• The fyrst chapitre / how the chyrche ought to be honoured and loued capitulo primo
  • How prelates & people ought to lyue chastly capo. ij
  • How they ought to teche and gouerne theyr subgettis and to gyue almesses capitulo iij
  • How men of the chyrche ouȝt to preche & say trouthe cao. iiij
  • How they ought testudye & to lerne the holy scrypture v
  • ¶The thyrd book speketh of the lordes temporell. Whyche ought to be pyetous and mercyful capitulo pumo
  • How they ought to be of good lyf & of good maners cao. ij
  • How they ought not to be couetous ne auarcyous capo. iij
  • How the prynces ought to kepe Iustyce & mayntene it iiij
  • How prynces ought to be debonayr and humble capo. v
  • How they ought to be sobre and chaste capitulo vj
  • wherin the prynces ought temploye them capo. vij
  • How prynces ought to gouerne them capitulo viij
¶The fourth book speketh
  • Of the state of the comynalte of the people capitulo primo
  • Of the state of pouerte whyche ought to be agreable capo. ij
  • Of the state of olde age wherin a mā ouȝt to be vertuous iij
  • Of the state of yonge peple & how they shold gouerne them iiij
  • Of the state of maryane. & how it ouȝt to be mayntened v
  • How wymmen ought to be gouerned capitulo vi
  • How virginite & maydenhede ouȝt to be mayntened cao. vii
  • Of the state of wymmen wydowes capitulo viij
  • How seruaūtes ouȝt to be mayntened in theyr seruyce ix
  • How they that ben of euyl lyf dyen ylle capitulo x
  • How fader & moder ought to teche theyr chyldren capo. xj
  • How chyldren owen obeyssaūce & honour to their parents xij
  • Of the state of marchaunts capitulo xiij
  • Of the state of pylgryms capitulo xiiij
  • How dedely synnes desyren deth capitulo xv
¶The fyfthe book speketh wherfor no man ought to gloryfye hym self
  • [Page]Fyrst how the lyf is short and lastyth but a whyle capo. j
  • How this present lyf ought lytel to be praysed capo. ij
  • How no man ought to doubte ne fere deth capo. iij
  • Of ensamples by whyche it ought not to be doubted capo. iiij
  • How to thynke on deth is a thyng moche prouffytable cao. v
  • How none ought to be curyous of hys sepulture capo. vj
  • The last chappytre speketh how a man ought to thynke on the last Iugement and day of dome capitulo vij
¶Explicit tabula

¶The fyrst partye of thys book wherof the fyrst chapytre speketh of Pryde Capitulo primo

Every proud persone wold compare hym self to god in so moche as they gloryfye them self in the goodes that they haue. Of whyche thynges the glorye is due pryn­cypally to god. ¶And it is a grete abusion whan the crea­ture taketh pride in hym self for the goodes that god hath sent hym / for whyche goodes he ought to be the more humble to­ward god / and the better to knowe and to serue hym deuoutly Therfor sayth the prophete that god resysteth ayēst the proude folke whyche ben fallen vylaynsly. Emonge whome the fyrst was lucyfer / whiche for his pryde fyl fro heuen to helle & alle they that consented to his synne. Semblably our fyrst fader Adam for the mesprysion of disobeyssaūce to god / and obeyed to the serpent sayeng. that he shold be as god. & ete of the fruyte whyche was to hym fo [...]boden / therfore he was put oute of paradys / as it apperyth in the book of genesis. Furthermore A­gar the chamberyer of sara was ryght proud ayenst hyr maystresse by cause of a chylde that she had by Abraham. But fy­nably she was put oute for hyr pryde and hyr chylde also / and nothyng was gyuen to hyr at departyng but a lytel brede & water. as it apperyth in the xvj chapytre of genesis. ¶Also we rede how the pryde of nembroth and of many other was a grete parte cause of many euyllis and of the deuysyon of the world as it apperyth in the book aforsayd / For after Noes flood were the geants whyche by theyr pryde entreprysed the assault ayenst heuen. & edyffyed the toure of babylon. And therfore they were deuyded in to many lāgages in suche wyse that none vnderstode other as it apperith in the xi chapytre of gene­sis. And as me semeth pryde sourdeth but onely of folye / For who so wel knoweth hym self. yf he be euyl. he hath cause of grete humylyte / For alle synne is shame and seruytude / And yf he be good. he hath cause also of grete humylite for the [Page] grace that god hath doon to hym. in so moche that he is good & agreable to god. & to haue humylite admonesteth vs the pnnycion that we rede of them that were proude / for we rede how pharao was soo proude that he sayd. he wyst not who was god of Israel. & that he sette nouȝt ne helde not of hym. as it appereth in the v chapytre of exode but fynably he was punys­shed & drowned in the reed see & all his. Furthermore we rede how Amon for his pryde wold be honoured of alle men. And was moche angry ayēst Mardocheꝰ a man so named by cause that he wold not worshyp hym. But fynably the said amon was honged on a galowes whyche he had ordeyned & made redy for to haue hanged o [...] the sayd mardocheꝰ & the chyldren of Israel as it appereth in the thyrd chapytre of hester. Further more abymelech for his pride dyd to slee hym self. for by cause that a woman had smyten hym. he callyd one his squyer. & bad hym to slee hym to thende that it be not sayd. that a wo­man hath slayn hym. as it apperyth in the ix chapytre of Iu­dyth. Rede we not also how Balthasar was slayne for hys pryde▪ And Nabugodonosor was cast doun fro his syege. and torned in to a dombe beest as it apperith in the v chapytre of danyel. Anthiochus also for his pryde was gretely punysshed of god. & smyton with a dysease of whiche he myght neuer be heled. as it apperith in the second book of Machabees. And generally al proude men atte last haue be ouerthrowen. Rede we not how the pryde of Nychanor was descomfyt and brought to nought as it apperyth in the fyrst book of Machabees the viij chapytre / ¶And Absalon whyche wold haue taken the Royame fro his fader / was he not vysaynously slayne as it apperith in the second book of kynges the xv chapytre. who made Pheton to falle but hys pryde. For he wold gouerne the carte ayenst the counceyl of hys fader Phebus. And therfore he fylle dyshonourably as Ouyde recounteth in hys fyrst book of Methamorphaseos / wherfore was the sone of Dedalus drowned. but by cause he wold flee ouer hyghe ageynst the [Page] techyng of his fader as ouyde recoūtrth / & dauid was gretely punysshed by cause that he nombred the peple which were subgette to hym / as it apperith in the ij book of kynges in the xxiij chapytre. Hewde also which was ryȝt proud was smyton of thangel as it appereth in the book of thactes of the appostles. And therfor our lord Ihesu cryst wold shewe to his discyples that pryde dysplaysed hym. he repreued them by cause they glorifyed them / in sayeng to Ihesu cryst. Syr in thy name sōme ben to vs subgettes. & thēne Ihu cryst for to withdrawe them fro theyr pryde. he aledged to them thystorye aforsayd of the angel lucycer whiche fyl fro heuē. to thende that they shold take therby example as it appyereth in the x chapytre of saynt Luc And me semeth that for to flee fro pryde we haue suffysaunt ensamples in that whiche is tofore sayd / But yet aboue this it is good to be consydered how pryde is not al onely noyeng to the creature. but also his opposyte / that is to wete humylite is [...]ght playsaūt & agreable to god & to the world. & lyke as pryde ouerthroweth the creature. right so humylite enhaūceth & lyfte hym vp toward god. Therfor sayth the prophete that the virgyne Marie plesed god by cause of her humylite. & da­uid whiche was leest emonge hys brethern. was enhaunsed aboue them alle as it apperith in the fyrst book of kynges. the xvj chapytre. Furthermore Salamon had the royame af [...]r his fader / & neuertheles he was lasse & more yonge than hys broder Adonias as it appereth the iij book of kynges the xxiij chapytre. Manasses also whiche was lasse & yonger than ef­fraym his brother had the benyson tofore hym as it appieryth the xxxviij chapytre of genesis & generally humylite & meke­nes of hert maketh the creature to come to honour. And pryde by rayson ouerthroweth hym in thende / & is to god emonge al other synnes moost dysplaysaūt / & is punysshed moost /

How pryde blyndeth the vnderstōdyng of the creature capo. ij

MAn for pryde knoweth no thynge of his myserye ne h [...]s [Page] fraylnesse. & weneth to be more parfyght than he is. And this witnesseth the prophete sayeng. that whan a man is in pryde he leseth his vnderstondyng & knowleche. And is lyke a beest whiche hath none vnderstondyng / by whyche it appereth that a man whiche wyl bycome wyse ought to be humble. and to knowe hym self wythout wenyng that he be that. whyche he is not. And to thys purpoos recounteth saynt gregory in his dyalogue the fyrst book the xv chapitre. How Constancius was so humble that he loued more them that despysed hym than them that honoured hym. And ther came a man that de­syred moche for to see hym for the grete renōmee of hym and also for the good that was spoken of hym. And fynably whā lx sawe hym he began to saye by maner of wondryng ¶O Constanciꝰ I had supposed that thou haddest ben a grete man stronge & parfyght. & of synguler facōn / but now I see clerely that is nothyng soo of the. Thenne Constanciꝰ began to gyue laue [...] vnto god. In sayeng I prayse god and thanke hym of that whyche he hath gyuen to the so good syght aud so clere knowleche of me / For reryly thou art onely he that hath wel byholden me and Iuged clerely al the trouthe of me. & therfor sayth Saynt Austyn in hys fyrst omclye vpon the gospel of saynt Iohan. veray humylyte or mekenes is no thynge to g [...]che ne murmure ne to despyse ony other. but to yelde than­kynges to god of all that he sendeth / And the same he recoun­teth that ther was somtyme of a rethorycien demanded. which was the princypal comandement in rethoryque. whiche an­suerd that it was wel for to pronounce. And yf he had ben so demanded an hondred tymes. he wold as ofte so haue ansuerd Semblably sayth saynt Austyn yf thou demanndest of me whyche is the pryncypal cōmandemēt in al the lawe of man­kynde. ¶I ansner to the / that it is to obserue mekenes and humylyte / And as ofte as thou shalt so demande of me / So ofte shal I so ansuer the / For humilite suffreth no poynte of errour ne thentendement therof. but engendreth science and [Page] knowlege of trouthe / And to this purpoos sayth Ancelme in the xxviij chapytre of his symylitudes that humylyte hath vij degrees. The fyrst is to knowe wel hym self. The second is sorow for his synne. The thyrd is to confesse hys synne / The fourth is to knowleche that he is a synner and enclyned to doo euyl The fyfthe is for to despyse all hym self The sixthe is gladly for tendure vylanye. The seuēth is to reioyce of his humylite / And thus it appereth that humylyte engēdreth ve­ry knowlege. And therfor saynt Bernard in his book of the degrees of humylyte sayth / that humylite is none other thyng but a vertue whyche maketh a man veryly to knowe hym self and to despyse hym. And for to haue the same admones­teth vs saynt austyn in the xv omelye vpon the gospel of saynt Iohan. we haue sayth he an ensaumple of grete humylite in our sauyour Ihesu Cryst the whyche for to saue and hele vs wold descēde fro heuē & becomē lytyl. And therfor yf thou wyl not ensue & folowe thy humble seruaūt atte leste. thou ough­test to folowe thyn humble maister and lord Ihesu Cryste the whiche sayth thus to vs. lerne ye of me my chyldren for to become meke & debonayr. For suche one am I humble and meke of hert whyche is wrycon in the xj chapytre of Saynt mathewe / This lesson that god hath shewed to vs is the rem playre that we ought to take in hym & in hys dedes as sayth saynt Ierome in his epistle lxxxvij. More ouer we rede in scripture how ambicōn & wylle to domyne. hath be somtyme cause of many euylles. & hath doon so moche that many haue gretely erred & fallen greuously in ryght enyl synne. Ne rede we not how Athalie for the grete desyre for to maystrye and regne dyd do slee alle the seed of kynges / as it appereth in the fyrst book of Machabees the xv chaptre / Roboas also for co­uetyse to regne dyd many euylles. and regned right euyl as it appereth in the thyrd book of kynges the xiij chapytre. Semblably Abymalech regned ryght malicyously. and procured so moche by hys frēdes that he was chosen kyng. but fynably [Page] he slewe his owne brethern as it appereth the xix chapytre of Iudicū. Rede we not also how Alquius for the desyre that he had to be grete preest of the lawe murmured ayenst hym that was as it appereth in the fyrst book of machabees the vij cha­pytre / Also it appereth how ambicōn hath caused many euyls And in dede we rede how Iason for to be grete preest of the lawe promysed to the kyng Anthiocus. CCC.lxix marc of syluer / And sente menelaus vnto hym for to be hys moyen & doo his message. Neuertheles menelaus dyd so that he gate thoffyce for hym self. as it appereth in the second book of kyn­ges the fourth chapytre. wherfore it appereth how Ambicion engendreth symonye / After we rede in the thyrd book of kyn­ges the xviij chapytre how Iabin slewe his lord for to regne after hym. but he regued not but onely vij dayes. Tholomeꝰ also by his ambicōn falsely ocupyed the royam of Alexandre Neuertheles it happed that he deyed the thyrd day after. that he was kyng / as it appereth in the fyrst book of machabees the xv chapytre. Adomas also sayd not he by hys ambicion / I shal regne after my fader / and yet it happed the contrarye as it appereth in the thyrd look of kynges the fyrst chapytre. For whyche thynges we may conclude how pryde and ambicion maken a man to bycome blynde / and to lese entendement and vnderstondyng. & by consequēt doo many synnes & euyllis /

¶How humylite maketh a man knowe hym self Capo. iij

WHan a man is humble / thēne he knoweth that of hym self he hath nothyng but fraylnes pouerte. and myserye And therfor sayth thappostle in the ij epystle at Corynthyens warnyng vs sayeng my frendes preue your self / my frendes knowe your self. And saynt austyn in spekyng allone to god sayth. lord gyue me grace to knowe the & to knowe my self. For yf I knowe my self. I knowe wel that I ne am but asshes and rottynnes. And therfor Abraham as it appereth in the xviij chapytre of genesis sayth / Alas how dar I speke to [Page] god / I that am but duste and asshes. And to thys purpoos saynt Bernard in hys xxxvj omelye vpon the cantycles sayth I wyl examyne my sowle and knowe my self lyke as rayson wyl. For ther is none so nyhe me as I am to my self. And therfor in olde tyme was wryton on the yate of the tēple these wordes that folowe. wel to knowe hym self is the yate of heuen / as Macrobee reherceth in his fyrst book / & Policraticꝰ in his thyrd book the second chapytre recyteth how somtyme ther was herd a wys fro heuen whyche sayd that euery man ouȝt to knowe hym self. & the same sayth Iuuenal aud witnesseth that the sayd wys sayd gnoto solidos whiche is to say knowe thy self / And saynt austyn in the fourth book of the trynyte the fyrst chapytre sayth. I prayse them that knowe the heuen and the erthe and that studye in sciences humayn But I prayse more them that knowe them self / & that wel consydere theyr fraylte & pouerte / Alas saith saynt bernard in the book aforsaid Pryde deceyueth the creature and lyeth to a man in makyng hym or vnderstonde that / whiche he is not / & kryngeth a man vnto that. that he wene that his vyces ben vertues / & to thys purpoos sayth saynt gregory in his moralytes the xxxj book that the synnar weneth that his obstynacion be constaūce / and that hys folysshe drede be humylite his auauntrye he weneth be largesse / & his slouthe he calleth prudence. & his Importunite he nameth dyligence. and thus he weneth that his synnes ben vertues. And therfore a man that wyl lyue holyly ought to examyne hym self / & by reson wysely to chastyse hym self as hughe counceylleth in his book of the cloystre of the sowle / and the prophete ysaye in his xlvi chapytre in sayeng to the synnar pesynners aduyse yow. examyne your hertes & your though­tes. Thus dyd a moche wyse prophete named Sixius. the whyche euery day he examyned hym self how he had lyued and how he had thanked god of the good that he had recey­ued / and how of his synne he had reprened & chastysed hym self / As seneke reherceth in his thyrd book of yre / Semblably [Page] thus we ought to do to she nde. that in knowyng our self we haue cause to meke & to humble our self toward god. & thēne alle vertue shal engendre in vs / For humylite is of al vertues foundement & rote. For the whyche humylyte to haue / we haue many good and notable examples / As of Dauid the whyche gretely meked & humbled hym self. and humbly sa­lewed the arke of god as it apperith in the second boke of kynges the xvi chapytre. The whiche Dauid also receyued humbly Nathan the messager of god as it apperith in the chapytre after. And fynably Dauyd seyng that god wold destroye his people as it apperyth in the same book the xxiiij chapytre begā to wepe & accused hym self sayeng. I am he that haue synned take vengeance on me and not on the peple. & fynably he gate mercy. we ought also to remembre of the humylite of the iij kynges that honoured & adoured the swete chyld Jhesus / as rehereeth Saynt Mathewe in the second chapytre of his gos­pel. the whyche humylite was agreable to god. we rede semblably of Achas notwithstondyng that he was ryght euyll. Neuertheles whan he herd the payne that he ought to haue he humbled hym self tofore god / & gate mercy as it is wry­ton in the iij book of kynges the vj chapitre / Aud Roboas by humylite gate mercy of god not wythstondyng that he was ryght cruel as it apperith in the ij book of Paralipomenon the xij chapytre / Ezechias also by his humylite gate that god in his tyme toke no vengeance as it apperith in the boke afore­sayd the xxij chapytre. Nabugodonosor also by hys humylite gate ageyn hys restitution. For he that had ben destitute fro hys Royame & was bycomen a dombe beste by cause of hys pryde. was by his humylite restored in his former astate as wytnesseth danyel in his thyrd chapytre. Semblably mari [...] Magdalene humbled hyr self to the feet of Ihesu cryst in w [...] pyng & wypyng his feet wyth hyr heeris. and by the same she gate remyssyon of alle hyr synnes. Also we rede how the cyte of Nynyue shold haue ben destroyed. But by humulyte and [Page] penaunce they gate grace as Ionas reherceth in his iij chapy­trr. By the whyche thynges it apperith how humylite geteth mercy / And in dede Iacob by humble spekyng appeased hys brother Esau whiche was angry with hym / & wold haue slayne hym as sōme say / As the hystorye appereth in genesis the xxxi chapytre / wherfore also loste Roboas parte of hys royame but by proude spekyng & ouerth wartly as we rede in the thyrd book of kynges the xij chapytre / we rede also how the tweyne companyes eche of fyfty whyche came by pryde to [...]elye were destroyed by fyre / but the thyrd companye of fyfty was kepte by his humylite as it apperith in the fourth book of kynges the fyrst chapytre. By whyche it apperith euydent­ly that pryde is displaysaūt to god and the proude men were somtyme ryght gretely pugnysshed. But by humylite the creature may wel gete grace and pardon of god ¶Also we rede how the woman of Chananee by humble spekyng gate helth for hir doughter as reherceth saynt Mathewe in his xv cha­pytre / And to this humylite we haue example by saynt Iohn baptyste whiche lyued in deserte in ryght grete penaunce and very humylite / and sayd hym self to be vnworthy to touche the latchet of the shoo of Ihesu Cryst. And he was clad wyth a camels scyn as saynt mathew reherceth in his thyrd chapytre & by cause of this humylite he was enhaunced aboue al other & called more than a prophete. Semblably helye was of ryȝt humble lyf. and therfor god enhaunced hym ryght gretely / & was the fyrst prophete for whome god began to shewe myracles as it appereth in the fourth book of kynges. the fyrst the ix / xiiij. & the xvij chapytres / Moreouer the chyldren of Israel were reprised by holofernes. But fynably they humbled them self / and were saued as it apperith the x chapytre of Iudith. And generally by humylite the creature may gete of god that whyche he hath nede of. for whiche humylite to haue. moche prouffyteth it a man to wel beholde & knowe hym self as it is sayd in the begynnyng of this present chapytre /

How humylite is agreable to god & to the world capo. iiij

HVmylite is moche playsant to god & to the world / For she wytnesseth of thomage that the creature oweth to do to his creatour naturelly. euery good man hateth pryde / wherfore it foloweth that he loueth humylite / And veryly we see in dede that a proude man may haue no frende & the reason is this. For he may not suffre that another be lyke to hym / but he wyl surmounte euery man / & so gaynsayeth alle amytye. For as Arystotle sayth iu the ix chapytre of the Ethyques. Amytie or frendshyp requireth semblaūce & somme equalite bytwene them that so owen to loue. alas pryde deuyded heuen pryde also maketh many warres in the world. For wylle & desyre to regne maketh ofte many grete bataylles. & somtyme wythout cause put many men to deth. Therfor the wyse man ought to humble his hert for to be loued of god. & after of the world / And of so moche as the creature hath more of good & welth / & lasse of aduersite. of so moche he ought the more to humble hym self and not tabyde the tyme of necessyte whā he shal by force be humbled / Therfore sayth Aristotle that more it auaylleth hym that humbleth hym self by his owen wylle than to hym that is humbled by force. And therfore Seneke in his epistle to lucille lxx. sayth thus. brynge thy self to lowe & lytel astate withoute to enhaunce thy self / to thende that for­tune make not the to falle foo hye to lowe. Say not the na­turyens that the lyon doth no harme to a man that humbleth hym self to hym. & wylde bore doth noo harme to a man that is leyde on therthe / And therfore a man oweth by ryght to humble hym self for tesche we peryll. And to this purpoos we rede how dydymꝰ in his epystle sayd to alyxandre. knowe thou for trouthe that god is redy to do to the moche good. so that thou be not deceyued by thy pryde. by whyche it apperyth that pryde empecheth wytte & aduys. & maketh a man to lyue without peas of conscience. For hates & noyses be founded in [Page] pryde. as in the rote of al enemyte / And to this purpoos sayen the naturyens that the thondres. lyghtnynges and the grete wyndes ben caused of somme erthely thynges whyche ascende [...]tylly vp aboue by the rayes of the soune / & more hyer than th [...]y ought to doo. But nature whyche may not suffre them sendeth them agayn doun / & in lyke wyse causen the thynges abouesayd / Sēblably is it of a proude man whyche is moche [...]oo [...]ful & ful of noyses. by cause that be mounteth more hye than he ought or shold. & in dede he falleth lower than he wold for he may endure nothyng of the world. necesse not to despyse other. Therfore sayth Prudence in his book of subgection of vyces / that humylite adressth a man. & maketh his lyf more in a moyen in al his operations and tesche we oultrage. Therfore reherceth valere in his fourth book that syth that another Valere had be moche grete at Rome. he put hym self frely in a ryght lytel astate / and lefte al pompes and al worldly thynges. and me semeth that al proud peple ought to aduyse them vpon the hystoryes and auncient examples the wyche shewe how humylite enhaunceth the peple / and pryde ouerthroweth them. Rede we not how saul kepte nete / and Dauyd sheep / & after were kynges. Constantyn also was ryght poure whan he toke to his wyf helayne / and after was chosen Emperour By whyche it appereth that the humbles haue ben enhaunsed but of the proude folke what shal we say. I praye the byholde what is bycome of the puyssance of new whych fysshed with nettes of gold / where is the puyssaūce of pharao. where is the myghty cyte of Troye whyche was so renomed / where is babylone that was so made iu heyght. Certeynly all is come to nouȝt / For pryde may not longe endure. What auaylleth thēne pryde whyche the world so moche loueth / what is bycome of Arphaxat the proud kyng. he was all vanysshed awaye as smoke. what is bycome of Agryppe and Iulyen that were so myghty. Fortune hath taken awaye fro them alle that she had gyuē them / he is a fool that trusteth in her. but perauēture [Page] thou shalt saye / that thou mayst wel truste in thy wytte / and in thyn hauoyr. where as is thy grete puyssaunce. Alas I praye the. wylt thou adresse the & consydere that no man ouȝt to glorifye ne sette his hert in his sapyence ne in his wysedom And herof hast thou example of salamon the wyse mā whych afterward was deceyued so moche that he adoured ydolles / & Architofel the wyse counceyllour of dauyd fynably he henge hym self / And the wyse cathon. slewe not hym self. & demo­critus also. And therfore it is grete folye for a man to glory­fye hym self in his wytte & connyng / more ouer what auaylleth the yf thou be fayr / For Absalon was fayr / neuertheles he was hanged on a tree. And tholyfaūt for al the beaulte of his yuorye & his teeth is ofte put to deth. The gamaleō is moche fayr in his lyf. but he is ryght foul in his deth. what auayl­leth thēne the beaulte of this world. Thus euery persone may see and wel apperceyne. that ther is no thynge in thys world wherof we ought to haue pryde for to gloryfye our self. And this consydered the kyng of perce seeyng his people and hys kynghtes wepte sayeng / Alas I see a ryght fayr companye But it is pyte / seen that in short tyme they shal be but erthe / In lyke wyse recounteth saynt Iherome. that ther is no thyng of the world that endureth For we rede that Ionynyan dyd grete payne for to bycome a kyng. but he deyed the same day that he shold haue be made kyng of the royame of Perce. and Valentyne that was so ryche. was by bledyng at the mouthe dede & quenchyd. And his sone gracyen was betrayed of hys owen people & slayu by one his enemye / Thenne it is but lytyl glorye to seygnourye and to haue ryclxsses. and the same sayd the kyng agryppe / whyche is tofore named. the which in deyeng cryed wyth an hyghe wys. Alas my good peple sette nothyng by hauyng of ryclxsses. For me that am your lord ye may see deye right pourely. And therfore Orace in his epystles sayth. that there is nothyng that better apperteyneth to a man than lowlynes or lytel thyng. For to a lytel thynge [Page] apperteyneth lytel. That is to wete humylite / the which ma­keth agreable to god and to the world as tofore is sayd.

How the creature ought humbly to obeye to god capitulo v

THe scrypture sayth that obeyssannce pleseth more vnto god / than doth sacrefyse. And herof we haue example of our fyrst fader Adam whych vsed hys owen propre wylle and lefte the commaundement of our lord Ihesu cryst. which god had gyuen hym / And therfore he fyl in to grete pouerte and in to many myseryes. as wytnesseth Saynt Augustyn in hys xv omelye vpon the gospel of Saynt Iohn / It is also wel reason that the seruaunte obeye to hys mayster / And consequently the creature to god / And to this purpoos recounteth valerye in his second book how of old [...] tyme the knyghtes obeyed to the prynces vpon payne of deth / By moche more stronge reason we ought to obeye to god wyth al our myght. For as sayth the scripture we ought more to obeye to god than to men And yf we obeye vs to men / that ought to be for the loue of god. Thus counceylleth vs thappostle. And certeynly moche good is fallen to them. that haue humbly obeyed god. And to this purpoos recounteth Saynt gregory in his dyalogue the fyrst book the seuenth chapytre how saynt benet had a dysciple whom he cōmanded that he shold rēne vpon the water. whome he obeyed & was saued fro peryll. Thenne saynt [...]enet demaū ­ded hym yf he had ony fere of the watrr. And he ansuerd hym that he had apperceyued noo water / And thenne saynt Benet thanked god for as moche as he had seen thus myracle for the obedyence of his discyple. Saynt gregory also reherseth of a religyous man whiche at cōmandement of hys abbotte euery day by iij yere watred a piece of wode al dreye whyche was sette in the erthe / And yet he must fetche the water a myle f [...]rre And by cause of the meryte of his obeyssance the thyrd yere the sayd t [...]e flourysshed. and this hystorye reherceth Cassiam the [Page] fyrst look of his collacōns in whiche he recounteth also how the dysciple of a ryght olde man at his cōmandement wold remeue a ryght grete toche / and aduysed hym not yf he myȝt doo it or not. For it suffysed hym to obeye his mayster after his power / By the whyche thynges it appereth how obedyēce is agreable to god. for the whyche to haue. we haue example in nature / as sayen the naturyēs. The bestes obeyen to the lyon as to theyr kynge / And dar not passe the cercle that the lyon maketh with his taylle. Sēblably the bees that maken hony obeye to theyr kynge / and the Cranes also. And in nature we see many thynges semblable. More ouer in holy scripture we haue to this purpoos many examples. And veryly we rede how Noe obeyed ryght expresly to god as it apperith in the vij. chapytre of genesis. And therfor he was saued / fro the flood. ¶Semblably the chyldren of Israel for theyr obedy­ence were kepte of god as it apperyth in the ix chapytre of the boke of nombres. Thappostles also lyghtly obeyeden to god in so moche that they folowed hym atte fyrst callyng as recyteth saynt Mathew in his iiij chapytre / And therfor aboue al peple ben they enhaunced in the chyrche / and also in heuen. Sembla­bly Abraham obeyed to god in so moche that he wold haue sacrefyed his owen sone and smyten of his heed atte cōman­dement of god as it apperyth in the xxij chapytre of genesis. And therfore god promysed to abraham that of his seed shold be born the sauyour of the world. Therfore we ought more to obeye to god than to man. as it is tofore sayd. And accordyng to this we haue ensaumple of Mathathias whyche ansuerd to the messager of the kyng Anthiocus sayeng. that yf alle o­beyed to the kyng Anthiocus. yet he wold not obeye to hym but to god. as it is wryton in the book of machabees the secōd chapytre. ¶we rede also of the seuen brethern / that had leuer to deye than to ete flesshe forboden. ayenst the cōmandement of god. not wythstōdyng the kyng cōmanded it to them. wherby it apperith that they ought to be repreued that excuse them of [Page] the euyl that they doo for theyr maistres that so commaunde them. For suche is of noo value. by cause they ought fyrst o­beye the cōmaundement of god. as sayth Saynt Petre in the v chapytre of thaetes of thappostles. More ouer for to obeye / ought to enclyne vs the example of the virgyne Marie. the whyche obeyed to the wordes of the aungel in sayeng. Loo the handmayde of god. late it come to me as it shal plese hym. & after thy word / we rede also how dauid not wythstondyng that he was kynge obeyed to hys fader / as it apperyth the fyrst book of kynges the vij chapytre / And yonge Thobie sayd to his fader that he was redy to obeye to hym / And cornchꝰ cen­turio was redy tobeye to hym / whom god had ordeyued to be prelate and maystre. as it apperyth the tenth chapytre of thac­tes of thappostles / ¶Also we rede how the regabytes dranke no wyn ne had no howses / for to obeye to theyr fader / As Ieremye reciteth in his thyrd chapytre. By whyche thynges it apperith how obedyence was obserued of the Auucient people & that they that dysobeyed were pugnysshed of god / as it apperyth of the chyldren of Israel. the which were ouerthrowen [...]n bataylle / for so moche as they dyd ayenst the wylle of god. & entred not in to the lond of ꝓmyssion which they desyred as it apperith the xxiiij chapitre of the boke of nombres / Ionas also was throwen in the see. by cause he dysobeyed to do that god had cōmanded hym / as it she weth in the thyrd chapytre of Ionas. & therfore we ought to obeye to god fyrs / & after to o­ther creatures. yf we wyl esche we peryl & playse Ihesu Cryst as sayth saynt bernard vpon cantycles / The man is not worthy to haue ony good yf he knowe not ne obeye god. & saynt gregory in his omely sayth. that he ouȝt to be moost humble toward god and moost enclyned to serue hym. that hath re­ceyued moost goodes of hym / & yf he do otherwyse the goodes that he hath receyued shal be encreasyug of his payne at the day of Iugemēt. This wytnesseth hughe the viij chapytre of the boke of the Arke of Noe. And for to haue cause to remēbre [Page] the god that god hath doon to vs we haue many examples in holy scrypture. Rede we not how Iacob after that god had sente to hym many goodes.he sayd / Syr I thanke the for the good that thou hast doon to me. Of whyche I moche remembre. as it is shewed in the xxij chapytre of genesis. / ¶Sem­blably dyd Dauid as it apperith in the second book of kynges the vij chapytre. And Danyel sayd. lord thy name be prey­sed and blessyd for the good that thou hast doon to me / as it apperyth in the second chaptyre of danyel / ¶Semblably the appostle Saynt Poul in hys epystles ryght ofte and conty­nuelly preyseth and thanketh god as it is shewed in the fyrst chapytre of hys epystle to the romayns / Rede we not also how the chyldren of Israel songen in loouyng and praysyng god by cause he had delyuerd them fro seruytude. and that they had passed wythout peryl the reed see. as it apperyth in the xv chapytre of Exode. Semblably the thre chyldren that god delyuerd fro the fournays blessyd god ryght swetely and deuoutely as it is wryton the thyrd chapytre of danyel. by the whiche thynges it apperyth how euery man ought to humble hym self toward god and to yelde to hym thankynges of the goo­des that he hath receyued / ¶And to thys purpoos Seneke in his four score and one epystle to Lucylle sayth to a man vnkynde. no man ought to say no thyng. Thenne we ought to take ensaumple of the chyldren of Israel. the whyche after theyr vyctorye of Syraza offreden vnto god many yeftes in theyr sacryfyse.as it apperyth the one and twenty chapytre of the book of nombres / And after that they had had the vycto­rye of Syrasa and Delbore they began to synge in preysyng as it apperyth in the fourth chapytre of Iudyth Semblably whan they had had vyctorye by Iudas the Machabee ayenst Thimothean. they began to synge and prayse god as it appe­ryth in the second book of Machabees the tenth chapytre. Methynketh that they be ryght moche to be repreuyd that remem­bre not the goodes that god hath doon for them / & that wers [Page] is after the mesure that god gyueth to them moost good. they become moost haultayn and the more prowd / they dygne not to take ensample at the good creatures / the whyche som tyme loued god the more. by cause of the goodes that he gat to them / ¶Also we rede how Anne loued god. and thanked god of the grace that she had to haue a chylde as it apperyth in the fyrst book of kynges the second chapytre / And whan the vyrgyue marye had conceyued our lord Ihesu cryst. she began for to magnefye god in sayeng / Magnificat anima meadominum / That is to say my fowle magnefyeth god / as reherceth to vs Saynt Luc in hys fyrst chapytre / And za­charias whan hys sone was born / that is to were Saynt Iohan baptyste. thenne be began to say / Blessyd be the lord god of Israel. whyche hath vysited and hath redemyd hys pe­ple ¶Neuertheles somme ther be that take hede to none other thynge but to haue good wythout takyng hede fro whens [...]ixy [...]ome. And therfore fynably theyr goodes perysshe / and come to an euyl porte and yet not in theyr tyme. Neuertheles fynably theyr heyres been pryued fro them for thyngratytude. and not remembryng fro whens they camTherfore ought euery man to byholde and take hede of that whiche he hath receyued fo god. and so moche the more serue hym deuoutly, and loue hym. and not only to god but also vnto hys neyghbour hym ought emembre the benefayttes and goodes that he hath had of hym / ¶And herof we hane ensaumple of thobye whyche offryd ryght many grete yeftes to the Aungel that had heled hys fader and had delyuerd hym foo the deuyl. and kepte hym foo the fysshe that wold haue deuoured hym / ¶He supposed that the Aungel had ben a man. and therfor he offryd to hym parte of hys goodes / as it apperyth the xiij chapytre of Tho­bie. ¶And also Dauyd semblably. humbly thanked them that had seruyd hym as it apperyth in the ij book of kynges [...] chapytre. Helyas reysed the sone of the wydowe which had doon moche good to hym / as it apperith in the thyrd book [Page] of kynges the xvij chapytre. And generally al men of renom mee and of good lyf haue remembred the goodes that they haue receyued. And they that doo otherwyse be approued as people vnworthy to haue good. the whych may be compared to the boutelyer seruaunte of Phaxa [...]. the whyche anone had forgoten the good that Ioseph had doon to hym in pryson as it apperyth in the fourty chapytre of genesis. ¶And to them whome Dauyd had doon moche good. whyche put them in payne for to delyuer hym in to the hand of Saul hys mortal enemye. ¶Saul also had receyued many good thynges of Dauyd. and neuertheles he wold haue slayne hym as it is wryton in the fyrst book of kynges the xvij chapytre / And Absalon poursewed hys fader Dauyd. whyche had doon to hym moche good / For he had pardonned hym of the deth of hys brother and had kepte hym fro banysshement. O what ingratytude and what trayson of the sone to the fader. whyche is shewed in the second book of kynges the xv chapytre ¶Of thys Ingratitude or vnkyndenes ben many entatched in doyng euyl to them that haue doon to them good. or to theyr succes­sours. Thus dyd the kyng Ioab / the whyche forgate thamy tye of Ioga the preest of the lawe. For he slewe zacharye his sone. as it is wryton in the book of Paralipomenon the xxiiij chapytre. / ¶And Amon the proude procured the deth of the chyldren of Israel / whyche hadden doon to hym moche good and seruyees / as it apperyth in the second book of kynges the tenth chapytre. ¶O Ingratytude thou forgetest benefayttes and makest a man vnworthy to haue good. And therfore of vnkynde people god complayneth hym in the fyrst chapytre of ysaye the prophete in sayeng. I haue nourysshed chyldren and enhaunced them. and they haue despysed me. And he [...]of haue we many hystoryes of them that haue despysed god af­ter that they receyued good of hym.

¶Rede we not also how our lord Ihesu Cryst delyuerd som tyme the chyldren of Israel from the handes and seruytude [Page] of pharao. and after they forsoke god and worshypped calues of golde as it apperyth the vj chapytre of the book of nombres ¶To whyche chyldren of Israel god of heuen sente Manna in deserte. And yet neuertheles they murmured as it apperyth in the book aforesayd the xv chapytre / we rede also how god enhaunsed somtyme Iheroboam. and made hym lord of x trybus / And neuertheles thys was he that wythdrewe the people fro the seruyce of god. For it is so wryton in the thyrd book of kynges the xij chapytre. Ananias also by the helps of god surmounted hys enemyes / Neuertheles after he forsoke god and worshypped thydolles. as it is wryton in the second boke of paralypomenon the xxv chapytre. and therfor the wyse man ought to aduyse hym wel of the goodes that he hath re­ceyued. and ought swetely to remembre them as it is tofore wryton.

¶How pacyence is the second vertue. and it ought for to be had capitulo v [...]

THe souerayn moyen for to surmounte his enemye / is to haue pacieuce. And therfore sayth plato / that the rote of alle phylosophye and of alle sapyence is pacyence / And to thys purpos Seneke in his vj epystle to Lncylle sayth. we ought sayth he gladly to endure aduersytees / For by Impa­cyence we doo none other thynge but to weye our euyll and make it gretter / And in dede the wyse men were right pacient As Syllen the whiche fonde fyrst the lawes. and was moche wyse and ryght pacient as recoūteth valerius in hys vij boke and episenre sette nothyng by ony sorow that myght happe to hym as reherceth terquilian in his apologetique & quyntilian in hys x cause sayth that payne is noo thynge. but yf it be to hym that endureth it ageynst hys wylle. And yf a man en­dureth it gladly / thenne he maystryeth fortune. as sayth pru­dence in hys book of the subgection of synnes / ¶And Lucan in his thyrd boke sayth that pacience enioyeth in aduersyte. [Page] and maketh a man to come to grete good in so moche that no man may greue ne noye hym / In lyke wyse sayth macrobe in the book of saturnelles in whyche he recounteth how Augustꝰ the Emperour was ryght pacient. not witstādyng that there was sayd to hym many vylonyes / And valere in hys fourth book recyteth how Siracusan was right pacient whan denys the tyrant put hym out of hys contree / And it happed for to haue recomforte he went to the hows of Theodore and abode ryght longe at the yate. The which thynge seyng Siracusan he sayd to his felowe / Alas I ought to haue good pacyence For I haue made in tyme passed many other to abyde at my gate / Semblably euery man ought to thynke / whan ther cometh to hym ony aduersyte that it is by cause of his synne / For by cause of our synnes we ought gladly to endure and haue pacience. And in dede pacience awaketh a man and maketh hym ofte to gete wrtues. and to bycome good / As wyt nesseth valere in his thyrd book of Alexandeidos. Alas we see how many for to recouure helthe endure many paynes. & receyue ofte bytter medecynes. Thenne by more strenger tra­son we ought to endure aduersytees for to gete vertues & for to hele the sowle / and therfor sayth Cathon that he may not by his puyssaūce surmoūte aduersyte but he helpe hym wyth pacyence / and to this purpoos we haue example of socratrs the whyche somtyme was ryght pacyent. in suche wyse that none myght angre hym / as cassian sayth in his book of collacions / & saynt Iherome in his fyrst book ayenst Ionynyan / re­coūteth how Socrates had ij wyues the which were to hym ful greuous & ful angry / & dyde hym moche harme. but alle way he had pacience. & toke it al in gree. & sayd that pacyence made no force of tormentyng ne to suffre harme / semblably we haue many examples of many persones the whiche were ryght pacient. Rede we not how Isaac was ryght pacyent whan his fader wold haue smyton of hys heed for to haue sacrefyed hym. as it is redde in the xxij chapytre of genesis. [Page] And Ioseph was right pacient in the persecucion of his bre­thern whan they solde hym as it apperith the xxxvij capytre of genesis / and dauid was moche pacient whan hys sone absalon pursiewed hym. as it is wryton in the ij book of kyn­ges the xvj chapytre. and thobye endured moche paciently the Iniuryes that his wyf dyd to hym & his frendes as it is writon the second chapytre of thobye / veryly pacience is the veray maistresse of al aduersyte. & is the vertue by which a mā may furmounte fortune. And more ouer we rede that by pacyence many haue goten moche good. and by it haue eschewed ma­ny euylles / Ne rede we not how gedeon by his pacyence and his humble spekyng repeasyd the chyldren of Effraym as it apperith in the book of Iuggis. the viij chapytre. Semblably the fayr & swete spekyng of Abygayl repeased dauyd whan he was angry ayenst Nabal hyr husbond as it apperith in the fyrst book of kynges the xvj chapytre. But Roboas by his Impacience & rude spekyng loste his dygnyte & hys seygnontye. as it appereth in the iij book of kynges the xij chapytre. Alas what auaylleth Impacience / but yf it be for to encreace wor­des. but by pacience we may gete vyctorye of our enemyes.

¶How Ire and hate noye and greue the creature capo. vij

AS Seneque sayth. Ire troubleth the vnderstondyng of the creatures. And therfore it shold be theyr prouffyt for to byholde & take hede of them self. For as Seneque sayth yf an yrous man byhelde hym self. he shold haue pyte of hym self as who sayth that Ire or wrath gyueth afflyctiō to hym that is angry. and to this purpoos tullius in the processe that he made for martell sayth that ire is auncyent in counceyl. And epycure sayth that Ire acustomed maketh a man to come out of his wytte. And burdius sayth that Ire doth more harme to hym that is āgry than to another. Thēne ouȝt euery man [...]eschewe yre. For as sayth cathon Ire engendreth dyscorde & [Page] alle enemytye & causeth reson to perysshe. in the second boke of eneydos. Therfore sayth thibulle that they were moche horry­ble that first fonde warres / many ben dede euylly. and Ire hath so moche doon that many in despayr haue slayne them self. Recounteth not valere in his ix book how othus whiche after was named darius was right cruel and moche Irous in so moche. that he dyd doo slee many good men / & contryued ma­ny engynes terryble for to make men to dye but fynably the cruelte cam vpon hym self. For reason wold that he that is cruel shold by cruelte be cast out and pugnysshed. therfore it is good to consydere what harme cometh of yre. and as me se­meth it is none other thyng but a spyce of rage / thus sayth se­neque in his fyrst book of clemence / Neuertheles I wyl not repreue the yre of good men. the whiche ben wrooth whā they seen harme doon. For the prophete sayth a man may be wroth for harme & yll that he seeth doon wythout synne. And certayn we rede how Moyses was angry ayenst the people by cause­they kepte the manna ayenst the cōmaundement of god as it apperyth the xvij chapytre of Exode. And also he was angry whan he sawe the people worshyppe the calf in so moche that he brake the cables of the cōmandementes in castyng them doun as it is wryton the xxij chapytre of Exode. And Neemias was angry ayenst them that dyde vsure as it appereth the xv chapitre of neemye. by whyche it apperith that it is no faulte ne synne to be angry for doyng of enyl / And in dede Saynt Augustyn sayth that god is angry ayenst the synnars in pu­nysshyng them. And to thys purpoos we rede how god was angry ayenst Salamon by cause of his ydolatrye / as it appe­ryth in the fourth book of kynges the x chapytre. & for semblable reason he was angry ayenst the chyldren of Israel / & put them in the hand of Azael theyr enemy. as it apperyth the iiij boke of kynges the x chapytre / Semblably for ydolatrye god was angry ayenst Ioab. & ayenst his capytayn. as it is wryton the second book of paralopomenon the xxiiij chapytre / we [Page] rede also how god was angry ayenst the chyldren of Israel bycause they dyd fornycacion wyth the doughters of Moab as it apperyth the xxv chapytre of the book of nombres / by whyche thynges it apperyth how god is angry somtyme ayenst the [...]. But that is not Ire named ne Impacience whyche troubleth the spe [...]ite & the entendement whiche empecheth and [...] many good thynges. and maketh a man to come to many Inconuenyen [...]s. Ne recounteth not Valere in hys ix boke of the cruelte of a Iuge whyche made a bulle of brasse / & had ordeyned that the euyldoers shold be closed therin. & there shold deye by famyne. the whyche thynge seyng Hanybal / he condempned the same Iuge to deye the same deth / to the which he had condempned other. And neuertheles hanybal was also right cruel / in so moche that he made a brydge of the bodyes of the romayns whyche he had slayn / vpon which he & his peple passed ouer the ryuer of golle. but at the last the sayd hanybal was ouerthrowen of his aduersaryes / For cruelte by reson must be cruelly serued. And therfore no man ought to be cruel ne to be Ireful ne bere wrath in hys hert. For the Ire tormen­teth the Irous. and bryngeth hym to suche a poynt that he can not ne may not consente to reason / Alas what auaylleth me yf I hate my neyghbour. seen that in suche estate I may not playse god. syth I loue not hym whom I ought to lone. and also I may haue noo pardon ne foryeuenes yf I forgyue not other. Rede we not how Iepte made pees with the galady­ [...]s in so moche that he faught for them / Not wythstondyng that they had doon to hym many euylles & moche harme as it appereth the vj chapytre of Iudicum / ¶Dauid in lyke wyse wold not slee y [...]obeth his enemy. And in dede he dyd do slee the ij theuye that presented to hym the hede of his enemy as it apperith the ij book of kynges the iiij chapytre / wherfore it ap­perith that no man ouȝt to hane Ire in his hert ne bere wrath But the deuyl whyche is prynce of alle deuysion by dyuers maners engendreth the stryues & noyses / For sōme hate alle [Page] theyr neyghbours. and somme hate by enuye other / ¶Suche was the hate of the brethern of Ioseph / whome they sold as it is wryt [...]n in the xxix chapytre of genesis. wherfore hated the egipciens the chyldren of Israel. but by cause they becam grete and multeplyed as it is wryton the thyrd chapytre of Exode And Saul wherfore hated he dauyd. but for as moche that he sawe that he was wyse and moche loued of the people. as it apperyth the fyrst book of kynges the xvj chapytre / And the fende by dyuerce maners soweth dyscorde & Ire. but be that is wyse ought to bere no wrath. but desyre weel and good to euery man /

¶How no man ouȝt to stryue ne engendre noyses cap viij

By stryf may come noo good. but it engendreth noyses. whiche oftymes may not wel be appeased. And therfor Chaton sayth [...]to his sone. my sone thou oughtest to flee noyses & stryues. For moche people haue had harme by spekyng but by beyng styl & not to speke fewe or none haue had ony harme. And to this purpoos sayth Iuuenal in his iiij book that stryuyng langage beryth venym in hym self & corrupteth good maners & empessheth & letteth frendshyp. And me se­meth that who that may haue pees by hys lytel spekyng or beyng stylle. hath not gretely cause to speke. For for to speke wel is a grete maystrye. but for to be stylle and say lytel is no grete payne / and oftymes scileuce causeth to haue pees. And this wytnesseth Ouyde in his boke of the arte of loue. More ouer by reson it wel appereth that contencion ne stryf is noothyng worth / For yf thou stryue for to susteyne trouth and bounte. it is no grete wysedom. For trouth & bounte susteyne them self. And therfor it suffyseth to vnderstonde without ony thynge to stryue. For who that vnderstōdeth trouthe and wyl not consence therto. by his stryf he shal not chaunge hys pur­poos. And yf thou stryne for falsehed and for euyl / the synne is moche grete. & so lesest thou thy payne for of so moche as thou [Page] the more stryuest. of so moche thy falsehede more clerely she­weth / And this wytnesseth a phylosophre named exenophon And Seneke in his fyrst epystle to lucylle sayth that a man shold not stryue ayenst a fool. And to a wyse mā for to stryue it is a folye / For the wyse man hateth noyse and stryf. and empessheth the pees of hertes and consciences / Therfore sayth the wyse man that fayr and swete spekyng maketh a man to haue p [...]es & frendes. Thenne is good to enquyre fro whens comen the noyses and stryues. and me semeth that they be ofte engendred of pryde. For we rede how Amalech made warre ayenst the chyldren of Israel. for fere that he had to lose hys seygnourye / as it apperyth in the xvij chapytre of Exode. & som [...]yme the noyses comen by Impacience. & by fyers wordes as it is aboue sayd. by whyche it apperyth that no thynge or lytel to speke is souerayn moyen for to haue pees & flee noy­ses. Also we rede how Saul dyssymyled of them that mys­sayed or spaken euyl of hym as it apperyth the fyrst book of kynges the x chapytre / And Thobie sayd not a word to hys wyf whan she sayd many iniuryes to hym as it apperith the second & the iij chapytre of thobie / In lyke wyse ouȝt the wyse man to doo in heryng wythoute ony stryuyng.

¶Here foloweth the thyrd vertu / whyche is abstynence / & how one ought to lyue sobrely capitulo ix

GLotonnye is cause of many euylles & synnes / and en­gendreth many maladyes bodyly & ghoostly. And ther­fore sayth tullius in his fyrst rethorique that attemperaūce is none other thyng but by rayson to maystrye the flessh and alle corrupt desyre. And saynt Ambrose sayth that attemperaunce is a vertue whyche ruleth a man in that. whyche he ought to to / And therfore the auncient men lyued right sobrely / And to this purpoos recounteth Egelle in his fyrst book / how Socra [...]s was ryght sobre al his lyf. the whyche socrates sayd. that [Page] the people ought not lyue for to ete. but to ete for to lyue. and lactence in his book of very odoracion sayth that the poetes calleden glotonnye bestyalite. For a man beyng a gloton lyueth wythout reason & wythout rule. And therfore seneque in hys book of iiij vertues sayth that men shold ete without replecti­on. and drynke wythout dronkenesse. For glotonnye ma­keth a man lyghtly to falle in to lecherye / and to this purpoos recounteth saynt Ierome ayenst Ionynyan. how galyen sayd that a man may not surely lyue. but yf he lyue sobrely. the whyche thynge is veray truthe / not onely to the body. but also to the sowle / And therfor socrates ete not but one tyme of the day whan the sonne wente doun as recounteth agelle in the book aforsayd. And Bocee in the second book of consolacyon sayth that nature is contente wyth lytel thynge / as who shold say that nature requyreth sobrenes and abstynence. & to thys purpoos recounteth valere in his second book and sayth that the auncyent olde men lyued ryght sobrely to thende that they shold be chaste / in so moche that the women of Rome dranke noo wyn for the same cause / And agelle in his book aforesayd recyteth [...]ow the romayns lyued ryght sobrely & syngulerly at souper. for thēne they ete lytel or nought. More ouer didimꝰ in wrytyng to Alysaunder sayth that the peple of his contreye were ryght / sobre and toke noo refection but after reason and after the necessyte of nature. And concluded fynably that they of the sayd contrey had comunely no maladyes. ne vsed none other medecyne but of sobrenes & of abstynēce. By the whiche thynges it apperyth / to lyue sobrely is a thyng moche prouffy table to the soule & to the body-and by sobrenes the body hath helth. and the soule lyueth wythout synne. And therfore sayth Lucan that a man ought to accustome hym to gyue to na­ture attemperaunce. and for to attempre his norysshyng. the whyche ought to be wythout oultrage. and without dron­kennesse. For glotonnye is not allone. but hath al way ma­ny synnes wyth hym. & certeynly by glotonnye a man leseth [Page] his wytte & vnderstōdyng. and sheweth ofte his secrete folye / glo [...]nye maketh a man olde / and sone to become loothely & soul. And by dronkenes many stryues & noyses sourden & co­men / & maketh a man to be lyke a dombe beest / For as gaul­ter sayth in hys fyrst book of alexandeidos. dronkenshyp is the sepulcre of rayson. And Ouyde in his second book of remedye of loue sayth / that dronkenshyp buryeth the courage & wylle of a man. For by dronkenes a man bycometh as deed & is of all poyntes not able to do wel. And therfore eche of vs ouȝt dyligētly teschewe glotonye / for that is the vyce by the which the fende ouercometh a man and warryth ayenst hym. for of this synne he tempted our fyrst fader Adam. by whiche fyna­bly he was put oute of paradys. as it apperyth the iij chapytre of genesis. Semblably he wold haue tempted our sauyour Ihesu cryste sayeng to hym / yf thou be the sone of god. make of these stones breed. as it is writon the iij chapytre of the gospel of saynt Mathew / More ouer glotonnye maketh a man leche [...]ous. And herof we haue example of loth. the whiche by dronkenesse defowled and brought his owen two doughters wyth chylde. as it is wryton for ix chapytre of genesis / Glo­tonnye also maketh a man dyshonoured / And herof we haue example by Noe. the whyche in his dronkenes laye shame­fully on the grounde and shewed his membres of nature. by whyche he was scorned of his sone Cham as it is wryten in the viij chapytre of genesis. Alas by glotōnye the chyldren of Israel were somtyme tempted & gretely deceyued as it apperyth the xvj chapytre of exode. And by glotonnye Esau solde his patrymonye as it apperyth the xxv chapytre of genesis. Rede we not more ouer how Ionathas was condempned to deth. for as moche as he ete a lytel hony ayenst the comande­ment of hys fader as is wryton the fyrst book of kynges the xiiij chapytre / By whyche it apperyth that glo [...]onnye hath [...] moche harme. And certaynly we rede that the phylystees were slayn in etyng and drynkyng. For the hows fyl vpon [Page] hem as it apperyth the xvij chapytre of Iudicū. Semblably hit happed to the chyldren of Iob as it apperyth the fyrst chapytre of Iob. How was holofernes the stronge geant slayn. but in his drūkenesse. for Iudith slewe hym whā he was dronke as it is wryton the x chapytre of Iudyth. How was symon slayn & his chyldren but in etyng and drynkyng as it appe­ryth the fyrst book of machabees the xv chapytre. And naman after that he had eten gretely and Ioyously / he was after [...] cylyed as it is wreton the ix chapytre of hester ¶Thenne me semeth that glotonnye is a synne chargeable and causyng a man to do many euylles.

¶How abstynence is cause of moche good capo. x

By abstynence reason ouercometh the flesshe / And taketh away alle supfluyte / And the vertues ben engendred [...] norysshed. And to this purpoos we rede how dyo [...]ene which was a wyse phylosophre despysed habondaunce of vytayiles and al supfluytees / As valere recyteth in his iiij book. And therfore in wytte & in pacience. he was right renomed & gretely preysed. And as bernard sayth in his micro [...]sme. Absty­nence nouryssheth the wytte / & glotonnye des [...]oyeth it / & ther­fore somtyme alle they that wold come to grete good lyueden sobrely as it apperyth in many places of holy scrypture / And certeynly we rede how god cōmaūded somtyme to the children of Israel. that they shold lyue sobrely / and that they shold kepe them fro etyng of dyuers metes as it apperyth in the ij chapytre of the boke of leuytes: we rede also how moyses fasted xl dayes to thende that god wold gyue and graunte to hym the comune lawe wreton. as it apperith in the second chapytre of exode / Semblably Helye lyued ryght sobrely to thende that he myght prophetyse the more wysely. And in dede the Aungel brought to hym brede & water. and crowes two tymes in the day brought to hym flesshe. as it apperyth in the thyrd book [Page] of kynges the xvij chapytre. wherfor it appereth how the fen­des which ben vnderstonden by the crowes desyren a man to glotonnye and replection of his flesshe / but the angellys wyl that a man be sobre and rule hym by abstynence. More ouer we rede how god shewed to danyel many vysions. the whiche lyued ryght sobrely. as it appereth the ix chapytre of Danyel Semblably Anne serued god in fastyng and in prayers / and therfore she prophecyed of Ihesu cryste ryght wysely as sayth saynt Luc in his second chapytre / And therfore somtyme they that deuoutely were consacred dyd by abstynence syngulerly dyuers thynges. whiche myght not be doon in dronkenes / as it is wryton the vi chapytre of the book of nombres. we rede also how saynt Iohan baptyst ete onely hony sokles as saynt Mathew wryteth in hys thyrd chapytre. And therfor he was enhaunced aboue al prophetes. But now the tyme is [...]omen that glotonnye regneth. And therfore reason warreth ayenst the flessh and ouercometh it in so moche that lecherye is moche comune in thys world For the nouryture of lecherye is glo­fonye and dronkēnesse. but we ought to consydere how by ab­stynence we shold eschewe many euylles. & to gete grete gra­ces of god. & to this purpoos we re [...]e how the kyng iosaphath had somtyme vyctorye by cause he fasted / and preched to other that they shold faste / as it apperith in the ij boke of paralapome non the xix chapytre. Semblably we rede how the children of Israel were two tymes dyscomfyt of the chyldrē of bemamyn but after they fasted. and god gaf to them the vyctorye as it apperyth the second book of Iudicū. Semblably the chyldren of Israel were dyscomfyte by the phylistees in so moche that they bare a waye the arke of god. but after the chyldren of Israel began to wepe & faste. & therfor god gaf to them vyctorye. as it apperith the first book of kynges the iiij & vij chapitre. & therfor saith thobye / that prayer is good. whan it is accompanyed with fastyng / we rede that esdras preched penaunce to the pe­ple that wold demaunde pardon of god. as it apperyth in the [Page] fourth chapitre of Esd [...]as / we rede also how achab gate grace of god for to faste as it apperyth iu the second book of kynges the fyrst chapytre / & semblably we rede of the cyte of Nynyue the ij chapytre of Ionas. By the whyche thynges it apperyth how we ought to lyue sobrely for to gete grace & vertues / for as Arystotle sayth in his xiij book of bestes / It is not prouf­fytable thynge for one to fatte hym self. For ouermoche fatte nes maketh a man sodeynly to deye. as wytnesseth Constan­tyn / whyche thynge is veray true / & not onely to the body. but also the soule. For glotonye fatteth a man and maketh hym to synne and fynably to deye euylly. wherby it appereth how abstynence is canse of moche good.

¶Here foloweth the iiij vertu whiche is chastyte. / And fyrst how we ought to lyue chastly capitulo [...]j

[...]En ought to lyue chastly / For chastyte maketh a man to lyue lyke augellys / and causeth theyr lyf honeste. and therfor Dydymus sayd to Alexander that the peple of his contre lyueden chastly. and not ouely by vertues but also by hon­neste / But it is pyte of lecherye whyche is on thys day so co­mune. and causeth peple to goo oute of the waye / and to lan­guysshe in synne and in dyssolute lyf. Alas they ought to take hede to thaūcyent peple. And to this purpoos recoūteth saynt Ierome in his book ayenst Ionynyen. how Plato chaas for to dwelle in a vylage in the feldes named Achadenne whych was ferre fro Athenes and fro alle other cytees. to thys ende that he myght esche we lecherye and lyue chastly. And Ter­culyen recyteth how democryte pulled oute the eyen of his heed to thende that he shold see noo wymmen / the whyche he myght not byholde wythout synne / wherby it apperyth that chas [...]yte ought to be had / And also men ought tesche we wantown regardes and beholdynges. & therfor the pyc [...]oryens of olde tyme chaas the desertes & places solytarye for teschewe lecherye & to thēde they shold not see the vanytees of the world. And therfor [Page] sayth the gospel yf thyn eye is euyl or causeth the to do euyll thou oughtest to take hym out & caste it a waye fro the. Alas worldly & flesshly byholdynges & regardes haue made of olde tyme many folkes to ouerthrowe. Rede we not how the men in byholdyng the wymmen were moeued to lecherye. & therfor god punysshed them by Noes flode as it apperith the vi chapytre of genesis. And the maistresse of Ioseph in beholdyng hym was moeued to synne. Sēblably dauyd in byholdyng a wo­man whiche wesshed hir self. was moeued to lecherye. & for taccomplisshe his synne he slewe hyr husbond as it apperith in the ij book of kynges / who deceyued holofernes. but the beaulte of Iudyth. as it apperith the xiij chapytre of Iudyth. & who deceyued the ij olde Iuges which desyred to haue susanne. but their fals byholdynges as it apperith the iij chapytre of danyel wherfor it apperith that who that wyl lyue chastly he ought to torne his syght & regarde fro wymmen whiche myȝt enclyne his wylle to synne. & therfor sayth quy [...]telyē in his fyrst cause that al our lecherye is cause of our folyssh beholdyng & regarde & seneque in his book of remedyes saith that the eyen ben messagers of al vyces. & to this purpoos recoūteth valere in hys fourth book / how somtyme in rome was a ryght fayr yonge man named spurcyn. the which for his beaulte the wymmen desyreden hym to synne / but whan he apperceyued the cause he cutte & made his vysage al foul & lothely sayeng that he had leuer to be foul than by his beaulte he shold cause other to synne by this ensaūple ouȝt they to take hede that ben fayr & semely More ouer the chastyte of the aūcient peple is good to recoūte & to this purpoos saynt Austyn in his fyrst book of the cyte of god recyteth how marke surnamed marcelle was ryȝt chaste & in dede whan he toke the cyte of Syracuse. he fonde there ma­ny fayr wymmen & wel arayed. but he cōmanded to alle hys peple that none shold be so hardy to touche them / For so to do it shold be ayenst thestate of good chyualrye ¶And Valere in hys fourth book recounteth how Scypyon in the age of xxiiij [Page] yere toke the cyte of cartage. And there was a ryȝt fayr mayde whyche was presented to hym to do wyth hys playsyr. but he wold not. For in so doyng it shold be shame to true chyualrye And therfore he made hyr to be delyuerd to hym that shold be hyr husbond whyche was prysonner / and that neuer had touched hyr. and by cause of the same fayr mayde he forgaf hym his raunson & made hym free / for certayn as me semeth thys was a feat of a noble knyght / And for this cause fro thenne forthon he had alwaye the grace of the world & of al knyghtes but thus do not now the nobles of this presēt tyme. the which wene they haue doon a fayr & a grete feat whan they haue rauysshed & defouled a fayr mayden / but in my Iugement it is a vyle & foul feat of a knyght. They ought to remembre of Incresse the myrrour of al chastyte. of whom recounteth Valere in his vj book / How tarquyn the sone of Tarquyn the proude toke by force the sayd lucresse. & accomplisshed his foul wylle the whiche lucresse on the morn called to hyr alle hir frendes. & recounted to them the vylanye that was doon to hyr & tofore them she slewe hyr self. & by cause therof Tarquyn loste hys seignorye / & thēne cessed thēperours at rome / for the romayns sayden / that they had noo nede of a lord that made suche oult / rages. wel it is trouth that of this synne been cause bawdes bothe men & wymmen / the whyche estudye bothe nyght & day how they may make & treate to cause other to do as they doo or haue doon in tyme passed. the whyche resemble to wymmen of duche londe of whome Valere recounteth in the book afore sayd. how they prayeden Marius that he wold gyue to them leue for to goo & speke to the maydens that serueden the god­desse vesta / & they made them stronge to make them enclyne & consente to the synne of lecherye. but by cause that they faylled of theyr entente. as despayred they henge al them self. And in trouthe that is the salayre that bylongeth to suche people.

How lecherye causeth many euylles to happene capo. xij

[...]Echerye is enemye to al vertues & to al good. & therfor sayth boece in his book of consolacion that he is happy that lyueth without lecherye / for lecherye is a swete maladye & bryngeth a man to deth wythoute apperceyuyng as wytnesseth valere in his iiij book / whiche recyteth how Sophonydes in his olde age sayd to one whiche demaūded hym yf he were ony thyng lecherous. he ansuerd I praye the speke to me of o­ther thynges. for me semeth that I haue had grete vyctorye whan I may eschewe lecherye by olde age. for by lecherye alle euilles comen to a creature. & al good thynges ben therby for­goten / Alas what was cause of the destruction of the peple of sychem. was it not the deuiolacion of dyna doughter of Iacob the whiche wold goo see the daunces & she was rauysshed as it apperith in the book of genesis the xxiiij chapytre / we rede also how lx.M. were slayn by cause of the lechery cōmysed in the wyf of the leuyte as it is wryton the xx chapytre of Iudicū. & Amon was slayn of absalon his brother by cause he had de­foylled thamar his suster. as it apperi [...]h the ij book of kynges the xj chapytre. Abuer for his lecherye knewe the concubines of his fader ysboseth / but sone after they were bothe slayn as it is wryton the ij book of kynges the iij and iiij chapytre. what was cause of Noes flode but lecherye / what was cause of the destruction of sodome & gomorre but vnnatural lecherye as it is wryton in the book of genesis / who caused Ioseph to be en­prisoned but the lecherye of his maistresse. & therfor he is wyse that escheweth this synne. For who that wyl lyue chastly / he ought tesche we the companye of wymmen. & consydere that by wymmē were deceyued the wyse salamon. the strong sāp­son the grete holofernes. the prophete dauid / the phylosophre a­rystotle. the poete virgyle. & many other wyse men. & therfor I wyl no more blame the wymmen than the men. but for thys I wyl say who wyl be chaste ouȝt teschewe the companye of wymmen. For for to synne nature is sone enclyned & lyȝtly accorded. for teschewe fulgence enseigneth & techeth vs in the ij [Page] book of his micrologies in sayeng. that lecherye is moche foul & aboue other dyshoneste / & is not aduenaūt to a creature that wyl haue honour & worshyp. And certaynly Scipion the no­ble knyght hated so moche this synne / that he deffended in h [...] contre bordellis & al dyshonest places / But it is grete pyte that now al the world is ful of places of suche vsages / and yonge and olde peple the mo [...]t parte gyue them comunely to lecherye / but they ought to consydere. this whiche Ouyde sayth in hys vij book of methamorphoseos. whiche sayth that lecherye maketh a man to brenne in hym self. & the versyfyour saith that the loue of a woman affeblyssheth the body / mynyssheth the ry­chesses / maketh a fayr man to become foule. & atte last bryn­geth a man to nought / And saynt Iherome in his boke ayenst Ionynyan sayth the loue of a woman maketh a man to for­gete reason / & to become a fole. it letteth and hurteth good coū ceyl / wyl not suffre a man to studye / & maketh hym to thynke al folye. by suche loue a man troubleth hym self. & atte last ha­teth hys body & his lyf / and seneke in his declara [...]ons in his first book sayth. that it is an hard deth / that lecherye procureth for lecherye maketh to lese tyme-honour. & al goodes. & therfor in his xxiiij epystle to lucylle sayth. kepe the wel. that lecherye be not in the / for a lecherous man is as a thyng al loste / & cer­taynly in olde tyme the lecherous peple were gretely pugnys­s [...]xd / For as recyteth valere in his vj book. a man that of olde tyme mysdyde in his manage ought to lose his eyen / & aft [...]r the olde lawe a woman shold be stoned to deth. wherfore it ap­perith that this synne was ryght dysplaysaunt vnto them of auncient tyme / for of it cometh many euylles and harmes as it is tofore sayd.

¶Here foloweth the v vertue. that is to wete benyuolence and is ayenst the synne of enuye capitulo xiij

EMonge al other synnes the leste excusable is the synne of enuye. by cause she hath noo cause of her malyce in so moche [Page] [Page] [Page] the body and of the soule / and the man is not worthy to lyue the whyche by necligence slepeth in his synne & dyeth in pouerte. for not wythstondyng that pouerte is good whan it is [...] luntarye. Neuertheles he is moche to be repreued. the whyche by his slouthe & neclygence is poure and myserable. by whyche it apperyth that dyligence is moche to be preysed that remem­breth bothe the body and the soule. and therfore sayth the pro­phete I haue slepte. & after I am awaked. by whyche he gy­ueth vs to vnderstonde how we ouȝt to be dyligent. & awake our self for to prouffyte in wele. And therfore the appostle in wrytyng to Thimothee sayth. Awake thy s [...]lf that slepest. & god shal enlnmyne the wyth his grace. For for the slepars & them that ben necligent is not heuene o [...]deyned. but for them that ben dyligent for to doo wel as longe as they lyue in thys present world. And to this dyligence ought moche [...] vs many auncyent hystoryes / by the whyche it appereth how neclygence hath be cause of many euylles & Inconuements: Rede we not how dauid was in his hows ydle: and thenne he was tempted of the synne of lecherye / in so moche that he ac­complysshed a ryght g [...]te dyshonour. as it apperyth the ij book of kynges the v chapy [...]re / and therfor sayth Ouyde in his first book of remedye that ydlenes & neclygence ben the nou [...]ces of the synne of lecherye: And quyntylien sayth that synne natu­relly cōmaūdeth a man to be ydle. And therfor Chaton sayd resonably to hys sone / kepe the wel that thou be not necligent ne slepye / For longe reste nouryssheth synne & vyces. And to thys purpoos we haue many [...]ystoryes. how in slepyng many euylles ben happed / Rede we not how Thobie in slepyng wa [...] blynde & loste his syght / as it apperith the second chapitre of Thobye / ysboseth lost his [...]yame in slepyng as it apperyth the ij book of kynges the iiij chapytre. Sampson in slepyng in the lawe of his wyf lost his heeres. taken & enchayned. and fynably loste his lyf. as it appereth the xvj chapytre of Iudicū ¶And therfore sayth the wyse man iu his vj chapytre. Thou [Page] Neclygent awake the. for thou mayst not longe slepe. as who sayd / the lyf is shorte / And therfore we rede how Iacob repre­ued his chyldren of neclygence. as it apperyth the xxiiij chapitre of genesis. And our sauyour Ihesu cryst repreuyd hys dyscyples of necligence in sayeng / ye haue not mowe wake an hour with me as sayth saynt Mathew in his xxviij chapytre by whiche it appereth how necligence is moche to be repreuyd To this purpoos we rede how they that sewe the good seed by gonnen to slepe. And thenne came the enemye that sewe the euyl seed. that is to say the cockyl as sayth Saynt Mathew in his xiij chapytre. by whiche is gyuen to vs for to vnderstonde that we ouȝt to wake yf we wyl prouffyte in our good werkes / the whyche ben vnderstonden by the good seed. For as the gospel of saynt Mathew sayth in his xv chapytre. the v may­dens that slepte were not receyued in to heuen. But the fyue that waked were receyued in. by whiche it apperyth that we ought to wake / that is to wete to entende to good werkes & to do wel. for veryly they slepe / the whiche wythout repentaūce abyde stylle in theyr synne. Ne rede we not how the Natu [...]ēs saye that the venyme of a serpent named Aspyde is of suche condycion. that he maketh the man that drynketh it to slepe. and in slepyng to deye / Of suche condycion is the synne of neclygence / for it maketh a man to slepe by neclygence / and in slepyng is man oft dampned. For by deffaulte of a man wel to aduyse hym self. oftymes he deyeth ryght euylly / To thys purpoos sayth Ouyde in his fyrst book of Methamorphoseos how Argus had an .C. eyen. And neuertheles mercurye by the sowne of his floyte brought hym a slepe & thenne in sle­pyng made a cowe to be taken fro hym named yo. the whyche Iubyter had delyuerd to hym in kepyng. and by cause of his neclygence. Argus tofore sayd was slayne & loste. Sembla­bly there be many that haue an hondred eyen. for they see ryȝt clere & haue good wytte and vnderstōdyng / And neuertheles mercurye. that is to say the world oft bryngeth them a slepe [Page] And thenue theyr cowe. that is to say theyr flesshe is loste / by whyche fynably man is ryght oft dampned & dyeth mysera­bly. but sōme may say that they shold be dyligent yf they were waked & solicyted for to do wel. To thys purpoos I ansuer that there is noo synnar soo grete but yf he be al obstynat. but that he hath somtyme remorse of consciēce that waketh hym and admonesteth for to ryse fro synne. And to this thou hast experience somtyme in thy self / whan reason causeth the som­tyme to syghe and to haue dysplaysyr of thyn euyl lyf. Thēne thy conscience Iuggeth the & dampneth the. whan thou sayest alas I haue doon & commysed suche euyl and suche synne / it despleaseth me thus me semeth that this conscience that thus awaketh vs may be lykened to the mustelle / of wh [...]m recoū ­teth the naturyens. that yf a man slepe iu a shadowe place. in whyche there be a serpente. thenne the mustelle awaketh the man to the ende that the serpent hurte hym not ne greue hym Thus doeth reason and conscience whyche ofte awaketh vs. But many there be the whyche abyde not in a good purpoos or in a good thought whā theyr conscience hath awaked them the whyche doon as dyd Vyrgyle. the whiche slewe the Flye that prycked hym in his forhede and a woke hym by his prye kyng / And neuertheles vyrgyle had be slayne of the serpente whyche was by hym yf he had not beu waked. And thēne it dysplaysed hym of that whych he had slayn the flye. that had doon to hym so moche good. By whiche it appereth that the good thouȝtes whyche a wake & styrre vs to do wel. we ouȝt not to slee ne forgete them. but we ouȝt dyligently to awake to do wel for teschewe the peryll of the serpent. that is to were of the fende our enemye whyche alway purchaceth our deth /

Here foloweth the vij vertue the whyche is lyberalyte. & that is ayenst the synne of auaryce capitulo xv

Lyberalyte is the moyen for to gete frendes for to lyue in [Page] good suffysaunce. For the lyght lasseth not. by cause it lygh­teth ouer al the hous. ¶In lyke wyse the goodes of a lyberall man lassen not by that whiche many haue parte therof / And thys wytnesseth dydymus in wrytyng to Alysaundre. the whyche Alysaunder gate many royames more by lyberalyte than by strengthe / And to this purpoos sayth boece in his jj book of consolacion / that the goodes ben happy. the which doon good to moche peple. And cassyodore in his xiiij epystle sayth that a man ought gladly to gyue. For lyberalyte causeth not the good to be lasse / For not wythstondyng that a man haue the lasse for the tyme or whyle / Neuertheles that lasse suffy­seth hym as wel as the more. or ellys he were not lyberal. and syth that a man hath suffysaunce after the yefte as afore. it foloweth that he is as ryche as afore wel is trouthe that many say that they be lyberal. the whiche ben not / for suppose that they gyue. Neuertheles it is somtyme folyly and oultragyously. and oultrage ought not to be approuued. Thēne lyberal suffy­seth not onely to yeue. but hym byhoueth by reason & wysely to dystribute his goodes. And this wytnesseth chaton sayeng to his sone / take hede & see to whome thou gyuest. & not onely to whome but also thou oughtest to byholde how moche / whā and how. And to this purpoos speketh tulle in hys fyrst boke of offyces in sayeng. that a man ought to gyue to hym that hath nede without hope of vaynglorye or hauyng ony other benefayt / And the yeuar ought to take hede yf he be worthy to whome he gyueth / as enseyneth macrobe in his book of satur [...]elles. but comunely men gyue to them that be not worthy & to them that haue noo nede. As wytnesseth Terēce & mar­cyal. but they that so doon / in so doyng haue noo merytr [...]e grace toward god / Soo euery man ought to be aduysed that wyl veryly be large & lyberal. & byholde the maner of gyuyng and the circumstaunces. And syngulerly yf his yefte ought to be agreable to god / hym byhoueth that hys largesse come of a parfyght hert. For as varoo sayth iu hys sentences the [Page] yefte is more agreable after thaffeccyon of the yeuar than after the gretenes of the yefte. And herof we haue an example in the gospel of saynt Luc. And also Saynt Iherome reciteth in the prologue of the byble sayeng. that more was accepta­ble toward god thoffrynge of the poure wydowe whyche of­fryd but a ferthyng. than was the yefte of the ryche kyng cre­sus whyche was ryght ryche and kynge of Lyde. the whyche offryd grete yeftes and many markes of gold and sylner / & the reason was thys. for the poure woman presented hiryefte by more grete deuocyon than dyd the sayd kynge / Seen that she gaf al that she had. but the kynge aforesayd after his yefte abode ryche and myghty. By whyche it apperyth that more doeth good affection. than doeth the gretenes of the oblacyon. More ouer we rede how many by lybecalyte haue go [...]u grete renōme and grete seygnourye. And to thys purpoos sayth the hystorye of Alexander / that Alexander conquerd many wya­mes more by his franchyse and lyberalyte / than he dyd by his strengthe. And was so moche lyberal / that the seruauntes of his enemyes came for to dwelle wyth hym. and lefte theyr lordes & theyr kynges for to serue hym. Semblably we re [...]e of Salamon how he was ryght lyberal as it apperyth the iij book of kynges the second chapytre. Sēblably the kyng Cy­ros was moche lyberal. For he sente agayn in to Iherusalem she vessels of gold the whyche his fader Nabugodonor had taken a waye as recyteth Esdras in his fyrst book. ¶we rede also how Thobye offred moche largely to thangel Raphael of his good / whome he had supposed to haue been a man as it apperyth the xij chapytre of Thobye. ¶Also we rede how the kynge Assuere was ryght lyberall. whan he gaf half his wy­ame to hester. as it apperyth the fyfthe chapytre of the book of hester / By the whyche hystoryes it appereth how many som­tyme were ryght renomed for their lyberalyte. But Auaryce hath made many men to be dyffamed & falle in to many In­ [...]uenyēts / as shal be shewed in the chapytre that foloweth /

¶How Auaryce bryngeth a man to an euyl hauen / & cau­seth hym to lyue in myserye capitulo xvj

BY Auaryce a man coueyteth the goodes of another. And oftymes appropreth them to hym self rudely. and he hym self of suche goodes as he hath dar not helpe hym self for alle waye he is aferde that his good shal faylle hym. And thus thauaricyous man lyueth al way in myserye. for suppose that he hath moche good / neuertheles he is right poure. syth by his couetyse he wyl not ther wyth helpe hym self / ¶Thus thenne ought the wyse man esche we couetyse. Caym offred to god the werst fruytes of therthe. & therfore his oblacyon was not agreeable to god. And thenne seyng Chaym that thoblacyon of Abel his brother was agreable to god. by cause wherof he was moeued wyth wrath & enuye & slewe his brother afore sayd as it apperyth in the book of genesis. by auaryce Iudas betrayed his lord and our sauyour Ihesu cryste and fynably despayred & henge hym self. More ouer dalida by cause of co­uetyse & for money that was gyuen to hyr bytrayed hyr poo­p [...]e husoond Sampson / And neuertheles she shewed tofore to sampson signes of ryȝt grete loue as it apperyth the xviij cha­pytre of Judicū. By the whych hystoryes it appereth how A­uaryce bryngeth a man ofte to perdycion. O Couetyse thou madest stryf bytwene Abraham & Loth as recoūteth the book of genesis / for by cause of theyr richesses they myȝt not dwelle to gyder / By auaryce the chyldren of Samuel maden many euyl Iugementes as it apper [...]th the fyrst book of kynges. who causeth falsely to wytnesse ayenst Naboth but couetyse as it apperith the thyrd book of kynges / who was cause of the fals wytnesse of the knyghtes that kepte the sepulcre / but couetyse For by cause of certayn money that they had. they wytnessyd falsely sayeng that the dysciples of Ihesu Cryste had stolen a­waye the body of Ihesu cryste. As wytnesseth saynt Mathew in his xxviij chapytre / who caused Achor to deye but courtyse [Page] as it apperith the vij chapytre of Iosue. wherfor wold dauid haue slayn nabal / but by cause that Nabal was ouer auarycious as it apperyth in the fyrst book of kynges the v chapytre. wherfor was Semey condēpned to deth. but for his couetyse that he dyd departe fro Iherusalem ayenst the cōmandement of his fader / as it is wryton in the iij book of kynges the ij cha­pytre. & the euyl ryche man wherfor was he dampned but for his auaryce. for he refused to poure Lazare the crōmes of hys brede as receyteth saynt luc in his xvj chapytre. Certaynly a­uaryce hath caused many men to perysshe & consente to many synnes & Inconuenyents / for menelaus vnworthy. was by money pourueyed to be preest of the lawe as it apperith in the ij loke of machabees the v chapytre / & the prestes of the lawe somtyme for their couetyse suffreden & endureden to selle oxen & sheep in the temple & other marchaūdyses / as recyteth saynt Mathew in his xiij chapytre. we rede also how Ananye & sa­ph [...]re fyl in to many Inconuenyentes by cause of theyr coue­tyse. as it apperyth the v chapytre of thactes of the appostles. Thenne me semeth that euery man that wyl lyue holyly ouȝt to haue suffysaunce of the goodes that god hath sente to hym wythout to sette hys hert on worldly goodes. For as saluste sayth in his Catylynarye / Auaryce empessheth trouthe & wysdom. and engendreth pryde and cruelte. Auaryce empess [...]eth good studye. and bryngeth a man in to vanytres / and goodes whyche be not establysshed / And to thys purpoos sayth Se­neque in hys epystylle to Lucylle lxxiij. Auaryce maketh a man a fool. For a man coueytous alway desyreth that. whi­che be hath not. and that whyche he hath / he woteth not yf it be hys. For he is alway aferde to lose it. and that good shal faylle hym. And therfore valere in hys [...] book sayth. that A­uaryce is as a swolo we that may not be fylled and maketh many men to deye tuyl / And in dede he recounteth how there was a man named septiminus seeyng that he was in paryll if the see but yf he threwe ouer borde parte of hys rychesse [Page] in to the see / neuertheles he had leuer deye wyth his rychessys than caste a parte a way / and lyue & reteyne the remenaunte / By whiche it sheweth that couetyse maketh a man ryght fo­lysshe & not vnderstondyng wysedom. for a couetous man ofte tymes taketh oppynyon that he had leuer deye than lose hys good. And to this purpoos recounteth Helmande how som­tyme Hanybal assyeged a castel in whiche were thre hondred men closed whiche had nothyng to ete but rattes & myes. and it happed that one emonge them beyng moche auaricious took a mows. and not withstondyng that he was ny [...]e dede for hungre / he sold to another the mows for .CC. pens by whi­che it happed that the sayd auarycyous man deyed with al his money. and that other lyued & was delyuerd fro deth / Thēne ought a man to aduyse and consydere that the goodes be not made ne ordeyned but for to serue man / And therfor he ought not to loue / but for so moche as he hath uecessyte or nede / and thenne he ought to vse them sobrely in thankyng god whiche is of al goodes the welle and fontayne.

How thestate of pouerte is moche agreable to god cap. xvij

POuerte is none other thynge but veray suffysaūce with out to desyre ony other thyng than that whiche god sendeth to a creature / And this pouerte is called pouerte of spy­ryte. the whyche god approueth in the gospel sayeng / that blessyd be they that be poure of spyryte that is to wete to wylle. And me semeth after the scryptures / the auncyent faders had pouerte / And syngulerly they that were loued of god and called to good and worshyp ¶Rede we not how Iacob was a pastour or a shepeherd and kepte the sheep & goyng aboute the contreye. and slepte in the feldes and leyde a stone vnder his hede lyke a pelowe as it appereth the xxxviij chapytre of ge­nesis. ¶Semblably we rede that Moyses kepte the sheep of a man named Iethro as it apperyth the thyrd chapytre of exode. & neuertheles was after ordeyned to be gouernour of [Page] the peple. we rede also how saul was contente to haue one seruaunt and sought the asses of his fader / & not the horses for to ryde on. And neuertheles he was ordeyned kyng as it ap­perith the first book of kynges the xxiiij chapitre. & of Dauyd semblably we rede how he kept the pastures. whan he was called for to be kyng. as it is redde the fyrst book of kynges the xvj chapytre. by whiche hystoryes it appereth clerely how thes­tate of pouerte is to god agreable / and in dede Ihesu cryst hath gyuen to vs of pouerte example. For he was born of a poure moder and nourysshed of a poure man. that is to wete of Io­seph. leyde in a poure bedde / wrapped with poure cloutes and clothes / of poure parents offred in to the temple / naked crucy­fyed. and by straungers buryed and l [...]yd in the sepulcre / by the whiche thynges Ihesu cryst sheweth to vs. that no man ouȝt despyse pouerte. for Ihesu Cryst sayth in the gospel that who that wyl be parfyght. he ought to renounce al worldly goo­des. and gyue them to the poure peple and folowe me as re­cyteth Saynt Mathew in his xvij chapytre. and to thys purpoos we re [...]e how thauncyent phylosophres sayden. that more ryche is the poure man yf he haue suffysaunce / than ne is he that is coueytous though he haue grete habondāce of goodes And the same wytnesseth seneque in sayeng. that dyogenes was more ryche whiche had no worldly goodes / than Aly­saunder whyche was lord of all the world for alysaūder had not so moche good that he myght gyue. As dyogenes myȝt and wold reffuse. Of whyche Dyogenes Ualerius recyteth in hys fourth book. how he refused the yeftes whyche Dyo­nyse the Tyraunt sente hym / And it happed that Dyogenes on a tyme wesshed hys herbys that he shold put in hys potte and ete. And that seeyng Aristipus. whyche tofore had been hys felowe and sayd vnto hym in thys manere. ¶O Dy­ogenes yf thou woldest flatre Denys / thou sholdest not be in thys pouerte. And thenne Dyogenes ansnerd to hym yf thou woldest endure the pouerte that I endure. and ete & pyke thy [Page] wortes as I doo. thou sholdest not be a flaterer as thou art. Of the same diogenes recoūteth saynt Ierome in his book ayenst Ionynyen how for al robes. he had but a litel mantel lyned for tesche we colde. And in stede of a celyer / he had but a lytel sa­chet / And in stede of an hors he had a staf or a bourdon. And was lodged in a tonne at the yate of the Cyte / the whyche tonne after the wynde it torned for to esche we colde. And on a tyme he seyng a chylde that dranke water in his honde / and he threwe a waye a lytel cuppe that he had / in sayeng that hym ouȝt to suffyse for to drynke out of the vessel that nature had gyuen to hym / that is to wete his honde / By whyche it appe­ryth that spyrituel pouerte / and very suffysaunce were som­tyme in the wyse men. as was dyogenes and many other. And to this purpoos we rede how Epicurius the phylosophre sayd that there is no thynge so moche worth as Ioyouse po­uerte. And Orace in his epystles sayth. In pouerte ouȝt not to be dysplaysaunce. syth a man haue suffysaunce for his lyf For none other thynge may al the goodes of the world gyue to a man. And therfore sayth Cathon to hys sone / seen that nature hath made the naked. thou oughtest gladly and with a good wylle endure pouerte & flee oultrage. For nature shall not faylle the in thy necessyte / And thou shalt be ryche. yf thou hast suffysaunce / as wytnesseth geffrey in his poetrye & ma­ny other. More ouer the wyse man ought to consydere and aduyse that no thyng is worth to a man oultrage ne ouermoche habundaunce. Is not Anthiochus deed and comen to nouȝt of whome recouteth valerye in his ix book how wel he bryng kyng of Surrye he made his horses to be arayed and adoubed with gold / And them to be shoed wyth naylles of gold / And in his kechyne alle the vessellis were of gold and syluer. but alle he loste soro wfully / For he desyred to take awaye fro his people more. than to doo Iustyce / ¶what is become of the po [...]npe of the wyf of Neron whyche made hyr horses sembla­bly to be shoed wyth gold / & made chariottes to be ledde tofore [Page] hyt ful of gold & syluer. Certeynly al is comen to nought. & the ryche men so moche more myserably ben comen to their deth as they loued more curyously theyr rychesses. & therfor recoū ­tith dydymꝰ. how the people of hys contre lyued pourely and wythoute curyosite / for vanyte maketh men to perysshe & to forgete god whyche is cause of alle goodes. & lyke as the O [...] faunt is deceyued whan he trusteth to the tree to whiche he le­neth. Ryght so the ryche peple be deceyued whan they truste [...] theyr rychesses. for whan the day cometh of theyr moost gret [...] necessyte. Nothyng auaylle them theyr rychesses for to haue [...] uen / and to that auaylleth pouerte & suffysaūce / Alas it were good to consydere how fortune hath noo certayn abydyng. for as sayth Iulius celsus in his iiij book. Fortune hath enha [...] [...]ed many men to rychesses. for to ouerthrowe them vylayn­ously. And to this purpoos hildebert in spekyng of his banys­shement sayd. I was that other day ryche and blessyd of frendes. but fortune whiche had gyuen al to me / hath taken al fr [...] me. & she that la whed on me. now constrayneth me to wepe and Ouyde in his book de tristibꝰ sayth. I was a lytel whyt­ryche & honoured / and now I am without cause bānysshed b [...] dishonour. Thus I see that fortune hath noo sure Amytye n frendshyp / & therfor sayth boece in his second boke of consola­on that more auaylleth fortune aduerse whiche chastyseth man. than doth worldly fortune the whiche blyndeth a man maynt [...]neth hym in his synne. for who that is poure he ma not falle. but the ryche man is in peryll for to falle in to gre [...] sro w. & yf thou wylt wyte what is she / boece sayth that [...] grettest mal [...]rete that is. is after grete happynes to falle in myserye and wretchydnes / as dyd al [...]biades. the which w­fyrst right ryche. & after right vnhappy as valere sayth in [...] vj boke / Semblably he recoūteth how denys Siracusan [...] right ryche & a right grete lord. but fynably he became so po [...] that for to gete his lyuyng. he taught the lesson and helde so [...] chyldren of Corinth [...]e. Thus thēne he is right e [...] [Page] aduysed that in fortune trusteth. But a man ought to affye hym self in wel doyng / For that is the rychesse that helpeth a man in his necessyte. But presently mankynde is so blynded that he retcheth of noo thyng but of worldly goodes. the which [...]ght to take example of the auncyent wyse men. of whome we rede that they sette nothyng of worldly goodes or lytel. & this purpoos recoūteth valerye in his viij book how anax­ [...]goras lefte his possessyons for to goo estudye in straūge con [...]es / & whan he retorned he sawe that his possessyons were eserted / thēne he sayd. I myght not haue ben saued yf my posessions had not perisshed. as who wold say that richesses ben [...]yenst saluacion. Semblably he recoūteth of a phylosopher na [...]ed socrates / the whiche threwe al his richesses in the see. in [...]yeng that he had lieuer that his richesses were loste than he [...]hold lose hym self / Sēblably he recoūteth of a wyse man na­ [...]ed styllon the which lost al his goodes by fyre. & thēne one [...]maūded hym. yf he were not angry & wroth for the losse of [...]is goodes. the which ansuerd that he had nothyng lost. & that [...] had vpon hym al his goodes. that is to we [...]e scyence & ver [...]es / as yf he sayd that the goodes of fortune were not hys. [...]y whyche it apperith that he is wyse that despyseth the goo [...]s of fortune. as wytnesseth Epedocles / And prosper in hys [...]ok named Epigramaton sayth that the courage of a coue­ [...]us man shal neuer haue reste. for the worldly goodes may [...]t satysfye theyr hert / but engendreth and maketh more the [...]uetyse and the desyre of the creature & to this purpoos recoū [...]h Ouyde / how polydorus by his couetyse slewe the sone of [...]amꝰ for to haue the rychesses that were delyuerd hym for [...]ouerne therwith the chylde aforsayd. but hecuba moder of [...] [...]ayd sone wyth hyr complyces apperceyued the sayd traysō [...] came to polidorus in faynyng that they wold gyue hym [...]. but hecuba & hyr felowes slewe hym & strangled hym [...] was reason that couetyse that had made hym to slee [...] shold be cause & moyen of his deth. wherby it [...] [Page] how pouerte is good / and couetyse euyl and holdeth a man in thought and in peryll of hert and of conscyence.

¶Thus endeth the fyrst book

¶Here foloweth the second book the whiche speketh of thes­tate of the people of the chyrche and of the clerkes.

¶Fyrst how the chyrche ought to be honoured and loued. & had in worshyp and in reuerence capitulo primo

THe chyrche is as the moder of al crysten people. & in the same is gyuen fraunchyse and lyberte / by cause it shold be the more in reuerence / For hyr spouse and hede is ihesu crist sauyour of all the world / & to this purpoos we rede in the first book of thystorye tripartyte / how Costantyn whan he was made crysten loued so moche god & the chyrche / that he dyd do [...]ere in alle the places where he went a tabernacle made in the [...]ourme of a chyrche / and had wyth hym preestes and clerkes whyche serued god ryght deuoutly / he bare also on his ryght syde the sygne of the crosse. for that was the baner by the whi­che god sente hym vyctorye. & in dede he shold haue a bataylle & in his slepe the aungel shewed to hym how he shold haue vyctorye by the sygne of the crosse. Semblably we rede in the book aforesayd how themperour theodosi [...] was fynably obeys­sant to the chyrche. Not withstondyng he had be tofore moche rygorous to the chyrche. & thystorye sayth how the sayd theodosius dyd do slee vij.M. men in the cyte of thessalonue. by caus [...] they had stoned to deth his offy [...]ers. After which feat the said theodosius retorned to melane / weny [...]g to haue entred as [...] ben accnstomed in to the chyrche / ¶Thēne saynt Ambrose came ayenst hym whych was Archebysshop of the san [...] place. and sayd to hym. O Emperour goo thy waye. Fo [...] in to thys chyrche thou shalt not entre / seen that thou arte [...] of blood / and arte not worthy for to beholde god ne see hym ¶Thenne Theodosius obeyed hym and wepyng departed [Page] but by cause the [...]este of Crystemas approuched he sente one of hys seruauntes named Ruffyn to saynt Ambrose for to gete grace. But nothyng auaylled his requeste. And thys seeyng Theodosius cam in his propre persone to say [...]t Ambrose we­pyng & requyryng pardon on his knees. & thenne saynt Am­brose toke hym to grace. & after he dyd moche good and had many vyctoryes. by whyche it apperith how the chirche ought to be honoured / And to this purpoos recounteth valere in his iij book the xj chapytre. How Iulius Cezar defended to his people. that none shold be so hardy to do ony euyl or harme to the temples / And for thys cause he was so vyctoryous by ij yere that neuer man had vyctorye ayenst hym / But after he was many tymes dyscomfyt after he had defoilled the temple named delphyque. As recounteth Policrate in hys vj book the vij chapytre. And he sayth more ouer that chyualrye ouȝt to kepe the chyrche. to Inpugne the heretykes. to honoure the preestes / to deffende the poure. and tappease stryf and debates / Semblably Egesippus recounteth how pompeus dyd neuer harme to temples ne to chyrches / and therfor alexander was to hym moche gracyous. & pardōned to hym his mesprisyon / by whyche it is euydently shewed to vs how the chyrche ouȝt to be kept and hononred / And to this purpoos sayth vegece in his iiij book of chyualrye the iiij chapytre. how the knyghtes ought to swere loyalte. Fyrst to god. secondly to theyr prynce More ouer thou oughtest to knowe that the chyrche ought to [...] fraūchysed / For it is sygured by the arke of noe. in whiche [...]ere saued al they that were therin as it apperyth the seuenth [...]hapytre of genesis. Semblably alle ought to be free in the [...]hyrche / And in dede we rede in the hystoryes of the romayns [...]at one named macelizet deyed a foul deth by cause he had de [...]yled the chyrche. we rede also of one named Equyla how he [...]stroyed alle ytalye▪ And thēne the pope named Leon sayd [...]hym that he shold leue his cruelte. The which ansuerd that [...]ym semed that he sawe a fayr olde man whych helde in hys [Page] honde a knyf wherof he was sore aferde & durst not dysobe [...] And this sygnefyeth to vs. how euery creature ouȝt to dre [...] the chyrche and to obeye it in al ryght and reason.

¶How the people of the chyrche and syngulerly the prelate [...] ought to lyue chastly and vertuously capitulo [...]

SAynt Ierome in one of his epystles sayth that the prelate ought to haue no concubyne: For hys espouse is the chyrche. And therfore in the lawe of Canon. it is deffended that prelates shold holde no wymmen in theyr howses. but yf they be vnder age & out of al suspecyon. And to thys purpoos we rede of saynt austyn / how he wold not dwelle wyth hys owen syster. for tesche we suspecōn of euyl spekyng. More our [...] saynt Gregory in his dyalogue the vij chapytre recyteth [...] a prelate named Audrien was moche tempted with a wo­man of religyon by cause she dwellyd wyth hym. By which it apperyth that men of the chyrche ought to flee the conuers [...] on of wymmen / not onely for tesche we the synne / but also for tesche we alle euyl suspecion▪ and therfore sayth saynt Iherome in his xliij epystle. that thestate of prelacion is moche worthy And for so moche a prelate ought more to kepe hym. that h [...] doo no thynge by whiche his estate be sclaundred / & the prelat is not ordeyned for to haue delyces / but also for tenseyne and gouerne the peple / and the hyer that he is enhaunced the mo [...] humble he ought to be. For as saynt Austyn sayth in hys [...] book of the cyte of god the xix chapytre. he is not very prela [...] that secheth not but his prouffyt. and nothynge for his sub [...]gettis. Semblably sayth saynt Gregory in his xxj book [...] hy [...] moralles that the prelates been ordeyned not onely for [...] receyue. but prycipally for to serue god. and for to enclyne th [...] sub gettes semblably to do / & therfore sayth hughe / that non [...] ought be ordeyned a prelate. but yf he be of good lyf & honnest conuersacion. and to this purpoos sayth the scripture in [...] [Page] [...] xxviij chapytre / that the prelates ought to be made of peo­ [...]le shewyng example of good lyf / For the sheep ought not to [...]e put to the kepyng of wulues. That is to were to them that [...]maunde not but the prouffyt of the prelacion. and not the la­ [...]our tha [...] apperteyneth therto. but the tyme is comen the which [...]saye prophecied in his thyrd chapytre / sayeng that the prynce and the prynces and the prelates ben of the condycion of chyl­dren. the whyche wyl lyuen wythout thought. And zacharye in his xj chapytre sayth that the prelate that thynketh not of the gouernaunce of the peple is ryght as an ydolle whiche serueth of nothyng / And it is a grete abusyon whan the prelate is not dylygent to adresse and teche the people as it apperyth [...]n the book of xij abusious. and hughe sayth in his book of sacramentis. that the prelates beren the cooche in signefyaunce of an herdman or pastour. And the rynge that he hath on hys honde sygnefyeth that the chyrche is their espouse / & the tunyque sygnefyeth clennesse / the gyrdle chastyte. the stole pacience. and the chesuble charite / and therfor the prelates oughten to be good wyse & vertuous. & that is necessarye for their estate / as sayth saynt gregory in his pastoral the fyrst book the fyrst chapytre. But saynt bernard in spekyng of prelates in hys fourth book to Eugene the pope. sayth I meruaylle me and am abasshed for what cause many bysshops and prelates cōmytte the go­ [...]ernemēt of theyr people to suffragans and to other / but the [...]ychesses & receytes they cōmytte not to other so that they kno­ [...]e not thacompt therof. And neuertheles they be more ordey­ [...]ed for the spirituel gouernaunce. than they be for the temporel [...]oodes▪ as hughe sayth in the second book of the sacramentis / For the crowne that men of the chyrche bere sygnefyeth that xy ought to haue the hert & affection to the spiritualte / & not [...] the temporalte / And therfore of olde tyme the vertuous men [...]ffuseden the bysshopryches. by cause they knewe wel that it [...] grete labour to a prelate for to doo his deuoyr & duete. And [...] this purpoos we rede of saynt Ambrose how he reffused the [Page] archebysshopryche of Melan / Not withstondyng he was ele [...] by comune assent. and to thende that he shold not be constrayned to receyue the sayd benefyce. he dyd doo come in to hys hous wymmen dyssolute / wenyng by that moyen. he to be put fro [...] the sayd prelacion / Neuertheles the trouthe was knowen. and he must nedes obeye. of saynt gregoire we rede also▪ that whā he was chosen to be pope. he fledde. but by the moyen of the ho­ly ghoost he was foūden and receyued to be pope▪ Semblably we rede in a book named paradys how a noble man named marsius cutte of his fyste to the ende that he wold not be pre­late. to whyche he was chosen / we rede also of an holy man named Annonius how he was chosen bysshop / and therfore he cutte of his ryght ere secretely. and thenne he sayd to them that had chosen hym. ye see wel that I may not be bysshop / For I am not able. the whyche ansuerd that he suffysed to them. and they had leuer to haue a good man than a fayr man. More ouer in thystorye trypertyte the iij book we rede of a religyous monke whiche was chosen & called for to be bysshop. the which demaūded delaye & tyme for taduyse hym. and prayed to god & requyred hym that he wold aledge & delyuer hym fro thys charge. And thystorye sayth that in prayeng he deyed & ren­dred to god his spyrite / By the whyche hystoryes it appereth how prelacyon is moche payneful to them that wyl doo theyr [...]. And therfore noo man ought to be a prelate. but yf he be wyse. vertuous / and of right good maners and lyf /

¶How the prelates ought tenseyne & gouerne theyr subget­tis. and to gyue almesses to the poure capitulo iij

THe prelate is as the hede whiche ought to adresse the o­ther membres. And to thys purpoos we rede of moyses [...]w he loued ryght derely his people. and dyd grete payne to chastyse & rule them. And how be it that god promysed to hym that he shold gyue to hym more gretter people to gouerne. [Page] Neuertheles he sayd that it suffysed hym that whiche he had And more wold he not as it apperith the xxxiij chapytre of Exode / we rede also that for the loue that he had to his peo­ple. he desyred that euery man shold be holy and a prophete as it apperyth the xj chapytre of the book of Numeri. we rede also how he recomforted the people whan he was dyscouraged in sayeng. Abasshe ne fere you not for god shal defende you / as it is writon in exode the xiiij chapitre. Semblably helyachym [...]omtyme preest of the lawe recomforted the people ayenst holofernes. as it is wryton in Iudyth the iiij chapytre / ¶Saynt poul also in his epystle to thephesiens the vj chapitre saith. my frendes reconforte you in god and in his puyssauuce. By the whiche thynges it appereth how the prelates ought tenseyne & reconforte the people / To this purpoos sayth saynt austyn in his i [...] book of the cyte of god. that the prelate ought to remembre alleway his peple at his hert. For his offyce is for to en­duce hem to do wel. And saynt Ambrose sayth in hys pasto­ralles that the prelate ought tesche we al heresye and alle euyll doctryne / For the pryncipal of theyr vocacyon is for to defende the fayth in the whyche al the chyrche is fou [...]ded / More ouer the prelate ought to socoure the poure after his puyssaunce / for the goodes of the chyrche be the goodes of the poure peple. And to this purpoos Saynt gregory wrytyng to Nepocian sayth that the people of the chyrche ought not to take of theyr benefyces nomore but to lyue onely honestly wythout pompe ne curyosytres / And the surplus they ought to dystrybute there. where as they see is nede and necessyte. and yf they doo otherwyse they do sacrylege. that is to say they be theues of the goodes of the chyrche / And that more is he sayth. that he that hath of hys patrymonye ynowh for to lyue wyth▪ he ouȝt to take nothyng of the goodes of the chyrche. and yf he take otherwyse it is sa­crylege. And for so moche saynt austyn in one of his sermōs in the hermytes in spekyng of hym self sayth▪ I that am bysshop ought wel to take hede that the goodes of the chyrche [...] [Page] not gyuen to them that been ryche. For it is the patrymonye of the poure people. And I thanke god of that he hath gyuen me grace tyl now / not to gyue ony thynge to the ryche. but o­nely to the poure. And in dede I haue parents and kynnesmen whyche ofte demaunde of me / the sōme by flaterye. the other by menaces the goodes of my chyrche. but I shal haue conseyence in gyuyng to them / syth they haue wherof to lyue. By whych it appereth that the prelates ought to gyue to the poure & herof we haue example of Heliseus the prophete. the whiche dyd do dystrybute the loues of breed to the chyldren of the prophetes as it is writon in the fourth book of kynges the fourth chapytre. And of Saynt Austyn hym self we rede how at his deth he made noo testament / by cause by hys lyf he had gyuen alle to the poure people.

How the people of the chyrche oughten to preche and to say the trouthe of the fayth capitulo iiij

By predycacion the chyrche is susteyned and the fayth en­haunced and the people conuerted / And herof we haue many examples. how of Aawn the whiche prechyd somtyme to the people the word of god. And therfore the peple byleued in god and put them to serue god as it is wryton in Exode the iiij chapytre. Semblably we rede in the book of the actes of thappostles the fourth chapytre how the chyrche was multeplyed & made grete by the predycacion of thappostles. & in dede Saynt Poul & saynt bernabe by theyr predycacyon conuerted many as it apperyth in the sayd book the xiij chapytre / And therfore the peple of the chyrche / and syngulerly the relygyous ought to preche the trouthe / And to this purpoos we rede in the second book of thystorye tripartyte the viij chapytre / how a good man by his predycacyon conuerted many mescreaunts to whome he sayd▪ my frendes be ye not curyous of worldly so [...]n [...]es and humayne / the whyche conteyne but fallaces and [Page] [...]auytees but haue ye hert to the fayth and to the holy gospell the whyche conteyneth nothynge but trouthe. But thou shalt say. that thou art noo clerke for to preche▪ To that I ansuer to the & say that yf thou art good in thyn affection. the holy ghoost shal admynystre to the good wordes & prouffytable. And to this purpoos we rede in the book aforesayd how somtyme a ryght grete phylosopher whyche was a mescreant dysputed ayenst our fayth. And that seyng an olde good man whyche knewe no [...]ettre cam to hym for to conuerte hym / And the holy ghoost admynystred to hym suche wordes that he conuerted to the fayth the sayd phylosopher. And therfore sayth the scrypture that the word of the prechour of veryte & trouthe: is the word of the holy ghoost. Trouthe it is that the predycacion is moche prouffytable whan the prechour is of good lyf as saith saynt Gregory in his morallis in the xxx book. And yf the p [...] dycaciou prouffyteth nothyng. it is for the deffaulte of the pre­chour whyche is of euyl lyf▪ or of the herar whyche hath none affection. Neuertheles as sayth Ihesu Cryst in the gospel. the word of god ought to be prechyd. For it may not be al loste lyke as the seed whyche is throwen in the waye / the whyche yf it brynge forth noo fruyt. atte leste the byrdes of heuen e [...] it who caused the cyte of Nynyue to be conuerted but the predycacyon of Ionas the prophete. as it apperyth in the thyrd chapytre of Ionas. who conuerted ynde but the predicacion of saynt Thomas / who conuerted Samarye but the predycacyon of Saynt Phylippe. But somme there be lyke vnto the Iewes whyche stopped their [...]rys whan saynt Stephen prechyd / and other mocked Saynt Poul whan he preched as it apperith in the book of the actes of thappostles. They be of the condycyon of the serpent the whyche is named aspis / the whiche stoppeth his eerys to thende that he may here nothyng / And who that drynketh of his venym he slepeth and so slepyng dyeth. Ma­ny in lyke wyse whych wyl not here trouthe deye in their sy [...]e wythout hauyng [...]uy repentaunce. More ouer me semeth that [Page] many ben angry whan in prechyng their synnes ben repreuyd And thenne they wene that men speke of them syngulerly. the whyche otherwhyle ben deceyued / For the holy ghoost admy­nystreth ofte to the prechours many thynges which they haue not thought tofore / And to this purpoos recyteth saynt Aus­tyn in his vj book of confessyons. how on a tyme he preched / And to his sermon came by aduenture one named Alippius the whiche was a player of dyse and moche enclyned to vayn occupacions. Thenne Saynt Austyn began to preche ayenst suche vanytres / & that seyng Alippius he supposed that Saynt Austyn had spoken of hym onely. And after the sermon he de­maunded of saynt Austyn wherfore he had soo spoken ayenst hym. the whyche ansuerd. that the holy ghoost had doon it. for he knewe not ne wyst not that he was suche one / And the [...]ne the sayd Alippius repented hym and lefte alle vanytres / ¶ Semblably also saynt austyn by suche a maner conuerted a manichean by the wordes that he sayd at the table. by whych it appereth. how it is moche prouffytable to here the trouthe and prechyng of the word of god.

¶How men of the chyrche ought to estudye and to lerne singulerly the holy scrypture capitulo v

FOr to estudye is a thynge moche prouffytable and couenable to men of the chyrche. And Aristipus ansuerd to one whyche demaunded what it auaylled to studye. That a man by his estudye lyued the more surely. and coude the better eschewe many Inconuenyencis / And therfore Boece in hys book of the dysciplyne of soolers sayth / that noo man may be­come a mayster / but yf he haue science & vertues / & for that cause the auncient men alleway studyed. as recoūteth valere in his viij book the vij chapytre. & in dede thou mayst see how a man beyng clerke is moche eased in estudyeng beyng allone For he wote wel wherin he may occupye hym self / But the [Page] ygnoraunt that can not vnderstonde what he redeth / wote not what to doo. but yf he be in companye to here vanyt [...]es and lewde langages as men ygnoraunt. the whyche repute them self half lost yf they fynde not suche as they may speke to and holde them fel [...] wshyp at all tymes. But a clerke that can she dye is ryght Ioyous & at his ease whan he is solytarye and out of suche companye that ben ydle & ygnoraunt / & therfore a man ought to lerne sōme thynge & syngulerly in his yongthe for the rodde boweth whyle it is grene. And certeyn a man hath gladly playsyr in suche thynges as he hath ben accusto­med in his yongthe: Trouthe it is that thou oughtest pryncy­pally and fyrst estudye in holy scrypture & in that whyche is necessarye to thy saluacyon. For as sayth Saynt Austyn in the second book de doctrina xp̄iana. Alle the good & weel that is in other sciences. shal one fynde fyrst & princypally in diuiny be or theologye / whyche is the moder of alle wytte and of alle knowleche / And therfore thou oughtest to despyse all scyences whyche ben contrarye to holy scrypture. For as auerrois saith vpon the thyrd book of methaphisyque. They that ben accustomed to here & to lerne fables ben moche enclyned to lerne fal senes for trouthe. & they wene that there is nothynge but that in whyche they be nourysshed. Aud I am moche abasshed of many! folke of the chyrche / the whyche ben ydle and lerue noothynge. For whyche cause they be founden in many Inconnenyences. For a man naturally wold be occupyed / & whan he knoweth not what to do by cause of ygnoraūce / thēne he em­ployeth hym in playes dysordynat & in many synnes. & alle this cometh oftymes by cause of ygnoraūce. More ouer a mā ought to be wel aduysed that the vnderstōdyng whych is gyuen to hym to employe it wel / by whyche he knoweth the dyfference bytwene hym & beeflys. be not euyll bestowed reemployed. Thēne it is a grete shame whā a man that may amende hym / nourissheth hym in ignoraūce. and maynteneth hym as a brute beest Thou mayst say to me that all may not [Page] [...] derkes / And to that I ausuere the. that they whiche eusie­ [...] the lyf Actyf / maye by that manere escuse them / But as to men of the chyrhe. me semeth that they may not well excuse them / For they haue tyme and season ynough for to estudye and to gete connyng and scyence. And yf they emp­loyed the tyme for to studye / the whiche they employe in vanytres. they shold be clerkes And shold haue more Ioye and playfir in theyr estudye / than they haue in vanytees / the whyche they mayntene / And of this mater / thou mayst see the fyrst boke / m whiche thou shalt fynde many thynges whiche ben to this same purpoos /

¶Hr [...]e foloweth the iij boke the whyche speketh of the stat [...] of lordes temporell / and of alle chyualrye /

¶The fyrst chapytre treateth how prynces oughten to be pyetous and mercyfull capo. [...]mo

APrynce wythont pyte putteth his seygnorye in pe­ryll / And doth not as a naturel lord / but as a cruel tyrannt / And he ought to remembre the condi­ [...]nn of thauncyent prynces / For we rede how pyte ma­ [...]th kynges and prynces to lyue in surete / And to this purpos reciteth valere in his fyfthe boke how Marcelli­ [...]us toke the cyte of Syracuse. But whan he sawe how the prysoners wepte he began to wepe. Semblably we rede in the same boke / how Cezar seeyng the hede of his enemye mortal Pompeus. he was moche sory. And had grete pyte. we rede also how Cezar seeyng that Cathon his aduersarye had slayn hym self. he was therfore mo­the troubled. And in dede he gaf to his thyldernalle the goodis of theyr fader Cathon. and loued them And defen­ded them right diligeutly. More our. valere recounteth in the [...]ke aforsaid the v chapytre how pompens dyde to the kyng [Page] of Armenye the whiche was his enemye / and desmyssed of his estate. But whā he sawe that the said kyng was moche sorouful thēne he had grete pyte of hym in so moche that he remysed hym in to his fyrst estate And crowned hym in restoring to hym all his Royame / by the whiche historyes hit apperith how the prynces oughten to be pietous. For as ysydore sayth in his iij boke de summo bono / The Iuge that is vengeable. is not wortly to Iuge ne to haue seygnorie. And to this purpoos recounteth seneke in his fyrst toke of yre. how som­tyme a Iuge by his cruelte caused three knyghtes to deye whiche were Innocentes. And thistorye saith how to one of these thre knyghtes he sayde / thou shalt deye by cause thou hast not brought thy felawe wyth the. For I doubte that thou haste slayn hym. Thenne he commanded to one of his knyghtes / that he sholde wrthout taryeng put that knyght to deth. but anon after cam the felaw of the same knyght that was dampned. And thenne retorned the knyght whiche was comman̄ ­ded tosle the sayd knyght and sayd to the prynce that he shold reuoke his sentence. who as a tyran̄t ansuerde. that alle [...] shold be deed / For he sayde that the fyrst shold deye by cause [...] was dāpned ones to the deth. & that he ought not to chaunge his sentence. And to the second knyght he sayde / that he shold also deye by cause he was cause of the dampnacōn of his fela­we / Aud to the thyrde he sayd that he shold deye. by cause he had not prestly put the fyrst knyght to deth lyke as he had co­manded / And me semeth by thys historye it appereth that cruelte is to a prynce gretely peryllous / And therfore sa [...]h Seneque. that it is grete force. And noble chyualrye to con [...] ­ne foryene / & therfore ther is nothyng more necessarye thā to be pyetous and endyned to mercy / And to thys purpoos in his boke of clemence the fyfte chapytre he recyteth of a vengeable man / The whyche all hys lyf had taken vengeance of alle his enemyes. But on a tyme it happed that he myght not aduēge hym of his enemy. For he was moche [Page] myghty / thenne he demānded of his wyf how he myght aduē ge hym. The whiche ansuerd sayeng / Fayr frende ye haue euer vnto now alle way taken vengeance of alle men. & now ye see that ye muste chānge your manere. Thēne I counseylle you that ye essaye yf pyte and mercy shal doo you as moche good. as vengeance hath doon / For me semeth that ye may not adueuge you on euery mā. But ye maye well doo to e [...]y man pardō And pyte. so I counseylle you take the waye of pyte & to leue vengeance. By whyche counseyll this man be­cam pyetous and apperceyued clerly. that it avaylle [...]h. nothīg to a man that wyll aduenge hym on all thyng / And therfor saith Seneque in the boke aforsaid the x chapytre that the kynges and the prynces owē to be pietons. For the kynge of the [...]ees that make hony haue no pricke of their nature. in signe­fyānce that suche shold be their kynges / And in the iiij chapy­tre he saith that the prynce that wyll ensiewe god / ought to be moche pietous. to thende that god be to hym mercyful / Moreouer Solinus rehereeth how Cezar conquerde moo contrees by pyte than by strengthe & force. And valere in the boke aforsayd saith that Alexander seeyng one of his knyghtes to ha­ue colde descended fro his siege and sette hym therin. And of Tytus we rede / that he wold not aduenge hym of them that myssayd of hym & spacke enyll as it apperith in thystorye of Troye. we rede also how seynt Ambrose commanded to the­ [...]dose / that he shold neuer gyue sentence agaynst a man that was his enemye. to thende that he shold not haue cause to Iu­ge ouer fauourably for hym self /

¶How the prynces ought to be of good maners capo. ij

SOlinus sayth ī his xj boke the iiij chapytre the prīce ought to be meure. sage / & of right good lyf. & certaynly the Anncyent fadres byhelde more bounte. than the no noblesse or the Rychesse. And to this purpoos recounteth valere in his [Page] iiij boke the in chapitre how Actylius was a labourer of the londe. And neuertheles for hys bounte he was callyd for to be emperour of Rome. And saynt Austyn in hys v boke of the cyte of god the xviij chapytre recyteth how one quyncyꝰ whyche was a symple labourer was semblably callyd for to be of the counsyel of Rome / And whau he sawe that he had serued ynowh / and that by hys counseyl Rome had had many vyc­toryes thenne he retorned to hys fyrst estate. Thenne me se­meth that the prynces oughten more to take hede to bounte thā to worldly goodes / & to thys purpoos we rede how the Ro­mayns sette nothyng but of thē that were vertuous. & veryli the Romayns refuseden yeftes And alle thynges that myght peruerte Instyce / and acordyug herto reconnteth pompeus in hys xviij boke how kynge pyrrus sente to Rome one hys ser­uant named chyneas for to conferme the peas bytwene hym and the Romayns And bare grete yeftes and richesses with hym. but he fonde not a man in Rome that wold receyue his yeftes / Thēne me semeth that prynces and lordes oughten more to be dylygent to haue vertues than Richesses / And to thys purpoos seynt Austyn ī hys fyfthe boke of the cyte of god the xiiij chapytre aledgeth Cathon the whiche sayde that the comyn wele of Rome had conquerd moo goodes by the bounte of the counseyllours than by strengthe. And to this same purpos he recyteth of Scypion. the whyche sayde that the Roiame shall neuer be in welthe. in whyche bē noo good maners & in whome the prynces bē not vertuoꝰ. wherfor seynt Austin sayth yf the Romayns be deceyued it is not for defaute of walles. but for deffanlte of maners & more harme hath doō to thē the ardeur of theyr couetise that the fire hath doō whyche hath bē putte ī theyr cōtreyes by theyr ad [...]saryes. & ther fore sayth saluste / that Rome shal but lytyl endure. For coueytyle wa [...] ­yth all. & lecherye brēneth all. More oner Orace sayth in one of his dytees. that a prīce euyl manerd causeth the cōtreye for to perysshe. For as Claudyā sayth. the people gladly folowe [Page] the prīce & dooth as he dooth. & therfore yf he be euyll yt ys gret­peryll for alle hys subiettys. & ther fore seneque in hys hon­dryd epystle ī spekyng to Alexandre saide. O Alexander. thou hast ouercomen thyn aduersaryes and conquerd many lord­shyppes and royames Thou hast enterprysed the gouernance of alle Royāmes / & neuertheeles thou art he that hast not cōne gouerne thy soule ne thy body whych ys moche lytyll / Thus thēne ought a prynce to fore alle thyng gete to hym good maners for to gyue good example to alle them that ben in hys gouernance. & for taduyse the better thys purpoos it ys good to reherce the cōdycōns and the Incōuenyeuces of enyl prīces Ne Rede we not how Ezechyas cōmanded that Ieremye the ꝓphete shold be slayn. as it ys ys wretō ī Iheremie the xxxviij chapitre. And Pylate falseli dampned Ihū Cryste as yt apperyth the xix chapytrē of saynt Iohn̄ / who fynably deyde myse­rably. More ouer manasses made the peple to erre. And was cause of many euyllys and vyces / And therfore he was pug­nysshed. And Roboas was to hys people ouer rygorous and sharpe / And therfore he loste ten trybus & hys seynorye as yt apperyth the iij boke of kynges Saul also was an euyl pryn­ [...]. & therfore god wolde that the fortune of bataylles shold [...] contrarye to hym. as yt ys wreton the fyrst boke of kynges. Thenne euery prynce ought to gete good maners. yf he wyl­holde hys seynorye to the prouffyt of hys soule /

¶How prynces ought not to be couetous ne anarycious ¶capytulo iij

THe prynce ought to be the hede the whyche ought to adresse alle the membres. and not to coueyte the goo­des of hys subgettys. and ther is no thyng, in the worlde to a prynce so couenable as is lyberalyte / By whyche he may gete hym frendes And conquere. Lyke as the wyse man say­th in hys prouerbes the xix chapytre / And to thys pur­poos recoūteth. Polycrate yn hys iij boke the xxiiij chapytre [Page] how Tytus was right lyberal / And therfore he was moche byloued. And certaynly he was moche sorowful that day / that he had no thynge gyuen. And sayd that a prynce ought to reffuse noo demauude. when he may resonably do it / for as boece sayth in his fyrst book of consolacion the v chapytre. lar­gesse maketh the prynces noble. And therfore sayth seneque in his book of oultrageous couetyse. and repreueth the kynge Antygonus by cause he was couetous. and veryly whan one demaunded of hym ony yefte. he wold not graunte it. & excu­sed hym in sayeng that it was oultragyously demaūded. And whan one demaūded of hym a lytel yefte / he reffused it also in sayeug / that it apperteyned not to a kynge to gyue so lytel a yefte. and by this moyen he gaf no thynge And therfor his flelycyte was not grete. But al coutrarye dyd kyng Alexander of whome recoūteth seneke in his fyrst book of benefyces / how he gaf a cyte to one whyche demaunded of hym almesse / For he sayth that a grete lord in gyuyng ought to consydere. what and to whome. and wherfor he gyueth in especial yf the yefte be grete. For otherwyse it is not lyberalyte / but prodigalite whyche is as moche to say / as folysshe and oultrageous dys­pence. And therfore sayth Tullius in his fyrst book of offy­ces the xvij chapytre that largesse ought to be doon ordynatly and resonably and not by auauntrye or vayne glorye / for af­ter suche largesses. a man bycometh comynly rauynous for to haue power to mayntene hys folyssh largesse accustomed / Trouthe it is that moche peple faylle more by couetyse than they doo by fole largesse. And alleway there is noo thynge so euyl syttyng to a prynce. as is couetyse. For the other vy [...]s gryeue not so moche the people and the subgettes. as thaua­ryce of a prynce / the whiche ought to be as the stomak whyche dystributeth the mete that it receyueth to alle the membres & reteyneth no thynge to it self. but onely the nourysshyng. And whan it dooth otherwyse that is to wete whau it retryneth the mete abouē his necessyte. thēne it bycometh sekelew [Page] and maladyous by replection. & bryngeth a man in to a dropsye. & thenne the stomak swelleth. & alle the membres wexen feble and of noo power. & alle the euyl cometh by cause that it dystributeth not the mete that it had receyued. Semblably is it of a couetous prynce / the whyche maketh the contreye to p [...]rysshe / and the membres to come to nought. whan he dystrebuteth not the goodes. the which he hath receyued to them that ben in suffraunce or necessyte / & to this purpoos we rede how the romayns were gretely lyberal & large. wherfore they becam grete. & moche puyssaūt. of whome recounteth Valere in hys v book the fyrst chapytre. how they of Cartage sente to the Romayns. grete fynaūce for the rechate of sōme prysōners that they helde. Thēne the romayns delyuerd the prysonners. and reffuseden theyr fynaunces. for it is more fayr & noble to yeue than to receyue. and by cause therof. They of Cartage gauen good renommee and fame to the romayns thurgh out all th [...] world. Semblably valere in hys vj book recyteth how Alex­ander reffused the yeftes of Darius the whiche offred to hym an hondred. M. marc of gold with that he wold take hys doughter in maryage. And thenne one of his seruauntes na­med promenon said to alexander. that the fynaūce were good to be receyued. To whome Alexander ansuerd. that it is more worth to be gouerned by fraunchyse than by couetyse / but the tyme is now comen that many prynces ben gretely couetous and the couetous prynces resemblen to Castor the which destroyed a man vtterly all / whan he toke warre agaynst hym / as Solinus sayth in his iij book the xxxv chapytre. Sem­blably don they that destroye theyr subgettis by tyrannye / the whiche shal be semblably pugnysshed of god. for as Iob sayth in his xxxv chapytre. Acursed be they the whyche by Auaryce assemblen grete tresours by euyl getyng / For the tyme sha [...]l come that god shal enhaunce the poure people. And the Ty­raūtes shal haue ynough to do to curse the tyme that euer the [...] gate tresours. & to this purpoos recounteth Peter Damya [...] [Page] how saynt Andrew & saynt gregory gauen grete afflictiou to [...] knyght whiche had taken away from a poure wydowe a partye of hyr good & catayll. For as the wyse man sayth in ecclesiastique in his xxiij chapytre. he that maketh to god sa­ [...]efyse of the substaunce of the poure folke / resembleth & is lyke v hym that sleeth the sone to fore the fader. And I haue moche neruaylle why one man destroyeth another seen that the bees­rs of one condycion and of one lykenes eteth not the one that other / lyke as Aristotle sayth in his vj book of beestes. & that more is beestis ben ouer the men pyetous. and to this purpoos we rede in thystoryes of the romayns how ij wulues nourys­sheden a chylde named Remus. the whyche was gyuen to the beestis for to deuoure / But after he was kynge & foundour of Rome / by the more stronge reason a man onght to be pyetous of his semblable. ¶And the prynce ought not to deserte hys subgettes / but ought to take example of Thiberius. of whom we rede in the cronycles. how his offyciers counceylled hym that he shold ordeyne subsydies & trybutes vpon his peple. the whiche ansuerd a good shepherde ought not to deuoure hys sheep. but to nourysshe and to kepe them.

¶How the prynces oughten to mayntene and kepe Ius­tyce capitulo. iiij

THe prynces ben pryncypally ordeyned for to mayntrne & kepe Iustyce. And therfor they leue the estate & wea­cyon whan they doo not ryght to euery man. & thus for to doo they may take example of the wyse men of athenes / of whom recoūteth Valere in his vj book the v chapytre. how Themys­ [...]des sayd to them. that he wold conquere & put in subgection be contre of grece. seen that they had the myght so to doo / the whyche ansuerd that a good & a noble man ouȝt not by cause of his prouffyt doo ageynst Iustyce. Semblably the sayd Va [...]re in his v book recyteth how Carridius Cirus that is to [Page] wete a man so somtyme named seyng how many noyses deuysyons were emonge the counseyllours of Rome / wherfor he dyd do make a lawe / that no man shold entre in to the co [...]ceyl wyth his swerd for teschewe Inconuenyēces that myg [...] ensiewe. but it happed that he comyng fro a ferre contreye. entred in to the coūceyl wyth his swerd gyrd aboute hym. thēn the counseyllours demaūded of hym why he brake hys lawe the whyche hym self had ordeyned & decreed. Thēne withou sayeng ony word he took his swerde & sette the poynte to hym breste / & lened theron sayeng that he had leuer deye than breke Iustyce without punycion. and how wel that no man ought to procure his owen deth / Neuertheles it appereth by the sai [...] hystoryes. how thauncyent fadres were moche amerous and dyligent to kepe Iustyce / And to this purpoos saynt Austyn in his thyrd book of the cyte of god the xix chapytre. recoūteth how the counseyllours and Iuges of rome were moche poure as it apperith of one named Lucius Valerianus / the whyche lyued not but of the almesse of the peple / by cause of the grece pouerte that he was in / & other by cause they wold receyue noo yeftes / to thende that they shold not be ēclyned to do ony thyng more to the fauour of the partye. than of Iustyce / and for that ought a prynce more to lone Iustyce than rychesses & yeftes / And to this puypoos sayth saynt austyn in the book aforesayd how one named quyncius was a labourer of the londe whan he was called to be due of the cyte / & neuertheles he bryng due he mayntened hym symply & humbly to shewe that the pryn­ces be not ordeyned pryncipally for to gete richesses / but for to mayntene Iustyre / and herto we haue many examples of the auncients / of whome we rede how they dyd Iustyce. of them self & of theyr propre chyldren. As Valere reherceth in hys v book / the whiche recyteth how Brutus condempned his ij so­nes by right grete pugnycion. by cause they laboured to brynge agayn Tarquyn to Rome whiche was banysshed and moche contrarye to the comyn wele / Many other also condempned [Page] theyr parents & frendes sayeng that Iustyce ought to be [...] by reson. And a Iuge ought not to do al that he may / but [...] that he ought to do. and also it apperteyneth not to a prynce [...] cōstitute ne ordeyne Iuges. but yf he knowe them for good [...] wyse. For these ben the ij condycions wythoute whyche the Iuge may not wel ne ryghtfully Inge. But now in these [...]ayes the Juges ben ordeyned more for fauour of blood or for [...]eftes▪ than for wytte or bounte that they haue. Thenne me semeth that they ought to take exāple to an hystorye / the which [...]elmandus reher [...]eth / the whyche sayth that there was som­tyme an emperour named Helius the whyche regned moche longe in so moche that he bycame so auncyent and olde that he myght not gouerne thempyre. Thenne the peple & the counceyl prayed hym that he wold renoūce thempyre to his sone. The whyche ansuerd that it ought ynough to suffyse to hym to haue regned in his tyme & that he wold not that hys son [...] shold haue it to his prouffyt. but a man that wold do Iustyce And therfore he sayd. I praye you that ye seke a wyse man that shal mowe and conne gouerne you / and take no regarde to me ne to my sone▪

¶How the prynces ought to be softe & humble cap [...]. v

THe prynce is as the heed the whyche is sette moost hy [...]e by nature / And yet alleway it is the parte of the body in whiche appereth moost his humylite / For we see that in humblyng & mekyng hym self / a man dyscouerth and enclyneth his hede. This thēne it is a signe that the prynce which is named the hede ought to haue in hym self humylite. And the prynces ought to consydere. how al theyr predecessours ben deed & comen to nought. and to this purpoos we rede how a phylosophre named Golonus in spekyng to Alexander sayd / O Alexander al the world suffysed not to the whan thou ly­uedest. and now vj fret of erthe suffyse for to burye the. More [Page] ouer quyntynus recyteth how a ryght olde man & ballyd said to Alexander / See wel to. what thou doost. For me semeth that thou wylt mounte ouer hye. but take good hede whan thou shalt be so mounted. that thon suffre not thy self to fal [...]e ouer foull. The whyche Alexander coude not so wysely take hede to hym self. but that he was enpoysōned in hys yong [...]e and the floure of alle hys dayes. And therfore sayth the wyse man in his v chapytre / what auayllen the pompes & the ry­chesses of the world / seen that they passe and vanysshe awaye as dooth the shadowe. Thenne a moche fool is the prynce the whyche in his puyssaunce transytorye glorifyeth hym self. & yt they consydered wel theyr estate / they shal fynde that theyr seignoryes conteynen more trouble and thought / than play­saunce or deduyt. And to this purpoos recounteth Valere in his vij book. how somtyme they wold haue crowned a kynge but he made grete delaye tofore or he wold receyue the crowne & gaf his rayson in sayeng that a newe royame bereth wyth hym newe thought. By whyche it apperith how the prynces haue noo cause to glorefye them self of theyr lordshyppes. and they ought to take example in Iulyus Cezar of whome we rede in the book of fyctions phylosophyke: how he was moche humble in spekyng to his knyghtes and seruaūtes. & was as redy to serue them. as he was to receyue theyr seruyce / trouthe it is that one of his knyghtes right auncyent on a tyme e­monge the other / was condempned by the counceyl of Rome to ryght grete payne & domages / And thenne he came to cezar for to requyre ayde. the whyche atte fyrst sayd that he shold as­signe to hym a right good aduocate for to plete hys cause. To whome the knyght sayd. O Cezar thou knowest wel that in the bataylle of Ayse I had none aduocate for to helpe the. but I went my self in propre persone as it appereth by my woū ­des the whyche ben yet apparaunt by cause of the same. Thēne Iulius descended from his syege in sayeng. that the pryn [...]e is also wel ordeyned to socoure his knyghtes. as the knyghtes [Page] ben to soconre the prynce / Thēne ys the prynce moche to be re­prehended whan he settyth by nothyng but by [...]ym self / And whā hym semeth that alle the world ought to serue hī / suche pryde maketh a prynce lyke a brest. & to forgete hys condycō & [...]ys birthe. & how be it that men ought alleway obeye princes neuertheles thei onght not therfore be prowde of their seignourye. For they & alle theyr chyualrye wythin a litil whyle shal be deed & torued yu to Asshes & dust / & a cordyng herto reherceth seynt Ierome in hys epistle Cxix. And valere also the same in hys last boke. how the kynge of perses was in a montayue. & behelde hys noble & pnissan̄t chyualrye & wepte sayeng. Alas wythin an C yere alle thys chyualrye schal be but a lytyll asshes & duste / & as me semeth fewe pryn [...]es consydere theyr deth But almoost ther ys none but he thīketh how he may bycome more myghty and more grete. And all thys dooth & causeth theyr pryde & theyr false couetyse. Th [...]y ought to take example of Ihesu cryst the whyche fledde in the mon­tayne whan he sawe that the peple cam to hym for to make hym kynge. as sayth saynt Iohn̄ in hys vj chapytre / And vpon the same saynt Iohn̄ grysostome in hys vj omelie sayth that Ihū cryste scheweth to vs by that he fledde. how we ou­ght to flee mondanyt [...]e & and alle vayne glorye. And to this purpoos we rede how vaspasyā wolde not receyue thempyre And sayde he was Indygne and not worthy not wythstōdīg that hys knyghtes wolde that he sholde be Emperour in ony wyse / But now in thys present tyme we see all thopposyte & contrarye. ffor the prnyces entende wyth theyr power to con­quere newe seygnouryes and lordshyppys. And yt ys a ma­nere of tyrānie. the whyche maketh naturelly hys mayster do­ubtous & ferdfull / For the tyrannt hath alle waye fere and drede to lese that whyche he hath euyll goten / The tyranntes l [...]n also comūli lytyl byloued of theyr subgettys. and therfore they lyue ī grete doubte. To thys purpoos we rede how denis [...] tyrant durst not do shaue hys [...]erde for fere that he had of [Page] sleeyng And in dede he brente the heeres of hys berde / as Tullius rehereeth iu hys vij boke of offyces the vij chapytre. Sē ­blably he recyteth how a tyran̄t named Sergius for sembla­ble cause doubted that hys wyf sholde slee hym by nyght. And in dede he dyde doo espye yf she hadde ony knyf or other thyng to doo it / And neuertheles in thende he was slayn by her. More ouer valere recounteth how the kynge Masinissa by cause of his tyrannye trusted not to his people. And therfore he made his body to be kept bi dogges by the whyche hystoryes it app [...] rith how tyrannye maketh the prynces f [...]rdful & doubtous. the whyche tyrannye cometh of pryde / That is to wete whā the prynce is not content And hath not suffysaūce in his estate / And whan he wolde alleway mouute more hye /

¶How the prynce ought alleway to be sobre & chaast cap [...]. vj

GLoutonnye And lecherye affeblysshen the body and takē fro a man alle the wylle to doo wel. And in dede then shal see how the gloton by his dronknes speketh folysshly. And sheweth his secrete ofte / Thēne ought the prynces to be ashamed. the whiche demannde no thyng but wyn and me­te. and holden longe dyners. and yet more longe soupers. For of tymes in beuerages. And dyssolucōns they mayntene them self alle the nyght or the grettest part therof. And who that these dayes wyl fynde glotonnye / he may wel goo to the court of d [...]erse prynces. And there thou shalt fynde. that alle for the moste parte they doo none other thyng but drynke and the / sauf a lytyl whyle they be in ydlenes and in playes dyssolute. and therfore Socrates the philosophre despysed the lyf of the peple of the courte / and of alle them that folowe the halles And grete dyners / To whome speketh Seneke in one his epystle. O ye myserable people that doo no [...]e other thyng but drynke and et▪. hit is domage that ye haue soule and vnder­stondyng / syth that ye onely thynke on your body. And for so­moche [Page] vyrgyle in his fyrst boke of En [...]ydos repreueth dydo by cause she held her longe atte dyner. what shal we saye of them [...]henē of whome ysaye saith in his vij chapyter / The whyche haue not leyzer to slepe by cause they wold ryse erly in the morn for to make them self dronke. They be lyke to them. of whome seneke speketh in his lxxxxvij epystle. the whyche [...]a [...] & nyght drynke alleway and ete. sauf a lytyl whyle that they slepe. And it is good to wete that thēne they dreme that they drynke aud ete / For gladly men dreme of that whyche they doo by daye / Thenne ought the prynces to flee and esche­we glotonnye. and ought to haue in theyr court mesure. ordynannce / and alle honneste. But thou shalt fynde there now none ordre but fylthe and foule table clothes / And mē whiche saye them self to be honeste. but they renne to the table shouyng And puttyng away eche other / And they resemble not men but hogges and swyne goyng to theyr trough / in foule etyng & there shal thou here noo word spoken of god ne saye noo graces ne benedicte▪ but dyssolute wordes. othes & sweryng / & all dyshoneste shal thou there see regnyng▪ & yf thys were in warre it shold not be ouer grete meruaylle. Bu in tyme of peas to mayntene suche a lyf / it is not a lyf / but it is deth. and right glotonnye / the whiche engendreth lecherye / lyke as sayth va­lere / And also experyence sheweth the same / the whyche ys ryght e [...]yl syttyng in prynces / & geuerally in alle chynalrye / And as to me Irepute Impossyble that a man lecherous & amero [...] folyssly of wymmen may be wyse aud kuyghtly / [...]e­counteth not vegece in his iij boke of Chyualrye. how the noble knyght scipion thaffrycanut wolde neuer abuse hym self with wymmen how fayr so euer they were / as it apperith of the fayr mayde whiche he refused and restored her to her hustō de. we rede also how Octauiau seeyng Cleopater a right fayr [...]irgyne / how be it that he was somwhat enclyned to her loue [...]euertheles he wold in no wise abuse her. lykeas policrate sa­ [...]th in his iij boke the vij chapytre. Semblably we rede how [Page] hanybal. Gayus Iulius Cezar / and Cathon lyuedeu right sobrely and chastly as it apperyth in the v boke of policrate the vj chapytre▪ Thus thenne ought the prynces to consydere ho w that folyssh loue of wymmen destroyed the strengthe of Sam­pson / The wytte of Salamon & the bounte of / Dauid▪ And therfore may neuer prynce longe endure / that setteth alle his entencōn to lecherye. lyke as saith seynt Ierome in his xxxiiij epistle / And to thys purpos Egesipp [...] in his fyrst boke in spe­kyng of one named Antonye sayd to themperonr knowe thou that Antonye is vaynquysshid▪ but that is not by the. but this hath doon Cleopatre. whome he hath so folysshly loued / For he had leuer be vaynqnysshid with her / than to vaynquyssh [...] without her / Thenne ought e [...]y Chyualro [...] man to take hede and see wel to that he be not lost by lecherye Trouth it is that be nameth hym self Amorous. But whan I adnyse me wel he may be named maleuro [...] that is vnhappy. For it is grete myserye for to haue thought to mayntene a woman. For thēne his hody he destroyeth his strengthe perysshith. his syght wasteth / h [...]s wytte mynyssheth / his lyf shorteth. his helthe enpeyreth / And his courage for to doo well gooth away aud his good fame & renomee. And whan he weneth to be hap­py by cause he hath founde a fayr woman / than he hath lo [...] hym self by cause of his inordynat loue. whiche is that he lo­ueth the woman more than hym self. And so it happeth ofte that he is moche deceyued whan he weneth to be byloued sin­gulerly / that is to wete be that maynteneth dyuerse and ma­ny wymmen / For he ought to knowe that neuer woman loued snche a man longe. how wel that she sheweth semblānt for to loue hym but her hope is for to haue his gold and his syluer. I put caas that it were otherwyse. And that ther we­re loue bytwene bothe partyes / yet may none otherwyse be [...] right vnhappy. the whiche for loue of the [...] & leueth thesta [...]e [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] by what moy [...]n his auncetres ha [...]e conquerd theyr goodes [...]ud honours /

¶How the prynces ought to employe and dispose [...] [...]elf cap [...]. vi [...]

THe Prynces ought to be example of honour And of good lyf. & to employe & dispose them self in good wer­ [...]es and feates. for to be cause that theyr snbgettis doo semblably / And it is a grete shame yf a prynce that shold be a capy­tayne of knyghtes be callyd a player of dyse. & euery knyght ought to knowe that by playeng of dyse or other games semblable may nothyng be goten ryghtfuly ne Iustely. but all that is goten by that moyē is to the dampnacōn of his soule & hurtyng of his couscyence. By suche games the name of god is sworn and forsworn & despysed / A man loseth his ty­me and his reste ofte. And whan he shold thynke how he shold gouuerne his people. than he studyeth to begyle his felawe and wynne his money. And to this purpoos we rede in po­lycrate how a knyght named Clysson Arryued in the contrey of Corynthe for to treate allyānce with the lordes of the con­trey. the whyche he fonde playeng atte dyse. & he thys seeyng departed. & sayde he wold haue none allyāuce with players of dyse For players of dyse bē cōynly light ī couragē. & chānge ofte theyr purpoos as dooth the fortūe of dyse▪ & ben redy for [...] promyse. to swere. & also bē ful of couetyse. and by consequent ben enclyned to rapyne and thefte / And therfore saith seue [...] in his prouerbes. that he that knoweth moste of suche playes / knoweth most of euyll As who shold saye. that in suche ga­mes is no thyng but euyll And synne. Thēne is it a grete [...]ame tath chyualrye be euployed in suche games. For such [...]ayes make a man to lese his [...] [Page] and cousentyng. For I put [...]aas. that whiche they haue be [...]n [...]fte / Neuertheles alle they that playe for auarice and cou [...] se ben in theyr herte Rauynous. And therfore seynt Aus [...] sayth in his iiij boke of the cyte of god the xvj chapitre / how wyse womā dremed that it shold be good to forbede and de [...] de alle the games and playes that ben in pr [...]uidyce of the [...] myn wele. But I wyl not saye but that the prynces and [...] knyghtes may playe And dysporte them with somme ho [...] playe / For as seneque saith in his boke of tranquyllyte somtyme the philosophers toke disportes as it apperith of Socrates and of Chaton. For as the corde whiche is allewaye [...] or stratched / somtyme breketh / Right so a man wyt [...] reste may not longe perseuere. And herof we haue experyen [...] of the londes and feldes / that men lete reste for to bere fru [...] the better / And a man speketh. For to wake the better aft [...] slight so ne more ne lasse a man may honestly disporte for t [...] better to entende to that he ought to doo. And herof we ha [...]an example of Seynt Iohn̄ Eu [...]gelyst. of whom Cassy [...] recounteth in his vij boke of collacōns / how he on a tyme disported with a partrych. And that seeyng a yong man go [...]y [...] by the way beryng a bowe in his honde sayde that he meru [...] led that he playd so lyke a man of the world / and was of [...] [...]oly lyf Thenne saynt Iohn̄ ansuerde in demanndyng of hy [...] whe [...]fore his bowe was not alway bended. To whome he [...] ­snerde / that yf his bowe were alway bente / that it shold not [...]o strong for to caste forth the Arowe / Semblably sayd se [...] Iohn̄ is it of the body of a man / whiche may not alleway [...] [...]ore. And therfore he ought to haue somme Alegement. [...] whiche it apperith. how honeste playes ought no man to [...] so they be taken in tyme and in place. and after the condici [...] of the persone / But playes dyssolute oughten to be repren [...] and euyl playes. the whyche ofte ben of couetyse. suspecion [...] and of many euyl vsages▪ and moch ydle angages /

¶How kynghtes ought to gouerne them self / capo. viij

I Knyght ought to be a mā emonge a thousand good & honourable corageo [...] of herte. trewe in his dedes. myghty & [...]yse hardy. & prduent. & redy to dyffende the right of his con­ [...]ey. and of them to whom he is bounde to serue / & also of them whom he hath the gouernānce. And as Geffrey sayth in his etrye. vsage maketh a maistre. & the excersite maketh a mā ­dy and habyle in his feates aud dedes as the grekes sayen theyr prouerbes. & as Tullius recyteth in his question̄s tus­ilanes in his first boke / And therfore the knyghtes oughten [...] excersyse & accustome them in feates of Armes. and ough­ [...] not to be ydle in sechyng and folowyng theyr playsir & ease [...] suche wyse. that they essaye not almost at no tyme to here the [...]ates ne payne of chyualrye / I suppose yf a serche shold be ma [...] bow many knyghtes knowe theyr horses wel. and theyr drses them / and haue theyr harnoys & abyllemeuts of warre edy. I toowe ther shold not many be founden wythout lacke of [...]iche as they ought to haue. More ouer the knyghtes ought [...] be trewe & holde that they promyse / And to this purpoos re­ [...]ounteth valere in his v boke how a knyght of Rome named [...]ius promysed to hanybal certayn money for the Raunson [...]f certayn prysonners romayns that he helde. soo that he wold [...]syuer them. & thēne hanybal geāted to hym his demānde / & rabi [...] cam to Rome. & recounted to the Romayns his ꝓmesse [...] the Romayns woldenot paye that whiche he had ꝓmysed [...]nd that seeyng Fabyus / he solde his herytage. and helde his [...]omyse to hanybal / And therfore polycratus in his vj boke [...]e fyfte chapyter sayth that a knyght to fore alle thynges is [...]unde to kepe his oth & that whiche he ꝓmytteth. and therfore [...]prynces maken the knyghtes to swere by theyr oth / that [...]y shold holde and mayntene loyalte and trouthe / in signefy / [...]ee / That it ought to be a grete furete of the oth of knyght / [Page] to kepe and mayntene the chyrche. And soo to doo of olde ty [...] they promysed & presented to the temple theyr swerdes in [...]nefyance that they promysed loyaulte. Fyrst to god the [...]che is prynce of alle chyualrye. After a knyght ought not [...]ly truste in his strengthe / bnt ought to be wyse and subtyl [...] byleue good counseyl. For vlixes surmounted the strong [...]cules by his wytte / and not by his strengthe. And the [...] mayns couquerden the world more by theyr wysedom / [...] by ony other thyng as polycrate saith the vij Chapytre of [...] vj boke / And Pompeius in his xj boke recyteth of Alexa­ [...]der how his fader lefte to hym lytyl Chyualrye. but he w [...]wyse and wel lerned / And thefor he conquerd alle the wo [...] by wytte of Chyualrye / And to thys purpos Egesippus his v boke alledgeth Tytus. whiche saith that in Chyual [...]wytte & good aduyse were more necessarye than strengthe body. More ouer a knyght in his feates of armes ought [...] to be p̄sumptuꝰ ne despyse ou moche his ad [...]sarye. for as ca [...] saith. it happeth ofte that the feble descōfyteth the strōge & the [...] tyl. the grete as. dauid surmoūted golye. and thou oughtest / knowe that the victorie cometh not of the mā but prīcypaly / god as it apperith in the fyrst boke of machabees the iij chaptre. & therfore a knyght ought not to gloryfie hym self & to th [...] purpoos we rede how moyses gate victorys not by strēgthe b [...] in prayng god & in lyftyng his handes to heuē. as is wret [...] / the boke of exode the xvij chapiter. & of theodose in thistoryes­the Romayns we rede. how he seeyng that his enemyes we more stronge thā he was. he prayde to god in takyng the [...] of the crosse by whiche he gate victorye and therfore anncyer whā they made bataylle. the preest of the lawe wēte to fore [...] chyualrye in prayēg god. as it apperith in the boke of deutro [...] my the xx chapitre. & therfore saith the ꝓphete that a mā ou [...] not to truste princypaly in the vygour of his legges ne in [...] strengthe of his hors. but in the grace of god. More ouer [...] knyght ought not entrepryse bataylle but yf it be by good [...] [Page] d [...]ght good cause / And to this purpoos saith swetonius his second boke that Augustus cezar entreprysed noo ba­ [...]le / but yf it were for teschew right grete dom̄age / and ther­ [...] saith seynt Austyn in his fyfthe boke of the cyte of god the [...]ij chapytre. that a bataylle ought not to be made / but for [...]t grete necessyte. And therfore auncyently the people requy [...] god that he wold shewe vnto them yf they had right or [...]or ellis yf they had doon ony thyng ayenst hym. wherfore y ought to haue bataylle. For theyr sayde. & it is trouthe that [...]y that loue god & haue good cause. fynably they shal haue crorye of theyr enemyes. as it apperith in the boke of leuytes [...]xxvj chapytre. But it is grete Incōuenyence whan the ba [...] [...]slles ben made by tyrannye / & by cause of couetyse / For the myn prouerbe sayth. synne noyeth. & therfor me semeth that sonably many knyghtes haue moche suffred. For many ty [...]es. they haue made enterpryses. not with good cause and [...]ght but by pryde and by cause of theyr couoytyse And it is [...]rde that they shold happen wel-seen that they goo to bataylle ot wyth theyr propre good / but wyth goodes euyl goten / [...]nd in goyng they robbe the poure people. and them in theyr [...]ven contreye. And they that soo doo. ben not worthy to noble ne callyd knyghtes but they be of the condicion of ty­ [...]ntes. of whome polycrate speketh in his iiij boke / that to [...] a tyrānt shold be a Iuste thyng. And Tullyus in his boke offyces the vij chapytre sayth / that for to slee a tyrāt is a [...]nge honeste For we see that a man cutteth a way the mē ­ [...]e that is cause of the dystructiō of the other / But thon mayst maūde how the tyrānt may be knowen. To this ausuereth crystotle in his viij boke of ethyques sayeng thatbyt wene kynge & a tyrānt is a grete difference / For the kyng secheth [...]sireth the comyn weel / & the tyrant seketh his owen prou­t [...] the suppressyon of the people. & therfore tyrannye is seyg­ [...]ye vyolent & oultrageous / and therfore it may not longe [...]dure / And thus sayth [...]ot in his xv chapytre / And be [...] [Page] we haue seen many examples of sōme tyrantes whiche he lost theyr seygnorye all or a grete parte /

¶Here foloweth the fourth boke. the whiche speketh of [...] state of the comynalte / and of the people /

¶Fyrst it trateth of Ryche men. and how they ought to glorysye in theyr rychesses capytulo pru

THe men comen of god and not of the creature. A therfor the loouyng and preysyng ought to be gyn fyrst and pryncypaly to god. And the ryche man ought to [...]sydere That whyche the wyse man sayth in his xv boke pronerbes. whiche saith that he that foloweth auarice h [...] noo pees of conscence. And in his xxviij chapytre he s [...] that he that hateth auarice enlongeth his dayes and his to And therfore to haue rychesses it not alle way moste prouf [...]table / For Rychesses ofte empessix and letoen the getyn of vertues and therfore the Anncyent men d [...]sireden mo [...]vertues And good renommee than they dyde rychsses or be [...]uoyr. As it apperith by scypyon / the whiche brought m [...] the subgection of the Rommayns alle auffryque. of whyche Romayns he demanded For his salayre nomore / [...] be named in his surname Auffrycan in memorye of cl [...]sayd vyctorye / as valere recyteth in his iij boke. And of [...]counceyllours of Rome we rede that they were so poure. the it byhoued the senate to nourysshe theyr chyldren. THe recoer [...]deth also of thiberyon how he sayde. That better is worth [...] tursour of suffysannce. Than of chyuance and richeses. An in dede many tymes he reffused grete tresours that were [...] hym presented. More ouer in his fourth boke he recounte [...] of marcus tullius how he was an exemplayre of right goe lyf. and myght haue had mo rychesses but he wold not. A [...] he dutillyd in a lytyl hows And helde a lytyl estate / And [Page] as soo that many essayeden for to see yf they myght chānge [...] wylle. And to hym presenteden grete fynannces. To who [...]he sayde. goo ye your way wyth alle your rychesses. For [...]y ben your charge and your perdicōn. we rede also in the [...]nd boke of fyctions phylosophyke. how the kynge of Ce­ [...]e named Artagougles vsed not in his estate but vayssell erthe / For his fader had ben a potter. And therfore he sayde [...]at for ony fortune noman ought to forgete his genyture / [...]nd better it is and more worth to encreace in good maners [...]an in grete estate. By whiche historyes it apperith how the [...]che men ought not to gloryfye them self in theyr rychesses / [...]nd to this purpoos sayth thappostle in his epystle to Tymo [...]e. that he that loueth rychesses. atte laste he shal not doo his [...]ffyt. And the riche man ought to considere how he is mor­ [...]l / For fynably hym behoueth to leue all / So thenne he [...] not wyse that setteth his herte and his truste in temporell [...]d transytorye chyuannce and goodes. as saith seynt Gre­ [...]ory in his xviij boke of morallis. And to the same purpos [...]ynt Austyn in a sermon of the wordes of god sayth. that [...]thyng is worth to the / thaugh thy cofre be full of richesse / [...] thou haue no thyng of good in thy conscience / what auay­ [...]th to haue richesses yf thou haue no goodnesse in thy self / [...]hat auaylleth to a man that hath the vse of moche good. [...]nd he hym self is subgette by synne to the fende / Therfor [...]yde a wyse phylosophre named Salon / that no riche man [...] happy. that is to wete whan he is auaricyus. And this counteth valere in his vij boke the second chapytre. More [...]er the riche man ought to considere. That many ben becomen [...]ure. as Cassus whyche was right riche But after he was [...]roure. that alle men scorned hym And had hym in derysi­ [...]. And one named Cassus was so grete at Rome. that he [...]as callyd the Patron Senate but fynably he was deed & by [...]styce condempned shamefully. & therfore saith Seneque in [...] boke of purueānce that [...]. For [Page] the man is in grete peryl / that no thyng knoweth / ne it endure / And of suche condicōn ben ofte the riche men / the w [...] che wyll haue in all caas theyr playsyr /

¶Here foloweth thestate of pouerte / how he ought to content capitulo ij

SAynt Iames saith in his first chapytre. God in [...] world here hath chose the poure folke. whom also [...] enhānceth ofte & cōmynly as saith the ꝓphete dauid. & ou [...]uyour saith. that blessid bē the poure of spiryte. That is to [...]te thē. that ben not in theyr hertes coueytoꝰ. For lytyl is pon­te worth wythout forth yf the herte hue not suflysan̄ce / A [...] to this purpoos we haue also dyuerse examples / as of dye [...]genes the wyse phylosophre. the whiche setted nothyng [...] worldly godes / & Seneke this boke of purucānce saith th [...] demetriꝰ threwe alle his rychesses ī to the see sayeng that [...] were noyoꝰ & greuoꝰ. & in his boke of trāquyllice he recoūn [...] of a phylosopher the whyche by fortune loste all the goode that he had. and he seeīg this. he thankyd Ioyously fortune [...]yeng that he was aledged & easyd of grete payne & more re [...]bect dysposed to doo well. More oner seynt Ierome ī his xxx epystle reherceth how crates whiche was of the cyte of [...] was sōtyme moche ryche. But he renoūced all ī sayeng. the [...] it was moche harde to gete rychesses. & that it is bett to le [...] she rychesses than by rychesses to be loste: ther fore saide Fa [...]bricius that he wao ryche not by grete richesse. but by ver [...]suffysaūce lyke as valere sayth in his iiij boke the iij chapy [...]tre / And in semblable oppynyon was zeuon the phylosoph lyke as agelyus recounteth / And therfore Thobye said [...] his sone / My sone we Irde a poure lyf / But and we dr [...]de god we shal haue good ynowh / this is wrecon in [...] iiii capytre / And therfore saith Seneke in his seconde epis [...] [Page] [...]at is whan a man is content wyth his suffysaūce. the whi suffysaūce maketh a man more ryche than dooth grete chy nce and good / For as saith seynt Austyn. ther is noo thyng it maketh a man so Ioyouse as dooth suffysaūce in pouerte [...]d to this accordeth an hystorye of seynt Austyn whiche he [...]erceth in his boke of confessions ī spekyng of hym self. and [...]th that on a tyme he sawe a poure man passyng by in his [...]uerte moche Ioyously / wherof he moche merueylled. And [...]nne he sayd to his felaws. Alas my frendes we laboure in [...]yn and in getyng richesses for to lyue surely and Ioyously or ye see this poureman whyche moche passeth vs. and is men longe sith. to that we demande aud seche. And this hi­ [...]rye was to fore the conuersion of seynt Austyn / Moreouer the holy scrypture thou shālt fynde how Moyses kept sheep / [...] it apperith the iij boke of Exode / & the prophete helye was so [...]ure / that he demānded a lytil brede and water of a wydowe [...] it apperith in the thirde boke of kynghes. And thappostles [...]nounced all / And in dede seynt peter sayd of hym self. that [...]had neyther gold ne seluer. And we rede of Saul. that he [...]epte the asses of his fader. And dauid was a sheepherde. and euertheles after they were kynges. Thenne me semeth that [...]ponerte euery man ought to haue good pacyenee. and he is [...]oche ryche that lyueth in suffysaūce. that is to wete. contēt [...]h that he hath /

¶Of the state of old age / and how men ought to be good & retuoꝰ capitulo iij.

AFter the age of a man he ought to be the more rype & aduysed & by thexperyences that he hath seen he ought to the more wyse of maners / And therfore seneke in his ix [...]stle thankyd & preysed his olde age / by cause that therby he [...] many euyllis & synnes. And saynt Ambrose in his fyrst [...] [Page] [Page] [Page] for tensie we the same in the processe of theyr lyf For Senek [...] saith in his boke of maners euery persone dooth that gladly that whiche he hath lerned to doo in his youtghe & Aristotle [...] his boke of Ethiques saith that it is a thynge naturel to take playfance & delectacōn in that thynge / the whiche he hath be­accustomed to doo in his chyldhode & youghte & therfore the w [...] ­se man ni the xj capytre of ecclesiastes speketh to a yong man [...] saith thus youge man aduyse the to dyspose thy herbe in goo [...] werkes For lyke as he ought no thyng to repe that hath no thyng sowē. right so ī old age he shal fynde nothyng good b [...] that he hath accustomed to doo in his yougthe. And therfor ought the yonge people to kepe thē wel fro euyl companye to whiche is ofte cause of the destruction & perdicōn of yonge fol [...]ke & it is hard for a yong man to be good / whā he conuersed with people of enyl lyf And to this purpoos saith tulle in hi [...] second boke of offyces. that Chyldren ought to be nourysshe [...] wyth good folke & honeste. And ought to duelle with them contynuelly And thēne by cause of the good people / he shal [...] ashamed for to doo euyll. For they shal be a ferde for to be re­preuyd. & consequently they shal be a shamed to be reprehended They also that haue the gouernānce of the yong people ough [...] not to cesse to reperue and chastyse them. And thēne is a ma [...] wel dysposed to receyue chastysement whan he is yong. And not harded ne made tude to doo harme. And therfore saynt A [...] [...]lme in his boke of symylitudes compareth Infancye or chyldehode to waxe whiche is softe / & is dysposed to receyue such prynte as men wyll. The chylde also resembleth to the rode whan it boweth lyghtly. it is wounden as men wylle. Thēne owē the fader & Moder to haue right grete aduys vpon the [...]nernāce of theyr chyldren as it shal be said here after. The ch [...] dren also owen to theyr parentes & to theyr maistres to obey [...] in folowyug [...]saac. the whyche obeyed in suche wyse to his fader that he was all redy to receyue the deth at his comandem̄ as it apperith the xxij chapytre of genesis. & yet he was at th [...] [Page] tyme of the age of xxxij yere. And of dauid we rede how he was obeyssant to his fader / as it apperith the fyrst boke of kynges / And Ihū Cryste hym self in his yougth was obeyssānt [...] his parentes / as saith seynt luc in his secund chapytre / wel [...]s trouthe that many by cause of theyr yougthe wene to be excu [...]ed of alle theyr euyllis that they doo. the whyche ben moche de­ [...]eyued / For syth they haue wytte and vnderstondyng. they ben [...] be repreuyd & they shal be pugnysshid of god yf they doo duy [...] uyll. And herof we haue example of the sones of hely. the [...]hiche were right greuously pugnysshyd by cause they lyue­ [...]en after theyr wylle in delyces / as it apperith the first boke of [...]ynges. we rede also of the ij chyldren. whiche god made to be [...]euoured by the wulues. by cause they soorned and mocqued [...] prophete helyzee as it apperith the iiij boke of kynges. More [...]uer the yonge people gloryfye them self in theyr beaulte. why [...] be moche deceyued / For as Aristotle sayth / yf a man had [...] eyeu of a ly [...]x & that he myght see thurgh his body. he shold [...] in hym self and in euery creature moche fylthe and ordnre And suche ther be that wene that they be right fayr. And yf [...]xy sawe them self. they shold well knowe that they be right [...]ull. For they haue nothyng fayr sauf the skyn withoutforth [...]ore ouer they gloryfye in theyr age / & haue hope for to lyue [...]onge. and they consydere not that assone deyeth the yong man [...]s dooth the olde. And that more is we see that the yong men eyen most comynly. For they be more ful of oultrages & son­ [...]er falle in to the sekenesses of hasty deth. And thus nature [...]ath no certayn terme of lyuyng. Therfore no yong man ne [...]oman ought not for hope of longe lyf to take ony hardy­ [...]es for to doo euyl. For for to lyue or not to lyue. the synne [...] [...] uyl shal be pugnysshed And hope is cause ofte to lyue euyl in [...] tyme of olde age /

[...]Of thestate of mariage how it ought to be go [...] ̄ned capo. v

MAriage is ordeyned for to haue lygnage. and for to lo­ue eche other. And therfor thappostle seynt poul in his fy [...]the chapitre admonesteth the wedded men sayeng ye men lo [...] your wyues as Ihūs Cryste loueth his chyrche. And to this purpoos valere in his iiij boke the v chapytre recyteth how [...] man named graceus lonyd his wyf named Corneylle [...] moche that he wold deye for to gete the helthe of his wyf. he [...] counteth also how Cuplacius herd saye that his wyf wa [...] ­d [...]ed· And thēne he smote hym self in the breste with a kny [...] and requyred to be with her. drowned or brente / as at [...] tyme was the custōme to doo whan the peple were deed. An [...] how be it that noman ought so to doo / Neuertheles by [...] said hystoryes / it appereth how men ought to loue theyr wyues· Semblably also the wymmen owen to loue theyr hus [...]bondes / And herof we haue example as valere recounteth [...] his boke aforfaid. how Iulia the doughter of Cezar seeyng [...] of hir husbond spotted wyth blood was soo troubled that for sorowe and henynes / her chyld that she had within̄ her bely was destroyed· For she had supposed that her husbond had ben deed. or that he had receyued sōme vylonnye whos name was Pompee the grāut / After he recyteth of the doughter of Cathon named Porcia seeyng her husbond brutns to b [...] slayn / she demaunded a knyf to slee her self also / And by cause that none wold delyue to her no knyf. she toke brennyng coo­les. and put them in her monthe & ete them don̄ in suche wyse that she deyde by a right merueyllo [...] manere / Semblably be recounteth of the wyf of kynge metridatus whyche folowed hym in alle places where he wente. were it in bataylles or els where. And certaynly she kytte of her heeris. and arayed her lyke a man. for to haue the better oportunyte for to folowe hym in alle places. And how be it for to doo in lyke wyse / it is no [...] of congruyte ne of necessite. yet by the said hystoryes it apper [...] how mariage ought to be had in grete loue. And to the sam [...] purpoos recyteth valerius in his vj boke the vij chapitre. [...] [Page] [...]ulpi [...]a a kepte her husbond in a lytyl place right secretely. Not withstondyng she wyf [...] wel that she shold be deed yf her husbōd were founde with her. whom they songht to put to deth. And [...]t is good to knowe how in mariage after the doctours. th [...]e [...]hynges ought to be / that is to wete fayth. loyalte / lygnage & [...]acrament / By fayth and loyalte is gyuen to vnderstōde that neyther of the parties maryed ought not to trespace with his [...]dy but to kepe it to his partye / For as thapostle faith in [...] fyrst epystle to the Corynthyeus / the body of the man is by [...]ngyng to the wyf. And the body of the wyf to the man. that [...]s to vnderstonde in mariage / And as seynt Ambrose saith in [...]is exameron. god made eue of the syde of Adam / in signefy­ [...]ce that in mariage a man and woman ought to be all one [...]ody one self thyng. And me semeth that the partye that for­ [...]ayteth his maryage / dooth a yenst the lawe of nature / For [...]he storke hath suche forfayture in abhomynacōn of storkes to [...]ee hym or her that so forfayteth. lyke as Alexander recoūteth in his boke of nature of byrdes. And me semeth it is a grete abhomynacion to see in many maryages so lytyl fayth and loyalte as now is. But I byleue that one of the causes emonge the other is. that the maryage be not duely maad. but for money. or other euyl cause. Thēne it is noo merueylle that the maryage contynue not well syth the begynuyng therfor the kynge lygurgis wolde and ordeyued in his Royāme that the vir­gynes and maydens shold be wedded without to haue gold or syluer to thende that the maryage shold not be made by coue­tyse. lyke as pompeus recyteth in his iij boke / And valere in his vij boke the first chapytre recyteth how one demānded som [...]ym of a phylosopher named themystodes how and to whome [...] shold marye his doughter. that is to wete to a poure man [...] to a ryche. The whiche ansuerde. that he ought not to demān [...]e pouerte ne richesse. but the bounte and the vertues of the m [...] ̄ [...]ore ouer in maryage ther lyeth right grete aduys. and not [...]ly for parentage / but also for to Mayntene it / And to this [Page] purpoos speketh Theofraste dystyple of Arystole / in his boke that he made of maryage in whiche he saith. that a mā ought more to beholde the bounte of the woman than the beaulte. and yf thou demānde whiche is better to take a fayr woman or a foule he ausuerde. that it is an hard thyng to kepe a fayr wo­man the whiche many men desyre. And it is a grete payne [...] loue the foule one whiche many despyse. alleway yf she be good the goodnesse shal kepe her beaulte. And yf she be not fayr. [...] is none hard thyng to loue her that is of right good wyll. for naturally & resonably more ought the bounte to be praysed tha [...] the beaulte / More ouer in maryage is moche to be suffred. sin [...]gulerly yf bothe parties be not wyse. For men ben ofte suspe­cyonno [...] of theyr wyues / Therfore ought a woman to be sy [...] ple and good. & not onely of her body. but also of her maynt [...] and maners / For in spekyng. in beholdyng. ne in conuersa [...] she ought not doo ony thyng. by whiche ony other myght thynke or Iuge in her ony euyll / And it happeth ofte that by they folyssh mayntene and maners / the wym̄en make theyr hus [...]boudes to mysdeme and euyl of byleue. Many also seeyng they manere folyssh & suspcōnno [...]. payne them self to deceyue th [...] wenyng that they be of euyl disposicōn by cause of theyr wan [...] and folysshe maner / And oftyme it happeth that suche one [...] taken with her nette / the whiche she neuer thought it shold ha [...] pen / And alle this euyl cometh by the false semblāntes An [...] countenances that many wym̄en maken: The men also tha purpose to marye oughten to aduyse and beholde the condyco [...] of her that they desyre to haue to wyf. But many ben deceyue [...] by cause they take them in the age of xij yere or ther aboute. an [...] thēne what they be / noman may wete ne knowe. For as [...] prouerbe saith / how seeth a chylde. seeth no thyng / Als in maryeng hym self. one ought to here many speke For lou [...] and carnal affeceyon blyndeth the vnderstondyng. and make [...] a man fauourable to Iuge. whan he is surprysed of suche [...] therfore a mā ought to byleue more another than hym so

¶How the wym̄en ought to gouerne them self capo. vj

A woman ought to haue resonably two condicōns. that is to wyte / shame of repreef / and drede of disobeyeng of her partye. For thenne a woman is loste. & dissolute whan she hath in her neyther drede ne shame / And it is a thyng moche to be repreued to see wym̄en hardy / dissolute / and redy to doo many euyllis. Snche ben they the whyche by theyr maners foule and dissolute. and by theyr lechero [...] beholdynges drawe men to doo euyll of whome speketh seynt Ierome in his epystle Cviij / And sayth that many wym̄en ben lyke to thydolles the whiche drawen the people of the world to the fende. Sem­ [...]lably ben they that poppe them self & make them to seme fayr for to brynge other to synne / And it is grete merueylle how they presume to deffeate and altere that whiche god hath ma­de / & moche lewde is the woman the whiche weneth to make [...]er more fair than god hath made her. And it is a grete pre­sumpcōn to defface the paynture of god / for to make the payn­ture / as saith seynt Ambrose in his exameron / & to this pur­poos. Guyllem in the boke of his boke of the vnyuersal world recyteth how two wym̄en somtyme were riyht c [...]ryou se for to make them soo fayr. and to kembe them soo it happed that the one deyde / the whyche after apperyd to her felaw. whā she arayed and kembed her self and sayd to her / my frende ad­uyse the / For I am dampned for my curiosytees the whyche I used and mayntened whan I was with the. And me semeth that suche curiosytees ben by cause of lecherye & of dissolucō [...] [...]arnall / Thenne onght alle wym̄en take example of the good [...]lde and aūcyent wym̄en / of whome recōunteth valere in his [...]ij boke the vj chapytre. how many wym̄en had leuer to haue [...]yed than to be deffouled / and he reherceth how the marōners [...]ke a woman a greke by cause to synne wyth her / And [...] [...]eyng that. sprange in to the see & drowned her self. And ther­ [...]r she was moche preysed of the grekes & reputed for a sayn [...] [Page] More ouer he recyteth of a woman that slewe her doughter / bycause that Apy [...] wold haue deffouled her. and sayd that she had leuer haue her doughter slayn than she shold lyue & be dissolute. Semblably seynt Ambrose in his boke of vyrgynyte the in chapytre recyteth how a mayde called Pelage in thaage of xv yere was [...]auysshed in the contre of Anthyoche / the whi­che seeyng she myght not escape / sprange in to a Ryuer / For she had leuer deye a vyrgyne than to lyne corrupt. By the whiche hystoryes it apperith that thauncyent wymmen were moche chaste and contynente. Trouthe it is that they ought not to slee ne to drowne thhem self bnt yf it were by the com­mandement and Inspiracion of god / lyke as seynt Austyn sayth in his fyrst boke of the cyte of god the xxv chapytre. For she synne lyeth not in the body but in the wyll / And how be it that they myght not kepe the body agaynst them. Neuertheles they had power not to consente. And kepe theyr wyl f [...]o cor­rupcy [...]n. lyke as he witnessith in the boke aforsayd the xvj chapytre. A [...]d not withstondyng all these theynges aforsayd [...] is it trouthe that they deserued honour And grete preysyng [...] so moche that they loued contynence and chastyte / And [...] this purpoos feynt Ierome in his boke ayenst Ionynya [...] recyteth how the wyf of Actilius was so chaste. that ne [...] ­man touched her sauf her husbond onely / And on a tyme [...] happed that a man sayd to hyr husbonde that his mouth sta [...] ­ [...]e And whan he cam home he blamed his wyf by cause she had not warned hym therof / for to haue founde remedye therfore / The whiche ansuerde / that she had supposed That euery man had be of that condycion / By whiche it apperid that she neuer had kyssed ony other man But for to come to haue chastyte. it suffyseth not to [...] [...]hewe the touchynges. But also sobrenesse is gretely requred in wymmen /

¶How virgynyte ought to be mayntened capo.

Vyrgynyte is in hym self right honorable / & maketh men & wym̄en to resemble & be lyke vnto Aungellis. and they that bē in suche estate ought to mayntene it right dilygently For it is moche harde to kepe / cōsideryd humayne fraylnes. the whiche is alle way enclyned vnto syn̄e / but yf it be kepte & chastysed by reason. & it is good to cōsydere how thauncyent & olde peple loued [...]gynyte & maydēhed lōge to fore the crysten fayth. as it apperith by that we rede in a lytyll boke intytuled of [...]gynyte / in whiche we rede that many wym̄en of rome had leuer deye than lese theyr maydēhed. and specyally of the two d [...]ughters of sedaza / That is to wete of a good womā so named whiche were deffouled & enforced by ij youge mē. the whiche were lodged in theyr hous vnder the tytle of ghestes or pyl­gryms. & thys seeyng the ij doughters for desplaysyr hurte and [...]yffygured them self wyth theyr owen knyues. semblably for yke caas we rede how the mayde called thebana for desplaysyr [...]hat she had by cause she was deffouled & enforced fynably she [...]ut to deth hym that defoylled her & her self also. And how be it [...]hat suche occysious be not approuued. ne [...]theles by the sayd historyes it apperith how thaūcyēts desiredē & preysedē [...]gynyte For who wyll well cōsidere. to lyue after the flessh is a thynge [...]bhomynable & to god dysplaysan̄t. as thappostle faith in his pystle to the Romayns the viij chapitre. sayeng that they whi­ [...]e lyue after the flesshe may not well playse god Trouthe it is [...]at virgynte onely suffyseth not. For a boue that them by [...]th to entende to good werkes / and to this purpoos speketh [...]ynt Ambrose to demetrye in his epystle lxxxvij / sayeng [...]at a virgyne and a mayde ought to be stylle and symple. and [...]lowe hōneste companye. And ought not to be vacabōnd [...] [...]myng aboute / but the most parte of tyme ought to kepe her home in folowyng the blessyd virgyne Marie· whiche was [...]one in her hous / whan thangele salewed her / More ouer the [...]age of a mayde ought to be prudēt. attempred & right short [...]ithout habundaūce of wordes. In hyr maner & maynt [...] [Page] she ought to be shamefast. and in all her dedes and fra [...]es me­ke and humble. For by humylyte the blessyd virgyne was most pryncypally agreable to god / As wytnesseth the holy scrypture / More oner seynt Ierome in his epystle lxxxix. in spekyng to a good mo [...] for her doughter· sayde that she ought so doo that her doughter shold be alleway dylygent and besy for to werke. For in ydlenes comynly virgyuyte & mayden­hed is loste and vanysshyth. And the maydens ought to con­sydere how virgynyte is suche a tresonr that yf it be loste. it is irrecuperable / And therfore they ought dylygently kepe it / To this purpoos saynt Ambrose in his second boke of virgynyte recyteth how in Anthyoche was a mayde right fayr & moche desyred. And fynably by force was brought to the bordel· And whan she sawe her there. she began to wepe and to praye god sayeng. O good lord whiche of old tyme gauest to virgynes puyssance & strength to surmoūte & ouercome the wyll of m [...] ­ [...]uche sauf to kepe & defende me. After this prayer cam to her a knyght. the whiche gaf to her his gowne / to thende that [...] myght escape in thabyte of a mā. & in dede she soo escaped. & [...] knyght in stede of her abode there in her habyte. thēne cam an [...] ther knght & entred in to the same place for to cōmyse his [...]oulu [...]e wenyng to haue foūdē the sayde mayde / & he seeyng tha he was a mā in habyte of a womā. made hym to be cōdēpne [...] to the deth / pnttyng on hym the syn̄e whiche is not to be sayd & fynably was condempned to the deth. & this seyng the say [...] mayde presēted her self to deye for hym. in sayeng that for sauyng of her [...]gynyte he ought not to deye / but the knyght [...]ade that he had leuer deye. thā to see one so good a mayde put [...] deth / And fynably bothe tweyne were dely [...]d to the deth [...] [...] well doyng / were martred / By these examples & many ot [...] it apperith how aūcyently [...]gynyte was moche preysed & [...]. in so moche that the maydēs that cōsentedē to theyr de [...]elyng were stoned to deth as it apperith in deutronomye the [...] chapytre / By whiche thynges it apperith how maydenhede [Page] of hym self agreable / not onely to the world but also to god pryncypally. And as touchyng thys we haue example of our fyrst parents Adam and Eue / the whiche as longe as they were in paradys they kepte vyrgynyte /

¶Howwydo whede ought to be kepte holyly capo. viij

WEdowhede is thestate the whiche suceedeth to maryage and ought to be mayntened in grete humylyte. in grete deuocōn. in symple habyte. in pylgremages. and other good [...]edes / For in wedowhede ought the vanytres of the world to be renoūced / A [...]d for her partye praye to thende that the loue that hath ben in mariage / be remembred and recorded in we­dowhede. For it is a signe of lytyl loue and of lytyl tronthe [...] mariage whan after that the ij partyes haue longe lyued to gydre. after the deth of one of the partyes that other succe­deth / And abandonneth her to the world in vanytees and in deduytes / And how be it that wydowes marye not them self I wyll not counseylle them the contrary. and singulerly whan he partyes haue duellyd to gydre longe. or the moste parte of heyr lyf. And trouthe it is that seynt Ierome approueth not he second esponsaylles / but yf [...]er haue be right good cause in heyr yougth. Alleway he concludeth that it is better tesche we ynne by mariage. than to synne in wydowhed /

¶How seruāutes ought to mayntene them in theyr seruyse capo. ix.

SEruāntes in their seruyses oughtē to haue dy [...] ̄se con­dicōns & in especyal they oughte to hane vj condicōns Fyrst they owe to honoure theyr maistre. secōdly they owe to [...] faythfulnes Thirdly trouthe. fourtly obeyssan̄ce. Fyft [...]ly [...]ugence. & fynably they ought to haue paciēce in werkes. & [...] touchyng the fyrst condycōn we rede in the second boke of [...]ges. how Ioab not withstōdyng that he had victorye of the [Page] enemyes of his maystre. neuertheles he wold that his maystre had thonour. & wold not take the cyte vntyl his maystre was come. & as to the second cōdicōn that is to wete of faythfulnes of seruāntes valere re [...]yteth in his iij boke the vij chapitre how Anthonye toke one of the seruātes of cezar his enemye. to who [...] he sayde that he muste leue cezar for euermore or ellis deye And somtyme by menaces & somtyme by promesses he pa­yned hym that he shold saye that he wold forsake and renon­ [...] his maystre. And neuertheles the seruānt sayde alleway. That neyther for good ne for euyl that he coude doo to hym he shold neuer forsake ne loue cezar. In lyke wyse he recy [...]th of one of the seruantes of Cezar. the whiche pompeus myght neuer induce hym to his seruyce / As touchyng to trouthe. it is certayn. that a seruan̄t beyng a lyar deceyueth his mays­ter. And may be cause of many harmes by false reportes. For a lyeng tongue lyke venym empoysonneth the hows. and alle the duellars therin / More ouer the seruantes owen obeyssance lyke as sayth thappostle in his epystle to the ephesiens the vj chapytre in sayeng / ye seruan̄tes obeye you to your maistres in fere and drede. and in symplesse of herte. And it is not suf­ycient only to obeye / but more ouer it is necessarye that the serruannt be dyligent / And to this purpoos sayth seneque in his iij boke of benefyces the xiiij chapytre. that dilygence is moche syttyng in seruanntes / And in dede he recomendeth the dyli­gence of that seruannt that seruyd his maystre in pryson the whiche as dyscomforted demanded to drynke poyson / To whom the seruannt desyryng to obeye not for ony euyl that he wold to hym but by ardannt desyre that he had to doo that dyligently whiche his mayster commanded hym / it happed that by hastynes to obeye hym wenyng to haue gyuen to hym the potte of poyson / he gaaf to hym the potte of medecy­ne / [...] by cause of this hasty dyligence his mayster was saued yet also the seruantes oughten in theyr affayres and werkes to haue pacyence / And for theyr maysters to endure payne [Page] And to this purpoos valere recyteth in his vj boke the viij chasee andpitre of the seruan̄t of papinion how he herde saye that som̄e were deputed to slee theyr maistre / And he prayd his mays­tre that he wold chan̄ge wyth hym his gown and hode. to thē de. that he wold be slayn rather than his mayster. yf the caas so requyred. & in dede he wold deye for his mayster he recyteth al­so of the seruante of Aucyus how for his maystre he eudnred Innumerable paynes / It apperith thenne how seruantes oughten to haue the sixe condycōns aforsayd /

¶How they that leden euyl lyf owen to deye euyll capo. x.

GOd is a trewe Iuge. And Iugeth euery man Iustely. whefor it foloweth / that he that ledyth an euyl lyf. mus­te deye an euyl deth. And herof we haue many examples in thys present tyme. For the lytyl tyme that I haue lyued. I haue none remembrance that an euyl man hath deyed a good deth. Trouthe it is that by an enyl man I mene not euery man that is a synner. but I vnderstonde hym to be an euyl man. that lyueth contynuelly in synne / And in doyng werse and werse withont repentanuce. and without wyll to amende hym / More ouer. yf we rede thystoryes of tyme passed / we shal fyude clerely how they that haue lyued euyl / ben also hor­rybly deed / how was caym deed whiche slewe his brother / was he not slayn of lameth whiche was blynde and sawe nothyng. And neuertheles he slewe hym in huntyng. as it apperith in the boke of genesis More ouer pharao the kynge of Egypte whiche caused to doowne the yong chyldren of the Iewes / how deyde he. Certaynly he was drowned in the rede see and alle his peple as is apperith the xxiiij chapytre of Exode. we rede also how zebee and Salmana slewen the brethern of Gedeon / but after Gedeon slewe them / as it apperith the viij chapytre of the boke of Iuges / Semblably Abymelech that slew lxx brethern vpon one stone / was after slayn of [Page] a woman as it apprith the ix chapytre of the boke aforsayd / And generelly a man that sleeth a man ought to dye an euyl deth. Rede we not how the yong man that sayde he had slayn Saul. was afterward slayn by the com̄andament of dauid. as it apperith the secōd boke of kynges the fyrst chapytre. Semblably we rede that the theues that slewen ys [...]seth camen to dauid for to make to hym feste / but dauid condempned them to deth. Therfore ought they to be wel aduysed that doo wronge to other. and make them to deye wythoute cause. For by thexamples aforsayd it apperith clerely how homycides owen to dye an euyl deth. Semblably they that ben tyrannts & that greuen the people And the poure Innocentes oughten right well to be aduysed For it is reason that they deye an euyl deth And to this purpoos we rede how sysara whiche was a right cruel tyrannt was fynably slayn of a woman as it apperith the iiij chapitre of the boke of Iudges. & Saul whiche was a right grete tyrannt and persecutour of dauid. after he slewe hym self with his propre knyf as it apperith the first boke of kynges the last chapytre. And Benedab whiche was so cruel fynably was byheded by one of his serun̄tes by the cōmādem̄t of god / as it is wreton the iiij boke of kynges the vij chapy­tre / Thenne by these examples oughten the prynces and the lordes take hede / the whyche by theyr tyrannyes doon many euyllis to theyr subgettis / And by theyr cruelnesse make ma­ny men to deye. by venegeance for to haue theyr good. For certaynly theyr euyl lyf by right requyreth an euyl deth /

¶How the parentes & in especyal the fader and moder oughten diligenly thynke on theyr chyldren capo. xjo.

THe parents and singulerly fader and moder ough­ten besyly to thynken on theyr chyldren. And to doo payne by good doctryne and by good techynges that they be by good doctrine instructe And taught ingood maners [Page] For as Aristotle saith in his viij boke of ethyques. the fader is to his sone cause of his nouryssyng & cause of his discyplyne by the whyche wordes it suffyseth not onely that the fader be cause of his chyldren by generacōn. but more ouer he ought to nourysshe and teche them. And to the same purpoos saith the wyse man in the boke of ecclesiastyke the vij chapytre. ¶Si filij tibi sunt erudi illos / That is to saye yf thou haue chyldren / thou oughtest to teche them. And in the ꝓuerbes saith the wyse man the xxiij chapytre. ¶Noli subcrahere a puero disciplinā That is to saye that thou oughtest to take hede that thou em­pesshe ne lette not the chylde fro his doctryne aud his techyng / And to thys purpoos saith thappostle in his epistle to the he­brewes the xij chapytre. ¶Quis inquit filius. quem non corripiet pater / q· d. nullus / That is to saye. who is that son who me the fader shal not correcte / as who saith none. For thap­postle saith that euery tader ought to correcte his sone. & herto acoordeth that whiche polycrate recyteth in his vj boke the iiij chapytre sayeng / that the Emperour Octauyan made his so­nes to be taught and texcersyse feates chyualrous. And his doughters he made to be taught to werke wulle. to that ende that they myght lyue by theyr labour in caas that fortune faylled them / & tullius in his questions tusculanes recyteth how the kyng lygurgis taught his youg chyldren for tendure euyl and harme. aud to knowe the good. For the chyldren ensiewe gladly and folowe the doctryne that is gyuen to them in theyr yougthe. lyke as Seneke saith in his fyrst boke of Ire. Ther­fore sayth thappostle to theplesyens the vj chapytre. ¶Educas illos. S. filios in disciplina et correctione dn̄i / That is to sa­ye that they that haue chyldren ought to enseyne & / teche them by disciplyne and by good correction entendyng to good. And to this purpos we rede the fyrst boke of kynges how hely was right greuously pugnysshyd by canse he chastysed not wel his chyldren / And therfore sayth Tnllius in his fyrst boke of offyces the xxxvij chapytre. that the best herytage that fader and [Page] moder may leue to theyr chyldren. that is that they be garnys­shed of good maners. of vertues / and of good custōmes /

How chyldren owne obeyssan̄ce and honour to theyr parents capo. xij.

THe chyldren / that is to wete sones & doughtres owen tobeye to theyr parents lyke as the thappostle saith to the Ephesiens the vj chapytre. ¶Filij obedite parentibus vr̄is That is to saye. ye chyldren obeye ye vnto your parents. and the wyse man saith in his ecclesiastique. who that honoureth his fader. shal lyue the lenger lyf. More o [...] the chyldren ought to loue parfyghtly theyr fader and moder. and in nede socoure them lyke as scipion dyde. the whiche put hym self in peryll of deth for to saue his fader / And also Eneas for to delyuer his fader passed by the myddys of his enemyes. For nature endyned hem so to doo. More o [...] of this loue we haue examples in Nature / For as sayth seynt Ambrose in his exameron the vomelye / The storkes ben of suche condicōn that they socoure theyr parents whan they ben anucyent and olde. And recouere them with thyr wynges & fethers. & supporte them in fleyng And also admynystre to them theyr noureture. and theyr neces­site. And to this purpoos saith valere in his v boke the iiij chapitre / that the fyrst lawe nature is to loue the parents. And recyteth of the good doughter. the whiche seeyng her moder in pryson and condempned to deth e [...]y day she vysyted her. and with her owue mylke nourysshed her / Thēne was the geayler moche admerueylled. how the said moder lyued so longe. seen that he admynystred no thyng to her. ne her doughter also. For the Iayler had not suffred her other wyse to entre to her moder thenne the Iayler an a tyme espyed how the doughter gaf coher moder to souke on her brestes. & recounted it to the Iudge of the contre. the whyche seeyng the loue & bounte of the dough­ter. pardoned the moder / and delyuerd her to her doughter for the bounte of her· Mere ouer valere recyteth of the good dough [...] [Page] the whiche nourysshyd her fader in his grete olde age with her mylke. also he recyteth of Cressus / the whiche was dombe & myght not speke. & it so happed that persian wold haue slayn his fader / and he payned hym to speke / and wepte by cause he myght not speke & saye it to his fader. And thystorye saith that for his bounte. langage was geue to hym / And therfore saith valere. ¶Quicquid optima rerū est natura. que pietatis est magistra / That is to saye / that nature is a right good thyng / the whiche is maystresse of pyte. Also he recyteth of cor­nelian the whiche was bannysshed fro Rome / And fynably he conquerd the seignorye of Rome / vulques enemye of Rome cam agaynst the Romayns wyth right grete puissance / for to venge hym of his banysshement. & that seeyng the Romayns they sente to hym his moder the whiche dwellyd in Rome / for to praye hym that he wold forbere for her sake. the whiche se­yng his moder. was anon appeased and obeyed to the prayer of her. in sayng. that more hath doon the loue of my moder / than hath doon the strength of the romayns. For as Aristotle saith ¶Dijs. magistris. et parentibus. non possimus red [...]re ad condignū / That is to saye that noman maye yelde ne ren­dre to god. to his maystre / ne to his parents lyke byenfait as he hath receyued / And to this purpoos speketh Rauenne say­eng. that lyke as the sōne without benies or rayes shyneth not & the welle or fontayne without rennyng taryeth. Tree with­out brāuches wereth dreye. and a body without membres roteth / In lyke wyse a chylde without loue of fader and mod [...]r is none chylde / but of the nombre of them the whiche is w [...] ­ton in the gospell. ¶Vos ex patre diabolo estis / That is to saye ye be chyldren of the deuyll your fader. For the chyldren of the deuyll can not obeye ne haue loue ne charyte. but the chyldrē of god ben of contrary condicōn And herof we haue an exam­ple of Ihū cryste. of whome is wreton in. the gospell of seyn [...] luc the second chapyter. ¶Erat autem subdit [...] illis / That is to saye that Ihū cryst was subget to his parents /

¶Of thestate of Marchanntes capo. xiij.

MArchāndyse ought faythfully to be gouerned & maynte­ned withoute fraude & withoute vsure. For other wyse it is not marchandyse. but it is deceyte· falshede. & euyll. And therfore it is wreton in exode the xij chapytre. ¶Nec vsura opprimes proximū tuū / that is to saye that noman ought to oppresse his neyghbour by vsure. & lyke sentence is wreton in leuiticū the xxvj chapytre / & the ꝓphete sayth that they shal be with hym. that lene not theyr money to vsure. and that loue trouthe. that myssaye not of other. & that lyue withoute doyng euyl to other. To this purpoos speketh seynt Ambrose in his in boke of offyces. & adressyth his wordes to marchan̄ts sa­yeng / wherfore conuertest thou thyn engyne to fraude / wher­fore desyrest thou hur [...]e to thyn neyhbours. wherfore desyrest thou famyue / or wherfore desyrest thou skarcete or. wherfore espiest thou the tyme of derthe or scelerite / certes thou sayst. thou art subtyl thy self. but this to doo / or to desire is no subtylt [...] but shrewdenes & euyll. And that whyche thou callest pour [...]ean̄ce is fraude couetyse & vsure. More ouer seynt Iohn̄ Grysostome vpon the gospel of seynt mathew in his vomelye saith that ther is no thyng more foul ne more cruel / that is the vsurer / the whiche secheth alleway hys owne prosperyte In thaduersyte of other / And tullius in his first boke of questions tustulanes compareth the vsurer to the homycyde / For lyke tho­mycyde taketh away the lyf. So doō the vsurers taken a way the substan̄ce fro the poure people / Thēne ought the marchān­tes to take more hede to faythfulnes & trouthe. than to habun­dānce For the goodes euyl goten ben wytnesse of the perdycōn of the soule of hym that hath euyl goten them. and it suffyseth not in marchandyse teschewe vsure / but more ouer to mayn­tene trouthe in weyght & in mesure. and in alle other thynges that apperteynen to marchandyse. For as the wyse man saith in his prouerbes the xx chapitre. god hath in abhomynacyon [Page] euyl weyght & balaūces fraudously vsed / Aud seynt Mathew in his gospel the vj chapytre sayth that god shall Iustefye the balaūce & the weyght deceyuable. and them that ben ryche by theyr synnes & lesynges. And shal yeld therof reason. An̄d ther for it was com̄anded in the olde lawe as it is wreton in leuiticn̄. the xix chapitre. that all marchandyse shold be made truly in weyght and in mesure / busshels and quarters. aud in alle other thinges semblably. And euery marchant ought to kno­we that by the moyen of fraude they may not were riche / seen that theyr conquest by suche moyen is not ouly to them self. but it is the charge of the soule as sayd is. And the euyl marchantes ben semblable to fenyx the whiche assembleth alle his bu­chettis & styc [...]is in the hye montayne / and fynably the fyre en­flam̄eth them. and the fenix is brente in the myddis of them In lyke wyse the vntrewe marchantes. assemblē the rychesses euyl goten in the montayne of theyr pryde. And fynably brenne by couetyse in myddle of theyr goodes. Also by cause that it is said that in marchandyse ought loyaulte and trouthe to be mayntened. but som̄e maye demande yf it be of necessyte / that the marchannt sellar saye to the byer alle the defaultes that he knoweth in that thyng whyche he wyl selle / Thys question was made anncyently bytwene dyogenes and Antipater his discyple / Aud by mauer of dysputacōn sayd dyogenes. that hym semed it shold be folye in the marchant to blame hys marchandyse. And antipater sayde it is noo folye. but it was faith fulues and loyaulte. For otherwyse he shold deceyue hys neyhbour. And shortly this dysputacon recyteth tullius in his in boke of offyces the xij chapytre. & in ansueryng to this questyō lx sayth that diogenes defendeth vtylite. And Antypater ma­ynteneth honeste / & by cause that hon̄este is more worth than prouffyt or vtylite. consequently it foloweth that the marchāt ought not to hyde ne couere the deffaulte of his marchandyse / For as the wyse man sayth in ecclesiastyke the xxxj chapit [...] the marchan̄tes oughten to treate theyr marchādyse in adres­syng [Page] eche other in trouthe and in faythfulnes /

¶Of the state of pylgremages capo. xiiij

THis present lyf is a right pylgremage. For as the pyl­gryme gooth alleway without reste in ony place longe wherof is made mencōn. In lyke wyse the lyf of a mā [...] not longe in this world / and hath nothyng of assuran̄ce / and this wituesseth to vs thappostle sayeng. that we haue here [...] cyte permanent ne abydyng / Trouthe it is that they be not pylgryms / that of this world maken theyr paradys / the whiche oughten to consydere. how abraham by the com̄andament of god departed fro his coutrey and wente & duellyd in a straū ­ge contrey. And then̄e god gaf to hym his blessyng / as it apperith in the boke of genesis the xij chapytre. by this example is signefyed to vs how not withstōdyng That we be in this world here bodily / neuertheles in esperyte we ought to god a­boue by good werkes / and for to mayntene good lyf. And to this pylgremage we be called For lyke as we see that the tree transporteth fro shorte to hye by his growyng. In lyke wyse a man that transporteth his herte fro this world. in to the other groweth more lightly in good lyf & in vertues. And to this purpoos sayde Ihū cryste that noman is accepte for a pro­phete in his owen contreye. so thēne euery man ought to god in to a stran̄ge contreye. and it is none other thyng to saye but that in this world whiche is onr contrey ben none other but pylgryms ꝓuffytyng fro good to good / & fro vertue to vertue the whiche ought not to cesse to goo ne to ꝓuffyte / tyl that thei be atte terme desyred / that is to wyte in heuene. More ouer we ought to aduyse how the pylgryms acompten & reken euery daye with theyr hoostes. In lyke wyse we ought / euery day to aduyse and take hede how we lyue & paye to god our debtes in knowlechyng our trespaces. As dyde an Aūcyent wyse mā named septimus. of whome recyteth seneke in his in boke [Page] of Ire. how euery day he acounted and toke hede of how moche his lyf was empeyred or amended And also it is good to cō sydere / how and how longe the lyf of a persone endureth And how it lasseth and shorteth / be it in slepyug or wakyng alle way our lyf lasseth / And nothyng proffyteth to vs the tyme passed. but in that we haue doon well and goten vertues in the grace of god. Therfore saith maximian. that the tyme dra­weth after hym alle thynges mortall / And as the heuen tor­neth / semblably our lyf renneth after it wythoute cessyng and wythout restyng / For suche is the nature of the deth of a crea­ture. And to this purpos & philosopher named secundus de­mandeth what it is of a man. And he ansuerth that be is none other thyng but a fantase that sone passeth a way. And he saith afterward that a man is the vessel of deth. a pylgrym without reste. hoost of the erthe / And wormes mete. Thenne ought euery man vpon this sayng aduyse hym / & moche humble hym self of what estate he be of. For prynces / kynges / prelates. bourgeys. and marchauntes and generally alle people ben of short lyf. & alle of mortal condicōn / And therfore saith plynyus in his vj boke. that not wythstondyng that a man be most parfyght. emong alle mortal creatures. Neuertheles his lyf is most myserable / most daūgerous / and subgette to moste grettest thought / For nature gyneth to bestes hornes to defen­de them. hyde & heer for theyr vesture / felyng to nourysshe them wynges for the flee. & also of other necessytees for pourneaūce to all beestes. but a mā is born naked without felyng without strengthe. without vesture. without knowleche / And without defence / Our lyf thēne hath right lytyl begyn̄yng. And the contynuānce endureth right greuously. For after the mesure that the knowleche cometh. the thought groweth & encreaceth. And the man wexeth the more melancolyo [...]. that hath in his con­dycōn more very and parfyght knowleche. For yf a man lyueth in myserye. thēne he wexeth melancolyo [...] by cause of his necessyte. And yf the man be in prosperite. Thenne his Ioye [Page] shal be moche lytyl. yf he consydere / how his fortune shal not endure longe / For as valere saith in his ix boke. Mannes lyf is a course moche lytyl and hard to passe / For in the waye is none other thyng but pouerte and myserye. And yf ther be ony good or well. he is alle way in peryll of fortune aduerse. or of natural deth. & boece in his iij boke of consolacōn. in spekyng to the ryche man sayth thus. thou wylt be preysed and renomed aboue other. but aduyse the in what peryl thou art / For the deth approcheth to the / And in thy fortune is noo surete / And therfore saith maximiā. O lyf humayne that thou art myserable / For thou art alleway in peryll of deth / thou art without [...]urete / thou art nothyng stable. & fynably in spekyng of hym self saith. Alas where ben bycome the goodes of tyme passed / In stede of lawhyuge now I wepe / my Ioye is torned in to heuynesse. Thenne is it f [...]lye for a man to affye and truste in fortune. ne in the lyf humayne. For naturally alle demānde [...]yne. More ouer late vs enquyre and demande where ben they bycomen that haue lyued so playsan̄ly in this worlde. And me semeth that the grete. myddle and lytyll / deth hath put in hys [...]bgectōn. is not Octauian deed / and Cressus whiche were so ryche / Salamō the wyse. Sampson the st [...]roge. Dauid the loyal / Holofernes the grean̄t / and alle other Puissan̄t conquerours. hath not deth desconfyted them / By whiche it apperith that the lyf is vncertayn / short. and myserable / And therfore noman ought in his lyf haue grete faith ne hope. For the deth cometh comynly / whan a mā weneth to regne most hye and longe in his grete puyssan̄ce and strengthe /

¶How alle dedely synnes desyren the deth capo. xv

DEdely synue maketh a man to deye. seen that the auncyents were pylgryms / & to this purpoos we rede how plato wente on pylgrymage in to egypte for to lerne the scy­ [...]uce of Astrologye / as Policrate saith in his in boke. And [Page] pictogoras for to lerne trouthe wente in to ynde. & after was in egypte and in babylon̄e. as recyteth Polycrate in his iij boke. The chyldren also of abraham were iiij Cpilgryms And after was gyuen to them the londe of ꝓmyssyon. By the whiche thynges that we ought to lyue as pylgryms / yf we wyl come vnto perfection. Trouthe it is. that he is not a pylgrym. that alle way hath his herte on the contre that he cometh tw / And to this purpos we rede how a man somtyme demāanded of socrates / why his pylgremages prouffyted no thyng to hym / the whiche ansuerde to hym / that the cause was for as moche / as not wythstondyng that his body wente / neuerthe­les his herte remeuyd not / wherby it apperith that the pylgre­mages ought not to be doon onely with the body. but with the lxrte and with good wyll / And as touchyng to the pylgremage of the soule. it is inpossible to doo it wel. but yf the herte be dispoylled of worldly affections / For the synnes letten the pilgrym to doo well. For as we see that grete burthens. grete heuynes of body. grete fattens / grete age. and grete sekenesse let ten the pylgrym to doo his pylgremage. In lyke wyse the burthen of Couetyse / the heuynes of our slouthe / the fatuesse of our delytes. & the old age of our synnes letten our pylgremage and our saluacōn also / For alle these thynges letten vs to goo and accomplysshe our pylgremage /

¶Here foloweth the v boke. the whiche treateth of deth. and how noman ought to gloryfye hym of his estate

¶First it speketh how the lyf is shorte / and ot lityl enduryng capo. primo

IOb sayth that a man is of short lyf / the whiche is ful of myserye and pouerte. For lyke as the flo [...]r vanys­sheth away. and as the shadowe fleeth fro place to place. Right so the lyf of a man passeth shortly and right lyghtly. By whiche it appereth that noman oughte to gloryfye hym self of his [Page] [Page] [Page] tr [...]yteth eusebt [...] in his cronycles. how many haue slayn them self for cause of the anoyan̄ce of this p̄sent lyf. as he that sle we hym for payne that he had of the fe [...] [...]rtayne. & lu [...]sse also bycause she reputed her self disho [...]oured & trouthe is it that no [...]so ne ought to slee hym self as saith saynt Austyn in his boke of the cyte of god. & rep̄ueth them that haue slain them self. as they that bē aforsayd named. ne [...]theles by the said hystories it a [...]er [...]th how this presēt lyf is moche ennoyo [...]. & not only to them that be in ad [...]site. but also to euery good creature whiche desyreth parfyghtly heuene is this lyf noyo [...]. seē that this corporall lyf is but greuo [...] to them that desire e [...]lastyng lyf. & by [...]sequ [...] ̄t [...] deserueth deth bodyly that syn̄eth mortally. but many ther bē that sette no thyng of many sp [...]es. not withstondyng they be greuo [...] & weyghty. & yet they ought to be aduysed & cō [...]y [...] how somtyme many haue be slayn & deed by cause of sy [...]e th [...]t they dayly com̄yse & also right comynly s [...]ede we not that bycause of lecherye that god made alle the world to dye by the flood. Exepte noe his wyf. & his chyldren. as it is wre [...]on to the boke of genesis the vij chapitre. wherfore were srayn [...] people of the trybe of bemamyn. but for the leche [...]e whiche was com̄ysed in the wyf of the leuyte. as it appe [...]th in the ij chapitre of Iudicū. & many other also were euylly put to deth / as I haue rehereed in the second boke in the chapitre of luxurie More ou we rede in holy scrypture how many somtyme were slayn & deed by cause of dy [...]ce syn̄es. the whiche bē on this day smale and light reputed / Ne rede we not how somtyme who someuer blesphemed god / he was stoned to d [...]th of the people as it apperith the xxiij chapytre of the boke of leuyticum. Alas on this day the name of god is blasphemed without drede or fere of his punycōn / & as saynt Austyn saith. many bē hardy to trespace by cause that god delayeth theyr puny [...]ōn. But the tyme shal come that the payne shal be somoche more greno [...] / As the delaye shal be more longe we rede also that Golyas blasfemed the name of god. But dauid whiche was thenne [Page] a chylde slewe hym with his owne swerd as it apperith thee first boke of kynges the xvij chapitre. More ouer we rede how many were somtyme ded by cause of inobedyence / & other by cause of murmure / & many other by cause of Rauyne or of ne chygence / & neuertheles. the tyme is now in whiche the creatu­res humayne sette but lytyll for to obeye god. Murmure. & de­traction regneth in these dayes in the world / & to alle maner synnes the people ben alle enclyned. Thēne we ought to be ad­uysed how somtyme many deyed and were slayn for cause of suche synnes as we dayly doo & vse And to this purpoos we rede how the chyldren of Aaron were brent & denoured of the fyre by cause they offred of the fyre in the temple ayenst the will of god as it apperith the & chapitre of leuyticū wherfor swolo­wed the erthe chore dathan & abyron. but for as moche as they murmured ayenst moyses as it appe [...]th the xvj chapitre of the boke of nombres. wherfor was herode smetō & slayn of his enemyes. but for he wold apꝓpre to hym self the louynges of god as it apperith the xij chapitre of the actes of thappostles / wher­fore was anamas & saphire stoned to deth. but for as moche as they fraudelētly toke away the goodes whiche were ordeyned to the seruyce of god. as it apperith in the same boke the [...] chapitre / Olord god yf thou now punysshest semblably them that trespace. I byleue that ther shold be moche fewe syn̄ers. & that many shold moche drede god. whiche now dayly doo euyll But as the scripture saith. god suffreth syn̄ers to lyue to thē ­de that they con [...]te them fro theyr syn̄es / & whan they lyue longe / wythoute conuertyng them self. so moche more ben they he­uy / & of theyr neclygence so moche gretely shal they be pugnys­shyd Trouthe it is that som̄e folyssh people saye oftymes. that they lyue lōge by cause they be shre wysshe & euyl. & also they haue an hope to lengthe theyr lyf / by cause they be euyll & shrewes by euyl dooyug But that is a folysshe hope For they ought to consy [...]re and byholde the folyssh thoughtes / And that for suche hope they deserue the deth & ben Indigue And vn worthy [Page] to haue the tyme / in whiche they may amēde them. they ought also to right well aduyse them how the same god that pug­nysshyd the Ann̄cyent peple whiche were in the olde tyme. the same self god without ony helpe may at all tymes pugnysshe them yf it please hym And whan he forbereth of his grace. it is for to aduyse vs the better. It is a grete vnkynde­nes for to doo the werse / for to wene to lyue the more lenger [...] and therby to lengthe his lyf / O ingratitude or vukynd [...]nesse / thou art cause that many lese theyr graces. whiche god grann­teth to them that wold amende them. Therfore ought euery man knowe and remembre the grace that god hath doon to them / whan he hath suffred them longe to lyue. For after the mesure the lyf is more longe. the synnes ben the more grete / whan a mā lyueth wythout correctyō. & wythout amēdemēt. Alas we ought to cousydere how for euery synne we deseruedeth. as it is to fore sayd. wherfore deyde he [...]p. but by cause [...]e was neclygēt for to chastyse his chyldrē as it apperith the fyrst boke of kynges the x chapytre. wherfore was absalō slayn. but for his pryde. whā he wold haue ocupied the [...]eyame of his fad / as it apperith the ij boke of kynges the xviij chapytre. we rede also how balthazar was right euill & therfore he deyed an euyl deth. as danyel recyteth in his vj chapytre / wherfor dyde archicofel hāge hym self. but by cause that he was in despayr by cause of the fals con̄seyl that he dyde ayenst dauid as it is wretō the ij boke of kynges the xvij chapitre also they that falsely witnessed ayenst danyel were not they deuoured of the lyons. wherfore were they horrybly slayn that wytnessed fals­ly ayenst susan̄e. but by cause they falsely accused her. Therfor they that vnresonably syn̄e / they deserue deth as it is aforsayd

¶How no man ought to doubte ne fere the deth capo. iijo.

GOd sane them that loue hym & serue hym / For in the gospel he promyseth that they shal neuer perysshe. To this purpoos fayth the proohete. Iuste & trewe mē shal lyue [Page] perdurably. and shal florysshe as a palme. By reason also they that goo the right way shullen arryue at a good porte / They thēne that lyuen Iustly shall deye of a good deth Trouthe it is that we rede som̄e historyes apocryfats and not approued. the whiche sayen that somtyme many good heremytes lyueden alle theyr lyues holyly. And neuertheles in thende by vayn glorye or for other synne they deyde not well. But sauyng the re­uerence of them that haue wreton suche historyes / as me se­meth they be not tre we / but contryued / For it may not be that god suf [...]reth not a man to mespryse ne to synne at the poynt of deth. whiche alle his lyf hath lyued and seruyd hym deuoutly. But it myght so be that many haue shewed alle theyr lyues to be good and deuoute / whiche were nothyng soo / the whiche deyde euyl & noo good deth / & that is no merueylle For ypocry sye is a synne that well deserueth to deye an euyl deth. But of them that be good wythoute fayntyse / I may not byleue suche historyes / For the good lyf. deserueth a good deth. & to this purpos we haue many examples autentikes and approued. by the whyche it apperith / how the good people deyde well and holyly Rede we not how moyses singuler serun̄t of our lord right worthyly / and by the com̄andement of god. And the scripture saith that god buryed hym as it apperith in the boke of deutro­nomye / Semblably we rede how helye the ꝓphete was right gloryously lyfte vp in to paradys. for he beyng nygh his d [...]th ther appiered a carte and horse clere as fyre de [...]oendyng fro he­uen. whyche toke hym and transported hym in to paradys terrestre / As it apperith the iiij boke of kynges / how deyde al­so Iob the good and pacyent / Certayuly we rede that after the tormentes and trybulacon̄s. whyche he endured wythoute synne / And suffred moche pacyently he lyued C xl yere / and deyde well and holyly / Also saynt Poul sayde I desyre the deth for to be wyth Ihū cryst / Trouthe it is that his desy­re presupposed the wyll of god. For other wyse oughte none to desyre. it. & how be it that many loue this lyf & the world also / to [Page] be foūded in folye ne in euyl aduys / for as thappostle sayth we haue here in this worlde no cyte perdurable. but we ought to enquyre & gete the cyte of heuene. by whiche it apperith that many be deceyued that alleway wold lyue here. For they desy­re that whiche may not be naturally / Thyre desyre also gayn [...]yen to theyr saluacōn. & therfore saith terena [...] in his iiij boke that people of grete courage haten this lyf. & doubte nothyng the deth. & therfor thou oughtest not to procure thy deth ne ab [...]redge thy lyf vnduely / But thou oughtest desyre the lyf to co­me in suche wyse that this lyf be not to the as a paradys in thyn herte or as thy last truste. And take hede to the [...]lepha [...] the whiche whan he slepeth. leneth to a tree. & thēne comen the hunters whyche cutten the tree. & so the olyphaiit falleth [...] taken & slayn / In lyke wyse it happeth to then [...] truste in this present lyf. for the tyme shal come that theyr [...] te shal all be loste. and also they shal see. that it is a lytyl thy [...] of the lyf of this world / & me semeth that it were good that a man shold remembre fro the day of his byrth vnto the day of his deth / he shold fynde that the day of his deth shold be me [...]e worthy thā the day of his byrthe / for a mā is born in syn̄e [...] yf he wyll he may deye in grace. the day of his byrthe is the [...] of his entree in to myserye. trybulacōn. & in afflyxiōn. but that the deth is more worthy it apperith. for a mā is born alle yg­norant & wythout knowleche. but at his deth / thēne comynly a mā knoweth god & hym self / thēne is that the day that [...] hath most very repentaūce. wherfore it apperith that the day of the deth is more happy comynly thā the day of his byrthe. & ther fore many wyse mē haue redeyued the deth Ioyous [...]y. & to th [...]s purpoos sayd mercurye to a mā I wold sayd he yf it playsed god that I were quyte ont of this world. to thēde that my soule were lyfte vp aboue in to heuene. & certaynly we rede how plato made sōtyme a newe boke named phedrō in whiche he preueth & sheweth how a resonable soule ought aff this lyf to haue heuene. the whiche boke empedocles studied moche [...] [Page] & whan he apperceyued that the soule was ordeyned for to haue suche a good thēn he despysed moche this lyf / & moūted vpon an hye wall / For whyche he fylle for to shorte his lyf for to gete & haue heuen / & how be it that his oppynyon is not good ne approued. neuertheles by the sayd historye it apperith that he that entēdeth to haue heuene. ought lytyl to preyse his lyf /

¶How yet noman ought to doubte the deth capo. iiij

I It apperith yet by seneke in his boke of remedyes of fortune. in whiche he saith. that it is folye to deede that whiche cometh of nature. and that one may not eschew. And therfor in his vj boke of questyons naturell. he hym self s [...]y [...]h that the wyse man ought not to doubte the deth. ne the thynges also by whyche he may deye by honour. For the knyghtes ought not to fere ne doubte bataylle founded by right and in reason. And the wyse man ought not to hyde the trouthe / supposed that therin be peryll of deth / And to this purpos saith varro in his sentences / That he is a fool that doubteth the deth For he taketh two paynes for one / That is to wete the deth. and the drede whiche may no thyng prouffyte to hym but encrece his payne / And therfore sayth seneke in his iij boke of questyons naturell / It is a lytyl thyng sayth he of the lyf of a man. But tis a grete thyng whan a man maye & can despyse his lyf / For thenne shal he be sure in see and on londe in ba [...]ayll / And in alle peryllis / Thenne ought euery man to desyre to deye wythout drede as a fore is. sayde. Now wolde god that the ryche mē of this world wold take hede herto. for thēne shold they lytyl doubte the deth. & lytyl loue theyr goodes seen they muste nedes leue all / & therfor saith seneke in one of his epi [...]tles wherfor wepest thou. whā the byhoueth. & muste nedes dye. for as moche fool is he that wold lyue alle the tyme to come. as he to whome it d [...]splayseth by cause he hath not ly­ued alle the tyme passyd and to this purpoos recoūteth valere [Page] in his vj boke how the kyng lazuriat [...] dyde doo crucyfye a mā named theodore. by cause he had repreued hym of certayn euyl [...]s that he had doon / And thenne theodre beyng on the crosse sayde. I had as leef sayd he deye on hye on the crosse. as to deye lowe on the erthe And therfor saith lucan in his viij boke. that no man ought to doubte the deth. seen that it is the last payne and the ende of alle mystrye. Of whiche deth speketh a philosopher named secundus One demandeth what thyng is deth and he ansuerd and sayth that it is the drede of ryche men / The desyre of poure men / The Ioye of wyse men. And the ende of payne / And Macrobe in his fyrst boke of the dreme of scypion / saith that wery phylosophye is to thynke on the deth Trouthe it is that ther be ij maners of deth / And the one deth is named the deth of the soule. whan it is withoute vertues. & that deth ought euery mā moche to doubte. for it maketh the soule Indygne & vn worthy of all good. that other deth is said corporell the whiche no wyse mā ought to doubte & to this purpoos saith seneke. that it is a thyng moche myserable not for to knowe to deye. & they that can not deye. bē they that ne [...] dispose them for to deye. but in dede they haue a folyssh hope to lyue alway. Ayenst them speketh the sētēce sayeng that the deth is the desyre of wyse mē. recytyng how one named zenomanus purcha [...]ed his owne deth. wenyng the bettre for to lyue after his lyf. & how be it that nomā ought semblably to doo [...] Nei [...]theles it apperith by that noman ought to doubte the deth / & to this purpoos recyteth zenohon how Cyrus deyde sayng. My frendes & my chyldren. whan I shal be deed. wene ye not that I god in to a newe contrey. for myn herte hath alleway ben in that other world. & for somoche whā I shal be deed I shal be al le way in the cōtrey in whiche I was to fore. by the whiche historye apperith. how the wyse mē ought alleway to haue theyr hertes on the other world. therfor saith quitilian [...] in his iiij to be it is a thyng moche desyro [...] to come for to see day & the houre. that a mā is gyuē & dely [...]d to his maker. & ꝓsꝑ in his boke [Page] Epigramanton sayth / that after the deth shal be Ioye without ende / light without derknes / wyll all one / hel the without ma­ladye. Ioye wythout ennoye or greuānce. And therfore men ought lytyl to drede the deth /

¶How to thynke on the deth is a thyng moche prouffytable capo. v.

THe wase man in the xxxvin chapitre of ecclesiastike / saith remembre the of the last dayes. that is to saye of thy deth. and thou shalt neuer synne. For a man that thyn­keth he muste nedes deye. hath a drede to trespace & doo a mys and setteth lytyl by the world and by hym self. And also he is all cooled of the vanytees and of all worldly plasan̄ces / And to this purpoos tullius in his first boke of his questions tus­culanes alledgeth socrates. the whyche saith that the lyf of philosophres is for to thynke on the deth. Semblably sayth pla­ton as recounteth Alephareus in his boke of the dyuysyon of philosophye. Seneke also in his xvj epystle sayth that a mā bycometh franke and free by thynkyng of the deth. For that causeth to asche we synne. of whyche cometh all seruitude. and aunciently & of olde tyme whā themperours were crowned it was demaūded of them in what place they wolde be buryed & thēne they assygned the place of theyr buryeng / & this custome was ordyned to thēde that they sholde remembre theyr deth for tesche we pryde / as it is recounted in the lyf of saynt Iohū the Amener. Saynt gregore in his ix boke of moralles sayth that whan a man is tempted. the souerayn remedye is to thynke on the deth / And in his xxj boke he hath the same purpoos ge­uyng an example of them that saylled on the see. the whyche lefte playes. and esbatements whan they sawe the tempest of the see come. Semblably is it of them that thynken on the deth Trouthe it is that by this thynkyng no man ought to angre hym self. but he ought well to aduyse hym. For they that ben angry ben they that ouermoche louen this world And [Page] the other doo not soo. but reioysse as it is aforsaid / More ouer thou oughtest to knowe that to thynke on the deth maketh a man humble. For the deth shal make vs alle egall. And ther shal be no difference bytwene the poure and the ryche whan the body shal be roten and asshen / as witnesseth seneke in his epistle lxxxv. To this purpos sayth the wyse man in his boke of ecclesiastyke the v chapytre / All naked I am born. and all naked I shal retorne in to therthe. Thenne me semeth that it shold be a moche prouffytable thyng. the consideracōn of the d [...]th by the whyche a man bycometh humble & knoweth his fra­gylite. And certaynly who that wold wel thynke how the lyf is short. And how the deth is nyghe. be shold be moche dylygent to doo well. For the tyme shal come that a man shal not mo­we doo well. And to this purpoos sayth thappostle in his last chapytre ad galathas / late vs doo well as longe as we maye And syth we haue the tyme and season. as who wold saye / that the tyme shall come. that we shal not mowe doo well / That is to were after the deth. And to this purpoos we rede an hystorye of a yong man the whiche consyderyng that alle we muste nede deye. he entred in to religyon for tamende his lyf. wherof his fader was moche sorouful & angry / And cam to hym for entreate hym to retorne to the world / the whiche ansuerd that gladly he wold recorne. with that he wold chān ge one of the custōmes of the contrey. Thenne the fader ansuer de / that he wold chan̄ge gladly the costome / seen that he had right grete piussan̄ce in the coutrey. And desired to wete what custome it was. And the sone sayd to his fader that ye wold take a way this custom̄e. that is to were that no yong peple deye / but only the olde. For ye knowe well that the custom̄e of your contrey is that the youg peple deye as wel as the olde And therfore I am entred in the religyon / For I wore neuer whan I shal dey. The whiche worde consyderyng. The fader departed all confused / and lefte his sone duellyng in religyon / the whyche sone had moche wel consideryd the worde of Ihū [Page] tryst sayeng. wake he and aduyse you well. For ye knowe not the houre whan god shal come and calle you. as recyteth seynt Mathew in his iiij chapitre. And me semeth that our present lyf may be compared to a Royame. of whiche recounteth va­lere. how somtyme was a Royame. the whiche euery yere made a new kynge. And as longe as the yere dured. the kynge was mayntened in grete astate and in grete richesses. Bnt assone as the yere was passed. he was despoylled all naked / & bānysshed ont of the Royame. And for his salayre they gaaf to hym but an egge onely. And it happed that ther was one kynge emonge the other. whiche aduysed hym that in the yere that he shold be kynge. he shold sende of his rychesses ynowh in to a stran̄ge contrry for to lyue in tyme comyng. & for to ma­yntene his estate / syth he shold be banysshyd by the maner aforsaid / we ought thenne take example of this kynge for to doo wel as longe as welyue. For the tyme shal come whan we shal be banysshed ont of this world / and alle naked sent hens Tixnne we ought in the tyme of our lyf to make puruean̄ce of good werkes. And sende them in to a strānge contrey. that is to saye / in to heuene / There ought we to make our tresour as Ihū cryste admonesteth vs. that we shold make our tre­sour in the heuene. For ther is no maner of peryll ne of theues ne of persecu [...]ours. ne of thyng that may greue. Soo thenne ought euery man acquyre and gete the Royame of heuen / & that to doo we sholde make dylygence / yf we thynke and re­membre. how in short tyme vs byhoueth to deye /

¶How noman ought to be curyous of his scpulture capo. vo.

SEpulture curyor [...] may be signefyānce of pryde and of vanyte. And singulerly whā a man in his lyf doo make and ordeyne it curyonsly / And taketh therin vayn glorye. & vayn playsir. And in so dooyng he putteth his soule in grete peryll. And yf thou sayst. that thou dooyst it onely to thende that [Page] the people praye for the / whan they shal see thy portrayture / Therto I ansuere to the. that in my lyf I haue seen many se­pultures but I haue not apperceyed that the people is moued to deuocōn / or to praye to god by cause of them / but I haue wel seen moche people beholde aduyse. and Iangle by cause of suche sepultures. And me semeth it is nothing aduenan̄t. ne apperteyneth not to a synful creature to haue a sep ulture so curyous ne soo enhannced / as many men haue / For I sup­pose that it is more to theyr dampnacōn / than to thyr salua­cōn. Alle way I say not but thou mayst in somme maner or­deyne for thy self a sepulture acordyng to the seate that it ap [...] teyneth to the / But kepe the well / that thou therin take no pryde. For more syttyng shold it be that suche goodes were employed to shryne the bodyes of sayntes. the whiche thou hast employed to a sepulture for the whiche art a syancer. and vn­worthy to be enhaunsed aboue therthe halowed. And to this purpos speketh saynt Anstyn in his boke of them that be pas­sed out of this world. How the gloryous sayntes of the heuene hane not retched of theyr sepultures. For som̄e haue be brent / som̄e drowned / other byheded. and other delyuerd to houndes and to beestis / And certaynly the sepulture serued more to dis­porte of them that lyue than it dooth to the preysyng of god. reproufyt of thē that be deed lyke as witnesseth saynt austyn m his boke of the cyte of god the xi ij chapytre. And to the same purpoos we rede in the second boke of vicas patram. how som tyme a good man sawe an euyl man moche honourably bu­ryed. and had a right curyo [...] sepulture / And he sa we a good man throwen in to the felde and eten of bestes. wherfor this sayd good man was angry / Thēne an angel aperid to this man that was angry& sayd to hym. My frende be nothyng angry. For the curyous sepulture is for payment of the euyl man yf he haue in his lyuyng doon ony good / But the good man whiche was eten of the houndes is hoolly rewarded in heuene. by whiche it apperith. that the curyosite of seputures [Page] is not prouffytable. & certaynly we rede how dyogenes commāded that after his deth. his body shold be delyuerd to the byrdes aud to bestes to ete. And whan it was demanded the rea­son wherfore. he ansuerde that the bestes after his deth shold doo to hym none harme / thaugh they tare & despieced all his body And it sholde doo grete good to the bestes to take of hym theyr nature. & it is better so to doo than do putte it in therthe for to rote. Also Tullius recoūteth in his fyrst boke of questions tul enlanes. And semblably he recyteth how one demanded a phi­losophre named Azagouas in what place he wold that his body shold be buryed The whyche ansuerd that he was cōtent of alle the places of the world. we rede also how a tryan̄t me­naced a philosopher named theodre. that he wolde delyuer his body to the bestes / the whiche ansuerd that after his deth he ret­ched nothyng of ony sepulcre ne of suche vanytes. As seneke recounteth the xviij chapytre of the boke of tranquylite of cou­rage. And pompeius in his iij boke recyteth how the kyng li­r [...]irgis comānded that after his deth he shold be throwen in to the see / Aunciently also many men wolde that theyr bodyes shold be eten / And certaynly seynt Ierome in his boke ayenst Ionynyen / recyteth how the people callyd messagiers had a custome to ete theyr parents. For it was better as they sayde that they shold ete them than the wormes / And how be it that it is a cuyl oppynyon. Neuertheles by the thynges abouesayd it appierith how the aūcyent people were nothyng curyous of theyr sepultures. trouthe it is a thyng resonable for to requyre that is body be burryed in plaee halowed / For somtyme the prayers that be sayd in halowed places ben right prouffytable And to this purpoos saynt Austyn in his boke of them that be passed out of this world recyteth how a good woman dyde do burye her sone in the chyrche of a martyr. in hope that the pre­sence of the martyr shal be moche prouffytable to the soule of her sone. And in dede by the prayers of the martyr his soule was moche alledged of his payne and was anone saued. As [Page] fyuably was shewede to the sayd good woman. By whiche it apperith that how be it that curiosyte of sepulture be but lytyl necessarye / Neuertheles halowed place is for to be demaūded resonable. And therfore som̄e aūcyents were moche dylygent for to be buryed in place resonable. Rede we not how Abra­ham right diligētly bought a felde for to burye therin his wyf For he wold not that she were buryed in ony erthe but in his owen as it apperith the xxij chapytre of genesis. And Iacob requyred his sone Ioseph that he myght be buryed with his parents / as it apperith the xliiij chapytre of genesis. And of Moyses we rede. how whan he passed out of egypte. he trans­ported the bones of Ioseph in to the londe of promyssson for to leye them with his parents as it apperith in Exode the xiiij chapytre / & knowe thou that not onely thou oughtest to thyn­ke of thy sepulture. but also it is a thyng moche resonable for to burye the bodyes of the poure people. & herof we rede how the an̄gel moche recom̄ended thobye by cause he was so moche dylygent for to burye and brynge in erthe / the bodyes of the deed people as it apperith in the fyrst and second chapytres of his boke. And semblably ought moche to be preysed Ioseph a Nychodemus whiche were dylygent for to burye the body of Ihū cryste as it apperith the xxvij chapytre of seynt Mathew. by whiche thynges thou mayst wel apperceyue / how for to burye other / thou oughtest to be right dylygent and attendan̄t / But of thyn owne sepulture thou oughtest to take lytyl hede and not be curyous /

¶How a persone ought to thynke on the day of dome cap.o. vij

Yf thou thynke on the Iugement fynall. thou shalt be moche afferd for to dod euyl as it is shewede to vs by expe­ryence of moche people. that lefte to doo euyl for free of Iustyce. And yf thou demānde of me whan shal be the day of Inge­ment / I ansuere to the as doth seynt Austyn in his sermon [Page] that he made of the Innocentes. the whiche ansuerth to the sa­me questyō sayengthat the day of dome shal be. as who saith now. or anon. For as thappostle sayth in a moment and at one stroke shal thangel sowne the trompe. and alle shal aryse & come to the Iugemēt. There shal be moche abasshed they that shal be in synne For nothyng shal auaylle thēne to wepe. ne none shal mowe doo thyng that may ꝓuffyte to his saluacōn The prayers of sayntes shal not thēne mowe helpe the. therfo­re thou oughtest whylest thou here lyuest wysely to aduyse the for thēne thou shalt see thy fayt & thy sentēce to fore thyn eyen there shal be thyn enymyes that shal accnse the / & shal demānde the. To whom thou shalt be delyuerd without remyssion for e [...] more. And hughe saith in his boke of the Arke of noe the viij chapytre / that the elementes and alle creatures that haue don to the seruyce shal demaūde Iustyce of the / The erthe shal saye I haue born the / I haue nourysshyd the. The water shal saye I haue refresshed the and haue conforted the. and in lyke wy­se alle creatures shal reproche the of theyr benefaytes. in sayeng that they neuer serued the but to thende that thon sh [...]lcest serue god / whom thou hast not serued. And therfore we demann­de reason of the. as of hym that hath euyl knowen the goodes that god hath doon for hym. But thou mayst saye that the day of Iugement shal not come yet in a grete tyme. And ther to I ansuere the and saye that the tokenes and signes of the day of dome ben almost accomplysshyd. ne see we not how lecherye regneth. the whiche somtyme was cause of noes flood & of the perdycōn of the world. & me semeth that lecherye semblably may gyue to vs cause to doubte that the day of do­me be nyghe / For in mariage is lytyl loyalte or trouthe. In peple of the chyrche lytyl chastyte. of whom speketh thappostle in his epystle to the ephesiens sayeng. that lecherous peple shal haue no parte in the Royame of heuene / More I ansuere to the and saye that many other signes ben accomplysshyd. For the sonne and the Mone haue lost theyr clerenes / And the sternes [Page] ben fallen fro heuen / And ther is none other thyng to speke of but it is come. For the chyrche whyche ought to ly [...]hte alle the world lyke as the sonne / is now in these dayes derked. & in many maners entatched with vyces. And the mone. that is to wete the seygnorye temporell is now in this tyme eclypsed and ful of pryde and of tyrannye / And the sterres. that [...]s to saye the clerkes the prechours & the counceyllours ben fallen from heuene / For they haue lefte to saye trouthe for tensye we and folowe flaterye / By whyche it apperith that the signes & tokenes of the day of dome and last Iugement ben ynowh accomplysshyd. And yf thou demānde me yf Antecryst be co­me / I ansuere to the that whether he be come or not come Neuertheles many be lyuyng that doo the werkes of Antecryst. and that may wel be called his disciples / For they ben false dissymplers & euyl procrytes. and of suche men antecryst shal be / trouthe it is that som̄e may saye that the day of dome may be knowen naturelly / to whome I ansuere. that it is nothyng so. For god hath not shewed it to man ne to an̄gel. as it ap­perith in the boke of thactes of thappostles / and the same Witnesseth seynt Austyn in the fyrst verse of the vij psalmes. but not withstondyng that in folowyng som̄e auctorytres & rea­sons may in this mater som̄e thyng be sayd wythout to deter­myne ony thyng / For god is he onely that may determyne the day and hour of the Iugement as it playseth hym Thēne it shold seme fro the begynnyng that the world shelde fynysshein thende of som̄e thousandes of yeres / And for as moche as it is vj M vj Cxxxv yere syth the world was begonne. ther­fore ther lacketh yet iij Exl yere or theraboute vnto the day of dome And that it be soo I afferme not ne saye. but som̄e auc­torytres speken of tho [...]sandes of yeres in spekyng of the day of Iugement. And certaynly the prophete dauid saith that a thousand yere ben to fore thyn eyen as the last daye. lyke as he wold saye that the world shal fynyssshe vpon the ende of som̄e thousand of yeres / More ouer seynt Iohn̄ in his apocalyps the [Page] xx chapytre saith. that sathanas shal be bonde a Myere vnto thende of the world. & the prophete helye sath that the world shal dure vj Myere in acountyng fro the tyme that he lyued. & placo thimeon. saith that the world shal be renewed wythin xx Myere / By whiche thynges it apperith as if semed at the begynnyng that the world ought to fynysshe wythin thende of som̄e thousandes of yeres. More ouer lauteutique saith in his vij boke the xxxj chapytre that the world shall endure vj Myere. And Albimazar in his second boke of coniunctions in the viij defference saith that the tokenes of the world chaūgen after the mutacōn of Saturne And singulerly whan he hath made ten reuolucōns the whiche amounte to iij C yere or the­raboute. wherof we haue som̄e experyence. For after x. reuo­lucōns of saturne cam Alexander. and the Royam̄e of perse was cestroyed. And x. reuolucōns after cam Ihū cryste whi­che toke our humanyte & brought the newe lawe to the world And x reuolucōns after cam Meny whiche contryued ayenst tix paynems a newe lawe And. x. reuolucōns after cam mahomet the contryner of a false lawe / And x. reuolucōns after cam Charlemayne whiche conquerd thempyre / And x. reuo­lusōns after cam godefroy of boylone whiche conquerd the ho­ly and / And thus somme may saye that by suche mutacōn as land is / That they maye knowe by astrologye the deffy­n [...]ment of the world / But I am not of that oppynyon. for god knoweth it onely. And in this matere ought nothyng to be affermed. lyke as seynt Austyn saith in his second boke of the cyte of god the second chapytre. After me semeth that how be it that thou knowe the day of Iugement / and suppose that it shal not be in longe tyme / Therfore as it not but that thou oughtest to drede it as moche. as it shold be right shortly. For the day of thy deth. the whiche shal be right short / shal be the day of thy Iugement. seen that in the same hour shall all be doon with the / And neuer shal the sentence be chaūged / And it is no doubte that yf thou deye in euyl estate in that houre / [...] [Page]

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