BY JOHN KINGE Doctor of Divinity, and Deane of Christ-Church in Oxon.

AT OXFORD, Printed by Joseph Barnes Printer to the Vniversitie. 1607.

8. Cantic. 11.‘Salomon had a vineyard in Baal-hamon: he gaue the vineyard vnto keepers: every one bringeth for the fruit thereof a thou­sand pieces of Silver.’

I Remember a difference theyHieron. make of the three bookes of Sa­lomon according to their sub­iectes, three severall sciences or disciplines, that lead man to his blisse; the first wherof is Morall, the second Naturall, the third Theoricall and Supernaturall.

1 In his Proverbs, because of the precepts and institutes of good life, they obserue Ethickes.

2 In Ecclesiastes, because of the search and know­ledge of causes, and distinction of substances from shaddowes and vanities, Physickes.

3▪ Lastly in his booke of the Canticles, they con­sider Metaphysickes; wherin is a sacred [...], hy­men, or marriage songue (Voluntatum, non voc [...]m cō ­sonantia, [...] not so much in words, as in wil [...]) contai­ning an indissoluble coniunction betwixt Christ and [Page 2] his Church.

Wherfore J make no quaestion, but as the rest of the body, so this part of the songue also is spirituall & diuine▪ & that Salomon, like M [...]yses elsewhere, hath a vaile vpon his face, and leauing the least and lowest roume to the literall sense, aimeth for the most part at mysteries. For that Salomon in his proper person the first and best knowne by the name of Salomon, had a vineyard in proper tearmes without any metaphor, or translation; and seated in Baal-hamon, whither you make it a proper name as Heshbon, and Engaddi, and other vineyards in the booke of God, or whether cō ­mon and appellatiue, because of the plenty and store that was in it; and that he set out his vineyard to Keep­pers at a price▪ alowing a competency to thē for their labour and culture bestowed, and reserving a rent to himselfe; is either true in the storie, it was so indeed, or incongruity the [...] is none, but it might be. A part of his Ro [...]al demaines is in vineyards, and Orchards, and paradises, in the 2. of Ecclesiastes.

All this (notwithstanding) is but the outward shell to an inward kernell. the foot of the ladder next to the ground, as in the vision of Iacob, wherin there is yet no climbing vp. wherfore the counsail of Bernard is from the 23. of the proverbs, when we are called to the table of a rich man, to consider diligently what is set before vs▪ fratres ad men sam Salomo [...] s [...]demus, su­perni [...] Ser. 30, in. Cant. [...]. 63. est refert [...] delitii [...] Brethren, saith he we sit at the table of Salomon, the meate that is set before vs is heavenly and divine. The Apostle saide, hath God care of oxen? Num quid de vine is & vitibus & virg [...]lt is cu­ [...]a est [Page 3] Deò? in like manner; hath God care of vineyardes? Homines, non arbores amat homo-deus: he that is God & man louethmen, not trees. His conclusion for all is, opera hic & impensa mentibus d [...]nda, non fructibus: the cost & care wee bestowe must bee spirituall vpon our soules, not corporal vpon the fruits of vineyards.

Who then is this Salomon? or what this vineyarde? what this Baal-hamon? These Keepers? this fruit? this rent? who and what are they?

Salomon is not Salomon the King of Israell▪ but the King of Kinges: not Salomon from the earth earthlie, but Salomon from heauen heauenly, he that in theBernar. ser. 27, in. Cantic. Gospell is more then Salomon, vs (que) adeo meus Salomon, Salomon est, vt non modo pacificus, [...]ed pax ipsa vo [...]e­tur. The Salomon whom I meane is so rightly a Salomon, that he is not only a peacemaker, but very peace it selfe. Salomon is Christ.

The vineyard is his Church, a metaphor wel known in the scriptures, were it a stranger vnto you, I would lead you into acquaintance vvith it throughout the whole booke of God. But it is not so, vinea intelligi­bilis, an intellectual, mystical vineyard is his Church: planted by Gods right hand, grounded in faith, roo­ted in charity, watered by the word of the preachers, digged and manured by the discipline of Magistrates, the vvine whereof hath the sauour and tast of a good conscience within, the colour and cute of an holy cō ­versation without, and the winepresse by which it rū ­neth abroad, is the tongue of open and thankeful con­fession to the praise of God.

Baal-hamon is the site of it, vallis, or planities, or [Page 4] domius multitudinis, soilicet vini, a vally or plaine or lord of store, to wee [...], of wine. The Greekes say, [...], where the comprehension of people, that is of plenty was. It is Corn [...] filius olei by an other allegory in the 5. of Esay a fertill and fat hill. J [...]deed so populous is the Church of Christ, that she meruaileth at her increase of childrē, & asketh in the prophet, Quis genuit mihi ist [...]s? who hath begotten me 49. Esa. these? and the children themselues cry, the place is to strait for vs. Hir beginning was at Ierusalē, but being thence abandoned, migrauit, non perijt, she travai­led, Bern. perished not: pulsa de ciuitate, ab vniuersitate exci­pitur, being expelled the citty, she is receaued of the whole world. Howbeit, we must euer remember there is also a choice made. For this vineyard is planted in Baal-hamon, not in the open field, whose portiō is theGenes. 3. curse of brambles, & briars; but in a seueral, peculiar, enclosed peece of ground, it is hortus conclusus, as theCant. 4. garden of Eden, and lieth within a hedge or fense, as a mount within railes. And whatsoeuer groweth without it, is labrusca, not v [...], some sower or hedge Esa. 5. Deut. 32. grape, not good to eat, or rather the grape of Sodome or cluster of Gomorrhe, which groweth but to the fire▪ My meaning is, extra ecclesiam nulla salus, without the Church no salvatiō: which made the good Emperour Theodosius resolue with himselfe, Malo esse membrū ecclesiae quàm caput imperii, I h [...]d rather be a member of the Church, then head of the whole empire.

The keepers of this vinyard are both the magistrate, & minister, for that the former also is, cannot be doubted: he is nutritius ecclesiae, the nursing father [Page 5] of the Church, & perregnum terrenum c [...]leste regnum [...]i dor. proficit, Kingdomes of the earth are good helps and fur­therances to the kingdome of heauen. Ego communis Euseb. de vi [...] Const. quidam sum episcepus &c. I am a certaine common Bi­shop among you▪ and as it were at large, said the worthy Cōstātine (as you hard not lōg since.) But this field hath bene reapt already to my hands. The later is a keeper also, but with no little oddes. The difference must euer be held betwene the Diademe, & Ephod, the kingdome and priesthood, betwene [...],1. Pe [...]. 2. the soueraigne, & any other subordinate magistrate. Every superiority is not impery, nor euery supervision & inspection, dominion. The power that the one hath, is regall▪ & imperiall, that the other pastorall and pater­nall; The one in things appertaineing to God alone; the other longè l [...] (que) with a farther extent both to God & man without limitation; the one as lord and master, the other as a father; the one by mādatory & coactiue authority inforcing, the other rather exhorting & per­swaiding: or if ever he command, wheras the one vp­on paine of loosing liberty, or limme, or life; the other doth it in the name of God, and before the Lord, andRom. 13. his holy angels, & vpon denunciation of Gods iudg­ments, The one beareth the sword: the other hath a sword too; but it is the sword of the spirit; or m [...]cro ec­clesiasticus, the sword of the Church, wherewith he smiteth not the body, but the conscience; or rather not a sword, but the Keyes of the church, the one hathPsal. 2. a rod of iron to crush in peeces, the other hath not more then the rod of his lips. Jn a word, to the one be­longeth tribute, to the other rather tithes & offerings: Rom. 13. [Page 6] to the one feare, to the other rather reverence, to the one [...], necessarie compulsory subiectiō (you must needs obey) to the other rather [...], a necessary too, but more inclining to a voluntary, a better tempered, and rather perswaded kinde of submission.

But more accommodate to the minde of my text, next and most immediatly knit to the custodie & care of this vineyard (according to the Apostles phrase, ye1. Cor. 3. are [...] Gods husbandrie) are the pastours of the Church: of whom God speaketh by his Propher, sili hominis posuite speculatorem, sonne of man I haue 3. Ezech. [...]. ler. made thee a watchman: and I haue set thee over nations & kingdoms, vt evellas, & destruas, & plantes, to plucke vp, and destroy; & plant, &c. rusticani sudoris schemate quodam (Bernard to Engenius) figuring the paines of De Consid. the past our by the toile of an husbandman. For all these haue sarculum linguae, a cultre in their tongues: (sarcu­lum, non sceptrum, saith Bernard to the same Eugeni­usSer. 58. super. Cant. againe, a cultre, not a sceptre) & gladium verbi, non ferri, a [...]word of the word of God, not of [...]ron. And their office is, 2. Tim. 4. Argue, increpa improue, rebuke, there is putatio, pruning of the vine; but withall obse­cra intreat, there is plantatio planting. To be short, Paul is a planter, Apollos is a waterer; and al the rest are [...], some way or other labourers with God in hus­banding this vineyard.

The fruit of a vineyard is the bloud of the grape. This is fructus nativitatis, Psal. 107. The true natiue fruit of it. The vine shal speake for her selfe from that parable, Iud. 9. & tell you what her fruit is: Vinum lae­tificans Deum & homines, wine that gladdeth both God [Page 7] and men. (Vinū laetitiae, not luxuriae: nor libidinis, wine Bern. of comfort, and gladnes, not of excesse.) It may be Vi­num moestificans some times, wine of sorrow. Mark the parable. The Oliue hath her fatnes, the figtree her sweetnes alone, those be their qualities: but est vineae quaedam acrimonia & seueritas, wine must be some­what tart, as well as pleasant: Coniungi debent suavi­tas Ser. 60. in. Cantic. & seueritas: Sweetnes and sharpnes must be ioined togither. As necessarie it is at times to heare the voice of the Church condemnantem, condemning, as consolā tem, comforting, and reposcentem, requiring, exacting the duties of christianity, as ignoscentem, pardoning faults & defaults, which she shalespie: at some times to feele her hand, plectentem, smiting, as wel as ample­ctētem, embracing at some others. Ther must be both manna, and vtrga in the arke, bread for refection, and a rod for correction, osculum and fraenum, a kisse for freinds, a bridle for refractary and stubburne persons. I named it planting and pruning before: there must be both doctrine and discipline, else is 'there wanting one of the two principall pillers, that the Church should stand vpon.

Shall I say in a word what this fruit of the viney­ard is? Go to the parable once more. Vinum quod l [...]ti­ficat Deum & homines: whatsoeuer are the duties of e­ther table of the law, towards God in the former, in the later towards man the image of God, are the fruits of this vineyard that is the Church of Christ: and fruct us natiuitatis, the naturall and kindly fruits. For to what other end werewe made, redeemed, rege nerate, begotten a new by the immortal seed of Gods [Page 8] word, sanctified and seasoned by his holy spirit, but that we should keepe his lawes, and walke before him in holynes, and righteousnes to our liues end?

Lastly the rent that is giuen for the fruit of this vi­neyard. Luk. 16. is that redderationē at the cōming of Salomon: the issue wherof wil be on the one side, gau­dium & corona, our ioy and our crowne; and Euge serue Phil. 4. Math. 25. Ezech. 3. & 33. bone, well done good servant: on the other, sanguinem requiro, Irequire that bloud at thy handes, which hath beene spilt through thy negligence. Let Keepers vvell weigh with themselues the rent they must thē bring. 1. The reckoning riseth very high, as appeareth by the sūme in my text mille argētei, a thousand peeces of sil­ver. 2. The singularity of accōptants aggravateth the danger, vir afferet, that is, quis (que), singuli afferent, every one shal accompt by the pole: and therfore folly for a­ny one keeper to say nō agnoscar in populo magno, therEccle. 16. are so many keepers of vs, that what is my one soule a­mongst so many thousands? posuerunt me custodem in vineis (went before in the Canticle) vineam meam nō Cap. 1. custodiui. They made me a keeper of the vineyards, and I haue not kept mine owne vineyard: wherevpō saith St Bernard, Ego huius loci occasione meipsum reprehende­re soleo, quòd animarum curam suscep [...]rim: By occasion of this place I am wont to bee displeased vvith my selfe (sith the chardge of my private selfe was so difficulte) that ever I tooke vpon me the cure of soules. To reca­pirulate all that hath bin spoken, Salomon is Christ; the vineyard is his Church; Baal hamon the increase; the keepers are pastours; the fruit is the loue both of God & man; the rent, is the reckoning that must bee [Page 9] yeelded vp at the comming of Salomon.

What care the Lorde hath ever imbraced & tēde­red his Church with (to omit his quid vltra? in the 5. of Esay, what should I more haue done? If we looke but in at the next dores to my text, wil presently appeare, vinea mea, quae m [...]hi, coram me: my vineyard, which is mine or belongeth tomee, is before me. His constant, redoubled asseveration, in so many possessiue, respe­ctiue, relatiue tearmes, of so neare appropriation, alli­ance, and amity, that we cānot imagine a girdle about the reines of a man to bee nearer, no nor the apple within his ey, nor bowels within his belly dearer vnto him. My vineyard, which is mine, is before me alwaies vnder the light of his countenance, vnder the eye of his prouidence, and the everlasting obiect both of his lookes, and of his loue also.

A part of which his loue, and not the least is, as he delt with the wounded man in the Gospell, whom by reason of his many infirmities he commended to the goodman of the Inne, and deliuered him two pence [...]uk. 10. (say they were the two testaments) in stocke, & what­soever he should more expend in counsaile and com­fort and his owne pains-taking, hee would repay all at his back returne: so be holding from the height of his sanctuary the cōditiō of his vinyard, in so much dāger of miscariage by foxes within, and wildbores without, serpentibus and apparentibus saith Bernard, latentèr & patentèr, openly and secretly oppugning the weale thereof, himselfe the principall [...] husbandman Ioh. 15. after the daies of his flesh, hath commended it to other keepers, non efficaciam quaerens, sed con­gruentiam, [Page 10] not out of want to himselfe, but for conve­nience to it, man vnto man beeing the meetest instru­ment to lead him to salvation, (speake thou vnto vs, 20. Exod. & we wil heare thee, but let not the Lord speak, least we die.) To these he hath perpetuated life & cōtinuance not in their singular persons, but in their line and suc­cession, Ego vobiscum vs (que) ad finem saeculi, I am vvith you (ô ye keepers) to the worlds end. So the Apostle wit­nesseth, Eph. 4. 11. He hath giuen some to be Apostles, some prophets, some Evangelists, some pastours & tea­chers, for the gathering togither of his saints, for the worke of the ministerie, for the building of the bodie of Christ donec occurramus omnes, till we all meete, &c.

Now what difference there is betweene keepers, & keepers themselues, I stand not to declare vnto you. Stabo super custodiam meam, but distributing the whole Church of Christ into two ranckes and com­panies, ordinem, & plebem as Tertullian sorteth thē,Exhort. ad cast. Desug. in. perseq. duces or pastores, & gregem; clerum, and populum; priest, & people. I may truely affirme that the custo­die of this vineyard hath ever past through the hands of those ordered persons, vvhom Ecclesiasticall vvri­ters call [...], consecrated men, the spirit of God Act. 13. and Rom. 1. [...] men separated & put a part, the fathers [...], clericos, ecclesiasticos, spi­rituall, cleargie and churchmen. And these by vndoub­ted commission from Christ, successiō from Apostles and Apostolique persons, confirmation of the primi­tiue and purer Church, and prescription of all ages downe to our owne times, haue beene ever invested with dispensation of the mysteries of Christ, admini­stration [Page 11] of the word and sacraments, power of the keies, remission & retention of offences, exclusion frō, or admissiō into the Church of Christ, imposition of hands, for the raising vp of new seed to the brethren deceased, with other the like prouinces and chardges belonging to them alone. Answerable to which their offices, & not disagreeing to the name of Custodes in my text, are those vsual titls of theirs throughout the booke of God [...] Stewards, [...], pastours, [...], and in the writings of the learned, Antistites, praesules, praepositi, re­ctores, &c. all names of superioritie and gouerne­ment; albeit in regard of their daiely seruice to God and his Church, because Episcopatus is opus, a bishopricke is a worke, and not honos, honour alone, but onus, a burthen, & they are bound by their callings prodesse, to do good, as well as praesse, to sit in place of gouernement (as the kingdome it selfe also is tearmed splendida seruitus, an honourable kind of service) they are stiled by the names of [...], to betoken and put them in mind of their ministery.

Endlesse were my talke to vndergoe the proofe of all the particulars before mentioned: but I am freed from the weight therof. My seruice at the present is rather in the negatiue & destructiue part; not so much to declare vnto you what the authority of those kee­pers hath bin, and now far it reacht, as to shew there are others in the Church of Christ, to whom these chardges neuer appertained.

I cannot deny but the keepers of this vineyard abu­sed the vineyard, none more. They became such kee­pers [Page 12] of it, as wolues are ouer sheepe, Tradidit eam cu­stodibus, saith my text; I may as truely say, Custodes tradiderunt eam, in an other sense her keepers betraied her. Jndeed they proued traditores traitours against her. Dicimini pastores, cum situ raptores▪ you are called Bern. pastours you are devourers. And againe, not Cultores dressers, nor custodes guardians, but L [...]trones, & fures, theeues and robbets. They succeeded in the Apostles roumes, but without imitation, in sede not in fide, in their seat not their faith. They had ministerij locū not zelum, the place but not the zeale of their ministratiō. They ran ad cathedram, not ad curam, to the chaires, not the cures of their predecessours. They followed those holy men as a tempest followeth a calme, or sick­nes health (saith Gregorv Naz.) that is, they came af­ter them. And what with their idlenes, ignorance, a­varice, ambition, tyranny pride, hauing at length tur­ned famulatum in fastu [...], their ministery of the gospel into a Luciferiā pride, to overtop the Emperor him­selfe, they so infected & afflicted the Church of God, and waxed so intollerable, that they could neither en­dure their own sores, nor abide other mens remedies; multitudo reprehēd [...]ntium▪ did but indurare impatien­tiam, they grew much the worse if any reproued them. By reason of which their obdurance it came to passe, that as Kings were expelled out of Rome, for Tarqui­nius Superbus his offence, and the Anabaptistes inSleydan. Germany must needes create a new world of magi­strates, because those in present authoritie did not please them▪ so for the wrongs and abuses that some keepers offered to the vinevard▪ all must be turned [Page 13] out; at least of those that were chiefe of thē, not their superfluous lop, (as one called it) takē a way, but the ve­ry substantial roote hewen quite downe Aedibus, sedi­bus effugari (which is B [...]inards word) to be driuen out of house and home, might not suffice, vnlesse out of diocesse and iurisdiction, out of life and being: & not the presbyteri, the persons peccant thēselues done a­way (which was Dio [...]etians persequution) but (that which was Iulians, and for worse) i [...] sum presbyterium, their whole race and revenew, liuely hood and maine­tenance vtterly extinguished: Their patrimonies and inheritances (a [...] by a lex Agraria) dissipated into so many hands, as that without a miracle they might ne­ver returne to the right owners againe: As if they had yowed to thēselues to sow the land of the church with salt, that it might ever remain̄e barrē, & never thēce­forth beare fruit more to prophets and prophets chil­dren. What? must al [...]e remoued & an vtter desolatiō made because some had delinquished? Cā they cal to minde neuer a Cypriā, nor Chrysostō, nor Basil, nor Na [...]ianzē, nor Austin, [...]o one of those anciēt Bishops of Rome, which wel neare 40. in a row witnessed their good cōfessiōs vnder those bloudy persecuting Pilats of the Empire, which may stand in the gap, and plead for the seruice that Bishops had done to the Church of Christ; but all must downe? Esto, Athanasium culpa­uerint aliqui say that Athanasius (said Athanasius himEpist. ad. solit. vit. agent. selfe of himselfe) were to blame, & might iustly be tax­ed quid alij fecere episcopi? aut quis ab illis Arsenius interfectus est? what haue the rest of the Bishops done? what Arsenius hath bin murt bexed by them? A strange [Page 14] kinde of reformation; the whole body destroyed, be­cause some parts are disordered and diseased, Our Sa­uiour dealt not thus in that other institution of marri­age: but when he perceiued (saith [...]e [...]ome) that things were come ad [...] to their last and worst condition, hee brought thē back ad [...] to their first an [...] best againe; Ab initio nō erat sic, f [...]ō the beginning it was not so. TheE [...]arr. in. Psal. 71 Merchant in St. Austin doth better plead for himselfe and his calling, Si mentior, ego mentior, non negotium, when they chardged his professiō with lying & fraud; if I lie, it is I that lie, not my profession. So shall you haue husbandmen, that for a storme of wether de­stroying their come, wil bl [...]sph [...]me the name of God; At ho [...] non faciunt agri [...]olaboni, those that are good wil neuer doe it. The like perhaps is in other courses & trades of life. At hominū [...]sta, non rerum peccata sunt, these are personalorim [...]s, not reall imp [...]tations. All this is not ma [...]kt in the [...]ase of these keepers: but a­gainst them, their callings, & their liuings is the voice of Edom heard, Downe with them, down with them, e­ven vnto the ground. And when they are downe, let thē n [...]uer rise vp againe.

In steede of these are erected a new sort of keepers, of a strange composition & concretion, part of clear­gy, part of Laity, as of old & new cloth peeced togither: the assembly, sessions, Senate, Synedryon, Consistorie, Court of which persons (call it as you list) they name the Presbyterie▪ and that presbyterie they call the Church, at least an epitome of the Church, a liuely repre­sentation and portr [...]icture of the vniversall Church, the perfit body of Christ, the tribunall of Christ, yea [Page 15] coel [...]m in terr [...] fitum, a ver [...]e he [...]ve [...] seated vpon the earth: the administration in these mens handes they tea [...]me d [...]uine and apostolique institution▪ an individu­all companion of the Gospel, the holy discipline, the dis­cipline of Christ, halfe the kingdome of Christ, an vn­doubted note of the Church, the eternall coun [...]a [...]e of God, the sceptre of Iudah, yea the sceptre of the sonne of God, without which he ruleth not: lastly they inti­tle the governors thēselues, [...]en [...]ors of manners, guar­dians of discipline, presidents over the [...]we of God, Vi­cars of Christ▪ set over the people in things appertai­ning to God, and such as watch ouer their soules; and ra­ther then faile, they make them Ecclesi [...]sticall, Mini­sters▪ Bishops prophets, to whom the spirits of prophets are subiect, yea they s [...]icke not to say, that [...], bodily the Angell of the Church of Ephesus, &c. to whom our Saviour writeth, may bee vnderstoode of their pr [...]byters; with other the like innumerable at­tributes, wherwith they labor to aray the nakednes & novelty of this late formed discipline, which neuer to this houre saw the age of a mā, threes [...]ore & tē years. What needed al this? licet sapere sine pomp [...] men may be wise without gl [...]rying too much of their wis [...]. But it fared herein, as at the dedication of Nabu [...] hodo [...] [...]o [...]s id [...]ll with cornet, trumpet, sackbut, p [...]lt [...]r [...], dul­ [...]ime [...], and all manner of instruments of musicke; so the whole booke of God must be vnbow [...]lled, and all the wi [...] of man ransa [...]kt, to findeou [...] a stile honourable enough for their new erected presbytery.

And because [...]om [...]n sine act [...] nihil est, name with­out power availeth not, they haue assigned thē offices [Page 16] no [...] inferiour to their titles. You vvoulde vvonder to heare, that those of the laity should haue ought to doe in administration of sacraments: yet haue I heard that even these doe deliuer the Cup in some places. But what of the preaching of the word? you shall bee tolde, that there is no difference betweene them and pastours, saue publike & priuate; for what the one doe in pulpits, the other doe in their consistories. It were incredible to be spoken, but that he that runneth may read it in their published and divulged bookes, that those whole descriptions appropriated by the holy Ghost, to Bishops▪ presbyters, and deacons, 1. Tim. 3. & Tit. 1. should be applied to their vn preaching presby­ters. They may consult, admonish, comfort, correct, examine, alow, refuse, suspend, excommunicate, ab­solue, & finally order all things belōging to the Church, that is to say in effect, directly, or indirectly and colla­terally, at first or at second hand, all things; some of these dutie [...] seuerally & apart, each elder in his tribe; others iointly, & in cōmuniō with colleagues. As nāe­ly, when they meete togither. 1. Theirs are elections & reiections of all church officers. 2. Excommunications, absolutions, and the power of the k [...]ies, theirs. 3. Theirs the disceptation and decision of all matters vvhatso­ever concerning either corrupt manners, or peruerse doctrine. Adde vnto these imposition of handes, com­mon and prophane vpon consecrate persons, and or­dination of the ministers of Christ by those that are without orders.

After such harde and burthensome provinces, perhaps you will aske mee what the persons them­selues [Page 17] [...]r [...] (these Areopagites and Amphictiones, iud­ge [...] of s [...]weightie affaires) to whom it is giuen thus to expatiate and revell through everie corner of the house of God. No doubt they are all Bez [...]l [...]ls at least and Aholiabs, or Zorobbabels, men of excellent both spirits, and giftes, furnished for such businesses. I di­stinguished formerly in the Christian cōmon-wealth two severall sorts, to w [...]t, Cleargy, and Laity. One a [...]d (it may be) the better part of this Court are pastours and Doctors: the other, and far the more, such for the most part,

Quales ex humili magna ad fastigia re [...]u [...]
Attollit, quoties voluit fortuna iocari,

Such as the satyre noteth, to day D [...]m [...],

—momento turbinis exit

Marcus Dama,—to day a tradesman, tomorrow a churchman, to day an artificer, tomorrow an elder▪ & so likewise backe againe.

Alternar [...] vices mirab [...]re:—wee may iustlie wonder at their changes. Hesterni Quirites, our yes­terdaies Luk. 10. rulers and gouernours of the Church, the next day return back to their wōted callings; like him that professed, Zach. 13. I am no prophet, I am an hus­bandman: Husbandry was my trade from my youth vp. [...] knowe not well what to make of them, but as St. Ber­nard wrote of himselfe, Epist. 245. Ego quaedā Chimaera mei saeculi nec clericum gero, nec laicum: I am a kind of mo [...]ster of my time, for I am neither cleark, nor lay▪ mā In a word such they are, of whom I will not speake so cursedly, as the Scribes and Pharises did, This people that knowe not the lavv, are accursed, Ioh. 7. neither▪ [Page 18] so ba [...]barously and vnchristianly, as the papistes doe, when by wrongfull misapplication they abuse scrip­ture: Giue not holy things to dogges; Cast not pearle be­fore swine: meaning in both these, the people must be debarred from reading of scriptures, who therfore, they say, are called [...] because they are [...], indeed no better in sense and vnderstanding, then very stones. But this I am sure of, wise men never thought it fit to ioine with them in consultations of learning & iudge­mēt. Their protestations are to the cōtrary, [...], wise men please not the people, neither doth the people please thē. Vnus mihi pro populo, populus pro vno. Cato pro centum millibus, and Plato instar omnium. One man of sorte worth all the rest. Hi in manibus suis speraverunt, Al Eccle. 38. these hope in their hands, and every one is skilful in his owne worke: without these cannot Citties be maintai ned, &c. Sed in ecclesiam nō transiliunt, super sellam iu­dicij non sedent, ne (que) palam faciunt disciplin [...]m & iu­dicium, They are not asked their counsaile in the con­gregation of the people, neither sit they vpon iudgment seates, neither are they meet for hard matters.

I haue shewed you in part vvhat they haue assu­med vnto themselues, but haue not declared as yet, what adventures they made to bring thinges to passe. The beginnings at first were smale, the proceedings wonderful, as of agraine of mustardseed, that becom­meth a great tree. I appeale to the truth of my storie. That discipline, which at the first begged hir allowāce from some neighbour Churches, was ready in the end to set her foote in the neck of hir friendes, and not [Page 19] much lesse then founders.

Asperius nih il est humili, cum surgit in altum.

Witnes the Pope towards the Emperour,

—Qui fluvialibus vndis
Int [...]muit torrens, fluit acriùs amne perenni.

You shall often haue a land-floud, engendred but of raine water, that wilbe more violent for the time then a liuing and ever flowing riuer. Did they conti­nue their begging? nothing lesse. Molestū est hoc ver­bum rogo: it is a greife to craue. They quickly turned ro­gare into vim irrogare (as Bernards word is) crauing into compelling. They call for reformation, and refor­mation is granted them in doctrine and sacraments, to the vttermost. That will not serue: but reformation after this forme (the Dagon of popish hierarchy, episco­pall preheminence must fall before the arke (I take it) of the presbytery) or they will neuer be subiect▪ to any mortall man. Do you sticke to yeeld vs this? J now call to minde what praise St. Ambrose gaue of the people of Millan, when there was hote persecution in the City, for the voice they then all vsed, Rogamus Auguste, non pugnamus, VVe entreat O Emperor, wee Lib. 5. epist. 33 fight not: perhaps they durst not: yes, Non timemus, sed rogamus, we feare not, yet we intreat. He affirmeth it to be the voice of the holy Ghost speaking in them. Hee red at that time vpon Iob: & he went vp into his pulpitt, he said, vnum Iob miraturus, to wonder at one Iob, but he found them al Iobs worthy to be wondred at for their singular patience. The like St. Bernard in an Epistle to Lewes the french king: profecto stabimus & pugnabimus vs (que) ad mortem (si ita oportuerit) pro Epist. 221. [Page 22] matre nostra, armis quibus licet; nō scutis et gladijs▪ sed precibus fletibus (que) ad Deum, Assuredly we wel stand & fight for our mother, if neede be, vnto death, with such armes as we may, not with sword and target, but vvith praiers and teares to God. But with these we haue to deal with, it fared quite otherwise, pugnamus Auguste or Augusta, nō rogamus, King or Queene whosoeuer, we entreat not, we must and will haue it. I deny not but motions there were some, & admonitions, petitions, supplications; but as physicke raught vpon a daggers point; either you must take it, or they will driue it downe your throate. For see the sequele. They breake forth to assemblies, confederacies, associations, sub­scriptions, sacraments, oaths, menacings, thundrings and lightnings from the Church, excommunications denounced, yea banners displaid in open field: Quis sensus armorum, &c. did the Orator aske? I may aske with St. Bernard, vbi timor mentis, rubo [...] frōtis? wher was either cōscience towards God, or reuerence towards his anointed? yet on they must. This dissipline must be aduanced, and Princs submit themselues vnto it. And that Prince, King, or Emperor that shal ānulle it, is to be held for an enemy to God, & himselfe vnwor­thy to be are rule ouer any of Gods people. What doe [heare against the anointed of the Lorde, his Lieue­tenants on earth, Gods of the earth, solo Deo minores, Tertul. Bern. subiect to none saue God? Christus aliter & iussit, & gessit, Christ bade, Christ did otherwise. Conditor Cae­saris Caesari tributum dedit, He that made Caesar, paid tribute to Caesar. Peter and Paule did otherwise; alter amisso, alter submisso in cruce capite, both sealed their [Page 21] obedience to the Emperor with sundry their deaths. And their writings haue an other language: Let euery Rom. 13. soule be subiect to the higher powers. They wil say that1. Tim. 2. was in the churches infancie. And let praiers and sup­plicatiōs be made for al, especially for kings. So theeues must be praied for, & yet punished for their theevery. And Princes must be obeyed, whether good or bad. No it is blasphemy to say so, I am sure it is blasphemy to say, as they say, Quis credidit auditui nostro? Who will be­leue our report? An non iustiùs os loquens talia fusti­bus Berrn. tunderetur, quàm rationibus refelleretur? I could lead you along into aforrest of the most vnpriestly po­sitions, and vnchristian, vnsubiect▪ like practises, that ever were heard of. Nudè nuda loquor, I speake truthes truely. They are now become mundi fabul [...], & can no more lie hid, then the sunne in the firmament. J am sorie it should be so. With a tender and trembling hand, I confesse, do I touch the sores of friendes. Wheras, were J to deale against a professed enemie to the Gospel of Christ, I would sharpen my stile a­gainst him to the vttermost of my power, and cut, as with the point of a Diamond. But the Apostle hath taught me, Non possumus aliquid contraveritatem sed 2. Cor. 13. pro veritare: wee can doe nothing against the truth but for the truth. Amicus-Socrates, amicus Plato, sed magis amica veritas. Although, why should I cal thē friends, whose violent and tumultuary spirits haue wrought so much trouble to Christian states? And therfore, non verenda retego, sed inverecunda confuto, I vncover not the shame of father, nor brother, nor friend, but ra­ther discover & cōfute things that were past all shame.

[Page 22]But say that the supreme magistrate, thus dared as you heard before, wil not submit himselfe, nor admit the gouernment so eagerly pursued? What then? There are other inferior magistrates to stand in place: and Nobles vvere at first ordained by God to bridle Princes. A good doctrine. What if the Nobles make a conscience therin? Then is the lande without anie magistrate at all, and the sword in the peoples handes. Belike the people themselues when we are fallen so low, are [...], headlesse, vnlesse they bee guided and directed by their presbyteries. These are not gradus, but praecipitia, steps, but downe-fals. You see we are come at lenght to a faire passe: frō the head of autho­rity, the eies of wisdome, eares of discreation, tongues of perswasion and grace, breasts of counsaile & direction, armes of true puissance & fortitude, to the ve­ry feete (of obedience and subiection, they should be) they must needes proue, of disorder and confusion. The feere rule all A mere Cyclopicall state.

—ingens corpus cui lumen ademptum,
Agreat and vnweldy body without an eie.

Now in this [...], the world turned vpside downe, where the people commandeth all, what hath beene done to trouble the peace both of Church, and common wealth? Rather what not? The beginninges were tragicall, with the trumpet of Sheba, the tongue of Shimei, and not much lesse then the hand of Zimri; the proceedings tyrannicall, the ende in processe of time likely to haue proued more then intolerable. He prophecied not amisse of this way, when as yet shee lay in her cradle, as it were, and swathing clowts, and [Page 23] was commended to the liking of an other nation. Ti­met [...] altera tyrannis, we are afraide of an other tyran­ny. (Novus pontificatus, a new p [...]pedome, was the iudg ment of an other.) The stile may now be altered vpon the evēt of things, by those that write testemeipso, vp­on their experience a thousand times, Sentitur altera tyrannis, we fe [...]l [...] that which other feared.

For when they shall hold, that the supreme Magi­strate professing the faith. (I speake not of N [...]ma, nor Nero) I saie the supreme Christian magistrate (cu [...]us Muscul. potestas sancta▪ sanctae leges, sanctus gladius) hath au­thoritie over his subiects, not as they are Christians, but as they are men; authority over Bishops & Priests, not as they are such, but as they are men: (wherein I haue much wondred with my selfe, that they which abhorre popery, so much, euen in matters of ceremo­nies, should so nearly approach to it in substantiall as­sertions;) that the king is no competent iudge in pul­pit affaiers; and as touching the law of God he shalbe indeed vindex vtrius (que) tabulae, an avenger of both ta­bles; but as for the ordering of the Church, he may sit in the assembly as an honorable member of the church to vote and consent with the rest, but not otherwise; when they shall giue him potestatem facti, but not iu­ris, power to execute, but not to ordaine; & custodi­am, vindictam; not constitutionem, promulgationem; (which is to make him carnificem, their executioner alone saith Erastus:) and to yeelde him supremacie in causes Ecclesiasticall, is to take both swords from the Pope and giue them to the King, to pull downe a spi­ritual Pope, and erect a temporal: when they shal say, [Page 24] that the political government is subalterne to the ec­clesiasticall, & quasi inferius quoddam subsellium, and as it were a lower kinde of Court; and that Princes thē ­selues, though they bee the nursing-fathers of the Church, yet they are her servants too, and therefore must ever remēber to submit thēselues, subiect their scepters, & cast downe their crownes before her, yea and to licke the verie dust of her feete (vvhereof I trust49. Esa. they will make an allegory, and not vnderstand by the feete of the Church the feete of Church men;) and last­lie that scepters, & crow [...]es, and swords are but pom­pous and▪ glorious ceremonies; with a number the like positions: who will make quaestion but their doings haue beene answerable thervnto, in assembling thē ­selues togither at their pleasures, in proclaiming pub lique fastes, in making, and marring, and altering church orders; yea in compelling the magistrate him­selfe to order, as if they were Ephori Regis, ▪tutors and over seers of him, so far forth as to excommunicate his sacred person, and beeing excommunicate▪, that is, ca [...]t downe vnto hell, to deeme him vnworthy to hold life vpon the earth. Against which presumpti­ons of theirs, if the King cannot helpe himselfe, let him be as an Idoll fastened to the wall, that hath hāds without handling, and cannot driue the birds from his head, nor wipe away the dust from his [...]ies, or as a skarcrow that standeth idlely in a gardē of cucūbers.

M Gualter pastour of the Church at Zurick, who liued at that very time, when the breath of life was first breathed vpon the face of this new created disci­pline, in his cōmentaries vpon the first to the Corin­thians [Page 25] the 5. Chap. besides sundry other places, shew­eth his dislike of those, that are not contented vvith their christian magistrats vnlesse they also haue their ecclesiastical senates; nor contented therwith, are an­gry at other churches that haue them not. Sedp [...]rcāt illi nobis, &c. saith he, let them b [...]are with vs, and no [...] be over-rast▪ in passing their iudgment vpon vs, nor thinke euery shoe fit to bee drawne vpon the foote of every Church. He blameth them for their frequencie of excommunications, wherby it may come to passe, that the number of the excommunicate may be grea ter sometime then the communicants themselues, & their theatricall satisfactions, to set offendors vpon the stage, & tire them out with immoderate penāces; but especially their ex [...]ōmunications against Kings, by which they become ridiculous both to them, and others,

Dum vel [...]ti lep [...]res dare iur [...] leonibus [...]udent.

Surely I thinke when first they claimed their authori­ty over people and pastor, they stretcht it with cords; but whē over Kings and the soveraignes of the earth, they drew it with cart-ropes. For they then tooke vp­on them without leaue, and practised without law, that which if the king should grant them, hee might likewise answere them, as Salomon did his mother in hi [...] suite for Adoniah, postul [...] [...]i & regnum, you vvere 1. Reg. 2. best take the kingdome too, [...]it being no more possible there should bee two authenticke authorities vvithin one kingdome, then that one and the same bodie can beare two heads.

If any demaund the reason, how a Church disci­pline [Page 26] so lately sprunge, the time and place of vvhose breed is so well knowne (one tearmed it Talmud Sa­b [...]udicū) should be able to propagate it selfe through­out so manie repurged Churches of Christendome, and carrie the protection and patronage of so manie excellent men; that at what time they cast vp the dregges of Antichristian corruptions, whereof they had laboured and lien sicke along time, they should at the present so greedylie drinke dovvne this deli­cate vvine of humane plausible invention; let him breefly vnderstand. Parents it had of incomparable worth and credit in the Church of Christ, which be­got it with the strength of imagination (I thinke they thought it good) bare it not without paine, and vvith much contradiction, brought it forth with zeale, nur­sed it vvith care, christened it vvith the holiest names they could devise, apparrelled it with the fairest co­lours & pretexts of scripture & the primitiue church, and so sent it forth into the worlde as delitias humani generis, the blessedst babe that euer anie age of the world brought forth, bearing the right stampe of the purest and surest reformation. Quis non in hun [...]erro­rem abripiatur ducibus Calvino & Beza? (saide a lear­nedAdS [...] father of our Church, though not of our nation, vvho like a Tiresias had in a sorte experienced both kindes of governments.) You are not ignorant what Ierome held of Origen, Malo cum Origine errare, quā cum alijs vera sentire, he had rather erre with Origen, then thinke the truth with other men. Anaxagoras [...]i­vem esse nigram dixit, ferresnè siegaidem dicerem? A­naxagoras might say the snow was blacke, an other [Page 27] might not do it. The fashion of the world is, Pauci res ips as sequuntur, plures nominarerum, plurimi nomina magistrorum. I am of Paul, one crieth, an other, I am of Cephas.

—Tutum est peccare authoribus illis,

Men hold it safe to erre by authority. Of which men I will speake no worse, hauing been the sonnes of mine owne mother, and fathers of many sonnes begottē in the gospel of Christ, then Austin said of Cyprian, a glorious starre in the firmament of the Church, & one that lost his light for the testimony of the truth; Sicut 6. De bapt. cont. donat. 26. multa erant quae doctus Cyprianus doceret, sic erat & a­liquidquod Cyprianus docibilis disceret; Learned Cypri an raught, and learned Cyprian might learne. He main­tained an errour about the rebaptization of heretikes cum octoginta ferè Episcopis Africanarum ecclesiarū, 1. De bapt. cont. donat. 18. that no man may wonder at an errour in the Church, an errour of continuance (it lasted through many Afri­cā Coūcels) vpheld by as worthy pillers as the church had any. [...], may the be itAct. 14. that dwel in mortality say, (though their fames liue in their ever-liuing bookes, and their names are writ­ten in the booke of life) we also are men, we are no bet­ter then our fathers, we know but in part, we haue our affections, and imperfections, errours, and escapes & blemishes, as all other men.

Jt is not to bee thought, but their grounds were firme & vnmoueable, wheron they staied themselues. According to the rule of Tertulliā, id verius, quod pri­us, De praescr. the elder the better, they haue made their discipline the of-spring of Christ & the most anciēt apostolique [Page 28] Church; frō whence they perswade themselues, they are able to deriue it along throughout all ages (as by certaine ruines, they say rather traces and foote prints in the writings of the learned may appeare) downe to these present times, hence forth of force to continne to the worlds end.

Our answere to this hath beene, whilst the husband­men yet stept, and being not throughly awaked vp on better advise suffered these tares to grow vp in the Church, carried (it seemeth) with the streame of a common receiued opinion, that such presbyteries had erst beene; our answere hath beenell say (admitting that antiquitie that neuer was) yet that one and the selfe-same forme of Church-policie be fitteth not all times, & all places; but according to the variety ther­of recipit, im [...] exigit, receiueth, [...]ay requireth variation of orders. The answere was verie in it. For who can conceiue, that one and the same fashion can accorde vnto her in her infancy, and fuller growth, persecuted, & in peace, flying with the woman in the wildernes▪ and resting as the doue in the arke; lying in the caues of the ground, & sitting as a Queene vpon a glorious seat; sometimes vnder an heathen Emperour, sometimes a Christian; now an Arriā, and then orthodoxe againe; at one time dwelling in lerusalem, a citty built at vni­ty within it selfe; at an other diffused into a large and open region; whilst shee is pusillus gre [...], a little▪ stocke, and when her children come stocking by troups▪ as doues to their windowes; lastly in the daies of hir mar­riage▪ if I may so speak) and in the daies of hir widow­hood▪ when the bridegrome is taken from her; in the full [Page 29] floud, Ocean, and tedundancy of the miraculous gifts of the holy Ghost, and when she is reduced to a mea­sure and stint, but of ordinary graces? You may aswell shape, a coat for the moone waxing, waning, chāging into so many formes, as set downe one manner of dis­cipline for the body of the Church. They call it the Churches; Liverie; which I see not but in the sommer of hir peace may be of one stuffe, of an other in the winter of hir troubles, Say these elders had beene in the Primitine Church (as they neuer vvere) ther­fore to continue? Si revacas temporum illorum mo­res, Muscul. primùm conditiones, & statum quo (que) illorum revo­ca; If you vvill call backe the vses of those times, make the state of our times equall vnto them, and put vs vnder a pagan Emperour, and persequntion a­gaine. Gloria filiae regis ab intùs, the internal beawty of Psal. 45. the Church is alwaies the same, but hir outward garmēt is of diuers colours and requisite it is that it should be so: for if there were no alteration, ceremonies would be taken not to be ceremonies, but matters of sub­stance. To conclude, Tertullians rule is infallible, Re­gula De vel. virg. fidei immobilis, irreformabilis, caetera disciplina & conversationis admittunt nou [...]tatem correctionis: One body, one spirit, one lord, one faith, one baptisme: Ephes, 4. One gouernment, one policy, one ceremony, one dis­cipline was neuer spoken.

But that is not the bucklet we hold forth against them at this time. Let them lead vs into these cellars of the bridegrome (as the phrase of this booke is) and from the vessel of any one sentence or syllable therin draw out vnto vs, the smallest drop of assurance, that [Page 30] ever this presbytery was instituted by Christ or his A­postles, and we are ready vpon the sight to ioine hands with them. But I verily assure my selfe, vnlesse they will wrest and pervert scripture, and in steed of the naturall milke it giueth, inforce out the bloud of violent interpretation, and cause it to walke a mile or two farther for their fancy, thē ever the holy Ghost meant it, there is not one word to be founde, that as­sertaineth this opinion.

J finde in the booke of Christ a double presbytery mentioned; one of the Iewes, wherof Paul speaketh Act. 22. 5. the cheefe priest doth beare me witnes, [...], and the whole state and consistory of the elders. From thence was he armed with letters and power to Damascus, to persecute the Saints: al­beit the flower and strength of this presbytery was then cropt, what by the kingdome of Herod, & what by the Roman Lieutenantship: the other of the Chri­stians, wherof we read 1. Tim. 4. 14. Neglect not thè grace, which was giuen vnto thee &c. per impositionem m [...]nuū [...]; of the cōpany of the elders. But ne­ther doth the former of these proportionate, nor the latter import any such presbytery as is now exacted.

That of the Iewes they suppose, though it con­clude not directly, yet it alludeth at least, and giueth some warrant to the Christian eldership. Allusions are not demonstrations. And simply to in [...]erre frō the law to the Gospel, frō Moses to Christ, frō his tempo­rary iudicials & tribunals, to the perpetuall policies & iudgment-seates of all Christian states, from Canaan, to the whole world of Christendome, is no warrantable [Page 31] consequution. But nearer to the purpose. Jn those Sy­nedrions and Courts of the Iewes, whither that great and principal▪ metropolitical, parliamentary assem­bly, or whither their inferior and subordinate sessions, consider in briefe with me these 4. points; 1. the per­sons, 2. the places, 3. the pleas, 4. the power.

1. The persons (besides Priestes and Levites, which were ad subsidium (faith Iosephus) for assistance to the civil magistrate, for direction in doubts and difficulte cases of the law, for the Lord in things appertaining to God. 2. Chro. 19.) thosed say of the other sort, whither they were suggested by the counsaile of Jethro▪ Exod 18. 21. and againe repeated by Moses, Deuter. 1. 15. they were all [...]o be wise and knowne m [...]n, chiefe of the tribes, whom they made Captaines over thousands, and hundrethes, and fifties, and tennes, only in the smaller matters: or whither those sea [...]nty appointed by God himselfe for weightier affaires. Num. 11. Moses must knowe them to bee of the elders of the people and gover­nours, over them, vers. 16. Or adde vnto these from the first of Num. 16. the [...]vvelue Princes for the twelue tribes, they were famous in the congregation, princes of the tribes of their fathers, and heads over thousands of Israell. Lastly by commission from Jehosophat▪ 3. Chron. 19. 8. [...] none vvere designed to these gouerne­ments and iudgments but the chiefe of the families of Israell.

2. The place for important businesses, that which the Lord him selfe should choose, 17. Deut. 8 (sometimes Shilo, sometimes Ierusalem) or for easier causes, the Cities: throughout all the tribes▪ Deut. 16. 8. Or al the [Page 32] strong citties in Iudah. 2. Chron. 19. 5.

3 The causes, such as fel out in Cōtrouersy betweene a man and his brother. Deut. 1. 16. betweene bloud and bloud, plea and plea, plague and plague, Deut. 17. 8. be­tweene law and precept, statute and iudgement, 2. Chron. 19. 10. Where Amariab the Priest was ordai­ned chiefe in all matters of the Lord, and Zabadiah a ruler of the house of Iudah was for all the kings af­faires.

4 Lastly their power was: The people shall heare, and feare, & not doe presumptuously; and that man that shall doe presumptuously, that man shal die, Deut. 17. 12. The persons you see then, none but principal, the places ca­thedrall, the causes vniversall, the authoritie peremp­torie and finall: Lastly (which may be ioined to the o­ther) sith God and the King both haue their severall agents and advocates, the proceeding equall and vn­partiall: let them now frame their presbyterie out of either of these two. Vnlesse they will turne Cities in­to Parishes, and Villages, and Hamlets; Magistrates, Priests, & Levites into priests & people without ma­gistrate; and regem himselfe sometimes into reum; and bring Moses to his owne barre; vnlesse Princes into mechanistes and artificers; heades into heeles for the most part, and perhaps into tailes, as the scripture speaketh; vnlesse sword into keies, death into Church-censures; Corporall into spirituall; Civill into sacred & Ecclesiastical, which were to turne [...] Italiam, and to make a [...] transmutation of al things, not far vnlike the transubstantiatiō of papistes, as one compared it, they can never extract their presbyterie [Page 33] out of those assemblies.

Notwithstanding they haue brought thēselues in beleife, that our Saviour then transferred the Synedri­on of the Iewes into the Christian Church, when hee gaue that direction, Mat. 18. 15. concerning offen­ces Dic ecclesiae, tell the church. A place not easie to be vnderstood, because ecclesia is [...], a tearme ofAbulens. divers acceptions. It signifieth multitudinē ad aliquid, an assembly of anie qualitie, or to any purpose what­soeuer, whither it be [...] or [...], lawful, or vnlaw­ful, sacred or prophane. What Dic ecclesiae truly mea­neth, dicant, qui possunt (S. Austin of an other subiect) si tamen possunt probare, quod dicunt; ego me ignorare confit [...]or. How beit their argument is in danger soone to be overthrowne: tell the Church: therefore no Church in al Christianity whither to resort for releise of our grievances, but this miscellane church of the presbyterie? For our better examination hereof;

1 Certaine it is, that the offences there meant are priuate and personal, and such as lay in the power of the partie offended to burie in secret without farther discouerie, [...], if thy brother shall offend against thee, and, if he shal heare thee, thou hast gained thy brother, there may be an end without farther cō ­plaint, which in publike scandals and crimes against God and his church may not be.

2 From the apparāt degrees of proceeding against such trespassers, as. 1. [...], between thee and him alo [...]e; 2. [...], one or two more▪ 3. [...], then tell the Church Chrysostome collecteth, vides non supplicij, se [...]emendationis gratiâ id fieri [Page 34] you see the ende proposed in this course is not pu­nishment, but amendment: therfore no need to bring the matter into open Court, there to receiue chastise­ment.

3 It seemeth the Church is not oier and determiner in these complaints, because there is added in a fourth place, If he heare not the Church, let him bee vnto thee &c. but the presbyteries I hope will both heare and de­termine all that commeth before them.

4 It is not said, if hee heare not the Church, let the Church excommunicate him (as the presbyteries do over-often) but [...], Let him be vnto thee, as an Eth­nicke or Publican. So that he is sent backe againe to the plaintiffe, as it were to censure him. As much as to say, Immedi [...]abili [...]orbo laborat (Chrysost.) he is incu­rably sicke. Relinque illum morbo suo (Erasm.) leaue him to his disease: Deo Curandum (Abulens.) to be cured by God himselfe. Noli illum deputare in numero fratrum tuorum, ne (que) tamen salus eius negligenda est (Austin) Esteeme him not in the number of thy brethren yet so, as without neglect of his salvation. How may that be? amputetur à familiari consortio (Erasm.) abstineas ab eo vt confundatur (Origen) Hold no famyliar acquain­tance with him, that thou maist put him to shame.

5 Finally there ought to bee no doubt, but this was spoken to the Iewes, because the reproach is, sit tibi tanquam Ethnicus, let him be vnto thee, as an heathen: there being no nation vnder heauen, that disdeigned and detested Gentiles saue the Iewes alone. Ethnicis, exquibus deindè composita erat ecclesia, praeceptum dare noluit, vt seipsos fugerēt. He gaue no precept to the Gē ­tiles, [Page 35] of whom the Church was afterwards composed, to shunt themselues. He would rather haue said, if hee had spoken to the Gentiles, sit tibi tanquam Iudaus, let him be as a Iew vnto thee. What is all this then to vs Chri­stians?

6 Shall wee further aske the mindes of the learned for the clearer explanation of these words? One tel­leth vs, Non ad synagogam ablegat suos, hee remitteth Gloss. no [...]. not his disciples to the synagogue, for redresse of their wrongs. There was little helpe to be hoped for, where they presentlie excommunicated all that but profestCaluin. Christ. An other helpeth out the reason, Erat tū eccle­sia adulterata, the Church that them was, was adultera­ted, and therefore vnmeete to bee iudge over Christi­ans. Was there no church of Christ which they mightBrent. repaire vnto? Yes, fuit illorum temporum Ecclesiola, inBucer. deed, there was a little church at that time; but ecclesiae facies nulla, that Church had no apparance vvithout. Caluin. Nay, nulla adbue ecclesia, will a third say▪ ther was not any Church at all. And yet we are willed, you heare, to tell the Church. Which some say was an order Gloss. nou. appointed by CHRIST to last to the vvorldes ende▪ others, no generall rule prescribed to the ChurchBrent. for all ages, but a temporatie precept like those o­ther in the Gospell, Go not into the vvaie of the Gen­tiles; and possesse not siluer nor gold in your purses. St. Ierome saith, Die Ecclesiae, is as much to say, as mul­tis dicendum est, vt detestationieum habeant, tell many to make him hateful vnto them: vt qui pudore non potu­it, sa [...]uetur opprobrijs, that whom honestie and inge­nuity could not, disgrace may reclaime. St. Chrysostome [Page 36] saith, ecclesiae, that is, his qui praesidēt ecclesiae, the rulers of the Church. Carth. ioineth thē both in one, vel con­gregationi communitèr, vel praelato, id est, iudici, either the cōgregatiō at large, or the praelate, that is, the iudge: nō quod ipse sit multitudo, sed praeest multitudini, Abu­lens. not that the prelate is the whole multitude, but be­cause he is chiefe ouer it. Aquinas likwise both. Ecclesiae, that is, vel toti multitudini, vt cōfūdatur, vel iudicibus ut corrigatur; either the whole multitude for his cōfusiō, or the iudges for his correctiō. Lastly Erasmus both: vt vel multitudinis cōsensu, vel [...]orū authoritate qui mul­titudini praesunt, emendetur; that either by consent of the multitude, or authority of those that are ouer the Are [...]. multitude, he may be amended. Some say, Dic ecclesiae that is, in caetu fidelium, in quo verbum & sacramenta rectè administrantur; in the assembly of the faithfull wherin the word and sacraments are rightly adminis­tred. Others to the cōtrary: Nemo it a accipiat quasi in Bucer. publica concione, let no man vnderstand it so as if in a publique auditory: for nec ratio, nec vsus suadet congre­gandā [...]sse ecclesiā (saith Caietan) it stādeth not either with reason or custome; that the whole Church should be troubled about a priuate fault. Lastly they are but of yesterday, that tel you Dic ecclesiae is no more to say, [...]llyr. &c. then Dic sentoribus et Doctoribus personam ecclesiae re­presentātibus tell the elders & Doctors that repraesent Brent. the person of the Church: wheras it should be, rem de­fer ad certos illos iudices, qui ex vniuerso corpore eccle­siae in magistratum legitimè sunt electi, deferre the matter to those select iudges which are lawfully chosen to the magistracy out of the whole body of the Church. [Page 37] Now summe vp al into one. 1. Not to the Synagogue, why? 2. that Church was adulterated. 3. the other was but a little Church. 4. had no face of a Church. 5. no essence. 6. an order to the worlds end. 7. a temporary praecept. 8. elders and doctours, 9. Certaine and law­full magistrates. 10. in the assembly of the faithful. 11. not in an open auditory. 12. multitude in common. 13. presidents over the multitude. How is it possible out of a place of scripture, so variously interpreted by an­cient and moderne writers to make faith and perswa­sion to the world, that the Church intended by our Sauiour is that Church, which they labour for?

But they haue other subsidiary scriptures, especial­ly where the Christian presbytery is more expresly named, that make without controuersy for their pur­pose. By name, that to Timothy 1. and 4. per impositi­onem manuum presbyterii: which though some haue expounded the office and ministration it selfe, which Timothy then receiued, yet grant it importeth an or­der and company of men from whom he receiued it, the very imposition of hands there named doth suffici­ently discharge them from being lay-elders. There was a presbytery, we deny not, in the primitiue Church, that is to say a colledge or conuent of presby­ters, assistants to the Bishop: which Ignatius in an e­pistle to the Trallians calleth [...], a knot of Apostles: and afterwards asking what that presby­tery was, [...]; answereth himselfe, [...], an holy congre­gation, counsailours and coassessours to the Bishop. And for these at the time of ordination to hold their hands [Page 38] vpon the heades of presbyters and deacons iuxta manum episcopi (as you haue heard before) neare the hand of the Bishop was agreable to a Canon of the fourth coūcel of Carthage.

There remaineth one place more 1. Tim. 5. 17. which they hold as a Delphian oracle, their Deus Terminus, that yeeldeth to none, an vnremoueable argument never to be answered.

The elders that rule wel, let them be accompted wor­thy of double honor; especially those that labour in the word & doctrine. This is the mine wherout the whole body and frame of their consistory is digged, pastours, where it is said [...], in the word; Doctours, out of the next, [...] and doctrine. Their lay elders out of the former, [...], the elders that rule well▪ where [...] is the genus common to both kindes; but the essential difference that giueth name & being, is [...]; and not [...] labouring and not labouring in word and doctrine.

[...], especially is their Mercury to interpret all; a signe of discretion and distinctiō to passe betwixt the gouernours of both these sorts. Their illation is, there were elders that ruled well, and laboured besides in the word and doctrine; therfore there were other elders that ruled and laboured not &c. This is the Gorgons head that amazeth and amateth al that looke vpon it. It were quickly answered, by the iudgment of a learn­ed diuine vpon this place, Calvinus primus est qui lo­cum hunc de senioribus exponit, that exposition thenAdr. S [...] belike is not very old. But for fuller satisfaction.

1 All the fathers of the Church that euer interpre­ted [Page 39] this scripture, Greeke, and Latine; I adde vnto thē Chrysost. Oecumen. Theodoret. Theophyl. Ierome. Ambrose. the schooles, and to those the later writers, (such of our owne times except, who Pigmalion-like are fallen in­to admiration of their owne worke) I averre cōfident­ly, they all vnderstand the place of [...], dispensatores verbi, pastours, Doctours, dispensers of the word, &c. Iudicant, praedicant, so they thought, & so they wrote and published. We may deliver their opini­on summarily in one word of Caietā, Nomen presbyte­ri hoc in loco ordinis est; The name of elder in this place is a name of order. Then where are their lay elders?

2 [...], which signifieth both honour, and allowance, from the iust correspondences and circumstances of the place, is rather to be rendred in the later sense. So Chrysostome vnderstandeth it, [...], nourishment and raiment, and the subministration of necessary things, whereof he gi­veth the reason, which never any law of God, nor any rule or example of the Church of Christ awarded to these lay rulers.

3 The double that is here spoken of, (not the com­pensation of those that rule ill, for they are quite ex­cluded, and deserue nothing; but of such as rule wel) is not in comparison with any Lay gouernours, but dou­ble (saith Chrysostome) [...], in regard of widdowes [...], in regard of deacons, both which were to haue their maintenance, though not so much as others, [...], simply when he saith double he meaneth ample, So saith Theodoret, duplici, that i [...], ampliori; o [...] double, & officij, et doctrinae (Ierome) both for their office and for their paines; or [Page 40] double, & reverentie, & subsidij (Aquinas) both of re­verence and maintenance; or double sibi. & suis (Win­ton) both for themselues, and those of their chardge.

4 [...], especially, which they make, as it were, the hindge and rudder to turne all about, doth not with those learned distinguish betwixt preaching, and no [...] preaching elders. First, Non dicit qui praesunt, sed qui benè praesunt, saith Caietan, as Oecumenius before him. But who are those? Qui super officium superintē ­dendi adiungunt & laborem, who to their office of su­perintendencie and oversight put also their industry. So as, nihilest hoc verbum Maximè (with some) sed ex­plicatio benè: Especially in the later member doth but explicate well in the former: (Carthus.) Qui verè pres­byteros agunt, qui non solum integritate vitae praelucent populo, verum etiam laborant in dispensatione sermo­nis evangelici (Erasmus) goodlivers, & paineful prea­chers. How many interpretations might bee brought to divert and disapoint their lay governors? Jf either there were such as but red and administred▪ Sacra­ments in the Church, and preached not (as the most reverend Archb. of Canterb. last deceased proveth at large) these may [...], rule wel in their pla­ces, & be worthy of their due regard, though not equal with others: or if there were good Bishops, which o­verworne and wasted with years (whereof St. IeromeAug. ep. 13. spake, Et nos nostra habuimustēpora, VVee also had our times; and againe, Ego quondam miles, nunc veteranus, I was once a souldiour, now a Veteran) could not labourep. 14. in the word and doctrine, as aforetime, but pleaded their priviledge of age, Nobu debetur otium; yet theseId. [Page 41] might continue their estimation of good governors, and deserue their honour: or if there were those, that albeit they did [...] in the word and doctrine, that is, take ordinary and convenient paines, yet they did not [...] (the word here vsed) put themselues to excee­ding and distresful labour, either by bodily travaile vp and downe, vs (que) ad lassitudinem ossium, even to the wearying of their bones, whilest others kept their homes, or not without hazard of their liues, because in time of persecution, the especialty and difference of honour might bee allotted to such men: or lastly the Apostle might meane that it was not enough to liue wel, [...], to teach Christian phi­losophy Chrysost. by good life, to make thē selues examples to their flockes, (some having held an opinion, [...] Oecum. that good life was enough to a good ruler.) [...], For there must bee in­structing Chrysost. by word of mouth; else in matters of contro­versie ( [...]) what doth life availe? For which cause with other Episcopal qualities [...], with hospitality, modesty & the rest, [...] 1. Tim. 3. the Apostle numbreth aptnes & ability to teach. So then the genuine and true sense of the words by a­nalogie of this whole scripture, and iudgement of the learned is: The elders not Lay, but Cleargy, which go­verne well sibi, familijs, gregibus, themselues, their fa­milies, their flockes, are worthy, whither of high regard, or abundant supply, or both, it skilleth not: especiallie those that labour in word and doctrine, not Pastours & Doctours distinct; but in verbo scientibus, in doctrina ignorantibus (Anselm.) in the word to those that know [Page 42] already, in doctrine to those that are yet to learne; in verbo exhortationis, in doctrina instructionis (Carth.) in word of exhortation in doctrine of instruction: in verbo exhortatorio affectus, doctrinâ instruente intel­lectum (Caiet) exhortation for the affectiōs, instructiō for the vnderstanding. VVhere [...] especially, need­eth not be aduersatiue, or a particle of discretion, but may be put [...] to serue for interpretation, they that rule well, that is to say, they that labour &c. nor doth it signify praesertìm especially, for thē they thinke it should haue bene [...], with some other helpe put to it; but plurimùm earnestly: nor is it praepositum, a particle of praeposition set before the verbe, but appo­situm of appositiō, to be construed after it in this sense, maximè laborantes, that is, laborantes maximè. Or if they will needs haue it distinctiue & to make a diffe­rence betweene two sorts, yet doth it not followe of diuerse persōs, but parts of their calling; not subiects, but respects; not generum, but munerum, kindes and professions of men, but branches of their function. As if you should say for example sake, the Ministers that rule well in attendance and care of their flocks, and that labour in word and doctrine, are worthy of dou­ble honour; especially those that seeke and maintaine the peace of the Church: In which speech the persōs are still the same that were, but their qualities & due­ties diuersified. Or thus: the King that ruleth his peo­ple wel, and laboureth the good both of Church, and commonwealth, is worthy of double honour, both of allegiance, and alowance from his subiects; especially he that taketh vp the crosse of Christ, and beareth his [Page 43] soule in his hands, as ready and as likely to lay downe his life for defence of the truth, as any of his subiects. Lastly, what mine opinion of this sentence in hand is, can no way better appeare, then by a parallel peece of scripture 1. Thes. 5. at the 12. vers. Compare it with this to Timothy, and you shall find not the morning and evening suns more like. Now we be seech you bre­thren that you knowe them, which labour amongst you, and are ouer you in the Lord, and admonish you; that you haue them in singular loue for their worke sake. For [...] to Timothy, you haue [...] here, from the same theame, superiors in both; there [...], and here [...], in both labouring; for worde and doctrine in the one, in the other, [...], admonition▪ there [...], double honour, here [...], singular loue; Lastly the reason is here giuen of this superabundant affection towards thē, [...] for their worke sake, which is the truest implyed cause of honour in that o­ther place, sith [...] is no more to say, then especially for that they labour amongst you.

But it hath fared with our brethren in this case, as with him that stood on the Key at Athens, and euery ship that was arriuing towards the hauē he cried was his: so they wheresoeuer they haue met with any word though but common and generall, and diuersly ex­pounded, yet that beareth any the least propension and fauour towards the vpholding of the eldership, presently they conclude that very species and sort of all others, which they most fansy: as if all windes blew for their gouernment, and none else.

Thence they inferred from the 18. of Math. Tell the [Page 44] Church, Ergo no Church there but this presbytery. Thēce from the rule to Timothy, The elders that rule wel &c. therfore these lay elders. Thence, from the 12. to the Rom. he that ruleth with diligence, thefore these rulers. And 1. Cor. 12. bycause [...], gouermentes, is one of the giftes of the holy Ghost there named, therfore this gouerment. Bycause Tertullian hath,In Apol. Praesident apud nos probati qui (que) seniores, theer gouerne with vs none but approued seniours: And Ierome vpō Esay 3. Nos habemus in ecclesia senatum nostrum, caetū presbyterorum, we haue in the Church our senate, a cō ­pany of presbyters; & vpon. Tit. 1. Communi presbyte­rorum consilio regebātur ecclesiae, Churches were gouern­ed by a common counsaile of presbyters; quorum sine con­silio nihil agebatur in ecclesia, Ambr. vpon 1. Tim. 5. without whose counsaile nothinge was done in the Church: (which may be well vnderstood of elders in yeares & experience & grauity, hauing some tē ­porary commission to assist in ordering the Church, but no ordination perpetuall & diuine, as is now vrg­ed;) therfore these & none others are those presidēts, and senators, and advisers intended by the fathers.

I am now at an end: And I heartily wish in the bowells of our Sauiour there might at last be an end of all these controuersies▪ that in variety of opini­ons our brethren would propose to themselues the example of the ancient fathers, of whom it is saide, sanctorum patrum disputationes non contentiones, sed collationes erant; the fathers conferred and reasoned about matters in question, contended not. It is agreed betwixt St Ierome and St Austin before they dispute [Page 45] vt veritas superet, that truth may bee the conquerour: Cum (que) tu v [...]ceris, saith the one, & ego vincam, si errorē meum intellexer [...]; et è contrario me vincente t [...] superas: vpon that condition, whither you or I winne, wee both winne by vnderstanding our errours. Cyprian (of whō before) though dissenting in iudgement from other1. De bapt. Cont. Donat 18. learned of the Church, yet never severed himselfe, & perswaded others likewise not to doe it: Et si se ille se parasse [...], quàm multi sequerentur, quantum sibi nomen inter homines faceret quanto lōgiùs Cyprianistae, quàm Donatistae vocarētur? Cyprians breach with the church would haue drawne many followers after him, and haue spred the name of Cyprianists, farther then Donatistes. But in whom there is more then this, a willing & wil­full disturbance of the churches peace, I would in the name of God they were throughly perswaded, that they are as strictly bound to preserue vnum, as verum, vnity, as verity, pacem, as fidem, the quiet as the faith of the Church: and that there will bee little difference held at Salomons rent-day, whither they haue woun­ded the head, which is Salomon himselfe with haereti­cal opinion, or whither lacerated and rent in peeces his body with schismaticall distraction. Ecclesia est illud corpus Christi, quod chariùs habuit, quàm quod tradidit morti: He gaue his naturall body to death to redeeme his Ad Ephes. homil. 11. mor mystical, which was much dearer vnto him. Dico & ob­testor (was the fearefull protestation of St. Chryso­stome) ne quis dicat, nemo dixit, ignorau [...]us, non put a­vimus peccatum: I say & protest that no man may plead ignorance, ecclesiam scindere non minus est peccatum, quàm in haere [...]in incidere, schisme in the church is as [Page 46] great a sinne as haresie. And, from the iudgement of an holy man (dixit vir sanctus) inexpiabilis culpa, nec Cyp. sanguine eluitur macula ista: the fault is vnexpiable; the blood of martyrdome cannot wash out this spot. I now call to minde a dialogue that Tully hath in his bookes de legibus; where interloquution passeth betweene 3. Philosophers, Quintus, Marcus, and Atticus. The ar­gument was definibus bonorum & malorum. The first beginneth, Controversam rem & plenam dissensionis inter doctissimos: a matter of great controversie and de­bate amōgst the most learned: the secōd, sed aliquādò ta­men iudicandam, yet it must be determined: the thirde, quî istuc fieri potest A. Gellio mortuo? how can it ever be since A. Gellius is dead? Quintus replieth, quid tandem id adrē? what is that to the matter? Atticus answereth him, J haue heard that he called all the Philosophers at Athens into one place, and earnestly laboured them to set some end to their controversies; quòd si essent eo animo vt nollent at atem in litibus conterere, posse rem convenire: if they were of that minde that they woulde not spend their daies in strife, they might come to agree­ment. Blessed be the name of God, we haue no such impediment to the composing of our controversies. Our A. Gellius liueth (and long may he liue, even for ever and ever.) But why doe I borrow a prophane name? Rather out of my text, our Salomon, our Pacifi­cus liveth, who after the Prince of our peace, hath best interpreted this name amongst vs; who hath turned swords into sithes, and speares into matt [...]ckes, and set peace within the borders of his owne kingdomes and of nations about vs. Whose first & formost care hath [Page 47] bin not only to plant a vineyard (even to build Chur­ches where Churches were not) but to plant it in Ba­al-hamon, in rich and fertile ground, to endow it with land and living, to bring tithes and oblations into the Mal. 3. store house, that there may be meate in the house of the Lord for Prophets and their sonnes after them. A good and gracious Araunah: of whō it is witnessed, 2. Sam. vlt▪ that hee gaue to the king and as a king; both his threshing store for an altar, and his oxen for sacrifice, & his chariots and plough-harnesse for fire. Our King & as a King, hath taken no lesse care out of his royal & reli­gious heart, both for altar, sacrifice, & fire, for church, and maintenance to it. And finding by experience the miserable policie of that discipline, which hath brought vpon the ministers of the gospell verissimos labores & certissimam egestatem, vnstinted paines, and vndoubted penurie, having turned the livings of the Church into Nunries (one saith) I know not his mea­ning, vnlesse he vnderstand Nonres, or non entia, (as you heard the last day) seeketh by all princely meanes to put bloud into the veines of the Church againe, which many daughters of the horsleach haue suckt out, & to bring backe to life that presbyterium, liuelyhoode of the Church, which many a Iulian hath done away, and to the profligation whereof, even that presbyte­ry, whereof we speake, hath beene accessary. There wanteth nothing, for ought I see, but so much wise­dome and grace and thankfulnes in vs that are the keepers of the vineyard, as to embrace the opportuni­ty of time now offered vs, which our fathers before vs would haue beene glad of, & posterity after vs hear­tily [Page 48] wish for: and all contentions laide aside, ioine hande and heart with his religious Maiesty in pro­pagation of this vineyard, and propugnation of the gospell and faith of Christ; whose life more precious then thousāds of ours (as the people spake of Dauids) is a thousād times more sought after, thē any of ours; as if the enemies of God and his maiesty had decre­ed amongst themselues, as the Aramites against the King of Israel 1. reg. 22. fight neither against great nor small, saue only against the King of GREAT BRI­TAINE and his OF-SPRING. Our Kalanders of so many black & fatall daies, wherin there was but a step betwene him and death, shal record to posterity his faithful and cōstant dealing with the covenant of God, and cause them to blesse his memory, and speak al good of his name: Which to be done in our daies, whom it rather concerneth in duety to acknowledge, and who reape the fruit of his vertues, is accompted the sol [...]cismes & barbarismes of the Court, & those that shal doit, the kinges parasites and flatterers. They are deceaued that so thinke: there is no such solaecisme nor barbarisme in it. It is true grammer loquution, or ra­ther sound chappell & church diuinity to blesse where God hath blest. If an angell from heauen were the sub­iect of my speech, J would not call sowre, sweete: my tongue should rather cleaue for euer to the roofe of my mouth. Shall J not therfore cal sweet, sweet? & conferre honour (euen to the honour of Gods owne name, ioy of our hartes, incouragement and prouoca­tion of so illustrious iustrumēts to go on their course) where God hath conferred it? Surely J wil▪ and there­fore [Page 49] J conclude with that of the Queene of Saba to1. Reg. 10. Salomō, blessed be the Lord thy God which loued THEE to set thee on the thrōe of Britaine, bycause the Lord lo ued BRITAINE for ever, & made thee King to doe a quity and iustice. O Lord giue thy iudgments to the King & thy righteousnes to the Kings sonne. And asGen. 49. Iacob prophecied of that sceptre, that it should not depart from Judah til Shiloh came, so if thy holy will be, let not the sceptre of these Kingdomes depart frō our Iacob, our Salomon, our pacificus and his Line, till that Shiloh come againe. To whom with the father & the holy ghost, al might and mercy be ascribed in his Church for euer.


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