THE HISTORY OF THE DE­fendors of the Catholique Faith. Whearevnto are added Observations

  • Divine.
  • Politique.
  • Morrall.

By Christopher Lever

‘Nostrum in Coelo Negotium.’

LONDON Printed for Nicholas Fussell and Humphrey Moseley, at the signe of the Ball in Pauls Church yard. 1627.






THE HISTORIE OF THE DEFENDORS OF THE CATHOLIQVE FAITH. Discoursing the state of RELIGION in England, and the care of the politique state for Religion during the reignes of

  • King HENRRY 8.
  • King EDWARD. 6.
  • Queene MARIE.
  • Queene ELIZABETH.

And our late Souereigne, King IAMES. Kings and Queenes of England, France and Ireland, Defendors of the most True, most Ancient, and most CATHOLIQVE FAITH, &c.. With all, Declaring by what means these Kings & Queenes haue obtained this Title, Defendor of the Faith, and wherein they haue deserued it, whereunto are added, Obseruations



Nostrum in Coelo Negotium.

Printed at London by G. M. for Nicolas Fussell and Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold in Pauls Churchyard at the signe of the Ball. 1627.

TO THE MOST HIGH, MIGHTY, And most Gratious PRINCE, CHARLES: By the grace of God, King of Great Brittaine, France and Jreland, Defen­der of the CATHOLIKE FAITH.

YOVR MAIESTIES MOst humble, and vnworthie Ser­uant, CHRISTOPHER LEVER;

with all humilitie dedicateth this Historie of the De­fendors of the Catholike Faith, vnto your Majestie, beseeching Almightie God to deriue vpon your sacred name and house a perpetuall succession of able and resolute Defendors of the Faith; to the honour of God, the peace of the Church, the prosperitie of the State, the blessed memorie of your Royall Name, and the Confusion of Antichrist.


A CATALOGVE OF the Chapters contained in this HISTORIE.

King HENRIE 8.
  • 1.AN induction to this Historie briefly declaring the variable change of Times, from the beginning to the time of this Historie. page 1.
  • 2. By whom and what meanes this Title Defendor of the Faith was giuen to the Crowne of England. pag. 19.
  • 3. King HENRIES first Act of Defence for the Ca­tholike Faith. pag. 31
  • 4. Of what importance this Act for the Kings Supre­macie was to the state of England, in respect of Pie­tie and Policie. pag. 38.
  • 5. Of the suppressing of Abbeys and Religious houses in England. pag. 48.
  • 6. Of the Kings remisse and cold proceeding in the worke of Reformation. pag. 60.
  • 7. Of the sixe Articles and the euill which thereof en­sewed. pag. 77.
  • 8. Obseruations out of the generall view of this latter time of King HENRIE 8. pag. 91.
  • 9. In what state King Henrie left the kingdome to the next Defendor of the Faith, King Edward 6. p. 109
  • 10. A comparison betweene King Henry 8. of England, and Fredericke Barbarossa the Emperour of Germa­nie. pag. 119.
King EDVVARD the 6.
  • [Page]11. OF the next Defendor of the Faith, King Edward 6. pag. 125.
  • 12. Of the benefit that redounds to a state by a lawfull succession of bloud. pag. 131.
  • 13. Of King Edwards defending the Catholike Faith and wherein he chiefely defended it. p. 139.
  • 14. The trouble of the State, at this time of King Ed­ward, how they were occasioned and how compoun­ded. p. 152.
  • 15. A discourse of the miserie of mans life vpon oc­casion of the Duke of Summersets death. p. 165.
  • 16. Of king Edwards death, and how he left the state to the next succession. 179.
  • 17. A Comparison betweene king Iosias of Iuda, and king Edward of England. p. 187.
Queene MARIE.
  • 18. OF Queene Marie, and of the alteration of the State in the beginning of her gouernment. pag. 191.
  • 19. In what particulars Queene Marie did most offend the Catholike Faith. p. 201.
  • 20. Of certaine discontents whereat Queene Marie tooke great offence. pag. 225.
  • 21. Of rebellion a discourse. p. 237.
  • [Page] 22. A Comparison betweene Queene Marie of Eng­land, and Katherine de Medicies, Queene-mother of France. p. 245.
  • 23. OF the next Defendresse of the FAITH, Queene Elizabeth, and thorow what dif­ficulties she attained the kingdome. p. 249.
  • 24. The first act of the Queenes defence for the Catholike Faith, after she was Queene. p. 262.
  • 25. Of certaine state considerations which in respect of Policie, might haue disswaded the Queene from re­forming the state of Religion. p. 268.
  • 26. Of the care the Queene and State had to suppresse the enemies of the Catholike Faith. p. 282.
  • 27. Of what importance these statutes were in the 13. yeare of the Queene in respect of the Church and state. p. 296.
  • 28. Of the Christian care Queen Elizabeth had to de­fend certaine Christian Princes and their States. p. 306.
  • 29. A remembrance of some particulars, wherein God hath defended this Defendresse of the Faith, Queen Elizabeth. p. 321.
  • 30. Of Q. Elizabeth her resolute continuing in de­fence of the Catholike Faith. p. 329.
  • 31. Of the last Act of the Queenes defence for the Ca­tholike Faith. p. 333.
  • [Page]32. OF the next Defendor of the Faith King Iames, the Kings Maiesty that last was. p. 335.
  • 33. Of the Kings defending the Catholike Faith in Scotland before hee was King of England. p. 343.
  • 34. In what particulars King Iames our Souereigne hath principally defended the Catholike Faith. p. 347.
  • 35. A remembrance of some particulars whereby God hath wonderfully defended the Kings Maiesty. p. 361.
  • 36. Of the diuersity of Religions. p. 364.

[Page 1]THE HISTORIE of the Defendors of the CATHOLIKE FAITH.

AN INDVCTION to this History, briefly declaring the variable change of times, from the first beginning to the time of this present Historie.


THE first time was in the first Creation, for be­fore God made things there could be no time; time being a deriuing of things to such ends, [Page 2] whereto in Gods decree they are directed. For whatsoeuer is earthly,What Time is. euen man and the number of his trauells, with their circum­stances, are bound by God to a necessity of time, beyound which all the power of earth cannot reach. Their opinion then is both foolish and wicked, who imagine all things to happen by fortune, and that there is a speciall power in the Orbs and Elements (which they call Nature) by which, both heauen and earth and euery worke there­of is directed. And this opinion of Atheisme is grounded vpon this doubt, that whereas wee define God to bee the beginner of all things. It is by them demanded, where that God had his beginning, and from what hee discended. By which forme of reasoning they conclude against their owne vnbeleefe, their doubting what should begin, acknow­ledgeth a beginning, the which beginning is God, not that God himselfe had beginning, but that all things had their essence and de­riuation from him: hee himselfe being infi­nite, and without time. For as in the figure of a Circle, is not to bee found any limit or [Page 3] terme of beginning, or ending: So God within whose Circle all things bee that are; in whom we liue, moue, and haue our be­ing, is infinite in time, and infinite in all his attributes.

Secondly,The Iudge­ment of Phi­losophy. This diuine Truth is confirmed by the sentence of the best Phylosophers, who (with their eyes of Nature) could dis­cerne and distinguish this Truth. But be­cause I write to a Christian Prince I will not therfore strengthen my selfe with prophane authors, but much rather content mee with the testimonie of God, whose words hath sufficient Maiesty to answer all opposition. By this word I know that God in the begin­ning,Gen. 1. 1. created the world of nothing, there being no preexistent matter whereof to make it: and then of the dust of the Earth made he Man, a most noble Creature, of a matter most base, and breathed into his No­strills the breath of Life,The Creati­on of Man. a soule so pure and spiritual as nothing but God could be more, being the sacred breath which hee himselfe inspired, whereby our soules (euen after our fall) yet relish of that diuinity, and whereby [Page 4] we yet reach our meditation and spirituall exercise to God who did inspire them.

Thirdly, And to this Man thus made, did God giue,All things gi­uen to Man. the heauen, the earth, and all the beauty of them; For hee himselfe in whom was the fulnesse of all things needed not ought that was made, but gaue them to his seruant Man; to whom hee had made all things seruants, reseruing Man to his owne seruice onely. And for this end hath God giuen Man a Law, which limits him with strict obedience, and bindes him to the due execution of such seruices, as may direct him to his end, which is Gods Glory. The ob­seruance of which Law is called Religion, the not obseruing it a Rebellion against God; because thereby wee oppose against that power that made vs.The world diuided by Religion. This obseruance of the Law of God which wee call Religon, is that which hath deuided the world into so many disagreements, the which like fire that deuideth the metttle and drosse, doth cull out the most approued of Mankinde, vpon whom Gods decree hath set the di­stinction of mercie, and doth marke such for [Page 5] the inheritance of eternall life. Among all which differences the maintainers of euery seuerall call it their Religion to which they chiefly adheare disclayming all diuersitie.

Fourthly, Yet as there is but one God,One God one Truth. so of necessity there can be but one Truth, and but one manner of true seruing that onely God, and such for me must that seruice haue as may please the liberty of the Master, and not the base condition of seruants to ap­point.The reason of Multipli­citie of Re­ligions. And from hence doth arise the mul­tiplicity of Religions, that men interpose be­twixt God and his seruice, and so denie the most able and absolute God, both power and wisedome in the ordering of his owne affaires. And therefore doe men forme Re­ligions not only diuers, but aduerse to God, and to his own prescriptions. These wrongs doth God suffer in his creatures, not by vio­lence but at pleasure, and for the finishing of such determinations, (as but to himselfe) are most secret neither ought these diffe­rences to distresse any mans Christian be­leefe, or make him doubt the certainty of Religion, because of many vncertaine Reli­gions. [Page 6] For Christ Iesus who is the truth and wisedome of his Father, saith, that he came not to bring peace (though the Gospell of peace) but the sword and difference, that through the firie trial the Saints might passe to the glory of eternall happinesse.

Fifthly,The first schisme. The first difference in Religion, was in the first family, in Adams house the first Man, and that betweene two Brethren, Caine and Habell. Gen. 4. 3. Habell brought for his offering to God the first fruits of his Sheepe, and the fat of them, the which Sacrifice God accepted. But Caine would not offer a Sacri­fice of that value or nature▪ but presents God with fruit and trash, which God would not accept. And this conceiued in Caine, an en­uious emulation against his brother Habell, which wanting grace to moderate, grew to the highest degree of Enuie, whose nature is to feede on blood, for so did enuious Caine vpon the blood of vertuous Habell. This Caine, Gen. 4. 8. Caine the Father of Scisme. this first man of blood, is a Father to all them that loue difference, especially in Religion, and their Religion (of all others) is neerest Caines that staine their profession [Page 7] and themselues with blood, especially with the blood of righteous Habells. For God is the God of mercie and not of misery, and his delight is in the good, and not in the blood of the righteous.

Sixthly,The first al­teration of Time. In this generation of Adam was the first alteration of Time. For God created all things good, and in purity hee formed them; but Man made them euill, and by sin deformed them. For when sinne en [...]red our Natures, then Man and the Creatures God had giuen him indured alteration, and lost that name of Goodnesse, God gaue them in their Creation. So that nothing is now (in his owne Nature,) Good, but onely by con­sequence and Gods act, because by sin Man hath spread corruption (like Leprosie) ouer all the generations of Earth, and hath made an alteration of times, and a difference in the Natures of things, which had not beene, but for the curse of sinne, which hath alte­red their propertie, and made them subiect to euil change, which otherwise should haue had perpetuity of happinesse.

Seuenthly, And as Riuers the longer they [Page 8] runne, the larger they spread themselues, so sinne and the euill thereof,Time the worse for time. for the times that are, are much worse, then the times that were: as may appeare; if we compare times, and descend from these beginnings to a lar­ger processe. In the beginning, among three men two were good, and then the greater number were the better, but in the time of Noah, among a world of people, God found not a righteous man, but onely one Noah; and then the better number was by much the lesse. At this time God looked downe from heauen, and beheld the earth how it was deformed with sinne, therefore he resolues to wash iniquity from the face of the earth,Gen. 6. 13. and to bring a generall destructi­on vpon all flesh. In which Iudgement his mercy saued Noah onely and his Family. Af­ter the Flood, when God had thus clensed the earth, yet found he in Mans nature con­cupiscence and a pronenesse to euill, the which grew vp with time to a maruellous strength; for as the generation of men in­large, the generation of sinne doth much more inlarge, spreading it selfe ouer all the [Page 9] earth, and begetting in this new generation of men, new and vnknowne inuentions of euill, whereby they exceeded their euill pro­genitors both in the number, and quallity of their euills. For at this time popularity and greatnesse began to be affected, and the desire of Empire,The first de­sire of Em­pire. in ambi [...]ious and proud spirits made men so audaciously proud, that they durst dare heauen and giue God the challenge. And at this time and not before, was there vse of Pollicie, to contriue this or that euill, to steale, murther, waste, vsurpe and depopulate whole Kingdomes.

Eighthly, This alteration of manners, occasioned a strange alteration in the state of things, for these differences did reach be­yond particular quarrells, euen to the sub­uersion of whole states; whereby it came to passe, that one kingdome deuoured ano­ther, and one people did subiugate many. As the Assyrians first,The foure Monarchies. who erected the first Mo­narchie vnder Ninus and Simeramis, the Parsians vnder Cyrus, the Macedonians vnder Alexander, and the Romans vnder the go­uernement & Conquests of Iulius Caes [...]r. yet [Page 10] all these haue had their alterations and haue indured the misery of Conquest, euen by such whom they reputed for barbarous and base people.

Ninthly, The generall care that was had of these worldly occasions, was the cause that Religion was scarce knowne, & not re­garded: & therfore the Church then,The state of the Church in the old world. excee­ded not the number of some few families, being translated from one holy Man to anot­ther, such as were Abraham, Lot, and Iob; vn­to the time of the twelue Patriakes, when it began to spread into a holy generation; and after the afflictions of Egypt and the wildernesse it came to a flourishing and princely state, especially in the times of Da­uid and Salomon Kings of Israell; but not long after in Reobohams time, tenne parts of twelue fell backe from Religion, and became Apostates; yea, and many times that little Iuda, that handfull of Gods people, being drunke with ease and prosperity, would for­get God their mighty deliuerer, forget his Sabbath and his Sanctuary, and giue them­selues to Idolatrous pleasures, with such ge­nerall [Page 11] appetite, as if God had giuen them li­cence for wickednesse, no apparance or marke of Religion in Iuda.

Tenthly,Gods Iudge­ments doe correct and not destroy. The mercifull God willing to cure the infirmity of those times, commeth with his Iudgements, Famine, Sword and Pestilence, (not as in the old world to de­stroy) but to correct the disobedience of his people; who no sooner relish the sweetnesse of his mercy, but wantonly returne to their former remisnesse, and sinne with greater appetite then before: yet for all this doth not God forget to be mercifull, but continu­eth himselfe in his owne nature a God most mercifull, and most compassionate; who to demonstrate the infinite degree of his loue to his seruant Man, taketh from him the burthen some condition of the Law, which hee could not keepe, and giueth him a new couenant, the couenant of Grace the Gos­pell of Peace.God altereth the t [...]n [...]r of our Obliga­tion. And thus mercifully he alte­reth the tenor of our obligation, and to giue this worke of Gracefull authority, hee sen­deth his onely begotten the Lord Christ, to satisfie the old, and to rat [...]fi [...] the new Coue­nant [Page 12] both by his actiue and passiue righte­ousnesse.

Eleuenthly,The happie alteration of time. Heere was the greatest alte­ration that euer was in the witnesse of time, for before this we were commanded, to doe and liue, else to die: but now to beleeue one­ly and liue. Neuer was there a more large demonstration of Gods fauour; nor a like time, wherein Grace was so freely offered, or the gates of heauen so wide set open; as if God should reach his hand of mercy to earth,How God doth inuite men to their Saluation. to inuite vs to his eternal inheritance, and (with the fayrest promises of Loue) to allure vs to a state of most absolute blessed­nesse: yet notwithstanding all this Grace, and all these faire inuitements, so constant were the men of those times in their euills, that they refuse to indent with God, be the condition neuer so easie, or his promise ne­uer so absolute: but they combine them­selues with all indeauour to resist the Grace of God; they will not haue Grace though God giue it freely; they are all Moses no Christ, all Law no Gospell▪ so powerfull were they in their owne opinions, as if the Law [Page 13] had beene an easie performance; And ther­fore did they despise the work of Grace, cru­cifying the Lord of Life, that brought it, and that bought it with the value of his life; a price inestimable, killing also the Apostles his faithfull witnesses, and persecuting the Saints, to whom God gaue Grace to appre­hend this Mistery.

Twelfthly, Heere may a Christian man spend his holy meditations in considering the deprauednesse of Man, the grosse dulnes of his Nature, and how inclinable hee is to all euill. Contrariwise the infinite measure of Gods mercie; who notwithstanding our disobedience, will not vtterly destroy vs his creatures, but in a wonderfull degree of fa­uour, yeelds himselfe to the weakenesse of our flesh, knowing that our nature hath a pronenesse to euill onely: And therefore hath he giuen free passage to the Gospell, making it fruitfully prosper in the blood of holy Martyrs, shed in the persecuting times of Tyrants and wicked-Emperors.

13. And in this passage of blood did Re­ligion march vntill the time of Constantine [Page 14] the Great,Religion did liue in death▪ who intertaining the Christian Faith with good affection gaue it warrant for publike exercise, whereby it spred ouer all the knowne world with such admirable in­crease, as God onely could giue to a cause so heauenly.The cause of scisme in Christian Religion. And yet in the height of this prosperity, (according to the Nature of our flesh) the state of Christendome grew proud, with good successe, and wanting the opposition of heathen enemies, deuided themselues into heresies and factions, wher­of insewed the greatest calamitie that could be in a Christian state, euery faction recei­uing authority and greatnesse, according as they were fauoured or not by the Empe­rours.

14. And this diuersity of fortune con­tinued in Christendome for many yeares, yet so as Christianity might be well said to flourish, vntil the time that the Popes did ar­rogate to their seate supremacy and vniuer­sall power (or as the History of Florence re­porteth it) vntill the time of Charles and Pip­pin Kings of France,The Practi­ses of the French. who in pollicie to secure to them and theirs the possession of the west [Page 15] Empire, bound the Bishop of Rome (whose authority might helpe that practise) by fa­uours and friendly entertainements to their faction. And therefore did the French pro­nounce this sentence. That the Pope being the Vicar of Christ, ought not to bee iudged by men, but to Iudge all men and to deter­mine euery difference. This sentence (whe­ther by the Popes themselues, or by their fa­uourites, the French Kings,) was assuredly the Ladder for the Popes ambition, and the cause whereof hath ensued so much euill to the state of the Catholike Church, as that Christendome yet is full of the markes of that misery.

15. Now the power of God that seeth the most secret practice on Earth, whose proui­dence cannot bee preuented with pollicie, suffers the measure of this euill time to fill and ouerrunne with iniquity; so that a true Christian might haue thought of himselfe, as Elias, when he thought he was onely left of Gods people: yet in that height of ini­quity, there wanted not many Obediahs, who hid the faithfull from the stroake of persecu­tion; [Page 16] neither wanted there some euen in this darkenesse of Time, who willingly offered their faith to the tryall of fire, and sealed the testimonie of their Religion, with the witnes of their blood.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST, from this extremitie of euill time doth this following History take beginning,Diuine. and here may be generally noted from the Obseruations of all times, that God doth neuer suffer the light of his truth to be vtterly extinct, though many times in that degree of aduersity, as that the eye of this world cannot see it. This is eui­dent in the sacred Stories of the Bible, and also in the condition of these times whereof I write. When ignorance and Error like a double vaile did blinde the face of Truth: yet God whose eye of prouidence is euer open, seeth the enuie of euill men. And (in the time of his good pleasure) he taketh off [Page 17] this double Vaile, and presents Truth na­ked to the view of all men, as in the sequell of this History shall appeare most eui­dent.

Secondly,Pollitique. Here hence also we may note the instability of earthly things; and how that Soueraignty, and Empire (the polli­tique ends and the extremities of mens in­deuours) are built vpon vncertainties, and most vnconstant turnings, the which false foundation, hath suddenly cast downe, what many yeares, much studie, and many mens labours had erected. Therefore is that prin­ciple of Pollicie, not altogether without rea­son, that Authority and Greatnesse of State re­ceiueth strength by discords and Faction. For it is both the nature of things and the trauell of men to indeauour alterations, and to trans­pose things from the present condition wherein they are, for from this cause all Em­pires haue had their beginning strength, and death.

Thirdly,Morall. It is a Morall respect, that in our constructions we Iudge not properties by externall euidence only, for vertue and me­rit [Page 18] is not giuen by Suffrage, because it is of­ten included in the farre inferior number, and is often banished to pouerty and con­temptible fortune.

Fourthly, For as it is no proofe of truth to produce multiplicitie of witnesses, where there is a necessary relation to fauour. So vertues and morall deserts, are not Iudged by common examples or opinions, because both the one and other are not free and vo­luntary, but forced on vs by the grosse and palpable flatteries of our infirmities.

Fifthly, It is also a morall institution that men should somewhat disgrace themselues in their owne dignities, not that their actions may indure disgrace, but that their owne o­pinions exceede not in their owne estimati­ons, which error doth often make the most fortunate most wretched; For if kingdomes, Empires, and the Catholike Church haue indured bad alterations. Let no man dare to secure himselfe in their vncertainties.

By whom and what meanes this Title Defendor of the Faith was giuen to the Crowne of England.

FIRST, there is not in this last age of the world any thing more admirable, or that better doth merit the memorie of writing, then the reformation of Christian Religion, reducing it to that purity of Do­ctrine, wherein it was first deliuered. And this in a double respect deserueth euerla­sting memorie. First, the worthinesse of the act it selfe, being the restoring of Religion to the purity of Doctrine, whereby so much good doth redound to the state of Christen­dome [Page 20] as that greater cannot. Religion be­ing the key that doth open the passage to happinesse, and the Ladder by which wee ascend the presence of God and holy An­gels, whereby we are interessed into Gods fauour, and without which it is impossible to please God. It is admirable also in respect of the manner and meanes, whereby this worke was wrought, being directed by the speciall power of Gods prouidence, to the admiration of al them that truly consider it.

Secondly,The refor­mation of Religion. For the Act it selfe, all the lear­ned in the world are in controuersie, whe­ther (thereby) Religion was deformed, or reformed. To both which opinions many excellent learned men, diuersly adhered, whereby they deuide the vnity of Religion into these two diuersities;Christian Religion de­uided into Protestants and Papists. Protestants and Papists, either of these subdeuiding it selfe a­gaine, into many seueralls; whereby the plaine and honest vnderstanding of men lesse learned are distract; To see Religion, (which in truth is but one) deuided into so many diuersities: now because the handling of this doth rather belong to argument, [Page 21] then History; to a disputation, rather than to a relation of the occurrents of Time. I ther­fore leaue that as impertinent to this busi­nesse, and onely tie my selfe to relate the manner how Christian Religion was refor­med:How Religi­on was refor­med. and (in speciall) how by the Crowne of England this was done; whereby that Na­tion hath all other Kingdomes of the Earth, (in the highest degrees of honour and repu­tation) much exceeded it being the first that with victory,England the first that with victory did oppose the Pope. dared to cast off that awfull and needlesse yoke of obedience to the seate of Rome.

Thirdly,The first oc­casion of the alteration of Religion. The first occasion hereof was in the time of Martin Luther, who by his dili­gence in preaching and writing had got great estimation in Germany, especially with the Duke of Saxonie, because in his teaching he opposed the vsurped authority of the Pope, and for detesting those grosse heresies, which by long continuance in the Church, had gotten a generall allowance,Luthers Booke de Captiuitate Babyl. among (almost all men.) This Luther writ a booke, entituled, de captiuitate Babylonica so offensiue to the state of Papacie, as the Pope and all his [Page 22] speciall fauourites, were therewith very much displeased. Whereupon King Henery the Eighth (whether of his owne accord,K. Henery the Eighth against Lu­ther. or by the perswasion of others, I know not) writ against Luther, and in speciall against that booke of his de Capt. Babil. in defence of the Popes Supremacie. The purpose of the Kings Booke. The purpose of the Kings booke, beeing specially to conclude the doctrine of Pardons. Secondly, of the Popes Supremacie. Thirdly, of the Sacra­ments of the Church: whether this was the Kings owne labour, or that he onely Fathe­red it to giue it authority, is not certainely knowne, and diuersly beleeued. Many thinke it was not, and that his Fathering of it was onely a pollicie of state, both to gaine himselfe a reputation in learning, and that by this speciall demonstration, the Pope might be tyed to the Kings fauour, and assist him in his Warres against the French King: and they haue these reasons of likely-hood, that vpon the instant publishing the said Book, the Pope did not only fauour the Kings enterprise, but also gaue him many other witnesses of thankes, and among many this [Page 23] aboue all, that (to his other titles of honour) he added this aboue all, that in remem­brance of the Kings princely care for the State of the Catholike Religion, hee and his Successors for euer should be stiled Defendors of the most Catholike Faith.

Fourthly,The greatnes of the Pope at those times. And herein appeared the greatnes of the Pope at that time, that the greatest Princes of Christendome, thought themselues highly rewarded, for their grea­test trauells, if the Pope should but giue them, the allowance of his fauour, or demonstrate himselfe in any particular kindnesse (how small soeuer.) And this was a matter very considerable, in that pollitique Religion, to gaine such opinion of holines as made him reuerenced of the greatest Potentates. The Popes pollicie. For by this he often made exchange, with great ad­uantage, giuing them words for things, and receiuing the seruices of men, for thankes, indulgences, and pardons, which nothing benefited the Receiuers,The Popes secret pur­pose in sti­ling the K. Defendour of the Faith. but much inlarged his own priuate ends. Such reward had King Henery for writing against Luther, in which may be vnderstood the Popes secret practise, [Page 24] for in giuing this honour to King Henry to be stiled Defendor of the Faith, hee thereby had a farther end then to honour the King, which was to binde him to his perpetuall seruice, which he thought he could not bet­ter doe then by this obligation of honour, which indeed is the greatest that can be to a princely minde. The Pope knoweth that the King by accepting of this stile Defendor of the Faith, was bound in the tearmes of honour to defend that whereof hee had taken the protection, and so by consequence was hee bound to all the Popes occasions; he being in the cōmon opiniō of the world the vniuersal head of that faith, which the Kings Title did binde him to defend. And this (howsoeuer the successe did not answer to the purpose,) yet was it great pollicie in the Pope, especial­ly considering the danger of the times, and that many eyes began with dislike to prie into the deformities of the Church.

Fifthly But who can contriue against God with successe, for the Pope in this case shot his euill arrow against heauen, which in a perpendiculer line, fell vpon his owne pate. [Page 25] God retorting the euil against him that sent it, making him fast in his own snare & to fall in that pit which he had digged for another. This is Gods doing & it is wonderfull in our eyes.The Popes purpose dis­appointed by prouidence. For this K. whom the Pope had thought to haue made the instrumēt of his greatnes, did God make the instrument of his fall▪ the Pope gaue him the name of Defendor; But God made the King to defend the Faith a­gainst the Pope the enemie of Faith. For pol­licie cannot preuent piety; and God con­founds the wisedome of men, and can make their subtill practises many times hitt that marke they neuer aymed at; as in this parti­cular, the Pope making particular choice of the King for his Champion, whom God (the contrary party) would imploy for the Popes destruction, giuing him inuincible spirit, to be the first Christian K▪ that durst put to his Princely hand to Ruine the walls of Babylon.

Sixthly, And if the Kings nature, and the circumstance of time were rightly conside­red,God moueth the King a­gainst his naturall disposition. it will appeare so admirable as God on­ly could worke that alteration in the Kings minde, the King himselfe being so stiffe and [Page 26] resolute, as none of his predecessors (I think) in this did equall him; especially in the tearme of honour and reputation: and then considering the King had written and pub­lished his protestation to defend the Supre­macy of the Pope, and the Religion then profest: it may seeme the greatest obligati­on that could be to binde his princely Na­ture, to continue his defence of that which before he had defended, especially in a mat­ter of that consequence, the rather hauing declared himselfe to the witnesse of all men.

Seuenthly, Againe, if wee consider that Reply of Luthers to the Kings Booke, Luthers bit­ter writing. so full of heate and bitternesse, as that euery page (almost) hath prouocations, rather to ob­durate the Kings heart, and to incense him to a more resolute obstinacie, then any waies to quallifie or reforme him: Luther scoffingly answering the Kings arguments, with words of such disgrace, as ill fitted the grauity of Luther to giue, or the Maiesty of so great a Prince (with any patience) to in­dure.Luthers mis­conceiuing. And doubtlesse this in Luther was a great ouersight and a misconceiuing, to [Page 27] thinke to helpe his cause by traducing the Kings person; For the resolutions of great men are not moued by power, but by the perswasions of inferiours. And Luther in writing this booke against King Henery, Luthers zeale with­out discretiō. doth rather expresse his zeale then his discre­tion: For in all Controuerfies, the heate of words (especially in the grauer) is a want of that mode­ration, and Iudgement, which onely giueth seeme­linesse, and good forme to all our actions: yet notwithstanding all these backe occasions, which (in mans Iudgement) might seeme to hinder, this gracious worke, did God effect it, and that by his instrument, King He­nery, whom both the Pope and Luther, had rather fitted for the contrary.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. God doth often interrupt and destroy the violence of wicked men, and their practise, by a contemptible, and vnthought of meanes: for so was Luther [Page 28] thought, in respect of the great and generall authority, which then Antichrist had: the reason is this, that where God doth place his omnipotent Spirit, that strength is then inuincible, but able to conuince all resi­stance. For God (onely) can contract in the person of one man, Valour and victory to order and reforme the world.

Secondly,Politique. The Politique practise here is obserued in the Pope, who with demonstra­tions of Loue without charge, could binde the seruice of Princes and great States vnto him. For as it is most needfull that the bo­dies of great Authorities should haue strong and able supporters. So it is necessary in the wisedome of state, to gaine and continue that correspondencie, and indifferencie, which may support our estimation. In which care this politique forme is very necessary, that in disposing our gifts of fauour we giue least gifts to greatest men, but with most large circumstance: because that where there is any neerenesse of equality of state, it is not possible to make gifts valuable, but with Ceremonies.

[Page 29] Thirdly, In Luther may bee noted a mar­uellous defect of pollicie, to labour a spiri­tuall cause with such vntempered heate. For if Luthers spirit had had moderation, and that pollitique wisedome which was but ne­cessary in his Religion and high attempts, he would haue made a difference betweene a principall and a second, the Pope and the King, and not haue prosecuted against them both with like seuerity. For Luther could not bee ignorant, that the onely meanes to finish the reformation he inten­ded, was by the fauour and assistance of Christian Princes, which care in the cause and person of King Henry, Luther did not obserue.

Fourthly,Morall. It is a precept worthy of gene­rall practise, that in all societies, men should be Communicable, and translate their offi­ces of loue from one to another. For gifts and retributions, howsoeuer they are lesse worthy then our affections, yet are they our best witnesses, and doe the better, and more often remember vs: because they are more open, and euident to sense.

[Page 30] Fifthly, Againe, moderation of spirit which is our indifferent esteeming of our selues with others, doth comprehend the very excellence of all humanity, being the most noble degree in our nature, and the very next to the dignity of Grace. Neither is there any morall vertue, which doth more commend men to generall estimation, be­cause it giueth desert to euery man that hath it, and doth often giue (from it selfe) dignities to such as want them.

King Henries first Act of Defence for the Catho­like Faith.

THE first Act of the Kings De­fence was in retyring himselfe from the Popes seruice for at that time,The first Act of the Kings Defence. were all Christian Princes his seruants. This Act of the kings was that which many Emperors and great Poten­tates desired might be done, yet neuer durst attempt to doe, or succesfully attemp­ted it.Frederick Barbarossa. Such as was the Emperour Frederick Barbarossa, who notwithstanding his great­nesse both of power and spirit, yet failed he in his attempt, though he neuer pursued any thing with greater stomack.Henry the Second. Also King Hen­ry the Second of England, who fayling in [Page 32] the fortunes of this businesse, yeelded him­selfe (though valiant and princely) to such base conditions of pennance, as well may declare the greatnesse of the Pope that im­posed them: but with this King Henry the Eight it may seeme, that God himselfe did conspire, to make the worke prosperous, and the king for being Gods instrument perpetually famous.

Secondly,The first oc­casion of dif­ference be­tweene King Henry and the Pope. The first occasion of difference betweene King Henry and the Pope, was the proceedings in the diuorse of Queene Kathe­rine the kings first wife, who before had bene wife to Prince Arthur his Brother, wherein the Pope vsed such small regard to quiet the trouble of the kings Conscience, as thereby the king and the State were very much of­fended, and then such as did not fauour the faction of the Pope, (for so I may call it) tooke the aduantage of time, and grew bold to lay open to the king the deformities of the present time, and the glory hee might purchase in restoring Religion to that puri­ty, which now (in that holy profession) was altogether defaced.

[Page 33] Thirdly, Those occasions so moue the kings offence, that hee sommons his High Court of Parlyament at Westminster, laying before them his griefe, which was the ouer­much power the Pope had in his kingdome, and the small respect that hee and his State had from the Pope: whereupon a Statute past by consent of the three estates, whereby the king was made supreme Head ouer the Church of England, The King first made supreame Head. aswell in ecclesiasticall as temporal matters, cutting off al manner of Papal authority from the crowne of England. Anno regni. 26. And herein may appeare the greatnes of the king,An Argu­ment of the Kings great­nesse. and the reuerence of his Subiects, who framed themselues to the pleasure of the king,The benefit of Maiestie. in a matter of much difficultie and be­yond all expectation. And this was the be­nefit of Maiesty, which begot in them such duty and awfull regard, which to a remisse and familiar Prince had not beene gran­ted

Fourthly, This grant of the kings Supre­macie was the first mortall wound the Church of Rome receiued, loosing at that time the best Crowne shee had in keeping, [Page 34] whereby a president was giuen to all other Christian Princes, to free themselues from the Captiuity of that Babylon, with whose Fornications the whole Earth was made drunke. And this Act of the State of England was so well approued in the Iudgement of Christendome, as that many the best parts thereof, (in immitation of King Henry,) haue cast from them the bond of Papall au­thority; yea, doubtlesse so desired it is of all States, as (might it bee done with security) their is no Prince or State, either Religious or politique, but doth so enuie the greatnesse of forraigne Supremacie, as gladly they would bee cleered thereof, finding many times to the great detriment of state, the in­iury of this power, in interdictions and Pa­pall curses, as if wee reade the diuisions of Italy we may in them most cleerely iudge,The incon­uenience of Papall au­thoritie. the inconuenience of the Popes vniuersall power, the abuse whereof is so common in those states, as that they are neuer obeyed, but when there wanteth temporall power to withstand them. And therefore did King Henry nobly performe his kingly Office, [Page 35] and well defend the Catholike Faith, in de­priuing the Pope of that power, wherewith the Christian Faith was offended,

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. God doth what he list, by what meanes he list, so doth hee produce his miracles by causes naturally vnfitting, and so this miraculous alteration in the state of Christendome, was effected by the king his instrument, who both in Nature and o­pinion, was thought vnlike for such Reli­gious effects, being rather armed both by the Pope and Luther to oppose the enter­prize. So doth God snare the engine ma­ker; For the Wisedome of this World is but fol­ly with God.

Secondly,Pollitique. To obserue a iust proportion of state is good in all degrees, but in a Soue­raigne necessary, yet hee that exceeds his state, doth impaire his state, and by taking more then his owne, he doth loose his own.


Of what importance this Act for the Kings Supremacy was to the state of England in respect of Piety and Pollicy.

FIRST, If we consider the trauells of men on earth, and the conti­nuall passage of all their actions, we shall finde that euery particu­lar man of Spirit, or that hath but more then common vnderstanding directeth himselfe and his whole trauell to one of these two ends;Goodness and greatnes the two ends whereto all men intend. eyther to be Good, or to be Great, and according to his choice of these, hee doth frame the practise of his life, as if to good­nesse then is his care good, and hee doth ex­ercise those good meanes, that may leade him to his good end. For there is no way to [Page 39] attaine good end, but by good meanes. But he that aymeth at greatnesse, the care of his life is much different, for to him there is no direct way of lawfulnesse or honestie to runne in, for he breaketh these limits, and trauells in euery by passage how vnlawfull­soeuer: and therefore they of this nature allow, onely of this one principall, that whatsoeuer may direct them to their end, be it sinne, or shame they giue it allowance. Such was the resolution of that Tyrant,Richard the Third of En­gland. who making Empire his desired end, cared not to trauell thither in the steppes of his neerest blood, so deepe as (perhaps) to damne him­selfe. And like vnto him are all such whose desires leade them to vnlawfull ends, who resoluing to obtaine their desires, resolue likewise vpon the practise of all vngodli­nesse.

Secondly, And this practise of euill men is in common construction called Pollicie, whereby the name of Pollicie doth receiue much wrong by their grosse and sencelesse vnderstanding it, for Pollicie may bee either good or bad according to the end whereto [...] [Page 42] out of these considerations. First, the liber­ty that was recouered in the person of the Prince, he resuming that absolute autho­rity to himselfe, which before was giuen to a stranger his enemy, whereby the King did adde to his owne greatnesse, and diminish the power of him that loued him not. And how important this is to the prosperity of a State, let the Iudgement of any sence iudge it. Againe, there is no State or Kingdome, vnder the awe of Popish Supremacie that can be said (truly) to be a free State, or the King thereof an absolute Prince, because that Kingdome is subiugate, and that King Subordinate to the power of another;The gouern­ment Mo­narchiall the best. where­by the gouernement Monarchiall (which of all others is most excellent) cannot bee said to bee in that State, where the authority of the Prince is deuided, or rather tran­slated into the person of another, as in the case of Popish Supremacie is most euident.

Sixthly, Againe, to inherit by succession of blood, (which is of very speciall conside­ration) is by this forraigne Supremacie [Page 43] much indangered: because where this power is grantedAn inconue­nience of Po­pish Supre­macie. there is also giuen to the Pope the power to alter, and dispose of Kings and Kingdomes at his pleasure, and to tran­slate the inheritance of States according as hee shall please to fauour or dis-fauour the true owners, whereof many times hath en­sued much misery, and many calamities; So that I verily thinke there is no part of Chri­stendome, that hath not had a wofull expe­rience in this great misery. That were the Prince or the cause neuer so Iust, and holy, or the Pope and his wicked life neuer so ap­parantly euill, yet by this vniuersall power, hee had power giuen him to alter the State, and to translate Succession at his pleasure: pretending a Religious good,Pretend and intend. but intending eyther the aduancement of his base kin­dred, or else some other enuious and euill end. And how dangerous this may bee to a Kingdome let any Iudgement determine. Lastly, this inconuenience doth follow of Popish Supremacie, The practise of many Treas [...]ns. the practise of so many Treasons, wherewith the name of Christen­dome is much spotted; For he that is resol­ued [...] [Page 46] the sufficiencie of other mens writings to this purpose: This onely Argument, that whereas by the testimonie of holy Scripture wee are taught to know that man of sinne, whom the spirit of God calleth Antichrist by this speciall sensible signe of pride,Pride the most sensible signe of An­tichrist. in that he being but man, shall presume to exalt him­selfe aboue all that is called God. Now that Kings and Princes of the Earth, are (by the sentence of Scripture) called Gods, it is most euident, in that place where he saith, I haue said yee are Gods: that is,Psalme. neerest to my selfe in your dignitie of place, representing my power and my Maiesty, in the highest degree vpon Earth. Then whosoeuer shall exalt himselfe aboue these degrees of Maiesty, must of necessity be he whom the Spirit of God calleth that man of sinne that Anti­christ, because his sinne is like the sinne of the Diuels in the Creation;The sinne of the Diuels in the Creation Nymrods sinne Supre­macie. for as they did, so doth he contend for the highest Suprema­cie: and (Nymrod-like) he buildeth himselfe aloft aboue the reach of Earth, reaching his ambition, beyond the limits of mortality, euen aboue all that is called God.

[Page 47] Eighthly, And therefore great reason had the King, and so haue all the Kings of the Earth, to cast off all friendly intertaine­ment with him, that would exalt himselfe a­boue all flesh, nay, aboue all that is called God: and I am verily perswaded, that this one respect of pride is that marke where­by shee is best knowne to bee that Babylon, with whose Fornications the whole Earth hath bene poysoned, yet in these latter times hath shee got more vgly visors to maske in Blood and Treason; two such deformities, as would be very apparant in the face of Reli­gion. And God no doubt hath set these markes in her fore-head (as he marked Cain) that all his beloued in the world, might know her at the first blush, and auoide the filth of her Fornications. For where those e­uills are; God is not in the honour of his ser­uice, but in his Iustice and angry Maiesty.

Of the suppressing of Abbeyes and Religious Houses in England.

FIRST, the worke of Gods prouidence is most worthy of consideration, leading (by va­riable turnings) the passage of all transitory things to that end, whereto God hath decreed them. In which worke howsoeuer,God neuer altereth his purpose. God doth neuer change the purpose of his will, yet the euents (many times) seeme very admirable to our v [...]der­standings by reason of their change and va­rieties.Vicessitudo rerum. For all things in this world are in continuall motion, being moued as shall please the hand of prouidence, euery thing being like the mouing Sea, sometimes flow­ing, sometimes in their ebb againe, some­times [Page 49] vp, sometimes downe, according as shall please that power that moues them. And from this mouing cause is deriued that variety in the state of Earth which men (fal­sly) call Fortune, The variety of Fortunes. the often change whereof to a Christian Iudgement is not strange, be­cause he considereth the power that God hath ouer all his creatures, and how inclina­ble they be to alteration.

Secondly, And for particular instances: Though Religion before these times had in­dured an euill change, changing the truth for many superstitious Ceremonies, yet so venerable was the name of Religion to the people of those times, as (notwithstanding their misconceiuing the truth thereof) they gaue such large demonstrations of loue and zeale to that profession, and the Professors as no people at any time did euer exceed them;The regard that was gi­uen to the Pop: Church. inriching the state of Religion, both with honourable regard, and with very am­ple possessions. Insomuch as the Church then might rather seeme a Triumphant, then a Church Militant; So high was it exalted in the degrees of worldly prosperity: yet for [Page 50] all this flourish, God commeth with his rod of correction, and (finding euill in the great­nesse thereof) he alters their present Con­dition, that as they had forsaken the truth of his seruice, So hee would bereaue them their earthly honour, wherewith the true name of their false Religion was gorgeously decked.

Thirdly,The first cause of alte­ration of Re­ligion. The first cause then of this alte­ration was God himselfe, who, when hee seeth the vessell of mens iniquity full, he fil­leth his violl with wrath, to reforme and cor­rect, what euill men had before deformed, and being most Iealous of his honour,God most iealous of his honour. hee commeth with more then common corre­ctions, to reforme the truth of his seruice. For so did God at this time, his angry hand reaching destruction, beyond the liues of those euill men, euen to their lands, houses and possessions, making King Henry vtterly extirpe these abused Monasteries, as the Israelites did the Cananites, for their mon­strous and heathenish sinnes. And therefore no doubt did God make particular choise of King Henry for his instrument, fitting him [Page 51] with extraordinary spirit,The King well fitted for this busi­nesse. that he might the better mannage this great businesse, where­to God had ordained him, and wherein God did wonderfully assist him.

Fourthly,What might moue the K. in respect of himselfe. But what might moue the King in respect of himselfe, many men many waies coniecture. Some, by the spoyle of these houses that he might inrich himselfe, and relieue the occasions of his Warres, which then did much distresse him▪ But howsoeuer,Master Fox in the Act and Mon [...]. this hath credit with him that writeth this Storie at large, yet in that opi­nion I doe not beleeue him. For it is not likely that any Christian Prince in the world, would for any respect of spoyle, de­stroy the estates of so many (at that time re­puted) Religious and Godly men. Others thinke the King did this out of Stomacke, the Pope being then in full opposition with the King, for taking Supremacie from him in the Church of England, that had but lately giuen to him & his Successors for euer the title of Defendor of the Faith; the King ima­gining he could not secure to his posterity, the continuance of his Supremacie, where his [Page 52] enemy (the Pope) was so strong both by the number and by the worth of these Religious houses:The Popes strength. and therefore it is thought the King did suppresse them in Pollicy, making that his owne strength which he found to strength his enemy. And this howsoeuer hath a likely-hood, being neere the Kings dispo­sition, yet I verily thinke the King would not for any pollitique regard, haue brought a generall destruction vpon that State which then was held Religious.The cause mouing the King to the subersion of the Abbeye [...] But rather vnder­standing by his Visitors the great disorder and vngodlinesse of men and women (in those places) professing Religion, did (in the care of conscience) scatter their assemblies, ruine their houses, and iustly seaze that to his vse which they with so much impietie had abused.

Fifthly,The outrru­ding of Fry­ers, &c. Vpon this consideration, did the King outtrude the Rabble of Monkes, Nunnes, and Fryers, and seaze their possessions, fin­ding that their large allowance of wealth and easie life, was cause of their wanton and wicked trade of liuing, and that prayer, and the exercise of true Deuotion (whereto they [Page 53] were dedicate, was not that whereunto they imployed the large beneuolence of their Benefactors. They vsing (onely) the formes of some superstitious prayers, and a formality in their attire, wherein they ob­serued a precise order, being in the maine carriage of their liues of all people most dis­orderly.The suppres­sing of Ab­beyes good to the Church and Com­mon-Wealth To reforme which was not onely necessary for the truth of holy Religion, but very conuenient for the better gouerne­ment of the Common-Wealth, the State re­ceiuing great detriment by allowing so largely to those lazie and vnprofitable mem­bers, and the Church great scandalls, by their vngodly and heathenish liues. To re­forme this then, was an Act in the King very gratious, tending directly for the good of both states, whereby he gaue proofe, that God, and not the Pope, made speciall choice of him and his Successors, to defend the most True, Ancient, and Apostolike Faith.

Sixthly,A doubt. Yet here it may be doubted, whe­ther the King did better in the vtter extirpa­tion of these men, their order, and houses, [Page 54] or if he had reformed onely the abuse, and left their places and possessions to others of better life, and professing the truth of holy Religion, whereby the euil might haue bene taken away onely, leauing their mainte­nance to be imployed in holy and Religious vses, especially considering that the want in the Protestants Religion is the want of main­tenance, whereby many well deseruing Schollers liue in the penurie of life vnsup­ported, which by this meanes might abun­dantly haue bene supplied.

Seuenthly,Answer 1. To this doubt many in their seuerall opinions diuersly answer, some that the standing still of their houses in the for­mer condition of a corporation was dange­rous, least vpon euery alteration of the Prince, the dispossessed might againe reen­ter, whereby the latter condition, might proue worse then the former. And this rea­son were good, if there might not haue bene assurance to haue secured them, from all danger of repossessing, (the which no doubt) might haue bene done, if the prouidence of the State had regarded it.

[Page 55] Eighthly, Others thinke the King,2. too seuere in this his manner of correction, sup­posing it had beene enough for him to cor­rect but not to destroy, to reforme the a­buse, not vtterly to haue subuerted both the abusers and the places abused: and that his conuerting their wealth to his owne priuate benefit, was an argument that he did this; not in zeale to reforme their abuses, but ra­ther to interest himselfe into that abun­dance of wealth they then possessed; follow­ing herein the example of Cardinall VVolsey, Cardinall Wolsey, an euill presi­dent. who in the yeare 1525: obtained license to suppresse certaine Religious houses, to fur­nish him towards the building of his two Colledges at Oxford and Ipswich, the which Colledges beeing founded vpon this false ground, neuer had the good fortune to bee finished but perished in their Birth.

Ninthly, And I verily beleeue, that how­soeuer the King had a further respect then to inherit their wealth, yet was there both that and many other by occasions, strong inducements to moue him to this seuerity in punishing. And herein the King may be [...] [Page 58] was and is in the person of the Pope, an am­bitious desire of vniuersality of Empire, with vniuersall neglect and hatred.

Thirdly, Vngodly practise hath not al­waies euill successe, if we respect the present but if wee respect euents further of, they are euer euill and certaine in their destru­ction.

Fourthly,Pollitique. to dissemble our intents, with faire pretence is a principle in pollicie, which I commend not, but remember onely. For though no man bee bound at all times and in euery cause to declare himselfe in direct euidence; yet doth it much ad­uance the honour of a Prince to be square in all, without difference or dispropor­tion.

Fifthly, In a generall cause, it is necessary to be generally respectiue, and not to con­ferre that vpon one, which (with satisfacti­on) may be giuen to manie. Therefore was it good Pollicie in the King to distribute the possessions of the Abbeyes he supprest, to many of principall authority in the State: For it is wisedome to satisfie their offence [Page 59] that haue authority, rather then such as want it.

Sixthly,Morall. It was the wisedome of the best morall Philosophers not to place felicity in Fortune, because of vncertainties, for hee is onely happie, that cannot be miserable.

Of King Henries remisse and colde proceeding in the worke of re­formation.

FIRST, there is nothing in the Earth more certaine then the vncertainty of al earthly things. For Man (one of the best of Gods Creatures, in respect of the excellen­cie of his reasonable soule) doth so often times change the condition of his life, as if he were not of that excellencie, nor had not that power of Iudgement and vnderstan­ding which he hath. And this is Gods worke in the depth of his wisedome, to whom one­ly all things are certaine, and with whom there is no shadow of change. God reser­uing to himselfe the secrets of those things [Page 61] whereof his will is we shall be ignorant, im­parting onely so much to vs his creatures, as may serue for the worke of his seruice, he himselfe still guiding vs by his hand of prouidence, to those ends, whereto his de­cree hath ordained vs. And by this doth God giue vs a demonstration of his power, and our weakenesse, of his power in being most certaine in all those things, which to vs are casuall▪ and of our weakenesse, because we are like the ayre, we breath carryed whi­thersoeuer it shall please the winde to moue vs.

Secondly, The truth of this may appeare (in the Kings particular) who notwithstan­ding the greatnes of his spirit, and the hono­rable attempt he had made in the cause of Religion, whereby he had runne himselfe so farre in the trauells of that businesse, as that he could not well retyre, without dishono­rable shame, the expectation of Christen­dome seeming to depend much vpon the Kings continuance in that course: yet euen then did the King surcease from that Religi­ous worke, which with so much honorable [Page 62] successe he had begun. Where it may seeme strange, that a Prince of his greatnesse, hauing the aduise of an honorable and wise councell,The weake­nesse of the Kings reso­lution. should lay vpon his name the im­putation of weakenesse, not to goe forward with that whereto his honour was so much ingaged.

Thirdly, But if we consider the time, and the difference of opinions in those great men,The King ruled by per­swasion and not by Iudge­ment. to whom the King did shew himselfe most gracious, it will then appeare, the businesse went forward, or not, accor­ding to the affection of the Kings Fa­uourites.

Fourthly, As in the time of Cardinall VVolsey, Cardinall Wolsey. a man so great in the fauour of his Prince, as that our English Chronicles cannot match him, who in the time of his prospe­rity, did so possesse the King, as that the King may be said to saile with no winde but the Cardinalls, the king being but the bo­dy to his soule, he mouing it according to the pleasure of his owne appetite, and ther­fore at this time was the king all Cardinall, putting himselfe in Print to defend the Su­premacie [Page 63] of Popes. But this time did end with the Cardinals fortunes, who being puft vp and high swolne with the spirit of ambiti­on, runne himselfe into strange contempts, against the Maiesty of his Prince: who fin­ding him so Cardinallike in pride, and vaine glory stript him of those honours which before he so lauishly had giuen him, translating his fauour vpon Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cranmer. Arch-Bishop of Canterburie, whom the king finding Religious, honest, and learned, gaue his opinion good authority.

Fifthly, And at this time the Protestants Religion, began to haue the fauour of the Kings protection: yet by reason of the peaceable Nature of this Man,D. Cranmer. and because of many other important considerations of inconuenience; the cause of Religion went not with that prosperity forward, as other­wise it might. For howsoeuer we may iustly conceiue of this learned man, that he wan­ted neither spirit nor power, to trauell in the most important affaires of State, the which hee hath well declared by his resolute and learned proceedings, in the Kings diuorse: [Page 64] yet considering in what termes the State then stood, and the particular condition of his State, it will appeare that a necessary pro­uidence of his own security, did inforce him to a violent patience, and to silence and suppresse his zealous spirit, which otherwise would haue ventured vpon much more ha­zard.

Sixthly, For at this time Cranmer contrarie to the lawes then inforce, was married, and did liue with his wife to the great hazard of his life: and this was one respect why hee suffered so much the practise of his ene­mies, keeping good correspondence, and indifferent fauour, least his Mariage should be called in question, whereby both his state and life had beene exposed, into a danger most eminent.

Seuenthly, And if any man obiect that these regards of Cranmer proceeded from his feare of temporall losse, and that he fainted in the maine execution of his Christian Office. I answer, that no feare but a Chri­stian prouidence was the cause of this wari­nesse; For he might well know, that if hee [Page 65] proceeded in the difference of Religion by violent and forcible meanes; he should then haue had the whole power of the contrary faction bent against him: and being (by rea­son of his marriage) within the danger of law, it could not be auoided but the seueri­tie of the law should haue proceeded against him.

Eighthly, Yet notwithstanding when the necessarie care of Religion did require him, there was no respect could binde him from his earnest indeauours, as may wel appeare, by this most resolute opposing against the Statute of the sixe Articles. So that Cran­mer (in true estimation) hath well deserued, and worthily acquitted himselfe of all im­putation; yet by reason of these occasions, hee could not doe that, which the opportunity of the Kings fauour did offer him.

Ninthly, Vpon this aduantage Stephen Gardiner Stephen Gardiner. builds his strength, who by obser­uance, and cunning insinuation, shifting himselfe into the Kings fauour, got great au­thority in the State, and according to the [Page 66] nature of his working spirit, troubles the waters of peace of fish for Romish Religi­on, whereto in his heart he was much incli­ned. And this man,Gardiner a great Politi­tian. (not like Cranmer but Matchiuellike) grounded in the secrets of Pol­licie, seemes what he is not, and is content to proportion himselfe to the fashions of the time, with purpose to alter that fashion. And this howsoeuer it were a thing very disho­nest especially in the office of a Bishop, yet was it a very pollitique Regard, and that miste whereby he wrought all his inchant­ments, for by his obseruance hee continued in the Kings fauour, and by that fauour, he erected the whole frame of his Policies.

Tenthly,The sixe Ar­ticles. And from this cause had the sixe Articles beginning. Articles so bloodie, as the letters in them, cannot number the blood which was shed in England for them, whereby may appeare the greatnesse of Ste­phen Gardiners wit, that could make the King sayle with a contrary winde, and destroy that cause which before he had protected: and this was, notwithstanding Cranmer his oppo­site had then great fauour with the king, and [Page 67] the highest authority and place in the king­dome.

Eleuenthly, Another of the Kings Fauou­rites in those times of difference, was Sir Thomas More then Lord Chancellor of Eng­land.Sir Thomas Moore. A gentleman (in respect of his natu­ral ornaments) worthy of much honour, for besides the beauty of his learning, which in great personages is very deseruing; he had so good a moderation and temper in all his actions,The excellēt ornaments in Nature in Sir Thomas Moore. as no aduersity could deiect him, neither any prosperity make him lesse in the vse of regard, and ciuill humanity. And notwithstanding hee was diuers from me in that profession which I hold for truth, yet because I write the truth of Historie, it were very vnworthy in me to obscure, the deser­uings of any man,The error of such as write Historie. into which error many o­thers, and especially such as haue recorded the passage of those times, haue vnaduisedly falne, traducing the persons of men for their opinions sake, and making them altogether euill, that in many commendable things were excellent. And because that all good things are from God, (who giueth them ac­cording [Page 68] to the pleasure of his will) it were therefore much iniury to obscure the good­nesse of God, wheresoeuer it shall please him to place it, and this I write in fauour of truth,Truth the life of all History. which may be well said to be the life, and true mouing soule of all Historie.

Twelfthly, This Sir Thomas Moore how­soeuer he was an enemy to the truth of the Gospell,Moore an euemie to the Protestant Religion. yet if we compare him with Stephen Gardiner, the comparison will make Sir Thomas Moore lesse euill, the other being so monstrous in his wicked practises; for the one made conscience to equiuocate and dis­semble himselfe, of which the other made no reckoning. Sir Thomas vtterly refusing the oath of Supremacie, The vnequal comparison betweene Moore and Gardiner. because in conscience he thought he might not take it; Gardiner had the like witnesse of his conscience yet did take it, and therefore Stephen by dissem­bling saued his life, which the other (by plaine expressing himselfe lost. So that both these, though they conspire one end, yet in themselues are they very diuerse, the one with a manly resolution, and with the witnes of his blood profest himselfe and his resolu­tion, [Page 69] the other by swearing and for swearing to banne and disclaime that, which (in his purpose) was the marke whereto hee shot himselfe and his euill pollicies: the one en­ding all opposition in his owne voluntary death: the other by subtilty continuing his euill life, that life being the death of many the deare Children of God.

13. Another highly in the Kings fauour, and most worthy of high fauour, was the Lord Cromwell, Lord Crom­well. a man so resolute in the worke he had begunne, as neuer any did pursue a holy businesse with better Spirit, who not­withstanding the greatnesse of his enemies, who after the fashion of all Courts, enuie such most, vnto whom the Prince is most gratious, and then most, when the degrees of honour are deriued vpon any of meane beginning:In modera­tion. yet so could this man rule the prosperity of his fortunes, as neither in ge­nerall opinion, was he thought proudly to delight them, nor yet not to vnderstand what those honours were, which the Kings fauour had giuen him. So aduised was he in the passage of his honourable life, as that [Page 70] use (which seeth the least aduantage) could neuer finde iust occasion (though occasions were sought) to scandalize his reputation, in the generall opinion of good men. And howsoeuer God did suffer the euill of his e­nemies to preuaile ouer his life, yet neuer to the death of his honourable remembrance, to whose Godly care, all the louers of Reli­gion in Christendome are beholding,England be­holding to the labours of the Lord Cromwell. espe­cially the English Nation, he being a prin­cipall instrument, whereby the King was moued to reforme Religion.

14. In this mans time the Religious then liuing had great hope of prosperity in their holy cause,In this time Religion did proceed well. aswell in respect of his diligence to that end directed, as also of the Kings in­clinable nature, which did seeme to con­sent with the honourable desires of the Lord Cromwell, intertaining him in all fauou­rable regard, giuing him names, and places of high honour, whereby his godly cares went the better forward hauing the strength of the Kings authority, which he applyed to no other end, but that God might receiue honour, in restoring the truth of his seruice, [Page 71] and that the king might not receiue disho­nour in abādoning the protection of faith, whereof God by the sentence of his enemie had made him defēdor.His constan­cie in one course. And this good cause, did this good man prosecute, with the best strēgth of his indeauor, not regarding his life more then God that gaue it, nor the honours of his life, more then the honors of his king, from whose boūty his honors were deriued.

15. Thus we see the diuersity in the king, whereby he grew remisse in following this holy care,Diuersity of opinions cause of the Kings vn­constancie. which was because of the diuersi­tie of opinions in those men, whom the king most trusted in the state, he suffering himself to be driuen against the currant of his owne streames, by the violence of other mens per­swasions.

16. And here is offered a large conside­ration of the Kings Nature, who notwith­standing his great spirit, and his many other honourable deseruings, he had this infirmi­tie. That he would be induced to doe those things,The Kings infirmitie. which were much disagreeing in themselues, and to goe forward and back­ward in one course, and suffer himselfe to be [Page 70] [...] [Page 71] [...] [Page 72] moued, whether the violence of other mens affections would carrie him, sometime for, sometimes against Religion: and by this he gaue an open demonstration of the weake­nesse of his nature For there is no alterati­on in a State that is not dangerous,Euery alte­ration in a state is dan­gerous. and then is the danger most, when the greate ones (great in authority and neere in the fauour of the Prince) deuide themselues. For dif­ference, if it be not compounded by the aw­full Maiesty of the Prince, it will growe to faction, & by consequence to open breach. And though the Prince so gouerne, that they dare not come to open difference, yet will they worke by conspiracie, and secret practise the confusion of each other. For where faction is, there can be no assurance, & men wil seek to assure themselues though it be by the fall of others; And this euill is best preuented by the prouidence of the Prince; who when hee seeth deformity in the body of the State, and that of necessity there must bee alteration, to make such choice of instruments, as best loue the cure, least otherwise in steade of physicke they ad­minister [Page 73] poyson, and so not cure, but de­stroy the body diseased.

17. And this was the Kings errorThe Kings error. (who though his purpose to reforme was good, yet the course he tooke was not good, ma­king ill choice of particulers to whose trust he commended that businesse, some of them being Protestants, some Papists; so that the King may bee said to build with one hand, and to cast downe with another, to reforme Religion and to deforme it againe. And therefore this aduice I dare giue the best Prince in the world. Let those you loue best, and trust most, be one in themselues and one with their Soueraigne, and worke not vpon the foundation Truth by contrarie meanes, for hee that so buil­deth, buildeth Babel, that is, confusion, and not the walles of Ierusalem.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. to intertaine and beginne a Re­ligious worke, is both an honourable and a holy attempt, but to finish it is more, because it is possible, that vnworthy men may vndertake and retire: But Pietie, is not Pietie, if not constant. For no vertue is rewarded but perseuerance.

Secondly, To faint in the prosecution of a Religious cause, is of all cowherdice the most shamefull and recreant, because in all such quarrells. God is our Generall, and doth arme his souldiers in compleate secu­rity.

Thirdly,Pollitique. A Prince that hath many about his person, cannot but must haue much diffe­rence in their quallities: his pollitique parte is to obserue, and iudge the difference, and to distinguish them to such seruice in the State, as may make them emulous to exceede, and not enuious to extirpe the [Page 75] prosperities of one another.

Fourthly, It hath beene thought good Pollicie, that in a Senate or Counsell of State, it were good to haue men of opposite Iudge­ment, because it doth prouoke both facti­ons, from exact declaration of their best in­deauours. This, in a state meerely pollitique may haue pretence, but in a Religious State it hath none; because it is impossible to goe to one God, in one truth, by contrarie steppes.

Fifthly, It were dishonourable and dange­rous for a Prince, that hath his state free, and in quiet to dissemble or to deuide himselfe to contrarieties, because hee that doth not declare himselfe certaine to one, doth remaine suspected of all, and doth giue a generall hope to generall varieties.

Sixthly,Morall. The errour and vice is grea­ter in retyring from vertuous procee­dings, then the vertue is to vndertake them. For wee are tempted by all rea­son to vndertake them, but by none to leaue them.

[Page 76] Seuenthly, Hee that composeth him­selfe of contrarieties, doth weare a mon­strous Shape; for humanitie and ciuill So­cietie is bound to the Rules of vertue, as Pietie and Religion to the Rules of GOD.

Of the sixe Articles, and the euill that thereof insued.

FIRST, the originall cause of this euill was pretendedThe cause pretended of the sixe Ar­ticles. to be a remedy, against the many Sects of Religion, which then began to multiply, when Religion was in restoring; the State whereof being vnset­led, gaue occasion that many busie Spirits, according to their seuerall Iudgements, would diuersly determine, what was the true forme of Gods Seruice, and what was not, whereof it came to passe, that many idle and grosse opinions,The cause of manie grosse and sencelesse o­pinions. had many that would stifly adheare to this or that, according as their blinde iudgements did direct them. For it hath euer beene and euer will be, the nature [Page 78] of the worst vnderstanding people, to desire innouation, and euer to affect that most, which hath most singularity,The nature of the Vulgar euer opposing the iudgement of the learned, and the pow­er of lawfull authority; and this is a naturall Antipathy betweene the base and the Noble, the foolish and the wise, the bad and the bet­ter sort of people.

Secondly, To cureAn euil cure this disease in the State of England, was very needfull, but the care they applyed was both vnlawfull, and very preiudiciall, laying such salue to the soare, as made the wound wider, and the griefe much more sensible. For if wee remember the whole storie of King Henries Life, there is not any other Act that euer passed the con­sent of a Parliament, so dishonourable to the King, and of like offence to the Catholike Faith, as was this of the sixe Articles,Sixe Arti­cles. especi­ally then when the King had set his Princely hand to the worke of reformation; where­by he did (in a manner) disclaiming his for­mer proceedings, pulling downe the holy frame, which with so much labour hee had formerly erected.

[Page 79] Thirdly, Yet so strong is the power of per­swasion,The power of perswasion. especially in them wee trust, as that oftentimes wee suffer our selues to be led to those ends, that greatly disaduantage vs. And this is well seene in this Act of the Kings, which in truth did altogether tend to the pleasure of euill men about him, and not to his honour, nor the good of his King­domes; he being thus perswaded by Stephen Gardiner pretending thereby a prouident good, but intending fire, blood, and persecu­tion to the cause of Religion, and to the holy Professors thereof.

Fourthly, For these Articles (whereto the King did inioyne his Subiects to confirme them) were all of them contrary to the Ca­tholike Faith of the Protestants Religion, be­ing no better then the Ladders whereby the Bishops of Rome, haue ascended the stepps of reputation, and worldly greatnesse; some of them being for his gaine, others for his re­gard, all of them the limmes of Pollicie, and none of them proportionable to the rule of the Catholike Religion. And therefore was Stephen Gardiner much deceiued, when hee [Page 80] thought to square out Truth, by false Rules; making these ArticlesThe sixe Ar­ticles what they were. to iudge who was in the Catholike Faith, yet these themselues not Catholike, but rather worldly inuentions and trickes of Pollicie.

1 The first, auowing Transubstantiation, a doctrine as new as the name, and but of late yeares inuented.

2 The second, denied the Sacrament to be exhibited in both kinds to Lay-men, contra­rie both to the commandement of Christ at the first institution, as also contrary to the practise of the Primitiue Church for many hundreds of yeares.

3 The third, that Priests ought not to mar­rie, contrary to Saint Paules opinion, the practise of the Church, and the iudgement of holy Scripture.

4 The fourth, that vowes ought to be kept, and this hath onely a respect to a pollitique end, being that foundation whereupon is builded their monasteries▪ and the wicked rabble of lazie Fryers, and Nunnes.

5 The fifth, that priuate Masses were neces­sarie, and agreeable to Gods Word: an in­uention [Page 81] to get money onely, and ridiculous to the iudgement of all learning.

The sixth, of the necessity of auriculer 6 confession. A Pollitique deuise whereby the Pope hath vnderstanding in all states, making his Priests intelligences, and binding the consciences of Christians, to that slauerie, from which God hath made them free. And these were those Articles, which were made the Tryers of Christian Religion, whereto euery man was to giue his consent, or else to haue the iudgement of law as fel­lons, being adiudged (by the sentence of the Church) Heretickes, cast out from the fa­uour of God, and from the society of the Catholike Church.

Fifthly, By this then may appeare the e­uill that redounds to a state when the Coun­sell of a Prince is deuided,The euil that redounds to a State when the Counsell are diuided. not conspiring one but diuers ends, especially then; when the Prince puts off the power of his Maie­stie, and suffers himselfe to be led by the ea­sie perswasions of them neere him by his fa­uour. For if the King had had as much the spirit of Diuinitie, as he had of Maiestie, [Page 82] he would neuer haue had both a Cranmer, and a Garidiner, a Cromwell and a Moore, to or­der him in the affaires of his Church and kingdome. But according as he had bene re­solued in Religion he would only haue made choice of such for his counsell, as had con­spired one and the same end with him their Soueraigne, neither is it good in the wise­dome of state,The care of State. to entertaine them neere vs in loue and place, whom we finde to farre from vs in the opinion of Truth, because there is no obligation, can make such men assured, that worke to bring vs to a course against our purpose, giuing vs the reines onely so farre as may leade vs to their desired ends.

Sixthly, If this man and his euil practise had not preuailed more with the King then the better perswasion of the Lord Cranmer and Cromwell, the reformationGardiner the meanes to hinder the King from reformation. of Religion had not beene letted in so hopefull a procee­ding, neither had the King and Parlyament passed any such Act so bloodie, as was this of the sixe Articles: whereby the King did blurre the honour of that reputation he had formerly gotten, and retyred himselfe in the [Page 83] pursuite of that enterprize, which worthily had made him very famous. And this doth proue the greatnesse of his euill wit,Gardiners wit. that made this alteration in the Kings Nature, and doubtlesse if God had giuen this man grace to haue loued honestie and truth; he had many other quallities of good com­mendation, which would haue bene most flourishing in a man of holy life,Gardiners gifts. as his lear­ning, wit, and spirit, whereby he was well fit­ted to trauell in State businesse, but misap­plying those to vngodly ends, they were the defects and blemishes in the person that so had them, and very pestilent to the State where such men haue authority.

Seuenthly, And if we remember the time of these sixe Articles, we shall finde it plenti­full in the Records of Holy Martyrs, that shed their blood in opposition of that false do­ctrine, neither wanted they some likewise at that time that suffered death in defence of the Popes Supremacie. The Religiō at this time in England, was neither the Protestāt nor the Papist So that the Reli­gion then profest in England, was neither that of the Protestant, nor this of the Papist, for at that time one and the same Law, did [Page 84] denounce Iudgement against the maintai­ners of both kindes, condemning the Prote­stant for not subscribing to the sixe Articles, and the Papist for not allowing the Kings Supremacie. And therefore good cause had he of admiration, who seeing at this time in England three Protestants and three Papists to die at one time, and in one place, and by the sentence of one Law, for their consci­ence,Three Pro­testants and three Papists die at one time and in one place for their Consci­ence. admireth thus: Deus bone, quomodo hic viuunt gentes, hîc suspenduntur Papistae, illic comburuntur Antepapistae. Iesus saith hee) how doe men liue here, Acts and Mon pag. 1375. for there hangs the Papist, and heere burnes the Protestant for Religion.

Eighthly, And this came to passe because the Kings counsell, were deuided into parts, one halfe Protestants, the other Papists. The Kings Counsell, the one halfe Protestants the other Papists. The Protestants maintaining the Act for the kings Supremacie. The Papists that of the sixe Ar­ticles, either partie executing the iudgemēt of the Lawe, according as in their seuerall opinions they were affected: whereof insu­ed the greatest calamitie that could be in a Christian State,The miserie of these times no man making conscience of Religion in either profession that esca­ped [Page 85] punishment, onely such were free and vnder protection, who either did dissemble, or conforme them to the fashion of the time. And this had not bene if the Prince and his Lords had conspired one end, for take vnity away, you take Truth with it,Tolle vnum, tolle verum. and disagreements doe most assuredly presage losse if not destruction.

Ninthly, But God who denied to his seruāt Dauid the building of his Temple, because his hands had bene in blood, and did re­serue the honour of that worke for Salomon his Sonne,2 Sam. 7. 5. a Prince of peace; So in this work of reformation. God would not King Hen­rie to effect it, because he had bene in blood, and Warre, as was Dauid Salomons Father, but he reserues it for King Edward, God would not that K. Henry but that King Edward should finish this refor­mation. a true Sa­lomon in the wisedome and iustice of Salo­mon; And this Prince did God ordaine to restore the truth of his seruice. King Henrie his Father (as did Salomons Father) preparing onely matter for this heauenly worke, which his Princely Sonne and not himselfe was to finish.

Tenthly, And howsoeuer King Henry did [Page 86] not go forward to this worke with that con­stancie, as the worthinesse of the cause de­serued: being letted by the enuie of euill Ministers, yet hath he well deserued honou­rable remembrance, hauing done more than any otherKing Henry deserued well in doing more then was done be­fore him by any other. Prince in Christendome be­fore him euer did. And if wee consider the kings Nature (being most resolute and stiffe in any businesse he vndertooke) there neuer was any of his Predecessors better fitted to en­ter into such a businesse of stomacke as hee was, neither can it be said truely of the king that he failed in this enterprise, for he per­formed all he vndertooke, and would haue done more if either his own opinion, or the counsell of his friend, had further directed him. And therefore hath he done honoura­bly, in doing more than before was done, and in doing all he had vndertaken, wherein he exceeded the expectationThe King exceeded ex­pectation. that all men had of him, it being a matter thought im­possible, to preuaile (in this) against the Pope, at this time a power so absolute, as that both kings and Emperours, had before failed in the like attempt.

[Page 87] Eleuenthly, And therefore I verily be­lieue that God by his extraordinary power was with King Henrie, making him (in this) inuincible and powerfull to preuaile in iust opposition, he looking downe with his eyes of iudgement, vpon the pride and open wic­kednesse of Papacie, and hating that the or­der of his seruice should be so corrupted, in­cites and assists the king,God assisted the King. to reforme what the iniquity of others had deformed, so grosse and sencelesse was the Liturgie of the Church in those blacke daies of ignorance and blinde superstition, as would grieue any true Catholike Christian to consider, and shame the better sort of Papists themselues to remember. And therefore it is reason we ac­knowledge our dutifull thankes to God for altering this state of misery, into a conditi­on most happie and prosperous:The Kings desert. and that we honour their remembrance, whom God did vse as fit instruments to this holy and most Religious worke.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. It doth not conclude, but it doth argue against Pietie and the Truth of Religion, where there is seuerity in execution. For as God is both most iust and most mercifull; So all Ecclesiasticall prose­cutions must haue temper, and indifferent mixture.

Secondly, Calamities, Death, and persecuti­ons cannot effect that in the Catholike Church, which they commonly effect in Pollitique States; to the one they are a cause of decay and ruine; to the other of inlarge­ment, for there is difference in the forme of Gods generall prouidence, and of the par­ticular care of his Church.

Thirdly, To ordaine or decree Articles, Canons, or Statutes to iudge and binde the conscience, it is necessary to be directed by spirituall instruction. For though authori­ty be in euery Prince, yet iudgement is not.

[Page 89] Fourthly, It is dangerous for a Prince to commit the forming of spirituall constituti­ons, to disagreeing mindes; for diuersity of opinions (when it goeth by suffrage) doth vtterly destroy the sincerity of al cōclusions.

Fifthly, It hath bene and is the Pollitique Pollitique. practise of the Romane State, to support the bodie of her greatnesse with most terrible persecutions, the effect doth iudge the cause, and that pollicie is found wicked, in the daily fall and lessening, of that antichri­stian Empire.

Sixthly, Tolleration of Religion, is (in some States) reputed a necessarie pollicie, but a Religious Prince that doth loue God more then State, can neuer tollerate that pollicie, for God doth hate all conniuencie, and hee is lame in truth, that halteth be­tweene two opinions.

Seuenthly, It is necessary wisedome for a Prince, to make difference betweene obedi­ent and disobedient subiects, in the case of Religion, yet is there a great difference to be had in punishing disobedient opinions, and disobedient facts.

[Page 90] Eighthly, It doth much respect a mans particuler happinesse, to auoide singulari­tie, and not easily to bee drawne from the common opinion: because, (naturally) we haue a liking of our selues, and a dislike of others.

Ninthly,Morall. To a ciuill happinesse, is re­quired to be able to beare all fortunes, and not to contemne them. For it is not possi­ble for Fortune with her infinite occasions, to subduce the greatnesse of a vertuous minde.

Tenthly, A vertuous disposition cannot be supprest by opposition, for there is no­thing can strength Patience but exercise.

Obseruations out of the generall view of this latter time of King Henries Reigne.

FIRST, the importance of this difference betweene the King of England and the Pope, was such as that all Christendome, had earnest expectation what would be the issue of so strange an opposition; it being thought very dangerous in the King,The difficul­tie in the Kings at­tempt. to oppose him­selfe against a power so generall, as the Pope then was, and in a quarrell wherein no Prince in Christendome would assist him. And doubtlesse in respect of State practise, the attempt was very hazerdous, and of lit­tle hope to bring it to that honourable end, as (by the fauour of God) hee did wherein [Page 92] the King did exceede the expectation of all men saue himself, and erected the Trophyes of his honour higher, then any one before him durst reach. And therefore this dan­gerous (but honourable attempt, was not by the prouidence of State, or by any earthly wisedome but by the power of heauen,This opposi­tion was or­dered by the power of God. God leading him thorough many dangers, and vnlikelihoods, to an end most holy and ho­nourable, whereby God would seeme to make the worke his owne, and to denie to Pollicie, and the vaine contriuements of men, the honour thereof, who (commonly) proud themselues to much in their owne opinion of wisedome,The wise­dome of pol­licie is foo­lishnesse with God. which with God is found ligh­ter, than vanitie and follie it selfe.

Secondly, For the Kings particular, it may appeare how much hee did hazard the peace, and fortunes of his kingdome, in gi­uing aduantage to them that loued him not,The King gaue aduan­tage to his enemies. to combine with his great enemie the Pope, who with all diligence sought to make the King odious to all other Princes, sowing the seedes of enuie in the hearts of all men, a­gainst this practise of the Kings, cursing him [Page 93] from the fauour of God,The Popes Curses vpon King Henry and traducing him with all dishonor, his euill practise could de­uise. And this in those times was great disad­uantage; because the greater parte of the Kings Subiects thought they were in consci­ence bound,The power of the Popes censure. to obey the Popes Censure, whereby the Kings strength (being deuided in it selfe) became weake, & by this meanes was the kingdome made fit for forraigne in­uasion. For this is generall in the practise of all states, that where wee purpose Warre, there we must haue faction,Faction the first part of Conquest. for faction is the first part of Conquest; because there is no opposition more resolute, then that which is neerest to it selfe; and therefore of all Warre the ciuill is most dangerous, being led by the greatest furie of hate, and the continuall offer of occasions.

Thirdly,A second Reason. Againe the seuerall Kingdomes of Christendome at this time were come to that equality of power, as made them enui­ously regard one another; not as in the time of the Romane Emperors, subordinate to one absolute Prince of all, neither as in the time before them, when as that which is [Page 94] now but one,The equall partage of Christen­dome to ma­ny Princes. was many seuerall king­domes. So equall was the partage to Chri­stian Princes at this time, and euery State had need to feare the greatnes of his neigh­bour, and to take the least aduantage to lesson him in his reputation and strength, especially then, when the power of any one, became extraordinarie; or their reputation in Armes so fortunate, as might threaten their Neighbour Nations.

Fourthly,The care of those times This was the care of those times, and in particular a matter most con­siderable, betweene those two famous king­domes of England and France, which Nati­ons (what by reason of the King of Englands claime to the Crowne of France,England and France in continuall faction. as also be­ing both of them prouoked with enuious honour, to exceede each other in the ho­nour, of armes;) there hath often bene emu­lation, and difference, betweene these neighbour Nations, neuer (almost) conclu­ding peace, but for pollicie, sometimes ma­king Sessation from Warre, that they might againe beginne with greater violence:A pollitique regard. and therefore would they euer combine them­selues [Page 95] with such, when the enemies had most reason to feare,England with Spaine, France with Scotland cō ­federates. as England would con­federate with Spaine, and France with Scot­land, the neighbours of each other, being most enuious one of another. The wisedome of State trusting them best, who liue furthest from vs,The aduan­tage the French had of the En­glish, by rea­son of this po­pish quarrell. because they are least able to hurt vs. The King then may be thought by making the Pope his enemie, not onely to giue great aduantage to his enemie the French, but al­so to deuide himselfe from the loue of all Christian Princes, the Spanyards and all other his confederates, for all these were deuided from him by his diuision, no Prince daring to support him against the sentence of the Pope. God and not pollicie orde­red the king. And therefore the King was ruled by a greater power then that of Pollicie, by the power of God, which made him both vsefull and very excellently fit to finish this holy businesse.

Fifthly,Considerati­ons in respect of the Pope. Againe, in respect of the Pope, this businesse is very considerable, as that which for the length of many yeares, did most importune him, being the first steppe of his discent, from the honour of his vniuer­sall [Page 96] power, which to himselfe he had appro­priate. For he could not but foresee the dan­ger,The Pope degraded of authority. whereinto he fell, if the Kings attempt succeeded, who sought to degrade him from his vsurped authority: and hee might thinke that other Princes hauing this presi­dent, might happily attempt as much as King Henry had done,The Kings example dā ­gerous for the Pope. especially considering the controuersie was for regallity, which of all earthly things is most desired, especially by them who haue loftie place, and whose spirits are most free and generous. And this needed speciall preuention in the Pope, The Pope en­uied of Chri­stian Prin­ces. considering the enuie his greatnesse had pro­cured him, and the generall dislike was had of his too much authority, which hee vsed not for the peace of the Catholike Church, but vnto many vngodly ends, whereto the Popes many times aspired.

Sixthly, And therefore did it much im­port the Pope, to make vp the breach King Henrie had made, and to calme those trou­bled Seas, that threaten wracke and desola­tion to his highest authorities.The Popes diligence. to And surely there wanted not any diligence the Pope [Page 97] could vse, make vp this Rent the king had made, yet was it done with such respect to the Popes greatnes, as that the king should rather in his obedience seeke it, then the Pope out of any demonstration of feare offer it,The respect the Pope had to the disho­norable yeal­ding. so respectfull was this man of earthly Ma­iesty, and honour, as hee forgot the vse of piety and humblenesse, quallities that (of necessity) are tyed to the persons of all that truly be Religious.

Seuenthly,How it did import the Pope to con­tinue friend­ly intertaine­ment with the King. In these respects it did much respect the Pope to continue a friendly inter­tainement with England, and not to loose a Member whereof the whole bodie had such vse, which had supported him many times against the power of his greatest enemies, especially in the time of such a Prince, who had published his loue in print, not onely to defend the Pope, but also the lawfullnesse of his vniuersall power, which vniuersally was disliked. King Henrie offering himselfe with his two friends Mars & Mercurie, The Pope lost the King by his too much neg­lect & pride. the Word, and the sword, to defend him against all op­position. And therefore the Pope to loose such a friend, such a king, and such a defence, [Page 98] by his too much neglect, and scorne to sa­tisfie the trouble of that Kings Conscience, may be thought in his iudgement foolish, in his life wicked, and in his downefale worthi­ly punished, and that God willed it, the king wrought it, and the Pope in despight suffered it, to the Glory of God, the kings honour, and the confusion of Antichrist.

Eighthly, From this ouersight of the Popes, this may be obserued:Authority in an euill per­son ruines it selfe. that authority and greatnesse in an euill person, ruines it selfe with his owne weight; neither can the great­nesse of power stand safe, where it is not sup­ported by the strength of iustice, and honest proceeding,A saying of Byas. And that (as Byas saith) pro­motions declare best what a man is. So it is true, that where authority is so absolute, that there is liberty without checke. Then doe men giue best demonstrations of their Na­tures, and most apparently discouer their af­fections,How to iudge men. and to what ends they are most in­clined. For by the worke we may iudge the workeman, by the fruit of the Tree, and by the life, the truth, and holy faith of euerie man.

[Page 99] Ninthly, Againe, vpon this proud and ambitious Bishop, may bee obserued, how God confounds him in his owne practise,God confoun­deth the Popes pollicie he contriueth to make the King of England his fast friend, & his prop, wherupon to support his vnspeakeable pride; but God he deter­mines otherwise of that King; and leades him to a worke more holy, honest, and ho­nourable. The Pope in pollicie intitles him Defendor of the Catholike Faith, because hee writ in defence of his vsurped Supremacie, But God maketh him and his (in deeds) to defend the true faith, and to denie that Su­premacie. God and the Pope vtterly disagree. So that what the Pope would haue, God will not haue, hee commandeth, God countermandeth, he deuiseth, God dispo­seth and maketh the King shoote right, whom the Pope made to leuell wrong. But before all may bee obserued the Popes false vnderstanding iudgement, in this case (in respect of Piety and conscience) how much he was led from the truth of Religion, and from the witnesse of Truth (Gods Word) to maintaine his vniuersall power,Papall supre­premacie gotten by state practise which his predecessors had by state practise gotten. [Page 100] For it cannot be but in this, their iudgements were exceedingly blinded, they hauing no example of any Church at any time for their imitation. When the Law was giuen, God gaue it Moses, to giue Aaron & the people, & not Aron to giue Moses & the people, & in e­uery cause both of state & Religion Aron the Priest was obedient to Moses the Prince, hee receiuing the dignity of his office from Mo­ses, vnto whom God gaue power to giue it.

Tenthly, The like order was in the Iewish Church, where the Prince might iudge the Priest, and not the Priest the Prince; and so in the practise of all times, and in all places, vntill that CHARLES the Great,Charles the Great father of the Popes ambition. breathed the spirit of Ambition where it is, and where it hath for many yeares disturbed the peace of Christendome: yet with such euidence was this error laid open, to the vniuersall eye of the world, by the diligence of Martin Lu­ther and others,Luther. as the Pope could not but vnderstand it: yet against the witnesse of his owne conscience,Areason of the Popes ob­stinacie. did he still stifly defend it, and this was a pollitique regard, least the world vnderstanding him to faile in a mat­ter [Page 101] so important, might thereupon call in question the truth of that opinion, (which in truth) is the state and strength of that Re­ligion.A principall of Papistrie. That in precept and doctrine the Pope can­not erre, if then he had yeelded to haue er­red in this, he denied the truth of his foun­dation, without which his greatnesse cannot stand.

Eleuenthly,The fashion of antient Heretickes. And therefore (after the fa­shion of antient heretickes) he would not yeeld to the perswasion of truth, because he would not haue his iudgement contradi­cted, and shamed (by recantation to ac­knowledge himselfe to haue done amisse:) And this is onely the pride and Stomacke of the too much authority of these Bishops,The pride of the Pope. that respect greatnesse more then goodnes, the world more then God, falshood than truth, desiring darkenesse to obscure the ma­nie deformities, wherewith they haue defa­ced the name of Christian Religion.

Twelfthly,To know how to distinguish good and euil by their ends By this wee may learne to di­stinguish the good and euill, the holy and prophane by their end, whereto they princi­pally aspire; for good men make goodnesse [Page 102] their onely end whereto they reach, but euil men make it onely their pretence, and like the Lapwing, flie most where there Nest is not, and such hath bene the care of the Ro­mane Church,The Pope in­tituleth him­selfe the ser­uant of Gods seruants but insulteth ouer Empe­rors. intituling their Bishops, ser­uants of Gods seruants, yet arrogate princi­pallity ouer the highest of Gods Creatures; They professe humility and Christian obe­dience, but practise a tyrannie vnsupporta­ble. They call Christian Princes their belo­ued sonnes, but make them slaues, and ser­uants to their vngodly wills. And from them hath the world learned dissimulation & cun­ning practise;Dissimulati­on commonly in. for wee see that many men forme themselues very precisely, in the habit of all Christian duties outwardly to gaine a reputation, and the honour of high place, which (when they haue obtained) they cast off that face of holines, and discouer them­selues in their true inuentions, such was (and still is) the practise of Popes, The Popes greatnesse like Nebu­chadnezzars Tree couered the whole Earth. who by the formes of holinesse, haue got a reputation in the world, which at length came to the growth, that it became like Nabuchadnezzars Tree, to couer the whole earth, and to spread [Page 103] it ouer all principality; & then in the height of that prosperity,When great dissemblers dare discouer themselues. they cast off their vizard, and discouer themselues to be but Pope, and not Pastors, casting from them the Word, that they may with more dexterity vse the sword, with which (like Theeues) they Rob Christian Princes of that Regality, which God gaue them.

13. And therefore King Henries procee­dings were very considerable,The Kings proceedings very impor­tant. whereof it be­houed the Pope to be verie regardfull, as did threaten the ruine of that frame, which the pride and pollicie of his predecessors had erected: & the rather because the king began at the top of his dignities,The Kings orderly pro­ceeding. to throw downe his Supremacie, which had ouertopped the most soueraigne of al Christian power what­soeuer. And herein the King may seeme to vnderstand well what he had to doe, for by striking the roote he was sure to perish the branches;The bodie of Popery must needs fall when Supre­macie the head was cut off. and the best way to ruine a house, is to vndermine the foundation, & in Warre the victory is sure, when the enemie hath lost that power wherein his chiefe strength consisted: and so the body of Popery must [...]

[Page 106] 17. For these respects the Christian world stood mute at the Kings businesse,The Christi­an Princes stood mute at the Kings businesse. no man daring to set to his helping hand, so much danger their iudgements could see in at­tempting it, as that all could bee content to be spectators, but no actor like King Henry, euery man hauing earnest expectation, what would be the issue of so strange and hazer­dous an enterprize.

18. It is also very considerable,The French had at this time aduan­tage of the English by reason of the Pope. that the French King had at this time aduantage offered him, against the King of England. The King being now in the heate of so great a businesse, deuided from his confederate the Pope, vnassisted by any forraigne state, and in the danger of domesticke troubles, whereby he was vnfurnished of a great part of his former strength: And considering al­so the honour the Kings of England had got, by the conquest of France, & the strong emulation of those two Neighbour Nati­ons;England and France en­uious of one anothers glo­ri [...]. being both of them enuious of one a­nothers reputation, and greatnesse: the En­glish being euer fortunate in those French quarrells, and the French most desirous to [Page 107] suppresse the growing reputation of the En­glish. And therefore it may seeme, at this time was offered an occasion to the French, to recouer their reputation in Armes, and to repossesse those places, which the English then held in France; yet for all these occa­sions, so fortunate was the King and his people,The King fortunate. as no mis-fortune at that time did disaduantage our Nation. God protecting it against the euill, and beyond the expecta­tion of all men.

19. And lastly, the King sending his Em­bassadours to all Christian Princes,The Kings care to satis­fie the Prin­ces of Chri­stendome. to giue them satisfaction; for that he had done, was a care very Princely and Christian, for by this he preuented, the many slanderous con­structions that otherwise would haue censu­red him; he himselfe by his Embassadours, declaring the true purpose of his enterprize.The reason thereof. And this was a demonstration, that the king reputed such whom he desired to satisfie as his kingly Brethren, and that all of them be­ing powers, immediately vnder God, in their owne Christian Kingdomes, it was rea­son he should giue them a Christian satisfa­ction, [Page 108] that he proceeded not in these diff­rences, without the perswasion of Learned, and Religious iudgement,A pollitique discretion. neither was it euill order in the King to haue first effected what he ment, and then to satisfie opinion. For if hee had sent for their aduise before hee had attempted it, he had then lost the honour of the enterprise, and had either tied himselfe to the pleasures of other men, or else haue opposed against them all, the first had bene dishonorable; the other very dangerous.

In what State King Henrie left his Kingdomes to the next Defendor of the Faith, King Ed­ward the Sixth.

FIRST, it may seeme strange to him that shall reade this Hi­storie, to consider the state of Religion, in this last time of King Henries Reigne: Religion lying then as it were in equall ballance, inclinable to be sweighed, according as shall please the next succeding Prince to fauour it. For as yet Re­ligion was not reformed, but onely a prepa­ration made for reformation;Religion at this time but in reforming the King ha­uing taken from the Pope his Supremacie, and his vniuersall authority, but not the number of his idle ceremonies, insomuch as [Page 110] the Pope may be said to haue his head then broken,The Pope had his head broken. in loosing his authority, but his taile yet vnperisht, reteining still the number of his fabulous obseruances. And if I were de­manded what was the Religion then pro­fest in England, I could not giue it name, be­ing no better then a Farrago, or a Religion compounded of many diuers; the State be­ing yet vnsetled, and but mouing to a re­formation, for both that of the Papist and this of the Protestant indured like extre­mities.

Secondly, And the reason was, because the lawes then in force, were occasioned by men diuers in opinion,Diuers law­makers, di­uers lawes. yet neere in the greatnesse of place, either part persecuting or prosecuting according to their seuerall affections. So that men zealous in any pro­fession of Religion, were in danger of Law, and such (onely) secure that made their conscience yeeld to generall practise, and opinion, whereby the best and most conscionable, had least fauour in the iudge­ment of those lawes,The euill gouernement of the state at this time. & whereby the Com­mon-Wealth did often lose her most vsefull [Page 111] members, to the detriment of State, and a­gainst all aduice both of pollicie and pietie.

Thirdly, For that the King was of himselfe otherwise inclined,The King himselfe o­therwise in­clined. may appeare both by the testimonie of them, neere his person, as also by the witnesse of his owne words, as in particuler to Bruno, Embassadour from Iohn Fredericke Duke of Saxonie, D. of Saxony to whom implo­ring his aide against the Emperour; hee an­swered, that if the quarrell betweene him, and the Emperor,Master Fox Act. and Mon. pag. 1478. were onely for Religion, he should then stand to it stoutly, and hee would in that quarrell take his part.

Fourthly, It may appeare also by the kings dislike of such men as had withheld his for­wardnesse to reforme,The Kings dislike of Gardiner as in speciall Stephen Gardiner, whom the king now found to con­triue against him, and to haue haled him on to those ends he most disliked. And ther­fore the King (before his death) did with­draw his fauour from him. And howsoe­uer he forgaue him the forfeit of his life, yet did hee for euer after discountenance him, causing his name to bee rased out of the number of Executors, to whose trust hee had [Page 112] commend the execution of his last will.The repen­tance & sor­row the King made for the Lord Crom­well, Be­sides the repentance and sorrow, the King made for the Lord Cromwells death, whom he had found so faithfull and fit for this bu­sinesse as neuer any Prince was better furni­shed: the King finding the want of so choice an instrument, would often (in griefe of words) say, hee wanted his Cromwell in so needfull a businesse as he had vndertaken.

Fifthly, And therefore assuredly the king had good affection to reforme the enormi­ous abuses of the Church,The Kings affection. and to haue pur­ged it from all Idolatrous seruice. But God reseruing that for the honour of Prince Ed­ward, the next Defendor, accepted of the Kings good purpose. And that God who gaue him will to desire well, and his sonne the honour to finish well, gaue them both (we trust) his grace to die well, & to breath their soules into his hands of mercie. And in these tearmes did the king leaue the state to the next Defendor his Princely Sonne,How the K. left the state. a state full of storme and great businesse, ha­uing entred so farre into an honourable passage, as that the Prince, who was to inhe­rit [Page 113] his Fathers cares, could not in the termes of honour but second the most honourable attempt of his Father.

Sixthly,Whether the King defen­ded the faith or not. It may bee demanded now whe­ther King Henrie (according to his new stile) did defend the Catholike Faith or not, and in what particulars he best defended it. For it may be obiected,Obiection. that the King not hauing reformed Religion, but only in some few par­ticulars hath not merited the honour of his stile, because the Catholike Faith was not so defended in his time, and in his kingdome, but it indured much affliction. To this I an­swer, that howsoeuer the king did faile in the maine execution of his office, yet cōsidering the greatnes of his attempt, he hath wel de­serued euerlasting memorie, & to be recor­ded the first Christian king Defendor of the Faith, The King the first Christian King Defen­dor of the Faith. & the first that with honour & victory, dated to oppose himself against the spiritual power of the Popes, & if we consider the dan­ger of his attempt, we shall finde it an act of great spirit & consequence, and such as may worthily compare with the deeds of antient Romanes, which were of most admiration and wonder.

[Page 114] Seuenthly,The King defended the Faith in two particulars. And in these two particulars hath he principally defended the Catholike Faith. First, in taking from the enemie of Faith, authority and greatnes (by the act of Supremacie) for this (as I haue said) was the first step to the Popes downefall; and there­fore by disinabling the enemie of Faith hee did wel defend it. Secondly, in dissoluing the wicked assemblies of euill men professing re­ligion, the Fryers & Monkes, he therein per­formed the dutie of his Christian office, be­cause these men did not onely by their euill life, disgrace the Christian profession, but like drones idle themselues, yet prodigally spending the fatte of other mens labours: a double inconuenience to a Christian state.A double in­conuenience to a Christi­an state. First, in maintaining such numbers of vnpro­fitable men. Secondly, in the euill wasting of that which might wel haue serued, the ne­cessities of many profitable vses.

Eigthly, And therefore though king Henrie went forward in this holy busines but slowly, yet laid he the passage open for his son,The King made way for his Sonne. and disarmed the enemie of his greatest strength whereby the next Defendor K. Edward might [Page 115] the better take from this Thiefe the spoyles of Christian Princes, wherewith he had made himselfe appeare most glorious.King Ed­ward finished what his Fa­ther had at­tempted. And so did that princely Edward, to the glory of his God, and the perpetuall honor of his prince­ly name.

Ninthly,A compari­son betweene King Henry and King Edward. Now if I should compare these two Defendors, the Father K. Henrie, and the Son K. Edward together, and determine, whe­ther of them hath better merited, the ho­nour of their new stile, I shall rather giue the palme to K. Edward, To finish a good is more then to begin it. because to finish a good, is more & more deseruing then to begin it. For though king Henrie did deserue well in acting his princely part of great Maiesty, yet did king Edward deserue better, continuing the Sceane to the last period, euer acting one and the same part, and not diuers as did king Henrie his Father.

Tenthly,In respect of greatnes K. Henry was more excel­lent, in re­spect of good­nesse King Edward. Againe, if wee respect greatnesse in their actions, the Father hath the greater preheminence; but if goodnes, the son hath the greater; the Father exceeding his Son, in respect of Maiesty, and bold attempting; but the Son his Father, in zealous prosecuting a [Page 116] holy cause begun. So that betweene these two, the Father and the Son, was shared both greatnes & goodnes; both of them hauing, both these in reasonable proportion, and ei­ther exceeding other in his particular. King Henry the Father he taketh from the Pope the Idol of false religion,King Henry did wound Idolatry, but King Ed­ward de­stroyed it. authority & wealth, by denying his Supremacie, and by suppressing of Monasteries, these being his two legges, whereupon he did support the body of his greatnes. The Pope wanting these supporters (Idol-like) falls to the ground where the king there leaueth him. But king Edward with better zeale entring Gods House, and fin­ding this Idol bodie, and idle body in the Church of England, casteth out that body from the Church, which his Father left woun­ded in the Church, cleansing the holy San­ctuary, which by false seruice had bene long prophaned▪ This holy Edward (in respect of his youth and great place) admirable for his wisedome & holy life. And therfore did king Henry deserue well, and somewhat defended the Catholike Faith. But king Edward deserued better and defended it best.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. It is no note of the Catholike Church, neither of piety, to inflict ad­uersity, disgrace, and death: but of the contrarie, For God doth giue to his owne these little demonstrations, to remember them his iudgements, and to make them the better relish eternall felicities.

Secondly, God in the worke of his iudge­ments, doth indifferently vse the seruice of good and badd instruments, but in his mer­cies he doth euer imploy his best: for Mer­cie is his most excellent attribute, and doth reioyce against Iudgement.

Thirdly,Pollitique. It hath bene the most generall and the most Pollitique practise of our times, to disioyne a Prince, from his power, and by Faction to make a Fraction in his state, for a faction doth euer destroy one parte, if not both.

Fourthly, It is a Court error, and (almost) [Page 118] common in all States, that men with gene­rall acclamation, applaude both the loue and hatred of the Prince, wheresoeuer hee shall place them; but a wise Prince will sus­pect all such assentations, because they in­tend but to please, and not to profit.

Fifthly,Morall. He that would continue himselfe in generall estimation must bee both actiue and passiue. For he that can suffer well is a­ble to confound Enuie.

Sixthly, The same degrees of vertue are not giuen to all men alike, but to all men there is giuen a possibility of hauing ver­tues in some degree, because to euery man is giuen an vnderstanding soule, which may apprehend it.

A Comparison betweene King Henrie the Eighth of England, and Frederick (sirnamed Barbarossa) Emperour of Germanie.

FIRST, these two mighty Prin­ces, King Henry of England and the Emperour Frederick Barba­rossa, The King & the Emperor famous for their bold Attempts. were most notable in these last Ages, for the greatnesse of their Spirits, and for the boldnesse of their attempting, both of them attempting one fortune, but with great difference of succesfull fortune; and both of them attempting with such re­solute stoutnesse, as that in themselues they are of neere comparison, though in their fortunes they were not comparable. The [Page 120] Emperour hee attempts against Pope Alexan­der, The Empe­rour against Pope Alex­ander, the King against Pope [...]lemēt They both quarrell the Pope for So­ueraigntie. The King against Pope Clement, in this they conspire, but the Emperour failed in his enterprize, wherein the King got the gar­land, and triumphed, and in this they agree not. The Emperour he quarrells the Pope for Soueraignety, and because he thought it in­dignity and dishonour, to this imperiall place, to be crowned and confirmed by the Popes allowance. King Henry his quarrel was for Supremacie, thinking it dishonour to his kingly dignity, to be second to any man in his own dominions, and in this they ve­ry neerely consent.

Secondly,The King intended re­formation, the Empe­rour did not. Againe, the King he intends a further care then this businesse of State, the reformation of Christian Religion, the which he found to be much corrupted. The Emperour had not this good intention, but trauells principally to reobtaine the Soue­raigne liberty of his place, which by the power of the Popes was taken from him, and in this they agree not.The Empe­rour more forward least fortunate. Againe, the Emperour neuer fainted in himselfe▪ but continued his princely courage to the last, though the dis­aduantage [Page 121] aduantage of fortune, made him faile in his great attempting, and though most basely he did humble himselfe at the Pope his ene­mies feete, yet was he forced to this by ex­tremities, & not by any deiection or weake­nesse of his former haughty spirit. But the King though he had the Conquest, and preuailed against the Pope in all hee vnder­tooke, yet fainted he in the hope of his grea­test businesse, not reforming Religion but in parte, which he might haue done at his own pleasure, being prouoked thereto by the perswasion of prosperous fortune.The Kings weakenesse was the weakenesse of Nature not of Courage. But this failing in the King, was not caused by the weakenesse of his courage, but by the weake­nesse of his Nature being easily ruled by the perswasion of his neere fauourites, and ther­fore in this they were vnequall.

Thirdly,The two Popes their enemies neerely agree In respect of the Popes their ene­mies, they were both alike handled, both of them being by both their enemies interdict and deposed from their gouernements, but yet with vnequall successe. For Pope Alexan­der, did curse more effectually and to better purpose then Pope Clement. The Emperour [Page 122] being constrained by his interdictions,They both curse, but with vne­quall suc­cesse. and bannings to surcease his forward Armes, and with great humility to reconcile and submit himselfe. But King Henries Pope was not so happie in his curses, For hee did banne, and curse the King, as much as any other Pope in the world could doe, yet was it fruitlesse, and to no purpose; the King not thriuing worse but the better,These ban­ning Pope [...] like Shemei and Balam. for this bitter banning Shemei, who like Balam the banning Prophet, offer sacrifice to curse with holy pretence, and for good prosperity.

Fourthly,The Princes agree not in their ends. Lastly in their ends, were they most vnlike, for the Emperour was continu­ally followed with euil fortune, being forced many times to many great extremities,The Empe­rors bad for­tunes. and many dishonourable fallings. First, was hee disarmed by the power of the Popes Cen­sure, his owne people forsaking him in his best hope, and in a time of most importance, then was hee constrained by ineuitable ne­cessity, to submit himselfe to the Pope, and to implore his fauour, and either to receiue the Crowne and the dignity of his place, at the curtesie of his enemie, or else to bee de­priued [Page 123] of all soueraigne State.The indigni­ties where­with the Pope did vse the Emperor. Againe, the indignities wherewith the Pope did vse the Emperor, to whom when the Emperour made his humble submission, the Pope in scorne of his debased Maiesty, set his foot on the Emperours neck, with his misapply­ed phrase of Scripture.The Popes insulting pride. Super Aspidem, &c. the which how grieuous it must needs bee to a person of such Maiesty and spirit; let any man that hath spirit iudge it.The Empe­rors end vn­fortunate. Lastly, his end was vnfortunate, the naturall course of his life being preuented by violent and sudden death.The King very fortu­nate. But the Kings fortunes were for the most part prosperous, and much vnequall to the Emperor; for he did not only shunne these dangerous fortunes, but most braue­ly acquitted himself of all dishonourable re­tiring; finishing whatsoeuer hee attempted, with such ease and prosperity, as if no resi­stance had bene made against him.In respect of themselues the two Princes were equalls, in respect of their for­tunes they disagree. In res­pect then of themselues, and of their noble and haughty spirits, were these Princes of most equall and fit comparison, in respect also of their attempts they did both conspire one; But in their fortunes they were much [Page 124] disagreeing. The King finishing that with victory and successe, wherein the Emperour euer failed. And yet this praise may be gi­uen the Emperour,The Empe­rours praise. that if the Kings fortunes had bene giuen him, it is most certaine hee would haue vsed them to greater aduan­tage; the king being satisfied with that title which could not haue satisfied the great am­bition of the Emperour.



FIRST, there is nothing good, that is not deriued from God,God the foū ­taine of good­nesse. the fountaine of all goodnesse, for man and all the passage of his life, from his birth to his buriall is altogether euill, so generally is de­prauednesse, spread ouer all the sonnes of Nature,All men na­turally euill. that there was neuer any (Iesus Christ excepted) from the first man Adam, to him that shall be the last borne, free from the infection of sinne, so generally is that le­prosie [Page 126] spread ouer all mankinde, as that no part of the body, or any faculty of the soule is altogether free from the euil thereof, eue­ry man being by nature inclinable to euery sinne, no man hauing power to doe well, for grace is the gift of God,Grace the gift of God. neither can any man attaine it, but he to whom it shall please God to giue it. And therefore, when God hath a work of grace to be wrought by men, he giueth to such whom he shall choose for instruments, so much of his good spirit, as to inable them for his holy purpose; So that,God decreeth the good and deuiseth the meanes. God both decreeth the good, and deui­seth the meanes to compasse it. Man being passiue, and moued to goodnesse as shall please the spirit of God to leade him. And therefore the glorie of euery good action belongeth to God onely, by whose spirit it is onely wrought and not otherwise.

Secondly, And for particular instance of this,K. Edward. wee haue King Edward; to consider, a Prince composed all of goodnesse, hauing extraordinarie induments of holinesse, so abundant was Gods grace in this Prince,K. Edward fit to finish the worke of Reformation as thereby he was well fitted to finish the worke [Page 127] of Reformation, yet wee may not giue the honour of the businesse to the King, but to God, who inspired him with this abundance of grace. And thus farre onely wee honor the King as Gods instrument, whereby it did please him to worke; and that we admire the gifts of Gods spirit in him, whereby hee was made to exceede all other Princes then liuing: hauing receiued from God the sword of the spirit, and the Shield of Faith, whereby hee was well able to defend the Catholike Faith; and to retorte all the fierie darts of the Diuell. And therefore the grea­test glory be to God,God had the greatest part in this busi­nesse. who hath the greatest part in this businesse; and let the King haue honour too, whom God did please to ho­nour as his choice instrument.

Thirdly, Such was this most noble Prince, and princely Defendor King Edward, as the King his Father may be said to haue defen­ded the Catholike Faith in nothing more, then in leauing the succession of his cares, to such a sonne, such a Prince, and such a De­fendor: who (notwithstanding his youth and the many combrances of State at that [Page 128] time,) went forward in reforming with such spirit, and successe, as was admirable; his zeale effecting, that his Fathers coldnesse had left vndone.The King beloued of God. So that God may seeme to haue loued him as he did Moses, giuing so much of his spirit, as sufficiently would suf­fice many others.The King the best of all Christian Princes then liuing. For let him be compared with all other Princes in the world then li­uing, and he shall bee found in true iudge­ment to exceed them all; hauing dedicate himselfe (wholly) to the faithfull executing of Gods will, manifesting his holy affecti­ons, by his continuall cares to that end di­rected.The Nation happie in K. Edward to defend the Faith. And therefore happie was K. Henrie, and happie was this Nation, in hauing this Sonne of Grace to second him, and to per­fect his religious cares whom God had found like holy Dauid, answerable to his owne heart; whose honourable name liueth with those names of most honour; whose faithfull seruice to God and Religion, doth now flourish in many parts of Christēdome; and whose soule liues in the fauour of God, and in the happie fellowship of holy Angels and Saints.

[Page 129] Fourthly, This most gratious and excel­lent Prince, as he was deriued the Defendor of the Faith, and did by naturall discent in­herit his fathers titles: so as his neerest and principall care, did he entertaine the cause, and like as he was Gods Lieftenant, hee did maintaine those spirituall warres his Father had vndertaken; and did proceed with such spirit and successe, as all those quarrells haue, that haue Christ Iesus for their generall, and Antichrist for an enemie: so diuine was the heauenly composition of his Nature, and so well ordered was his education, as if both heauen and earth had desire to make him excellent, and to make his Character an exact demonstration, able to instruct the most excellent Christian Prince, how to mode­rate betweene the power of Maiesty, and the dutie of conscience. For if State would iudge his Zeale, and Religion his State, he shall be found to deserue this high praise I giue him, and both Religion and State would iudge him to be worthie and fit to gouerne a Religious State.

Fifthly This happie Prince (in the little [Page 130] time of his gouernement) gaue a large testi­monie of his worth,The praise of King Ed­ward. and did both exceed the expectation was had of him, and inlarge their expectations that did hope well, who though he was but young when hee entred his gouernement, yet at his very entrance did he better the State, labouring (with ad­mirable care and constance) in the better reforming of Religion, and for the safe pro­tection of the Catholike Faith, which Truth, (God willing) in the processe of this Histo­rie shall appeare most euident.

Sixthly, And most Gratious Prince, to whom I write and dedicate these labours, let me (with reuerence and exception of your Grace) report my opinion, that this Nation neuer had such a Salomon, who in so poore a number of yeares, had a like mea­sure of those his rich treasures of Zeale, VVisedome, Loue, and State.

Of the benefit that redounds to a State by a lawfull successi­on of blood.

FIRST, the benefit that re­dounds to a State by a lawfull succession of blood, may ap­peare by the misery of many kingdomes and great states,The miserie of manie kingdomes. the which (for want of succession) haue indured the greatest extremities that could bee; the examples whereof are very common in the stories both of Christian & heathen kings. There­fore I will onely produce one of the old world,Alexander of Macedon. the mighty Alexander, whose for­tunes in the conquest of warre, made the world tremble at his awfull name, hauing subdued the greatest and best part of the earth, yet leauing the conquest of his sword [Page 132] to his friends diuided,Alexander leauing his Empire to his friend di­uided, did sooner perish. and not to his owne succeeding blood entire & wholy; the Em­pire hee had got and thus left, could not stand, being not vnited in one soueraigne successor, but deuided into parts; whereof insued emulation and enuie, and at the last vtter desolation; which happily had not bene, if Alexander had had a Sonne Alexan­der to haue succeeded in his Empire.

Secondly, An example neerer vs, both in respect of time and place, is the Kingdome of France, The king­domes of France. our Neighbour Nation. A king­dome that hath indured the greatest extre­mities, the misery of Warre could lay vpon it; and this was onely occasioned by want of succession in blood: the French King then not hauing Issue Male to succeed him in his Empire, gaue occasion that the king of En­gland Edward the Third,Edward the Third. made claime to the kingdome of France, in the right of his Mo­ther,The title of England to the crowne of France. being suruiuing heire to Phillip sirna­med the Fayre, to whom (by the most all­owable Law) the Right must needs discend; which the French vtterly withstand by rea­son of the salique Law, which dis-inableth [Page 133] women in such inheritance: yet hence hath proceeded the greatest alteration in that state that euer was, the kings of England,Frāce much vexed with English warres. by many notable attempts and victories, defa­cing the beautie of that famous kingdome, which (for largenesse of Empire, and all o­ther earthly blessings) may bee said to bee the most soueraigne of all Christendome. And therefore the spoyle of such a king­dome is very lamentable, and the cause of that spoyle much to be condemned: yea so great is the misery of that euill cause to that kingdome, as that they still stand in the ha­zard of good or euill fortune,France still in the ha­zard of En­glish warres. expecting a dangerous warre, whensoeuer the Maiesty of any English King shall please to make claime to that kingdome, which both by succession and conquest is his owne.

Thirdly, Within our selues also we haue notable examples of the misery of state,English ex­amples. when lawfull succession doth either faile, or is (by intrusion) interrupted. For vpon this foundation was builded that most famous quarrell, betweene the two hou­ses of Yorke and Lancaster, Yorke and Lancaster. a difference [Page 134] that made England to bleede in euery vaine, neither could it euer be compounded, vntill the succession of both those lines met in one particular, whereby the Canons did know one vndoubted successor without competi­tor, to whose seruice they might addresse themselues, whereas before they were diui­ded into parts; some adhering to this, others to that, as authority and loue could moue them, whereby they broake their vnity to make a fraction; and the truth of successionThe cause of the E [...]glish ciuill warres was the in­terrupting of lawfull Suc­cession. being doubtfully vnderstood, was the cause that men were more easily drawne (by per­swasion) to the bloody enterprize of Warre, which happily had not bene (or at the least) not so violent, if the right of inheritance had not bene interrupted by intrusion.

Fourthly, But that most Worthie of note, is the late time of Queene Elizabeths Queene Eli­zabeth. Reigne, a Ladie worthy of best memorie; who being vnmarried, made her Subiects haue doubt­full expectation, who should succeed her; the which then was most dangerous,The danger that was fea­red by her want of Issue when the Queene was past the hope of hauing naturall issue. And this did not onely breede a Ielou­sie [Page 135] in the heads of her owne people; but al­so gaue occasion, that forraigne Princes had regardfull eye to the vncertaine conditions of those times; and among them, such espe­cially as did most enuie the prosperity of our Nation. For they might then hopefully be­leeue,The danger of the State. that the Queene leauing the State in these vncertainties, and (as they thought) to many Competitors; it could not be, but needs the glorie thereof would ruine, by ci­uill discord, and part-taking, and that then would a time bee offered them, to reuenge and in rich themselues. And how soeuer God hath preuentedGods preuen­tion. the euill which was (worthi­ly) feared, yet certainely euen then was the danger great, and the euill hopes of our ene­mies vpon likely-hood conceiued; neither is there any that hath vnderstanding in the affaires of State, but will acknowledge the euēt of these times, did exceed the expecta­tionThe euent did exceed expectation. that all men had of them, and that the Kings Maiesties comming in (that last was,) was a worke of Gods speciall prouidence, whereby he did direct those iudgements, the which at this time did very much threaten our Nation.

[Page 136] Fifthly, By those examples may bee vn­derstood the danger that redounds to a state, when succession doth either faile, or is (by intrusion) interrupted, the euill experience whereof is not onely to be found in the alte­ration of states, but also in the subuersion of priuate houses.The subuer­sion of great houses. For a Son is neerer in dispo­sition and consent of Nature, then one fur­ther off in the degrees of blood; and for state, such are most fit to succeed in gouernement that are the seede of Gouernours;The Sonnes of gouernors are best fitted for gouerne­ment. Nature traducing to them, the Maiesty and iudge­ments of their Progenitors: and for the fa­uour of the people; that Prince or heire ap­parant hath it most assured, whose interest is beleeued before he inherit; because that breeds a generall regard in the hearts of all men, and preuenteth the mischiefe which otherwise might happen by conspirators. And in this was our English Nation most happie, in hauing this Princely Sonne King Edward, King Ed­ward did ex­ceed and suc­ceed his Fa­ther. not onely to succeed his Father in the rule of his kingdome, but also to exceed him much in Religion and holy life.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. Procreation and to deriue po­sterity, is one cause in the ordinance of Marriage; for therefore hath God pla­ced that desire in our Flesh so pronely, be­cause the generations of our kinde should not faile, but he continued both in number and quallitie to maintaine the Truths of Gods Decree.

Secondly, None can deriue any thing from their Parent, but what their Parents haue Naturally. Therefore is there often much difference in the quallities of Father, and Sonne; because our Parents giue vs our Nature as it is, but God as hee will please to haue it.

Thirdly,Pollitique. It was euer hazardous, and will be to the prosperity and saftie of the State, when the Prince is childlesse, or doth want one certaine, knowne, vndoubted heyre, be­cause when there is not a certainty of lawful [Page 138] Succession, there is iust occasion to feare vn­lawfull intrusion.

Fourthly, Men generally are better con­tent to giue the respects due to soueraigntie, to a Prince deriued, and home borne, than to one that doth attaine soueraignty either by suffrage or conquest, because though there be a necessity of duty in both yet the one is voluntary, the other violent.

Fifthly,Morall. Some Philosophers haue thought it better to adopt children than beget them, because it is in our power to chuse the vertu­ous, but not to forget them.

Sixthly, It hath bene thought a shame to die childlesse, because he that hath one lea­ueth a part of himself, or at least the Image of all.

Of King Edwards defending the Catholike Faith, and wherein hee chiefly defended it.

FIRST, it is not possible I should relate at full the worthinesse of this Sonne of Grace, and prin­cely Defendor King Edward; he deseruing by much, a more honorable re­memberance, then the tract of this Historie can giue. So large is he in his goodnesse, as therin he hath done more then many his predecessors, and hath best deserued euer­lasting memorie,The Kings praise. and to haue his name liue in the Ranke of the best Christian Princes that euer were, so rare were the gifts of God in him, that hee seemed to aspire no other end but holinesse,His mercy to his enemies. and so modest in his zeale, [Page 140] as no marke of violence could euer bee dis­cerned in him; abhorring the effusion of all blood, euen of that of his enemies, insomuch that I may report (with confidence) that in his royall person, mercie & truth were met, and that righteousnesse and peace did kisse each other: and to conclude his praise, I be­lieue him to haue deserued a greater com­mendation then this I giue him.

Secondly,The particu­lar of his de­serts. And to consider the particu­lars whereby the King hath principally de­serued his new Stile of Defendor of the Faith: First he no sooner had authority, but he applied it to this holy end; beginning this care with his Empire, and with the inheri­tance of his kingdome,The King did inherit his kingdome and h [...] care for Religion together. tooke vpon him the protection of Faith, and holy worship as if he regarded not his kingly office, but one­ly to bee the better able to serue these hea­uenly occasions whereto in his resolution he was onely deuoted.

Thirdly, And therfore at his first entrance,His first care. into his soueraignty did he publish himselfe to the world; and declared what men should expect from him, and how he was in the case [Page 141] of Religion affected: whereupon hee made protestation to defend, what the King his Father had done,He secondeth his Fathers attempt. in degrading the Pope from his Supremacie, and in scattering the wicked fraternities of Fryers and Religious men & women, falsly professing Religion: in which two particulars onely, K. Henrie may seeme to haue defended the Catholike Faith. And therefore in giuing allowance to his Fathers act, he hath well merited to share in the ho­nour of the deede; and this his approuing what was wel done, may be said to be his first good deed; and therefore doe I ranke it for the first holy act of King Edward, whereby he hath deserued to bee stiled Defendor of the most Catholike Faith. His first act of defence to the Faith.

Fourthly, This honourable beginning of King Edward, was not interrupted by euill meanes, as was that of King Henrie his Fa­ther,King Ed­ward was not temp­ted, as was King Henry by euill coun­sell. neither did he retire himselfe from the pursuite of an enterprize so honourable, but with a holy resolution went on, in the trauell of so needfull a businesse, resoluing with a Christian purpose to finish what his Father had so hopefully begunne;His holy zeale for re­formation. so strong [Page 142] was he in his desire to reforme Religion, as that all his other indeauours were but ser­uants to that only end directed, wherein he vsed such endeauour, as was very admirable in his yeares, and might well witnesse how much he was in the fauour of God, who gaue him such rare induments in so plentifull a manner; whereby hee was extraordinarily fitted for the office of his great place,The King well fitted for this busi­nesse. and for the defence of the Catholike Faith, whereof he was made a patron.

Fifthly, And this defence the king vnder­tooke not as a practise of state, whereby to inlarge his particular in any earthly regard, but hee was led thereto onely by his zeale,The King not moued by any re­spect. and the perswasion of his conscience, who finding by that iudgement God had giuen him, how much the face of Religion was be­come deformed, by superstition and grosse seruice; and being moued by the Spirit of God to vndertake a reformation, would not by disobedience resist that power, that both made him and did mooue him to that pur­pose: And therefore with the best spirit of a Christian Prince, he did not onely second [Page 143] his Fathers honourable attempting, but far outstript him in that most honourable course of Reformation; his whole life being no other then the practise of his holy care, regarding nothing that did not regard the aduancement thereof, and gladly giuing his assent to whatsoeuer might further it.

Sixthly, But that wherein he hath princi­pally defended the Catholike Faith,Wherein K. Edward principally defended the Faith. and ex­ceeded all other Princes in his holy care, was the vtter extirping of Papacie from his do­minions;Popery vt­terly extir­ped by the King. denying the warrant of his autho­rity for the publike exercise thereof; exchan­ging falshood for Truth, and confusion for Order, reformed Religion, which (by long custome, and euill practise) was deformed. And this he did with such orderly assent in Parliament,The consent of Parlia­ment. they establishing what the kings Prerogatiue had commanded; the King and the State ioyntly agreeing vpon an vni­forme order of common prayer,An vniforme order of com­mon prayer appointed by the King. inioyning al obedient Subiects to the exercise thereof, and denouncing such for disobedient and rebellious, as should dare to vse the forbid­den Ceremonies of Poperie, or any other [Page 144] forme diuers, from that which had authority from the King and Parliament: the king and the State well vnderstanding, that the verity of Religion,Verity could not stand without vni­tie. could not better be continued, than by vniformity and order.

Seuenthly, And this is that which deser­uedly hath made the king worthie of ho­nourable name, and most worthie of all o­thers to be stiled Defendor of the most Ca­tholike Faith, neuer any Prince before him, hauing done more, & with greater zeale for Religion, then this very act king Edward did: being in this comparable with Iosias Iosias of Iu­da. the good king of the Iewes, who with all industry did trauell in Gods businesse, destroying the groaues, and high places, where the Idols had that diuine worship, which (of dutie) is onely belonging to God. And such were those phantasticall Ceremonies then vsed,The ceremo­nies of Pope­rie like the rites of the Heathen Priests. more like the exercise of Heathen than of Christian Priests, and such was the kings care to reforme and rectefie, as may well e­quall that of king Iosias, and worthily exceed all his predecessors, the kings of England be­fore him. To recite the particulars of his ho­nourable [Page 145] merit were a trauell infinite, the passage of his kingly life being nothing but in exercise of goodnesse, the benefit where­of this Nation doth presently enioy, and the renowne thereof spread ouer all Christen­dome, and therefore I will onely remem­ber some particulars of neerest considerati­on, and such, whose remembrance may most dignifie the author and contriuer of them.

Eighthly, In the yeare 1547,Anno 1547. and the first of King Edwards Reigne, the King by act of Parliament, did repeale all former Statutes concerning Religion;The repeale of statutes concerning Religion. by which Statutes the professors of Truth had bene iudged Heretickes, and Heretickes and false Professors approued: among the number of euill Statutes then repealed, was that of the sixe Articles;Sixe Arti­cles. a Statute guilty of the blood of many the dearest Children of God, which like an euill soare spread ouer all the Kingdome, culling out such for the day of slaughter, whom God had ordained to inherit eternal life: the euil furie therof set on fire by the turbulent Spirits of euill men, [Page 146] then in authority such as were Stephen Gar­diner Bishop of Winchester, Bonner Gardiner Bonner. Bishop of London and others who by euill Counsell and pollice, made the latter time of King Henrie, fill our English Chronicles with the stories of blood, and persecution.

Ninthly, And therfore be it famous for the honour of King Edward and most worthie of his holy title,The Kings renowne. that his princely care gaue end to this bloodie euill, and that he for the ho­nour of his God, & for the peace of his saints, hath put out these destroying fires, and blun­ted that edge of persecution,The King put out the fires of perse­cution. which then did Tiranize the space of sixe yeares, by the au­thority of the sixe euill Articles. By this re­peale did King Edward cure the wound his Father had madeThe King did cure the wound his Father made so dangerous in the Church and State of England; reconciling himselfe, and the authority of his place to the fauour of God, which (by these bloodie Articles) his Father had verie much indange­red.

Tenthly, Againe the KingsThe Kings furtherance. holy care did not here end, but yet respected a further be­nefit to the Catholike Faith, neuer satisfying [Page 147] himselfe to haue done well, whilst there was ought left vndone, which either the seruice of his place, & kingly office, or the necessity of the present times required. And therfore when he had cast out the abhominatiō of his Israell, (Popish Idolatrie) and the many errors of that Ceremonious Seruice; hee con­tenteth not himselfe with this good deede, but proceedeth to a higher degree of merit, to the true establishment of the truth of Gods seruice; thinking it vnworthy the ho­nour of his name, to take off from the church the ragges it then wore, and so to leaue it naked, and therefore did he inuest it with orders and ornaments of decencie,The orders of the Church [...]stablish [...]d by the King. fitting the fashion of Christs Spouse (the Church Militant) whereby shee might be distingui­shed from all diuersity whatsoeuer.

Eleuenthly, And by this meanes the Liturgie of the Church was brought into a right square, and proportionable to the Rule of Gods Word, which ought to fashion euerie Christian care, but princi­pally the forme of Religion and holy Ser­uice.

[Page 148] Twelfthly, Moreouer, the commiseration he had of the necessities of men,The King most merci­full and com­passionate. doth de­serue a worthie remembrance, and to bee ranked among those holy cares, that haue made him verie famous. For clemencie and pitifull regard in a person of such Maiesty, is that whereby great men neerest resemble the Nature of God,In mercie men resem­ble God. who is most mighty, yet most mercifull. In which heauenly respect, this good King hath so farre exceeded exam­ple, as that I cannot giue him equall compa­rison, with any earthly creature in those times liuing: who notwithstanding his greatnesse of Maiesty, and high place, would (in his prouident care) discend to the lo­west of his Subiects; to the lame, the poore,His care for poore. and the fatherlesse; and with the eyes of Christian compassion, would he view their necessities, and accordingly prouide for them of his owne accord, not led thereto by the perswasion of any, saue of Gods Spi­rit, which did continually moue him to holy exercise; the witnesse of which his holy care, will euer liue in the thankefull prayers of poore people, who at this day are relieued [Page 149] in Hospitalls, by him erected and giuen.Hospitalls by him erected. And in this respect hath hee well deserued the stile of Defendor of the Catholike Faith, de­fending and prouiding for poore Christians (the Children of Faith) against the powerfull enemie necessity.

13. And these workes of mercie are the best demonstrations we can giue,The workes of mercie the best witnes­ses of holy Faith. that wee are in the Catholike Faith: for he that hath not mercie, hath not faith, they being as vn­separable, as the good Tree and the good fruit. And such was this Noble Prince, and so rare was he in the worke of holinesse, as that worthely and before all others, he hath deserued to be stiled Defendor of the most True,The King deserued his Stile. most Antient, and most Catholike Faith.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. A wicked Prince may effect Re­ligious deeds, but affect them he cannot, because such deeds, in such a one, are not [Page 150] done for themselues, but for the seruice of vnlawfull and wicked ends.

Secondly, In Gods affaires, the Prince his seruant, may neither exceed his Commissi­on in presuming, neither neglect it with coldnesse, but so proportion all his Christian proceedings, that they may receiue allow­ance from the testimonie of God; for as the body of a pollitique State (Subiects) are in all ciuill respects obedient to their temporall Lord. So all Potentates, Powers, and digni­ties haue their superintendent (God) who is their Lord paramont and doth command and iudge them as his vassalls.

Thirdly, Such onely are fit to bee refor­mers of Christian Religion as haue Autho­rity, Truth and Zeale, Authority to doe, Truth to distinguish & Zeale to perseuere: all which had being and life in the person of King Ed­ward.

Fourthly,Pollitique. It was a Christian Pollicie in the King, to establish Religion with vniformity and order, and it is that Pollicie that doth still maintaine the State vnited. For difference, (though it be but in ceremonie) is a most ne­cessarie [Page 151] cause of most vnnecessarie discords.

Fifthly, Such Senators are honourable, that present themselues to causes of generall pro­fit but such are both wise and honourable that can either frame their Prince for such in­tentions, or doe apprehend and forward his good determinations.

Sixthly,Morall. To preuent disgrace and euill, (euen in a morall life) it is necessarie to de­stroy all cause (not onely of euill doing) but of euill suspition. For common reputation is nothing but Opinion which is got and lost, aswell with Ceremonies as with Truth.

The trouble of the State at this time of King Edward how they were occasioned and how com­pounded.

FIRST, it hath euer bene the na­ture of euill men, then to shew themselues most, when goodnes and good men are most eminent and glorious; and the reason is in nature, which maketh all contraries then most pow­erfull when they are in opposition:Contraries iudge one another. for vice is iudged by vertue, falshood by truth, and euerie euill is best made manifest by the op­position of goodnesse. So of the contrarie, e­uerie good thing is made apparāt by the en­uie of euill, which like fire that wasteth his owne substance, to trie the golden mettall; so doth euill Ruine in selfe in enuie and euillNote. [Page 153] practise, not wasting the good, but making it much more glorious to the view of the world. Examples of this are in euery testi­monie of time, and in euerie condition and state in the world, it being onely possible for him to alter this naturall discord, to whom it is possible to destroy the worke of Nature.There must be faction. Neither it is euer to bee hoped, that all men shall con­spire one end, without opposition and strife, till God purge this earth, and alter the con­dition of his creatures. Neither ought we (for this) to condemne the diuine proui­dence,Prouidence. as if God could not otherwise dis­pose Nature, or that he will not preuent this euill, but suffer the cause hee best loueth, of­tentimes to indure most. For howsoeuer in the wisedome of God, are many vnsearcha­ble reasons of his will to vs vnknowne:The reason of this oppo­sition of good and euill. yet for the reason of this opposition of good & euill, humane reason and wisedome may suf­fice to iudge it, because as I haue said gold is not the worse, but the better for his firie try­all, and a good cause is not confounded, but confirmed by the opposition of euill.Goodnesse not confoun­ded but con­firmed by the opposition of euill. And [Page 154] therefore doth God many times suffer euill to preuaile, but neuer to the destruction of good; and to whomsoeuer it shall please God to giue the inheritance of heauen, it is reason he direct vs the way, bee it by danger or by death. For if God leade vs to Heauen by the gates of Hell,The way is good if the end be happy the way is good be­cause the end is happie; for most happie are they who reach life, be the passage neuer so dangerous,Truth. and for euer blessed be Truth, be the opposition of enuie and euill men neuer so malignant.

Secondly, The stories of these times is sufficient witnesse to proue the enuious Na­ture of euill men. For now that God had gi­uen our Nation a Salomon for Wisedome, and a Iosias for his Deuotion, and Zeale; changing our miserie into mirth, our teares into laughter, whose holy care did free holy Martyrs from torture, and cruell persecuti­ons; giuing to all his Subiects liberty in the true seruing of God, which for many yeares they had wanted, and with much blood had bene witnessed; yet notwithstanding this good King, and the goodnesse hee wrought, [Page 155] were there many seditious and euill men,Euill men and euill practise a­gainst the King. who (like the conspiracie of Corath) com­bine themselues in Rebellion and wicked practise against the Lords annointed, and their soueraigne: some pretending Religion which they called their conscience; others other grieuances in the state, according as they could deuise them. Neither wanted there occasions in Scotland to trouble the peace of those times;Scotland. the Scots denying to performe that whereunto (by oath) they were obliged, for they had bound them­selues by oath to King Henrie the Eighth, to performe the marriage betweene King Ed­ward his Sonne,The Mar­riage with Q. Mary of Scotland. and the Ladie Mary of Scot­land, whereby the inheritance of both king­domes, had discended to one interested heyre without competitor;The impor­tance of that Marriage. the importance whereof, how important it was to the English State, may to any iudgement appeare, the not performing, begetting a discontent in both States, and a Ielosie of both their pro­ceedings, and such as could not bee other­wise then with the sword determined, God reseruing the marriage of those two warlike [Page 156] Nations to honour the memorie of King Iames our Soueraigne,King Iames our Soue­raigne. now in whose royall person these two disagreeing kingdomes, are (for euer) vnited: yet not withstanding all these hard occasions, and the Kings mi­noritie, whereby he was lesse able to trauell in those weighty affaires of State, did God still support him, and the prosperity of his kingdomes,The King euer victor. giuing him victorie ouer all that did contriue against him, and power to cha­stice the reuolt and disobedience of such his Subiects, as wickedly did bandie themselues against him their Soueraigne. Neither is it o­therwise to be thought, but this body of the common people,Rebelliō mo­ued by per­swasion and not by any proper motiō. was not moued to Rebelli­on by any proper motion of it owne, but ra­ther led by the instigation of others. For the vulgar is like a body sencelesse, which can­not moue it selfe, yet subiect to bee carried with euery breath of winde, being altoge­ther moued by perswasion and general opi­nion; and then such as did distaste the go­uernement of the State (as those of the Popes faction) being the parties onely discontent with reforming Religion,The Papists. stirres this rebelli­ous [Page 157] bodie with the violence of perswasion, wherein by reason of their common expe­rience they are cunningly fitted,The practise of reb [...]l [...]ious Iesuits and Priests. & where­with (in truth) they conueigh the spirit of enmitie, and ciuill strife into the states of all Christian Princes, whereby that Religion hath got a name of pollicie, but vtterly lost the renowne of pietie, the greatest Professors thereof, being found the greatest practisers in State that be. And by these instigators, were the troubles in the English Nation at that time, (and euer sithence) occasioned, to the glorie and strength of the cause which God hath protected, and to their confusion that thus wickedly conspire.

Thirdly, But these troubles, as they were occasioned by the turbulent spirits of men desiring innouation and change, so were they happily determined by the prouidence of the State:The Duke of Somerset Protector. the Lord Protector the Duke of Somerset, approuing himselfe forward and fortunate in discharge of his high place, to whose trust both the person of the King, and the gouernment of his kingdome were com­mended. And doubtlesse euen in this hath [Page 158] the Duke deserued speciall commendation,His deserts. and to be thought worthy the honour of his high place, considering the danger of the time, and the number of discontented per­sons in the state;The refor­ming of Re­ligion diui­ded the king­dome into a faction. the reforming of Religion diuiding the strength of the kingdome into an enuious faction; whereby the dispossessed (the Papists) vsed all meanes both of power and pollicie, to reobtaine what by reforma­tion of Religion they had lost; and the Pro­testants endeauoring to secure, and continue what (by the fauour of God) they had law­fully gotten. And therefore the honoura­ble compounding of these differences doth conclude the wisedome and faithfull ser­uice,The Dukes care to com­pound these differences. of such as then did gouerne the state. For if the Duke had bene ambitious, and had aspired the soueraigntie, he would neuer haue lost the aduantage of this occasion, the time then seruing best to haue attempted it, the body of the Rebellious wanting onely such a head, to haue led them to any despe­rate attempt whatsoeuer. And therefore howsoeuer his enemies did brand his name with dishonourable imputations,The Duke slandered. it is very [Page 159] vnlikely the Duke should haue any such disloyall affections, neglecting (as I haue said) these opportune occasions, and being so strong in the fauour of the people.

Fourthly, But that which did most discon­tent the King and threaten the state,The vari­ance between the Lord Protector & the Barrons. Honour and desert beget dangerous enuie. was the variance betweene the Lord Protector and the Barrons: whose high place, and honou­rable deseruing had got him much dange­rous enuie in the State, which hee by too much sufferance, gaue aduantage to pre­uaile, so farre as to his owne destruction. For if the Duke by his authority, had cut off the first beginnings of this euill,The Dukes error in pol­licie. he had preuen­ted the mischiefe which thereof insued, and so he might haue done that in the opportu­nity of time with ease, which afterwards hee would most gladly haue done, but could not with all the authority he had compasse; be­cause the opportunity was past,Post est occa­sio Calua. and then he could not recall occasions, which then flie from vs, when they are not intertained.Note. For it be hooueth him of great place, that would preuent the danger of enuie, (not to for­beare the cause of enuie, which is goodnes) [Page 160] but to destroy the first beginnings of enuie, & not to giue that euill weed sufferance, which in (short time) will grow to a strength vncon­troleable; and then who so offers to strike, shall but wound himselfe, and like a bird in a trap, locke himselfe more strongly in, by striuing to escape. And this assuredly was the Dukes error to suffer his enemies to grow to a strength he could not command, and then being in their danger, he sought by strong hand to rid himselfe;This ouer­sight was his death. wherein he found he was much deceiued, to the losse of his life, and to the glory of his enemies; now from what cause this discord had beginning is diuersly imagined,The cause of this discord. neither doth our English Chronicles determine it, so that many seue­rall coniectures diuersly interpret it: some blame the Dukes improuidence,The Dukes improuidēce. and that he did not regard his owne security, so much as the danger of his place required; and there­fore suffered his enemies to practise against him with all aduantage. Others that his e­uill gouerning the State,His euill go­uernement of the State. did so offend the Lords, as in their honourable care of the State they sought redresse; and that the [Page 161] Duke might either surrender his authority, or else reforme the disordered course of his former proceedings; to the more honour of the King,Ambition. and the better gouernement of the Common-Wealth: others thinke that hee aspired the principality, and thereby runne himselfe into the highest degree of treason; which opinion is all malice,This opinion is all malice, no truth. and no Truth. For questionlesse, if the Duke had bene guil­ty of Treason, his enemies would neuer haue condemned him of Felonie. Lastly, it is thought the cause was nothing but a pra­ctise of enuie,The true cause was a practise of enuie. which his honourable life and zealous care for Religion had procured him, who aduancing his indeauour with all con­stancie for the reforming of Religion, and trauelling in the state with much prosperity and honour; hee by these meanes got a double enemie,A double e­nemie. his religious care procured him the hatred of the discontented persons in the State (which then were many, and his honourable life got him enuie in the great ones: who then couet to suppresse the grow­ing reputation of any,The nature of great and enuious spi­rits. whose merit may challenge the highest degrees of honour; [Page 162] for men enuie not the euill but the good of others; and he (alwaies) is most subiect to be enuied,Vertue most subiect to enuie. whose vertuous life shall least de­serue it.

Sixthly, And from this cause was the vn­fortunate end of the good Duke, the Lord Protector, whom his enemies did not destroy for his euill, but for his honourable and ver­tuous life. And this howsoeuer it had the course of orderly proceeding, according to the tryall of law,The tryall of law on [...]ly a colour to sa­tisfie reports. yet was that onely a colour to giue it some reasonable pretence; where­by the common mouth of the vulgar might be stopped, which in such cases is most da­ring and prodigall: and surely it is very re­markeable, that a Prince of his authority and greatnesse, Vnkle to the King, and pro­tector of his person and state; should bee thus forced to these hard extremities,The Dukes extremitie of hard for­tune. and that in a Kingdome which himselfe did pro­tect to be arrested, condemned, and execu­ted for Felonie: and example so rare, as no time can produce the like,The greatest are most sub­iect to the fall of Fortune. and such as may remember the greatest, how subiect they be to the fall of Fortune; who foyleth them [Page 163] most that fall from the highest dignities.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. God doth often suffer his owne cause Religion, euen in the hope and prosperity thereof, to indure contrary fortunes; sometimes by intrusion of Errors, often by the interruption of peace. For with­out these tryalls of opposition, and aduersi­ty, there can be no distinction of good and bad, neither could it merit extraordinarie praise to be a Christian.

Secondly, In the Iudgement of Diuinity it doth not destroy the Truth of any cause, to suffer iniurie and violence, because the most sacred Sonne of God, did indure them in their extremities. Therefore are they decei­ued, that make temporall prosperity a note of spirituall Truth, because Truth (in this life) may liue in banishment.

Thirdly,Pollitique. It was a wicked policie in the kings enemies (but powerfull,) to sow Discord in [Page 164] his neerest blood, for by that meanes it was easie for them to gaine that, which other­wise had bene difficult, because such disa­greements are most implacable that haue had power to destroy naturall affections, for there is no hate like that, which is translated out of loue.

Fourthly, It is one of the most principall respects that should be in a Prince, to be able to conteine his owne secrets, and in all his important affaires, to vnderstand more than he shall discouer; for by this meanes, hee shall both delude the purpose of him that would deceiue him, and by Pollitique obser­uations discouer designes farre off.

Fifthly,Morall. Particular disquiets in a Morall life, are ciuill warres that would destroy a blessed peace, for as euery man is a little world. So the order or disorder of that world hath resemblance and fit comparison with the state of this world.

A Discourse of the miseries of mans life vpon occasion of the Duke of Somersets death.

FIRST, It is true that at our birth wee begin to die,Life is a sick­nesse. our life being no better then a continuall sicknesse, which (by many ex­tremities) leade vs to our graue, the sanctua­rie and house of Rest; and therefore the best men haue least desired it,The contempt of life. and the holiest dispised it, and that which doth stay them from the fruition of eternall happinesse, and tie them to the bondage of flesh (which of all other prisons) is most slauish; especially to a soule of diuine and heauenly contem­plation. For the holy men of all ages haue neuer thought it burden some to die, but haue desired death, to release them from the [Page 166] miseries of life, neither haue they feared the Image of death,Holy men neuer feared the Image of death. when it hath bene pre­sented in the most dreadfull forme, that Ty­rants and wicked men could deuise: because such men make their life but seruant to their death, desiring onely to liue to the glorie of their God, that so they may die in his fa­uour;Holy death setteth open the gates of life. for such death setteth open the gates of eternity, whereas euery houre of this our transitory life, is subiect to many deaths, and many hard extremities.

Secondly, The experience of this is com­mon, and therefore lesse admirable; neither is it strange that Christian men should dis­pise transitorie life, and the vaine glory of flesh, because they are bound thereto by the dutie of Christianity; Christ himselfe, the examples of Christians, both commanding and commending it. And therefore is this obedienc [...] most worthie in the Children of Grace,The Childrē of Grace. The sonnes of nature. but most strange in the sonnes of Na­ture, such as haue onely a generall vnder­standing of God, and of his mighty power, not knowing him in his mercie, nor in the hope of saluation; who by the naturall iudge­ment [Page 167] of sence,The iudge­ment of sense can iudge miserie of mans life. could iudge the miseries of mans life, and therefore would preferre death before a life so vnconstant and va­riable. Such were the noble spirits of many worthy men in former ages; and such were many of those graue and learned Philoso­phers,The antient Romanes and Greciās. who contemned the vaine glorie of mans life, and triumphed in the hope of death, being their comfort, and that wich in their opinion, would conclude their infinite trauell, and secure them in the pleasure of perpetuall rest. And such were they who vn­derstanding the immortality of the soule, and how the faculties thereof were letted in their diuine offices, by the indisposition of their bodies, and the naturall pronenesse thereof to aduersity and euill, would (by vio­lent death) haue freed their soules from the prison of their flesh. The which howsoeuer it was by the rule of Religion,Against the rule of Re­ligion. both damna­ble and foolish; yet they not knowing Reli­gion nor the duty of conscience, gaue a no­table demonstration how much they estee­med death,A notable demonstratiō more than a life so full of misery and change.

[Page 168] Thirdly, Such is the miserable condition of mans life, as that euery minute thereof is subiect to euill change, no man hauing pow­er to resist the infinite number of occasions that daily threaten him: insomuch as if God withdraw his prouidence, and leaue vs to our guidance:Man hath more to af­flict him than all other Creatures. Because of sinne. we are then the most mise­rable of all others, hauing more to afflict vs than all the other creatures of God▪ because by our offending the Lord of all, wee haue made both him and them our enemies. So that all occasions and euery worke of nature, watch the aduantage of Gods sufferance, to reuenge themselues on man, for whose sinne they haue indured the curse of euill. And from hence doth issue the infinite number of grieuances,The cause of the many grieuances of mans life. which continually threaten the prosperity of mans life, whereby the most pleasurable time of mans life, is subiect to this great misery, that hee cannot secure any little continuance of those pleasures, wherin he so delighteth: neither can hee preuent the sorrowes of his life, nor rid him­selfe from the least of them; neither can he (as he is naturall) with any patience beare [Page 169] them. So that both with them and without them, he is most miserable, and so for euer would be, if the mercie of God, did not sup­plie to this weakenesse, and euill condition of our Nature.

Fourthly, Now to relate some particulars of these infinite miseries, I first begin with sicknesse,Sickenesse. an infirmity that beginneth with our life,Sickenesse ordained to subdue the pride of our nature. and endeth in our graue, which God hath ordained to subdue the pride of mans nature, least being puft vp with too much prosperity, we should forget that wee are mortall and but creatures. And this in a double respect is very grieuous to our Na­tures:A double re­spect. First, the number of sicknesses. first in respect of the diuersity of sick­nesses, which being infinite in number, seeme like so many enemies to threaten our tranquillity and quiet.Secondly, the generality. All men be­ing subiect at all times to all infir­mities. Secondly, in respect of our selues, all men being at all times, sub­iect to all infirmities. And therefore they that haue heaped the glory and treasure of this worlde, and seeme to ingrosse the plea­sures of this life, are notwithstanding arre­sted by sicknesse,Rich men. and that many times with such violence as they earnestly desire death, [Page 170] to release them of the miseries of life, neither is the basest condition of men, exempt from this generall infirmitie,The poore & the rich are both alike [...]fflicted with sicknesse. the rich & the poore, the base and the Noble, being in this respect equalls, all men being alike seruants to the sorrow of sicknesse, whose generall power preuailes to the destruction of all flesh.

Fifthly,Pouertie of life. Another maine grieuance is po­uerty of life, which doth depresse the spirits of many, which otherwise would rise to those deseruings, which in the iudgement of the world are most honourable. And this is both in it selfe euill and a punishment for sinne, & also in generall opinion it is most hatefull,Pouertie hatefull to men. and that which (almost) all men carefully shunne, because in the reputation of the world, men are estimated not according to their being, what they are; but after their hauing, how much they are in the fauour of fortune.The false o­pinion of the world. And such men are onely esteemed honourable, and best worthy who are most worth, in vaine and vile possessions; the bet­ter sort of men, commonly enioying the least part of those earthly blessings, which God hath giuen his creatures; by which vn­euen [Page 171] distribution it commeth to passe, that many times the honourable man,The honou­rable and the vile man do o [...]cupi [...] on the others place. hath the vilde place; and the vilde man the honoura­ble, the seruant many times exceeding his Lord, in the true worth of honesty, and ver­tue, by whom he is exceeded in vaine glory and honour. And this must needs be a great deiection to such as haue spirit to vnder­stand themselues for when men liue in a dis­proportion to their worth,Want d [...] ­iecteth the spirits of well deseruing men. it exceedingly blunteth that alacrity and good spirit, which (in a better condition of fortune) would be gracefull.The griefe of noble spirits. And surely it cannot but grieue the spirit of vnderstanding men, to see the blockish and most vnworthie, like idols with ornaments and trappings to be in­uested with dignities, and high pre­ferments that onely know to vse those dignities to their couetous profit, and not to any honourable deseruing. And though pouerty to a good man,Pouertie to a good man is like the foyle to the Dia­mond. be but like the foyle to a diamond, to make it appeare the more beautifull, yet generally to man­kinde it is most hatefull, and that which is onely indured by necessity, and Christian [Page 172] patience,The despe­rate effects of pouertie. begetting many times most dan­gerous discontentments in them of best ap­prehension, and obscuring the gifts of God and nature, which otherwise would appeare most glorious.

Sixthly Againe,Mutability and change. the variable change of mans life, whereby he is violently carried to many disagreeing ends, sometime to the better sometime to the worse, according to the seuerall power of occasions: insomuch as in this respect a man is like a vessell at Sea,The continuall trouble of mans life. driuen with many contrarie windes, too and fro, alwaies in the extremities of storme and wearie passage, neither can any man ariue his peacefull port before death bring him to his graue,The graue the resting place. his life being nothing but a breath of contrarie windes bearing him to indure the misery of many hard and variable for­tunes. And this euill is most sensible to those vnto whom Fortune hath bene most grati­ous; who enioying the pleasures of life with full appetite, and by the change of fortune, forced to change that state, wherin they thought themselues most happie. For then is aduersity in full strength, [...] being in him [Page 173] whose former life hath bene most prospe­rous; for the common induring of bitternes and misery, dulleth the edge thereof, and maketh it (by much lesse sensible) to him whome Custome hath made familiar with griefe;Custome is another na­ture. neither are mens natures so inclinea­ble to the good, as to the bad alteration; it being generall in all men to moue them­selues,Men by their naturall mo­tions moue to euill, but to goodnesse by the mouing of Grace. to their owne destruction, the moti­on to perfection not being our owne, but the worke of Grace, which onely hath the glo­rie of euery good worke.

Seuenthly, It were needlesse to giue parti­cular instance of this mutability of fortune, euery particular man hauing instance in himselfe to witnesse it, and for those of ex­traordinary glory and greatnesse we may re­member that Romane Conquerour,That Roman Conquerour. who passing the streets of Rome in the glorie of his Triumph, had his braines beaten forth with a Tyle, which by casualty fell vpon him,The Duke of Somerset. or that of better memorie the Duke of Somerset. (the occasion of this discourse,) who from the highest degree of a Subiect, fell into the ignominie of Treason and vn­timely [Page 174] timely death. And therefore the antient Ro­manes vnderstanding [...]he miserie of varia­ble fortune ordained,A custome among the antient Ro­manes. that when any of their worthy Captaines, should ride in triumph; a slaue should ride with him in his triumphall Chariot, holding fast with his slauish hand, the lawrell Crowne vpon the Conquerours head, who then did triumph▪ both to mode­rate the vaine glory of the Conquerour, and also to remember him, to what condition he himselfe was subiect, and therefore in re­spect of mutability of fortune,Variable for­tune maketh men misera­ble. is mans life most miserable, no man being able to secure himselfe in any reasonable condition of life.

Eighthly,Discontent But that which of all other is most burdensome is Discontent, the disease of the soule, and that which of all other in­firmities is most dangerous,Minde. and hard to cure, especially in spirits of best apprehen­sion, and in them who haue aspired the re­putation of high place.Discontent a dangerous disease. For the spirits of great men, are not moued to impatience without dangerous euents, because their anger maketh them willing, and their great­nes [Page 175] maketh them able to reuenge.The danger in disconten­ting great spirits. And ther­fore such men are neuer discōntent, but it pro­uoketh either their owne or other mens de­struction; neither is this euill tied to parti­cular men onely, but like a generall Plague it spreads it selfe ouer all degrees of men, though not in like vehemencie. For the best, and the worst, the basest and the most no­ble, haue at some time their discontents,All men haue at some times their discon­tents. whereby they are offended in themselues, and wish to die; and that which is more ad­mirable, those men renowned for holinesse of life, haue had this loathing to liue, and de­sired to die as Iob, Elias, Holy men haue bene discontented. and many other ho­ly men, which may well conclude the mise­ry of a discontented minde, and how insup­portable it is in his extremity, for as the soule exceedeth the body in the excellencie of their Natures;Griefe is a greater tor­ment then sickenesse. So the grieuances of the soule, are much more sensible to our facul­ties, then those of our bodies; because griefe is properly belonging to the soule, and to the body onely by consequence or parti­cipation. And if I were to define the grea­test miserie on earth next to that of hell,The great­nesse of Dis­content. sin, [Page 176] and damnation, I should call it discontent in his extremitie, because (next the sorrow of sinne) the liuing part of man his soule, hath not any thing of like torment and affliction: and as all other miseries are the seed from whence doth proceed this Monster Discon­tent. So from discontent can be expected no better then destruction and death.

Ninthly, The last misery of our life is Death, Death. the which at one stroake doth re­uenge all the euill of mans life; and this how­soeuer in it selfe it be not euill. yet in mens generall vnderstanding, it is thought the worst of all euills, and the most fearefull of all other miseries. And therefore the very name of death, hath oftentimes stroake asto­nishment and terror in the hearts of tyrants and euill men; knowing that death was an enemy,Death an enemie a­gainst whom there is no re­sistance. against whom there was no resistāce, hauing preuailed against them of the first age, though they liued many hundreds of yeares. For if the honours and pleasures of this life were infinite, and the enioyers of them eternall, then were not the life of man so miserable a condition; but hauing death [Page 177] to controule the most glorious among men,Death doth controule the prosperi­ties of our life. and to depriue them of their prosperity and honours; in this respect the best of mans life, is no better then misery and griefe, because he foreseeth the end of all his pros­perity, the remembrance of death sowring the greatest part of the pleasures of life, eue­rie man hauing griefe to loose that wherein he so much delighteth.

Tenthly, Yet Death though his power be geuerall ouer all flesh, is not therefore a misery to all men,Death is not a misery to all men. but to many an end most happie and desired. For though it be a curse for sin to be mortall & die, yet is Death most happie to them that die well: God by the death of his Sonne, hauing reconsiled him­selfe to his seruant Man;Death ma­keth holy men immor­tall. which by no other meanes could be made immortall. But this condition of happinesse, is not in the Nature of Man;Good men hope for death and bad men feare it. but in the fauour and grace of God. And therfore is death that which good men hope, and bad men feare; the poore mans comfort and the rich mans terror, and that which maketh the King and the Sub­iect,Death and the graue make all things equall the rich and the poore equall, making [Page 178] of euery mans flesh but earth and putrifacti­on. And therefore the life of man euen from the wombe to the Graue, is nothing but mi­sery, and vexation of Sipirit, no naturall man hauing the pleasures thereof,No man hath plea­sures but with limi­tation. but with such limitation, as maketh pleasure it selfe bur­densome.

Eleuenthly, The holy and good men of the world not otherwise regarding life, then as a time wherein to exercise their Christian offices,To good men there is no miserie. and to such there is no miserie, nei­ther in life nor death: happie are such to whom God shall giue Grace to dispise the vaine glorie of earth, and that vse the crea­tures of God with christian moderation,How to vse the pleasures of this life. not affecting them more then the Lord of them, nor applying them to any other end then holines, for which all things were created; & most happie are they who for the honour of their God,Who are hap­pie. and for the testimonie of his truth, haue forsaken the pleasures of this transitory life, and haue giuen themselues a sacrifice to God, for so to die is to enioy immortality and perpetuall rest.

Of King Edwards Death and how hee left the State to the next Successor.

FIRST, it were foolish and vaine for any man, to desire to know the secrets of Gods will; be­cause no man can vnderstand more of Gods secret,No man can know any part of Gods secrets vnles God reueals them. than he himselfe shall please to reueale: and therefore is mans knowledge limited, being able onely to iudg [...] by reason, and consequence; whereas Gods diuine workes exceed the iudgement of sence,God not con­trarie but a­boue reason. being (not contrary but) aboue the reach of reason. And from this cause is it, that men commonly offend in their false constructions,The cause of false constru­ctions. iudging of Gods worke gro­sly, according to humane vnderstanding, and not considering his wisedome and pow­er by whose prouidence all things are di­rected. [Page 180] For in Gods matters Christians must beleeue,In diuine matters Christians must belieue when they cannot iudge when they cannot iudge, and it is sufficient argument to conclude the good­nesse of any worke, when wee know that God is the Author: for those things which to a naturall man seeme strange, to a refor­med iudgement appeare much otherwise; and there is nothing be it neuer so euill in mans iudgement but God can make it serue for the worke of his glory:The vse that God can make of all our actions. he being able to make the euills of men respect an end be­yond their expectations, and in that where­in we iudge our selues, most miserable, can he make vs most happie.

Secondly, And for particular instance we may consider K. Edward, K. Edward. whom God elected from among many thousands for the work of his glory; hauing defended the Catholike Faith, with a resolution most zealous & con­stant; yet notwithstanding in the growth of his prosperity, did God take him from the world, and depriue the Children of faith, of their Patron, The wonder­full effects of Gods pro­uidence. and princely Defendor, whereby (in common iudgement) God may seeme to be offended with his owne, and to leaue his [Page 181] Saints vndefended, to the stroake of persecu­tion, from which this holy King had defen­ded them▪ But thus to iudge of God were wicked and false; because we see the Gospell (by that interruption) did spread it self with much more generall acceptation: the blood of holy Martyrs being a holy seed,The blood of the Mar­tyrs was the seed of the Gospell. whereby the Church spread into a large generation, and who knoweth but God (to manifest to all the world, the faith and obedience of his holy Saints in the Church of England,) suffe­red this persecution for the glory of their memorie, & for a demonstration to all men, what numbers of true Catholike Christians had flourished vnder the protection of King Edward their Patrone and princely Defendor. The Saints hereby exchanging their mortall & variable life, for eternity & perpetuall rest; their deaths begetting the liues of many ho­ly men like them,The deaths of a few, was the life of many. whereby the number of Gods seruants was much augmented, to the glory of God, and prosperity of his Church. And therefore let no man condemne the worke of Gods prouidence, but yeeld his obedience to the good pleasure of God, [Page 182] and let him know that God is mercifull euen in his iudgements;God is mer­cifull in his iudgements. and that hee can make that which doth seeme to threaten vs most, to be the Ladder whereby we may as­cend the highest of all preferments, the fa­uour of God, and the fellowship of his holy Saints.

Thirdly,The Kings death. King Edward being dead, the state grew verie stormie and full of greate businesse the cause being who should suc­ceed the King, in which controuersie the kingdome was deuided;Great occa­sions of trou­ble in the kingdome. the greatest part of the Counsell, and the Nobility, proclaiming Lady Iane Daughter to the Duke of Suffolke, whose Mother was Daughter to Mary King Henries Sister, first married to the French King, and after to Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke. The nobility & comm [...]ns disagree in the choice of their Prince. But the greatest part of the Com­mons, and some of the Nobility, adhering to Lady Mary eldest Daughter to King Hen­rie the Eighth, by his first wife Queene Ka­therine of Spaine: and this occasion was the trouble and death of many honourable and worthy personages;King Ed­ward euill counselled. For whether King Ed­ward of his owne election, or wrought by the [Page 183] perswasion of others (I know not) had by his last Will and Testament, interested the La­die Iane, to the inheritance of his king­domes; for this cause (as was pretended) that the State might still continue the profes­sion of the Protestant Religion, which could not be hoped in the gouernement of Queene Mary. But howsoeuer the King did thus be­queath his kingdomes, it is very likely hee was drawne thereto by perswasion of his no­bles; especially of the two Dukes;Northum­berland & Suffolke the cause of this great iniurie Reasons why the King did it not of his owne motion but by per­swasion. Northum­berland and Suffolke, because hereby the in­heritance was conueyghed to their issue, to whom (in right) it did not belong, neither is it likely the King of his owne motion, would haue disinherited his owne Legiti­mate sisters, to interest one further off. And if Religion was the cause, why was not choise rather made of Queene Elizabe [...]h, then Lady Iane? Shee being by much neerer in the de­grees of blood, and altogether as assured in the Protestant Religion. And therefore cer­tainely the King was moued by others to of­fer this iniurie to his neerest blood

Fourthly,A doubtfull question re­solued. And if the question be deman­ded, [Page 184] whether in this case it was lawfull for the King to translate the inheritance of his king­domes. I answer, that howsoeuer the pre­tence is faire and good, yet was the practise euill, because wrong was offered; and those ends are neuer good,Good ends cannot be compassed by euill meanes. the which are compas­sed by euill meanes; and to translate inhe­ritance where it ought not, is to contradict Gods prouidence, by whose wisedome all things are ordered. And therfore (no doubt) this offence of those Dukes and their confe­derates, conspiring with them this vnlaw­full end, was the cause that God did suffer the power of their enemies, to preuaile to their destruction.God is the Father of truth. For God is the Father of Truth, and the God of Iustice; neither would he that men should attempt to alter the course of his prouidence, or (by any violent and euill meanes) pursue an end, be it neuer so Religious and holy.What good men must do. For good men must vse onely good meanes to reach good ends. And therefore this practise of these Dukes in the iudgement of Religion was not good, notwithstanding in state practise it hath ex­ample, and may seeme allowable.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. there is no pretence how faire soeuer, can giue authority and strength to vnlawfull actions. For God who is all-sufficient, and who hath decreed all good things, hath likewise deuised all good meanes to compasse them; therefore euery good worke doth consist of lawfull matter and forme, for no euill thing can bee well done, neither can any good thing bee done euilly.

Secondly, When God by death doth preuent the hopes that are had of a vertu­ous Prince, it doth not argue against the worthinesse of the Prince, but it doth argue and conclude the vnworthinesse of the times, for in such a case the Prince doth in­herit happines, but his people suffer miserie.

Thirdly, It was both foolish and wicked in the two Dukes, Northumberland and Suf­folke to labour to erect and secure a state to [Page 186] their posterity, with iniuries so apparant, and palpable. For though God many times suffer intrusions into titles, he doth neuer establish them.

Fourthly,Pollitique. In the discretion of State it can­not be thought otherwise, but where there is vsurpation and false intrusion, there is a miserable affliction with feare and Iealosie, which neither the power or pollicie of any such State can auoid, so long as God shall not suffer their violence to preuaile against the liues of the true inheritors.

Fifthly, It is a Pollitique wisedome in a Prince to suspect the sincerity of al such state aduise, that hath principall reference to the aduancement of such Counsellors. For in this case it is often true, that men will not speake their iudgements but their affections.

Sixthly,Morall To be ordered by lawfulnesse in all our actions, is not onely the iudgement of conscience but of humanity and Morall dis­cipline; For Morall learning doth determine that there is nothing profitable, that is not lawfull.

A Comparison betweene King Iosias of Iuda, and King Edward of England.

FIRST,Iosias of Iu­da and Ed­ward of En­gland. to compare King Iosias of Iuda, with King Edward of En­gland, is the most equall compa­rison of any two in the Storie of holy Kings, both of them hauing with equall diligence, and victory, fought Gods quarrell, to the glory of their God, the reformation of his seruice, the abolishing of Idolatrie, and the confusion of the euill Ministers thereof. First,Their age when they began their Reigne. for their age when they began their Reignes: King Iosias began his gouerne­ment the eighth yeare of his age; and King Edward the ninth of his, wherein they very neerely consent, and whereby God hath gi­uen [Page 188] proofe to the world, that the power of his Spirit, can as well preuaile in them of youth, as in those of better yeares and expe­rience; he being able to make the Childe and the strong man, alike victorious, in a cause which hee shall please to protect; as was this of these two holy Kings,Both of these Kings con­spiring one holy end. both of them equally conspiring one end, (the truth of Religion) and holy worship. Againe, Amon, Iosias his Father left the kingdome of Iuda in the exercise of Idolatry, and so did King Henrie Edwards Father leaue the State of England in the practise of Popish Idola­trie;Both their Kingdomes were corrup­ted with ido­latrie. hauing onely by suppressing of Ab­beyes, taken from those Idols their orna­ments and wealth, not vtterly destroying them as did Iosias and King Edward. Againe, Iosias when he vnderstood the will of God by hearing his Chancellor Shaphem reade the booke of the Law, did accordingly frame himselfe in all obedience. So King Edward when he vnderstood by the Learned men of his Realme,Both of them yeeld their obed [...]ence to holy perswa­sion & effect their purpose such as Cranmer, Laty­mer, Ridley and others, followed the Lords businesse with like zeale and constancie, as [Page 189] did Iosias; not onely abolishing the false, but establishing the true forme of Gods ser­uice. Againe, as Iosias left the kingdome of Iuda to an euill Successor, his Son Iehoahaz, who againe prouoked the people to Idola­trie:Both these Kings left their States to holy ends but euill suc­cessors. So likewise King Edward left the inhe­ritance of the Church and kingdome of England, to his Sister Mary, who (like Iehoa­haz Iosias his Sonne) did againe restore the euill practise of Idolatrie and superstitious Poperie vtterly defacing the godly buil­ding, which her holy Brother had so care­fully erected. Againe, as God did keepe his promise with Iosias, which was to preserue Israell the time of his life, in prosperity and rest.Both of them fortunate to their King­domes. So did God likewise preserue England in plenty and victory, all the time of King Edward. And therefore these two holy kings, seeme to conspire in all saue their deaths. Io­sias dying in the field, king Edward in his bed; the one reigning thirty and one yeares, the other but sixe yeares and odd moneths; and yet in this hath king Edward the grea­ter honour,The honour of King Ed­ward. that he in sixe yeares did happily finish that, which the other was thirty one [Page 190] yeares in compassing, but aboue all hath he exceeded him in leauing to posterity that most famous Defendresse the Ladie Eliza­beth his Sister,Q. Eliza­beth. who afterwards did proue the glory of her Sex, and the admiration of all the world.

OF QVEENE MARIE, AND of the alteration of the State in the beginning of her Time.


FIRST, I am now to change my Argument, and to write not of mercy, but of misery, of the aduersity, not of the prosperity of the Gospell, and how the Catholike Faith was offended and not de­fended,Q. Marie. The change shee made in the Church of England. by the Successor Queene Marie, who made the most miserable change in the state of England, that euer that Nation indured; [Page 192] she defacing the glorious worke of her Pre­decessor of K. Edward her princely brother, extinguishing the lights of Truth, The light of Truth put out. whereby men were directed in the way of life, & ob­scuring al knowledge in the mist of Ignorāce, and blacke error, in which blindnesse the Christian world had for many yeares wan­dered. This Eclipse being now againe (by the interpositiō of her darke time) brought vpon this Nation.The Queene obscured the glory of this Nation. So that no light of Truth was in her time to be seene, saue onely at the burning Stakes of Martyrs, which holy fire did kindle a Religious zeale in many Spe­ctators, that beheld the mercilesse crueltie of the tormentors, and the Christian pati­ence of holy Saints tormented.

Secondly, And therefore I am not (as be­fore) to declare wherein Queene Marie hath defended the Catholike Faith,The purpose of the Histo­rie of this Queenes time. because shee neuer defended it in the least particular: but (of the contrarie) how shee did bend the powers of her endeauour, both against the profession and the professors of true Chri­stian Faith, seeking by all violent and bloo­die meanes, to depresse the prosperity of [Page 193] Religion, whereof (by the dignity of her place) she was made defendresse. And in Truth it doth grieue me that I am to write the dishonor of this Queene; which willingly I would auoide, were the cause any other but Religion, & but that the declaration of these times, do tie me to a necessity of Truth, from which I dare not aberre:The truth of History must not for any consideration be concea­led. for it were an euill presumption in any one, to presume to write History, & then to obscure the truth thereof vpon what cause soeuer. For thereof would issue a double inconuenience.The inconue­nience of misreporting the truth of Historie. First he should wrong the vnderstandings of men in mis­reporting the Truth, & also lay an euil impu­tation on his name, in suppressing the know­ledge of Truth; which is the life and true mo­uing soule of all Historie.

Thirdly,Queene Ma­rie her ex­traordinarie induments of Nature. And this I write in fauour of Q. Marie, because of her extraordinary indu­ments of Nature. God hauing giuen her so much Maiesty, and princely spirit, as might serue to rule the greatest command in the world; & if to her other gifts, God had giuen her the knowledge of his Truth, she had well deserued to haue bene named most excellēt, [Page 194] & to haue exceeded all the famous Queenes in the world, saue her sister the most famous Elizabeth, Q. Eliza­beth incom­parable. who hath exceeded her and al the world in the honour of true deseruing.

Fourthly, Yet notwithstanding, all these rare excellencies of nature merit little but only pittie: for if the best beauty of nature, haue not the benefit of grace, the greatest or­naments therof, are (then) but punishment to them that so enioy them. And therefore they that haue not the gifts of grace, haue nothing of worth though they haue all that nature can giue them:Nature without grace doth merit no­thing. and happie had Q. Marie bene if nature had giuen her lesse, and grace more;The least gift of grace is more worth then the whole riches of Nature. because any little breath of Gods Spirit is more worth than all other blessings whatsoeuer; For nature adornes the body, & grace the soule of euery one that hath it,The gifts of Grace. & commonly where the power of wit & great spirit is in any one Subiect, not mo­derated by grace,The gifts of nature with­out grace are dangerous in him that hath them. they are then meanes to make the enioyers of them most dangerous instruments, because nature cannot moue it self to good, but naturally to euill; and as the naturall motion is more easie to the mouer [Page 195] than the violent.The motion of Grace is [...] against Na­ture. So the gifts of nature are more inclinable to euill than to good ends, being moued to euill by their owne proper motion, but to goodnesse by the motion of grace, which in all naturall things is violent & against nature. And therfore was the Q. more dangerous, hauing so much of nature, because she was therby armed for euill, the want of grace making her runne her natural course, & her great spirit & other naturall in­duments,The Queene an enemie to her selfe. spurring her forward in her euill passage, whereby she became enemie to her self, mouing her self to her own destruction.

Fifthly,The Q. great ouersight. But that which made Q. Marie mon­strous in her euill, was the two much credit she gaue to euill counsell, suffering her selfe to be transported,Gardiner, Bonner the Queenes e­uill instru­ments. by the violent spirits of e­uill and reuengefull men, who conceiuing a grounded displeasure for some hard vsage they indured in K. Edwards time, now take aduantage to reuenge the cause for which they had indured displeasure; & these men (like euill spirits) breathed the spirits of in­dignation into the Queenes heart, & moued her to effect most bloodie & horrible deeds, [Page 196] to the great displeasure of God, and disho­nour of her princely place.

Sixthly, for it cannot be imagined that a La­die of her spirit,The Q▪ good nature much abused. being (in humane respects) mercifull & compassionate, would haue en­tred her gouernement with such tyrannie & terror;She entred her gouern­ment with great Tyran­ni [...]. bearing in both hands destruction, & (like Reuenge her self) entring the stage of her gouernement with fire & blood) had she not bene moued thereto by euil perswasion. Nei­ther can it be but the Q. conscience would condemne the course of her violent procee­ding, & that she would iudge the large effusiō of christiā blood, stood not with the honour of her name, nor with the Truth of Religion: yet so powerfull is the authority of them we trust,Those wee trust most may best de­ceiue vs. (especially in the case of Religion and consciēce,) as that many times we suffer our selus to be led against our own perswasiōs, by a reuerence we beare to other mens opiniōs

Seuenthly, And this no doubt was the cause why the Queene was so resolued in in her bloodie persecutions,A bad per­swasion. shee giuing cre­dit to their perswasion whom shee reputed most Reuerend, and Learned; and they per­swading her, she could not discharge the of­fice [Page 197] of her Soueraigne place, nor defend the Catholike Faith, but by the extirping the Protestant Religion, which (in their opinion) was Heresie in the highest degree: neither could shee (as they thought) suppresse the generall fauour, that profession had got in generall estimation; but by seuerity & rigo­rous laws,These euill Counsellors much decei­ued. wherein they were farre deceiued For it is impossible that any Pollicie of man should be able to supplant Gods Husban­drie, which he hath made prosperous: the Truth whereof is manifest in the experience of these persecuting times, when as the death of one holy man was the life of many.God raiseth a new gene­ration of holy men, from the ashes of Martyr­dome. God raising a holy generation out of the ashes of his holy Martyrs, the Church not decresing but increasing by the stroake of persecution. And in this case was the Queene counselled, as Rehoboams was by his young states men, to make the yoake of persecution heauie: & whereas her Father did chastise with rodds, she should correct with scourges: and this was the euill counsell wherewith the Queene was ordered,1 King. 12. 10 for shee made her yoake hea­uier than all her Predecessors had [Page 198] done, and (in truth) insupportable for any true Christian Professor.

Eightly,Their Coun­sell was wic­ked pollicie, but no pietie. And therefore this Counsell of theirs may haue Pollicie but no Piety, for if the State in King Edwards time, had vsed Gardiner and Bonner with like seuerity, and had taken from them their euill liues, which they had iustly forfeited, then had not these euill Ministers bene the cause of so much blood shed, neither happily, should the Queene haue had any such as they, to haue prouoked her to such dishonour and vn­godly practise;A respect of pollicie. for it is needfull Pollicie, that the haughty spirits of men, that haue autho­rity and greatnesse, must either not be offen­ded, or being moued to offence, must bee then made sure from taking Reuenge. And it had bene good for the Christian State, that the ambitious spirit of Winchester, had either not bene discontented, by his disgrace and imprisonment, or being so offended, to haue made him sure from reuengefull pra­ctise; and if this had thus come to passe, no doubt much Christian blood had bene sa­ued, which by his meanes perished. Neither [Page 199] had the Queene come into that ignominy of blood and cruelty;Gardiner the euill spi­rit which most tempted the Queene to her seue­ritie. shee being in her own Nature rather inclined to pittie, and mer­cifull respect then otherwise. And therefore though the time of Queene Maries gouerne­ment, was the most bloodie persecution that euer was in this Land, (I thinke) euer since it had a Christian Prince, yet was this Ladie, otherwise disposed in her owne Nature; neither would shee haue made her name so monstrous in blood,The power of conscience. had not her consci­ence perswaded a necessity, shee being so re­solued by their perswasion, who (shee thought had authority to iudge her.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. Diuinity doth admit no distin­ction of men, but the difference of good and bad; for Gods fauour doth not look as mans doth; men iudge by externall, but God by internall euidence. God is no accep­ter of persons, but men accept nothing but [Page 200] the persons of men: and therfore it is often seene, that thus God and the world diuide their seueralls; God markes his with Grace, the world hers with Nature and Fortune.

Secondly,Pollitique. It is a pollicie of long practise and large proofe, that Priests, Iesuites, and men of spirituall function, are appointed for State designes, as the most pregnant and con­uenient m [...]n; for they haue this odds, that besides their helps of learning, and much ex­perience; they haue alwaies the reuerence of their profession, which vndoubtedly (with people of their owne faith) doth gaine them, and their perswasions extraordinary credit.

Thirdly,Morall. It is a prouidence worthy of eue­ry particular man, not rashly to be moued to any fact or opinion, by the loue or reue­rence we haue to the persons of them that would perswade vs; because in this case we doe not satisfie reason, but affection.

In what particulars Queene Marie did most offend the Catholike Faith.

FIRST, to remember euery par­ticular grieuāce in this Queenes time, were a labour infinite, nei­ther is it my purpose to trauell so largely therein, as others before mee haue done. And therefore I will (onely) reduce to memory, some particulars of most conse­quēce, referring him that shal require further satisfaction, to the ecclesiasticall writings of those times, wherein they are largely dis­coursed:The Duke of Northum­berland. neither among these the euill for­tunes of the Duke of Northumberland, nor of his Sonne and daughter, the Lord Gilford Dudley, and the Ladie Iane his Wife, because [Page 202] the Duke hath worthily deserued his for­tunes,The Duke guilty of his fortunes. and therefore did not receiue wrong from the Queene and State. And though the Ladie Iane and the Lord Gilford her Hus­bād, were forced to take the enterprize, they themselues being meerely passiue in that bu­sinesse, yet hauing proceeded therein so far as they did. I see not how Queene Marie could giue them life and secure her selfe, es­pecially considering the present condition of the State,In respect of State. how inclineable it was then to imbrace any occasion of quarrell.

Secondly,The Q. first offence. That wherein the Queene did first offend the Christian Faith, was in taking into her protection, such who had before declared themselues enemies to truth and Religion, and this was at her first comming to the Crowne, giuing liberty and honour to such men, whom her princely brother had before imprisoned,Gardiner Bonner and others. & degraded; for by this she opened hell, & let loose those euill spirits which King Edward had shut vp; who brea­thing Reuenge, set the Kingdome in com­bustion,The cruel­ties of these times. burning and bloodying the holiest and best members thereof, to the dishonour [Page 203] of the Prince and Nation; the discomfort of holy Christians, and to the discountenance of the Catholike Faith,A double re­spect. and this (in a double respect) was euill in Queene Marie: First,1 (hereby) shee gaue an assured demonstrati­on how (in the case of Religion) shee was af­fected. Secondly, shee armed reuenge in 2 in these men, giuing it authority, and the countenance of great place, wherewith they became most terrible.

Thirdly,How the Q. began her gouernement And with this prologue, did Queene Marie begin the Tragedie of her life, fitting her with actors who had well lear­ned their parts of blood & persecution; out­truding them of much better merit, whom shee found in honourable and Reuerend places established,D. Cranmer and others. as Doctor Cranmer Arch-Bishop of Canterburie, the Arch-Bishop of Yorke, the Bishop of VVinchester and many others, giuing their dignities and places to their greatest enemies; men not compara­ble to them in learning and holy life, excee­ding them onely in cruelty and blood: who hauing gotten the sword of authority (once) into their hands,The Papists. would not sheath it, before [Page 204] it had bene made drunke with the blood of Saints, nor before the measure of their sins were full, whom God (for the pleasure of his will, and for the glory of his Saints) did suf­fer and for a time forbeare.

Fourthly, in restoring the Nurseries of all abominations,In restoring the Abbeyes. the Abbeyes and Monasteries she had in giuing; she did much offend the Catholike Faith; because those assemblies were found to abuse the name of holinesse, making it a cloake to couer the bodie of their wickednesse: who (like horse­leeches) sucke the blood and best mainte­nance of the Kingdome,The euill of a bloody life. to support their la­zie and most licentious trade of liuing;In respect of State. and in this did the Queene not onely offend the truth of Religion, but also the prosperity of her State in being so euill a president, and in giuing so much wealth to idle and altoge­ther vnprofitable people, and not onely idle but euill vsers of their riches & large possessi­ons;Idle and euil vsers of wealth. to the high offending of God, the wrong to Christian Religion, and the impoueri­shing of the Common-Wealth: all which respects the Queene ought carefully to haue regarded.

[Page 205] Fifthly, Againe, the Queene restoring them did condemne the gouernement of her Fa­ther,The Queene in her iudge­ment con­demned her Father. by whom they were dissolued, her making them of such necessity in a Christi­an Kingdome, made him an euill doer to suppresse them, whereby she did dishonour her Father in that wherein he was most ho­nourable, he deseruing the honour of his new stile, in this and in his act of Supremacie onely; both which she vtterly disclaimeth, damning the deed,The Queene erecteth that Idolatrie which her Father had defaced. and the honourable me­rit of her Father, building againe that euill foundation, which he to his honour had cast downe. And therefore if he by suppressing them hath deserued to bee stiled Defen­dor of the Faith: shee then by supporting them,E contrario. may be iudged to haue offended that Catholike Faith whereof she was made De­fendresse.

Sixthly, But that which is most worthy of sad remembrance in this Queenes time was the alteration of Religion:The worst of the Queenes euills. she reducing the Church of England to their former con­dition of Popish Idolatry, which (in the happie time of King Edward) had bene dis­continued, [Page 206] she inhibiting al her subiects vp­on grieuous paines,Her establi­shing of Po­perie. to acknowledge that profession of Religion, which she found in the State established, binding them to seuere lawes, to that Romish obedience which for­merly they had abiured.

Seuenthly, And in this she did oppose her selfe with al violence against the Catholike Faith,Her full op­position a­gainst the Catholike Faith. as if she meant at one blow to bee the death of faith & true religiō;Her for­wardnes in punishing. she disclaiming the good & proclaiming the bad; destroying Gods holy Temple, to build the groaues & altars of Idols, & this she did with such appe­tite, that her gouernement was scarce begun before this was finished. So easily is mās na­ture carried by violēce & forcible pursuit,Mans na­ture. to execute the most wicked and vngodly ends.

Eighthly, And as this alteration of Reli­gion,The altera­tion of Religion is pre­iudiciall to the Commō-Wealth. was greatly to the offence of Catholike Faith, so was it also very preiudiciall to the State, the Kingdome hereby loosing the Lordship of it selfe, which King Henrie with much hazard, & great trauel had recouered. And assuredly if the Q. consciēce could haue bene perswaded, she would neuer for any [Page 207] cause,The Q▪ con­science abu­sed. haue giuen the Pope or any other Po­tentate, the supremacie of her own state, and among all other least of all to the Pope, The Pope hath not principality proper. who hath no principality proper, but onely a gouernement compounded of many thefts; he hauing taken from euery christiā Prince somwhat of reuenew or dignity to make vp the measure of his greatnes. And it was great ouersight in the Q. to commend the trust of her state to the Pope, The Q. o­uersight. whose ambition & aua­rice, hath made him euer inclineable to de­ceiue: for when the couetous hath the trea­sure in keeping, it is hard to make him ho­nest; & he that hath nothing but by theft, wil be glad to imbrace oportunity & fit occasiō. And therefore by thus altering religion,The English nation disho­noured by the Queene. she did not only offend the Catholike faith, but dishonor the English nation, binding it againe in the bonds of forraigne power from which her brother had redeemed it.

Ninthly, And from this act of Q. Maries did proceed another equally euill or worse, whereby she hath got a name of blood and crueltie, and whereby she hath run her selfe into the highest degree of euill and this [Page 208] was the persecution of holy and faithfull men;The Q. per­secutions of holy men. slaughtering Gods Saints, with such fury and heathenish heate, as may well de­clare the Religion and Faith of the persecu­tors.No profession of Religion but the Popes that thinke to merit by blood & per­secution. For there is no profession of Christian Religion in all the world, except the Papisti­call that thinke to merit by murder, blood and persecution: neither is there any that haue made their names so odious, by the ef­fusion of Christian blood as they, whereby they haue made themselues the friends or Antichrist, but enemies to God, and to the truth of his holy Gospell. God hauing com­manded his seruants to suffer, and not to in­flict afflictions; for a Christians profession, is to beare the Crosse,Christians must beare the Crosse & not make it. and not to make it; and in euery euill worke holy men must suffer, and wicked men doe, for such was the condition of Christ the Lord of Christians, bearing the rebukes of all men;The exam­ple [...]f Christ. applying his sacred hands to heale the infirmities of men and not to wound and destroy them, and as (in the Nature of God) his mercie doth reioyce ouer all his workes,Mercy the [...] gift of grace. so all the sonnes of Grace delight in the workes of [Page 209] mercie, and abhorre the deeds of miserie, and desire to preserue and not to destroy the Images of God, nor the Temples of his holy Spirit, for such were these holy Martyrs,The Mar­tyrs. who in this time of Queene Mary, witnessed the truth of their Christian pro­fession, in the burning flames of persecution and cruell torture.

Tenthly, So great was the persecution in these times,The vehe­mencie of this persecution. as that no Sex, no age, nor any condition of men were spared, the blind, the aged, and the Infant sleeping in the holy death of Martyrdome: And if wee may be­leeue the remembrance of those miseries as they are recorded,For his booke of Acts and Monuments then children new borne at the stake, did perish at the stake, little (but holy) Martyrs giuing their liues, as soone as they had them for the witnesse of their Lord Christ Iesus, and his truth, an example of strange and incomparable crueltie, yet did the enuie of these times reach further, to the Sepultures of holy men deceassed,Strange ex­amples of en­uie. where the persecutions euen there also would tri­umph, raking vp the bones and ashes of good men, and after with great Ceremonie [Page 210] and acclamation burne them; a reuenge very admirable, and such as onely the mal­lice of the diuel could deuise.The graue is euery mans Sanctuary. For the Graue is euery mans Sanctuarie, from which no man nor no offence can take him, without the breach of the Lawes of Nature and hu­manitie: and to persecute and burne mens bones the life hauing long before left them, is a Iudgement most mercilesse, for the doome of Nature will haue one man to die but once,The doome of Nature. neither ought reuenge to reach the graues of our greatest enemies; it being enough for any that his enemy is dead, but more then crueltie to reuiue his death and to make him die againe. And therefore as Iob did blame his vncomfortable friend,Note. be­cause they did persecute him as God, and were not content with his flesh. So wee may lawfully condemne this Popish persecution,A reuenge like the re­uenge of Di­uels. because they reuenge like Diuels, and are not content with the Death of them they loue not, but will then persecute the body, when they cannot the soule. God hauing ta­ken that into his bosome of mercie, and into the saftie of his protection.

[Page 211] Eleuenthly, And if we truly consider the bloody persecution of Queene Maries time, and with what vehemency it was moued, it will appeare to be of like crueltie with them of the heathen Emperours in the Primitiue Church, This perse­cution equall with them of the Primi­tiue Church. not for the number though very ma­ny, but for the manner and cruell circum­stance.

Twelfthly, Againe the Queene in marrying with King Philip of Spaine, King Philip of Spaine. may bee said to haue offended the Catholike Faith, because by that meanes shee tooke away all hope, to be reclaimed from the stiffe defence of Po­pish superstition,The confede­racie of the Spani [...]h King and the Pope the King of Spaine being in most neare confederacie with the Pope. And this how preiudiciall it was to the profession of the Catholike Faith, may be easily consi­dered, hee being chosen to assist the Queene in her defence of faith, by whom the ene­mies of faith were principally to be suppor­ted,The Iesuites supported by the Spanish King. and one so nearely bound to the Popes fauour,Rome and Spaine the ladders of one anothers rising. in respect of State practise, the Pope and the Spanish King being one anothers Ladder, whereby they haue ascended the steps of reputation and worldly greatnesse.

[Page 212] 13. Againe, if wee regard the care of State, [...] respect of State. the Queenes marriage with the Spanish King, was not for the prosperitie and ho­nour of the English Nation, but rather a meanes to depresse the glory thereof. For howsoeuer the Queene and the State, did ar­ticulate with King Philip, The Spanish King bound to certaine conditions. thinking thereby they had secured the souereigntie of Eng­land, by binding him to certaine Limitati­ons; yet was that no assurance, but onely a false colour, to blinde and satisfie the grosse vnderstandings of the vulgar, lest by Rebel­lion and tumult, they should oppose them­selues against that purpose; for it is not to be thought,No obligatiō can binde the desire of the ambitious. that any obligation can binde such men, as aspire soueraigntie, neither is it in the practise of great States, to binde themselues, but onely for aduantage, and then to cast off their bonds, when their pra­ctise is ripe, and when they dare discouer their true intentions.Note. For bonds to him that hath power to breake them, rather offend then profit, and in great Spirits, the remem­brance to bee tyed to any Conditions, doth beget in them a desire of Libertie, and pro­vokes [Page 213] them to breake that faith, where­unto they are obliged. And from this mar­riage of Queene Marie what could be hoped,The inconue­nience of the Queenes Marriage. but either ciuill strife in disposing the Suc­cession, which by this meanes might haue had many Competitors, or else that this Kingdome and the dominions thereof be­longing,The greatnes of Spaine. should haue bene vnited to the So­ueraigntie of Spaine, which already (like Hydra) is become monstrous in largenesse; hauing vnited to that one body many heads many large dominions.The expecta­tion of Spaine And if this had suc­ceeded (which no doubt was the expecta­tion of Spaine) then had the glory of this Isle euen then perished, and our condition had bene alike miserable as is now that heretofore famous Kingdome of Portingale, Portingale. and other great States by him obtained. And this kingdome which heretofore hath benee the supporter of that,England the supporter of Spaine. should then haue stood at discretion loosing the soue­raigatie, and fortunate honour which worthily had made it very famous; the ambition of that State rising by the fall of ours; the misery of this raysing the [Page 214] glory of that, and we of Conquerors should haue bene seruants,The inconue­nience. and slaues, to that peo­ple whom before we had conquered: and they (by our oppression) should haue wanted a power to haue restrained them from the generall Conquest of Christen­dome, the which by vs hath principally bene letted, and by them most desirously pursued.In respect of pollicie. And therefore (in respect of Pol­licie and the practise of State) this marriage of Spaine was very hurtfull for our Nati­on, ayming directly at the vtter ouerthrow of the English Monarchie; wherein Queene Marie was neither Poilitique nor Holy, The Queene neither pol­litique nor holy. not ho­ly in not defending the Catholike Faith, combining her selfe so neerely with the Popes Confederate; and not pollitique, in hazerding the honour of her Kingdomes, in the hands of one so dangerous, as the King of Spaine then was, who already was so great, as made him iustly feared, and his proceedings suspected. God (of his good­nesse) disposing otherwise of this businesse,The proui­dence of God in this busi­nesse. deriuing still a Succession of Kingly power within our selues of our owne nation and of [Page 215] our owne Kingly line; to the better defence of the Catholike Faith, and to the perpe­tuall honour of this our English Monarchie.

14. Lastly, Queene Marie in her vehe­ment and vniust persecuting her most vertu­ous Sister the Ladie Elizabeth (afterwards Queene) did hereby very much offend the Catholike Faith,Queene Eli­zabeth. because among all the Religions at that time in England; this Ladie was chiefe, not onely for holinesse of life, but also for her eminence of place, and dignity; being heyre apparant to the Crowne, and in whom the hope of King Henries issue onely remained.The hope of King Henrie his issue. And there­fore the right of Succession remaining in her Royal person, made her more than a priuate one, and made the euill of her Sisters perse­cution more monstrous, being directed a­gainst the life of one both holy, and a Prin­cesse, and to whom God had purposed, to giue the inheritance of these kingdomes, and the office to defend the profession of faith, and holy worship. And if wee but remember the most gratious gouernement of this Ladie,The gouern­ment when she was Q. the time shee was Queene, [Page 216] and how nobly shee hath defended the profession of Faith and Religion, wee shall thereby iudge how much euill Queene Marie had done, if the euill practise against her Si­ster Elizabeth had preuailed. Neuer any Defendresse nor euer any Queene in the world,Queene Eli­zabeth in­comparable. hauing finished Gods quarrell with more honour, or with better resolution than shee did. And therefore if this holy life had perished,What hurt the Q. death had bene to Christēdome the glory of her honoura­ble actions had bene preuented, neither had the world euer seene the admirations of her time, nor the seuerall states of christendome, euer had so noble a Patronesse to support them, in their iust quarrells, against the aspi­ring insolencie of the ambitious: nor had the holy Saints on earth liued secure, vnder the late protection of her mercifull wings, whose holy faith shee hath victoriously de­fended against all oppositions, cutting off (not by Pollicie) onely (as did Iudith) but by her power the head of Holophernes (Ido­latrie.) Iudith and Holopher­nes. And thus triumphing in the spoyle of Gods enemies shee hath purchased, an euerliuing name of honour, and an [Page 217] euerlasting inheritance in heauen, with God and with the Children of Faith,The glorie of Queene Eli­zabeths deeds. whose quarrell shee hath most honourably defen­ded.

15. And Queene Marie in seeking to destroy so holy a life did not the office of her Christian place, nor defend the quar­rell of Faith whereunto her title bound her.

16. In respect of State likewise,In respect of State. was this very euill in the Queene, because by this in­iurie to her neerest blood, shee sought to hinder the lawfull succession. For the La­die Elizabeth being dead, it might proue quarrelsome,The incon­uenience. who should next inherit. Queene Marie hauing no issue to succeed her, was like to leaue the State to much trouble, and to many Competitors. And if Queene Elizabeth had not succeeded,The glory of the English Nati [...] [...] of Q. Elizabeth. hap­pily our Nation had not bene so famous in the honour and reputation of warlike exer­cise as now it is, neither had it flourished in the glorie of Learning, nor in the trauell of industrious artes as it hath, nor had there bene that peace, that plentie, and that secu­rity [Page 218] which presently we enioy; nor happily had the State bene thus left as by her it is, to a Prince of peace,King Iames our Soue­raigne. full of hopefull issue, by whom and by whose posterity, England may hope neuer to want a noble Defendor of it, and of the Catholike Faith. And therefore God onely bee praised who did preuent the euill,God onely preuented the euill pur­pose of euill men. that euill men intended against that Ladie, against this Nation, and against the Catholike Faith. In all these respects may appeare the euill gouernement of these times,Queene Ma­rie led to di­shonourable ends. and how the Queene was led by di­shonourable meanes to an end most dan­gerous, the cause (as I haue said) was onely the too much trust the Queene gaue to euill Counsell whereby shee was violently carried against her owne Nature, to most vnchristian designes;The cause the perswa­sion of her conscience. for her conscience did perswade her, that those things were of absolute necessity, which (in truth) were altogether vnlawfull. And this was the Bishop of VVinchester Stephen Gardi­ners care,Winchester Gardiner. to set an edge on the Queenes offence, and to fit her for the stroake of persecution, whereto in her Nature she [Page 219] was not fit. And this hee did by the authority of his Religious place, where­to the Queene had speciall reuerence, framing her selfe to doe that onely, which in her abused conscience, shee thought was necessarie. For there is nothing can perswade like conscience,Nothing can perswade like consci­ence. which in men of all Religions will desire satisfaction and ease. And though our conscience iudge falsly of Truth, yet cannot that Iudgement bee vnsatisfied, whithout Torment and much affliction: neither is there any so powerfull to per­swade vs,Who are most power­full to per­swadevs. as them of whom we conceiue a reuerend opinion, and thinke Religious and holy; because the opinion of ho­linesse taketh away all suspition. And therefore many times men seeming de­uoute, and verie precise,Men see­ming deuout are best able to deceiue. are best able to deceiue; because they are best credited; the greatest pollititians working their most damned proiects by men profes­sing sanctimonious life: this being euer a foundation in that vile Art,The ground of euill pol­licie. that pretence and false couller are the hands of Pollicie, [Page 220] whereby shee effecteth that which other­wise were impossible. And if wee remem­ber the number of Conspiracies, and Treasonous designes attempted in this last age of the world,Who are the chiefe plot­ters and actors of treasons. we shall scarce finde any one wherein men professing Religion were not principalls, either plotters or practisers. The experience of the time, finding such men most fit instruments for such desperate attempts;Why Priests are most fit for treasons. because they dare doe any thing, and can keepe counsell, and as it is ieastingly said of playes, they are not pleasant without a Foole; so it may bee seriously said of Treasons, they are not bloodie without a Priest, The office of Iesuits. these men hauing got them a name of admiration, for acting the most horrible parts of blood and treason; wherein they haue approued themselues forward but most vnfortunane. And by these men was the better nature of Queene Marie much abused,By whom the Queenes na­ture was most abused. making her (by their euill counsell) become odious to posterity in shedding without mercy the blood of many holy Martyrs, treading vpon the face of truth, & dignifying Idolatrous & [Page 221] euill seruice. Vnfortunate Queene to be de­ceiued by these euill Ministers; but woe vn­to them by whom the offence came; happie had shee bene, if they had neuer bene, and happie were we, if with vs they were not, for where they are,Who they be that trouble the peace of Israel. there is Faction, Conspira­cie, and Treason; and it is they and their house onely (that is the house of Poperie) that troubleth Israell.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. There is nothing in this world, that can continue prosperity without all interruption. For the Spouse of Christ (the Church) had neuer any such immunity, but (like all other things, and for the worke of Gods glorie) she doth often vary her State, and like the Sunne often in clouds, and sometimes in Eclipse. The reason is the will of God who hath determined to leade vs [Page 222] through this wildernesse, our pilgrimage to new Ierusalem.

Secondly, It is the Popish Religion, but no Religion, to destroy and not correct, to iudge without mercy, and to bee ter­rible in the prosecuting their persecuti­ons. But our most diuine and sacred Lord Christ hath said Blessed are yee when ye suffer these things. Surely then cursed are they that doe them.

Thirdly, The iudgements of God haue relation to mens offence, being the effect of that cause, and therefore who knoweth but that God in iudgement to K. Henrie, gaue him this contrariety in his Children, to condradict and countermand one another in the forme of their gouernements, because the King himselfe was so full of contrarietie and vnsetled constancie, at one time perse­cuting both professions.

Fourthly,Pollitique. To reinduce the P [...]pall autho­rity into the English State was a maruellous improuidence in the Queene, and so direct against all rule of State, as that questionlesse the Queene in this made her iudgement [Page 223] yeeld to conscience (as she deemed it) which if she had not bene a woman, she would ne­uer haue done, or at the least neuer so done without all limitation

Fifthly, The Marriage of Queene Marie with Spaine, was an oportunity for Spaine to depresse the glory of this Nation, for if the Queene had had issue by him, the principality had bene translated to such a Prince, as may yet iustly bee feared, to what extremities his growing Empire in­tendeth.

Sixthly, The Queenes error in these pro­ceedings, was to receiue her State instructi­ons, from such Counsellors as did labour onely to frame her to their owne designes, not regarding the publike benefit of the State. For doubtlesse had the Queene bene ordered by her Pollitique State, or by any one Counsellor in the State of honourable quallity, she had not giuen so much of her title and Maiestie to Rome and Spaine as by the perswasion of her Clergie Counsell she did.

Seuenthly,Morall. So full of labour, strife and [Page 224] error is their life that vndertake the charge of much businesse and great place, that the Morall Philosophers doe pronounce them most happie and rich that can bee content with blessed pouerty.

Of certaine Discontents whereat Queene Marie tooke great offence.

FIRST, there is no man in this life, (especially if he be of great place or great spirit) that can free himselfe from occasions of discontent,No man can free himselfe from Dis­content. wherein euery man may make triall of his owne vertue, and exercise his Christian patience in his moderate bearing them:The greatest [...] seruitude. For there is no victory equall to that a man hath of himself, neither any seruitude so base as to be ouercome of Discont [...]nt. And therefore the most worthy men haue euer triumphed ouer Fortune, thinking it a deba­sing of their Noble spirits, to be vanquished by so meane an enemie. And howsoeuer [Page 226] such men (in common Construction) are reputed most miserable,The error of common iudgement. that haue most cause of griefe, yet in true vnderstanding it is otherwise: and then especially, when the grieued hath patience (that true part of Man-hood) whereby he is able to make the greatest burden of griefe easie.The power of patience. For so did the famous men in old time by manly Con­stancie, and so doe Christians now by pati­ence support a liuing courage, in the middest of greatest extremities: Yet euer must this moderation be regarded,A modera­tion in griefe that as our griefe may not vtterly deiect vs, so wee must haue sense to feele and apprehend it, least in the one extreame wee proue cowherds, in the other Fooles.For griefe is the true physicke of the minde. For griefe is the true phy­sicke of the minde, which being well ap­plied doth correct and heale vs, but other­wise it doth destroy and make desperate, and in this case doe men reuenge them­selues on themselues,The euill of discontent­ment. and double the measure of griefe wherewith they are af­flicted.

Secondly,Queene Ma­ries punish­ment. And this was Q▪ Maries punish­ment, who doubtlesse did verie much af­flict [Page 227] her selfe in the remembrance of her euill fortunes; some whereof I will relate, not obseruing the order of the time, where­in they were occasioned, but ranke them ac­cording to their degrees in greatnesse, and as the Queene found them most offensiue. And as the greatest, I remember first the trouble of her Conscience,The trouble of her consci­ence. whereby she be­came enemie to her selfe, and hatefull to her former proceedings,Her owne iudgement of her owne pro­ceedings. iudging them much more violēt, then the cause required, or then might stand with the honour of her name, and with the discharge of Christian Con­science, and this shee vnderstood by a gene­rall sense of mercy,Her Nature. whereto in her Nature shee was inclinable, and from which shee was violently moued by the breath of bad perswasion. For though the Queene was made to beleeue, that her vehement perse­cuting the Protestants Religion,Protestants. was necessa­rie for both states of Church and kingdome: yet when Christian blood was shed in that abundance,The queenes griefe. it much repented her; that shee (by that meanes) had giuen her name so bloody a remembrance. And in this case [Page 228] might she say of Gardiner and Bonner (as Ia­cob did of his two Sonns,Gardiner Bonner. Gen. 34. 30. Simion and Leui) that they had made her name odious to e­uery mans eares, and that therefore they were Children of Blood. And surely the re­morse of conscience, for her bloody gouern­ment,The Queene veri much in her selfe offended. did very much afflict the Queenes minde, whereof shee would oftentimes giue demonstration, and by words of dislike, wit­nesse how much she did distaste the furie of persecution, and the generall waste those fires had made in her Kingdomes.

Thirdly, Neither need this seeme strange to any that Q. Marie should dislike her selfe in her owne practise, because wee know that Princes (though they haue soueraigne pow­er ouer their Subiects;How the power of Princes is limited. yet hath it such limi­tation, as that Princes themselues, somtimes are not free, nor can compasse those ends, which most desirously they would; & some­times are they forced to that they would not. The reason is,The reason. because no prince in the world can support himselfe, without the assurance of his Subiects:Faction. and when the State is in Faction (as then it was for Religion) it is [Page 229] most dangerous for the Prince,Faction. to Discon­tent them by whom he is principally suppor­ted. And Queene Mary taking vpon her the protection of the Romish Religion, did then binde her selfe to the heads of that fa­ction, lest by discontenting them, she should haue runne her selfe into a generall offence, and so haue hazzerded the fortunes of her State.The torment of an offen­ded consci­ence. And this was to the Queene so great offence, as they onely can conceiue, who haue endured the torment of an offended conscience.

Fourthly, Another cause of Queene Ma­ries discontent was King Philip her husband,King Philip of Spaine. who either in truth or as she thought, did not so louingly respect her as the sacred bonds of marriage required, neither had shee issue by him according to her owne hope,Her want of issue. and the expectation of her Subiects, and this did very much offend the Queenes patience,The natures of women. being by the Nature of her Sex most inclinable to apprehend such discour­tesie, and the rather because of her princely place,The Kings not regar­ding her. and the great spirit of Maiestie, which shee wanted not. For the Kings not regar­ding, [Page 230] or his cold regarding her did conclude that (in his opinion) she wanted of that wor­thinesse he had formerly imagined, and that shee did not merit the truth of his loue and most kind affection,Her iealou­sie of her own merit. whereto his bond of Marriage did binde him, his not regarding her, debasing her in worth and estimation, whereat shee might worthily take offence; the rather because the Queene in her owne e­lection,The queenes deseruing of King Philip. had preferred him to her loue, and to the honour of that Marriage before all o­ther Princes in Christendome, communica­ting with him the honours of her Crowne and Dignities, to the hazzard of her life and State, being contrary to the generall liking of her Subiects, and for which had bene ve­ry dangerous Rebellion in her kingdome. And therefore this offence taking of the Queene, The queenes offence in re­spect of King Philip very causefull. was very causefull, and vpon iust consideration conceiued; shee hauing done so much for him that deserued so little, and he not recompensing the merit of her high deseruing.

Fifthly,The third cause of her Discontent was the losse of Callis. A third cause of Queene Maries griefe was the losse of Callis, a towne of most [Page 231] importance for the English State, especially considering the quarrell of those two king­domes, England and France, who (besides the English claime to that Crowne & Dignity) haue euer had an honourable Contention to exceed each other in the reputation of Armes and warlike exercise; neither is it in reason to bee hoped that these two warlike Nations shall alwayes conspire peace, and for euer forget the emulation and glorious conquests of former times, hauing these maine prouocations to hinder it,Note. the neare­nesse of place, the equallity of power, the difference of Religion, and the claime to the lawfull inheritance, the least of which occa­sions, may serue to incense a forward spirit with desire of honourable Warre and Con­quest.Prouocations to French warres. And then considering the importance of the Towne of Callis, for the English wars, and how by hauing it, the passage was euer open to enter that kingdome: and being re­couered by the French,Callis the key of France.England may be then said to haue lost the key, by which it hath heretofore so easily entred, In these respects had the Queene good cause to grieue at so [Page 230] [...] [Page 231] [...] [Page 232] dishonourable a losse,The reason of the Queenes griefe for the losse of Callis. and the rather it be­ing lost by a meane power and in little space, which had bene honourably defended ma­ny years against the whole power of France, and what other enuie soeuer to the glorie of her predecessors, the disaduantage of her Successors and her owne perpetuall disho­nour.

Sixtly & lastly,The rebellion of her sub­iects. the rebelling of her subiects did very much discontent her, because shee thereby vnderstood▪ how her gouernment was disliked, by many of her best Subiects. For though it bee not a necessary Conclu­sion, that where there is Rebellion, there the State is misgouerned: yet is Rebellion e­uer a cause that the gouernment is suspe­cted,Rebellion a cause that the gouerne­ment is sus­pected. and those grieuances that are able to prouoke such numbers of people against their Souereigne, are generally belieued to arise vpon more then common considera­tions.What is re­quired in the person of a Prince. And therefore it is required in the per­son of a Prince, not onely to bee of worthie deseruing, but also to seeme to be such, be­cause it is most needfull for them to satisfie opinion, without which no Prince in the [Page 233] world can be said to be great.

Seuenthly,The forward successe of the Rebells. Againe, the Rebells had such forward successe in their attempting, as thereby they did much distresse the Queene, and threaten the fortunes of her state. For if the proiect had proceeded according to their plot, and as it was deuised by the chiefe Conspirators; the issue was likely to haue proued much more dangerous. But Sir Thomas VVyat one of the chiefe Conspira­tors,One chiefe cause why they failed in their proiect. imagining the proiect was reuealed, dis­couered himselfe in Armes, before the pra­ctise was Ripe, and before the time agreed vpon; whereby he was vnassisted by his o­ther Confederates, and the practise by this meanes became abortiue and perished by vntimely birth; which in likelyhood had otherwise succeeded, if the whole power of the Conspirators,Sir Thomas Wyat of Kent. had bene vnited. Sir Thomas onely with his Countrie-men of Kent, hauing done so much as may seeme to haue wanted but little, to haue fini­shed the whole businesse. And this no doubt was GODS worke,God the ene­mie of all Conspirators who is enemie to euerie euill practise, bee the [Page 234] pretence neuer so fare and reasonable.

Eighthly, Those and many other occasi­ons of Discontent, had Queene Marie, where­by God gaue her to vnderstand, how much he was displeased with her bloodie gouerne­ment, and whereby (it may be) he had mer­cie on her weakenesse,Gods mercie in thus pu­nishing the Queene. in laying these gen­tle corrections on her, who had deserued the seuerity of his angrie Iustice; she being most vniust & most seuere in her persecuting the Children of faith, whom by the authority of her princely place shee was bound to pro­tect.The mercie of God to this Nation in the Queenes death. The God of mercy be for euer praised, who hath ended in this Kingdome the mise­rie of persecution, making it die in the Death of Queene Marie, in whose gouerne­ment it had got authority and life; and may it euer please God to deriue vpon his Church of England a perpetuall succession of holy and resolute Defendors of the Catholike Faith, to the honour of Gods diuine Ma­iestie, the good of his beloued Children (the Children of Faith) and the true glorie of the English Nation, Amen.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. Gods temporall afflictions are mercies, for they doe but remember vs our sinnes, and inuite our repentance; yet they haue contrarie effects in contrarie subiects. For to some they are physicke to others poyson, they rectifie some and de­stroy others. This difference haue the elect and the reprobate.

Secondly,Pollitique. The common pretenced quar­rell in all Rebellions, is either Religion, or vsurpation of Empire; yet neither of these can giue successe to such treasonable at­tempts, because they that would alter and transpose of Gods gouernement, and his of­ficers, doe but fight against his prouidence, and contradict God in his owne appoint­ments. In this case then, the best Pollicie is for men with patience to suffer, and let God with victorie doe.

Thirdly,Morall. Discontentment is such a sicknesse [Page 236] in the soule, as that where it is vnmodera­ted, there is a necessarie distruction. There­fore the wise Morall man will oppose this enemie with reason, and inuincible pati­ence and outtrude him from all society with his thoughts. For if there be any thing on Earth that can resemble hell it is Discon­tent.


FIRST, It is not in my purpose to reckon vp the seuerall opinions of men in this argument neither to discourse at large herein,The diuers opinions of men in this Argument. but onely to report my owne Iudgement, and that which I think is answerable in this que­stion to Religion and holy reason. For if this controuersie were disputed, according to the Pollitique practise of time,This contro­uersie must be iudged by Religion and not by pollicie and not by the rules of Religion, and reformed iudgement, it would be then verie controuersall, and re­quire large circumstance, because the Matchiuells of these times, diuersly disagree in their seuerall iudgements,The Testi­monie of God the best au­thority. but if men de­sire onely to satisfie conscience, to such men the testimonie of God is sufficient, which [Page 238] ought to square the practises of all degrees of Christian men, and to determine all con­trouersies, be they neuer so important; But this tryall hath not alwaies authority in go­uernement meerely pollitique, for Religion and Pollicie, Religion and Pollicie two diuers. are two diuers (or rather in full opposition) and that (many times) in the practise of State is commendable which in the iudgement of Religion is most dam­nable,The differēce of their ends and practise. because they conspire not one, but disagreeing ends, neither can the quarrell of these two be euer reconciled, but onely by these conditions, that Piety may command Pollicie, How to re­concile piety and pollicie. and that such Pollicie may bee onely in Christian States allowable as may be ser­uant to the worke of holinesse, and iudged lawfull by the sentence of true Religion. And if these respects, had regard in Christian States, then should not Christendome haue had that dishonourable imputation, to bee reputed (of the barbarous Nations) vnfaith­full and full of dishonourable practise: wherein the Popes haue especially abused the Christian Faith,The Popes haue abused the Christian Faith. who (vnder the outward face of holinesse) haue contriued and effe­cted [Page 239] Conspiracies and Treasons of most horrible report, and such as neuer were the like by men or diuells inuented.

Secondly, And these euill Ministers doe arrogate to themselues,The Pope doth chal­lenge autho­rity to li­cence Rebel­lion. authority (which they would deriue from God) not onely to license Rebellion in a Christian State, but al­so to command it vpon paine of damnati­on; a power which neuer any Christian Prince durst challenge, and a pollicie, where­by they haue principally inriched them­selues,How the Pope doth inrich him­selfe. with wealth and dignities, taken at the spoyle of Christian Princes; and where­with he doth yet vnderprop the falling state of his Empire. And this how vnequall it is with Gods Word, may appeare to any iudgement,The Pope no follower of any holy example. there being no example in the Storie of the Bible for his imitation, where any Priest did euer challenge any such soue­raigne authority.

Thirdly, And in respect of State practise,In respect of State pra­ctise. there was neuer any thing more dishonou­rable, then for Princes and free States to en­ter voluntary into a seruitude so base & sla­uish, taking their honours from their owne [Page 240] heads, to dignifie their mortall enemy, and to feed his ambition, which (like Hell) can­not be satisfied, who hath euer fed vpon the bowels of their wealth, and on the blood of Saints, and doth glorifie himself in the spoile of Christian Princes, and thus will doe, vntill God shall please to destroy him with the breath of his displeasure.

Fourthly, The example of K. Dauid The exam­ple of King Dauid. may suffice to conclude against this doctrine, who notwithstanding he had Gods promise to in­herit the kingdome of Israel, being by the Prophet anointed (by which God did crown him King) and knowing moreouer, that God had forsaken his master Saul, hauing taken his good Spirit from him, whereby he was Anathemate, and interdict by the sen­tence of God himselfe;Dauid would not conspire the death of Saul though he were a Reprobate. yet did not Dauid (for all this) conspire against his master Saul, but onely sought to secure his life, by with­drawing him from the kings presence, who hee assuredly knew did seeke after his life. And when opportunity was offered him so fit,Dauid refu­seth the offer of opportuni­tie to reuēge. as that he at one stroake, might both haue reuenged the iniuries of his greatest Enemy, [Page 241] and vpon such an Enemy, as stood betweene him and a Kingdome, yet would he not de­stroy him being vrged thereto by the earnest perswasion of his follower, but withstood both them and opportunity, induring the trouble of his Conscience, for presuming to cut off (not his Masters head, but) the lap of his garment only.

Fiftly,1 Sam. 24. v. 5, 6, 7. Another time Saul pursuing after Dauid to destroy him was found by Dauid and Abishai, sleeping with his speare at his head, as if occasion should haue led Dauid to an opportunity most fit, and thus haue per­swaded him.Arare ex­ample of a holy King. See, here is thy enemy sleeping, and here is a weapon to destroy him; which aduantage when Abishai would most gladly haue imbraced, he was disswaded by Dauid, with this answere;Note. Destroy him not, for who can lay his hand vpon the Lords Anointed,1 Sam. 2. 6. 9and be guiltlesse: whereby hee concludeth it to be impossible for any man whosoeuer, to conspire the death or dammage of his soue­raigne,Dauid and the Pope disagree in their opini­ons. with the testimonie of good consci­ence. And this opinion of King Dauids, is aduerse to the practise of the Romane State, [Page 242] which hath often laid their hands of blood, and death vpon the Lords annointed; nei­ther haue they euer done as Dauid did, de­nie the offer of fit occasion to reuenge, wherein they are answerable to their Italian prouerbe.An Italian prouerbe Count Bal­tezer.If thy enemie be vp to his knees in wa­ter, reach him thy hand to helpe him: But if hee stand vp to the Chinne, set thy foot vpon him to destroy him.

Sixthly, Now if King Dauids example and authority will not serue, because he was but Man, I will then produce his witnesse, who was both God and Man the Lord Iesus; who commanded the Iewes, The exam­ple of Christ. to giue obedience to Caesar in all those duties which respect Soue­raignty; though Caesar did not acknowledge the Iewish Religion, but rather did persecute that profession. Neither did he perswade re­bellion against the Romane state, though in his diuine wisedome he did foresee that the Kingdome of the Iewes, (which he so much loued) should be vtterly wasted by the pow­er of the Romanes, God who on­ly maketh Kings, can onely depose them. whereby hee would teach vs, that as by God (onely) Kings do Reigne, so by him onely are they both supported, [Page 243] (and as he shall onely please,) are they dis­planted and deposed from their dignities.

Seuenthly, It is euident then, by the testi­monie of them who are most holy and abso­lute, (that no earthly man by the authority of his place) hath or can giue license, to con­spire, against any Soueraigne power what­soeuer,No earthly power can giue licensce for Rebellion. and the reason is, because there is no power but from God, and the powers that be are ordained of God: and therefore to resist that power, is to withstand God and his ordinance, and to condemne the forme of Gods gouernement. And such are all they, who goe about to translate authority, where God hath not giuen it, and to throw downe and depose them whom God hath esta­blished, and such are all they who either plot or practise Rebellion, Conspiracie, or Trea­son,All traytors oppose a­gainst Gods prouidence. or that can giue allowance thereto. Trai­tors they be to God, Traitors to their Prince, Traitors to their Countrie and to them­selues, Traitors whom God will withstand as Traitors, and iudge as Enemies.

Eighthly,The Pope his Dispensation. And though the Pope challenge to be able, to giue that dispensation, which [Page 244] Iehu had giuen him of God; yet is that one­ly presumption in the Pope, for neither is he God to giue any such warrant, neither is he Gods Prophet, whose authority we may trust, neither doth God reueale his will immedi­ately to the Pope, as he did to his Prophet Elisha, neither haue his Iehues euer had that fortune and prosperous successe, as had this; God confounding many thousands of their damned and Rebellious practises, to the honour of his name and to the shame of all such euill Ministers, for this is an vnan­swerable argument, that the Popes power to dispence in this kinde is not from God, be­cause many of their practises succeed not, which if they were from God they must of necessity prosper. And therefore neither Prince, Priest, or Pope, can giue dispensati­on in this kinde. God onely being able to make that lawfull, which without his speciall direction is most damnable.

A Comparison betweene Queene Mary of England, and the Queene-Mother of France, Katherine de Me­dices.

THESE two Ladies,Queene Mary. Queene Ka­therine. of all whom the Histories of our times record, are nearest sutable to a para­lell; hauing beene both of them honourable in place of dignity, both of them admirable in endowments of Nature, and both of them transported by ill counsell, too much effusion of Christian blood, by [Page 246] persecution of the Protestant Religion in the seuerall precincts of their gouerne­ment. I desire not to disparrage the me­morie of noble personages. Historie will speake vnpartially; and the Christian hearts which reade or heare of their persecutions,Commisera­tion and Christian pittie. will compassionate the troubles which holy men haue endured: and though the sense of sorrowes bee past and not sensible to them who indured them; yet will the knowledge of them beget a kinde of sense of those sorrowes which other men haue formerly sustained; and (according to our affections) as wee loue or hate the cause it selfe, so shall wee giue our cen­sure of the Authors of the persecutions. I forbeare therefore to prosecute the com­parison in particulars;The woman a weake Sexe. the more, because I pittie the frailty of their Sexe, which ha­uing but weake iudgement, is the lesse able to make resistance against stronge tempta­tions. I onely deplore their ill hap, to sucke the milke of so venimous a breast as the Church of Rome; which is indeed the Circe of the world, transforming men [Page 247] by her enchanted potions into beasts, and metamorphosing euen the innocent dispo­sition of gentle Ladies,The vene­mous nature of the Romish doctrine. and Princesses into a Leonine and Tiger like sauagenesse; that Lupa Romana, which as shee first foste­red Romulus with the teats of a shee-Woolfe, so nurseth now all others with the like milke, and propoundeth the highest re­wards of heauen to them that will most play the hell-hounds vpon earth; shee which puts Princes vpon persecution of the Church vn­der colour of zeale for the Church, and stirres vp Subiects to rebellion by pretense of piety, and giues the lawrell of Martyr­dome vnto Treason: to her we are to im­pute the miscarriages of these and many other worthyes, whose better nature was empoysoned by bad principles instilled into them: especially we may commiserate her of France, because her persecution there feasted Saint Bartholmew with more Christi­an soules at one Supper,Saint Bar­tholmewes supper of S [...]ul [...]. then perished by Queene Mary the whole time of her life: pray we almighty God, that the bloud suc­king tyranny of that Romish strumpet may [Page 248] haue an end; that shee may bee no longer drunken with the bloud of the Saints, nor the Princes of the earth no more intoxica­ted with her cups of abominations; and so passe we from this sorrowfull and sad theme to the ioyfull times of blessed Queene ELI­ZABETH.

OF THE NEXT DEFENDRES OF THE Faith, Queene ELIZABETH, and by what difficulties she attained the King­dome.


FIRST, I am now againe to change my Argument, the gouernement being thus happily changed, and to report a time of mer­cie, and not misery; of preseruation and not persecution, and how the Catholike Faith was defended not offen­ded; of Queene Elizabeth, and not Queene Marie Sisters (indeed) by the bond of Na­ture, but most disagreeing in the gifts of [Page 250] Grace, and holy ornaments. The one defa­cing, the other restoring, the one wounding, the other saluing, the one offending, the o­ther defending the most Catholike Faith, Queene Marie in blood,The differēt nature of two Sisters. Queene Elizabeth in peace, in peace with God, in peace with his Saints, in peace with all men, saue the ene­mie of God and Man, the Idolatrous and false worship of Antichrist, the which (with most zealous resolution) shee hath most victoriously opposed, to the eternall honour of her name on earth, and to her euerlasting happinesse in heauen; where now shee hath most honourable place among the fellow­ship of those holy ones, who haue best fought the Lords quarrell, and best defen­ded the profession of Faith: and as it is said, the daie and night diuide the yeare like in­different partners:The day and night diuide the yeare. so we may say, that these two Sisters, Queene Elizabeth and Queene Ma­rie, haue diuided the Renowne of the world, Queene Elizabeth (like the day) ha­uing got the better part of fame, honoura­ble and holy remembrance: and Queene Marie her Sister (like the night) the worse [Page 251] part a name of blood, which being vttered, reduceth to memorie the stories of blood; and how the Saints of God were slaughte­red, whereby shee her selfe is made more blacke than night, in giuing her name so blacke and so bad a remembrance.

Secondly,The differēce of good and bad. This difference of good and bad is (indeed) very common in the gene­rations of mankinde, and not common to any other kinde of creature saue Man. For inuegitable things we see, that from one roote doe proceede many branches, yet all of them of one and the same Nature, and all bearing one and the same fruit: but in the generations of Man it is otherwise, for from on Father commonly proceedeth children of disagreeing quallities,The differēce of Natures. as from one Adam was deriued both righteous Ha­bel: and a wicked Caine, and from one Isaac, a Iacob and an Esau, and so from one Henrie an Elizabeth, and a Marie, a day and a night, a mercie and a miserie, a blessed protector and a most bloodie persecutor of the Chri­stian Faith. And therefore was King Henrie much in Gods sauour, and to vs was hee fa­uourable, [Page 252] in making the greater part of the Kings Children the better part,Of King Henries hap­pinesse. (which sel­dome to any one man liuing happeneth. God in his anger gaue our Nation but one Marie, but in his loue he gaue vs both an Edward and an Elizabeth, for so is God dou­ble as much in mercie as in iudgement;God is double as much in mercie as in Iudgement. nei­ther will he that hath care ouer all his crea­tures, suffer the cause hee so deerely loueth to want protection, but if he giue his Church a Marie to trie it in the fire of persecution, he will also giue it an Elizabeth, to restore and refresh it. Such was our noble Defendresse, whose care did medicine the bodie of Reli­gion and State,Queene Eli­zabeth is helper to cure the wounds her Sister had made in the State. which her Sister had grie­uously wounded. And for my owne parti­cular, though there was neuer any Princesse in the world, whose name I would more gladly honour than Queene Elizabeth, yet dare I not take vpon me to report her worth (not for that I feare the face of any man in that honest performance) but because I am farre vnable to giue so much of honourable remembrance as her most princely life hath well deserued: and by fayling (in reporting [Page 253] lesse than truth) I shall wrong the reputati­on of her name, which most tenderly I loue, and whereto I will euer be a seruant. And therefore let such as desire to know her worth;Wherein we may behold the deserts of Queene Eli­zabeth. reade the large storie thereof, in the most honourable deeds of late times, there being almost no memorable Act in Chri­stendome, for the space of fortie yeares of her time, wherein she had not some part of princely deseruing; Let him view the pros­perous face of this Nation, and therein be­hold her merit, let him remember her fortu­nate & victorious in her most famous victo­ries, wise in the gouernement of her state, iust in the liberty of Lawes, mercifull in iudgement, and iust in determining, Let him remember England, France, Scotland, Ireland, Spaine, Portingale, Italy and Belgica, and all the quarters of Christendome, in euery part whereof is spread the remembrance of her merit, let him aske the Turke, the Tartare and those Emperours of most distance, and they can report the honour and name of Queene Elizabeth; Let him inquire at the enuie of the greatest Potentates in Christendome, and [Page 254] that will declare her worthie of most worthie praise: if there be any one a stranger in this Israell, and doth not or will not know her merit, let him consult with these, or with any of these, and he may receiue satisfaction & better knowledge: or if this suffice not to make her enough honourable, let him re­member how her holy hands put out the fires of trouble and grieuous persecutions, loosing the holy Martyrs from the stakes of of death and (like Gods Angell) binding the mouth of death,The highest of her deserts and tribulation which had wasted a great part of Gods inheritance. And then how shee restored the Truth of Gods seruice, vtterly abolishing Idolatrie & grosse superstition▪ And this is that which best merited honourable remembrance; in­somuch as if I had enuie and coueted to ob­scure her princely deseruing, this her most godly act, would (in despight of enuie and me) declare her most worthie, and con­demne the enuious breach of all them that dare traduce her.In respect of greatnesse & goodnesse. And therefore I dare bold­ly say of Queene Elizabeth, that in respect both of greatnesse and goodnesse, she was [Page 255] such an Empresse as the world neuer had a­nother to match her; and for her Sex shee was such a woman as (worthily) may be said to haue exceeded all other but that most sa­cred Virgin▪ Virgin Ma­rie. with whom I neither will nor dare make comparison.

Thirdly, Now that wherein Queene Eli­zabeth was most absolute,Queene Eli­zabeth most excellent in the respects of mercie and Maiesty. was principally in those heauenly respects of mercie & Ma­iestie, wherein I thinke she was most excel­lent and without comparison; the which, like two hands she applied to euerie good worke of Church and Common-Wealth; for by her mercie she approued her self most Christian, and by her Maiestie a most Prin­cely Soueraigne. In both which respects, was this Ladie so singular, as if Grace and Nature had giuen them for ornaments to make her most excellent, and as if God would (by her) demonstrate to the world surpas­sing he can make that Creature vpon whom he shall cast his heauenly ornaments. Nei­ther doe I thinke it disparagement to any Prince in the world,Disparage­ment. that I report Queene Elizabeth most excellent, both because shee [Page 256] was so in true estimation; and also for that it may suffice (for the honour of any prince) to come neere Queene Elizabeth in these ho­nourable deseruings, she being matchlesse for mercie vnlesse in the comparison of K. Iames our Soueraigne,King Iames. and her successor which with her Kingdomes hath inherited that most gratious indument. But for Ma­iestie she was neuer exceeded,The Queene matchlesse for Maiestie. neither can I giue that comparison without wrong to Queene Elizabeth, and flatterie to them whom I should compare her.

Fourthly, And were I worthie to aduise in a matter so serious,An importāt aduise to all Princes. there is no Prince in the world whom I loue; to whom I doe not wish this regard of Maiestie, for there is no­thing more necessarie in the person of a Prince then Maiestie, which when it hath the moderation of mercie and aduised iudge­ment to order it, it is then of most excellent beauty, and of most speciall vse. Because where it is thus ordered,A Reason. it begetteth in mens hearts an admiration and a Reuerence to the person of such Maiesty, for common­ly that which men admire they loue, and [Page 257] too much familiarity doth oftentimes beget presumption, and neglect of dutie, neither is there any thing that doth more incour­rage disobedience in Subiects, than remisse­nesse and want of Maiestie in the souereigne. And this is pretily alluded in the fable of the frogges,Esop in mo­rall Fables. to whom (demāding a King) Iu­piter cast into a poole where they were assē ­bled, a block which falling with much noise stroake a terror and a Reuerend feare in the Frogges; but when they perceiued it bloc­kish, and to want Maiestie, leape and insult ouer it in derision and scorne, hating to giue their obedience to that which wanted the Maiestie to command them. And this Morall did Queene Elizabeth well vnderstand, who most Princelike did euer maintaine the Ma­iestie of her high place, yet euer with the wisedome of such moderation,The queenes moderation. as that her Maiestie was mercifull, and her mercie ma­iesticke, of these two principalls compoun­ding a gouernement most honourable and vertuous.

Fifthly, Such was this noble Queene, and much more noble than I can report her, who [Page 258] before she was Queene, Her defence of Faith be­fore she was Queene. did worthily defend the profession of the Catholike Faith, euen to the hazard of her princely life. God giuing her that relish of aduersity, the better to taste the pleasures of her most happie time which was to follow. And if the particulars of her troubles were indifferently considered, she would be found very constant, and faith­full to God-ward; and to haue indured much for the testimonie of Faith, and to haue had a glorious Conquest ouer all the enemies of her religious life.An euill pra­ctise to disin­herit the Queene. First, their pra­ctise who thought to dis-inherit her, and her Sister, by intruding into the seate of this Empire the Ladie Iane, whereby it was like­ly the inheritance should haue bene conuey­ed another way, and translated into ano­ther Succession, which could not haue bene without apparant danger of her life and her Sisters; because authority that is vsurped, cannot bee otherwise secured but by their death that can make lawfull claime:Note. yet God who doth euer protect truth did otherwise dispose of this great businesse;Her trouble in her Sisters time. but if we com­pare this with her trouble (in the time of her [Page 259] Sisters gouernement) the comparison will make this little, and that monstrous; she ha­uing indured so much for the tryall of her Faith, as may well approue her to bee most valiant in Christian patience, and to haue worthily defended the profession of the Catholike Faith, before shee was made De­fendresse; the storie of which her most ver­tuous suffering,Queene Eli­zaheths Teares. I haue heretofore writ­ten in verse; and therefore in this place I forbeare to make particular Narration of that which formerly I haue declared. And in this I receiue speciall contentment, that in my knowledge of this Souereigne La­die Queene Elizabeth, I dare confidently report to haue found more (in the trauell of my time) than King Salomon withall his experience and wisedome could euer finde,Salomon. A good wo­man. A good Woman.


FIRST, [...] common with God then to helpe, when the disease is highest, and the expectation of good is furthest off, for in this doth God shew his omnipotencie, and the difference betweene the actions of himselfe, and his creatures; for man to pro­duce his effects doth couet the aduantage of naturall fitting causes, but it is sufficient cause in God that he is willing.

Secondly, There is this difference in the punishments of good and euill men, tempo­rall, and eternall; the good mans temporall punishment must of necessity end; the euill mans spirituall punishment hath an euerla­sting necessity of being. For God hath deter­mined all men to taste of both cups, but with different measure.

Thirdly,Pollitique. It was a wisedome both Religi­ous and Pollitique in the Queene to enter her State with generall peace; for though shee [Page 261] had the sword of authority in her hand, and found in the power of her command such as had bene very grieuous vnto her; yet did she like a wise Princesse take no further re­uenge, then onely name them for her ene­mies, and so distinguish them from better friends. For it is most needfull for a Prince at the entring his State, to gaine the opinion of mercie, because there is nothing can bet­ter secure him, then the hearts and faithfull seruice of his people.

Fourthly,Morall. There is this greatnesse euen in men of inferior fortune, that they either dispise the dignities they haue not, or can with a modest patience hope them. For see­ing that all worldly things are moued with variable motions; what man can haue rea­son to dispaire the fortune of some prospe­ritie.

Of the first Act of Queene Eliza­beths defence for the Catholike Faith after she was Queene.

FIRST, Queene Elizabeth (in her gratious disposition) was like the sune, which no sooner is vp, but it riseth to the com­fort of all Creatures: so the Queene no soo­ner in the seate of Maiestie, but she applyeth her cares to the vse of mercie and vertuous deeds, casting vpon the generall face of this Nation, her heauenly aspect and influence, which (in the blacke time of her Sisters go­uernement) lay in the shadow of darkenesse and blacke obscurity. And as the neerest to her Religious heart she beginneth (being of [Page 263] important consideration) first with Gods cause Religion, Her first care for Religion. A loue prin­cipium. laying that for her foundati­on, whereupon she determined to erect the whole frame of her holy life; For shee well vnderstood, there was nothing could sup­port her in the true estimation of honour and vertuous liuing but Religion without the exercise whereof, all other things are vitious and of euill merit. And therefore did she pur­sue this end with a most stedfast resolution, daring to doe any thing (were it neuer so hazerdous) that might aduantage it, and re­mouing euery impediment, which any way might hinder the prosperity of that procee­ding. And because she found the bodie of her State dangerously wounded by disor­der,The queenes care to cure the diseased State. and euill gouernement, she therefore (very carefully, and skilfully) applieth pre­sent remedie, least otherwise the disease might proue incureable, and the cause of Religion might then bee like the common cause of Patients, The practise of bad physi­sitions. who haue their patience tryed by deferments and lingring cures, which in the trade and practise of many bad Physitions is very frequent. And this disgrace [Page 264] hath the Queene well auoided, in determi­ning first the generall cause of the Com­mon-Wealth, before any particular end that might respect her owne priuate.

Secondly, The euidence of this her holy and princely care is most apparant in the re­storing of Religion, to that Truth and Autho­ritie, Her resto­ring Religion to purity of Doctrine. wherein in King Edwards time it was worthily established, abolishing superstiti­ous Poperie, which in the time of Queene Ma­rie her Sister, had vsurped the place and dig­nitie of true Religion. And this false worship hath Queene Elizabeth (like a most victo­rious Empresse) for euer vanquished, brin­ging it downe to that pouertie of strength, as the fauourers thereof haue little reason euer to hope a restauration of that, which she and her Successor,Poperie for euer banished from this Iland. our Soueraigne King Iames haue for euer banished from the bonds of great Brittaine.

Thirdly, And in this hath Queene Elizabeth very fortunately defended the Catholike Faith, King Ed­ward ouer­matched by Queene Eli­zabeth. and finished that holy quarrell with as much honour, as euer did any Christian Prince before her, being in this worthily [Page 265] able to match if not, to ouer match her most princely brother K. Edward, (who but for her) may be thought (for his holy care) singular and without comparison.

Fourthly, To reckon vp the particulars of Queene Elizabeths merit, were a needlesse tra­uell, both because I cannot so report them as they are worthly, and also because they are yet visible in the view of the gouerne­ment of the Church and State of England, Her desert visible in the face of En­gland. as now it standeth; our Church being still in the flourish of that prosperity, wherein shee left it established to the next Defendor of the Faith, and wherein K. Iames her successor our Souereigne doth yet continue it, and wherein (we hope) it will be euer continued in his hopefull posterity.

Fifthly, This noble beginning of Queene Elizabeth, was so much to the aduancement of the Catholike Faith, that being (by report) made knowne to the world, was a cause that the Children of faith who (in Queene Maries time) did willingly banish themselues into places of farre distance;The retur­ning of holy men from banishment to England. now hearing of this alteration resort againe to their Countrie, [Page 266] and to the protection of this Noble Defen­dresse, who did free them from the miserie of persecution, and vnder whose defence they peaceably enioyed their liues and the libertie of Reformed Conscience. And with this holy exordium did Queene Eli­zabeth begin the Storie of her vertuous life.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. It is a precept giuen vs by our best Master. First seeke the Kingdome of God. This lesson had the Queene learned from that Doctor, who therefore did applie her first cares to this principall end, for which God did succeed her in others; for it is vn­questionable true, that he that seeketh God, shall finde all his necessarie things though he seeke them not.

Secondly,Pollitique. The Queene by her direct ma­nifesting her resolute purpose how in the case of Religion, she was resolued, was both in her selfe Religious, and had this Pollitique [Page 267] respect, that thereby shee tooke feare from her friends, and hope from her enemies, ma­king hope and feare shift places, for that did satisfie the expectation of her friends, which in such case is doubtfull, and preuent the forward hopes of the contrary faction, which in all such alterations is ouer-daring.

Thirdly,Morall. There is this benefit in afflictions that their vse and acquaintance, make men valiant and able to vndergoe all fortunes, for it is possible to make pleasure of sor­rowes, and to vse them for recreations.

Fourthly, It is a commendable pride, mo­destly to esteeme ourselues in our aduersi­ties, but hee that can moderate his pride in his prosperities, is thought the more rare ex­ample, and deserues imitation.

Of certaine considerations, which in respect of Pollicie might haue di­swaded the Queene from re­forming the State of Religion.

FIRST, It may seeme strange to many that their should bee any consideration able to diswade from doing well or that any by-respect should be so respected, as to with­draw the purpose of one resolued to ho­ly cares. And this in truth were strange, if common experience did not teach vs other­wise.Experience. For it is often times seene that such men who haue gained fauour in generall o­pinion, and are assuredly thought to be con­stant, and most resolute, in that wherein they are so reputed, doe notwithstanding [Page 269] fall off from this their reputed Constancie, and yeeld themselues ouercome by the per­swasion of dishonest and by considerations.

Secondly, And therfore is their iudgement much deceiued who belieue that any thing in this world is of that assurednes, & vnuaria­ble cōstācie,Nothing that is earth­ly is free from incon­stancie. as that no time, nor any perswa­sion can altar. For the most excellent men, & the most excellent vertues of men, are not supported by their owne power, or by any earthly assistance, but by the hand of God only: in so much that when this most absolute power, shall not supply to any particular, the strength of such a one is but weakenes, & his constancie but faintnes;God the one­ly supporter of mens re­solution. because (without this heauenly prop) he cannot support the body of his vertues, and so of necessity both he and they must incline to bad alteration: if then the question were demanded, what should be the condition of all men? I would answer, to bee constant in their holy purpo­ses:The nature of all men. but if it be demanded what is the Na­ture of all men? I answer, that all of all manner of conditions, are inclineable to euil onely and that such who ascend the degrees [Page 270] of best reputation, doe it not by their own [...] power, neither haue they power to conti­nue that state, but naturally cast themselues from those deseruings whereunto God hath raised them. Be it therefore the euerlasting honour of their names, who haue valiantly resisted the power of those earthen tempta­tions, and haue had their regardfull eyes to holy and Religious ends onely. And such was Queene Elizabeth, Queene Eli­zabeth most constant. who (in respect of her dangerous fortunes, was assuredly much tempted to these earthly regards, the which she nothing regarded in comparison of her heauenly cares, whereto she was wholly and assuredly deuoted.

Thirdly, And therefore I report not what could, but what would haue diswaded the Queene (in respect of Policie) from refor­ming Religion; and I will plainly expresse my selfe in this particular, because I would most gladly auoid the euil of misconceiuing which commonly ariseth from doubtful vn­derstanding.To auoid the miscōceiuing

Fourthly,The Queene neuer fain­ted in her re­solution. And for the Queene, though she neuer fainted in the care shee had vnderta­ken [Page 271] for Religion, but euer continued her course in one resolute passage, and euer trauelled therein with much prosperity and honour; yet there wanted not many re­gards of Policie, Yet much tempted by state conside­rations. and state considerations, which might haue allured her, from her ho­ly constancie, and haue made her more remisse and colde in the pursuit of her holy businesse; such as heretofore haue altered the strongest purposes of other Christian Princes, and such as would haue altered the Queene her selfe, had not God (by the power of his Grace) giuen her extraordina­rie supportations. For (as I haue said) Re­ligion and Pollicie respect not alwaies one end,Religion & Pollicie re­spect diuers ends. neither doe they worke by one and the same meanes. And though in Christian Common-Wealths it is most needfull that Religion order state,Religion ought to or­der state. and that Christian Princes suffer themselues to be directed by the Law of God, and by the dutie of Consci­ence;Religion is peruerted and Scrip­ture wrested to maintaine vnlawfulnes. yet in the practise of many states it is otherwise, where the truth of Religion is peruerted, and the sense of Scripture wrested, to maintaine the vnlawfull vse of such [Page 272] state practises, as (in the truth of holy iudgement) are most damnable.

Fifthly, This truth is euident in the go­uernement of such Christan States,In Popish states. whereby license, dispensation and pardons, men may adulterate, lye and Murther, and by the fa­uour of their lawes, commit such outrage as (in the iudgement of Gods Law) is death:Regards of state. and these are regards of State, which (for ad­uantage and profit) tollerate and protect those things, which (in the stricktnesse of Conscience) are altogether vnlawfull.

It is euident then both by generall obser­uation and by speciall instance that Christi­an Princes haue many earthly prouocations to withdraw them from the zealous pursuite of holy & Religious purposes, and that God onely is able to support the best, and most worthie, from dishonourable recusancie; and from retyring from those diuine seruices, whereunto they haue with great hope and much acclamation entred.

Sixthly, And in this noble deseruing hath Queene Elizabeth exceeded many of her prin­cely predecessors; and therefore I report [Page 273] this as one the chiefe of all her honourable deeds,One of the chiefe of Q. Elizabeths honourable deeds. whereby she hath well declared her selfe beloued of God, constant in her holy purpose, and best able to defend the holy quarrell of the Catholike Faith. For by this victorie she had of her selfe,The victorie she had of her selfe. she hath done that which all the world could not doe; God hauing made her inuincible, and not to be conquered but by her selfe.

Seuenthly, To relate the seuerall conside­rations of state were much trauell & imper­tinent to this busines; because the number of them is great, & for the much diuersity, they altering according to the variable gouerne­ment of state, and as the alterations of time would make them vseful. I wil therfore (on­ly) report some few which at this time, and in this state were very considerable.The first con­sideration of State. And first the alteration the State indured by the Q. altering Religion: for she could not but vn­derstand, that her new forming the order of Religion in her Kingdomes,The danger of altering Religion. (was in the wisedome of State) very hazerdous;A Reason. because thereby she must needs discontent the greater number of her subiects, whereby [Page 274] shee became subiect to the displeasure of her owne people, and lesse able to suppresse the disobedience of such as should dare to at­tempt against her. For at this time the Pro­testant Religion (to which the Queene was zealously deuoted) had not equall greatnes in this Kingdome, with that of the Romish, the Papist exceeding the Protestant in Number and power.The Queene made choise of the weaker to assist her against the stronger. And therefore the Queene (in her election) made choise of the weaker and lesse able part, to support her against her better prouided enemies. And this shee would not haue done, if shee had yeelded to this perswasion of State, or had regarded the dignity of her temporall life,Her holy trust. more than the honour and dignity of her Christian Name. But she that could not be ouercome with euill, ouercame this euill temptation, and resisted the power thereof by her vertue and godly constancie.

Eighthly,The second State consi­deration was the difficul­ty in finishing Againe, the Q in thus altering the State of Religion, did attempt a matter very difficult, and of no easie performance, and this she might vnderstand by her iudge­mēt in Philosophie, & by obseruing the course [Page 275] of all naturall things. For we see that those things which moue themselues,An argumēt from the or­der of nature in their na­turall motiō, are carried with lesse vehemēce then those that are moued by violent & for­ced meanes. And the body of this kingdome (at that time of the Q. entering the state) mo­uing in the fauour of romish religion, wher­in it had formerly moued for many yeares, could not without much violence and great difficultie be moued against that customary motion,The impor­tance of this consideration nor be forced to retire backe in the same steps, wherein it had formerly procee­ded: and therfore this difficulty in finishing was a consideration of state, which (in respect of state) might haue diswaded the Q. holy care from the reforming of religion, & which would haue preuailed with any prince in the world, who had regarded the felicity of their temporal life, more than the honour of God or the prosperity of the Catholike Church.

Ninthly,Third con­sideration. The displea­sure of for­reigne prin­ces. the discontentment of her neigh­bour nations▪ & the displeasure of the grea­test part of Christian princes, was a speciall consideration, and such as that nothing but grace could be able to withstand, for it is ne­cessarie [Page 276] & natural in the Natures of Princes, & in the spirits of great persons,The desires of great per­sons. to desire ge­nerall reputation, and that their names may liue in the fauour of good estimation, hating to be held hatefull, or not to haue place, in the loue of their neighbour nations. For this forreigne regard as it exceedingly cotenteth the noble spirits of such as desire it;The vse of forreigne regard. so also it is most behoofull for the security of their persons & states; kingdomes and great states being in this respect like particular men,In respect of England. not able to liue in prosperity, and flourishing wealth, without cōmunicating to each other their seueral profits: neither is there any part in the world, where the regard of cōfederacy & forraigne cōbination is so behoofull as in the states of christendome,A Reason. because of the e­quall partage of christendome to many seue­rall princes, whereby they liue in iealousie of one another; & cōmonly confederate with such forreigne power, as (in the discretion of state) is thought to be of most conueniency, both to aduance the glory of their nation, & to aduantage them against their most feared enemies, wheras it is otherwise in the spatious [Page 277] gouernement of mighty Empires;The Spany­ard hath now larger Do­minions than the Duke of Muscouy. such as at this day the Turke, the Persian and the Russian Emperours be, and such as heretofore the Ro­mane Emperours were, who (by reason of their huge bodies of State,) moue almost without resistance, neither care these migh­ty Emperours (so much) to confederate with their Neighbours, because they know that (of necessity) those lesser states must like Riuers discharge their seruice into their Ocean.Englād in the midst of ma­ny disagree­ing Nations. But this Kingdome of England being in the middest of many disa­greeing Nations. This consideration of state did therfore neerely concerne the Queene to consider of, and these importances would doubtlesse haue diswaded her holy cares, had her cares bene any other than holy.

Tenthly, But this Noble Defendresse of the Faith, howsoeuer shee vnderstood as much in the wisdome of State,The queenes constancie. as anie other Prince than liuing. Yet would she not be ru­led by that wisdome, but (like her selfe, a most Christian Princesse) shee contradicts Pollicie with Pietie. And she whose Religious Iudgement might and could teach her, that [Page 278] God was able to support her Princely State against all opposition, and to supply to al her necessities would (not for any State conside­ration) distrust the mighty power of his pro­uidence, or forsake the safetie of his prote­ction for any cause whatsoeuer. For shee knew well that God was altogether as able to preuaile with the lesse as with the greater number, and that he was not like man, to worke onely by the aduantage of meanes,God is able to worke with­out as well as with meanes. for without meanes can he effect whatsoe­uer shall please him, were the whole power of earth and hel to withstand him. And ther­fore as Sampson strong in God,Sampson. could with his weake weapon destroy a Thousand of his enemies; so this most resolute Defen­dresse of the Faith, refusing the power of earth, hath with the truth of Religion one­ly, vanquished not a thousand onely, but many thousands of Gods enemies where­by she hath most nobly garded the safe pas­sage of the Catholike Faith.

Eleuenthly, And this I report in honour of this most excellent Queene, The honour of Queene Elizabeth. whom no re­spect of danger or State consideration, could [Page 279] remoue from her holy constancie; & whom all the power of the earth was not able to be­reaue of her noble spirit, whereby shee was most excellent fit for the defence of Faith, and wherewith she hath defended it, with as much honourable merit, as euer any Chri­stian Prince in the world did.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. God doth then trie the faith and loue of his seruants, when they are pre­sented with strong and able temptati­ons; for these tryalls though they cannot confirme in God any opinion of Truth, in whom there is all knowledge, yet they serue for the imitation of other, and for their iudgement that will not imitate.

Secondly, He that shall fall from the ser­uice of God, for any respect whatsoeuer; doth iudge himselfe an Apostate, and vnwor­thy of Gods fauour, because euen those that loue God, if they loue him for respect, they [Page 280] loue the respect and not God.

Thirdly,Pollitique. In state reason it may seeme ha­zardous for the Queene to alter the State of Religion, because it might haue occasio­ned such discords in the State, as might much distresse her peaceable beginnings, be­ing yet vnsetled; yet considering in what termes the State then stood, the Faction be­ing almost indifferent in number and strength, she might very well thinke that the authority of her opinion would carrie ma­ny thousands with it; because the grosse multitude doth euer moue in the current of the common opinion.

Fourthly, In the proceedings of State af­faires the prosecutions must be ordered by a discreet and setled iudgement, and not with desperate vndertakings, which some call Man-hood and heroicall spirit. For if there be difference betweene a priuate man and an ordinarie officer in the State; there must also be difference betweene the parti­cular cause and the generall State.

Fifthly, It is the strength of a Pollitique State, to haue assured confederacie, & com­bination [Page 281] with neighbour Nations, but the wisedome of that state is in nothing more iustified, than in the profitable vse of such confederacie; for therein doth appeare the excellence of wit, when with the onely charge of wit, we can imploy another mans power to our owne purposes.

Sixthly,Morall. To resist and vanquish the com­mon knowne enemies of a vertuous life is a victorie, which morall men haue obtained, and doth assuredly iustifie (for good) the happie composition of such a Nature.

Seuenthly, To maintaine correspon­dence and indifferent fauour in mutuall so­cietie, is most necessarie to a mans happie condition; because he that hath the fauour of generall opinion, hath interest in euerie mans estate.

Of the care the Queene and State had to depresse the enemies of the Ca­tholike Faith.

FIRST,Mercie. the best witnesse of a Christian life is Mercie, and the best demonstration of mercie, is that fauour that men shew to their enemies; for such kindnesse is against the perswasion of flesh, and onely caused by the mouing of Grace. And therefore mercie (euen in an euill man) doth merit ad­miration at the least,The reward of Mercie. and to be reputed as a beautious ornament in a base subiect. But mercy in the good is a most worthie com­mendation, and a worthinesse for which God will exchange his best benefits. For [Page 283] there is nothing wherein God is more de­lighted then the workes of Mercie in the heauenly exercise, whereof hee himselfe is wonderfully contented, gladding his most sacred diuinity, that in Mercie hee doth tri­umph, and that his mercie hath the greatest part in all his workings.

Secondly, And as this respect of mercie hath preheminence in the Nature of God,Mercie hath preheminēce in the nature of God. so hath it also in the reformed natures of good men, who desire (principally) to square themselues to this most holy propor­tion. And in this gratious respect of mercie hath Queene Elizabeth equalled the best Princes that euer were so rarely was this Queene composed of Mercie and Maiestie, Queene Eli­zabeth very mercifull. as that in Maiestie she may iustly be reputed most excellent, & yet in Mercie more excel­lent than in Maiestie; the which she would of­ten declare (euen) to the enemies of her life and soule: For often would she reach her hands of fauour to them whose hands were euer readie to her destruction▪ An admira­ble degree of Mercie. This truth is most euident in the view of her gratious gouernement, who abhorred their death, [Page 284] who most traiterously sought hers, and suf­fered such peacefully to enioy their euill consciences, who practised to destroy her for her zeale, and constancie in the Catholike Faith.

Thirdly, For if the Papists in the time of Queene Marie, or if now in such places where that Religion is profest, were or had bene so mercifull in the iudgement of their Lawes,The mercy of Popish lawes and Papists. as Queene Elizabeth was the time of her go­uernement; then had not those times bene stayned with the crying sinnes of Blood and Persecution, neither had the bodies of Saints perished in that abundance at the holy fires of Martyrdome. May it therefore be for euer recorded for the honour of Queene Eliza­beths name;How much the Queene hath exceeded her Sister in mercie. that her mercie was more to the bad, then theirs to the better sort of people; and that in this most gratious indument, she is most worthie to bee compared with the most mercifull Prince that euer was.

Fourthly, The first yeares of her gouern­ment may sufficiently proue this her merci­full disposition, in which time the fauour of her hardest Lawes, were such as that her [Page 285] greatest enemies (the enemies of her life and Religion) could not but acknowledge them very mercifull,The purpose of the queens Lawes. seeking onely to reforme, & not to destroy the estate or life of any one.

Fifthly, Vpon this aduantage the euill spi­rits of men, practise against her life and dig­nitie.No meanes to reclaime the inuete­rate enuie of men. For it is not possible that the inuete­rate enuie of men, can be satisfied, by any manner of faire perswasion, or suppressed by any violent meanes, vnlesse seuerity reach to the verie life of one so enuious: for mercie to an euill man maketh him pre­sumptuous, and seuerity maketh him despe­rate; So that this disease of enuie is not cura­ble vnlesse God please to doe it. For in this peacefull time of the Q▪ when mercy was so generally conferd,Proiects de­uised by the Pope. did the Pope the enemie of Faith & the great Polititian of the world, deuise dangerous proiects against the Q. and the state of Religion in England, the which he prosecuted with much instance, and with­all the forcible meanes he could deuise The course he tooke was answerable to the pra­ctise of former Popes, anathemating & ban­ning the Queene from the hope of saluatiō,Interdictions [Page 286] interdicting her Kingdomes, and absoluing her subiects from the dutie of their naturall obedience, commanding vpon paine of damnation to doe that, which in the Iudge­ment of Gods Law is damnation to doe. This instrument Pius Quintus the Pope, Pope Pius Quintus. sent ouer into England, and according to his vn­godly command was it diuulged and spread before the generall face of this Kingdome; whereby many of the Queenes people in the North, and in places of least knowledge and ciuility, reconcile themselues to the Popes fa­uour,The euill effect of the Popes Bull. and like Calues ran wilde after the lo­wing of this curst and cursing Bull, sent forth by the impious Pope Pius.

Sixthly, The Queene and State apprehen­ding the danger of these proceedings, and knowing how hazzardous it might be to her life and state, to suffer this violence to passe without resistance;A Parlia­ment. Call a Parliament, and there agree vpon such Statutes, as in their wisedomes were thought most conuenient, to preuent the mischiefe intended against the Queenes life, her State, and the Catholike Faith.

[Page 287] Seuenthly,The cause of the statutes against Re­cusants. The cause then mouing the Queene and State to enact those lawes (which they call seuerity) was themselues, by reason of their turbulent and euill spirits desiring innouation; yea, and inuasion (who) if they could haue bene content with the benefit of peace, which they thē enioyed, & wherewith the holy men of all ages haue bene most gladly contented, they had then preuented those lawes, which they so much condemne; neither had they runne their names, nor their cause of Religion, into that suspition of the State, as by these their treasonable designes they haue most iustly merited.Exmalis moribus nas­cuntur bona leges. But it is anti­ent and true, that from euill manners are de­riued good and wholsome lawes, and they by desire to harme the state, they did arme it with wholsome and prouident lawes, whereby it was made the better able to preuent and resist their harmefull intenti­ons. And from their euill is this Good oc­casioned, that by attempting euill, and by fayling in that attempt, they haue curbed their owne power and shortned their owne hornes, wherewith they and their Bulls had [Page 288] thought to haue pusht the glory of this Na­tion. And therefore was their Iudgement an effect of their owne cause, and most iustly inflicted on them. For God doth retort the euill purposes of men against the contriuers of them, and they that make snares and traps to catch men, are oftentimes snared in their owne deuises.

Eighthly, But yet those lawes which they call seuerity,The mercy of the queens Lawes. were milde and mercifull, and not proportionable to the greatnesse of their offence, neither like in crueltie to the bloo­die lawes in the time of Queene Maries go­uernement, against the constant professors of the Protestāt Religion; the purpose of these Statutes being to secure the Queene, The purpose of the Sta­tutes. and to continue her subiects in their dutifull obe­dience, not reaching to the life of any of the Queenes Subiects, for their opinion of Re­ligion onely; insomuch as the most resolute Papist, were he assured in the dutie of his alle­giance,A large de­monstration of the queens mercie. and not guiltie of any treasonable practise, was not vrged by torture or extre­mities to abiure his opinion and Faith of Religion, but might continue himselfe in [Page 289] safety vnder the assured protection of the Q. & her mercifull lawes, it being the purpose of the Q. and state to reclaime the disobedi­ence of her subiects (in respect of Religion) by faire, and not by forcible meanes, and to effect that by the gratious meanes of mercy, which the Pope & others lesse merciful, haue attempted by the violent meanes of Blood, fire and Persecution.

Ninthly,The slanders of euill and malitious men. It is therefore mallice & a verie slander to the Q. princely name, that Gods enemies & hers doe report her a persecutor of Gods Saints, & that her lawes were bloo­dy & tyrannous, & that many of that Reli­giō whom they call Saints, haue in this king­dome suffered Martyrdome for the witnes of their conscience onely,None haue haue suffered in England for their conscience onely. their being no one particular person (I think) in all the Q time that can truly be said thus to suffer death, but either as actors or abettors of Treason, the lawes hauing no authority to iudge them o­therwise; For though by the law they were rebellious, and disobedient Subiects that would not cōforme themselues, to the refor­med Religion then established: & though [Page 290] by the Law they indured some easie punish­ment, to make a difference betweene the du­tifull & vndutifull Subiects, yet there was no Law so strict as to giue the sentence of death to any offending onely in Recusancie,The mercy of the Law. nei­ther was there any law (before this occasion of the Popes Bull) to make any the profes­sors of that Religion,The Popes Bull the occasion of more strict Lawes. traytors vnlesse they were actors or abettors of conspiracie or treason in which cases the Protestants themselues were iudged with like seue­rity.

Tenthly, And vnles the prouidence of the state would haue slept and bene regardlesse of the Q. the state, and state of Religion, there could not haue bene lesse done thē was done for the security of al,The purpose of the state the purpose of the state being onely to preuent, and not to reuenge the iniuries of the Pope and his adhe­rents.

Eleuenthly, It is wonder then, the Papist should condemne that in our state for seue­rity,The diffe­rence in the practise of these states. which in their own states is a mercie ne­uer practised; for with them the least suspi­tion to fauour or affect the Protestant Religi­on [Page 291] is persecuted, with much seuerity, & let a man (in other respects) be neuer so deser­uing, or his place & birth neuer so eminent, if once he be conuict to be a Protestant, it is assured death: it is strange then they iudge vs persecutors,Our iustice more merci­full then their mercie. when our iustice hath lesse seueritie then their mercy, we but easily cor­recting that offence, which they punish with death, and they seuerely punishing that which we most easily pardon.

Twelfthly,The polli­tique regard of this seue­rity in the Romish State For how many with vs dare, and doe fauour those dangerous instruments of state, and how commonly dare men disco­uer their superstitious affections in common conference, and often with earnest reaso­nings, defending and damning according to their appetites, whereas with them euery little circumstance is quarrelsome, and pre­sumptions many times are most seuerely punished.

13. And this seuerity in them, is assu­redly verie considerable for their Pollitique State of Religion, being one maine prop whereupon they repose their greatnesse, for it is verie necessarie for them to vse [Page 292] all their forceable violence, to suppresse that truth, which in despight of vio­lence (like the palme) will sprout and prosper vnder their grieuous oppres­sions. And considering how the Prote­stant Religion (notwithstanding their oppressing it) hath spread it selfe into verie spatious limits,Religion flourisheth vnder [...]p­pression. they may well vnderstand, how much more it should haue flourished if by their violent hinderances, it had not bene letted in his prosperous growth.This Pollicie not answera­ble to piety nor holy ex­ample. But this bloo­dy pollicie of theirs was not answera­ble to piety and holy reason, for so could the wise Gamaliell teach them, who withstood the bloody counsell of the Iewes, Act. 5. 34. who would haue persecuted the holy Apostles withall seueritie, with this perswasion, that if their cause were not good, that then GOD would be enemie vnto it, and so of it selfe it would fall, and if it were good, it would bee in vaine to resist it; because GOD would support it against all resi­stance.

[Page 293] 14. The mercie of our English Lawes then (in matters concerning Religion one­ly) is an assured demonstration,The mercy of English Lawes con­cerning Re­ligion. that our Prince our State, and our Religion is mer­cifull, and these demonstrations of mercie, are no weake proofes that our Religion is most Catholike and Christian, most Catholike because of conformity to the Primitiue Church, and most Christian, because the ex­ercise of mercie is the best imitation of Christ himselfe,Christ the true exam­ple of Chri­stians. the Lord and true patterne of the Catholike and true Christian beleeuer. And therefore the Queene and the Parliament were both mercifull and prouident in con­cluding these statutes the which by no other cause but by the Papists themselues were oc­casioned.

15. The purpose of the Statutes was this principally,The princi­pall purpose of the sta­tutes. first to prohibit the bringing o­uer of Bulls or interdictions from the Pope. Secondly, to restraine the Runnawaies, and Trauellers beyond the Seas without license, and to prohibit Iesuits and recon­siled Papists from returning into the Queenes Dominions, vnlesse vpon their returne, [Page 294] they would submit to such as by the State were authorized to that purpose. Now how needfull it was for the Church and State of England, The necessity of these Sta­tutes. to haue this prouidence for their se­curity and peace, I purpose in the next Chapter verie briefly to discouer.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. Such are (onely and alwaies to be opposed as enemies to a Christian State, as are so iudged by the sentence of Gods Word. For seeing Christ (who is the Word of his Father) is our Generall in all spirituall conflicts, we must onely and al­waies fight his battailes by his direction.

Secondly,Pollitique. To restraine disorder and dis­obedience in subiects, the State doth vsually resort to the wisedome of a Parliament; for though the King by his Proclemations may command or restraine his Subiects, he being that one particular in whose person the whole authority of the State consisteth: yet [Page 295] doe Parliament Statutes the rather satisfie be­cause they proceed both from the Kings au­thority, and from the generall wisedome of the Kingdome.

Thirdly,Morall. There is no man can liue in that indifferencie of fauour withall, but that hee shall haue cause to make distinction of friend and enemie, or if he be free from all enmity; yet he shall finde difference in his friends, and therefore he must distinguish them.

Of what importance the Statutes in the 13. of the Queene, were in respect of the Church and State.

FIRST, In respect of the ChurchIn respect of the Church. were they most important for the which they were principal­ly enacted:The prosperity of the state depen­deth on the prosperity of the Church. they did also much import the State, because the prosperity of the Common-Wealth doth by a necessarie consequence depend vpon the prosperity of the Church, for in all true Christian King­domes the Church and the Common-Wealth,The Church and State Children of one Father. are Children of one and the same Parent, and though the Church be the older and of better inheritance; yet a Christian Common-Wealth is a Childe of the same Father, and hath a younger brothers portiō, in the partage of Gods blessings, the one in­heriting [Page 297] felicity & eternity, the other felicity but not eternall. And therefore whatsoe­uer doth concerne the Church principally doth concerne the Common-VVealth like­wise, in a subordinate degree, and those things which aduance a Christian State; cannot derogate from the honour of the Church.Respect had to Pollicie and not to piety onely. And this is true and onely true, in holy and Religious Common-VVealths, but not in such States, where the Church is disinherited of Prioritie and birth-right; and where the chiefe respect is had to Pollicie on­ly and not to Piety.

Secondly, The importance of these statutes (in respect of the Church) may be conside­red in this,The Popes quarrell. that the Popes quarrell with the Q. and the State, was for Religion onely, be­cause the Church of England had cast off that obedience, which formerly it had vnworthi­ly giuen to the Popes, wherby the Popes great­nesse and reputation in England, was not on­ly weakened, but also his other priuate ends of aduantages and reuennewes were ta­ken from him. And therefore consi­dering the quarrell was for the Religion [Page 298] profest in England, the defence of the quarrell on the Churches behalfe must needs very much concerne it.

Thirdly,The particu­lar branches of these Sta­tutes. Againe, many of the particular branches of those statutes, had principall re­spect to the benefit of the Church, and to re­moue all such euill meanes, as might any way corrupt and abuse, the consciences of men in the case of Religion; the Church ha­uing found much inconuenience, by the continuall intercourse of English, Romish pas­sengers,Inconueni­ence by En­glish Romish trauellers. passing from England to Rome, and from Rome to England; whereby the English Church lay open to all the Popes perswasions; and whereby the ignorant and baser sort of people were withdrawne from their Christi­an beliefe, & from the dutie of their naturall allegiance. And therefore to preuent this in­conuenience was a care most considerable for the Church, and which (directly) ten­ded to the aduancement of true Reli­gion.

Fourthly, There be also many other re­spects, which in these Statutes, directly in­tend the benefit of the Church, all which may [Page 299] appeare most euident to any iudgement that shall with impartiall eyes peruse them.

Fifthly,Nothing can respect the state lawfully that respe­cteth not Re­ligion also. And in truth there is nothing in a true Christian Common-Wealth, that can onely direct it selfe to the benefit of State on­ly; but that Religion must withall be respe­cted, the care of State being but the bye, and Religion the maine of euery Christian in­tendment. And therefore oftentimes euen in those things which seeme most properly to concerne the State, is Religion in them most regarded; the care of State in respect of Religion, being like the care of our bo­dies,A comparisō or which holy men care, but so onely, as for the houses of their soules, and because of communicating those necessarie serui­ces, which necessarily depend of each other. These Statutes then were of most impor­tance for the Church:Of most im­portance for the Church. that being the most respected end, whereto they were principal­lie directed.

Sixthly, In respect of the Common-WealthIn respect of the common-Wealth. also were these statutes verie consi­derable and of speciall importance, and namely in these particulars that the enemies [Page 300] of the State;The wise­dome of state hauing made dangerous at­tempts, to innouate, and alter the State, it behooued them, to whose wisedomes the care of State was committed, to vse the best preuentions they could to hinder the like occasions; and therfore were these statutes deuised both to cut off the euill members al­ready corrupted in the Common-wealth, and also to preuent all such future occasi­ons.

Seuenthly,The dange­rous inconue­nience of Ie­suites and Romish Priests. Againe, there is no Protestant State, in the world which hath not found the dangerous inconuenience, of Iesuites and Popish Priests nursed in Seminaries beyond the Seas: these men (like so many euill spi­rits) conueighing their treasonable tempta­tions to sillie men least able to resist; where­by many great and dangerous Rebellions, haue bene occasioned, and whereby many damned and most dangerous attempts haue bene made against the liues of Christian Princes.

Eighthly, And for this consideration were the Iesuites banished France The Iesuites banished France. for thát memorable villanie of theirs attempted [Page 301] on the person of the French King; memora­ble it may be for the horror of the deed, and for circumstance of persons a Franciscan Frier acting,Franciscan Fryer. and a Christian Prince suffering it, and memorable for that a Pope in pub­like Orations, did allowe the deede, and commēd the doer, canonizing him for holy & happie, whose fact (without repentance) was most wicked and damnable; daring to do more then holy K Dauid, King Dauid. to lay his mur­therous hands vpon the Lords Anointed.

Ninthly,A respect most needfull for the En­glish Nation. And as this is a respect conside­rable in all States, so in no place more, then in the English Nation, this Kingdome ha­uing had many like attempts, and hauing many such attemptors, who haue da­red to enterprise such treasons, as all the world, nor all the time in the world is not a­ble to produce the like. And therefore to prohibite these Runnagate Traytors, to re­turne more dangerous Traytors then they went; and to infect the whole with the Le­prosie of their vngodly positions, and do­ctrines, was a care which much regarded the peace & the prosperous estate of this King­dome.A prouident car [...].

[Page 302] Tenthly, By these statutes the Policie of the Romish Church was preuented.The policie of the Romish Church pre­uented▪ For it hath euer beene and yet is the Politike wise­dome of that state, to send out these their Intelligencers,Iesuites In­telligencers. their Priests and Iesuites into all nations▪ who (by confessions, & other se­cret workings) vnderstād almost the secrets of all States, & then like Bees to their Hiue, or Spirits to their hell) send or bring all the vse of their trauells to the Seate of Rome; whereby the Popes haue euer had vnderstan­ding in the most secret affaires of State, al­most in all Nations. And this is so behoue­full for his greatnesse,A great means of the Popes great­nesse. as with this he may be said to moue the bodie of his greatnes, nei­ther without this could he support himselfe in such estimation as he is. For when the practise of any Prince is working against him,The vse of Seminarie Priests and Iesuites. he hath timely vnderstanding of it, by these his carefull Intelligencers, and by that meanes he is the better able to worke his owne safetie, and to preuent the intend­ments of his aduersaries.

Eleuenthly, And therefore was this of speciall consideration for the state, to ex­clude [Page 303] them the Land, who are the betrayers of our State Secrets, to our greatest enemies. There are these and many other respects, which make it most behoouefull, for the peace and prosperous estate both of the Church and state of England, to banish the land of these vngodly practisers, & to bring them their aydors, abettors, and receiuers, within the compasse of treason;Treason. because their practise is treason, and they themselues most dangerous Traytors; dangerous to men, dangerous to the soules of men, dan­gerous to mens estates, and dangerous to the States of Kingdomes and great States: in the politike practise wherof they are much more learned,Wherein Ie­suits are best learned. then in the iudgement of Diuini­tie and Christian Religion.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. Religion doth not deny her spe­ciall Ministers the Clergy the knowledge of the very secrets of Policie, or rather the Church (in these times) hath a necessity that doth require such knowledge: because there are many enemies, that present them­selues against the peace and prosperitie of the Church, which could not be resisted (with victorie) but by more then common discre­tion; yet it is one thing to know and pre­uent, and another to trauell in vnlawfull Po­litique designes.

Secondly,Pollitique. The Romane State doth sup­port the body of her greatnes vpon this par­ticular Policie, that by her Priests and Iesuites she can discouer all States. This (in the dis­cretion of State) is such a strength as that she might be thought inuincible, but that God doth fight against her.

Thirdly,Morall. hee that intrudes himselfe into [Page 305] such businesse, wherein both his profession and his particular cause would make him a stranger, is iniurious to himselfe and others, to himselfe, because hee must neglect his owne particular, to others, because he doth vndertake that cause, wherein he is, or should be ignorant.

Of the Christian care Queene ELI­ZABETH had, to defend certaine Christian Princes and their STATES.

FIRST,Euery mans care. it is euerie ones care to prouide for themselues, and to labour the aduancement of their own prosperous fortunes; but few there be who care for other men, or that labour in the trauell of other mens af­faires. And among all the sorts of men, these few are the best; for by this demonstration of Charitie they approue themselues to bee good men and Christians;Charity doth approue vs good men & Children of God. good men by the Law of Nature, and good Christians by the Law of grace. This Charitable commu­nicating of giftes and benefits, being com­manded and commended before all earth­ly regards. And therefore, he that with true [Page 307] Christian respect loueth his neighbour kee­peth halfe the Law, and he that loueth God keepeth it all; yet he that made this Lawe, could thus expound it,Loue the fulfilling of Gods Law. that no man can ob­serue all the Lawe, vnlesse he first obserue the halfe, neither can any man giue God his dutie, who first will not giue his Loue to his Neighbour, which is not giuen, vnlesse wee declare it in our exercise of such charitable offices, as we haue power to doe, and as the necessities of our Christian brethren may require them.

Secondly,The dutie of euery Chri­stian. and this is the dutie of euerie Christian man, of what estate soeuer; it is al­so the dutie of euerie Christian kingdome, to support one another in their iust quarrels, and to communicate to each other their ge­nerall commodities.The care which ought to be regar­ded in all States. And howsoeuer in many states (of Christian name) this strict­nesse of conscience is not regarded; yet in the best it is, and in all it ought to be, for the puritie of Christian Religion is of that excel­lent purenesse,The purity of Christian Religion. that no staine can be in the vse thereof without dishonourable imputa­tion. And we all know that in the practise [Page 308] of heathenish and barbarous Common-Wealths,The diffe­rence of Christian and heathe­nish State. are many things very commenda­ble which in a Christian State would appeare most odious, because in those States they respect greatnesse only, and there any thing is allowable that may helpe them forward. But where goodnesse and vertuous name is desired, there men neglect the offer of all euill occasions, and embrace that onely for lawfull and good, which (in the iudgement of good conscience) is approued lawfull and good.

Thirdly, And in these heauenly respects of Christian commiseration, we haue good cause, and so haue many Princes in Chri­stendome,Queene Eli­zabeth most compassio­nate. to remember Queene Elizabeth most mercifull and compassionate; who did euer entertaine the extremities of distres­sed Christian Princes,Distressed Christian Princes. and whose hands were euer armed with valour, and victory, to support them in their kingly reputations, & to defend them from the iniuries of their ambitious & powerful enemies. But because the number of her princely deseruings in this kinde were many, and to report them [Page 309] would require large circumstance. I will therefore make choise onely of some parti­culars of best memorie, and of most impor­tance, such as being knowne may reduce to memorie the glory and greatnesse of the Queenes actions. And the honour which the name of England hath got in being gouerned by a Ladie of so matchlesse a reputation.

Fourthly,In respect of Scotland. And as that neerest to vs in re­spect of weighty consequence. I remember Scotland first, a kingdome which before her time, neuer stood assured to the fauour of England, but what by reason of their naturall discord, and because of the combination be­tweene the kingdome of France and it; that nation hath euer bene suspected of ours, and we of them; and therefore both of vs haue euer commonly stood in the tearmes of lea­lousie,The wise­dome of those times. and both our Nations haue had re­gardful eye to the proceeding of each other: yet with such wisedome, could those times order their affaires of State, as that these their disagreements were not hazerdous to the fortunes of either kingdomes; but continued for respects of Pollicie [Page 310] insomuch as the Warres of Scotland with vs, were rather emulations than VVarres; and ours with them were rather for manly exer­cise,Note. than any desire to subuert or vtterly ouerthrow the bodie of that State. And in truth it cannot be imagined two Nations so neere as they are (how euer made friends by allyance or other friendly entertaine­ments) could liue without giuing of offence to one another, nor without many spitefull and hot contentions, these two Kingdomes in one Isle being like two wiues in one house,These two Kingdomes in one Isle like two wiues in one house. vnder one and the same husband, euer be­ing in ciuill displeasure for superiority, nei­ther could these displeasures be euer ended, but as God hath done it, making of these two Nations one Monarch: the which like one wife without competitor, he hath wed­ded to one husband the Kings Maiestie that last was,King Iames. and to his posterity for euer, by whom the emulation & strife of these euer disagreeing natiōs is for euer compounded.

Fifthly,The Queene hath the glo­rie of this deede. In the glory of which deed Queene Elizabeth hath a greater part than any Prince in the world; because in her life [Page 311] time she did so much in that Kingdome, for the safetie of the King and that State, as might well declare both her power and her princely care, for that Christian Prince and his Kingdome;The Queene euer fauora­ble to Scot­land. defending her Kingly Sonne, (our Kings Maiestie) in the right of his King­dome, and in the truth of his Christian Reli­gion, against all the enemies of his life and State: and therefore hath shee the greater glory, in defending a Christian King and his Nation in their best quarrell, and against their greatest enemies, and yet hath shee better deserued, in leauing a Kingdome, bet­ter then that to the King, and to his posterity for euer.The Queene defended that nation which her predecessors had much offended. Thus did the power of the Queene defend that Nation, which the power of her predecessors had many times offended; she recompensing (at once) the iniuries and harmes, which (they) the former Kings and Queenes (of England) had many times in­flicted on that Kingdome. And th [...]refore haue they good cause to honour her re­membrance, and to giue her name the best merit of all the rase of her princely pre­decessors.

[Page 312] Sixthly, But she who was large in the vse of her Christian mercy, could not thus bound her vertues in the limits of an Iland, neither could she content her selfe that she had done well, but delighteth to continue her well-doing. And therefore being inui­ted by the necessitie of the French Kings The French King. oc­casion, Henrie the Fourth, she reacheth him her hand of fauour to France, and there she witnesseth the greatnesse of her power, and the greatnesse of her mercifull regard; that notwithstanding that Nation had bene the corriuall of this, and had euer enuied the prosperity of our many victories. And though the Queene her selfe was lawfully in­terested into the title of that Crowne,A princely regard. yet would she not take aduantage of these op­portunities, but so powerfully she assisted the King; as that by her meanes, he might well say to haue gained the garland, which with­out the Queenes assistance had either not bene got, or not so gainfully obtained.

Seuenthly,Obiection. And if any one obiect, the Queene was improuident to conferre her fa­uours to a nation, which had euer more en­uied [Page 313] & opposed the prosperity of her owne kingdome, & whereof she had no assurance, let them remember that the Queene was ne­uer altogether ruled by the perswasion of State reason and that in this particular,Answer. The Queene neuer alto­gether ruled by the per­swasion of State. shee deuiseth not how to inlarge her owne king­dome, but how the kingdome of God might by her be any way aduanced. And be­cause that then the French King did declare himselfe to professe the Protestant Religion. she therfore thought it the office of her high place to defend him in the cause of Religiō,The queenes reason. & to defend that christian faith, whereof she was made Defendresse; the which she did so fortunately, that he obtained his kingdome, & she a name of honour that wil liue for euer in al those places of the world, where the ver­tues & honourable deeds of noble persona­ges are recorded. And let the French-men for euer remember her name thankefully,The French­men owe thankes to the name of Queene Eli­zabeth. as their noble Defendresse: let them remēber al­so that as our english Kings haue euer bene a terror to their natiō, so this Q. of Englād was their cōfort, & she by whose fauour they ob­tained that benefit, which presētly they enioy [Page 314] in their King and in their peaceable State,

Eighthly, Another instance of the Queenes fauorable commiseration was the King and kingdome of Portingall, The King and king­dome of portingall. the poore King Anthonie being executed by Philip King of Spaine, a power that (by much) did ouer­match Anthonie, and therefore this Portingall made his resort to implore the fauour of Queene Elizabeth, who (after the Nature of her gratious spirit) compassionates his great miserie, and furnisht him very princely to­wards the reobtaining of his king­dome.

Ninthly, And though this businesse had not successe answerable to hopefull expecta­tion; God otherwise disposing it, yet doth not that diminish, the Queenes gratious merit,None can giue victory at his plea­sure. for it is not in any earthly power to giue victory at pleasure but to attempt one­ly, and to leaue the successe to the will of God. Againe, we see that the greatest earth­ly powers haue often failed in the like at­tempts, because (as I haue said) no Prince can giue victory at his pleasure, but must a­bide [Page 315] the fortune of the day which is alway vncertaine.Gods iudge­ment. And who can tell but that God (in iudgement to that people) would not suffer the Queenes good purpose to preuaile,The doubt of Anthonies title. neither doe all men agree on the lawfulnesse of Anthonies title, many approuing the right of the King of Spaine to the Crowne of Por­tingall to be more iust than that of Anthonies: yet the Queene is not to be blamed for taking part with Anthonie against her profest ene­mie, the King of Spaine then hauing declared himselfe such an enemie to the Queene and her State, as made it behoofull for the Queene to apprehend all occasions to wea­ken him.

Tenthly The Queene therefore had a double respect in this Portingall voyage:The queenes double re­spect in this voyage. first, to repossesse the wronged king (for so she be­leeued him:) secondly, to disaduantage the great enemie of her State, whereby to make him the lesse able to offend her. And there­fore though she failed in finishing, yet was her purpose good, and doth merit to bee ranked among her other honourable deeds,A reason for the Queenes excuse. & because it was done principally in fauour [Page 316] of a distressed Christian Prince to relieue him in the extremities of his hard fortune; it deserueth so much the more of honoura­ble remembrance, and to bee reputed, as an effect caused by the Queenes most grati­ous disposition.

Eleuenthly, A fourth instance of the Queenes gratious fauour to forraigne Prin­ces, is Belgica the States of the Low-Coun­triesThe States of the Low-Countries. where the Queene hath done so much as hath made her famous in all the world, receiuing those little pettie States into her protection against the King of Spaine (at that time the greatest Prince in Christendome, the which quarrell shee did maintaine with such aduantage, as made the king feare her and the world admire her.

Twelfthly,A dangerous Obiection. And howsoeuer there be that obiect, the Queene did iniurie to the Spanish King to assist his rebellious subiects against him (for so they repute the States of the Low-Countries) yet doe I verily beleeue o­therwise. For though I will not dispute the title of the king of Spaine to these Countries, being impertinent both to me, and to this [Page 317] Historie,The answer. yet may it assuredly be concluded that the Queene a godly and religious Ladie, at that time ordered by as wise and honou­rable a Counsell as was in Christendome, would not rashly haue entred into any di­shonourable quarrell, or haue done ought in the generall view of the world, that stood not with the reputation of her princely name. And this doe they well vnderstand, who best vnderstood the Queenes nature,The queenes nature. who respected the honour of her princely name as much as any other Prince euer did.

13. And though it be iudged that the states were Rebells to the King of Spaine, A second reason of the Queenes doings. yet consi­dering the full opposition of that time be­tweene England and Spaine, it may seeme reasonable in the Queene to take this aduan­tage offered by the Low-Countries, and to protect them for the security of her owne peace, aswell because of their conformity in Religion, as also for the better disinabling of her mortall enemie, who by all contriue­ment sought the detriment of her state.Note. And besides there is a great difference in them, [Page 318] who moue Rebellion, and them, who im­ploy Rebells being moued to opportune purposes, especially considering the enmity of him against whom they Rebell.

14. And this I write to answer the euill rumors of such men, who are most ready to traduce the Queenes most honourable deseruings.Euill men readie to traduce the Queene. For neither do I condemne the States for Rebells, neither do I acquite them of that imputation, but onely answere for the honour of Queene Elizabeth: The offence betweene En­gland and Spaine a sufficient reason for these pro­ceedings. that how­soeuer the controuersie stood betweene the Low Countries and Spaine, the offence was so great betweene vs, and the Spaniard, as may seeme to iustifie the Queene in her pro­ceedings. And therefore they who calum­niate and bite her name causelesse; doe like Doggs, who barke against the Sunne, which in despight of enuy and them, will for euer shine vpon the face of the earth, and her vertuous name (like Vertue) will appeare more glorious by the vitious opposition of enuie,Vertue the better for opposition. and from the false slanders of euill men shall arise her commendation.The Queene iustifiable in this quar­rell.

15. Therefore I dare boldly conclude, [Page 319] that in this particular of the Low Countries the Queen did that was very iustifiable, con­sidering the circumstance of the Spannish warres, and considering with what honour it hath beene done, shee hath merited the highest honour, that victorie and honoura­ble armes can deserue.The Spani­ards & the States can both report the Queenes victories. And this truth (no doubt) the States themselues will witnesse with me, who haue often triumphed in the Conquest of her victories: and so will the Spaniards too (whose experience hath made them know her well) vnlesse that enuie, and the remembrance of former quarrels prompt them with false constructions.

16. In these, and in many other particu­lars, hath the Queen declared her selfe a most noble Defendress of the Catholike Faith, The queenes cares euer seruants to the necessi­ties of Chri­stian princes. whose cares were euer seruants to the necessities of such Christian States, as would desire them, whereby shee hath with much honourable applause) spent the number of her fortu­nate daies, and whereby shee hath most no­bly defended the professors, and the pro­fession of the Catholike Faith: The honour of the English Nation. Whose king­dome little England hath been a sanctuarie [Page 320] for holy and religious persons to flie to, from all places of trouble and persecution, and who hath euer bene willing & able to offend the bad & defend the better sort of people.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. To intend and prosecute our owne good onely, doth not discharge the duty of a Christian conscience; For Piety is like God who hath a generall refe­rence to all creatures.

Secondly,Pollitique. A Prince that doth support his distressed neighbour States in their righteous quarrells, doth a worke both Religious and Pollitique. Religious because the rules of con­science command such charitable supporta­tions; and Pollitique, because his owne di­stresse may challenge from them the like retribution.

Thirdly,Morall. Whatsoeuer is in any mans estate or power, more than may suffice for the wel-being of his owne particular, hee ought to [Page 321] conferre that with charitable beneuolence vpon common distresses, only he hath liber­ty in the choise of his particulars.

A remembrance of some particulars, wherein God hath defended this Defendresse of the Faith Queene ELIZABETH.

FIRST, It is most true, that they who defend Gods quarrell, shall in their iust quarrells bee defen­ded by him, and they who denie him in any seruice, them will he denie the fauour of his protection. For as God is most Iealous of his honour, and hateth to be vn­regarded of his Creature, so is he wonder­fully contented in the faithfull seruices of men, abhorring (in his diuine Nature) not to double the recompence of such reward.God the best recompencer of deserts. And therefore when God giueth comman­dements, [Page 322] he giueth them with promise to reward the obseruers of them,God most as­sured in his promises. whereby ho­ly men haue beene euer comforted with this assurance, that God is most assured in his promises, it being impossible to his diuine Nature, to be either forgetfull or vngrate­full. Na (rather) so delighted he is with obe­dience, that (most carefully) he apprehen­deth euery little seruice of men,Gods reward to reward it with infinite of benefits.

Secondly, this truth is knowne both by holy examples, and by testimonies most ho­ly,In the queens particular. it is knowne also in the Queenes parti­cular, whom God did wonderfully protect against all the power of Hell & Earth. For I as­suredly beleeue there was neuer any Christi­an Prince in the world, against whom were so many practises,Many pra­ctises against the Queene. & diuelish proiects attemp­ted; her enemies cōtinually working against her, either by their power or by their Polli­cie, either by forraigne, or by ciuill warres; ei­ther by open or by secret practises;The diuers sorts of pra­ctises. some­times by inuasion, & sometimes by Rebelli­on; by poyson often by conspiracie more of­ten; so that there was no weapon, which in [Page 323] the wisedome of diuellish art,Gods speciall prouidence for the Queenes safetie. might destroy her, but it was brandished against her, yet did God stand betweene her & danger, and bare off many times the blow of death, at the in­stant when the destroyers arme was heaued against her; and such as haue bene solemnly sworne to destroy her, and haue vowed their resolutiō by taking the Sacrament, & though the opportunities of time and place serued them; yet in the very act haue they fainted, being daunted with the Maiesty of her hea­uenly presence.Daunted with her Maiesty. And though the greatest Princes & Potentates in Christēdome, did com­bine themselues against her, withall their power whereby there was continual practise on foot to destroy her; yet did the hand of God leade her thorow all those dangers, and made her trauell an honourable length of daies, and then giue vp her soule in peace to his hands who had so wonderfully prote­cted her.

Thirdly,It is in vaine to resist the power of God. It was therefore fruitles and vaine to contriue against her whom God would defend, & by whose mighty deliuerance he had declared himself to fauour her; some of [Page 324] which particulars I will remember, the ge­nerall being to large an argument to dis­course on.

Fourthly,Her trouble in her Sisters time. The storie of her heauie persecu­tion, the time of her Sisters gouernement is common to euery mans knowledge; & ther­fore I need not report the manner of that, nor the manner of her Christian suffering it: yet this is worthy of obseruation that (at that time) God did suffer her enemies to preuaile far,Her enemies could not preuaile to her de­struction. but not to her destruction, and it may seeme wonderful, that considering Q. Marie did rule the State, and Stephen Gardiner the Bishop of Winchester did rule her, & that both of them did most perfectly hate Q Eli­zabeth: how the Queene could possibly auoid their euill malice.

Fifthly, And though it be obiected that because of Queene Elizabeths innocence,An obiection. Queene Mary and the Bishop could not haue haue their purpose,The answer. it is otherwise: For the displeasure of a Prince disposed to Reuenge, can in the fairest life finde foule occasions. And when authority hateth the person of any one,Note. it is most easie to brand them with [Page 325] offences. And this could Stephen Gardiner well vnderstand, who had profited as much and more in the learning of pollicie than in piety, and holy wisedome. And therefore though the Queenes innocence was a cause of her safetie,The queenes innocence was a cause, but not the onely cause of her safetie. yet was there a greater cause (the fauour of God) which did defend her against the power of Pollicie, which her in­nocence could not doe.

Sixthly,After she was Queene. after she was Queene, when the storme did seeme to be past, did it then be­gin againe with greater furie, the Pope sen­ding his turbulent spirits into this Nation to set the kingdome in combustion, who by his interdictions and papall curses, did ban the Queene from heauen,The practise of the Pope against her. absoluing her sub­iects from their obedience: deposing the Queene, and disposing of her Kingdomes, as he thought conuenient. And this by reason of the fauour of Romish Religion, did some hurt in the State; the Earles of Westmerland and Northumberland The two Earles, Westmerlād and Northū ­berland. by this incouragement, raise Rebellious Armes against the Queene and the State of Religion. But God the great enemie of Traitors confounds this [Page 326] practise of the Popes confounds his rebelli­ous instruments the two Earles, Gods defence for the queen scatters their rebell troopes, and giueth the Queene and ho­nourable victory.

Seuenthly, The Pope finding these oppo­sitions to weake, incites a more able enemie against her,The Spanish King. Philip King of Spaine, who by rea­son of his Indian Wealth and his large com­mand of people, may bee thought the most able Prince in Christendom, between whom and the Queene the Warres were maintained with much resolution and valour; yet by reason of the maine distance betweene their Kingdomes, they were lesse fearefull than o­therwise they would haue bene, if these two, England and Spaine had bene neighbour Na­tions.The common attempts on both sides. And therefor the common attempts on both parties were to Roue at Sea, and make prey of such Merchants and others, as had not power to resist them, whereof it happened that both of them, both lost and wonne, according as good occasion, and the fortune of VVarre would fauour them.The nature of our En­glish Warres with Spaine.

Eighthly, And in these heates and prouo­cations [Page 327] did these warres continue whereby both Nations became in the greatest hatred of one another that could be. And the Spa­nyard naturally proud, and hauing got ma­ny victories in other parts of the world, thought it much to his dishonour, that little England should be able to resist his greatnes, the rather he being ayded by the Pope, and England vnassisted by any other confede­rate saue the Low-Countries. Therefore he made great preparation to inuade this king­dome,The Spanish preparation to inuade England. that by the Conquest thereof he might declare his greatnesse and (at once) end that warre, which had bene continued (by Sea fights and other pettie grieuances) a long time.The inuinci­ble Nauie, Anno. 1588. And for this end was that huge Nauie of Ships prouded by them; Christe­ned the inuincible Nauie, which anchoring neere our English Coast, appeared like a Ci­tie of Ships, or like another England come to inuade England; Their proud confidence. so confident were they in the trust of this victory, that before hand they would dispose of Earledomes, Lordships, and large Possessions, bringing with them whips and other instruments of tor­ment, [Page 328] to afflict the victored English, ouer whom they neuer were victors.

Ninthly,God hateth pride in all Creatures. But God who saw this their pre­sumptuous pride and hated it in the Nature of his Angels, would not flatter in the Na­ture of the Spanyards, and that men might know that he onely,His mighty deliuerance. and not the numbers of men can giue victory, he in a trice dissolues this huge Congregation of Ships; and by the wisedome & Pollicie of one little man onely,Sir Francis Drake. did he vtterly ouerthrow this mighty Goliah, this huge hoast by the Spanyards reputed and reported to be inuincible.

Tenthly, And thus did God giue a grati­ous deliuerance to his seruant Elizabeth; ma­king her triumph in the spoyle of her ene­mies, and to ouerthrow that strength, which in iudgement was thought inuincible. And for the Queene her selfe in these weighty af­faires,How the Queene be­haued her selfe in these weighty af­faires. she neuer gaue the least demonstrati­on of feare, but in her owne person and in her greatest hazard, would shee by orations animate and inflame the valour of her people, shewing the greatnesse of her noble Spirit, with such proofes of Ma­iestie, [Page 329] as the greatest courage in the world could not do more. By these particulars out of many, may appeare how much Queene Elizabeth was in Gods fauour, and how ad­mirably hee hath defended this most no­ble Defendresse of the Catholike Faith.

Of Queene ELIZABETHS resolute continuing the defence of the Ca­tholike FAITH.

FIRST, Before our endNo man cer­tainly known before his end. wee are not certainely knowne what we are, because of the many al­terations & turnings, whereto all Earthly things are subiect; for wee see that the beginning, and the endings of ma­ny vtterly disagree, and that many haue [Page 330] a hopefull beginning, whose ends are despe­rate; and a man may enterprise well that can­not finish well. Therefore as euery thing is iudged by the euent, so euery man is iudged by his end, he being most properly said to be such a man, as he shall declare himselfe in his last resolutions.

Secondly,The glory of our life is to continue in well doing. It is then the glory of our life to continue in well doing, and that no con­sideration moue vs to retire from the vse of vertuous deeds, and to abandon that where­by we haue gotten a reputation of vertuous liuing.

Thirdly,The queenes godly constā ­cie. And this godly constancie hath well appeared in Queene Elizabeth who euer continued her selfe most constant in her Re­ligious Resolution. For as she was ruled be­ing vnder gouernement, so shee ruled when she had the gouernement, and so she left the rule when she left the gouernement. she was borne in the Faith of the Protestant Religion, she liued in that Faith,She was an­swerable to her constant mot. and in that Faith she died; her aduersity in her Sisters time could not weary her, nor her prosperity in her own time varie her,Semper ea­dem. but in both times was she one [Page 331] without alteration. At her entring the State she tooke vpon her the Defence of the Ca­tholike Faith; the which she attempted no­blely, continued constantly, and finished happily; for as she began, so she conti­nued, and as shee continued so shee ended.

Fourthly,Her constan­cie apparent. This her Christian constancie is most apparant in the view of her gouerne­ment, where her hands were euer working for the defence of Faith, defending it at home,In the view of her go­uernement. defending it abroad, for her selfe de­fending it, and defending it for others; euer in trauell for this holy businesse, the particu­lars whereof (if I should report them,) I should ouercharge my poore abilitie with too much businesse, and peraduenture pre­uent the Labours of some other better able to report them.The name of Queene Elizabeth cannot pe­rish in Eng­land. For it cannot be that the honorable name of this great Queene should euer dye, or that the remembrance of her vertuous and Princely deedes should perish in forgetfulnes, because this Nation which she hath so much honoured, hath many ge­nerous and sufficient Learned men, whose [Page 332] honestie will neuer suffer, that England lose the honour of her famous memorie, by whose great Maiesty England it selfe, and the name of English-man is (throughout the world) made very famous.

Fiftly, And I heartily wish, that these my poore vndertakings in this honorable cause, may prouoke (be it by enuie or displeasure) some better sufficiency to report her most Princely deseruings: and it iustly doth moue admiration in many, that among so much sufficient Learning as this Land hath, such a Queene, such a Patronesse of Pietie & Lear­ning, A request to the learned of this Land. should not liue in the written monu­mēts of their best sufficiencie, whose name hath got degrees aboue admiration, with Princes of the greatest commaund in the World. And most excellent Prince (may it please your Grace I may report the loue I will euer owe the liuing name of this dead Queene, and the content I haue that my stu­dies are, and haue beene imployed in these honourable arguments: For howsoeuer in all other things I am little in the fauour of Fortune. Yet in this I acknowledge her li­beralitie, [Page 333] that this great Princesse (by For­tune) doth liue in the memorie of my wri­tings.

Of the last act of the Queenes defence for the Catholike Faith.

FIRST,The last de­fence shee made for the Catholike Faith. the last act of the Queens defence for the Catholike Faith, was the care shee had at her death to surrender the charge of her high place, to a Prince faithfull and assured, and to such a one, whom (in her Princely iudgement) shee had found fit to mannage a matter of that consequence.A most Chri­stian care. And this was a care very Christian in the Queene, and which declared the truth of her Religi­ous affection. For they that loue and desire the world onely;A worldly care. and that haue no hope in the fauour of God or in the happinesse of heauen; neuer trouble themselues to care [Page 334] for that which may outliue their life, imagi­ning that when they die, the care of the world doth perish with them, neither haue such any care to benefit posterity,To benefit posterity. but con­tent themselues with the prosperitie of their owne life.The care of Christians. But the holy care of Christians is otherwise, and doth reach further than life, euen to the length of all posteritie.

Secondly, for the Queene (in respect of ciuill life) might haue thought it sufficient for her honour, and for the discharge of her high place, that she her selfe had finished her holy course, with so great a commen­dation: (but in respect of Religious life) she hath a further care,The queenes persecution. to care to preuent all euil meanes, which might any way ruine that frame which she with so much painefulnesse had erected. And to this end the Queene hath a most Christian care, commending the cause of the Christian & Catholike Faith, King Iames. to the Faith and truth of the Kings Maiestie our souereigne that was, whom by her last wil she interested, to the title of her Crowne, and to whom she made surrender of her office, to defend the quarrell of the Catholike Faith.

[Page 335] Thirdly,Obiection. and if any man obiect, that the Queenes nominating the Kings Maiestie at her death to inherit her kingdomes, was of small merit in the Queene, and of no furthe­rance to the Kings cause, because (of neces­sity) the inheritance must haue discended to the King, it being his Maiesties in Iustice, and by the right of Law.Answer. I answer, that how­soeuer it is most true of the Kings inheri­tance, and that it could not rightfully dis­cend to any other: yet considering the re­uerence was had to the person of the Queene, and the interest she had in the hearts of all her subiects, it had bene dangerous if she had nominated any other to succeed her; and it was her speciall prouidence, that at that time she named the King to this inheritāce.

Fourthly,Another obiection. againe, there are others who haue blamed the Queene for not publishing this her good purpose to the King in her life time, and haue thought that the open ac­knowledgement thereof, was necessarie both to further the Kings peaceable en­trance, and to giue satisfaction to the doubt­full mindes of the Queenes subiects,Reasons. the igno­rant [Page 332] vnlearned people being the greater part of the body of this Land, and seeing they could not themselues satisfie this doubt, it was needfull they should be instructed, in the Kings lawfull title to the Crowne, and that publike Proclamation should haue bene made (in the Queenes life time) to that end, lest the simplicity of the common people (when occasion might need them) should be abused by false vnderstanding, and drawne from their dutifull seruice, which could not haue bene, if the Queene before hand, had declared the King her Successor, and lawfull heyre.

Fifthly,The answer. I answer, these reasons are weake and of little consideration, and that the Queene and her Counsell, had many weigh­ty reasons to diswade this publique proclai­ming of the Kings right in the Queenes time. And these reasons haue respect to the safetie of the Queene and her state, and to the King and his title. For by this meanes the King himselfe had care, not to discontent the Queene but to continue his Grace in her fa­uourable 2 estimation. Againe, it preuented [Page 333] enuie, and the danger of conspiracies of such who haue bene named for competitors. Lastly, it was a meanes to preserue the Queenes reputation among her subiects, a 3 great part whereof, would haue bene giuen the King before it was due, if he had bene proclaimed heyre apparant to the Queene and Crowne, which might haue proued dangerous to his person, and dangerous to the state of these kingdomes. For great men and the great spirits of men being intitled to much wealth and great dignities, haue not many times the patience to attend their law­full times, but preuent time and take it be­fore hand, the which though it was most false in the kings particular, yet was it needfull the wisedome of State should then regard it. And therefore did Queene Elizabeth that which was most reasonable in it selfe, most considerable for the king and the State of England, and most conscionable for the dis­charge of her princely place, whose honou­rable deeds I shall euer most willingly re­port to whose name I liue a seruant, and whose praise I would not thus niggardly [Page 334] scant, but that I vnderstand a man of much better ability in respect of all learned suffi­ciencie; hath vndertaken that taske.

THis Phaenix Queene ELIZABETH is with­out Comparison.

OF THE NEXT DEFENDOR OF THE Faith, King IAMES, the Kings most excellent Majestie that last was.


FIRST, There is no wise­dome in the world, either of men or Angells, that can (certainly) foresee the truth of future euents, or determine what shall be the issue of those things which are held doubtfull. For God hath not giuen to the nature of any Creature to know things be­fore they be,None but God can foretell the truth of fu­ture euents. that being proper to himselfe onely, who at one instant of time is able to comprehend the knowledge of all things, both past, present, and to come. For before [Page 336] things were did God ordeine what should be,Gods decree. & determine euery circumstāce of euery worke of Nature, which in their appointed times) were to follow. And these infinite nū ­ber of varieties doth he direct by his hand of prouidēce to those ends he hath determi­ned,His proui­dence. shutting them vp (in the meane time) in the closet of his secret counsel,Councell. whereinto the vnderstanding of any creature had neuer liberty to enter: and when God shall please to bring them into act, they are thē no more his secrets, but common to the vnderstan­dings of al men that desire to know them. So that they come not to mans knowledge,When Gods secrets are knowne to men. before they passe from the secret of Gods counsell into act, where before they are not knowne, but onely to such choise particu­lers to whom God shall please to make them manifest: For as no man is able to declare the fortunes of to morrow before the day be ended, so in euery other worke no crea­ture is able certainely to determine,All things are iudged by their e­uents and not otherwise. what will be before it be; all things (in respect of humane indgement) being iudged by their euents and not otherwise.

[Page 337] Secondly,Astr [...]logie and calcula­ting vncer­taine. and therefore is calculating and the iudgement of Astrologie vncertaine, and a very mockery, hauing neither lawful­nesse nor Truth to giue it authority. And though the Diuiner sometime hit the truth, hee doth it not by any certaine di­rection, but by hap and at peraduenture, and so the blinde may hit the Butt, and the reporter of many lies, may fortune to tell a truth.

Thirdly,False fore­iudging. and this false fore-iudging is of ordinary custome in the vse of all worldly affaires, euery man (almost) aduenturing to Iudge before hand of euery accident, and to determine how God shall determine of such and such occasions, whereby they would tie God to a necessity,The foolish impudence of men. and that needs hee must doe that, which in their weake iudgement, they imagine will bee done. But God who is most absolute, and able to doe whatsoeuer shall please himselfe, deludeth the vaine imaginations of men, (and out of the greatest vnlikeli­hoods) can hee frame that which is most desired and least hoped neither is hee [Page 338] as man to iudge by apparance,God iudgeth not as man by apparāce. or by the consequence of humane reason, but out of death can he raise life, out of miserie, mercie, and in the greatest expectation of warre, blood, and persecution, can he giue peace safetie and preseruation.

Fourthly, Wee haue happie instance of this in the fortunes of the Kings Maiestie that last was:The Kings Maiesty King Iames our Souereigne, whom God most gratiously (and beyond all expe­ctation) did protect, making him for­tunate to the honour of his owne name, and for the happinesse of these Nations, combi­ning (by him) two euer disagreeing nations in the neerest bonds of Loue and Brother­hood.God hath ex­ceeded our hopes. And this did God make prosperous beyond our hopes, and beyound the euill desires of them who loued vs not. For if we remember the latter time of Queene Eliza­beths reigne, and the hard condition of those times, we shall then finde how much the mer­cie of God hath exceeded our hopes,Mens ex­pectations deceiued. and how much the generall opinion was decei­ued in the construction of that euent, men generally expecting the miserie of warre, and [Page 339] ciuill strife, when God did reach vs his mer­cie, and the large demonstration of his loue.

Fifthly,In respect of likely-hood. And (in truth) in respect of like­ly hood, both Nations England and Scotland had reason to haue feared more, and hoped lesse then happened, it being not likely to succeed as it did, and that a people inue­terate in quarrell and warlike contention, should in such peaceable manner shake hands, and conspire mutually one thing, which for many hundreds of yeares before did euer disagree, & which is more in a mat­ter so important, as was the vniting of both kingdomes in the gouernement of one ab­solute Souereigne▪ The practise of forreigne States our enemies. Neither was it likely there wanted then the practise of forreigne States, especially of such as enuied our pros­perity and loued vs not, which might trauell to hinder this happie coniunction, whereby our strength became double so much as be­fore, and therefore our enemies would co­uet rather to suppresse than to inlarge vs, least we hauing the kingdome of Scotland to assist vs, which (before was commonly either enemie or newter) might proue vnresistable [Page 340] in the fortune of warre, who before we had it, were so often Conquerours.

Sixthly,A matter very conside­rable. And this assuredly was a matter very considerable for them to preuent, and such as the Pollitique wisedome of States men would carefully apprehend. For in the disoretion of State affaires,The discreti­on of State. it is better and of lesse difficultie to preuent the augmentati­on of our enemies power, then when it is augmented to scatter it.Note. And those things in the opportunity of their times, are of ea­sie reach, which afterwards in a time vnfit proue vnaccessable & not within our com­pas, and this Iudgement could not want in them who most carefully search the secrets of all pollicie, and trauell their wits to ap­prehend and contriue all aduantages: yet notwithstanding all these occasions, which in common iudgement might haue letted the Kings peaceable entrance into this King­dome,Gods fauour to the King. did God bring him vnder the pro­tection of his fauour in security and peace, and with generall acclamation, binding the enuie of all opposition, and making his ene­mies shew themselues his friendly entertai­ners, [Page 341] & the antiēt enemies of this kingdom to congratulate his Kingly inheritance.The enemies of this King­dome. And this did God with such admirable demon­stration of his fauour, as that his Maiestie and his Subiects of both kingdomes, haue good cause to remember it for euer most thanke­fully: whose life God did wonderfully pre­serue, and whose fortunes hee did highly aduance, leading him thorow many difficul­ties and dangers,What the King did inherit with England. to a faire inheritance, to inherit the obedience and faithfull ser­uice, of a people faithfull, fortunate, and assured: whom his predecessors the Kings of Scotland did euer most feare, as their most able enemie, & whom his Maiesty euer found, his most trusty and assured Subiects: and this was done with such prosperity and forward successe,The Kings forward suc­cesse. that the report of the Q. death was scarce named in our neighbour kingdomes, but this report of the kings peaceable entrance, was farre off generally knowne, the good newes of the kings en­tring outstripping the euill newes of the Queenes death, to the comfort of all good men, and to the admiration of all men.

[Page 342] Seuenthly,The King at his entring had no vse for weapon but to giue honour. neither was there need (as it was thought) that the King and his Subiects of Scotland should for this cause haue put themselues into the hazard of vncertaine warre, whereby the Kings right might haue indured wrong, and Truth haue stood at the discretion of warre, which had bene very dangerous, and that which our enemies most hoped;The happie issue decei­ued the euill ezpectation. but the happie issue was other­wise, for neither was there any to lift vp his daring hand to resist his Maiestie, neither had the King any vse for weapons, but onely wore them for ornament and to giue names of honour to such men, whom hee thought did or might deserue them.

Eighthly, And thus did God giue vs life when we feared death, peace when we fea­red warre,Gods bles­sings to our Nation. a king when we had none, a Prince, a Patron, and a most noble Defendor of the Catholike Faith, vnder whose protection we enioyed peace, plenty, & security. And ther­fore happie were we in his gratious gouern­ment, and happie was his Maiesty whom God found worthie, to succeed in the roy­all seate, and in the holy cares of that most [Page 343] famous Defendress of the Faith, Queene Eli­zabeth. Queen Eli­zabeth.

Of the Kings defending the Catholike Faith in Scotland, before he was King of England.

FIRST, there is nothing of our owne wherein wee may iustly glory,We ought to glory in no­thing but in well-doing. but in well-doing, because when we doe any work of Grace, the Spirit of God moueth in vs, and prouoketh vs to holy exercise. And therein (onely) we may worthily esteeme of our selues, because we are accepted of God, and vsed as his holy-instruments.Gods instru­ment. And in this had the Kings Maiestie much to glory, who so soone as euer he could moue, was moued by the Spirit of grace, to holy and good pur­poses.The Kings care for Re­ligion. The best proofe of this was his Prin­cely care for Religion, wherin at all times he [Page 344] approued himselfe both industrious and resolute, and wherein he fortunately trauel­led with much prosperity and honour. The demonstration whereof is now visible in the face of Scotland, The Kings reforming the state of Scotland. that kingdome being by his Maiesties happy gouernment, redu­ced to the first Christian Faith, and to a better forme of Common-wealth than formerly it had. The Church there being reformed and purged from popish Idolatrie, which had profaned both that and all other Chri­stian Kingdomes.

Secondly, and in this the King deserued euerlasting memory and praise, that he was the first Christian King in that Kingdome,The first Protestant King in this Kingdome. whose care gaue end to that miserie, and by whom that Church had the truth of the Ca­tholike Faith practised publikely, and with the warrant of lawfull authority professed. In which holy businesse the King was verie fortunate, and for which God did make him fortunate in the passage of his Princely life assisting him in his lawfull attempts,Gods assi­stance to the Kings good cause. and confounding the wicked practises of bad men, who banded against his Maiestie to [Page 345] destroy him. And therefore before his Ma­iestie had the title of Defendor of the Catholike Faith did he faithfully defend it,The King defended the quarrell of Faith before he had the title. and aduised and enioyned his Princely Sonne Prince Henrie to defend it. And thus did God pre­pare the Kings Maiestie and the Prince for the purpose of this holy businesse, and by exercising them for the defence of Faith in the kingdome of Scotland, to fit them for the like care in England, wherein the King most gratiously begunne his gouernment and ended it,A gratious beginning & ending. and wherein we trust that his Sonne our gratious Souereigne that now is, and his royall seed for euer shall in these kingdomes defend the most true, most anti­ent, and most Catholike Faith.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. it is in vaine to indeauour things wherein God is opposite, for no power can alter the purpose of his prouidence. This hath instance in the Fortunes of these [Page 346] two kingdomes, England and Scotland, who haue euer laboured their seueral extremities to be vnited; the which when Pollitie and the wisedome of State could not doe. God (with­out these meanes) gaue it successe, and in an instant bound these disagreeing nations in the bonds of vnseparable concord.

Secondly,Pollitique. the King by publishing (in print) his opinion of Religion and his directi­ons for Christian gouernement, did thereby much confirme the hopes and hearts of the better part of our English people. For it must needs be, that if the contrarie faction the Papist did not withstanding this declaration of his Maiesties presume much vpon fauour at his entrance, this presumption would (in all likely-hood) haue proued a practise, and therefore was this Publike satisfaction a Re­ligious pollicie, that did both arme his friends, and disarme his enemies.

Thirdly,Morall. It is necessary many times to a mans Morrall reputation to maintaine his integri­ty by Apollogies and publike protestations▪ For if the person be eminent and of publike Note, his good or euill name will be likewise generall.

In what particulers King IAMES our Souereigne that was, prin­cipally defended the Faith.

FIRST,The altera­tion of a Prince, the alteration of State. It is often true, that the alteration of the Prince is a cause that the State is likewise altered, and that those things which for­merly in the gouernement had great autho­rity, become not only neglected but also pu­nishable and in great contempt. And this though it bee not true in generall instance, yet in euery change of a Prince, it is either hoped of the bad, or feared of the better sort of people. Wee had particuler witnesse of that in our happie alteration; hap­pie, because nothing but the very person of the Prince was altered) the gouernement re­mained in like degrees of happines:Nothing but the person of the Prince was altered. where­in Queene Elizabeth (to her honourable re­nowne [Page 348] nowne left it:)The euill hopes of bad men. yet then were there many euill and discontented persons who could hopefully perswade themselues, that the op­portunity was then offered which they ex­pected, and that the time serued to reinte­grate them into fauour, and to bring their cause vnder the safetie of the kings protecti­on, And though in respect of the Kings par­ticuler, there was little or no ground for any such hope, his Maiestie hauing before hand declared himselfe in print, how (in the case of Religion) he was resolued, yet was there a generall hope in that contrarie faction,The hope of factious people. whereby they imagined somewhat would be done if not to their absolute content, yet to their great ease, and to the lightning the burthen of their afflictions, which in the Queenes time they worthily indured.

Secondly,Note. That both the Papist & the pu­ritane could conspire on hope in one particuler Prince. But that which is more strange and worthie of note, that not onely the Pa­pists had this hopefull imagination, but their opposites also (whom men commonly call Puritans) had the like conceiuing, they ho­ping their cause should finde such large al­lowance of fauour with the King, that they [Page 349] and their opinion onely, should haue the countenance and warrant of the Kings pro­tection. And that both the Papist and the regular Protestant should be iudged vnuse­full and of necessity to bee excluded from the Catholike Church.

Thirdly,The successe failed. And howsoeuer the successe of this came short of common expectation, yet was this of much more likelihood then the other, both because their controuersie was not for the matter of Religion: but for order and for the manner of Ceremonie and cir­cumstance onely, and also because the go­uernment of the Church of Scotland, Church of Scotland. had neere resemblance with that which they desi­red, whereby the King might the better (or rather) be induced to giue them and their request friendly intertainment.The Kings resolute con­stancie. Yet notwith­standing al these likelihoods, and the hopes of either partie did the King incline to nei­ther, his Maiestie finding the Church of Eng­land (as it was established) to be the meane and vertue betweene these two extremities, and that their desires were not for the peace and aduancement of the Catholike Faith, ac­cording [Page 350] as both of them pretended, and that these oppositions were either to be re­conciled, and so made friends, or else op­posed as enemies.

Fourthly, And this may worthily seeme strange that these two irreconcileable opi­nions, that of the Papist and this of the Puri­tane, should both of them at one time, ex­pect supportation from one and the same Prince, and from such a Prince as had before declared himselfe not to fauour them, that these who neuer consent in any little resem­blance, should thus conspire and hope in one particular person.The reason. And the reason was the seuerall perswations they had of the truth of their cause, wherein the maintai­ners of both opinions, could receiue speci­all satisfaction in themselues, and hopefully belieue to worke the King to that acknow­ledgement of truth, wherein they them­selues were resolued, and wherein (they thought was sufficient reason to satisfie or perswade any man.Their argu­ments of hope Besides, they might peraduenture frame speciall arguments of hope, to giue them incouragement in hope­full [Page 351] proceeding, both of them apprehen­ding euery little circumstance of hope, ei­ther in the King himselfe his Nature or fortunes.

Fiftly,How God assisted the King in this important businesse. But the mercie of God which had wonderfully protected the Kings Maiestie in safetie and prosperous fortune against many dangerous practises did not now leaue him vnassisted, but in this businesse of most im­portant consideration, lead him to an end full of honourable merit, God giuing him so much of the wisdome of his Spirit, where­by he was able to iudge and determine this maine Controuersie, and whereby hee was able to iudge betweene light and darknes, Truth and falsehood, Order and disorder, Religion and Idolatrie. And according to this holy iudgement did the King in his ele­ction) make particular choice,The Kings choice. confirming the doctrine of true Religion, and the com­mendable order which in the Church hee found established, and confuting (by the iudgement of his owne mouth) both these & all the other enemies of Truth and order whatsoeuer. Thus nobly prepared did his [Page 352] Maiestie defend the Catholike Faith a­gainst these two great enemies, enemies both of them; for the Papist hee is e­nemie to the Faith,The Papist and the Pu­ritane both enemies to the Catho­like Church. and the Puritan is ene­nemie to the peace of the Catholike Church, enemies both, yet not both alike enemies, yet both dangerous and of much conue­nience to bee opposed by the Defendor of the Catholike Faith, the which his Maie­stie did to his great commendation, and to the honour of Almighty God.The order of the Kings proceeding against the Puritan. For the Puritan first, the order of the Kings gratious proceeding in this businesse is well knowne to the world, by what lenity and fauoura­ble meanes hee laboured to accord their disagreements, and to vnite them to the peace and concord of the Church, from which they had deuided themselues. For though by the power of his high place, he might haue forced their obedience and haue vsed the seueritie of correction and seuere Iustice, yet would hee not knowing how stiffe and wilfull they were in their opi­nion, and therefore to gaine them his Ma­iestie was content to vse any meanes [Page 353] to put off Maiestie and the authority of Greatnesse, The Kings most Christi­stian Care. and in his owne person to giue their cause a fauourable hearing, and himselfe to moderate and iudge their disputations; and therefore were they allowed to make choice of the best able men among them to defend their opi­nion, against whom were appointed of the Reuerend Bishops of this Land, to answer and to satisfie their arguments, in the hearing and determining, of which Controuersie his Maiestie▪ His Maie­sties religi­ous Iudge­ment. did declare himselfe to vnderstand as much in Reli­gious Learning as the greatest Doctor in that presence, he himselfe confuting and confounding all pretended reason alled­ged against the conuenient orders of the Church, whereby at that time hee de­clared how well able hee was to defend the quarrell of Faith and Religion against all the Learning in the world.The different nature of the King, and these peeuish people. And thus did the King discend his Maiestie to satisfie the peeuish obstinacie of the Puritan faction. And whereas it is obiected that these pro­ceedings against the Puritans,Obiection. did animate [Page 354] and incourage the Papist an enemie of grea­ter importance, and that it was euill order to begin reformation with the Puritans and to let the Papist passe as an enemie not regarded.Answer. I answer, the order was good and most conuenient, and answerable to the rule of God himselfe For iudgement beginneth at the house of God, and it is most needfull for him that would profitably reforme o­thers, first to reforme himselfe.

Sixthly, And the body of this kingdome, hauing the disease of disobedience in the chiefe memebers thereof,A most or­derly procee­ding. it was orderly and most necessarie; first to respect this care at home▪ and then to intend businesse further of, neither could the Papist bee incouraged by this, for they might well know that if the King fauoured not the lesse,An argu­ment. he would not fauour the greater enemie; and if he corre­cted the Puritan with rods, he would whip them with scourges. And for the Papist how­soeuer the Kings Maiesty did vse them,Papist. with as much fauourable regard as any Prince in the world, would his enemies▪ yet was there a watchfull eye had to their proceedings,The care of the State. [Page 355] and so strict a hand was held ouer them as to distinguish them from friends; the Go­uernours of State being most carefull to pre­uent whatsoeuer might be by them attemp­ted, not doing ought against them, which might any way prouoke them to any vnlaw­full practise.

Seuenthly,The reason. and this was vpon good con­sideration, because the Recusants in England, had not yet attempted ought against the Kings person and State▪ and therefore was it his Religious wisedome, not to punish be­fore they had offended, nor with strict seue­rity to restraine them, before they had made some treasonable attempt; whereby the pro­ceedings against them, might be the more iustifiable before the whole face of Christen­dome.The Papists. But they not content with much vn­lesse they might haue all; conspire the most damnable treason,The Gun­powder trea­son. that euer by men or di­uels was inuented; the report whereof (for the rarenesse) is spread ouer all the world. For (at one blow) they purposed to smite off the heads of all the honourable in this Na­tion; all the Heads because all the Gouer­nours [Page 356] both principall and subordinate, and all the Honourable, because al­most all the wise and Reuerend in the Kingdome, should at one Blow haue peri­shed.

Eighthly,How this might haue wrought re­uenge in the Kings desire. now how this Treason might haue offended, a King disposed to Reuenge, let the most patient minded in the world iudge it; but how it did moue the Kings im­patience, or how his Maiestie reuenged it, let the most enuious Papist iudge it. For presently vpon the discouerie of this neere effected Treason;The Kings Proclema­tion. the king by his Proclama­tions declared, that he had no purpose, to lay their offence vpon their generall cause of Religion;His most re­ligious mer­cie. nor that his Iustice should reach further then to the offendors themselues, wherein hee gaue assu­rance of safetie to all such Recusants, as in all other respects saue Religion were dutifull Subiects. And though for the better security of the king and State, there were some Statutes enacted for the better preuenting of the like dangers;Statutes en­acted. yet were they verie mercifull, and farre [Page 357] from the Nature of Reuenge, tending onely to defend, and not to offend the quiet of any peaceable Subiect.

Ninthly,The Oath of Allegiance. And whereas the Oath of Allegiance is by many thought verie grie­uous,Blackwell the Arch-Priest. it is strange, that any Christian iudgement should so thinke, and that any man should dare to condemne that which God so highly commendeth; and with some of their best Learned both al­low as lawfull, and haue aduisedly taken, the which because it is by others largely disputed, I passe ouer.

Tenthly, Now the king to adde to all these Christian merits and to declare him­selfe with most direct testimonies, that his Princely care was principally for the Seruice of God, and the aduancement of the Catholike Religion; hee the Lord annointed vndertakes the quarrell of GODS cause, concluding by inuinci­ble arguments, that Truth which Antichrist the Arch-enemie of the Catholike Faith had opposed. These his most Christian and most Princely labours, are diuulged [Page 358] and laid open before the generall face of the world, whereby that man of sin is with eui­dence discouered, and all his painted Polli­tique Religion, laid nakedly open, in the true formes of his false worship; and whereby Christian Emperours, Kings, and Potentates, are induced by the authorities of reason, and particuler example, to combine with God, and Gods Lieftenants (Christian Princes) a­gainst all forreigne confederacie whatsoe­uer. These workes of Religious Learning in the King, as they were of maruellous import and strength to the Catholike Cause, so also they made much for the Kings sacred ho­nour, and will vndoubtedly remaine to all posterity as ornaments of his princely worth, and inducements to inflame with sacred zeale the affections of his princely Progenie, to honour and inlarge the repu­tation of Religion and Learning. And how­soeuer his malitious lying enemie Tortus (or the Cardinall his Master Bellarmine,) would disgrace the Kings sufficiencie, in this kinde of learning, and would therefore father his Maiesties worke vpon his Subiect of lesse au­thority, [Page 359] yet are these iniuries both knowne and iudged by many thousands, both of this and of other Nations, that haue had expe­rience of his extraordinary indouments: the truth whereof it is not possible his owne Subiects can report, without suspition of flatterie.

Eleuenthly, I conclude then that the Kings Maiesty most noblely defended the Catholike Faith against all the enemies,The two great ene­mies of our Church. and prin­cipally against these two great ones, the Pa­pist and the Puritan.

Obseruations • Diuine. , • Pollitique. , and • Morall. 

FIRST,Diuine. there was neuer any time wherein God had not some Patron to giue the cause of his Church Sanctuarie: for though it be often in distresse, it is neuer in destruction.

Secondly,Pollitique. the Kings proceeding against the Papists and the Puritans, did well distin­guish the quallities of their offence, and de­clare [Page 360] his owne integrity, for though he pro­ceeded against both, yet with some distincti­on of fauour. For the Puritan was the lesse enemie, being enemie to the peace onely, but the Papist both to the peace and truth of the Catholike Faith.

Thirdly,Morall. Men measure the dgrees of loue, and hate, according to the quallity of the cause that moues the passion. But in par­ticular relations, the personall respect doth often preuaile aboue the cause. For passion is much more strong when it is vnited in one particuler Subiect, rather than when it is de­uided vnto a multitude.

A remembrance of some particulers, wherein God wonderfully defen­ded King IAMES.

FIRST, there was neuer any Prince in the world who had more cause to acknowledge Gods fauour then King Iames, The many daungers the King passed. who trauelled his Princely life (from his Cradle to his age thorow many dangerous fortunes; whom God still supported against the most able, and the most subtill practises of his enemies. For if we reduce to memo­rie,In Scotland. the many dangers of his life in Scotland, and how in that kingdome his enemies did conspire against his life and State, there is in that time and place matter enough of ad­miration. But if that were not, and that wee remembred his fortunes in England onely;England. in those few yeares of his▪ [Page 362] gouernement here, wee shall finde mat­ter of more than admiration, and such con­spiracie and damned practises, as would a­maze and (with horror) affright the hearts of tyrants and bloody practisers.

Secondly, and for Scotland first (to omit many of lesse note) I remember that very dangerous conspiracie of the Gowries, The conspi­racie of the Gowries. one­ly a practise brought to that ripenesse as that the King might seeme to be fast in the snare his enemies had laid to betray him: yet did God in a trice breake their snare,His deliue­uerance. free the King, and destroy the Diuellish deuisers of that proiect. This story is well knowne, and therefore it need not my report, being alrea­die related by such, who haue had better cause to know the truth of euery circum­cumstance, and yet in this place doth it merit to bee named both for the rarenesse of the practise and for the greatnesse of Gods deli­uerance.

Thirdly,At the Queenes death. at the Queenes death also did God wonderfully assist the King, and fauour the prosperity of his fortunes, for at that time, when the enemies of our State, and [Page 363] the enemies of our Faith did hopefully be­leeue that the enmity of these two king­domes England and Scotland, The Pope and Papist. would vpon this occasion haue renued their antient quarrells,No distur­bance to let the Kings forward en­trance. and thereby haue interrupted the Kings peaceable entrance into this king­dome; yet was the euent otherwise, no lit­tle disturbance letting his Maiesties forward entring, whereby God did mocke the ex­pectation of his enemies, and assuredly ex­ceed the expectation of all men.

Fourthly, that neuer to be forgotten trea­son of blowing vp with powder,The treason of the blow­ing vp the Parliament house. a destructi­on ment to the King, the Queene, the Prince, the State, the house of State, the Church, the Monuments of the Church, the bones, and Sepultures of Princes,A destructi­on lesse mer­cifull than the Flood. a destruction lesse mercifull then the generall Flood; because more sudden, and yet all most generall too, the very naming whereof may serue for e­uer, to prouoke the people of this kingdom to acknowledge their dutifull thankes to God, by whose hand onely, this mighty de­liuerance was wrought.

Fifthly, By these particulers out of many, [Page 364] may appeare how God did wonderfully protect the person of that King;God wonder­fully prote­cted the King. suffering him to enter so farre into danger, as that he might haue bene said, to haue stood in the verie gates of death, the match being readi­ly prepared to fire that powder, which if it had bene fired, had committed the greatest Slaughter that euer (at one instant of time) happened. May God therefore for euer be praised, who preuented so great a de­struction: and let his prouidence be for euer admired, who hath thus defended the De­fendors of the Catholike Faith.

Of the diuersity of Religions.

FIRST,Religion de­uideth the world. the diuersity of Religi­ons, is one maine cause that de­uideth the world into so many disagreements, the maintainers of euery seuerall Sect, disclaiming and per­secuting [Page 365] al diuersity, iudging such for prophāe & out of Gods protection, that conspire not with them, in their opinion of Religion.The names of Christian and heathen odious to one another. And heerehēce it is that the name of Iew or Turke is odious to a Christian, & the name of Chri­stian odious to them, they iudging vs, and we iudging thē Anathemates, & cursed people.

Secondly,The Chri­stians among themselues and the hea­then among themselues deuided. neither is this contention one­ly in these opposites of Christian and hea­then; but the heathen among themselues, and the Christians among themselues, are deuided into many bitter differences, the Turke against the Persian & both against the Iew, and so in many other particulars of the barbarous people.Among the Christians. Among the Christians al­so the Papist against the Protestāt, & the Pro­testāt against the Papist, & the Puritan against them both, besides many other subdiuisions. So that the Christians in these times, haue as many seuerall Religiōs as the old heathen & Pagans had Gods,Christians now haue as manie Reli­gions as the Pagans had Gods. and that Idolatrie which the people of the old world committed by hauing multiplicity of Gods did the people of these times cōmit by their multiplicity of Religions. For it is al one to deny God, and [Page 366] to denie his seruice, and Idolatrie is aswell in false worship, as in no worship. For as God is one & but one,One God, one Truth, one Religion. so there is one Reli­gion, and but one, whereto all creatures owe their obedience. And that men might not preuaricate or alter the forme of Gods ser­uice,God hath prescribed an order for his seruice. hath God himselfe prescribed vs a pre­cise forme, how and in what forme wee should serue him, damning all diuersity to this his owne order, wherewith he is onely pleased, and wherewith he is alway pleased.

Thirdly,The reason why Religion is so deuided. the reason then why Religion is thus deuided in the Christian world, is the many seueral constructions of Gods Word, whereby it is both diuersly and doubtfully vnderstood; euery man adhering to that sence of Scripture, as to his iudgement doth seeme most resonable. And from hence it is that these two maine diuisions of Religion, the Protestant and the Papist, subdeuide themselues againe into many differences, especially the Religion of Poperie. For proofe whereof, we may remember that the Church of Rome hath deuided itselfe into so many quarrel some disputations, that searce [Page 367] two Colledges conspire one truth after one manner;The contra­dictions a­mong the learned Pa­pists. Nay, and the best learned among them, contradict, and haue damned the opi­nions of one another, this hath bene well declared by many arguments of sufficient proofe:Doctor Morton. in the Learned writings of a Reue­rend Doctor of this Church, and which is now very lately declared by their own disa­greements, concerning the lawfulnesse of taking the Oath of Allegiance;Bellarmine and Black­well. in which Controuersie the Pope and his great Cardi­nall Bellarmine, oppose against their Arch-Priest Master Blackwell.

Fourthly, It is also worthie of memorie, that diuers of them in Queene Elizabeths time being prisoners at Wisbitch, Wisbitch. were deuided with so much hatred, as might seme impla­cable, the quarrell being for superiority be­tweene the Iesuites and Secular Priests, Iesuites and Secular Priests. began at Wisbitch, but sithence spread ouer all Chri­stendome, neither doe I thinke, will euer peaceably be compounded, a matter rare that men professing one Religion and one Faith,Note. prisoners in one place, and being by the Law dead men, and onely continued [Page 368] there by the mercie of a gratious Prince, should thus bitterly contend about priority and greatnesse of place. And therefore it is most euident,In the Reli­gion of pope­ry much di­uersity. that in that Religion of Poperie wherein they so much boast of vniformity and generall consent, there are many Sects and many bitter disagree­ments.

Fifthly,The Prote­stant Religi­on deuided. and for the Protestant Religion (whereof I esteeme most reuerently) that al­so is full of much diuersity, the vaine glorious spirits of men disturbing the peace of that Church, which hath flourished with much prosperity. And these diuersities like a ciuill warre, (and therefore a dangerous warre) haue more indammaged the cause of Religion,The hurts of diuided Religion. then all the other enemies in the world euer could doe, which by reason of singularity and strange doctrine, (with which the grosse numbers of people are wonderful­ly contented) they haue got a false reputa­tion in the world of holinesse, and thereby draw from the vnity of the Church numbers of the basest sort of peo­ple.

[Page 369] Sixthly,No meanes to reclaime these disobe­dient Chri­stians. It were needlesse to reckon vp the seuerall names of these Scismes, they are to well knowne in this Nation, whose peeuish obstinacie hath bene such, as that neither Law, nor mercy neuer yet could re­claime.Obiections of the Papists. And whereas it is obiected by the enemies of our Faith, that because of these diuersities, therefore our Religion is not good.Answer. Diuersity in all Religi­ons. I answer, the argument is sencelesse, because (as I haue proued) this diuersity is in all Religions, and in theirs most who most obiect against vs.Diuersity in the Iewish Church. Againe, wee all know that the Church of the Iewes was the true Church of God, yet in that Church also was there much diuersity,The doctrine of the Sad­duces. for the Sad­duces did denie the resurrection, which is a fundamentall point of Religion, whereas our greatest differences are onely for cir­cumstance and order. And therefore this their argument of diuersity, doth not con­clude against the truth of Religion, for the corne may bee good, which lyeth mingled with Chaffe, and so must the Church of GOD lie vntill the day of Iudgement; when as Christ shall come [Page 370] with his Fanne, and Seauer the good & bad, which in the meane time must lie in one heape, in one Church, and in one professi­on or name of Religion.

Seuenthly,The Kings desert in this respect of vnity. in this respect of vnity did the King most noblely defende the Catholike Faith, disclaiming the enemies on both hands, the proud Papist and the peeuish Puritan: and like a most Christian Catho­like King he directed himself to Iesus Christ, placed as hee was crucified, betweene these two Thieues,The true Re­ligion is like Christ be­tweene two Thieues. who (like two extremi­ties) Neighbour this most vertuous meane. And let it be the prayers of euery true Chri­stian, that his Maiesties posterity for euer may thus direct themselues to the Lord Iesus only,Christ the way, the truth, and the life. who only is the way, the truth, and life itself. And let neuer any Caesar of this Empire, in­cline their fauour to either of these crucified thieues, for though they hang with Truth, yet are they not true. And that Religion, which is but neere the Truth of the Catholike Faith is not that Truth, He that is but neere truth is not true. for as God is, so is Truth, and so is the faith of holy Religion, one and but one with out all duplicity or difference.

The Conclusion.

THVS I haue briefly, and but sparingly reported the honourable deeds of the Defendors of the Catholike Faith, wherein if I had bene iust, and had re­lated at full the number of their Prin­cely deseruings, in this kinde, I should haue vnderta­ken a businesse of infinite paines, and haue made this volume larger then the patience of these times allow to profitable writings. I haue therefore extract from the number of their deeds, such particulars onely as may abundantly serue to honour the memorie of their names. And this trauell most Noble Prince I present to your Highnesse consideration, not be­cause I presume of any worth in my part of this bu­sinesse, but because the knowledge thereof doth prin­cipally concerne the dignity of your High place, wherein will appeare to your Gratious presence, the view of your most Princely Predecessors, and how farre they trauelled themselues for the aduancement of holy Religion; defending it with resolutions, con­stant and prosperous. And wherein your High­nesse may behold, what care this Christian Kingdome hath had for the Christian Faith, and what care it doth ex­pect in the hope of your Maie­sty, and in your posterity for euer, Amen.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.