereupon, he made choyce of this morish place, as least garded and suspected.

Prince Maurice strengthened this place with men and ord­nance, which was planted on the high way, through which the e­nemie was to passe: and standing thus secretly on his gard, Verdu­go came on with all his forces, wearing white shirts vpon their ar­mour, and on the seuenth of September, at night, they gaue in vp­on the trenches in their seuerall places, crying victorie, victorie.

But, his Excellencie, Count Hohenlo, and Count William of Nas­saw with their troopes did beat them back, and in their retreat the canon played vpon them: many were slaine vpon the place, many men and horse stucke fast in the mud, 136 were the next day found dead in the place, and two and fiftie horse; many were carried a­way hurt: Two and fortie wagons full of dead and hurt men [Page 145] were conducted by foure cornets of horse towards Oldenzeell: In a word, three hundred men were slayne. On his Excellencies part onely three were slaine and sixe hurt, and Count William of Nassau was hurt in the bellie, but not dangerously.

Verdugo thus put to rout, did the next day make great prouisi­on of fagots, to make a way through the Marshes; and the coun­trie wayes beeing many and verie narrow, he made shew as if hee would haue intrenched the passages, and by that meanes cut off vi­ctuals from his Excellencies camp: But at last, those of Coevoerden perceiuing their succour to faile, began to parley; and in the meane time, Verdugo did againe shew himselfe in battaile, and came to view his Excellencies trenches and fortifications, who came from receiuing and welcoming the English to his Campe. These two Armies hauing thus viewed one another, Verdugo discharged two canon: Those of Coevoerden aunswered him with two more, which done, he marched towards Velt-huyse in the coun­tie of Benthem.

Those of Coevoerden, being thus forsaken and continually bat­tered, to the great losse of their souldiers (our men by meanes of their myne being lodged on their rampiers and curtaines) resolued to compound. His Excellencie was likewise willing to grant them any reasonable conditions, in regard Verdugo lay not farre off, and might haue attempted somewhat to his prejudice, as also, because the countrie and wayes were verie bad, and vnfit for bringing of victuals to the campe: and on the 12 of September, graunted them this accord following. The commissioners were Evert de Ens, Christophero de Vasques, and Alonzo de Marteny, Captaines of the Cauallerie.

Prince Maurice, in fauour of Count Frederick of Berghen, his louing cousen, doth by these Presents permit and suffer him, together with the Captaines, officers and souldiers of the garrison of Coevoerden, to depart with their ensignes, armes, horse, bag­gage, & whatsoeuer belongeth vnto them (the ammunition of war and victuals excepted) whether they shall thinke good.

His Excellencie graunted the like to the Clergie, Ladies, wo­men, children and domestick seruants of those of Coevoerden a­boue mentioned.

And for the better furthering of their departure, wagons & a ne­cessarie conuoy for their safetie shal be granted them; for which the [Page 146] sayd Count shall giue caution for their safe returne to the campe. And his Excellencie promiseth in the word of a Prince, that no harme either in bodie or goods shall be done to the said Earle, or to any other that comes forth of the sayd towne. Giuen before Coevoerden on the 12 of September 1592.

Thereupon, the Earle and his souldiers came forth, himself was royally feasted by his Excellencie, his kinsman, and other Lords of the house of Nassau, who discoursed with one another, questioning how it came to passe, that they being children of brothers and si­sters, should be so diuided in loue and affection, and serue seuerall parties. Fiue hundred souldiers, that were in health and able to march, came forth of the towne, and many that were sicke of the bloudie flix. It was a strong towne, and 9 canon were found in it.

My Lords the States, in perpetuall memorie of the taking of these 3 townes, Steenwijck, Oetmaersen and Coevoerden, made seuerall coynes of siluer and brasse, attributing the honour of these victo­ries to God alone. The young lord of Nieunoort was made gouer­nour of Coevoerden.

The campe remained there, till all the fortifications were repay­red, and the towne prouided of all necessaries. Verdugo lay at Velt­huyse, and made shew as if he wold besiege Oetmaersen; but it was presently fortified.

On the fifteenth of October, his Excellencie with his armie went toward Zwoll, and there resolued to march to Emmerijc, & to en­camp nere the Rhyne, to be better able to passe on from thence vp­on any occasion shold be offered by Parmas forces, vnder the com­maund of Verdugo, beeing readie to besiege [...]eyther Groll or Goore, or to stop the enemies passage ouer Rhyne: but before they could come thither, the wayes were all drowned, and Verdu­gos tro [...]pes were gone, and the greatest part of them, as the two re­giments of Arenberg and Barlaymont had repassed the Rhyne with fiue or sixe Cornets of horse, that were much discontented. Verdugo, with the residue of the horse, Spaniards, Italians and Lie­geois, continued nere to Oldenzeel, and fortified the townes of Groll, Goore, Enschede and Lingen.

His Excellencie, on the 8 of Nouember, came to Arnham and quartered his camp in the towns nere adjoyning, the ammunition ordnance, & bridges of boats were put in certain ships, to be readie at an houres warning, to make a running campe; for it was thought [Page 147] that his Excellencie had an intent to crosse the Rhyne, and to march into the countries of Valckenbourg and Luxembourg, to find the duke of Parma at Spa, but the said Prince his departure from thence to Bruxels brake off this enterprise.

Those of Groeninguen were not yet moued by these exploits, nor by the losse of Steenwijck, and Coevoerden, to come to any agreement with their neighbours the Ommelands, and the Nobi­litie of Frize-Land, notwithstanding that a thousand head of Cat­taile had been taken from them in a road, and had but one passage left open, namely Bourtaign, nere to Wedde: but Count Frederick of Berguen went thither in winter, with sixe ensignes of foot, and certaine horse for the countries safetie.

¶ A description of the braue and gallant siege of Geertruden­berg in anno 1593.

AFter the Duke of Parmas death, the king of Spaine bestowed the gouernement of the Low-countries on Count Peter Ernest of Mansfelt, by prouiso (as they terme it) vntill the comming of Arch-Duke Ernestus, in which meane time, Count Fuentes and Stefano Diuarra, both Spaniards, were joyned with him as chiefe counsellors. And the chiefe of the Nobilitie, for more honour, re­ceiued great promotions and offices: And the better to win the Countries loue, the people were put in hope, that at the Arch­Dukes arriuall, all matters should be well ordered: for all men supposed that in respect of his greatnesse hee would not come thither, but with an intent, ample authoritie, commission and meanes to make pacification, or to mannage warre in better maner for the countries defence: in this hope the people did with more content vndergoe their miserie.

During this gouernement, the Spanish Counsellours would presently haue set the late Spanish crueltie committed by the Duke d'Alua, on foot, and commaunded the souldiers to keepe no more Quarter (as they call it) videlicet, not to release priso­ners in exchange for others of the same qualitie, or in paying a moneths entertainement for their ransome, but would haue all pri­soners to be rigorously chastised by the hand of the executioner. [Page 148] This did they, the better to moue their owne people for feare of the gallowes to fight to the last man, and to be rather slayne fighing, than yeeld themselues prisoners. But common souldiers, who fol­lowes the warres more for pay than for honor, and makes an oc­cupation of the art militarie, wish for no such rigour, especially, seeing valour at this day is so slenderly rewarded, honoured and e­steemed. Vnder this word Quarter, they likewise comprehend, not to pay any ransomes or contributions to the enemie. This did much trouble the Clergie, Gentlemen, and Boores, who haue the most part of their wealth lying abroad, and not in townes, beeing rather willing to pay small contribution for their safetie, than to haue their goods burnt and spoyled.

Mansfelt then by the aduice of Fuentes, published a declaration, dated the 5 of Ianuarie 1593, That no man should after that, pay a­ny ransoms or contributions to the enemie, nor procure any pas­port from him on paine of death: but that euerie man should pre­pare to hinder the enemies incursions, to arme and fortifie against him, and by the larme bell to assemble themselues to kill and take their enemies prisoners and to hang them vp: whereupon, diuers souldiers on either side were hanged.

The generall States of the vnited Prouinces, did likewise against this, publish a declaration dated on the seuen and twentieth of Fe­bruarie, wherein they shewed how their enemies the Spaniards being straungers, sought nothing but the ruine and destruction of the Countrie, together with the peoples bloud and goods: en­treating and exhorting all men to looke well vnto themselues, their Countrie, wiues and children, to resist such Spanish crueltie, and to deliberat thereupon, giuing them respit till Aprill follow­ing, after which time, they would keepe no more Quarter, but ac­count them al for mortal enemies, intending to cause the Authors and counsellors of this rigorous Decree, to repent their rashnesse: and likewise all townes and villages, which following the tenure of Mansfelts letters, should arme, fortifie, and make defence against them, together with all those which should refuse to pay such rea­sonable contribution as they were rated at. By this meanes after­wards, all these things were on either side permitted.

Count Mansfelt, in the time of winter, in anno 1593, assembled his forces vnder the conduct of his sonne Charles, vpon the fronti­ers of Fraunce nere to Guyse, sending them into Fraunce there to [Page 149] employ them. In the meane time, my Lords the States of the vni­ted Prouinces, sent Count Philip of Nassau into Luxembourg, with foure thousand horse and foot, hoping to take some townes there, as S. Vit, and others; which he effected not, but caused all the garrisons to be drawne forth of Brabant. For so soone as the news of his being there came to Bruxels, all the horse and foot, both Spa­niards and Italians, were taken forth of the townes of Liere, Ma­lines and other places, and were sent in great hast to the Countrie of Luxembourg, conducted by Count Barlaymont. Count Philip hauing notice thereof, retired, and in the meane time burnt many villages in the Countrie, and likewise leuied great exactions in the countrie of Limbourg, bringing many places vnder contribution, sacking the town of Hanuijt in Brabant, and hauing got much mo­ney, horse, and a great bootie, they returned to their Quarter.

In the meane time, the States of the vnited Prouinces resolued to besiege the town of Geertrudenberg, a dependant on Holland, though seated in Brabant nere the Mase on a riuer called the Douge. This towne, in ann̄ 1589, was by certaine traitors sold to the Duke of Parma for 15 moneths pay (notwithstanding all honest and reasonable offers made vnto them) whereupon, they were all as traitors to the countrie condemned to be hanged, wheresoeuer they should be caught; most of whom were executed. The sayd States, had of a long time on sundrie pretences kept victuals from thence, by way of licence, and in Februarie, did cut off a Conuoy of all necessarie prouisions that was going thither: and hauing in­telligence that the gouernour was gone forth to meet the Conuoy, and that two did striue about the gouernement, they thought this occasion might greatly profit them, and thereupon gaue commis­sion to Prince Maurice, to enuiron and shut in the towne with his Cauallerie, which he did, all the forces being returned from Lux­embourg, and the captaines hauing re-enforced their companies; and on the nine and twentieth of March he begirt the towne both by land and water, at such time when the Spaniards most doubted the siege of Sertoghenbusk or Graue.

And because this siege is verie memorable and famous, we will relate the most remarkable matters; for the towne was strong, manned with more than a thousand old souldiers, and well proui­ded of all necessaries.

His Excellencie lying before the towne, did at first quarter him­selfe [Page 150] on the West-side thereof, with the regiments of Count Henrie his younger brother; of Count Solms, Groenevelt, and Balfour. Count Hohenlo encamped towards the East, in a Village called Raemsdone beyond the riuer Douge, towards Oosterhoude, with the regiments of the Lords of Brederode, Lokres, and others, eue­rie regiment presently fortifying his Quarter.

The Spaniards had a Fort abroad, within musket shot of the town, vpon the causey of Steelhof, which secured the passage to the town: Count Hohenlo did presently intrench before it, & brought the channel of the riuer into those trenches, and with great danger of his life, tooke the free accesse of the fort to the towne from the e­nemie, and planted the canon in an Island opposit to the conuoy and fort. Whereupon, the captain and garrison (perceiuing them­selues to be cut off from the towne) yeelded the fort on the sixt of Aprill, and for their labours were imprisoned by the Marquesse of Varembon.

The Fort being woon, his Excellencie made two bridges ouer the riuer, the one on boats, verie strong and broad, and the other vpon masts, that the two campes might helpe one another, which by reason of the marshes, lay a good mile from each other. On both sides the bridges before the towne, he placed ships of war to keepe continuall watch. For the riuer was as a dike, defending a great part of the camps trenches, there being diuers water mils and sluces to keepe the dikes of their trenches continually full of wa­ter, but by reason of the high tides, they were often hindred in their workes.

On the waters side they enclosed the town with an halfe moone made with boats of warre, lying at anker, made fast by cables, and supported by small boats, wherein watch was kept. Without the said halfe moone ships of warre went too and fro, keeping good gard. Within it, certaine small boats stood sentinel beneath the towne: these, tooke a Spaniard swimming, that carried letters from Count Mansfelt and others; his Excellencie gaue him his life, and sent him backe to the enemies, to tell them how he was intren­ched.

Without the halfe moone, towards the West and East of the towne, the boats that brought victuals lay, and were shrowded from the enemies canon. The campe on the water, was a German mile in length, euerie campe hauing his boats of ammunition and [Page 151] victuals. The mariners had likewise their campe apart, and beha­ued themselues valiantly by carrying wodden canons and emptie boats by night nere to the shore and Key, to cause the besieged to bestow their powder in vayne, whereof they had great need.

His Excellencies campe on land, was enuironed with high ram­piers and deepe ditches without, with foure great and strong Bul­warkes, on each of which lay two canon. Such was Count Hohen­los campe, extending it selfe two miles in circuit, and fortified with trenches, bulwarks, strong rauelins and broad dikes. With­out the campe, many stakes were pitched in the ground, and in each of them an Iron pike called Turkish ambassadors, so nere to one a­nother, as a man could hardly put his knee betwixt. The chief high waies were fortified with strong forts and rauelins stored with ord­nance, so as an hundred canons were planted there, vpon the waies caltraps were laid, and deepe pits made stuft full of powder.

Being thus intrenched abroad against the enemie, they likewise began to fortifie themselues against the townesmen, bringing their trenches vnder the Towne-walls: they planted their canon, and made galleries, vnder whose couert they might come to the towns rampiers. The besieged, beside their rampiers and caualleries, had two strong rauelins on the Land-side, opposit to which lay the Ze­landers and souldiers of Vtrechts batterie, which did so oppresse the towne, as euerie house almost was shaken, especially the Prince of Orange his Palace which was vtterly ruined.

For making of these great workes and fortifications, the States had sent certain hundreds of boats prouided of al necessaries: and though the boores wrought in euerie place for pay, yet most of these great workes were done by souldiers, according to the man­ner of the auntient Romans, not by constraint but for daily hire; and those dayes they were not vpon the gard, each of them was im­ployed in what labour he best liked, getting tenne or fifteen souls a day; by meanes whereof they wrought so hard, as they made themselues inuincible against the kings power which came to re­lieue the towne.

So great good order & discipline was likewise obserued among the soldiers & mariners, as not only the boores which were in the campe, were freed from all outrage and violence, but they allured their neighbours of the countrie, to bring their corne, cattell and goods to the campe as a place of safetie and refuge; and by reason [Page 152] of this strict discipline, they were as free as in any well gouerned towne, bringing their geese, hennes, eggs, butter, cheese, milke, and flesh to the Market, without any feare or trouble, to the great wonder of all men: yea the verie owners of the Lands nere adjoy­ning, did in diuers places plough, and till their grounds, whereby all things were cheaper than in any towne round about, whereas victuals in the enemies campe were sixe times dearer. Many came from all parts to behold his royall campe, which was so well or­dered as euerie one admired it. The Princesse of Orange came thi­ther, with the Ladie Loysa, daughter to the Prince of Orange, who was going into Germanie to her husband the Elector Palatine of the Rhyne, with many other great Ladies. Diuers things were as remarkable in this siege, as in any other that hath beene these hun­dred yeares.

Those of the towne made braue defence and valiantly behaued themselues, they were well prouided of all necessaries, and made sundrie sallies. But the canon at last played on euerie side, and counter batteries were made vpon their canon, so as the wayes and rauelins were intrenched and beaten downe. Some hope and pro­mise of reliefe was sent them by many cunning meanes. Among others, the Lord of Waterdijke, on the seuenteenth of Aprill, sent letters vnto them from Sertoghenbusk by a pigeon which fel down in Prince Maurice his campe, containing, that forces were readie to raise the siege, which they would without all doubt performe, and therefore they should doe well to heighthen the platforme of Ramsdouck, and from thence giue signals by fire according to the instructions sent them. His Excellencie by the same pigeon sent another letter to deceiue them.

Count Hohenlo vpon a time caused the nearest ordnance to be secretly turned vpon the townes tower, from whence they vsually viewed the campe, and the besieged hourely expecting succours, he made a false alarme among his own soldiers as though aid had beene come, whereupon the gouernour and other commaunders ran presently vp to the tower to see what the matter was, on which on a sodaine Count Hohenlo at once discharged all his ordnance, wherewith the gouernour and others were slaine, which did much weaken them.

Mansfelt, Fuentes, and other of the king of Spains commanders, weighing this disgrace if they did not relieue this town standing in [Page 553] Brabant, called home Charles of Mansfelt from Fraunce, mustered all their regiments and sent them towards Turnhout, vnder the conduct of the Marquesse of Varrabon, which were often assailed by Prince Maurice his cauallerie, which for the most part lay forth of the campe in the neighbour towns of Breda, Heusden, and Ber­ghen-op-Zoom. Among others, the lord of Risoyre, Marcelis Bacx, and captaine Egmont, did, on the eighth of Iune, with one hundred and ninetie horse, nere to Turnhout, encounter 400 horse, comming from the campe, and were going towards Antu­erpe to conuoy Varrabon and Barlaymont, whom they charged and defeated, chacing them to the castle of Turnhout, whether the Marquesse and count Barlaymont escaped; they brought three­score horse, and three captaines prisoners to Breda.

About the 6 of May, Mansfelt and all his captaines came into the field, with his troopes of Lorrainers which came from the warres of Straesbourg, together with Suisses, Almans, Italians and Spaniards, who wold not willingly march without the companie of old Mon­dragon, that durst not leaue his castle of Antuerpe. Mansfelt in this maner being 30000 strong, came with 18 canon, many boats & other prouisions, and encamped nere to his Excellencies quarter, in a vil­lage called Hout, where he began to build a Fort on the causey of Steelhoof: wherupon, diuers skirmishes were made: but perceiuing that place to be too strong, he raised his camp towards the later end of May, and went to a village called Oosterhoudt, where he entren­ched his armie, & hauing staied there certain daies, & vsed al means to annoy the princes campe, he departed likewise from thence with his campe towards a village called Waesbeec nere to count Hohen­los quarter; where (as in other places) he entrenched himselfe, the better to get victuals which hee wanted, so as count Hohenlo often skirmished with him, whereupon, Mansfelt durst no more make any attempt vpon his Excellencies campe.

Whilest hee lay there, his Excellencie vpon some occasion sent a trumpet to him, of whom Mansfelt demaunded, why his Lord had so fortified and intrenched himselfe, telling him, that Prince Maurice like a braue and valiant young Lord that was iealous of his owne honour, ought to come forth of his fortifi­cations and giue battaile: The Trumpet made this wise aunswer, saying, His Excellencìe of Nassau is a young Lord, that would willingly proue an old souldier, like vnto your Excellencie: this [Page 154] made those that were present to smile, and caused Mansfelt to hold his peace, hauing met with so wittie an answer.

During Count Mansfelts aboad there, one thousand two hun­dred foot, and twelue cornets of horse came to encrease h [...]s forces, which Count Fuentes sent him, together with foure great canon, foure and twentie firkins of money, and all sorts of ammunition for the campe.

The day before the towne was taken, Count Hohenlo and Sir Frauncis Veer, made a braue skirmish, wherein (beside those that were slaine) they tooke fortie soldiers prisoners, & 3 captains, euen in view of the towne, which daily made many signals by fire, and was wholly discouraged, so as the towne was taken in this manner following, in the view of Count Mansfelt and his mightie armie.

On the 24 of Iune, in the morning, as the Captaines Haen of Tournay, Beuerie, and Calfe, went vp to the gard to relieue those in the trenches vnder the townes North rauelin, they resolued a­mong themselues to mount vpon the rauelin to see what was done there, and caused a wodden bridge to be made ouer the dike oppo­sit to the bulwarkes point. Haen and Beuerie tooke two musketiers, two targuetiers, and two halberdiers with them, being in all eight persons, and so went vp verie secretly.

Being mounted, and the Sentinel giuing th'alarme, these Cap­taines called for more souldiers to assist them; whilest they fought with those of the gard, one of their targuetiers was slaine, and the most of their souldiers mounted: they fought hand to hand a long time, so as 16 of the besiegers were slaine, & of the besieged 9, who were enforced to quit the rauelin & to retire into the towne: & because the towns gouernor was slain at the same time whose name was captain Tigean, & had bin the third gouernor, they were much danted, & sent to craue a parley, which was hardly granted, because the souldiers more and more got vpon the rauelin. At last they sent two captaines and the Auditor of the garrison to Count Solms who had alreadie entred it.

Prince Maurice, count Hohenlo & those of the Councel of war were busied in skirmish with Mansfelt, & so soon as they heard this news, they scarce beleeued it, thinking the captaines had made a skirmish by chance, hauing no commission so to do. These commissioners cra­ued but 2 houres respit to send to craue count Mansfelts consent; this could not be grāted: but when they heard of the state of Mansfelts [Page 155] campe, and how that Prince Maurice offered to saue their liues, i [...] was concluded, that they should depart forth of the towne with their swords and baggage, as appeareth by this accord follow­ing.

We Maurice, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau, Catzenelboguen, Vyanden, Dyetz, &c. Gouernour and Captaine generall of Guelderland, Holland, Zeland, West-Frizeland, Zutphen, Vtrecht, and Ouer-Ys­sell, Admirall generall, haue graunted, and by these Presents doe graunt to the Captaines, officers and souldiers of the Garrison of Geertruden­berg free libertie to depart with their swords, horse and baggage, whe­ther it shall seeme good vnto them, without any let or impediment, to which end fiftie wagons shall be lent them: and if they shall need any boats for the king of Spaines officers, their seruants, hurt men, and bag­gage, we will freely cause them to be conducted to Antuerpe, so as they will giue sufficient caution to send backe the sayd wagons and boats; and so, that the receiuers Mathew Daulthat, Iohn Fransen, and Iohn Mathew, will remaine in the sayd towne, till they haue deliuered vp their Registers, papers, and records belonging to their office, vnto such as shall be by vs appointed thereunto. And concerning the Clergie and Bur­ghers (those excepted who haue had an hand in betraying the towne) we grant them free libertie to depart with their baggage: and promise them by the faith of a Prince, that whatsoeuer is aboue mentioned shall with­out any let or contraction be obserued.

Signed vnderneath, Maurice of Nassau.

Notwithstanding this accord thus passed, Prince Maurice at their earnest request graunted them their armes. Thereupon the same day an hundred wagons went forth of the towne, with the baggage, hurt people, women and children: next them follow­ed three Captaines attended by sixteene Ensigne-bearers with their colours, which with great reuerence they deliuered to Prince Maurice, who highly commended all their colours: next them followed the officers with their halberds, and some two hun­dred and fortie pikes, and then 384 musketiers and harquebuzi­ers, with others to the number of 600, and marched along by Oo­sterhoudt towards Mansfelts campe.

[Page 156]Besides, his Excellencie suffered three boats laden with silke and hurt men to depart to Antuerpe. Three souldiers who had in former time beene consenting to the deliuerie of the towne to the Duke of Parma, were by his Excellencies commaund presently hanged.

After the departure of the enemies souldiers, Prince Maurice with his forces entred the towne, and found it so well prouided of all necessaries, as had it not beene taken in this manner he would haue lost more men in the attempt, so as himselfe gaue the glorie vnto God, and exhorted others to doe the like: His officers found eight hundred pound weight of powder there, beside, flesh, fish, bread, beare, salt and corne, of all which they had plentie. In this siege three hundred men were slaine, and foure hundred hurt. He made his brother Count Henrie Frederick gouernour there (vnto whom the Prince his father, of happie memorie, by his testament had bequeathed the towne) and the Lord Arent of Duvenvoord his Lieutenant, and on a sodaine all the trenches were leuelled. Mansfelt perceiued not that the towne was yeelded, till such time as he saw our men to displant the canon on euerie side, and that the armed men burnt straw vpon their pikes ends.

Count Mansfelt hauing intelligence of the townes losse, raysed his campe on the 26 of Iune, and marched by the Lang-straet to­wards Bommeler-weert, thinking by force to haue surprised the Fort of Crevecoeur, which stands nere the Mase at the mouth of the riuer Diese, opposit to Heele in Brabant: But those of Gorcum and Bommell, had in part preuented it, by stopping the water nere to the sayd fort, whereby all the water which runneth by Ser­toghenbusk forth of the riuers Dommell and Aa, drowned the countrie round about.

Before Count Mansfelt could come thither, Prince Maurice and his troopes were there, hindring him from making any fortificati­ons, and by fortifying against him, enforced him to depart with his ordnance towards Vliemen and Engelen and to encampe on the higher grounds, which notwithstanding were presently enui­roned with water. Those of Crevecoeur Skonse, did presently bend all their ordnance thitherward, with which they greatly annoyed the enemie who lay open without any shelter, and imprisoned by water: So as many of them were miserably slaine there.

Prince Maurice fortified the frontiers and Bommeler-weert, [Page 157] he likewise sent forces into Frizeland to Count William, and com­maunded Count Solms to make a road into Flaunders, where the Boores (detayned by the Spaniards) brought not in their contribu­tions, who had fortified themselues nere Hulst and Axell, and had likewise intended some enterprise on these two townes, and to that end had woon certain soldiers, who (whilest they should attempt to carrie away the townes cattaile) had vndertaken to kill the gard and to make themselues masters of the gates; but this was disco­uered.

Count Solms, on the 24 of Iulie, went into the Land of Waes with eight hundred horse, and three thousand fiue hun­dred foot: he sent his cauallerie before, to a place called S. Iohn ten Steen, where the Spaniards forsooke their fort, flying to Veer, opposit to Antuerpe, but thirtie of their horse were taken, and the Dorp of Steken was burnt. Our cauallerie, nere to S. Nicholas en­countred with eightie Lorrain horsemen, who were beaten, and most of them taken prisoners: our footmen planted the canon be­fore S. Iames Skonse which yeelded, the like did those of S. Iohn ten Steen.

All this being done in a short space, news was brought that Mon­dragon sent two thousand foot, and six cornets of horse from Ant­uerpe, and that tenne more followed them: whereupon, Coun [...] Solms retired, racing the forts he had taken, and with no great bootie embarked himselfe, hauing by this road (wherein at first he was too slacke) gotten verie small contribution.

The Towne of Coervoerden is freed from the siege in Anno 1594.

THe towne of Geertrudenberg thus taken, prouided of all ne­cessaries, and order giuen for the gouernement thereof: prince Maurice had diuers enterprises vpon sundrie townes, and a­mong others on Bruges and Maestricht, which for want of good intelligence, and fearfulnesse of certaine souldiers, had no good successe: Count William of Nassau likewise lost no time in Frize­land, but did mightily annoy the enemie, taking diuers forts, as those of Gramberg, Wedde, &c. vsing all meanes to reduce the [Page 158] towne of Groeninguen to extremitie; but the sayd Earle percei­uing the enemie to be too strong for him, and that he had taken the towne of Ootmarsen, and fearing if he should go to encounter Verdugo, the enemie might inuade Frizeland, he marched with his forces towards the Lecke, and knowing that the forces of Sloch­teren, Wintschoten and Wedde, with other small Skonses in the vaert or passage, could not long hold out against the canon, hee sent them word on paine of death not to yeeld the sayd places, till the canon were planted against them: this he did to win time, and to be the better able to finish his chiefe fort vpon the Bourtagne, which he had begun; to master and oppresse those of Grounin­guen, and he had alreadie brought it so forward, as by the situati­on thereof no canon could be brought to batter it: The rampiers were of the hight of a pike, the Dike was at least fourescore foot broad, full of water and verie deepe: It had fiue bulwarks, two of them faced the enemie, the storehouse was built, and the souldiers cabins made, and it was prouided of all necessaries for two mo­neths, and beside, they might fetch whatsoeuer they needed from the countrie of Westphalia, in despite of the enemie. There lay fiue ensignes of foot in it, commaunded by the Gouernor Gerard the yonger, and if this fort could be kept, they made no doubt but in time to take the towne of Groninguen. Therefore Count Willi­am, perceiuing Verdugo to be master of the field, and that he ex­pected greater forces vnder the conduct of Count Herman of Ber­ghen, he durst in no sort stir abroad, but stood on his defence, loo­king for more ayd vnder the comaund of Sir Frauncis Veer and o­thers, and his Excellencie had promised him if need were, to come himselfe thither with an armie.

The Grouninguers requested Verdugo to diuide his forces into two troopes, and to besiege Reyden, and Bellingwoderzile, there­by to cut off victuals from the fort of Bourtange, and to that end they were readie to send him sixe double canon: But he allowed not thereof, fearing least Count William comming to Slochteren Skonse would cut off his passage betwixt that and Grouninguen, and hinder the comming of his canon: and though he should be­siege those towns, he was in doubt to be daily assailed by him. And because Verdugo in that place could not make vse of his horsemen, he resolued to goe and besiege the Fort of Bourtange, where in a short space he wanted victuals, and was enforced on a sodaine to [Page 159] raise his siege, causing a report to be made that he ment to besiege Coevoerden, and so matched on Groeninguens side, from thence craftily taking his way in October towards Count Williams campe, to assaile him on the sodaine and vnlookt for, which he might easi­ly haue done, had not a souldier stollen forth of a little Skonse by which Verdugo passed, and giuen th'alarme, by which meanes the campe arriued, which the same day began to fortifie and intrench, and had almost made it defensible: the enemie could come no nea­rer it than within musket shot, and onely made some skirmish which continued sixe or seuen houres till night, in which time Verdugo sought to draw them forth into the field; but Count Wil­liam would not come forth of his fortifications, so as Verdugo was enforced to retire towards Groeninguen with great losse, by rea­son of his long skirmishes. Count William lost one Captaine and many braue souldiers, the Scottish colonel Balfour was hurt in the foot with diuers others.

Verdugo perceiuing his attempts on Count Williams campe to be vaine, and that winter would driue him forth of the field, and fin­ding but small store of victuals in the countrie, because that the boores of the Ommelands and countrie of Drent were retired into the forts and townes, he marched towards Coevoerden: and seeing that the countrie on one side of the towne was high, he caused a way to be made within canon shot of it, with hurdles and fagots, couering them with grauell taken from vnder the mudd in the marshes, and on this way he caused two or three forts to be built as farre as the Drossarts house, and that of Steenwijck, and by that meanes did shut vp the towne passages from those of Coevoerden, in that maner besieging them. But these forts being wet and mud­die, many souldiers died in them that winter to the number of two thousand. Verdugo, with the remainder of his forces, went to­wards Oldenzell, where most of his souldiers afflicted with po­uertie and sicknesse ran from him both horse and foot. Of 2000 Lorraines, onely foure hundred were left; seuen ensignes of Wa­lons were brought to so small a number, as they durst not for ve­rie shame vnfold their colours. Verdugo went to Lingen to meet with a new regiment of foot, leuied by the young Duke of Saxonie, whose Lieutenant Colonel was by the garrison of Deuti­cum and others, taken prisoner, and an hundred of his men slaine, the rest fled. In the meane time, Verdugo and Count Herman sent [Page 160] consolatorie letters to the Groeninguers, which were intercepted, whereby they intreated them to take courage, for they were going into Brabant to craue more ayd of Ernestus.

Count William thus freed from his enemie, sent part of his for­ces to garrison, and placed another part at Visflit to keepe the pas­sage of Vrijse against the enemie, and himselfe with three thou­sand men embarked at Zoltcampe, and went towards Bellingwol­derzill, to recouer the Fort of Wedde, which they tooke, and whol­ly finished the new Fort of Bourtange, making prouisions to send to those of Coevoerden during the frost. The Grouninguers in the mean time made readie a conuoy to send to Verdugos forces before Coevoerden; but Count Philip of Nassau lay in wait for it with 500 horse, and his enterprise being discouered, hee tooke but fiftie wa­gons.

Coevoerden by reason of Verdugos forts hauing beene oppres­sed by 300 foot, and foure hundred horse; the vnited Prouinces, did in Germanie leuie a regiment of Almans vnder the conduct of count Euerard of Solms, cousin german to prince Maurice, together with certaine horse: the Queene of England likewise permitted them to raise a regiment of English in her realme, who were com­maunded by Sir Frauncis Veer. Verdugo and Count Herman were busied at Bruxels, crauing more ayd of Ernestus. The Grounin­guers sent a present of siluer plate, and twentie goodly horse to count Ernest of Mansfelt, which were taken by the States souldiers. That done, his Excellencie with his whole Cauallerie, and two and fiftie ensignes of foot went towards Arnham, there to receiue his cousen count Euerard of Solms, the regiment of Almaus, and certaine horse, but their arriuall was delayed by reason of the high waters and bad wayes, so as they were enforced to come by boat. Verdugo had likewise done his best to assaile them nere to Lippe at a narrow passage: He went from Coevoerden with eleuen cornets of horse, and certaine foot companies, but he came too late, because they were alreadie gone. These forces beeing come nere to Ys­seloort consisting of two thousand sixe hundred foot, and 260 horse, the States sent a commaund to the next garrisons to meet nere to Zwoll, whether Prince Maurice likewise came, to goe and raise the siege of Coevoerden. Ernestus suspecting it, sent for­ces thither from Brabant, but his Excellencie made shew to stop their passage ouer the Rhyne, and so kept them backe as much as [Page 161] as in him lay. In the meane time he made hast to joyne with count William of Naslau, who had alreadie prouided 1000 wagons, with all manner of prouisions, and had now 10000 foot, and 2000 gal­lant horse, who met both together at Zwoll, and on the 5 of May, they went from thence in good order to Dae'ffem, & the 6 of May, in like order to Ommen: Verdugo thought it not good to attend them, but resolued, on the 6 of May, to raise his siege and to quit the forts by night, and the same day he departed without sound of drum, 'ogether with al his old regiments, as those of Chimay, Aren­berg, the counts Herman and Frederick of Berghen, marching to­wards Lingen, diuers of his men running from him by the way, so as Coevoerden was freed from the siege, and the forts taken and manned against the enemies assaults.

¶ The siege and taking of the towne and countrie of Groenin­guen, in Anno 1594.

AFter that his Excellencie by Gods help had raised the siege of Co­evoerden, & wel prouided it of al necessaries after Verdugos de­parture: he was vnwilling to let slip or loose any occasion which might serue for the good and profit of the state of those countries: and therfore marched with his armie into the land of Groninguen, whether part of Verdugos forces were retired, shewing himselfe be­fore the towne. And, on the 20 of May, he enuironed it, and sent to summon it to yeeld: the townesmen made a curteous answer, That their towne was too strong to yeeld so soone: whereupon, he cau­sed all his warlike prouisions (which were in a maner numberlesse) to be vnshipt and landed. He had an hundred and fortie ensigns of foot: he quartered his cauallerie at Suytlaten vpon the wayes, to gard the passages, which being wel kept, he could not easily be dri­uen from his siege.The sort of Au­warder [...]j [...]l ta­ken the last of May. Count William, on the last of May, sent 8 ensigns of Prisons before the fort of Auwaerd-zijll, where 135 men lay, who were assaulted and battered, with 8 pieces of ordnance; & after 182 shot had made a breach, they gaue an assault on the one side with bridges and ladders, whilest some on the other side (the besieged mistrusting no such matter, because the marshes lay on that side) passed on hurdles & bridges secretly vnder the rampiers, & moun­ted [Page 162] the fort, firing the powder and cabins; where captaine Prenger was slaine.

The besieged, being terrified with their surprisal, begged for mer­cie, which was not graunted, because, not long before the taking of the fort, they had vsed some crueltie, and giuen vile and hautie spee­ches to the drum that summoned them to yeeld: whereupon, they were all slaine (some 8 or 9 excepted.) It was a verie strong place, 20 of our men were slaine there, and threescore hurt.

On the 28 of May, his Excellencie summoned those of the fort of Slochteren, who refused to yeeld, yet they fled away by night, as did those of the fort of Hagenbrug, & other Skonses. Before the taking of these forts there was scarcitie in the camp, these skonses enclosing all the passages, but afterwards all things were verie cheape there, by reason of a channell they made, by which all prouisions were brought to the great campe by boat.

His Excellencie had with him more than sixtie pieces of ordnance of all sorts; and the better to plant his canon, was constrayned to begin a farre off, because the townesmen made a fierce counterbat­terie vpon him, for they had store of ordnance, with more than 400 great barrels of powder and other necessaries, so as few townes in the Netherlands were so well prouided. The towne is verie popu­lous, and the Burghers trained vp in armes, of great antiquitie, and haue a long time liued in freedome: there was no garrison in it, but the meaner sort of the inhabitants serued in stead of souldiers, and receiued pay from the king of Spayne. Beside these, they had still Verdugos troopes at their commaund, and now during the siege, fiue ensignes of old souldiers, vnder the conduct of colonel George de Lauckema, who lay without the towne in a strong place called Schuytendiep, beneath the town walls, and were there readie vpon any occasion.

Prince Maurice with his ordnance did no great harm to the town, whose rampiers, bulwarks & rauelins were exceeding strong, from whence they made aboue 4000 shot vpon the campe.

They likewise made sundrie fallies, especially vpon the English quarter, where, among others, the Captaines Brooke and Wray were slaine. Those of Schuytendiep, also, did on a time in the tren­ches, surprise Hittinga and Hardo, Captaines of two companies of Frizons, whose matches the raine had put out; they slew fif­teen men, and tooke seuenteene prisoners, together with the two [Page 563] ensignes: whereupon, the trenches round about the campe were made stronger.

Our men shot wildfire into the towne, so as many that were bu­sied in quenching it, perished by the canon: and the besiegers profi­ted little by battering the rampiers, because the besieged did speedi­ly repaire them: our men did beat down a gate, and a way or bridge leading to a Rauelin, and did likewise vndermine certaine Bul­warkes, filling the Dikes, so that the Burghers by little and little began to be discouraged, as also for that their messengers sent to Ernestus and Verdugo gaue them small hope: whereupon, by cer­taine trumpets and other messengers they began to treat on meanes of capitulation. This treatie being suspected by diuers (as the ma­riners and Iesuits) who feared that the meaner sort would carrie it away, did, vnknowne to all the rest, call the fiue companies that lay at Schuytendiep into the towne,Content [...] be­ [...] [...]t t [...]ose of Groeni [...]g [...]n. against whom the Burghers presently rose, in which tumult diuers were slaine, and some of their houses who had mentioned the treatie ransackt, as among o­thers that of Iohn de Bour. At last they agreed in friendly manner, that the souldiers should returne to the trenches. This nowithstan­ding, they thought it fit to continue their treatie with the besie­gers, by meanes of the sayd Iohn de Bour, so as they sent hostages to the campe, crauing fifteene daies respit, with cessation of armes, which was denied them.

They likewise demanded by the sayd du Bour, Whether in for­mer time there had not beene a treatie motioned to the Duke of Brunswick by the mediation of Count Hobenlo, whereby the duke propounded certaine conditions vnto them, and if they might not now capitulat on the same conditions? and therupon, they sent like­wise to count Hobenlo, who made answer, That it was now too late, and that the times were changed.

His Excellencie, on the 12 of Iulie, as he lookt ouer the tren­ches, receiued a shot vpon his targuet, which stroke him down to the ground.

Whilest the sayd Prince vndermined a great and strong rauelin before the East-gate, on which the townesmen had plan­ted foure canon, these Mynes being readie to be fired, they gaue a false alarme and assault to the rauelin,The great [...]. from which (being repul­sed) they retired on a sodaine, and vpon a certaine signall, gaue fire to the bigger myne which was blown vp, together with whatsoeuer [Page 164] was vpon the rauelin, as also 140 men who were cast into the camp, of whom one was aliue: wherupon, our men leapt vpon the raue­lin, and there slew as many as were left aliue, driuing the rest into the dikes, and presently entrenched themselues: they found a soul­dier vnder ground who was still aliue, together with foure canons, two of which the Burghers with cordes drew into the towne: two hundred were slaine there.

The rauelin thus lost, and fearing other mynes in other places might cause a greater daunger, the Burghers that serued as souldi­ers, and were called May Birds, began likewise to be discouraged, and were not so opposit to agreement as before. So as the chiefe Burghers fearing that the towne would bee more vndermined, did by mutual consent send their comissioners, both from the cler­gie and magistracie of the towne, as likewise from colonel Lauke­ma, together with hostages, treating from the sixteenth to the two and twentieth of Iulie,Those of Gra­ninguen capitu­late. with his Excellencie and count William of Nassau: who by aduice of the Councell of State, did on honou­rable conditions graunt, that they should liue in their rights and priuiledges, as other Prouinces to whom they should bee vnited; and concerning their contention with the Ommelands and coun­trie nere adjoyning, the true motiue and beginning of the war, they should therein referre themselues to my Lords the generall States: and for matters of religion, should conforme themselues like to o­ther countries, accepting Count William of Nassau gouernour of Frizeland, for their gouernour, together with fiue companies of souldiers. The articles thereof we haue thought good to insert, for better satisfaction of the curious Reader, because it is a mightie towne, and may well be termed a Prouince.

FIrst, all wrongs, iniuries and offences perpetrated since the be­ginning of these troubles & late alterations, as likewise whatsoe­uer hath beene done during the present siege of Groeninguen, in what place or manner soeuer, either generall or particular, as well within as without, shalbe pardoned and forgotten, as things neuer done, so as no more mention nor enquirie shall be made thereof to call any man to question; on penaltie that the infractors and transgressors hereof shall be held, accounted, and punished as de­sturbers of the publique peace and quiet.

2 Those of the Magistracie and inhabitants of Groeninguen shal promise & accept, as by these presents they do accept and promise, [Page 165] to re-vnite themselues to the vnited Prouinces of the Netherlands, as dependants thereof, and to continue loyall to my Lords the ge­neral States of the said prouinces; & so consequently those of Groe­ninguen, as a member joyned to other prouinces, shall vnsaigned­ly like good confederats entertain firme and inuiolable friendship together; and at all times, and vpon all occasions shall ayd and as­sist one another, and resist the Spaniards & their adherents, as those who contrarie to all right and reason haue gone about to oppresse the subjects, and to depriue them of their goods, keeping them in perpetuall miserie and bondage.

3 Those of Groeninguen shall likewise liue in their rights, pri­uiledges, liberties, franchises and immunities.

4 Againe, those of the towne, and the Ommelanders or coun­trie nere adjoyning, making appearance to giue their generall voyce, shall rest satisfied and gouerne themselues according to the sentence pronounced & declared by my lords the generall States, vpon due consideration of the cause.

5 That my Lord Count William of Nassau &c. Gouernour of Groeninguen and the Ommelanders, according to the tenure of my Lords the generall States commission, shall be acknowledged, receiued, and so held: and that the strife now present, or which may hereafter arise betwixt the towne of Groeninguen and the Omme­landers, shall be referred according to the decision and dispose of my Lords the States generall or their deputies.

6 Moreouer, none other Religion shall be vsed in the town and countrie of Groeninguen, but the reformed, in the same manner as it is publiquely in vse in the vnited Prouinces, on condition that no man shall be enforced in his conscience. That all Cloisters and ecclesiastical goods shal continue in the same estate they now stand, till the state of the towne of the Ommelands shall be duely refor­med by my Lords the generall States, on condition, that then, the Prouinces themselues shall giue order for the bestowing of the goods and entertainement of the ecclesiasticall persons: alwayes prouided, that whatsoeuer belongs to the commanderies of Wit­wert, Oosterbirum and others, shall be held and disposed of ac­cording to the commaunderies which are in other of the vnited Prouinces.

7 That for the generall safetie of the towne, and likewise to pre­uent and hinder all tumults and diuision among the Burghers and [Page 170] inhabitants, those of Groeninguen shal receiue fiue or six foot com­panies, who by aduise of the Magistrat, and to the least prejudice of the Burghers and inhabitants shall be prouided of lodging, or money to prouide it, according to the agreement which shall be made betwixt the Lord gouernour and those of the towne and countrie.

8 As for certaine forts which are to be raced, it shal be done ac­cording to the first conuenient occasion, and as my Lords the ge­nerall States shall thinke fit.

9 That the towne of Groeninguen, together with the Omme­landers, in that which concernes the generall meanes and contribu­tions seruing for direction of the common cause, shall hereafter conforme themselues like other contributorie Prouinces.

10 Beside, concerning rates and contributions, which till now haue beene rated, contributed and receiued, as likewise demaines which haue beene accountable, the accounts thereof shall be held for good. And those which haue not been accounted, the accounts shall be made before the old lords, on condition they shall not meddle with the receipt of any remainders.

11 Againe, all those that were fled from the towne of Groenin­guen and the Ommelands, or their heires, shall be againe restored to their goods, it they be not yet alienated or sold, wherein singular curtesie and modestie shall be vsed.

12 And concerning goods immouable sold or alienated, eyther for debts or morgage, and likewise such as haue beene confiscat, the said heires may recouer the sayd goods, in redeeming them for themselues within the terme of foure yeares, and by repaying the value of the principall mony, together with the rent thereof: wher­upon, the reuenewes which the buyer hath receiued shall be aba­ted: and if any contention shall arise thereupon, it shall be referred to the deciding of an ordinarie and competent Iudge.

13 Againe, it shall be lawfull for all Burghers of the towne of Groeninguen, whether they be ecclesiasticall persons or others, freely to remaine in the towne, or to withdraw themselues into o­ther townes or places newtrall as shall seeme best vnto them, and there to continue and enjoy their goods: prouided, they goe not to the enemie side.

14 All straungers of what qualitie or nation soeuer, now pre­sently remaining in the said towne shall be comprehended in this [Page 171] treatie, and may reside there or in any newtrall place so as they will sweare to be loyall to the States of the vnited Prouinces.

15 All letters of rent, debt, and morgage of all Abbots, Prelats, and ecclesiasticall persons as well forraine as domestick, that du­ring these troubles haue retired themselues to the towne of Groeninguen, made for their entertainement, shall be decided by the Estates and Magistrats of the Prouince or towne, wherein their Monasteries or Colledges doe stand, according to equitie.

16 The deputies of this towne of Groeninguen, being in com­mission at Bruxels, together with their seruants and goods, shall be comprehended in this agreement: prouided, they returne within three moneths.

17 Those Burghers that were taken prisoners during this siege, shall be set at libertie, paying their ransome.

18 The towne shall be gouerned by the Magistrat, sauing that he and those of the comminaltie that are sworne, shall for this once be established by his Excellencie and Count William, with consent of the Councell of State; and euer after, the election of the Magi­strat shall be done according to the auntient custome: So as in stead of distribution of beanes (a ceremonie by them vsed) the said lord Earle as gouernour may chose fiue euen among the 24 that are sworne, who shall proceed to election of the Magistrat according to the auntient custome: and this to continue so long as the wars shall last.

19 Againe, it shall not be lawfull for any man by meanes of this vnion, to transport or resigne the towne of Groeninguen to any king, prince, lord, or common-wealth, without the mutuall con­sent of the said town, nor yet to build any new castle there, to gard or countermaund it.

20 The Magistracie and Burghers of Groeninguen, shal take the same oath to continue loyall, as others haue done.

21 Moreouer, all prouisions, either of money, warlike munition, victuals, ordnance, and such like, sent into the towne of Groenin­guen, belonging to the king of Spain, or otherwise sent thither du­ring the war, shalbe deliuered to his General or his commissioners.

22 The king of Spaines souldiers shall depart forth of the town of Groeninguen, and from Schuytendiep.

¶ Here followeth the agreement concluded with the Lieu­tenaunt generall George Laukema, and souldiers of the garrison.

FIrst, the sayd Lieutenant, together with the Captains, officers, and soul­diers (those excepted which in former time haue serued vnder the States) their wiues, followers, and baggage, shall freely and without any molestation depart with their armes and ensignes (which his Excellencie at the intercession of the commissioners of the towne of Groeninguen hath graunted them, without sound of drumme, and match lighted) forth of the said towne and campe, without any impediment either in bodie or goods, and shall be safely conducted by the riuer Drent to gouernour Verdugos campe, and from thence ouer the Rhyne, on promise not to serue on the hi­therside of that riuer for three moneths.

2 That his Excellencie for the better carrying of their stuffe and bag­gage, and for ease of women, children, sicke and hurt persons, shall fur­nish them with eightie wagons for their vse, with a commissarie and safe conuoy, such as his Excellencie shall thinke good to appoint, who shall con­duct them to Ootmarsen, or at farthest to Oldenzeell: And the sayd Lau­kema shall be bound to leaue some of his Captaines as caution for the safe returne of those wagons.

3 All Captaines, officers and souldiers, who by reason of their wounds and sicknesse cannot endure to trauell by wagon, shall remain in the towne till they haue recouered their healths, and then, pasport shalbe giuen them to returne to their companies, either by land or water.

4 That Captaine Wyngaerden, hauing paied for his expences, shall goe his way without ransome, as likewise all souldiers, victuallers, and carters of the campe that are prisoners in the towne.

5 That all goods belonging to Verdugo, remayning in the sayd towne, shall freely be carried to a place appointed, or else may remaine safely in the Towne, till the sayd Lord gouernour haue otherwise disposed of them.

6 That all horse and baggage belonging to the king of Spaines officers (such as are now absent) shall haue free passage and be conducted together with the other souldiers.

7 That all those who doe presently reside in the towne of Groeninguen, [Page 173] of what Nation soeuer, officers, and others, all Churchmen, as the two fa­thers Iesuits, and other temporal persons that were willing to depart with the souldiers, their wiues, children, familie, cattell and goods, may enioy the benefit of the same aboue mentioned conuoy and safety.

8 And if any of the said inhabitants, either man or woman, by reason of their priuat affaires, cannot depart with the said souldiers and conuoy, six moneths are graunted them from the day of the date of this present accord, during which time they may remaine here and finish their busi­nesse, and afterwards depart with their goods and families either by land or water whither soeuer they shall please.

9 That all Captaines, commaunders, and souldiers, that are indebted to the Burghers, shall be bound to make satisfaction before their departure: and if there be any stuffe or baggage belonging to those that are absent who are indebted to any Burgher, the said goods shall be detained till such time as the creditors be fully satisfied.

10 That the Lieutenant generall, Captaines, commanders and priuate souldiers shall depart (this accord once concluded) without any longer de­lay forth of the towne of Groeninguen, Schuytendiep, and other vsuall places of their retreat.

Hereupon, Groeninguen yeelded the next day, being the 23 of Iulie, which did not greatly please his Excellencies souldiers, who hoped to haue taken it by force, and to haue sacked it; but the other Prouinces thought good to preserue and vnite it to the rest, decla­ring that they managed war as well for their neighbours profit as their owne libertie. The companies of Count William of Nassau, of Iohn de Niell, Charles de Vijngaerden, of Steenhuyse, Cobbe, and Ap­pell, entred into it: the like did his Excellencie and Count William, who visited the rampiers, which they found to bee verie strong. Tenne thousand canon shot were made vpon the towne, which in powder & bullets cost 100000 florins. Of our men 400 were slain, besides those that were hurt: of the besieged, 300 were slaine, and many Burghers. Six and thirtie brasen pieces, with many of yron, were found in the towne.

His Excellencie did afterwards change the magistrats according to the articles. These two following verses were likewise made, con­taining the day and yeare of the townes taking. [Page 174]

QVI nt ILI In Patr IVM foe DVs GrunInga reVersa est,
Et noVa Nassa VIs parta trophoea VIrIs.

Generall Laukema with his souldiers in number 295 men depar­ted, together with 100 that were sicke and wounded, and marched towards Oldenzeel where Verdugo lay; Count Frederic went to his gouernement at Lingen, and placed garrisons in Grolle and other townes, sending certaine regiments and 8 cornets of horse, beyond the Rhyne, whom count Philip of Nassau in vaine pursued. Prince Maurice returned to the Hague; all townes through which he pas­sed, congratulated and honoured him with triumphs and presents. The souldiers were sent to garrison, 900 horse excepted, that made incursions into the countries of Luxembourg and Flanders.

The general States of the vnited prouinces, set forth certain ships towards Noua Zemla and the Eastern Indies, in an. 1594. & 1595.

ALthough it may seeme impertinent to set down (among the ma­ny gallant victories which the Authour of all goodnesse hath by his Excellencies conduct graunted to these countries) the admi­rable, strange, and tedious voyages to the Northward, Way-gate, and Noua Zemla, as also towards the East-Indies; yet for diuers reasons following, I cannot forget or passe them ouer in silence. First, albeit the Northerne voyage hath not much profited these countries, yet those to the Easterne Indies, haue on the contrarie beene verie commodious: So as my lords the generall States haue much annoyed the king of Spaine in those parts, who thinkes that these countries doe alone belong vnto him; and haue thereby much diminished his power and reuenews, and freed the Nether­lands from more grieuous and tedious warre. Secondly, I thought good here to insert them, that when the Reader shal look vpon the victories which these vnited prouinces haue obtained against the king of Spaine, he may here likewise find the valorous actions of our countrimen, and al that they haue done and endured abroad in forreine countries many thousand miles from home, to the ruine & diminution of the greatnesse of this Spanish Pharao: as also by this meanes the better to moue and incite their children & successors to the like, or if it be possible to greater & more noble enterprises. 3. To [Page 175] the end that the inhabitants of these vnited Prouinces may neuer forget but alway remember, that the Almightie and onely good God, hath not alone thus blessed, preserued and defended them from the power of the king of Spaine and his bloudie Councell: but likewise how so small a countrie hath beene able to make head against the mightiest potentate of Christendome, hauing not one­ly kept their owne, but inuaded him in his owne land, as we alrea­die haue and will hereafter set down: Beside, that these countries for the space of fortie yeares that the wars haue lasted (contrarie to the nature of war) are become so rich and potent, as in the midst of all these great sieges so dearely bought, they haue yet been able to send forth ships (with exceeding expence) to annoy their enemies. We will first speake of the Northern voyages, and of Noua Zemla.

The vnited Prouinces liuing vnder a free gouernement, hauing shaken off the Pope and king of Spaines yoke, excelling all nations in the world in nauigation and number of ships, the countrie bee­ing full of good mariners and men skilful in marine matters, wher­in they are more expert than others, as appeares by their works and learned Cosmographies, thought it fit to lay hold on that occasion which in former times had bin snatched from them by their soue­raignes the Emperor Charles the 5 and his son king Philip, in regard of the Spaniards and Portuguise, who were first discouerers of the new & Eastern Indies; so as by aduise of diuers Pilots and learned Cosmographers, they haue caused a way and passage to be sought out to the North-East, to passe by Tartarie to the countries of Ca­thay, China, and Eastern Indies, and so to the Islands of Iapan, Mo­lucques, &c. which, by two voyages made by the English, the first by sir Francis Drake, and the other by Candish, who compassed the world, hath bin more and more discouered. The Englishmen haue often sought out this way to the Northward, as in an̄ 1553, by Hugh Willoughby & Rich. Chancelor: Willoughby went into Groenland, where he was frozen, and there found more than a yere after, together with his men and prouision. But Chancelor arriued in Muscouy, and dis­couered that way which the English & Flemmings haue euer since yearely vsed. After that, Setphen Burrows in anno 1556, and after him in the yeare 1580, Arthure Pet and Charles Iackman English­men, found out a passage by Way-gate towardes Tartarie: And then Oliuer Brunell of Holland discouered the riuer of Pechora. But al these (though they seemed not to be far off from the passage) [Page 176] could neuer find it. The English likewise sought out a passage to the North-West, along the coast of America, or new Fraunce, as sir Martin Forbisher thrice with diuers ships.

After him, Iohn Dauies discouered two hundred leagues further, thinking to find America to be an Island, and to passe behind the North to the Southward, and so to goe to China, but hitherto no­thing hath been done.

In this regard, the States of the vnited Prouinces, did, toward the end of the yeare 1594, sent foure ships to those parts, one, a ship of Amsterdam, vnder the commaund of William Barrentsen; one of Zeland, of Campeveer, vnder Cornelius Cornelison; and one of En­chuysen, with Iohn Hugh of Linschoten, who had remained in the Indies with Isebrand Tetcales. All these setting saile on the fifth of Iune, those of Amsterdam tooke an higher course seuentie seuen degrees to the Northward (where in August they met with store of yee and sea monsters) giuing names to hauens: but the mariners being vnwilling, who feared that they should not be able to passe forward, they resolued to returne. The two other ships met with Islands, vnto which they gaue names. At last, they likewise found a passage, euen in a mist, as if God had brought them vnto it, for which they thanked him. They found that strait to be verie com­medious and deepe, wherein great and small ships might ride, and to be fiue or six leagues in length: and after that sailed into a grea­ter, larger and warmer Sea, where they saw the yce to melt before their faces, and so went to the coast of Tartarie neere to the riuer Oby,The strait of Nassau found out to the North-East­ward, in anno 1595. where they found Islands, men, and a fertile soile. They gaue names to those countries, and called the strait, the strait of Nassau, and as they supposed they might haue passed on farther, if they had had commission so to doe, and more prouision; and so rejoycing, they returned to the strait, setting vp markes euerie where, and on the sixteenth of September in anno 1595, they came backe to Am­sterdam.

Vpon the report, the States resolued to further the voyage, be­ing desirous to plant the Christian faith in those countries, not af­ter the Spanish manner by force of armes, but by Christian means, dealing gently with the inhabitants, therby seeking to augmēt their nauigation, fishing and traffique; this way being two thousand Ger­man leagues shorter than the Portugals voiage, by the cape of Good hope, much safer and free from Pirats, and lesse subject to diseases, [Page 177] because they need not passe the Equinoctiall lyne as the Portugals doe, foure times, forward and backward.

The States of the vnited Prouinces, caused another voyage to be made, and the yere following sent forth seuen ships, two from Am­sterdam, two from Enchusen, two from Zeland, and one from Rot­terdam: six were loden with all kind of Merchandize and mo­ney, euerie ship hauing his committee for traffike: the seuenth, be­ing a small vessell, was commaunded to returne, so soone as the o­thers were past the cape of Tabin (which they met with before they come to the last point of Tartarie) to bring home newes of the other ships. Iacob de Heemskerck, was committee general of the fleet, and William Barrentson chiefe Pilot. Some of them were comman­ded to winter in those quarters, to know how long the winter and yce doth continue, hauing to that end prouision with them to make Stoues. The most learned Cosmographers doubt not of the passage, but onely of the promontorie of Tabins extension more to the Northward, which diuers thinke to be impossible, because that cer­tain Indians (as Plinie writes seuentie & two yeres before the birth of Christ) were by tempest throwne vpon the coast of Germanie,People of the Eastern Indies, throwne in for­mer time by tempest vpon the coast of Germanie. and presented to Quintus Metellus Celer, gouernour for the Ro­mans in Fraunce. Since then, some came into Swethland, and o­thers (as Dominicus Niger writes) came in the Emperour Frederick Barbarossus time, in the yeare 1160, and after that (as Otho speakes in his Historie of the Goths) certaine Indians of the Eastern Indies were cast vpon our coast: so as there is hope, that by the same way that these people came (being aliue and in health and not knowing any place) our men being wel furnished of all necessaries may make discouerie, or may fal vpon the riuers of Oby and Quian, which go farre vp into Tartarie; from whence they may more and more dis­couer countries. If this passage could be found out, traffike would be changed ouer the whole world; for those countries do abound in silke, cotton, wooll, lead, tinne, copper, gold, siluer, and pretious stones. The chiefe aduenturers in this voyage, for Zeland, are, Ia­cob Valck Tresorer of Zeland, Christopher Roelsins pentioner to the States of Zeland, with diuers merchants, as Balthasar Moucheron; and at Amsterdam, Peter Plancius, Iohn Ianson Charles, Dirrick de Osse, and many others.

These seuen ships, vpon hope of good successe, did altogether on the second of Iulie, depart from Texell to the Northward, and [Page 178] sayling towards the North-East, in an̄ 1595, they found too much yce at the strait of Nassau; for by reason of contrarie winds they came thither too late: and after sundrie daungers and difficulties, without attaining their wished Port, returned, on the 18 of No­uember, the same yeare, into the Mase, not despairing for all that to find out the passage some other time. Whereupon, the same voyage was againe attempted the third time by the Magistrats of the towne of Amsterdam (because the States of the vnited Prouin­ces were no longer willing to prosecute that discouerie at the coun­tries cost, but promised to giue a good summe of money to him that should find out the same passage) who, at the beginning of the yeare 1596, manned forth two ships, and agreed with the mariners on two conditions, viz. what to haue, if they performed not the voyage, and what recompence they should haue if they found out the way to China: promising them great reward if they could dis­couer the passage. They tooke as few married men as could be, because they would not haue them to returne home by their loue to their wiues and children, before they had prosecuted the jour­ney.

The Master, and Committee for trade in one of the ships, was Iacob de Heemskerck, and the chiefe Pilot William Barentsoon; and in the other Iohn Cornellison Rijp was Master and Committee.

On the 16 of May 1596, they went from the Vlie, but by a North­East wind were with great danger enforced to put in againe: And on the 18 of the sayd moneth they pursued their journey, and say­led so farre to the Northward, as on the 19 of Iune they came to the height of eightie degrees and eleuen minutes, where they des­cried a new countrie, whether they bent their course, and entred certaine leagues vp into a Bay: they supposed this countrie to be Groenland, which stands vnder the height of 80 degrees, where they found greene grasse, cattel feeding vpon it, and farre lesse cold and yce than when they were vnder the height of 76 degrees.

From thence they returned to an Island, which they had before named the land of Beares, in regard of the great number of white beares they found there, nere to this Island the two ships departed from one another: Iohn Cornellis sayled backe againe towardes eightie degrees, thinking there to find a passage on the East-side of the sayd countrie; but that ship did no great matter, but returned home into Holland.

[Page 179]The other, wherein William Barentsoon and Heemskerke were, sai­led towards Noua Zemla, where they rounded the coasts to the Northward, till they came to an Island called the Isle of Orange, in the height of 77 degrees: from whence they went South­ward, where they found much yce, so as they could discouer the land no farther: and on the last of August went with their ship to land, where it was soone frozen, so as they were enforced to remain there, where they resolued to build an house with timber which they found on the Sea shore, into which they carried their victu­als and merchandize, and there continued all winter, where they were extreamely tormented with cold and snow: the like whereof was neuer heard. The inner walls of this house where these thir­teene or foureteene men lay, was frozen an handfull thicke onely with their breaths, notwithstanding they kept a continuall fire day and night.

They were likewise much molested with white beares, which de­uoured some of their men: there were store of white foxes, which they tooke and did eat.Perpetual night in Noua Zemla all winter till the 27 of Ianuarie. All winter long they saw no day nor sunne till the foure and twentieth of Ianuarie 1596, when it appeared a little, but on the seuen and twentieth of the said moneth, they saw the sunne in his full circumference.

The 22 of Iune, these men departed thence with two great boats which they had prouided, and left their ship sticking still in the yce. They left a written scrowle in the house, put vp into the bandelier of a musket, which they hung vp in the chimney, wherein was written, how they came thither with an intent to goe from Noua Zemla to China, & how necessitie had enforced them to returne home in two boats. In this manner, with much trauell, miserie and cold, they arriued on the second of October 1597, at Cola in Lapland, where they found their other ship with Iohn Cornellis, who had alreadie made one voyage into Holland, and to­gethether with him returned home on the 26 of October, but Wil­liam Barrentsoon dyed by the way.

Hauing briefely spoken of the voyages to Noua Zemla, we will now proceed to those of the Easterne Indies. The reasons mouing my lords the States, and the inhabitants of these countries to begin and vndertake these voyages, are these.

They perceiued that their trade with Spaine grew euerie day more daungeros, for their ships were stayed, goods confiscat, their [Page 180] masters and merchants imprisoned vnder colour that they came from the Low-countries, and were questioned by those of the In­quisition concerning their religion, or else enforced for poore wa­ges to serue the king against their countrie and conscience.

These considerations moued some to establish a companie, and to seeke meanes to trade to the Eastern Indies: so as in the yeare 1594, nine merchants of Amsterdam entred into an association together, viz. Henrick Hudde, Reynier Pau, Peter Dirrickson Hasse­laer, Iohn Ianson Carrel, Iohn Poppe, Henrick Buyck, Dirrick de Osse, Siuert Peter, and Aert of Grootenhuys: these were the first that traded to the Eastern Indies, and were termed The farre companie. They built foure new ships, viz. two great ones of the burthen of foure hundred and sixtie tunne, the one was called Mauritius in ho­nour of Prince Maurice, and carried sixe brasen pieces, and foure­teene of yron, being well stored with small shot, and manned with eightie foure men, hauing for Master Iohn Ianson Molender, and Cornellis Houtman for committee. The other was called Hollandia, manned with eightie fiue men, and carried seuen pieces of brasse, twelue of yron, with store of small shot: hir master was Iohn Dig­num, and the committee Gerard de Boninge. The third was termed Amsterdam, wherein were nine and fiftie men, six brasen pieces, tenne of yron, the master was Iohn Iacob Schillinger, & the commit­tee Reynier de Hel; it was of the burthen of two hundred tunne. The fourth was a pinnace called the Doue, of fiftie tunne, manned with twentie men, and carried two pieces of brasse, and six of yron, the masters name was Simon Lambrecht.

These ships being rigd and set forth by the States of Holland were bound for the East Indies, to begin the nauigation and trade of spice with the Indians, especially there where the Portugals had no commaund, thereby to auoyd Spanish impositions.

These foure new ships being well stored with all necessaries for a long voyage, and manned with two hundred and fiftie men, say­led from Texell the second of Aprill 1595, and held on their course towards the Cape of Good hope, where by the way they met with a Portugal Carrack, carrying the Archbishop of Goa to the Indies, which they might haue taken, yet according to their commission they medled not with it, but onely went aboord her as louing friends.

The second of August, they descried the sayd Cape, where their [Page 181] men grew verie sicke and some died, and hauing passed beyond the Cape, they cast ankor nere to the Isle of Madagascar or S. Lawrence, where they continued a long time:The Hollanders trade to the Indies and to Iana, in anno 1 [...]96. from thence they pursued their journey, and on the eleuenth of Iune, in anno 1596, they came neere to the Isle of Su [...]atra, and so visited all those countries round a­bout; from hence they sailed to the Island of La Major, to the merchant citie of Bantam, where they found merchants of Turkie, China, & other countries; there they began to buy pepper & spice, but by the enuy of the Portugals, they were maligned by the coun­tries gouernour, who at their instigation became their enemie.

The Indians after that, had like to haue surprised them vnder colour of friendship; diuers of the Hollanders committees, and the chiefe Pilot were slayne, so as they could not prosecute their trade any longer there: whereupon, perceiuing themselues to want men, they vnloded one of their ships called Amsterdam, and burnt it, the better to man the rest.

The eleuenth of Ianuarie 1597, they resolued to returne home­wards, and came to the Islle of Balie, scituat to the Eastward of the great Island Iaua, where they were kindly vsed and welcomed by the king, so that two Hollanders did voluntarily remaine in that countrie.

From thence, being well stored with rice, water, and such pro­uisions as they could get, they set saile on the one and twentieth of March 1597, to return homeward, and on the seuenth of May, dou­bled the cape of Good hope, and on the fiue and twentieth of the said moneth, came to S. Helens Island, where they found many Por­tugall Carracks, so as they durst not touch there, but passed on, and arriued at Texell in Holland on the 11 of August,The Hollanders returne home the 11 of Au­gust 1597. hauing bin two yeares and foure moneths abroad: of 250 men they brought home 90, and left some 160 behind them. They brought two boyes of Madagascar, and two of Sumatra with them, and one of China, who soone learned the Dutch Tongue, & gaue more ample know­ledge of their countries commodities.

The aboue mentioned companie of Amsterdam, notwithstan­ding the voyage had not beene verie profitable, resolued to send thither againe, in the yere 1 [...]98, & because there was another com­panie that were likewise willing to trade to the East Indies; be­cause they would not hinder one another, they joyned altogether. The new aduenturers were Vincent de Bronchoorst, Simeon Ianssen [Page 182] Fortune, Gouert Dircsen, Cornellis de Campen, Iacob Thomassen, Eldert Simonssen the younger, and Iohn Harmans.

Their ships were named, the one Mauritius, which had beene there alreadie, whose Master was Gouert Ianssen, the other, Amster­dam, of the burthen of six hundred tunne, the third, Hollandia, and had likewise been there before, Simeon Mau being Master ther­of; the fourth, Guelderland, of foure hundred tunne, and Iohn de Bruyn was hir Master; the fifth, Zeland, of two hundred and sixtie tunne, and Nicholas Iansz Melkman was her Master; the sixt was cal­led Vtrecht, of 260 tun: with two pinnaces, the one named Frize­land, and the other Ouer-Yssel. The Admeral of these eight ships, were Iacob de Neck, the Vice-Admerall Wybrant Warwijck: & beside these, there were seuen committees for the Councel, among whom was Heemskerck that had been in the last voyage to the Northward, all verie skilfull men, the ships were well furnisht with men and all other necessarie prouision, and on the first of May, they set sail from Texell towards Iaua. This companie did afterwards build foure great ships to send them the yeare following into those parts, the better thereby to continue the Nauigation.

In Zeland, a famous Merchant, named Balthasar de Moucheron, sent two ships likewise to the East Indies, the one called the Lyon, and the other the Lyonnesse, whose pilot was a verie skilfull English man, called Iohn Dauids; the chiefe committee was Cor­nellis Houtman, who went with the last fl [...]et from Amster­dam.

After these, at sundrie times other greater fleets were sent to the Indies; for the Merchants by this time felt the commoditie thereof, notwithstanding they had much to doe both with the Indians and Portugals; of which, if any one desire to haue fur­ther knowledge, I refer him to the descriptions thereof, which haue beene written and published.

¶ The taking of the towne of Huy in the countrie of Liege on the eighth of Februarie 1595.

CHarles of Herauguier, gouernor of Breda, the better to aduance the enterprises on the countries of Luxembourg and Namur, [Page 183] went forth of Breda on the last of Ianuarie, with twelue ensignes of foot, and foure cornets of horse, and marched towards the towne of Huy, which stands vpon the riuer Mase in the countrie of Liege: it is a fine towne, and hath a bridge ouer the Mase, and a Castle, and is the ordinarie aboad of the prince and bishop of Liege. In the Castle was a weake garrison, 24 or thirtie of our men were hid in a little house vnder the castle which stands high vpon a rock, ouer this little house was one of the Castles windowes: these thirtie men with a ladder made of ropes got vp to the window, which they brake and entred: some among them knew euerie cor­ner of the castle, so as in the Morning when the chiefe of the castle went forth of their houses thinking to goe to Masse, they were on a sodaine taken by the throat, bound, and layd in a dungeon; which done, they tooke the castle and gate, and some moued the towne to yeeld. The Burghers ran to armes, thinking to defend them­selues, but perceiuing Herauguier to come forwards with his troops, they compounded, and suffered him to enter with three ensignes of foot, and two cornets of horse, on the 8 of Februarie.

Herauguiere fortified the towne and castle, reducing the ene­mies countries neere adjoyning, vnder contribution. The Towne was verie well seated for our men to make an offensiue warre, it beeing a passage into the countries of Namur and Brabant, neere to the confines of Luxembourg, where they supposed to obtayne great victories, vnder the conduct of the duke of Bouillon, & count Philip of Nassau.

Herauguieres troopes of horse did at the same time neere to Montmedy, meete with seuen wagons laden with rich Italian Merchandize, as veluets, and silke stockings, which were going towards Antuerpe, and were worth three hundred thousand flo­rins, which they tooke and diuided amongst themselues. But part of this Cauallerie, belonging to the garrisons of Breda and Berghen in Brabant being desirous to returne home, met with certaine of the enemies ordinarie bands, conducted by generall Schets, Lord of Grobbendonck, who not farre off had tenne foot companies; whereof our men hauing intelligence, diuided themselues into 3 troopes, one of which was assailed by the enemie, and being ouer­loden with bootie, were beaten, and 70 of them slain and taken pri­soners, among whom were two Lieutenants.

The taking of Huy (belonging to the Bishop of Liege, who li­ued [Page 184] as a Neuter) was thus excused, namely, our men borrowed that towne but for a place of retreat without any hurt to the inha­bitants, which so soon as the war should be ended, they would wil­lingly surrender: that the Bishop permitted the like to the townes of Berck and Bonne, which were his, and yet were detained by the Spaniards.

But the Bishop complained to the States of the wrongs done vnto him, and of the breach of the neutrallitie, crauing to haue his town redeliuered, and therein imployed al his friends: but because small regard was had of his complaints, hee implored the ayd and assistance of the Archduke Ernestus, who presently sent forces thi­ther, to free the countries of Namur and Brabant from incursion, with commaundement to ayd the Bishop; these troopes notwith­standing Ernestus death, besieged the towne of Huy, because they perceiued it could not easily be relieued. Herauguieres, with Cap­taine Balfort, le Vos, and others, did shut themselues into the towne, and yet the waters were risen ouer the whole countrie by reason of the great snow which was melted by a continuall raine,The Rhyne and other riuers o­uerflow the bankes in Fe­bruarie and March. so that they had small hope of aid, for all the riuers, and especially the Rhyne had so ouerflowed their bankes, as in the memorie of man the like had not beene seene, for all the countrie round about was drowned, many thousands both men and cattell perished. In Guelderland and Holland the Isle of Bommell and others were drowned, as the Betuwe, and the countrie neere to Vtrecht, and Ammersfoort, euen to the gates and suburbes of Vyane: three thousand persons were drowned, so as it was a great and just pu­nishment of God: Diuers skonses and Bu [...]warke were borne away, so as the souldiers had much to doe to secure the countrie, and with great cost to repaire the forts.

Fuentes, la Motte, Barlaymont, and other captaines, considering that the States forces were cooped vp by water, and that small re­liefe could come to them, did on the one side of the Mase besiege the towne of Huy, and the bishops forces on the other side, and at last on the thirteenth of March tooke the towne by force, slew ma­ny of the garrison, and tooke diuers of them prisoners; the rest fled to the castle, which was battered with two canon, and vnder­mined by al the myners in the countrie, so as in the end, the castle was by composition deliuered to the Lord la Motte, and vpon the twentieth of March, our men departed with their armes and bag­gage. [Page 185] At their departure the Spaniards would haue murthered them, but la Motte and Grobbendonck sent them safely away. Herau­guieres by this meanes lost much credit, being taxed for yeelding the castle so soone, seeing that neere to Coloigne, forces were rea­die to relieue him, as also, because the breach was not sufficient for the enemie to come to an assault: but others judged the contrarie, and said that he had done discreetly; & so this enterprise did smal­ly profit the vnited Prouinces.

¶ The taking of the Island and towne of Cales-Males in Andelusia in Spaine, in the yeare 1596.

IN the yeare 1596,The Queene of England sets forth a fleet vnder the con­duct of the Lord Admirall and Earle of Essex. the Queene of England did set forth a mightie fleet of sixteene or seuenteene of hir great ships royall, in twelue or foureteene of which were three or foure hundred mariners in euerie ship, beside fortie other English ships of warre, with fiftie others which carried souldiers and prouisions. The Lord Charles Howard Baron of Effingham and now Earle of Nottingham, was Admerall generall of this fleet. The Lord Thomas Howard, now Earle of Suffolke was Vice-Admeral, and sir Walter Raleigh knight, and captaine of the Queenes guard, was rere-Admerall.

My Lords the States of the vnited Prouinces,The vnited pro­uinces send 24. ships of warre to serue the Queen of Eng­land vnder the conduct of the Lord of War­mont. did at her Maje­sties request, set forth eighteen great ships of war, each of them be­ing manned with one hundred and thirtie men, beside sixe others loden with victuals and ammunition, and in each of them fortie men: the Lord Iohn of Duvenvord, Lord of Warmont, Admerall of Holland, was by the States made Admerall of this fleet, Iohn Ger­brantsoon of Enchuysne was Vice-Admerall, & the rere-Admirall was Cornellis Lensen of Flushing: but they were tied by agreement to be vnder command of the English. Many voluntaries were likewise in this fleet, as count Lodwick of Nassau son to count Iohn, & others. An armie of land souldiers was likewise in this fleet, of whom the Earle of Sussex was generall. In this armie were sundrie regiments, commanded by the Earle of Sussex, sir Edward Conway, Sir Conihurst Clifford, Sir Christopher Blunt, Sir Thomas Gerard, Sir Iohn Winckfield, and others, The number of the souldiers amounted to 6000 able men, among whom were two thousand two hundred old English [Page 186] souldiers brought forth of the low-countries by sir Frauncis Veer, chosen forth of euerie companie. There were likewise certaine Dutch companies vnder captaine Metkerke, and aboue one thou­sand voluntarie gentlemen, among whom was D. Christophero of Portugal, sonne to the king D. Antonio: Count Lodwick of Nassau commaunded these voluntaries: Sir Frauncis Veer was Lord Mar­shall of the field, Sir George Carow Master of the ordnance, and sir Conihurst Clifford Serjeant Major.

This fleet departed from Plimmouth in England on the thir­teenth of Iune, there were in it one hundred and fortie saile great and small. Being come neere to the Spanish coast, they had intelli­gence by a small barke that came from Ireland, that in the Bay of Cales in Andeluzia (whether they were going) fiftie seuen great ships and twentie gallies lay, foure great gallions, each of them car­rying fortie or fiftie pieces of ordnance, and in euerie of them six or seuen hundred men, two great galleasses of Andeluzia, foure great ships of Biscay, foure Easterlings, certaine great Argozies loden for the most part with ordnance and munition, being bound for Lisbone in Portugal: where another fleet of thirtie ships was pre­pared for Bretayne and Calais, and money readie for that purpose. Beside these, there were three great Fregats of two hundred tunne a piece, which came from Porto Ricco with the money. Besides these ships of warre and gallies, there was another fleet of fiue and thirtie ships verie richly loden, which were bound for the West Indies, readie to set saile; in which vessels were aboue sixe thou­sand pipes of Spanish wines, two thousand pipes of oyle, fiue thou­sand weight of wax, and all manner of pretious merchandize, as cloth, silke, cloth of gold, lace, quick-siluer, &c. And it was repor­ted by the king of Spaines officers, this fleet was thought to be worth eleauen or twelue millions of ducats.

The English fleet comes be­fore Ca [...]es on 30 of Iune.The English fleet hauing notice hereof, made towards the Bay of Cales, where it arriued on the thirtieth of Iune in the Morning, and came to an anker nere to S. Sebastians point, from whence they might easily see the Spanish ships and gallies that lay before Cales vnder the two castles.

The Vice-Admerrall the Lord Thomas Howard, and sir Walter Raleigh, being sent for by the Councell of warre, Raleigh was com­maunded to goe before with certaine ships to set vpon some great vessels, which (as they heard) were readie to set saile forth of the [Page 187] Bay of S. Lucars; comming thither they found them to lye so nere the shore, as they could not approch them, and were hindred from doing it by a certaine mist that arose, in which the sayd vessels esca­ped, and were by Raleigh so nerely chased to the land, as his owne ships were in great daunger to haue runne on ground.

From thence Raleigh made towards the great fleet, which in the meane time had ankored on the thirtieth of Iune, in the Morning, without the Bay of Cales, into which all men (especially the Low-countrie fleet) thought they would haue directly entred, seeing the ships and gallies to lye before the towne vnder the two castles: but the English Admerall would not suffer it to be so, because he thought the entrance would haue beene verie daungerous, as also the assayling of the kings fleet, before the towne were woon [...]which if they had done, they must haue fought both with the gallions and gallies, and beene opposed to the shot from the Towne and castles.

Thereupon,The English fleet letteth slip of faire occasion to haue taken the ships, loden for the Indies. sir Walter Raleigh came to the fleet, and went a­boord the General, the Earle of Essex, who was busied in landing his men on the West side of Cales, where the Sea was so rough by reason of a West wind, as the boats began to sinke neere the ships: Raleigh told him it was verie daungerous to land his men, be­cause that betwixt them and shore, foure gallies l [...]y to keepe them from landing, saying, That he was verie sorie that he had not first entred the hauen where the Spanish ships & gallies lay, which by their delay were now encouraged: of this, the general likewise com­playned, at whose entreatie, Raleigh vndertooke to go and persuade the Admerall to enter, which by many forcible reasons he did, and cried out, Let vs enter, Let vs enter: wherupon, al the ships weighed ankor & sailed towards the hauen. But night preuented them, the sun being alreadie set, so as it was then too late to assaile the Spanish fleet that lay aboue a mile and halfe within the riuer, as also, for that it was a dangerous matter to fight by night in a strait: On this con­sideration, they came to an ankor, where the canon presently salu­ted them from the towne and castle.

The English went to Councel, to consult after what maner it were best to assaile the Spaniards the next Morning: euerie commaun­der striued to haue the vantgard, yet they resolued not to hazard the Queenes great ships but vpon vrgent necessitie, so as it was thought fit, that sir Walter Raleigh, with eight of the Queenes les­lesser [Page 188] ships, six Hollanders, and twelue English Merchants ships, should haue the vantguard; this resolution was oppugned by the Lord Thomas Howard, who said, that honour belonged vnto him: whereupon it was concluded, that both of them should goe together.

So soone as it was day, Raleigh would not loose time in weighing ankor, but did let them slip, and thereby had the aduauntage to let saile first; the Spanish gallies discharged all their ordnance vpon him, but he made not one shot, leauing it to those that followed him, and so went directly towards the gallions, which lay in the deepest part of the riuer, viz. the S. Philip, S. Mathew, S. Andrew, and S. Thomas, with two other verie great ships, which together tooke vp all the bredth of the riuer.

Behind these gallions lay 6 others, and behind them, the gallies, nerer the shore where the water was shal lowest, and vpon the land stood the castle Puntall which flanked the riuer: the lesser English ships assailed the gallies, who thundred one vpon another. In the mean time, the Vice-Admeral the L. Thomas Howard, came vp to sir Walter Raleigh with 6 of the Queens ships, as nere to the gallions as they could possible, discharging all their ordnance, and fighting from six of the clocke in the Morning till none, with as many ships as the channel could beare. During the fight, an vnfortunat euent happened in a ship of Rotterdam, called the Dolphin, where Guil­laum Henrick was captaine; the powder was by mischaunce set on fire, whereby the Captaine and his two sonnes were burnt and blowne vp.

Expecting the tide, the two Admerals sent for six great vessels, each of them manned with foure hundred musketiers, to boord the Spanish gallions, being not willing to hazard the Queenes ships: Six ships of Lubeck and Dansk were sent from the fleet, but they fell foule of the others, and peraduenture willingly, so as the earle of Essex about noone did set saile, the like did the Lord Admerall; but the Earles ship drawing too much water, he went aboord sir Robert Dudleis, who was base sonne to the earle of Leycester: All the commaunders being aboord the generall, they resolued to as­saile the gallions, commaunding the Lord Howard and sir Walter Raleigh to begin, and they would follow. So soone as these began to hoist saile,The Spanish fleet runneth on ground. the Spaniards fled towards the shore and sands on Pu­erto Reals side, where their ships ran on ground, and themselues [Page 189] leaped into small boats the better to get on shore, and those which could not get into the boats, aduentured to swimme, and beeing many in number, most of them perished.

The S. Mathew and S. Andrew were saued from running on ground, and were carried away, each of them were of one thousand tunne. The two Easterlings ran on shore and were burnt. As Ra­leigh thought to haue boorded the great gallion S. Philip, a Negro gaue fire to the powder, and escaped by swimming: It gaue so great a cracke, as the mast was blowne vp into the aire as if it had beene an arrow: a Pinnace that lay neere it was likewise burnt, but the men escaped in boats. The other Gallion called S. Thomas, was likewise blowne vp, but did no harme to the English. The Gal­lies fled towards the bridge of the Isle del Suazzo. The Indian fleet lay about two leagues higher vp in the Riuer neere to Me­dina.

This fleet thus broken,The earle of Es­sex landeth his men, and the Hollanders take the castle of Puntall. burnt and scattered, the Generall began to land his men, and to assault the towne of Cales. The Hollanders and Zelanders tooke the Fort of Puntall by force, and in it present­ly displaied and erected the Lord of Warmonts ensigne: this dis­couraged those of Cales, and encouraged the rest which landed neere the Fort, who began to put themselues in order. The earle of Essex led the vantguard, the Lord Admerall commanded the bat­tell, and sir Iohn Winckfield led the rereward.

Vpon news of the Englishmens approach, the gallants and no­bilitie neere to Cales, who are called Los Cauallieros de Xeres, had armed themselues, and were for the most part better furnished with braue horse than valour.

These, with 600 foot drawne from Cales, did presently offer skirmish. Count Lodwick of Nassau (whom the earle of Essex had honoured with the conduct of the voluntarie gentlemen) went forward to encounter them, and neere to him Melchior Leben, one of Prince Maurice his Gentlemen, and with them the General, and sir Francis Veer with some foure hundred armed pikes, and a braue companie of musketiers, which stood behind a sand hil: these men did put the Cauallieros to rout, killing many of them, some of whom for sooke their horse, and fled towards the towne, which was shut against them, others fled to a bulwarke without the towne; but perceiuing that Count Lodwick began to assaile and mount it, they presently fled through the Dikes into the Towne, [Page 190] at a place which was scarce made vp, leading their enemies the way, who presently pursued them, and slid downe by their pikes into the towne,The Earle of Essex winneth Cales on the se­cond of Iulie. running to open the gates for the Generall. The earle of Sussex his companie was the first that entred, who verie valiantly behaued himselfe, the like did captaine Sauadge, Bagnall, Euants and others. Captaine Nicholas Metkerck was hurt there, and died within a while after, yet before he died the General knighted him; he was a braue and well experienced gentleman.

The English being thus within the town, two companies of sol­diers that lay there in garrison, with many of the townesmen, fled to the castle; others with stones, defended themselues in their houses. But the Market place and town-house once taken, euerie man yeel­ded without any great effusion of bloud.

Sir Iohn Winckfield (who in former time had beene Gouernor of Geertrudenberg, when it was sold and betrayed to the Duke of Parma) being wounded, rode vp and downe the Market place with his sword in hand being disarmed, who not regarding the Marshal Veers good counsell, that wished him either to arme himself or else to returne, was shot into the head.

The Generals being busied in taking of the town, forgat to pur­sue the Indian fleet. Sir Edward Conway, sir Christopher Blunt, and sir Thomas Gerard, offered, with their souldiers in small boats to assaile and take it: but Raleigh would not haue that honour taken from the Sea-men, notwithstanding that the Earle of Essex and the Lord Admerall wold haue had it so; and whilest they contested a­bout it, time passed away, and they thought themselues sure enough of the fleet, yet therein they were deceiued.

The towne taken, and night being come, the two Generals en­treated sir Walter Raleigh to returne to the fleet to his ship (fearing least the Galleis should the same night at a low water set fire on the ships) promising to keepe his share of the bootie, and to giue him a good quarter in the towne. He craued leaue to goe and take the Indian fleet, desiring no more than his owneship and twelue mer­chant men of London, but the Generals entreated him to giue them time to consider of it till the next morning: at which time sir Walter sent his brother in law Throgmorton, Henrie Leonard, and Iohn Gil­bert knights, to know their resolution; but the Generals sent him word to come a shore to the towne.

In the meane time, the committee of the contractation house, [Page 191] with the purueior Pedro Herrera, Two millions of Gold offered for the ransome of the fleet, but too late. the Corrigidor, & other the kings officers in the town offered 2 millions of ducats or 600000 pound sterling for ransome of the fleet: this did Raleigh oppugne, saying that they ought first to be masters of the fleet, and then ransome it afterwards, for if alreadie they offered two millions, they would giuefoure when it was taken: whilest the English spent time in consultation,The Spaniards burne their rich fleet. the Spaniards day and night vnloded all the richest wares, because that the Duke of Medina gouernour of S Lucars and those parts for the king, had commaunded to burn the ships, which was done vpon the third day before the ransome could be agreed vpon: the men saued themselues and escaped, so as the contractors that were onward on their way to negociat for the ransome, per­ceiued the ships to be all on fire: this was a sharpe and rigorous resolution, for which the Duke was greatly contemned by those that had a share in this losse; but he knew the king his Masters mind.

Three and thirtie great ships laden for the Indies were burnt, beside fiue ships which came from S. Lucars, three of which ran on ground: it was the greatest and welthiest fleet that euer went to the Indies. The most losse fell to the Merchants, the king had some wealth in it, as quicke siluer, warlike munition, his Imposts and Al­caualles, which, together with all his ordnance he lost. The English and Dutch mariners saued certaine goods, and canons, which they tooke forth of the ships bottoms.

The earle of Essex had appointed the colonels sir Coniers Clifford, Sir Christopher Blunt, and sir Thomas Gerard, with their regiments, to march towards the East side of the Island, where was a bridge (called Ponte del Suazzo) ouer which men passed forth of the Isle into the firme Land, to guard that passage, and to keepe out those of the terra firma from entring that way, not farre from whence the people were assembled in great troopes: but when they per­ceiued the English to be there, and knew the town was already lost, they fled.

These English regiments perceiuing none to be on the other side, and knowing that Cales was taken, returned to the town without a­ny order or commaundement so to doe, leauing no guard at the bridge, leauing the castle neere to the bridge vntaken (which the Hollanders call Herods house:) For want of a guard at the said bridge, the gallies, in that place passed on to Seaward. The Dutch [Page 192] mariners before their departure went and assailed that fort, from whence the Spaniards flying, they tooke and sackt it, and brought thence diuers pieces of ordnance.

The two companies of Spanish souldiers that with some Citizens were retired to the castle, hoping for ayd from Andeluzia and the firme land, being aduertized that the English had taken and made good that bridge and passage (which was vntrue) did by night send the Corrigidor and other Magistrats to sir Edward Conway, The Citizens of Cales ranjome themselues for one hundred & twentie thou­sand ducats. who summoned them to yeeld, and agreed to pay one hundred and twentie thousand ducats for their ransome, besides losse of all their goods, and to this end gaue fortie of the principall among them for hostages, who were afterwards carried into England: those that retired from the towne into the castle, with those that were in it before, were in number eight or nine thousand persons both men and women. The best and noblest sort of women were courteously vsed, and suffered to depart thence with their children and bag­gage; the like was done to the Clergie and Nuns.

The towne of Cales is sackt.The wealthy towne was wholly sackt, and the bootie great, which was carried to the ships. It is thought that the king lost at the same time 1200 pieces of ordnance, besides armour sufficient for fiue or six hundred men which was taken forth of his Arsenall there.

The Spaniards perceiuing what the English intended by spoy­ling the towne, which was, not to keepe the towne long, began to take courage, & to shake off the feare which had seazed the prouin­ces neere adjoyning, especially the great citie of Ciuill, which was in an vproare, so as if an armie well conducted had marched thi­ther, and to other townes and places likewise, as S. Lucars, S. Marie Porte, Puerto Reale, &c. it would haue found small resistance. But they saw that the bootie and spoile of Cales was to the English as a great and sauorie morcell to glut their hunger; who continuing tenne or twelue dayes in the towne, and hauing carried the bootie to their ships, did hourely expect when the Generals would com­maund them to hoist sailes and depart homewards.

A Councell was held whether it were conuenient still to keepe the towne and Island: the earle of Essex, the Marshall Veer, and most of the gentlemen were of opinion to tarrie there with three thousand men, and thought that the Island might be easily kept, which would proue a sharpe thorne, not onely in the foot of so great a Monarke, but euen in his side, and thereby diuert all the [Page 193] warres of Europe thither, where the English might daily receiue prouisions from the Leuant, Italie, and Barbarie, and if the worst should happen, they might easily procure a good and honourable composition, and with that towne, make an easie exchange for Ca­lice in Fraunce. But thereupon, various opinions were vttered, for the Sea Captaines and the lord Admerals Councell oppugned it, shewing their want of victuals, and if they should remaine there, they must be enforced to fetch prouision from England and the Low-countries, which is too farre off, or else from Barbarie, where the king dwelt an hundred leagues vp in the countrie: Hereunto, the Admerall added, that he would not aduenture and engage his Princes honour and reputation so sleightly: Sir Frauncis Veer said, That by tarrying there they should doe a pleasing and acceptable seruice to the Queene, and that victuals would soone be brought from Holland: that the towne and Island were strong, and might easily be made stronger: that the towne stood well to receiue sup­plies from Barbarie, and to that end, they would make vse of and employ D. Christophero of Portugal, &c. but all this was to no pur­pose. Thereupon, a generall search was made through the whole fleet to see what store of victuals was left, wherewith to furnish the garrison, till more could be brought; but they found a small quan­titie, for euerie ship had imbezeled & hid as much as it could, fea­ring want; and in the towne, through bad husbanding of victuals, they were verie skarce; for the souldiers spoiled all, and knockt out the heads of wine vessels, which they found in cellers and ware­houses, making like wast of other prouision. In this respect, euerie man cried out to go home: whereupon, the lord of Warmont, Admerall of Holland,The Admeral of Holland offe­reth the English at Cales, victu­als for a month, and with his fleet to stay with them. reuiewed his victuals, and offered to bring as much from his fleet as would suffice the garrison and two thou­sand men for a moneth, and that himselfe would likewise remaine there: But the earle of Essex found neuer a ship of the Queens wil­ling to stay there, nor yet victuals for two moneths; so as he was enforced, much against his will to abandon Cales, whereof at his comming into England he excused himselfe.

Before his departure he made aboue fiftie Knights, among whom were, the Lord of Warmont Admerall of the Hollan­ders, Count Lodwick of Nassau, Peter Regemortes, Melchior Leben, and likewise Captaine Metkerke before his death; the rest were English.

[Page 194] Cales is abando­ned and burnt on the 15 of Iulie.Hauing thus continued some thirteene dayes in Cales (in old time called Gades) they departed on the fifteenth of Iulie. Essex (according to his commission) commaunded the towne to bee burnt, and especially whatsoeuer might any way serue for the fur­nishing forth of a fleet, as masts, poles, cordage, and cables, whereof there was great store: and in this manner they did set saile, carry­ing with them two of the kings great gallions, with certaine priso­ners, & fortie hostages for the townesmens ransom, which amoun­ted to the summe of 120000 ducats.

It is heretofore mentioned how that the gallies fled to the bridge called Ponte del Suazzo, where the English thought they could not haue passed; yet by breaking the bridge they found a way into the Sea, where they did set vpon the taile of the fleet, and tooke a Fliboat of Holland loden with horse and baggage, which lagged behind.

And because the Englishmens commission imported that they should visit all Sea Ports, and destroy all ships and warlike proui­sions, they did in their returne homewards saile to the hauen of Faroo, where they landed part of their men, and most of the Hol­landers, from whom the countrie people fled: whereupon, they tooke and brought away with them whatsoeuer they could. Being come nere to S. Vincents cape, and hauing committed two notable errors (first, because they did not in time assaile the Spanish fleet be­fore it was burnt: The second, for that they had thus abandoned Cales) the earle of Essex requested the Lord Admerall, not to fall into a third, but to saile towards the Azores, to meet with the East & West Indian fleet which at that time was readie to arriue; but by reason of a contrary wind, this likewise was rejected. Yet afterwards when the earle came neere to Lisbone, he propoundeth this matter againe,The English doe againe loose the oportunitie of meeting with the Indiā fleet, notwithstand­ding that the Hollanders of­fered their seruice. offering to send home those ships that had taken leakes, and wanted victuals, with the hurt and sicke men. But the Lord Adme­ral and sir Walter Raleigh contradicted it, both by writing & word of mouth: and when they came to view what ships were willing & fit, there were none that would vndertake the matter, but that of the Earle of Essex, and the Lord Thomas Howard, together with sir Frauncis Veer, and the Low-countrie fleet, which offered it selfe, and had beene by the earle of Essex accepted, if the Lord Admeral wold haue giuen leaue to those two ships and some eight or tenne Eng­lish vessels more; but his Lordship thought it not fit so sleightly [Page 195] to aduenture the Queenes ships. These various opinions set downe in writing, the Noble earle propounded them in England for his owne excuse; and in this maner was the third gallant occasion lost: for if they had gone to the said Islands, and made some small stay, they had met with a most rich Indian fleet, which arriued there 12 or 14 daies after.

Passing along the coast of Portugal they would not meddle with the citie of Lisbone, hauing no such commission, but onely to visit the hauens and Sea Ports: whereupon, they went to Cornua and Ferol, where they found few ships and small prouision. After that, they held their last Councell, namely, Whether they should like­wise visit the hauens of S. Andrew and S. Sebastian, with others neere adjoyning, where certaine Spanish men of warre were repor­ted to lye: but the Admerall and Sea Captaines flatly gaine-said it, complaining of want of victuals, saying, That the Queenes ships might be in daunger to runne on ground in those places: so as the earle of Essex could not herein preuaile, who would willingly haue assaulted the towne of Cornua, but euerie man cried out to returne home, taking vpon them to excuse the said earle: and so sailed to­wards England, leauing the earle and the two gallions behind, which were scattered by tempest, together with the Low-countrie fleet which stayed with him to the end. Beeing thus arriued in England, about mid-August, they gaue vp an account of their voy­age: and being taxed for letting slip those faire occasions, they ex­cused themselues by the forementioned reasons: and it was found by experience, That two Generals hauing equall power and com­maund doe commonly hinder many gallant and noble enterpri­ses.

The Admerall of the Low-countries returned home with his fleet, and brought backe the English souldiers that had beene chosen forth of euerie companie; together with some bootie, and threescore pieces of ordnance, hauing lost the Fliboat of Rot­terdam called the Dolphin, with all her ordnance. The preparati­ons of this fleet stood the vnited Prouinces in more than fiue hun­dred thousand florins.

The Queene of England in signe of acknowledgement, did, on the 14 of August, in anno 1598, send a letter to the Admerall of Holland, in forme following.

MY Lord of Duvenuord,

The Queene of Englands let­ter to the Lord of Duvenuord, than king him for his good seruice. the report of the Generalls of our armie (who are safely returned from the coasts of Spaine) concerning their seruice who haue obtayned so notable a victorie, doth attri­bute a great part thereof to the valour, industrie, and good will, which your se [...]fe and our other friends of the Low-countries vnder your con­duct, haue showne in the whole course of this action. This hauing filled our heart with exceeding ioy & content, hath likewise begotten a desire in vs to communicate vnto you by writing, that which we conceiue therof; and hauing none other meanes at this present to expresse our good will, we haue thought good to make vse thereof, till some fitter occasion be offe­red. And for our better discharge herein, wee know not where to begin, for that the greatnesse of each partie surmounteth the others merit. The loue and diligence which my Lords the States haue vsed in this action, doth witnesse vnto vs, That the sincere affection we haue euer borne to the vnited Prouinces, and benefits bestowed vpon them, haue not bin ill imployed. Your valour, skill, and good conduct manifested in this seruice, are so many euident signes that your selfe and whole Nation, deserue all fauour and defence of Christian Princes, against those that would tyran­nize ouer you. But the honour and faithfull friendship which you my Lord Admerall haue shewed to our louing cosen the Earle of Essex in his home returne, at such time as hee was by night scattered from the fleet and destitute of all ayd and assistance, your selfe tarrying with him, con­ducting him to our Hauen of Plimmouth, doth declare your wisedome and loyaltie, preuenting by your owne patience and labour, all mischiefe, that by falling on one of the Generals of our fleet, might haue spoyled and disgraced the whole victorie. Moreouer, your zeale and affection to vs ward, doth encrease our debt towards you, the knowledgement whereof is so deepely imprinted in our heart, as we thought good by these Letters to make some part of satisfaction, the which wee entreat you to impart to the whole companie of our friends vnder your command, letting them vn­derstand beside, that they may be well assured, that as heretofore we haue giuen sufficient testimonie of our sincere affection towards their countrey, we are now by their valour and merit more incited, to augment and en­crease our loue in euerie part, as it becommeth a Princesse who acknow­ledgeth the vertue and desert of so worthie a Nation as yours: and so we will continue your verie louing friend.

Signed Elizabetha Regina.

¶ A description and rehersall of the victorie which his Excellen­cie obtayned of the enemie, on a plaine called Tielsche-Heyde neere to Turnholt, in an. 1597.

AFter the departure of the illustrious, high, and mightie lord, Prince Maurice of Nassau, &c. from the Hague on the one and twentieth of Ianuarie 1597, he arriued on the two and twen­tieth of the same at Geertrudenberg, & there finding his armie rea­die, consisting of 6000 both horse and foot, with all things necessa­rie for his enterprise, he went speedily and without rumour the next day, to a village called Rauels, some league distant from the ju­risdiction of Turnholt; where his Excellencie caused his souldi­ers to rest a while. Count Varax and the lord of Bolanson, with 4 regiments of foot, and 5 companies of horse, had intrenched them­selues in Turnholt: he hauing intelligence that his Excellencie was so neere, did, by the aduice of his Councell, cause the baggage to be laden by night, and sent it away before, intending by breake of day to follow with his whole armie, and to retire safely to Herentals His Excellencie in like manner, on the 24 of the said moneth, early in the Morning did set forward, marching still in his order when the waies would permit him.

The cauallerie bearing long Pistols, made the vaunt-gard, and was diuided into sixe troopes. The two first in each of which were foure cornets, were somewhat seperated, and yet still flanked one another: that on the right hand was conducted by the Earles Hohenlo and Solms. After them, followed two other troopes, each of them consisting of three Cornets, marching likewise somewhat diuided from the rest, to bee the better able vpon any occasion to receiue the former into their rankes, or else they to bee by them receyued in like manner. His Excellencie followed the Caual­lerie, with two other troopes, marching as the rest did some­what diuided.

The footmen were diuided into eight troops, viz. presently after the horsemen followed two squadrons verie neere to one another, after them, three, and then two, all of them marching in like manner as the former. After them followed two demie canon, with other [Page 198] field pieces, placed betwixt the munition wagons, and drawne by those that ordinarily had charge thereof, together with certaine mariners. Next them followed the rest of the foot troops enclosing the battel, still marching in this order when the ground would per­mit them; otherwise, they troopt closely together, fitting thēselues to the waies, waters & bridges that lay betwixt Rauels & Turnholt.

His Excellencie being come before Turnhoult, which was aban­doned, thought good by the aduice of the sayd earles & other cap­taines, to set forward speedily towards the enemie onely with the horse, and to let the foot troopes follow, & to leaue the canon nere to the mill of Turnhoult guarded by part of the footmen. This did his Excellencie presently put in execution, but meeting with a little narrow way full of water, beneath Turnhoult, where the enemie had left forces to defend the passage, he forthwith sent certain mus­ketiers thither vnder the conduct of sir Francis Veer, and the lord Vander Aa, Lieutenant of his guard. These, enforced the enemie to quit the passage: whereupon, his Excellencie went forward, and presently came to a plain champaine, where he descried & follow­ed the enemie that fled in this manner.

The manner of the enemies march.Their baggage went before towards Herentals, garded by certain souldiers, next followed the battell. The caualerie for the most part was gone before, viz. Nicholo Basta, D. Iuan de Cordoua, Alonzo Dra­gon, Guzman, and Grobbendonck. After them followed foure regi­ments, diuided one from another: the first was the regiment of Al­mans vnder Count Sultz: the second, La Mott his old regiment, commaunded at that time by the lord of Achicourt: the third was the regiment of La Barlotte: the fourth of Neapolitans vnder the Marquesse of Treuick. On the right hand, sometime two cornets of horse marched, and sometime on the left: on the left hand were trees, neere which was a small riuer running from Turnhoult. It was not long ere they were ouertaken, but by reason of the bad wayes and a valley ful of water which lay betweene the enemie and the States forces, our men had no fit opportunitie as yet to assaile them.

Sir Francis Veer with a few horse & certain musketiers entertained the enemies rereward with skirmish, therby hindring him from his intended flight, till they came to the farther end of that valley of water: then the earles Hohenlo and Solms as first at the battaile, perceiuing a certaine place of aduantage betwixt them and Count [Page 199] Varax, fearing likewise least the enemie would entangle a narrow passage wherein his baggage was alreadie entred, told his Excel­lencie, That it was more than time to assaile the enemie: whereup­on, a signal being giuen, they charged him. The earles Hohenlo and Solms, with 4 cornets of Breda, gaue in on the enemies right side, those of Berghen-op-Zoom, vpon the enemies hindmost regimēt, so, as the Neapolitans being last, were the first that were assailed by Marcelis Bacx and his brother, accompanied by Du Bois, & Done, two captaines. Count Hohenlo and Solms, with the 4 cornets of Bre­da (charging directly the enemies first regiment, to which their ca­uallerie was alreadie turned backe, meaning to charge those of Ber­ghen in flanke) did verie opportunely preuent them, and putting them to rout, went on and fell vpon Count Sults regiment, with such furie, as the enemies were onely content to make slight triall of their valour; and betaking themselues to flight, left Alonzo Dragon his cornet behind them.

His Excellencie perceiuing that the charge was alreadie gi­uen, sent sir Robert Sidney, and sir Frauncis Veer (who till then had entertayned the enemie with continuall skirmish) with cer­taine horse to cut off the enemies rereward. The rest of the caualle­rie stayed neere to his Excellencie to succour and releeue the first, if need should be, till at last, perceiuing a manifest aduantage, all of them in a manner fell into the battell.Count Varax slaine. Count Varax Gene­rall of the enemies armie was slaine vpon the place, and all his men (beeing on euerie side fiercely assailed) fell to open flight; which was to no purpose, as beeing on the one side incompassed by our cauallerie on a plaine ground, and on the other with a ri­uer and trees: so as few of them could escape to the narrow way, and aboue two thousand of them lay dead vpon the playne, and foure hundred were taken prisoners; all this was done in so short a space, as the States footmen, notwithstanding all their hast, could not come in in time, but before their ariual, the horsemen had got­ten the victorie.

The enemies cauallerie perceiuing they could not well escape, some of the brauest and most resolute among them to the number of 40, caused a trumpet to sound a charge, and fel vpon those whom in disorder they saw busied in pillage, making shew as if they inten­ded to giue a fresh charge vpon our men: whereupon, some of our timerous cowards, fled towards the footmen who were comming [Page 200] forward. Prince Maurice lookt after his troopes of horse which he had reserued for succours, but in vayne: whereupon, he comman­ded the prisoners to alight from their horses, who earnestly beg­ged for mercie, saying, That there was alreadie sufficient bloud spilt to finish the victorie: yet diuers of them were slaine, and then we perceiued the want of our troopes of succours; but euerie man making hast towards his Excellencie (especially Marcelis Bacx and Edmunds) the enemie was so amazed as he againe betooke himselfe to flight.

Eight and thirtie ensignes were taken there, together with D. A­lonzo de Mondragons cornet. Most of the baggage was pillaged; and the dead bodies stript. More than two thousand were slaine vpon the place; for the countrie people reported that they buried a­boue 2250.

The Lieutenant general La Bourlotte, with most of his captaines and officers were slaine there; and not aboue eight of the victors, among whom was captaine Donck, who died of his hurt, together with captaine Cabilleau of Flanders.

This gallant victorie was gotten by eight hundred horse, but not without great daunger, if the enemie had beene discreet and wel ad­uised. There was one thing worthie of note.A Roman, cal­led Septimius Fabius was found wounded and halfe dead among the dead bodies, and yet by carefull loo­king to, recoue­red his life. A certaine Roman gentleman (whose name was Septimius Fabius, who deriued him­selfe from the noble and auntient familie of the Fabij in Rome) ha­uing some commaund among the Italians, was deadly wounded, and lay among the dead; those that stript him perceiuing some life in him, and that he seemed some man of note, notwithstanding that he was much disfigured with his owne bloud and that of o­thers, did in compassion take him thence, and halfe dead as he was, laid him on a horse, and carried him to Turnhout, where visited by skilfull and carefull Chirurgians, he recouered his health, and was afterward for ransome set at libertie.

There were foure or fiue hundred prisoners taken, among whom was a young Count Mansfelt, Hieronimo Deutico one of Count Va­racx his Councel, the Marquesse of Treuico his Lieutenant colonel and Serjeant Major. Aboue one hundred prisoners died of their wounds. And thus his Excellencie returned towards Turnholt, and the runnawayes held on their course toward Herentals, where some three hundred of them arriued. The Generals dead bodie, was by his Excellencie giuen to his seruants, who carried it to Malines [Page 201] where his wife and children remained, and with them sent a letter to Cardinall Albertus, where he offered to deliuer the prisoners, if he would keepe good quarter. But the Cardinall being too long in sending backe an aunswer, Prince Maurice threatened to hang or drowne the prisoners, if he did not ransome them within twentie daies: whereupon, he constrained the villages of Brabant to con­tribute towards it.

The boores of this countrie called Tielsche-Heyde, did after the defeat gather vp all the armor and weapons which they found, and laid them vp in a Church: those of the towne of Diest, com­maunded them to bring them thither, and as six carts were loden with them, some of the garrison of Breda hauing notice thereof, tooke them away by force, and brought them into the towne on the three and twentieth of Februarie, for a greater testimonie or tro­phee of their victorie.

The earles Hohenlo and Solms, sir Robert Sidney, and sir Frauncis Veer (whose horse was slaine that day vnder him) were highly ho­noured for their wisedome and valour, as also other captaines and commaunders that had valiantly behaued themselues, especially Bacx and Edmonds with all their officers and souldiers.

That night the campe rested at Turnholt where the canon was left: the next day, the castle was battered, and after some eight or tenne shot, those of the garrison, commaunded by captaine Vander Delft, yeelded it on condition to haue their liues and goods saued. The castle being strongly manned, euerie one returned to his gar­rison. His Excellencie passed through Geertrudenberg, and the 8 day after his departure from the Hague, he returned thither againe, whether he brought 38 of the enemies ensigns, and one of their cor­nets, which were hung vp in the great hall; and in all places caused thankes to be giuen to God, for this victorie.

¶ The first siege and taking of the towne of Rhin-Berck in Anno 1597.

MY Lords the States of the vnited Prouinces,The States re­solue to set forth an ar­mie. hauing made great preparation for warre, did, together with his Excellen­cie and Councell of State, resolue and conclude (though it [Page 202] was something late) to send an armie that Summer into the field; and to that end, commaunded the horsemen to arme them­selues after another manner, without launces, appointing the light horse or carabins to carrie a Petronel of three foot long, others, Pi­stols of two foot in length, and to be beside armed downe to the knees, inflicting penaltie vpon such as shold want any part of their armes; their horse were to bee full fifteene handfull high, and the men to weare cassaks. The Councell of State allowed 300000 flo­rins monethly for the armie. There were two hundred foot com­panies and one and twentie cornets of horse in the States pay. But the fanterie lying abroad in garrison, his Excellencie sent but for sixtie and eight ensignes and the cauallerie, commanding them to meet on the 5 of August, vpon the Rhyne at a place called S Gra­venweeert: for the Councell of State had determined and conclu­ded to besiege the towne of Berck, to haue a more free passage vp­on the Rhyne.

According to this Decree, his Excellencie with his trayne, and most of the nobilitie, went from the Hague on the first of August towards Vtrecht, there to prepare and assemble wagons for his journey, and on the fourth of Aug [...]st arriued at Arnham, whether count William of Nassau and his troops came vnto him. The counts Hohenlo and Solms came thither likewise, with the earles Ernest and Lodwick of Nassau, together with young Count Henrie Frederick brother to his Excellencie, who was desirous then to trie his first fortune in the warres. From Arnham they went to S. Grauenweert, where they found thirteene ensignes of English footmen, twelue of Scots, fifteene of Frisons, nine ensignes vnder the commaund of Count Solms, eight vnder the Lord Floris of Brederode, and 6 com­maunded by the Lord of Duvenvoord, with some twentie or one and twentie cornets brauely mounted. Thither likewise came great numbers of boats, loden with ordnance and other necessaries for a perfect campe.

His Excellencie on the 6 of August, caused part of the foot and horse in boats to crosse the riuer of Rhyne and Wael, & comman­ded them to tarrie that night at Cleverham not farre from Carcar, making a bridge of boats the next day ouer the Waell, to passe o­uer his wagons with the residue of the armie, so as his Ex. arriued the same day at the Cloister of Marienbourg, leauing three com­panies of the regiment of West-Frizeland (commonly called the [Page 203] regiment of North-Holland) with the boats, which in great num­bers did the same day set saile and went vp the riuer.

On the eigth of August,His Excellencie takes Alpen on the 8 of August Prince Maurice with his armie and cer­taine field pieces marched before the towne and castle of Alpen, commaunded by captaine Bentinghs brother, which he summoned. This place seated vpon the way, would haue stood the enemie in great stead, and on the other side haue much annoyed his owne campe. It forthwith yeelded. Hee committed the keeping of the castle to captaine Schaef with fiftie souldiers, and the sayd Bentingh with six and thirtie souldiers departed thence with their armes and baggage: so as part of the armie arriued that Euening before Berck.

The towne of Rhynberck both by nature and art is exceeding strong, and not easily to be taken, and was at that time beside the or­dinarie garrison, mand with fiue hundred men, which came from Alpen, Graue, and other townes nere adjoyning. His Excellencie hauing exactly viewed the towne, thought it necessarie to make two principall campes, one aboue the towne, before the gates cal­led Rhynport, and Casselport on the one side of the Rhyne, where on the tenth of August hee lodged fifteene ensignes of the Frizons regiment vnder the commaund of Count William of Nassau, with thirteene English ensigns vnder sir Horacio Veer, brother to the Ge­neral sir Francis, and the regiment of West-Frizeland conducted by the Lord Aert of Duyvenvoord, Lieutenant Colonel to prince Hen­rie Frederick of Nassau, together with his Excellencies gard, & fiue cornets of horse, quartered a little farther off towards Botberg. Count Hohenlo Generall of the other quarter, together with Count Solms were quartered on S. Annes hill before the Sautenport, with eight ensignes of Count Solms regiment, twelue companies of Scots vnder colonel Murray, Count Hohenlos gard, and twelue cornets of horse: hard by them lay the Lord of Cloeting with eight ensigns of his owne regiment: a little beneath the hill betwixt the two quar­ters, Prince Maurice was lodged.

At their first arriuall before the towne, Count Lodwick of Nas­sau was shot in the legge. The eleuenth of August was spent in for­tifying and entrenching the two campes, which were conjoyned; together with forts of retreat, of which, three were built to stop the enemies passage, so as thereby the towne was enuironed from the one banke of the Rhyne to the other.

[Page 204]The same night they began to draw trenches from his Excel­lencies campe to the towne, and the next day the quarters of counts Hohenlo and Solms were entrenched. His Excellencie likewise cau­sed a bridge to be made whereon to passe ouer from his own camp into a little Island, and so from thence vnto the other side of the Rhyne, the better to get forrage and prouision.

Three canon being afterward planted, a great tower (from whence the townesmen continually shot into the campe and trenches) was fiercely battered, as also another called the Toll-tower, and the Rhyne Port, that our men might worke safely in the trenches. Two other pieces were likewise planted against the Bulwarke be­fore Castle Port, which played so fiercely on the fifteenth and sixteenth of August, as those of the towne were enforced the same day to abandon the great Tower, from whence they had done much mischiefe, and shot through his Excellencies Tent.

The sixteenth of August at night, twentie foure canon were plan­ted in sundrie places to batter the towne on all sides; yet be­cause the trenches were not so neere the towne as it was expected; his Excellencie would not as then suffer the batterie to bee made, but caused a gallerie from the East side of the bulwarke before the castle-port to bee made for the summe of one thousand two hun­dred florins, which was promised to bee finished in foure dayes. The nineteenth of August, as the trenches began to approach the one side of the halfe moone, which lay without the Bulwarke of the Toll-tower before the Rhyne Port, they did let forth the wa­ter of a small riuer called the Niep, which was kept in before the halfe moone by a sluce. And because the gallerie stood farre in vp­on the dike, which was not verie broad nor deepe, his Excellen­cie and the chiefest commaunders of the armie determined to be­gin the batterie,The towne of Berck is batte­red with 35. pieces of ord­nance on the 19 of August. which was likewise resolued, hoping thereby to come into the bulwarke. It was begun about tenne of the clocke, with fiue and thirtie pieces of ordnance, viz. nine and twentie great canon, and sixe field pieces, of which, tenne were planted before the Rhyne Port, 11 before the bulwarke of castle-port, fiue vpon the Island of Rhyn against the Tol-tower, and foure some­what lower before the towne wals, and others in other places. Af­ter the 3 volley, his Excellencie (according to the vsual maner) sum­maned the town to yeeld; the Burghers hauing parolyed with our men, stood vpon 3 daies respit, which they earnestly craued.

[Page 205]Some houre after the parley, the batterie was renewed; it was verie furious and lasted till fiue of the clocke in the euening, hauing in all, made aboue two thousand shot, in which meane space, Count Williams men by fauour of the canon gained the halfe Moone, and his Excellencie the better to win time (notwithstan­ding that some thought it fit to tarrie the townesmens leisure) did againe summon the towne, which now began to be somewhat ter­rified, for the souldiers on euerie side approached it, and stood in order of battaile. Whereupon, they within it, sent 4 commissioners viz. captaine Benting, old captaine Dulken, the Admerall Pasman, and the Quarter-Master of Count Hermen of Berguens regiment, and in counterchange of them, the captaines Schaef, Ingelhauen, & Waddell were sent into the towne.

After long contestation and earnest entreaties,Berck yeeldeth vpon the 21 of August. his Excellencie was content to let them depart with their ensignes, armes and bag­gage, leauing out the article of not seruing on this side the Mase for the space of three moneths, promising that the Burghers shold en­joy their priuiledges, and vpon the 21 of August they departed vn­der the conduct of the Gouernour captaine Snatere, with 5 ensigns, being in all, some nine hundred men, vnto whom his Excellencie lent seuentie or eightie wagons, for which, Captaine Bentings sonne remayned hostage. The same day, they went to the towne of Guel­ders, where they could not be suffered to enter, and there tarryed with their conuoy.

But on the two and twentieth of August, because those within it would not furnish them with victuals, or else, for selling them at too hight rate, they thereupon quarrelled with them that had the gard of the gates,A mutinie in the towne of G [...]lder on the 22 of August. and forced their entrance into the towne, where they began a mutinie, crying out for money, money, notwithstan­ding that Count Henrie of Berguen lay there. The garrison of the towne tooke their part, and expulsed Count Henrie and all the cap­taines. The Lords of Gileyn, Vtenham, & Grammay offered them 2 moneths pay, which satisfied them not, but they kept Vtenham & Grammay as prisoners. After that, Count Herman came to appease them, but in vaine: whereupon, he departed with his forces to Ar­sen, where he assembled some 3000 men.

In this manner did the towne of Rhynberck yeeld to Prince Maurice, being besieged tenne dayes, and hauing receiued 2870 shot. Great store of ordnance was found in it, viz. 44 cast pieces, [Page 206] among which were seuen for batterie, together with a great quanti­ty of course cloth brought thither to cloath the garrison, which was thought to be worth 170000 florins: there were fiue ships of war sunke, and two great Ferrie-boats which were made at Coloigne, with which they hoped to haue done some notable exploit, besides other prouisions.

His Excellencie did forthwith repaire the ruined places, and caused the trenches to be leuelled; and because Captain Schaef had valiantly behaued himselfe in that siege, he made him gouernor of the towne, and gaue him six ensignes of foot, well furnished with munition and victuals.

T [...]se of Coloign demaund the towne of Rhyn­berck.The towne being taken, the commissioners of Coloigne, by ver­tue of their letters of credence, would haue had our men to haue left it to them, saying it was theirs: this could they neuer obtayne of the Spaniards, though it had beene promised with oaths. But in regard it was woon with so great cost to the vnited Prouinces, and that neither his Excellencie nor commissioners of the Coun­cell had any authoritie to graunt their demaunds, it was flatly deny­ed, and they were referred to the Generall States.

The next day after the towne was yeelded, which was, the one and twentieth of August, Count Herman came to Gelder with 2000 foot, and eight cornets of horse; the fanterie was conducted by D. Alonzo de Luna gouernor of Liere, & the cauallerie by D. Francisco de Padiglia; their intent was to haue put succors into Berck; but vp­on intelligence that it was yeelded, he returned to Arsen neere the Mase, which he crost, still thinking on the defeat at Turnholt: he sent foure hundred men to the towne of Meurs, beside the 200 whom he had alreadie sent thither from Maestrecht two dayes be­fore. And the better to secure the sayd Garrison, hee comaunded Captaine Arnult Boecop, Camillos Fort is abandoned. Lieutenant to the gouernour, to abandon Camillos fort, and to retire with his men into Meurs, which the sayd Boecop did with such hast on the 15 of August at night, as hee left three pieces of ordnance behind in the fort, viz. one canon, a demie canon, and one field piece.

¶ The taking of the Towne and Castle of Meurs, in Anno 1597.

PRince Maurice hauing intelligence that Count Herman and his forces had crost the Mase, did, on the six and twentieth of Au­gust, goe to view the town of Meurs, with 12 cornets of horse, and some tenne thousand foot, and returning by Camillos fort, he resolued to assault the towne of Meurs, and to that end (the caual­lerie being returned which conuoyed Count Hohenlo and his wife the Countesse of Buren towards Germanie) he commaunded the boats to go vp the riuer towards Camillos fort, and himselfe with all his forces, on the 28 of August, marched towards Meurs, ha­uing 60 foot companies, and 21 cornets of horse, and the same day, quartered two camps before the towne, one and the greatest before the gates, [...]. of which, one was called the Kerck-port, the other H [...]en­port, where himselfe lay with 49 ensignes of foot, and all the horse; the other before the gate of the new town, where the lord of Clot­ting lay with 6 ensignes of his owne regiment, & 5 ensignes of the regiment of Frizeland, vnder the commaund of Generall Duy­venvoord. At their arriual were some skirmishes before the church without the gate, which the enemie kept till night, when as 2 com­panies of Scots came to releeue the Frizons.

The next day, they intrenched themselues, and at night they be­gan the trenches with 15 foot ensigns, viz. 5 of the Frizeland regi­ment, 4 English ensignes, foure Scotish, & two of count Solms regi­ment, the Frizons lay before the gate called Steen-port, the Scots with count Solms his ensignes before Kerck-port, and the English betwixt the two gates. The same night, Captaine Waddell the Scot was slayne in the trenches. His Excellencie had brought twelue canon with him, which, on the last of the sayd moneth hee cau­sed to bee planted, and the next day began the batterie. The night following the trenches were brought from the Frizons quar­ter to the verie brinke of the dike, which was narrow and nothing deepe: And for that in regard of the raine and foule weather, they were not come so forward in other places, therefore the canon plaid not on the 2 of September: his Excellencie thinking to haue [Page 208] quartered himselfe vpon the verie dike, and by fauour of the ca­non, and helpe of bridges to passe ouer the dike to the townes Rampiers. But before this could bee effected, the Gouernour of Meurs, a Spaniard whose name was Andrea de Miranda, beyond all expectation (wanting powder) sent a drumme in the afternoone to Prince Maurice, crauing to haue hostages sent in exchange of those whom hee would send to surrender the towne and castle to him. His Excellencie sent the Lord of Gistelles thither, who was Lieu­tenant Generall to Count Solms, together with Captaine Ingelha­uen, who conferred with the townes commissioners, which were, Captaine Muchet and Captaine Boecop Lieutenant to the Gouernor, and after long disputation about graunting three dayes respit which the besieged craued to expect some succours, they at last concluded to deliuer vp the towne and castle.

The next day, which was the third of September (after that the Gouernours wife was come, for whom Prince Maurice had sent a trumpet to a place called Lint in the countrie of Couloign with certaine wagons) they went their way according to the accord, being eight hundred and thirtie men (among whom were certayn Spaniards, and likewise an Ensigne-bearer of the castle of An­tuerpe) with their ensignes, armes and baggage, and a small piece of ordnance belonging to Count Meurs, his Excellencie hauing graunted them fortie wagons, for which Captaine Boe­cop was caution. Sixe pieces of ordnaunce were found in the castle, 4 of batterie, one canon of an extraordinarie weight, one demie canon, and two field pieces. Foure great cables made at Couloign were likewise found in the Storehouse, of eight thousand weight, which were for seruice of the ferrie boats.

In this manner did his Excellencie in a moneths space win three townes and three Castles from the enemie, videlicet, Al­pen, Berck, Meurs, and Camillos Fort, with all the boats vpon the Rhyne, and in the sayd places found aboue fiftie and foure ca­non, among which were eleuen for batterie, and the rest of diffe­rent bignesse (as hath been sayd.)

The siege and taking of the townes of Groll and Goor on the 28 of September 1597.

AFter that Prince Maurice had spent some time in repairing the dikes and rampiers of the town of Meurs, and in leuelling the trenches, he went thence with his whole armie on the eighth of September: he had sixe thousand foot, and one thousand fiue hundred horse, beside mariners and others that attended the ord­nance, and a great traine following the armie. Hauing in hast made a bridge ouer the Rhyne of one hundred yards in length, the armie crossed the riuer the same day, and lodged that night betwixt the Lippe and Rhyne.

The next day crossing ouer the Lippe, he marched by Wesell and went to Bruynen in the countrie of Munster. From thence, on the tenth of September, he passed along by Boecholt, & lodg­ed that night at Alten neere to Brevoot, which hee sent to view. But vpon intelligence that Count Iohn of Limbourg and Stie­rum lay in Groll, with twelue ensignes of foot, and three cornets of horse, his Excellencie went thither the next day: And on the e­leuenth of September, hee quartered his campe in a square forme towards the West end of the sayd towne, which was fortified with fiue Bulwarks, so as it seemed his Excellencie would haue enough to doe; yet he made such hast in a short space, as he inuironed the towne with trenches and other workes that none could enter in or issue forth: and perceiuing that the towne would not bee taken but by force, he caused seuen galleries to be made (which are co­uered wayes by which men passe ouer the dikes to the rampiers) the better to enter two bulwarkes, and to that end made two prin­cipall batteries, and two lesser ones, to play in such sort vpon the rampiers, as none should dare to stand vpon them, the better ther­by to further the worke.

His Exccellencie at his arriuall before Groll (hauing intelli­gence that the enemie had not mand the Towne of Goor) he caused it to bee taken, placing a foot companie in garrison there. About the same time, eight ensignes of footmen arriued at the campe.

[Page 210]In the meane time, certaine light skirmishes were made, but to small purpose: they laboured hard neere to the gate called Belte­morport, to draine the water forth of the ditches, which at last was done by night on the fiue and twentieth of September. His Ex­cellencies Master of the fire-workes, did his best to shoot wild-fire into the towne, the which at last he did at three seuerall times, vi­delicet, on the foure and twentieth of the said moneth in the night, which if the Burghers had not laboured to quench, a great part of the towne would haue beene consumed to ashes; for the souldi­ers ran to the rampiers, and suffered the houses to burne, so as moe than fortie houses were burnt downe to the ground, and on the fiue and twentieth of September (after dinner) as many moe. Though the townesmen had made an halfe Moone in the bulwark called Lebelder, and begun another in that of the Hospitall, per­ceiuing their ditches to be drie, their towne much annoied by fire, and that 7 galleries were brought euen to the verie rampiers, after that Groll had beene twice summoned,Groll is yeelded upon the 2 [...]. of September. they sent their commissio­ners to his Excellencie on the eight and twentieth of September, who conferring a long time with him, would not bee drawne to graunt them their horse and ensignes, yet at last he graunted it, and was content they should depart with their goods and armes, on condition that they should not beare armes on this side the Mase against the vnited Prouinces for the space of three moneths, and should deliuer vp al the bookes, writings and records of the coun­trie to those of Gelders and the countie of Zutphen: thereupon, he gaue them wagons and a conuoy as farre as the Rhyne, and was content to suffer the Clergie and others to remaine freely there, or else to depart thence at their owne pleasures.

The eight and twentieth of September, in the Morning, after that his Excellencies gard, with those of count William of Nassau, and Count Hohenlo, together with some ninetie wagons for the bag­gage, had entred the towne, those within it departed thence in the afternone (the sick & wounded excepted, who were carried thence in wagons.)

Captaine Bodbergue with his cornet and some eightie horse, led the vaunt-gard; after them followed one hundred and twentie wa­gons, with an incredible number of women, boyes, and baggage: next them, followed Sanchio de Leva and his troopes, together with fiftie three horse: after him, twelue ensignes of footmen, of the [Page 211] companies of the Earles of Stierum,The great and famous grand­son of Groll, de paris thea [...]e on the 28. of Sep­tember. Count Henri of Berghen, E­uert de Ens, Cortenbag, Malagamba, Francisco de Robles, de Rykin, de Sande, de Fournean, de Decken, de Wormes, de Sickinga, all of them amounting to twelue. They marched thus, first, ninetie foure mus­ketiers went before, after them, two hundred and thirteene armed pikes, next, the twelue ensignes and eightie officers, and then two hundred pikes, and eightie musketiers, making vp together the number of seuen hundred and fif [...]ie foot, and two hundred thirtie and fiue horse. In the rereward was the Cornet of captaine Paul Emilio Martinenga consisting of fiftie launces and fortie foure Carabins.

All these were conuoyed forth of the campe by foure cornets of horse, & marched towards the Rhyne beyond Emmerick; an hun­dred men were slaine in this siege. There was but one demie ca­non, three culuerings, with certaine bullets and smal store of pow­der found in the towne.

His Excellencie hauing thus by great speed and Gods assi­staunce woon this strong Towne in eighteene dayes, mand it with six foot companies, and gaue the gouernement thereof by Prouiso, to the Lord of Dort, causing the dikes and rampiers to be repayred, the sorts and galleries to be broken downe, and tren­ches to be filled, and then gaue some ease and refreshing to his wea­rie souldiers.

¶ The siege and taking of the towne and castle of Brevoort on the 12 of October 1597.

HIs Excellencie like a victorious Prince pursuing his victories, did, on the 1 of October, set forward with his armie, & came before the town & strōg castle of Brevoort, where hauing in­telligence the next day, by one that came forth of the town, that the lord of Aenholts company conducted by lieutenant Broekhuysen, see­med to take the Burghers partie against captain Gardots companie, he sent a trumpet on the second of October to summon the town to yeeld: but the Serjeant Major made aunswer, That they kept the towne for God and the king of Spaine, and in his quarrell would liue and die. Whereupon, his Excellencie gaue order to assaile it, [Page 212] and to that end caused trenches and three platformes to be made before the two gates, and on the West-side to plant the canon on; It was effected with incredible speed,Brevoort sea­ted in a moorish place is assaul­ted on the 8. of October. considering the place was sea­ted in a moorish soile: for, notwithstanding the continuall rayne and bad wayes round about the towne, which made their appro­ches to be almost impossible, his Ex. so preuayled by fagots, on which he made wayes to bring on the ordnance, as he planted it, and had all things readie on the 8 of October to assault the towne: On the ninth day, he discharged three volleys, and afterward offe­red composition to the townesmen; who in derision crauing twen­tie foure houres respit, twentie canon played with such furie vpon a bulwarke before the sayd gates, from nine of the clocke in the Morning till three at afternoone, as those within beeing terrified, did first beat their drummes, and placed their hats vpon their pikes heads, and at last, with their wiues came to the rampiers and craued parley. But the besiegers being in the trenches, tooke two halfe Moones that were before the two gates, and the Scots had al­most forced a way through the gate called Mester-port: whereup­on, they within the towne ran confusedly to the castle, and for­sooke the breach made in the bulwarke, which was first taken by the pioners and those that were neere the bridges, not any one of them that stood readie for the assault, hauing broken their rankes, one souldier excepted, who mounting it and seeing no bodie there, made signes to his fellowes, who presently followed him, so as those within were enforced to yeeld themselues to his Excellen­cies mercie, who presently imprisoned them, and though they had deserued death, yet he saued their liues and ransomed them at 3900 florins (the officers excepted) and on the twelft of October suffered two hundred men to depart thence,Those of Bre­voort are put to ransome. on promise no to beare armes on this side the Mase for the space of three moneths. Two thousand and three hundred florins was demaunded for one hundred twentie three of Broeckbuyse souldiers (himselfe excepted) who payed one thousand fiue hundred florins for his daughters ransome, beside that which he gaue for his ensigne Boetselaer. For the ransome of Captaine Gardots officers and souldiers, which were seuentie seuen, one thousand sixe hundred florins were demaun­ded. The Burghers ransome was forgiuen them at the entreatie of the Lord of Tempell in regard of their losse sustayned by fire, and they in recompence gaue his Excellencie three tunne of Rhenish [Page 213] wine; and yet the towne (I know not by what meanes) was all burnt, fiue or six houses, and certaine Cabins excepted.

The siege and taking of the Townes of Enschede, Oldenzeel, and Oot­maersen, on the eighteenth, one and twentieth, and three and twentieth of October 1597.

HIs Excellencie hauing in this manner, by continuall labour and Gods helpe, woon this impregnable towne in nine daies (for it was supposed to be stronger than Berck, Meurs, or Groll) and giuen order for repayring the rampiers at the Coun­tries cost, he did againe giue some little rest and refreshing to his souldiers, in regard of a great and laborious journey he purpo­sed to make towards Enschede,Enschede yeel­deth on the 18. of October. Oldenzeel, and Ootmaersen, which would hardly be effected in foure dayes: but by his great speed the armie arriued before Enschede on the 18 of October, which was fortified with an earthen rampier, and two dikes, the one without, the other within: where the captaines Vasques and Grootvelt sent two men to his Excellencie to view his ordnance after that the towne had been summoned, and afterwards treated with him: whereupon, he licenced them to depart beyond the Mase, on condition, not to serue the king of Spaine for three mo­neths next ensuing, and granted them a Conuoy to the sayd riuer. According to which agreement, they departed thence on the 19 of October in the Morning, and were in number one hundred and tenne men, for a while before, some 50 men that had gone forth a boot-haling, had beene beaten and taken prisoners by his Excellencies souldiers on the 9 of October.

The next day,Oldenzeel be­sieged. his Excellencie brought his armie before Olden­zeel (and presently sent two regiments, viz. that of Count Solms, and that of Count Henrie his brother, with certaine horse, and foure piece of ordnance, to Ootmaersen) which they summoned: but Captaine Otho de Sande, O [...]denzeel is battered, and yeeldeth on the 21 of October. with some 30 of the towne of Oldenzeel that were there, refused to yeeld it; on the 21 of October, the ca­non was planted before Oldenzeel, and after three volleys had been discharged, they surrendred the towne vpon the same agree­ment as those of Enschede, and 130 men presently departed thence. [Page 214] Two falconets, 2 yron pieces, 800 weight of powder, 200 of match with 112 bullets, & some other prouisions were found in the town.

From thence he went to Ootmaersen, which he presen [...]ly sum­moned; but the towne being manned with sixe companies, viz. Generall Billyes, the Drossart Egmonts, the gouernour Boymers, Her­man de Ens, Borchgraue, and Eylkema, they aunswered, That if they should on a sodaine yeeld the towne, they knew not how to aun­swer it. Thereupon, his Excellencie presently caused trenches and batteries to be made, and discharged certaine volleis, whilest the platformes were preparing for the batterie, which being rea­die, and the Burghers fearing some greater mischiefe, certain men came forth of the towne on the 22 of October at night, viz. Cap­taine Borchgraue, Egmonts ensigne, and the two Burghomasters of the Towne, who after some parley, compounded with Prince Maurice the same night at eleuen of the clocke, according to the a­greement of those of Euschede; it was likewise concluded that all ecclesiastical persons might at their owne choyce either stay or de­part. The next day, in the Morning, the garrison left the towne, which consisted of foure hundred men, and laid the fault on the Burghers feare and euill will, & on their owne want of souldiers.

His Excellencie hauing vanquished these old captaines and sol­diers, did on the 23 of October make his entrie into the towne to­gether with the Princesse of Orange (who for certaine important affaires was come to the campe) and count William of Nassau, where he found three brasse pieces, many of yron, and about seuen thou­sand weight of powder, and placed the companies of the Drossart Sallant & Iaques de Meurs in garrison there, making the said Meurs gouernour, and sent Captaine Potters companie to Euschede; so as his Excellencie in fiue daies, manned three townes with garrison, and woon the whole Countrie of Twente.

The foure and twentieth of October, he sent to view the riuer called Dinckele, and made a passage ouer it, sending the Drossart Sallant with tenne Cornets of horse and sixe foot companies of Frizons, to prepare the way toward Lingen, and to enuiron the said towne.

The same day, the three young Earles of Benthem, together with Count Weda, came to his Excellencie at Oldenzeel, the like did the Commissioners of the gouernement of Munster. His Excellencie likewise sent Captaine Euuoot de Bout with Letters [Page 215] to the officers neere adjoyning, crauing their helpe in making a bridge ouer the riuer Amisa. He resolued likewise by the aduice of the generall States deputies, Councell of State, and those of the countrie of Ouer-Yssel, to raise the Rampiers of the Townes of Euschede and Otmaersen; which within a while after was done.

¶ The taking of the towne and castle of Lingen in Anno 1597.

PRince Maurice on the six and twentieth of October, led his ar­mie from Odenzeel, and comming with the vantgard to Nor­thoorn, he went to Benthē Castle with the Princesse of Orange accompanied with Brabantina of Orange, who with other Nobili­tie was come to take her leaue, where they were verie honourably & kindly entertained by the earle of Benthem & the Countesse Pa­latine the dowager, who remained there, from whence the Prin­cesse departed the next day, and his Excellencie went neere to Ems­buere where his armie lay, which, on the 28 of October, crossed the riuer Amisa, and went before the towne and castle of Lingen.

Lingen is a frontier towne seated in the farthest part of the low­countries, it is a Seignorie, wherein is a towne, castle, and 4 villages, which the Emperor Charles the fifth vsurped by confiscation, in the yeare 1546, together with the Countie of Teckelenbourg and the Seigniorie of Reyden, which he took from count Conrade of Tecke­lenbourg, who had an hand in the league of Smalcald, making war vpon him, and was therefore condemned as a rebell. Whereupon, the emperour gaue the said countie and Seignorie to Maximilian of Egmond, Count of Buren, in recompence of his good seruice. Afterward, the earle was reconciled to the Emperour, on this con­dition, that Lingen should remaine to Count Buren. But within a while after, as Count Nicholas of Teckelenbourg, vncle to Conrade that was deceased, called the matter in question, as a fee belonging to the Duchie of Guelders, the Emperour againe tooke it into his owne hand, and disposed of it afterward according to his owne pleasure.

This towne was well fortified with Bulwarkes, Dikes and a strong garrison; for beside foure strong bulwarkes in the Castle, [Page 216] the towne had double rampiers and dikes,A description of the towne of Lingen. with foure bulwarkes and three rauelins, and six hundred souldiers in garrison, compre­hended in three foot companies, and one Cornet of horse, vnder the conduct of Count Frederick of Berguen, the Drossart Indevelt, Laukema, Verdugos Lieutenant, with all other necessaries belong­ing to a siege.

Count Frederick had caused certaine houses that stood nere the towne, to be burnt, because the enemie should not seaze on them. The next day the besieged made a salley, burnt a mill which stood without the towne, and skirmished with the Scots, who did beat them in againe. In the night, as our men began to make their ap­proches, those in the towne and castle did nothing all that night and most part of the next day, but discharge their ordnance, so as the whole towne seemed to be on fire.

The thirtieth of October, sixe ensignes of Frizons came to the campe, and the besieged about eight of the clocke the same eue­ning, did, with one thousand fiue hundred men, assaile the gard of Frizons, where captaine Peter Leenwaerd, his Serjeant, and two or three souldiers were slaine, after which, the townesmen with some losse retired.

The one and thirtieth of October, and first of Nouember, cer­taine canons were planted, and our men began to batter the forti­fications, the better thereby to make their approach. The night following, we made a batterie with sixe canon, and the souldiers marched the same day euen to the dike of the rauelin before the gate called Molen-port.

The second of Nouember, nineteene boats came to Embden, loden with ordnance and munition, and passed along by a place called Oort, notwithstanding the opposition of the castle which belonged to the Earle.

The third and fourth of Nouember, the approches on euerie side were aduaunced, so as the souldiers before Molen-port came so farre into the rauelin, as they found a Myne which the townes­men had made, and some of them tooke their hats and filled them with gun powder, which beeing perceiued by the besieged, they flung forth wild-fire vpon our souldiers, which burnt diuers of them, together with certaine Myners: this happened on the 5 of Nouember.

The same day, the Embassadors of Denmarke arriued, viz. the [Page 217] Chanceller Witfelt, and the Lord Barnekou, with a great traine and strong Conuoy, they came from the Hague and passed by Swoll, to come and see the campe, visiting the trenches, but not without admiration wondering at and commending our skill in martiall matters. The next day, they departed thence, and were strongly conuoyed towards Dulmenhorst.

The same day, the workes were well aduaunced, and the 6 of Nouember, three galleries were made, which were bargained to be done, the one for one thousand six hundred, the other for one thousand fiue hundred, and the third for one thousand foure hundred florins; this money was more bountifully bestowed, be­cause the States of Holland had sent 10000 florins to the campe for payment of the workes: so as before Molen-port and Leuck­port our men were gotten into the rauelins, to leuell the causies which kept the water in the dikes.

The seuenth and eighth of Nouember, the besiegers began to seaze vpon the rauelins before the gates, and to let forth the wa­ter. The ninth of Nouember, artillerie and munition came to the campe: whereupon, three dayes after, his Excellencie made another batterie, with foure and twentie pieces of ordnance vp­on the castle; and after that, vpon the twelfth day, he had battered the fortifications for eight houres space, and vnder fauour of the canon, began to vndermyne two bulwarkes, he summoned the towne: thereupon, the townesmen craued an houres respit for consultation, and a cessation of the ordnance and Myne, but his Excellencie would giue them no time; so as they demanded two hostages for two of their men whom they would send vnto him,Count Frede­rick of Berguen yeeldeth vp Lingen on the 12 of Nomem­ber. the one was Verdugos Lieutenant, and the other Euert de Ens, and late in the Euening, a composition was made, That they should depart the next day, with their horse, armes, Cornet, ensignes and baggage, and should crosse the Rhyne and Mase according to the agreement of those of Oldenzeel, deliuering vp all their papers and writings concerning the demaines of the Countrie to his Ex­cellencie, crauing fiftie wagons for their first dayes journey: and that all the officers and Burghers might remaine six weekes in the towne to end their businesse, and afterwards with passeport, to goe whither they should please.

This capitulation was made in the presence of the Earles of Lunenbourg, Lippe, Swartzenbourg, and Benthem, who were [Page 218] come to the campe to salute Prince Maurice. The same night count Solms, Count Lodwick, and Count Ernestus went to sup in the castle with Count Frederick of Berguen and his brother Adolph, and re­turned at night to the Campe, where gards were euerie where placed.

The thirteenth of Nouember, Count Frederick requested that he might remaine there that day, which was graunted on conditi­on that his men should leaue the Castle, and Captaine Martin Cobbe with his companie was sent into the Castle, and Captaine Te­linghen with his companies into the Towne, where they found one canon, two demie canons, one Coluering, three demie Culue­rings, one Falconet, and twoA piece of ord­nance so called. morters, with 12000 weight of gun­powder.

The foureteenth of Nouember, the garrison went away, it con­sisted of 500 foot, and one Cornet of 50 horse, and the first, night they lodged at Salsbergue in the land of Munster. The same day his Excellencies troopes began likewise to march, the horsemen, through Munster towards Berck, and the Fanterie to Swoll, there to be imbarked for Holland.

The fifteenth of Nouember, his Excellencie, Count William, and the rest of the armie departed from Lingen, and went that night to Vlsen, where the next day they separated themselues, each one going to his garrison.

Prince Maurice in all his exploits is highly to be commended, for his great and continuall speed, wisedome, and skill in martiall matters, hauing in three moneths space obtained such great and notable victories; for in these actions (beside the Danish Embassa­dours, and the commissioner of the townes and Countries of Co­logne, Munster, and Osnabrugge) there were two Dukes, nine Earles, with many other Lords and Noble men, which came in person to his campe to salute and congratulat him, and to be eye­witnesses of his victories and valour. In these actions he did in a short space vanquish two thousand men on the farther side of the Rhyne, in the townes of Berck, Alpen, and Meurs, and on the hi­ther side thereof, sixe and twentie foot companies, and foure Cor­nets of horse, all old souldiers vnder the conduct of two Earles, sundrie old Colonels, Captaines and other officers, which lay in strong walled Townes and Castles.

So as in these exploits, he did not onely win nine Townes, and [Page 219] fiue castles manned with strong garrisons, but three Counties, and three Seignories, crossing seuen riuers, foure with bridges, & three without, and thereby secured the passages on the Rhyne, Coun­tries of Zutphen, Ouer-Yssel, Twent, Drent, Frizeland, and the Ommelands, which is in a manner the fourth part of the seuenteen Prouinces of the Netherlands as they are reckoned; at that time when Cardinall Albertus had threescore thousand men in pay, and himselfe in person in the field, comming from Amiens in Pi­cardie in Nouember, before Ostend, with which he durst not then meddle.

¶ A recitall and description of the siege of Bommell, and how it was raised in Anno 1599.

AFter the conquest of so many sundrie Townes, we are next to speake of the siege of Bommell, and of the enemies entrance into the Island called Bommels-weert vnder the conduct of the Admerall of Arragon: and for better recitall thereof, we will make some briefe description of the towne.

Bommell is a frontier Towne vpon the confines of Guelderland towards the South, and stands vpon the riuer Waell on the North side of the Isle of Bommell: it is of a reasonable bignesse, and excee­ding strong by nature: it was first walled by Duke Otho, vnder whose gouernement the Countrie of Guelderland and the number of townes in it were much augmented.

The riuer Waell doth not onely make Bommell commodious for traffike, but impregnable on the North side and free from all inuasion. The Countrie about it is verie low, and not alone vnfit for Mynes, but for continuance of any long siege, for in winter, by reason of great waters and ouerflowing of riuers, it inforceth the enemie to leaue the field. Beside her naturall strength, it hath beene euer well fortified with bulwarkes and Towers, and is enuironed with a double rampier and dike, as the Reader may perceiue by the Map.

From the beginning of the Low-Countrie warres till this day, each partie hath laboured to become Master of this towne in re­gard of her situation; especially the vnited Prouinces, because it [Page 220] serues as a rampier against the incursions and inuasion of their e­nemies, and is a strong and sure key to their confines, which they likewise fortunatly obtayned by meanes of those of Gorcum, who tooke it in anno 1572, and haue kept it till this present, notwithstan­ding the enemies many attempts, and daily diligence of the Spa­nish commaunders, who haue often gone about to become Ma­sters thereof, and to take it from them: As in Anno 1599, when they brought their whole strength into the Isle of Bommell, vnder the conduct of D. Francisco de Mendoza high Admeral of Arragon, and besieged the towne with the bulwarks and forts round about it. And because this siege of Bommell, together with the raising thereof, is one of the notablest exploits of warre done in the Low­countries, we will briefely set downe, the most remarkable matters which were there acted, intreating the Reader to take it in good part.

The Admerall of Arragon, hauing assembled all his forces ly­ing on the Empires territories and neutrall countries, did, on the sixteenth of Aprill, take a generall muster of them, and on the sixe and twentieth of the said moneth, brought them before the im­pregnable fort of the Island called S'Graven-weert; whose garrison was so strong and well prouided of all necessaries, as it was to be presumed, that the Spaniards would not haue dared to hope for the winning of it, especially in view of the States armie, which hin­dered them from enclosing it. Their weake attempts likewise, and the euent thereof shewed that they aimed at some other place, and that this was but a counterfeit siege, onely to draw the States armie thither, that they might be able on a sodaine to surprize the Towne of Bommell, and forts adjacent.

My Lords the States of the vnited Prouinces, hauing intelligence certaine moneths before, that the enemie would inuade the Isle of Bommell, to be able from thence to make his entrance into Hol­land, had giuen order to fortifie and circle the said town with new bulwarkes and flankers, and to inlarge the forts of Voorn and Creueccoeur, which by reason of their smalnesse were not able to hold out long: these workes were alreadie begun in the towne of Bommell and fort of Voorn, but not ended, by reason the ground was too soft, and the waters too high; so that the west-side of the towne lay all open, the old wals being beaten downe and the new not yet erected, as likewise in Voorn fort, where the new worke [Page 221] was scarce defensible, and would not haue beene able to with­stand the enemies furie.

These things drew the Spaniards into the Isle of Bommell, that they might become Masters thereof ere these places were fortifi­ed. And to this end they came before the fort of S'Grauen-weert, to draw (as it fell out) the States campe thither.

By which occasion, the Towne of Bommel, and forts neere ad­joyning, were not so well prouided of men as was requisit. The Admerall of Arragon lying before S'Grauen-weert, and amu­sing the States campe, had sent certaine troopes, vnder the conduct of Zapena, towards Gennip vpon the Mase, vnder colour of a con­uoy; vnto whom he sent a great part of his armie on May day, conducted by La Bourlotte.

The enemie, for execution of his enterprise, had prouided certaine boats vpon the Mase, in which, they meant to fall downe towards the Isle of Voorn, and on the 3 day of May, in the Mor­ning, they all embarked themselues and came to the sayd Island. But Prince Maurice, according to his vsuall care and diligence, had aduertised the Garrison of their intent, commaunding them to arme and stand vpon their gard, who by this meanes pre­uented the enemies purpose, and kept him from making any attempt: Whereupon hee was enforced to goe backe with his boats to a place called Litt, where he remained that day and the next.

The fourth of may, at night, they did with canon shot inforce the man of warre (which the States kept vpon the Mase, to gard the riuer, and to stop the enemies passage) to retire thence, and to fall downe the streame, and caused certaine boats to be brought by land towards Keffell, whether they sent their owne fanterie, which was imbarked by night, and passed on betwixt Rossen and Herwaerde.

And the fifth of May, before day breake, they entred the Isle of Bommell, where they fortified themselues on both sides the water. This sodaine arriuall of theirs, did so affright those of Bom­mell, as diuers Burghers fled confusedly forth of the Towne, carrying away with them what they could conueniently: And to speake truely, had the enemie, presently after his arriuall in the Island, shewed himselfe before the Towne, he would haue mightily endaungered it, the walls lying open and the Burghers [Page 222] being terrified. But by his negligence, and staying for the Ad­merall, who was hourely expected with his whole armie, he lost that gallant opportunitie.

His Excellencie, in the meane time, hauing intelligence of the enemies arriuall in the Isle of Bommell, made hast thither­ward with his Cauallerie and certaine foot companies, where he arriued on the sixth of May, and gaue order for all things ne­cessarie in the towne, commaunding the Burghers still to abide there, who by his comming were so encouraged, as they alone thought themselues strong enough to withstand the enemie.

The seuenth of May, the Spaniards forsooke the town of Em­merick, and joyned with the Admerall, who was then mar­ching towards the Isle of Bommell. It was supposed that the Admerall had an intent to haue seazed on Heusden, a verie strong Towne, and seated within an houres journey of Bom­mell.

But his Excellencie, like a prouident prince, went thither on the 11 of May, with tenne foot companies, and caused the Isle of Hemert to be fortified and intrenched round about.

The Admerall perceiuing that Heusden was too well proui­ded, did, with all his force, assault the Fort of Creuecoeur, which by reason of the smalnesse was not able to hold out against him: Whereupon, the garrison yeelded it vp, and departed thence with their ensignes and armes.

His Excellencie hauing intelligence tha [...] Creuecoeur was yeelded, returned speedily to Bommell, and caused it to be enui­roned with many trenches, halfe Moones, and such like workes.

By these fortifications, the Towne of Bommel (in mans iudge­ment) was made impregnable, and as many as saw the height and bredth of those workes, were amazed, for it is almost incre­dible to see what they wrought in view of the king of Spaines mightie armie.

Beside these fortifications a farre off, the bulwarkes of the Towne which had bin begun, were finished, and the walls clo­sed vp, the Towne being well furnished with ordnance and o­ther prouision in places of most necessitie. The Admeral, in the meane time, lay with his campe at Creuecoeur, where he was bu­sied in making a bridge ouer the Mase, and a halfe Moone on Heels side, thereby to secure the riuer.

[Page 223]The 13 of May, the enemie made shew as if he would haue re­turned to Heusden: whereupon, his Excellencie sent 31 ensignes mo thither. But he marched towards Rossem, hoping to enter into the Isle of Tiell, called Tielche-weert, to enclose the Isle of Bom­mell on all sides: but Prince Maurice sent ordnance thither, and cau­sed batteries to be made, thereby hindering the enemies pas­sage.

The 14 of May, Count Frederick brought the most part of the armie before Bommell, hauing first run vp and downe the Coun­trie, and done nothing, but warned those of Bommell and Voorn to fortifie themselues, and giuen them time to doe it. He came and sat downe on the West-side, where the Towne had beene most open, there beginning his skirmishes, hoping to enter it, but those within it, did brauely repulse him. During this skirmish the enemie thought to haue entred the Isle of Rossem, but all things being there well ordered, his attempt had no good successe. Then he began to besiege the towne, seating his campe at a place called Oensell, aboue the Towne, and made his trenches at the causey called Oensen-Dijke, that he might lie safe from the Towne shot. Prince Maurice perceiuing that the enemie meant to set vpon him with his whole power, did likewise breake vp his campe which lay in the Betuwe, and brought it to Bommell, making all prepa­rations for defence, sending for all sorts of munition, and making sundrie batteries.

His whole campe being assembled, he diuided it verie skilfully, and fortified all necessarie places. He manned Bommel with eight ensignes belonging to the Lord Peter de Dorp, eight ensignes of the Lord Vander-Noot, foure ensignes of Suesse, and the Lord de la Noiie, with seuen French companies; and himselfe with his youn­gest brother, Count William, and Count Lodwick, retired thence. He quartered the English at Haesten, the Gards at Tuyll, the resi­due of the French at Wardenbourg, at Opinen the rest of the Fri­zons, at Hessell Count Ernestus with the Almans, the Scots with Edmonds regiment at Voorn, and all the horse in the Isle of Tyell, and so from thence as farre as Gorcum, to keepe continuall watch along the Riuer. The Admerall Du­uenvoord likewise went vp the Riuer Waell, with fifteene men of warre, which lay from Opinen as farre as beneath Haeften.

[Page 224]On the sixteenth of May, all things being thus ordered by the States armie, the Admeral of Arragon came at last to his campe, so as al the power on both sides was assembled nere to Bommel. The Spaniards were in number 26000 foot, and 4000 horse; the States forces consisted of 16000 foot, and three thousand horse, most of them old souldiers, and had a long time bin trayned vp in war, and purchased great experience.

The same night that the Admeral came to his campe, he made a furious assault vpon the townes furthest fortifications, towards the gate called Oensche port, which were scarce finished; but he was brauely beaten backe, with great losse of his men, and a­mong others, La Motte was taken prisoner, who died at Bommell of his hurt, together with Alfonso D'Aualos, who was grieuously wounded, yet within a while after, recouered his health.

Prince Maurice caused the causey called Oenschen-Dijke to be vndermined, that he might blow vp the enemie, if he retur­ned to assaile the fortifications. This was his last assault vpon Bommell; for afterward he kept himselfe verie quiet, standing ra­ther on defence than offence.

His Excellencie on the contrarie, was not satisfied in defen­ding the towne of Bommell, but did likewise with all his might assaile the enemie, shooting on euerie side into his campe, and vi­siting him often in his trenches. The workes and fortifications did daily encrease round about Bommell, and a bridge of boats was likewise made ouer the Waell before the Towne, fiue pace in bredth, and foure hundred and fiftie in length. There were ten great boats, and eight and twentie lesser ones, & a verie great Ferrie-boat seruing for an opening to the bridge when need was.

By his Excellencies commaund, all mariners that were in the States fleet, came into the towne of Bommell to ayd the souldi­ers to make a furious assault vpon the enemie, who was aduerti­sed thereof by two French-men that fled from our side: where­upon, the mariners were sent backe to their ships.

The 18 of May, Count Lodwick, with 8 cornets of horse, was sent on Brabants side, to surprise the enemies gards, but returned without any effect.

On the one and twentieth, at night, our souldiers being for the most part English and French, did fiercely assaile the enemie in [Page 225] his trenches, and slew aboue six hundred men, and would per­aduenture haue troubled the whole armie, had not a quarrell a­rose betwixt the two Nations: whereupon, they returned to the Towne, bringing Captaine Aldeno prisoner with them, with some other souldiers. And on their side lost two Captaines, and some others, who for the most pa [...]t were slayne by themselues.

The enemie at that time was verie busie in his fortifications, making platformes and sundrie batteries, from which he shot into the Towne and ouer the bridge, but did no great hurt, spoyling the houses more than men; daily approching towards the waters side, that he might be able to reach our bridge with his ordnance; and our men to defend it, did much eleuat the wings of their tren­ches. Our trenches, bulwarks, & batteries were daily encreased, be­ing stored with diuers canō, culuerins, & other yron pieces, which continually played vpon the enemie, doing great hurt among his men, so as they drew backe their cabins and Tents to be free from the canon. Diuers of the enemies dead & wounded men were daily carryed to Sertoghenbuske and other places neere adjoyning, which filled the Hospitalls, among whom were many Captaines and commaunders, beside those that were dayly buried in the fields.

The foure and twentieth of May, the enemie departed from the Isle of Bommell, with fiue thousand foot, and one thousand horse, to fetch in victuals, munition, and other necessaries: and on the six and twentieth, he sent foure thousand foot men, and certaine horse towards Antuerpe, to conuoy the pay for the armie to the Campe, and the better to couer his intent, he discharged many vollies of shot, seeking thereby to carrie away certayne ord­nance.

Thereupon, his Excellencie, with all the gards, went downe lower, being followed by six cornets of horse, and out of euerie English companie, he tooke fiftie men, which in all amounted to one thousand three hundred foot, and with them embarked him­selfe from Worcum, and marched far into Brabant: but the ene­mie hauing descried our men, retired with all the treasure into Herentalls, beeing vnwilling to leaue his aduauntage: where­upon, Prince Maurice returned to his Campe, leauing certayne straglers behind him.

On the seuen and twentieth of May, the enemie receiued his [Page 226] pay in the Isle of Bommell, which was thought in value to bee worth sixe tun of gold:I hardly in this beeleue my Au­thour. all the garrisons dispersed here and there ouer Brabant, were commanded to come to the campe to receiue their pay. The same day, our men of warre vpon the riuer, drag­ged vp certaine engins that went vnder water, which were car­ried away by the currant, wherewith the enemie thought to haue blowne vp either our ships or bridge; they were fiue foot long, and one foot broad: there were in them sixe Chambers charged with powder, verie artificially made with fire-lockes, and did beare out a point before, which comming to strike against any thing, the spring vnbended it selfe, and gaue fire to the powder, which brake all things neere it in pieces: the enemie had made many of these, yet they did in no sort hurt either our bridge or ships. The thirtieth of May, the bodie of the enemies Campe was much en­larged by great numbers of Tents and Cabins: for he had newly receiued twelue great canons called the twelue Apostles, each of them carrying a bullet of threescore pound weight; with which came foure thousand Spaniards and Italians, and certain cornets of horse.

The same day, the enemie attempted to crosse the Waell neere to Dreule, two leagues beyond Tyell, but his Excellencie forth­with sent sixteene foot companies and fiue cornets of horse to stop their passage. The same day, our double canon, and other ord­nance plaied fiercely vpon the enemie, who did the like vpon the Towne, and especially towards the bridge; but the bullets, for the most part, fell in a place called Haeftensche-weert, doing no great hurt either to the bridge or men.

Dail [...]e skirmishes were made betwixt the sentinels & souldiers which deserue no long discourse, onely, our men were commonly victorious. Beside those of Bommell, the inhabitants of Voorn, Heusden, Gorcum, and other neighbour Townes, made incur­sions vpon the enemie, and tooke daily store of prisoners, and ma­ny gallant horse, and in Bommell alone during the siege, more than foure hundred were sold.

Newes came from Sertoghenbusk, that on the eight and twen­tieth and nine and twentieth of May, aboue fourescore wagons of dead and hurt men were brought thither, beside those that were carried to Heel and other Townes. His Excellencie caused the place where the old Cloister stood to be fortified, from whence [Page 227] the enemie might haue greatly annoyed the Towne, if hee had come on that side. He did likewise fortifie a place called Litsenhā, began an halfe Moone there, that he might from thence make in­cursions vpon the enemie.

The third of Iune, his Excellencie caused all the ordnance of the Towne, Bulwarkes, and batteries, to be discharged vpon the enemies campe for an houre together, which enforced them to retire from before the towne, and by night to burne their cabins, and by to dislodge.

In this maner did the canon raise the siege of Bommell, which the enemie had begirt for the space of twentie dayes.

The Spaniards from the beginning had no great hope of this siege, but had rather to haue gone before Breda or some other Towne in the champaine countrie, accusing La Bourlotte to be a traytor to the king, whose negligence had held backe their first intended enterprises.

Those of Bommel, perceiuing the enemies retreat, did in troops run to their forsaken campe, where they found much baggage, armour, and other engins, many dead men vnburied, many hurt men and yong children left behind, whom his Excellencie sent af­ter them, causing the dead bodies to be buried, and the wounded to be brought into the towne to be healed.

The fifth of Iune, the enemies trenches, batteries, and other workes, were made playne and leuell by the Burghers and soul­diers, with their owne tooles which they had left behind. The enemie was so afraid to tarrie in Bommelers-weert, as diuers Cap­taines which were not hurt, withdrew themselues to Sertoghen­busk, wearing their armes in Scarfes, the better to absent them­selues; the number of them was so great, as proclamations were made by sound of drum and Trumpet, That all commanders and officers, being in the kings pay, should returne to their quarter and ensignes; and a generall search was made, to enforce such to the campe as were vnwilling.

The enemie hauing abandoned Bommell, retired toward Ros­sem, where the Country lay somewhat high, and there encamped, causing his bridge to be taken away from Creuecoeur, and to be carried higher betwixt Alem, and Marem.

His Excellencie, to keepe the enemie forth of the Isle of Tiell, fortified all the passages, and sent 7 French ensignes to Nerines, 8 [Page 228] companies belonging to the Lord Vander-Noot, and foure of Su­esses to Varick. He began to plant sundrie batteries, and to forti­fie the Island called Rossensche-middel-weert, and other pla­ces, he likewise strongly entrenched the Isle of Voorn.

Both the campes were quiet all Iune, because the enemie was afraid to passe on his way, and Prince Maurice attended him in vaine; each side being busied in making batteries and other for­tifications, and annoying one another with the ordnance.

The enemie began a verie great and strong Fort at Rossem, vpon a Dike called Lorre-graft, in a streight and narrow place of the Isle of Bommel, with Curtaines, the better to shadow him­selfe and to cause the sayd dike to run into the Waell.

It is reported that fifteene thousand of the enemies diuided themselues into three troopes, and cast lots which of the three should first crosse the water, hauing many boats for that pur­pose, so as their whole number might easily haue passed ouer at thrice: this should haue beene put in practise vpon the foure and twentieth of Iune in the Morning before day breake, being Mid-Summer day; but it was not effected. Those of Midel-weert, Varick, Heesselt, and Opinen, stood all night in good order, ex­pecting the enemie who stirred not. His Excellencie did often send certain horse, musketiers, and armed pikes to prouoke him, but he would not come forth of his hold.

The Admerall of Arragon, sent D. Ambrosio Landriano with most of the horse, and the regiment of D. Lewis de Villar, to pre­uent the frequent incursions of those of Litsenhall.

The first of Iulie, the enemie made aboue fiue hundred great shot, but did not hurt a man of ours. The second of Iulie, the Englishmen that lay at Haeften, the French, that were at Weer­denbourg and Nerines, and sixe ensignes of the garrison of the Isle of Hemert, called Hemertschen-weert, marched vp higher.

His Excellencie hauing in vayne long expected the enemies comming, did, on the fourth of Iulie, by day breake, send three thousand men towards Herwaerden, there to make an half moon in the enemies view.

Herwaerden is seated on a plaine or leuel ground, higher than all the trenches in the Isle of Voorn: there did our men present­ly fortifie themselues, making an halfe Moon, which they fenced with pallizadoes. This worke beeing in some sort defensible, [Page 229] his Exc. sent more men before & at last, followed them himselfe.

Our men laboured verie hard from foure of the clock in the morning till six at night, without any let of the enemy, but when the halfe moone was almost finished, he then shewed himselfe with certaine troups of horse and foot, thinking thereby to draw our souldiers into an ambuscado; who vpon intelligence that a great troupe of horse lay behind a banke, would not go forth.

The enemy within a while after, returned with 2500 Spanyards and Italians, who vnder the conduct of Zapena gaue a furious as­sault to our halfe moone, and with them a great number of monks and Clergie men, who came with crosses and banners to encou­rage them: but our men did valiantly defend the halfe moone and repulsed the enemie, notwithstanding his fierce assault, in which many of them had gotten ouer the palizadoes, fighting hand to hand with our men, and killing one another with push of pike.

Those of Voorn, Varijck, and Heesselschen-weert, did continu­ally with their canon and small shot, play vpon the enemies, so as in the end they were to their great disgrace enforced to retire, lea­uing moe then 700 dead men behind them, (among whom were diuers Captaines and Commanders) beside those that were hurt, of whom 150 died in Sertoghenbusk. This assault continued two houres long, and yet there were but 8 of our men slaine, and some 20 hurt. The enemy had brought two field peeces to batter the halfe moone, but did not hurt one man of ours, and in his retreat lost 96 men, among whom one of the aboue mentioned monks was found, being armed with many holy reliques which did him no good, he died with his armes full of palizadoes which he had valiantly pluckt vp.

The same day, the enemies with 2 demy canon which were sent them, sanke one of our boats neere to Herwaerden, but the men were saued, some six or seauen excepted, that were slaine and hurt.

The 5 of Iuly, la Bourlotte with a troupe of horse & 400 musque­tiers, lay in ambush, thinking to draw our Cauallery thither, which were vpon the gard before the towne of Bommell: But our men mistrusting the matter, because the enemy came on with so few, gaue back, till they were safe from the ambuscado, and then fell vpon them, putting them to rout, and tooke the Baron of Rosne prisoner, and an Italian Captaine that presently died of his hurts, whose bodie was afterwards redeemed. His Excellencie likewise [Page 232] began to fortifie the Island or Widdel-weert, called Nat-gat on Herwaerden side, and all the Villages round about it, with tren­ches.

The seuenth of Iulie, a second halfe Moone was begun vpon the Litsenham, and was conjoyned to the first by wings, the bet­ter to secure the bridge, which was afterward placed betwixt Voorn and Herwaerden. They likewise made a new wing at Herw [...]erden, towards the enemies bridge, extending it abroad round about the village, from whence we might easily discerne it; so as our men did daily approach nearer it, watching for a fit op­portunitie to cut it off from him.

The 8 of Iulie, his Excellencie and his whole Court remo­ued from Bommel and went to Voorn, quartering himself at the head of the Island, whither his owne gard, and those of Count William and Count Hohenlo, presently followed him.

The armie of the States were busied in making two sundrie bridges of boats: The first, on the third of Iulie, vpon the Waell from the Isle of Tiell to the Isle of Voorn: The second, on the 8 of Iulie, from Voorn to Herwaerden, on which, tenne ensignes of Scots, and the Lord of Gistels, with twelue other ensignes of his regiment, passed ouer the same day towards Herwaerden. The enemie being fearefull and jealous of his bridge, transported it on the ninth of Iulie to the old place betwixt Heel, and Creuecoeur. His Excellencie, on the 12 of Iulie, sent three thousand fiue hun­dred foot, and 1000 horse towards Litsenham to assaile the enemy, who not appearing, our men returned, bringing hack with them 40 horse and foure prisoners.

The Spanish horsemen, so soone as ours were gone from Lit­senham, shewed themselues on the bank, but were soone beaten thence by our canon.

The same day, a French lord, sonne to a great man of France, was shot into the head before Herwaerden, and dyed of his hurt; he was much lamented both of his Excellencie and his whole Court.

The fif [...]eenth day, the Bridge was remoued from Herwaer­den, and placed higher betwixt the Isle of Voorn and Litsenham vpon the Mase, ouer which, 6000 foot, and 1800 horse passed to­wards Litsenham, to raise the enemie, who lay dispersed vp and downe, at Lit, Kessell, and Maren.

[Page 231]The enemie was in those Villages on Litsenham and Herwaer­dens side, strongly entrenched, but on the other side verie slen­derly, so as our men were to fetch a compasse about, to assaile the enemie behind. But the French that were in the Vant-gard be­ing impatient of delay, and desiring a speedie victorie, assailed the enemie in front, where he was strongly fortified. At the first ar­riuall of our men, the enemie stood before his trenches, offering skirmish, but was soone beaten in againe, and one of his captains taken prisoner and carried away into the Isle of Voorn.

These thus defeated, our men did valiantly assaile the enemies trenches, but by reason of the hight of their fortifications, and great nūbers of their men, we did no great matter, but were faine to retire, bringing away some 60 dead & hurt men, most of whom were French-men, and to speake truely of them, had with incre­dible valour, marched euen into the enemies trenches.

The enemie planted a batterie at Kessell, from whence he plaid vpon Herwaerde and Voorn, but did no great harme. The 26 of Iulie, he tooke one of our men of warre that lay in gard on the higher side of Amelroye, and slew most of the mariners. These were the notablest exploits done in the Isle of Bommell and pla­ces neere adjoyning, from May till the 26 of Iulie.

All August and September, both Campes lay verie still, being strongly entrenched, keeping good gard, euer seeking some ad­uauntage one of another.

There were continuall mutinies in the enemies campe, in re­gard of bad pay & other quarrels. The regiments which lay at Dri­ell and other villages, did most of them retire to Rossem for feare of being beaten. There were continuall skirmishes betwixt our ca­ualerie and the enemies, who went about to surprise one another, and to driue away the sentinels.

Our men still made incursions vpon the enemie, and, on the 10 of August, tooke more than 200 horse, and much baggage from him, who was busied in fortifying his new Fort of Rossem, with high and broad rampiers, thinking thereby to stop the passage of the riuer Waell, to conquer the Isle of Bommel, and to open him­selfe a way into Holland, Vtrecht, and the heart of Guelderland. Many wondred whie the enemie was so long idle in the Isle of Bommell: some thought that he would not retire till the fort of Rossem was fully finished.

[Page 232]But because the Archduke Albert had promised the States of the subiected prouinces, That hee would not burthen the townes and countrie with Garrisons, it is likely that hee busied his Armie in the Isle of Bommell, the better to keep his promise: As also be­cause it was necessarie to keepe the Army neere the enemy, for his souldiers beeing seditious and wanting pay, it was to bee fea­red, if they departed forth of the Isle of Bommell, and should bee farre from their enemies, that the countrie of Brabant would be in daunger of spoile and ruine, as it hath often happened du­ring these Low-countrie warres.

These are the most likelie reasons that moued the enemie to keepe his armie so long a time in the Isle of Bommel, without any other exploits; to these, an other may bee added, which is, that they thought good to tarrie there, in regard of the fitnesse of the place, from whence they might make attempts on the neigh­bour townes of the vnited Prouinces, as they had alreadie done vpon Worcum, Breda, and Nimmeguen; but by Gods assistance and the carefulnesse of our commaunders it tooke none effect.

My Lords the States of the vnited Prouinces, shewed them­selues verie carefull for the defence of this towne, yea some of the Generall States, and most of the Councell of State, came in person to Bommell, not without great daunger of their liues: for Canon bullets did not onely flie ouer the late Martin de Rossem Lord of Pouderoys house, where they were assembled, but pierced through it.

The expence of his Excellencies campe at Bom­mell.The Prouinces did greatly further this businesse, for they fur­nished the Campe with all necessaries, and all that Summer kept two hundred and eightie boats in pay, three hundred seuentie nine wagons, three hundred fiftie sixe horse of draught; there were two hundred and three Bridge-Masters, and other officers fit for such seruice. To conclude, the extraordinarie expence in boats, wagons, drawing horse, munition, and prouision for the ord­nance and officers thereof, did stand the Prouinces that Sum­mer (beside the souldiers pay) in twelue hundred thousand flo­rins.

This is in briefe the true description of the occurrents which happened at this siege.

¶ A true description and recitall of the enterprises and voyages of the mightie fleet of the vnited Netherland Prouinces against the realmes of Spaine and Islands of Canaries, vnder con­duct of the Admerall Peter Vander-Does, set forth in anno 1599.

THe States of the vnited Netherland Prouinces, did, in the beginning of the yeare 1599, lay a general imposition on their wealthiest subjects, crauing the two hundreth penie of their goods, which they voluntarily graunted. Whereupon, they concluded, beside their other enterprises, to set forth a mightie fleet, to inuade the King of Spaines dominions, as the Englishmen had often done with good successe.

And to this end, diuers ships were rigd forth the same yeare in the hauens and Merchant Townes of Holland and Zeland, and many mariners were taken into pay ouer all the vnited Pro­uinces. Some of these ships were double mand and victualled for a long voyage, the rest, onely to continue in ordinarie places.

Those which were double mand were chiefely bound for the West-Indies; others onely for the Canaries to conuoy them, and to assist them by the way. All these vessels were strong, tall, well built, and swift of saile. The greatest of them was a ship of Am­sterdam, strongly built, and well furnished for warre.

The chiefe commaund of these ships was giuen to the Adme­rall Peter Vander Does, a discreet and valiant gentleman, well expe­rienced in martiall matters, both by sea and land, as it appeared in anno 1588, in the defeat of the Spanish fleet, and more especially in this present action. All the Captaines, officers, souldiers and ma­riners were valiant and skilfull men. Their ships being readie, did set saile on the foure and twentieth and fiue & twentieth of May, forth of sundrie Hauens, and on the fiue and twentieth, at night, came before Flushing, which was the Rendezvous, the whole Fleet consisting of 72 saile, all of them wel prouided of ordnance, munition, and other necessaries.

The Admeral was called Orange, the great ship of Amsterdam was Vize-Admerall, but being as then scarce finished, it remained [Page 234] for a time at Texell, and the 30 of May it followed the fleet and ouertooke it on the coast of Spaine before the Sea Towne cal­led Groine.

The 26 and 27 of May, the fleet stayed before Flushing to re­ceiue directions from the Admerall, and on the 28 weighing an­kor, they set saile from Flushing with a Northerlie wind, dire­cting their course East-South-East. The whole fleet was diuided into three squadrons, the first vnder the Admerall Vander-Does, who carryed an Orange colour flag; the second, vnder Iohn Ger­brantsen with a white flag; and the third, vnder Cornellis Geleyn of Flushing, bearing a blew flag, as rere-Admerall.

In this order the fleet departed, and on the nine and twentieth came in view of Calice, where the foremost ships stayed for those that were behind. In this place, the Admerall did twice send for all the Captaines to come aboord his ship, first, to hold a martiall Councell, after which, two Brigantines were sent from the fleet; and the second time to acquaint them with his intent, and other necessarie affaires, giuing to each of them a sealed letter, which was to direct them how to order themselues in any difficulties that should happen.

This sending for the Captaines was signified from the Adme­rall by shooting off a piece of ordnance, and by displaying in the sterne two of the Princes ensignes. The same night, the fleet did againe set saile, & doubled the point of Zartenes, there comming to an anchor, expecting the Vice-Admeral of Amsterdam.

But all that night they could not descrie her; so as in the Mor­ning, on the thirtieth of May, they went forward with a North­west wind, shaping their course East-North-East, and about Noone they came neere to Beuersier, with a faire wind which did blow from West-North-West, but towards night they were be­calmed. In the euening, the formost ships tooke off some of their sailes tarrying for those that were hindmost.

The last of May, by day breake, they came in ken of the Isle of Wight, directing their course Eastward with a Westerlie wind. About Noone the ayre was cloudie, so as the Fleet durst not ap­proach the shoare, but lessened their sailes, putting to Sea.

The first of Iune, in the Morning, they descried Gausteert, directing their course towards Plimmouth, and there stayed, tarri­ing for the two Brigantines they had sent abroad, who whithin a [Page 235] while after came to the Admerall: whereupon, another martiall Councell was held; after which the fleet with full saile shaped their course South-South-East, but towards Euening the ayre began againe to be cloudie, and the night was verie calme.

The ninth, by day breake, the whole fleet came vpon the coast of Galicia, neere to Viuero, and holding their course North-East to the Northward, and North-North-East, towards Euening they came right ouer against the Cape Ortegall, which lyeth some 11 German leagues from the Groyne. In the night the wind [...]urnd North-East and by North; and being come to the height of 44 degrees & 24 minutes, the said Cape stood off from them 5 leagues South-East to the Southward.

The tenth of Iune, they set saile with a South-West wind to­wards East-South-East, along the shoare towards the Groyne,A description of the Groyne. which they descried about Noone, making all things readie to as­saile it. It is a Sea towne in Galicia, standing in the height of 43 degrees and twelue minutes on the North-side of the line, oppo­sit to England and Ireland, one hundred and fifteene German leagues from Plimmouth, being seated on a triangular Cape in a deepe and spacious Bay, where not onely the sayd Towne hath a goodlie Hauen, but Ferol, Ponta de Mas, Pitança, and Fontuna, haue the goodliest and most commodious Ports of Christendome: In which regard the king of Spaine had lately fortified it with many Castles, and there and at Ferol, he rigd his fleet for England, Ireland and the Netherlands, together with that of this present yeare.

In some sort to hinder the preparation of that Spanish Fleet, and there to destroy the King of Spaines ships and meanes, the Admerall Vander-Does was commaunded to assaile the Groyne with his fleet.

To this end, on the eleuenth of Iune, the wind being North-West to the Westward, the six aboue mentioned ships went be­fore towards the Groyne to see how things were there ordered, directing their course South-South-East towards the Cape de Prior, where they stayed to the Southward of the Towne. Those of Ferol descrying these ships, sent forth two shalops to know what they were, because the day before, they had seene the fleet at Sea. These ships went before the wind to attend these shalops, which suspecting somewhat, kept aloofe off and would not come [Page 236] neere, but our men cried out aloud saying that they came from Hambourg, and that they were loaden with marchants goods, and onely wanted a pilot to carrie them into the Groyne.

By this means our men got one of the shalops to come aboord, and tooke a Spaniard, but those that were in it made all the hast they could to escape. The Spaniard whome they had taken pri­soner, was one of the Kings seruants, and was come the same day from the Groyne: He being brought to the Admerall, told him that some 4000 foot, & certain horse, with 36 carts of siluer readie coyned, & 300 pipes of wine, were come to the Groyn to furnish the future Spanish fleet.

After dinner, the whole fleet came before the Groyne, where they met with the Vice-Admerall of Amsterdam. The Groyne and the aboue mentioned Castles, were well prouided of strong garisons, ordinance, munition, and other necessaries, hauing a long time before had intelligence of the comming of this fleet by Hispaniolized French and Dutch.

The Admerall Vander-Does at his first ariual did presently with all his ships fall beneath the towne, casting anker at 13, 12, and 21 fathom.

Those in the towne and Castles plaid furiously with their ord­nance vpon our men, so as in a short space they made more than 200 shot. Beneath the towne 12 great Gallions lay with certaine other French ships, which likewise discharged their ordnance vpon vs: yet their shot did no hurt to our fleet, onely one vessell was spoiled.

The Admerall perceiuing such resistance, sent for all the Cap­taines and Officers to come aboord his ship to consult together how they might best assaile the enemie: yet in regard the Citie was so well prouided, they thought it not fit to hazard the whole fleet, or for one town to lose their good fortune, in atchiuement of other enterprises.

And therefore the fleet went thence, not medling with the towne, and because it was verie calme weather, they caused their boats to towe their ships, lying still open to the shot, both from the towne and castle, which did them no harme.

Toward euening the wind rose, so as the whole fleet was vnder saile, holding their course South-South-east towards Cape Saint Vincent, that they might on a sodaine surprise Saint Lucas.

[Page 237]Saint Lucas is a towne in Andaluzia on the Southern coasts of Spaine at the mouth of the Riuer of Seuill, in the height of 39 de­grees & 40 minutes: but the Admerall Vander-Does being already gon beyond S. Lucas, left off that enterprise, because the time was to far spent, & the wind stood faire for the Canaries, making pre­paration to inuade those Islands, which are in number 7, viz. the graund Canarie, Palma, Tenerifa, Forteuentura, Fero, Gomera, and Lancerotta. They are not far one from another, and are seated betwixt 27 and 30 degrees from the line, they are all called Cana­ries after the name of the fertilest of them, heretofore called Ca­narie, and now the Grand Canarie.

These Islands by ancient writers were in former times termed the fortunate Islands,Description of the Canaries. in regard of the aboundance of all necessa­ries and fruitfulnesse of the soile, producing all things fit for the sustenance of mans life, but especially the grand Canarie, Palma, and Tenerifa, which do not onely produce all necessaries in a­boundance, but likewise sugars, wine, and oile, and such like com­modities, wherewith they store Europe and other Countries.

These Islands haue been a long time subiect to the Spaniards, who now remaine there, and are not inhabited by their auncient inhabitants, who now are all rooted out. But by whom and how they were subdued and by what meanes they fell to the Crowne of Spaine is not certainly knowne; this only cannot be denied that Forteuentura, Fero, Lancerotta, and Gomera, were the first that were taken, and the Grand Canarie, Palma & Tenerifa were long after that Pagans.

The valour and crueltie of these Islanders, their discommodi­ous hauens, and dangerous sea coasts, caused them so long to hold out against the Christians, whom they haue often repulsed with great losse. The Fleet directed it course towards the Canaries forcibly to inuade the Grand Canarie and Gomera, according to the appointment of my Lords the States. The Admerall sent for al the Captains & Commanders & Pilots to consult with them a­bout the commodities of the said Islands. He likewise distributed the Marriners vnder new Captains, 130 men vnder euery En­signe, & gaue order for all things, instructing the captains how to behaue themselues on shoare.

And because the fleet did daily approach the line, comming to the hottest part of the world, where too much eating and drin­king [Page 238] is very dangerous causing sundry diseases, and commonly death, the Admerall did verie descreetly moderate his souldiers diet commanding euerie man strictly to obserue it: He likewise sent for all the land and sea Captaines to aduise him in what man­ner to assaile the enemie and towne.

The 24 of Iune the wind was still North-North-West, & they went South-South-East, so as toward euening they descried Lan­cerotta, and bending their course thither-ward they went East to the South-ward. The 25 of Iune in the morning they came neere to Lancerotta, and Forteuentura, which they might descrie, and after noone, they doubled it, going towards the South-East a­long the Westerne coasts, and about Euening descried the grand Canarie; whereupon, they struck saile, and tarried till the second watch, & then did againe set forward, directing their course East­ward toward the grand Canaries, which stands in the height of 28 degrees on the hither side of the line, and 155 German leagues to the South East towards the South of Saint Vincents Cape in Portugal, being in compasse 260000 paces, amounting in all to 26 German leagues. On the East side of this Island stands a small town called Allagona, wherein are aboue foure hundred houses: It is the chiefe Towne of all the Canaries, and there the Iudges Courts both Ecclesiasticall and Ciuill, with the Inquisitor of Spaine, and the gouernor of the Islands for the King, doe reside.

Through the Town runnes a small shallow riuulet which des­cends from the neighbour mountaines, and emptieth it selfe into the sea, & is in no sort capable of shipping. The hauen of the grand Canarie lies foure hundred paces towards the North-North-East of Allagona, and is of an indifferent breadth and depth: For defence of this Hauen, the King of Spaine had caused a strong Castle to be built, called Gratiosa: All the forts of the grand Cana­rie were prouided of strong Garrisons, munition, and other ne­cessaries.

The 26 of Iune, the fleet with a North-East wind entred the Hauen of the grand Canarie, and all of them together came to an anker beneath the Castle Gratiosa.

Thereupon, the Spanish Gouernor came with seuen Spanish Companies to the Sea side, placing gards vpon the hauen, planting three small peeces of ordnance behind certaine bankes to hinder his enemies landing. [Page 239] vpon the fleets arriuall the Gastle Gratiosa playd furiously vp­on it, but the Admerall, vice-Admerall and those ships which carried the biggest ordnance drew neere the Castle and requi­ted it with the like.

Two Spanish ships rode neere the Castle, one of which was sunke, and the other together with a small barke, was brought to the fleet. By this meanes the Castle was much weake­ned, and those within it began to be discouraged, leauing off their furious shooting, notwithstanding that they had alreadie torne some ships and slaine certaine mariners.

Thereupon, the Admerall did presently man his boats and lan­ded his men, & those ships that could not reach the Castle, bent their ordnance vpon the shoar driuing the enemie thence. These boats rowed altogether to land-ward, where for a while they fought with the enemie. The Admerall perceiuing that the ene­mies would not remoue, and that the water was shallow, leaped vp to the middle in the Sea, and with his men marched brauely against them.

By this means the Spanish troupes after some slight fight were beaten from the shoar, flying towards Allagona together with the Kings Gouernor, who lost his leg: many were hurt, and some 36 of them slaine. Of our men, the Admerall at his first landing was hurt in the legge with a pike, and was in great danger, but he was rescued by one of his souldiers who brauely slew the Spaniard that had hurt him. The Admeralls Lieutenant Generall was shot into the throat, and another Captaine in the head, and beside these some 20 souldiers were slaine and wounded. The Admerall hauing woon the shoar, sent all the boats back againe to the ships to fetch more men, to the number of 24 Ensignes, which were di­uided into seuen troups, and marched in order of battaile 21 in front. Those in the Castle kept themselues quiet, discharging no one shot after our men were landed, making signes as if they in­tended to yeeld, which the Admerall vnderstanding, went thither with certain Captains and souldiers, and at his arriuall, without a­ny capitulation at all they yeelded on discretion. There were 138 men in the Castle, many had bin slaine and some fled thence; there were likewise 9 cast peeces in it and 6 of yron, with all sorts of munition. These 138 men were brought prisoners into the ship which was taken, 3 captains except, whom the admeral kept nere [Page] him to be by them instructed concerning the affairs of the Coun­trey. In this manner, Graciosa, the strongest Castle not onely of Grand Canarie, but of al the other Islands, was easily taken, which was presently manned with 80 souldiers, who threw downe the King of Spaines ensignes, and displaied that of Prince Maurice.

Two Moores were at the same time brought to the Admerall which were taken in the mountaines, who because they were found sleeping could giue no certaine aduertisement.

In the night, 24 ensignes went towards Allagona, where they diuided themselues into foure troups, the first placed themselues beneath the towne, the second vnder the neighbour mountaines, the third vpon the shoare, and the fourth made the rereward: These foure troupes stood all night imbattailed, and the 27 of Iune by day breake, they came all together before Allagona: But the townesmen defended themselues, and shot fiercely from the Castle which stands on the North side, not without some losse on our part. Thereupon, our men retired behind the neighbour hills, where they began to intrench themselues, and by that means secured themselues from the Canon.

Those of Allagona, perceiuing our men to be intrenched, brought six small Falconets vpon the hills, which they charged with woodden bullets, and did vs much harme, because they had so well planted their peeces: Tenne or twelue of our men went vp the hill, but returned without any exploit, one excepted which fell into the Spaniards hands, who did cruelly cut him into foure quarters. This inhuman crueltie incensed our men and caused them the same night, to doe the like to a Spaniard.

The Admerall perceiuing the enemies great resistance, cau­sed fiue peeces of ordnance to be brought from the Castle, which he had woone, therewith to make a batterie and by Canon shot to enforce the Towne to yeeld.

Those of Allagona made a counter batterie, attempting by their shot to driue their enemy thence and to enforce, him to giue ouer his worke.

But our men did valiantly perseuer, and in a short space plan­ted the batterie notwithstanding that diuers of them were slaine by the townesmen, and that night planted three Canon, and shot fiue or six vollies into the Towne.

The 28 of Iune at night, the 24 ensignes were embattailed, 15 [Page 241] in front, and by day break euery man went to his appointed place, making preparation to assault the towne the same day: The two other peeces were likewise planted on the batterie, foure to bat­ter the North Castle, and the fifth to play vpon the Falconets, and presently began a furious batterie on all sides. Foure did continu­ally batter the Castle, so as those of Allagona were much an­noyed and were enforced to place wooll sacks and barrells full of stones vpon the Castle, by that meanes to shadow them­selues: But this, in steed of profiting, did most annoy them, for when the bullets touched the barrells of stones, they scattered them abroad and slew as many as stood neere them: So as by this means the Castle before noone was wholly ruyned, and the enemies pride abated, wherupon, the Admerall presently sent foure com­panies vp to the hils to driue the enemy from those Falconets, and to set fire on the Citie gates:Those of Alla­gona forsake the town which is taken by the Admerall Van­der Does. But they within it perceiuing the ex­treame danger, and their enemies furious assault, abandoned the Towne and Castle, and with their wiues, children, money, iew­ells, and whatsoeuer they could carrie with them, fled into the mountaines.

The Admerall perceiuing that the enemie fled from thence, caused two ladders to be forthwith brought from a Church that stood without the towne, the first was too short; yet on the other, himselfe was the first man that mounted the walles, and was cou­rageously followed by his souldiers: some ranne presently to the Castle, where they found fiue brasse peeces, and tooke downe the King of Spaines ensigne, displaying that of his Excellencie.

The enemy had made a mine in the towne gate, which as our men came before the walles, was blowne vp of it selfe, and did hurt to no man: they had likewise scattered great store of gun­powder heere and there, but our men did sier it. And in this man­ner Allagona, the chiefe of all the Canaries, was by Gods fauour forcibly taken on the 28 of Iune about noone, by foure and twen­tie Dutch ensignes, after it had beene beseeged two dayes, batte­red with Spanish ordnance, and scaled with her owne ladders. The Admerall hauing most of his men in the towne, did againe embattaile them in a void place, fifteen in front, whither the foure Companies which he had sent along by the hill side to enter the towne, came vnto him, bringing with them a man of Flushing, whom they had freed from prison. The Admerall, together with [Page 242] him, and other Captaines, went to the prison of Allagona, where they found thirtie six prisoners, whom they presently released.

The Spaniards, had carried one English man and a Dutch­man away with them into the mountaines, who had already been committed to the holy house (as they terme it) and were condem­ned to be burnt. Toward euening, all the souldiers and mari­ners of the fleet came to the towne and sackt it, certaine houses and goods excepted, which the Admerall had seized on for his owne vse.

That night all the Captaines with their companies were lod­ged in houses apart, and kept good gard euerie where, for the e­nemie did often shew himselfe vpon the hills.

The 29 of Iune in the morning certaine mariners did rashely ascend the hills, whom the enemie (which was skilfull in the waies and passages) surprized and for the most part slew.

Toward Euening 300 men marched toward the Castle on the South side of Allagona, but so soone as the Spanish Garrison saw our men, they presently fled to the mountaines.

In this Castle, our men found three canon, with other munition, and it was manned with some few of our men. In the night the Spaniards came secretly downe the hill, surprized our centinell and slew him.

The last of Iune by day breake our men begun to ship the wines and other goods. About noone fiue Spanish Captaines came to our centinells with a little flagge in signe of peace, and were brought to the Admerall, and after they had conferd with him, were againe sent back to the mountaines. The enemie often times sent in this manner, onely to spie what we did, whereupon the Admerall would no more speake with any that came, but on the second of Iuly proclaimed by sound of Drum that euery cen­tinell shold send back all such as came from the mountaines with flags of truce.

The first of Iuly a Sermon of thanksgiuing was made in the great Church of Allagona by a minister of the Reformed Religi­on, by whom thankes was giuen to God for their victory obtay­ned, earnestly beseeching him daily to increase it for the glorie of his holie name and benefit of his Church. The same day, the Admerall sent foure ships to Sea, as well for other respects, as to trie their good fortune, and to lie in waite for certaine Spanish [Page 243] chants. The second of Iuly the Admerall commanded that no man without leaue should attempt to goe vp into the mountaines, be­cause that the souldiers rash and vnaduised incursions had caused diuers of them to fall into the enemies hands. After dinner, one of our Brigantines tooke a small Spanish Fisher boat neere to the Island Forteuentura, wherein were 7 men which were presently brought to the Admerall, who imprisoned them. The same night, the rest of the goods were shipt, and the third of Iuly by day breake our men carried away the Bells, ordnance, and munition which the enemie had left in the towne, aboord their ships, ma­king all things in a readinesse for their speedy departure from the grand Canarie, that they might put their other enterprises in exe­cution.

The Admerall, notwithstanding the great danger in the moun­taines whether the enemie was fled, had determined to assaile them and to take away those goods which they had carried thi­ther: To this end, on the fourth of Iuly in the morning 2000 men marched vp towards the enemie, and gaue him a furious charge, but after some slight encounter, the enemie retired farther vp into the hills, into Caues and obscure places, by rough and vnknowne waies, and our men returned without any exploit, and with losse of some 70 men. The same day, the Admerall did fire the Town of Allagona, with all the Cloisters, Churches, and houses round a­bout it, rasing all the Castles, and so in good order, himselfe and men left the Towne and returned to their ships. We were no soo­ner gon, but the enemies entred it, and labored to quench the fire, and often times shewed themselues in small troupes, whilest our men embarkeed themselues, but durst neuer come neere our boats.

The fift, sixt, and seuenth of Iuly the fleet remained in the ha­uen and Road of the graund Canarie, as well in regard of contra­rie winds and other impediments, as also to tarrie for the foure ships, which had beene sent to Sea.

The Admerall in the meane time did carefully visit the fleet, and in the places of those commanders that were dead, he appoin­ted others. He likewise called all the Captaines aboord his ship and conferred with them concerning the commodities of the other Islands of the Canaries.

Our men burnt one of their owne ships which at the fleets first [Page 244] arriuall, had beene battered from the Castle Graciosa, the Captaine hauing transported his men and goods into the barke which they tooke in the Road. In this meane time certaine Spaniards came at sundry times to the water side with flags of truce, who in a boat were brought to the Admerall, and afterwards sent back againe, after they had redeemed some prisoners.

The eight of Iuly in the morning, the fleet sailed along the Coast of the Grand Canarie, and at the North point met with the foure ships which had beene at Sea: So soone as they descried the fleet, they weighed anker, and did put to Sea with the rest. Toward Euening the wind blew hard, so as the fleets course was stopt, which returned to the South-East point of the Grand Cana­rie, where they all came to an anchor in the view of Tenerif. The ninth of Iuly all the boats went on shoar to fetch in fresh water, vnseene of the Spaniards. The tenth, the fleet did againe set saile with a North-West wind and were presently becalmed.

The 11 of Iuly in the morning, the wind againe was faire, but comming neere to Tenerif, the weather grew calme and verie changeable, so as the fleet was dispersed, being not able to hold on their course, but were enforced to come to an anchor twelue times in one day.

The twelueth of Iuly, the wind was more constant, so as the fleet directed it course towards Gomera. Gomera is the least Island of all the Canaries, and hath a small towne on the South-west part thereof, with a strong Castle vpon the shoare.

Towards euening the greatest part of the fleet came vp toge­ther, & among others, the Rere-Admerall, Ian Geerbrantson with his white flagge, who in the night with two other ships rode neere the towne: But those of Gomera began presently to shoot at them, so as the said Admerall did speedily fal off, and with as many ships as were neere him, came to an anchor, waiting for the rest of the fleet, which was farre off betwixt Tenerifa and Gomera.

The thirteenth of Iuly before noone the whole Fleet came together and sayled towards Gomera, and doubling a poynt to the North-west of the Towne, they came to an anchor.

The Admerall presently sent for all the Captaines and held a Martiall councell, acquainting them with what they were to do.

Thereupon foure Ensignes of souldiers were presently landed in the valley, to assault the backside of the towne, and to hinder [Page 245] the enemies flight into the mountaines.

After that, the fleet went forward before the towne, on which it forthwith bestowed some shot and found no resistance at all. Then the Admerall landed 6 Ensignes moe, who without any re­sistance entred the town and Castle: For so soone as the enemies descried the fleet, they fled away like those of Allagona with their wiues, children, and goods into the mountaines, hauing buried their bells, ordnance, wines, and other commodities heere and there in the fields.

The foure aboue mentioned Ensignes perceiuing the enemies flight, sent a troup of souldiers before to intercept them, & to take those goods which they caried with them: But the Spaniards ha­uing notice thereof, hid themselues in Caues and darke places, & in a valley incompassed our men.

Our men thus inclosed on euery side, made braue resistance and slue many of the enemie, and in the end after a cruell fight, made way thorough them, and retired to the towne, hauing lost some 70 or 80 men, among whom were two Lieutenants, which had behaued themselues very valiantly, one of whom had receiued fiftie wounds in his body.

After dinner, the Admeral placed strong gards euerie where, & commaunded the souldiers to search the fields, where the same night they found diuers pipes of wine. In the night our men took a Spaniard who by the Admerals command was committed to the Prouost Marshal, to cause him the next day to discouer such goods as were hid: but about midnight, by negligence of his keepers, he escaped, & so fled into the mountains. The 14 of Iuly in the mor­ning our men shipt all the enemies goods, and after dinner, found three bells more which were buried in the fields.

The 15 of Iuly in the morning, 10 or 12 of our men running rash­ly vp the hils, were enuironed & slaine by the enemy. The same day, the Admerall made a Generall muster, and those ships which were not double mand and victualled, began to deliuer vp the re­mainder of their munition & souldiers to the other ships, & in ex­change, the sick and hurt men were stowed in them, and pre­paration made to send them home into the Low-Countries, to carie newes of their victories and purchase, gotten from the enemie euen in his owne Countrey. After dinner, our men found two great peeces of ordnance, the one sixteene foot [Page 246] and a halfe long, and the other 14 foot.

The 16 of Iuly after dinner, the enemie shewed himselfe sun­dry times, scoffing at the defeat of our men in the valley, and in derision, bad them to come fetch their muskets which they had left behind them. Thereupon, the Admerall would haue landed certain souldiers & mariners, to assaile the enemie the next day in the coole of the morning: but in the night a great tempest arose so as the fleet in regard the ships lay neere together, had like to haue suffered shipwrack, had not some of them fallen off farther to sea­ward and there anchored, so as by this meanes the former deter­mination was hindred, and peraduenture the mischiefe preuen­ted which might haue befallen our men, if they had gon vp into the mountaines to the enemie.

The 17 of Iuly 300 men were sent to the said valley to visit the enemie, who keeping himselfe hid, our men returned, bringing with them two small brasse peeces, and two barrells of pouder which they found buried in the ground.

The 18 of Iuly they shipt all the enemies goods, & those ships which were appointed for execution of such enterprises as were to be made in the King of Spaines remotest dominions, were sto­red with such proportion of Canarie wines as befitted the length of their voyage.

The 19 the Admerall fired the townes, cloisters, and houses neere adioyning, abandoned the Island, and shipt his men, whereupon, the Spaniards presently came forth of their starting holes to the towne and quenched the fire, as those of the Grand Canarie had done.

The 20 the fleet remayned in the Road of Gomera, receiuing instructions from the Admerall what course they should hold; he sent for all the Captaines, highly thanked them for their good and faithfull seruice, and earnestly intreated them to proceed from good to better.

The 21 of Iuly, he sent againe for the Captaines and Comman­ders, and courteously tooke leaue of those which were to returne home, making Iean Gerbrantzon their Admerall, cōmanding them to follow him, and to obey his commandements. Then the fleet was seperated, and failed with a Northerlie wind. The Admerall Vander-Does with 36 ships, held on his course South-South-East towards the kingdoms of the Western Indies, & Iean Gerbrantzon [Page 247] with 35 ships, and an Easterly wind sayled home-ward.

Iean Gerbrantzon till the 24 of Iuly kept his whole fleet toge­ther; but they were afterward dispersed by continuall tempests, and contrarie winds, taking sundry courses vnder sundry Ad­merals, euery man striuing who should first get home.

Sixteene of these ships vnder their Admerall Frederick Arentz did on the eight and twentieth of August, in the height of thirtie six degrees and twelue minutes to the Northward of the line, meet with two small Spanish ships, going from Capo Blanco, to­wards Wolvis: In those ships were seuen and fortie men, and a­mong those a Spanish marchant, fortie seuen Muskets, foure peeces of ordnance, and were loden with sundry commodities amounting to the value of 60000 ducats, and had in them beside foure tun of trayne Oyle, and Arabian Gums, and two thousand one hundred and fortie Rialls of siluer plate.

These thirtie fiue ships came altogether about the eight, ninth, and tenth of September into sundery Hauens of the Low-Coun­tries and were with great ioy welcomed home.

But Generall Vander-Does with his thirtie six ships went to­wards the Coasts of Affrick and Guiney, along by the Islands of Cape Vert, and so to S. Thomas, which is an Island vnder the e­quinoctiall line, where they forcibly landed, but the inhabitants with their goods fled into the mountaines: our men by entren­ching and approaches which they had learned in the Low-Coun­tries tooke the Castles. The inhabitants did afterward come downe from the mountaines being seuen thousand in number, and assailed our men, but the Generall repulsed and slew many of them. In the end, the Island and Towne of Pauoasan with the Castles were sackt, and the booty carried to the ships. They found an hundred brazen peeces there, nine thousand chests of browne Saint Thomas sugar, one thousand foure hundred Ele­phants teeth, much Cloth, Cotton, and other marchandize, with a very great sum of money.

But hauing beene long at Sea, and the ayre very vnwhol­some and pestilentiall for our men, who could not temper and moderat their dyet in that hot Countrey, nor absteine from fruits, a disease or burning feauer, in those parts termed la Madorca, which commonly fals on those that come from Europe, seazed on them, some of them had their grease melted in their bodies as if it [Page 248] had been molten butter, as appeared by diuers that were opened; many died boath on shoare and at Sea of this disease,Generall Van­der-Does dyeth in the fleet. and among others, the Generall Vander-Does, which was a great losse to the fleet and vnited Prouinces, for he was a valiant Gentleman, and skilfull in the art militarie both by land and sea. His men buri­ed him in an house in the Island deepe in the ground, and then burnt that house with others, to the end his bodie might not be found. There died likewise his Nephew, George Vander-Does, sonne to that learned Gentleman Iean Vander-Does Lord of Nort­wijck, with diuers other land and sea Captaines to the number of fifteen and some 1200 Souldiers and Mariners. After their death Captaine Cornelius Leynsen tooke vpon him the Commaund of the fleet, and hauing embarked all the goods together with the Go­uernor D. Francisco de Meneces he failed homeward, sending seuen of his best ships with one Brigantine vnder the conduct of the Captaines Hartman, Broer, and others to the coast of Bresill, with instructions what to doe.

Himselfe being likwise sick did in Februarie 1600 bring home his ships, with the bootie and many prisoners: His men were so sick and weake, as certaine of his ships through want of men stay­ed in France others in England, and one in Ireland. Among the rest, one ship that was weakly manned & wanted a Pilot, the ayre being mistie came to Sluce, where it was taken, there was in it some money, and some foure or fiue hundred chests of sugar.

The aboue mentioned seuen ships vnder the conduct of Cap­taine Hartman went to Bresiill, where they likewise met with good booty doing great hurt to the enemie, and returned home n anno 1601. There was hope that this fleet would haue done great mattsrs, but they could not meet with the Spanish fleet which went from Cales to the West Indies: and then, things fell not out according to their expectation for they were ouer­taken with sicknesse by being enforced by contrarie winds to stay long in those hot Countries. Their owne profit was not so much to them as the losse was to their enemies: They haue put the King of Spaine to great expence, they haue purchased honour, and made Spaine iealous of other such like inuasions, and putting it in feare of losing his Indian fleet.

These are the principall matters done by this fleet: wherein if we consider, the experience of the pilots, discreet conduct of the [Page 249] Captains, and valour of the souldiers, we cannot but admire: espe­cially if wee looke vpon the great victories obtained by them whose fame hath qualified the Spaniards crueltie against our sea­men, and themselues braued the enemy in his owne land, and be­fore Groyne declared the admirable strength of the vnited Pro­uinces, and haue sought out the King of Spains future fleet, where­with he thought not only to haue caused the Low-countries, but all Europe to tremble, hauing challenged and dared it to fight, euen in so many townes and castles of Spaine: and hath beside so easily woon the Grand Canarie, the mightiest of al the Islands, the taking whereof cost the last King of Spaine many tun of gold & many braue & experienced souldiers; which Sir Francis Drake could not effect, notwithstanding that he in a maner tooke all the sea townes and castles of the Westerne Indies, and terrified the whole Spanish world. Who would euer haue thought that Al­lagona the chiefest Citie of all the Canaries wold haue been so ea­sily taken, that Gomera would haue been woon without any resi­stance, and his Garrison slaine? Is it not a great matter that the whole Island of the Grand Canarie and Gomera haue been rui­ned, the townes, castles, and houses burnt, the ordnance an muniti­on and other commodities brought thence, that such great num­ber of poore & wretched captiues haue bin freed from the hands the bloudie Spaniards? Let the King of Spaine stay our Mar­chants, let him kill and burne our Mariners, and suppose that he hath weakenedour countries: yet he shall find that wee haue braued him in his owne Realmes, and made his Cnaries so wast and desart, as of along time he will reape no profit by them: and we on the contrary encreased our countries meanes, by wealth, gotten from him and reuenged our intollerable wrongs, where­in by Gods assistance we will still valiantly persist.

¶ The taking of the towne of Deuticum in Annno 1599.

BEcause the Admerall of Arragons Armie remained for the most part in Brabant, his Excellencie like a wise and valiant Captaine, laying hold on occasion, sent his cousin Count [Page 250] William of Nassau Gouernor of Frizeland with ten companies of horse & 24 foot Ensignes, with Commission to take forth of sun­dry Garisons, 26 Ensignes more, amounting in all to the number of 50 with ordnance and other necessaries for a seege, and to doe his best to take the towne of Deuticum from the enemie: and thereupon on the 24 of August he came before the towne, and on the 25 began to fortifie and intrench himselfe, on the 26 he plan­ted two peeces of ordnance, and after that, one, and began to make his batterie, whereat they within it being terrified, so soone as they were summoned to yeeld, craued a parley, which was forthwith granted, and by their capitulation, they were to depart thence on the 27 of August with foure Ensignes, commanded by Don Inigo de Otaela, who was Gouernor likewise of the Castle of Schuylenbourg, which he yeelded vp to his Excellencie, fearing if he should delay the matter till the Almanes were ariued, who were hourely lookt for, that then he could not make his peace at so cheap [...] a rate, nor procure so sure a Conuoy. These two places thus woone, the vnited Prouinces were masters of all the Coun­trey as far as Rhine, and his Excellencie manned Deuticum with a Garison. There was 52 barrells of pouder, and other warlike munition found in the towne: This being done, Count William and his souldiers did on the 29 of August returne to his Excellen­cies campe neere to the Isle of Voorn.

¶ The taking of the Towne and Castle of Wachtendonck in An. 1600.

WHilest the Archdukes were receiued ouer all Brabant and Flanders as Princes and Lords of those Countreys, his Excellencie made an attempt vpon the towne of Wach­tendonck: Which is a strong place, seated beyond Guelderland vpon the Riuer Niers, which some twelue yeares since had beene taken from the vnited Prouinces by Count Charles of Mansfelt, af­ter two moneths seege. His Excellencie one the 22 of Ianuarie lying in the Monasterie of Bebber neere to Cleue, assembled 8 cornets of horse, and 800 foot, vnder conduct of Count Lodwick and Colonell Edmunds, who with certaine wagons, did before [Page 251] noone begin to march, and went the same night to Niekercke neere to Watchtendonck; after some repose they went towards the towne, where some ouer the yee, and others by the dikes gat vp vpon the Townes Rampiers: there were not aboue 80 souldi­ers both in the towne and Castle, for the horse Garison was gon a boothaling toward Cologn, where they sackt the Castle of Wan­der-stuyt, where they were beaten by certain souldiers of the Ga­risōs of Bonne & Bruiler. His Excellencies souldiers being gotten into the town, the alarme was presently giuen, but they found no great resistance, but with ease became masters thereof. That done, they placed certaine musketiers vpon the rampiers, causing them to shoot continually vpon the Castle, and on such as made de­fence, whereby the Gouernor the Lord of Geleyn was hurt in the throat, and some other slaine. The Gouernor had but 30 souldiers with him, and presently sent to the Earle of Bergue that lay at Ru­remond, for aide, who forthwith sent thither all the Garisons neere adioyning; but they came too late, for Count Lodwick of Nassau was by this time ariued with his troups of horse. In the meane time certaine of them alighted from their horse, and toge­ther with the Lieutenant of his Excellencies cōpanie had passed the dikes and gotten vpon the Castles Rampiers, where at last they became masters of it, promising to some their liues within it. A maid that serued the Gouernor, and was of a manlie courage, did with an yron forke ouerturne a ladder whereon fiue men were ascending. In this manner the towne and Castle were taken on the 23 of Ianuarie. This towne being seated in the verie mid­dest of the Country where the Spaniard hath great Commaund, and in a moorish soyle was verie commodious and fit for ouer­throwing the Admerall of Arragons practises there. Not far from thence, lay certaine foot Companies of Spaniards which were in great danger to haue beene discouered and beaten, for they could not be receiued into Guelder nor other townes in regard of their mutinus disorders. This enterprise being fortuna [...]ly atchieued by Count Lodwick and the Scottish Colonell Edmonds, did greatly inrich them, for all the boores of the Countrey had brought their cheefest wealth thither. After that they had giuen order for the safetie of the towne and Castle, they departed thence on the 24 of Ianuarie with the Cauallery, leauing the Lord of Ryhouen Go­uernor of the Towne, with all the Infantrie, and because the [Page 252] towne was vnprouided of munition, Colonell Edmonds went back thither on the 5 of Februarie with a conuoy of all necessa­ry prouisions. The 14 of Februarie his Excellencie sent thither againe, vnder conduct of Count Lodwick, assembling seuenteene cornets of horse, and two thousand foot, either to send a greater Conuoy to Wachtendonck, or else vnder that colour, to make an attempt vpon some other towne. But in their march, intelligence was giuen that Colonell la Bourlotte was vpon a march in Brabant with his owne regiment and that of Achicourt, about a certaine exploit. The Lord of Sidenisky being at Bommel, countermand­ed Count Lodwick and his forces back to the Isle of Tiell, there to stop & preuēt Bourlottes attempts. Bourlotte thought to haue made vse of some of the mutineers of Hamont, but they hauing some bad suspition of him would not march notwithstanding all his faire promises; he thought likewise to haue taken away with him part of the Garison of Saint Andrews fort, and thereupon on the fifteenth of Februarie, he tooke muster of them: But those of that Garison hauing receiued no pay of a long time began to mu­tin the verie same day, and though, at first, they were pacified by faire words, yet the same night, they fell into a greater mutiny, discharging the ordnance, and tooke their Captaines prisoners, ransacking the Gouernors lodging and other houses. The six­teenth they sent their officers whom they had imprisoned toge­ther with diuers women and children to Sertoghenbusk. Those of Creuecoeur hauing notice hereof, and perceiuing that there was no pay for them neither, did on the seuenteenth day follow their example, & began to mutin. La Bourlotte by this meanes per­ceiuing his enterprise to be frustrate, returned towards the Mase. In the meane time a rumor was spred abroad in Holland of Bour­lottes enterprise, so as his Excellencie went in person to Gorcum, and sent for forces thither, fearing some inuasion, because the Ri­uer there was so frozen, as from Dort foure field peeces mounted on their carriages were drawne ouer the Riuer to Papendrecht: and vnderstanding that Bourlotte was gon back, he went no far­ther, but thereupon, commanded Count Lodwicks Conuoy to passe on towards Wachtendonck, which was done on the twentieth of Februarie, with seuenteene cornets of horse, and eight foot Com­panies (which lay in Garison at Wachtendonck) with one hun­dred wagons loden with all manner of munition and other neces­saries: [Page] and ariuing the same night at Bebber, they marched [...] the 25 of Februarie to Niekerck, and the 26 of the same, they [...] all the wagons into the towne, and after dinner, thems [...] [...] turned back and came to Marienboom; and so euerie man [...]ned to his Garrison hauing well and sufficiently victualled [...] town, which was a very fit place, from whence to make incursions into the Countrie round about Coloign, and Aix, betwixt the Rhin and Mase, and into other parts.

¶ The fort of Saint Andrew is yeelded vp to the States in Anno 1600.

AFter that his Excellencie and my Lords the States had recei­ued intelligence, that the Archdukes souldiers in sundrie places mutinied through want of pay, and among others al­so, those of Saint Andrews fort, vnto each of whom at a muster on the 15 of Februarie the Archduke, somewhat to satisfie them, gaue a Doller, cloth worth a moneths pay, and two pound of bread a day, which did in no sort content them, who demaunded their whole pay for 30 moneths, and proceeded so far in their mutinie, as they threw one of their Captaines from the bridge into the wa­ter, shot one of their Sergeants and enforced the other Captaines to keepe their houses as prisoners: yet afterwards they sent them to Sertoghenbusk, to see if they could procure them any content from thence. Those of the Garrison were Walons, and Almans, who fell at variance among themselues which of the two nations should chuse an Electo or Protector to gouerne and defend them in all difficulties which might arise, and ended their strife by cast­ing lots, which fell on the Walons, who elected on of their coun­trimen. Those of Creuecoeur on the 17 of Februarie did the like.

Hereupon, the States of the vnited prouinces & his Excellencie resolued not to lose this occasion, but commanded 80 foot com­panies to be in a readinesse before Dort on the 19 & 20 of March, with whom he went vp the Mase towards Creuecoeur fort. The report was that his Excellencie would goe into Flanders, but he went that night to Hemert, and on the 21 of March to Creuecoeur. And though it were a verie cold season, yet he beseeged the said fort, making trenches, and preparation to plant his ordnance.

[Page 254]Those of Saint Andrews fort suspecting some attempt would be made on Creuecoeur, did the very same day send two Compa­nies thither, consisting of one hundred and thirtie men. But those of Creuecoeur thought it neither profitable nor possible to keepe the place, and fearing to be contemned and casseered in re­gard of their mutinie, and dispairing euer to receiue their pay, they yeelded on composition vpon the 24 of March, viz that those which came from Saint Andrews Fort, might againe returne thi­ther and an hundred men of the other two Ensignes that were in Creuecoeur, entred into the Sates pay: They were souldiers vn­der the Regiment of Count Christopher of Emden.

Supplies sent to Creuecoeur are defeated.The same day, being the 24 of March, 500 Burguignons of Varrabons Regiment went forth of Helmont and Eindhouen to­wards Sertoghenbusk meaning to enter into Creuecoeur: but vnderstanding that the fort was yeelded vp, and that his Excel­lencies Cauallerie lay in the Countrey round about, they craued entrance into Sertoghenbusk; but the Burghers iealous of their owne libertie would not permit it, whereupon, they were beaten by the horsemen of Berghen, their Sergeant major and two other Captains taken prisoners, with other officers & many souldiers, & 290 of them were slaine: the rest of the prisoners were ransomed and set at libertie vpon their Captaines words, who promised to answere for them. And within fiue dayes after, two Cornets of horse, one of which was Grobbendoncks Cornet, were defeated as they caried a Conuoy towards Antwerp, by the Garrison of Ber­ghen.

The Admeral of Arragon had enlarged the fort of Creuecoeur with three great Bulwarkes, and his Excellencie remained there on the 25 of March to hasten the fortifications, and to prouide a­gainst the enemies assaults and incursions.

The six and twentieth of March his Excellencie went to Dalem to the same place where the Admerall & his Campe had lodged, there to fortifie himselfe, and thereby to intrench Saint Andrews great fort, where the Garison through want of pay were still in a mutinie. Before his ariuall there, he caused the fluces at a place called great Lit to be opened, thereby to drowne the Champaine Countrey of Brabant, towards Osse, Geffen, Merland, and as far as Sertoghenbusk: So soone as he had brought his Campe to Alem, he sent Colonell Gystells with twelue foot Companies [Page 255] to Littoyen, and opened the sluce there, the better to ouerflow the Countrey: He planted 12 peece of ordnance at Maren vpon the frontiers of Brabant opposite to Saint Andrewes fort, with which he daiely battered it.

He repaired the fort at Keffell made by the Spaniards which was wholly ruinate. He likewise fortified the Church of Maren round about, the higher Countrey of Alem, a place called Saint Annes-berg, and the Church of Empel, to the end that the ene­mie (the Countrie being wholy drowned) should haue no meanes to releeue Saint Andrewes fort, vnlesse along the causey, or from Sertoghenbusk by the way of Empell, or from Graue, by Littoy­en, Lit, Keffell, and Maren, where on all sides he should be con­strained to enforce the trenches and fortifications. By this meanes Saint Andrewes fort was altogether shut vp and inuironed with water, which with great labour and trauaile they were enforced to keepe out with their counterscarpes; it was so high at the be­ginning of Aprill, as none could goe in nor out of the fort but by boat.

The besiegers lay in their forts vpō the causey & in boats. The waters being high, they could not at first entrench themselues, but at last they began to fall. The fort was battered on euerie side especially from Maren, and that so fiercely, as they were enforced to vncouer their houses, and manie were beaten downe: our men likewise went about to take the mill from them, thereby to reduce them to all want and extremity.

The beseeged did brauely defend themselues, shot much, yet did no great harme to vs, who were too far off & well fortified; the bullets which they shot weighed fortie, and 45 pound weight.

His Excellencie sommoned them many times, but they would not harken to it, notwithstanding they saw the whole Countrie from whence they might hope for any releefe, to be ouerflowed like a sea: and yet they wanted many necessaries, as money, the sinewes of warre, clothes and other things, but espetially wood to brew and bake with: they likewise wanted medicines and drugs for sick and hurt men: they had corne enough but wanted beere, hauing no meanes to brew. They were moe than 2000 mutinous souldiers, and had no Commaunders and Captains, but their Electo and necessarie officers.

Those of Sertoghenbusk were very carefull for them, and did [Page 256] their best to releeue them,Those of Serto­ghenbusk seeke to releeue Saint Andrewes fort. making signes by fire and ordnance shot, sending them messengers who promised them much, yet the effect proued nothing.

On the twelueth of Aprill at night they attempted to send certaine flat bottomed boates ouer the drowned Country, which came behind Maren, where they were discouered, and driuen thence: in the boates were certaine commanders, with some pro­uisions and money.

The Archdukes forces begun likewise to be assembled neere to Diest, from whence they came to a place called Os, vnder the conduct of Don Lewis de Valasco, hoping to relieue the fort: but finding the aboue named Villages vpon the Causey to be strongly fortified, the whole Country drowned, and no meanes to passe, they returned back againe.

His Excellencie, the better to put the beseeged in dispaire, cau­sed the Castle of Batenbourg seated betwixt Lit and the towne of Graue, in the Countrie of Ma [...]e-en-Waell, to be taken, because from thence, releefe might be brought to the fort: there were in it fiue and twentie men, who by his Canon he enforced to yeeld.

Towards the end of Aprill, as the waters of the Mase and Waell began to fall, his Excellencie brought his ordnance on euery side, [...]eere to the fort, and in a short space made his approa­ches euen to the dikes of the counterscarpe, by reason that the wa­ter was wholly fallen. There was likewise a bridge made from Alem to the causey of Rossem 360 paces in length, in a word his Excellencie at last came so neere their counterscarpes, as it was impossible they should be releuied, whereupon the beseeged were enforced to crie out to the pioners, telling them that they desired to capitulate: diuers Wallons were persuaded by their Priests to hold out to the last man, assuring them to win Heauen thereby: but manie Almans being among them who on that pro­mise were vnwilling to hazard their liues, they sent two men from the fort to the Campe; and his Excellencie likewise for his part sent two, viz. the Lord Vander Aa, Captaine of his gard, and the Lord Iohn of Huchtenbroeck Colonell of the regiment of V­trecht: These men made a conclusion, that the beseeged, in lieu of the arerages of their whole pay due vnto them for many moneths, should receiue the sum of 125000 florins.

The states of the vnited Prouinces thought it more profitable for [Page 257] themselues to giue the said sum than to continue their armie any longer before the fort,Saint Andrews fort capitula­teth and agrees with Prince Maurice on the sixt of May. or to hazard their m [...]n in the assaults.

After long consultation, notwithstanding that the beseeged pretended moe arerages than the sum of 125000 florins amounted to; yet they were content to deliuer vp the fort, on condition that the said sum might be distributed among them.

Heereupon, they condescended to keepe the fort for my Lords the States, vntill the said sum were payed, and swore to his Excellencies Commissioners in forme following.

We sweare, that so long as we shall remaine in Saint Andrewes fort, we will keepe it for the vse of my Lords the States of the vnited Pro­uinces, and for his Excellencie till we haue receiued the money which he hath promised vs, and will obey our Captaines and Officers which shall be appointed ouer vs, renouncing the oath which we haue made to the King of Spaine or Archduke.

And these ensuing articles were graunted to them.

First, that all sick and hurt men, shall be caried to the next villages to be healed, and shall haue their share of the said sum.

2 Some gratuitie and recompence shall be giuen out of the said summe to their widowes that are dead, according to the discretion of the officers.

3 All souldiers who in former time haue serued the States & quitted their partie, shall be pardoned and payed their part out of the said sum.

4 All such as hauing receiued their part, are desirous to returne home into their Countries, shall haue their passeports: But those that will againe serue the Archduke, shall receiue no one pennie of the said summe.

5 All such as will serue the Lords States of the vnited Prouinces shall be as kindly delt with as any others.

6 As many as came from Creuecoeur, shall likewise receiue their share out of the said summe.

7 Whatsoeuer they haue done or committed in former time shall not be imputed to them.

The Confirmation of this article was presently seen before their departure: for the 19 of May a French souldier being denied en­trance into the fort, began to reuile the Garison, calling them tray­tors and sellers of the fort, who was forth with apprehended, con­demned to die, and sent by his Excellencie into the fort to be shot to death; but the Garison pardoned him.

8 The souldiers by his Excellencies consent shall chuse eight Wallon Captaines out of the regiments of Achicourt, and the Marquis, together [Page 258] with three Almans.

9 All Commissaries both for war and victualls, all Prouosts, Brew­ers, Bakers, Millers, and others that are desirous to depart shall haue safe conduct, passeport, and conuoy.

10 The Priest with the ornaments of the Church and other baggage, shall likewise depart with passeport and conuoy.

11 All Sergeants and Corporalls that will serue his Excellencie shall haue like vsage as the former.

12 Such souldiers as will come forth of the fort and serue the States, shall take the oath of Allegeance like vnto other souldiers that serue them, and, hauing passed a muster, shall receiue a moneths pay before hand.

All these conditions were concluded on the sixt of May, and performed on the eighth, and ninth of the same, foure great Ca­non, as many demy, three Culuerins, and other peeces of ord­nance to the number of eighteene, eight barrells of pouder, fortie thousand yron bullets, sixtie or seuentie load of wheat, with other armes and prouision were found in the fort.

These mutineers made vp a strong Regiment of eleuen En­signes, and were euerie where named the new Gueux: they were all in a manner old souldiers and chose their owne Captains,The greatest part of the gar­rison of saint Andrewes fort serue Prince Maurice. they were all ragged and poorly clad, but so soone as they were distri­buted into good townes, they all new clothed themselues, and the most of them in sutes of buffe. Count Henry Frederick of Nassau his Excellencies youngest brother was made their Colonel, & the Lord of Marquett, his Lieutenant; with expresse commandement not to reuile or taxe them,The excuse of the Garrison of Saint Andrews fort. for they excused their reuolt, saying that the Archduke had not vsed them like souldiers, but left them in a new fort in face of the enemie, wanting all necessaries, as money, garments &c. so that necessities had enforced them to re­uolt: besides, they had done their dutie in holding out six weeks expecting aid and other necessaries, and yeelded not so long as there was any hope of reliefe; and in recompence of their good & loyal seruice, were to looke for nothing but losse of their pay and arrerages, wanting money and meanes to cloth themselues: and because the losse of the place should not be imputed to their muti­nie,An vnfit com­parrison be­twixt those of S. Andrewes fort & the gar­rison of Gertru­denberg. nor themselues reproached for it; they therefore resolued to serue the States of the vnited Prouinces.

Neither had they done (as they said) like to those of Geertru­denberg, who sold the towne to their enemie for tenne moneths [Page 259] pretended arrerages, and fiue moneths present pay, being in no want of money nor apparell, for they caused boats vpon the Ri­uer and the Champaine Country to pay contribution, being nei­ther besieged nor pressed by the enemie; nay their Lords vnto whom they were sworne, would haue maintained and defended their honour and loyaltie, giuen them pardon and pasport, yea whatsoeuer in equitie they would haue demanded: yet all this was to no purpose with them, but prouoked by their enemies, they did in hatred, enuy, and couetousnes sell the towne to them, where­upon they were in derision termed merchants, and banished both by name and surname, rewards being proposed to such as could take them, and were euery where punished by the gallowes, to serue for an example to others.

In this manner, Saint Andrewes great fort which had cost so much money, and before with so great an armie had layen a long time encamped, fell into the hands of his Excellencie, and vnder commaund of the States of the vnited Prouinces: a fort which had put the enemie in great hope to haue bin able from thence in winter time & vpon the yce, to conquer Holland. The cause why it was so easily taken, proceeded from the Spaniards too much pro­fuse & large expence of money, who vndertooke more than their treasure could performe, and in making a bad account, did in that Prouince build a mightie fort to command and bridle their own countrey: so as the Archdukes reteined nothing of all their two yeares conquest, but only Berck, and the vnited Prouinces on the contrary had taken Emmerick, which was more profitable to them, than Berck to the Archduke; yet these two townes belonged to neither of them: his Excellencie and my Lords the States did within a while after restore Emmerick to the Duke of Cleues.

¶ A Description of whatsoeuer was done from day to day in Flanders in the army of the most Illustriuos Prince Maurice of Nas­sau, Accompanied by the noble, high, and mightie Lords, my Lords the States of the vnited Netherland Prouinces in An. 1600. the 17 of Iuly.

The cause why the armie went into Flanders.THe enemie of the vnited Netherland Prouinces with sundry forts hauing blockt vp the Towne of Ostend, being master of all the sea coasts of Flanders, and thereby for the space of certaine yeares done incredible hurt to the loyall inhabitants of the said Prouinnes, and other neighbor Realmes trading by sea my Lords the generall States, after the yeelding vp of this great & mightie fort of Saint Andrews neere to Rossem in the Isle of Bommell, being desirous to pursue the victorie which God had so fauourably giuen them there and elsewhere; in the beginning of this yere, after mature consultation therupon, with the Illustrious Lord Prince Maurice of Orange, Count of Nassau, Catzenelboge, Marquis of Vere, and Flushing &c. thought it fit by common con­sent to transport their whole Armie and power into Flanders, there to trie their good fortune vpon the enemeie, and if it were possible, to execute their determined proiects for freeing the sea Coasts; with this resolution, that the said Lords, for the better aduancement of their affaires, would in person assist his Eccellen­cie in this Armie and new expedition.

The 17 of Iune, after that 2000 great and small vessells were rigd forth of diuers places and Hauens of Holland and Zeeland to transport the Armie, with victualls, warlike munition, wagons, Horse for draught and all other necessaries: His Excellencie went from the Hague to Rotterdam, & so to Dort, from whence he caused all the fleet to saile to Rammekins in Zeeland, which was the Rendezvous.

The 18 of Iune, my Lords the Generall States, viz. The Lord Iames of Egmont, Lord of Kennebourg, Schipluy, and Maeslant, Iohn Oldenbarneuelt Lord of Tempel and Groynenelt, Aduocate and keeper of the seale of Holland and West-Frizeland, Iacob Huygens Vander Dussen, Bourgomaster of the towne of Delft, Ma­ster [Page 261] Nicasius Sille Doctor of the Lawes, Councellor and Pentio­ner to the towne of Amsterdam, M. Geraert Coren, Bourgoma­ster of the Towne of Alkmaer, M. Iacob Boellenssz, Burgomaster of Amsterdam and Counsellor of State, M. Iean de Santen Counsellor and Pentioner of the towne of Middelbourg, M. Ferdinand Alle­man Counsellor of State, M. Nicolas Hubert Burgomaster of the towne of Ziriczee, M. Gerart de Renesse Lord of Vander Aa, M. A­bell Franckena Doctor of the Lawes, M. Egbert Alberda Burgoma­ster of the towne of Gronningue, M. Cornellis Aerssen Register to my Lords the Generall States of the vnited Netherland Prouinces. All these with their traine, departed from the Hague about fiue of the clock in the morning and came to Rotterdam, where they im­barked themselues, and sailed the same day to Saint Annes-Lant, where they came to an anchor, tarrying for the tide.

The 19 day because the wind was contrarie, they could that night but reach to Armuyde, and because the tide was spent they were therefore enforced to cast anchor there likewise.

The twentieth about fiue of the clocke in the morning the said Lords landed at Armuyde, and from thence went to Flissingue to visit his Excellencie, who lay at anchor before Rammekins, where so great an armie and such numbers of boats lay, as no man liuing euer saw the like together at one time.

The same day a consultation was had before Rammekin how to transport the army safely into Flanders for execution of the de­termined proiect: and all things being well & maturely conside­red, after that sundry matters were propounded, in regard the wind was contrarie, and for other difficulties which might a­rise at sea, they at last resolued, (because they would not long bee idle nor put the countrie to vnnecessarie expence, nor yet giue the enemie time to fortifie himselfe in those quarters) to land the whole armie at Philippine; and from thence to march thorough the Countrie betwixt Gaunt and Bruges, towards Ostend.

According to which resolution, his Excellencie on the 21 day, departed with the armie towards Philippine a fort which the ene­mie yeelded vpon the first summons to Count Ernestus of Nassau, who commanded the fleets vantgard.

The two and twentieth of Iune about noone his Excellencie ariued with his Armie at Philippine, the vantgard hauing alreadie taken the fort, from whence the garrison to the number of thirty or [Page 262] fortie were departed without other armes than their swords.

The same day, his Excellencie in fiue houres space landed all his forces; which done▪ he dismissed the boats, willing them pre­sently to be gon, for feare least after the armies departure, the e­nemie by fire or otherwise should endanger the vessells: Then he mustered his Armie, and found it to consist of twentie thou­sand strong and able men: His Excellencie likewise rode throw the Armie, and demaunded of the souldiers, if any among them could complaine for wa [...] of pay, and if any one had not receiued money, he willed him to speake, because my Lords the States were there present to giue them all contentment: They all an­swered that they were well satisfied, saying that they would liue and dye for them and in their seruice.

The same day, the States departed from Flushing towards Philippine, and arriued there at the same time as the armie was landed: Then they began to dispose the Regiments, and to place them euerie one vnder his commaunder; and the souldiers were furnished with six daies victualls, which they were to carie along with them.

The three and twentieth day the Armie marched from Phi­lippine towards Assenede, a village not far from the t'Sasse of Gant, where the vantgard before the arriuall of the whole Armie did by composition take a certaine Castle, wherein were some fortie men. Those of t'Sasse, hauing laid an ambus­cado tooke thirtie or fortie of our men prisoners; our soul­diers likewise towards the euening, brought Priests, Bailies, and other prisoners to the army, most of whom they had taken from before Gant.

The foure and twentieth in the morning the armie departed from Assenede towards Eeckeloo, scituate on the passage be­twixt Gant and Bruges, where seuen hundred souldiers had gone ouer the same morning that we arriued there at night: those soul­diers were drawne forth of the forts before Ostend to man the t'Sasse, because the enemie feared wee would haue besieged the same place.

The 25 we went from Eeckeloo to Male neere Bruges, where our men brought away much cattel and many prisoners from be­fore the towne.

The 26 we came within Canon shot of the Citie of Bru­ges, [Page 263] and marched towards Iabbeke: Those of Bruges with their ordnance plaied vpon our Armie all that day, yet did no great harme but onely slew one of his Excellencies Muleters. They shewed themselues likewise with certaine troups of horse, but durst not come forward, so as if our men had bin willing to haue fought with them, they could not haue done it with any aduan­tage.

On the way betwixt Bruges and Iabbeke his Excellencie had intelligence that the Garrison was fled from Oudenbourg, so as on the 27 day, the armie marched from Iabbeke thither, whither he sent two Companies of souldiers, because the fort stood vp­on the passage towards Ostend. Those which liue in the forts of Plassendale & Bredene were likewise fled, those of Bredene left 4 peece of ordnance behind them, & burnt the houses, cabbins, mu­nition and other necessaries, hauing not once seene the enemie.

My Lords the Generall States with their traine, accompanied by Count Solmes with 8 Cornets of horse, and the Regiments of French, Walons, and Swisses, together with the Colonells Gistels and Huchtenbroeck, who that day marched in the vantgard, went on and arriued the same afternoone at Ostend, and his Excellen­cie in the meane time remayned with his armie at Oudenbourg.

In all our march we found the villages naked and forsaken, di­uers goodly houses ruyned, & not one boore to be seene, but only the Sexten of Eeckeloo and his wife, with two aged and sick per­sons vnapt for flight.

The Boores that were hidden in the woods, shewed them­selues very cruell to some of our souldiers that were scattered here and there vpon the wayes and were fallen into their hands: so as our men displayed the bloudie Ensigne, which did in no fort hinder their crueltie to vs ward.

Our souldiers tooke great store of cattell, so as flesh was better cheap and more plentiful in the armie than either wine or beere. The first night we lay at Assenede, a pot of beere was worth six pence, the second night at Eeckeloo twelue pence, and the next night at Male and Iabbeke, eighteene, twentie, and twentie six. In this iourney three Cowes were offered for one pot of beere, and yet it could not be gotten. At Male a Cowe was sold for three groats, and after she was milked, he that sold it would haue giuen seuen pence for the milke.

[Page 264]Whilest we made this iourney by land, it hapened on the 24 of Iune that some fortie boats laden with victualls and other pro­uision, conuoyed onely by Captaine Adrian Banckerts man of war, sayling from Flushing towards Ostend were set vpon by the Gal­lies of Sluce, who on the fiue and twentieth day, tooke aboue twentie of the said boats, which being vnladed, they burnt. The said Captaine did what he could to free them from the enemie, but himselfe and one and twentie of his men were slaine in the fight, and his ship though much brused arriued at Ostend with some of the hurt men.

The six and twentieth day the Admeral the Lord of Warmont ariued safely in the Hauen of Ostend with the cheefe fleet, wherein, were victualls, ordnance, munition and other necessa­ries: yet by taking of the aboue mentioned boats, the Country re­ceiued a great losse, which fell for the most part vpon some par­ticular persons, who procured it to themselues by being so hastie and not tarrying for the cheefe fleet, the which consisted of many braue ships of war.

To returne to that which was done on land, Count Solmes on the eight and twentieth of Iune with eight Cornets of horse and fiue foot Regiments, with which troups the day before, he had led the vantgard, went to beseege the fort called Albertus, which stands vpon the Downes, some houres iourney from Ostend, on the passage towards Niewport, it was not very great, but well built, and strong.

The nine and twentieth day, hauing battered it with foure demy Canon and made a passable breach, Captaine Neron that lay there in Garrison, did beat his Drum and craued parley, in which it was granted, that the Garrison should depart thence with their armes and as much baggage as they could carrie away with them, but on condition to leaue their Ensigne behind them, promising not to serue in Flanders for six moneths.

Count Solmes is before Niewport.The last of Iune the said Earle with the vantgard according to his Excellencies direction, went to beseege the Hauen of Niew­port, and tooke the forts there: his Excellencie earely in the mor­ning the same day, marched with his Campe from Oudenbourg towards Nieuwen-dam, a fort not far from Niewport, to take it. But his iourney being stopt by reason of water he returned by an other way ouer the Downes towards Albertus fort, and the next [Page 265] night tarried there with his Armie.

The first of Iuly early in the morning his Excellencie mar­ched thence with his Camp towards Niewport, and presently gaue directions, as well as the situation of the place would giue him leaue, for inclosing and beseeging the towne.

After dinner, my Lords the Generall states receiued news how that Archduke Albert had leuied tenne thousand foot and one thousand fiue hundred horse, & was come to Oudenbourg: Hereupon, foure of our Companies that lay in the forts of Bre­dene and Plessendale, withdrew themselues not tarying his com­ming, and the Garrison that was in Oudenbourg, which consi­sted of six foot Companies, and two Cornets of horse (left there by his Excellencie) were enforced to yeeld it vp on composition. The like did two Companies that lay in a fort at Snaeskerck: vn­to which Garrison though the enemie had promised good quar­ter, and that they should depart with their armes and baggage, onely leauing their Ensignes behind, and the capitulation signed by the Archdukes selfe; yet they brake their promise, for first, di­uers horse and foot of the Garrison of Oudenbourg breaking their rancks, slew many of them, hurt others, and disarmed the rest; and for a testimonie of their treacherous and bloudie nature, did most villanously murder the two Companies that lay in Sna­eskercke, contrarie to their word and promise.

Some few souldiers that escaped, hauing brought these newes to Ostend, my Lords the States did in post aduertise his Excel­lencie thereof, that he might be in readinesse, and presently sent more men to Albertus fort, which they furnished with victualls, munition, and other necessaries.

The second of Iuly, the bloudie battaile neere to Niewport was fought, whereof we will speake in the next description.

The third of Iuly, about nine of the clock in the morning his Excellencie came in person to Ostend, bringing Don Francisco de Mendoza Admeral of Arragon with him as his prisoner. And after that my Lords the states had congratulated his Excellencies victo­rie, he requested that generall thankes might be giuen to God; which done, himselfe with the Admerall, dined with the states, the armie remayning on the Downes beyond Albertus fort.

The same day, and the day before, diuers prisoners men of note, brought from the Armie to Ostend, were slaine both within and [Page 266] without the Towne, by the remainder of the Scots and other souldiers, in reuenge of the wrong and crueltie committed by the Enemie vpon our men, contrarie to their promise and Law of armes. The fourth, and fift day, whilest the armie refresht it selfe his Excellencie remained in Ostend in consultation with my Lords the states: The same day we were busied in burying our dead, looking to the hurt and sick souldiers, sending them to pla­ces where they might be healed, & in deliuering prisoners. Many horse, armes, and much bootie taken in the battaile, were sold: many Spanish cloakes, cassocks, with store of apparell were like­wise taken, which were not vnwelcome to our men.

The sixt day in the morning, his Excellencie returned with his armie to N [...]ewport, and lay before the towne in the same quarter where he had formerly rested, not being able that day, nor the night following to doe any notable exploit, by reason of the con­tinuall rayne and foule weather. After dinner, order was taken for sending the prisoners into Holland, and likewise the Adme­rall, who by some of the States was conducted aboord the man of w [...]rs Brigantine.

His Excellencie on the seuenth day receiued letters from Count Frederick of Berguen, wherein he craued libertie to send some to search among the dead bodies for some Captaines and chiefe Commanders, and for buriall of the dead in the place of buriall. Towards Euening the Admerall Iustine of Nassau came to the States with letters of credence from his Excellencie, contayning certaine propositions wherein he craued their resolution: but the said Lords thinking it necessarie to confer with his Excellencie, sent for a conuoy. About the seuenth day we tooke from the e­nemie a certaine halfe moone standing before the towne on the North side of the hauen, which was taken with losse of six or eight men on either side.

The eight day in the morning a Conuoy of foure Cornets of horse ariued, and the said Lords, departed from Ostend to the Campe before Niewport, where they consulted with his Excel­lencie concerning those propositions which the Admerall of Nassau had made vnto them the day before.

In the euening, 25 souldiers with Lopestaues and halfe pikes, were sent to leape the dikes, carrying with them two Wa­gons, each of them loden with one boat, and other prouision, to [Page 267] set on fire on some bridg [...]s on the Southeast side of the towne, which in part was effected, but not wholly.

The enemie the same day made great fires vpon the townes steeple, and discharged many shot fro [...] a Rauelin on the North­side of the towne, to hinder the approach of our men: wee after­wards vnderstood by prisoners and others, that supplies were the same night brought into the towne and in that regard, those fires were made. The ninth day after that the States had dined with his Excellency, they returned againe to Ost [...]nd, crossing the hauen on foote ouer a bridge, leauing their wagons and conuoy behind to follow them: the enemie made many shot at them, but did no harme to any man.

Whilest the wagons passed ouer, the said Lords walked on foot for a while vpon the Downes, where they saw such num­bers of dead bodies, as was l [...]mentable to behold.

His Excellencie hauing intelligence the same Euening, that Colonell La Bourlotte was onward on his way with two thousand souldiers to trie if he could enter into Niewport, did presently double all the gards, and ga [...]e directions to hinder the enemies attempt if it were possible.

The 10, and 11, dayes no notable matter was done, but onely our approaches were set forward, as well as the bad and raynie weather would permit.

The 11 day at night the foot Regiment of the Marquis Varra­bon entred the town, and the next day they made three fires vpon the tower.

The twelueth the enemie made a salley vpon our trenches and with such fury, as our souldiers, were enforced to retire to the principall gards: and then the alarme being giuen, our men be­gan to skirmish, and did in such sort assarle the enemie as they dra [...]e him in disorder to the towne gates, and slew the Lie [...]te­nant Colonell, two Captaines, and certaine souldiers of the same Regiment.

The Marquis his Regiment hauing entred the Towne, and o­thers likelie euerie day to enter, in regard we could not inclose the towne on one side, by reason of the broken lands and other inconueniences, his Excellencie found many difficulties in con­tinuing the seege; and therefore on the 13 of the said moneth, he went earlie in the morning to Ostend, to propound these diffi­culties [Page 268] to the States, and to craue their aduise.

After some conference, it was thought fit, (seeing that Generall Wijngaerdens Regiment was newly arriued, with fiue new Cor­nets of horse (wherewith our Campe was strengthned) to conti­nue the siege, and thereupon, after that his Excellencie and my Lord his brother had dined, they returned to the Campe. Du­ring his Excellencie abode in Ostend, the enemie had made ano­ther sallie on Count Ernestus of Nassau his Quarter, (but not so fierce an one as that of the day before) and was presently repulsed with losse of Commanders and souldiers.

The 14 and 15 wee were busied in making three small forts, there where our batterie was to be made, thereby to assure the Canon, and in the meane time, the ordnance that was landed, was againe sent to the ships.

My Lords the States perceiuing their presence at Ostend and in those parts to be to no great purpose made all things readie for their departure the next day, and to this end, the Aduocate Bar­nenelt went to his Excellencies Campe after dinner, to confer with him once more, returning the same night to Ostend.

The sixteenth of Iuly in the morning the Admerall of Nassau came to Ostend from his Excellencie, propounding new difficul­ties to the States for continuance of the seege, whereon hauing consulted, they wrot back to his Excellencie that they wholy re­ferd it to his owne discretion, to proceed therein as he should find it most profitable for the Countries seruice, and if he did breake vp his Campe, to giue carefull directions for the timelie imbarking of the munition, ordnance, and other necessaries, for preuenting of greater mischiefe: with this answere, they dismissed the Admerall.

About fiue of the clock in the Euening my Lords the States being embarked in the hauen of Ostend, and word brought them that his Excellencie was come thither in person accompanied by my Lord his brother; Barneuelt, the Lord of Santen, and others were set on shore and had some conference with his Excellencie, which done, they tooke their leaues and returned to the ships.

His Excellencie had shewed them sundry reasons, why he thought it not fit to continue the Armie any longer before Niew­port, and therefore resolued to depart thence, and to lead it be­fore the forts about Ostend, and first, to assault Isabelles fort, and [Page 269] then the rest. The States hauing taken their leaue, set faile about six or seuen of the clocke the same euening, and arriued, on the 17 day in the Morning, at Middelbourg, where they resolued to goe to Berghen-op-Zoom, and there gaue audience to the com­missioners of the generall States of the Prouinces on the other side, assembled at Bruxels, viz. the lord Gerart of Horne, Earle of Bassingeri, Philip of Pentinck, lord of Vicht, the Drossart or Magistrat of the land of Montfort, and Master Henrie de Co [...]t pen­tioner of the citie of Ypre, and to this end sent them passeport, writing vnto them to meet at Berghen-op-Zoom on Thursday the 20 of Iulie: these letters were sent in post to gouernour Bacx, that he might send them away by a Trumpet, with commaunde­ment to make readie the Court against their comming, and to prepare lodging for both parties.

The eighteenth and nineteenth of Iulie, the States tarried at Middelbourg, taking order for whatsoeuer was necessarie for the Common-wealths seruice. Letters likewise were brought from Ostend, certifying them that his Excellencie had, on the 17 of the same moneth begun to breake vp his campe, & had brought his armie neere to Ostend to besiege the fort of Isabella.

The 20 of Iulie, early in the Morning, the generall States de­parted from Middelbourg to Berghen-op-Zoom, where they ar­riued the same Euening, whither the commissioners of the other side likewise came, the same night, within an houre after their ar­riuall, being in number 23, who supped that night in the companie of the said Lords, at the gouernours house.

The 21 day they deliuered their letters of credence and com­mission, and after dinner, an answer was prepared for them. At night, the commissioners supt with the said Lords, whither the gouernour and some of the Magistrats were inuited: and hauing receiued their answer in an enclosed letter whereof a coppie was giuen to each of them, they departed thence on the 22 day verie early in the Morning. The Magistrats of Berghen did that day at dinner feast my Lords the States, who in the afternoone embarked themselues, and sayled till they came before Saint Annes-land, where they came to an ankor, tarrying for the Aduocat Barnevelt, and the Burgomaster Vander Dussen, who were goneto a place called Saint Martins Dike to visit Count Hohenlo who was sicke, meaning to returne the next day to the States. The [Page 270] three and twentieth day, the said lord Barnevelt being returned, they weighed ankor and set saile: but hauing a contrarie wind, the said lords landed in the countrie of Putte, and by crossing certaine passages, arriued the same night about tenne or eleuen of the clocke at the Hague, leauing their baggage with the ensignes and cornets woon at the battaile of Niewport, to follow after, which were brought the next day in the afternoone to the Hague. The said ensignes, cornets, and some Trumpets, were, on the eight and twentieth of Iulie, hung vp in the great hall of the court, for a perpetuall remembrance of so famous and notable a victo­rie graunted by God to these countries.

¶ A true description of the bloudie battaile, betwixt. Prince Maurice of Nassau, and the Archduke Al­bert of Austria, woon neere Niew­port in Flanders, the 2 of Iu­lie, Anno 1600.

THe Archduke, vpon intelligence that his Excellencie lay before Niewport, did speedily march with his armie to­wards the Downes, the verie same way that his Excellencie had gone, intending to passe on directly to Niewport. His Excel­lencie, vsing all meanes possible to hinder his comming, and to win time▪ did, on the 2 of Iulie, by day break, send his cousen count Ernest of Nassau forth of the armie, with 2 foot regiments Scots & Zelanders, & 4 cornets of horse, vnto whom the States (according to his Excellencies direction) added certaine companies of the garrison of Ostend, to stop the enemies passage ouer the bridges lying vpon a water on the high way towards the Downes neere to Alberts fort. But the enemie before their arriuall had alreadie taken the bridge, & passed ouer his chief force, our men being too few to hinder his passage to the Downes, and our regiments being engaged by the enemie, & too weake to make resistance against their whole armie; yet after a braue fight like valiant soul­diers, they were at last put to rout, the whole losse falling on the Scots, who lost all their Captaines and commaunders, and 800 of themselues were slaine vpon the place, among whom were [Page 271] eleuen Captaines, many Lieutenants, and other officers: vpon this victorie the Archduke wrot to Bruges, that he had defeated Prince Maurice his vantgard, and so engaged the rest of his Ar­mie, as he could not escape, whereupon, Bells were the same day rung at Bruges, and afterwards in other townes, as though they had already wonne all, but, to their great losse, they soone perceiued the contrarie.

This ouerthrow did greatly perplex the States and others that were in Ostend, considering the great danger the Common­wealth might haue sustained if any mishap had befallen our Campe, which lay on both sides the Hauen, diuided one from an other. And because in such extremities, when human helpe seemeth to faile, there is no better remedie than to haue recourse to the Lord of hosts: Therefore my Lords the States with their followers, and many others there present, together with the Mi­nister prayed vnto God for preseruation of his Excellencies per­son, and those of the other Lords and Captaines and the whole Armie, recommending the rest to God, hoping for fortunate successe.

The Archduke being puft vp with his good fortune went in all post hast to Niewport, verily supposing that he should find his Excellencie and whole Armie daunted with this losse, and so be able easily to disorder them. But God would not haue it so, but in his mercie prouided for the preseruation of the State of these Countries, and by consqeuent for defence of his Church, giuing his Excellencie such fore-sight, as he had caused all the ships and boats to withdraw themselues from before Niew­port, to Ostend, and had moreouer caused his troups which lay on the one side of the Hauen of Niewport, to passe ouer at a low wa­tel to the other shore, intending with a couragious resolution to fight with the enemie; whereupon, his Excellencie rode thorow all the troupes animating and exhorting them; That seeing they were on euerie side encompassed with the Sea and enemie, there was no meanes in the world to escape but by giuing battaile: And for that his Excellencies reputation and all their owne ho­nors, liues, and wealth of the Countrie depended thereon, he in­treated them to fight valiantly, assuring them that God wold giue them good and happie successe Count Henrie Frederick of Nassau did likewise encourage the Walons or new Gueux, of his owne [Page 272] Regiment, the like did other Captaines and Commanders.

His Excellencie caused his Armie before Niewport to crosse the hauen after this manner.

Cont Lodwick passed ouer first with fiue Cornets of horse, two of which being Carabines, passed on towards the enemie, and a­bout ten of the clock skirmished with two companies of the ene­mies horse, and then the rest followed, who were scarce come on shore, when they perceiued the enemie comming on from Ostend ward, who if he had then come forward, might haue preuented his Excellencie, ere his fanterie could haue past the Hauen: but the enemie being ignorant how many passed it, stayed a long time vpon the shore and gaue his Excellencie time to send ouer his English and Frison Regiments, which were in the vant­gard together with the gards of his Excellencie and Count Ho­henlo, commaunded by Sir Francis Vere, and also the Regiments of French, Walons, and Suisses, that made vp the bataile com­manded by Count George Euerat of Solmes, and in a manner all the rest of the Cauallerie, the two Regiments of Count Ernest, Gistels, & Huchtenbroeck, were left to shut in the town of Niewport and commanded to stand still in good order, and to passe a bridge vpon his Excellencies first command, which was made on boats ouerthwart the hauen of Niewport. For a more ample declara­tion of this fight, we will hereunto adde his Excellencies order who aranged his battailes after this manner.

His Excellencies vantgard.

Count Lodwick of Nassau brother to Count Ernest had charge of the vantgard of horse, as their Lieutenant generall, and had with him his owne Companie of horse, that of his Excellencies commanded by the Lord Walrauen of Gend; that of Count Henry Frederick the Princes brother, conducted by Captaine Bernard all in one troupe. The second troupe was commanded by Marcelis Bacx, with his owne Cornet, that of Paule Bacx conducted by his Lieutenant Hans Sixen, and that of Captaine La Salle: behinde these were the Carabins of Couteler, Peter Panny, and Batenborch.

Neere to this vantgard, were the foot Companies of his Excel­lencies gard commanded by Captaine Vander Aa, and that of Count Hohenlo conducted by Lieutenant Stridthorst, with the [Page 273] English Regiments consisting of thirteene Conpanies vnder the Generall Sir Francis Veer, viz, his owne Companie, tha [...] of Captaine Iapley his Sergeant Major, those of Denis, Daniel, Veer, Hamond, Og­ley, Tyrrill, Farfax, Sir Calistines Brook, Foster, Garnet, and Holcroft.

Nere to these was Sir Horatio Veer his Regiment, viz his owne Companie, with those of Sutton, Sir Thomas Knollis, Cicil, Morgan, Meetkerck, Scot, & Vauasour, &c. making vp together eleuen En­signes. Next them, were the Frisons commanded by the Lieute­nant Generall Taco Hottinga with his Companie, that of the Baron of Sidenische conducted by his Lieutenant, that of Gaspar Eussem by his Lieutenant, and others amounting to seuenteene compa­nies. These one and fortie Ensignes made the foot vantgard, ad were all commanded by the Generall Sir Francis Veer.

His Excellencies Battaile.

Count George Euerard of Solmes led the battaile with his horse Companie, those of Count Frederick of Solmes, Ioos Wierich Clout, and Iean Bacx, in an other troup was the Cornet of Godard de Balen, that of Sir Francis Veere conducted by his Lieutenant, & that of Sir Edward Citill, making vp together seuen Cornets. The footmen in middest of the Cauallerie, were the Regiment of Count Henerie Frederick of Nassau commanded by Daniell de Her­tain Lord of Marquette his Lieutenant Colonell, and in this Regi­ment was his owne companie, those of Iean du Bont, Antonie de Sa­uoy, Francis Marli, &c. amounting in all to nine Ensignes, vnto which was added the Regiment of Suisses, wherein were foure Ensignes, viz, that of Hans Kriegh, of Ballichom, of Hans Sas of Vn­derwald, of Hans Meyer of Zurichland of Guillam de Puis.

Moreouer two French Battaillons, commanded by the Lord of Dommeruill Lieutenant Colonell to the Lord la Noue, his com­panie, that of la Rocques by his Lieutenant, that of du Sault, com­manding the second Battaillon, that of la Simendri, de Mareschot, de Hamelet, de Brusse, de Corimeres, conducted by his Lieutenant (him­selfe being shot before Albertus [...]ort) de Formentiere, de Verneuill and du Pont Aubert, to the number of twelue companies. In mid­dest of whom, was his Excellencie to giue directions for all mat­ters, accompanied with his brother Count Henrie Frederick, and other Lords, as Iean Adolph Duke of Holsteyn, Iean Ernest, Prince [Page 274] of Anhalt, three Earles of Solms, the Earle of Coligni, lord of Chastillon, Nephew to that renowned Admerall of Fraunce, and the lord Iustine of Nassau, the lord Gray, sir Robert Drewry, and many other English, Erench, and Alman gentlemen, who without any commaund accompanied his Excellencie: the bat­taile consisted of fiue and twentie ensignes of foot, and seuen cor­nets of horse.

His Excellencies Rereward.

THe rereward was conducted by Oliuer Vander Tempel, lord of Corbecke, wherein were three cornets of horse, commaun­ded by Wernhard du Bois, viz. his owne, that of Hammelton, and that of George Couteler, which Couteler, was set formost in the battaile.

There were likewise three battaillons of foot, the regiment of Count Ernest of Nassau, wherein was his owne companie condu­cted by his lieutenant, the companie of Heusman lieutenant Co­lonell, that of Massau, Imbise de Corwis &c. in all thirteene en­signes.

The regiment of the lord of Gystelles, his owne companie, that of George Euerard Count of Solms by his lieutenant, that of Aeneas de Treston, de Trebourg, de l'Amovillerie, de Langevelt, de Ru­isse, and de Floris de Wijngaerden.

In the third Battaillon was the regiment of Colonell Huchten­broeke with his owne companie conducted by Marlin, that of the lord of Tempell by Belin his lieutenant, that of the sayd Mar­lin, of Dierick de Ionghe, de Ruyssenbourg, of Iohn de Loon, and de Cal­uart: these 26 ensignes made vp the rereward, together with 3 cornets of horse.

His Excellencie stood fast in Battaile vpon the shoare expe­cting the enemies comming, he had sent the gards to the Downes, and had drawne some fiftie musketiers forth of the battaile, pla­cing them on the shoare, and foure troopes of Frizeland muske­tiers for second, with these to flanke the enemies troupes, if he had come along the shoare, and the better to diuert their approach, he had planted fixe demie canon there.

About eleuen of the clocke, the enemies cauallerie approa­ched, who were saluted by our canon, which made them retire to [Page 275] the Downes, when they tarried for their owne ordnance and fan­terie that came on verie slowly.

His Excellencie had enjoyned the lords of Warmont and Duy­venvoord to commaund the ships to shoot into the enemies bat­tailes, which was effected: the Vice-Admerall of Zeland, whose name was Ioostle Moore and Captaine Knoopes made some shot in­to the enemies battaile, who on his part answered them with two demie canon.

His Excellencie, in the meane time, abandoned the towne of Newport, and caused the bridge to be broken, commaunding the rereward to follow him and to place themselues in order; he cau­sed two demie canon to be brought vpon the Downes, and plan­ted them vpon a little rising, meaning with them to scoure the plaines: His Excellencie still had the wind and Sun, which is no small aduauntage, especially on the Downes, when the wind blowes somewhat hard, as it did all the time of the battaile.

The enemie being come betwixt the parishes of Westeynde, and Willekins Kerck, within a small mile of Niewport, and two miles from Ostend, did likewise plant fiue demie canon and one field piece vpon the shoare: then his Excellencie shot into the enemies battaile, who answered him presently with the like, but the enemie receiuing much hurt by our canon, was enforced to retire farther vp into the Downes, in regard the Tyde did rise, by reason whereof, the shoare was so narrow, as few men could stand vpon it, and then al the boats which lay drie before Niew­port, began to float, and sayled towards Ostend, fiue excepted, together with the greatest number of those boats that made the bridge, which could not be loossened: those of Niewport tooke a Carvell and carried it into the towne.

To defend these boats from the sallies of those of Niewport, his Excellencie left certaine troupes of souldiers to skirmish with the Townesmen. Then the Archduke began to march athwart the Downes towards the plaine behind them, the like did his Ex­cellencie, causing his troupes to march against the enemie: sir Frauncis Veer led the English pikes and muskets, as also the Gards and Frizons, and himselfe marched in the formost ranke, and was the first man that charged the musketiers of two Spanish regiments: he was seconded by Count George Euerard of Solms, who led the battaile: the French musketiers being diuided into [Page 276] foure troupes, he did with three of them charge the musketiers of two Spanish and Italian regiments; the said French shot were led by Captaine du Puy, Captaine Bruill lieutenant to the Lord la Noüe, Captaine Pommared lieutenant to Dommerville, and captain Vander-Burch lieutenant to Captaine du Fort.

His Excellencie perceiuing that he must needs fight, and that he could not auoyd it, did valiantly resolue thereon, trusting to the equitie of his cause, and to God, and thereupon commaunded Count Lodwick to charge the enemie with 6 cornets of horse, viz. that of his Excellencie, Count Henrie, and his owne, appointing Marcelis Bacx, Paule Bacx, and Captaine la Sale to second them, who brake the enemies horse, and put them to rout: this done, the battaile began on euerie side with a furious batterie, which was terrible to behold: on the Downes they fought continually from the beginning to the end, but in the plaine beyond the Downes, by sundrie charges, his Excellencie hauing diuided his men into diuers troupes, vnwilling to haue them fight all at once. The General Veer fought with a battaillon of pikes of two Spanish regiments, after that he had repulsed the enemies shot. The sayd battaillon was conducted by D. Lewis de Villar, and D. Hieronimo de Monroy; on the right side, the enemie had a wing of horse, with which he did much anoy our Vantgard: Generall Veer being sore wounded, did notwithstanding fight along time, leading the Eng­lish and the 2 Gards, but at last retired, being seconded by his bro­ther sir Horatio Veer, and Captaine Quirin de Blau. The enemie charging furiously vpon vs, certaine of our souldiers began to flie, but it was soone redrest. Presently after the first charge, these Captaines of horse, viz. Coutelor, Peter Panier, and Batenburch, charged the enemies fanterie; they were seconded by count Lod­wick with six companies of Cuirasses, with whom Count Frederic of Solms serued.

Count George Euerart of Solms, with the French, did, by his Excellencies command, charge, marching formost in the battaile, and diuided into two troupes, of which, that on the right hand was conducted by Monsr. Dommervile, lieutenant Colonell of the French, and the other on the left hand, by Captaine du Sau. This was the second charge of the French, fighting with a battaillon of pikes of two regiments, the one Spaniards, and the other Italians, conducted by D. Alonzo d'Aualos, and Sapena the Campe Master.

[Page 277]Count George Euerart retired with the French, and brought vp Count Henrie of Nassaus regiment, videlicet, the Walons (of whom Monsr. Marquet was Lieutenant Colonell) to charge the enemie againe, and also the regiment of Suisse by Hans Krijc; these two regiments, fought with la Bourlotte and the Earle of Bucquoy, who commaunded the enemies rereward, consisting of three regi­ments of Walons, and Irish. Then his Excellencie commaunded Monsr. de Gystelles, who conducted the rereward, to charge with his owne regiment, and that of Huchtenbroeke. And the regiment of Count Ernest, vnder the conduct of Heusman his Lieutenant Colonell, did likewise charge.

The fight continued doubtfull for three houres space,They fight for three houres space vncertain of victorie. for now one side preuailed, and anon another, and yet his Excellencies Cauallerie had still the aduauntage of the enemies, which gaue backe by little and little, and some of them fled towards Niewport, and were pursued by our men.

The enemies Fanterie fought with better vantage on the Downes, where they tooke one hill after another, from his Ex­cellencies footmen; and did mightily endaunger the ordnance. Behind the Downes, Sir Horatio Veer charged, with sixe English ensignes, with Captaine Henrie Sutton his Lieutenant Colonell, Captaine Louell, Captaine Ogle, and Captaine Farfax. Count Lodwick, with tenne horse, was engaged by the enemie: cap­taine Cloet knowing the Earle by his Orange coloured plume, charged vpon a companie of Lanciers, that were comming to charge the Earle, who by this meanes escaped: our cauallerie reti­red to his Excellencie, who encouraged the souldiers, re-enfor­cing them with two companies that were with him, who con­strained the enemie to giue backe.

His Excellencie sent two cornets of horse to the shore, viz. his owne, commaunded by Captaine Bael, and Generall Veers com­panie commaunded by Captaine Pembrooke.

These two companies beeing come to the shoare, stayed neere the batterie, expecting the enemie: Our ordnance, charged with musket bullets, played vpon the enemie, who lost many men and horse, and were enforced to quit the Downes; and yet they returned againe to the shore, and came before the batterie.

Then the companies of Baell and Generall Veer charged fierce­ly [Page 278] vpon the enemie who fled,The enemie is put to rout. and then charged the fanterie like­wise, so as Baell tooke Sapena prisoner on the Downes, and Gene­rall Veers companie D. Lewis de Villar. His Excellencies caualle­rie on the plaine repulsed the enemie; for he did continually put them in order, and caused them to charge there where hee saw most need; so as in the end, our men perceiuing that the enemie began to flie both on the shore and Downes, tooke courage, and on euerie side charged him, who at first began to giue backe, and afterward, betook himselfe to open flight: and thereby our men woon the place of battaile, and obtained the victorie; diuers pur­sued the enemie into the Marshes, and to the new Dam, taking many of them prisoners: this battaile was sharpe and bloudie on both sides.

The Archduke, who hardly escaped, did in this battaile (both of such as were slayne and taken prisoners) lose the greatest part of all his commaunders, chiefe Lords, Noblemen, and household seruants, together with most of the captaines and offi­cers of his armie, videlicet, D. Francesco de Mendoza, Admerall of Arragon, Count Salines, D. Lewis de Villar, Campe-Master, D. Lewis d'Avila, D. Pedro de Mendoza, Doctour Andrew N. one of his highnesse phisitians, Count Charles Rezin, one of his Pages, D. Gaspar Moragon, fiue and thirtie Captaines both of horse and foot, two hundred and three Lieutenants, ensignes, Sergeants, Dons, Caualiers, and others of name, to the number of thir­tie.

And beside these, we got 8 pieces of ordnance, all the muniti­on, much baggage, and the verie furniture of the Archdukes own Chamber and Cabinet, and among other things his Signet, and a­boue 100 ensignes, with certaine cornets and Trumpets. The number of the dead on the Archdukes side was 7000, beside those that were afterwards slaine and died of their hurts: and his Excellencie lost betwixt two or three thousand, accounting those which had beene defeated in the Morning.

Among other ensignes, there was presented to my Lords the ge­nerall States, a Standerd belonging to 1600 Spanish mutineers, made of blew Damaske, hauing on the one side in middest of a field, the figure of our Ladie in a Sun, before whom a Moncke kneeled, & ouer his head, these words in golden letters, Aue gratia plena, ouer the virgins head was a great golden star, and neere to it [Page 279] in golden letters, Stella Maris; in the middest, on her right hand, was the figure of a Sun, and neere it, these letters, Electa vt Sol; on the left hand the Moone, with this inscription, Pulchra vt Lu­na; at her feet stood a Turret, with these words, Turris Dauidis, and beneath vpon the hem of the Standard, Benedicta tu in mulie­ribus. On the other side, was the represention of our Lord Iesus Christ vpon the Crosse, ouer his head were these words in golden letters, Adoramus te Christe, & benedicimus tibi; in the middest, Re­cordare nouissimatua, & in aeternum non peccabis; and beneath, Quia per crucem tuam redemisti mundum. All these figures were cunning­ly wrought euen to the life.

In this battaile, the greatest losse fell to the Spaniards and Ita­lians, who were the chiefe strength and glorie of the Spaniards armie, who in the Morning did assure themselues of the victorie, and that with such confidence, as they made no doubt of it, but marched on before, hoping alone to gain the honour of the day.

It was a magnificent and gallant victorie for my Lords the ge­nerall States, his Excellencie, and for all the vnited Prouinces, but obtayned with much labour and bloud: for on his Excellen­cies side, 1000 men were slaine, among whom, were three Cap­taines of horse, thirteene of foot, viz. six English Captaines, two Frizons, three French, one Walon, and one Alman, with many Lieutenants, ensignes, and other officers, beside some 700 hurt men, among whom was the noble sir Frauncis Veer, and many o­ther Captaines and officers both of horse and foot.

As the enemie fleed, the Cauallerie came forth of Ostend and slew many of them. But his Excellencie (who in the battaile had shewed himself valiant & discreet, & for better encouragement to his souldiers, had himselfe, together with his brother and other Lords there present, charged the enemie) did in the end reassēble certaine cornets of horse, and some foot regiments, setting them in order in the place of battaile, keeping them for reseruation and seconds if any disorder should arise.

The enemie being wholly put to rout, and night drawing on, his Ex. marched to the Church of Westend, where with his whole armie he remained that night vpon the plain where the battail was fought, and in his Tent supt with the Admerall of Arragon and others, who were requested to deliuer their opinions, what they thought of these exploits, & of these new vnexperienced soldiers [Page 280] (whom they had so tearmed) who could doe nothing but win townes and skonces, not daring to shew themselues in open field; and whether they thought that they would one day proue tal soul­diers, with such other like discourses. But the Admerall grauely and discreetly knew verie well how to answer: and among other discourses, at Table, concerning the battaile, he complained of their owne cauallerie, taxing them for not doing their duetie; for had not they retreated, there was some likelihood that their foot­men would haue become Masters of the ordnance, with which they might haue obtayned the victorie. He complained likewise of their charging all at once, and for that they had not reserued some to second the squadrons here and there, who should haue put them in order againe when they retreated, and with them haue giuen a fresh charge, as Prince Maurice had done, husban­ding his horse and foot, not hazarding all his forces at once. He highly commended his Excellencie likewise for planting his ord­nance: but he chiefely praised him, for that he had so brauely pre­sented his forces to his enemie, sending away all his boats, and thereby enforced all his souldiers to fight, if they meant to saue their liues, and for that himselfe and other commaunders, had no more aduauntage than the meanest souldier.

His Excellencie perceiuing, the next day, that his souldiers were much burthened with the enemies prisoners and wounded men, that all the victuals were lost in the battaile, and that they could get none, by reason that the boats were gone; marched with his whole armie towards Ostend to refresh it, sending the wounded to places where they might be cured, discharging his souldiers of the enemies prisoners.

He brought his armie to S. Maries Church neere to Alberts fort, and himselfe went into Ostend, where he presently caused publike thankes to be giuen to God for this notable victorie, him­selfe and whole Court being present at it.

He remayned certaine daies at Ostend to order matters, and to prouide for the better execution of his enterprises. He caused all the prisoners to be brought together, viz. the Admerall of Ar­ragon, D. Lewis de Villars, with many other Captaines and offi­cers, whom for the most part he shipt for Holland: he kept some one hundred and fiftie prisoners still in Ostend, and among them diuers hurt men, to exchange them for his owne souldiers whom [Page 281] the enemie had taken. The glorie of this victorie belongs to God alone, who hath not onely beene pleased thereby to maintaine (as he hath wonderfully hitherunto done) the just and lawfull cause of the vnited Prouinces for the conseruation of his Church, but hath likewise pleased to abase the hautie and insolent courage of the Spaniards, learning them to feele his mightie arme, and let­ting them know how daungerous it is to kicke against the pricke.

To this onely God, the Lord of hosts, who in the battaile hath taught his Excellencies hands to fight, and so admirably exalted his countenance that day, be honour, praise, and glorie for euer.

To conclude, we must of necessitie hereunto add that which certaine Historians mention; how that justly vpon the same day the second of Iulie 1600, some three hundred and two yeares be­fore, viz. in anno 1298, one of the Archduke Alberts predeces­sours (called Albert of Austria like him) had with his power de­feated, one of Prince Maurice of Nassaus predecessours, called A­dolfe of Nassau, Emperour of the Romans: whereby we may see, how that by this meanes the house of Nassau hath reuenged the wrong done to it by that of Austria.

This is a matter worthie of note, and we may be well assured, that though God deferre for a time, yet he can and will aid and as­sist those that put their trust in him.

¶ The Lord Iohn of Duyuenvoord, Admerall of Holland, figh­teth with the Gallies of Sluce, and puts them to flight.

WHilest Prince Maurice his armie marched in Flaunders, there were some fortie or fiftie flat bottomed boats and and other vessels loden with munition and victuals, which, on the fiue and twentieth of Iune, did set saile from Ze­land toward Ostend: these, had a man of warre for their conuoy, whose Captaine was called Adrian Baucker: he, being come be­fore Blauckenbourg, was becalmed: the gallies of Sluce percei­uing it, foure of them came forth and assailed the fleet, and tooke twentie of the boats, but most of the men escaped: some of these [Page 282] vessels they burnt, and carried the rest away with them. The man of warre made what resistance he could, but the calme made him like an vnplumed bird. The Gallies approached the ship, but did not boord her, thinking to sinke her with their shot, or else en­force her to yeeld: she was in sundrie places shot thorow, and be­gan to leake, and without the helpe of men and women, that came aboord her from other boats, and with scuppets, tubs, and their verie hats emptied forth the water, she would haue beene in dan­ger of sinking: by this meanes she was kept aboue water; and when the gallies came neere her, she plaied so terribly vpon them with her ordnance, as they were enforced to giue backe. The ship, hauing at last, lost three and twentie men, among whom was Captaine Baucker, and most of the rest wounded, the men cried out desperatly, saying, That rather than they would yeeld to the enemie, they would blow themselues vp and set the ship on fire: Hereupon, the gallies left her, and with great harme and losse of men returned to Sluce, with a good bootie, and the ship went backe to Flushing.

The next day, being the sixe and twentieth of Iune, the Lord Iohn of Duyvenvoord, Admerall of Holland, with sixe ships of warre, called, Cromstevens, or Smackseylen, all well prouided, sailed from Zeland towards Flaunders, to conuoy one hundred and fiftie vessels laden with ordnance and warlike munition for the armie. This fleet being come before Sluce, and the wind ve­rie calme, foure gallies came forth; and presently the wind rising, the men of warre came so neere them, as they did not onely anoy them with their ordnance, but with their small shot: whereup­on, they were constrayned by force of oares to returne backe a­gaine against the wind: one of the gallies was shot vnder water, and did for a long time lye vpon one side, till the leake was stopt.

A certaine Turke of Constantinople, a verie valiant and skil­full man, being a slaue in one of the gallies, had his chaine where­with he was fastened, broken a sunder by a canon shot, himselfe not hurt, and perceiuing that he was loosse, leapt into the Sea with a piece of his chaine, and with great daunger of his life (for they shot terribly at him) swam to the Zelanders ships, and in swim­ming shewed his chaine: whereupon, the ships tooke him in: being aboord, he acquainted them with the gallies intent and losse. [Page 283] They afterwards clothed him, and presented him to prince Mau­rice, who askt him if he would serue; but he hauing great meanes at Constantinople, craued a passeport, vnlesse they would make vse of him for a Patron of a gallie to command the Spanish slaues, which charge he had in former time taken vpon him: But the Ne­therlanders, hauing neuer vsed to imploy any infidell, would not then begin, but gaue him a passeport for England, whither he went, and from thence to Barbarie, and so by land to Constan­tinople, where by the way he acquainted Princes, and Kings, and the great Turke his Lord, with the wars of the Christians.

¶ The Admeralls ship of Antuerpe, and seuen other ships, are ta­ken by the Captaine of the Blacke Gallie, on the 29 of Nouember, 1 [...]00.

MY Lords the States and his Excellencie, perceiuing the great losse they sustained by the gallies of Frederick Spinola, which lay at Sluce; resolued likewise to build and set forth certain gallies, and with them to anoy their enemies. Whilest they were making readie, the gallies of Sluce came not abroad, wanting slaues to row; for the Zeland ships had slaine most of them, ma­ny of them likewise were dead in winter with extremitie of cold, and those prisoners of the vnited prouinces, whom they had ta­ken and made slaues, could not suddenly be brought to handle the oare.

They likewise sent into Hungarie to buy Turkish prisoners, but they knew not by what meanes to transport them into the Low-Countries.

Whereupon, the foure Estates of Flaunders were about to buy the sayd Gallies and slaues of Spinola, and to build others, ho­ping to moue the Archduke to goe and besiege Ostend, to free Flaunders from daily contributions and expence it was at for entertainement of so many garrisons and forts vpon passages, and to that end offered the Archduke a great summe of money.

The States of Holland, did with all possible speed build a great gallie at Dort, to make head against those of Sluce, in length eight and fortie paces; so soone as it was readie, it was in September [Page 284] sent into Zeland, it carried fifteene brasse pieces, many Bases, it was mand with rowers and souldiers: the rowers sat vpon ben­ches, and were shrowded with a defence which was musket proofe: it was called the blacke gallie of Dort, the Captains name was Iacob Michielz; it was presently sent to Sluce, and there reco­uered a ship taken by the enemie.

On the 29 of September, the Admerall of Zeland, and Cap­taine Legier with this gallie well prouided, and certaine shalops, went towards Antuerpe, and in the night passed by Ordam Fort: the garrison supposed they were boats which went to victuall Hulst: About midnight, comming before Antuerpe, they there found the Admerals ship, a goodlie great vessell, called a Smack­seil, or Cromsteven, so big and strong, as the Hollanders had none such, it was of the burthen of one thousand eight hundred tunne or more, it carried sixteene or seuenteene brasse pieces, beside those of Iron and the Bases: it had three tier of ordnance one a­boue another. Captaine Maes, the Admerall, was then absent; this vessell lay opposit to the new Towne, towards Flanders point. The blacke gallie stemd this ship with her yron beak so forcibly, as they could hardly get it out againe, but with great danger were faine to saw it off: the souldiers, in the meane time, became Ma­sters of the ship, some of them that were in it were slaine, others leapt into the water, and escaped by swimming. The ship being taken, our souldiers enforced the two ship Boyes, whose liues they saued, to tell them where the sailes and other tacklings were, which done, they fell downe the riuer with the Tide. They like­wise took two new vessels which daily carried prouision to Brux­els and Malines, each of them carrying foure brasen pieces, and others of yron, with fiue other vessels called Smackes, which by chaunce they tooke the same night, and with these eight vessels, fell downe the riuer towards Lillo, hauing gotten aboue fiftie pieces of ordnance, & a bootie more worth than the gallie. Those of Antuerpe hearing the shot, th'alarme was presently ouer the Citie, and the sooner, because our Trumpets vpon the Key soun­ded the song of William of Nassau, so well knowne, wherein they recorded the commendation of the late vertuous Prince of O­range.

Within a while after, the Admerall and Count Arenbourg came to Antuerpe to punish the negligence of the Admerall Maes and [Page 285] others, and to preuent the like affronts: he likewise caused a Fort to be built vpon the Key to defend the ships by night.

¶ Captaine Cloet winneth the Castle of Cracow on the 9 of Februarie 1601.

THe Castle of Cracow, and Lordship thereof, being by the last will and Testament of the Countesse of Meurs, giuen to his Excellencie, as a Lordship vnder the jurisdiction thereof, the Duke of Parma, in ann' 1586, had giuen it to Salentino Count of Isenbourg, in regard of certaine claime he laid vnto it, since when, the said Earle had still possest it, and placed a certain fellow for captaine there, who was called long Huben, with 15 or 16 soul­diers to gard the Castle, which by nature was strong, being seated in a fennie soile.

But Prince Maurice being desirous to enjoy his owne, and vn­derstanding that the Dikes were frozen in winter, commaunded Captaine Cloet, a braue and valiant souldier, to make an attempt vpon the said castle, with three hundred horse of Nimmeghen, and certaine foot companies from Watchtendonck. The said Cap­taine, according to his Excellencies commaund, came to Niew­kerke, nere to Wachtendonck, on the eighth of Februarie, where­of the gouernour of Stralen hauing intelligence, followed him with fortie horse, and 500 foot, who, in the Morning by day breake, did so fiercely assaile Cloets souldiers, as 40 of them were surprised ere their fellowes knew it: who at last turned backe, and perceiued that those of Stralen retired through a certaine narrow way, verie aduantagious for footmen against horse; the enemy hauing by this time taken 30 of Cloets horsemen prisoners, most of whom being of his Excellencies companie, were soon re­leased: for Cloet thereby incensed, took another way, by which, he intercepted their passage, and incountring them at their comming forth of that way vpon a plaine, he assailed the Gouernor of Stra­len in front & behind, and ouerthrew many of his horse and foot; the rest escaped into a house, which he presently encompassed, & [Page 286] enforced them to yeeld on composition, and on condition to pay ransome.

He freely sent away three hundred and seuentie souldiers, and onely detayned the Generall Dulchen gouernour of Straelen pri­soner, with Captaine Golstein and seuen officers as caution for the rest. Cloet lost sixe or seuen men, and many of his men and horse were hurt.

After that, the foot companies of Wachtendonck came to Cloet, and went forwards towards Cracow, and arriued there on the ninth of Februarie at night: the horse men alighted, and went ouer the yee into the first Court of the Castle: thereupon, those within it began to shoot, but Captaine Cloet shot so terribly vpon the Gate, as those within it durst not abide there, and then he caused his men to crosse the dike, to let downe the draw-bridge, and to plant the Perard at the Gate, which presently brake it o­pen: Whereupon, those within, yeelded themselues and Castle by day breake. Captaine Cloet left his Lieutenant there, with fortie men & 20 horse, til his Excellencies further pleasure were known, and returned againe to his garrison, hauing performed that which was enjoyned him: and by this meanes his Excellencie became Master of this Castle and Lordship.

¶ The second siege and taking of the Towne of Rhynberg in Anno 1601.

RHynberg is a towne belonging to the Bishopricke of Col­lein, seated on the Southward of the Rhyne, eight miles from Collein, it is rather small than bigge, and fortified with double rampiers, well seated both for warre and traffique, taking great toll of all goods and Merchandise which come downe the riuer.

During these warres, both parties haue sundrie times fortified it: and first in the warre of Collein betwixt the two Bishops, it fell into the hands of the vnited Prouinces, which a long time held & defended it against the attēpts of the Spaniards, freeing the riuer, both from the prince of Parma, who after the taking of Nuis [Page] in anno 1586, did furiously assaile it on the 13 of August, and w [...] enforced to raise his siege, hauing lien three moneths before the towne, which he left blocked vp with many Forts: as also from the Marquesse Varrabon, who pursued & continued the said siege, in whose view the towne was often victualled, which Marquesse, as he thought on a time with all his power on a sodaine to charge the rereward of those that brought succours, was himselfe whol­ly defeated by Coun [...] Ouerstein and sir Francis Veer. Whereupon, Count Charles of Mansfelt came presently thither from Brabant with seuentie ensignes, who in the end, on the 30 of Ianuarie 1590, woon the towne for the Bishop of Bauier (as it was reported) but in effect for the king of Spaine, as experience did afterwards manifest, that he might thereby become Master of the Rhyne, and diuide Germanie from the vnited Netherland Prouinces, and likewise to open a way for him to enter into these Countries, and to burthen the towne of Zutphen and Ouer-Yssel with con­tinuall contributions.

In this regard, Prince Maurice did againe besiege it on the 10 of August, in anno 1597, and after tenne dayes siege tooke it, as heretofore hath beene largely mentioned in the description of the first siege: whereupon, the Bishop crauing to haue the Towne restored to him (which was graunted) it was left vnfortified, and enforced to fall into the Admerall of Arragons hands, who easily tooke it with his mightie armie on the fifteenth of October 1598: and with so much the more ease, because the Gouernour Shaef, and the whole garrison, in a manner died of the plague, and likewise, for that treacherie the by powder, to the quantitie of 150 barrels, was set on fire: this did not onely much diminish the remainder of the garrison, but ouerthrew the greatest part of the Towne rampiers neere to Rhyn-port, and made a great breach.

The town was afterward kept by a strong garrison: yet prince Maurice did besiege it on the twelfth of Iune, in anno 1601, with one hundreth and fiftie foote ensignes, and three and thirtie cor­nets of horse, it being a verie important place for these Coun­tries.

The enemie reported, that there were in the towne 900 Itali­ans vnder Iohn Baptista Pecchio, Serjeant Major, 4 Spanish ensigns, 700 Burgonians, 1300 Almans, 200 sailers, fiftie horse, amounting [Page 288] in all to three thousand fiue hundred & fiftie men, among whom were many reuolted traitors.

They were well stored with ordnance and all other warlike prouision, hauing two and thirtie great piece of ordnaunce, whereof twentie were brasse, three canon, and twelue yron pie­ces. There was likewise store of victuals and other necessaries (salt and medecines for sicke persons excepted) which they ex­treamely wanted, being most necessarie in a towne besieged.

D. Hieronimo Lopes de la villa, borne in Barbarie of Spanish pa­rents was gouernour there; he was renowned for a good souldi­er, well experienced, and much esteemed of his Countrimen. He, at the enemies first arriuall, incamped round about the towne, in­trenching himselfe with forts and counter-points: He likewise tooke in certaine pastures to feed horse and cattaile, which they durst not kill for their owne prouision, because they wanted salt to powder them: He likewise sanke his owne ship of warre, and other vessels, cutting the masts a sunder, for that the enemie shold not make vse of them.

His Excellencie presently sent his ships of warre vp the Riuer, one of which the enemie sanke: These vessels kept good gard e­uerie where on the riuer Rhyne as far as Cullein, and by the way, met with certaine of the enemies boats which were sent abroad for prouision.

The eighteenth of Iune, he tooke the Fort that stands in the Island, which being weake, the enemie soone abandoned.

The campe was likewise speedily intrenched with dikes, Palli­sadoes, gates, and draw-bridges, and the waies euerie where forti­fied, both abroad and within against those of the towne, who in great troopes made continuall sallies, namely, on the twentieth of Iune, they fell vpon the French with 1500 men diuided into three troopes, who charged one after another, and after they had fought an howers space, were beaten backe and enforced to re-enter, not without losse on both sides.

In this sallie, the French Generall the Lord of Chastillon was hurt in the legge, and the gouernour of Berck in the face, as hee stood vpon a bulwarke to behold the skirmish, so as for a time he could not speake, but was constrayned to referre the gouernement of the Towne, and authoritie of commanding to Captaine Botberg, and to an Italian called Francisco Nello.

[Page 289]The enemie likewise, on the eight and twentieth day, came with a thousand men to Count Ernestus quarter, and with great rumour fell vpon one of our trenches, from which he was soone beaten with great losse of men.

His Excellencie, on the contrarie, did daily approach the ene­mies trenches: he also made foure batteries, and on the first and second of Iulie, planted thirtie piece of ordnaunce: He planted 2 can [...]n in the Fort of the Island called Middle-weert, and two de­mie canon, by which, as by the rest from other batteries the Town was greatly annoyed.

The besieged, on the seuenth of Iulie, tooke order for their vi­ctuals, distributing to euerie man a pound of bread a day, and be­gan to fortifie the Market and Church, making it a place of retreat vpon extremitie.

They had likewise sent many letters and messengers which for the most part were intercepted: so as on the 5 of Iulie they made diuers signes by fires, & were continually answered with the like by those of Guelders, who gaue them hope of ayd; wherunto the Archduke seemed to encline, raising many men neere to Mae­stricht and Ruremond, who notwithstanding, were sent away in­to Flanders, as were the Italian troopes newly arriued, of whom, first eight hundred were sent towards Ostend, then afterwards 2500 more, and twentie forth of euerie companie of those that remained behind.

And yet al these troops seemed to be appointed, for raising the siege of Berk, vnder conduct of the Earles Barlaimont and Buc­quoy, who had alreadie made great prouisions for it at Couloigne, and hired sundry wagons, which they were enforced to send back, the enemies intent being onely to encourage those of Berck by a vaine apparance, and to cause them hold out to the last, and them­selues in the meane time to assaile Ostend on the sodaine, and thereby to draw away our armie from that siege into Flaun­ders.

Notwithstanding, of all our armie no man was imbarked for Ostend, but the Admerall Duyvenvoord, with eight English com­panies vnder the conduct of sir Frauncis Veer, vnto which, after­wards twelue other ensignes were added, in whose stead other ensignes from elsewhere arriued at the campe on the 22 and 27 dayes.

[Page 290]His Excellencie, in the meane time, came vnder the enemie▪ trenches: he likewise vndermined the Counter-scarpe on the East-side of the Towne, and, on the seuenteenth of Iulie, hauing drawne great numbers of the enemies thither by a false alarme, he fired the Myne, which hauing prosperous successe, our men pre­sently assailed it on euerie side, and tooke the Counterscarpe with losse of one hundred men, notwithstanding all the enemies resistance. This counterscarpe taken, his Excellencie made three Galleries, which were brought on as farre as the Towne Dikes, and from thence to the Bulwarke on the East-side, which he be­gan to vndermine in three seuerall places.

The dayes following, he likewise woon, with the time, the rest of the intrenchments which were without the towne, partly by force and Mynes, and partly because the enemie quitted them: And on the two and twentieth of Iulie his Excellencie came altogether before the Towne, hauing beene kept from it by his workes without.

The next day, he sent his Trumpet to Rhynberk, who recei­ued this aunswer, That they thanked his Excellencie for his of­fers, but that they could not as then intend to yeeld, seeing the Towne had beene besieged but one day: whereupon, his Excel­lencie, the day following, summoned the Towne the second time, because all his Mynes were readie to play.

There the Townesman began to hearken vnto it, crauing that they might first send some speedie messengers to Guelders to re­quest ayd, which was denyed them. Whereupon, at last, after some treatie with the Trumpet, on the one and thirtieth of Iulie, they sent Captaine Botberg and Francisco Nello the Italian, to the Campe about sixe of the clocke in the Euening, who graun­ted to yeeld vp the Towne to his Excellencie on these condi­tions following.

Articles in re­gard whereof those of Rhyn­berck yeelded on the 30. of Iulie. FIrst, his Excellencie is well pleased, that the Gouernor of Rhynberck, all the souldiers, both horse and foot, and all those which haue serued in the ships of warre, with their Captaines and officers without exception, shall freely depart with displayed ensignes, armes, kindled match, bullets in their mouthes, and drumme beating, their wiues, familie, stuffe, wa­gons, horse, and other things thereunto belonging, without examining a­ny one, for matters done, and namely the person of Iohn Peters-Thas [Page 291] Captaine of a Ship, who certaine yeares before, yeelded both himselfe and ship to the enemie.

2 The gouernour shall carrie away with him two field-pieces, such as his Excellencie shall thinke fit, with two barrels of powder, and fiftie bullets.

3 His Excellencie shall lend them two hundred horse to carie the sicke, wounded men, and baggage to Guelders and shall giue a safe-conduct for the souldiers and their baggage to Maestricht, and if any of those that be hurt, are vnwilling as yet to depart, they may remaine in the towne till they be healed, and may afterwards goe their way with the gouernours Passeport.

4 That the Lord Evert de Ens, his wife, and children, with their writings, stuffe and goods, may freely depart, as also the Councellor We­stendorp, Nicholas de Houe, & the receiuers of the reuenew and con­tributions, with their writings and stuffe, as hath beene said, and namely Goswijn de Manen, the customer & his officers, who may depart either by land or water, vnto whom his Excellencie will giue a passeport, as likewise to all Commissaries and officers belonging to the king of Spaine or the Archduke, without any refusall, who are not to be detained for any cause or pretence whatsoeuer.

5 That the Gouernour shall satisfie the Magistrate and Burghers for all such debts that he oweth since the siege, with the goods belonging to his Highnesse, arising of booties taken, and Merchandise confiscat and found vpon the riuer Rhyne, contrarie to the Placard.

6 That the Gouernour shall send for all those whose cattaile haue been taken from them during the siege, and giue them letters of assignation, to procure satisfaction from their Highnesses, because it was done in their seruice.

7 That the prisoners expences by reason of contributions, shall be pre­sently payed, according to the treatie made with the Admerall of Arra­gon, and confirmed by his highnesse.

8 That the receiuer Iohn le Bruni may freely depart with his wri­tings and stuffe, in giuing a coppie of the moneyes remayning behind hand of the reuenewes of the Countie of Zutphen, and Countrie of Ouer-Yssel.

9 That all horse taken on both sides during the siege, shal be redeemed, euerie one at the rate of twentie liures.

10 That all victuallers and Merchants following the Campe, belong­ing to the king, together with his Highnesse souldiers, may remaine in the [Page 292] towne till such time as they haue sold their wares, and afterwards de­part with the gouernours passeport.

11 That all Burghers, who are willing to leaue the Towne and dwell elsewhere, may sell their goods and horses within the space of [...]ixe moneths.

12 That all religious persons, men and women, may freely and safely depart.

13 That prisoners on both sides shall be released.

According to this treatie, the gouernour D. Hieronimo went his way on the first of August, in the Morning, with sixteene en­signes, amongst whom were sixe companies of Almans, thirtie horse, eightie sailers, accompanied with two hundred and nine wagons full of stuffe and hurt men, leauing the towne verie rui­nous, and more than one thousand two hundred of his souldiers de [...]d there, fiftie barrels of powder, and victuals for two moneths.

The States of the vnited Prouinces, and Prince Maurice, did after this manner win the towne, resoluing to keepe it, both for the ser [...]ce of the Countrie, and for their neighbours and allies of [...]e sacred Empire, vnto whom it importeth much to haue the Riuer free, that no foreine armies may crosse it; a towne deser­uing to be kept at the Empires common cost: so as they deter­mined to fortifie it, & caused a great fort to be made in the Island standing in the riuer before the towne, for finishing whereof, a bargaine was made with certaine men for a round summe of mo­ney: the gouernement of the towne was giuen to Colonell Gy­st [...]lls.

The Nobilitie & the States of the Countrie of Ouer-Yssel, perceiuing that their Countrie and the riuer Rhyne was free, cau­s [...]d a placard to be published on the eight and twentieth of Iulie, forbidding to pay any contribution to the enemie, appointing good gard to be kept in euerie village and parish, on great penal­ties, as to the officers on forfeiture of 25 crowns, and the Boore one crown, as often as they should be found faultie therein: They were likewise commanded to be readie with their armies so soon as the alarme bell should ring, prohibiting on paine of life, that no man should harbour any of the enemies souldiers, and he that could take any of the enemies souldiers dead or aliue, in the Countrie, should receiue fiue and twentie florins of the Coun­tries money.

[Page 293]If any Merchant trauailing by the way should happen to be taken or hurt by the enemie, those of the Countrie or place where it was done, shall be bound to pay his ransome, and satisfie his losses, and it shall not be lawfull for any man to hold any cor­respondence with the enemie, with many other points, necessarie for the countries preseruation.

¶ His Excellencie takes the towne of Meurs on the 16 of August Anno 1601.

BEcause the towne of Meurs was garded but by certaine soul­diers called Hanevederen, His Excell [...]ncie takes the towne of Meurs and fortifies it. which lay there in garrison, ser­uing the Duke of Cleues, for whom they kept it, Prince Mau­rice pretending claime to that Earledome, as giuen vnto him by the Countesse of Walbourg, did, on the sixt of August, send Captaine Cloet and Colonel Edmonds thither, with twelue cor­nets of horse; yet the garrison would not giue place nor leaue the Towne: Whereupon, his Excellencie, the next day, came thither in person, with fiue and twentie cornets of horse, fiue and thirtie foot ensignes, and foure demie canon: which when they within it saw, they deliuered vp the towne to the true Lord prince Maurice, who placed a strong garrison in it, & gaue order for for­tifying of the Castle, causing fiue bulwarkes to be made there, which cost more than 100000 florins.

The twelfth of August, with great magnificence, he was recei­ued into the towne, as Lord of the Countrie, with all due cere­monies: he was afterwards receiued into the Castle of Cracow, which he likewise caused to be fortified, in which, he spent eight and twentie thousand florins, keeping aboue 2000 men at worke there, so as these two places were made exceeding strong, and cannot be taken but in Summer, or in time of great drought.

¶ A description of a long fight at Sea, in the Eastern Indies neere to the Citie of Bantam, betwixt fiue ships of Holland, and the Portugals mightie fleet, in Anno 1601.

IT is notorious to the whole world, that the Staple or princi­pall Mart of Spices, as Pepper, Cinamon, Cloues, Nutmegs, Ma­cis, Ginger, and other medicinable drugs; of pretious stones, as Diamonds, Rubies, Turkois, Emeralds, Saphirs, and others; of Pearle, and infinit other rich Merchandise, which are only found in the East Indies, and from thence brought into these parts; hath chiefely beene for many hundred yeares, in the famous and mag­nificent city of Venice,Venice in time past the staple for merchand [...]se bro [...]ght from the Eastern Iu­dies. where they were woont to be bought and sold, and from thence sent abroad ouer all Europe: so as the sayd citie and republike flourished, and was euerie where famous in regard of the said traffique. These Spices, drugs, and other strange things, were transported by Sea from Alexandria to Venice, but they were first brought by land to Alexandria, with great and in­credible cost and danger, as well by reason of the long and tedi­ous way, as the great Conuoys, which the Carauans vsually had to secure them from the incursions of the Arabians, who lay in wait vpon the waies. All these merchandises were burthened with these great costs and expence, to the profit and aduantage of those who transported them from the Indies to Alexandria, from thēce to Venice, and from Venice to other parts of Europe, where these things were much desired, and could be brought hither by no neerer way, nor by any other meanes, but by land, and by these Cor [...]uans. But, within these few yeares, by the resolution of cer­taine bold and valiant Sea men, who contemned all the fearefull and tempestious dangers of the winds and seas, and endured infi­nit miseries, torments and aduersities, a new way hath bin disco­uered, altogether vnknowne to our predecessours, by which we may goe to the said Indies by Sea, viz. in sailing round about A­frike, in view of the Cape of good hope, and passing from thence to the other side of Afrike, betwixt it & the Isle of Madugascar, in coasting sundrie Islands, the red Sea, Arabia foelix, and the Persian [Page 295] Sea, as farre as Calicut or Goa, or else from the said Cape, dire­ctly towards the strait of Sunda, leauing the Isle of Maduga­scar with many moe on the left hand. By this means the said spices, druges, and other costly merchandize, haue beene brought in­to Europe with farre lesse charge and difficultie, so as in Venice, the trade hath begunne to decay, and doth now flourish in Por­tugall in the Citie of Lisbone,From thence the trade is re­moued to Lis­bone. so as wee may say, it is remoued from one towne to an other, and that it is at this present wholy and alone in the said Citie; for all other places must rate their wares according to the price made in Lisbone. And because the Realme of Portugal, and namely the citie of Lisbone hath for certaine yeares had the said traffique, as it were proper to them­selues, both because they were the first which discouered and found out the said way, as also for that their king gaue a certaine summe of mony to the Emperour Charles to buy this priuiledge, that the Spaniards should in no sort goe that way; by this meanes the said citie of Lisbone, with the inhabitants of the whole king­dome, are become so rich, as perceiuing the great profit which their kingdome and people obtained by this trade, haue sought all meanes to appropriat to themselues alone this traffique, by sailing into those parts: And to this end, haue not onely subdued diuers townes, prouinces, and entier kingdomes in the Eastern Indies, subiecting them by force of armes, and continually brid­ling them on euerie side by forts and castles, but haue likewise made leagues and alliance with other Kings, Princes, and Po­tentates of the Eastern Indies, whom they could not subdue; as it seemed, (according to the report which came from thence hither) none should trade thither but themselues. This not­withstanding, some fewe yeares since, certaine ships of the vni­ted Netherland Prouinces tracing the Portugals, did likewise passe the Cape of good hope, and arriued in the East Indies, where by experience they found the contrarie of that report which the Portugals had caused to bee bruted, how that none but themselues might trade into those Countries: for diuers kings and Islands where the said spices and other costly merchandizes grew, were either mortall enemies to the Portugals, or else so in­clined as they would not (to satisfie them) prohibit others from trading into those parts:The Portugals by force seeke to keepe the Hollanders from comming to the East In­dies. which the Portugals considering, and be­ing incensed with the Hollanders arriual, did with great expence [Page 296] set forth the aboue mentioned mightie fleet to enforce the Kings of those Countries and free Islands where these spices growe, not to giue them comfort to trade with any but them­selues: and on the other side, to keepe the Hollanders from landing or taking in fresh water, and in a word, to assaile and in­counter them in such sort, as no newes might be caried home of them into Europe. Now because this famous incounter and sea battaile happened but in the yeare 1601, and the said fleet was readie in anno 1599, wee will briefely set downe how this Ar­mada was imploied in the interim of the two yeares, because for the noueltie thereof it deserues it. The king of Calicut beeing a mortall enemy to the Vice-Roy and Portugals of Goa, and other places of the Eastern Indies, they armed against each other both by land and sea: The King had a certaine Indian in his seruice called Cunall, a man so fortunat in all his enterprises and pira­cies, as in a short space hee became so famous and wealthie (by his continuall booties gotten from the Portugals) as those who followed his partie, seeing these happie beginnings, made him King: He had a castle and place of retreate, on the coasts of Ma­lauar called by his owne name Cunall, or Cuchall: where after hee had forsaken the king of Calicuts partie, he did so continew his thefts and robberies for the space of 50 yeres with good successe, as in all incounters with the Portugals, hee still caried away the honor,F [...]r what cause the Portugals rieged forth a fleet in the In­dies. til at last the Vice-Roy of Goa did rigge forth the said fleet, and made peace with the king of Calicut.

The King was moued to graunt this peace in hatred to Cunall, who had shaken off all obedience: & so soon as he had confirmed it with the Portugals, hee did presently proclaime warre against him: The Vice-roy was loath to lose this faire occasion where­by he might plucke this thorne forth of his owne foot, and ha­uing his fleet ready, sent 1500 men vnder the conduct of D. Lewis de Gamma his lieutenant generall, to Cunals fort. This lieutenant landed all his men in a countrie called Ariori, where he fastned his ferrie boates together vpon the riuer aboue Cunal in manner of a bridge, and of these, made 31 bridges, on which hee placed gards. That done, he appointed a captain called Lewis de Silua, to passe ouer the said bridges with 300 Portugal souldiers who began the fight, and opened a way to the fort, himselfe in the meane time remaining in the Campe with the rest of his troops, [Page 297] to send succours to those that should stand in need. This done, the souldiers on the 22 of March 1599 by night passed ouer the bridges, and incountered with Cunals men on the further side of the riuer, who after a short fight, draue them thence: Towards noone 300 Portugal souldiers moe, & 5000 Najos or Indian soul­diers which had alreadie passed ouer in an other place, marched towards the said Castle: the fight was fierce, resistance great, the ordnance and small shot plaid furioursly from both sides, and a­mong others,Captaine Sylua sla [...]ne. captain Silua was slain with a musket shot: hee was a braue souldier, & his valor caused the Portugals to make head, but so soon as he was dead, the rest fled towards the bridges, which being abondoned by the gards, floted in the middest of the riuer, so as the runnawaies could not make vse of them.

This first attempt of this fleet in anno 1599 had bad successe, their owne pride & ouerweining procuring their losse and ouer­throw, for had they followed the King of Calicuts counsell who was present in the battaile, this had not happened, as appeared the yere following: for hauing then learned to their cost, they renewed the enterprise vnder conduct of their generall Andrea de Furtado de Mendoça on the 20 of March anno 1600. They were not now so greedy of getting all the honor to themselues, as before, but beha­uing themselues discreetly & auoiding the former inconuenien­ces,The pir [...]te Cu­nall and his Ca­stle are taken. with little labour they tooke Cunals fort, & himselfe prisoner, who with his souldiers were put into the Gallies. By this meanes Cunall, who from a meane fellowe became a king, was at last made a slaue. This exploit performed in anno 1600 towards the end of the yere, they began to strengthen the fleet with men & two new Galions. In August 1601 they determined to goe before Bantam, but winds and tempests did so beat them back, as it was the 24 of December ere they arriued there, euen on the same day, as by a singular prouidence of God, three ships of Holland and two Bri­gantines were come thither: these fought the sea fight.

The Hollanders so soone as they are past the Cape of good hope, doe commonly stow their ordnance in hold, because they haue no vse for it till they come to the strait of Sunda, and by this meanes they had like to haue fallen into the Portugals hands, had not almightie God (a matter worthie of note) sent an vnlookt for messenger to aduertize them what would en­sue. It was a man of China, who in his boate came to them [Page 298] and gaue them notice of the aproach of the mightie fleet of those of Goa, Cochin and Malacca, assembled before Bantam, in number thirtie saile, amongst which, were eight Gallions, twelue Foists and Gallies well prouided, the least of the Galli­ons was of the burthen of 400 tunne.

The Chinois told them, that the Portugals meant to besiege Bantam by land and sea, that none might trade thither but them­selues.

These ships of Holland were called, the one, Guelderland, of two hundred and fiftie tunne, the other Zeland, of two hun­dred tunne, the third Vtrecht, of one hundred and thirtie tun, the two Brigantines, the one called the Pigeon, was twentie eight tunne, and the other la Gard, threescore and ten: these ves­sells came from the Tussell and had set saile on the 23 of Aprill 1 [...]01 in companie of seuen other ships, making vp the number of twelue vessels, both ships and Brigantines. Being at sea they were dispersed, so as but fiue of them arriued at the streight of Sunda, where the Chinois brought them that newes, who thought hee had done them a great curtesie, in aduising them to shun the incounter of so mightie a fleet.

But God strengthned them, so as they resolued otherwise: for the Admirall of the fleet, whose name was Wolfart Harmans, so soone as the Chinois had told him these newes, commaun­ded them to cast ankor, and calling the captaines aboard his ship, after praier, they consulted together what was best to bee done for the present good of the fleet, and for the future trade to the East Indies, and what was most expedient for the honor of the Netherlands: whereupon they mutually resolued, consi­dering the importance of the businesse, whereon the preserua­tion or ruine of Bantam depended,The Hollanders resolue to as­saile the fleet and to relieue Bantam. valiantly to assaile the Por­tugals fleet, and by Gods assistance to driue them thence, and thereby to free the Citie of Bantam. Thereupon, the deckes were cleered, and all impediments remoued, to the end, the ordnance might bee well managed, and euerie man haue roome enough to vse his armes against the assault.

This done, as soone as time and place would permit, the next morning two howers before day, after a signe giuen, they al weighed ankor.

The 25 of December about sunne rising, they descried the [Page 299] Portugal fleet, which had placed two gallions in Gard directly beneth the West point of the Islād Pulo Penzano, & little dreamt of our men, who came on their backs before they could hoisse sale or be rescewed by the rest; so as they would haue been enforced to yeeld, had not a certaine mishap befalne our Admerall, who shooting off one of his pieces, it brake, which fel out well for the enemie. The two gallions fearing to be assailed againe, went a­way with their Foists.

Our Vice-Admerall Hans Brower, ignorant hereof, plaid with his ordnance so furiously on the ship of Malacca, as we might ea­sily perceiue a certaine amazement in the Portugal fleet, who re­tired, and came to an ankor beneath the Island Pulo Penzano. Our men hauing notice of the mishap which befell the Admeral, did likewise cast ankor vnder certaine high Islands, where they repaired the hurt done by their canon.

The 26 of the same moneth was verie foule, so as neither side could vse their sailes or ordnance, God thereby fighting for vs, giuing our Admerall sufficient leasure to repaire his losse.

The 27 day, they set saile, and made towards the Portugal fleet, shooting fiercely one at another. On the East side of Bantam, to­wards the farthest Island, lay two great gallies, who seeing the Hollanders, betooke themselues to flight, thinking to escape, but two of our ships, the one called Vtrecht, and the other la Garde, assailed them. Diuers Portugals got vp into the Vtrecht, thinking to saue themselues, but our men being in feare of their multitude, called the Brigantine, to their aid, at whose arriuall, most of them leapt into the sea.

The Captaine of the one gallie, was called Francesco de Sousa, sonne to Iohn de Teues, Contador Major of Lisbone: In this gallie were 23 Portugals, and 60 Indians, among whom the said captain, with certaine Portugals, were saued, the rest were for the most part slaine.

In the other gallie, which our Brigantine la Garde assailed and tooke, was an old Captaine, who had faithfully serued the king of Spaine, in those parts, for the space of 32 yeares, his name was Andrea Rodrigues Palhota: he, refusing to yeeld, was strucken throgh the bodie with a pike. They tooke foure brasse pieces out of the said gallie, & afterwards burnt them both, notwithstanding that they were laden with Rice and other victuals.

[Page 296]And because by certaine prisoners we haue learnt the particu­lars of that fleet, it shall not be impertinent to speake somewhat of them.

First,A particular rehersall of the strength of the Portugal fleet. there were fiue gallions of Goa, of which Andrea Furtu­do de Mendoza was Admerall, the Vice-Admerall Thomas Zuza de Reucha, Francisco Silua de Menesee, Antonio Zuza Faleud, and D. Lo­pes d [...]Almeyda, were Captaines. There were two ships of Malacca, whose Captaines were Traiano Rodrigues de Castel-Bianca, and Io­za-Pinto. There was one gallion of Cochin, whose Captaine was Sebastiano Swarco. These are the Captaines names of the eight gal­lions.

There was moreouer, one Gallion and eighteen foists, which departed likewise from Malacca, came to Seylao, and went on no farther (one of them excepted) which our men tooke, whose Captaine was Francisco de Zuza Toues. From Nimar and Seylao came two foists, and as many gallies, whose Captaines were, An­drea Rodrigues Palhota, slaine by our men, Andrea Guiedes de Carnal­co, Diego de Melo, and Manuel Dias. From Malacca came two gal­lions, commanded by these Captains, Gonçalo Vus de Castel-Bianco, & Andrea Pessoa. And beside these, two other vessels, called Ionc­ques, commanded by Captaine Francesco de Maris, and seuen Bri­gantines with oares.

It was likewise reported that there were aboue eight hundred Portugals in the fleet, beside the sailers which were all Indians: That foure other ships▪ and one Brigantine, lay at Achea, and that the fleet expected none other supplies, but onely those which in Aprill were to come from Goa.

The eight and twentieth day, the wind blew hard, so as they could beare no saile, each side being enforced to lye still. The nine and twentieth and thirtieth daies, they remained quiet on the West of Iaua, a little beyond the point of Bantam: The Portugal fleet, had gotten the wind of the Hollanders, but durst not come vp to assaile them, which our men would haue done, if the time and wind would haue permitted them: yet because they would not be idle, they did set fire on 2 of their gallies, meaning there­by to inforce the Hollanders to retire, but they were burnt ere they could come neere them: they did likewise sinke two of their Foists neere to the shoare.

The one and thirtieth day, the Hollanders weighed ankor, set­ting [Page 301] forward with an intent to charge their enemies, notwith­standing they had a faire wind, who perceiuing their meaning, hoisted saile, and the wind beginning to slacken, the Hollanders strooke saile and tarried for them, & because the Portugals should not thinke that they meant to runne away, they let fall their an­kors, which they seeing, did the like, not daring to assaile them.

The first of Ianuarie 1602, in the Morning, the Admerall of Holland, Wolfart Harmanz, weighed ankor, clapt on all his sailes, and directed his course towards the Portugall fleet, who with full sailes came likewise towards them, so as at first, euerie man imagi­ned they would haue fought; but when they came nere one ano­ther, the Portugals turned backe, being afraid of our ordnance: Their Admerall in vain displaied the banner for the fight, his men hauing no deuotion to it.

Whereupon, on the third day, the Hollanders returned to­wards Bantam, where they were most kindly entertained. Their losse was small, & they were greatly honoured ouer all the whole Countrie. They lost but one man, yet many of them were hurt; the harme done to their ships was repaired ere they departed frō Bantam, where, to that end, and likewise to refresh their men, they continued till the 12 of the same moneth.

And, notwithstanding there was freight enough at Bantam, yet they were desirous to pursue their voyage to the Molucques, where, on the 17 of Febr. the Admeral arriued at Terrenata, fin­ding our men that had bi [...] left there, to be in good health.

The king did with singular loue and affection entertaine him being exceedingly grieued, that the gathering time of Cloues, had been for certaine yeres verie vnseasonable, so as he could not fur­nish the fleet to their content, yet he hoped ere long to giue them full satisfaction, promising that none should buy any Spice in his Dominions, ere our fleet were sufficiently stored.

Not long after, our other ships arriued likewise at Bantam, and there tooke in their burthen, all of them retiring into the Low-Countries richly loden.

We cannot be thankefull enough to God for this victorie, the benefit whereof was by time more manifested. For we haue not a little daunted the Portugals pride, ouer-weening, and reputation, and augmented the valour of those, who from hence, trauaile to the Eastern Indies, For, as the Reader may perceiue by the aboue [Page 304] mentioned enterprise of Cunall, the Portugals thinke three hun­dred of their men good enough for fiue thousand Indians, what rumor then will bee spred in India, how that fiue of our merchant ships, did put the great fleet of Portugal to flight? But it is God that encourageth his seruants to attempt great matters, brauely to execute them, and to come off with honor, To him be glory for euer.

¶ A description of the horrible, bloudie, and vnheard of siege, of the towne of Ostend besieged by the Archduke Albert of Austria, in the yeares 1601, 1602, 1603, and 1604.

SOme will peraduenture thinke it strange, that among the vi­ctories of the vnited Netherland Prouinces, wee set downe the famous siege of Ostend, seeing it was not Prince Maurice, but the Archduke of Austria that besieged and tooke it, with great losse of humane bloud, incredible expence, and to the smal profit and aduantage of his countries. Yet, if any man will well consider this siege, and the sequence of the Historie, reading it to the end, hee will find and confesse, that this siege hath giuen to the state of these countries, not one, but many victories, both in that this towne was so well defended, and thereby much hurt done to the enemie, forces, as also because during this siege, they haue wonne from the Archduke, the townes of Rhynberck, Graue, and Sluce, each of which is as much worth, and as com­modious for these countries, as Ostend euer was or could haue beene. On the other side, seeing this siege was so notable, as wee neuer read of the like, and that the honour of our gallant Cap­taines and souldiers in defending it together with their braue ex­ploits do manifestly therein appeare, we should do them wrong, to paste them ouer in silence.

Before we come to the description thereof, we will first briefe­ly speake of the situation of the towne, and the duke of Parmas sundrie attemps vpon it, and lastly what moued the Archduke to besiege it, for it would be ouer tedious, to set downe euerie daies actions there: we will only touch the principall occurrences, and whosoeuer is desirous to know more, wee refer him to a Iournall [Page 303] that hath beene Printed thereof.

Ostend, not long since, was a small contemptible towne, for­tified at first against the enemies incursions with woodden gates and Pallisadoes: sixe yeares after, videlicet, in an. 1572, the States of the vnited Prouinces hauing wel considered the scituation and commodiousnesse thereof, caused it to be so strongly fortified, as the duke of Parma, by reason of alteration in the gouernement, hauing woon the townes of Dunkerke and Niewport, comming before Ostend, could not take it; for considering with himselfe that he should lose much and winne little by tarrying there, after some 5 dayes lying before it, he departed thence in anno 1583.

Since that time, Ostend continuing vnder the States gouerne­ment, they haue omitted nothing necessarie for the fortifying and assurance thereof, and in anno 1600, it was so well fenced, not onely within by renewing and heighthening the bulwarkes and rampiers, but likewise without, by new dikes and counterscarpes, as we may rightly number it among the most impregnable places of Europe; for the rampiers within were verie high, and diuided by a deepe ditch from the counterscarpes without, which tooke all hope from the enemie of being able to force or hold them.

Beside, it seemeth that Nature, by this Towne, was willing to shew the world some raritie, for within these few yeares, the Sea hath made it more impregnable than before, by a new rupture on the East-side of the towne, which they terme the gullet: it is in breadth aboue one hundred foot, and within the land, the depth of two pikes, euen at low water, and in the Sea where it takes it originall it is not halfe fathom deepe. It cannot be denied but it hath euer had a Hauen, but the old is not comparable to the new, for the old Hauen euerie six houres at an ebbe, leaues to that which encloseth the Towne, a free accesse, and meanes to fill it vp; so as no boats can that way enter without great dan­ger.

The generall States, for the better defence of the towne, hauing caused the sand hils on the East-side, which are neere the Gullet, & whose height command it, to be leuelled, the sea at euery Tide doth so fill the leuelled place, as the seemeth vnto mans judge­ment, that no meanes can be found to take that Hauen from the towne, for commonly at euerie Tide the Sea riseth so high, as it extendes it selfe 1200 paces beyond the Towne, and at [Page 298] full sea, a league into the countrie, so as the whole land round a­bout, is filled with water, together with many dikes and ruptures, so that without great daunger a man can hardly passe. In a word, whatsoeuer might serue for the strengthning and assurance of a towne, hath not beene omitted or spared for any cost whatsoe­uer: for Ostend stands so, as it can keepe a great part of Flaun­ders, euerie way, vnder contribution, whereupon the Flemings haue still gone about to make it theirs: and since that the Prince of Parma was enforced to giue ouer his seige before it, they haue by all meanes sought to surprise it on the sodaine, or otherwise: and among others, La Motte gouernour of Flaunders in anno 1585, hauing along the sea shore surprised the old towne, which was onely fortified with a Raueling and Pallisadoes, attempted to fortifie and intrench himsefe there, but hee was driuen thence with great losse of men, among whom, fortie of his Captaines were slaine.

Againe in anno 1596, after Archduke Albert had taken Calais, the States of Flaunders did earnestly solicite him to imploy his forces in besieging Ostend, and to that end, promised to giue him beside the ordinarie allowance of three moneths, three hun­dred thousand florins: to which motion his Highnesse in part see­med to encline, taking certaine summes of mony before hand, yet hee onely shewed himselfe before the towne, and hauing viewed it, presently went thence. This attempt beeing vaine, and perceiuing that stratagems, and sodaine surprisals, made the souldiers of Ostend more vigilant, they watched a time, till the Archdukes armie enuaded the fontiers of Holland, amusing the States of the vnited Prouinces, thereby to diuert their forces from Flaunders and Brabant, and then they built seuenteene or eighteene forts about the towne, therein following the direction of a reuolted corporall, who had a long time serued in Ostend, & knew what would most annoy them: this they did to stop the incursions of those of Ostend, and to cut off the contributions which they raised in the countrie.

But time and experience taught them, that the intertainment of the Garrisons which they were to keepe in the said forts, a­mounted to more than the contribution which the townesmen raised vpon the countrie, and besides, that the roades of them which lay in Gartison in the forts were more hurtfull than the con­tributions, [Page 305] so as at last they were so earnest with the Archduke, shewing him the necessitie of the matter, and how hee ought to lay hold on that occasion, (his Excellencie lying then before Berck) with diuers other reasons which they alledged, as his highnesse was moued to enterprise and beginne this siege: and to this end, on the fift of Iuly 1 [...]01, hee sent Count Frederick Van­den Bergh thither as marshall of the Camp, with foure regiments of souldiers, who encamped on the downes Eastward from the towne, and the next day plaied with foure canon vpon it, to giue them notice of his arriuall: and the same day, after noone, D. Augustino de Mexia gouernour of the castle of Antuerpe came thither with 5 regiments making vp the number of 8000 men, and foure Cornets of horse, who encamped on the West side of the town, that hee might lie betwixt the forts of Isabella and Al­bert: but those of the towne shot so at him, as with losse he was enforced to retire to the downes, from whence by little and little hee made his approches with entrenchments, and so planted his canon.

In the towne were one and twentie camps of souldiers of sundry regiments, and one companie of Burgers, it was well stored with ordnance, munition, victuals, and all necessaries: the Lord Charles Vander Noot was gouernor there.

The Generall States of the vnited Prouinces hauing intelli­gence of the siege of Ostend, sent Colonell Huchtenbrock thither with ten companies, and entreated generall Vere to go thither with three thousand men which were expected from England, but hee made some difficultie therein, beeing laoth to goe with­out his owne regiment, and that of his brother: whereupon on the eight of Iulie, eight companies were sent vnto him, and on the fourteenth of the same, twelue other companies which had been at the campe before Berck, making vp in all one and twen­tie companies,Sir Frauncis Vere entreth Ostend on the 15. of Iuly. among whom were six English: Generall Vere came thither on the fifteenth of Iuly by night, and the next day all sort of munition were brought thither by the Lord of War­mont in despite of the enemies canon, the report where of was heard into England: for the besieged, made counter batteries, and often brake the enemies ordnance, and dismounted it: whereupon, two double canon, and foure demys were sent to them.

[Page]The fifteenth of Iulie,Th [...]se of [...]ten [...] [...] by [...] [...] [...] d [...]. N [...]t. two of the Queene of Englands Ships arriued there with new supplies of souldiers. Two daies before Generall Veer his arriuall, the besieged had made a furious sallie vpon the enemies in their trenches, killing many of them, to the number of fiue or sixe hundred, who were not well intrenched; D. Augustino de Mexia was hurt there, and D. Hieronimo de Monroy the Campe-Master, was slaine in his Tent; the besieged lost some 30 men: At the same time, or thereabout, D. Diego d'Idiaques, and D. Iuan Bracamonte, Nephew to Count Fuentes, D. Pedro de Lojas, sonne to the Marquesse de Lojas, who brought newes of the Kings daughters birth, with diuers others, were likewise slaine. Sir Frauncis Veer, being in the towne as chiefe commaunder, gaue direction for all matters, diuiding the Dutch companies into two regiments, vnder the conduct of the gouernour Vander-Noot, and Colonel Huchtenbroecke, who commaunded in the old towne.

The seuenteenth and twentieth of Iulie, Generall Veer hauing store of men, seazed on a piece of land that lay Southward, which he fortified and entrenched, placing strong gards in the coun­terscarpes and forts neere adjoyning.

The two and twentieth of Iulie, the enemies canon did so commaund the Hauen as no boats durst enter; but, the fiue and twentieth of Iulie, the gouernour, and the Ingeneer Master Da­uid of Orleans, with other old and experimented mariners, found that the gullet would serue to bring in boats, by opening a cau­sey or rampier of the counterscarpe, & that the sayd boats might lye safe in the towne dikes: But the Archduke caused boats to be laden with stones at Niewport and elsewhere, which he sanke within and neere the gullet to choake it vp; but all the labor was to no purpose.

Those of Ostend made many curtains to secure their men from the canon, they likewise filled the fortifications which were made in the Sea, with stakes and crosse beames, full of stones, the better to diuert the Sea waues from the Towne. By this meanes the workes and counterscarpes abroad were fortified, like the rampiers of other strong townes, being garded with rauelins, halfe Moons and forts, so as the enemie could not bring his ord­nance neere the towne to make a batterie or come to the assault; they did moreouer secure the going out and in of the boats; so as the vnited Prouinces were encouraged to defend the towne, sen­ding [Page 307] thither daily all manner of stuffe, and workmen to make it more strong therein sparing for no cost.

The enemies could by no meanes come neerer the town than by the West side along the downes, from whence they fiercely battered it,Description of [...]wa [...]ke cal­led S [...]and [...]ll. and especially the Sand hill. This Sand hill was a Bulwarke of double works one vpon an other, hauing round about it sundrie rankes of Pallisadoes from the bottome to the verrie toppe, all made of fagotts laide one vpon an other, with other Bulwarks neere adioyning, for it was made to defend the West side, which was the weakest part of the towne, together with the hauen on that side. This Sand hill was so battered with the canon, as it seemed like an yron hill, for they shot bullet vp­on bullet, which strake vpon one an other, and sometimes re­bounded backe againe.

Neere to the Sand hill was a causey opposite to the sea, ex­tending it selfe as farre as the downes where the enemy lay. This causey was defended by a halfe moone, and by pallizadoes, and the Porcuspine by a verie strong fort, which the Archduke caused to bee vndermined, the better thereby to approach the towne: In that regard, the besieged on the fifteenth of Iuly per­ced the said causey, behinde their halfe moone, and armed the point of it with planks and fagots against the force of the Sea waues: and yet they feared that the same opening would haue done more hurt to the Bulwarkes and other workes than it did: this onely enforced the enemy, by reason of the water, to quit sundrie forts. By this meanes the towne became like vnto an I­sland, wholy enuironed with the Ocean Sea, beeing diuided the breadth of one hundred foot from the firme land, and from the enemy, who was in great hope that the Sea (the causey being perced) would doe more hurt to the towne in winter.

The vnited Prouinces on the contrarie were assured that God by that meanes would preserue and keepe the towne, so as they for their parts vsed all diligence to secure it, and at Generall Veres entreatie, sent three and twentie foot ensignes more thither after the taking of Rhynberck vnder conduct of Earle Chastillon, notwithstanding that there were alreadie nine and fiftie ensignes in the towne,Many men and much prouision are sent to Ost­end. beside those who were daily sent from England, whose number amounted to 2000 men.

The enemy shot continually into the towne, more than euer [Page 308] into any that was besieged, so as many men were dayly slaine. The vnited Prouinces in September, sent thither in lesse than fif­teene daies (vnder conduct of the Lord of Warmont Admerall of Holland, who with his men of warre garded the Seas,) one hundred threescore and ten boats laden with all sorts of victuals, wine, beere, bread, turfe, and fire wood for winter (not recko­ning fiue hundred and fiftie barrells of powder which were there before the siege:) the said one hundred threescore and ten boats did likewise bring three hundred seuentie three thousand pound weight of fine and course biscuit, seuentie seuen thousand weight of match, ninetie eight thousand poundes of musket and har­quebuse shot, with fifteene thousand yron bullets, and all maner of prouision necessarie for defence of the towne, so as victuals were so plentifull and cheape there, as a pot of wine was solde for a groat, and the best for six pence, and a tunne of Delfts beere for fiue florins.

By this meanes the siege of Ostend grew so famous, as people came from all parts to behold the besiegers and besieged.

The Inhabitants of Zealand, did for curiositie sake goe bold­ly thither with their wiues and children. All manner of victuals were better cheape there than in Holland or Zealand, in regard they paid no imposition.

The Duke of Holst brother to the King of Denmarke, with Count Iohn of Nassau, Count Hohenlo, and the Earle of Nor­thumberland came from England thither, to view the manner of the fortifications, Count Saint Paul Gouernour of Picardie, was likewise onward on his way thither, but by a contrarie wind was caried into Zealand: yea Henry the fourth the great French king came in August to Calais to vnderstand the particularities of that siege, from whence hee sent one of his Lords to visite the Archduke, who likewise sent Count Solre to the king.

The Lord Cha­stillon, Colonell Hucht [...]nbro [...]ck and others, slain in Ostend.Count Chastillon, a gallant, noble, and valorous Lord nephew to the great Admerall of France commaunded the French forces in Ostend, and as by vnluckie chance hee stood on the top of the Sand hill viewing the Gabions in companie of the gouernour, the Lord Vander Noot, Colonell Huchtenbroeck gouernour of Saint Andrewes fort, and Brog Lieutenaunt Colonell to the Scots, with diuers other gentlemen, the scalpe of his head was caried away with a canon bullet, so as the braines and bones flew in the face [Page 390] of Huchtenbroeck, Captaine Brog and others. Within a while after, namely on the last of September, the said Colonell Huchtenbroeck was likewise slaine, and was much lamented, as also a French Captaine named Pomarend: It would bee an im­possibilitie to set downe the names of all the Captaines which dyed both within and without the towne together with the sun­drie accidents which daily happened there, with so small ter­rour and amazement as is almost incredible, custome wholy banishing feare. Among others, a souldier bought a loafe of bread, which hee held vp in his hand shewing it to one of his fellowes, and in the meane time a bullet tooke away the one halfe of it, whereupon, the souldier merrily sayd that there was some good fellowship in him that made that shot, because hee left him some bread and tooke not all away.

An English gentleman of the age of twentie yeares had in a sallie his right arme shot off with a Canon bullet; hee tooke it vp and carried it along with him to the Surgeons, who drest him, which done, hee tooke his arme with him to his lodging, where without beeing sicke or distempered, he held it in his left hand, saying, this is the arme which to day at dinner serued the whole bodie.

An other souldier hauing his arme shot off, and beeing verie weake was led away by two of his fellowes, as hee went along an other bullet tooke away one of his legs, of which hurt he pre­sently dyed, those two which led him being in no sort hurt.

A Grocer standing in his shop was slaine with a great shot, and beeing laid in a coffing, the bodie was caried away with a Canon bullet.

A yong man beeing on horse backe, his horse was slaine vnder him with a bullet which entred at his hinder parts, and came forth at his brest, and yet himselfe had no harme, onely his breeches were torne a sunder betwixt his legs with the wind of the bullet.

A Sea Captaine beeing in conference with one, who layd his arme vpon the Captaines shoulder, it was taken away by a great shot, the Captain hauing no hurt but only astonied with the wind of the canon.

It fell out likewise oftentimes that the enemie discharging his ordnance, the bullet flew into the mouth of our canon which was [Page 310] charged, and setting it on fire, two bullets were sent backe in steed of one.

Diuers other strange accidents happened there among so ma­nie millions of shot: for the first ten weeks both from the town and enemies campe more than threescore thousand Canon shot were spent, beside fire-works to burn downe the town building, which tooke no great effect in regard the houses were low. Now this is not strange, for the meaning of the Spaniards was to win the towne with their ordnance, and to make it a heape of stones and ashes, but the besieged shot as much as the enemies, dismounting their canon, and tearing downe their forts. For there was neuer any place among Turks, Heathen, or Christians, where so manie shot haue beene bestowed on either side: the canons beeing so worne, and the holes made so wide, as the like hath not bin seene.

The foureteenth of August, Generall Vere beeing on the Sand hill, was hurt in the head with a wodden splinter, and because his wound was daungerous, the surgeons told him that he must withdrawe himselfe to some quiet place free from the noice of ordnance, whereupon, hee went from Ostend, and remained for a time in Zealand.

The besieged made braue sallies, wherein the enemies were still put to the worst: the foure and twentieth of August, our men made two sallies, the first by the English alone, the second by Dutch and English, of whom some nine or ten were slaine, and thirtie hurt, but of the enemies many moe were slaine who still repulsed our men, and when their foot men were too weake, they made vse of their horsemen, among whom, the ordnance made great slaughter, so as this siege was verie bloudie and long, as it shall appeare by the sequell of the Historie.

The enemies were often at variance among themselues, be­cause many of their attemps had no good successe.

They were intrenched in the West downes in seuen or eight trenches, the one higher than the other according to the nature of the ground, their trenches beeing conioyned with fa­gots and sand: further off from these, they had made an other trench, with platformes for their ordnance, which extended as far as their fort in the ruined churchyard, betwixt the forts of Grooten-dorst aud Isabella, standing on the riuer Yperlee, where [Page] likewise Saint Clares fort stood, and part of the camp of the Sou­thern quarter, from whence they had made a way with fagots as farre as the Eastern campe.

Count Frederick Vandenbergh had made a trench to the South­ward, opposite to the Englishmens trenches on the Polder, well fortified with ordnance and batteries.

D. Augustino de Mexia with some eight thousand men comman­ded that quarter: on the East side of the town neere to the bridge, was another campe likewise, wherein lay two thousand men, vn­der Count Frederick: Beside, they had a companie of reuolted English, commaunded by Captaine Floud, and foure cornets of horse: Three thousand men did euerie night gard the camp: Cap­taine Catrice had chiefe commaund of the trenches with one Si­mon Antonio: Matheo Serrano was lieutenant generall of the ord­nance, D. Lewis d' Auila, Balthazar Lopes, & D. Iuan Panrache were Sergeant Majors of the Army. The Regiments of the Earles Solre, Bucquoy, Frisin, Achicourt, and others where there, who agreed but badly with the Spaniards whose intollerable pride they could not endure.

The mutinie in certaine forts was not wholy quieted, but the mutiners were sent to Saint Winocks Bergue till they might re­ceiue their full pay, which came too late, so as they reduced the whole countrie vnder contribution.

Archduke Albert was in person in the Armie, and lay in Al­berts fort, where the Campe was fortified and prouided for winter, as if it had been a towne, and it was called West end. The Infanta Isabella lay at Niewport, and on the second of Au­gust shee came with eighteene Coaches to the campe, beeing seene by those of the towne. It is reported that whilest the ord­nance plaied fircely on both sides, herselfe gaue fire to certaine canons, which was reputed for a singular honor.

They fastened wodden platformes to the shoare on the East side, which they fenced with Gabions tied with Cables from thence to play vpon the boats which entred the old Hauen: They attempted likewise to stop the sluce of the Causey, with wood & sacks filled with [...]and, but those filled sacks sank down to the bot­tom, & were caried away with the tide, so as all that labor was vain.

After that, by the aduice of Captain Catrice who had bin lieu­tenant to la Bourlotte, and had now his place, they resolued [Page 312] to giue a generall assault to euerie corner of the towne, contrarie to the opinion of the whole Councell of war, thinking at a low water to win the West Rampier of the old Towne, and there to fortifie themselues: but the besieged had prouided for it, and the assault being begun, Captaine Catrice was shot in the head, where­upon it was deferred, and yet his wound was not mortall, for he was healed for that time.

From August to September, the Archdukes Camp spared for no trauel nor expence to win the towne, which they continually battered day and night, ouerthrowing certaine fortifications, killing diuers, and laming others: They likewise came at sun­drie times into the trenches, halfe moones, and other workes, from whence by the courage and magnanimitie of our souldiers, they were beaten with great losse of men. They went about by all meanes to choake the Gullet, therein vsing all the cunning that man could inuent to keepe victuals from the town, but they could not doe it, nor yet by all their attemps cause the besieged to yeeld. For Generall Vere and all the Captaines were resolued to defend it by all meanes possible, and by their sallies did much annoy the enemie both in his Campe and forts.

At the same time, certaine men went about to betraie and deliuer vp the towne to the enemie, but they were bewrayed and executed.

After Haruest, the souldiers on both sides were so badly clad, as they were much tormented with cold, especially the besieged, who kept gard without the town in the counterscarps and forts, where the waies were verie dirtie, which caused diuers English men to runne away, others grew sicke and died, the Garrison be­ing so weakned, as of seuen or eight thousand, there were in De­cember but two or three thousand left; whereupon, Generall Vere wrot to the States for more men.

The Archduke lying in Alberts fort, and the nights waxing long, was desirous to make some attempt, sending foure hun­dred of his souldiers on the one and twentieth of December a­bout midnight at a lowe water ouer the Hauen on the West side, along the shoare, who passing by the Sand hill gaue an alarme to the East side, and from thence, at a place called Schottenbergh, mounted the rampiers, killing a sentinell of Gystels companie, and by helpe of a great winde, fired a curtein or great heape of [Page 313] fagotts which were layed to breake off the Sea waues and to pre­serue the Bulwarks foot made on the North side at the end of the falce-bray or out-wal beneath the Sand hils point, where the foot of it, made with fagots, burnt three daies and three nights and could not be quenched, by reason the enemie shot so fiercely.

The same night, an Italian souldier that had lost his way, was taken betwixt the rampiers and pallisadoes. This Italian beeing secretly examined by Generall Vere, told him, that the Archduke hauing intelligence of the Garrisons weaknesse, and how the towne had not of a long time beene supplied with men and vi­ctuals, had speedily sent for all the Garrisons of Brabant, Arto­is, and other places, and with these, was come before the towne, with a firme resolution to assault it in sundrie places, namely to­wards the South and West Quadrant, and the halfe moones, and that Count Bucquoy should assault the Northwest rauelin of the old towne at a low water, which hee might easily doe in the night.

Certaine other Captaines should assaile the Sand hill, and two places of the old towne, namely the Porcuspine, which was a smal rauelin in the counterscarpe, which garded a certaine place called the Biere: they retained the water of the dikes, which is a matter of great importance.

The other assaults should bee giuen to the works without the towne to the South-South-East ward, called the South Quadrant, the Polder, and East Quadrant, to which some three weekes past, the enemies had giuen a fierce assault, from whence they were driuen with great losse.

Generall Vere, knowing this in particular, did on the three and twentieth of December at two of the clocke in the after­noone, send foure Captaines to view the Porcuspine, and to bring him word whither it might bee defended against the enemies as­saults: and as the said Captaines were visiting this place, Captaine Lewis Couture came thither about three a clocke with commission from the Generall to craue a parley of the enemie, and to send ho­stage from either side: This was done vnknown to the Captains, but Captaine Couture, found the Archduke verie willing there­unto.

The Generall to excuse this parley, alleadged sundrie rea­sons, viz. that he feared the assault, because he was weake in men, [Page 314] and they of sundrie nations, that hee was loath to come to a ge­nerall assault, and therefore thought good to beguile and amuse the enemie and winne time, till cernaine fortifications in the old towne were finished.

Whereupon, hostages were presently sent from the towne, vp­on the enemies word, namely Captaine Ogle lieutenant Colonell, and Captaine Farfax to procure that some others might bee like­wise sent from the Archduke to treat: And the same Euening, the Generall sent the Sergeant Major Carpenter, commaunding him to let in on the East side of the towne, the gouernour of the Sluce Matho Serrano, master of the ordnance and Councellor to the Archduke, together with Captaine Ottaigno, Sergeant Major of a regiment, both of them discreet and well experien­ced persons, with promise, that in the meane time there should bee a cessation of armes by land on both sides, and not otherwise. These two Commissioners from the Spaniards were brought by the falce-braye ouer the Sand hill, and so caried towards the new towne: But a great tumult rising on a sodaine among the Cap­taines and souldiers, especially because this was done vnknowne to them: they were by the Generals commaundement sent backe againe the same way without audience: and in the meane time, the tide was risen so high, as they could not passe on the East side, but went through the towne towards the West part, where they passed ouer in a boat to Count Bucquoys quarter with some excuse, promising to send back our hostages, who returned not to the towne the same night. Generall Vere, the next day at one of the clocke after midnight, in regard of the tumult among the Captaines and souldiers, sent for all the Captaines, French, Scot­tish, and Dutch, and after long debating on the Garrisons weak­nesse, and great want of men to defend the old and newe towns with all the counter scarps, rauelins, South and East Quadrants, together with the halfe moone beyond the Gullet standing to­wards the Southwest, hee craued their aduice, by what meanes all these places might bee defended from the enemies assaults, demaunding whither the Captaines thought it not fit, to race and abandon those workes, which were alreadie forsaken vnknown to the Captaines, together with the falce-bray, or lesser Sand hill, where they had alreadie planted one canon and a demy, and ca­ried fiue barrels of powder thither the same day.

[Page 315]All of them thought it fit to race the South Quadrant which was least hurtfull to the towne, and to send the men to more needfull places; and yet this was not effected, because fiue com­panies came from Zealand on the fiue and twentieth of Decem­ber.

The falce-bray which should haue beene abandoned, was ne­uerthelesse by consent of certaine Captaines, and in presence of Captaine Saint Clare the Scot vnknowne to the Generall mand with sixe musket [...]ers of Saint Clares companie, two other com­panies beeing appointed to second them, if the enemie should giue an assault.

The next day at nine of the clocke in the morning the Gene­rall sent againe for the French, Scottish, and Dutch Captaines to his lodging, where in presence of Colonell Loone hee made his Apologie in French, declaring to what intent, hee entred into communication with the enemie: the Reader may see the excuses hee alledged, in a letter hereafter ensuing which hee wrot to the States. The same day, and in the same assemblie, it was concluded to demaund hostages and commissioners from the enemie for as­surance of those which had beene sent from the towne, whereup­on, two Captaines, Iohn le Rijck, and Charls Cassart with Captaine Saint Clare the Scot, were sent to receiue the two aboue mentio­ned hostages and Commissioners, viz. Serrano, Gouernor of the Sluce, and captaine Ottaigno the Sergeant Major, who craued to hasten the businesse, being sent into Ostend for none other pur­pose. They were answered, that in regard it was verie late, and diuers Captaines alreadie vpon the gard, they must haue patience till the next day.

The same night the fiue aboue mentioned companies from Zeland arriued, and because it was Christmas day, the Archduke sent a Spanish Captaine with a trumpet and a letter to his Com­missioners, wherein hee willed them to hasten the matter by all possible meanes. Captaine Rijcks fetcht the letter and gaue it to Serrano, who thereupon was verie earnest for dispatch: hee was entreated to stay till eleuen of the clocke, and then hee should re­ceiue all content: this answere he presently sent to the Archduke. In the meane time the fiue companies which came from Zelland entred the towne, viz. that of Captaine Iohn Pottey, the companie of the Lord Iustine of Nassau, those of the Lord Vandernoot, Cap­taine [Page 316] Iohn Piron the younger, and Captaine la Corde. These fiue companies beeing come into the towne, Generall Vere about noone, gaue this aunswere to Serrano and Ottaigno: how he could not denie, but that being ouertaken by want of wind, faire wea­ther, and other accidents, hee had beene enforced to inuent meanes to helpe himselfe and men, and through want enforced to come to some agreement. But perceiuing that the States of the vnited Prouinces, had so well reliued and furnished him with all necessarie prouisions, hee could not as then proceed any far­ther in this treatie with his Highnesse, and therefore had no more to say, vnlesse some new necessitie should vnluckily surprize him, and enforce him againe to craue parley, hoping that his Highnesse as a vertuous Prince, would not take this deniall to proceed any farther in the treat, in bad part, for beeing a souldi­er, hee could doe no otherwise for maintenance of his owne ho­nour, and that this sleight was commonly vsed among souldiers: Thereupon, the Spanish commissiioners went their way.

The Archduke was much displeased with this warlike policie, and grew exceeding angrie with some of his owne seruants, who had counselled him thereunto. By this sleight, a rumor was bru­ted abroad, how that Ostend capitulated, and it was so confi­dently beliued, as in the Courts of France, England, that of the States of Holland and Zealand, nothing was knowne to the contrarie, till such times as they receiued letters from Generall Vere. The Burgers of Gant, Bruges, Dunkerke, and Newport came with their wiues and children to the campe, thinking that the towne would yeeld, but they were all deceiued. This did so incense the enemies, as they resolued more by passion than rea­son, to giue a generall assault.

The States of the vnited Prouinces were amased at this treatie, and neuer thought that the English souldiers would haue so slipt away through the carelesenesse of their Captaines who gaue them passeport, so as fortie, fiftie, sixtie, and more at a time returned into England, who were lustie and in health; whereupon men, and other necessarie prouisions were sent thither, which did en­courage the besieged.

The Archduke tired with lying so long before Ostend, and de­ceiued in his vaine hope, was persuaded by his Councell to giue a generall assault, ere greater forces entred the towne: and to this [Page 317] end, hee did satisfie and pay manie of his mutiners and vnwilling souldiers, making great preparation for an assault hoping to sur­prise the Sand hill, there to entrench himselfe and become ma­ster of the old towne, appointing the seuenth of Ianuarie 1602 in the afternoone at a low water the time for execution.

Colonell Gambiotta the Campe master was to assault the new towne, and Count Ferneste with Captaine Ottaigno, the Sand hill and falce-bray: The gouernour of Dixmuide, the Porcuspine, an other, the West and South Quadrants, and the North Raue­lin: and Count Bucquoy with two thousand men was to assault on euerie side, Count Triuulcio, Alonzo d'Avalos, and other troops were readie to helpe and second those that should stand in need, the cauallier likewise hauing an eye euerie where.

The Archdukes felfe stood behinde the batterie of the key, and the Infanta was in Isabellas fort.

This thus appointed, a certaine Italian whose lot was to bee one of the first that should giue the assault, fearing the daunger, swam ouer the hauen by night with his sword in his mouth, and declared to generall Vere the enemies resolution concerning the assault, whereunto he gaue the more credit, because the precedent day and night their ordnance had without intermission plaid vp­on the towne: so as he gaue order for defence, fortifying all pla­ces, transporting the ordnance, and planting seuen great morters at the entrance of the hauen, charged with stones and musket shot, commaunding his men carefully to doe their duties, and not bee too hastie in shooting, but to do it opportunely.

¶ A Description of the fierce and bloudie assault made vpon the old towne of Ostend and other forts on the se­uenth of Ianuarie 1602.

AFter that the Archduke on the seuenth of Ianuarie, had with his ordnance all the day long, plaied vpon the Sand hill, and places neere to Helmont, the Porcuspine, and others, from his two batteries, namely, that beneath the downes vpon the ca­uallier, [Page 318] and the other to the Southward with eighteene great Ca­non, carying bullets of fortie and fiftie pound weight, beside his battery on the East side: about 6 of the clock in the euening when it was low water, hee enforced his foot men to giue a furious as­sault, causing his cauallery to push them forward.

First with great noyce they assailed the old towne whereinto they came, along by the Western hauen, beginning at the Sand hill, and so going on with many light ladders and bridges for assault, which they carried with them to skale the towne; for the pallizadoes which were wont to bee there, were all burnt.

This assault was so fierce, and made by so many troops in sundrie places at once, as it seemed they would haue taken the towne, and made passage through a wall of steele: But Gene­rall Vere who had an eye to euerie place, together with his bro­ther Horatio, who was neere him with a gallant troope of choice souldiers to second and relieue where need should bee, mar­ched ouer the mines to the falce-bray, where with great cries he assailed the Archdukes troopes, whom hee thrice repulsed, for as often as they came on with fresh men, so often did hee beat them off, their shot and pikes doing them small good a­gainst the English, who at euery time made hauock among them with their short swords.

It cannot be denied but that the Archdukes souldiers did verie valiantly behaue themselues, assailing their enemies on euerie side without feare, but their comming beeing knowne and ex­pected, they receiued such entertainment, as they had soone their bellies full; for they in the towne had their cates readie, which so soone as the enemies tasted, many of them could ne­uer digest: all places were so well fortified, as their condition here would haue resembled that of their fellowes in the halfe moon on the further side of the Gullet, if they had become masters of the place. The assault on the East side was giuen very neere 2 houres too late, so as the tide began to rise, which did not a little terrifie them, perceiuing that if they staid there any longer they could not be relieued, whereupon, they retired, & in their retreat a great slaughter was made, for our men with great and small shot which could not misse, thundred among them. The Archduks sol­diers gaue the like assault to the Bulwarks of Helmont, the Por­cuspine and all other trenches belonging to the English wherein [Page 319] few men were, which the Generall had done of purpose so as they were easily taken: but within a while after, forces beeing sent from the towne, namely from the Polder and Southren bul­warks with their Rauelins, and the enemie perceiuing they could not that way gaine any accesse into the towne, forsooke those forts againe, setting fire on the corps de gard. Generall Vere had caused two double canon to bee planted on the flanquers of the West gate, beside the seuen which were there alreadie, the which with others, scoured the Sand hill and West Rauelin where the assault was giuen, being charged with chaine shot, nailes, and bags full of musket bullets, which could not misse the enemie [...]; on whom they fell as thicke as haile, and made a terrible slaughter, the crie beeing so great among those that were hurt, as the liuing and dead fell in heapes one vpon an other. In the hottest of the assault as the tide was risen, Generall Vere vnstopt the Sluces, the more to terrifie the enemies, who saw pale death on euerie side before their eyes, which hee considering, would not omit that occa­sion, but with his troops so furiously assailed them, as hee did wholy put them to rout taking all the enemies ladders, brid­ges of assault, and other warlike engines, leauing all places neere to the Sand hill, as farre as the old Church, and round about the Porcuspine, the Westren Rauelin, and the Eng­lish trenches, filled with dead bodies: the number of those that were slaine by the Canon and smal shot was very great, and no lesse was that of those that were drowned in the Sea, for many of them were taken vp beyond Callais in France, and in Zea­land, where they were stript: the booty was verie great, both in monie, garments, and faire armor, and among other a Spanish woman was found in mans apparrell who had been at the assault, as appeared by hir wounds; shee lay at the foot of the Sand hill, vnder hir garments shee had a chaine of gold, inriched with pre­tious stones, beside other iewels and monie.

The Archduke during the assault was in person behind his batteries vpon the Caualliers. Those which assaulted the towne had brought victuals with them for two or three daies, (though in vaine) and made all manner of prouisions for intrenchment, if their attempt had prospered, they had likewise brought sixe bar­rels of powder to the Rauelin of the Porcuspine, to vndermine the towne, but they were soone enforced to abandon all, for the [Page 320] besieged had of set purpose dismounted the ordnance on the falce-bray, and porcuspine, because the enemie should not vse them to the townes detriment.

The assault beginning on euerie side, the Archdukes men were gotten on the West side beyond the Gullet, hauing many bridges on which to passe ouer at their pleasure, and to assault the old towne likewise on that side. There was great likelihoode that thi [...] assault would haue had good successe, considering the great num­ber of those that might haue seconded, whom the besieged could not haue well resisted, had it not beene preuented by one that went and yeelded to the enemie, and likewise by the rising of the tide, this reuolted fellowe ranne forth of the halfe moone, and told them that there were but fortie men in it, offering to conduct them thither, and to giue them entrance, which hee did, so as they easily tooke it, not considering that their aduerse party had done it of purpose, to diuide their enemies forces, the better to bee a­ble to defend the most dangerous places where the assault should bee g [...]uen, being well assured that they could with more ease re­couer the said place, than the enemy take it.

The said halfe moone being taken, and many men placed in it, they presently began to intrench themselues with spades and mat­tocks which they had brought with them for that purpose, but all their labour and diligence was in vaine. For the ordnance and small shot from the South side, and Spanish bulwarke, fel so thick vpon them, as heads, armes, and leggs, flew euerie where, and per­ceiuing that the Sea might inclose them, they grew fearefull, which the Generall considering, sent Captaine Day thither, who with great cries fiercely assailed them and with much effusion of bloud draue them thence, so as the next day, aboue three hun­dred dead bodies were found in the said halfe moone, beside those that were hurt and drowned. In this generall assault which continued two houres; the Archduke lost in all aboue two thou­sand men, for in the fury no man was spared, notwithstanding hee cried out, take me prisoner, I am an Ensigne, Lieutenant, or Captaine, one promising an hundred, an other, two, three, foure, fiue, yea sixe hundred crownes to haue their liues saued, but it was to no purpose, for none were spared during the fight, but af­terwards, the heat beeing past, many were taken prisoners, and great numbers of them brought into Ostend. Verie few of our [Page 321] men were slaine, and in all but thirtie or fortie, and some one hundred hurt: these Captaines were slaine, Captaine Haeften, and Captaine Nicholas de Leur, a lieutenant of Saint Andrews fort, two English lieutenants, one Ensigne, two of Captaine Haeftens Sergeants, one of Generall Vere his gentlemen, and Sir Horatio Vere was shot in the leg. There died of the enemies commaun­ders, Count Imbec an Italian who was verie rich, and had three hundred pistolets to spend euery day, hee promised to giue as much gold for his ransome as his bodie weighed, but a common souldier slew him with a poniard, Don Durago campe master, the Sergeant Major generall who had been hostage at Ostend, the go­uernor of Antuerps lieutenant, Colonell Lewis Gambaliotta, D. Alvaro Strugas knight of Malta, Monsieur de la Tour, lieutenant to Count Bucquoy, D. Pedro de Velasco, Lewis de la Villa verde were sore wounded. His Highnes sent a Drum, crauing leaue to suruey the dead, who had foure hours granted him.

The commaunders which conducted the souldiers to the as­sault on the seuenth of Ianuarie 1602, were Count Ferneste an I­talian, commaunding 2000 of his countrie men who were to as­sault the Sand hill; Count Bucquoy on the West side of the Gul­let with two thousand men, assailing the Eastern Rauelin, but the tide being risen verie high, hee assaulted the halfe moone beyond the Gullet, from whence he was brauely repulsed.

The Gouernor of Dixmuide, at the Porcuspine with two thou­sand men, from whence hee was likewise repulsed, besides an o­ther Captaine with fiue hundred men on the West Rauelin, who was also beaten thence. An other Captain with fiue hundred men on the South Quadrant, who did nothing. The Sergeant Major with one thousand men on the West Quadrant, who was likewise repulsed.

After this, because the prisoners said that the enemie would the next day giue an other assault, Generall Vere did euerie where fortifie and fence the weakest places. He was likewise told that on the one and twentieth of Ianuarie, the towne should bee againe assaulted by two thousand cuirasses armed at proofe: but it see­meth, because they could get no firme footing on the Sand hill, that therefore it was deferred, as also, because the souldiers began euerie where to mutine, especially the old Spaniards and Itali­ans, by reason of their bad vsage, in being led so to the slaughter, con­trarie [Page 322] to all law of armes, and driuen forward [...]e bruit beasts by the horsemen after the Turkish manner, against the opinion and consent of all the wise and discreet councell of warre; so as it only seemed to be done in despight and brauerie. But the Arch­duke presently caused part of these mutineers to be imprisoned, and hanged vp fortie or fiftie of them, of whom, three were men of note and respect among the souldiers, one of them be­ing an old souldier, said aloud at his execution, that there were foure thousand who would reuenge their death; an hundred and fiftie of them were likewise condemned to the Gallies. The mu­tineers of Isabellas fort were sent to Winocxbergue, without paye, who reduced the whole countrie vnder contribution, pay­ing themselues.

Within a while after, the States of the vnited prouinces, sent more men to Ostend, and furnished the towne with all necessa­ries, notwithstanding the enemies continuall shooting, so as wee can reckon, that from the first day of the siege, which was the fift of Iuly, till Christmasse, one hundred sixtie one thousand and fiue hundred shot had beene made vpon the towne, and halfe as manie from thence. The harme done by the enemies Canon was not onely repaired, but the town thereby made more strong. The Sand hill was so full of bullets as the workemen could not enter the pallizadoes which had iron points, meeting many times with seuen or eight bullets in one hole. It was a verie hard taske to vndermine the towne, by reason that there were so manie tren­ches and fortifications abroade hindring the enemies approches, the Sea did likewise keep them from any long worke: To famish the towne, was likewas impossible; for though the enemie shot on euerie side, yet in one day, twentie, thirtie, yea' fortie boats entred the towne, and they had moreouer an other hauen rea­die, by which they might at all times enter with lesse daunger, and though all the hauens should faile them, yet they might con­tinually bring prouision into the old towne by shallops. After this assault,The Garrison of Ostend chan­ged. the vnited Prouinces, resolued to change the Garri­son of Ostend euerie foure or sixe moneths: so as by little and lit­tle the Lord Frederick of Dorp entred the towne as Gouernour and Collonell, together with William Edmonds the Scottish Colo­nell, with th [...] Colonels, Daniell de Hertaing Lord of Marquette, Barendrecht, the Lords of Dort, and Domervile, with their troops [Page 323] of sundrie nations. These men so fortified the places of the Corps du gards, as the enemie could no more doe such harme as hee was wont, and in that regard, shot not so often into the towne. As these entred, the old Garrison departed thence to re­fresh themselues. Generall Vere went away likewise, and made a journey into England.

The going out and in of these souldiers was seldome done without daunger, and yet sometimes it was not daungerous: as on the seuenteenth of March, when fiue boats entred by night without any harme, notwithstanding, all the enemies shot. The next morning at cleere day light, nineteene boats richly loaden entred: the enemie made one hundred twentie and two shot after them, and those of the towne discharged aboue sixtie shot vpon the enemies Canon and Gabions. Of these nineteene boats, six­teene were touched, but no great hurt done, onely two men were slaine, and seuen hurt. In a word, they entred sometime with daunger, and sometimes without.

In lesse than sixe weekes, one hundred thirtie and sixe boats loaden with all manner of prouision and munition entred the towne. A Sea Captaine called Iohn Adrian Caut, did on the tenth of Februarie bring 60000 pound weight of match, and thirtie bar­rels of powder thither, the like did diuers others, so as the town was prouided for a long time. Great quantitie of fagots and other stuffe was likewise sent thither to defend the towne from the Sea waues.

Souldiers were commonly brought in, in great shallops and by that meanes the old Garrison of English and other nations were caried thence in March.

The Archduke likewise sent for moe men to his Campe, with a firme resolution, according to his directions from Spaine, to continue the siege to the end, because it stood him so much vpon, as the onely meanes to shut vp the hauens of Zealand, and there­by to hinder their fishing and trade, yea, their passage to and fro into England. To effect this, he sent for many Gallies from Spain and Italie conducted by Frederico Spinola and hired mariners from Embden and the East parts, thereby to take the dominion of the Sea from the Hollanders, for it was that which made them able to resist the power of so mightie a Prince: This was a mat­ter of great importance, not only for the king of Spaines repu­tation, [Page 324] but likewise for the Archdukes. Whereupon, he sent for more money from Spaine, and raised certaine sums in the Coun­trie. He likewise sent abroad for skilfull Ingeneers, who were entertained and set on work, not sparing for any cost, & to some of them 100000 crownes were promised. These men made sun­drie new inuentions to choake the Gullets hauen, and to keepe boats from entring, as by making plat-formes and Caualliers whereon to plant the Canon; by filling boats full of stones, and sinking them in the hauen, filling baskets full of sand, and row­ling them into it, they likewise made engins of wood and wicker like to Gabions, which they tearmed Sawsiges, some of them fif­tie foot in length, and eighteene in height, filled with stones and grauell tied together, the which they thought, by helpe of men, to roule into the gullet, and with many of these to build a fort. They likewise tied diuers woodden beames together, and began to make Bulwarkes vpon them, which at a full Sea they intended to haue thrust into the Gullet, and from those bulwarkes to sinke all ships that passed along, with such like other inuentions, deui­sed by skilfull and ingenious men: and in this manner, did euerie day make some new worke or other.

But so soone as the enemie finished such inuentions, those of the town presently deuised remedies against them, either to beat them downe with the canon, to set them on fire, or to keep their work­men from their labour; and when they descried any of these workes, they knew well enough how to plucke them into the Sea, which at an high water carried them cleane away.

The siege continuing, diuers houses and cabins were built in the campe, so as it resembled a new towne, by which meanes the enemie was well lodged: and the campe towards the West, was called the West-eynd.

In continuance of time, the towne was fortified both against the enemies ordnance, waues and tempests of the Sea, yet the e­nemie approched by little and little, the souldiers cabins were re­paired & renewed, the better to preserue them from the plague and other contagious diseases: especially the second yeare of the siege, at what time the plague was verie rife both in the Campe and towne.

The vnited Prouinces, notwithstanding this continuall siege, which did put them to such infinite charge, as our children will [Page 325] hardly beleeue, what masse of treasure hath beene spent there, viz. in extraordinarie expences one hundred thousand florins a moneth, beside the souldiers pay, and how these small and weak Prouinces, haue beene able without extraordinarie meanes to fur­nish such expence, resolued to keepe and defend the towne so long as they could, yea though the siege should continue ma­ny yeares.

The Archduke for continuance of the siege, vsed all possible meanes to get money, and to that end went to Bruxels in winter, and there assembled the States of the Countrie, but those of Brabant would giue no money, vnlesse his Highnesse did first fulfill his promise to satisfie the mutiners of Artois, Hainault, and Luxembourg, saying that they expected the French, so as they of Flaunders onely contributed. Those of Brabant likewise cra­ued to bee disburthened of twentie fiue thousand florins a mo­neth which the champaine Countrie was enforced to giue the Hollanders for their contribution.

¶ An Assault giuen by the Archduke on the thirteenth of April 1603, on the Polder, East, and South Quadrants.

AFter that the Archduke had continually battered the towne all anno 1602, and by his infinite number of shot done great hurt both to it and the forts, slaine many men, and yet neuer the neerer to his purpose, in regard the besieged made such braue resistance.

Hee did againe on the thirteenth of Aprill 1603 giue a furious assault on the Quadrants of the East, South, and Polder, so as he tooke them, in this manner following. The thirteenth of Aprill, the wind was so high, as it caried away the tops of houses, threw down whole buildings, and namely the tower where many were slaine. The enemy laying hold on this occasion, made an assault both on the East and West side with great numbers of men: on the East side, they pluckt vp about 100 stakes forth of the halfe moone, but they were enforced to quit it, for they were beaten backe euen to their Quarter: they came on the West side as far as [Page 326] the Porcuspine whether they brought two barrells of pitch, but they were likewise driuen thence with losse of men.

They did also with great fury full on the Rauelin of the Pol­der, and were likewise enforced to retreat, but they renewed the assault with freshmen, and became masters of all these three places, videlicet, the Quadrants of the East, South, and Pol­der, notwithstanding that a demy Canon and other iron pee­ces lay vpon the Polder Quadrant: in taking these places they inhumanely slew all they met with, the fight lasted some two howers.

The next day about nine of the clocke at night the besieged gaue a fierce assault to the East Quadrant, but were driuen thence with losse of some foure hundred men, among whom were many braue souldiers. But the enemie in these assaults lost aboue one thousand.

Continuall trauell, and resistance made this truce so famous, as it was termed a martiall academie, both for Gouernours, Of­ficers, Captaines, and priuate souldiers, as also for mariners, Pilots, Ingeneers, Phisitians, Surgeons, &c. so as those who had but continued certaine moneths in this schole became masters in in their arts, both for defence and offence.

Skilfull Ingeneers, notwithstanding they had studied a long time in bookes, did confesse that in comparison of practize here, they were but nouices: Phisitians and Surgeons learned more here in a weeke, than elsewhere in a yere.

Pilots and mariners learned here how to guide their vessels to auoid the enemies canon.

Canoneers were taught here how to plant their ordnance to sink ships vnder saile, how to make counter batteries to dismount the enemies Canon, which on both sides consumed infinite num­bers of men.

The sixe first moneths the enemie made aboue two hundred and fiftie thousand shot, shooting bullets of thirtie or fortie pound weight: for all the time the Infanta lay at Newport, if she heard not the repot of the Canon, shee was male-content, and commaunded her Gunners to shoot continually.

The besieged were not much indebted to the enemy, but in the first 20 moneths, discharged 100000 shot, 18000 of the enemies were slaine the first twentie moneths, as well by the ordnance, [Page 327] and extreame cold which they endured the first two▪ winters, as by sallies, sicknesse and miserie. And in the towne sixe or se­uen thousand died, though the number was not well knowne, for sicke and wounded men were sent away: the like did the ene­mie, who sent his to the next townes and hospitals.

Notwithstanding all these batteries, and that many in the town died of the plague, and through want, yet the besieged were vi­sited by their freinds, kinsfolks, wiues and children which came forth of Holland and Zealand and went thither as to a festiuall. Some Captaines brought their wiues and children thither: Gen­tlemen and great Lords came thither from Fraunce and England to see the fortifications,

All the three yeares that the siege continued, the besieged kept the fift of Iuly holieday, beating their caudrons in steed of bels, discharging all their ordnance: and that day a solemne sermon was made, wherein thankes was giuen to God for preseruing them so long a time from their enemies, entreating him still to do the like.

Sundrie sallies and assaults were made, store of fire-works were throwne into the enemies Campe and plat-formes which were made of sagots. Among others a certaine Ingeneer called Pompey the Romain, inuented sundrie meanes to choake the gul­let, but all his labour was to no purpose.

The besieged had made an halfe moone on the farther side of the Gullet to defend the going in and out of the boats, and to keepe them safe in the towne dikes: and the better to skale the said stalfe moone, this Pompey had framed a bridge for assault, mounted on foure great brasen wheels like to a Chariot, on which this bridge was to bee drawne: it bended in the middest and rested on a great mast one hundred and fiftie foot long, whereon this bridge might bee drawne vp and let downe: It was made of Cables and small cords twined together on small masts. The fore part was drawne vp along the mast like a drawe bridge, which being brought neere to the town, they would haue let fall ouerthwart the dikes, vpon the Rampires: this bridge was drawne by forty horses. With this bridge which they termed the luy-wagon, or idle wagon, they thought to haue assaulted the halfe moon beyond the gullet. The besieged perceiuing it to come for­wards, did with their Canon shot break one of the wheels, & be­fore [Page 328] it could be mended, had erected masts vpon the counterscarp of the halfe moone, that when their bridge should bee let fall, it might rest vpon the said masts: this being perceiued by the enemy, he gaue ouer his inuention.

In Iune 1603, D. Rodrigo Lasso came from Spaine and brought newes that Marquis Ambrose Spinola (brother to Ieronimo Spino­la that was slaine in the Gallies before Sluce) had after his brothers death couenanted with the king of Spaine to take vp great sums of money for his Majesties seruice, on certain assurance and con­ditions, viz. to haue the chiefe authoritie and soueraigne com­maund at the siege of Ostend, with ample power from the Arch­duke, and not to bee enuied of the other commaunders in the armie, of-what nation soeuer.

The said Marquis beeing come into the low Countries with this commission, vndertooke the charge, and presenly reformed many matters, deposing sundrie officers, placing others in their steds, carefully prouiding monie, and setting diuers skilful Inge­neers on work, by whose help he hoped to take the towne: for the besieged had long since lost all their fortifications and workes a­broad. The Marquis presently caused mynes to bee made, and assaults to be giuen.

The Sea and high tides caused by a North-east wind which blew on the first day of March, did great harme, spoiling and carying away the mines, trenches, and conterscarps.

The besieged, though they dayly receiued supplies of men and other necessaries, yet the sixe last moneths they were mightily annoyed by the continuall batteries, and sustained great losse: for after Collonell Huchtenbroeck, the Lord of Gystels, the Gouer­nour, beeing slaine in March, who was a braue and valiant gentleman, and much lamented, Colonell Loon succeeded him, who within a while after was likewise slaine, and after him many other Captaines which had the chiefe commaund, next, Colonel Berendrecht, whom Colonell Vtenhove succeeded, and left the towne beeing hurt. At last when the towne had been a long time without Gouernour, the Lord of Marquet was sent thither on the tenth of Iune 1604, hee was the last Gouernour there. Dauid of Orleance the Ingeneer was shot in the towne, and went his way into Holland to bee healed. But master Rafe Dexter the Englisman, a valiant and skilfull person taried there still. This [Page 329] change of gouernours hindred the prosperous successe of many matters: their good Decrees being not well obserued: some of which, we will here set downe. It was decreed, for preuenting controuersies betwixt victuallers, That no wares or victuals should be sold till they had first continued foure and twentie houres in the Market place. All souldiers were likewise forbid­den to play at Dice or Cardes, on paine of eight daies imprison­ment, and fasting with bread and water. No officer might come vpon the gard being drunke, on payne of loosing his place and armes: because that many souldiers went to the enemie, the townesmen offered fiftie crownes to him that could bring in such an one either aliue or dead. The enemies, in regard diuers of their men came to our side, caused their horsemen to keepe continuall gard, yet it was to no purpose at all. In Aprill, May, and Iune, Mar­quis Spinola vsed all speedie meanes to take the Towne, that he might goe and relieue Sluce, sparing neither men nor money. A­mong others, Captaine Catrice was slaine, he was a man of great experience in martiall affaires: diuers other commaunders, Colo­nels and Captaines, were likewise slayne: they also tooke the Porcuspine, and approached daily by assaults and Mynes.

The twelfth of Iune, Spinola blew vp a Myne neere to the Pol­der Bulwarke, which buried many of his men aliue: thereupon, he gaue an assault, wherein certaine hundreds of his men were slayne, and some fortie or fiftie of the besieged. The sixteenth of Iune, the besieged made a fierce sallie vpon the Pioners, & draue them away. Diuers other assaults, Mynes, and sallies were made that Summer, by meanes whereof, they came at last euen to the Dikes; they likewise stopt vp the old hauen with Fagots. In Au­gust, they vndermyned the Sand hill, and approached the other Bulwarkes, by means of their platformes, from whence they shot fiercely. In the end, Spinola resolued, in September, to assault the chiefe Bulwarke the Sand hill, and finding the Spaniards and I­talians vnwilling to march, in regard of the daunger they had before beene in, he resolued to make vse of the Almans, promising them great rewards: and though Mynes were made on both sides, yet he was desirous to get the Sand hill: whereupon, he gaue an assault by part of the Almans of the regiments of Biglia and Bar­laymont, and as those that went formost were blowne vp into the ayre by the Townes Mynes, and they that followed retiring, [Page 330] thereupon, hee enforced them to march againe to the charge, say­ing, that there were no more mines, which they found to be true, and so without any resistance took the Sand hill, and highly re­compenced the Almains: hee vsed like meanes against the other forts, for all the besiegeds defence consisted in sallies wherby they often draue the enemies forth of those places they had got­ten.

The besieged, by meanes of their Ingeneers, and by Rafe Dexter the English man who had a long time serued in these coun­tries, had behind the bulwarks of the Sand hill and Helmont, made a new Sand hill and Helmont: which done, they diuided the towne in the middest, with bulwarks and flankeers a thwart the towne; and behind it, they likewise intrenched more than a quarter of it, towards the Gullet and new hauen, with bulwarks and flankeers, for their latest retreat, naming that place new Troy, hoping still to hold out for a time.

But all these new works being not stedfast and firme, could not long resist the Canon: for the enemie had alreadie brought his ordnance vpon the Rampiers and battered the new town.

Whereupon, the besieged perceiuing that the Sand hill was lost, and that the enemie vndermined the towne neere to the old Church, and that it was likely that high tides with an North-east wind would do much hurt, because the old towne was their best defence against the Sea, they aduertized the Generall States, and Prince Maurice, (who were assembled at Sluce) of their conditi­on. Their Lordships and his Excellencie, considering that by the conquest of Sluce and other places, they had now gotten footing in Flaunders, and thereby were able to inuade the enemie in his owne Countrie, which they had a long time desired, and that now Ostend would stand them in no great steed, it beeing enuironed and blockt vp with so many of the enemies forts, and also a place from whence the Archduke could not annoy them, and might ea­sily bee by them recouered, so long as they were Lords at Sea: These and such like reasons beeing well weighed: The States gaue authoritie and leaue to the Lord of Marquet Gouernour of Ostend, to capitulate with the enemie for his most aduantage, seing themselues were out of feare of the Archdukes forces be­fore Sluce that winter.

Thereupon, the Lord of Marquet with his Councell of war, [Page 331] fearing least winter would impaire his composition, began to ship away his ordnance, munition, remainder of victuals; and all those whom he supposed might haue hindred the treatie, as, Prea­chers, Ingeneers, Gunners, &c. Then hee sent two Captaines forth of the town to treat with the Marquis about surrendring it, the enemie likewise sending two hostages into the towne.

At last on the twentieth of September 1604, after much con­testation about the ensuing articles, the accord was made betwixt Marquis Spinola in name of their highnesses on the one side, and the Lord Gouernour, Colonels, and Captaines in Ostend, on the other.

FIrst that all Church men with their goods and mouables may freely and without impediment depart thence.

2 That the Gouernour, Colonels, Captaines, and souldiers, of what qualitie or condition soeuer, as well within the towne, as abroad in the forts, the Captaines of ships of war, with their officers, mariners and souldiers may freely depart with all their vessells loaden, or otherwise, to Flushing, with all their armes, ensignes displaied, drumes beating, match in cocke, and bullets in the mouthes, together with all their baggage: and if they shall want boats for transporting their baggage and hurt men, time shall bee graunted them to procure such, according as wind and wea­ther will permit, which boats shall likewise freely returne.

3 That the said Gouernour, Colonels, Captaines, and souldiers may take four peece of ordnance with them and no more, without any pow­der: And to this end for better assurance of his Highnesse, Captaine Wingaert Lieutenant of the ordnance, shall make a reuiew thereof, not vnloading any of the boats in the hauen. And for conduct of the said boats, the Master of the ordnance, Gentlemen, Conductors, Gunners, Carpenters, Pioners, horse, and whatsoeuer depends thereon, shall freely depart.

4 All Officers and Commissaries, which haue managed accounts and souldiers pay, & others, may freely depart with the goods, armour, horse, and other things belonging to their office.

5 That all Commissaries of victuals, and other the States Officers, may do the like.

6 That the two Captaines Lantscroone and Gystels that were pri­soners, with all other Officers and souldiers shall be freely released: as likewise all Captaines, Officers, and souldiers belonging to his Highnesse, [Page 332] who are prisoners in Ostend: Alwayes prouided, that the prisoners on either side, shall pay their costs and charges.

7 That all Burghers, victuallers, and others, in pay or out of pay, may likewise freely depart, with their armes, mouables, boats, and baggage.

8 That the said Gouernour, Colonels, and Captaines, shall this present day deliuer vp to such as the Marquis shall appoint, all the old towne, with the small plat-formes, called Moyses Table, and foure hostages, in whose stead the said Gouernour, Captaines, and Colonels, shall retaine those whom they haue alreadie.

9 The said Gouernour, Colonels, Captaines, souldiers, and officers, are all of them bound to depart on the two and twentieth of this moneth, be­cause it is not possible for them to doe it sooner, by reason of foule wea­ther; as for sicke and hurt men, they may follow after with the bag­gage.

10 If, by reason of a contrarie wind, the Gouernour, Colonels, Cap­taines and souldiers, can not depart at the time appointed, they shall then be bound to goe their way by land, and to that end, such wagons as are needfull, shall be lent them.

11 And for securitie of their persons and boats, if foule weather should happen to delay their departure, yet, that this Article may not be infrin­ged, hostages shall be giuen them for their Highnesses, who when the boats shall depart, shall be safely sent backe to Ostend; as also, those Ho­stages giuen by the Gouernour, Colonels, and Captaines, to his Highnesse, shall remaine as caution for the aboue said wagons till their returne, and shall afterwards be sent safely to Sluce.

In this manner did the famous siege of Ostend, breake vp, which continued three yeres and fourescore daies; a siege which will be spoken of so long as the world lasteth, and will seeme in­credible to after ages.

The accord thus made, the enemie entred the old towne, and our men into their intrenched workes called New Troy, till the two and twentieth of September, and then they went away by land, according to the capitulation, crossing the gullets, in sloops and Ferrie-boats. Gouernour Marquette, the Colonels, Captaines, and others, were by Marquis Spinola inuited to a banquet, whilest the troops were putting themselues in order to march. They went along the Sea side, after this manner, the French led the Vaunt­gard, the Dutch, the battaile, and the English and Scots, the rere­ward, they were in number three thousand, all lustie, & able men; [Page 333] they caried foure peece of ordnance with them towards Blanc­kenberg and the next morning arriued at the camp, where Prince Maurice and all the Lords did courteously welcome them, taking them by the hand, saluting them all as they rode through the troops, thanking them for their faithfull seruice done to the com­monwealth: Then, their Quarter was appointed where they should rest, the captaines, officers, and braue souldiers being pre­ferred to good places, and largely recompenced.

Most of the Burghers likewise went their way to Sluce: The Baylie of Ostend, was made Baylie of Sluce, and none taried in Ostend, but a few old people.

Diuers notes were found of the number of those that died at this siege: one of Spinolas souldiers that was slaine before Sluce, had a note about him, of all the colonels, captaines, officers, and souldiers which died before Ostend. An Alman gentleman that was at Ostend, saith, that during the siege, there died 15 Colonels, seuen Marshals of the camp, 19 Sergeant Majors, 560 Captaines, 322 Enseignes, 4911 Sergeants, 1166 Lieutenants, 9166 Corporals, 56366 souldiers, six thousand and eleuen Mariners, one thousand one hundred nintie sixe women and children, amounting in all to 76961. All these died, from the beginning of the siege, to the last of Iuly, 1604, not accounting those that died since. This num­ber is great and incredible: vnto which, the sick and wounded, which were sent abroad to the Hospitals may be added.

Some haue likewise set downe the number of the besieged which was verie great, but I think it impossible, truely to number them, for those that were sicke or hurt were presently sent away; but the number of the enemies was far greater, yet the besieged had more plentie of all things, & endured lesse miserie than the Arch­dukes souldiers, who lay 3 whole winters, in so cold and moist a place, and therefore it is likely that very many of all nations died there. Ostend was afterwards visited by diuers men of all sorts, who found it an heap of stonss & sand, there were few houses, but many cabins, much munition, and some 11 peece of ordnance which were vnseruiceable, with certain morters and other engins, and an infinite number of bullets.

The Archdukes went thither to see the town, which they won­derfully admired, & perceiued, that they had spent & consumed, huge sums of money, time, and men, onely to wyn an heape of [Page 334] sand, and finding it ruinous and inhabitable, they gaue order to haue it repayred.

From thence their Highnesses went in pilgrimage to our Ladies neere Dunkerke, to whom many attributed the victo­rie: they gaue order that the houses and Church should bee reedified, and the towne fenced against the waues of the Sea: and the better to drawe people to dwell there, they gaue great priuiledges and immunities to it, but the first yeare fewe came thither: and at this day, they haue neither fishing nor naui­gation.

¶ A description of the Generall States armie marching through the Dutchie of Brabant, vnder conduct of Prince Maurice of Nassau in Anno 1602.

THe Estates generall of the vnited Prouinces together with his Excellencie Prince Maurice of Nassau, considering that the Archduke of Austria went about by all meanes to reen­force his troopes which hee alreadie had in the low Countries with a new and mightie armie from Italy, and with it, not only to continue the siege of Ostend, but to inuade the said vnited Prouinces; were likewise desirous for their parts, to shew their fatherly care aswell for defence of their owne subiects, as for a­bating the pride of the haughtie Spaniards, and preuenting all his determinations, did, in the beginning of Iune 1602, with great expence, set forth a gallant armie of horse and foot, which on the 17 of the said moneth passed master at Elten in the Isle of S Gravenweert, at Pauderen, and places neere adioining; it con­sisted of more then 5000 horse and 18000 foot, with 1930 wagons, not accompting those of victuallers, & 6047 horse of draught. Ge­neral fasts & praiers being made ouer the whole countrie, the ar­my crossed the Rhyn & Waell vpon two bridges made ouer those riuers, and marched towards Nimmeguen, and from thence to Moocke, where his Excellencie, as Generall of the army, caused some of his troops to passe the Mase, and the same night reposed [Page 335] his armie at Moock, from whence without any stop, hee passed his forces ouer the Mase, and lodged at little Linden, brauely determining to go and seeke the enemy, and to offer him battaile, who had alreadie receiued his Italian forces; and if God should grant him the victorie, hee then hoped to bee able to relieue O­stend, which had beene besieged eleuen moneths, or at least, if hee could not sitly meet with him, yet to dare him, who seemed to desire nothing more than to meet with his Excellencie vpon his owne territories, to reuenge his losse at the battaile of Niew­port in Flaunders.

The whole armie beeing in Brabant, the Generall States of the vnited Prouinces, made a declaration and caused it to be printed, wherein they shewed the causes why they had prepared this ar­my: the effect whereof was thus.

For as much as the Generall States of the vnited Netherland Prouinces,The States let­ters for contri­butions. haue by Gods grace, and assistance of Princes and and Potentates their friends, done their vtmost, for the seri­ous aduancement and profit of the Netherlands this present yere, to free them wholy from the tyrannie of the Spainards and their adherents. And because it is iust and reasonable that all pro­uinces, townes, villages, parishes, and inhabitants of the low Countries, that groane vnder the Spanish yoak, should presently aide and assist them: In that regard, the administrators of N. N. are intreated and warned for the first and last time, to deliuer within three daies after sight hereof, into the hands of the depu­tie of the receiuer Generall of the vnited Prouinces resident in our armie, the summe of N. N. in abatement of the contributi­ons, wherewith they haue been and still are charged, for the free­dome of the low Countries: vpon sight hereof, the said admi­nistrators shall send two hostages into our camp for the said paie­ment, with commission to treat with our commissioners as wel in regard of reasonable contributions, as for their owne defence, that they be not molested by our souldiers; wherein, these pre­sents shall serue for their safegard and passeport: otherwise, for de­fault of accomplishing the tenor of these presents, we will therin proceed (which we shall be verie sorie to doe) by way of armes.

Giuen in the assemblie of the said Lords generall States at the Hague, the 7 of Iuly 1602. Here de Hotting a vidit, and subsigned C. Aerssens.

[Page 336]The said Lords did likewise cause this ensuing placard or in­scription to bee printed, that the Countries might seriously looke to what they were to doe.

To the high, illustrious, honorable, noble, learned, wise, and dis­creet Lords, good freinds and neighbours, the Prelats, Princes, Earls, Lords, Gentlemen, and Cities of Brabant, Flaunders, Artois, Hainalt, Valenciennes, Lisle, Douay, Orchies, Namur, Tournay, Tournesis and Malines, representing the bodie of the Netherlands, vnder the Spanish, or Archdukes gouernment: To all of them in generall, and to euery of them in particular.

MY Lords, wee doubt not but that your Excellencies do still remember, the louing remonstrances and exhortations which we haue often made vnto you, wherein we intreated you maturely to consider, and well weigh the determination and end of the Spaniards and their adherents, enemies to the State, lawes, priuiledges, goods, and persons of the Netherlands, viz. their originall, and rooted determination, which is so base and hurtfull, as it wholy tends to the entire ruine of the Inhabitants of these Countries. We know very well (notwithstanding that the said determination is likewise among you held indubitable) that some of your Excellencies, haue beene drawne thereunto, partly by your owne good natures, and partly by persuasions, that matters might bee redressed and amended, by meanes of the Archdukes and presence of their Highnesses. But because we are well assured of the Spaniards and their adherents continuance in their determination for ruine of the Netherlands, and subiecting them for euer to the Spanish yoake, that they might beare rule ouer the consciences, bodies, lawes, and goods of the inhabi­tants thereof, and that the Archduke can no way helpe it; this is the reason why wee cannot bee of your opinion. And not to pre­cipitate your Excellencies nor our selues, into a certaine, continu­all, and irreparable ruine, we haue found out this to be the best remedie, still to continue, with a constant courage in the lauda­ble resolution taken from the beginning by the chiefe persons and members of the whole Netherlands, of all estates and con­ditions: and beeing assured of the aide and assistance of God, and that of Kings, Princes, and Republiks with whom wee are [Page 337] in league, as also on the equitie of our cause, wee doe patiently ex­pect good successe, especially by your Excellencies directions and discreet gouernment,, and will voluntarily vndergoe all dif­ficulties, daungers and expences requisite for maintenance of so holie, commendable, honourable, and necessarie resolution. Nor can the base and deceitfull conueyance of the low Countries, made to their Highnesses, euer moue vs to any alteration: we ha­uing in that regard, after the said conueyance, seriously by letters and word of mouth conferring with your commissioners, reque­sted and exhorted your Excellencies to bee carefull on your side for the managing and gouernment of affaires of State and war, both within and without the Countrie: wee are well assured, that if it bee duely considered, and not with a passionate spirit, that none will iudge otherwise, but that the said deceitfull conuey­ance doth vndoubtedly tend to the assured ruine of all the Ne­therlands and the inhabitants thereof. Your Excellencies doe perceiue, vnderstand, and effectually feele what is past, and may easily iudge of that which is still likely to ensue, so as wee think it needlesse to writ more amply vnto you of it: onely we louing­ly intreat, exhort, and earnestly request your Excellencies to re­member the laudable reputation purchased by your predecessors certaine hundreds of yeares past, which they haue left vnto vs as a rule, which is, to bee Protectors and defendors of the liber­ties and lawes of the Netherlands in common, and of the mem­bers, townes, and inhabitants thereof in particular; and to con­sider whether the contents of the said idle and vnworthie con­ueyance, and of the treatie which ensued it, doth agree with the duetie, wherewith your Excellencies are tied, to your houses, e­states, posteritie, and especially to your Countrie. Yf so, (which wee by no meanes think) wee will pray vnto God to enlighten your Excellencies, and to giue you a better and cleerer iudge­ment: But if your Excellencies perceiue that the said pretended conueyance (made for necessitie, and to auoide a greater mis­chiefe) bee deceitfull and dishonorable, and as an infamous blot to the Netherlands: if likewise yee vnderstand that the Spaniards and their adherents proceedings which haue ensued thereupon, and are till now growne from bad to worse, both in affaires of state and war (as wee know that the most of your Excellencies do) are preiudicious and intollerable; and so by consequence your [Page 338] Excellencies are not bound and tied to them, as repugnant to the common good, the lawes and priuiledges of the Netherlands. If your Excellencies doe likewise consider, that all forcible extre­mities, all prohibitions of trade and commerce, all deuises and practises to entangle the Majestie of England and the vnited pro­uinces, doe more and more come to light, and are not onely re­pugnant to this resolution, but bring forth cleane contrarie ef­fects: That the treacherous attempts on the Townes and Castles of the French king, giue great occasion to take speedie reuenge: That libels and rimes (wherewith they seeke to make the French King and his affaires odious to the common people; and call in question the rightfull successions of the Crownes of France and England) are but vain propositions, only tending to incense their Majesties; and that they goe about in vain to raise tumult & sedi­tion amongst the people of the Low-countries, considering that whilest they are at quiet, and liue vnder obedience, their condi­tion (thanks be to God) is an hundred times better and more safe than that of the common people vnder the king of Spaine, and Archdukes; and that they haue no occasion to distrust their lawfull superiors or their actions: but on the contrarie, the Spa­niards, and Archdukes subjects (perceiuing that all their affaires doe daily impaire) that the authoritie of the States, Prelats, Prin­ces, Lords, Gentlemen, and townes of the Prouinces both in ge­neral and particular are without any respect trodden vnder-foot: that they defend themselues onely with strangers in contempt of all good Patriots: and that, not onely in the chiefe garrisons, townes and forts, but generally in all matters (some few excep­ted) they seeme to proceed formally and in apparence, the which without all question they will soone leaue off, if they were once absolute Lords; so that the Prouinces and people should not be onely without trade, wealth, and nauigation, but euen the third part of the Inhabitants would bee depriued of necessarie meanes to liue, the chiefe cities made Doue-coats, the Countrie villages ruined, and the people eaten and consumed to the verie bones by souldiers, who are so badly payed, as mutinie in one place is no sooner quieted, but two worse than it breakes forth in ano­ther; so as it is to be feared, that in the end all will become des­perate. In which regard, we intreat your Excellencies, effectual­ly to embrace the necessarie remedies, and so to handle the mat­ter, [Page 339] as their Highnesses may be persuaded to depart from the Ne­therlands, and to procure themselues a more quiet and certaine portion: for then it will be no hard matter for your Excellencies and vs, to cause the Spaniards, and other straungers to fol­low them, and to enforce the greatest parts of their adhe­rents, to become true Patriots and Countriemen. If any shall herein propound some impossibilitie, how that your Excellen­cies cannot safely take this course, let it please you to beleeue the contrarie, videlicet, that if your Excellencies for sixe moneths will assist vs with as much money, as the moytie of the auntient and ordinarie taxation of Brabant, Flaunders, Artois, Haynault, Va­lenciennes, Lislie, Douay, Orches, Tournesis, Tournay and M [...] ­lines amounts vnto, and to lie still your selues, respecting thei [...] Highnesses, or else to joyne with vs, which we leaue to your Ex­cellencies choice and pleasure, we hope, by Gods helpe, to bri [...]g things to such passe, as your Excellencies shall judge that there is likelihood of good successe. And seeing that many honest people, dare not set themselues forward, but are in diuers points irreso­lute, your Excellencies shal giue such directions, both for gouern­ment, and matters of Religion, as ye shall thinke fit and most ex­pedient; and yee are not to suppose, but to bee well assured that we will not attempt to doe any thing to the contrarie. Your Ex­cellencies may likewise be assured that in an action so necessarie, laudable and honorable, neither your selues or vs, shall want the ayd and assistance of our neighbours Kings, Princes, and com­mon wealthes. In which regard, wee once againe entreat your Excellencies, to forget all passion, suspition, and bad conceits, and with vs to embrace this present occasion, as the onely meanes to settle the Low-Countries in their auntient glorie, prosperitie, peace, and quiet; not depending on pretended new forces, which cannot but cause great ruine and miserie. If otherwise, we foresee, that miseries and mischiefes will grow greater than euer hereto­fore, from which, before the whole world wee will cleare our selues.

Whereupon, we beseech God, high, illustrious, honorable, noble, magnificent, learned, wise, and discreet Lords, friends, and neighbours, to inspire your Excellencies, with a desire ten­ding to the common good of the Netherland Prouinces, and prosperity of the true and honest Inhabitants thereof.

[Page 340]
signed by Hero de Hottinga, and vnderneath, The true freinds and neighbours of your Excellencies, The generall States of the vnited Netherland Prouinces. By their appointment, signed by C. Aerssens.

So soone as all things which were thought necessarie for this armie were speedily prepared, and that certaine Lords of the Generall States, and councell of State, were appointed to bee present with his Excellencie, to assist him in all matters which might happen in the armie, videlicet, from Holland the Burgo­master of Alcmaer whose name was Gerard Coorn: from Zealand, Albertus Ioachimi, counsellor and pentioner of Tergoes: from Vtrecht, Gerard de Renesse Lord of Vander Aa: from Frizeland, Iulius Essinga, and from Ouer-yssell Otto Roeck. The armie was diuided into three troops: The first was that of his Excellencie, conducted by Count Ernest of Nassau, which commonly mar­ched in the left wing: the second, by Count William of Nassau gouernour of Frizeland and Groeningue with whom was Count Henry of Nassau his Excellencies brother, who vsually marched in the middle or battaile: The third by Sir Francis Vere Generall of the English Regiments, who led the right wing. The horse­men were conducted by Count Lodwick of Nassau Generall of the cauallery, and with him the Lord Gray, who were likewise diuided into three troops, each of which neere to one of the foot troops. The wagons and carts were also diuided into three parts, (the ordnance excepted) being twelue demy canons and three field peeces.

The three and twentieth of Iune the Campe departed from a place called Little Linden, and marched in the foresaid order not one behind an other, but close together, being sometime sepera­ted halfe an houres iourney from one an other, and sometimes lesse, and was quartered the same day at Sambeer, Mullem, and Oploo.

The foure and twentieth at Bleyterwick, Meerle, and Venroy: the fiue and twentieth, at Baecken neere to Venlo, Brey and Ze­uenum: the sixe and twentieth, at Bingenum neere to Remunde, Baxen and Heilhuyse: the seuen and twentieth, at Aldeneyck [Page 341] neere to Masieres, Gestinghen, and Ophouen. The Reader may consider that by the first mentioned places, are meant the quarters of his Excellencies troop, the second of Count William, and the third of Generall Vere.

The eight and twentieth, nine and twentieth, and thirtieth of Iune, and first of Iuly, the whole campe remained in the said places, setting vp mills to grind, and ouens to bake, and making other prouision in the towne of Masieres. The second of Iuly, the armie marched in the same order, and quartred at Lent and thereabout. The 3 day, (leauing Mastricht on the left hand) at Gellick, Moperdingen, and Eygenbilsen.

The fourth at S. Heeren-Elderen, Heins, and neere to Ton­gren, where it staied.

The fift and sixt at Gelmen, Hopperdingen and Rijckel, neere S. Torns: the seuenth, all the troops lodged together at Halmael neere S. Trons.

The Archduke hauing assembled his armie beyond the towne of Thyenen, vnder conduct of the Admerall of Arragon, at a place called Hackelduyuel, entrenched and fortified his campe with Rampiers and Bulwarks well fenced with ordnance.

His Excellencie on the eight of Iuly, with a great part of his horse and foot (leauing the rest in armes together with the wa­gons and baggage at Halmael) crossed a small riuer called Dor­maele, and a village in Brabant called Nerelant, leauing Louayn on the right hand, and went euen in sight of the enemies campe, sending some of his horsemen to a little riuer called the Gete, not far from the enemies Campe, to view and to trie whether there were any likelyhood to draw him from his place of aduantage to battaile. But perceiuing that hee did not stir, his Excellencie and men after some stay on an high place, hauing shewed them­selues to the enemie, returned to his Campe at Halmaell, where hee continued the ninth day, the enemie not once comming a­broad: and want of victualls enforcing his Excel. to abide there no longer, and perceiuing that the enemie was strongly intren­ched, hauing with them certaine Italian troops newly arriued, a­mounting in all to the number of 20 thousand men, together with 18 peece of ordnance, he resolued to do that which should be most commodious for himselfe; the difficulties of the passages and bad waies were propounded, the number of wagons beeing verie [Page 342] great, and the labour to iourney greater with such a cariage.

They found the townes and villages of the countrie of Liege verie vnwilling to giue them bread for money, and there were so many men and horse in the armie as sufficient forrage could not bee found for them; corne could not bee ripe in a fortnight or three weeks: they came likewise too late to hinder the Italians from ioining with the Admerall: whereupon they resolued to besiege some towne of importance: some propounded An­tuerpe, but their necessarie prouisions were not readie for such an attempt. In the end they resolued to turne backe and besiege the towne of Graue, and there to attend the Admeralls armie. Thereupon, his Excellencie departed the next day beeing the tenth of the said moneth, in the selfe same order as before, to­wards Aix, and places neere adioining. The heate of that day was so intollerable, as many souldiers (though the iournies were not long) died of faintnesse by the way, and others were so weake as they were enforced to tarrie behind, yet in the coole of the euening they came to the camp, the enemie in all the march gi­uing no alarmes to our men either by day or night.

The 11 day, the heate continued, so as his Excellencie stirred not that day, but refreshed his armie.

The 12, the armie lodged vpon the heath before the towne of Hasselt.

The thirteenth, at Helchteren, the fourteenth, at Lille, the fifteenth, at Hees, where his Excellencie sent a trumpet to the enemies souldiers at Eyndhouen, commaunding them to depart thence, which was done.

The 16, the armie lodged before Helmont & Stiphent, and vpon refusall to depart which the enemies garrison in Helmont Castle made, his Excellencie commaunded a volley of six canon to play vpon it, whereupon, they presently capitulated and went thence.

The 17, the armie rested at Vden, the 18, at Cassell, Esteren, Reken, and Welp, and at last before the towne of Graue, which his Excellencie besieged and tooke, as shall appeare in the fol­lowing description.

¶ The siege and taking of the towne of Graue in the land of Cuyck, in anno 1602.

HIs Excellencie according to the resolution of the Generall States, brought his armie before the towne of Graue, the chiefe Citie of the land of Cuyck, seated in Brabant vpon the Mase: in former time it belonged to Guelderland, but was afterward reduced vnder the gouernment of Brabant, beeing ingaged to Maximilian of Egmont Count of Buren. The Prince of Orange of happie memorie mariying his daughter, bought it together with all that depended thereon, and enioyed it a long time: but after the pacification of Gand, certain Almain troopes lying in garrison there for the Spaniards, were driuen thence by the Princes forces together with the helpe of the Burgers.

The Prince of Parma did afterwards besiege it in anno 1586, vnto whom, the Lord of Hemert deliuered it vp. Since then, the towne beeing strong by nature, was better fortified with Bul­warks, Rauelins, and Counterscarps, and is now one of the stron­gest places of the Netherlands. Antonio Gozales the Spaniard was Gouernour there, who fearing and expecting a siege, D. Inigo d'Otaiola a verie skilfull Captain, brought forces thither, most of them beeing Italians and Spaniards with some German Compa­nies, vnder commaund of Pangus Gallais of Tiroll, Lieutenant to Colonell Tyssing, amounting to the number of one thousand and fiue hundred men, beside the Burghers: the towne was well stored with ordnance, munition, and victuals.

His Excellencie beeing come before the towne, disposed his quarters after this maner: himselfe encamped on the West side of the towne on the banks of the Mase, on which a bridge was made of two hundred and thirtie paces in lenght: Count William lay on the South side of the towne, and the English vnder Generall Vere on the West side, where another bridge was likewise made o­uer the riuer, whither diuers boats came presently forth of Hol­land loden with victualls and all other necessaries for a siege. [Page 344] In the meane time newes was brought that the Admerall of Ar­ragon, had broken vp his campe at Thynen, and was comming with 20000 horse and foot into the Countrie of Liege, and from thence to Ruremond and Venlo, with an intent, by one means or other, to releeue the Graue. Whereupon, his Excellencie spent some time in fortifying his campe abroad, especially on that side where it was most likely the enemie would come.

And the whole circuit of the campe round about the Towne on both sides the Mase (partly by reason of the Marshes, and partly to enclose certaine high and eminent places which were not fit to be left abroad least the enemie should seaze on them and thereby giue some aduantage) was wholly intrenched, and fortified with Skonces and Pallisadoes. Batteries were like­wise made vpon the principall wayes, where ordnance was planted.

Certaine engins were likewise directed to giue signals by fire, that the quarters might in the night aduertise one another, if any alarme should be giuen.

All the time, from the sixe and twentieth of Iulie, till the 3 of August, was spent in these fortifications and works, which were verie great and many. But then, in the Euening, the musters be­ing taken, and certaine wagons and horse for draught sent away, they began to make their approches.

The Admerall, in the meane time, tarried neere Venlo, ma­king shew as if he meant to crosse the Mase, to goe to besiege Rhynberck, thereby to draw his Excellencie from the Graue, who in time preuented him, sending his cousen Count Ernest of Nas­sau with sixteene foot companies thither. The Admerall hauing notice hereof, departed from Venlo, and by easie journeys came on slowly, putting men into the towne of Gennep, which be­longed to the Duke of Cleues.

The tenth of Iulie, he lodged at great Lynden, within halfe an houres journey of his Excellencies quarter and there en­camped, drawing his Campe forth in length as farre as the Mase (where he made a bridge) and Heumen Castle, which he tooke and fortified, intrenching his campe before, and plan­ting diuers canons.

The Garrison of Graue had at times made sallies vpon the ap­proches, but verie slowly at first; yet after they perceiued [Page 345] succours, they came forth with greater furie, as on the thirteenth day in the morning by day breake, hauing first made some signall by fire, so as it was thought that the enemie would haue assailed the campe, but nothing was done: whereupon, the enemie was beaten back into the towne with great los [...]e, and with little or none at all on our side.

The fifteenth day, the enemie did againe make shew to assaile our campe, whereupon, the towne garrison made a furious sallie vpon the English Quarter, and was againe beaten back: in this skirmish wee lost an English Captain.

In the meane time the enemies souldiers (namely the Italians) did in great troopes come and yeeld themselues to his Excellen­cie in regard of the great want and misery they endured, and told him that the Admerall approched with his ordnance neere to his Excellencies Quarter, on which he meant continually to shoot, and thereby enforce him to dislodge: vpon this aduertise­ment diuers fortifications were made, whereby this mischiefe was preuented.

The twentieth day at night the enemie made some shot from a far off, both vpon the bridge ouer the Mase, and into his Excel­lencies Quarter, hurting two or three men, and within a while after he began to dislodge his troopes, who caried ladders, spades, mattocks, and other preparations with them, comming downe to our trenches betwixt two skonces which stood in the middest betwixt his Excellencies and Count William of Nassaus quarters, intending as it seemed there to breake in, and attempt to put for­ces into the towne. But considering that his Excellencie stood on his gard and that all his men were in armes, hee presently re­tired in great feare, and attempted nothing leauing certain ladders and tooles behind him, which our men tooke and brought to their quarter.

This attempt beeing vayne, the Admerall without sound of trumpet or drum departed thence in the night, and marched to­wards Cuyck, which his Excellencie perceiuing, the next mor­ning, would presently haue followed him, but was staied by a thick mist which arose, whereby the enemie had sufficient time to get far enough.

After his departure a rumour was spred, how that hee was gone to Rhynberck, whereupon Count Ernest was sent thither [Page 346] againe the second time, and yet nothing ensued: for the enemie remained neere Venlo, attempting to put a garrison into it, which the townse men for a time refused, in regard of the disorder which souldiers vsually doe commit where they once are ma­sters.

The ninth of September, the Generall States whose names here follow, departed from the Hague, and on the eleuenth day, arriued at his Excellencies Campe before Graue: The Lord Iohn of Renesse Lord of Wulp: the Lord Iohn of Oldenbarneuelt Lord Temple: Cornelis Frans Wittes Burgomaster of Dort: Arent Meynertsz Burgomaster of Harlem: Iacob Vander Dussen Burgo­master of Delft: Gerart Keg eling Burgomaster of Ter Goude: Bartholt de Vloswijck Burgomaster of Rotterdam: Nicolas Iacob Simons Burgomaster of Horn: Albertus Ioachimi of Zealand: the Lord Hottinga of Frizeland: Doctor Scherf of Ouer-yssell. Iohn Reingers ten post of Gronningue and the Ommelands: Corneillis Aerssens the Register: And of the Councell of State, Iacob Boelejz of Amsterdam: Ferdinand Alleman of Zealand, Ecko Everts Boners of Frizeland, Lauwijck of Ouer-yssell, George de Bie Tresorer, and Christiern Huygens Secretarie.

After the enemies departure our men on euerie side approched the towne, the counterscarp being euen with his Excellencies quarter, so as our men partly by galleries made ouerthwart the dikes, and partly by vndermining, mounted the chiefe bulwark in Equall height with the towne Rampiers.

From Count Williams quarter the galleries stretched to the middest of the chiefe towne dike: and the English were come as far as the enemies fortification on that side, beeing readie to as­saile it and make themselues masters of the chiefe dikes. Those in the towne perceiuing this, and considering that succours fai­led them, did on the eighteenth day send a drum to craue a par­ley, whereupon, hostages were sent from both sides, and on the 19 day an accord was made in forme following.

FIrst, that the Gouernour, Captaines, officers, and souldiers both horse and foot, together with sick people, shall come forth of the town, with their horse, armes, baggage, and goods, Enseignes displaied, drum beating, match in cocke, and bullets in their mouthes.

Secondly, for better carying away of their baggage, sick and woun­ded [Page 347] men, his Excellencie shall lend them one hundred and fiftie wagons as farre as Diest.

3 They shall leaue two Captaines as hostages, for assurance of the re­turne of the said wagons, horse and wagoners.

4 His Excellencie will giue them passeport and conuoy to carrie them safely to Diest.

5 Those souldiers which haue in former time serued the States shall enioy the benefit of this treatie, like other souldiers of the sayd garrison.

6 That all prisoners shall be released on both sides, of what estate or condition soeuer, in paying their charges.

7 The Kings officers both of war and justice, shall freely depart with their baggage: such as cannot follow the troopes, it shall be lawfull for them to tarrie longer in the Towne, and at their departure, boats shall be lent them to Mastricht: Prouided, that they giue caution for them.

8 That all officers of victuals, warlike munition, and ordnance, shalbe bound to deliuer the sayd victuals, munition and ordnance, to such Com­missioners as his Excellencie shall appoint to receiue them, without dimi­nishing or wasting any of them, or else this treatie to be broken.

9 The Gouernour shall promise to be a meanes to their Highnesses, that what the Magistrates and Burghers of the sayd Towne haue lent to the sayd gouernour, Captaines and Souldiers, may be presently repaid.

10 The said Gouernour, Captaines, officers and souldiers, shall depart the next day, which if it cannot be so soone, the sayd Gouernour shall suf­fer two thousand men, whom his Excellencie will appoint, to enter the Castle and Bulwarke behind it.

According to this agreement, the enemie, on the twentieth of September, went his way, and gaue place to our men: their number was eight hundred, beside two hundred that were hurt: The Church being clensed and purified from superstitious ima­ges, diuine seruice and a Sermon was made there after the manner of the reformed Churches, with Prayers and thankes giuing to God in the great Church, in presence of his Excellencie, the ge­nerall States and other Lords, on the two and twentieth of Sep­tember being Sunday. Vpon the eight and twentieth of the sayd moneth, a solemne Sermon and exhortation was made in the same Church, about the inauguration and reception of his Excel­lencie, [Page 348] as Lord of the towne of Graue, and land of Cuyck, the which after the sermon, was presently solemnized in the market place, before all the people. And after that, order was taken for keeping of the towne, (whereof the Baron of Sidnisky was made Gouernour) and for the gouernment and fortifying thereof, the Campe was dissolued on the last of September: his Ex. returned to the Hague, and the souldiers were sent to their garrisons.

A supplication, together with the points and articles of reconcili­ation of the towne of Graue, with his Excellencie Count Mau­rice of Nassau, as Lord of the towne, and generall of the army of the vnited Prouinces.

His Excellencie hauing wel viewed and considered these points, toge­ther with the Lords generall States of the vnited Prouinces, hath gran­ted and disposed of them, according as is here noted vpon euery article.

FIrst, a generall Pardon of what soeuer is past, from his Excel­lencie and the said Lords States, in behalfe of the Burghers and inhabitants of this towne, both those that are gone away from thence, and those that remaine still, as well for matters of re­ligion, administration of offices, as otherwise without any excep­tion: no man to bee punished or taxed for any thing heretofore done. And therfore his Excellencie in qualitie abouesaid, shall take the burghers and inhabitants of this towne, aswell ecclesi­asticall as ciuill into his protection, and as their Lord, vse them with all loue and gentlenesse.

His Excellencie grants this demaund.

Secondly, confirmation, and continuation of the townes pri­uiledges, in the same manner as before the troubles, and after­wards during the life of my Lord the Prince of Orange (of happy memorie) his Excellencies father, and Lord of the towne.

His Excellencie doth likewise grant his request.

Thirdly, that all religious persons both men and women with­out exception, together with the burghers and Catholicke inha­bitants, may haue the exercise of their religion, without any mo­lestation, so long as they liue peaceably: and to this end, they craue the Church of the new couent called S. Maries Sepulchre to be giuen them; to the end that matrimonie and Christning be not taken from the Catholicks.

[Page 349] For this matter, the suppliants shall in all equitie be delt with, as the other inhabitants of the vnited Prouinces.

Fourthly, that the old and new Nuns, as also the crossed Friers of S. Agathas Cloister may remaine there still, and liue in quiet, enioying their reuenewes, both patrimoniall goods, and Church liuings, the same to bee likewise granted to all Ecclesiasticall per­sons of both Chapters beeing in this towne, who are willing to remaine there, among whom the Parson of the towne, who is newly come thither, to be comprehended.

This shalbe granted in the same manner as the former article.

Fiftly, because diuers companies of this Garrison, who are al­readie gone, are greatly indebted to the Burghers of this towne, leaue may bee granted them sixe moneths after the date of these presents, to procure their payment in the Archdukes Countrie, and to returne againe to the towne, without crauing any passe­port for that purpose: and if any of them shall need longer time, hee shall then craue a particular passe-port of the townes Gouernour, whom his Excellencie shall appoint: The same also to bee promised to the officers of the receit, that they may make vp their accompts in Court and there cleere their busi­nesses.

His Excellencie granteth this demaund, prouided, it bee done with consent of the Gouernour, and Magistrates of the towne.

Sixtly, that it may bee lawfull for all Ecclesiasticall persons and others, who after the conclusion of this treatie are desirous to depart hence, and to dwell elsewhere, to doe so the three yeares next ensuing, if it so seeme good vnto them, with their goods and families, not crauing any passe-port to that end, but onely this present treatie, and such as are willing to dwell in the champaine Countrie, or in any neutrall towne, may likewise free­ly and without any impediment returne hither, to take order for their goods mouable and immouable, and to dispose and alie­nate them at their pleasure, either by themseues, or such as they shall appoint.

This demand is granted.

Seuenthly, in regard this is a frontire town confining the coun­trie of Cleues & Rauesteyn, where the imposts of Holland haue no force, such taxations not being to be layd on this towne without manifest ruyne thereof, especially now when the Burghers haue [Page 350] beene charged with intollerable Garrisons, and hindred by this siege: It may please his Excellencie to free the said poore and de­solate communaltie especially so long as it shall bee a frontier towne, from the said generall impositions of Holland thereby to cause the inhabitants, to continue their residence there.

My Lords the Generall States will take order for this, according to equitie.

Eightly, and to this end it may please his Excellencie, according to the decree of Holland, to lodge the horse and foot Garrison, in the voide places, now, or hereafter to bee made vpon the townes Rampiers or elsewhere, to the ease of the poore burghers, seeing that till now, all officers and most part of the Garrison haue been lodged and entertained at the expence of the Court, which hath therein spent within these 14 yeres more then 200000 Florins, in compassion of the small meanes and abilitie of the poore people.

Order shall be taken herein according to reason.

Ninthly, that no inhabitants of the vnited Prouinces of what estate or condition soeuer, claiming any debts or personall acti­ons of the bodie of this towne, or any particular burgher, shall (in regard of the townes pouertie) commence any suits against them till two yeares next ensuing be expired.

Wee will proceed herein as in the former article.

Tenthly, all those are likewise to be comprehended in this a­greement, who for the townes seruice, or their owne particular affaires, are any where absent.

His Excellencie grants this request.

Eleuenthly, the gardens neere to the town dikes, and other pla­ces which of right belong vnto it, which haue been granted from the Court, shall remaine to the true owners.

The grants shall bee seene, and order taken therein according to iustice.

Certaine instituted bands are defeated by the Captaines, du Bois and Bacx; together with a description of a iourney, which our men made into the Countrey of Luxembourg vnder conduct of Count Lodwicke of Nassau.

WIthin a while after his Excellencie had taken the towne of Graue, the Captaines, du Bois and Bacx, did on the first of October depart with their Cauallery forth of the Garrisons of Breda, Berghen, and Gertrudenbergh, beeing in all fourteene Cornets, intending to make an attempt in Haynault, watching a time when the mutineers were gone into Brabant, and the Archduke returned from his campe at Venlo and Thoren.

Being come to Bilsen within three miles neere to Mastricht, they vnderstood that eight troopes of horse which had beene to conuey the Archduke, were not far from thence: the said troops were bands of institution belonging to the Earles, Mansfelt, Bu­ren, Bucquoy, Beaurie, and others, with three Cornets of Walons and three of Italians.

These were in the nightenuironed in two villages where they lay; the gards were set vpon, and part of them slaine, the rest sled, and others were taken prisoners: the Captaines were not there, fiue Cornets were taken, and one was burnt in a Church: they found a good bootie there, videlicet, fiue hundred horse saddles and two hundred prisoners. The Cornets were brought to the Hague, and hung vp in the Hall for a perpetuall remem­brance. Chalon, bastard to Renatus of Chalon of the house of Nas­sau, escaped: This beeing done, our Captaines with their horse­men returned to their Garrisons.

In Nouember following, the vnited Netherland Prouinces re­solued to make a iourney into Luxembourg, vnder conduct of Count Lodwick Gunther of Nassau, with 33 Cornets of horse and 1000 foot, vnder the Colonels Edmonds, Ghistelles, Dommer ville, & Marquette, there were 200 French, 200 English, 200 Scots, 200 Almans, and 200 Dutch, making vp in all the number of 1000 foot, with three field peices, and 50 wagons, for the munition [Page 352] foure, one for euerie Colonel, and the rest for the horsemen.

These, on the third of Nouember, departed from Nieume­ghen, and went to Keppelen and Bedbourg: the fourth day, they lodged at Niewkerke and Oldkerke neere Wachtendonck: the fift, at Grevenraet in the Duchie of Iuliers: the sixt, at Iuggen, from whence certain troopes went to take in S. Vit: the seuenth, they lodged at Renghen: the eighth, at Zeverwijck: the ninth of Nouember at Blommendaell, where they had intelligence that their men had failed in their attempt vpon S. Vit: the tenth, all the troopes came before S. Vit, and lodged at Meve-dorpe, and the same night approached the Towne, Colonel Marquet com­maunding the troopes.

The eleuenth day, those of S. Vit began to parley, and an ac­cord was made, that the souldiers of the garrison, both horse and foot, should depart thence with their armes and baggage, and should sweare not to beare armes for the space of two moneths in the Countrie of Luxembourg, this was accomplished, and the Burghers compounded for reasonable ransome.

The twelfth, they marched forward, and lodged at Iulligh: the thirteenth, they came before Bastoigne: the 14, they still re­mained there, and Captaine Marcelis Bacx was sent to S. Huberts, burning the Countrie all along: the fifteenth, they went from Bastoigne, and lodged at Housnegen or Hardengue: the 16, at Pedro-dorf neere Dechery, where Dommer vile, the same night, began his approaches, and the next day, the Burghers compoun­ded for a reasonable ransome: from whence certaine horse were sent to demaund contributions as far as Luxembourg, being con­ducted by Captaine Cloet: The 18, 19, and 20 of Nouember, they remayned at Vitterdorf, Wolset or Walset, and on the one and twentieth marched towards Dopwiell: the 22, at Andanach in Iuliers, the 23, at Gheldorp, & there rested the foure & twentieth day, whither the troopes which had been at S. Vit, viz. 50 horse, and 200 foot came to them.

The 25 and 26 they lodged at Korcum, the seuen and twen­tieth at Nedertzier, the eight and twentieth and nine and twen­tieth at Wanlor, the thirtieth of Nouember, the troopes of Bra­bant diuided themselues, and went to Graue, and the rest went to Couborch, and the second of December to Nieumeghen: Thus in a moneths space they ouerran the whole countrie without any [Page 353] resistance enforcing it to contribute, because the Gouernour Count Peter Ernest of Mansfelt had commaunded that no con­tributions should bee paied, whereupon our men burnt diuers houses and villages, none beeing found to ransome them. The Archduke sent forces to stop their iourney, but wanting money they staid by the way, consuming and wasting the countrie as e­nemies. Count Lodwick brought away manie prisoners, gentle­men, and boores, and among others the Abbot of S. Haberts: they all paied ransome. This voiage ended, euerie man returned to his winter Garrison.

¶ A description of a fight at Sea betwixt seuen of the States men of war, and six Spanish Gallies, the third and fourth of October Anno 1602.

THe States of the vnited Netherland Prouinces did vnder command of the Admerall Opdam, send forth certaine war­like vessels to serue the Queene of England: foure of them were commaunded to wait for six Gallies which D. Frederico Spi­nola brought from Spaine to ioyne with the rest that lay at Sluce in Flaunders.

These were the names of the Gallies vnder Spinola, the first the Admerall S. Lewis whose Captaines name was Cardinalin, and in her an other Captaine called Castalis d' Avila with a companie of souldiers: The second, S. Iohn, in which Vergas was Vice-Adme­rall, and in her two Captaines with companies of souldiers: The third, Padilla, the Captaines name was Hasso, and in her an other Captaine with a companie of Portugal souldiers: The fourth, la Lucera, and the Captaines name Calliado, with other companies of Portugal souldiers and Captaines: The fift, S. Philip, and in her D. Rodrigo de Naroys Captaine of a companie: The sixt, S Ia­cento, and in her Lewis de Camours with an other companie of souldiers, so as there were in all nine ensignes, videlicet, two of Spaniards, and seuen of Portugals, to the number of nine hun­dred men, beside one thousand and fiue hundred slaues, euery Galley caried three brasse peeces and no more. And notwith­standing that the Hollanders were aduertified of the comming of these Gallies, yet the Lord of Opdam was vpon necessity con­strained [Page 354] to goe for victuals into Holland, leauing the vice-Ad­merall Iohn Adrian Cant for General in his ship called the moone, accompaned with Gerbrant Iansz Saell of Horne in a ship of 4 hundred run called Bansome together with Captaine Henry Hart­man in the Lionesse of Rotterdam, and Gerbant Iansz in the hope of Enchuysen. These were appointed by the Queene to goe to­wards the West parts, but were staied to meete with these Gal­lies; one of the Queenes ships called the Hope vnder the com­maund of Sir Robert Mansell, with her Pinnace called the Aduan­tage vnder Captaine Ionas, were likewise commaunded to waite for these Gallies. These concluded that the vice-Admerall Cant and Captaine Gerbrant Adriansz Sael should lie at anchor in the downes, where an other of the Queenes ships lay called the An­swere, vnder Captaine Breadgate: Sir Robert Mansell and his Pin­nace lay at Sea betwixt Douer and Calaice, and not far from them the other two Hollanders.

Lying thus in wait, Sir Robert Mansell on the third of October about noone, descried the Gallies, and they him; but the ayre be­ing misty, they sought to creepe along the coast of England, or if the worst should come to passe, perceiuing that the two Hol­landers lay neere them, they entended to boord and take them, for the prisoners confessed afterward, that they did not respect two or three men of war: Yet it seemed that they were afraid of the Queenes ships, for they turned backe hoping in the night to passe on along the coast of Dunkirke or Niewport. Sir Robert perceiuing this, sent his Pinnace towards Calaice and the coast of Flaunders, to warne the Hollanders to stand vpon their gard, and to stop the Gallies passage: Hee likewise did his best skill to keep them in sight, the like did the two Hollanders, who were nee­rer betwixt him and the Gallies; and thus they gaue them chase till sun set: Then did the Gallies set saile againe, so as the two Hollanders were behinde them. Sir Robert Mansell obseruing their course, and assured that they would fall into the hands of the o­ther two Hollanders, and the Queenes ships, which lay in the downes, hee shaped his course towards the coasts of France, that hee might get before them ere they should recouer Flaunders, still bending his course towards the Sands called Goeyingen to meet with them there. The Queens ship, and the two Hollanders Cant and Sael hauing discried the Gallies, made vp towards them, and [Page 355] fiercely began to shoot: but the weather being calme, the gallies out-stript the ships; but within a while after, a strong gale blew from the North-East, and then the Hollanders with full saile gaue them chace two or three houres long. The gallies were come so neere Douer rockes, as diuers Turkish slaues found meanes to breake their chaines, and leaping into the Sea, escaped by swim­ming, and so freed themselues from their bondage. Sir Robert Mansel, being neere to Goeyingen, espied a gallie making away a pace, and comming within musket shot of her, he discharged thirtie piece of ordnance vpon it, whose Masts he brake in pieces, and heard a lamentable crie in her: This done, he saw the other fiue gallies comming vp towards him, on whom he made many shot, and suffered them to passe on, thinking it rashnesse and in­discretion to suffer himselfe to be boorded with so many gallies at once. The foure Hollanders followed them faire and softly, and being come neere Graveling about tenne of the clocke at night, Gerbrant Iansz-Sael of Horne, with his ship of foure hundred tunne, encountred one of the gallies called la Lucera which with full faile he boorded on the larboord side, so as the poore slaues were in water vp to the middle, crying out for mercie, not making any resistance: then the said Sael discharged two demie canon, carrying bullets of foureteen pound weight, with which he flew and hurt many. A French Pilot being in the gallie, whose name was Iohn Evout, borne at Niew-Hauen, did, vnseene, get a­boord the Hollander, and so saued his owne life. In this incoun­ter, the gallie lost her sailes and oares, and had her Helme broken in pieces, whereby she became vnseruiceable. Captaine Sael vsed all meanes to cleere himselfe from her, fearing to be ouer prest with the multitudes that were in her, and in the end came cleerely off, hauing lost some of his saile. Then did Captaine Hartmans ship boord the said gallie the second time, thinking that he was the first, and saued some fortie of the men, and then fell off. Af­ter this, Captaine Sael boorded her againe, sending fiue of his men aboord, but perceiuing, by the lamentable cries of those that were in her, that she sanke, he tooke in his owne men, and for feare of farther daunger would saue no more of them, this was a­bout midnight, and they continued neere the gallie, till they could no longer see her mast aboue water.

Iohn Adriansz Cant the Vice-Admeral, did likewise encounter [Page 356] the Gallie called Padilla, which he ouerran and drowned, and did great hurt to an other.

Captaine Gertsz Everts, and Iacob Peters Niele, with other ships that kept gard, hearing the report of the Canon, made vp towards them likewise, and boorded this Gallie and the rest: but fearing to bee endangered by them, they onely saued some few, to the number of two hundred and no more. The rest of the Gal­lies beeing neere the shoare, made no resistance but sought all meanes to escape. The Admerall ran on ground neere to the land of Schouwe, beeing pursued by a ship beyond West Cappell, which gaue her ouer thinking it would perrish by foule weather. But Generall Spinola that was in her, behaued himselfe so coura­geously, flinging many things ouerboord, and promising free­dome to the slaues, as at last hee arriued with his Gallie at Dun­kerke, an other came safely to Calice, whose men ran away: two others that were fore brused by the canon ran on ground on the coasts of Flaunders and there perished: Those two which were encountred by the Admerall Cant and Sael perished. Cant made relation of what hee had done in Holland: Gerbrant Sael of Enchuysen and Hartman did theirs in Zeland to Lord Iaques Maldre who examined the French Pilot and others, sending them into Holland, where honour was alreadie done to the Captaine that first brought the newes. The English Captaines likewise were much discontented, for that they had no share in the honor, saying they were the first that had discouered, and endaungered the Gallies, chasing and bringing them vp to the Hollanders. Of these eight gallies belonging to Spinola, wherewith hee thought to haue tormented these Countries, two of them were burnt in Portugall, two were drowned, and foure ran on ground: Herein wee may consider Gods iudgements, for these Gallies were the selfe same, to which diuers mariners of the low Countries had beene condemned. There is one thing among others worthie to be noted, how that in Captaine Saels ship who first boorded the Gallie called Lucera, the French Pilot saued himselfe, who was a verie honest man, and had beene three yeares a slaue in that Gal­lie and others, in great miserie and wretchednesse, comming with his ship into Spaine, which together with his goods were confiscate, and himselfe and men put into the Gallies, and shauen like Turkish slaues. This Pilot had here experience of Gods ven­gance [Page 357] for all the miserie he had endured, seeing the gallie where­in hee had beene a slaue, to sinke, and Captaine Callido who had tirannized ouer him, to haue both his leggs shot off, of which hurt hee died in Captaine Hartmans ship. This Pilot was a pro­per man, tall, and strong, and could not bee set at libertie for any ransome, till the accord made with the Admerall of Arragon, to exchange prisoners on each side, at which time hee was freed in companie of others. D. Frederico Spinola saued the greatest part of his treasure, which was thought to amount to two hundred thousand Ducats, which hee presently caused to bee coined at Antuerp with the Archdukes stamp, and with it, paid the remain­der of his souldiers.

¶ A rehearsall of what passed betwixt Spinolas Gallies and certaine of the States men of war, on the 25 of May 1603.

Don Frederick Spinola, Generall of the gallies hauing vnder­taken to chase away the States men of war which garded the mouth of the Sluce, came forth with eight gallies, on the sixt and twentieth of May in the morning by day breake, anno 1603, the wind beeing West, and sailed Eastward betwixt the sand shelues, called Pol Francis and the firme land, and from thence Westward of the said mouth. Certaine of the States men of war did vsually keepe gard thereabouts, viz. the vice-Adme­rall of Zeland Ioost le More, who commaunded vnder the Adme­rall the Lord of Holtain, with his ship called the golden Lion, and Captaine Logier Pieterzs, with his his ship named the Sea Dogge; there was likewise the black gallie of Holland commaunded by Iacob Machielz, together with the gallie of Zeland, called the Ar­row, commaunded by Cornellis Ians of Gordum. A little further off vnder the wind, lay an other ship, whose master was Crijn Hen­rick of Ziriczee called the old Sea Dogge, commaunding as Cap­taine. In the vice-Admeralls ship, and Gallie of Zeland, and in either of them were 18 English musketeers of Flushing, but in the 2 other ships & black gallie of Holland were no musketeers, but only their ordinary men. Spinola in his 8 gallies and other Fregats, [Page 358] besides his ordinarie men, had great numbers of musketeers, sent from the camp before Ostend.

These ships of Zeland with the two Gallies, perceiuing that Spinola came forth, did presently set saile, bearing vp against the wind towards the West: Spinolas men had a Westerlie wind, and the sun for aduantage, and passed on to the Northward athwart the Zelanders, comming to Wieling, where by fiue a clocke in the morning both sides diuide themselues, and so the Gallies in good order, and with great cries approached the Zealanders: two Gallies, in one of which Spinola was, boorded the vice-Adme­rall Ioost le More; foure other Gallies did the like to Captaine Lo­gier Peters, and the Gallie of Holland was set vpon by the rest of the Gallies: Hauing thus for a while fought with their ordnance, two of the foure Gallies which had boorded Captaine Logier did likewise set vpon the Gallie of Zeland; then the other two for­sooke Legiers ship, and fought with the Gallie of Holland: one of these two last forsooke the black Gallie, and came to the res­kew of the two others, which boorded the vice-Admerall Ioost le More, percing one an other with canon shot.

The other ship wherein was Crijn Henrick could not come vp to fight through want of wind, but did her best in shoting at the Gallies, which boorded the Vice-Admerall and the blacke gallie. This fight of gallies continued a long time against ships not accustomed to such fight; there beeing eight gallies and foure fregats of the enemies, against two ships and two gallies of ours. Yet Spinolas gallies fearing that the Zelanders might bee secon­ded, and themselues hauing receiued much losse in their men, slaues, and oares, disparing of the victorie, did in great disor­der retreat to the Sluce mouth: Among their slaine men was ge­nerall Spinola hauing receiued many wounds: hee was of the fa­milie of Spinola in Genoa, a man of great reach and meanes: There were slain in this fight eight hundred musketeers, souldi­ers, mariners, and slaues, and manie were wounded: yet the cer­taine number could not be knowne.

Of the Zelanders thirtie six were slain, and 60 hurt, their ships and gallies beeing of better proofe than the enemies. Among the dead, was Captaine Iacob Michiels of the black Gallie and his Lieutenaunt: of the thirtie and sixe English musketeers, eight were slaine and sixeteene hurt: among the wounded was the [Page 359] Vice-Admerall Ioost le More hauing receiued three daungerous wounds, the like besell Captaine Legier Peters, but both of them were afterwards healed.

During the fight, the report of the Canon was heard to Flu­shing: the Admerall of Zeland, the Lord of Haultain, presently mand foure men of war and a Fregat, making all possible hast to the Sluce mouth, but the Spanish Gallies, ere they could arriue, were gotten in: Whereupon, our men gaue publike thanks to God, attributing all praise to him: For without all question, this was a valiant act, with so few vessels and men to beat eight Gal­lies, and foure Fregats so well manned and prouided: The Ze­landers in memorie hereof, stamped siluer and brasse coine, ha­uing on the one side two ships and two Gallies, with this circum­spription: Laedunt triremes nauibus 1603: and on the other side, the Spanish Gallies, with this circumscription, victae perempto Spinola 16 Maij. Our ships beeing well mand will no more feare Gallies, although the Sea be calme, as well appeareth by this Sea fight.

¶ The taking of Cadsand and Ysendike, with the siege and yeelding vp of Sluce, in anno 1604.

AT the beginning of the yeare 1604, the States of the vnited Prouinces resolued to seeke out the enemie in his owne Countrie, and to enter Flaunders, hoping to raise the siege of Ostend: Hereupon, they commanded all Captaines to make their companies compleat, giuing forth new commissions to leuy 1500 Suisses, and 2000 other footmen.

His Excellencie of Nassau, espying a fit time and occasion, sent commaundment to all his forces to meet him at Willem-Stat, on the twentieth of Aprill with such number of boats as should bee needfull for such an attempt: Thither came Count William, Count Ernest Cazimir, and Count Lodwick Gunther, brethren, of the house of Nassau, together with Count Henry Frederick, gene­rall of the horse.

The troopes beeing shipt, departed on the day appointed [Page 360] from Willem-State towards Zeland, whither, on the foure and twentieth of Aprill, his Excellencie likewise went, accompani­ed by the Prince of Anhalt, Count Adolph of Nassau, together with the Commissioner of the generall States, and Councell of State, who were there present to farther the enterprise.

The fiue and twentieth of Aprill, in the Morning, the whole fleet, consisting of infinit numbers of boats, sailed from Zeland to Flaunders, where at the passage or entrie called Het Swarte­gat, they landed in Cadsand, where, in two daies, they tooke all the Forts. And if at their first arriuall they had entred the Sluce mouth, they might with little labour haue taken the Towne, and peraduenture by such speed, raised the siege of Ostend; for at their landing, those of Bruges had no forces in their Towne, but whilest his Excellencie landed his men, and was busied in taking in the small forts of Cadsand, those of Bruges made such hast, as Spinola, from the campe before Ostend, sent one thousand foot­men to a place called Swint, and from Watervliet sent Triuulcio with fiue hundred horse, to stop the passage at the Sluce mouth, notwithstanding that on the sixe and twentieth and seuen and twentieth dayes, we vsed a meanes to passe on, chasing the gal­lies towards Sluce. So as his Excellencie beeing out of hope to passe, and determining onely to assure the Countrie of Cadsand, a Boore told him, that by fetching a compasse towards the East­side of the Sluce, he might enter Flaunders, and shewed him, the same night, a fit place to goe to Oostburch, but there he met with the enemies horse and foot troopes, which made him thinke that there was some passage: whereupon, on the 29 day, he sent cer­taine bands thither, which skirmished with the enemies, putting them to rout, who in the flight shewed our men the way to passe; and on the thirtieth day, in the Morning, his Excellencie went thither, and crossing the water, took a piece of the causie neere to Coxie, where certaine men of Sluce, who meant to haue made a fort there, were beaten, & some 30 of them taken prisoners, & the rest put to flight: those of the fort of Coxie did likewise yeeld on cōposition, opening by this means, contrarie to our expectation, away to enter into Flaunders, putting vs in hope of good successe, notwithstanding that the Countrie round about was much bro­ken. Prince Maurice, on May day, marched with a great part of his armie to Saint Catherins Fort, and sent for ordnaunce to [Page 361] batter it: but because there was a spring tide that day, and the wa­ters were verie high, it was afternoon ere the Canon was brought, so as all that day hee remained in battaile neere the fort. In Saint Catherines fort, beside certaine souldiers commaunded by Count Trivulcio, were many burghers and boores surnamed Keurlingen; these are voluntarie mercenaries leuyed about Gaunt: who ha­uing no quarter nor promise to be ransomed, if they were taken, his Excellencie (to terrifie them) commanded that none of them should bee taken prisoners, but all slaine, and though this did daunt many of them, yet they held out that day: and one of their Ensigne bearers did passe too and fro on the Rampiers, erecting his Ensigne on the breach, to the great encouragement of his fel­lowes: who were likewise hartened for that Count Trivulcio who had been at Watervliet with certaine troopes of horse, came and encamped with them below the fort, where he entrenched him­selfe, and planted two field peeces to play vpon his Excellencies troops. But his Excellencie hauing the same after noone receiued nine peece of ordnance, hee plaied six houres long vpon the said fort, and on Trivulcio his troops, more to shew he had ordnance, than for any hope hee had to winne the fort, because the enemie grew wilfull and obstinate, making shew of defence: And there­fore dispairing to doe any good there, hee comaunded his Gun­ners to shoot till the euening, and then to remoue the ordnance, and carie it backe againe to Cad [...]and.

By the way, one of the canons by chaunce sanke into a bogge: whereupon the mariners and those that had charge of it, did, with great noice and stir, their best to recouer it, vnwilling to re­ceiue such a disgrace as to loose a piece of ordnance. Those of S. Catherines fort were amazed, thinking that they went about to plant their ordnance some where else; and likewise the horse finding no fitter way to returne, than vnder the forts trenches, made those within it to beleeue that his Excellencie had receiued more men, with them to intercept their way to Philips skonce: whereupon, Trivulcio with his troopes and those Keurlingen or Boores, who were many, did all of them in amazement retire to Philips skonce, and from thence to Isendike, abandoning S. Cathe­rines fort, and by the way left some sixtie souldiers in Philips fort, who the next day perceiuing the approach of his Excellencies troopes, yeelded it vp on the second of May.

[Page 362]From thence his Excellencie went to Isendike, which he pre­sently inclosed, whereinto, the enemie on the fourth of May thought to haue put forces, but certaine troopes of horse and foot beeing sent to stop their passage, they fled to the s' Tas, whereby the said place was the better fortified.

The 6 of May, those of Sluce came with forces from the camp before Ostend, and made a sallie with two thousand men, with certain shallops and Gallies, where with to enter into the Countrie of Cadsand, where they landed six hundred men, ere those that garded the Island perceiued it, who presently gaue an alarme, and with two Scottish companies that lay in gard there, fel vpon them, and draue them in disorder to their boats, some of which, being ouer-loden, sunke, diuers of them were slaine, and fortie were ta­ken prisoners, and eight shallops were taken from them: If this enterprise of theirs had prospered, Prince Maurice had in an in­stant lost all his boats and munition, and his attempt would haue beene to no purpose.

His Excellencie in the meane time caused the fort of Isendike to bee summoned, which is a verie commodious place and well seated, but they within it answered that they would not yeeld, because they expected supplies: whereupon, his Excellencie cau­sed it to bee battered, knowing well enough that they wanted all prouisions, especially, drinke and fresh water.

The ninth of May, Prince Maurice sent his Trumpet to sum­mon them the second time, who was shot into the head by some in the fort: this did so incense his Excellencie, as hee did his best to reuenge himselfe on those that had shewed so bad an example: whereupon, they were so daunted, as they presently craued par­lie, which his Excellencie would not grant, till an Italian souldier that had slaine his Trumpet was deliuered vnto him: which done, those of the fort capitulated; that the Gouernour and souldiers should depart with their armes, but without found of Drum or displaied Ensignes, to the s'Tas, with boats to carrie their bag­gage, on condition not to serue in Flaunders against his Excel­lencie for the space of foure moneths: and so on the tenth of May sixe hundred of them went thence, most of whom were Italians. The Gouernour was afterwards called in question for deliuering it vp, but did with honour acquit himselfe; and Captaine Rolle, was made Gouernour of the fort. After the taking of Isendike [Page 363] they resolued to passe on towards Ardenbourg, and on the 12 of May, his Excellencie went thither by land and water. In the towne were sixe companies of Almans, who might easily haue defended it, if they could haue made neuer so little resistance; but being amazed, they fled thence, so as his Excellencie with­out any stroke at all tooke it: this towne was verie desolate, but excellently well seated to bridle the Sluce. Of the goodly Church that was in it in former time, nothing was to bee seene, but the walls, certaine Marble Pillars, and two Towers. His Excellen­cie did forthwith put Count Ernest and his men into the towne, and commaunded one rauelin to be made before euerie gate, and then caused the armie to march to another open & ruinous town, called Middelbourg in Flaunders, where there is a Castle from whence those that keepe it fled, because it was not tenable. His Excellencie, on the foureteenth, sent his Cauallerie to make a road towards Eclo, to defeat a foot regiment which was going from Gaunt to Bruges, but they came a little too late.

The sixteenth of May, his Excellencie sent certaine horse and foot from Ardenbourg towards the Soute and Soete, which are two channels, the one of salt water, the other of fresh, comming from Dam and Bruges, and meet together neere Sluce, they are both nauiga [...]le. There they found D. Lewis de Velasco, who had fortified himselfe neere to a little Sluce vpon the riuer which comes downe from Moerkerck and Lapschue [...], neere Stampers point, where with aduauntage he waited, it being a narrow pas­sage, for horsemen: whereupon, Velasco his Cauallerie, did on a so­daine charge the Captaines, Gent and Bacx, and presently ouer­threw many horse, diuers were taken prisoners, and Bacx was hurt in the legge, but they were rescued by the Fanterie, who comming on, and charging in great, the Spaniards were beaten, and fiue hundred of them lay dead on the place, and three hun­dred prisoners were taken, among whom were eleuen Captains, and in their companie one of Spinolas kinsmen.

The seuenteenth of May, his Excellencies souldiers went to­wards the Soute, where the Spaniards lay with thirteene or foure­teene ensignes betwixt that place and the Soete, where they were intr [...]nched: his Excellencie, caused the canon to be planted, ma­king shew as if he meant to passe there, but hauing espied ano­ther place somewhat lower, the eighteenth, before day, he passed [Page 364] ouer his horse and foot at a low water, and tooke some of their trenches: whereupon, the Spaniards forsaking their aduantage, fled towards Dam, fearing to bee inclosed: so as Prince Maurice made an other bridge ouer the Soete, and sent his horse on the West side of the hauen of Sluce, where the Spaniards forsooke all their forts (that of S. George except) seated at the mouth of the Hauen, commaunded by a Captaine called Cordua of Burges, his Excellencie presently enuironed it, and so soone as they within it saw the canon, they yeelded, and went thence on the three and twentieth of May beeing in all one hundred and thirtie men. The fort was well prouided, and had in it nine peece of ordnance, and ten barrels of powder, to which they had tied a burning match, which, after their departure would haue fired it, but this beeing discouered, no harme ensued thereof.

Captaine Cordua was accused for yeelding vp the fort so slight­ly; but hee had fauour shewen him: Captaine Ioost de Brucxsaulx was made gouernor there, but within a while after, the fort being found to be vnnecessarie, was raced.

All these townes and forts thus surrendred, his Excellencie encamped before Sluce: hee caused the hauen to bee taken in, and fortified, and enclosed his campe with trenches and bridges, ioy­ning the quarters to one an other. In the hauen, [...] before the the towne, they found no ships but onely one French man laden with wines, which was spoiled by the ordnance.

Those of Sluce did twice receiue certain numbers of men, first, some seuen hundred, next eight hundred: they likewise tooke in certaine wagons laden with meale, ere the towne could be who­ly enclosed. Prince Maurice encamped on the West side of the ha­uen: The Lord Vander Noot on the South side, the countrie and drowned lands were fur [...]shed with boats and shalops strongly mand to shut vp all passages.

His Excellencie, on the one and twentieth of May, caused a proclamation to bee made by sound of drum that wednesday, o­uer the whole campe, should be kept as a day of fasting and pray­er, which is a rare matter in an armie, prohibiting all victualers on paine of forfeiting their goods, and banishment from the campe, from selling any victuals that day that they might bee the apter to pray vnto God to giue them good successe.

The thirtieth of May, those of Sluce attempted againe to take victu­als [Page 365] and powder into the towne, and in the night sent forth one thousand gallie slaues ouer the drowned land, whom they con­strained to this peece of seruice, in regard they could not vse their gallies, and with these slaues a conuoy of fiue hundred souldiers, to expect that which was to come from Dam: for Count Barlaymont with 4 thousand foot, and manie wagons laden with meale was come for this purpose as far as the drowned lands. His Excellencie hauing intelligence hereof, went with two thou­sand foot, and store of horse to Stampers point, where hee found foure hundred men which Barlaymont had left to gard that pas­ssage: these did the Prince defeate and put to rout, and vnder­standing by them that Barlaymont was alreadie past, hee caused him to bee pursued, but hee hauing notice thereof, went an other way, by which most of them escaped, leauing certaine wagons laden with corne behind them, which his Excellencie tooke. Those of the towne perceiuing that the Conuoy came not, returned home, many slaues excepted, who hid themselues, and came and yeelded to Prince Maurice. His Excellencies troopes in pursuing Barlaymont, did in the night by mischance take a contrarie way, and the next day returned to the Campe with many prisoners, and among them two Captaines, the one an Italian, and the other a German. By these his Excellencie vnder­stood that the towne was well manned, but badly victualed, and therefore sought to enclose it on euery side, causing his Campe to bee strongly fenced and entrenched both by land and water, sending his Cauallerie farre vp into the Countrie to bring in contribution. The Campe being thus enclosed, the deputies of the Generall States, and Councell of State, tooke their leaue on the 29 of May, and returned to the Hague.

This siege continuing for a time, Prince Maurice in the meane space made ready boats and preparatiues to assault the towne a­thwart the Hauen, and to this end caused a strange bridge to bee made, couered ouer in the middest, and of musket proofe: but vn­derstanding daily by those that came to our side, that the Towne was mightily opprest with hunger, he wholy resolued to famish it, and thereby gaue the Marquis Spinola an occasion to quite O­stend, and come to releeue Sluce, and his Gallies Famin did day­ly so encrease in the towne, as they could no longer feed the slaues, but enforced them to run vp & down the broken country, [Page 366] to seeke an herbe called Soutenell, which growes there in abun­dance, wherewith for a long time they nourished themselues: so as many of them a long while ere the towne was yeelded, knew not what bread meant.

Famine encreasing, and Ostend still holding out, those of Sluce manifested their want by fires in the night, which beeing known to the Archduke, hee commaunded Generall Spinola to releeue Sluce: who to this purpose, toward the later end of Iulie, leuied forces from all parts, and now perceiued their error in suffe­ring his Excellencie to passe ouer so easily. Generall Spinola together with Count Trivulcio departed from before Ostend with a sufficient Armie, leauing the Campe well prouided of all things: yet hee went verie vnwillingly, and with small hope to doe any good, as appeared by his letters which were inter­cepted. And so came and encamped neere to Lapschuer on a cawsey, meaning with his ordnance to enforce his Excellen­cie to dislodge, who caused counterbatteries to bee made, so as in one night the canon slew many.

Spinola on the sixt of August, with three thousand men, and certaine horse assailed Count William of Nassaus quarter, think­ing to surprise it in the night, carying with him diuers necessary preparations for that purpose, but all was in vaine, for he was so roughly entertained, as with great losse he was enforced to retire, leauing his preparations behind him, carying certaine wagoners horse away with him, which were feeding in the pastures.

Spinola doing no good there, departed speedily on the six­teenth of August in view of Ardenbourgh to the forts of S. Ca­therin, and S. Philip, which hee easily tooke by force, because they were weakely manned. From thence hee went on a cawsey, to Captaine Imbyse his quarter, where hee made a false alarme, that hee might in the meane time passe his troopes ouer the riuer of Oostbourgh: But his Excellencie had kept store of men in Cadsand, vnder conduct of Count William of Nassau, who did presently set forward to make head against the enemie, hee likewise sent the Lord of Simton thither with store of war­like munition, and himselfe remained at the passage of Cadsand, till the troopes of Frizland, the English, French, and others were arriued, with which he marched on to encounter the e­nemie.

[Page 367]The Marquis making hast with his forces, had caused his Ex­cellencies men to quit the halfe moone neere the water, betwixt Cadsand and Oostbourg, and made them giue backe as far as the cawsey neere to the two skonces, where hee was fiercely repul­sed, first by the gard, and next by Count William who was come thither; but at a low water, hee striued most of all to passe ouer, so as Count William could hardly stop him, till such time as Colo­nell Dorth came to second him, who brauely defended himselfe with a two-hand sword, beating backe the enemie for a pretie while, till himselfe was wounded in two places.

Spinola in the meane time spared not his men, and was readie to haue entred Cadsand, had not Prince Maurice come to his res­kew with certaine Frizland companies, vnder conduct of Iulius D' Essinga their Lieutenaunt generall, and with him the Lord of Termes, and some fortie French gentlemen, with diuers English and French companies vnder Castillions commaund, who made such resistance, as Spinolas men were enforced to retire, some two hundred of them beeing slaine, and of them, many men of note: among others, were, Count Feltri, the Marquis of Renty, sonne to Count Solre his wife, of the house of Lalayn, sonne to that renowned Lord, the Lord of Montigni, and the Marquis of Renty newly come from Italy, D. Alonso Borgia, young Mantenon a French man, beside a Colonell, and many others slaine and wounded, whom they carried away in carts: this was done on the seuenteenth of August, the enemie beeing reenforced with the squadron of the mutineers, who were newly reconciled to the Archduke, and did helpe to encrease the number of the dead.

The eighteenth of August, those of Sluce hauing intelligence of the defeate of their supplies, began to talke of an accord, and sent to craue cessation of armes, till they might know the Arch­dukes pleasure, which was not graunted: then they craued leaue to carrie away the gallies, ordnance, and slaues: but they receiued this answer, that they should haue three daies respite, the first day, to depart with their armes and baggage, the second day, only with heir swords, and if they tarried till the third day they were then to expect all rigor: whereupon, the next day, they were content to depart on these conditions following.

[Page 368]

FIrst, That all Ecclesiasticall persons might safely depart with the or­naments of their Church, goods and moueables.

2 That the gouernour Serrano, all Captaines, officers, and souldiers, together with all Captaines of Gallies, and mariners, should with their baggage, armes, and ensignes, drumme heating and match in cocke depart to Dam, and in giuing hostages, should haue boats and shalops.

3 That the gouernour and Aurelio Spinola, shall deliuer to his Ex­cellencies commissioners, all the gallies, barkes and Fregats, ordnance, powder, and munition, without any deceit.

4 That all slaues, without exception, shall be set at libertie, and may goe whether they please.

5 That all prisoners, on both sides, shall ransomlesse be set free: the go­uernour, and Aurelio Spinola, shall vse meanes that Captaine Say, and other mariners in prison at Sertoghenbusk, Captaine Iohn de Raet and his men, prisoners in Woud Castle, & likewise three mariners of Bre­da prisoners at Gaunt, shall all of them be released in paying a moneths meanes; and for performance hereof, the sayd Spinola shall oblige his owne person, to returne againe his prisoner.

6 None shall be molested for debts which the gouernor or others owe to the Burghers, but the said gouernour shall promise to make full payment and satisfaction to them, at Bruges.

7 That all officers and surueyors may likewise depart with their wri­tings (the townes Registers excepted.)

8 The Commissaries of victuals, and those of the Admeraltie &c. may doe the like.

9 The gouernour shall the same night deliuer vp the Castle, whither his Excellencie will send two hundred men to keepe it.

10 That the garrison shall the next day leaue the towne.

The twentieth of August, the Spaniards left Sluce, beeing in number three or foure thousand men well armed, and one thou­sand foure hundred slaues, most of them Turkes, who were all set at libertie: some of them tarried with the Spaniards, many went into Fraunce and England, but such as returned from thence into Holland, were for the most part sent home in a Ship of Barbarie; many of them had eaten no bread in Sluce of a [Page 369] long time, but fed on old shooes, boots, parchment, and on an herbe called Soutenell, whereof wee haue heretofore spoken; dogs, cats, mise, and rats were good meat.

There were found in the towne threescore and ten great peece of ordnance both of brasse and iron, beside those in the forts: al­so ten or eleuen gallies, and all their furniture, which was no smal victorie.

The Generall States and his Excellencie made Count Henry of Nassau youngest sonne to the Prince of Orange of happie me­morie, Gouernour of all their conquests in Flaunders, and ap­pointed the Lord Vander Noot for his Lieutenant, who went and remained in Sluce.

The said States did presently giue order, for the fortifying of their new conquests, as well at Sluce, as at other places neere adioyning, some were rased, and other fortified: they resolued to make nine forts neere to Coxie, S. Catherines, Oostbourgh, and Weeld Castle, and before Sluce, an halfe moone, and three bulwarks before a channell which comes forth of the Sea. At I­sendike they likewise caused fiue great bulwarks to be made, and there enclosed a great quantitie of ground, which they meant to make impregnable, and as big as a towne, or an other Ostend.

Count Lodwick Gunther of Nassau, who had maried the widow of the Earle of Valckensteyn and Broeck, fell sick at Sluce and died there, hee was sonne to old Count Iohn, and brother to the Earles William, and Ernest of Nassau, hee was but a young Lord, and yet had done braue seruice to the vnited Prouinces; hee was much lamented. His Excellencie and diuers others fell sick there likewise.

The vnited Prouinces hauing woone Sluce, and thereby got­ten meanes to war in Flaunders, and to transport it into the ene­mies Countrie, thought that the losse of Ostend would not bee so hurtfull as before, (and therein they were not deceiued) for all the world knowes how greatly the enemies haue wronged them­selues, and profited our countrie, by attempting to win that town by force: for now in steed of one entrance, the Lords States (thanks bee to God) haue gotten three.

¶ The taking of the strong Castle of Woud in anno 1605.

HIs Excellencie on the three and twentieth of May 1605, went with great numbers of horse and foot to Berghen-op-Zoom, and appointed Count Ernest of Nassau to come from Zeland by boat, with fourescore foot companies, and to saile vp the Scheld, that both of them together might make an attempt vpon Antuerp; but the Earle hauing a continuall contrarie wind could not land there where his Excellencie had appointed him. If the Earle could haue landed his men at Clapperdijke, he might hap­pily haue obtained his desire, but the wind was so contrarie as it was impossible for him to doe so: but hee was enforced to land them neere to Oosterweel, and so went forward towards his Ex­cellencie by land, who [...] lay with his armie at Eeckeren, sen­ding back the boats which had brought the souldiers, which at their returne shot at the forts of Ordam and Peerle, and among others, shot the gouernour of Ordam. This enterprise hauing no good successe, his Excellencie resolued to goe with his armie and besiege the Castle of Woud, and thereupon departed on the eight and twentieth of May from Eeckeren. Woud Castle is strongly fortified with Bulwarks and seated within a mile of Ber­ghen-op-Zoom in a fenny place, and therefore naturally strong. It is one of the chiefest Castles belonging to the Marquis of Ber­ghen; but at that time a nest of theeues: for the garrison did con­tinually molest boats that went from Holland and Zeland, being alwaies vpon the water to espie if any vessell were wind-bound or be-calmed: They had their shallops hidden in diuers places on the waters side, with which they assailed such vessels, taking the merchants and mariners prisoners, enforcing them to ran­some themselues and boats, thereby doing great damage to the Countrie. His Excellencie on the eighteenth of May, did with wonderful celeritie plant his canon, and battered the Castle; those within it slew certaine of our gunners, but fearing to be surpri­sed, and doubting that the Archduke would not send forth an ar­mie to releeue them, they yeelded the Castle vp to his Excellencie [Page 371] on the three and twentieth of May, wherein were eightie fiue men, among whom were certaine raskals of the number of those that sold the towne of Gertrudenberg to the enemie, who accor­ding to the proscription were all condemned to be hanged, but the Marquis of Brudenbourg interceded for them: Spinola like­wise did execute some of those that had deliuered vp the Castle: and by this meanes those of Holland & Zeland were freed from this mischiefe.

Marquis Spinola, in the mean time, had assembled all his for­ces neere Antuerpe, and was quartered at Mercxen and Dam, his horsemen lay at Berchen and Wilrijcke, by which meanes An­tuerpe was well garded: Hee likewise made a bridge ouer the Sch