[Page] A DISCOVRSE NOT ALTOGETHER VNPROFITABLE, NOR VN­pleasant for such as are desirous to know the situation and customes of forraine Cities without trauelling to see them. CONTAINING A Discourse of all those Citties wherein doe flourish at this day pri­uiledged Vniuersities. Written by SAMVEL LEVVKENOR Gentleman.

Celeritas in desiderio mora.

LONDON Imprinted by I. W. for Humfrey Hooper, and are to be sold at his shop in Chauncery lane, at the signe of the Beare: 1600.

TO THE RIGHT WOR­shipfull, my singular good Vn­cle, Richard Lewkenor, Sergeant at the Law.

THe Emperour Claudius made an inuiolable decree, that whatsoeuer bondman in Rome, being manu­mitted, and set free from seruilitie, if he neglecting the loue and bountie of his friend that did enfranchise him, requited him at any time with vn­kindnes, he should be againe reduced to his former bonde and slauish condition. Whereby most euidently appeareth, that this inhumaine and barbarous vice ingratitude, hath beene euen of wicked men in all ages detested and abhorred: but to the vertuous and best disposed persons, hath it euer beene so extreamely odious, that they haue left to their posterity innu­merable multitude of examples, for the rooting out of so con­sagious a pestilence from all societies: VVherefore to cleare my selfe from all suspition of any guilte or faultines herein, which you (my singular good Vnckle) most iustlie may con­ceiue against me, for letting slip so many proffered occasions, and deferring so much time before I present some essentiall [Page] testimony of my dearest loue, and most dutifull affection to your Worshippe: hauing run into so deepe adebt, for many & those no meane curtisies receyued at your bandes, I haue at last, I fear, too and atiously attempted to straine the small & slender talent, which I haue to pleade my cause in this behalfe, most humbly beseeching you now to shew your accustomed hu­manity in pardoning the defectes, wherewith these my simple labours are disgraced and blemished through my owne vn­skilfulnes, and want of learning, which of it selfe will easilie appear, in laying open to your iudicial & cleare seeing view, a learned subiect in so naked cloathing, I meane a worhy trea­tise in so disioynted, harsh, and vnpolished a stile: howbeit I most humbly beseech you not to measure the earnest zeale & dutifull affection I beare you by this simple testimony, where­by I goe about to shew it, but rather vouchsafe to know how greatly I am ashamed, that my abilitie can afforde no better meanes, nor my inuention, as yet bring forth a better present, fit to be offered vp to so learned a sur [...]ay. But yet if it please you to allow of this my simple trauel, such as it is, and thinke it worthy of your patronage: I most faithfully do promise hereafter to imploy the vttermost of my endeuours in amen­ding of this faulie, and shall from henceforth the better bee enocuraged to assay some matter of greater moment, and more worthy of your protection. Vouchsafe therefore gra­tiously to accept these my gatheringes and gleaninges out of other mens haruestes, a worke though not greatly profitable, yet pleasant and pithie, which I haue garnished with sondrie excel [...]ent histories, and I dare boldly promise that you looking thereon at some idle howers for your recreation, shall finde therin some pleasur & content, the rather because no man to my knowledge hath euer assayed the same before, & for that [Page] many of these vniuersities & cities are by me truly described, I hauing beene thereof in my trauelles oculatus testis.

The Almighty God, who hath hetherto many yeares most louingly and liberally endued you with a plentifull and happie [...]sta [...]e, blesse and prolong your daies, that wee all to the exceeding comforte of our name and Family, may be­hold in you the happie consummation of old age, before you shall be summoned to the euerlasting ioyes of the celestiall paradise.

Your Worshippes dutifull and most affectionately louing Nephew, Samuell Lewkenor.

To the gentle and curteous Reader.

I Had no sooner begun (gentle Rea­der) to take this taske in hand, but entring into a true and iudiciall consideration how weake & slen­der my forces were to bring to any good perfection a work of so great moment and importance, I began immediately to faint & fall vnder my burthen, know­ing that by perseuering therein, I should but set forth vnto the view of this captious age mine owne vnskil­fulnesse, and euer liue obnoxious to the malicious tongs of such barking mastifes, as thinke the reproofe of other mens labors to be the greatest parcell of their owne praises, though then themselues none are more ignorant. Notwithstanding, being at last earnestly entreated to finish what I had begun, and the same be­ing finished, vehemently vrged to the publication thereof, by some friends of mine whome I am bound by dutie to obey, since of two euils wise men are wont to chuse the least, I thought it better to lay open to the world my follies, and discouer mine owne vnlear­ned ignorance, then by curious and nice reiecting the aduised counsel, & enforcing perswasions of my dea­rest & nearest friends, to be touched or thought guilty [Page] of that fowle and of all good men detested vice ingra­titude.

But least any one looking in this booke for the de­scription of our English Academies, and finding them placed in the latter end, shold by a misconstruction of my well meaning intention lay vnto my charge either negligence, or ignorance, or both, for not giuing vnto these two noble nurseries of the artes (whose resplen­dent fame hath dilated it selfe to the vttermost con­fines of the earth) their due & deserued places, I will for his satisfaction & mine own excuse speake onely a word or two. I am not ignorant, that these vniuersities of our natiue country deserue for their degree & wor­thinesse to be placed in the foremost ranke, and that in all Europe are not to be found more ancient, more magnificent, more plentifull, better accommodated, nor more in all kinds of learning flourishing vniuersi­ties. But so great of late haue beene the controuersies, and so sharpe and bitter the contentions betweene the learned Doctors & professors in either of these sacred, and most worthily renowned habitations of the Mu­ses: while they of eyther side with tooth and naile did labour to maintaine the prioritie of that place where­in they had remained students, that I as one weakely armed, and fearing the encounter, not daring to des­cend into the listes, was once determined plainely to giue ouer the fielde: for with what face shoulde I by any meanes presume (my learning being little, and my skill in the arte of antiquaries lesse) to interpose my poore opinion, among the stifly maintained allegations of so many graue & learned men? I there­fore [Page] was resolued rather to bee accused and bla­med of ignorance for leauing of them out, then by going about to giue superioritie vnto the one, to in­curre the displeasure of the other. But being againe aduised how great a maime & blemish I should seeme to giue vnto this present treatise, if going about to in­corporate in one bodie the moderne vniuersities of our Christian world, I should cut off two of the most noble and principall limmes or members of the same: I haue at last (altering my first resolution) annexed them to the end thereof, in such manner, as neither of these vniuersities shall finde cause of discontent­ment, and the curious reader depart (as I hope) well satisfied.

Concerning the antiquities, priuiledges, and e­rection of colledges in the one and the other, I write nothing of mine owne inuention, what I haue found in M. Camdens Chorographicall description of Eng­land, concerning Oxforde, and other Chronicles, that haue I gathered and set downe, to Cambridge some thinges haue I added not of my self, but extracted out of certaine papers, printed in Paules Churchyearde, in the yeare of our Lorde, one thousand fiue hundred, seauenty two, and written by a learned Maister of that Vniuersity.

Accept therefore (curteous Reader) in good part what here thou findest offered to thy view, and dis­courage me not with thy frowne in my first attempt: the faultes that are herein escaped, if they proceede from the authors vnskilfulnes, forgiue them, conside­ring that he is one that hath more vsually beene ac­quainted [Page] with the warlike sounde of martiall drums, then with the schooles and Lectures of Philoso­phy: if committed by the Printer, amend them gentlie with thy penne, so shall I euer rest.

Thine to vse Samuell Lewhenor.

[Page] The names of those Authors, whose authorities are alleadged in his worke.

  • AEneas Sil [...]ius,
  • Amnionus Marcellin [...]s.
  • Annales Coloniae.
  • Angelus Aretinus.
  • Angelus Politianus.
  • Andraeas Alciatus.
  • Architremius.
  • Arnoldus Ferronus in historia Galliae.
  • Aulus Gellius.
  • Ausonius.
  • Baldus iurisconsultus.
  • Blondus.
  • Caesaris commentaria.
  • Cicero.
  • Cornelius Tacitus.
  • Erasmus Roterodamus.
  • Hubert Thomas.
  • Iacobus Paiua Andradius in lib orthodoxarū explicationū.
  • Iohannes Bohemus de moribus gentium.
  • Iohannes Calamaeus.
  • Iahannes Goropius.
  • Leander.
  • Machiauell in historia Flo­rentina.
  • Marlianus.
  • Martialis Poeta.
  • Martinus Cromerus in histo­ri [...] Paloniae
  • M [...]ndorpius de Acade­mijs.
  • Munsterus.
  • Nauclerus.
  • Ortelius.
  • Osorius.
  • Paulus Iouius.
  • Paulus Manutius.
  • Perotus.
  • Petrus Anchoranus.
  • Philippus de Commines.
  • Platina.
  • Plinins.
  • Polidorus Virgilius.
  • Possidonius.
  • Ptolomaeus.
  • Rhodoginus.
  • Raphael Volateranus.
  • Sabellicus.
  • Saluianus Episcopus Mas­siliae.
  • Sarabellus.
  • Seneta.
  • Suetonius.
  • Strabo.
  • Solinus Polyhistor.

[Page] A Table containing the names both Latine and Eng­lish, of such Cities as are described in this booke.

Colonia Agrippina
Francofordia ad Oderam
Frankforde v­pon Oder.
Vienna Austriae.
Lugdunum Ba­tauorum.
Parisii aliàs
Mons pessulanus
The wilde.
Mons regius
[Page] Valentia.
S. Iago.
Vallis Oletana alias Pintia.
Complute, called of the Spani­ards, Alcala de Henares
S. Andraeae.
S. Andrews



IT was in times passed an order v­sed by most worthy & excellent Colonia Agrippina. princes, and best gouerned com­monweales, when they had con­quered What a Co­lonie is. any forraine region, to send into that place dwellers and inhabitants; which people were then called Colonies. Whereby occasion was giuen for new townes to be builded, & their countries con­quered to be more assured to the conquerors thereof. The Romaines, a people excelling in all kinds of poli­cie and discipline, obseruing this order, when they had placed their victorious ensignes in Germanie, that they might with greater securitie defend and keepe the same, which with great trauaile they had atchie­ued, placed one of these Colonies on the banke of the riuer Rhenus, neere to the ruines of an auncient Citie, called Vbiopolis, erected by the Vbij, a nation inhabi­ting Colen reedifi­ed, and so na­med by the Romaines. those territories long before our Sauiours nati­uitie. Whence it came to passe, that the antique name [Page] of that Citie being quite forgotten and extinguished, it was by reason of the Colonie therein, remaining e­uer after called Colonia. In processe of time, about the yeare from the first creation of the world 4028. Agrip­pa the sonne in law of Augustus, being by the Romains sent to gouerne those countries, augmented, reedified and fortified the same, adding to the former name thereof Agrippina.

The inhabitants of this Citie were first conuerted The cōuersion of Colen vnto Christian reli­gion. vnto Christian religion by S. Materne, the disciple of S. Peter. After whose time although Theology was in Colen continually professed (as writeth Wolphelme Ab­bot of Bruuiller) yet was it taught rather in cloysters & monasteries, then in any publike schoole or place au­thorized for the same. The Vniuersitie was institu­ted The first ere­ction of the Vniuersitie. by Pope Vrbane the sixt, at the instance of the se­nate and people of Colen, in the yeare of our Sauiours incarnation 1388. This Bishop for the great loue and singular affection hee did beare to this flourishing commonwealth, & ancient Colonie of the Romains, did not onely giue them full power and authoritie to conferre all degrees of scholasticall honour to the stu­dentes therein, but also confirmed vnto them by a publique charter the priuiledges of Paris.

This Academie consisteth now of foure parts of fa­culties, that is to say, Diuinitie, Law, Phisicke & Phi­losophie. The vn [...]uersity in Colen con­sisteth of foure parts. Vnder Philosophie are contained the Ma­thematikes, Poettie and profession of Languages. Out of each of these faculties quarterly is chosen a Rector of the Vniuersitie. On the euen of our Ladies annun­ciation, as the Friers Carmelites: on Saint Peter and Paules euen at the Praedicants: on the vigile of S. Dio­nise [Page 2] at the Minorites: on the vigile of S. Thomas the Apostle at the Augustine Fryers.

The office of this Rector is to assemble together the whole congregation of students, & to propound The office of the Rector or president of the Academy. such thinges as are amongst them in the conuocation to be considered of by the common councell & con­sent of all the graduates to establish and ratifie decrees, to execute law and iustice, to maintaine their priui­ledges, and his Rectorship expired, by some publike testimonie of his learning to adorne the Vniuersity.

Beside many excellent places of exercise for Diui­nitie, Law, & Phisicke; there are three publike schools, wherein Humanitie and Philosophie, with the other The Colledges for students in Colen. Collegium Montanum. liberal sciences are of learned men learnedly professed and deliuered. The first founder thereof Gerardus de monte is called Montanum.

The second from Laurence of Groning the first re­gent Collegium Laurentianū. Laurentianum. The fellowes and schollers of this Colledge follow the doctrine of Albertus Magnus, and are named by the other students Albertists, like as those of the other Colledge are called Thomists, for re­ligiously obseruing the doctrine of Saint Thomas of Aquine.

The third Colledge in times passed was called Cu­canum, Collegium nouum Coro­narum. but is now named Nouum Coronarum gymnasi­um, wherein the Iesuites are placed.

The Artists haue also a godly Colledge in S. Gere­ons streete, called Rubra Porta.

There is also in Colen another faire & well adorned Colledge, called Schola trilinguis, wherein the three Schola trilin­guis. sacred tongues, Hebrew, Greeke & Latine, together with the artes, Rhetorique, and the Mathematikes are [Page] taught with great industrie and elegancie.

Three things there are in Colin, whereby the Citie is especially beautified, namely the Senate, the Cler­gie, Three thinges wherewith Colen is chief­ly adorned. and the Vniuersitie.

The Senate of this place for grauitie, op [...]lencie and maiestie, farre surmounteth all other Cities in the world.

In no place of Christendome may be found a better adorned or more flourishing estate of Clergie men, The flouri­shing estate of the clergie in Colen. whether you consider their nobility of birth, their profoundnes in learning, their pietie in manners, or their opulence and aboundant riches.

In the Cathedrall Church, a place most sumptuous These are cō ­monly called the 3. kings of Colen, whose reliques were brought from Millan, at the instance of Reinold, Arch­bishop of Co­len, when that cittie was sur­prised by the Emperour Fredericke, in the yeare 1165 & magnificent, are enshrined the bodies of the three Kings, which by the direction of a star were led from out the East to Bethleem, where they did worship & a­dore our sauiour immediatly after his hatiuity. There­in also are reserued the reliques of 11000. virgines, which for the constant confession of their faith, did in the time of persecution suffer martyrdome. Besides this place, there are other Collegiat Churches of Ca­nons. There are moreouer 19. parish Churches, be­sides many Cloisters, Monasteries and Nunneries.

The Archbishop of Colen is a Prince elector of the Romaine Empire, Chancelor of Italie, Duke of West­phalia, The Archbi­shop of Colen a Prince ele­ctor. and Angaria; which Sea, since the reuolt of Truchses late Archbishop thereof, hath beene gouer­ned by Ernestus Duke of Bauaria and Palatine of Rhene: which Prelate by reason of the amplenes and great cir­cuite of his diocesse, being himselfe not able to dis­charge all matters belonging to his function, hee hath his Vicar or Suffragane, the Bishop of Gy [...]ene.

[Page 3] Many intestine seditions, and ciuill discordes did long hinder the prosperitie of this famous citie. As for example, in the yeare 1074. the Bishop vsurping in The flouri­shing estate of Colen much hindered by ciuill dissen­tion. the cittie too much secular authoritie, seemed to di­minish & abrogate the libertie of the citizens: where­fore they betaking themselues to armes, expulsed him thence, and recouered their libertie. Which indigni­tie the Bishop desirous to reuenge, gathered immedi­ately a puissant armie of countrey pesants in the terri­tories adioyning thereunto, and set forth vpon the ci­tizens vnawares, who suspecting no such thing, were suddenly surprised, and their citie miserably ransacked.

After in the yeare 1236. Engelbertus, Archbishop of Colen, exercised the censure of the church against a cer­taine Earle called Frederike, for many wrongs and vio­lences by him offered to the clergie, which Earle be­ing enflamed with the desire of some bitter reuenge, one day, as the Bishop came into the countrey to con­secrate a certaine church, he with many of his follow­ers Engelbertus Archbishop of Colen mur­dered by Earle Fredericke. armed set vpon him, and with 28. mortall wounds murdered him in the place. For which impious mur­ther, Henry his successor tooke of this Earle a most sharpe and bloudy reuenge: for raysing a great power, he made vpon him fierce and cruell warre, ouerthrew his holds and fortresses, and in fine tooke his person, which he carried prisoner to Colen, and there put him Earle Frede­ricke put to death. to a most shamefull death, breaking all his bones a sunder, and casting his dead carkase on a wheele, there to bee deuoured by the fowles of the aire. The bro­thers of this Earle ceased not to vse the vttermost of their endeuours in reuenge of their brothers death. This hatred and enmitie continued betweene the [Page] elergie and [...] implacable, vntill the time of [...] their Archbishoppe, who entreated of the Emperour the restitution of the citie, which if the ci­tizens would denie, he desired they might bring the keyes thereof two miles from the towne, where hee would bee contented to make triall of his title by dint of sword. Which condition the townes men willing­ly A battaile fought betwixt the citizens & Cleargie for the gouern­ment of the Citie, wherein the citizens preuailed. A generall councell held at Colen. accepting, brought the keyes thereof in a wagon to a little village called Woringen, where by their pro­wesse and manhood, they recouered quiet possession of this Citie, which vnto this day is free and gouerned by the Senate.

In Colen (as we reade) was held a councell about the yeare 34 [...]. vnder Constantius the Emperour, and Pope Iulius, against Euphrata an Arrian heretike, who deni­ed the diuinitie of Christ. There were in this councell twentie holy and learned Bishops and fathers (among whom was S. Seruatius) by whose sentence & iudge­ment Euphrata an Arrian here [...] tike condem­ned. the said heretike Euphrata was condemned and depriued of his bishopricke, which was afterward gi­uen to S. Seuerine.


BAsile is a mightie cittie of great note & fame, Basilia. situated on both sides of the Rhene, which maketh therof as it were two seueral townes, Basi [...]l diuided by the Rheine into two parts the one lying in a valley betweene two hils, is wate­red with a little brooke called Byrseca, and is named great Basile: the other called little Basile, lyeth on the South side of the riuer in a plaine champion.

Concerning the originall thereof, some are of opi­nion, [Page 4] that it was first builded in the yeare after Christ 382. during the raignes of the Emperours Gratian and Valentinian. But Annianus Marcellinus (who seruing vnder Iulian the Apostata in his warres, wrote with great diligence whatsoeuer hee saw and obserued) proueth this to be a meere imagination of men: for in his 30. booke of histories, he maketh mention of a cer­taine fortresse, erected by Gratian against the Ger­maines, not farre from Basile. Whereby it may appeare, that in Germany was a cittie so called before Gratians time. Concerning the name thereof, some write (but without either proof or authoritie) that it was deriued Sundry opini­ons concer­ning the eti­mologie of the name of Basill. from a Basiliske, which haunting the woods & deserts thereabout, did much annoy the countrey before the citie was there erected. Other imagine that it was first called Passell, from the passages that were in that place ouer the Rhene. But Annianus Marcellinus plainely she­weth the name thereof to be deriued from the Greeke word [...], which signifieth a kingdome, because it is in deed a royall citie seated in a princely place.

Some affirme that Panthalus was the first Bishop of Basile, about the same time that the 11000. virgines suffered martyrdome, but of the truth of this history, many doubt. For certaine wee find, that in the yeare 740. in the time of Pipin, father to Charles the great, Walanus was possessed of this bishopricke.

In the yeare 897. was this cittie by the Hunnes vt­terly destroyed at what time they passed with a pu­issant Basill destroy­ed by the Hunnes. armie through Almaigne into Burgundie and Fraunce: it was againe restored by Henrie the holy Em­perour of the Romaines, who also reedified the cathe­drall [Page] Church, and gaue vnto the same goodly tene­ments and possessions.

Although concerning the erection of this vniuer­sitie The erection of the vniuer­sitie in Basill. (as for the most parte of all others) historiogra­phers doe among themselues exceedingly disagree: yet in my opinion all doubtes touching this matter ought to be decided, and all dissention taken away by this onely Epistle of Enaeas Siluius, called afterward Pope Pius the second, which in his owne words I haue here cited, as followeth.

Dudum dum nos minor status haber et per multorum an­norum The Charter of Pope Pius the second, for the ratifica­tion thereof. curricula, quibus grato incolatu in inclyta ciuitate Basiliensi potiti fuimus, per euidentiam cognouimus, quòd ci­uitas ipsa vberrima, ac inpartibus illis salubritate aeris, ex quibuslibet vtilitatibus praeelecta, nec non ad multiplicanda doctrinae semina, germina (que) falubria producenda, apta & ac­commoda existeret. Propterea nos, postquam ad summi apo­stolatus apicem prouecti sumus, desiderantes ciuitatem prae­dictam, ac illi adiacentem patriam, diuini muneris largita­te concessa, inextinguibili sapientiae lumine illustrari, eas (que) sanis peritorum consiliis et maturitate fulciri: generale stu­dium in eadem ciuitate statuimus et ordinauimus inchoan­dum, et tam in sacrapagina et vtro (que) ture, quàm alia qua­uis licita facultate perpetuis temporibus vigere. Datum Mantuae, anno Dominicae incarnationis 1459. pridie Kalen­darum Ianuarii, Pontificatus nostri anno secundo.

In the yeare 1431. was a generall councell held in A generall councell held in Basill. Basill, vnder Pope Eugenius and Sigismunde the Empe­rour, which was before summoned by Pope Martin the fifte, for the extirpation of the Hussites and their heresies.

[Page 5] The bodie of Erasmus Roterodamus is vnto this citie Erasmus Rot. buried. no smal ornament, who deceasing the yeare 1536. was there enterred.


MEnts is a Citie of so great antiquitie, that I Moguntia. cannot in any Chronicle or Antiquarie find any thing which I dare set downe for truth, concerning the first foundation and originall thereof. It is situated in a fruitful & delectable countrey, where The situation of Ments. the Moene descending out of Franconia, falleth into the Rhene. On which riuer there is no one citie bordering, that hath so many monuments of antiquitie as Ments. Among other things the huge Colossus of stone there­in is most remarkable, which was erected by Drusus, sonne in law to Augustus Caesar, waging war in Germa­nie, and is called of the inhabitants Echelsteine, from the forme and figure thereof, which much resembleth an Acorne.

Charles the great in the yeare of grace 813. built in A bridge built ouer the Rhein by Charles the great. this place a mightie bridge of wood ouer the Rhene, a thing so chargeable and difficult, that it scarcely was in tenne yeares space with incredible labour and in­dustrie brought to perfection: which costly and labo­rious worke was not long after in three houres so con­sumed with fire, that there remained not one pile thereof to be seene aboue the waters.

In the yeare 410. Carocus king of the Wandales hear­kening Ments destroi­ed by Carocu [...] to the detestable counsell of his damned mo­ther, razed to the ground many of the most noble cit­ties in Germany: among the which were Ments, Spire, [Page] Trier, and Wormes: for which impious fact not long after falling into the hands of his enemies, the French­men, he suffered deserued punishment.

In former ages, the Emperours of Germany consti­tuted 7. Archbi­shops in Ger­many. therein seuen Archbishoprickes: whereof the first was Ments, the 2. Collen, the 3. Trier, the 4. Magde­burge, the 5. Saltspurge, the 6. Breme, and the last Riga in Le [...]fland. The first Bishop of Ments is said to bee S. Crescentius, a hearer and scholler of S. Paules. In the The Citie re­paired by Dagobertus. time of Ruthardus the 14. Archbishop of this Cittie, Dagobertus king of France, did reedifie and fortifie this cittie ouerthrowne and laide waste by Attilas.

The 17. Archbishop of this place was S. Boniface an S. Boniface an Englishman. Englishman, who gouerned that sea 35. yeares, instru­cting the Germanes in Christian religion, who was af­terward martired in Friseland.

The 32. Archbishop thereof was Hatto, who for Hatto deuou­red with Rats. causing certaine poore and innocent men to bee bur­ned, was by the iust iudgement of God prosecuted by a multitude of Rattes, with such violence, that hee at last was constrained to build in the middest of the Rheine a tower of stone, whither he fledde, thinking there to liue safe from the furie of these vermine, which so continually haunted him, but neither were those walles of sufficient strength to keepe them out, neither could the violent course of waters betwixt him and the land asswage their fury: wherefore in fine, about the yeare 9 [...]9. he was by them deuoured.

The 34. Archbishop was Willigisus a Saxon borne, Willigisus the first Archbi­shop that aspi­red to the Electorship. and counsellor to the Emperour Otho the second. This Bishoppe was alwaies wont to haue in his oratorie a painted wheele, with this Motto or inscription: Willi­gise [Page 6] memineris quid sis, & quid olim fueris: which wheele was after giuen to the Archbishop of that sea for their armes by the Emperour Henry the second. This Pre­late built the faire and sumptuous Temple of S. Ste­phen, wherein about the yeare 1011. himselfe was bu­ried. He was also the first of the Archbishops of Ments, that aspired to the Electorship of the Empire. Since whom, his successors haue alwaies retained the place and dignity of the chief & principall of the 7. Electors, and are vntill this day high Chauncellors of Germanie.

Dietherus of Eisenburge was the 68. Archbishop of Ments, chosen by the greatest parte of the Canons, Dietheru [...] founder of the Vniuersitie. but against him was erected by Pope Pius Adolph, Earle of Nassau: from which schisme and intestine discord proceeded a ciuill warre, whereby the Church of that place suffered irreparable losse and damages. In fine Adolph obtained the possession, & gouerned thirteene yeares, after whose decease Dietherus was restored, and sate seuen yeares: in which time he newly builded the castle from the ground.

By this Archbishop was the vniuersity first institu­ted and erected in the yeare 1482. wherein at the first beginning, all artes in generall were professed. But at this day onely that doctrine which concerneth the knowledge of God and our saluation, (I meane Theo­logie) is there professed, by the Iesuites, which lately were admitted into this cittie, by the reuerend father and renowned Prince Daniell, the moderne Archbi­shop and Elector.

In the yeare 1501. a decree was by the superiors of that vniuersity enacted, that no man whatsoeuer, shold bee permitted to receiue any scholasticall degree or [Page] dignitie that did not according to the councell of Ba­fill This councell decreed, that men should belieue, as an article of their faith, that our Ladie was conceiued without sinne. But this coun­cell was not confirmed in anything it decreed, quoad sidem, vt pates in bulla Ni­cholai 5. The arte of printing first inuented in this Citie, by Iohn Guten­berge. Some say it first was in­uented at Harlem in Holland, and brought to perfection at Ments. A generall Councell as­sembled at Ments. Henry the 3. Emperour excommuni­cated by the Pope. Herbipolis The originall of Wirtsburg. rightly belieue of our blessed Ladies conception.

This Citie hath deserued no small praise and com­mendation of all Christendome, for that ingenious & most necessarie art of printing, therein first inuented, & put in practise by the famous and worthy gentleman, Iohn Gutenberge, in the yeare 1459. by which meanes our Christian world hath recouered the works of sun­dry auncient fathers, which were almost readie to suffer shipwracke, and preserued sundry notable histories and discourses of most singularly learned men, which had otherwise to the inestimable de­triment of Christendome (men being at this day for the most part giuen to ease and idlenes) vndoubtedly beene suffered to lie hidden in eternall obscuritie.

In the 1118. in this cittie was held a generall coun­cell, vnto which an infinite number of Princes resor­ted, to decide the controuersie depending betweene Henry the Emperour, and the Bishop of Rome: which Emperor, because he would not ratifie or allow of cer­taine of the Popes actes, was by him thrise excommu­nicated.


WIrtsburg is a beautifull and well adorned ci­tie built in forme of an halfe Moone, on the banke of the Meine, almost in the verie center of Franconia.

Concerning the first originall & foundation of this cittie, the most learned antiquaries set nothing downe for certaine. Some say, that the Grecians at their re­turne from Troy being wearied with their long and re­dious wandring in the Ocean, arriued at last neere to [Page 7] the mouth of the Rheine, searching the secrets of which riuer, they at last entred the Meine, and came vnto this place where they erected a Cittie; which from their God Herebus (to whome they there offered sacri­fice) they named Herebipolis: but this opinion Ta­citus reiecteth, as vaine and fabulous. Whensoeuer therefore, or by whom soeuer this citie first was foun­ded, this much we find for certaine, that it was then a cittie, when that holy and learned father S. Khilian, conuerted the Franconians to the Christian faith, The antiquity thereof. which was about the yeare 686. The antiquitie there­of was made manifest by certaine images of idols dig­ged out of the Meine, when the foundation of the new bridge was laide, which were cast into the riuer by the Franconians, when they first embraced the Christian religion. Sundry opini­ons concer­ning the name thereof.

Concerning the etimologie of the name thereof, there are sundry opinions. It was called of the anci­ent inhabitantes Wirtsburge: which Iohannes Gallicus (in certaine Hymnes and Sonets of S. Khilian, by him­selfe set forth about the yeare 1150.) desiring to con­uert into a good Latine worde called Herbipolis, was deceiued (as it should seeme) by the equiuocation of the two Dutch wordes, Wirtes and Wurtes, the one of them signifying an hearbe or roote, the other muste or new wine, from which men thinke the cittie rather to haue taken his name, because the territorie of Franco­nia yeeldeth wine in greater aboundance then any o­ther Prouince of Germany Conradus Celtis a Poet of that country calleth it [...], alluding vnto Herebus the idole of the Grecians, which before I mentioned.

The situation of this towne is in a plaine valley, en­uironed The situation of Wirtsburg. [Page] about with greene medowes, pleasant gar­dens, and fruitfull vineyardes. It is within replenished with many stately and magnificent temples, and also pompously adorned with a great number of goodly and sumptuous edifices of priuate citizens.

On the other side of the Meine, is a pleasant moun­taine, on the highest top whereof is erected our La­dies castell, a place of most impregnable strength and curious architecture.

S. Boniface Archbishop of Ments, erected in this citie a Bishops sea, wherein hee placed Burcharde an The Bishop­ricke erected. Englishman, and descended of a noble family, vpon whom Charles the great, or (as others say) king Pipine bestowed the Dukedome of Franconia, which before belonged to Gozbertus, by whose concubine Kisila, (or as some write, Geilana) S. Khilian was martired, be­cause he perswaded the Duke to forsake his incestu­ous life with her, which before had beene his bro­thers wife.

This Bishop first laide the foundation of the cathe­drall The Cathe­drall Church founded. church in this cittie dedicated to our Sauiour, whereunto belong 54. Canons, commonly called Domeherne, that is to say, Lordes of the house; into The Dome­herne. which societie can no man bee admitted, that is not descended from some noble and auncient family in Germany; for the confirmation whereof he must bring witnesses of honest life and noble parentage, to bee sworne before his admittance. This Church was re­edified and augmented by Arnus Gotebaldus, the tenth Bishop thereof, a man of excellent wisedome & integritie, who going with Arnolphus the Emperour, against Zwentebaldus Duke of Morauia, was in the [Page 8] campe slaine by the enemies, as hee was celebrating Masse at the aultar.

During the time of Embricus the 27. Bishop of this A generall Councell as­sembled. Citie, was assembled there a generall councell, at the commandement of Lotharius the second, wherein Pope Anacletus was deposed, and Innocentius confir­med, and acknowledged for the true and legitimate successor in S. Peters chaire.

This Bishop erected and instituted that famous mo­nasterie Ebrach, wherein with many rites and solemne ceremonies is enterred before the high aultar, the hart of euery Bishop of Wirtsburge deceased.

In the yeare 1168. Fredericke Barbarossa confirmed vnto Harold the 31. Bishop of this Citie, and to his successors the Dukedome of Franconia, before giuen them by Charles the great, since whose time the Bi­shops in all solemne feasts, and publike conuentions, haue a sword carried before them, in token of their re­gained Dukedome.

In the yeare of saluation 1403. Iohn the 2. of that name, and 55. Bishop of Wirtsburge, instituted therein The institu­tion of the V­niuersitie. an vniuersitie, priuiledged and authorized by Pope Boniface the 9. and called thither out of the most re­nowned schools of Christendome, diuers learned pro­fessors of Philosophie, Diuinitie, & the other inferior stu­dies, but not long after the decease of this Bishop, the The Vniuersi­tie dec [...]ied by ciuil dissen­tion. Cleargie and commonaltie, falling into great conten­tions and discord, the one prosecuting the other with more thē capitall hatred, the students for the most part prouiding for their safetie & quietnes, departed to Er­ford, wherby the vniuersity seemed to decline towards an end, before it fully had receiued his beginning. But [Page] the same was lately restored by the reuerend father & renowned prince Iulius de Echteren, by whose aide & authoritie it hath againe recouered the antique splen­dor The Vniuersi­tie restored by Iulius de Echteren. and dignitie it before enioyed. For the better augmentation thereof he assigned in the Cittie two goodly Colledges to the Iesuites, which are by him liberally prouided, for hee graced and adorned the studentes and professors therein with many ample priuiledges, graunted by Pope Gregorie the 13. and Priuiledges thereto gran­ted. Maximilian the 2. Emperour of the Romaines.

This Prince is of so great authoritie and puissance, that in the yeare 1591. when the Royters and forces The great po­wer of this Bishop. of Germany would haue passed through his territorie, to the aide of Henry then king of Nauarre, now king of Fraunce, he stoutly forbad them, boldly letting them vnderstand, that if they attempted to march that way, he with his owne forces would encounter them.

Because the rites and ceremonies vsed by the Fran­conians and citizens of Wirtsburge, as well after the ele­ction Diuers cere­monies obser­ued by the Franconians in the installa­tion, and in the funerals of their princes worthy to be obserued. The manner of his installa­tion. & consecration, as in the sepulture and funerals of their prince, are somewhat rare and vnusuall, I haue thought good for the readers recreation, briefly to write somewhat of eyther of them. When the new elected Bishop intendeth to take possession of his epi­scopall chaire, he approcheth neere vnto the cittie on horseback in great pompe & glory, accompanied with al the nobility of the country: wherunto being admit­ted, he is dispoiled of his robes & habilements, and led by the 4. Earles officials of the Dukedome (that is to say, the Earles of Hennenberge, Castell, Wertheim, and Rheineck) from the bridge porte through the market place, bare headed and bare legged in vile and base [Page 9] clothing, girt with a corde, in which order he procee­deth, euen vnto the entrance or porch of the cathe­drall Church, where the clergie meeting him, demand of him by their Deane what he desireth, who answe­reth, that hee being most vnworthy, is there at hand readie to vndertake, and with all diligence to execute that charge whereunto he is called: Vnto whom the Deane immediately replyeth: I in the name of the whole Chapter commit vnto thy care and charge, this church of our Sauiour, and the Dukedome thereun­to belonging: In the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the holy Ghost, Amen. Whereupon hee pre­sently followeth the Cleargie, returning into the church, where putting on his pontificall ornamentes, he is present at diuine seruice, which ceremonies be­ing finished, he departeth, accompanied with the cler­gie, & such neighbour princes as had beene purposely inuited, together with the principal men, & chiefe no­bilitie of Franconia towards our Ladies castle, which hauing entred, he casteth gold and siluer vp & downe in great aboundance, and entertaineth the whole com­panie with a most royal, bountifull, & costly banquet. Againe, when the same Prelate departeth this life, his bodie presently is opened, his bowels taken thence, The manner of his buriall. are buried with great solemnitie in the Chappell of our Ladies castell on the hill, his hart is apart reser­ued in a glassen vessell, prepared for that purpose. The day following, the corse adorned with the pontificall robes, is laid vpon a rich and costly beere, hauing in the one hand his crozier staffe, as a Bishop: in the other a sword, in token of his Dukedome: he is ca­tied with great pompe and maiestie from the castle to [Page] Saint Iames his monasterie (which is without the towne, in the farther side of the Meine) where that night he remaineth: the next day with great solemni­tie and many ceremonies, hee is conueied ouer the bridge into the towne, and through the market place into the Cathedrall Church, where for that night it resteth, the Cleargie enuironing the hearse with many Psalmes and orisons, expect the ensuing morning, which being come, they remoue the corps into the temple of the new monasterie, where after many Dir­ges & prayers for the saluation of his soule, the same is againe reduced into the Cathedrall Church, where in his Episcopall attire, with a naked sword in his hand, he is at length enterred, his heart is laide in a wagon, and with an honorable conuoy of knights brought to the Cloyster of Ebrach, where by the Abbot & Monks it is with great honour laide into the ground, before the high Altar.


TRier is a goodly Citie on the banke of the Riuer Mosell, exceeding famous, as Treueris. wel for the incredible antiquitie thereof, as for sundry notable gests & exploits by the inhabitants atchieued & performed.

It is (as Eneas Siluius writeth) 1300 yeares ancienter then Rome, and was founded in the time of Abraham The antiquity of Trier. 1947. yeres before the comming of Christ, by Trebeta the sonne of Ninus, which was founde engraued on a stone, in the yeare of grace 1200.

They say that Trebeta being wrongfully excluded The fruitfull foundation thereof. [Page 10] from the kingdome of Babilon by his mother in law Semiramis (when she vsurped the rule & gouernment of the realme) after long and tedious trauaile endured on the seas, arriued at last at the mouth of the Rheine, and passing vp the riuer, hee entred the Mosell, where finding a sweet and pleasant valley, he there remained, and began to build a cittie, which after his owne name he called Treberis.

In the Cathedrall Church of Trier, in an old peece of tapestrie is to be seene the type and figure of this ci­tie, wrought with cunning artifice and great curious­nesse, and about the same in great letters, ALTERA Monuments of antiquitie. ROMA. Vnderneath the which are these verses fol­lowing.

Nini Semiramis quae tanto coniuge foelix,
Plurima possedit, sedplura prioribus addit,
Non contenta suis nec totis finibus orbis,
Expulit è patrio priuignum Trebetam solo,
Insignem profugus nostram qui condidit vrbem.

Which may thus be englished.

Semiramis great Ninus wife, so happie in her chance,
Possessing much, desired more, her glory to aduance.
The world her mind could not content, much lesse one kingdomes bound.
Wherefore she chased Trebeta far frō his natiue ground,
Who liuing here in exile did this famous Citie found.

Wherefore it is euident, that this Citie may more iustly glory in her antiquitie, then in any other in all Germany. It was first conuerted vnto Christianitie by Saint Materne the disciple of Saint Peter, and his com­panions, Eucharius and Valerius. Marcellinus calleth this Citie, Clarum domicilium Principum, because that [Page] Constantine etected therein a most royall and sum ptu­ous pallace, the ruine whereof are at this day visible. Wherein it is credible, that the succeeding Emperors of the Romaines had often their residence.

Trier was in Iulius Caesars time a most warlike Citie, furnished continually (as himselfe writeth) with more troupes of horse, and squadrons of footmen, then any other Citie or region of Fraunce.

The vniuersitie in this citie is thought to be one of The antiquitie of the Vniuer­sitie. the oldest Academies in Europe, but when it was first erected, I cannot reade, neither haue the citizens any recorde thereof, by reason of the manifold and often chaunges their citie hath endured: For Saluianus, Bi­shop of Marseile, in his sixt booke of the true iudge­ment and prouidence of God, writing much of the magnificencie and opulencie of this citie, seemeth at last with great griefe and anguish of mind, to bewaile and lament the drunkennesse, gluttonie, and lasciui­ous dissolute liues of the inhabitants, which he impu­teth to be the cause, why their citie was foure times o­uerthrowen and ransacked.

Vidiego Triuires, (saith he) virosetiam sublimes, cala­mitatibus Saluianus lib. 6. de Vero iudi­cio, & prouidē ­tia Des. suis factos peiores. Lugubre est referre quae vidi­mus; senes honor atos, & Christianos, imminēte iam ciuitatis excidio, gulae ac lasciuiae seruientes. Iacebant in conuiuijs, ob­liti honoris, oblitiaetatis, professionis & nominis sui. Princi­pes ciuitatic cibo confects, in v [...]nolentia dissoluti, clamoribus rabidi, bacehatione suriosi &c. Et cùm haec ita essent, plus multo est quod dicturus sum finem perditioni, huic nec ciuita­tis excidiasecerunt, nam expugnata est quater vrbs Gallorū Treuiris opulentissima, &c.

For this cause also we cannot learne who first insti­tuted [Page 11] the Archiepiscopall dignity in this Cittie, be­ing one of the greatest and most ancient Archbishop­rickes of Germany.

That all studies vniuersally did in this citie flourish in the time of Gratian the Emperour, appeareth mani­festly by an epistle, written from the saide Emperour to Antonius, Prefect and Regent of Gaule, where ha­uing set down donations of prouision for sundry Vni­uersities, hee allotted greater proportion to Tryer, then to any of the rest, because therein remained a greater number of students and professors.

Which Vniuersity being by the Vicissitude and in­iury of time exceedingly decayed, was by the reue­rend The vniuersi­ty restored. Fathers Iohannes de Lapide, Iacobus ab Else, and Io­bannes Hugo, late Archbishops thereof againe resto­red, who therein placed the Iesuites, which with great labour, industry and diligence, doe there pro­fesse the Arts.

The manners of the inhabitantes are for the most parte sower and seuere, their complexion inclining to Melancholy, whereof Ausonius writeth among many other thinges in commendation of the Treuiri in this manner.

Quin etiam more [...], & laetum fronte seuera
Ingenium natura suis concessit alumnis.

The ayre hereabout is commonly cloudy and often subiect to rayne, wherefore the city in derision is vsu­ally called, Cloaca Planetarum.


HEidelberge is the metropolis of the Phaltes, or Palatinacy of Rheine, wherein the Phalsgraues or Countes Palatines continually holde their courtes and residence.

Some are of opinion, that this cittie receiued his name from the colony of the Gentiles, which in the The name of this Cittie whence dery­ued. German tongue, are called Heyden. Others there are which affirme that it should be written Eàelberge, that is to say a noble hill, from the situation thereof, which is on the side of a pleasant mountain, from whence the Neccar springing, descendeth into the playn and cham­pion countries, the land therabout is exceeding fruit­full; The situation thereof. and bringeth forth great store and plenty of wine, oyle, corne, chestnuts, and such like fruites.

This city together with the whole country adioyning is gouerned by the Rheingraues, or Countes Palatines of Rheine, who by succession, doe hold the first & chiefest place among the secular Electors of the Empire. The first of the Palatines, that aspired to that dignity, was Sifridus, who liued in the raigne of Otho the third, this Sifridus the [...]. Palatine of Rheine that as­pired to the rectorship and vpon what occasion. Emperour being well striken in yeares, and hauing no issue to inherite the Emperiall Diademe after his de­cease, desiring before his death to establish the Empire which he foresaw wold after his departure, by the am­bition of many competitors be much molested, and endamaged by Ambassadors, made earnest suite vnto the Pope, that certaine princes might be ordayned & constituted, which should haue full power and abso­lute authority to elect the Roman Emperour, vnto which his so lawfull and reasonable request the Pope condescending, there were nominated 7. princes, 3. [Page 12] spirituall, that is to say, the Archbishops of Ments, Co­len, & Trier, and 4. temporall, the king of Bohemia, the Phaltsgraue of Rheine, the Marquesse of Brandeburge, & the Duke of [...]axony. Sifridus therefore the Palatine, being chosen amongst the rest, liued not long after, but deceased before he could make any benefite of his new authority. In his place succeeded Henry his son, by whose meanes Henry after called the holy, the hus­band of his sister S. Kunegundis; was chosen Emperour in the yeare of our Lord, 1003. Rupertus the 10. Pala­tine Rupertus foun­der of the V­niuersity. of Rheine, after the separation of the Dukedome of Bauaria from the Palatinacie, receyuing the adminis­tration of the gouernment from his brother Adolphus, a man of too small iudgement and weake vnderstan­ding to direct the helme of so great a charge, erected in this citie an Vniuersity, which in succession of time, grew to be reckoned among the most worthy and fa­mous Nurseries of the arts. At the same time also, that is to say, in the year, 1346. was by the same Earle foun­ded a Church and Colledge of priestes in the newe towne, wherein he lyeth buried. The Abbot of Span­heyme discoursing of ecclesiasticall writers, maketh mention of one Marsilius de Ingen, whome some ima­gine to haue beene an Englishman, as the first planter of this Academy. Pope Vrban the sixt confirmed the same with the priueledges & prerogatiues of Parise.

Many learned men hath this Academy fostered, & in our age sent into the world, as Iohannes Dalburgius, Learned men who haue [...] ­ued in this V­niuersity. Rudolphus Agricola, Iohannes Virdungus, with ma­ny others, which left behinde them sondrie mo­numentes of their greate wisedome and learning.

Also in this Vniuersity did that iudustrious and [Page] excellently learned scholler Sebastian Munster pub­likely professe the Hebrew tongue.


TVbinge is a small citty in the Dukedome of Wirtenberge, situated on the higher side of Tubinge. the Necchar, and was in times past the prin­cipall seate and habitation of the Countes Pa­latines of Tubinge, which now for the most parte reside in Leichtenecke, a strong and goodly castell in Brisgewe, not farre from Kentzigen.

In the yeare 1477. at the instance and most earnest The vniuersity erected and authorised. entreaty of Eberhard, the elder Earle of Wirtenberge, and Mompelgard, and his mother Mech [...]ildis, the Pope licensed and authorized in this citty, a generall pro­fession of the liberall arts, which Academy yet main­tayneth well his place and dignity among the most learned and florishing Vniuersities of Germany. Many excellent learned schollers haue issued from this V­niuersitie, among the which most worthily may bee numbred Iohn Stoflerus, a sage and profound Mathe­matician, who did write a learned Treatise of Astro­nomy.

This cittie (as I saide) bordereth on the Necchar, and lyeth in the middest of a most pleasant and fertile The situation of Tubinge. soyle, which yeeldeth vnto the inhabitants, wine, corn, and other necessarie prouisions in great plenty and a­boundance.

The towne being before the erection of the Vni­uersity therein in great want and pouerty, and the houses meanely builded without eyther cost or curi­ousnes, is now growne to that wealth and opulencie, that for artificiall and well proportioned aedifices, it [Page 13] may, and not vnworthily be compared to the proudest cittie of the Germans. It contayneth a magnificent & most sumptuous Castell, standing on the toppe of a mountayne, strongly sortified beyond all credite and comparison.


INgolestate is a strong citty in the Dukedome of Bauaria, lying neare vnto the Danon, the Ingolesttdum greatest, swiftest, and most famous riuer of Christendome, which passing with a vio­lent current through Germany, Hungary, and Mol­dauia, finally disgorgeth it selfe into the Euxine sea. This cittie earst belonged to the Monastery of Altach, and was by free gift deliuered vnto Lewes the last king of Bauaria, since whose time it hath alwaies beene go­uerned by his successors the Dukes of Bauaria, and by little and little hath beene by them so mightily encrea­sed, that within those fifty yeares last passed, what with the magnificence of the Dukes and priuiledges of the Popes, it is become the most excellent and renowned Vniuersity of the vpper partes of Germany.

The Vniuersity was first instituted by Lewes the D. in the yeare of saluation 1471. and is at this day fa­uoured, The instituti­on of the vni­uersity. defended, and mightily enriched by A [...]bertus the moderne Duke thereof, who hath builte therein not onely a peculiar colledge, for the publique profes­sion of Diuinity, but also a fayre and goodly schoole for the education of youth, wherein the Iesuites pro­fesse Rhetorique, Philosophy, and the Liberall Artes.

[Page] Pope Pius the second adorned the same with many priuiledges and prerogatiues.

Stra [...]o writeth that Bauaria is a region, sterill, desert, The fertility of Bauaria, con­trary to that which Strabo writeth hereof and vnfruitfull, which perchance in his time was so for want of being well inhabited, assuredly at this day it is one of the most happie and plentifullest prouin­ces of Germany, whence it commeth to passe, that the studentes of Ingolestate, are better accommodated, and do liue with lesse expence then they well coulde in a­ny other place of Christendome, that I haue seene or reade of, from whence also it proceedeth, that the dyet or great assembly of the German princes is most vsually held in Regensburge, another cittie of Bauaria, one dayes iorney distant from Ingolestate, wherein I Regensburge. my selfe liued eight weekes in the yeare of our Lorde, 1594. when the Emperour with all his traine, and the most parte of the greatest princes of Germany, remay­ned in the towne many of them with three thousand, and foure thousand horse apeece, yet was there neuer found any want or scarsitie of victuals therein, nor the price of corne or any other prouision in the market, a­ny one iot enhaunced, wine onely excepted, of which the country yeeldeth no great aboundance, but that want is by the Rheine and Mecchar supplyed: for the possession of this city, was that calamitous and blou­dy warre raysed (remembred yet by the name of bel­lum Bauaricum) which so much troubled all the pro­uinces of Germany in the yeare one thousand fiue hun­dred and foure.


ERforde called of ancient writers, Erphelfurt, is the metropolis of Thuring, an old and memo­rable Erfordia. citty, abounding with wine, corne and other necessaries. In the middest of this cittie ariseth a little mountain, called S. Peters hill, wherein in times passed stood a goodly castell, in the place whereof Da­gobertus king of France founded a cloyster for Fryers of the order of S. Benedict, which was consecrated to S. Peter: after him Boniface Archbishop of Ments, layed the foundation of our Ladies Church on the same hil, and erected there a Bishopricke euen in the infancie of the Gospell, among the Germans, as plainly appeareth in an Epistle of his, which he wrote to Zachary, high Bishop of Rome. Scias (sayeth hee) per gratiam Dei, Germaniae populum, adviam veritatis reductum: ordina­uimusque apud eos tres episcopos, vnum locauimus in Castel­lum Wirtzburge, alterum in Buraburge, tertium in Euphes­furt. In this church is a bell of most huge and incre­dible circumference, which the Citizens shewe to all straungers repayring thether, as the thinges most re­markable in their Cittie, about the yeare 1066. was this Cittie first enuyroned with a Wall, and fortified with Towers, and beautified with manie rich and sumptuous aedifices both diuine and prophane: at which time it was made the metropolis of Thuringe, because it lyeth in the middest thereof.

An Vniuersity was therein instituted in the yeare 1391. which with many priuiledges confirmed & au­thorized The erection of the Vniuer­sitie. by Pope Boniface the 9. & Pius the 2. In this [Page] Academy haue liued many sage men much renowned for their singular learning, among the which are numbred Nicholaus de Bibera, Henricus de Erfordia, Con­radus de monte puellarum, and many others.

When the German professors oppressed by the multitude of Hussites, departed from Prage, many of 10. Cochleus lib. 2. hist. Hus­si tarum. them retyred themselues to Erforde.

There is no citty in Europe hath so often made ex­perience of the calamities and irreparable damages, which fire vsually bringeth with it, as Erforde hauing Great losses by fier. many times therewithall beene vtterly wasted and consumed. The last fire therein happened in the year 1392. on the festiuall day of S. Geruasius, whereby the third part of the cittie perished, which incredible losse it is not yet recouered of: for at my being there some 5 [...] yeares since, it was scarsely with low and slender buildinges of wood reedified. Out of this Vniuersi­ty issued Martin Luther.


Liptzige is a citty (as some say in Ostland, o­thers would haue it to lye in Misina, both ter­ritories now gouerned by the noble and [...]ypsia. puislant Family of Saxony) thogh of no great circuite, yet for pride and statelines of building, and excessiue traffique of Merchants, scarce inferior to the best adorned citty of Germany three times euery year are therein held certaine famous Martes or Fayres whereof one writeth saying.

Mercibus augetur ter Lipsia magna quotannis.

The houses of this citty are re ared al of free stone, within richly paued, and without curiously paynted [Page 15] with great artifice and maiestie; the streetes are buil­ded in excellent proportion and vniformitie.

The Senate hereof consisteth not (as in other cities) of mechanicall and vnlearned citizens, but of men The Senators learned. skilfull, and well seene in the artes: who haue full po­wer and authority to heare, decide, and determine of all lites, causes and controuersies depending in Meis­sen, Thuringe, and the nether Sazonie.

About the yeare 1480. when the Hussites began to The begin­ning of this Vniuersitie. domineere & tirannize in Prage, then was the vniuer­sitie from thence remoued hither, and the yeare fol­lowing, confirmed by Pope Pius the 2. and Alexander the 5. It was afterward much augmented and repaired by the worthy Prince George Duke of Sazonie, in the yeare 1554. This Vniuersitie at this day most excee­dingly flourisheth through the innumerable multi­tudes of Germaine students, which dayly repaire thi­ther, The fertility of this countrey. because they liue therein with lesse charge and expence then in any other citie, by reason of the admi­rable fertilitie of the soyle, whereof one saith.

Gratus & immenso lucro concredita terrae
Semina reddit ager.

The inhabitants of this Citie haue one innated & vncorrigible vice, which custome hath drawen into a Immoderate drunkennes. nature amongst them, that is, they almost continually wallow in immoderate drunkennesse, in so much that he which can euacuate the greatest number of pottes, and can in receiuing his drinke, hold out longest with­out any swimming or perturbation in his braine, is ac­counted a personage among them of greatest qualitie and worth. Enaeas Siluius writeth, that when one Leo­nardus a noble gentleman came to visite a certaine [Page] kinsman of his, that was then a student in Leipzig, en­quiring among students how hee had profited in lear­ning, he was answered by one of the yong mans com­panions, that he had profited himselfe exceedingly: for (quoth he) among 1500. good swallowers that are in this Vniuersitie, he hath deserued the name and ti­tle of the best and most noble drinker.

Not farre distant from this place is Dresden, where the Dukes of Saxonie electors of the Empire, do most commonly reside.


WIttenberge is a conspicuous & well knowne Citie in the vpper Saxonie, the seate and court of the Dukes Electors, situated on the banke of the Elbe, a riuer which sprin­ging The Elbe. among the mountaines of Bohemia, passeth through Germany, receiuing into it selfe, or as it were, drinking vp by the way many other riuers (as the Mul­daue, the Sall, the Spre, &c.) and at last being growne to an immeasurable greatnesse, and nauigable for ships of the greatest burthen, disgorgeth it selfe into the Ger­maine Ocean, not farre from Stoad, where late was a Staple of English Marchants.

This city receiued his name (as some imagine) from Wittikind Duke of Angria, & Saxonie, which was bap­tized The erection of the Vni­uersity. in the yeare 785. being compelled thereunto by Charles the great, who first caused the Saxons to em­brace the Christian religion.

Duke Fredericke, the son of Ernestus Elector, erected in this citie an Vniuersity, about the yeare 1502. which since in this latter age is growen famous, by reason of [Page 16] the controuersies and disputations of religion, there handled by Martin Luther, and his adherentes: the Doctors thereof are at this day the greatest propugna­tors of the confession of Ausburge, and retaine in vse the meere Lutherane religion.

Many worthy writers haue in this learned seminary of the artes receiued their education, as Hennigus, Schurfius, Clingius, and Oldendorpius, famous professors of the ciuill law, and in our latter age, Martin Luther, and Phillip Melancthon there haue florished.

Frankford vpon Oder.

THere are in Germany two Frankfords, both ci­ties Franckfordia ad Oderam. of great fame and worth: the one lyeth in Franconia vpon the Meine, well knowne to all Marchants & trauellers, by reason of two rich and famous Marts yearely held therein. The other is situa­ted neere to the Oder, a goodly riuer, passing through the Marke or dominion of the Marquesse of Brande­burge, one of the seuen Electors. This is that Franck­ford, which I now intend to speake of.

This citie (as some thinke) was built and named by the Franckes, about the yeare 146. at which time wee reade a nation so named to haue inhabited neere vnto the Rheine. But in their owne Chronicles we find, that this citie was first founded, & extructed by Gedinus of Hertzberge, in the yeare 1253. by the commission & li­cence of Iohn the first of that name, Marquesse of Bran­deburge, as a storehouse for such marchandise as should be brought thither, as well ouer land, as vp the riuer.

Ioachime, Marques of Brandeburge, to his euerlasting The vniuersity erected. praise, first founded in this place an Vniuersitie in [Page] the yeare of grace 1506. and bountifully prouided for the maintenance thereof, enduing the same with large reuenewes and rich possessions: it was afterwarde au­thorised by Pope Alexander the 6. and by Pope Iulius the 2. and Maximilian the first of that name Emperour, enfranchised with many priuiledges. The first Chan­celor thereof is said to haue beene Theodorus de Bulan, the first Rector, Conrade Wippina, a learned Diuine and subtill Philosopher: the first Deane of Artes therein created, was Iohn Lindholtz.

In the yeare 1344. Rudolph Duke of Saxony, the Bi­shop of Magdeburge, Barnaim Duke of Pomerland, and the Duke of Anhalt conspiring in armes against Lewes, created Marquesse of Brandoburge, by the Emperour Lewes of Bauaria his father, besieged Franckford, but the citizens doing homage vnto Lewes, quickly caused them to dislodge and withdraw their forces. The Hus­sites also attempting the siege therof in the yeare 1432. were in like sort repulsed: so strongly fortified is their Cittie.

In this Citie the three tongues are with great and profound learning professed: also the Ciuill law, Phi­sicke, & the Mathematiques are there publikely taught with much wisedome and excellencie.


ROstoche is a maritine Citie, bordering on Saxonie, populous and opulent, the aire thereabout is pure and healthie, and the Rostochium. land fertile, from whence arise great cheapnesse and plentie of victuailes.

In the yeare of Christes natiuitie 1415. the Princes [Page 17] of Meckleburge, and the citizens of Rostoche obtained licence to erect in this Citie an vniuersitie, wherein the artes in generall haue euer since beene learnedly professed, they are in religion partly Lutheranes, partly Caluinistes.


GRipswalde is a towne in the Dukedome of Wolgaste, subiected to the D. of Pomerland, which by long ciuil discord impouerished is now grown obscure. About the yere of our Lord 1456 liued herein a certaine learned Doctor of the Lawes, which being Proconsul or Burgomaster of the towne, obtained for the same many goodly priuiledges and licence to erect an Vniuersitie, which being by him onely begun, was perfited and enlarged by the great care and diligence of Phillip Duke of Pomerland, in the yeare 1547.


FRiburge is a noble and conspicuous citie, at this day the Metropolis of Brisgew, which Prouince belongeth to the Earles of Fursten­berge. It was first a little village, & in the yeare 1120. was walled about by Bertholdus Duke of Zeringe, as by those olde rithmes appeareth.

Anno milleno centeno bis quoque deno,
Friburge fundatur, Bertholdus dux dominatur.

There was in times past not aboue a mile distant [Page] from this towne a mine of siluer, whereby the citizens A mine of siluer. were so greatly enriched, that they began to adorne & beautifie their citie with temples, monasteries, & sun­drie other edifices, built in most pompous and magni­ficent manner. Amongst the rest at that time was ere­cted that costly & curious Pyramis or Tower of stone vpon our Ladies Church: the like whereof is not in Germany to be seene, (the steeple of Strasburge excep­ted) which by the Gentiles was numbred among the miracles of the world. Then did the citizens through the affluence of their wealth take vppon them the de­gree of nobilitie, and the noble men & gentlemen of the countrey sued to bee made free of that incorpora­tion, insomuch that they ordinarily had 12. knights sit­ting in their Senate house. At that time was the Citie 12. Knights senators in Friburge. able to produce into the field of their owne cittizens 30000. armed men. There remaine yet therein 14. re­ligious houses, besides a Temple of Croitzhiers, or Knights of the crosse, and an other belonging to the knightes of the Dutch order.

In the yeare of our Sauiour 1250. or as some write, 1460. Albert Duke of Austria founded in this Citie an The vniuersi­tie erected. Academy, and liberally endued the same with large re­uenewes and possessions. In the yeare 1467. this vni­uersitie receiued many statutes and ordinances from Vienna in Austria: from whence also came many great & learned clerkes, here publikely to professe Theologie, the Lawes, Ciuill, & Canon, & the other Artes. And at length the Emperour Fredericke, in the yeare 1472. much augmented and encreased the same: the chiefest colledge herein, is that which is called [...]omus sapientiae.

In this place is great plentie of the stones, called Chal­cedonij, L [...]pi [...] Chal­cedonias. [Page 18] whereof they vsually make beads, which being halfe blacke, halfe white, when they are polished, re­semble Ieat and Iuory glewed together. They are digged out of the ground at Westrich in Lorrayne, and are in this citie cut and garnished.

There runne through Friburge many little brooks, the channels whereof are diuided into euerie streete, which purge the citie of all noysomnesse, and are in the winter time, when all the riuers without the citie are congealed, neuer frosen.

Neere vnto the walles hereof is a riuer, replenished with sundrie kinds of fishes, called Triese, which sprin­geth out of the same mountaine, from whence the Da­now ariseth. The Danow carrying his current with great celerity toward the East, and the Triese softly sli­ding to the West.


MArtpurge is the Metropolis of Hessen, vnder the Laudsgraue his dominion, & is situate in the middest thereof, on the banke of Lon, a small riuer falling into the Rheine. Some are of opinion that it was so called from Mars the God of warre, a­mong the heathen: Others think it receiued his name from Marcomire Prince of the Franckes.

An vniuersitie was in this citie instituted about the yeare 1526. which was afterward repayred and rein­stituted by Philip the Landgraue in the yeare 1536. It was authorized by Charles the fift at Regensberge, who endued it with priuiledges of Vienna.

They professe in this place Caluinisme.


DIlinge is a citie in Switserland, seated ncere vn­to the Danow, vnder the gouernment of the Bishop of Ausburge, wherein he is often resi­dent, nauing there a castle, pleasant and commodious. Therein also are two good Cloisters of Nuns. In the yeare 1 [...]64. Otto Trucheses, Cardinall of the Romaine church, Bishop of Ausburge, and Protector of Germa­nie, for the great and singular loue wherewith he al­waies embraced learning, brought the Iesuites into this citie, & erected therein an vniuersitie at his owne charge and expence, where the Artes haue euer since beene with great diligence and learning professed.


VIenna is the most renowned metropolis & re­sidence of the Archdukes of Austria, situate vpon the shore of Danubius, a citie for conti­nuance most ancient, for wealth most opulent, and for strength most inuincible, the only bulwark of the chri­stians against their perpetuall, immane, & barbarous enemie the Turke. Certaine it is, that this was a strong and well adorned citie before our Sauiour came into The antiquity of Vienna. the world, & was inhabited by the Sarmatians, a peo­ple driuen frō the confines of Istria, vnto this place by Octauius Augustus, for infecting Italy with sundry thefts, and robberies: but by what name it then was called, the most learned Antiquaries are ignorant. Some say it was knowne by the name of Vindebona, Sundry opini­ons concer­ning the anci­ent name of Vienna. a worde of the Pagans, and therefore was called of Ptolomey, by the chaunging of one word Iuliobona: [Page 19] others are of opinion that the name of Vienna was de­riued from Fabiana, from which taking the two first letters there remayneth Btana, and changing B into V. (a common thing among the Germans) is made Viana, which opinion seemeth best to agree with the truth, because that Cornelius Tacitus in his 18. booke, maketh mention of Titus Fabianus praefect of Panonia, from whome this cittie might well receiue that name, or else from Annius Fabianus, whome to haue gouerned the tenth German legion in Panonia, many ancient mo­numents there dayly found, doe clearely testifie. 400 yeares since, the Cittizens casting a new ditch neare to the Scottish porte, found engraued in the fragment of a piller digged out of the grounde, eyther of those names, wherein were written certaine Latine wordes, to this sense, Marcianus decurio and aedile of the Muni­cipie of Vindobana, and praefect of the Fabian cohort.

In this cittie is a publike and famous Vniuersitie of The vniuersity erected. great name and worthines, first founded and instituted after the rules of Rome and Paris, in the year (as some write) 1239, by the Emperour Fredericke the 2. to the end he might leaue vnto his sonne Conradus an Em­pory, strongly guarded and defended with men lear­ned and skilfull in the liberall sciences, which after­ward Rudolphus the 4 Albertus the 3. and Leopoldus the 2. three brothers, Archdukes of Austria, with sondry priuiledges, enfranchised, and remoued the same from the place wherein it first was instituted, neare to the Pallace of the Archdukes, but the studentes being there often interrupted and hindred in their course of studies, by the tumult and insolency of the Courti­ers, the same Albertus chose for them a more fitte and [Page] commodious place near to the monastery of the Fry­ers predicantes, where he purchased for scholasticall vses a spatious and fayrely builded house, which once was by the Templars enhabited, and is now called the Archdukes Colledge: he gaue vnto the same sufficient Collegium Arch [...]ducale. reuenewes for the perpetuall maintenance of 12. Rea­ders of Philosophy, and professors of the Artes.

This Prince obtayned lycence of Pope Vrban the 6. that Diuinity might in this Academy publikely be professed, and that it might be lawfull for the students and teachers to receiue and giue all degrees of scho­lasticall honour and promotion.

The Colledge called Bursa agni, was founded in the year 1408. by Christopher Ottersdoffe, Citizen of Vienna. Bursa agni. Bursa Silesita­rum. The Colledge of the Silesians was in the yeare 1420. bought and finished by Nicholaus Clebetius Canon of Vratislauia, or Breslow.

The Colledge of the Rose, was in the yeare 1432. crected by Vdelricus Gruenualdorus, and one Nicholaus Burger of Vienna. Bursa Rosae

The Colledge of Lillies was in the year 1457. foun­ded by Burcharde Krebs, Canon of Padua. Gymnasium [...]herum. Bursa Pruchia

Pruche Colledge was instituted in the year 1491. by Oswaldus of Wichersdorpe.

In the yeare 1517. Paules schoole founded by Pau­lus Wannus, was altered and translated, and the name therof changed, it is now called Heiden Herein colledge.

This Vniuersity consisteth of fower principal mem­bers or faculties, the principall professors of ech facul­tie haue chosen vnto themselues, peculiar Saintes, which they with great reuerence and deuotion dayly worship, as their patrons and mediators, the Diuines [Page 20] S. Iohn the Enangelist, the Lawyers S. Iuon, the Phisiti­ons the Saintes, Cosima, and Dam [...]anus, and the Artists that is Philosophers, Orators, Poets, Linguistes, and such like, S. Katherine.

This company of Artists erected among them an­no 1421. two goodly Colledges, whereof the one is Two new Col­ledges. named Vniuersity hall, the other Noua structura, or the New building.

The Rector of this Vniuersity in all publique artes, taketh place next vnto the Prince, and administreth iustice, as supreme iudge to all studentes thereof, as well in criminall, as ciuile controuersies: hee was wont yearely to be chosen, neither could anie one be admitted to that Magistracy, that had euer been linked in matrimony, but since the time of the Emperour Ferdinand the first, that custome hath beene altered, & now married men are licensed to enioy that dignity, but on condition that they substitute some Cleargy man vnmarried to exercise their iurisdiction vppon ecclesiasticall persons.

In the yeare of Christ, 464. S. Seuerine the Apostle of Austria, taught the inhabitantes of this Cittie, the principles of Christian religion, and beganne therein S. Seuerine conuerted the Austrians vn­to Christianity to institute a Bishopricke, which decaying was againe renewed about the yeare 636. at what time Gisalaricus, sent thether by S. Rudbert, preached among them the Gospell, from whome the catalogue of the Bishops of Vienna beginneth. In this Cittie are many sump­tuous and magnificent Temples, amongst which the cathedrall church of Saint Stephen is of greatest beau­tie and estimation, whereon is erected a rich and goodlie pinacle or steeple, hauing on the highest [Page] pointe there of an halfe Moone, the badge or cogni­sance of the Turkes, which was there set vp vpon this occasion. In the yeare 1529. the Turkish army lying Why the citti zens of Vien­na erected a halfe moone on the toppe of S. Stephens church, being the Turkes cognisance. neare vnto the wals of this Cittie, raysed their artilery against the steeple, as the thing most eminent therein, intending to leuill it with the ground: which the Em­perials perceyuing, caused forth with an Heraulde to be sent into the enemies campe to let them vnderstand how greatly they should damnifie their Cittie by de­priuing it of so beautifull an ornament, without any one iot benefitting themselues, promising them with­al if they would desist from so prophane an enterprise, there should in perpetuall memory of them, and ho­nour of their name, be erected on the top thereof an halfe Moone: whereupon the Turke diuerted his or­dinance from thence, & the Citizens kept their word.

In this Citty are yet to be seene the ancient ruines of a goodly Basilique, erected by Charles the great in honour of S. Peter.

Henry the first Duke of Austria, founded herein an Abby to the vse of the Scottes. Richard the first surna­med Ceur de Lyon king of England, being by Lupoldus Vienna walled about by Ric. Ceur [...]de Lion K. of England Duke of Austria taken prisoner about the yeare 1192. in a small village neere to Vienna, called Erdpurge, as he returned from the holy land, was enforced by the sayde Duke (if their owne Chronicles be true,) to en­uiron this cittie with a new wall, which included the former. About that time also was therin an Empory for marchāts constituted, wherby the citizens increa­sing dayly in wealth, obtayned of the Emperour Fre­dericke the 2. liberty, and were adorned with the em­periall Armes, and numbred among the free towns of the Empire.

THE VNIVERSITIES of the Low Countries.


LOuaine one of the fower townes of Louanium. Some write that this mar­quisate was e­rected by Iust [...] ­man, some by the children of Constanti­nus magnus: but P. Aemili [...] us most truly writeth, that it was erected by the Emperour Otho the 2. anno 973. for the dowry of his aunt Ger­berge, mother to Lothaire, k. of France, and that it com­prehend ed these 4. towns Nibell, Lo­uaine, Brux­elles, and Andwarpe. Louaine why so called. the Marquisate of the sacred Em­pire, is the principall and mother of all the townes in Brabant, and maketh the first member of the third estate of that Prouince. It is builded in figure round, contay­ning fower miles compas within the walles, and sixe in circumference without, among many other beau­tifull and sumptuous aedifices therein, the church of S. Peter, and the publike pallace, are wrought with greatest magnificence and most curious arte. It was called Louaine (as some say) from the Dutch word Lo­uen, which signifyeth to praise or honor, because the Idoll Mars was there helde in time of Paganisme in great honor and estimation.

This towne is situated neare to the riuer Dele, the houses and streetes thereof are not closely compacted together, but wide open and scatteringly builte, by [Page] which meanes there are within the same many fayre gardens, valleis, mountaines, medowes, springes, and vines, the land about this towne is pleasant and fruite­full, and the ayre temperate, for which cause our aun­cesters, not without great iudgement and discretion, chose out this place, as most fitte for the habitation of the Muses.

We finde written in the Chronicles of Colen, that Iohn Duke of Brabant obtayned of Pope Martin the Iohn Duke of Brabant founder of the Vniuersity. fift, the approbation of an Vniuersitie in this Cittie, & that letters and good discipline beganne there pub­likely to be taught about the yeare 1426. Afterwards Pope Eugenius the 6, licensed therein the profession of Theologie. This Academy in processe of time, by the bounty and magnificence of Popes, Emperours, Kinges, Cardinals, and Bishops, whereof some graun­ted thereto ample priueledges and prerogatiues, some erected therein stately and magnificent Colledges, o­thers bequethed to the same for the vse of the students, goodly landes and legacies, is now growne to that higth of glory and celebrity, that it worthily hath v­surped the name of a most flourishing Academy, and renowned Empery of learning.

Iohannes Goropius affirmeth that no Vniuersity of Italy, France, or Germany, may with this bee compared for pleasant ayre, and delectable walkes. And that al­though Salamanca in Spaine farre excelleth all other Christian Academies, in magnificent and sumptuous­ly builded Colledges, yet it is farre inferior to Loucine, for the delightsome and beautifull situation thereof: Pope Adrian the 6. erected in Louaine (whereof him­selfe had beene Rector and Chancelor) a goodly col­ledge [Page 22] for studentes and professors of Diuinity. Charles the fift Emperour of Germany, and Philip the second king of Spaine, did extend the vttermost of their ende­uors to encrease, amplifie and a dorne this royall Vni­uersity.

In it are for the vse of the studentes, 20 Colledges, the principall whereof are fiue, Lilium, Castrum, Porcus, 20. Colledges in Louaine. Falco, Trilingue.

This Cittie is the first that receiueth, and giueth oath to the Prince. It was sometimes an Eatledome; but in the yeare 1247. Henry the second of that name, Earle of Louaine deceasing, Henry his successor vsurped the title of Duke of Brabant.


DOuay is a good and strong town in Flan­ders Gallicant, one mile distant from Cam­bray. It was founded as some write by one Arcanalkus in the yeare of our Lorde 500. it is now a Chasteleny, hauing iuris­diction ouer a good country, and a great number of villages: it is accommodated with many fountaines, and adorned with many fayre & sumptuous aedifices, the manner and forme of building therein, is an inuin­cible argument of the great antiquitie thereof.

In this Cittie not long since was erected a famous Vniuersitie by Philip late king of Spaine, and authori­sed An Vniuersity erected. with the priuiledges of Louaine, where Theologie, Philosophy, and the inferior artes are learnedly pro­fessed. At Douay is a staple of corne, brought thether out of sondry regions, wherof, as also of diuerse other [Page] marchandizes in this cittie is great traffique.


LEige is a citty fayre and large, comprehen­ding within the walles thereof, many hils, Leodinm. vallies, riuers, and vine groundes, which Philip de Comines, Lorde of Argenton, ac­counteth to containe in circuite foure Ita­lian Philip de Comines. miles, and maketh it in circumference equall with Rouen. It is situated on the side of the riuer Mouse, which entreth into it with 2 branches, and maketh therein many pleasant Isles, all which are frequented and en­habited. Many other little riuers passing through this towne, doe clense the streetes thereof, namely, the Leige, from which riuer the cittie is thought to haue receiued her name. Also three litle brookes, Vte, Vese, & Ambluar, all three replenished with exceeding store of excelēt fish, especialy Vte, wherin are taken certaine delicate fishes named by the inhabitants Vtins, these people speake a kinde of barbarous French, and are of the Frenchmen called Ligeois, of the Germans Lutti­cherne and Luicknarren.

Leige is a cittie imperiall, but their tenure is onely to furnish the Emperour with some few men at armes in his wars against the Turke. The Bishop thereof is Lord spirituall both of the towne and countrie: but the people haue so large priueledges, that they liue al­most in perfect liberty and freedome. Their appeales spirituall go to Collen. The Archbishop thereof is their Primate, and from thence to Rome. Their temporall ap­peales goe to the Emperiall chamber at Spire.

[Page 23] In this Citie flourished in times passed a most fa­mous and renowned Academie, wherein as Hubert Thomas writeth, were studentes at one time the chil­dren The Vniuersi­tie d [...]e [...]ed. of 9. kings, 24. Dukes, 29. Earles, besides the sons of many Barons and gentlemen. This worthy vniuer­sitie by the iniurie of time, & often subuersion of the citie, it is at this day decaied, and almost vtterly extin­guished: onely some triuiall schooles for the institu­tion of youth in the inferior studies, are there re­mayning.

In this cittie are 8. collegiall Churches, the Canons whereof are inestimable rich, and held of the citizens in great reuerence and reputation, especially the Ca­nons of the Collegiall Church of S. Lambert, the pa­tron of the towne, who are ioyned with the Bishop Libertie of the Canons. in gouernment of the state, and haue so great libertie, that they may at pleasure giue ouer their places, and marrie, before they haue taken the order of priest­hood: into this societie can no man be admitted, that is not a gentleman, or a Doctor, or licentiate. In this Church of Saint Lambert, among diuers other rich ie­wels and reliques, is to be seene a great image of Saint George on horsebacke, all of pure gold, which Charles Duke of Burgundie gaue for amendes of his rough handling this citie, when he wan it by force.

Also in this towne are foure rich Abbeyes, hauing euerie one a goodly librarie: the principall whereof 4. Abbeyes containing 4. libraries. is the Abbey of S. Laurence, there are three Nunneries, and all the foure orders of Fryers, some of the which haue two couentes. There are 32. parish churches, & so many other chappels, monasteries, and hospitals [Page] within and without the towne, that the whole num­ber of Churches amounteth in all to one hundred.

Further in this citie are 32. companies, which haue so great authoritie in the gouernment of the state, that without their consent nothing can bee concluded or agreed on.

Ernestus Duke of Bauaria and Archbishop of Colen, is at this day Bishop of that Sea.

The Bishopricke of Leige was first erected by Hu­bert sonne to Bertrand Duke of Aquitaine, who being at Rome, was made by the Pope Bishop of Maestricht, in the place of Saint Lambert, whome the people of Maestricht had murthered in the yeare 710. But he be­ing come to take possession of this citie, so much dete­sted the inhabitants thereof, for the foresaid impious and most haynous murther, that he transported his Episcopall Sea to Liege, and there built the Church of Saint Lambert, and the Colledge afore mentioned, all which he did with Pope Constantines consent, a­bout the yeare 713. and here at Liege he died, and was after canonized for a Saint. Since whome are num­bred 57. Bishops of Leige.

The Bishop is chosen by the Chapter of S. Lambert, confirmed by the people, and lastly approued by the Pope. He is not onely a Bishop, but also a Prince of the Empire, Duke of Buillon, Marquesse of Francimont and Earle of Lootes and Hasbaine.

The reuenews of this Bishopricke are aboue 30000. Duckats by the yeare, besides the beneuolence of his s [...]biectes, (which is a matter of no small importance, if he vse them well) and his spirituall iurisdiction, and [Page 24] an infinite number of Prebends, benefices and offices, which he bestoweth at his pleasure.


LEiden is one of the sixe capitall Townes of Holland, and chiefe of Rheineland, situate in a flat and low countrey, full of ditches and channels, & is beautified with many plea­fant medows, gardens, arbors & walks round about it.

Within it are enclosed 31. Ilands, from one of the which to the other, men go by boates, and ouer and a­boue these, there are nine or ten other Ilands: from the one of the which to the other bridges, are built to passe ouer: so that in this Towne are 145. bridges: whereof 104. are of stone, and the rest of wood.

In this Citie was erected an vniuersitie, about the yeare 1564. by William late Prince of Orenge, who was in the yeare 1584. suddenly slaine with a pistoll. This Academie doth at this day exceedingly flourish, and therein are with liberall stipendes maintained sundry learned professors of the liberall sciences.

In Leiden is a strong Castle, which was said to bee founded by Hengist, returning from the conquest of England, and therein is a notable Well, from whence the ancient family of Wassenar taketh name.

This Cittie hath vnder it 49. Boroughes and vil­lages, the most part whereof once a weeke bring all their good victuailes to sell in the towne, which cau­seth it to abound with all thinges arising of the earth. It hath also great plentie of fish, both sea fish and fresh water fish, and of water fowle, beyonde all [Page] measure. The women are excellently faire, and the aire passing holsome.

But a little league from Leiden, is the famous abbey of Reinsburge, consisting of Nunnes, all of noble hou­ses: the Abbesse whereof hath iurisdiction spirituall and temporall; and the Abbey is endowed with so great reuenewes, that euerie day aboue 2000. persons come thither to receiue reliefe. Another such like Ab­bey of Ladies is also neere to Leiden, called Terlee. In all these Monasteries of Ladies and gentlewomen, they may vntill they be entred into profession, come forth and marrie: and ordinarily they liue there ma­ny yeares before they professe themselues, obseruing notwithstanding in the meane time their rules and or­ders very duely, soberly, and religiously.

Copenhagen in Denmarke.

IN the mouth or entrance of the Sounde, called by Latine writers S [...]nus Venedicus, which diuideth the two kingdomes of Denmarke and Sweden, lyeth an Iland, na­med Selandia: wherein are many strong townes and Castles, and among the rest Coppenhagen, the feare of the King and Metropolis of the Realme.

In this Citie was erected an vniuersitie by Christian Earle of Oldenburge, in the yeare of saluation 1478. af­ter he had gained the Regall Diademe. For the which he obtained at the hands of Pope Sixtus the 4. the pri­uiledges of Bonònia.

This Academie was afterward augmented and en­larged by King Christian the third, in the yeare 1498. [Page 25] and after him Fredericke the second, in the yeare 1549.

We reade that in the time of King Erec, the sonne of Siwardus Anscharius Bishop of Hamburge, caused the Gospell to be preached in Denmarke, which the inha­bitants for a short time seemed willingly to embrace: but their King deceasing, they againe returned (as a dogge to his vomit) to their infide [...]ity and Paganisme: wherein they liued, vntill the raigne of Swenotto, father to Canutus, the great so called, because hee vanquished & held in subiection fiue kingdomes, namely, Sweden, Norway, England, Denmarke, and Normandie. About those times Poppo a religious man, comming into the Countrey againe, instructed them in the princi­ples and rudiments of Christian religion, which from that time vntill this day they haue retained.

The Vniuersities of Italie.


ALllearned historiographers do with one common consent agree, that Rome was so named from Romulus the sonne of Numitor & Rhea Siluia, who layed thereof the first founda­tion. How the inhabitants thereof in processe of time by warlike chiualry dilated their Empire & dominion ouer al the westerne world, whosoeuer is desirous to know, I must refer him to the learned Decades of Titus Liuius, and sun­dry other ancient writers, who haue alreadie filled the world with whole volumes of Romaine histories. It being a matter of greater import, then wel can be con­teined in the breuitie of my vndertaken taske. Where­fore although I find recorded in auncient hystories, that the Romaines foreseeing the great vtilitie that would ensue by nourishing the artes, receiued into their citie in the first infancie of their greatnesse, with singular admiration the profession of learned sciences, and that therein hath flourished a renowned Acade­mie of long continuance, erected 700. yeares before our Sauiours incarnation: yet mine onely intent and [Page 26] purpose is to write of such patrones and benefactors, as haue promoted and furthered the same, and such priuiledges as haue thereunto beene graunted since it first embraced Christian religion.

Nauclerus writeth, that Vrbane the fourth of that name, being seated in the Papall chaire, was much Pope Vrban the fourth. grieued to see the course of studies in the Romaine Academie intermitted, and all good discipline negle­cted: wherefore immediately he caused to bee sent for that famous and most learned Clearke Thomas of Aquine, to direct and gouerne it, who setting aside all care and respect of worldly promotion, applyed his mind wholly to reforme, restore, & adorne the same: during which time, at the Popes entreatie he did write many excellent commentaries vpon diuine and hu­mane Philosophie.

We reade also concerning the ratification of this Vniuersitie, of a decree sancited and enacted by Pope Pope Inno­cent the 4. Innocent the 4. as followeth. Whereas infinite multi­tudes of people from sundry parts and regions of the world, haue recourse to the sea Apostolique, as their common mother, wee of our fatherly care, minding the profit and commoditie as well of them as all other in generall, to the end that by their staying here, they may by bettering their vnderstanding, benefite them­selues, haue prouided that here from henceforth, be­sides the inferior artes, the studies of humane and di­uine, that is, ciuill and Canon law shall publikely bee taught and professed. Wherefore we decree and or­daine, that these schooles shall receiue and enioy all manner of priuiledges, liberties, & immunities, which haue beene giuen and granted to any other lawfull & [Page] allowed Vniuersitie. Pope Clement the fift, in a coun­cell held at Vienna, ordained: that at Rome, or where­soeuer Pope Clement the 5. the Pope in person should be resident, the He­brew, Arabicke, and Chalde tongues should publike­ly be taught.

Pope Eugenius the fourth, a man zealously affected Pope Eugeni­us the 4. to the loue of learning, restored many decayed Vni­uesities in sundry parts of Christendome, but heespe­cially gaue testimonie of his great bountie and singu­lar munificence, in setting forth and adorning the Romaine Academie.

Pope Nicholaus the fift, being himselfe a learned Pre­late, highly fauouring all learned men, did more la­bour Pope Nicholas the 5. in repayring and beautifying the glorious Aca­demie then any of his predecessors: in so much that in Rome, since the first foundation thereof, neuer were letters held inso great veneration, nor learned men so much honoured and esteemed, as appeareth by the testimonie of Perotus, a man then liuing: What is (saith he) the cause why learninges schooles are now more vsually then heretofore frequented? Verily, because thou Pope Nicholaus the fift, art become their prince and gouernour: who as thou art thy selfe in all kinds of learning excellent, so thou doest receiue, nourish, honour and embrace all such whose mindes are studi­ously enclyned &c.

This worthy Prelate hauing finished his daies, his se­pulcher was adorned with this glorious Epitaph.

Hic sita sunt quinti, Nicholai pontificis ossa,
Aurea qui dederit saecula Roma tibi:
Consilio illustris, virtute illustrior omni,
Excoluit doctos doctior ipse viros.
[Page 27] Vnder this stone Pope Nicholas is interde,
By whome Rome golden dayes enioyde of yore,
More learn'de himselfe, he learned men prefer'de,
Famous for counsell, much for vertue more.

Pope Leo the tenth, to his incredible charge, called from forth forraine nations, sundry graue and leatned Pope Leo the tenth. men, vnto whome he liberally exhibited pensions and annuities, which by their paines and industry vphelde and maintained the maiesty of this renowned Acade­my. The Grecian language, being among the Latines almost quite forgotten and abolished, was againe by this Bishop restored, and brought in vse, as appeareth by an epistle of his written to Marcus Masurus a Grecian in the yeare of our Lorde one thousand fiue hundred and thitteene, wherein among sondry other requests he entreateth him to bring with him certaine young men out of Greece, from whome the Romans might receiue the true vse and pronountiation of Greeke Characters.

Pope Iulius the third founded in Rome the Ger­man Colledge, an aedifice stately and magnificent, Pope Iulius the third foun der of the Ger man Colledge wherin at this day are educated & maintayned a greate number of Almaines, vnder the tutele and gouernmēt of the sesuites.

The Colledge of Wisedome was first erected by Collegium Sapientiae. Claudius the Emperour, and called Alhemeum wherein (as saveth Saint Hierome,) all manner of doctrine, did in his time greatly flourish: it was afterwarde re­stored and brought to perfection by Pope Alexander the 6. wherein the professors of all artes are most boun­tifully prouided for.

[Page] There is also in Rome another fayre and beautifull colledge, belonging to the Iesuites, which is deuided Collegium so­cietatis Iesu. into two schooles or partes: the one is called Parthe­nia, into the which they onely are admitted that haue passed 18. yeares of their age, and are of sufficient lear­ning and capacity to frequent the lectures of Philoso­phy or Diuinity, the other serueth for a Seminarie to the former, and therein is professed onely Rhetorique and Humanity. This colledge hath for armes Theo­logy, in forme of a royall Queene, seated in a rich & stately temple, hauing on eyther side of her a Ladie kneeling, whereof the one is Phisica, or naturall Phi­losophy, holding betweene her handes a terrestriall Globe: the other Mathematica, holding in like man­ner a celestiall Sphere: between them is this Motto or inscription: Leges impone subactis. Pope Pius the fifte conuerted an ancient house in Rome, belonging to The english Seminary. Englishmen, to a goodly Colledge, wherein a greate number of English youthes doe at this day receiue their education, the praesidentes and Rectors wherof are alwayes esuites.

Of the Libraries in Rome.

The ancient Romans foreseeing that the onelie meanes whereby learning might euerlastingly be pre­serued, and letters with good discipline vndefiled and incorrupt be transmitted to their succeeding poste­rity, was by the especiall preseruation and safe keeping of bookes, containing the heroicke actes of their pro­genitors, which had beene compiled by sondry graue and learned men, they vsed therein extreme trauaile, and industry: which gaue occasion to the first erec­ting [Page 28] of Libraries in Rome.

The first that designed in Rome a place for the con­seruation Tarquinius Superbus the first that erec­ted Libraries in Rome. of Bookes, was Tarquinius Superbus, for the workes of Sybilla. Wee find recorded in the ancient Annales of Italy, that a certaine olde woman disguised and vnknowne, presenting herselfe before Tarquinius, offered him nine volumes to be solde, wherein as she saide diuine oracles were contayned, but she set vpon them so immense and incredible a price, that Tarqui­nius imagining the woman to be distract and [...]unatike, could not withholde himselfe from laughter, where­withall shee seeming to be displeased, cast immedi­ately three bookes of the nine into a burning flame, demaunding of the king, whether he would buye the other six, not diminishing one iot of the former price, whereat the king much more exceedingly laughed, making now at all no question of her phrenesie: shee forthwith cast other three into the fire, and with a plea­sant countenance, asked the king whether hee would yet buy those three remayning as dearly estimated as the former nine. Tarquinius wondring from whence so confident and resolute a determination should pro­ceede, beganne now more seriously to attend her strange demaund, and bought of her those three at no lesse a rate, then shee at first demanded for the whole, and forthwith commanded that they should be repo­sed in the Capitoll, in which place they were reserued as most religious & sacred thinges, vntil Cornelius Sylla his time, when together with the Capitoll they were consumed with fire.

Iulius Caesar afterward (as Suetonius writeth) vsed Iulius Caesar; great care and diligence in erecting of libraries, the [Page] charge whereof he committed to Marcus Varro. Mar­lianus in his sixt book, and second Chapter, maketh mention of two goodly libraries, erected by Paulus AEmelius, and Octauia the sister of Augustus, and wife of Anthony.

Blondus writeth, how that famous library of Apelico, wherein were found the bookes of Aristotle and Theo­phrastus, was by Lucius Sylla, when he subdued Athens, from thence remoued vnto Rome.

But all those learned workes of so many excellent wits, with painefull and laborious trauaile, acquired in forraine nations by Romes victorious captaines, and Rome set on fire by Nero. there layed vp for monumentes, consecrated vnto e­uerliuing sempiternity, were by the impious and detestable fact of Nero, when he set the citty of Rome on fire, to the inestimable losse and detriment of Europe vtterly consumed: which pernitious deede of his, is the onely cause, why we at this day want so many an­tique histories of forepassed times, neither had there now beene left vnto vs any memory of sondry com­monweales, many hundred yeeres ago, with greatest policy and wisedome gouerned, had not the succee­ding magistrates and Emperours of Rome, with indus­trious and carefull diligence, and incredible expence of treasure, caused the dispersed reliques of defaced histories to be searched out, and againe compiled by sondry wise and learned men.

Suetonius writeth that Vespatian vndertaking a­gaine to restore the Capitoll, disdayned not among the Vespatian re­stored the Ca­pitoll. meanest Labourers, with his owne shoulders to ex­porte such ordure and filth, as long had lyen therein, and that by searching out obscure fragments of olde [Page 29] exemplars, he againe recouered 3000. brasen tables, wherein were contayned the seuerall actes of sondry Roman magistrates, the decrees of their Senate, and priueledges of their Cittizens.

Domitian also carefully repayred such libraries, as by fire in former times had beene consumed, and cau­sed to be sent for from Alexandria skilfull pen men, which might againe write ouer and amend such olde blotted copies of sondry authors, as he had with long search recouered.

Great care and diligence was concerning this mat­ter vsed by sondry other Emperours, as Traian, Adrian, Valens, Valentinian and Gratian, &c. yet neuer did the Roman libraries attaine vnto any perfection, vntil the high Bishops had gotten the principality and domini­on of the citty.

Pope Hilary the first left behind, two goodly libra­ries of his own erection.

Pope Zacharie the first, restored Saint Peters li­brarie.

Pope Nicholaus the fift sent sondry excellently lear­ned schollers into all quarters of Europe, to search and seeke out the workes of antient authors, and by edicte did make promise of 5000. Duccats to any man that could bring vnto Rome the Gospel of S. Mathew writ­ten in the Hebrew tongue.

Leo the tenth, sent into Turky, Iohn Lascarus, who robbing all the heathen Vniuersities of their best, and worthiest authors, did therewith plentifully furnish & adorne the Roman libraries.

Sixtus the fourth builded in Vaticano that famous The library in Vaticano erec­ted by P. Six­tus the fourth. and renowned librarie, called Palatina, then which the [Page] world hath not at this day a place of greater worth and admiration, hee with maruailous expence of his treasure made search and inquiry throughout all Realmes of Christendome for bookes of greatest es­teeme and rarity: all which he placed in this pretious librarie, whereunto hee appointed sondrie keepers and Gardians, allowing monthly, greate summes of money for the perpetuall maintenance thereof.

Much was this goodly Library defaced and en­damaged, when Rome was by the Duke of Burbon, (Charles the fifte possessing the Emperiall Diademe) conquered and ransacked. But by the carefull pro­uision of succeeding Popes, it hath againe recouered in full proportion the beauty and celebrity which it before enioyed.

Raphaell Volaterranus in his sixt book of Geogra­phy, sayeth, that there were in his time 24. Libraries in Rome, the principall whereof were Vlpia, which was that founded by Traian, and Palatina, which is this in Vaticano.


WEe reade that king Attila at such time as hee besiedged Aquilegia, the inhabitantes of that towne, hauing long defended themselues, and dispay­ring, fledde with their goodes to the rockes within the pointe of the Adriaticall sea. The Paduans seeing the fire at hand, and fearing that A­quilegia being wonne, the barbarous enemie would not so desist, but prosecute his warres on them, car­ried [Page 30] all their moueables of greatest value, neare the same sea into a place, called riuo alto, whither they al­so sent their wiues, children, and aged men, leauing the youth to defend the Cittie walles. Aquilegia being taken, Attila defaced Padua, Vincenza, and Ve­rona, the Paduans therefore and the chiefe of the other Citties, to auoide the hostile and furious pursute of their enemies, seated themselues about riuo alto. Like­wise all the people of that prouince (which was anci­ently called Venetia,) being driuen out by the same misfortune, did flie thither for reliefe, and beganne there to builde as well, strong, and inuincible for­tresses, The building of Venice. for defence, as beautifull and sumptuous Pallaces for pleasure, which in short time growing to a well ordered Cittie, was by them named, af­ter their forsaken territorie, Venetia. Thus constray­ned by necessitie, they abandoned fayre and fertile countries to enhabite these sterill and paludious places; voide of all commodity, and yet because great numbers of people, were at one instant come thether, they made that place not onely habitable, but also pleasant, ordayning among themselues lawes, and orders, which amiddest so great ruines of Italy they obserued, and within short space so much increased in force and reputation, that in the time of Pipin, king of France, when at the Popes request, hee came to driue the Lumbardes out of Italy, it was agreede in capitulations betwixt him, and the Emperour of Greece, that the Duke of Beneuento, and the Venetians should be subiect neither to the one, nor to the other, but among themselus enioy liberty in continuance of [Page] time they grew to such greatnes, that their name by sea became terrible, & vpon the firm land of Italy vene rable, so that at this day their citie is become the most rich and renowned Empory of Christendome, and they are admired of all other commonweales, for their opulency and manner of gouernment. They vse not as in other places the ciuill law, but liue and are gouer­ned by their own lawes and peculiar course of iustice, The Veneti­ans gouerned by their owne peculiar lawes which liberty was (as Blondus writeth) first granted thē by Charles the great, the high Bishop of Rome thereto giuing his assent.

When the Vniuersity therein was priuiledged, I do not reade, onely this I find, that many men excel­lently The Vniuer­sity. learned in Rhetorique, Philosophy, and Theo­logy, haue there florished and professed. Volaterranus writeth, that Iohannes Rauennas (who liued about that time, when the memory of letters hauing long in Italy beene forgotten and extinguished, beganne to bee a­gaine reuiued) taught at Venice, from whence as it were from an other Troian horse, did issue many ex­cellent wits, which againe restored schooles and disci­pline. Sabellicus affirmeth, that he professed in Riuoalti­no Gymnasio, Anthonius Cornelius, being then Rector of the Vniuersity.

After the Latine tongue was againe restored, Ema­nuell Chrysolor as beganne to teach the Greeke.

Many other singular schollers haue in this Cittie taught and liued, as Hermolaus Barbarus, Guarinus Varo­nensis, Learned Clearkes that haue liued & taught in Ve­nice. Anthonius Mancinellus, Iohn Babtista Egnatius, Cae­lius Secundus, Curio, Peter Bembus, Aldus Manutius, and Paulus his sonne, &c.

Bessarion Cardinall of Rome, and Patriarch of Constan­tinople, [Page 31] bestowed on a librarie, which he caused in Ve­nice to be erected 30000. Crownes, which afterward the Dukes thereof exceedingly augmented and a­dorned.

Petrus de Assisio maister to Bartholus the famous ci­uill Lawyer, builded in this Academie, the Colledge Collegium pietatis. of pierie, for the education of poore mens children, and such Orphanes, as in the street should happen at any time to be taken vp.


ALthough Padua (saith Strabo) what by Patauium. reason of the vertue and sincere integritie of the inhabitants, what by the dayly ex­ercise of learned sciences, hath long conti­nued in a most prosperous and flourishing condition, yet most Antiquaries are of opinion, that Charles the great, about the yeare of our Lord 791. was the first that granted priuiledges to the vniuersitie therein, Le­ander The erection of the vniuer­sitie in Padua. writeth, that in Padua is a free and publike Aca­demie, wherein all studies and sciences vniuersally are professed: erected by Frederike the 2. in contempt of the Bononian students.

Sarabellus saith, that in Padua by a long continued custome, hath beene a general exercise and profession of the liberall artes. Concerning this Academie Iason the Lawyer writeth, as followeth. If there be any man who will be moued neither with the long continued Iason iu [...]iscō. de Academia Patauina. antiquitie of Padua, which resteth beholding to Ante­nor the Troian for her first foundation, neither with the spatious greatnes thereof, nor the circumference [Page] of her triple wals, hauing the Poe for pleasure sweetly passing by them. Neither with the stately and most sumptuous magnificencie of her Senate house, then which Europe enioyeth not a worthier, nor more ex­cellent peece of workemanship: yet let him be moued with the world amazing glorie of her farre renowned Academie, which in fame and dignitie surmounting all other Italian Vniuersities, is as it were an other A­thenian Areopage, which hath alwayes carefully nou­rished, and studiously brought vp men excellently learned in the liberall sciences.

There is no citie in Italie, which for beautie and statelinesse of edifices, may with this place worthily Antenor the first founder of Padua. be paragoned. And although it be most true, that An­tenor after his flight from Troy, first erected this citie, yet are all her buildinges both publike & priuate new, and of no long continuance. For we reade, that it was often by the Hunnes, vnder Attila their King, and the Lumbardes vnder Fredericke Barbarossa their Captaine, ruinated and laide waste.

The Cathedrall Church therein was founded by the Germaine Emperour Henrie the fourth: and the State-house or Councell hall (then which the worlde hath not at this day a more curious or beauti­full plot of Architecture) when it was by casualtie set on fire, and thereby much decayed and damnified, was againe by the Venetians in most sumptuous sorte repaired: in the highest and most conspicuous place The bones of T [...] Liuius re­ser [...]ed in Pa­dua. whereof were laide the bones of Titus Liuius, the lear­ned writer of the Romaine historie.

Erasmus calleth this Academie the most illustrious and renowned Emporie of good letters & ingenious [Page 32] artes. In this Vniuersity are many goodly colledges deputed onely for the vse of such studentes, as are of poore and meane abilitie.

Three principall causes are alleadged, why this A­cademie Three causes why Padua hath so long flourished. adorned with so many priuiledges and pre­rogatiues hath obtained so great splendor and celebri­tie. The first is the opportune, sweet and fruitfull situ­ation of the place, which ministreth to the studentes The 1. cause. great aboundance of all things necessarie. Constantinus Paleologus (as writeth Rhodogine) was wont to say, that were it not for the testimonie of the holy and learned fathers, which affirme, that Paradise was in the East: he verilie would belieue it no where could be found, but in the amene and fruitfull fieldes of Padua. The bread of that countrey is more pure and white then in any other place of Italie, and the wine Plinie estee­meth to be of the best and noblest sort.

The second cause why it hath so long flourished, is The 2. cause. because it alwaies hath beene found faithfull, firme & constant to the commonwealth of Rome, and euen in their greatest calamities, and most pernurious warres hath assisted them with men, money, and muuition: wherefore the Romaines a people euer thankful to their friends, & of singular faith & constancie to their con­federates, omitted nothing that might serue to further & promote the glorie & emolument of the Paduans.

Finally, the third and last cause of the preseruati­on of their happie estate, is because the Paduans be­yond The 3. cause. all other haue euer beene full of humanitie and curtesie, whereby they did often winne the heartes of all men, and moued great Princes and Potentates to [Page] fauour them, and become their benefactors. Chastity was of them euer held in so great esteeme, that it grew into a prouerbe, As chaste as one of Padua: whereun­to Martiall in these verses alludeth.

Tu quoque nequitias nostrilusus (que) libelli,
V da puella leges sis Patauina licet.

Many learned professors and teachers haue labou­red in this fruitfull vineyard. The first that reuealed vnto this people the arcane and secrete misteries of Christian religion, was Prosdocimus the disciple of S. Paule. After him was Saint Anthonie of Padua. Also The conuersi­on of the Pa­duans to Chri­stianisme. Caietanus a learned Diuine, a profound Philosopher & most excellent Phisition, long flourished in this vni­uersitie. Thomas Penketh an Englishman, for his admi­red learning and eloquence, was with much follicita­tion and entreatie called out of Oxford, to gouerne and direct in Padua their scholasticall discipline. Sabellicus Thomas Pen­keth an En­glishman sent for to Padua. writeth, how the students of Padua vnderstanding that Iohn Campegius (a personage for his grauity and great learning much in those dayes admired and esteemed) was in person approched neere their towne, the Re­ctor, Rulers and Maysters of the Vniuersitie, toge­ther The honour that was wont by the Padu­ans to be gi­uen to learned men. with the Magistrate of the Citie, with pompe went out to meete him on the way (which thing they onely are accustomed to do to high & mightie Prin­ces) & going on foot before him, they conducted him into their towne. Whereby of all men easily may bee perceiued, the dignitie, honour, & respect, they beare vnto worthy professors of learned sciences. It were (no question) to be wished, that in al other places men would doe the like, then would letrers and good dis­cipline [Page 33] againe beginne to flourish: for as the old Pro­uerbe is, Honos alit artes, there is nothing that wil more encourage students to perseuere in their painefull and laborious course, then to attribute due worship and respect to such as haue attained to any perfection in the Artes.


ALthough all the learned writers of antique histories do with one consenting opinion agree, that the Vniuersitie of Bononia is of long continuance, and was first founded, when Theodosius swayed the scepter of the Romaine Empire: yet in what yeare of our Sauiours natiuitie, or the said Emperours raigne it should bee instituted, they are of discrepant and sundry opinions. The ori­ginall of this controuersie seemeth to proceede from hence, because there haue beene two Theodosii posses­sed of the imperiall Diadem. For from the selfe same cause haue many profound and iudiciall antiquaries fallen into more pernicious and daungerous errours. Baldus the learned pillar of the law affirmeth, that this Academie was in most flourishing estate 1000. yeares Theodosius, founder of the Bononian Academie. before his time. Others write, that it was first priui­ledged by Theodosius the yonger, which (as in those Chronicles, which containe the greatest likelihood of verity we may reade) was elected Emperor about the yeare of our Lord 420. and raigned 27. yeares. For te­stimony whereof they alleadge this publike Charter of his.

[Page] Whereas the manners of men, health, and warre, & The publique Charter of Theodosius, for ratificati­on of the V­niuersitie. such like, are all gouerned and preserued by the best disciplines, least all good artes and principles of lear­ning should decay, we Theodosius by the grace of God, Emperour of the Romaines, euer Augustus, moued with the commodiousnesse and fertilitie of the place, hauing 25. Monthes taken sounde and deliberate ad­uise thereon, sitting in our seate of Maiestie, a gene­rall Councell of Christians being assembled, in the presence of Coelestine high Bishoppe of Rome, twelue Cardinalles, Archbishoppes and Bishops innume­rable, and sundrie other Dukes and Princes, of di­uers degrees and callinges, Baldwin Earle of Flaunders, and Gualter Earle of Poictiers Embassadors, the one re­presenting the person of the King of Fraunce: the o­ther of the King of England, sitting the whole Col­ledge of an hundred Senators, doe by this inuiolable Acte ordaine and decree, that Bononia shall for euer hereafter be a place of exercise for all learned sciences, and a perpetuall seate and habitation for the Muses. Moreouer wee will that all determinate and finitiue sentences, pronounced by such Iudges as haue not beene students in this vniuersitie the space of at least fiue yeares, shall be voide and of none effect. Also if any shall proceed Maister of Artes, and receiue the booke of any other then the Archdeacon of Bononia, although the most learned Artistes shall doe and ap­proue Violence offe­red to a stu­dent, to be punished with death. the same, yet by our royall authoritie wee de­priue him of all degree and dignitie. If any man bee so bold or hardie, iniuriously to offend any student go­ing or comming from this Vniuersitie, he shall be pu­nished [Page 33] with death: which if the President shall neg­lect to execute, our will is that hee incurre the same penaltie. This Copie of our sacred ordinance & con­stitution, signed with our imperiall seale, and written with the hand of Cicero our Notarie, we grant & deli­uer to the perpetual memorie thereof, to Petronius Bi­shop of Bononia, descended from the Constantinopoli­tane Emperors, at his earnest entreatie and request, to bee kept and executed to the vttermost of his power. Giuen at Rome in the Capitoll, in the yeare of our Lord 423. the 11. day of May.

How great authoritie this Academie enioyed in Bookes writ­ten by sundry Popes, dedica­ted to this vniuersitie. former ages, we may imagine, when Pope Gregorie the ninth, Pope Boniface the 8. & Pope Iohn the 23. writing sundrie learned treaties, did dedicate them all to this vniuersitie. Petrus Anchoranus calleth Bononia the mo­ther of sciences.

Pope Clement the 5. in a Councell held at Vienna, de­creed, that beside the studies of all the liberall Arts, the Hebrew, Arabicke, and Chaldean languages, should be there publikely deliuered.

We reade that the Emperour Fredericke the 2. did The vniuersity impayred by Fredericke Barbarossa. much damnifie this vniuersitie, because it tooke parte against him with the sea Apostolique, when he held his warres in Italie.

The students of this place at what time Pope Martin too seuerely persecuted the Bononians, departed from the vniuersity, some to one place, and some vnto ano­ther, so that in short time it became a solitarie desarte: vntill afterwarde it was by the Popes Eugenius the 4. Nicholaus the 5. and Leo the 11. againe restored.

[Page] Bessarion Patriach of Constantinople, when this Aca­demie, The same re­paired by Bes­sarion Patri­arch of Con­stantinople. was by negligence and Ciuill contentions al­most vtterly ouerthrowne, by sundry meanes ende­uoured to repaire the same, both by encreasing the yearely pensions and stipendes allowed for the pub­lique Readers and professors, and also by building costly and sumptuous edifices, for the maintenance & reliefe of such schollers, as for meere pouertie were constrained to giue ouer their vndertaken course of studies.

Hierome Osorius that famous Portugall, and onely Cicero of this our latter age, writeth in his first booke de Osorius his o­pinion of thts Academic. Gloria, that the more to enrich himselfe with learning he was especially moued to seeke out this cittie, be­cause in all Italie there was no place for the glory and renowne of letters comparable to Bononia. For there (saith he) doe flourish men in the Greeke and Latine tongues exquisitely learned: many there are which excell in all kind of Philosophie: many famous for e­loquence and Oratorie, and many which haue in all the liberall sciences with great admiration long beene conuer [...]ant. What shall I speake of the studies of the Canon and Ciuill lawes? When such as in Bononia haue professed them, haue obtained the supreme principalitie ouer all other that euer haue beene stu­dents in that learned facultie, &c.

The excellencie of this Vniuersitie may easily bee gathered out of the learned treaties & commentaries, written by sundry famous Clearkes, whereof some were in this place schollers, some professors of lear­ned sciences.

[Page 35] Iohannes Andreae, which of ciuill Lawyers is com­monly Leaned pro­fessors in this Vniuersity. called the decyder and expounder of doubt­full questions, professed in this Academy the law, with great fame and estimation, and there at length dy­ed of the pestilence.

Azo that mirror and bright shining lampe of lear­ning, was here also a publique professor of the ciuill law, Pope Innocent not disdayning to be his Auditor, at what time he wrote that worke of our age, so much admired, called Summaiuris. Herein also taught Bar­tholus, who being but one and twentie yeares of age, proceeded Doctor of the ciuill law. Accursius, that famous and renowned Clearke, being forty yeares of age, beganne first in this Vniuersity to apply his minde to studie, wherein hee so much profited, that his name was knowne throughout all the Italian A­cademies, and whereas before there had been alwaies two sects and heresies among the Lawyers, they were by him reconciled, and brought into one vniforme opinion. Socinus likewise was in this place for his great learning so highly esteemed, that hee was called the Monarch of the Law, and his Schollers often would complayne of nature, saying, she was too auaritious to hide a witte so excellent and admirable in a body so small deformed and vnfashionable. To recite all those renowned wittes, that haue in this famous nur­sery receyued their education and institution, were a labour tedious and superfluous, wherefore I will con­clude with Salicet though the last, yet not the least of such learned writers, as haue from hence proceeded: this Salicet was by a strange and wonderfull vision a­nimated, to write his Commentaries vppon Iustinian, The [...]ision of Salicet. [Page] for sitting on a time in his study in great solitarines, he heard a certaine heauenly voice crying vnto him, a­rise, arise, and at length he awakened, when looking a­bout, there appeared vnto him a most beautifull Queene, holding in her left hand a scepter, in her right hand Iustinians booke, whome followed a reuerende assembly of learned Lawyers, of them he demaunded what Queene this might bee, who aunswered that shee was the Lawe her selfe, and grieuously seemed to lament that her selfe together with the workes of those, which followed her, should by the fraudulent or vnskilfull handling of vpstart and ignorant wri­ters, be so shamefully corrupted, wherefore they sayd, it belonged vnto him, who onely was worthy to vn­dertake a taske so honorable, as well to reforme those abused Commentaries, as also to write some newly of his owne: promising that they would continually as­sist his labour and inuention: by whose perswasion being moued, he presently applyed his minde to write and absolue these learned Commentaries vppon Ius­tinian, so much admited for their worthines and singu­larity.

Finally, although this Vniuersity by the magnifi­cence and priuiledges of sondry Popes, Emperours, Kinges and Princes, seemed already to haue aspired to the heigth of all felicity, yet least any thing shoulde be wanting to the fulnes of her glory, the Emperour Charles the fift receyuing in this Cittie, at the handes Charles the 5 a great bene­fact [...]r to this Vniuersity. of Pope Clement the Emperiall Diadem, adorned the same with many great and royall prerogatiues.


SOme are of opinion, that Fredericke the Emperour being highly displeased with the Bononians, for fauoring Pope Alexan­ders side, by whome he was excommuni­cated, and his territories interdicted, in ha­tred and despight of them erected a new Vniuersity in Ferrara. But Volaterranus writeth, that Salicet was in The erection of the Vniuersity in Fe [...]rar. the yeare of Christs Natiuity 1316. sent for by Alber­tus Duke of Ferrara, to institute a common schoole, in this Cittie, which was afterwarde confirmed and priuiledged by Pope Boniface the eight, and excee­dingly augmented by the bounty and liberality of the succeeding Princes of Este.

Angelus Aretinus, a learned professor of the Ciuill lawe, writeth vnto the Duke of Ferrara, in the pro­eme of his imperiall institutions in this manner. When you had established in this your noble and most flou­rishing cittie, a receptacle for learned arts, and liberal sciences, with how great desire and diligence you did labour to haue me brought hether, being not moued thereunto by any fame or brute of mee, that beeing but slender and obscure, but rather by the singular loue and affection, wherewith you alwayes haue em­braced such as affect the Muses: not onely my selfe doe well perceiue, but all men easily doe vnder­stand. Wherfore reuoluing these things in my mind, how that I to vndertake the office of a Reader, was sent for by such & so great a prince, in whom the cleare [Page] brightnes of vertue and honesty, is most resplendish­ing, I feared least if I should not giue some manifest testimony of my duty and deuotion towardes you, I meane of Aretines zeale and affection to the thrice no­ble and renowned family of Est, I iustly might bee reckoned in the number of the most vngratefull men: for euen as your selfe is the first which hath restored vnto this decaying Vniuersity, her former place and dignity, so these my labors laying open the first natiui­ty and infancie of the lawes, ought to bee to your selfe onely consecrated, &c.

Marry worthy writers and professors haue sucked Sondry lear­ned writers which haue proceeded from this A­cademy. sweete milke from the Muses breastes in this renow­ned Nursery, as Felinus Sandaeus, the Interpreter of the Canon law, Andraeus Alciatus, Theodorus Gaza, Caelius Caleagninus, Baptista Gnauinus Nicolaus Leonicenus, Pe­ter Bembus, his maister and many others.


MIllan is a fayre and beautiful Citie in Lum­bardy, seated at the foote of the Alpes, Mediolanum the situation of Millan. which for the great and spatious circum­ference thereof, is by the Italians graced with this Epithite la grand.

Pope Alexander the fift, a learned Father, writeth that Millan is situated in the most cleare, temperate, & wholesome ayre of Christendome, and that the first Reuealer of Christian misteries therein, was S. Barna­bas the Apostle.

The writer of the Commentaries, vppon Bartholus The Vniuer­sity of great antiquitie. the Lawyer affirmeth, that Millan hath by long and [Page 37] ancient custome enioyed a free and publike Vniuer­sity. Many excellent and worthy Schollers haue issued from hence, to the incredible benefite of our Christian Church and commonwealth.

Demetrius Cydonius borne in Thessalonica, forsaking his natiue Countrie, came to Millan, where he studied Demetrius Cydonius translated the I atine bookes of S. Thomas of Aquine in to Greeke. first the Latine tongue, and afterwardes Diuinity: during which time he turned out of Latine into Greek the learned Bookes of S. Thomas of A [...]uine, that euen the Grecians themselues might reape some commodi­tie out of the sacred workes of so holy a man: two goodly ornaments of this Cittie were S. Ambrose, and S. Augustine, and of latter time, Uierome Cardanus, that great Mathematician and learned Doctor of Phisicke. Out of the fellowship of Doctors in Millan, Pope Pius A graunt of Pope Pius the fourth. the fourth, because hee once was one of the number, granted that the Auditor of the Wheele, and an Aduo­cate in the consistorie, should perpetually be elected.

Leander sayeth, that in the Colledge of Fryers prae­dicantes, is a fayre and well furnished Library. The Librarie


THe Vniuersitie in Pauia, is thought to haue beene crected by Charles the great, Pauia. Charles the great, founder of the Pauia [...] Academy. not long after Paris: for this Emperour [...]alously affecting the propagation of christian religion, se [...]t vnto this cittie one of those priestes, which came to him into France, out of England, from venerable Bede, crying out in all places, that they carried about them Wisedom to sell, at which time beg [...]nne the first institution of this A­cademie. [Page] Rochus de Curte a graue professor of the Ca­non Rochus de Curte. law, (whose learned commentaries are in all pla­ces receiued with great applause and admiration,) in an Epistle of his to Iohn Syluanus Chancelor of Millan, nameth Pauia to be a most happie and flourishing V­niuersitie.

Curtius writing to Iafredus, praesident of Millan, thou Curtius. (sayeth he) hast vndertaken the charge, not onely of preseruing, but also of augmenting the tottering estate of the Pauian Academy: so that by thy onely helpe and assistance, it now most worthily is, and may be cal­led the most enobled and resplendishing Seminaty of good letters in this our Christian world, thou prouidest for the teachers and professors of liberall sciences, large and princely pensions: thou by thy great bounty and singular magnificence, doest attract and draw hi­ther the most ripe and ready wittes of christendome, the better to adorne this royall Vniuersitie.

In this place did Baldus reade his extreme and la­test Baldus. lectures, for here he died, and was buried in the co­uent of the Fryers Minorites.

Many and most grieuous damages did this Aca­demy of late time endure, when the cittie was by Frances the French king besieged before hee was ta­ken prisoner by Charles the Emperour: for Arnolde Ferronus writeth in his seuenth booke of French hi­stories, how Anthonius Leua, being by Charles the fifte The misery this cittie en­dured when it was besieg­ed by the Frenchmen. appointed Captaine and gouernour of Pauia, he con­uerted vnto his owne vse, euen the siluer maces, which vsually were accustomed to bee borne before the Rector or President of the Vniuersity, the better to giue his souldiers paye. Also a goodly Library, [Page 38] which (as Iason sayeth) was placed in the Castell, was then much perished, notwithstanding afterwarde by the singular bounty and liberality of the Bishops of Rome and other princes, it was againe repayred and re­stored. Pope Pius the 4, [...]ounded herein a fayre and sumptuous colledge.

Bernardus Saccus affirmeth the ayre about Pauia to bee pure and piercing, whereby the wittes of schollers are sharpened and excited to the desire of studie. He sayeth moreouer that the first teacher and professor of Christianisme therein, was Syrus of Aquilegia: In those dayes that Saint Peter did teach The first pro­fessor of Chri­stianisme in Pauia. at Rome, whose doctrine, because euen vntill this daye, they haue with greate constancie kept and mantay­ned, it was decreed, that this Cittie shoulde no more bee called by her auncient name Ticinum, from the riuer passing by it, but Papia, quasi piorum virorum patria.


TVrin a Cittie of Piemonte, was (as wri­teth Taurinum. Caelius Secundus, who was therein borne,) in former ages called Augusta Ta [...]rinorum, because it was the heade Cittie or Metropolis of the Nation and people so called, who by Iulius Cae­sars gifte, were made free Denizons of the citty of Rome.

This Cittie was by the Gothes ruinated and ouer­throwne, and afterwarde againe reedified, though not of so greate circumference as before it was, yet [Page] in better for me and fashion. It taketh name from the riuer Duria, which runneth through the same. It is The situation thereof. situated in a smooth playne, hauing on the east side thereof, a mile distant from the town, the riuer Poe, on the North and West the Alpes, on the South a fertile champion, contayning fiue miles in bredth.

In this cittie was wont to bee helde the courte and residence of the princes, together with the whole councell of Riemont: It was afterwarde by the Pope graced with the title of an Archbishopricke.

A goodly Vniuersity was here instituted by the The instituti­on of the V­niuersity. Dukes of Sauoy, which excelled all other Italian Aca­demies, for their exquisite perfection in Tipography, or the arte of Printing. Erasmus Roterodam [...]s did in this Vniuersity proceede Doctor of Diuinity, where hee after became a publike professor of the same.

For the possession of this place, was fought between the Emperour Charles the fift, and the king of France, in the yeare 1544. that fierce and bloudy battell, wher­in of the Emperours side 12000. or as some write, 13000. souldiers were put to the sword.


FLorence is a strong and beautifull cittie in Hetruria, sited in a play n betwixt the foot of a mountaine, and the riuer Arno: It was first begunne by the people of Fiesole, & enlarged afterwardes by the Romaine Colonies. Sondry opini­ons concer­ning the true name of t [...]us citty.

It had then to name Armina, and from whence [Page 39] this name of Florence should bee deriued, diuers men doe diuersly hold opinion. Some suppose it to bee so called from Florino, one of the chiefe of the Colonie. Others will not consent that it was called Florentia at the beginning, but Fluentia, because of the riuer Ar­no, flowing neere the walles thereof: and they alledge the authoritie of Pl [...], where he saith, that the people Fluentini be neere vnto Arno: which may be false, saith Machiauel the Florentine, because Plinie maketh men­tion where the Florentines were seated, not how they were called: and that word Fluentum must needes be corrupted, because Frontinus and Cornelius Tac [...]tus (who wrote almost in the time of Plinic) doe call the Towne Florentia, and the people Florentini, saying, that long since in the time of Tiberius they were go­uerned according to the custome of other citties in I­talie. Cornelius also reporteth that the Florentines had sent Embassadors vnto the Emperour, praying that the waters of the Chiane might not descend vppon their countrey. It seemeth not then to stand with rea­son, that the citie should at one time haue two names: It is therefore most credible, that it was alwaies called Florentia.

For what cause soeuer it was so named, or for what cause soeuer it had the beginning, most sure it is, that vnder the Empire of Rome, it had the first foundation, & in the raigne of the first Emperors, writers did make mention thereof. Long time it continued base and ob­scure, not being able to doe any thing worthy of me­morie, for the authoritie of them vnto whome they were subiect, but being at length wearie of that yoke, in the yeare 1010. on the day of Saint Romulus (a so­lemne [Page] feast with the Fiesolan) they surprised Fiesole, & demolished the same. Afterward all Italie being deui­ded into open factions betweene the Popes and Em­perors, they alwaies held on the strongest side: by which meanes Florence being now much enlarged, & well replenished with buildings, men, & other things necessary for ciuill life, began to bee numbred among the principall Citties of Italie. And had (no question) growen to as much celebritie, as any cittie of Europe, The prosperity of Florence hindered by ciuill discords. had not the ciuil discords and intestine factions of the cittizens, hindered her greatnesse. But so exceedingly was it alwaies pestered with mutuall dissentions, that it neuer could attaine vnto any height of glory, vntill Cosmio de Medices obtained the principalitie thereof, & Cosmio de Medices. reduced it from an Aristocraticall gouernment, to a Monarchie. Who hauing passed in the beginning of his greatnesse many troubles and calamities, after hee had exceeded fortie yeares of his age, liued most hap­pily: in so much as not onely they which ioyned with him in publique actions, but all other men also that managed his treasure in euery place of Europe, did par­ticipate of his felicitie: and euery man depending vp­on his counsell and fortune, became wealthie. He was the most esteemed and most famous citizen, (being no man of warre) that euer had beene in the memo­rie of man, eyther in Florence, or any other cittie: be­cause he did not onely excell all others of his time in authoritie and riches, but also in liberalitie and wise­dome. For amongst other qualities, which aduan­ced him to be chiefe of his Countrey, he was more then other men, bountifull and magnificent. His chiefest care and endeuour was to preserue, adorne, [Page 40] and beautifie this Cittie. For which cause hee buil­ded and erected in the same many sumptuous edi­fices.

He builded the Abbeyes and Temples of Saint The costly buildings wherewith Cosmio de Medices ado [...] ­ned Florence. Marke, Saint Laurence, and the Monasterie of Saint Veridiana, and in the mountaines of Fiesole, Saint Ger­rolano, with the Abbey thereto belonging. Also in Mugello hee did not onely repaire the Church for the Fryers, but tooke it downe and builded it a new. Be­sides those magnificent buildinges in Saint Croce, in Saint Agnoli, and in Saint Miniato, hee made Al­tars and sumptuous Chappelles, besides the building of them were by him paued, and throughly furnished with all things necessary. To these publike buildings wee may adde his priuate houses, wherof one is with­in the Cittie, meete for so great a personage, & foure other without at Cariaggi, at Fiesole, at Caffagiuolo, & at Trebio, all pallaces fitter for princes then priuate persons: and because his magnificent houses in Italie, did not in his opinion make him famous enough, he builded in Ierusalem a goodly Hospitall to receiue the poore and diseased pilgrims. And albeit these buildinges and euery other his actions were prince­ly, and that in Florence he liued like a Prince, yet hee so well demeaned and gouerned himselfe by wise­dome, as hee neuer exceeded the boundes of ciuill modestie.

Now hauing in this manner adorned the citie with costly buildings, he thought he could adde thereto no greater ornament then to erect therein an vniuersitie, and licence publike profession of the artes: to the end [Page] that as well the citizens of Florence, as inhabitantes of Hetruria, by good discipline and literature might be­come more ciuill and lesse barbarous. Wherefore he The Vniuersi­tie established caused to be sent for vnto Florence, Argyrophilus a Gre­cian borne, and at that time in the studies of Rheto­rike & Philophie singularly learned, to the end that the youth of Florence might by him bee instructed in the Argyrophilus. Greeke tongue, and the liberall sciences. He entertai­ned also in his house Marsilius Ficinus, a second father of Platonian Philosophie: him he entirely loued, and to the end hee might with commoditie exercise the Ma [...]silius Fi­cinus. studie of learning, and more aptly vse his helpe there­in, he bestowed on him a certaine plotte of grounde, neere to his house at Carregi.

This Academie being by Cosmio begunne, was af­terward by Laurence de Medices his sonnes sonne, fi­nished The Academy augmented & restored by Laurence de Medices. and brought to a full, absolute and flourishing perfection. This Laurence was a great louer of good letters, highly fauouring learned men. He held Mar­silius Ficinus (whom as we said before, his grandfather had caused to come to Florence) in great esteeme. He nourished in his house that excellent scholler Angelus Politianus, who in his youth did first make the Grecian Poet Homer speake in the Latine tongue. He entertai­ned Angelus Poli­ti [...]nus. with liberall pensions and exhibitions, Demetrius Chalcondilas, Picus Mirandula, and sundry other admi­red, and much renowned for their singular learning. Pope Paulus the third, although he dayly heard in the Pope Paulus the 3 became a [...] in Fl [...]rence. Romaine Academie, Pomponius Laetus, a man excel­lently learned, yet was he exceedingly desirous to stu­die in the Florentine Vniuersitie, because the Greeke [Page 41] and Latine tongues, together with the other Artes, were there professed with greatest sinceritie and pro­foundnesse. This Prince much augmented, and with great cost adorned the librarie, which his grandfather Cosmio had erected neere the Temple of S. Marke: from whence of late time haue beene brought to light The Library neere S. Marke many excellent bookes, which long haue line obscu­red, and were in no other place of Christendome to bee found: as Eusebius Caesariensis, againe Hierocles, and the workes of Clemens Alexandrinus, and others. A­nother librarie was in this Citie erected at S. Laurence his Church, by Pope Clement the seuenth.

This noble Mecaenas and Patrone of the Muses, The death of Laurence de Medices. Laurence de Medices, so famous for his singular wise­dome, and whose losse was long lamented of his coun­trey, being troubled with intolerable paines of the stomack, dyed in April, in the yeare of our Lord 1492. in the 43. yeare of his age.


PIsa is a great and goodly citie of much antiquitie in Hetruria, enuironed a­bout with high and mightie walles of marble stone: which although now through the manifold iniuries of time, and miserable calamities, which hath beene thereon inflicted by the oppression and ty­ranicall vsurpation of sundrie Kinges and Princes, it remaineth in the Florentines iurisdiction: yet hath it in former age beene a place much renowned for [Page] warlike discipline, and most feared of her neighbou­ring prouinces: as appeareth by sundry seuerall con­questes the Pisans atchieued, when by force of armes they endeuoured to enlarge & propagate the bounds of their dominion. In the yeare 1020. they brought Sardinia con­quered by the Pisans. Sardinia vnder their subiection, hauing thrice expul­sed the Sarracens from thence. Likewise in the yeare 1108. they inuaded the Isles of Maiorica and Mino­rica: from whence hauing slaine the king thereof (a Maiorica and Minorica in­uaded. man wholly adicted to the law of Mahomet) they returned conquerours, bringing captiues home the Queene and her infant sonne: which childe being by them instructed from his infancie in the principles of christian religion, they afterward did reinuest with The happie e­state of Pisa impaired by the tyranny of Rudolphus the Emperour his fathers Diademe. Such happie and fortunate successes in all affaires did Pisa long enioy, vntill the time of Rudolphus the Emperour, by whose tiranni­call oppression, they seemed from height of all pro­sperity, to be deiected to an humble and inseparable e­state. In the yeare 1369. it was sold by Charles the Em­perour, to Peter Gambacurta for twelue thousande crownes. Afterwardes comming from the hands of one man vnto another, it was sold to Iohn Galeace, Vi­count of Millan. Galeace solde it to the Florentines: to whose proud and tirannizing gouernment the Pi­sans not brooking to bee subiected, by a seditious & rebellious attempt, expulsed them, & recouered their pristine libertie: which they not long enioyed: for in short time after the Florentines againe did conquere them, and made them slauishly subiect to their im­perie and commaund. This base and seruile condi­tion [Page 42] the noblest sorte of the Pisan cittizens much repining at, chose rather to bee diuorced from their natiue soyle, and to liue in voluntarie exile, then to The magnani­mity of the nobler sort of Pisans. bee at home commanded by those, whose aunce­stors in times past their forefathers were accustomed to commaunde. Vppon which occasion the Cittie grew to bee in manner of a voide and solitarie de­sart (the better sorte of inhabitantes hauing all for­saken it) and so continued, vntill the first erection therein of the Vniuersitie, the onely cause why it was againe frequented: which was (as Leander wri­teth) erected about the yeare 1339. Not long after it excedingly beganne to flourish, as appeareth by The Vniuersi­tie erected. the many graue and reuerend Doctors, which therein receiued their instruction & education, namely, Pope Eugenius the third, a religious and learned father. Also Raimerus and Bartholomeus, two deepe and profound schollers of the order of Fryers Predicantes, whereof the one did write that egregious worke of Pantheolo­gie: the other set forth the summe of cases of consci­ence. Learned professors in this Vniuersitie haue beene, Helinus Sandaeus, Franciscus Aretinus who was held to be the best read, and most iudiciall ciuill Law­yer of his time. Bartholus after that hee had in Bononia proceeded, did in the Pisan Academie (as himself con­fesseth) publikely professe the ciuil Law, Cosmio de Me­dices restored againe this Academy, which in his time exceedingly was decayed. After him Laurence his Nephewe so much adorned and augmented the same, that Volaterranus in his fift booke of Ge­ographie, and Machiauell in his last booke of the [Page] Florentine historie, name him as the first founder and erector thereof.

In this Cittie is a most magnificent and sumptuous temple with brasen gates: not farre from which is a tower of rare and admirable artifice, which on the outside bendeth downeward so exceedingly, that a stranger would continually feare the fall thereof, but within it standeth perpendicularly right.

The thing of greatest wonder and admiration in this Cittie, is the Churchyard, whose earth doth in foure houres consume and conuert into it selfe the Munsterns lib. 2. Cosmo­graphiae. deceased carkase of a man.


WE find recorded in auncient histories, that Sienna was once one of the Romaine Co­lonies, which since in successe of time hath beene of much greatnesse and com­mand, Sienna once a Romaine Co­lonie. hauing subiected vnto her dominion, many lands and territories. Others write, that when Bremi­us led his armie of Gaules, called Senonenses, into Italie, about 382. yeares before Christes natiuitie, this Ci­tie was by them founded and so named. Some other number among the new and latest erected Citties of Italie, because therein appeare no markes or footsteppes of antiquitie. Whensoeuer or by whomsoeuer the first foundation thereof was laide, I finde for certayne, that it is a most fayte and spatious Cittie, well fenced and munited with Towers and Fortresses. The Countrey thereabout [Page 43] being full of pastures and herbage, exceeding all the neighboring prouinces in fruitfulnes and fertility, The fertility of the country about Sienna. doth cause in the Citty great plenty and aboundance of corne, wine, oyle, sheepe, and oxen, and whatsoe­uer else is necessarie to sustaine the life of man.

That an Vniuersity was herein long since erected, The Vniuersi­ty in Sienna of great antiqui­tie. appeareth by the autentique testimony of sondry lear­ned Historiographers.

Cardinall Sarabellus, a learned ciuill Lawyer, affir­meth, that this Academy did in the first beginning thereof suffer so many vexations and indignities, that it no sooner beganne a little to flourish, but it was a­gaine depressed and extinguished: which I the rather am induced to belieue, when I reade of the implaca­ble hatred and irreconciliable enmity, that was be­tweene them and the Florentines, during the furious outrages committed in Italy, by the factions of the Guelphy and Gibellini.

They were also much vexed and molested by Spanish Garrisons, maintayned in the towne, which in the yeare 1552. shee violently expelled thence, it enioyed afterwardes much peace and tranquility vn­der the protection of the Almaine Emperours, but in the yeare 1558. it was wholy rendred to the Duke of Sienna sub­iected to the Duke of Flo­rence. The vniuersity Florence, vnder whose iurisdiction it now continu­eth.

Petrus Ancoranus confesseth that himself being sent for by the Counsell of Sienna in the yeare 1357. did in this Vniuersity three yeares publikely professe the ciuill law.

Volaterranus writeth, that in the time of Pope Iohn the second, (a great enemy to the Bononian Academy) [Page] Dinus came to Sienna, where then al manner of studi­es exceedingly did flourish, Panormitanus, Paulus Ga­strensis, Bartholomeus Soenius, Philippus Decius, Hugo Se­nensis, Augustinus Dathus, and many other of great lear­ning and singular wisedome, did with their liues adorn and make famous this renowned Academy.

Franciscus Philelphus being at variance with Cosmio de Medices left Florence, where before he had professed Rhetorike, and taught at Sienna. Pope Iulius the third, and Marcellus the second, were both schollers in this Vniuersity.

In this Citty was borne A Eneas Siluius, who af­terwarde aspiring to the Papacy, was named Pius the The birth of Pope Pius the 2. second, by whose bounty and beneuolence this Aca­demy was with many priuiledges adorned.

This Vniuersity sayeth Panormitane enioyeth the priuiledges of Panonia.

Therin as writeth Cacciolupus, is a goodly colledge called Domus Sapientiae, where the studentes by daylie Collegium Sapientiae. practise and disputations, and priuate exercises are greatlie profited.


AZo a learned professor of the ciuill law, wri­ting of the liberall sciences, studied, & with priuiledge professed in Rome, and Constanti­nople, sayeth, that it was at first onely lawfull for the ciuill law to be taught publikely in those im­periall citties, notwithstanding the same was afterward by the Popes and Emperours licensed openly to bee reade and expounded in sondry other citties, especial­ly [Page 44] in the Vniuersities of Banonia and Modena.

When this Cittie was erected, or by whome the Vniuersitie was priuiledged, I do not remember, that I haue reade in any Author.



PAris the Metropolis of France, was founded as some say by Iulius Cae­sar, and first called Iulia, others re­ferre the originall thereof to fur­ther antiquitie, and contend that the foundation thereof was layed by one Parise descended of the line of [...]aphet, from whence they will haue the cittie to bee named. Whomsoeuer we shal imagine to haue been the first author thereof: (the discussion of which mat­ter I will leaue to more learned Antiquaries,) this is most certaine, that shee may at this day worthilie contend for soueraignity with the proudest citie of the world. Shee surmounteth far all other citties, not of [Page] France onely, but of Europe, for huge and incompara­ble greatnes, for concourse of Marchantes, no Empo­rie of Christendome is more frequented, for the com­modiousnes of the Vniuersity, no studentes in this vast and wide circuite of the world are better accommo­dated.

It was called Lutetia, from the latine word Lutum, which signifieth durt, because that the streets in her for mer age, being then not paued with stone, abounded Paris why cal­led Lutetia. with durt and myte, by reason of the innumerable multitude of people that repayred from all quarters & corners of the world.

The riuer Sequana deuiding this cittie in the mid­dest, maketh thereof two partes or sides. The first side contayneth the Vniuersity and Colledges of the stu­dentes. The other side onely beareth the name of the cittie.

The Emperour Charles the great, to his eternal me­mory and euerlasting praise, did first ordayne and in­stitute The foundati­of the Vniuer sity. this reuerend and most worthy to bee renow­ned mother of so many forrain Vniuersities, at the ear­nest suite and instigation of Alcuinus, whose scholler he had beene. For wee reade in ancient Chronicles, that when venerable Bede sent ouer into France those two learned Fryers, of whome we had occasion to speake in the description of the Pauian Vniuersity. Alcuinus perceyuing the prompt and ready minde the Emperour did beare vnto men skilfull in learned stu­dies, made earnest request vnto him to design in Paris, some conuenient place for publike profession of the artes, whereunto the Emperour condiscending, im­mediately this new erected Academic exceedinglie [Page 45] beganne to flourish, and is at this time the most renow­ned Nursery of the arts, that euer was in Europe plan­ted.

Since the time of that renowned Emperour, it made great experience of the bounty and liberality of the kinges of France, who haue beautified it from time to time, with many sumptuous aedifices, adorned it with many high and noble priuiledges, and endu­ed it with many rich and princelie reuenewes.

King Lewes the ninth imitating the fact of Iulius Caesar, Lewes the 9. Priuiledges granted to this Vniuersity by sondry kinger of Franc. to the end that the number of studentes dayly might be encreased in this renowned seminarie of good letters, graunted vnto them by Charles tl ese ample priuiledges: We will and command that all and euery person or persons, borne in whatsoeuer cli­mate or nation of the world, being or willing to be of the body and incorporation of the Parisian Academy, shall come vnto, stay in, or returne from the same, and send their messengers and baggage eyther thether or from thence to any other place, quietly & without tro­ble or molestation, as to themselues shall seeme best, &c.

The like Charter was to them graunted by king Phili p the 6. Philip the sixt, which Rebulphus rehearseth in this man­ner. We of our especiall grace, and from the fulnes of royall authority, do expressely forbid all lay men, of what condition or calling soeuer, and euery priuate person vppon any occasion to disturbe or molest any maister or scholler, eyther going to, or comming from the Parisian Vniuersity, or any other that shall by his oath affirme, that hee eyther is, or meaneth to bee one of the saide incorporation.

[Page] King Charles the 6. did release and set free all stu­dents Charles the 6. in Paris, from al maner of subsidies, taxes, & im­positions of wine, corn, or whatsoeuer goodes besides they should buy eyther by parcels, or by great, to serue their necessarie turnes. Euen this king Charles not long after taking part with Clement the Antipape, a­gainst Pope Vrban, by apprehending and imprisoning the Rector of this Vniuersitie, for publike reciting the saide Popes letters in the schooles, did much im­payre the happie and florishing estate thereof, for the students thinking thereby their priuiledges to bee in­fringed, departed from the Vniuersity, and left it in a manner desolate and voide of schollers.

In like manner wee reade that the Vniuersity was forsaken in the time of king Lewes the holy, vnder whose raigne the schollers (many outragious iniuries being offered them by the Cittizens) complayning that their auncient customes and priuiledges, against all law of God and man, were violated and abrogated departed in swarmes from thence, whereof some Great num­bers of the Pa risian students forsaking that vniuersity came to Ox­ford. Priuiledges granted by sondry Popes. [...]. Innocent. thousandes came into England, and studied in Oxford, wherat the kings charge they were wel prouided for.

Many likewise are the priuiledges, which haue by sondry Popes beene granted to this Vniuersity, but to auoide prolixity, I will set downe one letter of Pope Innocents written to this Academie. We being de­sirous to doe you an especiall grace and fauour, do or­dayn and decree, that it shall not bee lawfull for any man to pronounce any sentence of excommunica­tion or interdiction against eyther Rector, Proc­tor, Maister, or Scholler of your Vniuersitie, of what degree or facultie soeuer hee be, or against a­ny [Page 46] other for any fact concerning the Vniuersitie, with­out especial licence from our sea Apostolike, without which if any such sentence shalbe pronounced, wee will that it be helde as friuolous, and of no effect.

From this Vniuersity, as from a clearespringing foun­taine, haue beene deriued many excellent Academies of France and Germany.

Therein are at this day to be seen an hundred good­ly Colledges for the vse of students, builded all of cost­ly In Paris are an 100 colledges marble stone. Robert brother to king Lewes the ho­ly, founded in this Academie in the yeare 2, 3. that famous Colledge of the learned Sorbonistes, vnto whome all Vniuersities of Europe with one consent giue place, as to the greatest Clarks, & most profound Diuines of Christendome.

In the yeare 1286. Queene Iohan erected the mag­nificent and goodly Colledge of Nauarre.

Francis of Valois king of France, did send for sondry learned professors of the Greek and Hebrue tongues, vnto whome he allowed liberall exhibitions, vnto the which he added afterward (being moued thereun­to by the counsell and perswasions of William Budye, & Iohn Bellay, two singularly learned men) the profession of Phisicke, Philosophy, and the Mathematikes.

So great a quantity and proportion of corne, and other prouisions necessary for the life of man, are from all quarters of the Realme brought into this cit­tie, that there is nothing wanting for the sustenance of so many thousande persons, for within this Cittie are sayde to be 500. parishes and 100. Colledges.

S. Dionisius Areopag [...]ta first taught in this cittie, the S. Dionise the Apostle of France. principles of religion.

[Page] That the Reader may the better conceiue the ex­cellencie of this Cittie, I haue annexed hereunto for a conclusion, certaine old verses written in commen­dation thereofby Architremius, a Poet of our owne countrie.

Exoritur tandem locus, altera regia Phoebi,
Parrisius, Cyrraea viris, Chrysaea metallis,
Graeca libris, Inda studiis, Romana Poetis,
Attica Philosophis, mundi rosa, balsamus orbis,
Sidonis ornatu, sua mensis, & suapotu,
Diues agris, foecunda mero, mansueta colonis,
Messe ferax, inoperta rubis, nemorosa racemis,
Plena feris, fortis domino, pia regibus aura,
Dulcis, amaena situ, bona quolibet omne venustum,
Omne bonum si sola bonis fortuna faueret.


POictou is a great and goodly Earledom of France, contayning 1200 parishes, deui­ded Pictauia. into three Dioceses, or Bishoprickes. It hath also within the confines thereof many proud and mighty citties, amongst which appeareth that beautifull and far renowned cit­tie Poictiers, seated at the foote of the riuer Claine or Clanus, the principall seate and Metropolis of the Earl­dome, for antiquitie and long continuance, not inferi­or to any towne of France, second to Paris, onely in greatnes, power, and maiesty: therein are yet to this day remayning certaine reliques and monumentes of Monumentes of antiquity in Poictiers. most incredible continuance, as the olde ruines of an ancient Theater, Gallienus his pallace, and the vaultes of certaine Conduits yet standing, called in French Arceaux de Parigne.

[Page 46] In this Citie hath long flourished a most learned The Vniuer­sitie. Vniuersitie of great fame and authoritie in degree and preheminence next to Paris.

We read in the Ecclesiastical histories, that S. Hiliary called the Apostle of Aquitaine, first reuealed vnto S Hilarie the Apostle of Aquitaine. this people the light of the Gospell, and became the first Bishop of Poictiers, who after many miseries and torments constantly endured for the Catholike faith, deceased in the yeare 371. leauing behind him many excellent treatises, which do sufficiently testifie his sin­gular wisedome and learning.


LIons is a rich and plentifull Cittie seated on a little neck or point of land between Lugdunum. the two noble riuers Araeris & Rhodanus, now called Sosne and Rhosne.

We reade in Plutarch, that Lucius Plan­cus Munatius, hauing the conduct of some Romaine Lions foun­ded by Plan­cus Munatius a Romaine. soldiers, finding in this place the aire to be sweet and healthy, the soyle pleasant and fruitfull, & the riuers so commodious for conueying thither all things neces­sarie from the territories neere adioyning, hee layed here the foundation of this worthy cittie, which day­ly increasing in wealth, and swarming with innume­rable multitudes of Matchants, grew to be so mighty and populous, that Strabo reporteth it to haue beene in his time the most noble and opulent Cittie of all France, Narbone onely excepted, which in those daies was the most flourishing Emporie of that kingdome: this cittie being about that time at the height of her [Page] glorie became a seate and habitation of the Romaine Princes, who often forsooke Rome the garden of the world, and onely paradise of earthly pleasures to re­create themselues therein. About which time (see how all mortall thinges are subiect to vicissitude and chaunge) she seeming to haue aspired to the toppe Lions consu­med with fire. of all felicitie, was in one day consumed with fire, and became vnto beholders a most miserable & dole­full spectacle of ruine and desolation: of which Se­neca in a certaine consolatorie Epistle of his to Libera­lis a cittizen of Lions, writeth as followeth: Vnius no­ctis incendium totum strauit vrbem, vt vna scilicet nox interfuerit inter vrbem maximam & nullam, tant a fuit in­cendij vis & celeritas.

In this cittie flourished an Academie of great fame and celebritie, which hath sent forth into the worlde The vniuersity many excellent men, renowned for their great lear­ning & holinesse of life, as Irenius and Eucherius both Archbishops of Lions, and Primates and Metropoli­tanes of Fraunce: which dignitie belongeth vnto this Cittie, though in the yeare 1306. the Archbishop ali­enated from himselfe the gouernment thereof, recei­uing for the same a yearely pension or annuitie.

We reade of most barbarous and tirannicall cruel­ties exercised on the professors of the Christian faith in this Cittie, during the raigne of Marcus Anto­nius A great perse­cution in Li­ons. the Romaine Emperour, in the yeare of our saluation 175. in which persecution dyed 19000. Martyrs.


ANiou, in times past an Earledome, and in the yeare 1350. enobled with the title of a Dukedome, is a Region in Fraunce, of no great circumference, but full of goodly ri­uers, forrests and mountaines, & therefore for aboun­dance and fertilitie, not inferior to any countrey neere thereunto. It is confined on the East side thereof with The confines of Aniou. Tourraine and Vendosme, on the West with Britannie, on the South with Poictou, and on the North with the Earledomes of Maine & Laualle: the Metropolis of this Dukedome, is an ancient citie called by Ptolomey, Iulio­magus, now named of the Angeuines, Angiers.

A publike vniuersitie was in this cittie instituted and erected by Lewes the 2. about that time that Rupertus The vniuersity erected. Phaltsgraue of Rheine founded Heilderberge in Germany, which was about the yeare 1346. Others will haue it to be founded in the yeare 1362. at which time Casi­mere erected Cracow in Polonia. Henry Valoise Duke of Aniou, brother to King Charles the 9. not long since Henry Valoise a great benefa­ctor to this Academie. with much industrious care, laboured to augment & restore the same: the which good worke, that he the better might performe, hee with great munificence inuited thither sundry excellently learned schollers: a­mong the which was Frauncis Baldewin, who therein to his eternall praise and euerlasting memory, did esta­blish the profession of the Ciuill law.

Of this city & Dukedome in our country chronicles is often mention made, as of a territorie which long The Duke­dome Aniou alienated from the Crowne of England. was annexed to the English crowne, and alienated by King Henry the 6. in the 22. yeare of his raigne, in the [Page] yeare of our Lord 1444. at the mariage, solemnized betweene him and Margaret daughter to Reyner, King of Sicily and Hierusalem.


AVignion is an ancient cittie of Prouuence, si­tuated on the banke of Rhodanus, wherein is an Vniuersitie of long continuance, which then began first to flourish, and be famous in other nations, when the Bishops of Rome were therein resident.

We reade in the histories of the Church, that Pope Iohn the 22. transferred the seate Apostolique from Rome vnto this citie, after whom it remained there 74. yeares, or thereabout.

Likewise we reade, that after the decease of Bene­dictus the 11. when Clement the sift, was declared Pope, in the yeare 1305. the Apostolike seat was againe trans­lated from Rome to Auignion, and from thence after­ward, in the yeare 1376. returned againe to Rome, at the instance and entreatie of Saint Katharine, Nunne of Sitnna.

The cittie and church of Auignion, are at this day immediately subiected to the Popes or Bishoppes of Auignion the Popes cittie. Rome, who first became Lordes thereof, by meanes of a certain Neapolitane Queene, who being indebted to the church of Rome, resigned this cittie to the Bi­shops thereof, and his successors for euer.

Paulus Castrensis, by sundrie learned works he wrote, did much enable this Vniuersitie.

Andraeas Alciatus comming into Fraunce, was hired [Page 49] (as himselfe in an oration he made to the schollers of Pauia confesseth) for 600. crownes to be a publike rea­der in this Vniuersitie.


ORleance is a rich and plentifull Cittie, placed on the banke of the riuer Ligeris, Aurclia. now called Loire. Some auncient Hy­storiographers write, that the founda­tion of this Cittie was laide by Aurelian the Emperour, in the yeare 276. and from him was called Aurelia, which name vnto this day it retaineth.

In this Cittie was erected an vniuersitie, by Philip The vniuersity erected. le Beau, King of France, in the yeare from our Sauiours natiuitie 1312. wherein the ciuill Law is with such learning and admiration professed, that this Acade­mie hath beene often of graue and learned writers, en­tituled the Nurse or Mother thereof. It enioyeth the same priuiledges with Thoulouse.

This citie among many other hath not escaped the taste of those miserable calamities inflicted vppon Fraunce, by the furie of the late ciuill warres.


BOurges is a citie in Fraunce of great same, rich, Biturgiun [...]. spatious, and much frequented. It is seated in a pleasant and fruitfull countrey, repleni­shed with all kind of graine, hearbes, wines, beastes, fi­shes and fowles, and whatsoeuer els is necessary for the vse of man.

[Page] Concerning the first originall of this citie, and the etimologie of the worde Bituriges, there are sundrie Sundry opini­ons concer­ning the [...]ti­mologie of the word Bi­turiges. strange opinions. Ioannes Callamaeus in his treatise de ori­gine Biturigum, saith: that in the yeare from the begin­ing of the world 1791. the foundation of this citie was laide by one Gomer, descended from Noah, who in ho­nor & remembrance of his great grandfather, called the inhabitants of that countrey, Ogyges. But (as it of­ten commeth to passe, that words by long continu­ance and custome are corrupted) from Bytogyges they were called Bituriges. Others there are that say it was called Byturis, quasi Biturris, from two ancient towers, which they affirme to haue beene in this citie erected by two brethren, which there together raigned: one of which towers (if we giue credite to antiquitie) is that which remaineth yet to bee seene, built in forme round, of a great circuite without, & within of a huge capacitie, and is made at this day a castle of most in­uincible strength. To confirme this opinion, they re­cite an old verse of an ancient Grammarian.

Turribus à binis inde vocor Bituris.

In this cittie is a most glorious & resplendishing v­niuersitie, an other Pernassus, a place of such fame and The vniuersity excellencie, and of all learned authors so much admi­red, that whensoeuer they haue occasion to write thereof, they call it the ornament of letters, & habita­tion of the Muses. It was many yeares since founded by a certaine Duke of Burges, but after in continuance of time falling to decay, and being almost vtterly ex­tinct, it was againe restored and brought vnto his for­mer glorie & perfection by sundry kings of France. It was authorized and endued with many great priui­ledges [Page 50] and high prerogatiues, by Pope Paulus the 2. of that name. In this Academie is a Diuinitie Schoole, wherein Theologie is professed with great sinceritie and profoundnesse: there are also continuall & dayly exercises of Philosophie, Phisicke, and the Ciuill law.


AN Vniuersitie was erected at Caen in Nor­mandie, vpon this occasion. Henry the fift, king of England, who subdued the king­dome of France, and left the title to his posterity after many great and glorious conquests at­chieued against the French king, hee at last bereaued him of Normandy, in the yeare 1418. In token and me­morie of which victorie, as an eternal trophie and mo­nument of his glorie, he caused to be laid in Caen the foundation of this vniuersitie.


RHemes is a goodly cittie, and the Metropo­lis of Champaigne, wherein not long since was erected an Vniuersitie by the Prince Charles Guise, Cardinall of Lorraine, Arch­bishop & Duke of Rhemes, whose glorie and renowne dayly more and more encreaseth, by reason of the ar [...]s so learnedly there professed.

Of this citie was Bishop S. Remigius, a man of most holy conuersation and excellently learned, as by the Commentaries which he wrote vpon the old & new Testament it euidently appeareth. He baptized Clodo­uaeus a mightie and puissant king of Fraunce, together with Chr [...]tildis his wife, daughter to the king of Bur­gundie: he died in his venerable old age, in the yeare 498.


BVrdeux is the principall or head cittie of A­quitane, called by the French men Guienne, Bardegalis. seated at the mouth of Garomne, a mightie riuer issuing out of Languedoc. It is a place of incredible antiquitie, strongly fortified and beauti­fied with many sumptuous edifices.

In this citie hath long flourished a most renowned vniuersity, commonly called the schoole of Aquitaine, where the Artes are publikely taught and professed, from whence issued those mirrors of holinesse and lear­ning, Seuerinus & Maximinus, the one Bishop of Colen, the other of Tryer, both after their deathes canonized for Saintes. Vnto this citie also resteth the worlde in­debted for the birth & education of Ausonius the Ho­mer of these latter times.

Neere vnto this Citie on the waters side standeth a castle inexpugnable, fortified beyond all credite & comparison.


IN the extreamest confines of Languedo [...], not farre distant from the Pyrenaean moun­taines standeth Tholouse, called by antique writers Teotosagum, an auncient and good­ly cittie, built neere to the Riuer Garomne. The first foundation whereof is referred to a certaine Trotane. It was afterward amplified and enlarged by the Ro­maines. Wee reade, that Theodericus King of the Gothes, and Thorismonde his sonne, finding about this [Page 51] cittie, a happie & fertile soile enuironed with a sweete and holesome ayre, chose the same for their habitati­on, as the place of all France, most pleasant and most opulent, most fit for the preseruation and augmentati­on of their Empire, whose posterity was afterwarde expelled of the Frenchmen with great difficultie.

It was raised to an Archbishopricke by Pope Iohn, the 22. who also was the first institutor of the Vniuer­sity The Vniuersi­ty. therein, which as yet was erected not long after Paris, so doth it enioy the same priuiledges, that here­tofore haue beene to Paris granted.

Saint Saturnine was the first Bishop thereof, who S. Saturnine martyred. afterward being with vnsufferable torments excrucia­ted by the Pagans, yeelded his soule into the hands of his Redeemer, & was in this cittie buried, the reliques of whose body are by the inhabitantes often visited with great reuerence and deuotion.

There was sayde in times past to haue beene in this cittie a Temple, wherein was continually reserued in secret vaultes and dungeons vnder ground, as Poss do­nius sayeth 15000. talents of golde, which if any man by chance had touched, he shortlie after came to some vnfortunate end, which was verified in Caepio & other Roman captaines, from whence proceedeth the pro­uerbe applyed commonlie to those, whose attemptes are euer vnfortunate and without successe, Aurum The occasion of this pro­uerbe Aurum habet Tolosa­num. habet Tolosanum.

The Earle of Tholous is one of the twelue Peeres of France.


NIsmes called by Ptolomye, Pomponius Mela, trabo, and other learned searchers of an­tiquities, Nemansus, is an antient Citty in Dolphine, wherein was lately erected an Vniuersity. The soyle in this prouince is of such incredible fertilitie, that being with neuer so little labour mannured, it bringeth forth sondry kinds of excellent fruites. It hath such plentie of figge-trees, and bringeth such aboundance of grapes, that a greate parte of Europe is with figges and raisins from thence accommodated.


MOns Pessulanus, called of Pomponius Mela, Mesua, of Ptolomye, Agathopolis, and now vulgarly named Mompeliers, is a cittie in Dolphinie, not far distant from the Medi­terranesea,

An Vniuersity was therein erected (as some writers affirm) in the yeare of our Lord 1196. which after­warde was endued with many priuiledges by Pope Vrban the fift, who layed the foundation of a goodlie house, called Popes Colledge.

In times past the profession of Phisicke was there in greatest request: but now the schooles of the ciuil law are most vsually frequented: much was the Vniuersi­ty augmented and promoted by the bounty and libe­rality of Henry the second king of France: so great is [Page 52] the Rectors authority in this Vniuersity, that when­soeuer he hath occasion to walke into the towne, the studentes are bound to follow and attend him.

Henry the first granted to this Academic many roy­all praerogatiues, and founded therein the Kings col­ledge: here also is an other sayre and sumptuous col­ledge, called Duuergier, wherein sondry ingenious youthes are ten yeares trayned vp in letters and good discipline.


NEare to the side of Doux or Doubis (a small riuer passing through the French Counte, and falling into the Sone, standeth Bisan­son, a great, goodly and well munited cit­cie, a towne imperial, and the Metropolis of eyther Burgundy.

In the yeare of saluation 1540. by the authority of Pope Iul [...]us the third, and the Emperour Charles the 5. a new Vniuersity was therein erected, which hath ex­ceedingly since flourished, and sent forth many lear­ned and godly labourers into the Church.

The reuerend father Anthony Peronotus Archbishop of Mechlin, was a great benefactor to this Academie, who so desireth to know more particularities of this Cittie, let him reade the workes of George Bruno, and Gilbertus Cognatus Paradinus, in whose bookes he shall finde the same at large described.


IN Burgundy also on the banke of the said ri­uer Dubis, is to bee seene Dola, a cittie for strength, opulencie, and sumptuousnes of buildinges to bee preferred before all other places of Burgundy.

An Vniuersity is therin of great continuance, wher­in among many other sciences the ciuill law is most learnedly reade and professed.

The Vniuersities of Polonia, Prus­sia, and Lituania.


WEe reade in the historie of Polonia, that Lechus and Zechus, two sons of Iauan, going to seeke a place of habitation for themselues & their posterity, Zechus with his people remayned in those territories, which now are knowne by the names of Bohemia, and Morauia: but Lechus procee­ding further to the northeast, some twelue dayes ior­ney [Page 53] there seated himselfe, and called the region Polo­nia, by reason of the playnenes of the continent, being Polonia why so called. altogether voide of mountaines or vallies. Pole in their language signifyeth smooth or playne: here the saide prince commaunded his armie to stay, and to builde for themselues and their, children, townes, and villages, whereby hee established vnto himselfe a prin­cipality. But the people in succession of time, daylie more and more encreasing and multiplying, after the lyne of Lecus fayled, beganne to wax wearie of a mo­narchie, Polonia gouer­ned by twelue Woyuuods. wherefore they made choice of twelue. Magi­strates, which they named Woyuuods, (that is Countes Palatines) to haue the administration of their lawes and gouernment of their common wealth: which Magistrates or Earles doe vnto this day retayne their auncient name and dignitie, though they enjoy not fully so gieat authoritie: but not long after the wa­uering and vnconstant multitude neuer contented with their present estate, but desirous of change and alteration, waxed weary of this oligarchie gouern­ment of their Woyuuods, and with one consent named one Gracchus a principall leader amongst them, to bee their prince and gouernour.

This Gracchus about 400. years after the natiuitie of our Sauiour, gouerning this barbarous nation, buil­ded Gracouia buil­ded by Crac­hus. on the banke of the riuer Vistula, a good­ly cittie, which after his owne name hee called Graccouia, and for the better defence thereof, hee e­rected a strong castel or fortresse on the mount Vaeuel. Many ages after, namely in the yeare 1320. Vladislaus Loko [...]k praesiding, sent his Embassadors vnto the Pope, being then at Auignion in France, with request that hee [Page] might be crowned king of Polonia, which suite of his Vladislaus Loktek, the 1. K, of Polonia. being obtayned, he receyued the Diademe and regall ornamentes in the Cathedrall church of Graccouia, which city was then by the kinges praerogatiue made the Metro polis of the kingdome.

An Academie was in this Citie instituted by Casi­mire The erection a [...] the Vniuer­sity. the second in the yeare of saluation 1361. which afterwarde, namelie in the yeare 1400. was by Vladis­laus at the instant and importune intercession of Hed­uigis his Queene ratified and confirmed with the Popes authority.

The Vniuersity is not in the principall cittie, but in that parte which lyeth on the other side of the riuer, & is named from the first founder therof, Cazimiria, ther­in are two goodly Colledges, in the one is professed Philosophy and Diuinity, in the other Phisicke & the Ciuil law, the other inferior studies are there also lear­nedly taught with great diligence of the Readers.

In this Cittie haue I seene the bones of Stanislaus, once Bishop thereof, since canonized for a Saint, carri­ed about the towne in procession, enclosed in a fayre siluer coffin, with great reuerence and veneration of the beholders.

This Bishop was impiously martyred by Boleslaus Stanislaus Archbishop of Cracouia, mur­dered by the king. a most dissolute and libidinous king, because hee was by him once reproued with greater austerity, then his patience could endure, for his inordinate and adulte­rous life; but the iust iudgement of God suffered him not long to remaine vnpunished: for being shortly af­ter by his owne subiectes, (the Pope first absoluing them from their obedience) expelled his kingdome, hee fell into a rauening Lunacy, and so miserablie [Page 54] ended his dayes. The moderne Archbishop of that cittie is a Cardinall of the Familie of the Radziuilles, the principall and most noble race of Polonia, the Pa­latine of this Cittie is next vnto the king in degree and authority, who is therein most commonlie re­sident.


POsne is a cittie of no great circumference, but exceedingly beautified with fayre & sump­tuous aedifices, it is situated in the vpper Po­lonia, and contayneth a Palinacie.

An Vniuersity was in this Cittie of late yeares erec­ted by Sigismonde the present king of that nation, and The Vniuersi­ty in Posne e­rected. confirmed by Pope Clemēt the eight, now presidinge. The Iesuites enioy there in a goodly Colledge, wher­in they professe Theology, Philosophy, and the other inferior studies.


MOns Regius, commonly called Koningsperge, is the Metropolis of the great Dukedome of Prussia: It was so called by the first founder thereof Ottocharus king of Prussia, who being continu­ally molested with the often inuasions of the princes of Germany, for the defence of himself, & the confine of his kingdome, hee erected this cittie on the highest toppe of a mountaine in Samogitia, in the yeare of sal­uation, 1255.

This region was conuerted vnto the christian faith [Page] in the yeare 1000. by Adlobertus Bishoppe of Prage, but Prus [...]ia conuer­ted to the chri­stian faith afterwarde falling into a relapse, they were againe re­duced thereunto by the knightes of the Dutch order, in the yeare 1220. who with licence of the Emperour Fredericke the second, inuaded, vanquished e and a long time possessed that countrie: these knights were in the yeare 1525. expelled by Sigismonde king of Polonia, who annexed it to his owne kingdome. George Marquesse of Brandeburge then great maister of that order being contented to holde the same as Furdotarie from the king, who beganne his warre in the time of Albertus Marquesse of Brandeburge. This Albertus first erected in Roningsberge the Vniuersitie, which hath euer since, The erection of the vniuer­sity. euen vntill this present time, continually flourished.

Neare vnto that cittie is the Isle of Glessaria, now knowne by the name of Sudaw, where when the sea is The finding of Amber. troubled and tempestuous, it casteth vppe Amber in great aboundance, which from thence the inhabitants (who by reason their countrie was so many yeares by the Germans possessed, speake natiuely Dutch) call at this day Glesse, some imagine it to proceede from the gumme of firre trees, where with all those Ilands of the Sounde are replenished: others there bee which af­firme that it groweth as Corall doth on the rockes, which being by the violence of winde and weather washed from them by the often reuerberation of the waues, congealeth and waxeth hard, & so is gathered of the Borderers: I haue neare vnto this citty seene in the desertes and forrestes consisting all of mighty firre trees, great store of wilde Bores. Ours which is a kinde of wilde Oxe, & Alxes, not vnlike vnto our fallowe Deere, but thrice so big there are also great plentie of Beares.


VIlna, commonly called the Wilde, is a large and opulent Cittie in the great Dukedome of Lithuania or Littow, whereof it is the Metropolis. It lyeth 57. degrees from the eleuation of the North pole: it is seated on the banke of the riuer Vilias, in a valley betweene many moun­taines and mightie forrests of Firre trees.

The Lithuanians in the yeare 1386. first embraced Christian religion, in the dayes of Iagello great Duke, who ioyning himself in mariage with Heduigis, daugh­ter to the King of Polonia annexed vnto that kingdom the Dukedome of Lithuania. In former times the Li­thuanians The great Dukedome of Lithuanie an­nexed to the kingdome of Polonia. The idolatrie of the Lithu­anians worshipped trees, aspes, and serpentes, and especially holy fire: for which they erected in the sub­urbes of Vilna a goodly temple of free stone, which was by Iagello, when he had obtained the Crowne of Polonia, conuerted vnto a Cathedrall Church, and is now consecrated vnto S. Stanislaus, whose name I had occasion before to mention in the description of Craccouia.

Neere vnto the Church of S. Iohn Baptist, was late­ly erected a goodly and spacious Colledge, possessed The erection of the Vniuer­sitie Vilna. by the Iesuites, in the base courtwherof are 6 schooles faire and large: the first for Grammer, the second for Poetrie, the third for Rhetorique, the fourth for Philo­sophie, the fift for Diuinitie, the sixt for cases of consci­ence, named of schoolemen Positiua Theologia. There­in also are many faire and spacious roomes, purposely [Page] prouided for publike disputations.

This cittie containeth many goodly Monasteries, especially one belonging to the Friers Bernardines of The diuersity of religions in Vilna. most curious and excellent Architecture. Therein al­so is allowed one church for the Protestants, because the Woywod or Count Palatine thereof, the noblest of the Radziuilli professeth (if any) that religion. An o­ther church in like manner is granted vnto the profes­sors of Luther anisme, with a peculiar place of buriall.

The religion in this citie generally professed, is that of the Russes, who haue there many sumptuous tem­ples. They hold in all points the religion of the Gre­cians, which because in some few articles it differeth from the Romaine faith, is by the Catholiques helde as schismaticall. The Iewes also are here permitted to haue their Sinagogue, wherein weekely they solem­nize their Sabbothes.

Neere vnto this cittie, namely in the suburbs there­of, and villages neere vnto adioyning, dwel great mul­titudes of Tartars, which vse their natiue Tartarian lan­guage, and the Mahumetane religion. They serue as cariers for the inhabitants, & Marchants of the coun­trey, to transport wares from one cittie vnto another, and from one kingdome to another: In one of these Tartars sleddes (which are wagons without wheeles) I trauelled from Reuell in Leifland vnto this citie, where hauing spent fiue weekes in my iourney, I arriued a­bout the latter end of October, and stayed there vntill the Easter following. The reason that I trauelled in winter, was because the countrey is in the spring and summer time, so full of fennes and marishes, (procee­ding from the dissolution of the snow, which all the [Page 56] winter long couereth the grounde) that the passages through the same are then most difficile & laborious, but in the depth of winter the riuers & the marishes, as also the snow is by the cold Northerne wind so harde congealed, that the cariages most heauily laden haue then their easiest passages: the grounde at that sea­son being all white with snow, is not vnlike to the O­cean, wherein the trauellers are constrained to vse the sunne by day, and obserue the stars by night for their direction.

There are in Vilna two castles at the Northeast end of the towne, the one old and [...]uinous, standing on the top of a hill: the other new, lying in the plaine at the foot thereof, where is also the kings pallace.

The Lithuanians, Polonians, Russians, and Muscouites, The Po [...] ­nians [...] of [...] vse all one manner of attire and armes, though in lan­guage they all differ the one from the other: their ap­parrell is like vnto the Turkes, which vse altogether long robes: their armes are launces and short semi­tares: their armies consist altogether of horsemen, footmen in that countrey being able to performe smal seruice.

They vse in their dyet immoderate gluttonie and drunkennesse, though the whole countrey is voide of Their dyet, wine: their drink is an excellent kind of meade, where­with euery priuate mans house is plenteously furni­shed. The reason why this countrey yeeldeth such plenty therof, proceedeth from the innumerable mul­titudes of Bees, which of themselues breed in the for­rests of Fyrretrees, in so much that I haue seene aboue 1000. trees in one place burnt to ashes, onely for the honie which they contained.

THE VNIVERSITIES of Bohemia, and Morauia.


PRage is a great and renowned citie, lying in the middle or center of Prage. Bohemia, whilome a Dukedome, & exalted to a kingdome by the Em­perous Henry the fourth, in a dyet or generall assembly of the Princes of Germany at Ments, where Vladi­slaus was declared King. This Citie containeth foure Prage diuided into 4. seuerall rownes. seuerall townes, euery Towne hauing their peculiar market places, prisons, Magistrates, lawes, and cu­stomes. The chiefe and principall is that which they call the old towne, a place adorned with many anci­ent and goodly edifices, a faire and spacious market place, with a stately and sumptuous Senate house, whereunto is annexed a clocke of curious and costly workemanship: which Clocke hath on the top this inscription in great Romaine letters. PRAGA CAPVT REGNI. And vnderneath, Hoc mo­numentum S. P. Q. Pragensis aeternitati dicauit. The se­cond part they name the new Towne, which is diui­ded from the old with a ditch of great depth & wide­nesse, [Page 57] it hath also a market place of huge and incredi­ble largenesse, called the Oxe market: at the west ende thereof is also a strong and well builded Senate house, with a clocke curiously wrought, yet not so full of cost nor cunning as the former. At the West end is a mo­nasterie of incredible antiquitie, called Emaus, contay­ning many goodly pictures most artificially limmed: in this Cloister the people are by the Popes indul­gence permitted to receiue the Sacrament of the Al­tar The sacrament of the altar permitted to be receiued in both kinds. vnder both kindes. The third part, because in mag­nitude and spaciousnes it is inferior vnto the two for­mer (though in sumptuousnes of buildings it excee­deth both of them) is called the little towne, which diuideth it selfe from the old towne, with a costly and magnificent bridge of free stone, ouer the Multaue, containing 24. arches, which was erected at the cost and charges of Vladislaus before mentioned: on the South side of this bridge lyeth a small Iland, called by the inhabitants little Venice, wherein the citizens on Sundaies & holidaies for their recreation vse all man­ner of pastimes & gaming. This riuer in winter season (though it bee fully as broade, or broader then the Thames at London) is yearely so hard frozen, that carts loden do dayly passe ouer the same: at which time the citizens do fill their sellers with the ice thereof, which in summer time they drinke mingled with their wines. This part of the towne hath also his peculiar lawes, cu­stomes, magistrates, prisons, market place, and Senate house, and is inuironed on all partes, saue on that side which with the riuer is sufficiently defended with a wall of great circumference, contayning within the same many waste grounds and vineyardes. This part [Page] ofthe Cittie lyeth at the foote of a hill, called the Ra­chine, whereon are many faire and beautifull pallaces The Rachine. of sundry noble men. On the top thereof standeth the castle, wherein the Emperour is continually resident, ouer looking with great maiestie the whole cittie, ly­ing vnderneath. Vnto this Castle adioyneth the Ca­thedrall church, consecrated to S. Vite, wherein is to bee seene the shrine of the said Saint, together with the tombes and sepultures of many Kinges and Em­perours. At the westerne end of this church is erected a little Chappell, built of rich Iasper stone, with most curious and costly workemanship, wherein is enshri­ned the bodie of S. Vinceslaus, before whose sepulcher diuine seruice is dayly celebrated. The memory of this Saint is to this day among the Bohemians held in great regard and estimation. He was sonne to Vladi­slaus the second Christian Duke, after whose decease hee was by his mother Drahomitia, and his bro­ther S. Vinceslaus by the treason of his mother and brother murdred. Boleslaus inuited to a banket, where on the so­daine hee was by them most impiously murthered. His bodie being afterwarde conue [...]ed to Prage there to bee enterred, in a carte drawen with sixe Oxen: which cart passing through the market place of the lesser Towne, the Oxen could not by any meanes bee enforced to passe beyond a little round Tower, wherein were imprisoned many capitall offenders, vntill all the said prisoners were set at libertie. Where­vpon this prison was presently conuerted to a chap­pell, wherein once a yeare in memory of the Saint, di­uine seruice is wont to be celebrated.

In this cittie was borne Charles the great, Emperour of the Romaines, and King of Bohemia, who there­fore [Page 58] vsing all his endeuors to beautifie, and adorne the same, in the yeare of grace 1360. erected there an Vniuersitie. Martin Cromer in the 12. booke of The erection of the vniuer­sitie. his Polonian historie affirmeth, that when Cazimier King of Polonia founded the Academie of Cracouia, in the yeare 1361.

Prage was then a knowne vniuersitie. This schoole by reason of the accesse of the Germains thither, grew to bee exceedingly frequented, and so flourished vntil the springing vp of Wicklisse, who amongst them being fauoured of the Bohemians, made his partie so Wicklisse. strong, that aboue 2000. Germaines were in one day constrained to depart to Lipsike, three daies iourney fiō thence, where they obtained licence & priuiledges for an vniuersity. Not long after Wickliffe, arose a­mongst them Hierome of Prage and Iohn Hus, so named Hierome of Prage & Iohn Hus. from a little village wherein he was borne, called Hus, which in the Bohemian language signifieth a Goose: they were after condemned for Heretickes by the counsell of Constance, and in that cittie openly burned. Their errors you may reade in Munster, fol. Sor. After these schismes and sectes among them, the vniuersitie dayly more and more decayed, and was almost vtter­ly extinguished, had it not by the liberality of Ferdi­nand the first, and Maximilian the 2. Emperours (who The restoring of the vniuer­sitie. are there in the cathed [...]all church both enterred) been againe raised and restored.

There is now a goodly colledge newly builded, not far from the cast end of the bridge, containing 3. chur­ches, The Colledge of [...]aluites, though of no great capacity, yet exceeding beau­tiful, the one for Bohemians, the other for Germains, the 3. for Italians. In this colledge are by the Iesuits lernedly [Page] professed Theologie, & the other inferior artes.

The 4. and last towne contained in this citie, is that of the Iewes, who within themselues haue their pecu­liar lawes and liberties: they haue 5. sinagogues there­in, in the which they celebrate their sabbathes.

The Bishopricke of Prage did many yeares sithence belong to the Archbishop of Mentz: but after it was by Charles the great separated, and raised to the degree of an Archbishopricke.

Neere vnto the Cathedrall church Milada, sister to Boleslaus the 4. Christian Duke of Bohemia, by the per­mission S. Georges church builded by Milada. & authoritie of the Pope, builded S. George his church, and adioyned thereunto a Nunnerie, wherein she her selfe became a votarie.

As well in this cittie as neere about in the borde­ring regions are to be seene the ruines of many good­ly The reuenge of Iohn Ziske taken on the Bohemian fry­ers for the rape of his sister. monasteries ouerthrowne by Ziska, because a Monk of S. August. order rauished his sister, whose portray­ture I haue often seene at Prage, with this subscription: Iohannes Ziska superbiae & auaritiae clericorū seuer us vltor.


OLmuts is a faire and ample cittie in Morauia, Olmutium. a Dukedome whilome free, now annexed to the Crowne of Bohemia. In the yeare nine hundred, Zuantocopius Prince there­of had vnder his dominion Polonia, Silesia, and Bo­hemia, who moued with the greatnesse of his power, to an intollerable pride, denyed the tributes, which he was accustomed to pay vnto Lewes the Emperour, vpon which occasion offered, the said Emperor inua­ded his dominion with fire and sworde, but finding [Page 59] greater resistance then heeexpected, hee was constrai­ned The Emperor Lewes called the Turke to his aid against Zuantocopius The Morauits conuetted vn­to Christia­nismt. to call the Turke to his aide: by whose assistance the Morauites were easily vanquished, and the race of Zuartocopius vtterly extinguished.

About these times came Gyrullus the Apostle of the Sclauonians, into this countrie accompanied with Melodius, who first layed there the foundation of Christian religion, and crected a cathedrall church in Tielagrade, which since was transferred to this cittie Olmuts.

The people and inhabitantes of this cittie enter­taine The humani­ty of the Mo­rauites enter­taining stran­gers. strangers with incredible humanity, of which I my self had good experience at my being among thē. The language as well of the countrie people, as of the citizens, is a kind of corrupt and barbarous Dutch. The ayre is healthy, and the land very fruitfull.

I imagine the Vniuersity therein not to haue been of any long continuance, because I doe not remem­ber The vniuersity lately erected. that I euer haue reade or heardany mention made of the same in any antique author, it seemeth therefore to haue bin erected lately since the comming thether of the Iesuites, for whome there was builded a mag­nificent and sumptuous Colledge at the Popes char­ges, for the resorming of Lutheranisme in those ter­ritories generally professed.

The Monastery of the prouince like as we saide of Iohn Zosca. Bohemia, were all by Zusca defaced and ruinated.



CArpetana regio, now called the kingdome of Toledo, lyeth in the hearte and center of Spaine, the Metropolis where of is Toledo, frō whence the whole kingdom hath taken his name. This Cittie is situated on the banke of the riuer This riuer runnneth tho­rough Castile. Toledo and Portugale, and falleth into the sea at Lisbon. Tagus, now known by the name of Tay. It was reco­uered from the Saracens in the yeare of our Lord 1216. by Ferdinand the third, who caused them to fiie to Granada and Malaga, where they remayned vntill the yeare 1480. aboute which time Ferdinande king of Spaine grandfather to Charles the fift, by the mothers side, beganne to make fierce and cruell warres vppon them, by the vertue of which valiant and renowned Prince, their name was in Spaine vtterlie extinguished. The Saracins expelled out of Sdaiue.

This is a citty beautified with many pallaces of rare and excellent architecture, fenced about and munited with an hundred and fifty towers, the concourse of people hether is exceeding great, it hath continually within the walles many troupes of horsemen, for de­fence [Page 60] a great parte of the Nobility of Spaine, for plea­sure, and an infinite multitude of Marchantes, as well forraine, as inhabitantes for traffique and commodi­tie.

It is also enriched with great store of venerable and learned men, and adorned with the profession of all The vniuersity attes and sciences, aswell Mechanicall as liberall.

In this Cittie was the Vniuersity first erected by a certaine Bishoppe of the same Sea, and was afterward confirmed by the priuiledges and praerogatiues of ma­ny Popes and kinges of Spaine. The chiefe sciences therein professed are the Canon and ciuill law, which are there taught with so exquisite diligence and lear­ning, that whosoeuer shall remaine, but some few mo­nethes among them, if hee bee not altogether stupide and voide of capacity, hee cannot chuse but returne much amended in knowledge and learning.

In this Vniuersity was S. Alphonsus a student of Di­uinity, who as they say receiued a peculiar cope or ho­ly vestment, which in the celebration of Masse he was accustomed to weare from the handes of our blessed Ladie, because hee had with great learning defended her perpetuall virginitie against the Heluedian Here­tiques, which did oppugne the same.

The Archbishoppe of this Cittie is Chancelor of Castile, the Metropolitane and chief of al the ecclesiasti­call persons in Spaine, the reuenewes of this church a­mounteth The reuenewe of the church of Toledo 3500000. a [...] is most certain to the summe of 200000. Duckats, whereof the Archbishop receyueth 80000.


ANdolusia is that parte of Spaine, which ly­eth betweene Portugale and the streytes of Gibralter, it is in latine called Wandolicia, Hispalis. from the Wandales, which long time pos­sessed that countrie. It was in former ages called Baetica, from the riuer Betis, which to the Spani­ardes at this day is knowne by the name of This is an A­rabicke word signifiing a great riuer. Guadalqui­uer, neare to the side of this riuer is situated that fa­mous and renowned cittie Siuille, vnto the which for neatenesse and magnificence of aedifices, both diuines and prophanes, for profession and exercises of the li­berall sciences, for infinite aboundance of wealth and cōmodiousnes of liuing, no one citty that euer I haue heard or read of, scarse Rome herself flourishing in the height of her glory, may worthily bee paragonde: it excelleth all other citties of Spaine in fertility of the soyle, which bringeth forth all kindes of grayne, and The fertility of the ground about Siuill. Oliues in great aboundance, and is enuironed and hedged about with trees, greene and fruitfull. In this Cittie are alwayes maintayned 30000. Genettes for ser­uice of the king. The riuer Guadalquiuer running tho­rough the same, deuideth it into two partes, that part which lyeth on the west side thereof is called Triana, which is a suburbe contayning three thousand Citti­zens, and is ioyned to the maine Cittie, with a fayre & Syuill diuided into 2. parts. goodly bridge; on this side standeth a castell of greate strength and Maiesty.

This Cittie contayneth 24000. Citizens, euery one hauing his priuate & peculiar house, which are al [Page 61] diuided into eight tribes, whereof the first and chief­est is S. Maries tribe, wherein is a church of so rare and admirable workemanship, and such venerable Maie­sty, that our christian world can hardly shew the like.

This church hath a tower erected in forme of a Py­ramis, of most incredible height, with much labori­ous arte and industry, from whence all the coast and country adioyning may easily bee seene. Out of this citty the king receyueth yearely by way of custome, The kinges reuenewes out of S [...]u [...]ll. 500000. crownes.

A prouinciall councell was held in this citty, in the yeare of our Lord 584. in the time of Mauritius the Councels assē bled in Siuill. Emperour and Pope Pelagius the second. An other councell was here assembled vnder Heraclius, & Pope Honorius the first, in the yeare 636.

The Archbishoppe of Siuill is in decree next vnto the Archbishop of Toledo, and hath vnder him three Bishoppes suffragans, that is to say, the Bishoppe of Cales, Malaga, and the fortunate slandes, he receyueth yearly out of the Church reuenewes 24000. Duckats. 300000. by generall re­port. Learned men that haue li ued in this A­cademy.

The Vniuersity herein is of great antiquity, & hath sent forth into the world many learned and excellent men, as Pope Siluester the second, Auiccn a profounde Philosopher, and most excellently learned Phisition, and Leander, who by their industry and wisedome, re­clamed Hermigilde, and Richarde, kinges of the Gothes, from Arianisme to the catholike faith: herein also flou­rished Isidorus, a man much renowned for sincerity & profoundnes in learning.

In this Vniuersity is a rich and most renowned li­brary, neare to the fryers predicants.


VAlentia is a Region of Spaine, confined on the east side therof with the Mediterrane Sea, on the North with Arragon, on the South with Nurcia, and on the West with Castile: through this kingdome run­neth a Riuer, called by Salust, Priscian, Pomponius Mela; & other ancient writers, Turia, or Durias, which since of the Moores, which inhabited that country, was cal­led Guetalabiar, neare to the mouth of which Riuer is situated that noble and famous citty Valentia, the chief and principall Cittie of that kingdome, a place of mar­uailous antiquity, wherein are reserued euen vnto this day, many auncient marbles with Roman inscrip­tions on them: among the which there is one with this inscription, Colonia, Iulia, Valentia, wherby it most euidentlie appeareth, that it hath in former ages been Valentia once a colonie of the Romans. a Colony of the Romans. Some there bee which af­firme that this Citty was first called Roma, vntill being by the Romans vanquished, they called it by a worde Rhomn signifi­eth strength. The vniuersity in their owne language of the same signification Va­lentia. In this Citty is an Vniuersity, which in the yeare of grace 1470. did admirably flourish. Herein Saint Dominicke, the first founder of the Fryers praedicantes, did absolue the courses of Philosophy, and Theology. Herein also did S. Vincent a Fryer of the same order, in his youth study, and in his elder yeares publikely teach Diuinity. Wee read that in Valentia was assembled a generall councell in the yeare of saluation 466. The [Page 62] yearely Reuenewes of the Bishopricke in this cittie a­mount The reuenews of the Bishop­ricke. Porceline di­shes made. to 1 [...]000. Duckats.

In this countrie are made those porceline dishes, which for pure temper of the mettall, and exquisite artifice and workemanship, so much desired in forrain nations. The inhabitants of this kingdome retain yet a smacke or taste of the ancient Arabique tongue, and some spices of the Mahumetane religion.


THe kingdom of Granada, is on the south side thereof limitted with the Mediter­ran sea, it hath on the east side the king­dome of Murcia, and on the West An­dolusia: in the middest of this kingdome standeth the Metropolis and chiefe and principal cit­tie thereof: Granada, from whence the realm hath de­riued his name. This Cittie and Countrie was pos­sessed of the Moores and Saracins 800. yeares, and were at last by the great and singular vertue of Ferdinand grandfather to Charles the fift, together with their king Melis, expulsed not onelie out of this kingdome, but Granado deli­uered from the yoke of the Saracins by Ferdinande. out of Spaine. Since which time they neuer attemp­ted any matter of great moment against the christians, neyther durst they insinuate themselues into any one parte or corner of their dominions, which wee haue spoken of before in the description of Toledo.

The greatest happinesse of this place consisteth in The fertility of Granado. the fruitfulnesse and faecundity of the soile. The houses of the cittie are builte all of free stone with cu­rious and artificiall masonrie, shewing great magnifi­cence. [Page] It is within replenished with many springes & waters, exceeding cold and most profitable for the cō ­seruation of health, without it is enuironed with a large & statelie wall, contayning in the circumference thereof twelue gates, and a hundred and thirty turrets or towers.

By the great bounty and liberality of the king of The professiō of artes licen­sed. Spaine in this Cittie, was founded and erected a most sumptuous and magnificent Colledge to the vse of the Iesuites, who are authorized therein to professe Philo­sophy, Diuinity and the other triuiall and inferior stu­dies.

In this place had that mirror of Christendome Lewes Lewes of Gra­nado. of Granada, (whome all men haue admired, but no one euer could imitate,) his birth and education.

S. Iago.

GAllicia is a region lying on the northwest side of Spaine, and maketh a headland or Compostella. promontarie farre out into the sea, com­monlie called Capo de finisterre, or the north Cape, which seemeth in a manner vio­lentlie to seperate the sea of Bisca, from the Isles of Ba­yona: neare to the promontary standeth the cittie of Compostella, vulgarly called S. Iago, more noble and famous by reason of many pilgrimages, made thether by persons of great place and qualitie, then for any other matter worth the obseruing therin contayned. We read in ancient histories of the church that S. Iames S. Iames prea­ched in Sdaine after theascention of our Sauior trauelled into Spain, & preached the Gospel to the inhabitāts therof, being [Page 63] as yet Pagans & infidels. But reaping there smal fruit of his excessiue labour & paines by reason of the iniqui­tie and naughtinesse of those times, he returned againe to Hierusalem, where at the commandement of Herode being slaine, he obtained a glorious crowne of martir­domes Vnto this Saint the Spaniards ascribing their first conuersion, caused in honor and remembrance of him a rich and sumptuous temple to be erected in Compostella, where his reliques are at this day visited with a wonderfull concourse of people, and worship­ped with incredible deuotion. This Church was by Pope Calixtus the second highly aduanced and hono­red in the yeare of our Lord 1122. whence it procee­deth, that this Church is immediately subiect vnto the Pope and to no other prelate or gouernor.

The Emperour Charles the great founded herein a goodly Colledge, now gruerned after the rule of S. Isidore. He also caused this Church to bee accounted among the seates Apostolique, where is to bee vnder­stood, that in Christendome are three seates, called Apostolique, which before all other places of the worlde the Christian religion hath alwaies held in greater e­steeme, that is to say, S. Peters, at Rome. S. Iohns at Ephe­sus, and S. Iames at Ce [...]postella. This cittie of ancient hi­storiographers was called in time passed Brigantium, from whence the Irish nation, the Scots in Galloway, & our Northerne Yorkeshire men, called in old authors Brigantes, glory & boast, that they haue receiued the first originall of their race.


ON the East side of Gallicia, bordereth the kingdome of Legio, which endu­red the cruell and heauie yoke of ser­uitude Pintia. vnder the Sarracens aboue three hundred yeares, and was resto­red vnto libertie in the yeare of grace 1216. by the kinges of Arragon, Castile, Portugall, and Nauarre, who assembling a mightie and puissant ar­mie made here against Hilminolmius, the king of the Moores, returning from Auinion in Fraunce (whi­ther hee passed before as a conquerour, harry­ing and spoiling the countrey as, hee went with fire and sword) and after a sharpe and bloudy battell, vanquished his armie, and recouered this kingdome. In this realme is Valladolit, named in olde authors Pintia, a cittie though of no great circuite, nor spaci­ousnesse, yet of much and long antiquitie. It was wont to be numbred among the seuen most auncient vniuersities of Spaine. It hath beene long drowned in The antiquity of this Acade­mic. The restoring thereof. obscuritie, euen vntill the dayes of king Phillip late deceased, who because he was there borne, did restore vnto it the antique priuiledges and prerogatiues thereto belonging, and did his vttermost endeuors to raise it to his former dignitie. He there hath lately e­rected a Colledge for the institution of yong English Gentlemen, which haue abandoned their countrey.

Alcala de Henares.

VNto the kingdome of Legio is adioyned Ca­slile, Complutum. an Earledome, which was by Ferdi­nand the third sonne to the Earle of Castile, raised to a kingdome in the yeare 1017. & vnited to the realme of Legio.

Among many great and goodly cities in that king­dome, Complute, which of the Spaniard, is common­ly called Alcala de Henares, is not the meanest.

An vniuersitie was herein erected and instituted The erection of the Vuiuer­sity. by an Archbishop of Toledo, named Franciscus Xineri­e [...]sis, who was by profession a Franciscan Frier, in the yeare 1317.


IN this kingdome of Castile lyeth that wor­thy and famous cittie Salamanca, situated on the banke of the Riuer Thormes, which falleth into the maine Riuer Duero in Por­tingall.

Although concerning the first erection and institu­tion of this vniuersitie, few writers (as saith Sarabellus) The erection of the Vniuer­sity in Sala­manca. affirme any thing for certainetie: yet are there not wanting some which hold for vndoubted truth, that it first was founded in the yeare of Christs in carnati­on 1404. which in these our daies hath gotten great fame and credite, and is well knowne throughout Christendome, by reason of diuers and sundry priui­ledges, wherewith many kings and high Bishoppes of Rome haue liberally adorned the same.

[Page] Pope Clement the sift, in a councell held at Vienna, Pope Clement the fist. made a decree, that the Hebrewe, Arabicke, and Chaldie tongus should in this Academie be continu­ally taught, & Iohn Goropius affirmeth, that for magni­ficent and sumptuously builded colledges, scarce any vniuersitie of Europe may therewith worthely be pa­ragond. The which Pope hauing in his court certaine young Gentlemen of Spaine, which he desired should bee trained vp in some place where they most might profit in vertue and good literature, thought no Aca­demie in Christendome so fit for that purpose as Sala­manca, because all kind of learning was there by most excellent men with incredible industrie professed.

In this Academie Pope Adrian the sixt, before his Papacie, liuing in Spaine, tooke great pleasure and de­light, Pope Adrian the sixt. and after his election he held it in great price and estimation, adorning, amplifying, and authorizing the same with many great and vnusuall prerogatiues. Ignatius Loyola first founder of the societie of Iesu, was in this vniuersitie a student.


IN the extreamest confines of this king­dome of Castile, euen on the banke or shore of the riuer Ebro, wherewith it is diuided from Nauarre and Aragon, stan­deth an auncient Cittie, called of the Romaines Caesaraugustana, or Augusta Caesariae, which of The Kings of Arragon crow­ned. the inhabitants is named Saragossa, wherein the kings of Arragon are vsually accustomed to be crowned.

This Church was by Pope Iohn the 22. (who was [Page 65] alwaies thereunto exceedingly well affected) eleua­red to the dignitie of an Archbishopricke: by him al­so were the priuiledges of the vniuersitie restored and The vniuersity priuiledged. ratified. Because in this Cittie had beene shed the bloud of many holy Martirs, which suffered for the constant profession of the Christian faith, during the raigne of those bloudie, vnmercifull, and impiously tirannous idolaters Datian, and Richiouarus, whose in­expleble thirst was neuer satiated with the bloude of innocent Christians: it is at this day commonly enti­tuled Sarogossa Sancta. Saragossa the holy.


SIguença is also a cittie of Castile, lying three Monuierdo, olim Sagū [...]. daies iourney from Saragossa, and three leagues from Medinacoeli, wherein is an v­niuersitie much frequented: but concer­ning the foundation thereof, or donation of the pri­uiledges thereto, I haue not in any author read ought which I dare set downe for certainty.


ARragone is that part of Spaine, which lyeth at the foote of the Pyraenean mountaine, [...]ierd [...]. betweene Nauarre and Catallonia, and is separated from the continent of Castile & Valentia, with the riuer Ebro. In this kingdome are to be seene many faire and well fortified citties: among the which is Larida, a beautifull towne, situated on Cinga, a small riuer, which keeping his course through [Page] this realme disburdeneth himselfe into the Ebra.

In this cittie flourisheth an Academie of maruel­lous antiquitie, wherein Pope Calixtus the third, be­fore An ancient Academie. hee obtained the Papacie, proceeded Doctor of either law, who afterward became a publike professor of the ciuill law in the same place.

Also S. Vincent a Dominican Frier (which for his reli­gious and holy life was after his death canonized for a Saint) was there made Doctor of Diuinitie.

We reade of a prouincial counsell of eight Bishops A prou [...]nciall councell. assembled in this citie vnder Anastatius the Emperour, & Pope Gelasius the first, in the yeare of our Lord 494.


OSca or Isca, called in the vulgar tongue Huesca, is an other goodly cittie of Arra­gon, An ancient v­niuersitie ere­cted before our Sauiours natiuity. containing an vniuersitie of most ad­mirable antiquitie, which is said to haue beene erected before the comming of Christ, as a Nurserie for the institution of noble mens children.


THat part of the continent, which coasteth a­long Vllscipona. the Westerne shore betweene the Iles of Bayone and the Promontorie or Cape of Saint Vincent, is knowne to vs by the name of Portugall, numbred amongst the most wealthie and opulent kingdomes of Europe.

[Page 66] Through the middest of this region passeth the riuer Tagus or Tayo, neere vnto the mouth whereof is seated Lisbone, the most faire and flourishing empo­rie of Portingall, the Metropolis of the kingdome, the most beautifull and best adorned cittie in the West.

We reade that Henry Earle of Lorraine, a man re­nowned in feates of armes, had in guerdon of many conquestes by him atchieued against the Moores, gi­uen him to wife Tyresia, daughter of Alphonsus the 6. king of Castile, vnto whome was assigned for her dowrie all that part of Gallicia, which now is subiect to the crowne of Portingal. Of these princes was borne Alphonsus, who first named himselfe king of Portingall. This young king nothing degenerating from the ver­tue The first king of Portingall. of his auncestors ceased not to vexe and wearie out the Moores with continuall warres: so that he vanqui­shed and subdued siue kinges of them, in memorie whereof the Kings of Portingall beare in their coate of armes euen vntill this day fiue shieldes Azure in field The reason why the kinges of Portingall bear 5. shields for their arms. argent. He also recouered from them Lisbone, and re­stored it to libertie about the yeare 1110.

Since that time, what with the fauor & munificency of their kinges (who haue for the most parte therein continually kept their courts) what by the incredible accesse of marchants thither, from all nations of the world. This cittie is growen to that height of glorie & maiestie, that she easily surmounteth all other citties whatsoeuer contained in this westerne world.

A most renowned vniuersitie was by the bountie of their kinges in this citie erected, where euen vntill this day the liberall sciences are professed with great [Page] sinceritie and profoundnes, to the incredible benefite of Christendome.

There are in this cittie 26. parishes, and 20000. mansion houses.

In the yeare 1531. the 7. Kalendes of Februarie, there was a most strange and admirable earthquake A strange earthquake in Portingall. throughout all places in Portingall, whereby were cast downe to the ground 1050. houses, and sixe hundred were there withall so rent and shaken, that their fall and ruine dayly was expected. This earthquake con­tinued the space of eight dayes, causing the ground to shake and tremble at least three or foure times a day, in such sort that the inhabitantes were therewith so af­frighted and terrified, that they were glad to forsake their houses, and lie on tops of mountaines in the o­pen aire.


COimbra is also a most pleasant and good­ly cittie in Portingall, seated neere vnto the riuer Mondego.

An vniuersitie was therein founded in these latter daies, by Iohn the seconde, King of Portingall.

Iacobus Payua Andradius in the Preface of his booke, entituled: Liber orthodoxarum explicationum, writeth of this vniuersitie in this manner: Coimbricensis Aca­demia est loci natura amaenissima, & omni literarum gene­re clarissima est, inqua ipse ab eunte aetate literarum studij [...] incubui non insoeliciter.


EVora is an ather Cittie of Portugall, not to bee contemned, it is illustrated with the dignity of a Bishops Sea.

An Vniuersity was herein lately erec­ted by Henry, Cardinal of Portugall, a Pre­late of worthy memory, who was Bishop of that place he was a man endued with aboundant wealth, & ex­ceedingly affected tothe Muses.


THe Isles of Maiorica and Minorica, adioy­ning so neare to the continent of Spaine, that one may with great facility saile from the one to the other in foure, or at the most in fiue howers, and also being parcelles of the kings dominion, I thought it not amisse to annexe this cittie, to the other Vniuersities of Spaine.

Maiorica is the greatest Islande of the two, and hath lying on the East side thereof a goodly cittie, which is the Metropolis of both Islandes, and hath neare adioyning vnto it, an ample and most commo­dious The [...]land [...] often v [...]xed by the Moo [...]s. porte. The inhabitantes hereof are constray­ned to endure many iniurious outrages, and most mi­setable calamities at the handes of the Moores and Sa­racens their opposite neighbours on the coast of Afri­ca, who oftentimes making incursions into this Isle, do in an euening fire many of their houses standing neare to the sea, and carry away the owners thereof as prisoners, to bee for money of their friendes, and the [Page] kindred redeemed, for whose ransome there are con­tinually on all sondayes and holydayes publike col­lections in their churches.

The land of these Ilands neare vnto the sea, is sweet, pleasant, and fertile, but vp further within, [...]is sterill, ful of craggy rockes, vnpleasant and vnprofitable.

In this Cittie is an antient priuiledged and autho­rised Vniuersitie, where the artes Vniuersall are pub­likely with great learning professed.

Among the students of this Academy, the memory of Raimundus Lullius is with great admiratiō retayned, because he receyued therein his birth and education: insomuch, that euen vntill this present time, a learned man is there with liberall exhibition entertayned to maintain and teach the doctrine in times passed by Lul­lius professed.

I would that the learned Reader should vnderstād that although the Spanish Academies are by me brief­ly runne ouer, yet are there not more goodly, more opulent, nor more in all kindes of learning flouri­shing Vniuersities in any region of Europe, which I am constrayned to setdowne without any exact de­scriptiō of them, because I neuer could find (though I haue therefore made great search and enquiry) any author which discourseth of that subiect.



Oxsorde is a fayre and beautifull cit­ty, whose situation is in a playne Champion, neare to the side of the Thames, being enuironed with many pleasing groues & wooddy mountains: from whence (as some writers affirme) it was in times pas­sed named Bellositum: concerning the Etymologye of the name thereof, there are sondry opinions. Lelandus imagineth, that it first was called Ouseforde, from the riuer Ouse, in Latine Isis: but the most true and probable coniecture is, that it was na­med of the Saxons Oxenford, in the same sense that the Grecians named their Bosphoros, and the Germans O­chensfurt, a cittie standing at this day on the banke of the riuer Odor, from a fourde or shallownes of the riuer in that place, through the which cattell might safelie passe, for which cause it is at this day of the auncient Brittaines called in their language Rhyddichen. We find [Page] written in our chronicles, that this cittie was in the time of the Brittaines, the first inhabitantes of this I­land, consecrated vnto the Muses: whose names and memorie were afterwarde, during the furie of the Sax­on warres therein, vtterly extinguished, and the cittie much obscured, knowne onelie for certaine Reliques of S. Frideswid, a religious Votaresse therein reserued, and with much deuotion often visited. But in suc­cession of time 873. yeares after our Sauiours incarna­tion, Alfred a holy and religious Saxon king, restored againe the Muses to their former dignity, which had beene thence so long exiled: who the better to encou­rage their abode therein, caused three colledges to bee erected: one for Grammarians, another for Phi­losophers, and a thirde for professors of Diuinity: but this felicity not long endured: for the Danes in the time of Ethelred consuming all with fire and sworde, burned a great parte of the cittie, and not long after Harald Lightfoote, exercised in the same, such immane Marald Hare­foott. and batbarous cruelties, that the students flying from their colledges and habitations, left the Vniuersity de­solate and forsaken, in which estate it remayned vntill William the Norman by his conquering arme obtay­ned the regal Diadem, after which prince his entrance Robert de Oilgi a Gentleman of Normandie, in guerdon Rob. de Olley. of his valour, trauell, and expence, receyuing of the Conquerour a grant of certaine landes neare the wals of this citty, erected at the west end thereof a strong & well fortified castell, which after was by king Stephen during the warres betweene him and Maude the Em­presse, long in vaine besidged: hee also as some thinke [Page 69] enuironed Oxford with a wall, which now by long continuance is decayed, Robert his brothers sonne in the yeare 1130. founded neare vnto this cittie, a spatious and goodly Priorie: which from the riuer before mentioned, enuironing the same, hee called Ousney, the ruines of whose walles remain onely at this day to be seene, in these times the cittie being againe with many fayre and goodly aedifices adorned, newly beganne to flourish, and great multitudes of students from euery parte and corner of the realme, for their better encrease in learning, beganne to repayr thether, and now the fountaines of the Muses, which had long seemed to be drie or stopped vp, were againe (all ob­structions of Barbarisme being taken away) opened and reuiued; for the which much doth this noble V­niuersity remaine indebted to the worthy memorie of Robert Polenius a learned man, by whose onely labo­rius and painefull industry, it hath recouered the place and dignity, which at this day it holdeth among other Academies in our Christian world, vnto so happie ef­fect, did sorte the labours of this worthy man, that in the raigue of king Iohn, three thousand studentes were numbred in this Vniuersity. All which in short time after departed some to Reading, and some to Cambridge for certaine iniutious wronges offered vnto them by the Cittizens, which dissention being not long after againe appeased, they all returned, others affirme the cause of this secession to haue beene because the king caused three students to be apprehended in their col­ledges, & presently hanged, for the murther of a cer­taine woman, of which fact they all were innocent, [Page] and guiltlesse. Not long after, I mean, in the times of the next succeeding princes, sondrie vertuous and well disposed persons, beganne to lay the foundations of diuers goodly Colledges, intending therby to leaue some monument of their name and worthinesse to all posterities: by whose example since many fa­mous princes, and reuerent Prelates, haue beene ex­cited to doe the like: so that it comprehendeth at this daye sixteene fayre and goodly Colledges, all endued with large tenements & possessions, and eight Hals.

Merton Colledge was in the time of Henry the thirde, or as others write, in the beginning of Edward the first, Merton Col­ledge. founded by Walter Merton, sometime Canon of Salisbury, and after Bishop of Rochester.

Not long after, or as some think before, during the raigne of William the Conquerour, was the auncient Vniuersity col ledge. foundatiō of holy Alfred renued by one William, Arch­deacon, or as other say, Bishop of Durisme, and called Vniuersity Colledge.

In the yeare of our Sauiours incarnation 1263, du­ring the raigne of Edwarde the first, was founded Ba­lioll Baliol colledge Colledge, by Iohn Balioll king of Scots, or rather as others imagine his parents, Iohn and Deruorguidis: a­bout this time, as writeth Armachanus, were numbred in Oxford 30000 students.

In the yeare from our Sauiours Natiuity 1126. in the time of Edward the second, Walter Stapleton Bishop of Excester, layed the foundation of Excester Colledge, Exceter col­ledge. Harts hall. and Hart hall, which Colledge lately hath beene much augmented in the days of our Soueraign Lady Queen [Page 70] Elizabeth, by Sir William Peter, knight.

King Edward the second desirous to imitate the worthy example of this reuerend Praelate, erected O­riall Colledge, so called, because it was indeede a Orial colledge worke, which most worthily might beseeme a king, & thereto he added S. Mary hall. S. Mary hall.

Lady Philip, wife vnto king Edwarde the thirde, layed the foundation of a goodly Colledge, which shee named the Queenes Colledge, about the year of our Lord 1340. Queenes Colledge. New colledge.

William Wicham, a famous and worthy Prelate, for his singular wisedome, highly esteemed of king Ed­warde the third, and by his meanes made Bishoppe of Winchester, in the yeare 1358. layed in Oxford the foundation of a magnificent and sumptuous colledge, now called New Colledge, into the which yearely are sent many rare and excellent wits: from the Colledge neare Winchester, a most sertile Seminarie of good letters founded by that thrice worthy Bishoppe, and by him committed to the tutele and protection of the blessed Virgin Mary.

Richard Fleming Bishoppe of Lincolne in the dayes Lincolne col­ledge. of Henry the fift, about the yeare of our Lorde one thousand foure hundred and thirty, founded Lincolne Colledge, which was afterward in Richarde the thirdes time, in the yeare of our Lord 1479. by Thomas Rothe­ram Bishoppe of the same sea, much augmented and encreased.

Henry Chichley Archbishoppe of Canterburie, in the yeare 1439. layed in Oxforde the foundation All soules col­ledge. of two goodly Colledges, the one dedicated to the [Page] [...] [Page 70] [...] [Page] memory of all soules, the other to S. Bernard, which being afterwarde suppressed by king Henry the eight, was of late in the raigne of Queene Mary restored and reedified by Sir Thomas White, Lord Maior of London, and by him named S. Iohns Colledge.

Durin the raigne of Henry the sixt, about the yeare of our Lord 145 [...]. William Wainsflet Bishop of Winche­ster S. Iohns col­ledge. Magdalen Colledge. builded Magdalen Colledge, hee builded also a great parte of Eaton Colledge, before begunne by king Henry the sixt.

William Smith Bishop of Lincolne, during the raigne of king Henry the seauenth, layed the foundation of Brasen nose in the yeare 1513. the which hath beene Brasen ose colledge. lately by that reuerende olde man Alexander Nowel, Deane of S. Paules Church in London, much helped & increased.

During the raigne of the saide king Henry the sea­uenth, Corpus Chri­sti colledge. Richarde Foxe Bishop of Winchester, founded Corpus Christi Colledge, himselfe hauing before beene a fellow of Pembrooke hall in Cambridge, the which col­ledge of his in the yeare 1516. hee endowed with forty pound eight shillinges two pence yearely rent for e­uer.

In the time of king Henry the eight, Thomas Wolsey Cardinall of Rome, Archbishoppe of Yorke, and Lorde Christs church high Chancelor of England, beganne in sumptuous manner to lay the foundation of a most ample and spatious Colledge, but falling into the kinges heauie displeasure before the same could bee brought to per­fection, the king after his decease, enriched the same with many goodly reuenewes, annexing thereunto

[Page 71] Canterburie colledge, which had beene before ere­cted in the time of Edward the 3. by Simon Islep Arch­bishop of Canterburie. This worthy King of famous memory, the more to grace & adorne the citie, erected therein a Bishops sea: and out of his treasurie appoin­ted yearely to be paid certaine annuities, for the per­petuall maintenance of publique readers in each se­uerall schoole.

In the raigne of Queene Mary, Sir Thomas Pope re­edified Trinitie col­ledge. Duresme Colledge, which was in former ages erected by Thomas of Hatfield Bishop of Duresme, and now by continuance of time exceedingly decayed, by which knight the name therof being altered, it is now called Trinitie Colledge.

Not long since Hugh Prise Doctor of the ciuill law, hath founded a new colledge, which in honour Iesu colledge of our Sauiour is knowne by the name of Iesu col­ledge.

Many other rare and excellent ornamentes there are wherewith this famous and farre renowned Aca­demie exceedingly is beautified, as churches, libraries, publique schooles, and many sumptuous priuate edi­fices, the which to auoid prolixitie, I will omit, imagi­ning that such triuiall things must of necessitie bee fa­mialiarly knowne to euery learned reader, wherefore with this assertion I will finally conclude, that more pietie in religion, more profoundnesse in learning, more strictnes in discipline, & more integritie in life, is not to be found in any one vniuersitie, in whatsoeuer part or region of the world.


COncerning the first originall and foun­dation of the cittie and vniuersitie of Cambridge, among the learned searchers of antique lustories, two seuerall and discrepant opinions strongly are main­tained. Iohn Caius in his booke of the antiquity of Cam­bridge, with many arguments laboureth to proue the foundation thereof to haue beene laide, and the name deriued from one Cantabar a Prince of Spaine, bro­ther to Partholinus King of Ireland, and sonne in law to Gurguntius king of Britaine, in the yeare 4317. after the worlds first creation, which was 539. yeares before our Sauiours natiuitie. For proofe of which opinion hee alleadgeth the authoritie of Iohn Lidgat Monke of Ber­ri [...], and scholler to that famous Poet, and onely Homer of our English nation, Geffrey Chaucer, whose verses in old English, as I found them written, I haue here vn­derneath set downe.

By true record of the Doctor Bede,
That sometime wrote so mickle with his hand,
And specially remembring as I reade,
In his Chronicles made of England,
Among other things as we shall vnderstand,
Whom for mine author I dare alleadge,
Sith the translation and building of Cambridge,
With him according A [...]fred the chronicler,
Seriously, who list his bookes for to see,
Made in the time when he was Thresurer
[Page 72] Of Beuerley an old famous cittie,
Affirme and saine the vniuersitie
Of Cambridge, and studie first began,
By their writing as I report can.
He rehearsing first for commendation,
By their writing how that old cittie
Was strongly walled with towers many one,
Built and finished with great libertie,
Notable and famous of great authoritie,
As their authors according saine the same,
Of Cantabar taking first his name.
Like as I find report I can none other:
This Cantaber time of his liuing,
To Partholine he was Germane brother,
Duke in those daies, in Ireland a great king,
Chiefe and principall cause of that building.
The wall about and towers as they stood,
Was set and built vpon a large floud,
Named Cantebro, a large broad riuer,
And after Cante called Cantebro.
This famous citie, this write the Chronicler,
Was called Cambridge, rehearsing eke also,
In their booke these authors both two,
Touching the date as I rehearse can,
Fro thilke time that the world began,
Foure thousand complete by account cleare,
And three hundred by computation,
Ioyned thereto eight and fortie yeare,
When Cantebro gaue the foundation,
Of this Cittie and this famous towne,
And of this noble vniuersitie,
Set on this riuer which is called Cante.
And fro the great transmigration,
Of Kings reckoned in the Bible old,
Fro Ierusalem to Babilon
Two hundred winter & thirtie yeares told,
Thus to write mine author maketh me bold:
Then Cantebro as it well knoweth,
At Athens schooled in his youth,
All wits greatly did apply,
To haue acquaintance by great affection,
With folke expert in Philosophie:
From Athens he brought with him downe,
Philosophers most soueraigne of renowne,
Vnto Cambridge plainely this is the cause,
Anaximander and Anaxagoras:
With many other mine authors doth fare,
To Cambridge fast can him speed
With Philosophers, and let for no cost spare,
In the schooles to studie and to reede,
Of whose teaching great profit that gan spread,
And great increase rose of his doctine.
Thus of Cambridge the name gan first shine,
As chiefe schoole and Vniuersitie,
Vnto this time fro the day it began,
By cleare report in many a far countrey,
Vnto the raigne of Cassibelan,
A worthy prince and full knightly man,
As saine chronicles, who with mighty hand,
Let Iulius Caesar to arriue in this land,
Fiue hundreth yeare ful thirty yere & twenty
Fro Babilons transmigration,
That Cassibelan raigned in Britaine,
Which by his notable royall discreation,
[Page 73] To encrease that studie of great affection,
I meane of Cambridge the Vniuersitie,
Franchised with many a libertie.
By meane of his royall fauor,
From countries about many a one,
Diuers schollers by diligent labour,
Made their resort of great affection,
To that studie great plentie there came downe,
To gather fruites of wisedome and science,
And sundrie flowers of sugred eloquence.
And as it is put eke in memorie,
How Iulius Caesar entring this region,
One Cassibelan after his victorie
Tooke with him Clearkes of famous renowne
Frō Cambridge, & led them [...] Rome towne,
Thus by processe remembred heretoforne,
Cambridge was founded long ere Christ was borne,
Fiue hundred yere, thirty & eke nine.
In this matter ye get no more of me,
Rehearse I will no more at this time,
These remembrances haue great authority,
To be preferd of long antiquitie,
For which by record all clearkes saine the same,
Ofheresie Cambridge bare neuer blame.

But sundry other Historiographers there are, which (imagining this antiquitie to be somewhat too far fet­ched) affirme, that the vniuersitie of Cambridge was long since erected in the time of Sigebert king of Eng­land, sixe hundred and thirtie yeares after our Sauiors incarnation. Moreouer they auerre, that the name of this cittie was not deriued from that Cantaber, but ra­ther [Page] frō a bridge, builded ouer the riuer Came passing by the towne. Which opinion seemeth not absurd, because this riuer being in former ages knowne by the name of Grant: old writers affirme that the cittie was in the Saxon tongue commonly called Grantbridge.

Whensoeuer this cittie first was founded, or by whom soeuer the vniuersitie was first erected (which matter I will referre to the discussion of more learned antiquaries, since mine intent is onely to set downe such schooles & colledges, as the same at this day doth containe) most certainely true it is, for the antiquitie and worthinesse thereof, it may at this time worthily contend with the most ancient & flourishing vniuer­sities of the world.

In Cambridge, besides many other sumptuous and fairely builded edifices, as publique schooles for lec­tures, churches, and such like, there are at this day to be seene 15. goodly Halles and Colledges.

In the yeare of our redemption 1284. during the raigne of king Edward the first. Hugh Balsham the 15. S. Peters Colledge. Bishop of Ely builded Saint Peters colledge, common­ly called Peter-house, in a place, where before had beene two ostles of schollers, of exceeding great anti­quitie. The which colledge at this day maintaineth one maister, 15. fellowes, fi [...]e Bibleclearkes, and eight poore schollers.

Clare hall was first founded by one Richard Badew, at that time Chancellor of the vniuersitie, and was by C [...]are hall. him named Vniuersity hall: howbeit afterward by the assistance of Gualler Thaxted maister of the same hall, not without the assent of the said R. Badew, it was Ann. 1347. (21. yeares after the foundation thereof) resigned [Page 74] to the Lady Elizabeth de Burgo widdow, sometime the wife of Iohn de Burgo or Burgh, Earle of Vlster in Ireland, & daughter to Gilbert Clare carle of Gloster. The which Lady by the licence of K. Edward the 3. established & finished the same, & changing the name therof, willed that for euer after it should in memory of her family, from whence she was descended, be called Clare Hall.

In the yeare from our Sauiors incarnation 1347. the Pembroke [...] Lady Mary of S. Paule, wife to Adomarus de Valentia, Earle of Pembroke, obtained licence of K. Edw. the 3. (whose kinswoman she was) to lay in Cambridge the foundation of a colledge for the which she bought 2. mesuages, & named it Pembroke Hall. It sustameth at this present, 1. maister, 24. fellowes, & 7. Bibleclearks.

Edmond Gunuiel parson of Terington in Norfolke, in Gunuill and Caius col­ledge. the 22. yeare of king Edward the 3. obtained a licence at the suite of Sir Gualter de Manney, to erect a colledge in Cambridge, in a place where old houses dayly ready to fall did stand, the which he with his money pur­chased. This Edmond Gunuiel hauing at his decease great store of coine, cōmitted it to the fidelity & trust of William Batemā Bishop of Norwich, to finish & bring to perfection the work which he in his life had begun: whose will the Bishop most faithfully did execute, and not sparing his owne co [...]ers, did much augment and increase the same. Long after in our time, Iohn Ca­ius, a wise and learned professor in the arte of Phi­sicke, hath made the same more ample and more famous, as well by adding new buildings thereunto, as by increasing the number of students therein. In so much that by the Queeues letters pattents, it was gran­ted him to be written & accounted a founder thereof, [Page] and the house to be called Gunuiel & Caius colledge.

The fraternitie and guilde of Corpus Christi, and of Corpus Chri­sts colledge. blessed Mary in Cambridge, Henry Duke of Lancaster be­ing at that time Alderman of the same Guild, foun­ded Corpus Christi colledge, in the 24. yere of the raign of K. Edward the 3. obtaining licence of the same king to appropriate vnto this colledge for euer, the aduou­son of S. Bennets church standing before their gate.

William Bateman Bishop of Norwich, in the yeare of our Lord God 1353. founded in Cambridge a colledge Trinity hall. for studentes of the law, and enduing the same with lands and possessions, in honour of the blessed Trinity, would haue it called Trinitie Hall of Norwich: by the rents and reuenewes whereof are at this day maintai­ned one maister, ten fellowes, & as many Bible clearks.

King Henry the 6. a man in his life time much giuen to deuotion, and alwaies enclined to do good, in the Kings col­ledge. 19. yeare of his raigne laid in Cambridge the foundation of a goodly colledge, in honor of our blessed Ladie & S. Nicholas, the which then consisted of one maister and 12. schollers. Not long after in the 21. yeare of his raigne, altering the forme of his first foundation, he changed the name of Maister into a Prouost, & much increased the number of studentes. King Edwarde the fourth by authoritie of the parliament in great displeasure withdrew from this colledge so much land, as his Predecessor by the same authoritie had procured: but being at last with dayly intreatinges perswaded, and ouercome with importunitie, resto­red againe vnto the same the yearely value of [...]00. markes: on condition that they would account him for their founder, and that in his name all their suites [Page 75] and writinges should be made. This Colledge as ap­peareth by sondry euident signes, king Henry once had purposed to make one of the most beautifullest hou­ses in this land, the platforme whereof who so desireth more particularly to know, he shall find the same in M. Stowes Chronicle, in the life of Henry the sixt at large described.

Queene Margaret wife to Henry the 6. and daughter to Rheiner king of Sicilie and Ierusalem, began first to Queenes col­ledge. lay the foundation of Queenes Colledge, and obtayned licence of the king to purchase for the same, landes, and rentes to the valew of two hundred poundes by the yeare, but leauing the same vnperfect, Queene E­lizabeth, wife to Ed. the 4. obtayning licence of the K. brought the same to a perfect end: this Colledge stan­deth in the parish of S. Botolph, in a common grounde called Goosegreene, which was to that vse, purchased by one Andrew Ducket, with money which he did get by begging of well disposed people.

Katherine Hall was founded by one Robert Woodlarke, Katherine ha [...] Doctor of Diuinity, and Prouost of Kinges Colledge in Cambridge, in the honour of S. Katherine Virgin, and Martyr, in the yeare 1475. the which king Edwarde the 4. did allow for him and his successors, and by his let­ters Patentes did confirme it to endure for euer, there­in at this day are sustained and nourished one Maister, six fellowes, and one Bible clearke.

Iesu Colledge was of old time a Monastery of religi­ous Iesu colledge. women of S. Radegunde, which Monastery being destitute of gouernement, the aedifices fallen in decay, the goodes and ornaments of the Church wasted, the lands diminished, and in conclusion a small number of [Page] Nuns left, being but two, whereof the one ready to de­part, and the other an infant, were brought into such pouerty, that they were not able to relieue themselus, and therefore forced to depart, they left the house de­solate, whereupon Iohn Alcote the 29. Bishop of Ely, ob­tayned licence of king Henry the 7. in the yeare 1497. to founde in the place thereof a colledge for 6. fellowes and 6. schollers, the rentes whereof being afterward at seuerall times much amplified by fondry benefactors, it now maintayneth, one Maister, 17. Fellowes, and as many schollers.

Christes Colledge was first begunne by king Henry the 6. and after his decease brought to perfection by the Lady Margaret, Countesse of Richmonde and Derby, Christes col­ledge. daughter and heire of Iohn Duke of Somerset, and mo­ther of king Henry the 7. in a place, where sometime stoode the Colledge of Gods house, which colledge be­cause it neuer was fully finished, shee obtayned of the king her sonne his charter, dated the first day of Maye, in the 20. yeare of his raigne, and the yeare of our Lord 1505. to encrease the number of students there, tran­slating it according to her disposit on. It sustaineth at this day one Maister, thirteen Fellows, fifty nine schol­lers, and fifteene Sisers.

The same Lady Margaret Countesse of Richmond, pro­cured licence of her Nephew, king Henry the eight, to conuert into a colledge in the honour of S. Iohn the S. Iohns col­ledge. Euangelist, a certain house of religious persons, which first was an Hospitall of regular Canons, founded by Nigellus the second Bishop of Ely 1134, and translated from that order many yeares after, by Hugh Balsam, Bi­shoppe of Ely. The said Lady departing out of this [Page 76] world, before that princely worke of hers was fullie finished, gaue in charge the performance thereof to her Executors. Richard Foxe Bishoppe of VVinchester, Iohn Fisher Bishop of Rochester, Charles Somerset, L. Her­bert, after created Earle of VVorcester, Sir Thomas Louel, Sir Henry Marney, and Sir Iohn, S. Iohn, Knightes, Hen­ry Horneby, and Hugh Ashton clearkes, who wel dischar­ged the trust committed vnto them, and faithfully did execute the will of the deceased Lady; it maintayneth at this day, one Maister, fifty one Fellowes, seauentie Schollers, and nine Sisers.

Edwarde Duke of Buckingham comming to Cam­bridge Magdalen colledge. in the yeare of our Lord 1519. and remayning there the space of certaine dayes, conuerted a certain house builded for Monks, of fondry Abbyes sent to the Vniuersity to studie into a colledge, and builded thereto a hall. At length after the generall suppres­sion of Monasteries, Thomas Audley Baron of VValden and Chancelor of England, endowing the same with lands and possessions by act of Parliament, and char­ter of king Henry the eight, in the 3 [...]. year of his raign, became sole founder thereof, committing the same vn­to the tutele & protection of S. Marie Magdalen, in the yeare of our Lord 1 [...]42. but being preuented by sud­daine death, before hee could bring to passe what hee intended, he left his colledge vnperfect and vnfinish­ed so that at this day there are therein sustained onelie one Maister, fiue Fellowes, and one Bibleclearke.

Trinity Colledge was first founded and erected by the king of famous memory, Henry the eight, the royall Trinity col [...] ­edge. Father of our gratious Soueraigne Queene Elizabeth, in the yeare of our Lorde 1546. the 20. day of Ianuary [Page] the Kinget hall, S. Michaels house, and Phisicke Ostle, were ioyned together for the better sustentation and aide of so noble an enterprise, and worke to endure for euer­more: which Colledge doth at this present flourish with one Maister, 60. Fellowes, 62. schollers, 4. Chap­laines, 13. Sisers, 24. poore Almesmen, 6. singing men, one Maister of the Choristers, 10. Choristers, three Readers, one of Diuinity, another of Greeke, and a thirde of Hebrew.

Emanuel Colledge, was lately founded on the house & Emanuell Colledge. groundes of the Dominicke Fryers, in the Preachers streete, at the cost and charges of Sir Walter Mildmay knight, Chancelor, & Vnder Treasurer of the Exche­quer, one of the Priuie Councell to our Soueraigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth, about the year 1584.

The Vniuersities of Scotland.

IN Scotland onely are two priuiled­ged Academies, whereof the most ancient and best knowne is S. An­drewe, erected in the yeare after our Sauiours incarnation 1411 the other S. Andrewes. Aberdone. is Aberdon instituted by VVilliam El­phinstone Bishop of Aberdone, in the yeare of our Lorde God 1480. vnder the raigne of Iames the third of that name king of Scots.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.