POLICIE VNVEILED: VVHEREIN MAY BE LEARNED, The Order of true Policie in King­domes, and Common-wealths:

The Matters of Iustice, and Go­vernement; The Addresses, Maxims, and Reasons of STATE:

The Science of governing well a People: And where the Subject may learne true Obedi­ence unto their Kings, Princes, and Soveraignes.

Written in Spanish, and translated into English, by I. M. of Magdalen Hall in OXFORD.

LONDON: Printed by Thomas Harper, for Richard Collins, and are to be sold at his Shop in Pauls Church-yard, at the signe of the Three Kings. 1632.

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE, IAMES HAY, EARLE OF Carlile, Viscount Doncaster, Lord HAY of Sauley, Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to our Soueraigne Lord King CHARLES, Knight of the most Noble order of the Garter, and one of the Lords of his Maiesties most Honorable Priuy Councell.

Right Honourable:

KNowing no man better verst in publique affayres, then your selfe, I could not more fitly addresse this Discourse, then to you, without the rifling of any particular mans merit: for I [Page] may ascribe as much to the praise of your exercise, as any can assume to his priuate Notions, or Publique Obseruations. To speake the story of your true and ingenious acts in forraigne, (and in those forraigne, the most subtile and actiue parts) would rather seeme a Tract, then a Dedication of a Booke; but here you are onely Patron, though I know you might by your natu­rall gifts and obseruations, be Author of a farre better piece. You haue been long the intrusted seruant of your Prince, which should employ you the darling of his peo­ple, and truly you ought to bee so, whilst Truth relates the story of deseruing men, or Honesty reads their merit. What, and whose worke of politique gouernment this is, your eyes may at leysure looke ouer, while your quicker eyes, I meane your dis­cerning minde, may perhaps correct, yet (I hope) not chide his labour, who was willing, though not able to serue you in a [Page] piece worthy your obseruation. If in the translation there be any thing that hath for­saken the Originall, it was intention, and not negligence, of which there needs no accompt.

My good Lord, there is nothing left, but to implore your pardon for the preferring this worke; which if it shall appeare vnwor­thy your graue perusall, yet at the least, forgiue his intention, who conceiued it a direct way of expressing himselfe to be

Your Honours truely deuoted, EDWARD BLOVNT.



THe cause why the Ancients by fire signifie Loue, is, for that this Ele­ment is the hardest to be hid: For the more a man seekes to couer it, the more it discouers it selfe, and blabbs the place, where it is. Of this quality is Loue, and truly participateth of the nature of fire. I came (saith our Sauiour Christ) to put fire into the world. And the holy Ghost, which is the true God of Loue, came and shewed it selfe in the shape and figure of fire. So that Loue is a kinde of extraordinary actiue fire. Nor can it, where soeuer it be, be hid, or idle. Ope­ratur magna, si est, (saith Saint Gregory) si autem non operatur, amor non est. Loue will be alwayes in action, alwayes in working; it worketh by benefits▪ it [Page] worketh by good workes, and by friendly offices, and charitable seruices: And when it cannot worke what it would, or when the subiect whereon it would worke, hath no need thereof, it supplyeth that defect with good desires, and words. God, who needeth not the seruice of any, contents himselfe with this in those that are his ser­uants, accepting (when they can no more) the will, for the deed. And the Kings, which here vpon earth repre­sent his person, doe not require tribute and seruice, saue onely in that, which euery one is able to giue. That which I am able to affoord, and doe here offer vnto your Maiestie, forced thereunto by the loue of my seruice, (howbeit my desire hath euermore had a larger extent) is onely a parcell of words; which if they proceed from the soule, and come truly and sincerely from the heart, are of some worth and estimation, and perhaps (vpon occasion) may proue likewise profitable and aduantagi­ous. Howsoeuer, it may serue at least to expresse that my seruice and deuotion, which euer hath beene, is, and shall be ready prest to serue your Maiestie. And I am willing to shew it in this little, that I may not wholly seeme vnprofitable. And therefore with this affection of Loue, sutable to my subiect, ouercomming those feares which are wont (and not without reason) to withhold those that treate with great Kings, Princes, and Mo­narckes, and write of such and the like subiects, I pre­sume to aduertise them, and in this paper to propone [Page] vnto them, that which I finde written of those that are past and gone, (and seemeth very fit and conuenient for the conseruation and augmentation of the authori [...]y and greatnesse of those that are now liuing and present a­mongst vs) and will with all possible breuity, procure a full resolution and distinction herein:Sen. epist. 84. i [...] princip. And (as Seneca saith) Totum comprehendere sub exiguo; To com­prise much vnder a little. For, as that is the better sort of money, which in the matter is the lesser, but the grea­ter in value; so likewise that Learning is the best, which is briefe in words, and large in sentences. It is Maximus his counsell,Valer. Max. that Multa, & magna, breui­ter sunt dicenda. Matters that are many and great, are briefly to be deliuered. For this breuities sake therefore, as also for the greatnesse of your Maiesties employments, and the great burthen of so many weighty businesses that lye vpon you, I will not here interpose any large dis­courses and long disputations, wherewith to entertaine and spend the time: but briefe, certaine, and generall Doctrines, such as are of most profit, comprehend most subiects, and may be applyed to particular, both persons and things, all taken out of the Politicks, the law of na­ture, and men that are Statists, and no way contrary to the Law of God, and Christian Religion: As likewise out of ancient Philosophers, and wise men, both Lawyers and Law-makers. Accompanied wholly for to giue credit to the cause, and that the subiect may [Page] not be disesteemed as an egge of mine owne hatching) with the examples of Kings and Emperours, (if the exam­ples of Kings may moue Kings) and with those which cannot but moue, bee esteemed, and beleeued, being drawne out of the holy Scripture. Which being well ob­serued and put in execution by Kings, they shall obtaine that end for which they were intended; To wit, to main­taine and preserue their Kingdomes in peace and iu­stice.

Reade it therefore, I beseech your Maiestie, and take it to heart; for it is a piece of worke that is directed to the seruice of Kings, of their Fauourites and Mini­sters. And let them not say, that they are Metaphysicall, and impracticable things, or, in a manner, meere im­possibilites, but rather, that they are very conforma­ble to our possibilitie, and practised by our Predecessors, Princes of famous memory, for their wisedome and pru­dence, and in Kingdomes and Common-wealths, of great Concernment, Artifice, and Policie, in matter of Gouernement, and reason of State. And viewing those with these times, and that which then was, with that which now is, it will appeare vnto vs, that your pre­sent Princes doe not come much behinde their good Pre­decessours: And that which is good, stands alwayes in a way or degree of ablenesse to become better: and that which is not so, may be bettered in the end. Time is a great proficient, it attaineth to all, and can doe all. And [Page] your Maiestie (whom God preserue) may likewise in time doe the like, if you will really and resolutely affect the same; and that you will be pleased to put in execution, what in these Aduertisements shall seeme good in your eyes. And seeme they, or not seeme they good vnto you, sure I am, that my desire, in these, in the rest, and in all, shall indeuour to hit the marke whereat it aymeth. God direct it as I desire. For mine owne part, I rest well con­tented with my paines, and hold my selfe well paid for my labour, in hauing put them into your Maiesties hands. And that you shall vouchsafe to dwell a little vpon them. For matters of State, Iustice, and Gouernment, and of things of this high nature, is a King-craft, and a know­ledge or science that deserues your care and discourse. Let others doe as they list; particular men may follow their particular pleasures and delights. But this well be­commeth Kings.

The Argument of this Booke, is the Head of Mans body; beginning at the vnderstanding, till we come to the last of the senses. For therein, and thence they haue the principium or beginning of their operations. And as in mans body, so in the mysticall body of a Common­wealth, Kings are the Head, to whom Regiment & Go­uernment belongs; and what choyce they are to make of those who are to assist them therein; the qualities which they ought to haue, and how they should carry them­selues towards them. How they shall come to dis­couer [Page] the humours, affections, mindes, and dispositions of their Ministers. And in a word, how they ought to be­haue themselues in all, and with all.

I search not into the secret closet of any mans bosome, nor touch vpon any particular person, it being the least part of my intent and purpose. I treate onely in the gene­rall, and manifest vnto all, that what I write, being cer­taine and true, and grounded vpon principles and cer­taine causes, may serue to reforme, amend, and correct, and (if neede bee) alter those fashions and customes they finde to bee amisse. This I am bold to vtter vnto your Maiestie, and dedicate the same with that securitie and confidence, which mine owne knowledge doth pro­mise and prompt vnto mee; being not ignorant, that I talke and discourse with mine owne proper King and Lord, whom I humbly beseech, that hee will bee pleased, out of his great prudence and naturall pietie, to runne all this ouer with his eye, and to cast his cloake ouer my faults. And though (no doubt) his Maiestie may meete with some, yet my minde telleth me, that he may likewise light vpon something in this Treatise, that may be of some profit for the seruice of his Maiestie, and for the conser­uation of that authoritie and greatnesse of place (which he so iustly possesseth, and for the good of the Common­wealth. For, there is not that Booke saith Seneca) so vnprofitable, whence some good may not bee gathered. And though this in supposall, or it's owne nature) may [Page] be small, and of little or no price, yet is it of no lesse no­ble and royall a condition, to receiue a little louingly, and with a gratious acceptance, then to giue much liberally. All this your Maiestie doth with all, and I assure my selfe you will likewise doe the like with me. For the naturall Loue which I beare vnto your Maiestie, meriteth no lesse, nor the minde wherewithall I doe it. And herewith I shall in some sort satisfie my desire (which is to hit the marke I ayme at) and that obligation, where­with I was borne to serue you, whom I shall neuer wil­lingly offend. And euermore, in all my prayers, and sa­crifices, I shall humbly on my knees beseech the Almighty God, to preserue your Maiestie, to giue you many, and those most happie yeares, and that hee will conserue you in his diuine grace, and humane Greatnesse, with much augmentation of Estate, both Temporall and Eternall. Amen.

Your Maiesties seruant and Chaplaine, Fr. Iuan, de Sancta Maria.

A Table containing the Chapters and Paragraphes of this Booke.

Chap. 1.
  • VVHerein it is briefly treated, what is comprehended in this word Republicke, together with it's definition.
Chapter 2.
  • What the name of King signifieth.
Chapter 3.
  • Whether the name of King, be a name of Office.
Chap. 4.
  • Of the Office of Kings.
Chap. 5.
  • Of the reason and vnderstanding of Kings, and of their wisedome.
Chap. 6.
  • How Kings ought to carrie themselues in those businesses, which their vnderstanding comprehendeth not.
Chapter 7.
  • A prosecution of the former Discourse; shewing how Kings are to take Councell: And what signes they are to marke and obserue for their better knowledge.
Chap. 8.
  • Of the diligences, which Kings are to vse in the Election of their Ministers and Councellours.
Chap. 9.
  • [Page]Of the qualities which Kings one to consider in those, whom they are to make choice of for Ministers and Councellours.
Chap. 10.
  • Hee continues the discourse of the Qualities of Ministers and Councellours.
Chap. 11.
  • Of other Course [...] and Meanes, which Kings may take for the notice of such persons, in whom the said Qualities con­curre.
Chap. 12.
  • How Kings ought to carry themselues towards those Mini­sters whom they finde sufficient for the Gouernment both of Peace and Warre.
Chap. 13.
  • The Author prosecutes the same Subiect, and shewes how Kings ought to carry themselues with their Councells and Councellours.
Chap. 14.
  • It is demanded by way of Question, Whether Kings ought inuiolably to obserue the foresaid Order.
Chap. 15.
  • Whether it be fit for Kings, to vse much the remitting of businesses.
Chap. 16.
  • Of the sence of the [...]ight [...]that is, of those businesses which Kings ought to reserue for their owne view, and to di­spetch with their owne [...]ands.
Chap. 17.
  • [...] prosecuteth the same matter, and shewes, How Kings ought to carry themsel [...]es towards those that finde them­selues aggrieued.
Chap. 18.
  • Of the sense of Hearing. And the Audiences which Kings ought to giue.
Chapter 19.
  • [Page]He goes on with the same Matter, treating of the Audiences of Ministers and Councellours.
Chap. 20.
  • Of the vertue of Iustice, the naturall sister and Companion of Kings.
Chap. 21.
  • Of the parts of Iustice in Common; and in particular of Iu­stice commutatiue.
Chap. 22.
  • Of Iustice distributiue.
Chap. 23.
  • How, and in what sort, limitation in giuing, may sute with the greatnesse of Kings.
Chap. 24.
  • Of the repartment, and diuision, which is to bee vsed in the conferring of offices. And of the knowledge of such persons as ought to be nominated for the said offi [...]es.
Chap. 25.
  • Whether Honours, Offices, and dignities, are to be confer­red on those, that sue for them.
Chap. 26.
  • Of the sense of smelling: that is, of the prudence of Kings.
    Paragraph 1.
    • Of the Magnanimitie of minde, which Kings ought to haue.
    Paragraphe 2.
    • Of the blandure, gentlenesse, and loue, which Kings ought to haue.
    Parag. 3.
    • That it much importeth Kings, to haue the good Loue and affection of their Subiects.
    Parag. 4.
    • Of sagacitie, sharpnesse of wit, and quicknesse of apprehen­sion, which Kings ought to haue.
    Parag. 5.
    • [Page]Of the Discretion, which Kings ought to haue.
Chap. 27.
  • Of the sense of Tasting; and of the vertue of Temperance; and how well it befitteth Kings:
Chap. 28.
  • When, and at what time, sports and pastimes are worthiest reprehension in Kings.
    Parag. 1.
    • Of the Language, and Truth, which Kings, and wherewith Kings are to treate, and to be treated.
    Parag. 2.
    • That Kings ought to keepe their Faith and Word▪
    Parag. 3.
    • Of that secrecie which Kings and their Ministers ought to keepe.
    Parag. 4.
    • Of Flatterers, and their flatteries.
Chap. 29.
  • Of the sense of Touching.
    Parag. 1.
    • Of Temperance.
    Parag. 2.
    • Of another remedie against Excesses, and superfluities, de­pending on the example of Kings.
Chap. 30.
  • Whether it be fit for Kings to haue Fauourites:
Chap. 31.
  • Of another sort of Fauourites.
Chap. 32
  • [Page]Whether it bee fit for Kings, to haue any more then one Fauourite.
Chap. 33
  • Of the Conditions, and Qualities, of Fauourites.
Chap. 34
  • How Kings ought to carry themselues towards their Fauou­rites.
Chap. 35
  • Whether the Kinsfolke, and Friends of Fauourites, are to be excluded from Offices.
Chap. 36
  • The Conclusion of the former Discourse, with some Aduer­tisements for Kings, and Fauourites.
Chap. 37
  • Ad [...]ertisements for Fauourites, and Councellours of State.
SAP: 6. V. 10.‘Ad vos (O Reges) sunt hi Sermones mei, vt discatis sapientiam, & non excidatis: Qui enim custodierint iusta iustè, iustificabuntur, & qui didicerint iusta, in­venient quid respondeant.’
VVISDOM 6. V. 10.‘Vnto you therefore (o Kings) doe I speake, that yee may learne VVisedome, and not goe amisse. For they that keepe holinesse holily, shall be holy, and they that are learned there, shall finde defence.’

CHAP. 1.
Wherein it is breifly treated, what is comprehended in this Word, Republicke, together with it's Definition.

MAny, and those of the grauest sorte, that haue beene well versed in all kinde of Learning, haue written of a Repub­licke, or Common-wealth; And hau [...] diuided, and sub-diuided it into many and sundry species, and defined it after diuerse and different maners; A prolixe, and tedious businesse, and full of difficulties, and farre wide of my pretension (which is [Page 2] in few both words and reasons) to describe a mysticall body with it's Head, and principall members, and the peculiar Offices belonging to euery one of them, leauing (to such as shall take pleasure therein) the multitude of vn­profitable Questions, the ornament of humane Eloquence, and the Magazine of prophane histories, being of little truth, & lesse efficacie. And taking thence my beginning whence all begin; To wit▪ from the definition, or Description. I say with Aristotle and Plato, Polit. cap 1. lib. 4. cap. 1. That a Common-wealth is no other thing,Arist. lib. [...]. saue an Order of Citizens, and Cities; in which and amongst whom, nothing is wanting, that is necessary and needefull for the life of Man. It is a iust gouernment, and disposition of many families, and of a Communitie amongst them, with a superiour authoritie ouer them. And it is a Con­gregation of many people vnited together, fraternized, with certaine Lawes and rules of gouernment. And, because I will not loose time in things not necessarie, I omit that gouern­ment, which the Greekes call Aristocratia, which is the go­uernment of the Nobility, as it is with the Signorie of Venice. And your Democratia, which is popular, and consistes of the Many, as that of Genoa, and the Cantons of the Switz. Which (though approued by many) haue their inconueni­ences, and those no small ones. For the Nobilitie, and power­full persons, if they not perseuere in the obseruance of the Lawes of good gouernment, they presently grow to be couetous, and are much subiect to Ambition. And because they are but a few, they feare the multitude; and for to con­serue themselues, exercise cruelty; whereby in the ende it turnes to a Tyrannie. For (as Mecoenas saith.) The state of a few Lords, is the state of a few Tyrants. And he that is the most powerfull, the most ambitious, and best befriended, and respected of the people, vpon the least dissension, ioynes with the multitude, which being it is naturally enuious, mutable and a friend to innouation, will with a great deale of facilitie ouerthrow the Common-wealth. And say; the Nobles do not [Page 3] side, but agree amongst themselues, yet cannot they but liue in feare of the infidelitie of the Vulgar; for ordinarily, those that haue a hand in the gouernment, are more enuied, then those that haue none at al. Besides, it is a weake kind of gouernment, nor is it possible, that these few Lords, can in large, conquer, & conserue a great Empire, as can a King, or a Monarke, because the forces are lesse vnited in them, then in him. And the people which is little interessed, & hath no share or part in those ho­nourable places, carry a Capital hatred to your great persons, and are hardly drawn to such liberall Contributions, as may sustaine a War, and subdue kingdomes. Your popular Estate in falling from that equality, which it pretendeth, is easily conuerted into a licentious libertie, or rather loosenesse, pulling down some, & setting vp others, and is much subiect to Alte­rations through it's inconstancie, & weake head-pieces of the Popular. For (as Tully saith) the sea hath not so many stormes, perills, & tempestes, as hath this kind of Cōmonwealth. And of force (euery one attending his owne proper good and priuate interest) it must runne vpon one of these two rockes: Either on the Tyrannie of him, that is the strongest, and, vp­held by the fauour of the Maior part, liftes vp himselfe aboue them all: Or on the Plebeian gouernment, then which none can be worse; for all then falls into the hands of ignorant peo­ple who put ordinary people into the highest places of ho­nour and command, without any distinction or reckoning of rich, noble, wise, or vertuous. What good Counsaile, or sound Aduise can all the Communaltie giue (put all their braines together) in a doubtfull case,Eccl. 7. 27. or businesse of importance, when (as Salomon saith) there is scarce one to be found of a thou­sand, of abilitie and sufficiencie in this kinde? But put case that such a one may happily be found amongst them, how shall he be heard with silence. What patience will their eares lend him? What secrecie will be had in that which is treated, be it of Peace, or War, that it be not divulged before it's due execution? your Tumultes and seditions, shall be more or­dinary, [Page 4] and greater then in other states; because your meaner sorte of people, are gouerned more by their owne vnruly ap­petites, and womanish longings, then by reason and discre­tion. And your base and cruell Vulgar, which vpon the least occasion suffers it selfe to be led away by hatred, and re­uenge, presently falls to taking of stones in their hands, tea­ring vp the pibbles in the streetes, as Cicero sets downe vnto vs, that in the popular assemblies of Rome, it so fell out, that oftentimes they drew their naked swordes, & that the stones were seene to flye about their eares on all sides. And when this head strong multitude hath once broken the reines, there is no keeping of them in, nor can the wit of man deuise how to bridle them. In a Monarchy, the Monarke; In an Aristocratia, your Noble men are supreme Iudges, and Arbi­trators, and by this their supreme and absolute power, they many times compose the differences of the subiects. But in a Democratia and Popular Estate, they are the supreme power, and they themselues bandy one against another, the fire of fa­ction, setting them in a consuming flame, without acknow­ledging any superiour, to decide the quarrell, and compose their differences. And therefore Aristotle sayd; That there was not any Tyrannie either greater or more pernicious, then that of an intire Communaltie, which, of it selfe, is incli­ned to crueltie. The Monarchy, or Kingdome is freer from these burning feuers, and by all is ranked in the best place, and is stiffely maintained by the grauest Authors. Of this onely shall I treate at this present. It is called a Monarchy, of [...], which, in Greeke, signifieth One, and of [...], which is the same with Prince, which is as if we should say a Principalitie, or a Kingdome; where one alone is hee that commands and gouernes, and the rest all obey. All these three kindes, of Popular, Aristocraticall, and Monarchicall gouernments were vsed in Greece, and more particularly in Rome. But Rome neuer came to be Mistresse of the World, till shee was reduced to a Monarchie in the time of Caesar [Page 5] Augustus. There are found therein 8. differences of States: Husbandmen, Trades-men, Merchants, Souldiers, Iudges Cleargie-men, the Nobility, and the King, which (to speake more properly, and, as in diuers places it is deliuered by the blessed Apostle S. Paul) is a Misticall Body, which we call a Kingdome with it's Head. For a king, is the supreme Lord, subiect onely vnto God.

That in S. Augustines, Aug. lib. 2. de Ciuil. Dei. and Diuus Thomas his opinion, as also sundry other Authors of diuers faculties,D. Tho. de regim. li. 1. cap. 2. amongst which are Aristotle, and Plato; the most excellent gouernment, is that, which acknowledgeth a Superior,Arist. Pol. 3. cap. 5. & 10. one King, and one Head. For all naturall,Plat. Dial. de repub. and good gouernment proceedeth from One, and that which comes neerest vnto Vnitie, hath most similitude,Prou. 8. 15. with that which is diuine, and is by much the most perfect. By God, Kings reigne, according to that of the wise man. Per me, reges regnant; Per me, Principes imperant. By me Kings reigne, and Princes decree iustice. And God be­ing one, and most simple in his Being; and Nature the Head of all the whole Vniuerse; by Whom, and Which all is go­uerned with admirable and ineffable prouidence, and is the Idea of all good and perfect gouernment, it is not a thing to be doubted, but that that shall be amongst vs the best, which is most agreeable, with his. And if the Members of the body, being many, and bearing different Offices therein, admit to be gouerned by a Head, and that God and Nature, hath so ordained it, Why should not a Monarchicall gouernment be the best? Most certaine therefore is it, that it is mainely to be preferred before the other two. Some will haue this Monar­chicall gouernment to be the most ancient, and that it had it's beginning from Cain, Adams eldest sonne, who was the first, that did gather people together, built Cities, and did shut them vp, and fortifie them with walls. After the stood, Nimrod, Beros lib. 4. de Flor. Cald. secun­dum Philon. de Antiq. the sonne of Chus, and nephew vnto Cham, a man of valour, and amongst those of those times, the most able, and strongest man, was the first, that reduced men to liue in a [Page 6] Communitie, and to be obedient to one only King, possessing himselfe of the Kingdome and Signorie of the World. And before these, euen in the very beginning of the Creation, God began to establish this gouernment, & forme of a Com­monwealth.Act. 17. 26. For (as S. Paul saith) God would, that all Man­kinde should descend from one Man. And Gods chosen peo­ple did euermore maintaine a Monarchie, and did ordaine, that the Supreme power should reside and remaine in One. The first gouernours of the world, were Monarkes, & did gouerne with this Title, & all the Common-wealthes of the World, haue generally desired to be gouerned by one king. As ap­peareth by those of the Gentiles, euery particular state hauing his peculiar King. And were it not a great monstrousnesse in nature, that one body, should haue two Heads? Much more were it, that one kingdome should be gouerned by two per­sons: Vnitie is the Author of much good; and Pluralitie, the causer of much ill. The Roman Commonwealth did suffer much miserie and calamitie, not because all would not obey One, but because many would command All. And therforein their greater necessities, they did create a Dictator, so called because all did obay whatsoeuer he dictated, and sayd vnto them. For they knew well enough, and did clearely and plainely perceiue, That in the Empire of One, the authoritie was the greater; greater the obedience, freer their determina­tions, firmer their Councells, speedier their resolutions, and more prompt the execution of their designes. In a word, Command, Signorie, and Supreme power, does better in one head then in many. And therefore all doe vnanimously and vndoubtedly conclude, That the Monarchie, is the ancientst, and the durablest of all other; and it's gouernment the best: yet, would I haue it to helpe it selfe with the Aristocratia in that which may be vsefull for it's aduantage. That in regard of it's strength, and execution, doth by it's greater. Vnion, and force excell the rest: This other which is composed of a few noble, wise, and vertuous persons, because it consistes of [Page 7] more, hath the more intirenesse, prudence, and wisedome; and by conioyning and intermixing the one with the other, re­sulteth a perfect & absolute gouernment. So that a Monarchy, that it may not degenerate, must not goe loose, and absolute (for Command, is a madd-man; and power Lunaticke) but must be tyed to the Lawes, as far forth as it is comprehended vnder the Law; And in things particular and temporall, must haue reference to the body of the Councell, seruing as the brace, or ioyning peece of timber, betweene a Monarchie, & an Aristocracie, which is the assistance and aduise of the chiefer, and wiser sort. For, from a Monarchy not thus well and orderly tempred, arise great errours in gouernment, little satisfaction to the State, and many distastes amongst those that are gouerned. All men, that haue had the estimation of [...]ound iudgements, and accounted wise in all kind of faculties haue held this to be the best and perfectest gouernment, and with out it, neuer Citie nor kingdome hath beene taken to be well gouerned. Your good Kings and great Gouernours haue euer fauoured this Course; whereas on the contrarie, your bad kings, and euill Gouernours, transported with their pride, haue runne another way. And therefore, in conformitie heereunto, I dare confidently affirme, if a Monarke, (be hee what he will be) shall resolue businesses alone on his own head (how wise soeuer he thinke himself) without hauing recourse to his Councell, or against the opinion of his Counsellours, (although he do Acertar and hit right in his resolutions) yet therein he breakes the bounds of a Monarchie, and enters in­to those of a Tyranny Of whose Examples, and the euill suc­cesses insuing thereupon, the Histories are full. But one shall serue instead of many. And that shall be of Tarquinius Su­perbus, Liv. lib. 1. taken out of the first Booke of Titus Liuius, who out of his great pride, and haughtinesse of minde, that he might rule all himselfe, and haue none else to haue a hand in any businesse, made it his Master peece, to weaken the authority of the Roman Senate in lessening the number of Senatours. [Page 8] Which he purposely did, that he wholy and solely by him­selfe, might determine all whatsoeuer that occurred in the kingdome. In this Monarchie, or Kingdome, there are three parts, or parties to be considered, of whom principally we are to treate. The King, The Ministers, and the Vassalls. And if in a humane body, the Anatomie & consideration of the Head, be the nicest, subtillest, and most difficult, what dif­ficultie will it not be, and what a daintie hand will it not re­quire to touch, talke, and treate of a king, who is the head of the Commonwealth? And hence I inferre, that for to treate of Kings, and to prescribe them Precepts and Documents touching a Kingdome, he ought to be such a wise King, as was Salomon. Who, considering the difficulties and dangers, which may in this matter offer themselues, aduiseth all with­out any difference, that they should not seeme to be desirous to seeme wise before their Temporall kings. For no man, howsoeuer fulfill'd with wisedome, is (speaking in his kings presence) secure and safe. Penes Regem, noli vel [...]e videri s [...] ­piens. Eccl. 7. 5. Boast not thy wisedome in the presence of the Ki [...]g. The reason is for that he that is the supreme soueraign [...]n Temporall power, whom all acknowledge and obey as their Superiour, risenteth it much, to see himselfe inferiour in a thing of so greate esteeme, as is wisedome and discretion. Xenophon, laying his foundation on this opinion, introduceth Cambises, instructing his sonne Cyrus, King of Persia, how he ought to carry himself in his Kingdome. As also Alexander, who receiued his Militarie Precepts from his father Philip and not from any other that was inferiour vnto him. It is written of Agasicles, king of the Lacedemonians, that he re­fused to learne Philosophie of a famous Philosopher of those times; it seeming vnto him, that being a king, it was not fitting, he should be his Scholler, whose sonne he was not. As if he should haue sayd; That he, onely by a naturall obli­gation, acknowledged him alone, and that he contented himselfe with that which he had learned from him, and [Page 9] would not acknowledge any other inferiour vnto him in birth, though neuer so much before him in learning and knowledge. But this difficulty I purpose to ouercome by proposing, in this my Treatise, vnto kings, not mine owne Reasons, nor those, which I might draw from great Philoso­phers, and humane Histories, but from the words of God, and of his Saints, and from Histories Diuine and Canoni­call, whose Instructions kings may not disdaine, nor take it as an affront to submit themselues thereunto, be they (being Christians) neuer so powerfull, neuer so supreme; because the Author that dictates these Lessons vnto them, is the Holy-Ghost. And if I shall at any time alleage the Examples of heathen Kings, and shall make some good benefit of An­tiquitie, and serue my selfe with the sentences of Philoso­phers, that were strangers vnto Gods people, it shall be very sparingly, and as it comes in my way, and as one that ceazeth vpon his owne goods (if he fortune to light vpon them) and taketh them from those that vniustly detaine and possesse them.

What the name of King signifieth.

THis name of King, in Diuine and humane Letters is very ancient, and so old as is the first Man. For in Gods creating of him (euen before that there were many Men) he made him King ouer all the beastes of the field. And it is a most noble Appellatiue, and that which is better, and more neerely re­presenteth vnto vs the Maiestie of God, who very frequent­ly in the holy Scriptures, and with much propriety, is called King. And it is the common opinion of the Wisest, that it signifieth one that rules, and gouernes, being deduced from the Latine word Regere, which is to rule, or gouerne. Reges a regendo dicti sunt, (saith S. Isidore) Ideò quilibet rectè faci­endo, regis nomen tenet, sed peccando, amittit. And conside­ring with more attention, this it's true Etymologie, he is properly sayd to be a King, who ouer mastring his passions, doth first rule and gouerne himselfe, cumplying (as he ought) with the obligations of his Estate, without offence either to God or his neighbour; and next hath a care to rule others, and, to procure all he can, that all may doe the like; And he, that shall do the contrary laying his foundation on hu­mane wisedom, and reason of State regardeth more his own temporall commoditie and proper Interest, then the good of the Commonwealth. This suteth not with the name he holdeth; nor may he be called a king, neither is he so for himselfe, nor for others, because he neither knowes to rule himselfe nor others.Aug lib 4. de [...]. Dei. cap. [...]. Malus, si reg [...]et (saith S. Austen) servus est. He hath the Appellation and honourable name of a king, [Page 11] but in very truth, see how many vices reigne in him, so many times is hee a servant, nay a very slaue. It was the aduice of Agapitus to Iustinian the Emperour, that he should haue an eye ouer himselfe, and looke well to his actions; for albeit he were a King and a great Prince, yet the Title of King did then convene to him, when he should be Master of himselfe, and curbing his unruly appe [...]ites, should of a King become a Vassall to Reason and Iustice. Hee that is good, and iust, is a God vpon earth, and from thence is the name of King deriued vnto him, and is his Vicar in all causes, for to maintaine his Subiects in Justice and Truth by his Empire and Command, and to sustaine all things in Order, Policie, and Peace.Lib. 2. & lib. 7. And therefore a Law of the Partida sayes thus, Q [...]el [...]ey [...]s Vicario, de dios, Tit. 1. part. 2. para hazer iusticia en todos los cosas. That a King is Gods Vicar, for to doe iustice in all Causes. Answering to that his owne saying; By me Kings reigne, &c. Which is, as if he should haue said; That their power is deriued from God, as from the first and primary cause. The signification likewise of this word King, or Rex, is (and me thinks) farre better declared, if we shall but refer i'ts originall to another word of the primitiue Language, where the Hebrew word Raga signifies (amongst other it's signi­fications) To feede. And in this sense it is to be found in many places of holy Scripture. And from this Raga, is deriued Rex, Rego, or Regno. And Regere, and Pascere, amongst the Poets, and euen also amongst the Prophets, are promiscu­ously vsed. Homer, Virgil, and Dauid, put no difference be­twixt Reges and Pastores, styling Kings Shepheards; & Shep­heards Kings.Psal. 23. And therefore in the 23. Psalme, where the vul­gar Latine reades, Dominus regit me; S. Ieromes Translation hath it, Dominus pascit me. The Lord is my Shepheard, there­fore can I lack nothing, he shall f [...]ede me in a greene pasture, and leade me forth besides the waters of comfort. And Homer he styles a King Pastorem populi, the Shepheard of his peo­ple; in regard of that sweetnesse of Command wherewith he [Page 12] gouerneth them, and the gentle hand that hee carries ouer them, feeding, but not fleecing of them. Xenophon saith, that the actions of a good shepheard, are like vnto those of a good King. So that the name of King, doth not onely signifie him that ruleth, but him that ruleth like a shepheard. And the better to instruct vs herein, the Prophet Isaiah, speaking of that, which the true Christian King our Sauiour should doe, when he should come into the world, saith; Sicut Pastor, gre­gem suum pascet, Isai. 4 [...]. 11.. in brachio suo congregabit agnos, & in sinn suo levabit, foetas ipsa portabit. Hee shall feede his flocke like a shepheard, hee shall gather the Lambes with his armes, and carry them in his bosome, and shall guide them with young. He shall perfectly performe all the Offices of a shepheard by feeding of his sheepe, and by bearing them (if neede be) vpon his shoulders. And of the selfe same King,Ezech. 34▪ 23. Christ, God said in respect of his people; Ipse pisect eos, & ipse erit eis in pastorem. I will set vp a shepheard ouer them, and he shall seed them. And in the next words follow­ing he cals him ioyntly King and shepheard. Servus meus David Rex super eos, & Pastor unus erii omnium eorum. My seruant Dauid shall bee the Prince amongst them, and they shall all haue but one shepheard. And they shall dwell safely in the wildernesse, and sleepe in the woods, and none shall make them affraid. And for the clearer significati­on hereof, the first Kings that God made choise of, and com­manded to be anoynted, hee tooke them from amidst their fl [...]cks▪ The one they sought after, the other they found fee­ding of his flocke. The Prophet Samuel whom God com­manded to annoynt for King one of the sons of Ishai, hauing scene the elder and the other seuen (all goodly handsome men & of a good disposition) had no great liking to any one of them, but asked their father; Whether he had no more children but those; [...] 16▪ 11. And he said vnto him; Adhuc reliquus est parv [...]lus, & pascit oves. There remaineth yet a little one behind, that keepeth the sheepe. And the Prophet [Page 13] willed him, that he should send for him; for we will not sit downe, till he be come hither; shewing, that to be a shepheard and to feed the flock, was the best Symbole, and most proper Embleme of a King. And therfore I would haue no man to imagine that which Philon did feare, that when we come to make a King, we must take away the Crooke, and put the Scepter in his hand. The Office of a King I tell you, and the Arte of ruling, will require a great deale of study, and experi­ence. For to gouerne the bigger sort of beastes, and those that are of greatest price, a man must first haue learned to [...]aue gouerned the lesser. It is not meete, to Popp into great places vnexperienced persons, and such as know not what belongs vnto businesse, nor the weight of the charge that they are to take vpon them. For indeede, great Matters are not handsomely carryed, nor well managed, but by such as haue beene formerly imployed in businesses of an inferi­our and lower nature. And this choyse, which God made of Dauid, De post foetanti­bus accepit eum, pascere Iacob Servum suum & Israel haere­ditatem suam. iumpes with this our intent. He doth not say, that he tooke him on the sodaine from the sheepefold, and pre­sently clapp't a Crowne vpon his Head; but first bred him vp to feede the house of Iacob, and his family, and that he should exercise himselfe therein. For a well ordered house, and a family that is well gouerned, is the Modell and Image of a Common-wealth; And domesticall authoritie, resem­bleth Regall power. And the good guidance of a particular house, is the Exemplary and true patterne of a publicke State. It imbraceth and comprehendeth in it all the sorts of good gouernment. It doth treate and set in order those things, that appertaine to Policie, Conseruation, and the di­rection of Men, as well in regard of Commanding, as obey­ing. What other thing is a house with his family, but a little Citie. And what a Citie, but a great House? Many houses, make a Citie; And many Cities, make a kingdome. And in point of gouernment, ihey onely d [...]ffer in greatnesse, for howbeit in the one, they are busied more, and in the other [Page 14] lesse, yet they tend all to one end, which is the common good. And therefore S. Paul and other Saints, and wise men are of opinion, that hee that knowes not how to gouerne his own house well, will hardly gouerne another mans. The Emperour Alexander Severus, visiting the Roman Senate, did inquire, how the Senators did rule and gouerne their owne priuate Houses, and families, and sayd; That that man, who knew not how to command his wife, and his Children, to follow his owne businesses, to make prouision for his house, and to gouerne his familie, it were a mad­nesse to recommend vnto that man the gouernment of the Common-wealth. Amongst those the famous Gouernours, Cato the Roman, was preferred before Aristides, the Grecian, because the former was a great Pater familias, or father of a familie, and the latter was noted to be defectiue in that kinde. So that the life of a shepheard is the Coun­terfeit or Picture of gouernment, as is to be seene by his assistance in his Office, in the care of the wellfare of his flocke, in the obligation of the Account that he is to make, in the offence that he is to finde by Wolues and Theeues, and in the solicitude and watchfullnesse, which those ordi­nary dangers doe require, wherein his flocke stands, and more especially when the shepheard is wanting vnto them. And it is so proper vnto a King to feede his flocke, that when our Sauiour Christ fed that multitude of people,Iohn 6. 15. which followed him in the desert, they no sooner saw that he had satisfied them, but they were desirous to make him a King, and to clap the Crowne on his head. And for this cause in the 3. Chapter of Esay, Esay. 3. he that saw he was vn­prouided of bread, would not accept the Votes of the peo­ple, that were willing to nominate him for their King, say­ing thus vnto them: Non sum medicus, & in domo mea non est panis, neque vestimentum; nolite constituere me principem populi. There is no bread in my house, nor cloathing▪ I cannot be an helper vnto yee, therefore make [Page 15] me no Prince of the people. And therefore with very good reason, and with a great deale of proprietie, a King and a Shepheard, is all one.

In the Greeke tongue a King is called [...] Quasi basis & fundamentum populi. As if hee were the basis and foundation of the people. And of your Kings (sayth Rabbi Abraham) those words are to bee vnderstood of Iob, Qui portant orbem; Who sustaine the weight of a king­dome, and beare the loade thereof vpon their shoulders. And a Hierogliffe heereof is the Crowne which they weare vpon their head in manner of a Citie, circled about with Townes, and battlements; signifying thereby, that the strong brayne,Greg in Iob. and the good and wise head, and sound sconce of a King, doth fortifie and vphold the whole weitht and burthen of all the Cities of his kingdome. And this is S. Gregories Interpretation vpon of his place. Some others conceiue that this name was giuen it, in consideration of that creature called the Basiliske; who is the king of the venomous creatures, and hath this euil qualitie with him, that he kills with his lookes onely. And doe not the kings some­times kill their fauourites, and those that are neerest about them, with the knit of the brow, and a sower looke? And some such Kings there be (or at least haue beene) in the world, that take it offensiuely, if their frownes and dis­fauours, doe not kill like poyson. But this Etymologie hath little ground for it. For the Greeke word [...] which in that language signifies a king, is much different from that of Bisiliscus, a Basiliscke. For it is more proper to Kings to cure and heale, then to kill, and slay. As the fore­cited place of Esay teacheth vs, where he that would not take the Crowne vpon him, excuses himselfe, not onely for that he had not bread to feede others, but also because he was not a Physitian. Non sum Medicus, & in domo mea non est panis, presuposing, that a good King ought to be a Physitian to his people, and ought to helpe and feede his [Page 16] subiects. And the sayd Prophet, when in the person of Christ, he relateth, how the eternall Father had annoynted him, and Crowned him for King, saith, spiritus domini super me, Esay. 16. eò quod vnxerit me & vt mederer contritis corde. And Christ himselfe being calumniated by the Pharisees, because he did conuerse and eat with Publicans, and Sinners, hee made them this answer.Mat. 9. 12. Non est opus valentibus medicus, sed malè habentibus. They that bee whole, neede not the Physitian, but they that be sicke. Patricius Senensis, calls Kings and Princes, Medicos vniuersales reip: Vniuersall Physitians of the Common-wealth. And S. Austen tell vs that to them appertaineth the remedy of all the sicke, and the cure of all the diseases, and other those crosse and re­pugnant humours which reigne in a Kingdome, and to apply a medicine to euery particular person, agreeable to that humour, wherein hee is peccant. And the Office of a shepheard, which is so proper vnto Kings (as already hath beene said) hath with it this obligation, to cure his flocke. And therefore in the 34 of Ezechiel, God doth lay a heauie Taxe vpon those shepheards, because they were faulty in this their Office of Curing.Ezech. 34. 4. Quod infirmū fuit, non consolidastis, & quod aegrotum, nonsanaest is, &c. The diseased haue yee not strengthened, neither haue yee healed that which was sicke, neither haue yee bound vp that which was broken, neither haue yee brought againe that which was driuen a­way, neither haue yee sought that which was lost; but with force and with crueltie haue yee ruled them, yee eat the fat, and yee cloath ye with the Wooll, yee kill them that are fed, but yee feede not the flocke. And heere that third signifi­cation sutes well with this name of King: which is the same as Father.Gen. 20. Iudg. 8. As appeareth in that of Genesis, where the S [...]chemites called their King Abimilech, which is as much to say; As my Father, or my Lord; And anciently their Kings were called Patres reip: Fathers of their Common-wealths. And hence is it, that King Theodoricus defining the Maiestie [Page 17] royall of Kings,Cassio. lib. 4. epist▪ 42. (as Cassiodorus reporteth it) speakes thus: Princeps, est Pastor publicus & Communis. A King is the publicke and common shepheard. Nor is a King any other thing, but the publicke and common Father of the Com­mon-wealth. And because the Office of a King hath such similiancie with that of a Father, Plato stiles a King Patrem familias, A father of a familie. And Xenophon the Philoso­pher affirmeth: Bonus Princeps nihil differt à bono patre. That a good Prince, differs nothing from a good Father. The onely difference is in this, That the one hath fewer, the other more vnder his Empire & Command. And certain­ly, it is most sutable vnto reason, that this Title of Father be giuen vnto Kings, because they ought to be such towards their subiects, and kingdomes, carrying a fatherly affecti­on and prouidence, towards their wellfare and preseruation. For reigning,Homer. or bearing rule (saith Homer) is nothing else but a paternall gouernment, like that of a father ouer his owne children. Ipsum nam (que) regnum, imperium est suapte natura paternum. There is no better habit of gouerning, then to haue a King cloath himselfe with the loue of a fa­ther, and to haue that care of his subiects, as if they were so many children of his owne loynes. The affection of a father towards his children, his care that they shall lacke no­thing, and to be one and the same towards them all, car­rieth a great proportion with a Kings pietie towards his subiects. Hee is called a Father, so that the very name, obligeth him to answer this signification, in workes, not in word; but to shew himselfe a true father indeed. Againe, for that this name father is very proper vnto Kings, if wee shall well and truly weigh it, amongst all other Attributes and Epithites of Maiestie, and Signorie, it is the greatest, vnder which all other names are comprehended, as the Species vn­der their Genus, being subordinate thereunto. Father is a­boue the Title of King, Lord, Master, Captaine, and the like. In a word, it is a name aboue all other names that denotate [Page 18] Signorie, and prouidence. Antiquitie when it was willing to throw it's greatest Honour vpon an Emperour, it called him the Father of the Common-wealth. Which was more then Caesar, or Augustus, and whatsoeuer other name most glorious in the world: whether it were conferr'd vpon them either for to flatter them, or to oblige them to those great effects, which this name (Father) tyes them vnto. In con­clusion, by this word (Father,) it is giuen Kings to vnder­stand, what they ought to doe. To wit; That they are to rule gouerne and maintaine their Common-wealths and Kingdomes in Iustice, and in Peace: That they are to feede, (like good shepheards) these their rationall sheepe. That they are (like skilfull Physitians) to heale and cure their ma­ladies: And that they are to haue that care of their subiects, as fathers haue of their children, watching ouer them with prudence and with Loue, respecting more them, then them­selues. For Kings, are more obliged to the Kingdome, and the Common-wealth, then vnto themselues. For, if we shall but looke into the Originall, and Institution of a King, and a kingdome, we shall finde, that a King was ordained for the good of the kingdome, and not the kingdome for the good of the King.

Whether the name of King, be a name of Office?

LEt vs not detaine our selues in the ill apprehension of those, who conceiue, that the name of King is a Title onely of Honour and Dignitie, and not of Charge, and Office, For if (as wee said before in our 1. Chapter) a King in a Common-wealth,Rom. 12. 2. 4. 1. Cor. 12. 12. holdes that place, as the Head doth in a humane body, where all the Corporall Members haue their particular Offices, and euen the most and most principall, then most certaine it is, that a King, in his kingdome, is to be the most Eminent in the Gouernment, so that we are not only to acknowledge that a King is an Officiall, but euen the greatest of all Officialls, and that of all Offices, his is the chiefest and of greatest dignitie. Etenim (sayth S. Chryso­stome) imperare, Chrys. in Epist. vlt: ad Corin: Serm. 15. Plato Dion. Epist. 7. D. Thom. de [...]egi. Prin. cap. 14. non solum dignitas est, imò ars est [...]rtium omnium summa. To rule, is not onely a dignitie, but an Art also, and of all Artes, the greatest. Diuine Plato, & Diuus Thomas likewise affirme; Inter omnes artes viuendi, regendi ars amplior, & superior est. The Art and office of gouerning a Common-wealth,Nazian: in Apologetico. and a kingdome, is a Regall knowledge, a Princely science, and which particularly ap­pertaineth vnto Kings; it is an Arte of Artes, the most difficile to learne, and the most dangerous to practise; And Nazianzene renders the reason. Quia inter omnes animantes homo maximè & moribus varius, & voluntate diuersus. Be­cause amongst all liuing Creatures, man is most various in his maners, and most diuerse in his will. He is most mu­table in his opinions, most deceitfull in his words of [Page 20] more colours, foldings, and doublings then any other creature whatsoeuer; worst to be knowen, and hardest to to be ruled; and aboue all, most ingrate and vnthankfull vnto him that is set in authority ouer him. And Plato more particularly tells vs, that he held it in a manner a thing impossible, for any one to haue such a Wit, that alone of himselfe, he should be sufficient to gouerne well; it being so hard a matter to do, though a man haue neuer so good partes, and abilities to performe that function▪ Ptolomy, King of Aegypt, considering the great difficul­ties, which accompanie gouerning and reigning, began to weigh the qualitie of each difficultie, and comparing some with other some, he knew not which to ranke formost, or to preferre before his fellow. It seemed wonderfull hard vnto him, to know the Talent, and parts of persons, for the conferring of Offices and places vpon them; a businesse, whereon good gouernment mainely dependeth. Hee likewise found it as difficult, to make good Lawes, and Statutes. As also, to rule so many Townes, and so many people, as are listed vnder a Crowne, and name of King: As likewise to dresse so many dishes for so many different palates, so many things to the gust and content of so many sundry wills, and a thousand other difficulties which daily offer themselues in the ruling and gouerning of men. For (as Seneca saith) Nullum animal, maiori est arte tractan­dum, quam homo. Seneca. lib. de Clem. 1. cap. 17. There is not that creature, like vnto Man, for whose gouernment, more Arte more prudence, more wisedome, more discretion, and sagacitie is required. No man can denie, but that to beare on his shoulders the weight of a kingdome, with obligation to attend on such and so great a diuersitie of things, as of Peace, and Warre, and of so many graue and weightie businesse, and of so great importance, without fayling one point or tittle therein, is an intollerable trouble, a most heauy burthen, and most difficult Office. And in this respect, so few haue there [Page 21] beene, that haue knowne perfectly to cumply therewith: And it is worthy our consideration, that there being so many Histories, and Bookes of the Liues of Kings, and Em­perours of the Gentiles, there is not one amongst them all to be found, who hath not bin noted of many faults. Alex­ander the Great, who for his famous Acts, & great Courage, had the sirname giuen him of Great, had many things in him worthy reprehension, and vnbeseeming royall dignitie. And howbeit Xenophon in his Cyropedia, Xenophon. Lib. 1 de Cyrop. would giue vs to vnderstand, that King Cyrus, had all those vertues and great­nesses, which are there represented vnto vs, yet many wise men are of beliefe, that that was no true History which he wrote of that King, but an Idea, or Patterne, that Kings might draw from thence, what they ought to bee. Like vnto those Bookes of Cicero, which he wrote de Oratore; Who painteth forth the properties, which hee that will be a good Orator ought to haue, though that man was neuer yet found, that had them. Besides, if we shall turne our eyes to­wards those ancient Kings of Gods people, the sacred Scrip­ture doth dis-deceiue vs. For, out of the whole packe of them,Eccl. 49. 5 hee picks out but three onely that were good. Prae­ter Dauid, & Ezechiam, & Iosiam, [...]omnes Reges peccatum commiserunt. Excepting Dauid, Ezechias, and Iosias, all the rest of the Kings committed sinne. Not that these three had not their sinnes, for the holy Scripture taxeth them of some, (and those no small ones) but because they had not sinned in the Office of Kings. And because in it's admini­stration, it is an Office so full of difficulties: the Apostle S. Paul admonisheth all the faithfull, that they alwayes make earnest Prayers for them, which is still vsed to this day in all your Catholike Churches.

Moreouer that the name of a King,Re [...]ran [...] El beneficio s [...] da po [...] [...]l oficio. is the name of an Office, it is confirmed by that common saying; Beneficium d [...]tur propter Officium. And therefore Kings being so greatly bene­fitted, not onely by those great Tributes, which are giuen [Page 22] them by the Common-wealth, but likewise by those which they receiue from the Benefices, and Rents of the Church, it is an vndoubted truth, that they haue an Office, and of Offices the greatest; and for this cause the whole King­dome doth so freely and liberally contribute vnto them. Which is specified by S. Paul in a Letter of his which hee wrote vnto the Romans. Rom 13. 6. Id [...]ò, & tributa praestatis, &c. For this cause pay you Tribute also. For they are Gods Mi­nisters, attending continually vpon this very thing, &c. Kingdomes doe not pay their taxes idly and in vaine: So many sessements, so many Subsedies, so many impositions, so many great rentes, so much authoritie, so high a Title, and so great a Dignitie, is not giuen without charge and trouble. In vaine should they haue the name of Kings, if they had not whom to rule and gouerne. And therefore this obligation lyes vpon them. In multitudine populi, dig­nitas regis. The honour of a King, is in the multitude of his People. So great a dignitie, so great reuenewes, such a deale of Greatnesse, Maiestie and Honour, with a perpetuall Cense and rate vpon his Subiects Lands and Goods, binde him to rule and gouerne his States, conseruing them by Peace and Iustice. Let Kings therefore know, that they are to serue their kingdomes, being they are so well payd for their paines, and that they beare an Office, which tyes them neces­sarily to this trouble. Qui praeest in solicitudine, (saith S. Paul) He that ruleth with diligence.Rom. 12. 8. This is the Title, and name of King, and of him that gouernes. Not of him, that goes before others onely in his Honour, and his pleasure, but of him that excells others in his solicitude, and his care. Let them not thinke, that they are Kings onely in name, and representation, and that they are not bound to any more but to bee adored and reuerenced, and to represent the per­son royall with a good grace, and to carry themselues with a soueraigne kind of State and Maiestie like some of those Kings of the Medes and Persians, which were no more then [Page 23] meere shadowes of Kings, so wholy neglectfull were they of their office, as if they had beene no such manner of Men. There is not any thing more dead, and of lesse substance, then the image of a shadow, which neither waggs arme, nor head, but at the Motion of that which causeth it.Exod. 20. God Commanded his people, that they should not make any gra­uen Image nor any feigned Pictures, or counterfeit paintings which shew a hand, where there is none; discouer a face, where there is none; and represent a body, where there is none; expressing therein actions to the life, as if the Image or Picture did see, and speake. For God is no friend of feigned figures, of painted men, nor of Kings, that are onely so in shape and proportion, being in fashion like vnto those, of whom Dauid sayd,Psal. 135. 16. Os habent, & non loquuntur, oculos ha­bent, & non videbunt, &c. They haue mouths, but speake not, eyes haue they, but they see not; They haue eares, but heare not, and hands haue they, but handle not. And to what vse I pray serues all this? They are no more then meere Idolls of Stone, which haue no more in them of Kings, but onely an externall representation. To be all name and authoritie, and to be Men in nothing else, doe not sute well together. Woe to the Idoll Shepheard (saith Zacharie) that leaueth the flocke.Zach. 11. 17. The sword shall be vpon his arme, and vpon his right eye; His arme shall be cleane dryed vp, and his right eye shall be vtterly darkeneds it is written in the Reuelation; Apoc. 3. [...]. Nomen habes quod viuas, & mortuus es. Thou hast a name that thou liuest, and art dead: The names which God setteth vpon things, are like vnto the Title of a Booke, which in few words, containeth all that is therein. This name of King, is giuen by God vnto Kings, and therein includeth all that, which this their Office tyes them to doe. And if their workes and actions doe not answer with their name and Title, it is as if one should say yea, with his Mouth, and by making Signes, say no, with his head. What aiest and mockerie is this? How [Page 24] shall such a one bee truely vnderstood? It were Cosenage and deceit in that Golde beater, who writes vpon his Signe, Heere is fine gold to be sold, when indeed it is but Orpine, and base gold for Painters. The name of King, is not an Attribute of Idlenesse; A person regall, must haue reall performance. As his name soundeth, so let him serue in his place: it is the people that proclaime the King, but it is the King that must proclaime his loue to the peo­ple. Hee that hath the name of ruling and gouerning, a Gods name let him rule and gouerne. They are not to be Reyes de anillo (as it is in the Prouerb) that is to say; no­minall Kings only, & praeter nomen nihil: hauing nothing else in them. In France, there was a time, when their kings, had nothing but the bare name of Kings, their Liuetenants Generall gouerning, and Commanding all, whilest they (like so many beastes) did busie themselues in nothing else, but following the delights and pleasures of Gluttonie, and Wantonnesse. And because it might be known, and ap­peare to the people, that they were aliue, (for they neuer came abroad) once a yeare they made shew of themselues, on the first day of May, in the Market-place of Paris, sit­ting in a chaire of State on a throne royall, like your kings amongst your Stage-players; and there in reuerence they bowed their bodies vnto them, and presented them with giftes; and they againe conferred some fauours, on such as they though fit. And because you may see the miserie where­unto they were brought, Eynardus, in the beginning of that Historie which he writes of the life of Charles the Great, says: That those Kings (in those dayes) had no valour in them in the world, made no shew of Noblenesse, nor gaue so much as a tast of any inclination thereunto; but had onely the empty and naked name of King. For in very deede they were not Kings, nor had actually and effectually any hand in the gouernment of the State, or the wealth and riches of the Kingdome; for they were wholly possessed by the Praefecti [Page 25] latij, whom they called Seneshalls, or Lord high Stewards of the Kings House. Who were such absolute Lords and of that vnlimited power, that they ruled the roste, and did what they list, leauing the poore seely King nothing saue onely the bare Title, who sitting in a Chaire with his Per­riwigge, and his long beard, represented the person of a King making the world beleeue that hee gaue Audience to all Ambassadours that came from forraigne parts, and gaue them their answers and dispatches, when they were to returne: But in very truth, he sayd no more vnto them, saue what hee had beene taught, or had by writing beene powred into him, making shew as if all this had beene done out of his owne Head. So that these kinde of Kings had nothing of the Power-Royall, but the vnprofitable name of King, and inutile throne of State, and a personated Maiestie that lay open to nothing but scorne and derision. For the ture kings, and those that commanded all, were those their Minions and Fauorites, who oppressed the other by their potencie, and kept them in awe. Of a King of Samaria, God sayd; That hee was no more but paulu­lum spumae, a froathy bubble. Which being beheld a far off, seemeth to be something, but when you draw neere and touch it, it is nothing. Simia in tecto, Rex fatuus, in solio suo. He is like vnto an Ape on the house-toppe, who vsing the apparances, and gestures of a man is taken for such a one by them that know him not. Iust so, is a foolish King vpon his Throne, your Ape likewise serueth to en­tertaine children and to make them sport: And a King causeth laughter in those, who behold him stript of the acti­ons of a King, without authoritie, and without gouernment. A King, appareled in Purple, and sitting with great Maiestie in his Throne answerable to his greatnesse, seemeth in shew, graue, seuere, and terrible, but in effect nothing. Like vnto the Picture of that Grecians limming, which being placed on high, and beheld from a farre, seemed [Page 26] to be a very good Peece, But when you came neerer vn­to it, and viewed it well, it was full of Blots and Blurs, and very course stuffe. A King vnder his Canopie or Princely Pall, expresseth a great deale of outward State and Maiestie, but himselfe being narrowly lookt into, is no better then the blurred Character of a King. Simu­lachra gentium, Dauid calleth those Kings, that are Kings onely in name. Or, as the Hebrew renders it: Imago fictilis, & contrita. An image of crack't earth, which leaketh in a thousand places. A vaine Idoll, which representeth much, yet is no other then a false and lying shadow. And that name doth very well sute with them, which Eliphas falsly put vpon Iob, Iob. 4. 19. who, being so good and so iust a man, did mocke at him, vpbrayding him, that his foundation was in the dust, that he was not a man of any solid and sound iudgement, but onely had some certaine exteriour apparences, calling him Mimicoleon, which is a kinde of creature, which in Latin, they call Formicaleo. Because it hath a monstrous kinde of Composture, in the one halfe part of the body, representing a fierce Lyon, which was alwayes the Hierogliffe of a King; and in the other halfe an Ante or Pismire, which signifieth a weake thing and without any substance. Authoritie, Name, Throne, and Maiestie doth well become Lyons, and powerfull Princes; And hitherto, it is well. But when we looke on the o­ther halfe, and see the being and substance of a Pismire; that goes hard. There haue beene Kings, who with their very name onely, haue strooke the world into a feare and terrour. But they themselues had no substance in them, and were in their Kingdome no better then Ants, and Pismires. Great in name and Office but poore in action. Let euery King then acknowledge himselfe to be an Of­ficer, and not onely to bea a priuate, but a publicke Of­ficer, and a superintendent in all Offices whatsoeuer. For in all, hee is bound both to speake, and doe. S Austen, [Page 27] and D. Thomas, Aug. & D. Tho. in Epis. 1. ad Tim. 3. expounding that place of Saint Paul, which treates of Episcopall Dignitie, say; That the Latin word-Episcopus, is compounded in the Greeke of two words, being in signification the same with Superinten­dens, The name of Bishop, of King, and of whatsoeuer other superior, is a name that comprehendeth Superin­tendencie, and assistance in all Offices. This, the royall Scepter signifieth, exercised by Kings in their publicke acts, a Ceremonie vsed by the Aegyptians, but borrowed from the Hebrews, who for to expresse the obligation of a good King, did paint and open eye placed alofte vpon the top of a rod, in forme of a Scepter; signifying in the one the great power that a King hath, and the prouidence and vigilancie which hee is to haue. In the other that he doe not onely content himselfe in possessing this supreme power, and in holding this high and eminent place, and so lye downe and sleepe, and take his ease, as if there were no more to bee done: but hee must bee the first in gouernment, the first in Councell and all in all Offices, ha­uing a watchfull eye in viewing and reuiewing, how eue­ry publicke Minister performes his duty. In signification whereof, Ieremie saw the like rod, when God asking him what hee saw,Ier. 1. v. 12. hee sayd; Virgam Vigilantem ego video. Well hast thou seene, and verily I say vnto thee; That I who am the head, will watch ouer my body; I, that am the shepheard, will watch ouer my sheepe; And I that am a King and Monarke, will watch without wearinesse ouer all my Inferiours. The Chalde translates it, Regem festi­nantem, a King that goes in hast. For though hee haue eyes and see; yet if he betake him to his ease, be lull'd asleepe with his delightes and pleasures, and doth not bestirre himselfe, visiting this, and that other place, and seeke to see and know all the good and euill which pas­seth in his Kingdome, hee is, as if hee were not. Let him bethinke himselfe that he is a Head, and the Head of [Page 26] [...] [Page 27] [...] [Page 28] a Lyon, which sleepes with his eyes open; That he is that rodde, which hath eyes, and watcheth: Let him therefore open his eyes, and not sleepe, trusting to those that perhaps are blinde, or like Moles, haue no eyes at all: or if they haue any, vse them no farther then for their own pri­uate profit: And therein they are quicke sighted. These, haue the eyes of the Kyte, and other your birdes of rapine; but it were better that they had no eyes at all, then haue them all for themselues.

Of the Office of Kings.

HAuing proued, that the name of King, is not of Dignitie onely, but likewise of Occupation, and Office, it is fit, that we should now treate of the qua­lities and partes thereof. For the bet­ter vnderstanding whereof, wee must follow the Metaphor, or resemblance of Mans body, whereof the Apostle S. Paul made vse, thereby to giue vs to vnderstand the place and Office which euery Member is to hold in the Com­mon-wealth. All the Members of the body (saith he) haue their particular Office, but the Occupations and functions of euery one of them, are diuerse, and different. The most important and of greatest Excellencie are those of the Head; which is the superiour part of the bodie. In which the Soule doth exercise her principall operations, as those of the Vnderstanding,Arist. & Aly. lib. 3. de Anima. and Will, the instruments whereof haue their habitation in the head. There is seated the Sensus Communis, or Common-sense, so called, because it's know­ledge is common to all those obiects of the exteriour or outward sences. There likewise, is the Imaginatiue, the Esti­matiue, the Phantasie, and the Reminiscentia, Corporall fa­culties, which serue to those that are Spirituall, as are the Vnderstanding, and the Will. In the Head, are likewise placed the exteriour sences. As Seeing, Hearing, Smelling Tasting, Touching, and other faculties and vertues, where­with the life of man is sustained and gouerned. And ther­fore S. Ambrose calls it Imperialem Aulam, the Imperi­all Court, because therein resides the Imperiall power, or [Page 30] that Empresse the Will, which ruleth and Commandeth all those powers and faculties, as being obedient and sub­iect vnto her. And wee may also stile it Regalem Au­lam, the Princes Pallace; for therein abideth (assisted by it's operations) the Vnderstanding as a King in his Court. For if the Will bee tearmed an Empresse, of it's Empire and rule: The Vnderstanding is called a King, because it directeth and gouerneth in Man, and vnto Man, all his operations, guiding them to their due and fit ends. Lactan­tius (contrary vnto Galen) sayth of the Head,Lactan. Firm. Lib. de Opificio Dei, cap. 12. that it is the first member that is formed in Man, and hath the Primacie ouer all the rest. And is for this cause, called Caput, which is the same with Principium, Heb. 1. c. 6. 7. (as some Doctors doe expound it.) And in the Spanish tongue, they call the first lines of a Processe, Cabeca de Processo, the head of the Processe, or the beginning of it. And it carryes the same signification in the Latin. H. Varro. In capite libri scriptum est de me; R [...]b. Steph. in Thesau. 1. id est; in principio Libri. And for this, we haue not onely Varro's, Plato in Tim. but also Robertus Stephanus his Con­firmation. Caput dicitur, quod inde initium capiant Sensus. It is called Head, because from thence the sences haue their Head, and Beginning. As also, for that the Head, is the Well-head of Mans life. From it, haue their originall, and in it, do all the Sences liue. It Sees, Heares, Smells, and Tastes, not onely for it selfe, but for the whole body, that is, for the good and benefit of all the members and parts of the body,

Hence it followeth, that the Institution of the State-royall, or of a King, which is represented in the Head, was not or­dained onely for the Kings owne vse and profit, but for the generall well-fare of his Kingdome. And therefore hee ought to See, Heare, Taste, and vnderstand, not only by him selfe, or for himselfe, but by all, and for all. He ought not onely to haue an eye to his important affayres, but like­wise to the good of his Subiects: Being that for them, and [Page 31] not for himselfe onely,Seneca. lib. de C [...]em. a King was borne to the World. Aduerte (saith Seneca to the Emperor Nero) rempubli­cam non esse tuam sed te reipublicae. Consider, that the Common-wealth is not thine, but thou the Common-wealths. Those first men who leauing solitude, assembled themselues to liue in a Community knew full well, that na­turally, euery one careth for himselfe and his owne people, but no man that taketh care for all in generall. And there­fore they did agree amongst themselues to choose one of more especiall valour and worth, to whom all might haue re­course. And that he, who among them all should be most re­nowned for his vertue, prudence, and fortitude, should pre­side ouer all the rest, and should rule and gouerne them; that he should be watchfull ouer all of them, that he should be solicitous of the common good and profit of them all, and to be as carefull of them, as a father would be of his children, or a Shepheard of his sheepe. And weighing with themselues, that such a kinde of Man, as this ought to be, im­ploying himselfe not in his owne, but other mens businesses, could not be able to maintaine himselfe, and his familie (for then all did eate of the labour of their owne hands, and the sweate of their browes) they did ioyntly resolue to finde his house,Regall power was first orday­ned for the ease of the people. and to sustaine and maintaine him, that hee might not be withdrawen by other by businesses, but apply him­selfe wholy to those of the Common good, and to publicke gouernment. For this end were they established; This was the beginning that Kings had; and it ought to be the care of a good King, to care more for the publike, then his owne particular good. All his Greatnesse is at the cost of a great deale of care, trouble, vexation, and inquietude both of Soule and Body. He is wearinesse to himselfe; to others, he is their ease, their sustenance, and their defence. Like vnto your fayrest flowers, and fruits, which although they beautifie the tree, they are not so much for it, or for it's owne respect, as for others. Let not any Man thinke that all the good doth [Page 30] [...] [Page 31] [...] [Page 32] consist in the beauty and brauery, wherewith the flower doth flourish; and in the goodly shew wherewith the Great ones of the world doe gallant it; your powerfull Kings and Princes, are flowers, but flowers which fade and wither, wast their life to preserue others, drawing care vpon themselues, and affording comfort vnto others, others more inioying the fruit, then they themselues. For (as Philon Iudaeus saith) A King to his Kingdome, is that, which a wise man to the ignorant, a sheepheard to his sheepe, a father to his chil­dren, light vnto darkenesse, and that which God heere on earth is to all his creatures. For this Title he gaue vnto Moses, when he made him King, and Ruler ouer his people. Signify­ing vnto him, that he was to be as God, the common father of them all; For to all this doth the Office and dignitie of a King oblige him.Seneca lib. de Consolat ad Polib c. 26. Omnium domos illius vigilantia defendit, omnium otium illius labor, omnium delitias illius industria, omnium vacationem illius occupatio. His subiects houses are guarded and secured by his Vigilancie; their ease procured, by his labour, their delights inioyed, by his industry, and their merry vacations, by his painefull imployments. And therfore the Prophet Samuell sayd vnto king Saul, anon af­ter he was annointed King ouer Israel; declaring vnto him the obligations of his Office; Behold Saul, now that God hath annointed thee King ouer all this Kingdome, that thy Office ties thee to it's generall gouernment. Thou wast not made King to sleepe and take thine ease, or to honour and authorize thy selfe by the dignitie Royall, but that thou shouldest gouerne and maintaine the people in peace, and iustice, and that thou shouldest protect and defend them from their enemies Rex Eligitur, non vt sui ipsius curam habeat (sayth Socrates) et sese molliter curet, Sed vt per ipsum, ij qui eligerunt, bene beatéque viuant. Kings are not chosen, that their whole care should be for themselues, to pamper the flesh, and to liue nicely and daintily; but that by him, they who had elected him, might liue well and hap­pily [Page 33] vnder him. They were not created, nor introduced into the world, for their owne commoditie, and their owne plea­sure, and that all the good morsels should be for their owne trencher (for if it should be so, no man would willingly be subiect vnto them) but for the publicke profit and common good of all his subiects, for their happy gouernment, for their safe protection, their augmentation, conseruation, and in a word for their seruice; (and without any vnmannerlinesse, we may well tearme it so) for albeit in outward appearance the Scepter and the Crowne, haue the face of Empire and Sig­niory; yet in strictenesse and in rigour, it is but the Office of a Seruant. Servus Communis, siuè Servus honoratus: The Common-wealths seruant, or a more honourable kind of Seruant. This is the attribute which some giue vnto a king. Quia à tota republica stipendia accipit, vt serviat omnibus. Because he receiues stipends from all, that he may serue all. And the Pope of Rome holds it no dishonour vnto him, to be stiled; Servus servorum Dei The Seruant of Gods ser­uants. And howbeit anciently this name of seruant were infamous, yet after that our Sauiour Christ had in his own person taken it vpon him, it hath since beene accounted honorable. And as it is not repugnant and contradictory to the Essenceand nature of the sonne of God, no more is it any preiudice or disparagement to the Maiestie and great­nesse of Kings. And this was well vnderstood by Antigonu [...] King of Macedonia, who reprehending his sonne, for car­rying too hard a hand ouer his Subiects, thus checkt his immoderate Empire; An ignoras (fili mi) Regnum nostrum nobilem esse seruitutem? Wootst thou not (my sonne) that our kingdome, is a Noble seruitude? Answering to that of Agamemnon; Aelian. de varia Hist. lib. 2. We liue (saith hee) in the opini­on of the world in much greatnesse, and in high Estate, but in effect are but seruants and slaues to our Vassals. This is the Office of good Kings, to serue in this honourable manner. For, in being Kings, their Actions depend not on [Page 34] the sole will of their owne persons, but of the Lawes and Statutes which they haue giuen, and allowd of, and those conditions wherewith they accepted this their Soueraign­tie. And though they should bee wanting to these (which are no more then a humane Conuencion, Couenant, or agreement betwixt Prince, and people) yet may they not be defectiue in those, which the naturall and diuine Law hath layd vpon them; the Lady and Mistris as well of Kings as subiects. All which are in a manner contained in those words of Ieremy, Ier. 22. 3. in which (according to S. Ieromes opinion) God sets downe the Office of Kings. Facite iudicium & iusti­tiam, liberate vi oppressum de manu calumniatoris, & adue­nam, & pupillum, & viduam nolite contristare, ne (que) opprima­tis iniquè & sanguinem innocentem ne effundatis: Execute yee iudgement and righteousnesse, and deliuer the spoy­led out of the hand of the oppressour, and doe no wrong, doe no violence to the stranger, the fatherlesse, nor the widowe, neither shed innocent blood. &c. This is the Summe wherein is cyphered vp the Office of a King. These the Lawes of his Court, whereby he is bound to mantaine in peace and Iustice, the fatherlesse, and the widowe; the poore and the rich; the mighty, and the weake. To his Account are put the Agrauios and wrongs which his Ministers doe vnto the one; and the Iniustice, which the other suffer. The wretched estate of those that are necessited, the cry of the distressed, and the teares that are shed out of anguish of heart; and a thousand other loades, euen wane-loades of cares and obligations, lye vpon the shoulders of him that is the Head, and King of a kingdome. And albeit he be the head in commanding and in gouerning, yet in bearing (if not often ouercharged therewith) the heauie weight and loade of all, hee must be the feete or supporters to beare the burthen of the whole body of the Common-wealth. Of Kings and Monarkes,Iob. 9. 13. the iust men Iob sayth; that by reason of their Office, they carry (like Poters) the world on their [Page 35] shoulders, vnder which burthen the proudest helpers must stoope. In consideration whereof, it is sayd in the booke of Wisedome; In veste ponderis, quam habebat summus sa­cerdos, totus erat orbis terrarum: In the long garment, was the whole world. The Latin translation In veste ponderis, car­ryes more weight with it; so that, in taking vpon thee to be a King, thou must make account, to take so great a charge vp­on thee and so heauie a load, as the strongest Carte will hard­ly be able to beare it. And this Moses knew well enough, whom God hauing made his Vice-roy, his Captaine Ge­nerall, and sole Liuetenant in the Gouernment; in stead of giuing him thankes for this so honourable a Charge com­mitted vnto him, made his moane and complaint for ha­uing layd so heauy a loade vpon his shoulders.Num. 11. & 11. Cur afflixisti seruum tuum? Cur imposuisti pondus vniuersi populi huius super me? Wherfore hast thou afflicted thy seruant? And wherefore haue I not found fauour in thy sight, that thou layest the burthen of all the people vpon me? And procee­deth farther with his complaints, saying; Nunquid ego concepi omnem hanc multitudinem? Num. 11. 12. Aut genut eam, vt dicas mihi; Porta eos? Haue I conceiued all this people? Haue I begotten them, that thou shouldest say vnto me; Carry them in thy bosome, as the nursing father beareth the sucking child &c. Where it is worthy the noting; That God said not any one such word vnto Moses; But on­ly commanded him, that he should rule and gouerne his people, that he should be their Captaine, and their Leader. And yet he heere sticks not to say, that hee layd the bur­then of all the people vpon him; with this Motto added thereunto; Porta eos: Carry them &c. A man would thinke hee complaineth heere without a Cause; for God says no more vnto him; but that hee be their Captaine, and that hee take vpon him the rule, Command, and Gouernment of them. But to this it is answered. Al buen entendedor, pocas palabras: To a wise man, halfe a word is enough. [Page 34] [...] [Page 35] [...] [Page 36] And he that is wise, and well vnderstands what it is to go­uerne, and to be a Head, knowes that Gouernment, and Charge, or Loade, is all one. And that the words themselues Regere, and Portare, are Synonomyes, and haue one and the selfe same signfication. For there is not any Gouernment, or charge, which is without it's burthen, and trouble. In that repartment and diuision of Offices, which Iacob conferr'd vpon his children, he marked out Reuben to be the first in Inheritance,Gen. 49 3. and the greatest in gouernment. Prior in donis, maior in imperio: Thou art my first in the excellencie of dignitie,Hierom. in Tra­duc. Hebraicis in Gen. & the excellencie of power: which S. Ierome renders, Maior ad portandum; The greatest to beare. For Empire, and bearing, are both one thing. And by how much the Empire is the greater, by so much the greater is the toyle and trouble and the burthen the heauier.Gregor. lib. 24. St Gregory in his Moralls saith; That the power,Moral. c. 26. Dominion, and Signorie, which Kings haue ouer their subiects, ought not to be esteemed an honour, but a trouble. Potestas accepta, non honor, sed onus aestimatur. And the blindest Gentiles did attaine to this light of truth. And one of them vsed the selfe same phrase of speech, speaking of another that was much puffed vp and well contented with the charge and office, which Apollo had allotted him. ‘Laetus erat,Ouid. Metam. mixto▪ oneri gaudebat honore.’ So that to rule, and Command, is a Mixture of a little honour and much trouble. And the Latin word, which signifieth ho­nour, doth not differ more then in one Letter from that which signifieth a loade or burthen. Onos, & onus. For (H.) is but an aspiration. Nor was there euer that man yet wanting, nor euer will be, to take (for Honours sake) this burthen vpon him. Though all of them can be well content, to take as little of the loade as they can vpon them, but as much of the Ho­nor, as you will; howbeit this is not the securest Course.

But I shall conclude this Chapter with this Aduiso. That the Office of a King consists not so much in the outward operation, (though in th [...]s hee is not to faile) as in the [Page 37] inward apprehension. Which in it's own nature may imbrace infinite things, not as infinite, but as such as may be reduced to a few points, nor no more then shall be pointed at in this Treatise. Which ought alwayes, of a wise & prudent King, to be well vnderstood, & to make vse of as many of them as hee can, and which do more particularly appertaine vnto his Of­fice, and to leaue the rest vnto his Ministers. A King must be like the Heart in the Body, which solely of it selfe cannot per­forme all those offices, which all the members more particu­larly may. But by the helpe and meanes of diuers Instruments, members, and Organs, diffusing & sending forth their vertue vnto them, it findes it selfe in the operation of them all. The king, is the heart of the kingdome, and must worke therin like it, not doing all by himselfe (for that is impossible, and instead of doing good, would do hurt) by keeping himselfe in his proper Station, without transiliating that Circle which more particularly belongeth vnto him, and performing those Offi­ces, which another cannot execute for him, by his great power and vertue, he may in a diffusiue manner haue recourse to all the parts euen the most remote of his kingdome, take a care of all and haue a hand in all. And this care, is as proper to a King; as it is to the heart; it being impossible for the heart to liue without care.Isidor. lib. 4. Etym. And from thence it takes it's name and Appellatiue. Cor (saith Isidore) dicitur à cura, Cor (which is the Heart) is so called, à Cura: from it's care. For it is that, which takes care of Mans life. Ego dormio, & Cor meum vigilat. Cant. 5. 2. I sleepe, but my Heart waketh. While Man sleepes the heart still beates, and taketh care of the life and conseruation of the whole body, sending forth to all the parts thereof, it's naturall vertue and heate, without the least dis-carefullnesse in the world, loosing it's owne quiet, to giue Man ease. And therefore the Spouse, called her Be­loued, her Heart; because hee performed this office with her. And the like must a King doe in his Kingdome. He must watch, and forgoe his owne sleepe and quiet that [Page 36] [...] [Page 37] [...] [Page 38] his Vassalls may take their ease and rest; vpon paine of be­ing vnfaithfull and defectiue in that fidelitie which is due vnto the office of a King.1, Tim. 5. 8. This made S. Paul to say; Si quis suorum curam non habet, sidem negauit. If any prouide not for his owne, hee hath denied the faith, and is worse then an Infidel. The heart likewise hath another property very proper vnto Kings, which is, it's continuall beating on the left side. The Author of Nature being desirous by this secret to teach Kings, that they should apply themselues with more care to the weakest part, and that which hath most neede of their helpe. The right side is more assisted with naturall heate and blood, then the left, which is more stript of these fauours. And in this, the Heart showes, that Kings should shew their King-craft and the finenesse of their care, towards poore needy people, and such as are destitute of all humane fauour. For to the rich and mighty, blood a­boundeth, and nothing is wanting vnto them. God doth illighten Kings, which are the Heads of the people, to the end, that they may doe in their Kingdomes all that which a good Head ought to doe with it's body, by whose offices wee will goe, discoursing those of the mysticall Head of this body of a Common-wealth, which is the King; beginning first with the vnderstanding, and it's pertinencies, or what­soeuer appertaineth thereunto, which is the first in perfecti­on, and whereunto (in regard of it's Actiue beginning and end) the rest of the Sences are in ordination. According to that measure of Light which he shall vouchsafe to Commu­nicate vnto vs, who is that true Light, which illighteneth euery Man that commeth into the world.

Of the reason and vnderstanding of Kings, and of their wise­dome.

IN good and true Philosophy, and the best receiued Diuinity, it is auerred, that the vnderstanding and naturall rea­son is the most principall power that is in Man, by which he is distinguished from Beasts; and is the principium & radix, the ground and root of wise­dome. And by how much the more in­genious a man is, & of better vnderstanding, by so much the more is he capable thereof, and the more intensiuely doth he loue it. And for this cause did Pythagoras call wise men Phi­losophers, Louers, or coueters of Wisdome; because the pos­session thereof doth set an edge on the desire, and makes a man to couet it the more, for it's treasure is infinite, and no man can exhaust it. And therefore the more a man hath of it, the more he desireth it. It is the retreit and receptacle of faith, and of all the Arts and Sciences, both practicke and spe­culatiue, hauing an vniuersall aptitude to receiue them all in­to it selfe, and vpon the apprehension of them to put them in execution. And although it be a potentia or faculty of a li­mited power, yet so great is it's capacity, and of that ample­nesse and ablenesse to receiue and containe, that it seemeth infinite, for let a man know neuer so much, yet can he not fill vp his knowledge. For such and such notions dispose the vnderstanding for others. Knowledge begetteth knowledge, and the more things a man knoweth, so much the more easily doth he apprehend those he knoweth not, till he come to the perfect inquiry and knowledge of the truth: and by [Page 40] conuersing with the wise, and exercise of good Letters, hee goes still rising higher and higher. And by how much the more a man is aduanced in his vnderstanding, so much the more aduantage shall he haue of those which haue not the same measure. Suting with that saying of the Comicke Poet, who wondering to see the great difference betweene man & man, cryes out, Homo, homini quid praestat! So much doth one man differ from another in wisdome and prudence, that they seeme to be different species. And hence is it that the aduantage which a wise man hath ouer those that are not so, is, to make him King ouer all the people. Which lesson God taught vs in the first King he made choice of for his people, who standing in the midst of his Subiects, was taller then any of them from the sholders vpwards, so that his head shew'd it selfe aboue them all.1 Sam. 10. 28. And the word Melech which in the originall signifieth a king, in that large & eminent Let­ter which stands in the midst of it, doth mistically giue vs to vnderstand the excellency that aboue others, Kings ought to haue. And therefore Plato stiled a prudent and wise Gouer­nour, Virum divinum, a diuine man; presupposing that he should be somewhat more then a man; and exceed in diuine wisedome all other Gouernours whatsoeuer. Vbi sapiens, ibi est Deus in humano corpore. And therefore, as God by way of eminency containeth the perfections of all the Crea­tures; so, (as farre forth as a Creature can) a wise King should (and that with much aduantage) possesse the perfe­ctions of all his people. And the holy Scripture teacheth vs, that God created man after his own image and likenesse, giuing him Vnderstanding, Memory, and Will. And ha­uing created him,Gen. 1. 26. made him King ouer all he had created. Vt praesit piscibus Maris, & volatilibus Coeli, & bestijs vniversae Terrae, &c. To haue dominion ouer the Fish of the Sea, and ouer the Fowle of the Aire, & ouer the Cattle, &c. And this was granted him, and did accompany the common nature of men. But to rule, and command, to be Lord, and Gouer­nour [Page 41] ouer men themselues, (as are Kings) is a farre greater matter, and such as requireth a greater measure of Vnder­standing and Wisedome: and he that hath most store there­of, shall reape the most profit by it, as he that wants it, shall contrarywise finde the lacke of it. Solomon, the wisest of Kings, as he was both wise, and a King, could better then any other informe vs, of what importance are Vnderstan­ding and Wisdome in Kings. In whose name he speaketh, when he saith,Prou. 8. 15. Per me Reges regnant, per me Principes impe­rant; By me Kings reigne, and Princes decree iustice. To the wiseman the Scepter and Crowne of right belongeth. For wisdome her selfe, as being the most essentiall forme of Kings, makes him King and Monarch ouer others. And in all Na­tions almost, they gaue the same name, and the same Ensignes to Empire and Wisdome. And S. Paul makes them Synono­mies, and will haue them to signifie one and the same thing. She alone (by keeping Gods commandements) will be suffi­cient in a King to make him pleasing and acceptable vnto God, and to be cut out according to the measure of his own heart. And though some are of a larger heart and vnderstan­ding then other some; yet (with God) to be wise, is that which conueneth most both to King and Subiect.

By Esay the Prophet God promiseth to all his people a golden age, happy dayes, and fortunate times, wherein all shall haue a share of happinesse, peace, equity, iustice, health, content, and abundance of fruits. But comming vnto Kings, he saith no more, but that there shall not be any one that shall be a foole. Non vocabitur vltrà is qui insipiens est, Prin­ceps. This is a great happinesse. But (O Lord) let mee aske thee; Is a King of worse condition then his Subiects, that thou shouldst promise so many good things vnto them, and but one alone vnto him? The answere hereunto is, that our good God giueth vnto euery one (according to his state and calling) that which is fittest for him. The Subiect who hath one to rule and gouerne him, hath need of one to [Page 42] minister iustice vnto him, to conserue him in peace, and to make such prouision, that he may haue wherewith to eate, and the like. But a King, who is to rule and gouerne, hath need of wisedome, which is the life and soule of Kings, which sustaineth the weight of a Kingdome, and without which (be they neuer so rich, neuer so powerfull) they shall be as fit for gouernment, as a body without a head, or a [...] head without a soule. And as from the soule the Sences are origined, and from that essence result your passions; so in like sort from wisedome resulteth vnto King, and Kingdome, all that good and happinesse that can be desired.Wisd. 6. 24. Rex sapi­ens, stabilimentum est Ciuitatis. A wise King is the vphol­ding of the people. And a foolish King the ruine of his Sub­iects. You shall not name that Nation either barbarous, or ciuill, which (where Kings were made by election) did not make choice of a wise and prudent King.

In that generall Dyet,Iudg. 9. 8. whereall the Nations of Trees and Plants met, seeing that without Law, and without a King, they could not conserue themselues in peace, and iustice; the first resolution they tooke, was to choose a wise King. And in the first place they nominated the Oliue, a tree of ma­ny good parts and qualities; and amongst other, this the chiefest, that it was the Symbole or Hierogliffe of wise­dome, which is all whatsoeuer can be desired in a King.

This alone did King Dauid desire for himselfe:Psal▪ 119. 144. Intelle­ctum da mihi, & vivam; Giue me vnderstanding, and I shall liue. He did not desire life, nor health, nor riches, but one­ly vnderstanding and wisedom. And with this alone did he promise to himselfe eternall life, and a durable Kingdome. And therefore,Wisd. 6. 21. Si delectamini sedibus & sceptris, ô Reges po­puli, diligite sapientiam, vt in perpetuum regnetis; If your delight be in Thrones and Scepters, O ye Kings of the people, honour wisedome, that ye may raigne for euermore.

Happy is that Common-wea [...]th (saith Plato) which hath a wise King.Plat [...] lib. 1. de Repub. And vnhappy that (saith another Philoso­pher) [Page 43] which hath a King without wisedome.

Aristotle tearmed the Thebans happy,Membrin. Rosi. c [...]p. 33. all the while that they were gouerned by those that were wise. Of such conse­quence is wisedome in a King, that vpon the very rumour that he is a wise Prince, all presently obay, and sooner sub­mit themselues, then at the noise of his power. As was to be seene in King Salomon, whose wisedome was no sooner knowen to the people, but they began presently to respect and feare him.

But let me aske this question: Shall it suffice a King to haue vnderstanding and wisdome, vnlesse he make vse there­of, and shew a willingnesse to execute what he knowes? No certainly. For the greatnesse of a power or faculty consis­teth in it's operation. The Vnderstanding without Intelli­gence, (like the Will without Loue) serues to little or no purpose. And it is doubted (as I toucht in the beginning) vpon which of these two potentias, or faculties, is that arme and hand, whereby the soule operateth it's most excellent workes? The vnderstanding alleageth for himselfe, that it is he that in the kingdome of our soule doth ordaine, dispose, and gouerne. The Will, she saith, that without her nothing is done. For as the Philosophers tearme it, Applicat poten­tias ad operandum, she sets these faculties a worke, and findes them hands. The Vnderstanding confesseth this is true; but with all saith, it is he that nods and winckes vpon her, makes signes and tokens vnto her, is as it were the Watch-word, & doth expose vnto her whether she will this or that, for the better ordering & disposing of it. The Will, she on the other side replyes, that she likewise fomenteth and affectionates the Vnderstanding, and doth excite and sol­licite him, that he study, thinke, and dwell vpon that which she best liketh. But leauing the resolution of this Contro­uersie to your Thomists, and Scotists, who dispute it at large; the Vnderstanding (as I said before) is a Regall power which ruleth & gouerneth in man, and is that Starre which guideth [Page 44] and giueth light to the whole house of the soule; yet is the Will so much Mistresse, that nothing is done without her. Nor can God himselfe (by violence) draw a yea, or a nay from it, without trespassing vpon that liberty where­with he created it; for in it's owne nature it is free: and (as Philosophy informeth vs) it cannot be forced. Caeterae po­tentiae possunt capi, non tamen voluntas. But the common receiued opinion is, that both the one and the other must concurre for the effecting of any free worke. Insomuch, that it is impossible to performe any action of importance, vnlesse that both doe intend that same. We must plucke the reynes of both, hold both of them in our hands, if we meane to rule and gouerne the soule as we ought; the Vnderstan­ding directing, and the Will operating. And therefore a deuout King, after that hee hath begg'd vnderstanding of God, that hee may be able to study and meditate on the obseruance of his diuine Law, for the conseruation of him­selfe, and his kingdome; finding that this is not sufficient if the Will should draw another way, let him presently pray vnto him, that he incline his Will, and so dispose thereof, that he may not onely will his Will, but that hee may take pleasure to put it in practise. In strictnesse, and in rigour, that is not Wisedome, nor deserueth the name thereof, which is bung'd vp in the Head, and goes not from the Vn­derstanding to the hand, and from the Will to the Worke. Non enim sapientia est (saith S. Bernard) quae quod sapit, non exercet; Wisedome without practise is not Wisedome.

There are some of whom all men sticke not to say, that he is of great vnderstanding, a man of admirable abilities, sin­gular wisedome, &c. And yet no man knowes wherein his Knowledge lies, nor can discerne his Wisdome in his Acti­ons. It is necessary that this opinion should be ratified and confirmed by exterior Actions, and some publique demon­strations. Of King Dauid the holy Ghost saith, that hee did gouerne his people with the vnderstanding of his hands. [Page 45] Et in intellectibus manuum suarum deduxit illos. It is a cleare case that the hands haue no other particular vnder­standing in a distinct manner, or distinguished from that which the soule hath; and this is in the Head, and not in the hands. But the meaning of that place is, that in the Workes of his hands, and in all his Actions, the King manifested his great Vnderstanding and Wisedome: Which if it remaine onely in the huske, or shell, it is good for nothing, Sicut fi­des, ita & sapientia, sine operibus mortua est; Wisedome (saith S. Bernard) is like Faith, without good Workes it is dead. That King therefore that shall haue wisedome inough in, and for himselfe, and shall execute and shew the same in the gouernment of his kingdome, and exercise the same a­mongst his Subiects, he shall be great in all his kingdomes heere on Earth, and great likewise in the kingdome of Heauen.

Salomon, when God had giuen him wisedome, did not onely attend the speculatiue part, but the practicke; which is the principall thing in him that ruleth.Eccl. 8. 16. Apposui cor me­um, vt viderem sapientiam, & occupationem: (for so the Septuagint translate it.) But rendered by the vulgar: I ap­plyed mine heart to know wisdome, and to see the businesse that is done vpon Earth; for in Wisedome, and the good exer­cise thereof, consisteth all the good gouernment of a Com­mon-wealth. This being presupposed, and what else in the subsequent Chapters shall be spoken hereof, I say, That it is not required of Kings, that they should be so wise and skilfull in all Arts and Faculties, as King Salomon was, and others, which make profession thereof; nor yet so illiterate, as the Emperour Licinius, which was such an Idiot, and such a beast, that he knew not how to firme or set his hand to any De [...]d, or Writing. Or as that other Michael Balbo, which was such an enemy vnto Learning, that hee would neither study good Letters himselfe, nor suffer the children of his time to be b [...]ed vp therein.

[Page 46] That which is to be required of euery good King, is; that he haue so much wisedome, as to be able to aduise himselfe, and to make benefit of the Councell of others. That he be wise enough to know what is good and iust, and what is bad and ill, that he may vse the one, and shun the other. Is e­nim moderatus est sapiens (saith Socrates) that hath Courage to execute, and Will to doe. On those Bases, which the most wise King Salomon placed in the Temple,1 Kings 7. 29. hee commanded Lions, Oxen, and Cherubins to be ingrauen, in significati­on of so many the like qualities which Kings ought to haue, who sustaine the whole weight of a kingdome. He must be in perpetuall labour, signified in the Oxe; he must be endued with courage, expressed in the Lion; and he must abound in knowledge, notified in the Cherubin. Wherefore Cicero like­wise maketh mention;Cicero in Orat. pro lege Manil. Hae sunt (saith that Heathen Orator) virtutes Imperatoriae, Labor in negotijs, Fortitudo in peri­culis, Industria in agendo: To assist in businesses, to be stout and valiant in dangers, to be dextrous and wise in acting, and aboue all, to haue a liberall will without subiection, and rea­dily disposed for execution, are vertues befitting an Empe­rour. For to gouerne well, great strength, great courage, great wisedome, great power, and a great willingnesse will be required. For, though a King know much, and can doe much; yet, if he will not exercise his knowledge, nor make vse of his power, it is all one as if he neither knew, nor could doe any thing. The Leaper said to our Sauiour Christ, Domine, si vis, potes me mundare; If thou wilt, thou canst make me cleane. And Christ made him answer, not in word onely, but in deed; Volo, mundare; I will, be thou cleane.

How Kings ought to carry themselues in those businesses, which their vnderstanding comprehendeth not.

IN regard that the Vnderstanding is a­mongst all other faculties the Noblest, it is that (without doubt) which doth least render and yeeld it selfe, but is most sen­cible of the offence it receiueth in sub­mitting it selfe. Whereupon oftentimes it sticketh close to it's opinion, and what it hath once intertained, it obstinately maintaineth and defendeth. And therefore the Philoso­pher, said; Amicus Plato, sed maior Veritas: Plato is my friend, but the truth more. In confirmation whereof we daily see, that the dearest and neerest friends, and that are one and the same in their will and affection, in their vn­derstanding and opinion are diuerse and different. Each of them maintaineth his owne particular Tenet, and yet without offence continew still good friends. In a word, in matter of Knowledge and Vnderstanding, because it is a thing that cannot be measured out by the yard, or meate out by inches, there is not that Man, that can indure Maioria, or that another should goe before him, or get the start of him in that kinde. Euery one resteth satisfied with his owne Vnderstanding, and conceiues that his reason is the best; and few will bee brought to acknowledge, that they are in an errour. And in a manner all men flatter themselues with their owne opinion, and thinking they are in the right, they are so farre from yeelding, that they stiffely maintaine what they haue vndertaken & you shall not beate them out of it, as being perswaded that they haue the better end of the [Page 48] staffe in their hands. And hence arise those earnest conten­tions, and endlesse questions in your Consultations, and debating of Causes, those crosse incounters and differences in determining great businesses, persisting violently in their opinion, though it bee neuer so contrary vnto reason. And though this be a common infirmitie, and a generall fault in all of what state and condition soeuer, yet your great persons in this point runne the greatest perill. For (as the sonne of Sirach saith) all doe approue and celebrate their sayings, not in that onely, wherein they speake home to the purpose, but when they speake foolishly, and vtter things not to bee spoken.Eccl. 13. 23. Locutus est diues, & omnes ta­cuerunt, & verbum illius vs (que) ad nubes perducent: When a rich man speaketh, euery man holdeth his tongue, and looke what he saith, they extoll it to the cloudes. For opinion being now, (as long since) Mistris of the World; shew ouerswaies substance, and authoritie checketh reason. It is not Goodnesse, but Greatnesse, that strikes the stroke. But if a Prince would bee so holy, and so zealous of the good of his Kingdome, haue hee neuer so able a braine, neuer so much Knowledge and Vnderstanding, (acknowledging what a large extent of Wisedome is required for the gouer­ning of a Kingdome, as it ought to be gouerned) that hee would be pleased to receiue some helpe and assistance, hee hath very secure and certaine remedies in this case, and all of them ordred and ordained by the Holy Ghost. The first is, To begge of God (and that with a great deale of faith and Confidence) Light, and Wisedome; Conforming him­selfe to that of S. Iames; Iames. 1. 6. Si quis vestrum indiget sapientia po­stulet à deo, qui dat omnibus affluenter, & non improperat & dabitur ei: If any of you lacke wisedome, let him aske of God that giueth to all men liberally, and vpbraideth not; and it shall be giuen him. And for asmuch as in Kings, this ac­knowledgment is vsually more difficult, for that they are free, and without dependance on any in their owne king­domes, [Page 49] so much the more acceptable in this kind are their prayers vnto God. As King Salomon exemplifieth it vnto vs, who confessing the shortnesse of his vnderstanding, and his want of Wisedome, for to gouerne so great a people that could not bee numbred, nor counted for multitude, acknowledging himselfe to be but as a little child, and that hee knew not how to goe out, or come in, and humbly beseeching God, that hee would be pleased to supply this defect, he found so much fauour in his sight that he appea­red vnto him after a solemne sacrifice, and said; Postula quod vis, 1. King. 35. vt dem tibi. Aske, what I shall giue thee. And this young King with a great deale of thankefulnesse and sub­mission, sayd; Domine deus tu regnare fecisti servum tuum &c. O Lord my God, 2. Chron. 1. 10. thuo hast made thy Seruant King in in stead of Dauid my father, &c. And thy seruant is in the midst of the people which thou hast chosen, a great people &c. Giue therefore thy Seruant an vnderstanding heart, to iudge thy people, that I may discerne betweene good and bad, and be able to goe in and out before thy people. And howbeit this discreete young King saw the doore of Gods mercie set thus wide open vnto him, and what a liberall offer he had made vnto him, to bestow fauours vpon him according to the measure of his owne desire, yet did hee neither set his eyes, nor his heart vpon Gold, Siluer, Riches, or long life, but as one, that knew so well how to aske, desired that he would out of his grace and mercy, giue him the gift of Wisedome, that hee might know how to gouerne his State and King­domes, and to conserue them in peace and Iustice. And God was so well pleased with this his Petition, that he did not onely bestow that vpon him, but many other blessings with it, and (as the Apostle saith) affluenter, in a great aboundance making him the wisest, the discreetest, and the greatest king, that euer was in the world. And besides, gaue him all that which hee omitted to desire, or might haue desired: To wit, long life, full of prosperitie, honour, and riches. He did not account of these, in comparison of wisedome, [Page 50] and yet all those other fauours were conferred vpon him; Quia hoc magis plaucit cordi tuo, & non postulasti diuitias, &c: Because this was in thy heart, and thou hast not asked riches, 2. Chron. 1. 11. wealth, or honour, nor yet hast asked long life, but hast asked Wisedome and knowledge for thy selfe, that thou mayst iudge my people, ouer whom I haue made thee King; Wisedome and Knowledge is granted vnto thee, and I will giue thee Riches, and Wealth, and Honour, such as none of the Kings haue had, that haue beene before thee, neither shall any after thee haue the like. This very goodnesse, this same Wisedome, did his father Dauid beg of God. Bonita­tem, & disciplinam & scientiam, doce me: Teach me good iudgement and knowledge. Psal. 119. 66. Which is all that can be wish't, or desired for to gouerne well. In a word, most certaine it is, that Wisedome is the gift of God, and that it is pur­chased (as was that of Salomon) with humble perseuering, and confident prayer. God can, and doth make of Stones sons of Abraham, which (according to the Language of the holy Scripture) are wise and prudent men.Sambuc. in prob. Sambucus saith; that Apollo being consulted with touching the helpe of wisedome; made answer, that hee knew no other reme­die for it but silence. For he that is ignorant of a thing, by his talking, bewrays his ignorance: and by holding his peace is reputed wise. Which the Holy Ghost confirmeth vnto vs in that place of the Prouerbs, where it is said; Stultus si tacue­rit, Prou. 17. 28. sapiens reputabitur; & si compresserit labia sua, intelligens: A foole when he holdeth his peace is counted wise, & hee that shutteth his lips, is esteemed a man of Vnderstanding. It is great wisedome in a man to know then how to hold his peace, when hee knowes not how to speake to the businesse. And great discre­tion in him, rather to couer his defect, then publish his igno­rance: Answearing vnto that which a Law of the Partida de­liuers,Zey. 5. Tit. 4. Part. 2. speaking there of a King. Esi [...]l no fuere home de gran seso por lassus palabras entendran los homes, lamenqua que ha del. And if he shall not be a man of great wisedome, by his [Page 51] words, the people will vnderstand the want he hath thereof. Wisdomes defect is supplied by silence. And it is S. Gregories censure vpon these words of Iob: Vtinam taceretis, vt puta­remini esse sapientes. Iob. 13. 5. Oh that you would altogether hold your peace, and it should be your wisedome. At least, it is the Counsaile of the wise, that Kings ought to striue and in­deauour, that no man should know all their store, nor be able to fadome the depth of that their sea of knowledge, for the danger of the discouerie of a deceit; for many times it impor­teth more in those that are led away with affection, and those likewise that are strangers, to be ignorant whither and how far, the worth and wisedome of a Prince extends it selfe, then the experience and proofe thereof. And because sometimes vpon occasion Kings are forced to discouer that, which o­therwise were fit to be concealed, it is very meete and con­uenient, that they should vse few, graue, and well-weighed words, making no shew of their owne proper satisfaction. Wherein wise men haue found much greatnesse, besides an augmentation of their wisedome, and prudence. Qui moderatur sermones suos (saith Salomon) doctus, Prou. 17. 27. & prudens est: He that hath knowledge, spareth his words: Homer saith, That in Kings, and such as praeside and rule, short and full language, deliuered with Maiestie, is much to be applauded & commended. And Socrates giues this Precept to his king; In all that thou shalt say, thinke, or doe, beare this alwayes in thy memorie, that thou art a King, and therefore oughtst not either to doe, or say any thing, vnworthy so great a name. Octauius Caesar, when he was to speake to the Senate or people of Rome, did neuer performe that Office but with a great deale of good Order in his words, and deliberation in his matter, committing first to memorie that which he was to say vnto them. And if the businesse were of great weight & consequence indeed, he brought his papers along with him, and deliuered them his minde in writing, because hee would say neither more, nor lesse, then what with premeditation [Page 52] he had resolued to acquaint them with all.

And aboue all, the particular, (if not the onely) remedie to solder all breaches, and defaults of knowledge and experience in businesses, is that receipt which we haue from the son of Syrach, who aduiseth his sonne not to determine any thing without Counsaile. [...] Fili, sine consilio nihilfacias, & post factum, non poenitebis. Which the Vulgar rendreth thus; Do nothing without aduice, and when thou hast once done, repent not. For if it hit right, the glorie shall be thine; and if it miscarry, thou shalt find sufficient excuse. Cicero was wont to say, that he did esteeme it a greater honor vnto him to erre, following Platos opinion and counsell then to happen right, and to hit the nayle (as we say) on the head, by adhering to others of lesse credit and reputation.Hila [...]. in Psal. 118. It is a rule of prudence (saith S. Hi­lary) That a wise man should aske aduice in that he knowes not. For▪ that man is very apt to erre, that is not willing to heare, & stands in his own light, that neither knowes how to aske, nor how to apply himselfe to other mens opinions. Be­ing (as it is in the Prouerb) Mas ven quatroqi ois, que dos: foure eyes, see more then two. And with so many eyes doth a man see, and with so many eares doth a man heare, by how many the more friends he hath to aduise him. Doe not (as many doe, and haue done) perswade thy selfe, that thou knowst more then all the world besides; (an ordinary disease in (Princes) who seeing themselues seated in such high thrones, to be so rich, and so powerfull, take themselues to be the wisest and prudentest men vpon earth. Yet let them know that they brought not from their mothers wombe more prudence or wisedome,Wis 7. then other ordinary folkes. Ne­mo enim ex regibus aliud habuit natiuitatis initium. King, and Clowne, Rich and Poore, when they are borne, draw in the common ayre, and being fashioned to be flesh after ten monthes compaction in blood, fall vpon the earth which is of like nature. The first voice vttred by Kings, is Crying, as all others doe. There is no King, that hath any other be­ginning of birth; For all men haue one entrance vnto life, [Page 53] and the like going out. We come all into the world with our bare skins on our backs, and as naked of knowledge, as cloathes; being subiect in the rest to industrie, instruction, and others counsaile, and aduice, which is that which sup­plieth the defects of nature. Rationall soules, are all of them equall and alike in their creation, and essentiall perfection, though they differently discouer themselues in some bodies, more then in other some, in regard of the better or not so good disposition of the Organs, and by consequence, their vnderstandings come to be differenced, and the conceipts of the one, to bee of a higher straine then the other. A man shall see more clearely through a Christall glasse, then that which is of a thicker and grosser mettall. Our body is nothing else but a glasse; nor haue all bodies this good disposition; Nor haue Kings, ioyntly with their power, the selfe same measure in their vnderstanding, wisedome, and prudence. But say they had; it will be no hurt to them, but a great deale of good and aduantage, to heare, and take aduice.Prou. 19. 20. For, audiens sapiens, sapientio rerit: A wise man by hearing, will be made the wiser. Audi consilium, vt sis sapi­ens in nouissimis tuis. Heare counsaile, and receiue in­struction, that thou mayst be wise in the latter end. And neuer in hard and difficult businesses, should any man (be he neuer so wise) refuse to take aduise. And besides, it sa­uours of much wisedome;Prou. 13. 10. not to doe any thing without it. Qui agunt omnia in Consilio, reguntur sapientia: With the well aduised (saith the holy Ghost) is wisedome: And there is no man so wise that is wise in all things. The best and skilfullest Physitian in the world knowes not how to cure himselfe, neither will he trust only to his own opinion, but calleth another vnto him, aduiseth with him, takes his Counsaile, and puts himselfe vnder his cure. Eurigius king of the Gothes, Concil. T [...]l. said in the Toletane Councell; That euen those workes, which in themselues were very good, and did much import the Common-wealth, wereby no means [Page 54] to be done, or put in execution, without the Counsaile of those that were good Ministers, and well affected to the State, vpon paine not onely of losse of discretion, but to be condemned as the onely ouerthrowers of the Action. Things being so various, and so many, and weighty the businesses as are those which come vnder the hands of Kings, and craue their care to bee treated of, the successe of them, must needs run a great deale of danger, when there pre­cedeth not some diligent and mature Counsaile. Kings (I assure you) had neede haue good both Counsailours and Counsaile, hauing so many eyes as they haue vpon them, some of iealousie, and some of enuie, so many that goe about to deceiue, and doe deceiue them; and many, that doe not loue them as they ought; I say they had neede of good both Counsailours and Counsaile, and such a Councell as is more close and priuate, as that of the Coun­cell of State, and sometimes, and in some cases with a little more restriction and reseruednesse, making choise of one, two, or more of their faithfullest and sufficientest Coun­sellours, with whom they may freely Communicate their greater, and lesser affaires, and be resolued by them in mat­ters of greater moment, and such as importe their own pro­per preseruation, and the augmentation of their Kingdome, such as the Historians of Augustus paint forth vnto vs, which kinde of course, the Princes before and since his time haue taken, and now at this present, doe. From the poorest Plowman, to the Potent'st Prince, from the meanest Shepheard, to the mightiest Monarke, there is a necessitie of this Counsaile. And in effect, euery one as hee can, (comformable to his Estate, and calling) must Consult with his Wife, his Sonne, his Friend, or himselfe, (if his fortune afford him not a Companion, whom he may trust, or make his Confident). How much doth it concerne Kings, who possessing such great Estates, and being subiect to so many Accidents, haue need of a more perfect and Com­plete [Page 55] Councel. And not any thing so much importeth them for the conseruation, and augmentation of their Kingdomes, as to haue about them iust, prudent, & dis-interessed persons, to aduise them with a great deale of faithfullnesse, and loue, and with free libertie of Language to represent the truth of that, which to them, and their Common-wealth, is most fitting and conuenient.Plut. in P. Aemil Arist. c. 8. Mag. moral. Who, for this purpose, are as ne­cessarie as great treasures, and mighty Armies. That holy King Dauid, was more a fraid of the aduise of one wise Counsellour, which his son Absolon had with him, then of all the Men of Warre that followed him and his for­tunes. Plutarke, and Aristole floute at Fortune in businesses that succeede well, when men doe gouerne themselues by good Counsell. And for this cause, they stiled Counsaile the eye, of those things that are to come, because of it's fore­sight. And for that wee haue treated heeretofore of the qualities of all sortes of Counsailours, I now say; That with much deliberation and aduise, Kings are to make choise of those persons, which are to aduise and Coun­saile them. For from their hitting or missing the marke, resulteth the vniuersall good or ill, of the whole Kingdome.

It is the common receiued opinion, That the maturest and soundest Counsaile, is to be found in those men, that are growne wise, by their Age, and experience, which is the naturall Daughter of Time, and the Mother of good Coun­saile. Tempus enim multam, Eurip. lib. 12. & variam doctrinam parit. It is Euripides his saying;Seniore in Pro­u [...]nciae congrega, & eos interroga, facilius nam (que). inuenitur quod [...] pluribus Senio­ribus quaeritur. Suting with that of Iob, In antiquis est sapientia, & in multo tempore, prudentia: In the an­cient, is wisedome, and in much time, prudence. Long time, is a great Master, which doth graduate men in the know­ledge of things, and makes them wary, prudent, and cir­cumspect, which is much (if not wholly) wanting in young men. And therefore Aristotle saith of them, that they are not good for Counsaile, because Wit, more then Wisedome in them, hath it's force and Vigour. Et tenero [Page 56] tractari pectore nescit, saith Claudian. And S. Ierome is of the minde, that young Witts, cannot weild weighty mat­ters. And that their Counsailes, are rash and dangerous, like vnto that they gaue King Rehoboam; S. Aug. ad fra­tres in erem. Ser. 14. By whose in­considerate aduise hee lost his Kingdome: The same course hauing cost others as deare; as is proued vnto vs out of S. Austen. And therefore the Grecians, Romans, Lacede­monians, Carthaginians, and other Common-wealthes which were good obseruers of their Lawes and Customes, did ordaine; That a young man how wise so euer hee might seeme to be, and of neuer so good and approued iudgement, should not be admitted to the Counsell Table, till he were past 50. yeares of Age, who being adorned with Vertue, and experience, might assure them that hee would keepe a Decorum in all his Actions, and performe his dutie in euery respect. Lex erat (sayth Heraclides) ne quis natus infrà quinquaginta, Heraclides in Politicis. vel magistratum gerat, vel Legationem obiret. senec. Epist. 60. Bald. in cap. 1. de r [...]nun. In fine, for Councell Seneca and Bal­dus, affirme; That the very shadow of an old man, is better then the eloquence of a young man. But because good Counsailes are not in our hands, but in Gods hands, who, as Dauid saith; Dissipat consilia gentium & reprobat consilia principum: Psal. 33. 10. The Lord bringeth the Counsaile of the Heathen to nought, hee maketh the deuises of Princes of none effect. Prou. 21. 30. And the wisest of Kings tells vs. Non est sapientia, non est prudentia, non est consilium contra Dominum: There is no Wisedome, no vnderstanding, no Counsell against the Lord. And in humane things, there are so many Contingencies that mans wisedome is not alwaies sufficient to determine the best, nor to hit aright in his Counsailes, vnlesse the Holy Ghost be interuenient, interpose it selfe, and assist in them. For let Priuie-Coun­sellours beate out their braines with plodding and plot­ting, let them be neuer so vigilant; neuer so studious, they shall erre in their ayme, and shoote beside the butt, if hee direct not the arrow of their Councell and wisedome; if [Page 57] he do not in Secret illighten their hearts; illuminate their vnderstanding, and dictate vnto them, what they are to doe. Which is done by the infusiue gift of the Holy Spirit co-o­perating in vs, which is a diuine impulsion which doth eleuate & raise vp our vnderstanding to hit the white and to choose that according to the rule the Diuine Law) which is fit to be followed, as also to be avoided. And this is the gift of Coun­cell giuen by God vnto his friends, and such as serue him truly, to the end that by his helpe, they may light aright vp­on that, which of themselues they could neuer come neere. And he that is not Gods friend, nor studies by his Actions to be so, let him shake hands with the Holy Ghost, let him bid this blessed Spirit farewell,Greg. Nyss. lib. de lib. arbitrio. this diuine gift; which is the best (saith Nissenus) and the most perfect, that is in Man: so that for to giue Counsaile and Aduice, yeares, experience, and gray hayres, suffice not; vnlesse his soule be as white as his head,Galen decognosc. curand. animi morbis. cap. 3. and his conscience be pure and cleane from corrup­tion. Cani enim sunt sensus hominis: The good abilities, and wise apprehensions of man, are those true siluer haires, those hoary locks, which countenance him, and adde authoritie, vnto him, and not those snowie flakes, nor hoare frost, that lies vpon his bearde.Wisd. 4. 9. Aetas Senectutis, Vita immaculata: Wisedome is the gray hayre vnto men, and an vnspotted life, is old age. So the wiseman renders it of vertuous olde men: Galen saith that they haue the facultie of aduising, and that of them wee must aske Counsaile. God Commanded Moses, that he should make choise of the Elders of Israel to gouerne his people.Numb. 11. 16. De senibus Israel, quos tu nosti, quod senes populi sint: Gather vnto me 70. men of the Elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the Elders of the people. Hoary-headed men (accompanied with much vertue, an ap­proued life, soundnesse of Religion, and much prudence) are those that are worthy to giue Counsaile, and those which Kings are to make choyse of for their seruice. The Empe­rour Charles the fift sayd it was fit, that Princes should be serued by men that were learned and vertuous, and that the [Page 58] Counsaile, and companie of those which were not so, were very preiudiciall and hurtfull. Counsailours likewise must be of that greatnesse of courage and magnanimitie, as may cor­respond with the Dignitie royall. For Kings that haue not had in themselues any great courage, haue still honoured noble minded Counsailours, whereas the contrary haue bin disgraced, and degraded of their honours by Kings that were naturally magnanimous. For it is the condition of coward­ly hearts, and of base Counsailours en cuerpo, yalma (as they say) in body, and soule; to propose vnto their Kings base and vnworthy meanes, for the remedying of some mischiefes, whereon others follow, that are farre greater. And let them not perswade them, that this Age is barraine of ver­tuous dispositions, and Noble mindes, which produceth, as well as former times, whatsoeuer is necessary and needefull for them. For, the diuine prudence (to which particularly appertaineth the conseruation of kingdoms) is neuer drawen dry, neuer waxes weary. And if such men are wanting, and appeare not to the eye of the world, it is, because they are not sought after, or not admitted to Councell, for the chastise­ment and punishment of our great and heinous sinnes. Be­sides, this one benefit Kings haue aboue others, that all good men would be glad to serue them, and many do sue and seeke after them, and offer their seruice vnto them; So that, they haue store of choise, and may easily make good election, if therein they will strip and cleanse themselues of their affecti­ons, and passions, which Eclipse and darken the true iudge­ment of man. And these, that I now speake of, when they haue found them, and made choise of them to be of their Councell; let them loue them, honour them, and trust them. And as they shall receiue ease and honour by their good Aduise; So let them reward them, and conceiue of them, as king Alexander did of his Master, and Counsellour Aristo­tle, of whom he said, that he ought no lesse respect vnto him, then vnto his owne father. For from his father he had his [Page 59] life, his honour, and his kingdome; but from Aristotle, his Instructions, Counsailes, and directions, how he should or­der himselfe in all his affaires. And Scipio, doth attribute all the honour of his Victories to his faithfull friend and Coun­sellour Laelius. Cicero lib. 4. epist. fam. epist. v [...]ma. And Cicero, to the Philosopher Publius, for those notable things of his gouernment, which he perfor­med in his Consullship: so that good and faithfull Coun­sailours, are of great honour, profit, and ease vnto Kings. But let Kings take heede, least they strike a feare into their Coun­selours, through their absolute and free condition, and make them to withdraw themselues from aduising them what is fitting, by seeing them so wedded to their owne opinion, and to excuse themselues from giuing Counsaile, for that they are dis-heartned & discountenanced by them for deliuering their mindes freely for their profit, & honour. Of the Emperour Adrian it is storyed, that hee had so noble a condition, Vt libenter patiebatur admoneri & corrigivel ab humili persona: That he willingly submitted himselfe to be admonished and reproued of the meanest person. It is proper to gentile brests, & generous hearts, to listen with delight to the good reasons, & Counsailes of others, though they be inferiour in qualitie vnto them: for sometimes a poore man hits right, when a rich man misses the marke. And a Country Clowne may aduise that, which a king knowes not of. And if he do perswade him­selfe, that he knoweth all, and vnderstandeth all, and that his opinion alone is the certainest & surest, he but shuts the doore to the discouery of his errour. One of the two things (saith Hesiod) which euery man of reason, wisdome, and vnderstan­ding, that shall be sufficient to gouerne that, which shall be committed to his charge, ought to haue; is a great blandure, smoothnesse, and softnesse of heart, to follow the opinion, aduise and Counsaile of those that are the wisest and know most. This blandure, and doctlitie, is likewise a part of Pru­dence, and we shall finde it set downe in expresse words, in those two Petitions, which Salomon made vnto God. For in [Page 60] the second of the Chron. 2. Chron. 2. 10. It is written, that he sayd; Da mihi sapientiam: 1. Kings. 3. 9. Giue me wisedome. And in the first of the Kings; Dabis ergo seruo tuo cor docile: Giue therefore thy seruant an Vnderstanding heart. Vnderstanding, for to know, and an o­bedient heart, for to heare the Aduise of others. But this se­cond part, of being obedient to other mens opinions, is vn­profitable for gouernment, without the first, which is pru­dence, and wisedome, for to choose and know the best. For, by following bad Counsaile, he shall erre as much, as if he fol­lowed his owne proper errour; and sometimes more. And I should hold it the lesse euill, that a king were not ouerwise, if presuming that he is; he should relie too much vpon himself, & scorne to take counsaile; then if he were lesse wise, but knew how to benefit himselfe, and make good vse of the Aduise of prudent and wise Counsailours.Aug. lib. 14. de Ciuit. Dei. cap. 13. A Prince, of a docile and in­genious disposition, is well disposed to intertaine all good Counsaile and doctrine. He easily learneth the languages of all those nations, which are vnder his Empire, & doth all things with as much facilitie, as if he had beene bred vp in euery one of them. And therefore sayd Heredotus; Omnia sapientibus facilia: To the wise, all things are easie. And therefore your wise men, giue the first place vnto that man, who of himselfe knowes that which is fitting. And the second, to him, that knowes how to follow good Counsaile. But he that neither is wise, nor will be ruled by the wise, they know not in what forme to place him,Plato. in Thim. nor what name to giue him. Plato, calls them Children, and further saith; That such men as are not wise, though they be neuer so aged, are still Children. And Seneca proueth, that they begin euery day to liue because they vnderstand no more, then the child that is new borne. And Strabo is of the same minde.Strabo. in [...]. lib. 1. Omnes Idiotae, & doctrinarum expertes, quodammodo pueri sunt appellandi, All Idiots, and illiterate persons, are after a sort to be called Children. And because in the Chapters that are to follow by and by, we are to treate more at large of this matter, I conclude this with [Page 61] saying; That Kings for to hit the nayle on the head, and not to faile in the carriage of their businesses, must alwayes take counsaile of wisemen, such as are of knowne vertue and expe­rience; and not giue credit vnto any, that prate and talke with a great deale of libertie and licence of those things they vn­derstand not, as if they were graduated in them from their Mothers wombe; And only for a more happy (in shew) then prudent wit: Least that happen vnto them, which befell king Ahab, who admitted to his Counsell a false Prophet, that made great osteniation of that spirit, which he had not. Hee put the gouernment into his hands, and all was gouerned by his Counsaile. And because he did not speake by the spirit of God, nor he himselfe well vnderstood what he sayd, businesses went a misse, the kingdome suffred, and it cost the king his life.It passeth so sometimes that Kings put the gouern­ment into those mens handes which are lame, and neyther know nor can com­mand. They require their voyce, who haue nothing but a voice: Empty barrells that sound loude, but haue no fulnesse, and craue ad­uice, of those that are least able to giue it them. And if they them­selues pay not for their folly, yet at least the Kingdome suf­fers for it. And therefore we are not more to desire any thing of God for the good gouernment, conseruation, and augmenta­tion of Kings, and kingdomes, then that he will be pleased to furnish them, with good, wise, and prudent Counsailours such as are sound at the heart, cleane from corruption, and blamelesse in their conuersation. For such as these, will serue them in stead of Eyes, and vnderstanding both, wherewith they may see, and vnderstand all that passeth in their king­domes. O how without eyes, how blinde is that king, who hath imprudent, couetous, and ill inclined Ministers▪ And if he will conserue himselfe and his kingdome well, he ought not so much to flye from those Physitians, who either out of ignorance, or particular hatred, approue, and consent to his eating of such meates as are hurtfull and contrary to his health, as from ignorant Counsailours, who either out of A­dulation or for their particular Interest, make all that lawfull, which his free and absolute will shall lead him vnto. For such Eare-wiggs as these, will quickly spoyle, the prosperitie of the kingdome, ouerthrow the life of the king, and prouoke the patience of the Subiect.

A Prosecution of the former discourse, shewing how Kings are to take Counsaile, and what signes they are to marke and obserue for their better knowledge.

IT is a Prouerbe much celebrated amongst the Grecians; That Consiliumest res sa­cra; Counsaile, is a sacred thing. And as Diuus Thomas declares it; it is a Light wherewith the Holy Ghost illightneth the vnderstanding, to chose the best. Others say; That it is a science, which doth weigh and consider, How, and When, things are to be done, that they may succeed well. Aristotle saith;Arist. Ethic. lib. 6. That it is a well weighed, and considered reason, whether such a thing shall be done, or not done? And the Law de la Partida, That it is good Aduice, which a Man takes vpon things that are doubtfull,Ley. 1. & 2. Tit. 21. part. 1. that they may succeede well. And indeede Counsaile is in all things exceeding neces­sary. For without it, can we neither treate of peace, nor war. Consiliis, tractanda sunt bella: Euery purpose is established by Counsell,Prou. 20. 18. and with good aduise make war. It is the saying of the Holy Ghost; Ibi salus, vhi multa consilia: Much Counsell, bringeth much safety. Nor can there be any thing more preiudiciall, nor any meanes more effectuall to destroy kings and kingdomes, then to alter and peruert counsailes. And this the Prophet Micah teacheth vs in a vision which he had,1. Kings. 22. 19. in this forme: God represented himself, sitting on his Throne, and all the Hoast of heauen standing by him, on his right hand, and on his left, consulting with them, what course he should take to destroy Ahab. And euery one hauing deliuered his opinion, there came forth a malignant and lying spirit, [Page 63] like another Cayphas, and gaue his verdit, saying; I will goe forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his Pro­phets I will instruct the Counsailours of Kings Ahab, and with a lye cloathed with the appearance and likenesse of truth, I will deceiue and destroy him. This course was approued, and held to be the fittest & most effectuall for the kings vtter ruine and destruction. And albeit in this diuine Vision, and reuelation, manifested for the dis [...]deceiuing of Kings, and to put them out of their errour, there were many things worthy obserua­tion, and consideration, yet the principall note (in my iudge­ment) is; That neither Ahabs want of vnderstanding, nor his being head-strong nor wilfull in his opinion, nor his be­ing ouer-rash, and vnaduised in what he vndertooke, but his own sins, and the sins of his people, had put him in that estate and condition, that dismeriting Gods fauour, and the light of heauen, the diuel did deceiue him, guiding the tongues of his false Prophets, telling them falsehoods, for truthes; doubt­full things, for things certaine, and by perswading him, that that which was to be his destruction, should turne vnto his profit & honour.2. Cor. 11. 15. S. Paul tells vs, that Satan often times trans­formes himselfe into an Angell of Light, and represents lyes and falshoods vnto vs, in the shape & figure of truth. And the mischiefe of it, is; That the same which the diuell wrought vpon Ahabs Counsailours, feigned friends, and professed ene­mies, haue, and doe the like on some occasions; procuring by secret meanes, to introduce persons, who making profession to side and take part with the king, perswade him to do that, which is least fitting for them, and most vsefull for their own ends. This is one of the greatest darings, and insolencies, that may in matter of State be attempted. God free all good kings from such Counsailes, and Counsailours. When king Dauid saw how his sonne Absolon persecuted him; and thought to go away with the kingdome, he feared not any thing so much, as the plots and Counsaile of Achitophel, who was both a subtile Statist, and a valiant Souldier, and by whose aduise Ab­salon [Page 64] was wholly ruled and gouerned. For the repairing of which mischiefe, he got Hushai the Archite, who was no whit inferiour vnto him in valour, and prudence, in a dissembling and disguised manner, to offer his seruice vnto Absalon, and to worke himselfe in to be of his Councell of war, and State, that he might be the better able, to oppose the able and sound aduice of Achitophel; as he did euen then, when his Master had most need of his seruice: By which discreete carriage, Da­uid was freed of his fear,2. Sam. 15. 31. and Absalons businesses went back­ward, till himselfe, and his whole Armie were vtterly ouer­thrown. Which story ye may read more at large in the second of Samuel. Two things therefore are to be considered for to know which is the best and safest Counsaile: The one on the Kings part, who craues it; the other, on his part, that giues it. And on either part, that which most importeth, is purenesse of intention, & a desire to incounter with Truth. Not like vn­to those, who hearken vnto good and disappassionated Coun­sailes with passion, and onely desire to be aduised, that the Councell may conclude, what is meerely their Wil, & not o­therwise. And in their sittings at the Counsaile-Table, which are ordained to this end, they doe not so much treate, whether that, they pretend, be iust, or no? but with what colour of Iustice, they may effect what they desire? The vnderstanding (saith Salust) which we will (and with better reason, or more properly) tearme the Will, ought to be free and dis-incum­branced of affection, or particular passions, as well in asking, as giuing Counsaile. And because if there be any of this reig­ning in the brest, it cannot alwaies, nay scarce any long time be dissembled, but will like fire breake forth from vnder the ashes that couer it; fitting it is, That Kings should seldome as­sist personally in Counsaile; for their Voting in his presence, is done with awfulnesse, and great respect; but in his absence, they vtter their mindes with a little more freenes, and libertie of language. And euermore your first opinions of your Mi­nisters, and Counsailours of State, before they be toucht with [Page 65] the Ayre of the Kings will, are the best and the sincerest, as produced from that vnforst motion and naturall inclination, which is in their owne particular hearts, and bosomes. If the King desireth to haue this or that thing passe, and for to au­thorize and qualifie this his desire, he craueth their Coun­sell, howbeit hee meete with many which conforme them­selues thereunto, & follow his gust and liking, yet such Coun­saile or aduice in such a Case, ought to be esteemed as little se­cure, as there is great reason for it to hold it suspected: Espe­cially, if the foresaid Counsailours, by some meanes or other come to haue an inckling, that this way the King is inclined, and this is that, which will giue him content. And though we might as well out of Diuine, as Humane Letters cite heere many examples, for that this is a thing so vsuall, and so well receiued both by Princes, and by Priuy-Counsailours; Or to speake more truly and plainely, by those, that sooth, and flat­ter them; I will onely alleadge that, which passed with that vnfortunate King Ahab; 1. Kings. 21. 6. who out of his proud and haughty spirit, and the desire that he had to make warre, and to take a place of importance from the King of Syria, propounded his intent, or to say better his Content, to those of his coun­sell. The businesse was no sooner in treatie, and the propo­sition for the vndertaking of this action proposed vnto them, but forthwith 400. Counsailours with a ioynt consent con­formed themselues to his opinion. And to sooth vp this his humour the more, one amongst the rest bobb'd him in the mouth with an intollerable Lye, affirming; that God had re­uealed vnto him, that he should haue the glorie of the day, & that the successe of the battaile should be prosperous vnto him This was apprehended with a great deale of content by the King, but was finished with his vnfortunate end, himselfe being slaine in that battaile, and his Army routed and ouer­throwne. By which we may see, how much it concerneth Kings, if they will receiue good Counsaile, that they dissem­ble (as much as they can) their particular good will and [Page 66] liking in the businesse proposed. But that, which is heere of greater consideration, is the vertue, fidelitie, and truth of a Counsailour, a minde without passion, disinteressed, and pure. For it oftentimes hapneth, that he that craueth Counsaile, hath not his intention so sound as is requisite, nor his iudge­ment so strong, as to reduce him into the right way, and being set in it, to follow the best. But to grow to a Conclusion, that cannot faile, which Truth it selfe, our Sauiour Christ said in his Gospell; A good tree, cannot bring forth had fruit nor a bad tree good. And the badge or cognisance of good or bad Counsaile, shall doubtlesse be the goodnesse, or badnesse, the wisedome, or ignorance of the Counsailour. And therefore I importunately presse, that it mainly importeth a Prince, to beware, of whom he taketh Counsaile. For by how much the more profitable is a wise & vpright Counsailour, by so much the more preiudiciall is he, that is vniust, and vnstreight And therefore the Holy Ghost saith;Tob. 4. 19. Consilum semper a sapiente perquire: Aske Counsaile alwaies of the wise. And in ano­ther place;Eccl. 6. 6. Pacifici sint tibi multi, Consiliarius sit tibi vnus de mille. Amongst a 1000. Men scarce will there be found one, that is fit to giue Counsaile. For some want wisedome, & prudence; othersome, purenesse, and cleannesse of heart; and a third sort, are so ouerswaied with passion, that they do not simply & sin­cerely perswade the truth. A cleare Example wherof we haue in King Rehoboam, the sonne and successour of King Salo­mon, who though he succeded his father in so rich a King­dome, and so inured to peace, and obedience to their King, yet notwithstanding was in an instant vndone & vtterly lost by bad both Counsaile, and Counsailours. For good Counsel­lours are the life and soule of a Kingdome. And when it is not vnderpropped with such, like a body without a soule, it pre­sently sinke, & falls from it's state wherin it stood. And there­fore the holy King sayd.Psal. 101. 6. O culi mei ad fideles terrae, vt sedeant m [...]cum. Ambulans in via immaculata, hic mihi ministrabit. Non habitabit in medio domus meae, qui facit superbiam: qui [Page 67] loquitur iniqua, non direxit in conspectu oculorum meorum: Mine eyes shall be vpon the faithfull of the Land that they may dwell with me. Hee that walketh in a perfect way, hee shall serue me. Hee that worketh deceit, shall not dwell in my house: hee that telleth lyes, shall not tarry in my sight. And in this particular, Kings ought to be very wary and circumspect. In the next Chapter we will treate of the Care which they are to take in choosing their Counsellours of State; for the errour in this one, is the fountaine of all errours, and the totall Perdition of Kings and kingdomes.

Of the Diligences, which Kings are to vse in the Election of their Ministers, and Counsellours.

IT is a question, that hath beene much sifted and winowed amongst your Morall Philosophers, as also your Di­uines; whether E [...]ection, be formally a worke of the Vnderstanding, or the Will: Gregory Nyssenus saith; That it is composed of both partes; To wit, of the Act of the Will, and of the Vnder­standing. And hee said well. For therein is required both a fullnesse of Knowledge, and a freenesse of Will. And it is the Doctrine of Diuus Thomas, who saith; That it is not of the will alone, but also of the Vnderstanding, because the electiue Act of the Will, conference, consultation, & Iudge­ment, is to precede; which is the proper Act of the Vnder­standing. But the mischiefe of it is; That in Elections, wee many times see the contrary, and what a strange diuorce­ment and seperation there is heerein, from this true Philoso­phie. For that, which now a dayes most of all discouers it selfe in these Elections, is our proper gust, will, and affecti­on. And therefore to remedy so great a malady, it shall be [Page 68] requisite, that the Prince, who desireth to tread sure, to hit the marke he aymes at, and to please God in those whom he electeth and calleth to his Counsell: that hee follow the Example of our Sauiour Christ, written for our instruction by the Euangelists S. Mathew, Mat. 4. and S. Luke, who recounting the Election of S. Peter and of S. Andrew, Luk. 4. & 5. and other the Apostles, as his principall Ministers, there preceded a long and prolixe Oration, or prayer, full of feruour, of zeale, and of the Spirit, and retyred himselfe into the desart, and there fasted 40. dayes,Luk. 6. 12. Et erat pernoctans in Oratione Dei. And continued all night in prayer vnto God. Which (as S. Ambrose, and other fathers haue well obserued) Christ did not doe, that hee had any neede of these Dispositions, and Preambles, for to iumpe right in that Election; but to teach kings, and all other Princes, that if they will hit right in their Elections, they are to vse the like Diligences. They are by good and pious workes to procure this fauour at Gods hands, and to direct all their actions to this end. Nor would hee, that this Election should be left wholly to the declara­tion of those Saints, for our Sauiour did declare himselfe more particularly in the 10. of S. Luke; Luk. 10. 2. Where speaking with the 70 Disciples, which had nominated them, he sayd vnto them; Messis quidem multa, operarij autem pauci; rogate ergo Dominum Messis, vt mittat operarios in messem suam: The Haruest truly is great, but the Labourers are few; Pray yee: therefore the Lord of the Haruest, that hee would send forth Labourers into his Haruest. And though in those former times, these words were very seasonable, yet now in this present age, it's necessitie is better knowne, as likewise the truth thereof. For, the Haruests being so many, and so great, I meane, so great and so many the varietie, and multitude of important businesses for the welfare of the Common-wealth, the Labourers are very few. But to ex­presse my self a little more fully, I say, That very few are they, that enter, or seeke to enter into Offices, for to labour and [Page 69] paines, but for to liue at their pleasure, & to heape vp riches, that they may increase the more in ambition, and more freely take their ease. The remedie of this, consisteth in that, which our Sauiour Christ commandeth vs; To wit: That we in defa­tigably pray vnto him, that he will be pleased to send forth faithfull Ministers and good Labourers into his Common­wealth: Ministers, of knowen trust, zeale, & vertue, to whom may sute the name of Counsellours, and not of Babblers; of worthy men, & not of wordly men. And kings, to whom pro­perly this Office of Election doth, belong must put the more force, & insist the more in this prayer begging that which the wisest of Kings, Salomon petitioned of God, Da mihi sedium tuarum assistricem sapientiam, Wised. 9. 10. vt mecum sit, & mecum la­boret, vt sciam quod sit acceptum coram te omni tempore: O God of my fathers, send me wisedome out of thy holy heauens, and from the Throne of thy Glory, that being present, shee may labour with me, that I may know what is pleasant vnto thee &c. This wise and discreete king, was not contented with that guide and light which humane wisedome might afford him, but had recourse by prayer to that diuine Light and Wisedome, which is that that guideth Kings without stumbling, or feare of falling into errour. For as Wisdome saith of her selfe;Prou. 8. 1 [...]. Per me reges regnant, &c: By me Kings reigne, and Princes decree Iustice. As if shee should haue sayd: By the hand and Light, which I reach forth vnto Kings, they goe rightly on in their iudgements, and their Elections, so that they reigne, and conserue themselues in quiet possession of their Kingdomes. The drift of my dis­course is this; That when a King shall come to elect and make choise of his Ministers, his first care must be, to pray heartily vnto God, that hee will direct this his choise and election. And so much the more diligence hee ought to vse therein, by how much of more importance and of greater qualitie the Minister shall be, that is to be imployed.

After Prayer, which is diuine, other humane diligences, [Page 70] are to bee followed. Whereof the chiefest is, that the Prince informe himselfe of the good sufficiency, the honest life, and faire carriage of those, whom hee is to choose. And that heerein, he may not be deceiued, it is necessary, that with Christ he goe vp vnto the Mount; That is, To ele­uate his Consideration vnto God and to auoide vulgar opi­nions; To strip himselfe of passion, and not to strike hands with those, that are not Gods friends; To forget all kind­red, and Alliance; Not to take in the infectious Ayre of fond affection; Not to apply himselfe to that, which the importunat intercessions and requests of a fauourite, or kins­man shall seeke to draw from him for their priuate benefit; Nor to hearken to the negotiation of cunning and subtile pretenders, but onely to the good of the Common-wealth, and the quicke dispatch of businesses, and other the like of­fices, that are to be exercised by men of their place. And albeit, it was my purpose, not to serue my selfe, in this dis­course, but with the Testimonies and Examples of holy Scrip­ture, and the Doctors that are Expositors thereupon; Yet can I not omit to exemplifie heere in one, of King Don Philip, the second of this name, whose soule doth rest in peace, being that for his great prudence, and zeale to Iustice, and for his good gouernement, all the Kings of the world may acknowledge him their Master. The case is this; A President of his time, hauing proposed a Person for a place, relating vnto him the qualities, which concurred in him, for the meriting thereof, hee farther added; That the Lady Infanta, did much desire this prouision should bee made him. Heereunto his Maiestie with a great deale of iudgement, and grauitie, made answer. Y mi [...]hya que sabe desso? What? Has my Daughter a hand in this? Can she iudge of his worth. Giuing his President by this his Answer to vnderstand, that he should not haue alleaged vnto him that, for to make a good election, which should passe the bounds of the consideration of those parts and qualities, [Page 71] wherewith hee was to be furnished, were his pretension neuer so much fauoured by the mediation and intercession of great persons. And heereunto I farther adde, that a king should in no hand content himselfe with the bare know­ledge of those onely, whom he knowes by sight, and walke dayly vp and downe in his Court, but that hee should take leysure to informe himselfe of as many as hee can, and to follow the ancient custome, in giuing order to his Generalls, Vice-kings, Prelates, and Gouernours of euery Prouince, to giue him information of the best and sufficientst subiects that are in their Gouernment, and that after due consultation had with them, they should nominate three or foure vnto him, that from amongst many good, hee might choose the best. And the rest to bee listed, and taken notice of, that vpon occasion they might receiue imployment. From whence likewise this good will arise, that All, in all partes, great, and small, will study the Science and Arte of good gouernment, fly Vice, and follow Vertue, that they may in their due time be numbered amongst the Chosen. Let a King goe, Con su spassos contados (as they say) with a slow foote, in those Elections, which he is to make, giuing way vnto Time, and to information. Which hee ought wil­lingly to heare, neither in all giuing credit to all; nor being (as many are) too incredulous. Let him remit things to Tryall and Examination, it being a thing needefull for him so to doe. For, if it be not wisedome, to lend a facile eare to all that we heare, for, the wise man saith: Qui citò credit, leuis est corde; So likewise doth it betoken little prudence, to liue alwaies suspicious and distrustfull. Something must be left to Experience. But to come to the qualifying of persons, if the one's qualities be of ten, the other of nine quilates, and all of them necessarie for the Office of a Counsellour, the first ought to be preferred, though the other out strip him in Estate, in fauour, in riches, and great­nesse. For, in that Ministry, there ought respect to be had [Page 72] onely to the aduantages of sufficiencie, and not of power. Nor seruices, albeit two be equall in sufficiencie, must loose their place, and right. But that hee, who hath done the greater seruices for his King and Countrie, ought to bee preferred before the other. Now there is this difference (amongst many others) betwixt a good Prince, and him that is not so; that a good Prince, conferrs his Offices, according to the sufficiencie and vertue of the Minister he maketh choise of; the other vpon fauour, and humane re­spects, vsing therein his power, but not attending distri­butiue Iustice, which rewardeth euery one according to his deserts, without respect either vnto persons, or particular intents.

Of the Qualities, which Kings are to consider in those, whom they are to make choise of for Ministers and Coun­sellours.

WE may very well answer that which is heere questioned with that which is re­counted in the 18. Chapter of Exodus, where it is said; That Iethro, seeing his son in law, Moses wearyed and tyred out in the gouernment of that great body of Gods people, and that it was more then one mans worke, to giue sufficient dispatch to so many businesses, did aduise him, to choose but a certaine number of Ministers and Counsellours, that might helpe to ease him of that burthen, which was too hea­uy for his shoulders,Exod. 18. &. 18. Vltra vires; [...] est negotium; solus illud no [...] poteris sustinere. This thing is too heauy for thee; Thou [Page 73] art not able to performe it thy selfe alone. Cadendo cades (saith another Letter) By falling, thou shalt fall, and all this people, that is with thee. Daras de ojos (as they say) à cada passo. Thou must looke well about thee. And ioyntly with this; hee propounded the qualities, which hee ought to consider in those, whom hee was to choose for that Mi­nistrie. Proinde ex omni plebe, viros sapientes & timentes deum, Exod. 18. 21. in quibus sit veritas. Or as another letter hath it; Viros veridicos, & qui oderint avaritiam: Thou shalt prouide out of all the people able men, such as feare God; men of truth, hating Couetousnesse, &c. Now, let vs goe pondering euery word in particuler, and in them, the qualities of Mini­sters. The first is Prouide; Which signifieth not onely to prouide, but to fore-see, and consider. For, the election of a Minister is a businesse of great prouidence, and con­sideration, and the most important and necessarie for a King in matter of gouernment. On the good, or bad Electi­on of Counsellours, dependeth the whole honour and profit both of King, and Kingdome. And he that erres in this, must necessarily erre in all. For the spring of a fountaine being spoyled, all the water is spoiled. And a King failing in this Principle, all goes to destruction. For without doubt, all good dispatch growes from the force and vertue of good Counsai [...]e. Then therefore is a King held to be wise and prudent, when he hath wife and pru­dent Counsailours: Hee succeedeth well with all his In­tentions, and inioyeth same, credit, and reputation both with his subiects, and with strangers. Of the one he is beloued and obayed, and of the other dre [...]ded and feared; and of all esteemed and commended: The whole king­dome resteth contented and satisfied. And though in something hee somet [...]me erre, none will beleeue it. But when Priuie-Counsailours are no such manner of men, all murmur, and proclaime to the world; That there is not an able man in all the Counsell, and if in some one thing or [Page 74] other hee hap to haue good successe, few or none will giue credit thereunto, but rather conceiue, it was done by Chance.

The sacred Text says farther; De omni plebe; Out of all the People. As if he should haue said out of all the 12. Tribes, or families of this people; thereby to giue vs to vnder­stand; That for to make a good Election, it is requisit, that there should not remaine a nooke, or corner in all his king­domes, where diligence should not be vsed (as before hath beene sayd) to search out the fittest Ministers. And likewise it may in this word, be giuen vs to vnderstand, that in matter of Election, wee are not to haue respect to Linage, Kindred, or Parentage, but to vertue, sufficiencie, and courage, accompained with other good qualities, which adapt a man to be a Counsellour. And therefore it is said anon after, Viros sapientes, Wisemen; men of vnderstanding heads, and stout hearts, which dare boldly and plainely to speake the truth, and to maintaine and put it in execution, when they see fit time: for your pusillanimous and white-liuerd persons are not fit Ministers for a State. Noli quaerere sieri iudex, nisi vale-as virtute irrumpere iniquitates. He that hath not a face, to out-face a Lye, and to defend the truth, let him neuer take vpon him the Office of a Minister of Iustice. In the booke of Daniel it is storyed, that King Nabucodonozor was resolued to haue done some cruell chastisement vpon his Princes, and Counsellours, for that hauing asked them the Interpretation of a troublesome dreame hee had, none of them could declare the meaning of it. And howbeit they told him, that they could not tell what to make of it, & plain­ly confessed the truth, yet notwithstanding the King con­ceiued, that hee had good reason to except against them. For (thought hee) if you know it, and for feare will not tell it me, yee are Cowards; And if you know it not, yee are ignorant; and either of these is a great fault in Coun­sailours, & afford sufficient cause, why ye should be punished; in that yee would offer to take that Office vpon yee; which [Page 75] first of all hath neede of stoutnesse of courage; and second­ly, to be learned and expert in so many and various things, as a King hath occasion to vse yee in. And therefore that wise Iethro, after the word Viros, Men, puts, sapientes, Wise Or as the 70. and others translate it, potentes sortes. Because in Ministers and Counsellours of State, strength, courage, constancie, and wisedome, should walke hand in hand. The Courts and Pallaces of Kings and Princes, that which they are least stored with all, is Truth. They scarce know her face, nay not so much as of what colour or complexion shee is, the onley Minions there made of, being flatteries, and lyes. A wise and stout man, is daunted with nothing, is neuer troubled, nor altered, he stands vpon his own worth and sinceritie, & is Lord and Master of his reason, he speakes with libertie and freedome, hee represents the truth to his King, and maintaines it, Pie quedo (as they say) stiffely and stoutly, without respect to any thing, no not so much as his owne proper life, hee ouerthrowes plots, discouers the impostures, deceits and Lyes of flatterers; for the which he had neede of courage and wisedome.

Now let vs see, what that wisedome is, which a King is to require in his Ministers. Not worldly wisedome, wherof S. Bernard saith, That those which inioy it, boasting them­selues thereof, very wisely goe to Hell. The question, that I aske is; Whether, they should be Philosophers, Diuines, or Lawyers, or in what kinde of faculties, they should be wise? Heereunto first I answer; that questionlesse, it would be a great helpe to the making of a good Counsellour to bee seene in these Sciences, and to haue spent some time of study in them. But in case they haue no skill in these it shall suffice, that they are wise in that which belongeth vnto that Ministry, for which they are nominated and called; to wit: To be a Counsailour, which is a person, that is fit, suf­ficient, and able, for that charge which he is to administer. That hee haue a nimble wit, and quicke apprehension, for [Page 76] without that, the rest serues to little purpose. Whereas he that is furnished therewith, with a little helpe, attaineth to much; He knowes things past, vnderstands the present, and giues his iudgement of things to come. That hee be well read in ancient and moderne Histories, wherein are contained the sentences and opinions of wise men of elder times, by which they ordred their Common-wealths, and maintained them in Peace. For this kinde of reading, doth indoctrinate more in a day, then Experience hath taught others in many yeares, which must by no meanes be wan­ting in a Counsellour for that ordinarily in them, are found Prudence, Authoritie, and Experience: That he haue happy memorie, which is the Archiue of the Sciences and Trea­sure of Truths; for without it, to reade and studie, is (as they say) Coger aqua en vn harnero, to gather water in a fiue; and it importeth much, in regard of the diuersitie of businesses, and persons, with whom hee is to treate. That hee haue trauailed, and seene forraine Countries. That hee be skill'd in the Languages, and haue in all of them the Arte and garbe of speaking and discoursing well. That he more esteeme the seruice of his King, and the publicke good, then his own priuate gaine. That hee be courteous, humble, affable, and yet of a good spirit. That hee lend an attentiue eare, and that hee keepe that gate open for great and small, rich, and poor. But aboue all these, he must be of approued vertue, for without it, all the rest are of no esteeme. Hee that shall haue more, or lesse of these quali­ties, which are for all in Common, shall bee the more, or lesse sufficient Counsellour. As for Vice-royes, Gouernours, Ambassadors and other great Gouernments of the King­dome, such are to be chosen, who together with the fore­said qua [...]ities haue studied, and spent some yeares in the Schoole of experience, and hauing beene conuersant at the Kings elbow, a [...]d in his Courte, and Counsailes, not only for the greatnesse of those mindes, and stomacks which are [Page 77] bred there, (a necessary qualitie for to occupie great places, and not to bee bred vp with a poore portion of Treating, and Vnderstanding, which begets mindes according to the same measure) but likewise, because there by their Treating with Kings, Princes, and other great persons assisting them in their Counsells and graue consultations, communicating with great Ministers, and Counsellours of State, diuerse cases and businesses, the Practick of all affaires, is thereby the more, and better apprehended; As your practitio­ners in Physicke by conferring with great Physitians. He therefore, that shall haue both Learning, and Experience, shall amongst all men be the most remarkable. But, Quis est hic, & laudabimus eum: Shew mee this Man, and we will commend him. For Mans life is short, the Arte long, and experience hard to be atchieued. But to summe vp this discourse, and giue an ende thereunto, I say: That he that is to bee made a Counsellour of Warre, should there­in haue beene exercised many yeares. And that he, that is of the Councell of State, should haue a full knowledge of all, and should be very dextrous in matters of gouernment, both publike, and particular, and well verst in military discipline, because hee is to consult both of warre, and peace. Which because they are things so opposite, and contrary, a man cannot iudge well in the one vnlesse he know and vnderstand aright the other. As wee shall shew heereafter when we shall more in particular treate of this Counsell.

Other qualities, are competible more in especiall to Iudges Iustices, and Presidents, to whom that particularly apper­taineth, which is deliuered in that word, Sapientes; That they well vnderstand the facultie of the Lawes, and that corresponding with their name, they be Iuris-prudentes, well seene in all matters, carrying an euen hand towards all, and administring Iustice without partialitie.Deut. 16. 18. 19. Vt iudicent populum justo iudicio, nec in alteram partem declinent, nec accipiant personam, nec munera▪ That they may iudge [Page 78] the people with iust iudgement that they wrest not iudge­ment, nor respect, neither take a gift. For this briberie and Corruption, is that dust, which blindes the Iudges, and that plague, which consumes a Common-wealth. More­ouer, they must bee wise men, cleane and sound at heart, and of much truth. All of them qualities, which all Na­tions required in their Ministers, expressing them in their Herogliffes. Diodor. Sic. lib. 2. rerum antiq cap. 1. Of the Aegyptians Diodorus Siculus reporteth, That they had their Councell and Audience in a great Hall, where there sate thirty Counsellors or Iudges. Et in medio iudicandi Princeps, cuius a collo suspensa veritas pende­ret, & oculis esset sub clausis, librorum numero circumstante: And in the midst of them sate the President with his eyes shut, a number of bookes standing round about him, and Truth hanging about his necke,Ae [...]an de Var. Hist. lib. 14. curiously cut (as Aelian expresseth it) in a Pectorall Saphire, like vnto that which God fashioned for the adorning of his Minister and Pre­sident Aaron, wherein were ingrauen these words, Hurim, & Thummim. Exod. 28. 30. Which some interprete to be Iudicium, & Veritas: Iudgement, and Truth. But S. Ierome, would haue it to signifie Doctrinam, & Veritatem, Learning, and Truth. For these three things, Iudgement, Learning, and Truth, are much about one, and in them consisteth the whole perfecti­on of a Minister; In quibus sit Veritas. For in the brest of a good Iudge, there must neither raigne passion, nor affection, but the pure Truth, which hee cannot possibly avoyd, vnlesse hee will wrong nature it selfe. For our soule is naturally inclined to Truth. And it is so proper to a wise and prudent Man, that hee that doth not say it, vnsaies himselfe. And certaine it is, that the gouernment of a Kingdome, is so much the more good or ill, by how much the truth therein, hath more, or lesse place. For if businesses be not seasoned therewith, as meates are with salt, neither the poore shall be defended from the oppression of the rich, nor the rich possesse their goods in safety; men and [Page 79] womens honors shall runne danger, and no one person can promise to himselfe securitie. And therefore it is so much the more needfull, that a iudge should treate Truth, and desire that all should doe the like; by how much the more are they that abhorre it, and seeke to conceale it; an olde disease, which was almost borne with vs into the world. And if Iudges shall not fauour Truth, and plaine dealing; treachery, and Lying will reigne and beare rule. Let Kings take heede how they choose men that are feare­full and timerous to be their Ministers, who out of cowar­dize and pusillanimitie, hide the Truth, and dare not bring her forth to Light. For, as shee is the foundation of Iustice, and Christian iudgement, if a Iudge shall not loue it with his heart, tracke the steps of it, and draw it out of that darke dungeon wherein shee lyes, Iustice will be in danger of being crush't, and falshood will preuaile. As in that peruerse Iudgement in Christes cause, where the Iudge was so farre from being desirous to know the truth, that hee did not know what kinde of thing it was; And therefore demanded in the face of the open Court; Quid est Veritas? What is Truth? To whom, that diuine wise­dome made no answer, perceiuing him to be such a foole, as to be ignorant of the first vndoubted Principle of Iustice; and suffring himselfe to be carryed away with false accu­sitions, and feigned relations, which had no bulke nor body in them, no substance in the world, nor any shew, saue of a poore shadow, to be thus mis-led.

Librorum numero circumstante. The President before specified, had a great many of bookes about him; To shew how much it importeth▪ that Iudges, and Presidents bee Learned, and well read in the bookes of their facultie. Epiphanius saith; That hee saw a S [...]atua of Truth, which in it's forehead had two letters, the first, and the last, of the Greeke Alphabet; in it's mouth other two; and other two in it's brest; and so through a [...]l the parts of it's body to it's [Page 80] very feete. So that this was all enamelled with Letters, as the other was rounded with bookes. Thereby, giuing vs to vnderstand that that Man, which is truly the man he ought to be, and is to aduise and gouerne others, his head, hands, and feete, must be stucke full of Letters. He must be learned from the sole of the foote, to the Crowne of the head, full of Letters hee must bee; for in the discour­ses of the Vnderstanding, in the working of the hands, and in the moouing of the feete, wee may easily guesse, whether a man be wise, or no; Whether he hath studied, or doth studie; For though a man be neuer so wise, neuer so learned, hee still forgetteth somewhat. So that, it is not enough for him to haue studyed, but it is requisit, that he still continue his study, that hee may repayre with that which he learneth, the losse of that which hee forgetteth. As in a naturall body, that, by dayly eating and drinking is restored, which is by our naturall heate consumed.

Et oculis esset subclausis. His eyes (which are the win­dowes by which Passion enters vnto the soule) were shut. Because hee should not be led away with the respect to those about him. For, hee must not haue an eye and re­spect to the Estate and condition of persons, to doe more fauour (when it comes to point of Iustice) to one, then another. And for this reason, the sayd Aegyptians, did ordinarily paint Iustice, without a Head. The Head, is the common seate of all the Sences; signifying thereby, that by no one sence, a Iudge should open a doore to Passion, but that he should place them all in heauen with­out respect to any thing vpon earth. And this, is not to respect persons, but Iustice.

Plutarke in his Moralls,Plut. lib. 1. Sto [...]us Serm. reporteth of the Thebans, That in their Courts of Iustice, they had the Pictures drawne of certaine reuerend olde men, sitting in their due order, and in the midst the President; all of them without hands, and their eyes fixed on heauen. To intimate that [Page 81] they should alwaies stand in the presence of the Lord, from whence is to come that Light, which is to cleare the eyes of their intentions, avoyding to cast them downe towards the ground, that the Vapour of humane respects which is raysed from thence, may not cloude and darken the sight of their vnderstanding. They must be olde, and wise, because they are to iudge with mature Counsaile, which accom­panyeth that age. And as it is ordred by their Lawes, they must haue neither eyes, to see, nor hands, to receiue bribes. And if they would cut off their wiues hands too, the cause would be the better iustified. For in them, your bribes finde an open gate, and are so easie to be knowne in this kind of trading, that there are few or none, but take notice of it. They haue the slight of hand, and (like Gypsies) haue a fine facilitie in deceiuing, and not hard to be wrought vpon to gaine by this vngodly course. And looke what businesse they labour to effect, they are vsually the least iustifi­able; And if they are disposed to fauour this man, or that cause, and will but set their friends, and wits roundly to worke, and doe their best, they will shrewdly put a Iudge to his shiftes, and driue him to that streight, that Iustice shall hardly escape a fall. I would haue iudges therefore with their hands off, and their eyes out, least that befall them, which did a couple of their place, and qualitie, who came to see the Processe of a famous, but false, and loose woman, who perceiuing that the reasons of the Relator did worke little vpon them, appealed, para vista de ojos, that shee might appeare face to face, and in her informati­on, when shee came Ore tenus, shee cunningly discouered her beautie, by a carelesse letting fall of her mantle, and so bewitched them therewith, that allowing for good those powerfull witnesses of her eyes, and face, they released her, and gaue her for free. But to say the truth, it was her loosenesse that freed her, and their lightnesse, that condemned them; making that fault light, which before weighed heauie. And [Page 82] how shal he freely administer Iustice, who hath his heart cap­tiuated, and in the power of him, and her, that can turne and winde him, which way they list and wrest him from good­nesse? More Iudges haue bin vndone by Lightnesse, then by Cruelty. The one begetteth feare the other contempt. And by the way, let them take this lesson a long with them, that not onely in reality of truth they conserue their credit without spot, but likewise in apparance procure to giue such good Ex­amples that the world may not iustly charge them, no not with so much as a discomposed looke, neither in the open streete, nor Court of Iustice; for euery bend from their brow, or euery smile from their countenance, is the Common peo­ples Almanack, wher-by they make coniecture, whether it is like to be faire, or fowle weather; reading in the face fauour to one, and rigour to another. Wherefore, as their place is great, so is their perill; The way is slippery wherein they tread, and therfore had need looke well to their feete. Woe be vnto that Iudge, which seeth, and seeth not; sees the best, and followes the worst; suffering his reason to be subdued by passion, and himselfe by one poore slender haire of a handsome woman, to be led by the nose whether shee will leade him. For a good face, is a tacite kinde of recommendation, a faire super­scription, and a silent deceit, which troubles the clearenesse of the minde, making white appeare to be blacke, and what is iust,Exod. 23. 8▪ to be vniust: which was the cause, why God com­manded the Iudges of Israel,Leuit. 19. 1 [...]. that they should remoue their eies from the persons of those that were brought before them, and place them wholly on the matter which they were to iudge. And for the same reason, did the Iudges of Areopagus, heare all sortes of causes, were they ciuill, or criminall in the darke, by putting out the Candles. And your Athenians did sentence their sutes behind certaine Curtaines, which might hinder their sight. The Lacedemonians, they were a little stricter laced; for they did not onely deny eyes to those that went to Law, and sued in their courtes, but also debard [Page 83] them of eares; and because they would prohibit them the power of informing the iustnesse of their cause, but that they should make their Plea by writing. Ne, si coram iu­dicibus loqueren [...]ur, facilius eos fletibus, aut actionibus, [...]f­ficaci (que) modo dicendi demulcerent: Least, if themselues should be permitted to speake before the Iudges, they might the more easily soften and mollifie their hearts, by their teares action, and words. And it seemeth that God doth approue for the better this manner of iudging, when he saith; Non secundum visionem oculorum iudicabit, nec secundum au­ditum aurium arguet: Isay. 11. 3. He shall not iudge after the sight of his eyes, neither reproue after the hearing of his eare. Sed judicabit in justitia pauperes, & arguet in aequitate pro mansuetis terrae: But with righteousnesse shall hee iudge the poore, and reproue with equitie, for the meeke of the earth. With iustice and truth hee must reproue and con­found those, who with fictions, with colours, and studied artifices, pretend to make that iust, or probable, which hath no shew of iustice, or truth. For there are some Lawyers, so full of Quirkes, and subtilties, that they wrest the true sence and meaning of the Lawes, striuing to bring them to their bent, haling them (as they say) by the haire to that part whereunto themselues are willing to in­cline; either to that, which a fauourite, or powerfull per­son pretendeth, or to him, that will bribe most; where­by suites in Law, are made euerlasting, much mony is consumed, mens States miserably wasted, or at least the true knowledge of the cause obscured, as well de facto, as de jure; both in matter of fact, and of Law. A Iudge therefore ought to be very attentiue to all businesses, that are brought before him, and to haue Lynx his eyes to watch whether the Torrent will tend of a Pleader trans­ported with affection, and of a cauillous Relator, armed with a 100. Witty quillets, subtill and acute Allegati­ons, wherewith they shadow the light, and scatter cloudes [Page 84] of darkenesse ouer the cause that is pleaded. Hee that is set ouer others, must haue wisedome and courage, to make resistance against them, and to disarme them, rebutting the blow by his Arguments, and with the true and solide sence of the Lawes themselues.Eccl. 7. And therefore Ecclesiasti­cus, would not haue that man to take vpon him to be a Iudge, that hath not spirit and mettall in him, to contest with the stoutest of them, and to doe Iustice Secundum allegata & probata, according to all right, and law. For many times there is more cunning and wisedome required for to vndoe those knots, and to facilitate those difficulties, which these wrangling Lawyers put in their Plea, then to resolue the doubt in the Case it selfe. And if hee be to deale with persons of power, and great Courtiers, he must either breake through this net which they pitch for him with force, or with some slight or other seeke to auoyd it, rather then that fauour, and power, on the one side, or subtill shiftes, and Law quirkes, on the other should stifle Iustice.Isay. 58. 6. For, in these cases it is written. Dissolue colliga­tiones impietatis: Loose the bands of wickednesse, to vndoe the heauie burthens, and to let the oppressed goe free. For the sonne of God himselfe (to be an example vnto Iudges) did proceede in this manner with the Diuell. For this pur­pose (saith S. Iohn) was the Sonne of God manifested, Iohn. 3. 8. that he might destroy the workes of the Diuell. Whereby he shewed no lesse courage, then gained reputation. And it is one of the most preiudiciall things that can befall Common­wealths, to seeke to honour such persons in whom doe not concure those qualities, nor the knowledge of such Ministers, and giuing them the Title of Counsellours, which haue neither that sufficiency of knowledge, nor wisedome, which is necessary for to giue a good and sound opinion in graue and weighty matters. And as it were a foolish and vnaduised thing in him, that hath neede of a payre of shoes to go to looke them at a Barbers, and not at a shomakers [Page 85] shop▪ so is the case alike, when wee leaue wise and ex­perienced men in a Common-wealth lurking in a corner, and put those into eminent places, which neither know how to begin, nor end businesses, nor what course in the world they are to take. That which is fittest for them, but much more for a King and kingdome, is to let them alone in their ignorance.Hose. 4. 6. Quia tu scientiam repulisti, repellam & ego te, (saith God.) Because thou hast reiected knowledge, I will also reiect thee. For one foolish Minister alone is an intolerable burthen for a Kingdome.Eccl. [...]2. 15. Arenam & salem, & massam ferri, facilius est ferre, quam hominem impruden­tem, & fatuum: Sand, and salt, and a masse of yron, is easier to be borne, then a man without vnderstanding. Three things (saith hee) which are the heauiest to beare, are more easie to bee borne, and with more patience to be indured, then the imprudencies of an vnwise and foolish Minister.

Hee continues the Discourse of the qualities of Ministers, and Counsellours.

THe last words of Iethros Aduice were, Et qui oderint Auaritiam: hating Co­uetousnesse. A qualitie no lesse necessa­ry, then those before specified. The 70. Interpreters translate it. Et qui odio habent superbiam: Hating pride. There are some men, which rake vp a great deale of wealth, and are couetous only to keepe, and make the heape the bigger, liuing for this cause miserably vnto themselues, and deepely indebted to their backe and belly. Others there are, that scrape and [Page 86] scratch, by hooke, or by crooke, all the money they can finger that they may afterwards prodigally spend it, and main­taine their vaine pride, and ostentation. But in what sort so euer men be couetous, sure I am; That Couetousnesse is one of the worst notes, and basest markes, wherewith Kings Ministers, and Counsailours of State, can be branded. Auaro, Eccl. 10. 9. nihil est Scelestius: (saith Ecclesiasticus) There is not a more wicked thing then a couetous man. And from those that are toucht with this infection, Kings are to flye as from a plague or Pestilence, and be very circumspect and wary, that they be not admitted to the Councell Table; and to remoue those from thence, that haue receiued any bribe. For it is an incurable disease, a contagious corrup­tion, which like a Leprosie goes from one to another, and clingeth close to the soule. Besides to receiue, is a sweete thing, and leaues the hand so sauory, and so well seasoned, that it hath no sooner receiued one gift, but it is presently ready for another, a third, a fourth, and so in in­finitum. And the end of that which is past, is but a disposition for that which is to come. Like a hungry Curre, who hath no sooner chopt vpone morsel, but he is ready for another. And he perhaps, who at first was contented with a little, & could say: Esto basta, [...]y sobra. This is inough, and too much, after­wards much, too much, and more then too much will not sa­tisfie his hungry mawe; Infinita enim est et insatiabilis cupi­ditatis n-atura: Arist. 2. Pol. cap. 5. Infinite (saith Aristotle) and insatiable is the gut of couetousnesse. And the Holy Ghost tells vs; Auarus non implebitur pecunia. Eccl. 5. 10. He that loueth siluer, shall not be sa­tisfied with siluer; nor he that loueth aboundance, with in­crease. For it is a kind of salte and brackish water wherewith couetous mans thirst cannot be quenched, for when he hath taken this, and that other, and a world of things, he gapes still for more. He is better satisfied by denying him that which hee desireth, then by giuing him that, which he craueth. And therefore publicke Ministers (if wee will [Page 87] credit Diuinitie) should be so noble and so free, that they should not onely not be couetous, but quite opposite there­unto, and to hold a particular hatred, and perpetuall enmitie with couetousnesse. That they should not onely not receiue giftes and presents, but that they should hate, and abhorre them and cause those to be informed against, that either shall giue a bribe or pretend to giue. For most true is that say­ing of the sonne of Sirack. Eccl. 20. 29. Munera & dona excaecant oculos Iudicum. Presents and gifts, blind the eyes of wise. How sone is a couetous man blinded, when he beholdes the baite of his Passion? Nor is there any thing more often repeated in sacred and prophane writ, then the putting vs in minde of force, and efficacie which gifts haue to wrest Iustice, and peruert iudgement. Moses saith of them, That they blinde the eyes of the wise; and that they turne and winde the words of good men, chopping and changing one for another,Exod. [...]3. [...]. to serue their purpose. Qui quaerit Locu­pletari, peruertit oculum suum. The gift blindeth the wise, and peruerteth the words of the righteous. By which is vn­derstood the Intention, which is easily wrested, when in­terest puts to a helping hand, which is that Loade-stone, which drawes the yron after it, and causeth them to erre that suffer themselues to be carryed away therewith. If a Iudge be couetously giuen, he will soone varie his opinion, and make no scruple to condemne the poore, who hath nothing to giue him, and absolue the rich, who giues him all that hee hath. For mony is an able Aduocate, and pleads hard. And Iustice (sayth Isidore) is strangled with gold. The times are ill, when that which cannot be ob­tained by Iustice, must be procured by Money. Fiue hun­dred yeares and more was Greece gouerned by Lycurgus his Lawes, to the great happinesse of the Naturalls of that Countrie and admiration of strangers, without the breach of any one Law; by meanes whereof, that Common­wealth was sustained with admirable peace, and Iustice, [Page 88] because priuate interest had no power with the Iudges of the Land. But when money came to beare sway, and that men tooke pleasure therein, and made it their happinesse, the Common-wealth was made vnhappy, and the Lawes, and Iustice, were trodden vnder foote. He (saith the wise man) that is greedy of gaine, troubleth his own house. Qui autem odit munera, Prou. 15. 27. viuet: But hee that hateth gifts, shall liue. And I doe not see, how hee can liue, who receiuing so much, so often, and of so many, sees himselfe so laden, and so inuironed and beset with obligations, which are so opposite and contrary one to another. I say (contrary) be­cause the Pretenders are so amongst themselues, who aspi­ring to one and the same thing, wherein it is impossible hee should content all of them, euery one offereth accor­ding to his Talent, and the desire hee hath to obtaine his suite. And many times, though they giue neuer so much, they remaine frustrated of their pretension, and become e­nemies to that Minister, murmuring and complayning of him, (and that with a great deale of reason) all the dayes of their life. Woe vnto the Couetous man, who (as the Scripture sayth) sets his soule to sale.Eccl. 10. 10. Animam quoque venalem habet. It is a most wretched case, and a most la­mentable miserie, that a mans auarice and couetousnesse should be so great, that hee should sell his soule for the greedinesse of money: Besides, there is another great Con­tradiction, from which it is not possible for to free them­selues. For, if they will faithfully performe their Office, they cannot fauour any, saue him that hath most right and iustice on his side. And this they must do gratis, and without any other kind of interest, then that, which the being of a good and faithfull Minister carryes with it: Againe, if they do not ayde and helpe him, who by giftes hath bound them vnto him, they fowly and shamefully deceiue both him, and themselues; and must needes fall into one of these two in­conueniences; Either to be ingratefull, if they doe not doe [Page 89] for him that gaue; or vniust, If they doe contrarie vnto Iustice. So that which way soeuer they receiue a gift, they goe away with it with an euill Conscience, and in plaine English, are theeues by qualification. So that great Lawyer, Paris de Puteo calls them,Paris de Put. de Sindic. c. 2. num. 3. and sayth; That there are more in your publicke Audiences, and open Courts, then in your Townes, and villages.

And that iust man Iob affirmeth;Iob. 12. 6. That the Tribunalls of robbers prosper.Luc. de Pena in l. Iudices. Cod. de Dignitat. lib. 12. One calls them Vsurers, another, Pyrates. And Lucas de Pena, saith, That they are farre worse, because they rob and steale vnder collour of Law,Isay. 1. 23. and publicke authoritie.Deut. 27. 25. In a word, God, who knowes them better then all the world besides, calls them disloyal companions of theeues, which desire giftes, and loue Retributions. And from hea­uen hee throwes downe his Curse vpon them, whereunto on earth all the people say, Amen.

But let them bee called by what name or Title you will, let them neuer somuch haue the name of iudges, their workes will speake what they are. If they doe Iustice, and iudge according to their iust Lawes, then are they Iudges, and deserue so to be. But if they do the contrary, they beare the name of Theeues, and are vnworthy that Office. There being represented vnto Dauid the rigourous chastisement of these kinde of men,Psal. 26. 9. hee beggeth thus of God. Gather not my soule with sinners, nor my life with bloody men; In whose hands is mischeife, and their right hand is full of bribes. Let these theeuish hands (saith the Emperour Constan­tine) cease at last to steale; let them cease I say; And if they will not cease, and giue ouer stealing, let them be cut off, and set vpon the gallowes top. Neither let Kings cease to make diligent search after them, and to execute iustice against them in the most rigorous manner. And if they will not amend, let them (a Gods name) be soundly punished. For it is a foule and abominable Vice, pernicious, and pestilent, and which doth much marre and deface the Luster of what­soeuer [Page 90] Minister, be he neuer so illustrious and great. And therefore in the Ciuill Law,L. ff. ad l. Iul. rep. l. 3. ff. de recep &c. it hath the name of Sordes giuen it; which signifies foulenesse, or beastlinesse. The Emperour Alexander Severus, (a great subduer of this vice) when he saw any Minister noted thereof, his choller rose, and his stomacke began to turne, and did prouoke him to vomit, as if hee had seene some loathsome stinking thing. And for such kinde of corrupt men he would vsually say, hee had euer a fingar in readines, to plucke out their eyes. And for the better informing himselfe of the truth of these businesses, hee made choice of some vertuous and intelli­gent persons, whom hee sent secretly as Spyes into seue­rall parts of the Kingdome (which all wise Kings ought to doe) giuing them good Intertainment for the defraying of their charges, to the end, that they might truly informe him of all whatsoeuer passed, as how his Ministers beha­ued themselues in their gouernment, how in their Offices? Saying; That if they did abuse them, it was not enough to remoue them onely, and put other in their places; but for example sake, seuerely likewise to punish them. He gaue all his Officers good honest maintenance, and sufficient allow­ance, and would by no meanes permit, that any Magistra­cie, or publicke Office, should bee bought and solde. For he, that buyes of me (sayd hee) must of necessitie sell to ano­ther, for to quit his Cost, as also to make his best profit and benefit thereof. Such as these, buy cheape in the grosse, and sell deare by retaile. And so it is, that hee that buyes a tree for money, can hardly afford the fruite for nothing.

The Emperour Theodosius made heereupon a Law worthy so noble a Prince, [...]. fin. C. ad Legem Iul. rep. l. 10. &. 22. Tit. 5. lib. 3. and deseruing heere to bee set downe, as a Patterne for Kings. Wee will (sayth hee) and ordaine, that those be appointed Gouernours of our Prouinces, who shall bee found worthy those places, charging and com­manding, that they be not conferred either for ambition, or bribes, or promises, or for any price, that shall be giuen [Page 91] for them, but meerely for that they are men of an honorable and vertuous disposition, and of a good and approued life. And these, whom you (my President) shall choose, or we our selues vpon your report, wee will, that they who are admitted to these Offices, shall solemnely sweare, and firme­ly promise, that for the said preferments, or places of charge and gouernment, they haue neuer giuen, nor promised any thing for them, neither shall giue heereafter either openly, or vnder hand, either directly, or indirectly. Neither shall they take, or receiue any thing, but shall rest contented with their Salaries, and Pensions, Nor shall pocket any bribe in pub­like, or priuate, not onely during their Office, but neither before nor after, &c. These are the very words of the Law it selfe.

Diuerse other ancient, and Moderne Lawes, and decrees haue beene made, generally prohibiting all kind of gifts and bribes, vpon paine of diuers very greiuous punishments, to be inflicted vpon those, that either take, or giue bribes. As paying double what was promised, or giuen; depriua­tion of Office; The treble value of what was giuen; Then (vpon the increasing of the abuse) a quadruple value. And after that, Confiscation of goods, banishment, and open infamie. Iustinian, added heereunto the punishment of Whipping. And the Emperour Valens, and Valenti­nianus, farther increased the same, commanding, they should be burned. And the now Emperours of Iapan, did lately execute the sayd Law vpon one of his Fauourites Secre­taries for taking of a bribe; and him that bribed him, (who was Gouerner of a Kingdome) he caused to be beheaded. Plato, Plat. lib. 2. de would make it arul'd case: That that Iudge should dye the death,Legibus. that should take a bribe, yet notwithstan­ding neither the feare of death,Act. 24. 25. 1. of iudgement, nor of hell it selfe, is sufficient to represse the loue of money. Disputante Paulo de judicio futuro, tremefactus est Felix: Paul reasoning of the iudgement to come, Felix trembled, who was Pre­sident [Page 92] or Ruler of Cesarea. And yet the feare of that ter­rible day of iudgement, was not able to bridle his Coue­tousnesse. He trembled for feare, and yet his eyes, and heart, were placed vpon that money which hee hoped to receiue from that blessed Apostle. Feare is not of force, to detaine the Couetous; For Couetousnesse, is a huge great riuer which if it once begin to make it's Current, bee it which way it will, there is no withholding of it. If you stop it's course one way,Num. 2 [...]. 12. it breakes out another way. So it did with that naughty Prophet, who hasted with great furie to curse Gods people, that he might finger his pro­mised gold. And though an Angell stood before him, and stopp't his way, hee tooke another way, and brake through thicke and thin (as they say) that hee might not loose his reward;Ioseph. de Antiq. lib. 4. cap. 5. so farre (saith Iosephus) did the promises and gifts of the Moabites preuaile with him, that hee chose rather for his priuate interest, to please a King of the earth, then him of Heauen. The Kings of Spaine haue likewise made some Lawes with very sharpe and rigorous punishments, but all not worth a pinne, because they are not executed. So that this bad custome alone, is of more force, then all the lawes. These are written with inke, on paper; Those, with letters of gold on the heart. The Lawes threaten with roughnesse and rigour; Money perswades with softnesse and gentlenesse, and carryes mens mindes after it without contradiction. The Lawes, haue few to defend them, & to put them in execution. But this euill custome, is of more force then the Law, & hath stronger Abettors. In a word, terrible are the forces and skir­mishes of this foule assaulting vice, become now as it were na­turall vnto vs, and more vsed in these, then any other Times whatsoeuer. Demosthenes ask't the Athenians (& those which are, may aske of those that haue bin) what were in those times which are not in these? And himselfe makes the answer, That one thing was now wanting vnto them; whereby those that liu'd then, alwayes went away with the victory, & main­ned [Page 93] their libertie. Which was; The perpetuall hatred which they bore vnto those, who suffered themselues to be corrup­ted with mony. In stead whereof, it is now come to that passe, that to receiue a bribe, is onely a nine dayes wonder; if the same be confest, it is made a matter of laughter; if pro­ued, he that receiues, receiues a pardon for it; and he that informes, sent away with a flea in his eare, and in stead of a reward, receiues a round checke for his labour, & growes a hated man, and troublesome member in a Common­wealth. But vnfortunate is that Common-wealth, where Corruption liues vncontrolled. And because this Vice goes daily taking deepe roote, and grows still stronger and stron­ger, inuenting new impudencies, new slightes and subtilties, it is needefull that Kings should hunt Counter, and finde out some new Tricke, to take these olde ones in the Trap. And this one (me thinks) would be a pretty remedy for this disease; That a Law were made, That of all those, that should be nominated for Ministers and Officers pub­like and particular in any Tribunall, or Ministry what soeuer as well of Iustice, and gouernment, as of the publike Treasurie, there should an Inuentorie be taken (by some de­puted for that purpose) of all their rents, and goods moue­able, and vnmoueable, and when they are to take their oath (as the fashion is) at their entrance into their Office, the said Inuentory should be presented in open Court, and there they made to sweare, and take a solemne oath that this is a true Inuentorie, and that their Estate is thus and thus, neither more nor lesse, or much there abouts, to the end that when their states come to be increased, and their wealth makes a great noyse in the world, it may (vpon better in­quirie) be knowen how, and which way, they came by it. For experience daily teacheth vs, that your Iudges, your Exchequer men, and other publike Officers, enter into the Office with little, and goe out with much. And I would, that the Kings Atturney generall, or one of like nature, [Page 94] should enter an Action against all those Augmentations of their Estates whereof they should not be able to render a good Account. I could likewise wish, that they might be sworne to that Law of Theodosius; That they neither gaue, nor promised, by themselues, or by any other person, or persons, any thing at all, for the foresaid Offices: Neither that they shall receiue any thing of free gift,Bald. in l. 1. c. de haered: vel Actione v [...]ndit. Diseque el fiscotiens Accion contra los toles bi [...]nes. be it offred with neuer so good a will. Which oath, the Ancient Ro­mans swore vnto. And if at any time it shall be proued against them, that they haue either giuen, or taken, that they incurre the punishment of priuation of Office, and Confiscation of goods.B [...]l d [...]ito ded [...]cho qualqui [...] ­ra pu [...]de serach­ [...]ado durante el Of [...]icio [...] despues [...]. de Calum­ [...]. And this Course being taken, these cannot offend againe; and if their dealing hath beene vp­right and faire (as good men will not refuse a iust tryall, but rather (out of loue to goodnesse) imbrace it,) God for­bid but they should bee well rewarded by the State, for their good and faithfull seruice. And this is no new doctrine, but shall finde it (if we looke backe to former times) practi­sed long a goe. And the Emperour Antoninus Pius, did likewise ordaine, that all Liuetenants, and Gouerners be­fore they went to serue in their Residencies and Offices, they should bring in an Inuentorie of all they had, that when the time of their Gouernment was expired, by coating and comparing the one with the other, they might see how and in what manner they thriued thereupon. Audist is (saith he) Praefectum Praetorij nostri antè Triduum quàm fieret, mendicum, & pauperem: sed subitò diuitem factum. Vndè (quaeso) nisi de visceribus Reip. qui ob hanc causam Prouincias sibi datas credunt, vt luxurientur & diuites fi­ant? &c. You haue heard that our Praetorian Praefect, some few dayes since was a very beggar, but now sodainely become rich. Whence (I pray) should this come but from out the bowells of the Common-wealth; who for this cause thinke Prouinces are committed vnto them, that they may therein riot, and grow rich? Setting at nought the Lawes, [Page 95] the respect vnto their Kings, their feare towards God, and the shame of the world. Truly (saith Plato) that publike Minister may be had in suspicion, who in his office is growne rich. For he that only gets by lawfull meanes can hardly liue at so high a rate, as some of his fellowes doe, build such sumptuous and costly houses, and leaue so faire and great an estate behind him to his Heyre. And he, who heerein does more then he can, will likewise do more then he ought. For he, that will seeke to out-doe his meanes, will not sticke to out-doe his honestie. In a word, gifts haue euermore bred a iealousie of Corrupti­on; and in Iudges, esteemed the foulest fault, Oh, of how little worth is a little gift; and yet what a great hurt, to a Ministers honour?Nazian. in O [...]at. 23. A gift (saith Nazianzene) is a secret Tyrant, which doth subdue, and tread all vnder foote. And, to giue, is of all other the greatest Tyranny, and the greatest violence.Sene ca. de Benefi. It is Senecas Counsell; That, he, that will inioy his owne freedome, must not receiue anothers benefit. Fo [...] to giue, is to in-slaue; And the receiuer, is the giuers slaue. Gifts, are but Gyues and chaines wrought of strong linkes: The ending of one, being the begin­ning of another. And where the first ends, the second be­gins. And this (as they say) dispone la trabaion para otr [...]s muchos; serues but as a Timber peece to couple and fasten many others. Take heede therefore (saith the Emperour Iustinian of receiuing giftes, which quit our libertie, blinde our vnderstanding,In au [...]h. V [...] Iudices sine quo [...] § 2. incline our wills, and defame our ho­nour. But make thou much of cleane hands; for he that shall keepe his hands cleane, and shall not suffer himselfe to be corrupted by priuate Interest, shall haue much ho­nour and fame in this life, and a great place prouided for him in that other. Qui excutit manus suas ab omni mu­nere, iste in excelsis habitabit & Regem in decore suo vide­bunt oculi eius: hee that shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, Isa [...]. [...]3. 1. hee shall dwell on high; And his eyes shall see [Page 96] the King in his beauty. All this, and more shall they attaine to, that are truly of pure heart, and cleane hands.

All this (say they) that you say, is true. We confesse as much. But withall we must tell you, That that which we receiue is subsidium gratuitum, a free gift, a [...]eere gra­tuitie, with a great deale of loue, and good liking of the Giuer. And we affirme, That all (for the most part) that is giuen, is respectiue, and is in that Predicament, which the Logicians tearme, Ad aliquid. Whereby he that receiueth a courtesie, is bound to returne a courtesie. And those which giue, hope to receiue from such Ministers, that which they cannot iustly giue them. With these con­ditions, a gift is lawfull, and esteemed to be lawfully re­ceiued, when it comes free, vnclogg'd, disinteressed, with­out pretension, and without respect of requitall, or reference to any recompence or retribution. That is a gift, which goes dis-roabed of all respects which is neither a friend nor kindsman, nor kindswoman of the party that giues it, and hath no obligation, no Interest, no necessitie, but is all pure loue, and is freely giuen of grace, onely to do him good, that receiues it, The rest is Vsurie, Loane, br [...]bery, and hope of gaine. And if they will see that this is true, let them come downe from that high place wherein they are, let a Visitation goe forth against them, and they sha [...]l quick­ly see, how euery man longs and desires, that that may bee returned to the Owners, which they haue got by foule play. It is a great blindenesse in Ministers, to imagine, that what is giuen them, proceedes from liberalitie, and out of the good will and loue they beare vnto them. God he knowes, it is no such matter, but what they do in this kinde, is only to corrupt them, and to oblige them to do that, which they neither may, nor ought. Let them be­leeue me, and not deceiue themselues. For to giue, and re­ceiue, is a cunning peece of businesse, a thing of great ar­tifice, wit, and subtiltie, and on whatsoeuer occasion it [Page 97] worketh, it workes Miracles. But in case gifts should not corrupt, at least they appease, and moue affection. Being (as that wise King Salomon saith) like vnto the w [...]ues of the Sea, which make the tallest ship to reele, be she neuer so we [...]l ballasted. And waues neuer come single. A [...]d, if they be strong waues indeede, they ouerturne her, and sinke her in the Sea. Reprom [...]s [...]io nequi [...]ma m [...]ltos perdidit, Eccl. 2 [...] & Commouit illos, quasi fluctus maris. Let them looke well to themselues, that receiue gifts, for they run a great deale of hazard; let them take heede, least some storme arise that may drowne their ship, euen then (as often hath beene seene) when she is deepest and richest laden. And let them not trust to their taking in secret, nor of such, and such a person; for the Diuine Sunne of Iustice, whom they offend, will discouer and bring all to light. And though no body should see or know it, it is enough that God, and his own Conscience knowes it, which are two sure Witnesses, besides many other, which time will pro­duce.

They likewise alleage, That they haue leaue and licence of their Kings to receiue gifts. Whereunto, first of all I answer; that it is not to be beleeued, that Christian Kings, will grant such Licences as these, which are so pre­iudiciall, pernicious, scandalous, and so contrary to the Common good, and good gouernment of their King­domes. Secondly I say; (speaking with that reuerence and respect, which is due vnto the authoritie of Kings) that it cannot be grounded on good Diuinitie, that they may giue any such leaue or licence vnto their Ministers. Againe, they vrge, that sometimes, in some particular case, gifts haue beene giuen to some great Priuado, or fauourite of the King. It may be so; But sure I am, that to no Counsellour of Iustice, can it euer iustly be, or may be done. But because this will fall within the compasse of our insuing discourse; I will cite those words; Timentes [Page 98] Deum. Fearing God: Which follow anon after the be­ginning. For well will it suite, that with these, we con­clude this Chapter because the feare of God is the be­ginning of wisedome. And from whence, as from their fountaine, are deriued all those other good qualities, that are in man. Timor Domini super omnia se superposuit: There is none aboue him that feareth the Lord. Et beatus homo, Eccl. 25. 10. cui donatum est, habere illum: And happy is that man, to whom it is giuen. For he, that hath the feare of God hath all the good that can be desired. Plenitudo sapientiae est, Eccl. 1. 16. timere Deum: To feare the Lord is fullnesse of wise­dome. He that would be a generall Scholler in all kinde of knowledge, be well seene in all the Artes and Sciences, and haue all those good parts and qualities, combined and ioyned▪ together, let him loue and feare God. For he that feares him, and hath him alwayes before his eyes, hath libertie and power to ouercome the feare and dread of the mightie, whereof the World doth stand (and all for want of this feare) too much in awe. Among the Lawes of Moses, Iosephus relateth one, wherein he willeth Iudes that they should aboue all things preferre Iustice; and that without respect to any mans person, or dignitie, they should equally iudge all; For they hauing (as they haue) heere vpon earth, the power of God, they ought not to feare any other but him. He that preuaricates Iustice in relation to great persons, makes them greater and more powerfull then God; who giues vs this short but stoute Lesson; Feare not him, that can kill the body, and take a­way thy life, but feare thou him, that can kill the soule, and depriue thee of lifeeuerlasting. And in another place, he saith,Exod. Thou shalt not forsake the poore, for feare of the rich, nor iudge vniustly, nor doe the thing that is vnequall, for feare of the powerfull, but keepe iustice in it's true weight and measure; without any humane respect, or vaine [...]eare. King Iehosaphat aduiseth the Iudges of Israel, that [Page 99] in their iudgements, they feare none but God alone, and all the Law-giuers, as Lycurgus Solon, Numa, and a num­ber of others, together with the chiefest of all, Moses, who gouerned Common-wealths, and made Lawes, founded them with Religion, and the feare of God. These are the first and last Letters of the Lawes of Christian gouernment, wherewith that wise King did summe vp the booke of those, which hee made for the gouernment of Men. Deum time, Eccl▪ 12. 13. & mandata eius obserua: hoc est omnis homo. Feare God, and keepe his Commandements: for this is the whole dutie of man. With this he receiueth the stabilitie and per­manencie of man. The contrary whereof, is to be a beast and worse then a beast;Ber. ser. 20. in Cant. According to that of S. Bernard; Ergo si hoc est omnis homo, abs (que), hoc nihil est homo: If this be the whole duty of man, without this man is nothing. But as a man, that hath no vse of reason, breakes all lawes, Facile deuiat à justitia, qui in causis non Deum, sed homines for­midat: He easily swarues from Iustice, which in causes, feareth not God, but Man. I will heere conclude with that which Esay saith;Isay. 9. [...]. A wonderfull Counsellour is the mighty God. And he is to be our chiefe Counsellour and more inward with vs then any King or Counsellour. And Kings and Coun­sellours are to craue his Councell. For Councell being his gift, he doth not communicate the sam [...] to any, saue such as loue, and feare him, and take Councell of his diuine Law. As did that holy King. Consilium meum Iustificationes tuae. Let euery one enter into his Councell of knowledge, let him con­sult himselfe the best that he can; yet when he hath done all that he can, let him aduise with the Law of God; For if he do not know well how to aduise himselfe, how shall he giue Counsaile to others? And he that knowes not how to rule & gouern himselfe, how shall he command a whole kingdome? Qui sibi nequam est, Eccl. 14. [...]. cui alij bonus crit? He that is euill to himselfe, to whom will hee be good? Alexander said He hated that wise man, that was not wise for himselfe.

Of other Courses and meanes, which Kings may take for the notice of such persons, in whom the said Qualities con­curre.

ONe of the greatest mischiefes incident vnto Kingdomes is; That Kings haue not true notice giuen them of worthy persons, for to imploy them in his seruice. A great cause whereof is, that your vndeseruing, or (at least) lesse sufficient, are clapt in betwixt them, and home; Those are the men, that are most intermitted, take most vpon them, and procure by their Negociating and Plotting, to occupie the best places, and not contenting themselues therewith, seeke to shut the doore against men of merit, and to keepe them out, to the end that their owne defects, by this course, may receiue the lesse discouery. [...] For this is the nature of things opposite each to other, that the neerer they are one to the other, the more excellent lays it's Contraryes defect, the more open. Now to occurre to this mischiefe, wise Iethro aduised his sonne in Law, that he should seeke out men of good parts, and choose them (as we s [...]yd before) from amongst all the people. And we shall better perceiue, what that Counsaile comprehendeth, if we will but consider that other place of Deuteronomy; Where Moses discoursing with the people, what diligence he had vsed on his part, it is there mentio­ned, that he spake vnto them, and admonished them (to the end that the Election of the Ministers might take the better) that they themselues likewise would vse their di­ligences, and then giue him notice of those persons, which [Page 101] they held in greatest esteeme amongst them, and were (in the generall opinion) the ablest men. Date ex vobis [...]iros sapientes, & gnaros, & quorum Conuersatio sit probata in Tribubus vestris, vt ponam eos vobis Principes: Take yee wise men and vnderstanding, Deut. 1. 13. and knowen amongst your Tribes, and I will make them Rulers ouer you. And indeed, the best and surest course, that Kings can take, to come to that notice or knowledge they desire, is to lay holde on those persons, whose approbation is so notorious, that all the people giue good Testimonie of them. For, (as a wise man hath well obserued) the generall opinion, is that Touch­stone, which proueth or reproueth. For, it cannot be, that One should deceiue All. And happily from hence grew that Common Adage Vox populi, vox Dei: The Peoples voyce, is Gods voyce. We must giue Credit to the fame and report that goes of Men. For (as Tacitus saith) she some­times makes the choyse of Ministers; it being his meaning, that this satisfaction should be giuen to the people, that those, that are to gouerne them, should be chosen and e­lected by that common fame, and good report, that goes of them. And heere by the way let me tell you, that it is not much amisse, that some Offices, and Preferments be in a dissembled kinde of disguise; purposely published be­fore they be bestowed, to see how it will be intertained and receiued by the people; to whom it is fit some satisfaction should be giuen, as being the body that is to be comman­ded. This is a Trick of State, whereof (vpon some occasions) Fernando, surnamed the Wise, made good Vse. For when he was to goe any great Voiage, vndertake any Warre, or at­tempt some new Enterprise, or any other action of impor­tance, he would not publish, nor iustifie the same to the world, till he had vsed some art and cunning, imploying some persons fit for that purpose (before his designes were throughly vnderstood) to giue it out; That the King should do well to make such, or such a wa [...]re, to make this or [Page 102] that prouision, for this, or that reason. So that first of all, the vulgar were made acquainted therewith and rested sa­tisfied with the reasons that were rendred for it. And then afterwards it comming to be published; that the King had done, or would doe such a thing, it is incredible to beleeue, with how much ioy, loue, and applause of the people, and whole Kingdome, this his Resolution was receiued. But mistake me not I pray; I do not say, that this is to be done alwayes, but on some occasions, or great preparations. And Kings in this case, must haue a care, that they haue faith­full Centinells, that may truly certifie them, how that Newes takes, and what exception (if any arise) they make against it, and vpon what grounds, that if any thing had beene omitted, it might be amended A President (not vnlike to this) had the Roman Common-wealth in those it's first flourishing dayes. Which did cause their Lawes to be set vp in pub­like for 27. dayes together before they should be of force, to the end, that the people might peruse them, and thinke well vpon them. How much more ought this Course to be taken in Legibus viuentibus: in those liuing Lawes which are your greater and principaller sort of Ministers, and such as are to command and gouerne a Common-wealth who ought to be well beloued, and well rec [...]iued of the people, that they may loue them, respect them, and beleeue them, in all they shall say, as they would their own fathers?

I well perceiue, that there may be much deceit in the world, and that there are some men so subtile and so cun­ning that only with a pen in their hand, they make them­selues Masters of other mens studies, and labours, and by this tricke gaine the credit and opinion of able and suf­ficient men, when as indeed they are nothing lesse. And this deceit takes more in matter of learning and wisedome, which (as we said before) cannot be measured out with the yard. And in no place is this so common, as in the Courts of Kings, where your purpurated persons (saith [Page 103] Seneca) meaning those, that abound in riches, and other corporall ornaments, stand a loofe of from the Vulgar and yet vse to be vulgar in their vnderstanding, to the preiudice of the good and true esteeme of things; and a­mongst these kinde of men, those easily get the name and fame of wise, who talke boldly, and spinne out a large discourse of those things, which they well vnderstand not. And it is daily seene, that some of these superficiall fellowes haue beene preferr'd to better places by these their false ostentations, and feigned knowledge, then great Learned Clarkes, by shewing themselues humble-minded, temperate in their talke, and moderate in their conuersation, could euer attaine vnto. And if this did happen only in those Sciences and faculties, which they call depone lucrando, which are studied for to get temporall riches, it were to­lerable, because for this end, opinion is of more profit for them, then Truth. But the griefe of it is, that this passeth forward euen vnto those, that are professours of that Science, which, as it is in it selfe superiour, so ought it to make those, which professe the same superiour in minde and vnderstanding, and make them much more to esteeme the truth, and existency of wisedome and knowledge, then false opinion, falsly gained amongst the lesse wiser sort of men. Now, for the auoyding of these inconueniences, it importeth much, that a King do not rely too much vpon the opinions of the Vulgar, which in particular are vari­ous, and ill grounded, but when they shall heare it general­ly spoken, that such a one is an eminent man in this, or that other thing, and that he hath not his fellow in the kingdome for these and these abilities, let the Counsell be called, the Partie thus recommended, examined, and let the King take information from them, that are euery way as able as he, euen in that wherein he professes him­selfe his crafts-master, whether they giue vp the same ver­dit of him, or no; So that the fame, and opinion of a [Page 104] good Souldiers, of a good Captaine, and of a good Go­uernour, must be confirmed by the Testimonie of those that are the best both Souldiers, Captaines, and Gouer­nours. By this line, may you leuell, & by this course secure the approbation of all other Offices. And in those whose suffici­encie may be seene, and measured out by the suruay of Offici­alls, there cannot be so much deceit therein; but in those, who are to serue a King and State, with great studies, and with the knowledge of diuers faculties, as are your grea­ter dignities, and Ecclesiasticall functions, where (as we are taught by the Apostle S. Paul) there is necessarily re­quired great learning, great integritie of life, and great pru­dence and therefore had more neede of examination and triall. And I hold it for a great inconuenience, that the iudgement of things of so high a nature should be remit­ted to the relation of those, who are not onely farre from being able to iudge, but scarce know how to speake truly of them. By meanes whereof it is very vsuall with them, to suffer themselues to be ouercome by deceit, and ouerswai­ed with passion, holding those for the best and worthiest, and recommending them to the King for those high Mi­nisteries and Offices, to whom, either they, or their friends, and kinse folke, beare most affection, or are most beholding. But opinion ought not to carry these things, vnlesse it be confirmed with very good, and sure Testimonies.

Much of this mischiefe will be remedied, if for these and such like great Dignities and Offices, we should not rely only vpon Fame, or that voice and report, which comes a far off, and somtimes painted ouer with apparencies, and in the maske and disguise of truth, being nothing else, saue meere passion, but that we should looke a little neerer into the inside of these persons, and grow by communication in­to a fuller knowledge of them. Not that knowledge, which some Ministers speake of, who are sayd to know only those whom they preferre, or are willing to preferre, and only [Page 105] for that they haue heard them talke in ordinary matters of complement, and base flatteries, which they vse more, which haue all their wisedome in their lips, then those that are truly graue and learned men. Mens witts, are not like the water of a fountaine, which, at the first draught, our palate findes to be thicke, or thin, salt, or sweete. It is like a Sea, without a bottome; or like vnto a deepe riuer, to know whose depth, we must wade through it from side to side. Sicut aqua pro [...]unda, Prou. 20. [...]. Sic consilium in corde viri, (saith the holy Ghost) Counsaile in the heart of a man; is like a deepe water: Sed homo sapiens exhauriet illud: But a man of vnderstanding will draw it out. And it is the learned, and wise, that must make iudgement of wise, and learned men. In the sacred history of Genesis, we reade, that when the holy Patriarke Isaac determined to giue the benediction of the primogenitureship to his elder sonne Esau, Iacob came athwart him, and feigned himselfe to be Esau, (whom his aged father meant to blesse) and in a distinct and cleare voyce sayd vnto him;Gen. 27. 21. I am thy first begotten sonne Esau; To whom the Patriarke made answer; Thy voyce seemeth not to be the voyce of Esau, but of Iacob. And therefore, Accede huc, vt tangam te fili mi: Come neere I pray thee that I may feele thee (my sonne) whether thou be [...] my very sonne Esau, or not? Many there are, who boast themselues to be elder brothers in vertue, and learning, and with tricks and deuices, clad themselues (to shew) in sheepes cloathing, but inwardly are rauening Wolues, and with gifts and presents, (as Iacob heere did) incline, or peruert the mindes of Ministers, that they giue them credit, and beleife, stealing by this meanes the blessing away, and get­ting prioritie of place, being indeed younger brothers in their deserts. And we are to consider that in this History, there did concurre two things, which were sufficient to de­ceiue the Patriarke. The first, that he was blinde or at least very dimme sighted; For (as wee said before) when this [Page 106] propounding or nominating of such persons, is left to the will of those, that are blinde, or ignorant in these matters, there is not any thing done therein, which is not full of deceit. The second, That the voyce was far different, from the person whom he felt. The like vsually happeneth in that matter which we haue now in hand. For there shall goe a voyce, and fame, and a true opinion of such a man, that he hath very worthy parts, but comming vpon the first sight to those Ministers, which are to preferre him, he see­meth to be another manner of man, from that which hee truly is. And the reason of it is, for that (like the blinde) they only feele, touch, and examine these wise men, when as indeede they should conforme themselues to the settled voyce, and receiued opinion of the learned, who are better seene in these matters, and haue a deeper knowledge of them. Anciently, the people did meere all together, and with a generall and common voyce did nominate him to be their Bishop whom they thought to be the fittest man, and most worthy the Episcopall Sea. And this was then held the fairest and surest Course. For (to speake morally) it is not likely (as we said before) that one single man, should deceiue so many, nor draw the votes and suffrages of all the whole multitude vnto him, vnlesse he had parts and abilities deseruing this their approbation. Many most holy men, and great Prelates, as Ambroses, Gregories, Chry­sostomes, and other learned, and graue Diuines, haue recei­ued their preferments by such Nominations as these. But this kinde of Election (now some yeares since) was re­duced (esteeming it the fittest and the surest way) to the voyces, and suffrages of your Deanes and Chapters of Cathedrall Churches. But, because in humane things there is such little stabilitie and firmenesse, your popular dissensions inforced them (for the greater ease and quiet of the Common-wealth) that your Kings (by concession of the chiefe Bishops) should haue the nominating of them. [Page 107] And no doubt, but it was well ordained by them, in re­gard, that as those their Royall persons, are of so superi­our a degree, and so free from respects of humane businesses (for these are wont to worke vpon the mindes of parti­cular men) so the nomination, that passeth through their hands, is by much the more certaine. For, as they are Kings and Rulers ouer the people, God doth inlighten them (so as they do not dis-deserue this light, or be re­bellious vnto him, for the making of a good and iudici­ous choise.)Prou, 16. 10. Diuinatio in labijs regis, in iudicio non errabit os ejus: A diuine sentence is in the lips of the King, and his mouth shall not erre in iudgement. For, if he be a good and vertuous King, God doth assuredly assist his Actions, directing him by an especiall grace, and particular fauour, that he may not erre in a businesse of so great impor­tance. And this doth oblige them to looke well what they do, and to take a great deale of care and good heed in the nomination of them. And let Kings take this in­to their consideration, that being such, as they ought to be, they haue in some measure a kinde of propheti­call gift, that they may not (will they but strip them­selues of passion, and craue Gods holy assistance) erre in their iudgement. Oh, what a necessitie is there in them to liue well, since that from the innocencie of their life, a­riseth ordinarily a hitting right in their Actions, true In­telligence, and a good dispatch in their Negociations.

How Kings ought to carry themselues towards those Mi­nisters, whom they finde sufficient for the gouernment both of peace, and of warre.

IN the Creation of the vaste Vniuerse, God shewed his great Omnipotencie, and his infinite wisedome in the dis­position of those things, which hee placed therein, with such a concor­dance and harmonie, that Diuus Tho­mas confesseth that it could not be mended, without some dissonancie, and iarring. And he citeth the example of a well tuned Viall, wherein it is not possible to straine a string, but the consonancie in all the rest is quite marred. This was that which the Wiseman said; That with weight, number, and measure, God had created, and ordered all his Creatures. So that the parts of the Vniuerse, haue amongst themselues that proportion, that in euery one, and all ioyntly, there are found these three Circumstances, weight, number and measure. But that, which is spoken in the booke of Wise­dome, touching the gouernment of all this huge Machina, is of greater consideration. For God touching (as being infinitely powerfull) the extremes and ends of all things in the disposing of them, he doth it with a great deale of sweetnesse. He did set an inuiolable Law, a settled and determinate Seate (as being the Author of Nature) to na­ture it selfe; to the end, that euery thing conseruing it selfe with in it's owne proper bounds and limits, it should not be confounded with the rest. And from hence grew a most sweete and pleasing harmonie of all this great frame [Page 109] of the World, so well tuned, and so well ordred, that it alone voyceth and Proclaymeth the wisedome, and om­nipotencie of the Creator. What a goodly thing is it, to see the continuall Motion of the Celestiall bodies? The perpetuall influence, sixednesse, & resplendour of the Planets and of other starres? The fire, in it's sohere? The Ayre, the Water, and the Earth, in their most firme and stable Mansions? And only by vertue of that first Law which God settled in his first Creation? Out of this Compo­sture, and admirable accord, and agreement of things na­turall, is to be drawne the politicall consent and attone­ment of a Common-wealth, appointing to euery one his site, his place, and his certaine limits of Iurisdiction for that Office, that shall be put vpon him, without once thin­king to haue it altered or changed. And it is the obserua­tion of the wise, and men of much experience, that if it might bee inuio [...]ably kept, and might bee established as an inuariable and vnchangeable decrce in the brest of the King and his Counsellours, that those of one Counsell should not be transferred and put ouer to another; nor be remo­ued from that wherein they are already placed, vnlesse it be to your Presidentships of your Chanceries, and Visits of the Kingdome, and that they themselues of euery parti­cular Councell should haue the nominating of their Pre­sidents, it would in matter of gouernment be of great im­portance. First of all, by these meanes would cease those anxieties, vexations, and cares, wherewith all of them liue, of being translated from one Councell to another; as also that extraordinary negociating and labouring for this end and purpose. Those that are of the Councell of Hazienda, pretend to be preferred to that of the Indies, & de los Ordines. And when they haue attained to these, they aspire to that of Castile. So that out of this ambitious humour, none of them sticke fast, or keepe firme footing; but from the very first day, wherein they enter into one of these Councells, [Page 110] their mindes are wandring, pretending to better themselues by chopping and changing from Councell to Councell. And the mischiefe of it is; That in these Pretensions, they wast and spend that time, which they should bestow in study­ing those points, which belong to their own Tribunall. For the curing of this sore, in the Councell of the Indies, in former times, those Counsellours had a larger allowance and greater Pension, then any of the other Councells, obli­ging them thereby to settle themselues where they were placed, without pretending to budge, or to leape from one Councell into another, making themselues thereby capable of all those difficult businesses of the Indies, which good effect then ceased, when the Salaries were made all a like. And if this Order which I speake of, had beene well and truly kept, the disorder which is in these pretensions of change, had beene remedied, and men would haue beene more practicke, and better seene in those businesses, which are treated in euery one of them, being so different, and of so great consequence, and so hard to be vnderstood, that they will require the study and assistance of many yeares to vnderstand and know them aright. And (as the holy Ghost sayth) it is contrarie to the rules of good gouernment, and of prudence, to put one vpon that he vnderstands not, and to commit weighty affayres vnto him, who vndertaking them (as being tyed thereunto by his imployment) knowes not whether he be in the right, or no, though perhaps he presume he is. Likewise, there should be much more care had in the prouision of those places of other Audiencies, and inferiour Courtes of Chancerie, to the end that in them might be bred vp such subiects, in qualitie, learning, and vertue, that out of them, Election might be made of fit men for greater Counsells.

And that the Presidents should be chosen out of the said Councells in which they were bred vp, it is very con­uenient, and grounded vpon good reason, For, hauing [Page 111] beene conuersant in them some yeeres, by the concourse of so many things, as dayly offer themselues, thereby will be better knowen, their talent, and capacitie, their truth, their treating, their integritie, and all the worth and parts of their person, whereby the election that shall be made, will be much the better, more certaine in the things vnderta­ken, and more safe and secure in matter of conscience. And who is he can doubt, but that those Counsailours, which haue beene for a long time in your supremer Coun­cells will haue greater knowledge of the qualitie and sub­stance of those businesses, which are treated in them, to­gether with those necessary circumstances, which make for their better expedition. Besides, they will more prefectly know the State, wherein the businesses of that Tribunall stand, without being driuen to haue recourse vnto others to be better informed, spending and loosing much time therein. Againe, they know, (which is a matter of no small consideration) the rest of the Counsailours, as also their condition, their abilitie, their cleannesse of hands and heart, and their good, or bad parts, for there, better then else where, are they discouered. And this know­ledge is very necessary in Presidents, for to deliberate, and make choise vpon all occasions, of the fittest persons, that are to be trusted, with businesses of importance. And it is of no lesse consequence to take notice of the suitors and pretenders, for to know how to carry themselues towards them, & to take particular knowledge of the good customes, ceremonies, preheminencies and priuileges of those Coun­cells, that they may be kept and obserued, and that the authoritie of the Tribunall may be maintained, and all dis­cordes and Competitions a voyded.

All these things are learned with time, and that expe­rience which euery one hath of his proper Councell, wherein it is very requisite, that the President be a Master and not a Schollar, as he is, who enters newly into a Coun­cell [Page 112] though he haue serued many yeares in another: and of no little inconuenience are the nouelties, which they both attempt and do, who are admitted without this ex­perience, being desirous to accommodate, and order things according to the measure of their own d [...]scourse. And how­beit the want of experience be in Counsailours a matter of much consideration, and may be tolerated and borne withall in some; yet in realtie of truth, the lacke thereof in a President, is intolerable, and very preiudiciall to the whole Common-wealth; And from thence arise many great mischiefes, and those remedilesse. For some out of ignorance, and some out of flatterie, do leane to their opi­nion, whereby many vniust decrees passe, whilest the ex­perienced and wiser sort, (which euermore are the fewer) haue not power equall to their sufficiencie, to turne the course of the streame. And for this reason, so many dif­ficulties offer themselues, so many differences are raised a­mongst them, and so many resolutions dela [...]d and put off, (and peraduenture erre in the end too,) which would haue required a quicke and speedy Dispatch. But when a Presi­dent hath that experience which is needfull, he will not g [...]ue way to these delayes; but being priuie to his own suffici­encie, and confident that he is in the right, looke wha [...] he presseth and affirmeth, the authoritie of his pers [...] and place, will make it good, and strike a great▪ if not the only stroake, in the businesse. For these and d [...]uerse other reasons, in all well gouerned Common-wea [...]ths and Communities, I would haue them make choise (for G [...]u [...]rnment) of such subiects as haue beene bred vp, and [...]u'd some yeares in them; for they cannot but haue a great aduantage of those that are strangers thereunto, t [...]ough otherwise of equall parts. And this is the trace and tr [...]cke of the Holy Ghost, marked out vnto vs by▪ S.Heb. 5. 1. Paul; Omnis enim Ponti [...]ex ex hominibus assumptus pro hominibus constu [...]itur: For euery high Priest, taken from among men, is ordained for men. [Page 113] For it matetreth much, that the head be of the same sub­stance as is the body, and that all the members be of one and the same kinde, not to haue a head of gold, a body of braffe, and feete of clay, like vnto Nabuchodonazars image, but that all the whole body be one and the selfe same flesh and bone, all of the same matter and informed with the same forme. That bundle of sheafes which Ioseph saw; his (like the King-sheafe) lifting vp his head higher then the rest, and (if we may beleeue the Rabbins) reaching as high as heauen, and those of his brethren prostrate on the ground, doing homage thereunto, is the Embleme of the body of a Councell & it's President like vnto that of king Pharaoh. And the sacred Text doth not say, that that tall and high sheafe, was different in matter from the rest, but that all were of the same eare, and stalke; giuing vs thereby to vnder­stand, that he, that is to be the Head or President of the whole body of a Councell, though he be to be higher then the rest, in the dignitie and hight of his Office, yet for all this, God would not, that he should be made of any other kinde of matter then were the rest of the members; That he should not besome great block-headed Lord, or a man without wit, or learning, that in his carriage and manner of life, he should seeme to be cut out of another peece of cloath, but that hee should bee of the selfe same qualitie, fashion, and profession. And that the President of euery Councell, should be chosen from amongst the Counsailours themselues, that they be moulded out of the same Masse and lumpe, as well the feete, as the head, that there goe (as we say) but a payre of sheares betweene them, and that they be clad all in one and the same liuerie. And God giuing order to his Vice-roy (and in it, to all Kings) how he was to choose a President, that should be the Head and ruler ouer his people,Deut 17. 15. saith thus vnto him; Eum constitues, quem Dominus tuus elegerit, de numero fratrum tuorum: Thou shalt in any wise set him King ouer thee, whom thy Lord thy [Page 114] God shall choose; One, from among thy brethren, shalt thou set King ouer thee. And howbeit God had heere exprest himselfe so plainely, and that he himselfe had the nomi­nating of the person, and therefore there could be no er­rour in the Election, yet it seemeth God was not satisfi­ed heerewith, but comes presently with another Prouiso, and a second Mandatum, saying. Thou mayst not set a stranger ouer thee (hominem alterius gentis) which is not thy brother. He must not be of another people, or of another familie; As if he should haue said, not of ano­ther Councell.Chrys. h [...]m. 10. in Gen [...]sim. Doubtlesse (saith S. Chrysostome) this is a businesse of great consequence; and we are to insist much thereupon, considering that God himselfe, doth recommend and repeate it so often vnto vs, to the end that it may be imprinted in the hearts of Kings. And in Reason of State, and matter of gouernment, it is the greatest benefit they can do to their Kingdomes. And therefore amongst o­ther those great and many fauours which God prom [...]sed to conferre vpon his people, (speaking vnto them in the si­milistude of the Vine) he indeareth this as the greatest, That he will set a guard about them, and Gardiners or vineyard-keepers, that shall be within the precincts there­of. Dabo ei vinitores ex eodem loco: Hosc. 2. 15. I will giue her, her Vineyards from thence, and the valley of Achor, for a doore of hope. But (my good Lord) within the precincts of a Vineyard, what can be had there but hedges and Vine­plants? Had it not beene better to giue vnto this Vine­yard a lusty strong Laborour, to dresse and prune it, and to keepe and defend it from passengers? The Chalde, [...]x­pounds this place very well, For in stead of Vinitores, he puts Gubernatores, Which, are Rulers and Presidents. And for to be, as they ought to be, we haue said already, that they should be vniforme with the members. For if they be the Vine, he must likewise be a Vine, that must be [...]eir Head. Christ himselfe, that he might be the Presiden [...] [...] [Page 115] Head of that Apostolicall Councel where the Apostles were as tender plants, and had the same proprieties, made him­selfe a Vine,Ioh. 15. 5. to conforme himselfe vnto them. Ego sum vitis vera & vos palmites: I am the true Vine, and yee the branches: To the end that Kings may vnderstand, and all the World may know, of how great importance it is, that the Members and Head, Counsailours, and Presidents, should in their qualities and conditions, be very conformable, sithence that heerein he would not dispence with himselfe, much lesse therefore with others, and for this cause Presidents ought still to be chosen out of the same Councells, Ex eodem loco, eiusdem gentis, & de numero fratrum suorum: Out of the same place, the same people, and from amongst their bre­thren. And if Counsailours might haue the hope of such increase of honour in their persons, it would make them much better then they are, and they would study to win themselues credit, and to cumply in all things with their obligation, seruing with carefullnesse and satisfaction as well to give their Kings good content, as that they againe, might take notice thereof, and in their greatest occasions imploy them in their seruice. This rule did that great gouerner of Gods people Moses obserue, who hauing (as wee savd) vsed diligence for to seeke out persons, which might helpe him, furnished with those qualites afore-mentioned, made a dis­tribution and diuision amongst them, allotting them places and Offices, answearable to their Talent. And which is worthy the noting, that (as he himselfe affirmeth in ano­ther place) the noblest, and wisest amongst them he made rulers ouer the rest. For, when in noblemen, concurre the qualities of wisedome, and prudence, and other the Vertues, there is a great deale of reason, nay a strong obligation lyes vpon it, that Presidentships, and the greatest dignities, & p [...]aces of honour, should be bestowed vpon them; especi­ally, when not degenera [...]ing from the Vertue of their Ance­stors, but surpassing them therein, they haue the aduantage of [Page 116] noblenesse of blood, vpon which vertue (like a Diamond set in gold) shewes it sel [...]e the better and appeares the more beautifull. The words of that most wise Law-giuer, wher­on this discourse will be the better grounded, are these; Tuli de Tribubus vestris, D [...]us. 1. 15. viros sapientes, & nobiles, & con­stitui eos Principes, Tribunos, & Centuriones, & Quinque­genarios, ac Decanos, qui docerent vos singula: I tooke the cheife of your Tribes, wise men and knowen, and made them Heads ouer ye, Captaines ouer thousands, and Captaines ouer hundreds, and Captaines ouer fifties, and Officers amongst your Tribes. Out of euery Tribe he chose the worthi­est and most sufficient men, and made them Heads and Presidents in that gouernment. And he, that was so zea­lous of the Lawes and good gouernment, valiant Mat­tathias, 1 Mac. 2. in that prouision of Offices, which he distributed, at his death, he said of Simon: Scio quod vir consilij est, ipsum audite semper. And because he was so wise a Coun­sailour, he made him President of the Councell. Iudas Machabaeus fortis viribus à juuentute su [...]: Iudas Macha­baeus, was a valiant man from his youth, he had beene alwayes bred vp in the warres, Sit vobis princeps militia; and therefore he made him Generall of the Armie. For (as Plato saith) Quilibet ad ea idoneus est, inquibus sapit: Euery man is fittest for those things, wherin he hath best skill. Now, when kings shall haue found out such fit persons (as haue bin by vs propounded) they are to distribute & order their Coun­cells and Counsailours, [...]. & to appoint their President, charging them to keepe euery one his proper place, and Station, & that they enuy not one another nor sue to be preferred to a supre­mer Councell, and to haue a care that each man in his owne Councell be rewarded according to his good seruices. For it is impossible, but, that he that treateth in all businesses, must needs erre in some, nor can he, that is ouer charged with busi­nesses giue good satisfaction vnto all. But there are some, that loue to double their files, & would, if they could, haue a 100. [Page 117] Offices at once pretending, that there is want of fit men for those Offices, seeking that they may be doubled, re­doubled, and quadrupled on themselues. They are like vnto another Gerion, of whom it is sayd, that he is in Hell, because hee would be Three, instead of One. What will become then of those, that would be twenty yea a hundred, nay inioy all the Offices in a Kingdome? These had neede of another farre greater Hell, if that be not hell enough, they haue already.

With the foresayd distinction and diuision of Coun­cell and Counsailours, farre better and more speedily will businesses be dispatched, and the King shall be at more ease in his person, and more at quiet in Consci­ence. And the Counsailours themselues, shall leade an easier life, haue lesse time of trouble, and more to study on State-businesses, whereby with moderate paines, they shall giue a quicker Dispatch to those things which come vnder their debating. Let this therfore serue as a Con­clusion to this discourse; that in no kinde of hand, Of­fices be doubled vpon one particular person, nor put out of their hinges, by the passion or pretension of those, that haue a hand therein, nor let Counsellours bee chopt and changed, from one place, to another, nor your Councells confounded. For this argues but small satis­faction in the Ministers, and much distrustfullnesse in the Prince. But let vs passe on.

The Author prosecutes the same subiect, and shewes how Kings ought to carry themselues with their Counsells and Counsailours.

THis Order being thus settled for Kings, they likewise are to haue a care, that they keepe it, by not altering businesses, nor remouing either them, or the men there­in imployed, out of their proper places, for from the trucking and bartring of these things, from this chopping and changing, great inconueniences, and mightie troubles, are wont to rise in gouernment. What a strange thing would it be, nay, what would become of vs all, if that order which God placed (as we told you) in this Machina of the World, should he altred? if the earth should get vp aboue the Ayre, and the Ayre should passe beyond the Spheare of fire, what were this, but to destroy the World? So good gouernment in like manner is destroyed, by the Ambition and Couetousnesse of those, who not contented with their imployments and places, draw businesses out of their right Current, for to make themselues Lords and Masters of all, and to pursue, by this meanes, their idle vanities, ambitious humours, and particu­lar interest. The Holy Ghost, in that Misticall booke of the Canticles, compares the Gouernment of the Church to a well ordred Army, or p [...]tch't field, where the pikes are ranked on the one side, the shot on the other, the horse in a third, and all the rest in their due places appointed for them. And in this well ordring and marshalling of the Men, consisteth the strength of an Army. A Christian, and Church like Common-wealth, by the good order that [Page 119] is kept therein,Cant. 6. 4. is as Terrible as an Army with banners to it's Enemies, and as beautifull as Tirzah, and comely as Ierusalem, in the sight both of God, and Man. And when Kings do hit right the distribution of their Offices, and in giuing to euery one, that which is fitting for him, ac­cording to his condition and qualitie, most certaine it is, that euery man shall get aduantage thereby and proue morè excellent in his proper place and Office, then those can be, who haue beene imployed in other Offices and places. And that they, who haue beene deputed to such a Councell and well exercised therein, shall far better know what belongs thereunto, then those that haue not had ex­perience and knowledge thereof. Euermore presupposing, that with the foresayd care and diligence, choise hath beene made of the most sufficient. For which reason, we are to giue credit to euery one in particular, and to all ioyntly in their Ministries, as to selected persons, and such as are their crafts-Masters, in these kinde of matters. For (as the holy Ghost saith) Vnusquis (que) in arte sua, Eccl. sapiens est: Euery one is wise in his owne Art, Knowing therein both how to speake, and do. According to this ground, Kings cannot doe any thing better or surer for the good gouernment of their Kingdomes, and satisfaction of their Consciences, then to giue credit to each Councell in that which appertaineth vnto them, and to leaue vnto their or­dinary Councellours and Councels the Dispatch of all your running businesses without any particular Consulta­tion, vnlesse it shall more neerely concerne the State, where­of as the King ought onely to be the Iudge, and to giue his resolution, what he will haue therein to be done; So likewise must he lend them his hand and authoritie, as far forth as is fitting, proportionable to the bulke and qualitie of their Office, without which they cannot well exercise the same. Where as not to giue them that, which they iustly deserue, is a great impediment to their cumplying [Page 120] with the occasion to which are the substantiall part of their obligation, and giues occasion to others, not to yeeld them o­bedience & respect, which are the raines of that bridle, wher­with the people are to be restrained and ruled. And together with this, they themselues must helpe to sustaine the weight and charge of gouernment, wherein they haue so great a por­tion. The Emperour Charles the fift of glorious memo­rie, was much commended for the great care he tooke in con­seruing the authoritie of his Ministers. And it is not to be doubted, but those ancient graue Ministers, whom the people reuerenceth and respecteth for the place wherein they are, and for the opinion which they haue gained by their yeares, and experience, and for the authoritie they haue to do either well, or ill, and for that power they pos­sesse, and which the Lawes grant vnto them ouer mens liues, and goods, may doe much in authorizing, or disauthori­zing not onely all that they doe, but euen the Prince him­selfe. Hence will issue this other benefit, that a great part of your Audiences (too ordinary arrouble with Kings) will be much lessened, whereby they shall be the more disoc­cupied, and recouer greater force and strength for to treat of waightier affaires, not wasting and spending to times in matters of lesser moment. And this bad and old custome ought to haue it's leggs broken and heereafter be disina­bled for attributing vnto Kings those resolutions, that are disagreeable and displeasing to the people. For albeit those ineuitable, offences and distastes, which sometimes cannot be auoyded, ought to be indured, and passed ouer with dissimulation, for the publicke good, yet is it not safe to procure them for euery particular thing, nor that all men should know, that all their dammages and hinderances proceede from the supreme [...] of the King. And it is as olde, as vsuall a fashion with your Ministers, when the peo­ple murmure at them, (I cannot tell whether it [...] with that wisedome and loyaltie which they owe to their [Page 121] King) to lay the fault on their superiour, and the people easily intertaineth it, and apprehends it, to be so. Where­upon they throw all the stones, that they can at him, and although they cannot reach him, yet is it not fit, that they should grow to that insolency and contempt.

Let Kings, by all possible meanes excuse those Iuntas, or References, which haue lately beene introduced for the deciding of businesses; a thing as ill receiued in common, as desired by the Ministers; and that for many reasons. First, that the people, and the Parties, may not thinke, or say, that it is done to oppresse them, by putting busi­nesses out of their Course, and recommending them to a few selected persons, that they may so end them, as he desireth, who hath the nominating of them. Secondly, that they may not draw vpon themselues the hatred and bur­then of those resolutions they shall take, if they shall be either in offence and distast of the people, or of the Partie whom it concerneth. Thirdly, because there is no cause or reason, why they, that are trusted with all other publike businesses, should not likwise be trusted with particular greiuances. Fourthly, be cause your ordinary Councels haue more experience of those businesses, which they treate dayly, then your Iuntas haue, which are formed of different Councels, wherin vsually, there are many which scarce know the first Principles of that, wher­of they are to treate, & must be guided & directedby those, which are taken out of that Councell, which is acquainted with these kind of businesses. Or if they will not confesse this, by their ignorance, and by their Competition, they deferre at least, if not vtterly ouerthrow the resolution that should be taken in the businesse For, being (as they are) composed of dif­ferent Tribunalls, they neither loue, nor trust one another nei­ther know they how to yeeld each to other, but grow stiffe & obstinate, and attend onely to shew their wit & learning vpon those that are vnuerst in those affaires. Whilest in the meane while it succeedeth with mens businesses, as it doth with those [Page 122] diseases and sicknesses, which are discust and debated by many Physitians who whilst they are diuided in opinion, and one would haue this, and another that, the time of the cure is past. Fiftly, for the credit and authoritie of the King, as also of the Councels themselues; for when that which belongs to these Counsailours and their President, is taken out of their hands by artifice and cunning, and is recommended to others, in no hand can be excused the note and suspition, that either the King hath erred in the Election which he made of these his Counsellours, or that they do not do their duty, because that which did pro­perly appertaine vnto them, is taken from them, and put ouer to others. And as it should be a fault in a Prince, not to trust his Ministers, if they deserue to be trusted; so is it likewise, if they dismerit that trust, to continue them in that place. And therefore that Minister from whom there can be had no good satisfaction, let him be put out of his Office. For to keepe him in it, argues either weak­nesse in a Prince, or an euill Conscience. Sixtly, That that may not by your Discoursists, and Wits (as they call them) whereof Kings Courts are full, diuine afore hand, what is treated in those Iuntas, which are no sooner had, but the end of them is knowne; a thing which cannot but be of infinite inconuenience for all affaires, and more particularly in those, which as they are of more importance, so doe they require more reseruednesse. Seuenthly, because Ministers may haue time and place for to heare Negoti­ants, which they cannot haue, nor be able to remedy matters, nor to vnderstand them, vnlesse they may haue the hearing of them. And though this complaint, be without fault on the Counsailours part, I am sure it is not without punish­ment of those, that are to negociate with them. And last­ly, because it is a great errour and intolerable burthen, to tye two or three, to the dispatch of many businesses of pea [...]e, and of warre, of the Exchequer, & of the state, and of diuers [Page 123] other things, which dayly offer themselues; for, (as ex­perience teacheth, reason requireth, and inconuenience pro­claimes it) it is impossible to giue a good issue and dispatch to all, nay scarce to the least part of businesses. For a man is not made of brasse, that hee should be able to indure the trouble of so many Iuntas, at least his spirits will be so spent, that he will be able to doe little seruice in those that are last treated. Counsai [...]ours know not, like Angels, Diuino intuitu, but as Men, by way of discourse: and in this they are tyred out, and ouer-wrought; and it is not possible, that at the latter end of the day, they should be so quicke and nimble, as at the first hower, after they haue taken paines all [...] day long. For this vertue is granted to spirits, which know and comprehend things without measure, or weari­somnesse. Mans vnderstanding is finite, and hee said not ill, that said; The sence, which is occupied in many things is weakened by euery one of them. And in that repart­ment and diuision, which that Euangelicall father of his familie, made of the Talents amongst his seruants he gaue vnto euery one of them, Secundum propriam virtutem. He measured their abilities, and conformable thereunto impo­sed a charge vpon them. How many doe groane vnder the burthen of those offices, which they beare, without being able to vndergoe them; yet will not they leaue these, be­cause their ambition does not leaue them. But rather ap­plying themselues to the gust and Palate of their King, and out of a disordinate desire they haue to grow still greater and greater, they are well content with loade vpon loade, and neuer cry Ho, because they neuer thinke they haue e­nough. And so not complying (as indeed they cannot) with their obligation, businesses are retarded, and goe not on in that good way as they should, and both they them­selues, and they that put them into these places, liue with little or no securitie of conscience. But if it be the Kings will and pleasure, and that hee thinke it fit for his greater [Page 124] satisfaction that some one particular man that is eminent in the profession of that businesse, which is to be treated, shall treate thereof, and shall see and peruse it, a gods name (if he will haue it so) let his will be fulfilled: yet with all, let his Maiestie take his opinion, as of a particular person, and hauing receiued it, let it be disputed, discussed, and de­bated by the body of the Councell, such as haue beene beaten in these kinde of businesses, and are throughly ac­quainted with these matters; for by this meanes, that which is pretended, shall the better be effected, and many the fore-mentioned inconueniences be excused. Amongst those Ancient Romans, when that Common-wealth was sole Mistris of all the world, and when it was likewise vnder the Empire and Command of one onely Monarke, we neuer read, that it euer admitted of more then the Or­dinary Councells for the dispatch of businesses. Augustus Caesar, a Prince of excellent prudence, and his great Minion Mecaenas, in matter of Counsaile, can sufficiently confirme this Doctrine, being that he himselfe was one of those, that treated businesses in the ordinary Councells. And he had a respect and consideration thereunto in that extraordinary cause of Piso touching the death of Ger [...]onicus, Corn. Tacit. wherein the iudgement of the people, and the Senate was so much interessed. Ti [...]erius the Emperour who was one of the subtilest and craftiest Princes, that euer the Roman Empire knew, would not for all his great strength of wit, & cunning dissimulation, wherein he was his Arts-Master, venter vpon any innouation farther then this, to passe ouer his opinion to this, or that other Councell, but neuer ap­pointed any particular Iunta for the same, as one who knew very well, that onely in so doing he should haue but laded his own shoulders with the weightinesse of the Case, and the successe of the Cause. Onely your Iuntas, are to be vsed vpon some great and extraordinary occa­sion, and not vpon euery trifling businesse, as is now and [Page 125] hath these many yeares beene in vse, much more time be­ing imployed in particular Iuntas, then publicke Councells touching the pe [...]sons of these Councells. If the number be not sufficient for the dispatch of businesses, let it rather be increased, then that by this other course, he that is Master and Lord of all, should likewise make himselfe Master of all wrongs and grieuances, and of that which the aggrieued will conceiue of him; which hatching imagination of theirs, will bring forth (that Cocatrice of Kings) most venemous hatred. By that, which wee haue both read, seene and heard, it is easie to be collected, that this was meerely an Introduction of the Ambitious, who indeauoured by this meanes to haue all things passe through their hands, and depend vpon their will. And this, as if it had beene a thing of inheritance, hath gon along in descent from one age to ano­ther, euen to these our present times. That particular Councell which Kings formerly had, and in effect all of them still haue, that more reserued secret Councell with whom they communicate their in wardest thoughts, let it (a Gods name) be superiour to all the rest, which supplying, as in those three potentiae or faculties, the very place and soule as it were of the Prince, it is very fit and conuenient, that it should iudge of the actions, and Resolutions of all your Ordinary Coun­cells, and that they should all wayte vpon this, and attend their pleasure, and that they should likewise treate of all those great businesses, which the Ancient, and more especially, Augustus Caesar, called Arcanaimpery, Misteries of State, and secrets of the kingdome. But for the rest, let them be left to their Ordinary Councells for so shall they receiue quicker dispatch, and all sutes be more easily ended, and things carryed with lesse labour of the one, and fewer com­plaints of the other. And let it likewise suffice euen the greatest intermedlers of these Ministers, that they haue a hand in publicke businesses, without offering for their priuate inte­rest to draw things out of their ordinary course, and Com­mon [Page 126] tracke whereinto they were put, making themselues thereby hated and abhorred of all those that haue any thing to doe with them. For at last they will come to sent and winde out their driftes, to know all their doublings and shiftings, and to watch them at euery turne, and when they haue them at aduantage, neuer poore Hare was so hardly followed by Hounds, as these will be pursu'd to death by them, whom the others powerfullnesse with his Prince, did seeke to crush and keepe vnder. It were well that these great Ministers, would weigh and consider with themselues, that as they haue their hands already too full of worke, so haue they more complaints against them, then they would wil­lingly heare of, and more enuie at the heeles of them, then they can well shake of, and therefore (if they were wise) they would anoyd (as much as in them lyes) to draw these mischiefes more and more vpon themselues.

In great resolutions indeed, Kings are not to giue way, that they should be taken out of the Councells of State, and warre, nor yet that they should be conluded without them. For the g [...]ory of all good successefull Actions shall be his, as hauing their reuolution and motion from him, as from their Primum Mo [...]ile. Nor is it any wisedome in a King to lay the misfortunes and vnhappy Accidents, that may befall a State, vpon his owne shoulders; Which will be qualified for such by his Priuy Counsellours, as finding themselues iustly offended, in that hee hath not imparted his minde vnto them, nor communicated with them in the Common wealths affaires, especially if they be of conse­quence. The principall cause, why there was ordained a Councell of State, was; That it might serue to helpe the king (whom principally this Body representeth) to beare the Popular charge, which euermore iudgeth of things by the euents; and though now and then they fall out ill, and the people thereupon ready to murmure and mutinie, yet are they the better bridled, and appeased by the power and au­thoritie [Page 127] of these Counsellours. The Office of a King hath trouble inough with it, burthen inough, and therefore they should not aduise him to lay more vpon himselfe without lawfull and necessary cause. And because, when I treated of the q [...]alit [...]es of Counselours, I reserued those for this place, which more properly appertaine vnto them that are of this Counsell, I will breifely deliuer what they are, and how necessarie for those that are elected thereunto; And I will content my sel [...]e, with no lesse, then those of that great Common-wealths man, and Counsel our, Pericles. And be­sides, to those which I shall now speake of, may be r [...] duced those, which are to be required in their [...] Councell of State, is a Councell of peace, and War; And (as Plato saith) is thesoule of Republike, and the very An­chor, wheron wholy dependeth a [...] the liabilitie, firmenesse & assurance, of the State, King, and King [...]ome, [...], or preferuation. Whose chiefe aime, and principall intent, is the good Gouernment of the Common-wealth, and that it, and euery member thereof should liue happily, and be conser­ued in peace, and iustice. And for this cause onely are we to make war. [...]. Offi. lib. 1. Plat Dial. 1. de Legibus. 1. Ob eam causam suscipienda sunt bella, vt sine i [...]iuria in pace vivatur. It is C [...]ero's saying. And the Emperour Charles the fifth was wont to Say; That the Councell of State, is the whole wisedome, power, and vn­derstanding of the King; That it is his Eyes, his hands, and his feete; And that himselfe, should often sit in Counsell and without it not to do, or conclude any thing that is of any weight, or moment.

The qualities required to make a perfect Counseller in this Councell are many; As that he be a man of much courage, truth, and integritie, and well seene in matters of State and Gouernment, publick, and p [...]uate, of peace, and of warre; for he is to aduise in all; A man of good yeares, great vertue, much authoritie, and of no meane credit and re­putation; That he be very skilful in those businesses, which [Page 128] he treateth; That he vnderstand them well, and be his Crafts-Master in that facultie. That he be of a prompt and sharpe wit; That his tongue be well hangd, and be able to ex­presse himselfe so happily, that he may be truly vnderstood. That he haue a minde free from all by respects, that nei­ther Loue, nor Feare, may detaine him from vttering what he thinketh; That he beare an especiall loue and affecti­on to his King; That he keepe his hands cleane, and not suffer himselfe to be ouercome by couetousnesse. For he, that in whatsoeuer is propounded, presently apprehends what is best, and vnderstands what is proffitable, and con­uenient, yet neither knoweth, nor hath fi [...]ting words to declare himselfe, it is all one, as if he vnderstood it not. And he that can play both these parts passing well, yet loueth not his Master, his conseruation and augmentation of honour, this man will hardly be true and trusty vnto him, and scarcely adiuse him to that which is fitting for him. But suppose he hath all these good qualities, yet if he giue way to be won by the loue of money, and gree­dinesse of gaine, all that shall be treated with him, shall be saleable, no whit weighing the benefit, and authoritie of his King, if the insatiable, hunger of riches be put in the scale. And I say moreouer, that he, that shall want these two qualities, and shall not loue his King, and yet loue Coue­tousnesse, though he be indewed with all the rest, he shall thereby be so much the worse, and more dangerous, for hauing his will depraued, and his vnderstanding ill affected, hauing these two Vices attending on him, how much the more shall his sharpnesse of wit be, and the greater his force of E [...]quence, the worse effects will it worke, and the more remedilesse. Let Counsellours therefore haue these two qualities, Loue of the heart and cleannesse of the hand, together with good naturall partes, as a quicke wit, and nimble apprehension, for the speedier determining of present businesses, and not onely to giue sodaine, but [Page 129] sound aduise in them. And that in future cases, they may be able by naturall discourse to giue a guesse, how things are like to succeede; as also, that they may by good dis­course, and debating of businesses, attaine vnto those things, whereof as yet they haue not had particular experience. That they be prudent discerners of the better and the worse in Cases doubtfull, that they may not be to seeke, but to goe through stitch therewith and be prouided for all com­mers. In a word, let them be excellent sodaine speakers vpon all occasions, assisted as well by a naturall kinde of gift they haue that way, as by the exercise of their wit. All which will not serue the turne, nor make the Mill go so roundly as it would, vnlesse there be much amitie amongst them, and a conformitie of good agreement, and a willing helping and assiting one of another in businesses. For, from Competitions and Contestations amongst them­selues, haue insued the losse of Kingdomes, and States, and other great losses and Calamities.Ley. 29. Tit. 9. Part. 2. They must bee of one accord, and one will with their King, and still aduise him to the best, hauing an eye both to him and themselues, that they doe not erre, or doe any thing contrary to that which is right and iust. And then is it to be vnderstood, that they beare true loue to their King, and Countrie, and that they apply themselues to all that, which concernes the common good, and their owne particular seruice, when they take ioy and comfort, that they concurre, and runne all one way without diuision or distraction. And if this vni­tie be not amongst them, it is to be imagined, that they loue not so much the King, and State, as their owne priuate interest. Being thus qualified, they shall be fit Ministers and Counsellors for so great a Counsell, for they shall ther­by be able to rid as many businesses as shall be brought before them, and giue them good and quicke dispatch, well vnderstanding what is needefull to be done, and know­ing [Page 130] as well how to declare themselues in that which they vn­derstand.

And in this or any other Councell, there ought (accor­ding to Fadrique Furio) a care to be had, to examine the merits and dismerits of euery one, informing themselues of his life, behauiour, and abilities, as also the Actions, of those who without suing, deserue for their vertue, to haue fauour showen them; and likewise to take notice of those who desire this preferment. And that for this purpose there be a Register or Book [...] kept of the merceds, and fauours to be con­ferred, and of the persons that are well deseruing, to the end that those honours and fauours may be thrown vpon them, according to the vertue, sufficiencie, and merits of the men. For he, that depriues Vertue of that honour that is due thereunto, doth (in Cato's opinion) depriue men, of vertue it selfe. And when fauours are afforded those which not deserue them, or are forborne to be bestowed on those that merit them, vertue receiues a great affront, and the Com­mon-wealth a notable losse. And it will proue the greater if honour be added to the bad, and taken from the good; and that vice, shall be better rewarded, then vertue. For where she is not esteemed, and rewarded, the vertuous liue like men affronted, and that are banished the Court. King Nabucodonosor, Assuerus, and others, haue kept such a booke as this, wherein were commanded to be recorded the ser­uice that were done them, and the persons deseruing, to the end they might gratifie them, and cast their gracious fauours vpon them. And this is very necessary in all well ordred Common-wealth, to the end that all might indeauour to take paines, and study to deserue well. For reward inciteth men to labour; And (as Salust saith) were it not for hope of reward, few or none would be good. It makes much likewise for the honor and credit of Kings. For in no one thing can they gaine themselues greater reputation, then by honouring those, that are good, and vertuous.

[Page 131] The Romans had likewise another Councell which was called by the name of Censura, or Reforming of manners, which did not in the Common-wealth permit publicke delinquents, which might cause either trouble, or scandall to the State, and to the end, that such ill disposed persons, might not escape punishment. For, where there is neither hope of reward, nor feare of punishment, there can we haue no good thing, no Common-wealth, nor no Congregation of men to last and continue; when as the good and vertuous are not rewarded, nor the lewd and seditious punished. For if one part of the body be infirme, and be not holpen in time, the maladie extends it selfe, and goes creeping and spreading it selfe ouer all the whole body. And therefore it is sitting, that Ministers should haue an eye, to see what vices, what disorders, what ill corrupted manners disturbe and molest a Kingdome, and to haue a care to cleanse and cure the Common-wealth of them, dealing with them for the publicke good, as wise Physitians do for the Bodyes-safety Who, in the curing of infirmities, for the securing of the whole, cauterize this or that member, and if neede be cut it off. Now your infirmities and diseases, which are quick­ly knowne, are as easily cured (a great meanes of the reme­dy, resting in the discouerie.) but those which with time waxe olde, grow in a manner incurable; (the Aliment, and fomenting of them, consisting most in their concealement,) For as in suffering and dissembling a fore, it but rankles the more, and of ill, becomes worse; So to beare with insolent offenders, and to winke at their foule faultes, is; as if a man should fauour a wound too much; wherby, as it, so do they daily grow wors [...] and worse. For it is too too well knowne, that to malignant dispositions, the more lenitie, is but the more licence of offending, and open mercie proclaimed, Crueltie.

Let the end of this discourse be, that the Councells and Counsellers being seated and setled in the forme aforesaid, [Page 132] the King likewise apply himselfe to treat truth with them, and to deale plainely with them, in whatsoeuer businesses shall offer themselues to be debated of. And let him not perswade himselfe, that there are too few of euery Councell, for if they be chosen and selected men, few will suffice; and many, serue to no other end but to trouble each other, and to delay businesses. For howbeit it be true, that it is euer­more good to heare the opinions of all for to ventilate and sifte out a cause throughly, yet the determination ought to passe through the hands of a few, but withall good, and experienced persons, that they may not erre in their sen­tence. Of the Emperour Alexander Seuerus, (who was a man of singular wisdome) it is reported, that for the resolution of those businesses, which he vndertooke, he called onely vn­to him such Counsellours, to whom such businesse did more properly appertaine, and had most knowledge and experi­ence in that,Aelius Lampr. in vita Alexan. Seu [...]ri. which was to be treated. Vndè side Iure tracta­retur, solos doctos in consilum adhibebat; Si verò de re mi­litari, milites veteres, &. senes, ac bene meritos, & locorum peritos, &c. So that if it were a Law-businesse, he onely called the Learned in the Lawes to Councell, if of warfare, olde beaten Soldiers, aged and well-deseruing Captaines, and of approued experience in their place. And so in the rest. [...] For, as the Philosopher saith; Impossibile est, vel certè admodum difficile, vt qui ipsa opera non tractat, peritè va­leat iudicare: It is impossible, or at least certainly very hard, for to iudge iudiciously of those things, wherein a man was neuer yet imployd. But that which hath beene a mans Office, and continuall Exercise, in this he must needs be wise, and cannot choose but speake well to the point. Quilibet adea idoneus est, [...] in quibus sapit (saith Plato). Some there are, that are wise, but (like the Troians) too late; They know what is to be done, but are too long in doing it▪ and therefore it is necessary to adde hands to Counsell and force to wisedome; yet still allowing the Councell somuch time, [Page 133] as things may come to their true ripenesse and maturitie; For (as it is in the Prouerbe) Harto prestò se haze lo, que bien se haze: That is quickely done that is well done. And very necessary is that pause and breathing, where­with Kings goe ripening great businesses; And exceeding fit it is, that they should goe soberly to worke, take time and leasure inough, and that in their consultations they should vse feete of leade, but in the execution of them, hands of steele. Which being once well grounded, and both the Conueniences, and Inconueniences throughly weighed, (though in these great and weighty affaires, there are neuer some wanting, that will follow that part, which hath least ground for it, and yet perswade themselues that they onely are in the right, and that all the reason in the world is on their side) let them goe roundly to worke, and after a con­cluded consultation, let them shew themselues constant in the execution thereof. For, as another Philosopher said; Cuncta [...]ter aggrediendum est negotium, Diog, Laert. verùm in suscepto, constanter perseuerandum: A maine businesse must haue a slow motion, but when the wheeles are once set a going, they must neuer stand still till it haue finished it's intended worke.Isay 11. 2. And the Prophet Esay, ioyned the spirit of forti­tude, to that of Councell. For Counsaile little auaileth, that is deuoid of force and strength to execute. Vile est Consili­um (saith Pope Gregory) cui robur fortitudinis deest: That Counsaile is vile and base; that wants true mettall. Let Coun­sell I say be slow, & sauour of the lamp, but let the Execution, be quicke as lightening. For, as mortall are those wounds, & those diseases, to which remedy is giuen too late, as those, to whom none is giuen at all. To what end therefore (I pray) serue your Iuntas, vpon Iuntas, reference vpon reference, your long and large Consultations, your viewings, and re­uiewings, if after all this great adoe, all is roll'd and shut vp in paper? Whereas in all reason, nay and right too, how much the more time there hath beene spent in consulting, [Page 134] so much the more speede and force ought to be vsed in Execu [...]ing▪ For, on good Counsaile, and quicke Execution, consist your good ends, and all prosperous successe.

It is demanded by way of Question, Whether Kings ought inuiolably to obserue the foresaid Order.

ARt, is Natures Ape, and imitates her all she can. And by so much the more perfect an Artificer, and more cunning workeman is he accounted, who shall seeme to come neerest in his worke to that great Master and Maker of Nature, and whatsoeuer is naturall, wherein (as hath already beene sayd) is conser­ued and kept that firme and constant Law, and first com­mandement, which he imposed vpon all things in the be­ginning of their creation. Who likewise hath, and doth still keepe a wonderfull correspondency in those very things, conseruing them in their operations, working and opera­ting continually by their meanes and helpe, and honouring them with the name and essence of secundary Causes, though he himselfe be the primary naturall cause in that working. So hat the fire, hath alwaies perfourmed that Office, wher­in God placed it, to wit; To burne, or heate. And when he hath beene pleased to worke these effects, he hath made vse of them for that purpose, as well vpon occasion of his wrath, and chasticement, as of his loue, and cherishment. When he was willing to destroy and consume those Cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, Gen. 19 24. he did not make vse of water but of fire, which he sent among them to execute his iudge­ment [Page 135] vpon that occasion. And for to Regular, and make much of that Mirrour of patience Iob, and to exercise him in that vertue, Ignis cecidit è caelo, & tactas oues, pueros (que) consumpsit: The fire of God is fallen from heauen, Iob. 1. 16. and hath burnt vp the sheepe, and the seruants; &c. For to throw downe the house, and at one blow to kill all his children, that were met together to make merry, he made vse of the Winde. For to drowne the world, he serued himselfe with the water, and in the desert, he drew water out of the Rocke, to quench the thirst of his people, and to preserue them from perishing. So that Life, Death, and Health, which God can giue solely of himselfe, yet will he haue it be wrought by the helpe and meanes of those secundary naturall Causes. And euen at the day of iudgement he will make vse of all these, for the punishment of the wicked, as we haue it set downe in the booke of Wisedome; Wisd. 5. 20. Et pugnabit cum illo orbis terrarum con­trà insensatos: And the world shall fight with him against the vnwise. This order and naturall Law, wherewith God conserueth and gouerneth the world, Kings ought to imitate and follow in the gouernment of their Common-wealths, giuing their Ministers iurisdiction and Authoritie propor­tionable to their Office, without the which they cannot well exercise the same. And as long as these his Ministers shall go on in an orderly Course, or shall imitate in their constancie those naturall causes, and shall be punctuall and faithfull in their Ministries, the gouernment ought not to be alte­red or receiue any change. But when they shall faile in their obligation, another order must be taken with them. And ther­fore I say, that in some cases, the best & surest course that can be taken, is; That Kings proceede after another kinde of man­ner, by being serued by other Ministers, and Counsellers that they may comply with that which tends to the seruice of God, and the good of their kingdomes. Especially, when (as hath bin said) Ministers abuse that power which is giuen them & make it the meanes to afflict the good, and to doe other [Page 136] wrongs and iniuries. And this, the sacred Scripture teacheth vs in that History of Daniel, [...] where it is reported, that when Shadrach, and his two Companions were cast into the fiery fournace, the kings Ministers caused the fournace to be heated so hot, that the flames of fire ascended some 49. Cubits high. But by how much the more power the fire had for to burne those innocent children in that occasion, by somuch the more to the greater astonishment of the standers by, God slaked the force thereof, causing that in that very place, where for to con­sume these Saints, the fire was most kindled, a coole fresh ayre entred in, and did refresh them. And the King himselfe, who came to see this wonder told them, that he espied in the com­panie of these three children a fourth man, which seemed to be like vnto the son of God. For indeed so it was, that this his Diuine goodnesses, did not content it selfe with deading the force of that intensiue flame, but made meanes by his Angell, to come & free these Innocents from that torment. Therein, instructing kings, That albeit it be fit, that ordinarily, they should suffer businesse to passe by the hands of those Mini­sters, to whom they belong; yet when the subiect is extrem­ly wronged, & iniustice offred by them against the Innocent, Kings ought not to respect the Order and ordinary course of Law, but to take another course with them, and (if neede be) wholy to change and alter it, and in his own proper person, to direct things to their due ends, taking from the fire it's Acti­uitie & instead thereof sen [...]ing a pleasing coole gale of wind, as God did. For experience teacheth vs, that this ill seede or bad race of Ministers, makes post-hast, & quickly ouerrunnes a Common-wealth, as ill weedes doe a ground, to the great dishonour of kings, and diminution of their credit▪ and to the notable dammage and destruction of kingdomes. Oh how doth it discouer it selfe in these our vnhappy and miserable times, how much more, and how many Cubits higher then it was wont, doth the fire of Ambition, and Auarice, mount in many Ministers, who grow by this meanes, to be so great, and [Page 137] so high, that they quite loose the sight of themselues, and goe beyond the reach of their own knowledge, being in a manner besides themselues puft vp with their promotion, and the high places they possesse, seeming to be another kind of men, then they were wont to be. And this their folly and madnesse extends it selfe so farre, that they will not suffer themselues (forsooth) to be seene, or knowne, by those, whom not long since (God he knowes) they adored as Gods, but now are growne so proud, and into so good a conceit of themselues, that they thinke themselues to be something more then men. Of these, S Bernard giues this admirable good note; You shall see (saith he) many in the Chruch of God, as also in Kings Courts, without noble­nesse made noble, and of poore, become rich, to be sodain­ly puffed vp with pride, forgetting their former Estate, to be ashamed of their Ancestors, and disdainfull towards their poore kinsefolke, and by a strong hand, and with lyes and falshoods, they seeke and procure that, which Nature hath deny'd them, and being not noble by birth, nor innobled by vertue, set a good face on the matter and by such art and cunning as they will vse, would seeme to the world to be great Princes, and to be well descended, fetching their feigned Pedigrees, as farre as Noahs flood: Farre vnlike vnto him, who by his vertue came from a Potter, to be a King; who, that he might not forget, whence he came, and yet represent what he was, caused to be set on his Court cupboord vessells of earth, with this Letter; Haeac fecimus: These we once made; and vessells of gold, with this other Letter; Ista facimus: These we now make. I say, that it is a matter of much importance, (and I purposly forbeare to speake so much as I know in this point) for the conseruation of Kingdomes. As also how fit it is, that their Maiesties, both in regard of that respect which is due vnto Kings, and to the right and true administration of Iustice, should by their seueritie, temper and moderate the excesse [Page 138] of those, which cloath themselues with the Kings royall command, as with a garment, and beare themselues too in­solently-high vpon the Title of their Offices; and vnder colour and zeale to the seruice of their Kings, will make themselues their Tutors, Masters of their libertie, Lords, ouer their vassalls, and sole Commanders of the whole Kingdome like vnto that great Leuiathan, or huge Whale in the Sea, of whom holy Iob saith; Before his face, is pouertie, and want, for he spoyleth and deuoureth all that stands in his way, Iob. 40. 18. and trusteth that he can draw vp Iordan into his Mouth.

Whether it be fitting for Kings, to vse much the remitting of businesses?

ALthough in the former Chapter some­thing hath beene spoken, which may tend to this Question, yet shall it be ne­cessary to answer heere thereunto in a more direct and clearer manner. And howbeit the word, remitting, or refer­ring, doth seeme to notifie the care and poruidence, which a Prince oweth vnto businesses, certaine it is, that it shall well beseeme him, sometimes so to doe. For, amongst many other the miseries of humane nature, this is one, that it's forces, as well inter­nall, as externall, as well of the Soule, as of the body are much limited, and restrained, and haue much need of many helpes. Wherefore I say, that Kings not being able (as they are not) to attend of themselues so many businesses as howerly occurre, nor to comprehend so great variety and difference of things, they ought to remit some, nay many [Page 139] of them, to persons deputed for their ease, and dis­charge of their Consciences. Let a King examine those businesses, which are fit to be reserued for himselfe. And those that h [...] cannot, let him remit them vnto o­thers, because of himselfe he is not able to dispatch all of them.

And in fauour of this Doctrine, we haue Iethro's Coun­saile to his sonne in Law Moses. Who seeing him so ouer imployed in the businesses of his people to his intol­lerable trouble, said vnto him;Exod. 18. 18. Stulto labore consumeris, elige tibi Viros, &c. Thou wearyest thy selfe greatly, and this people that is with thee, prouide thee men, &c. I neede not repeate all vnto you, hauing spoken thereof largely heere­tofore. I shall now therefore represent vnto you, That there are two kinds of Remitting.

The one for to vnloade himselfe of that charge and trou­ble, that he may liue himselfe at ease, and out of his autho­ritie lay the burthen vpon others, and command them to end such or such a businesse. Which is now too commonly vsed and practised. For euery one, as much as in him lyes, striues to be superiour in this kind; Taking that to himselfe which is most p [...]easing, and easiest for him, and remitting the hardest and harshest to other mens hands, And hence it hapneth, that from the first remitting the King makes, your poore Negocian [...]s, like so many Tennis balls are tost from one to another. Nay, their fortune is farre worse; for the Ball which is racketed by the one Player, the other with great nimblenesse▪ and care, runnes forth to receiue it: But the poore Negociant, who in these Remitments, serues in steed of the Ball, they doe not onely not receiue him readily, but shut the doore vpon him, obliging him to solicite his en­trance, one while by fauour, another while by giftes. And although this be too vsuall a practise in all Tribunalls; and with all Iudges and vpon all differences of businesses, yet is it there most practised, where matters of goods, and [Page 140] Titles of Lands are treated, wherein the Pretenders doe not only sweate and take a great deale of paines, but are forced to pay as much for the dispatch of 10000. Marauedis, as if they were so many Ducats. And this may be confir­med with the example of a poore honest widow, who (as it is well known) spent much time, and that little mony which she had, in Negociating the dispatch of a small debt. And when, after a long and tedious suite, she had at last got an order against her Aduersarie, yet was she neuer the neerer getting of her money, for that it was ordred in Court, that shee should be payd out of such Rents, which vpon some pre-morgage, or some other cunning Conueiance, could not be recouered. These remittings, I doe not finde how they can be defended, or salued in the Sacred Scrip­ture. But there are many reasons for the condemning of them, and for the obliging of Kings to referre them.

The other kinde of remitting, is▪ When either the order and qualitie of the businesse, or the lawfull Impedi­ment of him that remitteth, doth so require it. For which we haue our Sauiour Christs warrant in that admirable Conuersion of the blessed Apostle S. Paul. For albeit he him­selfe, by his powerfull hand threw him downe from of his horse, and made him so farre forth to yeeld himselfe his, that he vttered these wordes so full of submission; Domine, quid me vis facere? Act. 9. 6. Lord, what wilt thou, that I doe? Yet did he not then giue him a present absolute Dispatch, but remitted him ouer to another Disciple, which was named Ananias. It being held fit it should be so for those reasons which are rendred by the Saints, and holy Fathers. The like course hee tooke with Cornelius the Centurion in that great businesse of his Saluation,Act. 10. 5. putting him ouer to S. Peter. Luk. 17. 12. And when he saw the Petition of those ten Lepers, who besought him, that he would make them whole; how beit he granted them their request for the recouery of their [Page 141] health, yet did he remit them ouer to the Priests, and Com­manded them to present themselues before them, because in those kinde of infirmities, they were to be Arbitrary Iudges,Leuit. 13. what was to be done in that case. And to the Dis­ciples of Iohn Baptist which he sent vnto him, when he was in prison, to the end that they might informe themselues who he was, and whether it was he that should come, or were to looke for another? He remitted them backe to their Master with this Answer; Ite, renunciate Ioanni, quae audistis, & vidistis: Goe and shew Iohn what things yee heare and see. Mat. 11. 4. As he should haue said, For as much as Iohn is my Voice, by him is the truth to be declared, which you seeke after touching the Diuinitie of my Person. All these Remittings were plaine, and dispatched without reply; And those doubtlesse condemned, which are now daily vsed, pas­sing things ouer from one to another, as if men were to deale with children, who asking a companie of them, that are playing together; Is your Mother at home? All make answer; This boy can tell you, or that other boy can tell you. So that many mens liues are ended, before their busi­nesses can be ended. Their suites growing older then them selues; wasting both their wealth, and their persons to no purpose.

It is recounted in the Acts of the Apostles;Act. 6. 2. That they being so busily imployed in the Preaching of the Gospell that they could not ioyntly with it attend those workes of Charitie, and Almes-deedes, which were exercised in the Primitiue Church, by feeding those that were conuerted, they did remit the care thereof to seuen Deacons chosen out from amongst them all for that Ministrie. And heere is to be confidered a point of Doctrine of great impor­tance. That the Apostles (as there it is mentioned) albe­it they saw what a great charge they had, and how much trouble with daily Preaching, and continuall Praying, they did neither omit, nor remit this businesse, but were won­derfull [Page 142] carefull, that those to whom this care was remitted, should be persons of great approbation, and fulfilled with the Holy Ghost, and with wisdome, as were S. Steu [...]n, and others, which were elected, and ioyned in Commission with him. Considerate ergo, fratres, viros ex vobis boni testimonij Septem, plenos Spiritu Sancto, & sapientia, quos constituamus super hoc opus, &c. Wherefore brethren, Looke you out among you seuen men of honest report, and full of the Holy Ghost, and of wisdome, which we appoint to this businesse. Which is a Lesson for Kings, that when they vnderstand, that the per­sons, to whom they vseto remit businesses, are not such as they ought to be, either for their want of wisdome, or expe­rience in those things, or that their minde is not cleare and free from passion, & couetousnesse, they in no manner of wise discharge their Consciences in making such remitments and references, but ought rather to reserue the dispatch therof vnto themselues, or to remit them to such Ministers, that are able to giue good satisfaction therein, and of whose good­nesse and sufficiencie, the world rendreth publicke Testimo­ny. In a word, I am of opinion, that to remit businesses, is a matter of necessity, in regard of the shortnesse of our vnder­standing, which is imbroiled and mightily hindred with this multiplicitie of affayres, and oftentimes choaked and stifled, and made defectiue in those matters, that are most necessa­ry. And as for our bodily strength, the force thereof is so small, and so weake, that we had neede to preserue the same, by easing it of that burthen, which is too heauy for it to beare. Yet withall there must a great care be had, that these remitmen [...]s, be not made meerely, that the King might liue at ease, and be idle, but because weighty businesses, and such as haue neede of new Examination, and new diligencies, doe require it; or because the King (as already hath beene sayd) may haue some lawfull impediment. Let Kings haue recourse vnto God, and he will illighten them, and their faces shall not suffer confusion, [...]. 2. 10. nor their Kingdomes see alterations, [Page 143] ruines, nor destructions. Erudimini, qui iudicatis terram: Be wise therefore yee Kings; be learned, yee Iudges of the earth.

Of the Sence of the sight; That is: Of those businesses, which Kings ought to reserue for their own view, and dispatch with their owne hands.

ARistotle saith that the soule is,Arist. 3. de anim. [...]ext. 37. l ct 13. & D. Tho. Vni­uersae creaturae homo est prae­stantissimus vt inter membra oculus. Quod ad mo­dum omnia, in a manner all things, in regard of the Vnderstanding, which in it comprehen­deth all whatsoeuer. And the same may like­wise be said of the sence of the fight, wher­in is cyphred the greatnesse of the Vniuerse, for therein is inclosed all whatsoeuer is visible in the world,D. Chrys. in Hom. 15. in Ioan as the Heauens, the Earth, Elements, Birdes, Plants, Beastes, &c. And all that (be it more, or lesse) enters into our Soule by this doore. It is the most principal part of the head, the most artificiall, & the most excellent, and most precious of all other the Sences; because it's action is more liuely and spirit-full, and giues vs more to know and vnderstand the differences of things. By the eyes, are manifested a great part of the affections, and passions of the Minde. In oculis animus inhabitat: The mindes habitation (saith Pliny) is in the eyes. In them is seated Clemencie, Mercy, Anger, Hatred, Loue, Sorow, Ioy, and the like. Ex visu, cognosci­tur vir: Plin. lib. 11. c. 31. We may know a man by his lookes.Eccl. 19. 26. As whe­ther he be wise, or foolish; simple, or malitious; &c. These, are those windowes, by which the light entreth into the Vnderstanding; and which shew the good, or bad disposi­tion both of body, and Soule. And there are not some [Page 144] wanting, who affirme, that they are the first, which God, and Nature delineate and paint forth in that tender paste and soft dough of the Creature, as being the most principall, the most beutifull, and the most delicate. And therefore that Diuine Artizan, did place a greater gard about that for it's safetie, then about all the rest. And therfore Aristo­tle saith; That we make more reckoning of this sence, then of all the other. It's Site, or place, which is the highest and most eminent in the head, doth declare it's greater dignitie, and is in man, as is the Sunne, and Moone, in the world. Quod sol, [...] & luna in Coelo, hoc sunt oculi in homine (saith S. Ambrose). The vse of the sight is two-fold. One ma­teriall, and grosse, which only attendeth things, as they thus materially represent themselues, without making any farther discourse, or Consideration; And this kind of seeing is common to all creatures both rationall, and irrationall, in­dowed with or without reason.

The other is more eleuated, and more spirituall, and flies a higher pitch, as when it discernes things with Aduice, and discourse, and when it perceiues what that is, that it sees, and this appertaineth onely vnto Man. But in Kings, and those that are good Gouernours, the consideration there­of must extend it selfe a great deale farther; As to treate of the remedy, which those things require, and stand in neede of, which they haue seene. But not like those Kings, that visited holy Iob, who although they saw him, and were seuen dayes with him, yet did they not see, what they saw; My meaning is, That albeit they did see the great affliction, and extreme miserie, wherein poore Iob was, their eyes pas­sed it slightly ouer, they did not dwell vpon it, nor tooke any course to giue him remedie. And when this is not done, their seeing, is no seeing, but are like vnto those spoken of by the Psalmist; That haue eyes, and see not, Dull Idolls. To this purpose, there is a prety place in the first of the Machabees, where, after the Author hath made report, of [Page 145] the great wickednesse, and Tyrannies, which that accursed King Antiochus, and his Ministers, exercised in Ierusalem, and in other Cities and Townes of the Kingdome of Iudaea, of that great Captaine Mattathias, and his fiue Sonnes, hee speaketh thus; Hi vederunt mala, quae fiebant in populo Iuda, & in Ierusalem which the vulgar renders thus, Now when they saw the blasphemies, which were committed in Iuda and Ierusalem. 1. Mac. 2. 6. These (saith he) saw the euills, that were committed in Ierusalem; And my thinkes here must the question be asked, Why all they of that Common-wealth, suffering so many oppressions, and so many afflictions, in their Houses in their own Persons, & those of their children, onely Mattathias, and his Sonnes, are here said to haue seene these euills, and these blasphemies? The answer here­unto, makes notably for our purpose, because it expresseth that, which we go inforcing, [...]To wit, That to see businesses, is truely and properly, to vnderstand them, and to put our helping hand vnto them. And because Mattathias, and his Sonnes, were the onely men that were sensible of the hard measure they receiued, and the first that rose vp, and opposed themselues against the furie of the Tyrant, for the remedying their so many and so great Calamities, that sacred Historian saith, That they onely had eyes, and saw the af­fliction of Gods people. This kinde of sight best be fitteth Kings, as they are heads of their Kingdomes and Common-wealthes, and it is likewise necessary, that they haue their sight, Large, Cleare, and Sharpe, that they may reach to see euen those things, that are most secret, and most remote, as doth that princely birde the Eagle, which houering aloft in the ayre descryes the fishes, that are in the deepe: Or be like vnto that Maiesticall Creature the Lyon, who both waking, and sleeping, keepes his eyes open. The Holy Ghost saith; That a wise man hath his eyes in his head. Sapientis oculi in capite eius. Eccl. 2. 14. And it seemeth, that by Contrapositions, he would giue vs thereby to vnderstand, that a foole hath his eyes in [Page 146] his feete. Which as they discouer but little, so are they lyable to a thousand offences, and deceits. But the wise man be­holds from high and as from a watch-Tower discouers things a farre off; and is thereby better able to take notice of them, and more punctually to comply with his obligati­on to the state, and to that which neede shall require in those accidents that may occurre. This is that sight, which (as before hath beene said) befitteth Kings, for that they are the Heads of their Common-wealths, and therefore are to reserue for their own view those the more weighty busi­nesses of their subiects; there being a great deale of reason, that they should see them (as they say) with their owne eyes. For this end, are those Visitations ordayned, and those Entrances in State, which Kings are wont to make into the Cities, and Prouinces of their Kingdomes. When the arrogant and vaine presumption of men grew to that passe, that for to celebrate their name, they went about to build that proud Tower of Babel, with intent to touch euen heauen it selfe with the top thereof, and to liue free from all feare of a second [...]lood, that sacred Historie tells vs; De­scendit autem Dominus vt videret Ciuitatem, & Turim, quam aedificauerint filij Adam: [...] That the Lord came downe to see the Citie and tower, which the sonnes of men builded. God came down himself to see this their so great insollencie that he might punish them accordingly, as he did with such a confusion of languages, that one could not vnderstand an­other, and were amongst themselues, as so many strangers, without being able to communicate and conuerse together; so that they were driuen to diuide themselues into different Countries, and were scattred from thence vpon all the earth. And in the said Historie of Genesis, we read, that when that abhominable filthines of the Sodomites, grew to that highth of impudencie, that it prouoked God vnto Wrath, and in a manner bound him to consume them with fire from heauen, he vttered vnto Abraham these words worthy the [Page 147] noting:Gen. 18. 22. Clamor Sodomorum & G [...]morrhaeorum multiplicatus est, & peccatum eorum aggrauiAtum est nimis. Descendam, & videbo, vtrum clamorem, qui venit ad me, opere comple­uerint, an non est ita, vt sciam: Because the cry of Sodome and Gomorrha is great, and because their sinne is exceeding grieuous, I will goe downe now and see, whether they haue done altogether according to the cry, which is come vnto me; And if not, that I may know. As if he should haue sayd; Howbeit the abomination of these accursed So­domites and Gomorrhaeans, hath so farre increased, that it doth cry aloud vnto me for vengeance and chasticement, and hath pierced the heauens, and come vnto mine eares, yet notwithstanding, (because it is a thing that concernes a whole Common-wealth, and a busines of that weight, as to deserue exemplary punishment,) I will goe downe and see, whether it be so or no, as the report goes of it. Though most certaine it is, that God hath no need to come downe from heauen, to take a particular viewe of the things of this world, for he is present in all places, here, & there, and eue­ry where, he filleth all, seeth all, and with his infinite wise­dome comprehendeth all. But the Scripture speakes in this kinde of language, that it may accommodate it self to the stile and capacitie of men, for to instruct Kings in this place, that graue and weighty businesses, they are not to transferre them ouer vnto others, but of, and by themselues to see and looke vnto them, nor ought they too be to facile in giuing credit to fame, and report (especially of the vulgar) without hauing first fully informed himselfe thereof, and that by themselues they should be able to dis-deceiue themselues, and to see, and consider things with attention, and with a desire to search out the truth, and to rectifie what is amisse.

In the Kingdomes of Castile, there is a very commenda­ble custome and of great authoritie, and Maiestie, worthy those most prudent Kings which first ordeyned it. And this is that Consult [...], which euery friday towards the Euening, [Page 148] the President of Castile makes with those of his Maiesties Councell Royall, wherein an Account is giuen vnto his Maiestie of all the weightiest businesses, and wherein the opinion and the authoritie Royall is necessarie. And this is not without example in the sacred Scripture. For in the first chapter of Deut. it is written; That when that great Law-giuer Moses had named for good and quicke dispatch such Counsellours (as before specified) giuing them in charge what they were to keepe and obserue, and how to administer Iustice with equalitie, and without exception of persons, he told them; Quod si difficile vobis visum aliquid fuerit, [...]. referte ad me & ego audiam. The cause that is too hard for you, bring vnto me, and I will heare it, You shall con­sult with me in that case, that I may heare it, and take such course therein as is fitting. And if to this so commendable a Consulta of euery Friday weekely, there should bee added another Meeting some certaine dayes in the yeare, to the end that the President, and those of the Kings Camaera, should carry with them the Consulta of the Offices, and should treate and conferre thereof by word of mouth with our Lord the King, it would be one of the most important things (in the iudgement and opinion of many graue men, whom I haue consulted with in this particular) that could be or­ordained for the good of these Kingdomes. Whereby many of those inconueniences would be auoyded, which wise and Christian Counsellours haue found out by many yeares ex­perience. And none of the meanest (amongst the rest) is the remitting by writing so weightie and important a thing, as the Election of Officers, recommending the same to a dead Letter, which can make no replie. And that paper, which pas­seth through so many hands, cannot come so clean, as it shuld but be sullyed, especially if it come to such hands as are not clean, but corrupted with gifts, & presents. And because this Course is taken, the loue & respect due to their Kings is lost, who like Creatures to their Creator, ought to acknowledge althat thev hau [...] from his hands. Wheras now, they giue this [Page 149] respect vnto his Maiesties Ministers, with whom they haue held correspondency, as knowing that their Prouision must solely passe through their hands, and that their good or bad dispatch consistes in them, or in a lesse full, or more effectu­all Relation, inclosed in the paper of their Consulta. Which cannot be carryed thus, when the President, and those of the Camera shall haue propounded the same, and deliuered their opinions in the presence of their King. And questionlesse, they that by this meanes shoul [...] be prouided for, would e­steeme in more, and treat with more punctuality and truth, the things appertaining to his Office, considering that the King himselfe taketh particular knowledge of them. For (as we said before) it is very meete and conuenient, that Kings should know, and communicate with, if not all, yet at least those, who are to be placed in your greater kinde of Offices, and dignities. And amongst a [...]l other businesses, this is that, which with most reason doth require the Kings eyes and presence, his remembrance, and mature Counsaile; For such are the Citizens as are their Gouernours, and the Parishio­ners, as their Pastors. And though this perhaps cannot be performed so punctually and precise [...]y, as were to be wished, yet at least it will be needfull, that those persons, of whom they take testimonie, and receiue information in so graue and weighty a busines, should be of that prudence, learning, and authoritie, and so beyond all exception, that the world, (which is apt to take exceptions) may be perswaded, that the Election could not but be passing good, being that it past through such iudicious mens hands. For, whatsoeuer shall come forth decreed by them, it is not fitting, that it should bee subiect to their censures, who either haue not the said qualities, or are much inferiour in them, or faile in their zeale to God, or their Loyaltie and Loue, to their King being Narcissus-like, inamoured with their owne shadow, and led away with the blindnesse of their passion. Woe be vnto that Common-wealth, King, and Kingdome, where one out of [Page 150] blindnesse, or selfe willfull-nesse, shall vndoe that, which o­ther men haue done with many, and those the clearest eyes. For (as the Wise man saith) Vnus acdificans, & vnus de­struens, Eccl. 34 24. quid prodest illis, nisi labor? When one buildeth, and another breaketh downe, what profit haue they then but labour?

Hee prosecuteth the same matter and shewes, how Kings ought to carry themselues, towards those, that finde themselues aggrieued?

HAuing spoken of some Cases, reserued for Kings, and such as require their sight and presence, it here now offers it selfe in this place, to know how a King ought to carry himselfe towards those that finde themselues iniuryed and ag­grieued. And in the opinion of vnder­standing people, it seemeth, that no­thing is more properly his, then to quit wrongs, and re­mooue iniuries. For, if we shall but consider that first be­ginning which Kings had, that which the Ancient said of them, and that which the holy Scripture teacheth vs, wee shall finde, that this Occupation is very properly theirs, and that this Care appertaines of right to their greatnesse. That most wise King Salomon, in the fourth of Ecclesiastes, saith; That when he saw the teares of the Innocent, and the wrongs they receiued, and no body to helpe them, or to speake so much as a good word for them, it seemed a thing more terrible vnto him, then to dye, or neuer to haue beene borne.Eccl. 4. 1. Vidi calumnias quae sub caelo geruntur, & lachrymas innocentium, & neminem Consolatorum, neque posse resistere [Page 151] eorum violentiae, cunctorum auxilio destitutos, & laudaui magis mortuos, quàm viuentes, & foeliciorem vtroque iudi­caui, qui nec dum natus est. I turned and considered all the oppressions that are wrought vnder the sunne; And behold the teares of the oppressed, and none comforteth them; And loe the strength is of the hand of them, that oppresse them, and none comforteth them: Wherefore I praised the dead, which now are dead, aboue the liuing which are yet aliue; And I count him better then them both, which hath not yet beene. And not onely King Salomon, but euen God himselfe was so highly offended with those wrongs and oppressions, which the children of Israel suffred in Egypt, that he thought it a thing worthy his presence, and his comming downe from heauen to see the same with his own eyes.Exod. 3. 7. [...]. Vidi afflictionem populi mei in Egypto, & clamorem eius audiui propter duritiem eorum, qui praesunt operibus et sciens dolorem eius, descendi, vt liberem eum. I haue seene the trou­ble of my people, which are in Egypt, and haue heard their crie, because of their Taske-Masters; And for I know their sorrowes, therefore I am come downe to deliuer them, &c. Teaching Kings, That in matter of grieuances, and oppressi­on of the Innocent, they are not content to themselues, with remitting them ouer vnto others, but to looke thereunto themselues; And (if need were) to come from forth their princely pallaces, and to forgoe for a while their pleasures and their ease, till they haue reformed what is amisse. The first words the diuine Scripture storieth, which the first King,1. Sam. 1 [...]. 5. whom God chose for his people, said, were these, Quid habet populus, quod plorat? What ayleth this people, that they weepe? Who no soner saw himselfe Crowned King, and put by Gods hand into the possession of that kingdom, but applying himselfe to that which he ought first of all to doe (as one of the mainest points of his dutie) he hearkned vnto the cryes of the people, who were oppressed by the Philistims, and with great speede, and feruent zeale, did [Page 152] roundly set himselfe to the redressing of that oppression. And I verily perswade my selfe, that all good Kings wou [...]d doe the like, if they should see their subiects ready to fall into their enemies hands, with whom they wage open warre. But from those more close and secret enemies, which are to­gether with vs subiects, Citizens, neighbours, Countrymen and Ministers of the same Kings, and of whom there is held so much trust and confidence, who goes about to free the wronged? What reparation is there for receiued iniuries? Are they not much greater then those, that the Philistims offered to Gods people, and more remedilesse? As for pro­fessed Enemies, against them we may make open resistance, and euery man, that is not vnnaturall, or a Traytour to his Country, will put to his helping hand, and seeke to repell force by force, & reuenge the wrongs that are done them. But for these our domestick enemies, these our home-borne foes, & feigned friends, who vnder the shew of friendship, and vn­der cloake and colour of being the Kings Ministers, oppresse the poore, and such as haue little power to oppose their greatnesse, who shall be able to resist them? If he, that suffers, shall pretend to doe it, doth he not put himselfe in manifest danger of suffring much more? if not of loosing all that hel hath? And it is worthy your consideration, that in those words related in Exodus, it is not said, that God went down to see, and remedy the wrongs which that Tyrant king Pharaoh did vnto the children of Israel, but that which was offred them by his chiefe Ministers; Propter duritiem eorum, qui praesunt. For the hard-heartednesse, and cruelty of those, which were set in authoritie ouer them. As if he should haue said, The Affronts and Iniuries done by a Kings principall Officers, are not so easily remedyed, as those of particular men. They require a powerfull hand, they require Gods presence, and assistance, and will craue a Kings especiall care. For your Councells cannot doe it, nay are not able for to doe it of themselues alone, be they the greatest and the [Page 153] highest in the Kingdom; be they neuer so zealous of Iustice, neuer such true louers thereof, and neuer so desirous to doe right. And the reason therof (in my poore opinion) is, for that in regard the burthen of ordinary businesses is so great, that only they are not able to attend the quitting of those agrauios and greiuances, with that speedines and efficacie, as were needefull, but rather that they themselues, without so much as once dreaming thereof, doe vse to make them farre grea­ter then otherwise they would bee, for want of time, and strength of body, to cumply with so many and so great busi­nesses. And it oftentimes so commeth to passe, that those that [...]ue for reliefe, in stead of being eased of their wrongs, receiue further wrong, either because they cannot finde fit place and time to be heard, or because being heard, they are soone forgot, or because they that wrong them, finde meanes to couer their faultes. And if they cannot couer them, and so should be lyable vnto punishment, yet they that lent them their hand to lift them vp to the place wherein they are, will likewise lend them a hand to defend their disorders. And it hath beene already, and is yet daily to be seene, that a Iudge in Commission, who for his wickednesse and euill dealing deserued exceeding great chastisement; yet, for that he hath this Patron and Angel of Guard (for in your grea­ter Tribunalls, these are neuer wanting) the businesse is husht, and the party peccant neuer questioned. And be­cause he shall not be disgraced, if the matter proue fowle a­gainst him, by putting him out of his place, he that tooke him into his protection, will intercede in his behalfe to haue him remoued from that Office, and preferred to a better; A case certainly worthy both punishment, and remedy, if there be any vpon earth. And if there be any helpe to be had, it must be by the sight and presence of the King, for without this, it is not to be hoped for.

The Courtes of Kings, (much more then other places) are full of humane respects, and these haue taken so great a [Page 154] head and are growne so strong, that in businesses they ouer­throw that, which truth and iustice ought to vphold. And therefore my aduise vnto Kings is, that being they are men, that are or may be free (if they will themselues) from these poore respectiue considerations, and are supreme Lords, and absolute soueraignes in their kingdomes, they would be plea­sed, to dis-agrauiate those that are iniuryed, respecting onely wronged right, and oppressed Truth. But because such as are wronged, and finde themselues agrieued, haue not that easie accesse and entrance into Princes Courtes, or to their persons, either in regard of their great and weighty Imploy­ments, or some other lawfull Impediments, it shall much im­porte, that in their Courtes, they should haue some person, or persons, of great zeale and approued vertue and prudence to whom those that are agrieued should haue recourse. For many suffer much, that cannot come to be admitted to the sight, or speech of their King, whereas, if there should be a person appointed for to heare their Complaints, they would cry out with open mouth for iustice, and should be righted in their receiued wrongs. And that person, or persons thus deputed by their Maiesties, hauing first well weighed and ex­amined the reasons of their Complaints, should afterwards represent the same vnto their Kings, and giue them true in­formation thereof, to the end that they may forthwith by expresse Command, put thereunto a speedy and fitting re­medie. And this (I assure you) would be a great bridle to restraine the insufferable insolencie, and Auarice of Princes Ministers; Who (questionlesse) would carry themselues much more fairely and vprightly, when as they shall know, that their disorders shall faithfully be represented▪ Whereas (on the contrarie) it is not to be imagined with what a bold, nay impudent daringnes they outface goodnesse, when as they conceiue that of their kings, which was vttred by that vnwise and foolish Atheist; In corde suo non est deus. The foole hath said in his heart, [...] there is no God. Or that, which [Page 155] those ignorant and troublesome friends of Iob, breathed forth against God himselfe;Iob 22. 14. Circa cardines coeli perambulat, nec nostra considerat. He walketh in the Circle of heauen, and the cloudes hide him, that he cannot see, and consider the things vpon earth. Or which those other wicked Villaines vented;Psal. 94. 7. Non videbit dominus, neque intelliget Deus Iacob. The Lord shall not see, neither will the God of Iacob regard it. So in like sorte say these bad Ministers, Tush this shall neuer come to our Kings knowledge, hee is taking his plea­sure in his gardens, he is thinking on his Hawking and Hunting, or some other sports and pastimes to recreate himselfe withall; nor shall Tricks, and inuentions be wan­ting vnto vs to stop vp all the passages to his eares; but say open way should be made, and that the King should take notice of this, or that misdemeanour, it shall be dawbd vp so handsomely, such a faire varnish set vpon it, and so ful of excuses, that it will be all one, as if he had neuer heard of it, or any such thing bin at all. Presuming, that Kings, rather then they will be troubled with businesses of clamour and noyse, will (for their owne ease) slightly passe them ouer. Wherein, as they haue oftentimes found themselues, so it is fit they should still, be deceiued. And truly to no man, can with better Title his Entrance be giuen, nor this golden key to the Kings Chamber be committed, then to him, who with the integritie and zeale of an Elias, should trample and tread these Monsters vnder foote; and roundly and throughly to take this care to task, which (without al doubt) would be one of the gratefullest, and most acceptable ser­uices, which can be done vnto God both in matter of pietie, and of pitie. But what shall I say of the Kings happinesse in this case? With nothing can he more secure his con­science, then with this. As one who is bound, out of the duty of his place, to haue a watchfull eye ouer all his Ministers, but more narrowly and neerely, to looke into the water of those that are the great Ones; being likewise obliged graci­ously [Page 156] and patiently to heare those, that shall complaine of them, it not proceeding out of spleene and malice, but out of a desire, to iust [...]fie the truth, to make good a good cause, and that the fault m [...]y be punished, with whom the fault is truly found. For, when the subiects iust Complaints are not heard, besides that his conscience is charged and clogg'd therewith, the Ministers themselues become thereby much more absolute, and more insolently Imperious; Insomuch that the subiect seeing, that they are neither heard, nor eased of their grieuances, they grow desperate. And what fruites despaire bring forth, I neede not tell kings, that know either men, or bookes. There is not in holy Scripture any one thing more often repeated, then the particular care which God hath of the oppressed. In the seuenty second Psalme, where the Greatnesses of King Salomon are set forth, but more particularly those magnificencies of that true King Salomon, Iesus Christ, whose figure he was, amongst other his Excellencies, for the which he ought to be much estemed, beloued, and adored of all the Kings of the earth, and ser­ued by all the nations of the world, this which followeth is not the least. Adorabunt eum omnes reges terrae, omnes gentes seruient ei, Psal. 72. 11. quia liberauit pauperem à potente, pa [...]perem, cui non erat adi [...]tor. All Kings shall worship him, all nations shall serue him. For he shall deliuer the poore, when he cryeth; the needy also, and him that hath no helper. And in another place he makes the like repetition. E [...] vsuris, & iniquitate redimet animas eorum; Propter miseriam inop [...]m, etgemitum pauperum, Psal. [...]2. 5. nunc exurgam dicit dominus. Now for the oppression of the needy, and for the sighes of the poore, I will vp (sayth the Lord) and will set at libertie him, whom the wicked hath snared. And in the first Chap. of Esay, it seemeth that God doth proclaime a ple­nary Indulgence, and full Iubile vnto those Kings, and Go­uernours, who apply themselues to the easing of the oppres­sed. Subuenite oppresso iudicate populo, Isay. 1. 18. defendite viduam, et [Page 157] venite arguite me; dicit dominus, si fuerint peccata vestra vt coccineum, quasi nix dealb ab untur, at si fuerint rubra quasi vermiculus, velut lana, alba erunt. Relieue the oppressed, iudge the fatherlesse, and defend the widowe, though your sinnes were as crymson, they sha [...]l be made white as snow: though they were red like skarlet, they shall be as wool, you see then, that all sinnes are forgiuen that King, that is a Louer of Iustice, and a friend vnto the poore and needy, that takes paines in relieuing the oppressed, and in defending the widowe, and protecting the distressed. They may stand with God in iudgement, & alleage for themselues his Iustice & his righteousnesse, who haue dealt iustly & vprightly with their subiects, and mantained the weake and needy, against those powerfull Tyrants, which seeke to swallow them vp, as your greater fishes doe the lesser.Psal. 14. 4. Qui deuorant plebem meam, si­ [...]ut escam panis. Who eate vp my people, as they eate b [...]ead. And howbeit Iustice ought to be one and the same both to poore, and rich, yet God doth more particularly re­commend vnto their care and charge that of the poore. For (as it is in the Prouerb. Quiebra sa soga por lo mas del­gado: Where the corde is slendrest there it breaketh soonest. For a powerfull man will defend himselfe by his power, and great men by their greatnesse; And would to God, that they had no more to backe them then a iust defence: for then the poore should not neede to stand in feare of them. But that is now to passeable in these times, which the Apostle Saint Iames found fault with in his.Iam. 2. 6. Quod di [...]ites per potentiam opprimunt vos, et ipsi trahunt vos ad iudicium: That the rich oppresse the poore by tyrannie, and draw them before the iudgement-seates.

When Kings doe cumply with this their obligation, when they free the oppressed, and defend the wronged Orphane, and Widowe, Godsends downe vpon them his light, his grace, and other extraordinary gifts, whereby they and their states, are conserued and maintayned: Whose ruine and [Page 158] perdition doth euermore succeede through the default of him that gouerneth: for if Kings would gouerne according vnto equitie and iustice, they and their kingdomes should be, as it were, in a manner perpetuall and immortall. For (as it is in the Prouerbs of Salomon) Rex, Prou. 19. 14. qui indicat in veritate pauperes, Thronus eius in aeternum firmabitur: A King, that iudgeth the poore in truth, his throne shall be established for euer. Whereas on the contrary, most certaine it is, that the King and kingdome haue but a short continuance, where the Iudges and Ministers are swayed by passion, and thereby the subiects abused. It is the saying of the holy Ghost;Eccl. 10. 8. Regnum à gente in gentem transfertur propter in­iustitias, et iniurias, et contumelias, et dolos: Because of vn­righteous dealing, and wrongs, and riches gotten by deceit, the Kingdome is transferred from one people to another. No one thing drawes such assured and apparent perils of warre vpon kingdomes, as the wrongs that are done to the poorer sort of subiects. Clamor eorum, in aures domini Exercituumintroiuit: The cryes of them, haue entred into the eares of the Lord of Hosts. [...] 5. 4. And there, before his Counsell of Warre, they present their Memorialls, and their Peti­tions, with such a loud language, and discomposed deliuery, that they pierce through his eares, when they call vpon him, saying; since thou art the Lord God of Hoasts, raise thou Armies both in Heauen and Earth, and reuenge thou those the open wrongs that are offred vnto vs. And these Petitions, commonly finde there such quicke dispatch, that presently hee nominateth Captaines, leuieth forces, and formeth a mightie Armie of enemies, to disturbe, and destroy that kingdome. And though some may conceiue, that the cause of those and the like troubles, are the crosse Incoun­ters of Kings and Princes amongst themselues, or the greedy desire of warre for spoyle and pillage, which pardoneth no manner of persons, yet in realtie of truth it is not so, but the wrongs of Ministers, exercised vpon the poore, the father­lesse, [Page 159] and the widowe, are the occasion, that huge and power­full Hostes of enemies, in their reuenge, enter the gates of a Kingdome and make wast and hauocke thereof. For this cause were the Amalechites captiuated, and put to the sword, and for the same likewise the soldiers entred into Iudaea, and sackt it.

Whence we draw this cleare and conclusiue truth, that the best and the safest course to conserue a kingdome, to gaine others, and to abound in riches, is; to vndoe wrongs done, not to dissemble iniuries, to punish thefts and robbe­ries, and to execute iustice towards all.Prou 16. 5 [...] Iuitium viae bonae, facere institiam: The first step to goodnesse, is to doe Iustice. For without it, the foot that sets forward, falls backward; and a King hath not where withall to relye on his power, his forces, his wisedome, and experience in gouernment, if he be defectiue in this. For kingdomes last no longer, then Iustice lasteth in them. And true it is, that there is no winde shut vp in the bowells of the earth, which causeth therein such violent effects of Earth-quakes, as in those kingdomes, which thinke themselues surest and firmest doe the com­plaints, and greiuous sighes of the wronged poore. And therefore let none whatsoeuer, be they Kings, great Ministers, or Counsellours of State, slightly reckon of the cries of the poore; For they referring their reuenge to God, they draw him downe from Heauen to right their quarrell. And the basest, and most barbarous man in the world, when he sees himselfe wronged, and can finde none vpon earth to pleade his cause, or to doe him right, he presently lifts vp his eyes vnto Heauen, and makes his addresse vnto God, assuring himselfe that his helpe will come from thence. And it was well said of a Wise man; That the wronged are like vnto those that are ready to be drowned, who if they fasten vpon any thing, neuer let it goe: so these men, when they are in danger to be sunke by being forcibly kept vnder water by the oppressours hand, lay fast hold on complaints, cryes, [Page 160] sighes, and teares, as the last remedy allotted them by God; who saith: That he will heare the petitions, and receiue the Memorialls of the afflicted, which are written with teares. A maxilla enim a scendunt vsque ad caelum. [...] For from the cheeke, they ascend vp to heauen. They trill downe the cheekes, till they fall to the ground, and from thence they mount vp as high as Heauen: for being water, they rise as much as they fall. And when God sees they haue reason on their side, and that they onely call vnto him for iustice, (it being so proper an Attribute vnto him) in the end he grants, and signes their request. Nor is it much, that he should shew them this fauour, his bowells being moued to compassion, in seeing his creatures in such extremities of af­fliction. Let Kings therefore beware and take heede, and their Ministers bethinke themselues; that in such a case, an Inundation of teares, is of more force, and more danger, then that of the swiftest Torrent vpon a mighty flood.

Of the sense of hearing; And of the Audiences, which Kings ought to giue.

PVrsuing stil the Metaphore of the head, whereon hitherto we haue insisted, oc­casion is now offred vnto vs, to treat of the sense of Hearing, which hath some certaine excellencies aboue the rest. For thereby we come to vnderstand the hidden secrets of the heart, and the most inward thoughts of the Soule; which being clad and apparrelled with that out-side, and ex­terior part, the Voyce, and put vpon the Hearing of that person, with whom we talke and discourse, it knoweth that, [Page 161] which the vnderstanding of neither Men, nor Angels once is able to comprehend. And that which we haue spoken of the sence of the sight ought likewise to be said of this, For as far forth as is the perceiuing of a Voyce, or some other noyse, or sound by the hearing, so farre is it common as well to brutes beastes, as to Men. But it is proper only vnto Man, by hea­ring a significatiue voyce, to discourse thereof, and to vn­derstand the inward conceipt of him that speaketh. And from hence will we draw, what ought to be heard by the Head of a Common-wealth: who is not onely to content himselfe with hearing the bare externall Voyce, but to heare it in such maner as the holy Scripture telleth vs, God heareth the voyces of those, which call vpon him in the time of their trouble, which is a vsuall and plaine kinde of Language in the Diuine Writt. And when it is sayd, that God heareth vs, it is ioyntly sayd, that he graunteth our pe­tition; Whereof many Testimonies are found in the Psalmes of Dauid, Psal. 4. 1. ibi. ver. [...]. and in diuerse other places. Cùm inuocarem, ex­audiuit me Deus iustitiae meae. Dominus exaudiet me, cum cla­mauero ad cum, &c. The God of my righteousnesse heard me, when I called vpon him. And anone after. The Lord will heare, when I call vnto him. In the twentie one of Gene­sis, it is there twice repeated, that God heard the voyce of Agars childe,Gen. 2 [...]. 1 [...]. who was Abrahams bond-woman, which the mother had left all alone in the wildernesse of Bersheba vn­der a certaine tree, and sitting downe ouer against him a farre off about a bow-shoote, that shee might not see him perish for want of water. Dixit enim non videbo morien [...]em puerum; For shee said; I will not see the death of the childe. In the very next Verse following a double mention is made, That God heard the voyce of the childe: Which was in effect to say, that he did releiue him, and refresh his thirsty Sou [...]e, and granted that, which the infant, and his mother desired. And the Apostle Saint Paul, in that Epistle which hee wrote to the Hebrewes saith of our Sauiour Christ; That, [Page 162] Offerens preces ad deum cum clamore valido, Heb. 5. 7. et lachrymis, ex­auditus est pro sua reuerentia. Offring vp prayers and sup­plications to God the father, with strong crying, and teares, he was also heard in that which he feared. Which was all one, as if he should haue said, That his father dispatcht him, and granted what he petitioned in that his prayer. So that in rigour of holy Writ, Gods Hearing, and Gods Gran­ting, is all one. But in that common Commerce with men, and in that style, which Kings and their Ministers vse, it is not so. For they heare, and hearing answer, that they haue heard that, which they neuer meane to grant. And there is no worse Answer for a suitor, then to make this answer to his petition, That it hath beene heard. And it is very fit, that they should reply in this kinde of phrase: for thereby is gi­uen to be vnderstood the great obligation they haue to heare, as well those that haue iustice, as those that pretend to haue it, although they haue it not. In signification whereof, the two eares are placed on the two contrarie sides of the head, one opposite to the other, because affording one eare to the Plaintiffe, we must reserue the other for the defendant. And because God would haue it so, that Hearing should be the ordinary meanes for the receiuing of the diuine Light, and attaining to the knowledge of those supreme truthes, by so superexcellent and high a gift, as that of faith,Rom. 10. 14. Quomodo credent ei, quem non crediderunt? How shall they beleeue in him, of whom they haue not heard?) As also, that Kings may haue an intire light of humane Truthes, it is requisite, that they should lend a willing eare to those that cra [...]e Audience of them. For in this sense, of all other (saith Saint Bernard) Truth hath it's seate, and Mansion. [...] In auditu veritas: Truth is in Hearing. And in example of this, hee alleageth that which passed betwixt good old Isaac, and his two sonnes Esau, and Iacob; who by reason of his olde age, fayling very much in all the rest of his senses, that of his hearing continued still in it's full per­fection: [Page 163] The other deceiu'd him,Gen. 27. 22. and this onely told him the Truth. Vox quidem vox Iacob, manus autem, manus sunt Esau. The voyce is Iacobs voyce, but the hands are the hands of Esau. Wherein he was out. In Gods Schoole, where faith isprofessed, great reckoning is made of Hearing. Quia fides, Rom. 10. 17. ex auditu. Because faith comes by hearing. For a man may heare, and beleeue, though he cannot see. But in the Schoole of the world, we must haue all these (and all is little inough) We must see, heare, and beleeue: And when Kings haue both seene, and heard, and throughly informed themselues of the whole State of the busines, that they may not be deceiued in their iudgement, then let them presently proceede to touch it (as we say) with the hand, to fall round­ly to worke, and in that maner and forme, as shall seeme most fitting,Psal [...]02▪ 19. [...]0▪ to finish, and make an end of it. Dominus de coelo in terram aspexit, vt audiret gemitus compeditorum &c. The Lord looked downe from the height of his Sanctuary. Out of the Heauen, did the Lord behold the earth, that he might heare the mourning of the prisoner, and deliuer the children of death. This looking downe of the Lord from the highest Heauens, and from the throne of his glory, vpon the earth, to heare the grieuous gro [...]nings, and pitifull complaints of poore wretched creatures, which call and cry vnto him for iustice; should (my thinkes) be an admirable good lesson for Kings, that they should loose somewhat of their sportes and recreations, and of that which delighteth the eye and the eare, to bestow them both on those, who humb [...]y petition him, that he will be pleased to both see, and heare their cause. Of Philip King of Macedon (though some put it vpon De­metrius) it is reported by Plutarke in his life, that going one day abroad to take his pleasure and pastime, an olde woman came vnto him, & besought him to heare her, and to do her Iustice. But he excusing himselfe, and telling her, he was not now at leysure to heare her, shee made answer. Proinde, nec Rex quidem esse velis▪ Sir, if you be not at leysure to heare [Page 164] your subiects, & will not giue them leaue to speake vnto you, leaue to be king; for there is no reason he should be a king, that cannot finde a time to cumply with his dutie. Conuin­ced with this reason, without any more adoe, he presently gaue a gracious Audience not onely to her, but many moe besides. For Kings, which doe not heare, by consequence do not vnderstand; And not vnderstanding they cannot go­uerne; And not gouerning, they neither are, nor can be Kings. The Cretans, painted their God Iupiter without eares, because he was that supreme king, that gaue lawes, and iudged all. And therefore ought to cary an equall eare, & indifferently to heare all parties after one and the same selfe manner. Other some, did allow him eares, but so placed them withall, that they might heare those least, that were behinde him; Which was held a fault in their God; as likewise it is in King; not to heare any but those that stand before them, or side by side are still weighting at their elbow. Kings should heare as many as they possibly can, and (which is the onely comfort of suitors) in that gratious and plea­sing kinde of maner that no man should depart discontented from their feete, being a maine fundamentall cause, to make all men to loue, reuerence, and esteeme them; and likewise to oblige Princes, to lend the more willing and patient eare to their subiects. And of this subiect, Pliny, in commenda­tion of his Emperour Traiane, tells vs, that amidst so many cares of so great an Empire as his was, he spent a great part of the day in giuing Audience, and with such stilnes and quietnes, as if he had beene idle, or had nothing to doe. And that he knowing the content that his subiects tooke in their often seeing of him, and speaking with him, so much the more liberally, and longer, he afforded them occasion and place, for to inioy this their content. For nothing doth so much please, and satisfie the heart of a Prince, as to conceiue, that he is beloued, and generally well affected of all his sub­iects. Let a King then, (this course being taken) perswade [Page 165] himselfe, that his people loueth him, and desireth to see him, and to speake dayly (if it were possible) with him. And that they take a great deale of comfort, that they haue seene him, and he heard them. And that of two things which all de­sire, To wit; To be heard, and relieued; The first, intertaines, and comfortes the suitor; and makes him, with a cheerefull minde, to hope well of the second. Let him heare, though it be but as he passes by from place to place, and let him not let any day passe, without giuing ordinary Audience at a set hower, and for a set time. And in case any shall require a more particular and priuate Audience, a gods name, let him grant it them; For euery one of these (to conceiue the worst) cannot deceiue him aboue once; And it is to be supposed, that they will not be so vnciuill, or so foolishly indiscreete, as to craue the Kings priuate eare, but in a case of necessitie, or where there is some especiall cause, or extraordinary rea­son for it. And I farther affirme, that Audience being giuen in this maner, things will be carryed more smoothly, and with more ease on either part; For that which breakes down your Damn's in your riuers, is the detention of the water. And the detayning of a Subiect from the presence & speech of his King, is that which doth dishearten, and deiect the mindes of your negociants, and supplicants. And when they see they so seldome haue Audience, and are put off from day to day, and that it costes them so deare before they can be heard, they will, while they may, make vse of that present occasion, and then they talke world without end, and neuer giue ouer, because they are afraid they shall neuer haue the like opportunitie againe. But when those suit [...]rs shall know that they shall haue ordinary hearing, on such dayes, and such a set houre, and for so long a time, they will content themselues, with giuing much lesse trouble to their owne tongues, and his Maiesties eares. In a word, no man will denie, but say with me, that it is iust and meete, That he, that is to rule, and remedy all, ought likewise to heare all and that [Page 166] all men should know as much; for, for the good, and hope thereof, they principally obay, and loue their King. And besides, a great part of that concurse, and tedious trouble of Negociants, will by this meane, be cut off. For, vnlesse it be in case of necessitie, or some extraordinary occasion, no man (I assure my selfe) will be so vnmanerly as to offer to weary and tire out his King. For it is naturally inbred in all, to feare and respect Greatnesse, And therefore will not cause molestation to so great a Maiestie but when they cannot finde any other meanes to negociate. In conclusion, facile Audience in Kings, is such a vertue, as doth supply (and that with a great deale of aduantage) the defect of many o­ther vertues. And where there is no neede of that supply, it serues to giue a greater luster and perfection to the rest, the subiect not hauing any other thing, that he more craueth from, or desireth in his King. And questionlesse, vse and custome, will make it more easie, though at first it may seeme somewhat troublesome vnto him. King Antigonus, who was father to the great Demetrius, was a proud, ambi­tious, couetous, cruell, and effeminate Prince, and yet not­withstanding all these vices, and other his weakenesses and infirmities, his subiects did beare with them, and did truly serue and obay him, because he did neuer refuse to giue them Audience, gaue them kinde and faire answeres, suffred him­selfe to bee seene often of them, and did neuer shew to any man a frowning looke, or discontented Countenance.

This facile giuing of Audience, doth bring likewise with it another benefit not so well vnderstood perhaps, as it ought to be, by Kings and their fauourites. Which is: That thereby they receiue the priuate aduertisements of particular persons in such a conuenient time and season, as is fitting for them. For, in negociating, by retarding this Audience, either the occasion is ouersl [...]pt, or he wearyed out, that should ad­uertise. And because the aduertiser, (as there is great reason for it) would be [...]oath that another man should goe away [Page 167] with the thankes and gratification, which is due vnto him­selfe for his care and diligences vsed therein, he will nego­ciate it by his owne, rather then anothers meanes, that he may not loose both his thankes, and his labour. And be­cause many times this Aduertiser, either dareth not or holdeth it not fit, to trust a paper therewith or other mens eares, all this may easily be excused with a facile Audience. King Ass [...]erus, Es [...]er 2. [...]. by knowing in time the treason which was plotted against him, by Bigthan and Teresh, two of his Eunuches, which kept the doore, had his life thereby pre­serued.Plut. in vita Public [...]la. And Publicola, the Roman Consull saued his Coun­try, by preuenting in time the conspiracie of Tarquinius, by giuing easie accesse and Audience to Vindicius, an ordinary seruing man, who bewrayed vnto him the treason of the Aquilij, and Vitellij, together with Brutus his sonnes. And the like successe had Pelopidas amongst the Grecians, (as you may reade in Plutarke) where he much recommen­deth in either of them, both Publicola, and Pelopidas, their kinde and courteous vsing of men, when they came to speak with them, and the easie and patient eare they had from them. Whereas on the contrary, diuerse Princes haue vt­terly ouerthrowen themselues and their kingdomes by their hardnesse and harshnesse in this kinde, and haue lost many a great and faire occasion, because they would not heare, and examine in time those aduertisements which were giuen them, & recommended to their better considera­tion. Last of all, admit that this should not be altogether so iust and conuenient a course as I haue here deliuered vnto you, yet notwithstanding, because all men wish & desire it, my thinks this one consideration, in all good reason of State should suffice, to haue it be held, to be both iust, and con­uenient. For it is not possible that all both good and bad, should erre in this desire. And I dare be bold to say, that all doe hunger and thirst, cry and dye for this, except it be some few who may feather their nest by the contrary, whose thriuing, and increase of wealth doth ordinarily consist, in [Page 168] clapping a lock on the kings eare, & bar [...]ing the doore to his hea [...]ing, so that men can hard [...]y & with a great deale of diffi­culty come to speak vnto him. And besides the foresayd be­nefits, by debarring men of easie accesse to the king, all requi­ta [...]l of their good seruice, either by gratious words, or deedes, is quite taken from them; which certainly is a iewell so wor­thy the wearing, that euery one would willingly haue it for himself. And if kings do not know thus much, or that they are not told therof, it is by reason of that old mischeife which they suffer by not hearkening vnto truth, either in their Counsel­lours or those Auisos, that are represented vnto them, or be­cause those that are neere about his Maiestie & interessed in his fauour, will not let him be acquainted with any thing, saue what they know wil please his humour, & giue him most cō ­tent, till the busines it self breake out, & the errour (like an im­posthume) beginns to grow ripe, and the wound (as we say) shewes itselfe; then and neuer till then, is the smart of it felt: Which is ill for the kingdom, & worse for the King. For, in these delicts and excesses, the King, (in the peoples conceit) shal be the only man in fault, & he that must pay for all. Dan­gerous is the State of Kings, dangerous the times, but more dangerous the remedy, & the non conueniencie for the now putting it in practise. In ordinary, and publick Audiences, let not Kings permit either Ministers, Counsellours, or Embas­sadors to enter for it wil but make the Commons complaine, that that is taken away from them, which is theirs; And they on the other side, being principall persons, will mutter and grumble, thinking themselues wronged, and their worth vn­derualewed, to haue all one Audience with the ordinary sorte of people. So that with one & the same Act, he discontents all of them. Let there be dayes, & houres; appointed for the one, & the other naturalls, & strangers, & let euery man know his set day, and houre. For this being without distinction, what doth it serue for, but multitude, and confusion? And to haue all of all sortes to assist there continually to heare and nourish [Page 169] the Complaints of particular persons, and to make report thereof by Letters to their seuerall nations and Countries, and to put a Glosse vpon them, to shew their owne wit. And though this at the first sight, may seeme to be a thing of small importance, yet such a time may be taken, that it may proue a matter of great consequence.

He goes on with the same matter, Treating of the Audiences of Ministers, and Counsellours.

KIngs (saith Xenophon) haue many eares; For they heare by their owne, and by those of their Fauourites, Ministers, & Counsellours. And it is no more then they stand in neede of. For they must heare all, Great, and Small, Naturall, and Stranger, without acceptation of persons, these as well as those; and deny no man their eares, lest they giue them iust cause to grieue and complaine, that for them onely, there is neither King, Fauourite, nor Minister to haue accesse vnto. This Rapsodye, and multitude of eares, and the difference between the one and the other, King Dauid giues vs to vnderstand in that his Audience which he crau'd of God. Domine, Ex­audi orationem meam [...]uribus percipe obsecrationem meam. Psal. 143. [...]. Heare my prayer (O Lord) bow downe thine eare, and hearke [...] vnto my supplication. He saith, Heare me, O Lord; but how, or in what maner? With thine eares, I beseech thee. Tell me (thou holy king) why dost thou say with thine eares. Might not that phrase of speech beene spared? Or wouldst thou happely, that God should heare thee with his eyes, or his mouth? No certainly, But because it is a vsuall custome with Kings, that gouerne great Monarchies, who by reason of the varietie and multitude of businesses, cannot by them­selues [Page 170] giue eare vnto all, and informe themselues of the truth, to remit part of them to others, that they may heare the Parties, and informing themselues of the busines, may send it afterwards to the Consulta there to be debated. One comes with his Memoriall to the King; The King wills him to speake vnto the President, or to such a Secretary, that he may inform. But Dauid here saith; Remit me not O Lord vnto any other, for remissions, are remissions, the very word telling vs, that to remit a busines, is to make it remisse and slow, and that there is vsed therein so much remission, that a mans life is oftentimes ended, before his busines. Auribus percipe: Doe thou thy selfe heare me with thine owne eares, without remitting me to the hearing of others. But to heare all, and in all partes, without remission to other mens eares, who can doe this saue onely God? And for my part, I am of opinion, that they alluded vnto this, who (as wee told you) pain­ted their God without eares; for to giue vs thereby to vn­derstand, that it is peculiar onely vnto God to heare with­out eares, and to heare all, without standing in neede of o­ther Oydos, or Oydores; For such a necessitie, were in God a defect. But in Kings it were a defect to doe otherwise; for they are notable to heare all of themselues, and ther­fore must of force make vse of other mens eares. And there­fore, as Nature, in Mans body hath disposed different Mem­bers, necessary for it's proper conseruation, as the eyes to see, the eares to heare, the tongue to talke, the hands to worke, the feete to walke, and all of them to assist to the Empire of the soule. So in like manner, this Mysticall body of the Common-wealth, whereof the King is the soule, and Head, must haue it's members, which are those his Mini­sters, which are Subiect to the Empire of their king, by whom hee disposeth and executeth all that, which doth conuene for it's Gouernment, conseruation, and augmen­tation. [...] Aristotle renders the reason, why your huge and extraordinary tall men are but weake; And (as I take it) it is [Page 171] this. The rationall Soule (saith he) is solely one, indiuisi­ble, and of a limited vertue or power, and that it cannot at­tayne to that strength and force, as to giue vigour to those partes that are so farre distant and remote in a body, beyond measure, great. Now, if the body of this Monarchie, be so vaste, and exceeding great, and goes dayly increasing more and more, and that the Soule of the King which is to go­uerne it, to animate it, and to giue it life, doth not increase, nor is multiplyed, nor augmented, at least in it's Ministers; How is it possible, that a King of himselfe alone should bee able to afford assistance to all? And to giue life, and being, to so many partes and members, that are set so far assunder? so great is the Office of a king, especially, if he be Master of many Kingdomes, that it is too great a Compasse, for one mans reach, and it is not one man alone, that can fill and oc­cupie a whole Kingdome, and be present in all it's partes. And therefore of force he must make vse of other folkes helpe, and more particularly of those, which serue him in­stead of eares, such as are all your superiour Ministers of Counsells. These great Officers are called in the Spanish, Oydores, of Oyr, To heare; And the eares of the head, are c [...]lled Oydoras, of their hearing; And your Iudges of the land, Oydores, Hearers of Mens causes And as they are alike in name, so ought they likewise to be alike in Office, and to resemble the Originall, which it representeth, to the life, and it's true nature. Now, what Office is most proper and most naturall to the eares? you will all grant mee, that it is to heare alwayes, & neuer to be shut. Your eyes haue their port­cullis, which they open, or shut, as they see cause. The mouth, hath the like; But the eares (like bountifull house keepers) haue their doores still open, and those leafes which they haue on either side are neuer shut, neuer so much as once wagge.Plin. natur. Hist. lib. [...]. And it is Pliny's obseruation; That onely man, of all [...] creatures hath his eares immobile, and with out any the least mouing. And Horace, holdes it an ill signe to wagg [Page 172] them; but a worse, to stop them, Sicut aspides surdae, obtu­rantes aures suas. Psal. 58. 5. Like deafe adders, stopping their eares, that they may not heare. sicut Aspides, which are fierce and cruell creatures, and of whom it is sayd, that they are borne as deafe as a doore naile; and to this their naturall deafenes, they adde another that is artificiall, whereby they grow more deafe, by poysoning that part, and by winding their tayle close about their head, and sometimes laying the one eare close to the ground, and stopping the other with the tipp of their tayle, that they may stop and damme vp all the wayes, by which the Voyce of the Charmer might en­ter in. Vnto whom, Dauid compares those who being Oydos del Rey, the Kings eares, or (to speake in the vsuall phrase) Oydores del Reyno, the Kingdomes eares, doe shut and stop their eares, that they may not giue due and fitting Audience. Being naturally enemies to their owne professi­on, which is to heare; seeking out shiftes and tricks, that the Cryes, and Complaints of the poore may not come to their eares. There is not any crueltie comparable to this, to see a poore suitor trot vp and downe, a moneth or two together, labouring to haue Audience, and in stead of let­ting him in, hath the doore still shut against him. Nature would not allow doores to the eares, & yet these that are the Common-wealths eares, make profit of the doores of their houses, and command them to be kept shut: your suitors they come and goe, but my sennior Oydor, my Lord iudge, he that should haue his doores open, to giue open hearing to all Comers, is shut vp in his closet, and cannot be spoken withall vnder a couple of Capons. The Tribunes of the peo­ple of Rome (a Magistracie ordained for defending of the Communaltie) kept their gates still open, that men at all houres, might vpon all occasions, come and treat with them. If that young man,Act. 2 [...]. 21. which was Saint Pauls sisters sonne, who heard the Conspiracie which the [...]ewes had plotted a­gainst him, and went to giue aduise thereof to the Magistrate, [Page 173] had not found such easie entrance into the Tribunes house as he did, without doubt it had cost Paul his life. For fourty men, had taken a solemne oath to kill him as he came forth of prison to his Triall; and bound themselues with a curse, that they would neither eate, not drinke, till they had killed him. Now, when this young man came to the Chiefe Cap­taine, and told him that he had something to say vnto him; The Text there saith, that the Captaine tooke him by the hand, and went a part with him alone, and asked him; What hast thou to shew to me, &c. With this facilenes, did the Ministers of that Heathen-people, giue Audience. How much more ought Christian Ministers to doe the like? The open doore, and the giuing of Audience in some open Hall, or in some outward Court, whereunto all are admitted to enter, would giue much content vnto many; but these close doores, and close Audience, to very few; which is purposely done for to pleasure their friends and ser­uants; for, from this their hard accesse, and difficile en­trance, they likewise make their gaine, and are not ashamed now to demand that for a see, which if they were well serued should be recompenced with a halter And looke what I haue said of your Oydores, which are your Iudges in Chanceries, and other the chiefe Courtes of Iustice; I say the like of other Ministers, who though they haue not the same name, yet doe they serue as eares to their king. And then are their eares shut, and growne deafe, when they will not heare; making thereby his Maiestie to be found fault withall, & to receiue a hard censure from his subiects, when he is innocent & blamelesse, and drawing a thousand other mischiefes vpon the Common-wealth. And it is a most shamefull thing, and worthy reprehension, & redresse, that when kings shall bee liberall in this kind, their Ministers should be so short & cut­ted and that a man should be at more cost and trouble to get Audience of them, & to negociate a busines, then of the king himself. And the mischiefe of it is, that they procure and pre­tend [Page 174] now, as in former times, the greatest fauours the highest places, honors, & dignities, whilst in the mean while it is not thought vpon, nor taken [...]nto consideratiō, that besides the of­fence which is done herein vnto God & the Common-wealth, that it is one of the most preiudiciall things in the world for the quiet peace of States, & the conseruation of kingdomes. And this was well vnderstood by Absolon the son of Dauid, & pretender to the Crowne of Israel. Who perceiuing, that the king, his father through his great imployments in the Wars, could not so well attend his giuing Audience to all his sub­iects, and that they to whose charge & care it was committed, did not cumply, therin with their obligation, he placed him­selfe at the entrance of the Citie, whether the suitours repai­red, and seeing how much they distasted it, that they had not that quicke Audience and dispatch as they expected, and de­sired, he insinuates, himselfe into them, and speaking very kindly, [...] Sam. 15. 3. and louingly vnto them, he tolde them. Videntur mihi Sermones tuiboni & iusti, sed non est qui te audiat con­stitutus à Rege: Thy matters are good and righteous, but there is no man deputed of the King to heare thee. And this is it, that puts all out of frame, and order. O quoth he, that I were made Iudge in the land, that euery man which hath any matter of controuersie might come to me, that I might doe him Iustice; &c. And it followeth anon after in the Text; Quod solicitabat corda virorum: That by this means he stale away the hearts of the men of Israel. And that thereupon there shortly after insued a great rebellion, which put the king, & the kingdom in great ieopardie. Which may serue as a lesson for a good Minister, to teach them what they ought to do, & not to think, they do that which they ought, when for fashion sake, they giue short and crowding Audi­ences, where that which enters in at one eare, goes out (as they say) at another. But that so much time should be allowed for the hearing of them, as the qualitie off the busines shall require, without cutting those off, who go rendring their rea­sons; [Page 175] For he that hath not the patience to heare them, either he not vnderstandeth them, or is afraid to meddle with them.

With this therefore I conclude this, and the former dis­course. That the first Office of a King, is, To heare all his subiects. And it being supposed, that he alone cannot doe it, it is fit he should haue Oydores, that should heare for him, and be his eares. And for that as by the eares of the head, there runn's along a certaine secret nerue, by meanes wher­of that which is heard, is presently conuaied to the braine, there to be registred, and consulted on by the Common sense. So these Oydores, ought to holde their secret Consulta, wherein they ought to make relation vnto the King of all that they haue heard. But let them weigh with all, what a short Cut it is from the eare to the braine, and the small stay that is made in this Iourney, or passage; to the end that by this natural course, which is so quicke, & speedy, they may see their errour, and perceiue what a great fault it is, to retarde their Consultations, to shew themselues thicke of hearing, & to haue their eares shut, or rather the Oydores themselues shut vp, and not to be spoken withall. Some would faine excuse these Audiences, with the impertinencies of those that craue them, which sometimes are very large and tedious and to as little purpose, as they are too too importune, & vn­seasonable. But to this answere; That your high and emi­nent places, bring with them this trouble and charge; And (as the Apostle Saint Paul said) that it is a great token of prudence to know how to beare with the foolish, and to haue suffrance and patience with those, that are none of the wisest.2 Cor. 11. 19. Libenter enim suffertis insipientes, cum sitis ipsi sapi­entes: For ye suffer fooles gladly because that ve are wise. And because he that is most wise, is most offended with ignorance, let him know, that he meriteth much in dissem­bling it, when it is fitting so to doe: for to say the truth (as the same Apostle affirmeth, Gods good and faithfull Mini­sters haue obligation, both to the Wise, and to the foolish. [Page 176] Sapientibus & insipientibus debitorsum. Rom. 1. 14. I am debtor both to the wise men, and to the vnwise. In the History of the Kings is set downe the dissimulation, wherewith the wo­mon of Tecoa spake vnto King Dauid, and how importunate and tedious she was in telling here tale, and withall the Kings great patience in hearing her out, and his not being offen­ded with the craft and cunning wherewith shee came vnto him; albeit the businesse was of that weight and moment, that his great Captaine Ioab durst not propound it vnto him.Eccl. [...]. [...]. Audi tacens, simul & quaerens. Giue eare, and be still; and when thou doubtest, aske. This Counsaile concerneth all, but more particularly Kings, and their Ministers, who are to heare, and be silent, to aske, and aske againe, till they haue fully informed themselues of the truth of the case. For this is rather an honour, then dishonour vnto Kings, and great Ministers.Prou. 25. 1. For, as the holy Ghost saith; Gloria re­gum est in vestigare sermonem. The Kings honour, is to search out a thing. Of him, that speaketh not, nor asketh a question of him that speaketh, it may be conceiued, that he doth not heare him; For these two sences are so neere of kinne, that (as the Philosopher obserueth) he that is borne dumbe, is also deafe; And not onely this, but likewise, that the speech being taken away, the hearing is lost with it. The cause whereof (according to Lactantius) is; for that the Organ, by which the Ayre is receiued, and where­with the Voyce is formed, holds such Correspondencie with that which goes vnto the hearing, that if the first be shut or stopt, the exercise of the second is likewise hin­dred. Vpon information, and hearing, followeth in the next place, doing of Iustice, whereof we will treate in the Chapters following.

Of the Vertue of Iustice, the naturall sister, and Companion of Kings.

WEe told you in the former Chapter that Hearing was the precisest, and directest meanes for the doing of Iustice. And therefore falleth fitly out here to treate thereof. Your Ancient Hieroglyfinists, as also your Saints, in their writings, treating of this Vertue, compare it to a payre of weights or scales with it's two ballances. And it seemeth, that Nature herselfe made this Ectypum, or Exemplar, this portrayture or delineation, sha­dowing it out in euery one of vs, by giuing vs two eares, like vnto those two balances, whose truth dependeth on the Ex­amen, or Aequilibrium, that tongue or needle, which stands vppermost in the beame of the ballance; making my appli­cation in this maner, that the two eares, standing like two ballances, on either side of the head, they haue their rule of truth from the supremest and highest part thereof, where stands the tongue or needle of reason, and the iudgement of those things to their true weight, and measure, which are put into these Intellectaull ballances. To discourse there­fore of Iustice, is very essentiall to that which hath already beene treated touching a Common-wealth; For (as we told you in our very first Chapter) A Republick, or Com­mon-wealth, is a Congregation of many men, subiect to the same Lawes and Gouernment, which is not possible to bee conserued, if Iustice therein shall be wanting. Which giues to euery one, that which is his owne, keepes men within [Page 178] the bounds of good Order and Discipline, and bridles those by reason, which transported by their vnruly appetites, (like headstrong iades) would liue without it, admitting no curbe, no manner of controll, but following that Law of Viuat, qui vincit: Let him weare a Crowne, that winn's it. If Men would but obserue that first rule of the Law natural, consecrated by the mouth of our diuine Master Christ.Math. 7. 12. Quod tibi non vis, alteri ne feceris. Et quaecunque vultis vt faciant vobis homines, eadem facite illis: Offer not that to another which thou wouldst not haue donne to thy selfe. And therefore, whatsoeuer ye would, that men should doe to you, euen so doe yee to them. There needed no other bull­warkes, or fortifications, to liue quietly and peaceably in the world. But after this same Lolium crept in, this Tare, of Meum, and Tuum; the Cooler (as Chrysostome calls it) of Charitie, the Seminarie of discordes and dissention, and the fountaine of all mischiefe; men found themselues obli­ged, nay inforced, to seeke out some such meanes, or maner of liuing, whereby euery one might quietly and peaceably inioy that, which he held to be his owne. And for this cause, they resolued to leade a ioynt life together, submit­ting themselues to one and the same Lawes, and subiecting themselues to one and the same King, who should likewise keepe and obserue them, and by iustice conserue nourish, and maintaine all other necessary vertues for the augmentation and conseruation of Common wealths. And for this end, was giuen vnto Kings that great power, which they haue, holding in one hand the ballance of Iustice, and in the other, the sword of power. Which that naked weapon doth re­present, which is borne before them, when they enter with authoritie and State into their Cities. And alluding either vnto this, or those ancient Insignia of your Iudges, the A­postle Saint Paul saith;Rom. 13. 3. Vis non timere potestatem? Bonum facinon enim fine causa gladium portat; Wilt thou be without feare of the power? Doe well. For the Magistrate beareth [Page 179] not the sword for nought. Herodotus tells vs that, which Cicero deliuereth vnto vs.Cicero. Eadem fuit legum constituenda­rum causa, quae regum. That one and the selfe same, was the cause and Motiue, of ordaining Lawes, and Creating Kings. Whence it followeth, that there neither can be any Com­mon-wealth without Iustice, nor any one that can deserue to be a King, vnlesse he maintaine and conserue it. And though he may seeme to be a King, yet in realitie of truth he is not. Because he wants that principall attribute, that should make him be so; As a painted man, which is no man, cannot properly be said to be a Man. The holy Scrip­ture, styles those Hypocrites, which doe not administer Iustice, for they haue no more in them of Kings, then the apparent, or outward shew, as the Scepter and the Crowne, and other their regall roabes, and ornaments. And it is worthy your consideration, and it is no more then what their holy Doctors and learned Interpreters of diuine Letters haue obserued; That a good King, and Iustice, are brothers and sisters, and so neerely twinn'd that you can scarce make mention of the one, without the other. The Prophet Esay, representing the feruent desire of all the world, and the voyces and cryes of the Patriarkes, who with such in­stance and earnestnesse did call for the comming of t [...]-Sonne of God,Esay. 45. [...] saith; Rorate coeli desuper, & nubes pl [...]nt iustum, & iustitia oriatur simul: Ye heauens, send the [...]eaw from aboue, and let the cloudes drop downe righteo [...]snesse, let the earth open, and let saluation and Iustice gr [...]we forth, let it bring them forth together. And in another place, as if God did answer these the desires of the Iust, [...]e sayth; Ecce dies veniunt, Ierem. 23. 5. dicit dominus, & suscitabo Dan [...] germen instum & regnabit Rex, & Sapiens erit, & faciet udicium; et iusti­tiam in terra, Behold, the dayes come ( [...]ith the Lord) that I will raise vnto Dauid a righteous [...]nch, and a King shall raigne,3 King. 3. and prosper, and shall exec [...] iudgement, and Iustice in the earth. And in the third b [...]ke of the Kings, God [Page 180] being willing to grace and autorize the person of Salomon, who was the Type & figure of the true King of Kings, our Sauiour Iesus Christ, had no soner the Crowne set on his head, & the possession of the Kingdom settled vpon him, bu [...] there was presently offred and put into his hands a great occasion for to shew his prudence and wisedome, and his great noblenesse and courage for to do iustice. The Case was a common and knowen Case; it was betwixt two women, that were friends and Companions, who leading a lewd and dishonest life, were deliuered or brought to bed both at one time, and sleeping together in one bed, the one of them be­ing oppressed with a heauie sleepe, ouer-layd her childe, and when she awaked, shee found it to be dead. And at the same instant, without being felt, or perceiued by her Compani­on, she puts me the dead childe by her, and tooke the liuing childe to her selfe. But this theft could not be so couered, for all her cunning carriage, but that the other knew, that the dead childe which was layd by her side, was not hers, but the liuing. The other with a great deale of impudencie, and dissimulation deny'de it. And because they could not agree vpon the busines, they resolued to goe to King Salomon before whom the busines was continued with the like stiffenesse, and obstinate contestation, giuing each o [...]er the Lye, and other the like bold and vnciuill speeches as [...] vsuall with such kinde of women. The King, finding no mo [...]e proofe nor reason of credit in the one, then the o­ther, commanded a caruing Knife to be brought into the open Cou [...]e, & tha [...] diuiding the liuing childe in the mid [...]st, the one ha [...] should be giuen to the one, and the other to the other. Thereu [...]on, the true Mother, trembling and quaking, and feeling that knife a ready in her owne bowels, which was to part her [...]ilde in twaine, besought the King, that this his sentence mig [...]t not be executed, but that the childe might be deliuered o [...]r whole to the other. Which being well weigh'd and consi [...]red by this wise King, and good [Page 181] Iusticer, he knew thereby, that she was the true Mother and so gaue order, that the childe should be restored vnto her. And the holy Scripture saith; That the same of this notable peece of Iustice was divulged farre and neere, and that there grew thence a great respect in all the people of Israel towards this their most prudent King, who had with so much iudgement and wisedome, administred Iustice. Audiait itaque omnis Israel iudicium, 3. King. 3. [...]8. quod iudicasset Rex, et timuerunt Regem, videntes sapientiam Dei esse in illo ad faciendum iudicium. All Israel heard the iudgement, which the King had iudged, and they feared the King; for they saw that the wisedome of God was in him to doe Iustice. So that, when they saw how iust a King he was, and with what a deale of vprightnes, he did admini­ster Iustice, the people shouted for ioy, and cryed out, that his wisdome was from heauen, and though he were then very young, they began to feare and reuerence him very much. And therefore if a king will be beloued, esteemed, and respected of his subiects, he must be a iust King. For, most certaine it is, that if Kings will pretend honour, au­thoritie, credit, estimation, and respect, they cannot take any better course for it, then by giuing to euery one, that which appertaineth vnto him, with a iust hand. Summum in regi­bus bonum est (saith Saint Gregory) iustitiam colere, Greg. lib 7. ac suae cuique iura seruare: Epist. 12 [...] It is the greatest goodnesse, and highest commendation in Kings, to honour iustice, and let euery man enioy his proper rightes, and priuiledges. And so it is, that there is not any thing, whereby Kings doe more gaine the Common voyce, for the augmentation of their authoritie, and increase of their Estates, or that doth more in­cline the minds of their subiects to respect, & obedience, then to know, that they are wise, sincere, full of integrity, & of great zeale in the administratiō of Iustice. For then all wil willingly obay him, & heartily loue him, liuing in an assured hope that all his actions, wil be measured, weighed, and crownd with E­quity, and Iustice.

[Page 182] Let therefore the Conclusion of this discourse be; That (according to Plato) the greatest prayse, that can be giuen to a King, is in consideration of this Vertue; for, (as wee will shew you by and by) it imbraceth all vertues in it selfe. And there is not any Title more honourable, or that doth so quadrare, so square, and sute; with a King, as that of lust. whereby a King is made as it were a God vpon earth, and becomes like vnto him in rewarding, and punishing. Anaxagoras, and Homer, called Kings, Iovis discipulos, Iu­piters Schollers; because in imitation of the Gods, they did administer Iustice. And anciently, they were tearmed sa­cratissimi, most sacred. In effect, Iustice is a vertue, truely regall, and most proper vnto Kings, because it appertaines vnto them by Office, and doth constitute them in their being of Kings; for without it, they cannot be. And ther­fore your Aegyptian Theologians, Di [...]dor. Si [...]ul. lib. 4. [...]. 1. with one and the same symbole, which was an open-Eye, did signifie both a king, and Iustice. For neither a king, without it; nor it, with­out a King, can performe their office. And therefore Plato calls her the Ouerseer,Plato lib. 9. delegibus. and the Reuenger of all things, in regard of that great vigilancie which Kings ought to haue in executing Iustice, and in seeing and knowing, what passeth in the kingdome: for kingdomes for this cause are content to become subiect vnto them, out of a confidence they haue, that they shall be protected by them. This is the thing (saith Osorius) that Kings must looke vnto;Osor: lib 4. de reg. Iustit. This must be their cheife care and study. In studium iusti­tiae, omnes regis curae et cogitationes, omnes labores, atque vigiliae, omnia denique studia consumenda sunt. E [...] namque à principio Reges creauit. The doing, or not doing of Iustice, is that, which either sets vp, or puls downe Kings, And that King, must make a new conquest of Kingdomes, If those, which he hath already gained, be not conserued and defended by the force and power of Iustice, which, is the maine pillar, and onely prop to speake of, [Page 183] that vpholdeth Kingdomes, without which they cannot long last and continue. For God will most iustly punish them, by taking those from them, which they haue, if they dissimulate iniustices, and if they suffer themselues to be carryed away contrary to all right and reason, and per­mit notorious faults to passe without punishment: Other faults are not so much risented in Kings, and Kingdomes are content to tolerate them, be they neuer so great. But should they haue neuer so many other good partes, if they be faulty in this, which is of so great importance, they shall presently see and perceiue a publicke face of sor­row, and a generall discontent in all their subiects. And God oftentimes, makes it a meanes for the punishment, and amendment of Kings and Kingdomes. It is the saying of Iesus the sonne of Syrach; Eccl. 10. 8. That by Counsaile, and Iustice, Kingdomes are maintained. And for default there­of, Scepters and Crownes, are lost, and Kingdomes trans­ferred from one people to another. And those brought to serue, which were borne to command. But the King, that administreth Iustice, without respect of persons, shall haue his succession perpetuall: for that is the very ground and foundation of a Throne royall.Prou. 25. 5. Aufer impietatem de vultu regis, et firm [...]bitur Iustitia thronus eius. Take away the wicked from the King, and his throne shall be esta­blished in righteousnes. That is, His Issue, his House, and his Kingdome. Iustice is that which foundeth Kingdomes, which enlargeth them, and conserueth them; That which establisheth peace, and resisteth warre. Without it, there is neither King nor Kingdome, nor Common-wealth, nor Citie, nor any other Communitie, which can be conserued. And all whatsoeuer that haue beene ruined and destroyed, hath beene for want of Iustice. For this cause the Kings of Egypt, and in imitation of them, some others, did (which all good Kings ought to do) sweare their Presidents, Mini­sters, and Magistrates, that they should not obay their [Page 184] mandatums, nor execute their orders and decrees, if they found in them, that they commanded any thing contra­ry vnto Iustice, and the Lawes of the Kingdome. Philip the Faire, King of France, and his successor Charles the seuenth, enacted a Law, that the Iudges should make no reckoning of the Kings Letters nor those his royall scedules, vnlesse they seemed vnto them to be iust, and lawfull. The Catholike Kings, Don Fernando, and Donna Isabella, and their Nephew, Charles the fift, by their well ordained Lawes, Magistracies, and Tribunals of so much power and authoritie, exceeded all before them, that fa­uoured Iustice. Which were augmented and inlarged by King Philip the second, who was more particularly zea­lous of Iustice. And his sonne King Philip the third, was a great fauourer and louer of Iustice, and obseruer of the Lawes, submitting vnto them his person, and his goods, Who might very well say, that which the Em­perour Traiane said, conferring great power on his Go­uernour in Rome; Thou shalt vse this sword, in our name, and for Vs, as long as we shall command that which is iust; and against vs, if we shall command the contrarie. For it is alwayes to be presumed of the Intention of Kings, that they euermore command Iustice to be done, but neuer the contrary, though it make against themselues. Dauid gaue thankes vnto God, that hee had set him in the way of Iustice; that is, That he had giuen him an vpright heart, and informed his vnderstanding with so right a rule, that it inclined his disposition to doe iustice, though it were against himselfe. The cause (saith Diuus Thomas) why God, for so many yeares did inlarge the Empire and Monarchie of the Romanes, with so much power, so much treasure, and so many great victories, was; for that their rectitude and iustice, which they ob­serued towards all. But in that instant, that they fell from this, their Empire likewise began to fall. Of these Exam­ples, [Page 185] all Histories, both humane, and diuine, are very full; yet all will not serue the turne, they doe little, or no good. Let Gods mercie supply this defect, and worke this good. And let not the poore bee discouraged and disheartened, but let them comfort and cheere vp them­selues with this, that their righteousnesse, and their pati­ence shall not perish for euer. God hath spoke the word,Psal. 10. 17. 18. 10. and he will keepe it. The poore saith the Psal­mist, shall not alwayes be forgotten, nor shall the hope of the afflicted perish for euer. For he will take the mat­ter into his owne hands, and will breake the arme of the wicked and malitious, and will helpe the fatherlesse and poore vnto their right, that the man of earth bee no more exalted against them. Woe vnto those, that are rules of the people. Woe vnto those, that are vniust Kings; Which make Lawes like Spiders cobwebbs; whereinto, little starueling flies, fall and die; but your fat Bulls of Basan breake through, and beare them away in triumph on their homes. But that wee may touch no more vpon this string, we will here holde our hand; and and goe on, in treating of Iustice, and it's parts; A mat­ter no lesse profitable, then necessary, for Kings, and their Ministers.

Of the Parts of Iustice in common, and in particular of Iustice commutatiue.

TO the end that we may proceede with more distinction and clearenesse in this Chapter,D. Tho. 1. p. q. 21 artic. 1 &. [...]. 2 q. 61. art. 3. So [...]o de Iustitiae. & iust lib. 3. Arist: 5. Ethic. cap: 2. 1. we are to presuppose with Diuus Thomas, and others, that Iustice may be sayd to be in Common two manner of wayes. First of all vnder this generall name of Iustice,Mat. 5. 20. & 6. & 1. is com­prehended all kinde of vertue, & there­of in this sense, saith the Philosopher, that Iustitia est omnis. virtus; Iustice includeth in it selfe all sortes of vertues what­soeuer so that a iust Man, and a vertuous man is all one. And in this sense Christ conceiu'd it, when he said, Nisi a­bu [...]d [...]uerit Iustitia; Except your righteousnesse exceede, &c. And in another place; Attendite ne iustitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibu [...]. Take heede that yee doe not boast your righteousnesse before men, to be seene of them. Of iustice, considered thus in the generall, we will not now treate of in this place; for in rigour and strictnesse, this is not true iustice, though it haue some similitude therewith. Now Iustice is taken after another manner for a particular virtue. To wit, that, which is one of the foure Cardinall vertues, which hath for it's obiect and end (as we shall tell you by and by) to giue vnto euery man that which is his right and his due. Of this (which is properly Iustice) do we here meane to treate; of whose Excellencies, all bookes are full, and whereof, the Ancients said; That it is a celestiall and diuine vertue, seated by God, in the mindes of men. Vlpian saith; That it is, Constans et perpetua voluntas, quae [Page 187] tribuit cuique suum; Lib. 1. [...] De Iust. & i [...]: A constant and perpetuall Will, attri­buting to euery man his owne. Plato he goes a little farther; adding, that it is, singulare, et vnicum donum, &c. The onely singular gift, & the greatest good, that God communicated vnto Mortalls here vpon earth. For, from thence ariseth Peace & Concord. This is it's worke, & the end it pretendeth; Ac­cording to that of Esay; Esay 32. 17. Opus iustitiae pax. And the worke of iustice shalbe peace, euen the worke of Iustice and quiet­nesse, and assurance for euer. And God himselfe, the Au­thor, Cause, & fountain of Iustice, the first Title, & name that he tooke, when he created the world, before that hee had created Angels, men, and Beastes, was that of Iudge. Wher­by we are to vnderstand, that there was a Iudge, and Iustice in the world, before any other thing was created. For, to haue created a world, without a Iudge, or iustice to gouerne it, and to punish humane excesses and disorders, had beene to make a denne of Thiefes, and Robbers. For all Kingdomes and Common-wealths, without Iustice (saith Saint Austen) had beene nothing else, but so many Armies,Aug. lib. 4. de ciuit. Dei. cap. 14. of Out-Lawes, Rebells, and high-way Robbers. Remota Iustitia, quid sunt regna, nisi magna latroicinia. Take away Iustice, and what are kingdomes, but Latroci­nations, all kind of theft's, spoyles, and rogueries? Certaine it is, that the first Iudge, and Minister of Iustice, that was in the world, was God himselfe, who appointed Lawes, and Precepts, who did rule and gouerne without Kings, or other their substitutes, till Noahs time; who was the first Gouernour of his people, to whom he gaue order that he should liue in iustice and righteousnesse; doing the like afterwards to Moses, and after him, to his annoynted Kings. And therefore Esay stiles him Legislatorem, a Law-giuer. Dominu [...] Legifer noster; The Lord is our Iudge, the Lord is our Law-giuer, the Lord is our King, he will saue vs. &c. And then in those dayes, by the sole power & hand of their Kings, was Iustice administred; And they [Page 188] were called Iudges, because they did iudge according to the Lawes;Isidor. lib. Etymol. And they tooke this name from Iustice it selfe. Iudex dictus est, quasi ius dicens populo: non ergò est Iudex, si iustitia in eo non est: He is called Iudge, of iudging the people vprightly: And he is no Iudge, if Iustice be not in him. His Obiect is Ius, or that which is iust and lawfull. And his office, to offend no man; to doe right vnto all, to giue euery one that, which is his; and what of right belongs vnto him. This Iustice hath power to determine, how, how much, and when, the good are to be rewarded and the bad punished; it is the harmonie of all good go­uernment, and whereby the world is sustained; and where­with as with meate and drinke, the life of man is preser­ued. And if Iustice should faile, the world would present­ly returne to that Chaos, and confusion, wherein it was at the first. And for that this Vertue, is so necessary for mans life,Aug. de Doctr. Christ. Saint Austen saith, that your ancient Kings did build and consecrate a Temple thereunto. And that on the high Altar, there were ingrauen certaine Letters, which spake thus: Iustice, that is vpright, and free from loue, or hatred, is the strongest chaine, that a Kingdome hath. Which suteth with that, which one of the seuentie Interpreters told King Ptolomy (as Aristeas reporteth it) who being demanded by him,Aristeas in Hist. how he might sustaine himselfe in his Kingdome, and hold concord and good correspondencie with so great a multitude and varietie of men, as were therein, replyed: By preseruing Iustice, and giuing to euery one what was fitting, and not otherwise. And this is so manifest a truth, that Plutarch affirmeth; That not Iupiter himselfe, though the greatest of the Pagan Gods, could be a good Gouernor without Iustice.Ambr. lib. 2. in Lu [...]. Aug. lib. de [...]. In it (saith S. Ambrose) is found the Concordancie of all vertues & without it, there is neither consonancy, nor harmony. It is the Mistresse of Mans life, the extirper of Vice, the mother of peace, the defence of the Kingdome, the treasure of a Common-wealth, the ioy of [Page 189] men,Cirero. lib. 3 [...] de Officijs. the com [...]ort of the poore, the cure of the sicke, and the medicine of the soule. Cicero, calls her the Queene and Lady of the Vertues:Plut in Moral. lib de Doctr. prim. Plutarke would haue her to be in respect of the rest, as the Sunne amongst the Starres. Firmaianus affirmeth,Lact. Tirm: lib. 3 cap. 22. & lib. lib 5. cap 5. that shee is the mother of them all. And as the Mother is before the Daughters; So Iustice hath the precedencie of all other Vertues. Scotus, Scot lib. 4. [...] 46. q. 3. surnamed the Subtile, together with Anselmus say;Anselm: in Prosolog. Plutarc. in Ag [...]. [...]. that if betweene Gods iustice and merc [...]e, there were any precedencie, Iustice would haue the prime place. In fine, it is the foundation and ground of all other vertues, and by which all ought to bee regulated and ordered. And we cannot ind [...]are it more, then in saying; That if Iustice should fayle, all the Vertues would fayle. And if that onely be kept, there will be li [...]le neede of the other. So said King Agesilaus. And it is Aristotles Tonent;Arist: 3. Top. cap. 2. 1, That if Iustice were publickly and truly administred, Fortitude, and other the Vertues, would be superfluous. For one not iniurying another, all would be peace, loue, and charitie. And it is a vertue very natu­rall vnto Man, who, in his owne nature, abhorreth Vice, and loueth goodnesse, and what is honest. And therefore amongst other things that are controuerted,Cicero lib. 1. de Leg▪ Cicero saith, that there is not any thing more certaine to be knowne, then that Man was borne for to doe Iustice. It is she that ordaines things for the common good, and the good of our neighbour. And by how much the common is greater then the particular; So much doth this Vertue exceede o­thers, that are ordayned to a particular person, or a mans owne selfe. Finally, it is very necessary for the conseruati­on of the body,S. Tho 2. 2. 7. So. Art. 1. and the Saluation of the Soule. Diuus Thomas, and others, whose names I silence say; That 24. Vertues side, and take part with her, which they tearme Ad [...]utrices, Helpers, which doe serue and accompany her in all her Actions. And making vse of them, as of Coun­saylours, and Aduisers, she determines what is iust, the [Page 190] good which is to be followed, and the ill which is to be auoided, there being nothing, that hath not neede of it's fauour,Gregor. 6. qua. tuor modus. 11. q. 3. de re iud. in 6. cap. 1. and helpe. For, (according to Saint Gregory) it hath foure most potent opposites, which make the rod of Iustice to bow, and turne crooked, and to falsifie the tongue and beame of the ballance. To wit; Hatred, Fauour, Feare and Interest. Now Iustice is diuided into two parts, which are, the honour of God, and the loue of our neighbour. Aristotle, did likewise consider two other parts of Iustice. One common, which is ordayned for the Common-wealth, and the other particular which is instituted for our neighbour. Which by another name, they call Equitie, which man vsing with reason, dea'es so with others, as he would be dealt withall himselfe, vpon the Common, which imbraceth &Patri. de Reg. lib. 8. Tit. 2. includeth all the rest, Patritius founded his Common-wealth; And Pla [...]o his, vpon the particular. O­thers diuide it into foure parts, or species, into Diuine, Na­turall, Ciuill, and Iudiciall. Which the Schoolmen do define and declare at large, vnto whom I remit the Reader. But lay­ing aside these diuisions, [...]colastici cum D. Tho. 2. 2▪ q 80 art. 1. which make not for our purpose, the most proper and essentiall diuision of Iustice, is into Com­mutatiue, and Distributiue. Which (as Diuus Thomas saith) are the partes Subi [...]ctiuae or subiectiue parts of this Iustice; that is to say, it's essential Species. And therefore we will treate of these two, and that very briefly. And first in the first place of the Commutatiue, and in the second of the distributiue.

Iustice Commutatiue, Contractiue, or Venditiue, (for all these names your Authors giue it, for the matter of Com­mutations,Arist. 10. Met: Tit. 11. Contracts and Sales, wherein it is exercised, is considered betwixt two, party and party, which are a part of that whole body of the Common-wealth, which giue, and take, betweene themselues, by way of Contract, or Sale. It's end, and obiect, is equalitie, and proportion, betweene that, which is giuen; and that, which is receiued; with­out respect vnto the persons which buy, and sell, but to that [Page 191] which is contracted, solde, or commutated, that there may be an equalitie and proportion had, betwixt that, which is giuen, and taken. And when in this there is a defection, it is contrary to Commutatiue Iustice. The distributiue, is considered betweene the whole, and it's parts. The Medium of this Vertue, doth not consist in the equaltie of thing to thing, but of the things to the persons; for, as one person surpasseth another, so the thing, which is giuen to such a person, exceedeth that part, which is giuen to another per­son. So that there is an equalitie of proportion betweene that, which is more, and that which is lesse; but not an equalitie of quantitie, to wit; So much to the one, as to the other. For those, which in a Common-wealth, are not e­quall in dignitie, and desert, ought not equally to enioy the Common goods thereof, when they are reparted and diuided by the hand of distributiue Iustice; As we shall shew you by and by, when we come to speake of the Com­mutatiue, which treates of equalizing and according that, whch mens disordinate appetites, and boundlesse couetous­nesse doth disconcerte, and put out of order, euery one being desirous to vsurpe that for himselfe, which of right appertaines, and belongs to another, whence arise your cose­nages and deceits in humane Contracts, and whence doe resulte those contentions, dissensions, and sutes in Law. And to occurre and meete with these inconueniences, from the Alcalde of the poorest Village, to the highest and su­premest Tribunall, those pretenders may appeale, if they cannot obtaine Iustice in those inferiour Courts. And therefore in Castile, in the Counsell Royal it is called by way of excellencie, Conseiode Iusticia The Counsel of Iustice. And in all well ordred Monarchies and Common-wealths,Exod. 18. there is euermore carefull prouision made for this necessitie,Deut. 1. dis­persing in diuers Tribunalls, the fittest men for admini­string Iustice, as we haue formerly related of that great Law-giuer Moses. And in the second booke of the Chro. [Page 192] it is said of King Iehos [...]phat, that he appointed Audiences, and Tribunalls in all the principall Cities of his kingdome, and those euer at their very gates and entrance, that the Negociants and suitors might the more easily meete with the Ministers of Iustice (for this is the chiefest prouision, which a King should make for kis Kingdome) indearing to them all the faithfull administration thereof, and that with such graue words, and such effectuall reasons, that they deserue to be written in golden Letters vpon all the seates & Tribunalls of your Iudges.2 Ch [...]on. 19. 6. Videte, quid faciatis; non enim hominis exercetis iudicium, sed Domini; Et quodcunque in­dicaueritis, in vos redundabit. Sit timor domini vobiscum, & cum diligentia cuncta facite; non est enim apud dominum deum nostrum iniquitas, nec personarum acceptio, nec cupido munerum: Take heede what ye doe, for yee execute not the iudgement of man, but of the Lord; and he will be with yee in the cause and iudgement. Wherefore now let the feare of the Lord be vpon yee. Take heede, and doe it; for there is no iniquitie with the Lord our God; neither respect of persons, nor receiuing of reward. The first thing that he admonisheth them of, is; Videte, quid faciat [...]s. Take heede, what yee doe Looke well about yee, and haue an eye to what ye doe. Heare, see, and consider, take time and leysure, be not ouer-hasty in sentencing a sute, till yee haue studied the case well and throughly, and are able as well to satisfie others, as your selues. Vsing that care and circumspection,Iob. 29. 16. as did that iust man Iob. Causam, quam nesoiebam, diligentissime inuestigabam. When I knew not the cause, I sought it out diligently; As if his life had lyen vpon it. Alciat saith; That the Tribunes had at the gates of their houses the Image of a King, sitting in his throane, hauing hands, but no eyes; And certaine Statuas about him, seeming to be Iudges, hauing eyes, but no hands; Whereby they declared the Office of a King, and the duty of Iudges, painting him with hands, and them without [Page 193] them; but with as many eyes as that fabulous Argos had; or like vnto those Mysticall beastes,Apoc. 4. 7. which Saint Iohn saw full of eyes within, and on euery side. To shew that they should study, see, and examine causes, and all whatsoeuer passeth in the Common-wealth, and to informe the King thereof; who, is to haue hands, and Armes, courage, and power, for execution.

Againe, that good King puts them in minde that it is not mans, but Gods Office that they take in hand, whose proper Office is to iudge: And therefore in the Scripture, your Iudges are called Gods. And since that they are his Lieuetenants, let them labour for to doe Iustice, as God himselfe doth. For I must be so bold as to tell them, that there is a reuiewing of the businesse, and a place of Appea­ling in the supreme Counsell of his diuine Iustice. And there the Party pretending doth not deposite his thousand and fiue hundred ducats, but the Iudge, who lyes at stake for it, and if he shall Iudge amisse, he is to pay all costes and charges, and sute of Courte. Quodounque iudicaue­ritis, (sayth that good King) in vos redundabit. What­soeuer yee shall iudge it shall light vpon your selfes. He threatneth that, which God deliuereth in the booke of Wisedome to the Kings and Iudges of the earth: Audite ergo Roges, & intelligite Iudices terrae: Heare me, yee that rule and gouerne the world, and yee that glory in the multi­tude of nations that are subiect vnto you, & vnderstand, that the power that yee haue is from God, and that he is to make a Quaere, and inquire of your Actions and thoughts. And for that being his Ministers, ye haue not iudged according to his will,Wisd. 6. 5. nor kept his lawes, nor done Iustice, Horrendae & citò apparebit vobis: Horibly, and sodainly will he ap­peare vnto you. He that is most low shall finde mercie with him, but the mighty, shall be mightily tormented. All these are the wordes of the wisedome of Salomon and which are not to escape the memorie of Kings, and their [Page 194] Ministers. And Iehosophat, as a remedie vnto all; prescri­beth vnto his Iudges and Counsellours, one good Coun­sayle, and sound aduise, which is this; That in all the sen­tences they shall pronounce, that they set before their eyes the feare of God.Chrys. in Serm. [...] Bapt. Aug. ad fratres in Erem ser. 35. For, (as both Saint Chrysostome and S. Austin affirme) it is easie for him to swarue from Iustice, who feareth not God in what he doth. As likewise, that they should dispatch businesses with diligence. For there are some, that indeauour to eternize sutes. And why they doe so, God, & the world knowes. Bribery and Corruption are the Remo­ras, that stop the course of Iustice, and the cause, that sutes are so long depending before they be brought to a conclusi­on; to the confusion and vndoing of those that follow them, who are faine, by deferring, to deferring, and putting ouer from hearing to hearing, to sell their very clothes from their backs to wage Law. And when at last with much adoe, they haue sentence past on their side, they are neuer a whit the better for it, but is conuerted into gall and bitternesse, for that his sute hath cost him seuentimes more, then it was worth.Amos 6. 12. To such Iudges as these, suteth that of the Prophet Amos: Conuertistis in amaritudinem, Iudicium; & fructum iustitiae in Absinthium: Yee haue turned iudgement into gall, and the fruit of righteousnesse into worme-wood. Furthermore, saith that good King; Consider that yee oc­cupie Gods place, who wrongeth no man, nor is an Accep­ter of Persons. Yee must administer Iustice equally to all, giuing to euery one, that which is his, and of right belongs vnto him, without any other humane respect. For Iustice acknowledgeth neither Father nor Mother nor friend, but meere Truth. Cleon tooke leaue of his friends, when he was made a Iudge. And Themistocles refused Magistracie, saying That he would not possesse that place, where his friends could not be in better condition with him, then his foes. Lastly, he tels them, that he would not haue them to be coue­tous, nor receiuers of rewards. And therfore are they pictu'rd without hands, because they should not haue the faculty and [Page 195] gift of taking.Deut. 16. 19. Non accipies personam, nec munera. It is Moses his Aduise in Deuteronomy. Wrest not thou the Law, nor respect any person, neither take reward. For the reward blin­deth the eyes of the wise, & peruerteth the words of the Iust. Iustice should be like vnto the sunne, whose light costes vs nothing, and is neither bought, nor solde. Non licet indi [...]i (saith Saint Austin) vendere iustum indicium: It becomes not a iudge, to sell iust iudgement: All this appertaineth to Com­mutatiue Iustice; And to that obligation likewise which kings haue to cumply with whatsoeuer bargaines or contracts haue bin formally made, without acceptation of persons, for he is not to regard them, but the truth. To this Iustice, apper­taineth likewise, the giuing, and paying of soldiers, their re­ward, and their pay: For they doe tacitely make a contract with their Prince to serue him in that Ministry for so many Ducatts a month; And this is due vnto them in all Iustice & right. For otherwise, there should not be an equalitie, be­tweene a Souldiers paines and his pay. Nor ought hee to put them off with delayes, remitting the remuneration of their seruice to other Ministers, seeing that they serue them in their owne persons, and that the obligation is reciprocall. And therefore a certaine bolde Soldier tolde Augustus Caesar, who thought he had done him a great fauour in recommen­ding him by a fauourit of his to those of the Counsel of warr, that they might heare him, and doe him Iustice; Sir (said he) when your Honor and Authoritie ran so much hazard, and your person put to great perill, did I depute another in my place to fight for me? And therewith all vnbuttoning his dublet, be shew'd him the wounds which he had receiued in his body in his defence. By which he obliged him to heare his cause himselfe, & to giue present order that he should be well and truly payd. And when they in the seruice of their king, shall do more then they are bound vnto▪ a [...]some which vnder-go braue and noble attempts, ieoparding their fifes in such kinde of desperate enterprises, howbeit commutatiue [Page 196] Iustice obligeth not to giue them more then their ordinary pay, yet in a iust gratification, it is required of Kings, that they should reward and honour them, according to the qualitie of their persons, and seruices. For a Qiust King, ought not to leaue any seruice vnrewarded nor any fault vnpunished. For Prae­mium, & P [...]na, Reward, and Punishment, are those two Plummets, which keepe the clock of the Common-wealth in good Order.

But to giue a conclusion to this first part, I say; That Iustice ought to be in all, and with all, all equall and compleat. And for this cause she is called Flos, a flower. Giuing vs thereby to vnderstand, that to all she should be Florida, fresh and flou­rishing. Not being like a dry rotten sticke to some, and full of sweetenesse to others. And as in a tree, after the flower fol­lowes the fruit; So likewise is to be conceiued, that in kings and Iudges, this Vertue is not true, if it consist onely in the leafe and the flower, and doe not come to beare fruit. And therefore in the sacred Scripture, those that doe not as well in deede, as in shew, truly & vprightly administer [...]ustice, are called Hypocrites; for that they haue no more of Kings and Iudges, then the bare name, & Title. They ought to be Vina Lex, and Ius anim [...]tum; the very life and soule of the Law, that Men may come vnto them, not as to a Man, but as to e­quitie, and iustice it selfe. They must haue their plummet & their Lines runne euen and Ieuell towards all: Their Vare, or rod of Iustice, must not be too short for some, & too long for other some. Let Right strike the stroake, & let no man be deny'd Iustice. For this is to be Kings, and Iudges; this, to be common fathers to all poore and rich, great & small, meane and mighty.Deut. 1. 16. Audite illos (saith God) et quod iustum est, iudi­cate, siue Ciuis illesit, siue perigrinus, nulla erit distantia perso­narum, ita paruum audietis, vt magnum, nec accipietis cuius­quam personam quia dei iudicium est. Heare the controuersies betweene your brethren, and iudge righteously betweene e­uery man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him. [Page 197] Yee shall haue no respect of person in iudgement, but shall heare the small as well as the great; ye shall not feare the face of man, for the Iudgement is Gods.

Of Iustice Distributiue.

IT appertayneth to distributiue Iustice (as we told you in the former Chap­ter) to repart and deuide in a conuenient and fitting manner the goods, the ho­nours, dignities and Offices of the Common-wealth. For (as Diony­sius saith) Bonum, est diffusiuum: Good, is a diffusiue kinde of thing, it is a scat­terer, and of it selfe, a spreader of it selfe. And by how much the greater the good is, by so much with the greater force doth it communicate it selfe. And hence doth it come to passe, that God is so liberall and so exceeding bountifull as he is (that I may not say prodigall) with men, by com­municating himselfe vnto them by all possible meanes, euen to the communicating of himselfe by that most excellent and highest kinde of manner, that he could possible deuise, which was, by giuing himselfe to himselfe, and by submit­ting himselfe so low as to become true man, that man might be exalted so high, as to be made equall with God, by that ineffable and diuine vnion, which the Diuines call Hyposta­ticall. So that you see, that Good, in it's owne condition & nature, hath this propertie with it to be communicable, & by so much the more, by how much the more great it is. And herein, kings ought to be like vnto God, whose place they sup­ply hereon earth; for certainly, by so much the more properly shal they participate of good Kings, by how much the more [Page 196] [...] [Page 197] [...] [Page 198] they shall haue of this Communicatiue qualitie. And so much the neerer shall they resemble God, with by how much the more liberalitie they shall repart and diffuse these outward goods, whose distribution appertaineth vnto them. And to him cannot the name of King truely sute, who hath not alwayes a willing minde, and as it were a longing desire, to communicate himselfe. Now, for to temper and moderate this generall longing, and inflamed desire, & this so naturall and proper an appetite, of bestowing and di­uiding the riches, and common goods of the Common­wealth, this part of Iustice, which they call Distributiue was held the most necessary. Which Aristotle says, either is, or ought to be in a King, as in such a Lordly subiect, and person, to whom this repartition and communicati­on, properly belongeth. Wherein, aboue all other things, Kings ought to vse most circumspection, prudence, and care, for that therein, they vsually suffer most cosenage, and de­ceit: For, in regard that to giue, is in it selfe so pleasing and delightfull a thing; and so properly appertaining to their greatnesse, and State, they doe easily let loose the reines to this noble desire, and send giftes this way and that way, in such poste-baste, that within a few dayes they run them­selues out of all, and draw dry not onely the Kings par­ticular wealth and treasure, but the riches of the whole kingdome, were they neuer so great. So that, what is done in this kinde with so much content and pleasure, ought to be done but now and then: for such great courtesies, and ex­traordinary kindnesses, must not be made too common, for feare of drawing on a dis-esteeme of them; nor done but in their due time and season, not vnaduisedly, before hand, and vpon no merit or desert, but when others want and neces­sitie, and his owne honour and noblenesse, shall oblige him to expresse his bounty: And in good sooth, there is not any Moathe, which doth so consume, nor any Caterpiller or Grasse-hopper, that doth so crop and destroy the power of [Page 199] well doing, and the vertue of Liberalitie, as the loose hand, that can hold nothing, and in a lauish and disproportiona­ble manner scatters it's Donatiues, with so vnequall a distri­bution, that the dignitie of the gift, is drowned in the in­discretion of the giuer. And therefore, as it is in the Spanish Prouerb. which speakes very well to this purpose; Para dar, y tener, seso es menester: A very good braine it will craue, to know when to spend, when to saue. Yet mistake me not I beseech you; for it is no part of my meaning, nor did it euer come within my thought, or desire, to perswade Kings to be close-fisted, and couetous, a Vice to be hated and abhorred in all men, but in them much more. That which I say, is; That, to the end that may not be wanting vnto Kings, which doth so much importe them, and is so proper vnto them, as to giue rewards, and bestow fauours, it is fit, that they should doe these things so, that they may be able to doe them often. And according to the olde saying; To giue so at one time, as we may giue at another. Your Trees in holy Scripture, are sometimes taken for the Hiero­glyffe, or Embleme of Kings, for that they are in some things like vnto them; Wherof, we shall speak hereafter. But that, which makes now for our present purpose, is; That the tree, shewing such a largenes, spreadingnes, and boun­tifullnesse, in discouering it's fruit through it's boughes and branches, and it's inuiting vs, and presenting it's prouision vnto vs, first in the flower and blossome, to the end wee may come to gather that fruit, which yearely it bringeth forth in it's due time and season; and yet notwithstanding, hideth and concealeth it's rootes all that it can, because there lyes that fountaine, from whence all this good doth spring. As also, for that if in that part it should suffer any hurt or detriment, all the rest would cease, nor would it flourish and fructifie any more. And I am of opinion, that when Kings cannot content themselues with conferring of fa­uors, and bestowing of gifts out of those fruites and pro­fits, [Page 200] Which shall arise out of their yearely reuenewes, but that the very rents,Rayz. is pro­perly the roote of a tree, or any, other plant. Metophorictlly Rayzes, are in­heritance, or possessions, in lands, houses, or immouable goods, because these cannot be rooted out, not remoued from place to place as your moueable goods may be. Bienes rayzes del Reyno. is Crowne Land, which neither can not ought to be alienated Co [...]arr. verb. Rayzes. rayzes, and juros reales, shall be gi­uen away in perpetuitie, or for one or two lifes, which is a kinde of rooting or grubbing vp of the tree; the King shall thereby be disinabled, and depriued for euer of the fruit of those mercedes and fauours, which he might from time to time, not onely yearely, but daily, and howerly, haue afforded many of his good and well deseruing subiects. As did that other, who, because they should not trouble him with comming vnto him, to craue of the fruite, of a very good tree which he had in his Garden, caused it to bee rooted vp, and to be sent amongst them, to make their best of it; whose fruite, had he let the tree stand, might haue pleasurd a many, and that many a time and oft, whereas now it could but content a few for the present, and perad­uenture, not so well pleased neither, because thereby all hope was taken from them of hauing the like againe. Alex­ander the great, who was very liberall in his gifts, said once to this purpose; I like not that Gardiner, that puls vp the trees of his garden by the roote: Giuing thereby to vnderstand, that a King is a faire beautifull, and dainty de­licate Garden, wherein (like so many trees) are planted, the Kings rents, andIuro. reales. is a certaine royall rent, rai­sed through out a whole King­dome; so called [...] Iure for the obligation sub­iects haue to maintaine their Kings. In consideration whereof they are bound to administer Iustice truly, aud to keepe them in peace. Ib. Verb. Iuro. Dan. 4. 17. juros reales, and whiles the rayzes, or roote of them, shall remaine aliue and whole, they may yeelde good store of fruit, but if they come once to be rooted vp, they presently grow dry, and wither away. In the fourth Chapter of the Prophesie of Daniel is set downe that dreame, wherein the King of Babylon Nabucodonosor, saw that huge high tree whose top did reach vp to Hea­uen, and whose boughes did stretch and extend themselues to the vttermost ends of all the earth, and so laden with fruit, that there was prouision and sustenance sufficient for all the Men and beasts of the world, and was a shadow and shelter vnto all that came vnder it. And Daniel, by the helpe of the diuine Spirit, declaring this dreame, told him; [Page 201] Arborem, quam vidisti; tu es Rex. The tree that thou sawest, is thou, O King. That tree, was an expresse sig­nification, of that King, and of the Vastnes and greatnesse of his Monarchie, and of that which conueneth, and is proper to such Monarckes. Which is: To communicate their fruit to all, To sustaine and maintaine their subiects, and to hugg, and defend them vnder the shadow of their wings; And this is said to haue beene, and to haue conti­neued with that Monarke; whilest the tree stood whole and sound: But the Dreame, and it's declaration, proceeded far­ther, and Daniel told the King; That after he had seene the beautie and greatnesse of that tree, he heard likewise a most strong and fearefull voyce from Heauen, pronouncing a most heauie and rigorous sentence, that the tree should be hewen downe, and the boughes lopt off, and so wholy and vtter­ly destroyed, that the creatures that came thither and were fed and maintayned by it's fruit, fled thence, and forsooke it. Yet the stump of the rootes thereof was left in the earth, and bound about with a bond of brasse, and yron, &c. In this dreame, were signified three things, declared by the selfe same Prophet, with the same Spirit of God. First, The fall of that King and Kingdome, in those lopt boughes, and the hewing of it downe, and leauing it fruitlesse; Second­ly, That which vsually befalls Kings, who not hauing wherewithall to giue, all those doe leaue and forsake him, which before did follow him. Thirdly, That when the rootes remaine, there is hope that it may be restored, and returne to it's former greatnesse: As was to be seene in this King, whom God so seuerely punished for his sinnes. For the rootes of the said tree remained still whole and sound, and were a most certaine prognostication, and assured hope, that hee was to be restored to his former Estate. So that when in Kingdomes, the Rayzes of the rents royall, remaine whole and intire, though in the giuing away of the fruites, there be much bounty and liberalitie vsed, those breaches [Page 202] may be made vp againe, which are occasioned by so large a hand; But when the rayzes are grub'd vp, when the roote that should giue sap and life, is gone, there is not any means of restauration to be made or found, though Kings should charge their Kingdomes with neuer such excessiue tributes, and draw (as they say) the very heart blood from forth their subiects bodies. In a word therefore, there ought to be had in giuing, Order, Moderation, and Temperance; For a Prince, that giues without these conditions, is not Liberall, but Prodigall, a great scatterer and waster, and if not contenting himselfe with the fruites of the tree, he will haue a pull at the rootes, Lord haue mercy on that Land, for it is to be feared, that King will turne Destroyer. Giuing hath it's times, its taxe, it's limits, and it's orderly maner in the doing thereof. The excesse whereof, doth crosse and con­tradict distributiue Iustice. Wherein is to be considered the kings abilitie; then the seruices and merits of the persons; and last of all the Distribution it selfe, which must be done with discretion and prudence. For all must not be throwen vpon one either part, or partie; nor kings be like riuers; which rising out of their bedds, breaking forth beyond their bounds, vndoe some, and enrich others; robbing many, to raise one. God free euery good Common-wealth from such distributions as these, which are rather destructions then distributions, and actions of Iniustice, not of Iustice. And God (I beseech him) so illighten the vnderstanding and heartes of Kings, that they may in an orderly kinde of man­ner conferre their fauours, and giue rather reasonable re­wards to many, then extrauagant ones to a few. For the raine doth then most good, when all haue the comfort of it. But when it powres downe in one place alone, that marr's and spoyles all. Some grounds for want thereof are parched and dryed vp; and other some, by too much, are ouerflowen, and made fruitlesse. In like manner a King, showring downe all the water of his liberalitie vpon one [Page 203] particular person, it cannot but breede a generall discontent and languishment, in all the rest of his subiects. And more is the hurt, which resulteth from those, that are offended with the great fauours conferred on others, then the good that ariseth from those that are benefitted by them. For the first neuer forget the wrong they thinke they haue receiued; And the second treate of that they haue receiued, as of a due debt. And all these, and a great many more inconueni­ences grow from the not true obseruing of this distributiue Iustice. Let Kings conferre fauours on their publicke Mini­sters, and vpon such persons, as haue done them great and notable seruices, both in Peace, and in Warre: for this will be well pleasing, and very acceptable vnto all, and will ob­lige them all to new seruices; And such a generall content will it cause in all sortes of people, that it will make them to brook with the better patience those great fauours, which are vndeseruedly done vnto others, being in themselues men of no merit in the world. I would not haue Kings to be too much carried away with the inclination of their own mindes, for as they are Kings, they will euermore be apt to giue much. But I would haue them to place their eyes, as also their consideration, vpon the qualitie of the person, to whom they giue, according to the rules of Distributiue Iustice. For from that in the receiuer, and this in the Giuer, is formed that Temperance, Moderation, and Equitie, which giues li­berality it's being, and makes it to be a vertue Heroicall, and worthy Kings; Which, if it be fayling in ether of these, the one, or the other, it shall merit no such name; as you shall see by and by, when we come to conclude this dis­course; wherein we aduertise those that giue, that it shall be much prudence, and make likewise much for the good of the party himselfe, that receiueth, to goe leysurely along with him in these Mercedes, and fauours. For this difference I finde to be betweene offences, and punishments, fauours, and benefits, that the first are done but once, because in discretion [Page 204] they will not goe dayly nourishing the passion of those who receiue the harme thereby, and stand in feare lest the like ill might happen vnto them selues. As for the second, it is fitting that they be done often, giuing now a little, and then a little, that it may the better penetrate the palate, and please the taste of him that receiueth them; As in our bodi­ly meates and drinkes, bit after bit, & draught after draught, agrees better with our health, and taste, then grosse feeding and full cups. Besides, this faire and frequent distribution, cannot but cause a more settled loue in those persons on whom they are bestowed, as also in those, who liue in ex­pectation of the like.

How, and in what sort, Limitation in giuing, may sute with the Greatnesse of Kings.

NOw I see the reply, and the Argument, which may be made against that, which we haue mentioned in the former Chap­ter. For this same sising of Kings fa­uours, and these same short bounds of bounty, wherein some would shut them vp, seemeth no way compatible with the authoritie and greatnesse of Kings; Especially on such occasions, wherein they are forced to bestow them vpon persons that are deseruingly qualified for them, and that haue done notable seruices, who are not to be gratified with small gifts; nor may that seeme to bee much, which is giuen but once. First of all I answer here­unto, that it stands with good reason, that they, who haue spent their meanes, and the better and greater part of their liues, in the seruice of their King and Common-wealth, [Page 205] should be recompensed according to the qualitie of their persons and seruices, when Kings are well able to doe it, without putting themselues in necessitie, or charging their subiects (which they too vsually doe) with extraordinary Impositions. And if it be well considered, the maine drift of our former Chapter was, that things might be so or­dred, that Kings might haue wherewithall to giue vpon such like occasions. That therefore which I say, is this; That they ought to holde their hand in those Gifts, which they giue meerely vpon their owne pleasure and humour, that they may the better cumply with those which lye vpon them by way of obligation. For they, that haue vnder their charge and Command such a multitude and number of subiects, it is not meete, that they should conferre many and great fauours vpon a few, and few or none vpon many; shewing grace vnto some with that, which in Iustice is due vnto others, whose often sweats, perpetuall labour, and extreame neede, serue now for riches, regalos, intertainments, and an­nuall rents to those, who in all the whole course of their life, neuer knew what it was to moyle and toyle, or to take any paines for the Common-wealth. Nay, which is more (and it grieueth my soule to speake it) the sweat, and blood of poore labouring men, is conuerted into rose water, for to feede their delightes and pleasures, and that in such wast­full, riotous, & loose intertainments, as certainely beseemeth not Christians but Epicures and Sardanapalians, Amos. 6. 1. who did denie, the immortalitie of the soule. Woe vnto them (saith God) that are at ease in Syon, woe vnto you great Poten­tates and Rulers ouer the people, who enter in state into the Temples, and goe thence in pompe: who delight in lasci­uiousnesse, lying vpon bedds of yuory: who eate the Lambes of the flock & the Calfes out of the stall; who drink wine in bowles, and annoynt themselues with the chiefe oyntments; who sing to the sound of the Violls, and inuent to themselues instruments of Musicke; no man in the meane while being sorie for the afflictions of Ioseph, or taking pitie and com­passion [Page 206] of those poore miserable wretches, who must wring and smart to maintaine these their idle and vnnecessary va­nities. But the world will be altred with these men one day, and a time shall come, wherein (as that Princely Prophet saith.)Psal. 58▪ 10. 11. Laetabitur justus, cum viderit vindictam; manus suas lauabit in sanguine peccatorum: The righteous shall reioyce when hee seeth the vengeance, he shall wash his hands in the blood of the wicked. And men shall say, Verily there is fruit for the righteous; doubtlesse there is a God, that iudgeth in the earth. Then shall Lazarus reioyce and be glad in Abrahams bosome; and the rich Glutton lying in Hell, shall begg a dropp of cold water and haue no body to giue it him. And if any man should say vnto me that the Grandeza, and Greatnesse of Kings, requireth, that great rewards should be giuen both to the one, and the other. My answer vnto him is; That nothing better be­commeth Kings, for the conseruing of their Greatnesse, then to know that they are but men, and that they cannot stand in Competition with God, whose fountaine of riches, is infinite, and is able to fill and satisfie all, and neuer can be drawne dry, though it be imparted and distributed to neuer so many. Whereas that of men, is but like vnto the water of a Cisterne, which by being communicated to many is diminished and exhausted. King Nabucodonosor, and o­ther Kings (of whose falls, there is mention made in the Scripture) for default of this knowledg, fel from their estates: And let that tree, whose top touched heauen, and whose boughes did ouerspread the whole world (whereof wee so lately made mention) serue now the second time for an Ex­ample, which going about to imbrace all in it's owne armes, and to giue sustenance in aboundance to all, and pretending to exalt it selfe as high as heauen, did pay the price of this it's pride, autoritie, and Signorie: and did so farre pro­uoke Gods anger against it, that hee commanded it to bee hewen down, & that being layd leuell with the earth, it might [Page 207] acknowledge, how much limited, and how short was it's power. Sithence therfore that it is not possible for Kings to vse much liberalitie and bounty towards all, there is a great deale of reason, why they should forbeare voluntary Donatiues for to discharge obligatory paiments; whereun­to in rigour of Iustice,Iames. 5 [...]. he is strictly bound. The Apostle Saint Iames saith; That the debtes, which are due vnto them, that haue done seruice, cry vnto God, and that the teares of the poore ascend vp vnto Heauen, to the end that from thence may come forth a writ of Execution against those, that haue beene the cause thereof. And your Catho­like and Christian Kings are not to place their greatnesse and authoritie, on that, as did your Heathen Kings, and those that were without the light of faith. Who pretended nothing else in their gifts and fauours, but vaine-glory, and the idle applause of the world. According to that saying of our Sauiour Iesus Christ. Luk. 22. 25▪ Reges gentium dominantur eorum & quipotestatem habent super eos, benefici vocantur. The Kings of the Gentiles raigne ouer them, and they that beare rule ouer them, are called Bountifull. True authoritie, and Greatnesse, doth not con [...]ist, in Magnificencies, and Prodi­galities, which are not regular, and ruled by reason: Which requireth, to cumply first with what is due, and that neither Kings, nor their subiects, should thrust themselues into ne­cessity and want, to satisfie the ambition and couetousnesse of those,Prou. 30. [...]. who (as Salomon sayth) like vnto Horse-leaches; Semper dicunt, Affer, Affer, still cry; Giue, Giue. That, which distributiue Iustice requireth, is; That Kings should repart the common goods of the Republicke, conformeable to the meritts and seruices of euery one; preferring alwayes the publicke, before any particular good, and ioyntly with this, that they goe clinching the hand for a while, that they may afterwards stretch it out more at large, when it shall be fitting for them so to doe. And this is Liberalitie, that ver­tuous and noble Meane, betweene those vicious Extreames, Auarice, and Prodigalitie.

[Page 208] When our Sauipur Christ had sufficiently fed that great multitude which followed him into the desert, they no sooner found themselues full, but they presently resolued a­mongst themselues to make him their king. And this their determination, grew from two things which they saw to bee in him. The one his noble disposition, in affording them such free and plentifull intertainment; The other for his great prudence and good gouerment, in giuing order that the peeces of bread, and other the fragments that were left,Iohn 6. [...]. should be gathered vp. Colligite, quae super auerunt fragmeta, ne pereant. Gather vp the broaken meate, which remayneth, that nothing be lost. Nor did he doe this, that he had neede to set it vp, or keep it to serue at some other time vpon the like occasion; for he could (as often as he would) haue made bread of stones; but to instruct, and teach Kings to knowe both to spend, and saue, to giue, and hoord vp, where, how and when it is fitting, in regard that their power is limited.

Moreouer Kings are to consider that they, who at one clap receiue much from them, grow so fat and pur [...]ie, that they are not able to serue and follow them as they were wont, and sometimes they retire themselues, and nere returne againe, to see either King or Court, vnlesse meere Couetousnesse, and greedinesse of gaine draw them thither to beg, more and more,Gen. 6. 7. & to cramme their purses. Being like vnto that Crowe which Noah sent out of the Arke, who as soone as he had found firme footing, and whereon to feede his fill, neuer came back again. Kings Palaces are, like Noahs Arke, where there is a great diuersitie in the Conditions of men; and generally you shall meete there with more Crowes, then Doues. And here, I will with your good leaue, take a little libertie, to diuert my selfe from the Testimonies of Holy Scripture, to those of Great Kings and Monarckes, some of one nation, and some of another. And the first, that I shall begin withall, shall be king Don Alonso of Sicily, who [Page 209] walking along by the Sea-side, caused many gobbets of flesh, some great, and some small, mingled one amongst an­other to be brought vnto him, and still as the Crowes (which were many) came about him, to some hee threw out the lesser, to other the larger morsells. Those that went away with the great gobbets, came no more in sight, but fled their way; but those that had but a small pittance, and were not so full gorged, they followed the King whether so euer he went, and neuer forsooke him. Who tolde those that were then about him; In this (my Masters) yee may see, how much it importeth Kings to distribute their fauours with moderation and temper. Philip King of Macedon, did much reprehend his sonne Alexander for being too lauish of his fauours, and too excessiue in his giftes. Telling him, that thereby hee peruerted the mindes of those, that were to serue him, who in stead of seruing him with that loue & loyalty which in duty they were bound vnto, they would now onely serue him for their owne particular interest, and proper commoditie making, by this meanes, affection and fidelitie become a kinde of trading, and merchandizing. And certainely so it is, that when mens mindes make in­terest their Aime, and daily to get more and more, they be­come saleable, and tender their seruice to those, that wil giue them most. And they, which doe thus accustome themselues to craue and take, the loue of friendship and that thanke­full acknowledgement, which is due to the Doner, is turned into interessed Loue; which is called by the name of Con­cupisence, And are (as the Comicke Poet saith) like vnto those lewd huswifes which, Amore [...]carent, mun [...] amantis amant; Loue not so much the man, as his money, nor his person, as his purse. You shall seldome see a man, that is (as they say) a Pediguen [...], a crauing Companion, one that is still begging one thing or other, that hath not some touch of Couetousnesse, and some tincture more or lesse of vnthanke­fullnesse. For, in regard that these men loue themselues, and [Page 210] their owne interest so well, they haue not one drop of loue left for others, and if any doe remaine, they conferre it on a third person, through whose hands, that which they pretend is to passe. And the King, and Prince, to whom all is due, rest depriued of two things, that are the most substantiall and of most importance for the conseruation, perpetuation, and augmentation of his Kingdome, which are their subiects Loue, and Thankes. For the truest kinde of Raigning and the likest to Gods kingdome, is to gaine the heartes of their subiects, and to make themselues (as much as in them lyes) Lordes and Masters of their good Wills. And it is our dayly experience, to see persons that haue beene highly and richly gratified, and extraordinarily well rewarded, to haue proud very vnthankfull. For, this fault great benefits haue with them, and such as are dis-equall to the deserts of those persons that receiue them, that they are not thankfully accepted of; And those that are benefitted, to the end that they may not bewray this their imperfection (being such, as it is no lesse, then so great a sinne, as ingratitude) they soone learne to forget them; but those that are confer­red on others, neuer slip out of their remembrance. In a word, of all that that is begg'd, and of all them that begg, few there are, that forbeare to goe this way. In confirma­tion whereof, we may alleadge heere that question, which Christ made to one of those ten Leapers which hee healed, shewing himselfe not halfe well pleased with the rest of his fellowes. Nonne decem mundati sunt, Et nouem vbi sunt? Non est inuentus, qui rediret & dares gloriam Deo, nisi hic Alienigena: Luke 17. 17. Are there not ten cleansed? But where are the nine? There is none found, that returned to giue God prayse, saue this stranger. In Kings Pallaces, your strangers and those that are newly come to Court, are your onely thankfull men; For those, that are well acquainted with the Court, familiarly attend the person of the King, and are still assistent vnto him vpon all occasion, neuer acknowledge [Page 211] the fauours that are done them, bee they neuer so great: They are alwayes crauing, but are neuer satisfied; they swallow downe whole riuers, and wonder not at it; they thinke all Iordan is too little for them, and that they shall no soner open their mouth; but they must presently sup it vp. And the reason hereof, is; because they verily perswade themselues, that all whatsoeuer you giue them, (be it neuer so much) is due vnto them for their seruices, and their day­ly Assistencies. I therefore say, (and therein say but the trut,) That one of the greatest happinesses, that can befall Kings, is; to be serued by noble persons, and men of honour gente granada (as the Spaniards tearme them) iolly, strong, lusty people, proper, comely men, and persons of best and most account both for riches and honour. But this is the mis­cheife of it, that this golde, which should make such a glori­ous shew in Court, and shine both in honour and goodnesse, is canckred and rusted by Auarice and Ambition, which eates into all mens mindes, and wholly possesseth them. So that from the highest to the lowest, they are all well read in the Schoole of Couetousnesse, Dissimulation, and deceit; And your Priests, and those that weare Miters on their heads, are not in this kinde the meanest Schollers amongst them. All complaine, they are not rewarded, that they haue nothing giuen them, & if they haue any thing giuen them they thinke it is all too litle. And betwixt this their complayning, & their thankefull acceptance, there is set vp such a strong partition, that it neither suffereth them to acknowledge a benefit, nor to intertaine it with that thankfullnesse as they ought. All now a dayes attend their own interest, and not their kings seruice; Who may say that of them, which God spake by Malachie; Malach. 1. 10. Who is there euen among you, that would shut the doores of my house, or kindle but a coale on mine Altar in vaine? Not one, I assure you, but will be well payd for his paines. There is not that Sexton, that Cloy­ster Cleanser, nor scullion of the Kitchen, but will haue good [Page 212] wages, & other ayudes de costa, or by-helps. This great traine (saith Seneca) of seruants and Attendants, seeke not so much after a Master, as Money, a friend, as a fortune. Miserable is the condition of kings, whom none loue for themselues but for their owne ends, and the good they expect from them; so that this their priuate interest fayling them, their seruices faile with it, & likewise faileth (so says S. Isidore) that loue & Loy­alty which is due vnto them, Non sunt fideles, quos munus, non gratia copulat, nam citò deserunt, nisi semper accipiant; Those whom Lucre, not Loue linketh, cannot bee faithfull. For vnlesse they be still on the taking hand, they vanish, and are quickly gone. Yet is it not my intent and purpose in that which I haue sayd, to condemne those who demaund their pay and satisfaction for their seruices, to relieue their ne­cessities. For therein they doe but vse that lawfull course which is appointed for them by way of petition. Howbeit, Aristotle, Plato, and other Philosophers, would haue sub­iects to be solicitous not in sueing, but in seruing. And I far­ther affirme, that Princes are to take it to their charge, to con­tent those that haue done them good seruice; it being the principall Office of distributiue Iustice, carefully & vigilant­ly to distribute riches and honours, to those that haue de­serued them. And this vndoubtedly, is one of the most ef­fectuall meanes for the good gouernment of a Common-wealth; For, as those three diuine vertues, Faith, Hope, and Loue, are increased and augmented by praying vnto God; so on the contrarie, are they lessned and diminished by sueing vnto Men. For when subiects serue, and not sueing obtaine that which they deserue▪ humane Faith, Hope, and Loue, is augmented in them; because thereby, they are taught to rely on the vertue and wisedome of their Soue­raigne, who applyes himselfe to euery mans meritts, and the iustnesse and vprightnesse of his cause; For which cause they will loue him much, but much more, when he giues without being importuned with petitions. And it see­meeth vnto them that hee giues not more willingly, then [Page 213] he doth wisely, in applying himselfe onely to reason and Iustice, and not to the importunate Petitions of Pretenders. And therefore Kings are not to content themselues onely with paying that which they owe, and to doe mercedes and fauours to them that serue them; but that these should like­wise goe accompanied with Loue and Good Will; for with remuneration are the seruices requited; and with Loue, are they obliged to doe them still more and better seruice. In that Case, which the Scripture recounteth of King Assu­erus, who, one night being not able to sleep and take his rest, commanded Lights to be brought in, and some that were about him, to take that booke, and read vnto him, wherein were written the notable things that past in his raigne, and amongst the rest, there was mention made of a great peece of seruice, which Mardochee did him, freeing him from that death, which two of his Eunuches had plotted against him, by discouering this their treason, demanded of those there present; What honour and dignitie hath beene giuen to Mordochee for this his fidelitie towards me, and the good seruice he hath done mee? And the Kings seruants that ministred vnto him, sayd; There is nothing done for him. Whereupon, he presently bestowed vpon him such great ho­nors and dignities, that vnlesse he should haue giuen him his kingdome, he could not well haue giuen him more. Thus was this good seruant rewarded, honoured, and graced by his Lord and Master, who without being importuned, gra­tiously called his good seruices to remembrance, and honou­red him aboue all the Princes of his Kingdome. And I could wish, that all that are rewarded by their Kings, might receiue their recompence vpon the like good tearmes of Rea­son, and Iustice. But now a dayes, poore and slender seruices (the more is the pitie) finde copious, and plentifull rewards; and those (ordinarily) accompanied with ingratitude; A thing, which Nature it selfe abhorreth; And which tyes Gods hands from giuing, who is so liberall and so rich; and [Page 214] dryes vp that ouerflowing fountaine of his boundlesse mer­cies, from affording vs any farther fauour, or Comfort.

Of the repartment and Diuision which is to be vsed in the Conferring of Offices; And of the knowledge of such per­sons, as ought to bee nominated for the sayd Offices.

LLet vs consider a King (saith the Philo­sopher) in his Kingdome,Arist. lib. 8. Eth. cap. 10. as we would a father of many children in his familie. Societas enim Patris ad filios, Regni praese fert effigiem: The societie of a father towards his children, represents the true forme of a kingdome. Let any man compare the power royall to what hee will, and (according to Aristotles opinion) hee shall finde no one thing that doth fit so well with it, or giues it so much fullnesse, as the Title of father, who day and night beates his braines, and imployes all his whole study on that, which is most fitting for his children regarding more the good which hee may bee able to doe them, then any profit that he expects to receiue from them. How many times whilest his children, are a bed and a sleepe, doth the fa­ther lye awake, casting, and deuising with himselfe, how he may mantayne them, and better them in their Estate? What a deale of care doth hee take to get his daughter a good Husband, who is dearer vnto him, then himselfe? Great is his care; but much more ought the care of a king to bee in giuing to their kingdome, good, faithfull, and diligent Ministers, to the end that they may doe all possible dili­gences, (as hath beene sayd heeretofore) fixing alwayes [Page 215] their eyes on the Common good, and directing likewise their owne particular in the same way. That which I would say, (to expresse it in plainer termes) is this; That they are not to subiect the Offices to the commoditie of the men, but to seeke out men, that are fit and sufficient for them. When Saul was resolued to recommend vnto Dauid that Duell, or single Combat against the Gyant Goliah, the better to accommodate him, as also therein to honour him the more, hee put his owne rayment vpon him, and an helment of brasse vpon his head, and a brigandine, and all the rest of his owne compleat Armour; but Dauid, who was a man of little stature, and not accustomed to shut vp in harnesse, found the weight thereof to be too heauie for him, and very troublesome to his body; yet notwithstanding, to obey the Kings Command, and that hee might not seeme to reiect the honour the king was pleased to doe him, hee was willing to make tyrall, Si arma [...]us posset incedere; Whether hee could goe in it, or no? for he had neuer proued it. But when hee found hee could hardly goe in it, and that he had not the free libertie and command of his body, hee sayd vnto the King;1. Kings. 17. 29▪ Non possum sic incedere, quia non vsum habeo: I cannot goe with these; for I am not accumsto­med. And therefore rather made choyse to betake him­selfe to his sheepheards staffe, his stones, and his sling, which he knew well how to vse, then to put on the Kings royall rayment, together with his rich Armour, and afterward to giue an ill account of what was committed vnto him. But where shall you meete with the man in these dayes, that is like vnto Dauid? Nor is it fit for Kings, in this parti­cular to imitate Saul, for we dayly see notable Losses in matters of Warre, and Peace; by accommodating and honouring such persons with Offices, as had neuer beene trayned vp in them, wanting that sufficiencie of knowledge, which is fitting for the administration of them. As for [Page 216] your Prebends, and other Ecclesiasticall Dignities, whose nomination appertaineth vnto Kings, they had neede take the greater care therein by so much the more, by how much spirituall things, are of more importance, then Tem­porall. Your ancient Canons and Councells will bee your direction in this case, and teach yee, what yee are to doe and doe inforce it, with such weighty and effectu­all reasons, that they are worthy to be read, and conside­red by Kings, when they make the like Elections, or Nominations, to the end that they may not erre therein: And heere will I bring to their remembrance, that which God did, when that famous and ancient Tabernacle was to be built, which was to be a figure of his holy Church. Who (as the Scripture tells vs) nominated Bezaleel a cu­rious workeman in all manner of workemanship,Exod. 31. 4. whom he filled with his holy Spirit, and indewed him with wisedome and knowledge from heauen, that hee might finish that worke, and bring it to perfection, God himselfe hauing drawen the plot, and being the chiefe, and principall Con­triuer thereof. And if for that dead Edifice, for which hu­mane skill and dexteritie might seeme to haue beene suffici­ent, there was made choice of a man of such singular wisedome, and such admirable partes, as is there mentio­ned in Exodus; for the gouernment of a kingdome, for the ordring of a Common-wealth, for to put euery thing in it's right place, and to administer Iustice equally to all, giuing euery one that which is his; things all of them of such great importance, and which doe so much beautifie and grace this mysticall body of the Church, what ministers will it bee necessary, that Kings should seeke out and in­quire after? Namely Men, that are full of the spirit of God, wise vnderstanding men, good Christians, and adorned with all manner of Vertues. And if they will not beleeue me, let them looke vpon that first Election, which the A­postles made, when Iudas turned Apostata, despayr'd, and [Page 217] hung himselfe. In which Election, they made choyse of Saint Mathias, a man well knowen, as one that had beene bred vp amongst them, and from whom they had re­ceiued very good satisfaction.Act. 1. 21. Oportet ex his viris, qui no­biscum sunt congregati, in omni tempore, quo dominus &c. Testem resurrectionis eius nobiscum fieri vnum ex istis. Wherefore of these men, which haue accompanied with vs, all the time, that the Lord Iesus was conuersant amongst vs, &c. Must one of them be made a Witnesse with vs of his Resurrection. I say, that when Kings finde sufficient partes and aduantagious abilities in those whom they know, and haue neere about them, and in their Court, the Election may in all likely-hood seeme to light more safely and happe­ly vpon them, then any other. For they, who being still in our eye, discouer no faultes, it may be presumed, that they haue not any; For if they had, in such persons they would hardly be hid. And let this be exemplified in some, nay many of those your pictures which being beheld a farre off seeme to be curious peeces, but drawing neere vnto them, appeare to be but course worke, and discouer great faultes. And therefore Diogenes sayd,Prou. 17. 28, you must stand aloofe to looke vpon great Statuas; And I say; That he who in his speech, seemeth to be wise and discreete, ought to be taken for no lesse. For by a mans silent reseruednesse, and holding his peace, it is not much, if he passe for a wise man; because the Holy-Ghost saith; Stultus quoque si tacuerit, sapiens reputabitur: Euen a foole, when he holdeth his peace, is counted wise. In like manner, may he seeme to be a good Man, that is a great way from vs, because we neither see his deedes, nor heare his words. And peraduenture, for this reason it was ordayned, that the Pope could not be chosen, vnlesse he had beene one of the number and fellow­ship of those Cardinalls there present at the time of the Election. And when kings, cannot meete with sufficient per­sons amongst those whom they know, they must looke o­thers [Page 218] out, though they bee farther off. For so did the wisest King that euer was, King Salomon; who vsed dili­gences out of his owne Kingdome, for to seeke out the best Artificers, and such as were the fittest and ablest men for the building of the Temple. He could not content him­selfe with good workemen onely, but he sought out those likewise, that were the best, and the worthiest. The like course ought Kings to take; who alwayes, in those Electi­ons that they make, for the building and vpholding of this Edifice of the Church, should not content themselues with electing onely those that are good, but in seeking out the best and the worthiest. Whereby their Conscience shall rest the more secure, and freer from opinion. Whereas in doing the contrary, those that are the wisest, and the most learned, affirme; That their Conscience is not onely charged therewith but that they are likewise bound to the restitution of the robbery, that is therein done to the Church. And it is a lamentable thing, that for to plea­sure a priuate subiect, that he may eate and drinke his fill, and triumph in his pleasures, a King should put himselfe in hazard of going to Hell. But aboue all the foresayd diligences, Kings ought to haue recourse vnto Prayers & supplications, beseeching Almightie God that he will illu­minate their vnderstandings that they may elect the best. For so did the Apostles; who being to picke out two of of the best out of the whole pack of those that were there, at the time, when they were to proceede to the Election, they betooke themselues to prayer, vttering these words so full of meekenesse and humilitie; Tu domine, qui nosti corda omnium, [...]. 1. 24. Ostende, quem elegeris ex his duobus vnum, accipere locum Ministerij huius: Thou Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two, thou hast chosen, that hee may take the roome of this Administra­tion, and Apostleship. For, being that mens goodnesse and sufficiencie, principally consisteth in the inwardst part of the [Page 219] heart, which is so close, and so subiect to change, that God onely can truly know it, it is fit, that we should refer the Mayne of these our Elections to him, to the end that they may be guided by his Holy Spirit, and that hee may be the chie [...]e and principall Elector in them.

This, which we haue said touching prouision of those that are knowen in Court, it seemeth, that it may open a gap for those that are tumultuous Pretenders, and ambiti­ous Courtiers, to carry all before them, and let nothing that falls, scape their fingers. For these are much better knowen, then those wise and vertuous men, who ordinari­ly liue retyred, and attend more to the Complying with obligations of their profession, and function, then to the Compliments of those, who spend their whole life in pre­tensions. And it hapneth not once, nor twice, but dayly, and ordinarily, that they who follow the Court, and frequent Princes Pallaces, haue not so much followed their studies, and frequented the schooles. And few there are of them, which take pleasure in reading of bookes, to informe their knowledge, and to supply that, which is defectiue in them, concerning the knowledge of businesses, and the true vn­derstanding and execution of their Offices. But the mise­rie of it is, that if a wise and prudent Man shall seeke to make his entrance and accesse to the King, the Porters will shut the doore against him. And fooles hauing such free entrance it is no wonder that wise men are kept out. As it hapned to that wise Philosopher who being clad in a meane but honest habit, pressed amongst the rest to the Kings Ante­camera, or with-drawing Chamber, where hee vsed to giue Audience, hauing very necessary occasion to speake vnto him. But as hee offered to come in, the Porter still clappt the doore against him, and would not suffer him to enter. Hee being a discreete man, presently entred into the recko­ning of it, and seeing how the world went, shifted himselfe out of the companie, and changing his poore, for a rich [Page 220] Habit, and being in the fashion as others vse to be, that are not knowen, to make them selues knowen in Court, way was made him, and he presently let in. And at his going in, hee kissed his cloake, and sayd; Honoro honorantem me, quia quod virtus non potuit, vestis obtinuit: I honour thee, that hast honourd me, for what vertue could not effect, my cost­ly cloathing hath obtained; For he that is rich and well clad, is commonly the best knowen and most respected.

Vir benè vestitus, pro vestibus, esse peritus
Creditur à mille, quamuis Idiota [...]it ille.
He that goes, in gay Cloathes,
A wise man is held to be;
Though some know, ther's not so
Arrant a Cocks-combe, as he.

Et sapiens, non accedit ad fores, quas durus Ianitor obsi­det: But your Men that are wise, discreete, and vertuous, beare not so base a minde, as to go thither, where they either know or haue cause to feare, that they shall be debarr [...]d of entrance: so that for the most part, the most deseruing, are the least knowen. To this point therefore I reply, that those men, which are to be nominated for Offices, and Dignities, may be knowen two manner of wayes; First, by that good fame and report which goes of them, and that opinion of vertue, learning, and wisedome, which the world holdeth of them. Which we may rightly compare to the sweete and fragrant odour of that pretious and costly oyntment,Iohn 12. 3. which the blessed Mary Magdalen powred forth on our Sauiours feet; Wherof it was said; Repleta est domus ex odore vnguen­ti: That the whole house was filled with the Sauour of the oyntment. When either in Court, Citie or Countrie, there is found a man, who is like a sweete Sauor in the nostrills of all men, and beares about him, and scatters in what com­panie soeuer he comes, a most odoriferous and pleasing per­fume [Page 221] of his Vertue, Holinesse, and Learning (which is as Saint Paul says of himselfe,2 Cor. 2. 15. and his fellow Labourers, the sweet sauour of Christ) there is no neede to seeke for any other knowledge, or to make any farther Inquiry; for this is sufficient of it selfe to make choyse of him, and to con­ferre vpon him the greatest Offices of trust; It being safer to put them into his hands, then into many of those men, that are more in his Maiesties eye, and by sight better knowen vnto him. For the best knowledge of man is by the eare. And he that will not beleeue me,August let him reade Saint Austin, who in a Letter which he wrote to Saint Ierome, hauing expressed the great desire and content that hee should take in the knowledge and sight of him, corrects that speech of his, saying; That he had not spoken well, in saying; That he did not know him, because he had seene his most learned bookes wherein were represented vnto him his very heart and soule. In like manner, he that shall be knowen by the like fame, or by the learned bookes, that hee hath written; Or if he be a souldier, by the great and noble Acts that hee hath done, or by his good gouernment, in those places of Commaund which hee hath held; Such a one I say, is sufficiently well knowen, though he had neuer put his head within the Court gates, or seene the Pallaces of Kings. The second kind of knowledge, is that which your ambitious and solicitous pretenders doe giue of themselues, who are ordinary Attendants and Assistents in the Courts and palaces of Kings and Princes, and the houses of their Ministers, seeking to insinuate themselues into their grace and fauour, by flatteries, Compliments, and Lyes, and of­tentimes by giftes▪ and subornations, against which the doore is neuer shut, because they carry about them (if need be) the Master Key, not a gilded key, but a key of pure golde, whose bitts and wardes are of diamonds, by which they make their way, remoue all difficulties, open the cun­ningst locks, and enter the strongest castles. This is not that [Page 222] knowledge, which is here required for conferring Offices vpon them, but rather to shut them out of all: For it is to be presupposed, that these who doe thus negociate, and pay soundly for their places, must make their best profit of them and fell at deare rates, that they may the sooner get out of debt, and haue wherewith all to maintaine themselues, their wiues, their children, and their familie. But to these kinde of men, Kings may (and with a great deale of reason) vse by way of answer, those words of our Sauiour Christ: Amen, Mat. 28. 12. Amen, dicovobis, nesciovos: Verily, verily, I say vnto you, I know you not.

I will here likewise lay open one notable Conse [...]age and deceit, which kings, vsually suffer by the cunning plots, and bolde impudencies of pretenders, and by the fauour of those which put to their helping hand, and giue them their best furtherance; And this it is: That when any of these pretenders is priuie to himselfe, that hee hath not the like parts of Learning and Vertue and other abilities, as others haue, to mount at the first flight to those high places, whereunto their ambition aspireth, they seeke to enter into the base [...]t and meanest Offices, and that by base and vile meanes, either by buying them with their money as good cheape as they can; and when their purse cannot stretch so farre, worke themselues in by the Codpisse, by match­ing with this or that other Courtiers Kinsewoman, and other the like humane respects, making these the stepps for their preferrment. God celiuer all good Kings from such kinde of Prouisions; especially if they be preferred by them to places of Audience, and of Iustice; for therein shall they sinne grieuously, because they put men into them, that are ignorant, and necessitated, who, for to relieue their wants, and to maintaine their Vanities, they, and their wiues take bribes, and set Iustice out to sale. And so, not by degrees, and by little and little, but in all post haste, (to the great preiudice of the Common-wealth) they goe still ascending [Page 223] to greater places, and higher Dignities, wherein they goe on in doing greater hurt and more mischiefe. And these kinde of men, are like vnto your martinets, which if they be not raised from the earth, are not able to flye, but being raised neuer so little, they make a very high flight. So is it with these men, who not hauing sufficiencie for the meanest places, are no sooner raised a little by fauour, and by sub­orning, from that first Office which they no way deserued, but they afterwards make a higher pitch, and goe away with the best Offices in the Kingdome. And the errour in this, is, for that Kings doe thinke, that they are put in­to those places for their merit, and good partes, when as indeed it is farre otherwise. Though sometimes also it cometh so to passe, that Kings knowing how that such a one is not fit for such a place, or such an Office, that they may put him out of that, clap him into another better and greater then the former, and which requireth greater parts, and more sufficiencie; crossing that sentence of our Sauiour Christ (who is the eternall wisdome of his father, and cannot lye:) That hee, that is not trusty in a little, is not to be trusted with much. Neither can he be held fit for the greater places, that hath not sufficiencie in him for the lesser.

Whether Honours, Offices, and Dignities, are to be conferr'd on those, that sue for them?

TO men of much Learning, Vertue, and Quality, and that haue beene of some vse and seruice to the State, some Mini­sters doe, & haue sayd; why do you not sue (Sir) for such, or such a place? Espe­cially seeing that Kings loue to be sued vnto; And that to sue, beg, and craue is so holy a thing, that God himselfe knowing our necessities,Iohn wil [...]th vs to aske Petite, & accipie­tis, Aske, and yee shall haue. Besides, it seemeth to bee a certaine kinde of pride, to be willing to receiue, without being desirous to sue. For to sue, is a signe of humilitie. Wherefore, to seeke to runne any other course, sauours of I know not what singularitie, rashnes and presumption. Hereunto I answer, that there is a great deale of difference betwixt sueing to God, and sueing to Men, and in the crauing of spirituall goods, and the crauing of Temporall. For, in sueing to God, we better our selues much, and those princi­pall Vertues, Faith Hope, and Charitie, are much increased and augmented. For our Faith increaseth, when we petition God, by acknowledging him to be the vniuersall Lord of all things, who onely can fulfill our requests and desires According to that of Saint Paul; super abundanter quàm petimus aut intelligimus; Ephes. 3. 10▪ That is able to doe exceeding aboundantly aboue all that we aske, or thinke; &c. Like­wise Hope, and Charitie, receiue thereby an Increase, be­cause we hope, for a good end of our petition: And for this cause doe we likewise loue God, from whom wee hope to [Page 225] receiue the good, we desire. And this hath the greater force and truth with it, when wee craue spirituall goods. And of these spake our Sauiour when hee sayd; Pettite, & accipietis. Iames 1. 5. And the Apostle S. Iames saith; if any of you lacke wisdome, let him aske of God, which giueth to all men liberally, and reprocheth no man, and it shall be giuen him. But it is conditionall, and bounded with a Nihil haesi­tans; That he aske in faith, and wauer not. Which may likewise be vnderstood of Temporall goods, as they are or­dayned to a spirituall, and super-naturall end. But to aske of men, produceth farre different effects. And therefore we are to consider, that for one of these two ends men may aske temporall things; Either for to raise themselues, or to reme­die themselues. Of the latter of these, who demand their pay and satisfaction for their seruices, for the remedying and re­lieuing of their necessities, wee haue already said, that they are not to bee blamed; but in conscience, and Iustice, wee are to helpe them, and make them due satisfaction, in that which of right belongeth vnto them. Of the former who seeke to rayse themselues, they stand crouching and knee­ling with cap in hand to obtaine their purpose, being very dextrous and diligent in doing courtesies, obsequious in their outward behauiour, kissing the hand, and making Congies downe to the ground, and pro [...]trating themselues at the feet of those, who they thinke may doe them good, dawbing their Compliments with base and seruile flatteries. Of which kinde of men,Eccl. 19. 2 [...] the Holy Ghost saith; Est qui nequiter humi­liate se, & interiora eius plena sunt dolo. There is some, that being about wicked purposes, doe bow downe themselues, whose inward parts, burne altogether with deceit: Being like vnto your birdes of rapine, who though it be naturall vnto them to flye vp and downe in the ayre, yet are content to stoope and abase themselues, the better to seaze on their prey. Which is euen to a letter or (as they say) to a haire the very same,Psal. 10. 10. that Kings Dauid sayd: Incli [...]auitse, & cadet, [Page 226] cum dominatus fuerit pauperum: He crowcheth, and boweth [...] and therefore heapes of poore doe fall by his might. Or, as it is in the Originall: vt dominetur pauperum. He humbles himselfe, that thereby he may grow great, and come to do­mineere and swagger ouer the poore▪ For all their reuerences and adorations, serue to no other end, but to raise themselues vpon the wings of their ambition, that when they are in a good place, they may stoope the freer to their pray: So that those, who but yesterday had them at their feete, see them now towring ouer their heads, and loose the sight of them; whom they adore thus raysed, as those before adored them, when but lately, l [...]ke poore snakes, they licked the dust with their tongue, and trayled their belly on the ground. And growing now warme in the bosome of greatnesse, sting those most, who did most foster and cherish them. And these men, though they negociate well with men, and get what they pretend, yet doe they not obtaine any thing at Gods hands, who neuer grants vnto them what they desire for such like ends. [...]am. 4. 3 [...] According to that of Saint Iames; ye aske, and receiue not, because ye aske amisse, that ye might lay the same out on your pleasures. Howbeit sometimes it is granted vnto them for their further punishment and chasticement. For, as S. Austen affirmeth;August. Multa Deus concedit iratus, quae nega­ret propitius; God grant, many things in his wrath, which he denyes in his loue. And that, which is recounted of Augustus Caesar, is not much amisse from the purpose, who being importuned to bestow an Office vpon one, who with great instance begged it of him, would by no meanes giue it him, but conferr'd it on another that neuer sued for it, but did better deserue it. And he alleadging the perseuerance of his petitions, and complayning, that he hauing beene so long and earnest a suitor, he should bestow it vpon one that had neuer sought vnto him for it; Caesar made him this answer: T [...]n eras dignus qui peteres; ille, qui acciperet: Thou wast worthy, to sue for it; but hee, to haue it. There are [Page 227] some things which may be receiued,Vlpian. l. 1. Versi▪ Quaedam en [...]m ff. d [...] varijs & ex­traor. Cognitio. Pomp [...]nius, l. [...]. ad fin [...]m. ff. de Orig. [...]ur [...]. which may not so well be sued for, so saith Vlpian in a certaine Law of his; Quae­dam enim, tametsi honestè accipiantur, inhoneste tamen pe­tuntur: There are certaine things (sayth he) which albeit they may be honestly receiued, yet may they be vnhonestly desired. Kings are to bestow their fauours, but others must not sue for them. Hoc non peti, sed praestari solere, saith ano­ther Law; it is fit, good turnes should be done, but not sued for to be done. And it was the same mans saying; Inuitum, non ambientem, esse ad rempublicam assumendum: That he, that was vnwilling to receiue honour, not he that did ambiti­ously seek after it was to be preferred in the Common-wealth. And trust me, I cannot search into the reason, why it should become a Custome, not to giue, but to those that aske; For neither they, that giue, doe gaine thereby, nor they that aske, are bettred thereby. For to giue, is so much the more worthy prayse, and thankes, by how much the more liberally and freely it is giuen. And the Prouerb saith: Bis dat, qui citò dat: He doubles his gift, that giues quickly. Where­as he, that stays looking and expecting to be sued vnto, see­meth to giue with an ill will, and not so freely as he should. For (as Seneca truly saith) there is not any thing that costes a man dearer, then that which is bought by intreaties, and petitionings. And therefore, as often as either offices, or Rents, are bestow'd on those, which deserue them, without making suite for them, the whole body of the Common-wealth doth commend and indeare the rectitude, and iust dealing of the Doner. And all good and vertuous men take heart and incouragement thereby, and are fill'd with good hopes; and those, which are otherwise, ashamed and confounded; and becomes the meanes many times of ma­king them turne ouer a new leafe, and leaue their former lewd course of life. But when this rigour and strictnesse is obserued, of not giuing to him that asketh not, though hee merit and deserue the same, it seemeth to be made a merito­rious [Page 228] cause, to sue, and to negociate; and occasion giuen, that more care should be placed in this, then in deseruing well, whereby mens mindes and courages, haue their edge abated, and are dishartened. For to aske, when it is not for the end aforesayd, it draweth on this inconuenience with it. Which is Aristotles opinion, and is made good in all true reason of Morall Philosophy. The Apostle S. Paul, quoteth a sentence, which our Sauiour Christ vsed often to repeate; Beatius est magis dare, quam accipere: Farre more excellent, and more prayse-worthy is it, to giue, then to take. And if not to take, be so good a thing, much better shall it be, not to aske, for that this is, the ordinary meanes to the other. And herein did the Saints of God glorie much, and Saint Paul saith of himselfe; That he would rather liue by the labour of his hands, then be importunate in crauing. And that great Prophet Samuel, that which he did most prize and iustifie himselfe of before the people, was, that hee had faithfully performed his function, without crauing or taking any thing. There was a time, wherein the Romane Senate did ordaine, that the Consullship, and other the chiefe Magistracies, should not be giuen to any, saue such as sued for them. This Law, at first was good; for then, none durst presume to sue for them, but those, who in the peoples opi­nion did well deserue them, and tooke it for a great affront that they should receiue a deniall. So that by this meanes euery one did labour by his noble Actions to deserue that Dignitie, as also that all the people might thinke him worthy thereof. Afterwards, this proued to be a very pernicious Law; for, no [...] those, who by their vertues, and heroicall Acts, did deserue this Honour; but those, that were the most powerfull did sue for it, whilest others, for feare of these, durst not shew themselues in the busines, and so were vtterly excluded from those honourable Offices. This in­conuenience, was taken notice of, and Publicola the Consull made a Law, vpon paine of death, wherewith he was to be [Page 229] punished, who without approbation from the people of Rome, should sue for any of the said Offices. And likewise, for the curbing of this Vice, was the Calphurnian Law enacted. But now (for our finnes) hath crept in amongst vs that Greekish infection,Isocrates Orat. de pac [...]. wherof I Socrates saith, that Am­bition at that time, was growen to that extreamitie, and to that hight, that in stead of putting ambitious pretenders to death, those honourable places were not bestowed but vpon those, which did shame-fully sue for them, and could best negociate by their power, purse, or friends, whichis, was, and will be an occasion in all times and places, that with scan­dalous corruption, and Simoniacall trading, Offices, and Benefices shall be giuen and solde, to him that will giue most. Not the better person, but the better purse shall carry it. The inconueniences, that follow the so much fauouring of suitors, and being vn-mindfull of those, who tend nothing else but to serue, and deserue well, are very great, and not vnknowen to all those that are Statists, and good Common-wealths men. And if the shortnesse, which I desire to obserue in this Discourse, did not hinder mee, a large field would here discouer it selfe vnto me, wherein to enter and expatiate my selfe, and might take occasion to treate of the false hoods, shiftes, deceits, and iniustices, which are dayly vsed in such like pretensions, and petitions, which haue beene the cause of the destruction and ruine not only of particular Common wealthes but of whole Kingdomes. And this which I speake, is of so much truth, that some of the Hebrew Doctors hold for certaine, that the Monarchie of the House royall of Dauid was ouerthrowne by giuing credit to the malice and deceit of a couetous pretender, and that of twelue Prouinces which his heyres possessed, of those twelue Tribes, two onely remayned intire vnto him: The case was this;2 Sam. 9. 6. King Dauid, hauing (in performance of that oath and promise, which he had made vnto Ionathan) giuen vnto his sonne Mephibosheth, all those heredements, [Page 230] messuage, and goods, which were King Sauls; And com­manding Ziba, that hee, and his sonnes, and his seruants, should serue him, and till his land for him, and bring him in foode to eate; there entred into Ziba's minde a diuelish pretension, [...]. Sa [...]. 16. 3. to beg all Mephibosheths estate for himselfe. And thereupon, tooke hold of such an occasion, as seemed fittest vnto him to worke this his treacherie and deceite. When King Dauid fled from his sonne Absalon to the mountaines, Ziba the seruant of Mephibosheth met him with a couple of Asses sadled, and vpon them two hundred cakes of bread, and an hundred bunches of Raysons, and an hundred of dryed Figgs, and a bottle of Wine, and o­ther the like commodities for the refreshing of Dauid and his followers. And hauing a Lye ready at hand, which he had thought on before, hee castes himselfe downe at the Kings feete, and telling him a thousand leasings, raised false witnesse against Mephibosheth, informing his Maiestie, that Mephibosheth was in Ierusalem, and tolde him; This day shall the house of Israel restore mee the Kingdome of my father. Is it eu [...]n so, sayd the King? Behold, Thine are all, that pertained vnto Mephibosheth. And truly, this businesse was strangely carryed. For notable was the faci­litie, where with the King gaue credit to the calumniation of this pretender, and the remissenesse which he shew'd in punishing so loud a lye, and so great a treason, when the truth of the matter, and the innocencie of Mephibosheth, was af­terwards made knowne vnto him. And that, which I con­ceiue concerning this point, is; That the cause why hee did not punish this so fowle a treacherie, was; Either for that he was conscious to himselfe of the fault, which he had committed in hauing giuen such easie beliefe there vnto: or, for that the rootes of this suspicion, and iealousie, did re­maine still deepely grounded in his heart. For the calum­nies, and cautelous suggestions of Pretenders, carry this mischiefe still with them, that they pierce euen to the very [Page 231] heart, and are hardly remooued from the minde of him, that giues eare vnto them.Prou. 26. 12. Verba susurronis, quasi simplicia, & ipsa perueniunt ad intima cordis: The words of a Tale­bearer, are as flatterings, and they goe downe into the bowells of the belly. And therefore the Holy Ghost ad­viseth vs, that when such men come to speake with vs in secret, and to whisper things in our eare, that wee should not hearken vnto them.Ibi. 25. Quando submiserit vocem suam, ne credid eris, ei, quoniam septem nequitiae sunt in corde illius. Though hee speakes fauourably, beleeue him not, for there are seuen abhominations in his heart. Which in plainer language, speakes thus vnto vs; When a flatterer shall talke vnto thee in a low voyce, and whisper thee softely in thine eare, that hee may not be heard of the standers by, caste him out for an eare-wigg, and doe not giue credit vnto him; for there are seuen, nay seuenty malitious purposes in that mans heart. And it would be a great ioy and com­fort vnto mee, that God would discouer vnto Kings, these persons and their diuelish practises, that such base and vn­worthy people, might not vnder the colour and shew of good and worthy men, thus abuse and deceiue them. In a word, mens hearts, and their tongues, doe not alwayes go together. Nor is the speech, and the thought all one. Quia labia doloso in corde, Psal. 12. 2. & corde locuti sunt. They speake deceitfully euery one with his neighbour, flattering with their lippes, and speake with a double heart. But God destroy such deceitfull and lying tongues, to the end that truth may finde entrance in the Courtes of Kings. O, how many inconueniences would be excused, if those persons, to whom the charge is committed of distributing Offices, and rewarding of seruices, would take the care, to conferre them on those that deserue them, and not on those that negociate and sue for them; then would there not be so much libertie, nor so many tricks vsed in petitioning, nor so many Orators in the Courte, in whom, by this suing vnto them, couetous­nesse [Page 232] increaseth, and the hungry appetite of taking; whilest in the meane while all modestie and shame is vtterly lost. And I am verily perswaded, that kings many times, streight­ned by earnest intreaties, and the importunate prayers of such as are in neere places about them, doe vndeserued fa­uours, rewarding vnworthy suitors, and leauing out those that are worthy, because they doe not offer to speake and sue vnto them. And that you may perceiue that I doe not speake this of mine owne head, or that it is a birde of mine owne hatching, I will relate that here vnto you, which Saint Luke reporteth of an importunate woman,Luk. 18. 3. who finding her selfe wronged, came to a secular Iudge, that was an ill minded man, and vniust, and was very earnest with him, crying still vnto him; doe me Iustice against mine Aduer­sary: Which he would not of long time, but afterwards he sayd with himselfe; Though I feare not God, nor re­uerence man, yet because this woman troubleth me, I will doe her right, lest at the last shee come, and make mee weary. To begge, and sue, is an easiy office, especially, when pretenders know, that hearing breedes wearisomnesse, and that by this meanes they obtaine that which they sue for, it being the nature of many men, and more particularly of Kings that loue their ease, to be quicke in their grants, for the avoyding of further trouble. Our Sauiours Disciples, were much troubled, & their eares were euen tyred out, with hearing the clamourous voyce of the Cananitish woman, and intreated Christ, that he would dispatch her, that they might be rid of her. And we vsually see, that your importunate suitors, be it iust, or vniust, obtaine their purpose. And I know not, whether I may blame them most, or those that put them to it, to be importunate in this, or that, be it right, or be it wrong. God knowes where the fault lyes, and will reward euery one, as he deserues.

Of the sence of Smelling; That is: of the Prudence of Kings.

THe sence of smelling, is likewise in the head and the nose, it's adioyning In­strument; which both in diuine, and hu­mane letters beare the signification of Prudence. In the seuenth Chapter of Salomons Song, where is represented vn­to vs the beautie of the Spouse, amongst other graces there recommended and indeared, the nose is not the least.Cant. 7. 4. Nasus tuus (saith her beloued) Sicut Turris Libani, quae respicit contra Damascum: Thy nose, is as the Tower of Lebanon, which looketh toward Damascus. And the Expositors vpon this booke of the Canticles, doe stand much vpon these words, for that they seeme to be much contrarie vnto that, which should extoll and set forth a beauty to its full perfection. For in very deede, a huge and disproportionable nose, both seemes, and is, a fowle and ougly thing. And therefore those interpreters say, that it is not to be vnderstood in that first sence which offers it selfe vnto vs, which is grammaticall; but in it's mysticall and spirituall signification, which by a generall consent re­presenteth vnto vs, the admirable prudence of the Church in the gouernment of Soules, a thing of greatest importance, and the most necessary, in Prelates and Gouernours, and more particularly, in Kings, and Princes. Nasus tuus, sicut Turris Libani: Thy nose is as the Tower of Lebanon; Which King Salomon built, that from thence he might be­hold, and see, all whatsoeuer passed in Damascus. From thence, might he discouer his enemies, and their ambushes, and the theeues lying in waite to rob Ierusalem. Of this [Page 232] [...] [Page 233] [...] [Page 234] Tower, they say, that it was very high, euen, and streight, and for to represent the beautie of the face of the Spouse, it is (and with a great deale of proprietie) sayd; That her nose is like a Tower; for that, which doth most beau­tifie a Citie, or any other place whatsoeuer, is a fayre high Tower. In like manner in the face of any person, the nose, which is that, which is eleuated and lifted vp aboue all the other parts of the face, expresseth great beautie, where­as, to be without a nose, or to haue it too hooked, or too flat, extraordinarily crooked, or extraordinarily little, is a foule deformitie. And therefore, the summe of all, that hitherto hath beene sayd, is; That, what a goodly fayre Tower doth, in the adoring and setting forth of a Citie, which doth exceedingly grace and beautify the same; The same doth the nose in the face of the Spouse, which is so well proportioned, that it much commendeth all the whole feature. And vpon this Litterall, leaneth the spi­rituall sence of this place; which is: That this Tower doth denotate discretion, and prudence, which exalts it selfe aboue all other the workes of Vertue, and doth grace and beautifie them all. Many of the Gentiles erected Fortune for their Goddesse; It seeming vnto them, that shee was the onely Lady, and Mistris of all good, and bad successe; But others, which drew neerer vnto Truth, and Reason, made a iest thereof, and sayd; That it was not Fortune, that afforded happinesse, and prosperitie, but prudence; and that shee was rather Fortunes Mistris, and that her power did predominate ouer the Starres. And there­fore sayd another.

Nullum numen abest,
[...] Satyr. 10
si sit prudentia tecum.

No Deitie, no power, is wanting to him, that is in­dewed with wisedome. Men of small vnderstanding, and such as are carelesse in their businesses, attribute Diuini­tie to Fortune, that they may free them selues from the note and imputation of carelesnesse, and imprudencie. But the [Page 235] truth is, that fortune stays not behinde, when prudence setts forward.Salust. And therefore it was well sayd of Salust; Vnusquisque est artifex fortunae suae; Euery man is the worker out of his own fortune. And the Spanish Prouerb tells vs, Que la buena diligencia, es la madre de la bu­enauentura: That good diligence, is the mother of good successe. So that in very deede, there is neither good, nor bad Fortune, but it is the will of God, that rules and gouerns all; and the care, and prudence, wherewith men haue recourse vnto that, which is fit and conuenient for them. And therefore is prudence in Kings, of that great importance, and ought to be, (as we sayd of the Spouses nose) like a high tower; and not according to that modell as they would haue it, but it must be placed vpon Mount Lebanon; to the end, that being in so high and eminent a place, it may make the better discouery. Kings must haue an eye as well to that which is a far off, as that which is neere at hand; on this side, and on that; heere, there, and euery where. They must bee ready to supply vpon this, or that other occasion; They must see,Terentius. and foresee all. Istud est sapere, non quod ante pedes modo est videre, sed etiam illa, quae futura sunt, prospicere, sayd the Comicke: This, in realtie, is true wisedome, not to see that onely which is before his feete, but to foresee that also which is to come. And this prouidence, circumspection, or prudencie, sound alike, and are in a manner one, and the same thing. The Ancient did so artificially paint prudencie, that shee seemed to looke euery way, and to haue her eyes fixed on whatsoeuer did behold her. For prudence, as it is silent, so it is searching; nothing escapes her knowledge. And it is a vertue that maketh Kings like vnto God. For, as hee, by his diuine prouidence, doth foresee all, and gouerne all and hath all things present before him, so they by their humane pru­dence, which participateth of the diuine, behold things [Page 236] past, dispose of things present, and prouide for things to come. Some call her Filiam Dei, Gods daughter, because it seemed vnto them, that shee had something of the Deitie in her, that shee was his Minister in the crea­tion of the world, and disposition of all things, and ought likewise to be the Mistris of Kings vpon all their occasions. For (as Aristotle, and Plato avouch) no man can gouerne well, that is not prudent. In an­cient times, the Common people were of opinion, that Prudence was annexed vnto Kings, and that they had a particular gift to fore-see that, which was to come. And such, as were prouident, and prudent, they held to bee Diuine. True it is, that wisedome is the gift of God, and wee must craue it of him, as did Moses, Ioshua, Dauid, Salomon, and other wise Kings. Which to obtaine, wee must shunne and flye from sinne; for, it is impossible that hee should bee prudent, that is not vertuous. And so much hath a man of prudence, as hee hath of vertue. And according to this measure, shall the authoritie, credite, and opinion bee which hee shall hold with the people. The Offices and effects, which Prudence doth, and causeth, are many; And some of them are collected, out of the many and various expositions which the Doctors attribute to this Tower, and nose of the Spouse, which we will goe disposing, by it's Paragraphes, in this chapter.

§. I.
Of the Magnanimitie of minde which Kings ought to haue.

BY this high Tower, and nose of the Spouse, some vnderstand the Pope; Quia in facie Ecclesiae eminet: Because he is an eminent man in the face of the Church. But Rabbi Kymki, and Philo Iudaeus, will haue it, by the selfe same reason, to bee vnderstood of a King; Adding withall, that the nose doth betoken Maiestie, Grauitie, Longanimitie, and excel­lencie of minde, wherein a King ought to exceede all o­ther. And therefore the Persians would neuer choose him to be their King, who had not a hooke nose like the Eagle, well shap't, and proportioned, which is the en­signe of a magnanimous minde. And hence it is, that they say of the God of the Hebrewes, that hee hath great and large nostrils.Psal. 1 So sounds that word of the Psalmist; Lon­ganimis, & multum misericors: id est, longus naribus. The Lord is mercifull and gracious, slow to anger, and plentious in mercie: that is; Of wide nostrills, full of sufferance and patience; for the smoake of fury and choler doth not so soone runne vp the chimney, as in those which haue straight and narrow nostrils, who are soone hot, and sodainely incensed to anger. And the selfe same Philo saith, that in the Leuiticall Law, they were not admitted to the Preisthood, who had either a little, crooked, or dispropor­tioned nose, as being lesse fit for that Ministery. The one, are hot and cholerick; the other, ill-inclined. Those againe, which haue too great a nose, are naturally cruell, and proude, [Page 238] and these are mislik't of all; but that, as much commen­ded, which signifies magnanimitie, bountifullnesse, and ge­nerousnes, and is of sufficient largenesse to suffer and dissem­ble anger, and not to haue the chimney choaked with a little smoake. A qualitie, so much importing Kings, that from thence did arise that Prouerb; Qui nescit dissimulare nescit regnare: Hee that knowes not how to dissemble, knowes not how to rule. And there was a King of late times, which stickt not to say; that hee would not haue his sonne know any more Learning, then that which this sentence doth containe; for that it was so good and pro­fitable a Lesson for Princes. Tiberius Caesar, did glorie in no one thing more, then in the Arte of Dissimulation, wherein he was so excellent, that neuer any, vpon any, though neuer so great occasions giuen by him, could search into his intents, or diue into his thoughts. In the story of the Kings, it is written; That at the very same time, that God commaunded the possession of the King­dome, to be giuen vnto Saul, which was the first King he had nominated, some ill disposed persons, that were malitiously bent against him, did murmure at him, and speake ill of him, seeming to scorne, and set light by him. But God had giuen him such a measure of wisedome, and discretion, that although all that they had sayd, came to his eare, Ipse verò dissimulabat se audire: 1 King. 10. 27. Yet hee held his peace, and would not seeme to take notice of it. For, when Kings come newly to their Crownes, and that the things of the Kingdome are not yet throughly settled, it is great pru­dence to reserue with dissimulation the punishment of great persons, that with better occasion, and in a better coniuncture, he may proceed against them, as reason and Iustice shall require. That King shall not be accounted wise, that shall pretend execution of Iustice with the dan­ger of Insurrections, and seditions; nor shall the iustifica­tion of his intent, suffice to execute his rashnesse in the [Page 239] meanes, vnlesse hee first ballance the businesse, and see which way the scale will incline; as to see, how farre hee may rely vpon the loue of his subiects, and how the end may sorte with his designes, lest the danger of the scandall & disobedience, may proue to bee greater, then the profit that can arise from the execution of Iustice. For in such cases, it is great wisedome in a King, to conforme himselfe according to the times; And that that which at one time is worthy of punishment, should be dissembled, and reser­ued to be punished at another time. Which course (as Saluste reporteth) was, in Catilines time, taken with that great and powerfull Courtier,Salust: In Authem: Quomod oportes I [...]d. lib. 3. Senten. cap. 50. Crassus. The Emperour Iu­stinian, hee likewise aymes at this marke: And it is the Counsayle, which S. Isidore giues vnto Kings. The like did King Dauid when Ioab so treacherously slew Abner. Onely to some few, that were very inward with him, he discouered the reason, that mooued him to dissemble the matter, and not to punish him with death for the present, telling them with a great deale of griefe; Ego autem adhuc delicatus sum, 2. Reg. 3▪ 39. & vnctus Rex: I am this day weake, (or as the Hebrew renders it, tender) though annoynted King. As if he should haue sayd; To see the affaires of my Crowne and Kingdome in that tender and ticklish estate wherein they stand, obligeth me, not to make that demonstration of ri­gour and iustice, as the heynousnesse of this fact doth re­quire. But the Lord shall reward the doer of euill accor­ding vnto his wickednesse. Tribuat dominus facienti malum, iuxta malitiam suam. Here, is much to be con­sidered; the great care, which this King tooke in concealing his purpose from the people, till some better occasion were offred; For, if he should haue declared himselfe before, and manifested his meaning to the world, hee might haue put the whole Campe in danger of Mutining; or at least to haue shewd themselues in defence of their Captaine. This perill, he ouerpast by his great prudence, dissembling the [Page 240] matter for that time, and deferring it till the last vp-shut, when now the businesses of the Kingdome were better settled; For, the most important point in gouernment, is, to make vse of Time, and occasion: facilitating with silence and dissimulation, those orders and decrees, which doe crosse the peoples humour, or that stand not with his liking that is powerfull with them; For if they should be divul­ged before their due time and season, they would serue for nothing else, but to incense mens mindes, and perad­uenture to turne them against himselfe. Which certainly might well haue beene Dauids case with Ioab, if hee had shewed himselfe offended, and openly vented his spleene against him, whilest he had his sword in his hand, and stood so fayre in the peoples affection; who in that hurre might haue done (God he knowes what) for the aduan­cing of his ambitious ends. In such cases, it is great pru­dence in a Prince, (contineuing still firme and constant in his purpose) to benefit himselfe by dissimulation, wai­ting for a fit time and season, when without danger hee may vnmaske himselfe, and with the safety of his realme and person, put his resolution in execution. A word well kept,Prou. 25. 11. and fittly spoken is (saith Salomon) like apples of gold, in pictures of siluer; which doth not onely shine and giue a glorious luster, but worketh it's effect, and dis­couereth the art and cunning of it's Master. And King Dauid hauing heard the reproachfull words, and reuiling tearmes which Shimei to the very face of him, and in a loud voyce, vttred in the presence of those that were with him, wisely dissembled his rayling, and was angry with Abishai, because he was earnest with him, that hee might presently take due chasticement of him, and reuenge the great affront hee had done him, and would by no meanes giue consent, that any one of all his Army should once moue or stirre against him. For, that holy King thought it fit in his wisedome, to leaue him to that occasion, [Page 241] which hee afterwards specified to his sonne Salomon; that he might teach Kings these two things. First to relye on God, and to attend his leasure, who will doe that for them, which they cannot doe for themselues; As he did in that known case of Moses brothers murmuring against him, which hee himselfe so mildely and fayrely dissembled. But God, to whose account runn's the honour of his Ministers, tooke the cause into his owne hands. Secondly; That it is not fit to be solicitous in appointing Iudges, and Informers, at all howers, and in all places, against such, as in some occasions, assume libertie of speech, and freely vtter their mindes. For, as another sayd; In free places, and persons that are likewise free-borne, wee cannot at all times exercise that slauery vp­on them, as to clap a Locke and chaine vpon their tongues. Who could haue done this better, then that omnipotent King Christ Iesus, when those licentious and loose-tongued Libertines, reproached him with such sharpe & bitter Taunts as toucht him to the quick in his honour, and yet euen then with what a royall minde, and princely reportment did he carry himselfe, in those few milde and moderate words, which he spake vnto them. Kings ought not to expresse any alteration, turbation, or discomposure, for those things which they see, nor to be startled euery foote with that, which they heare, nor to shew themselues offended at that, which is muttred and murmured of them. But let them (a god's name) mend that, which is amisse, and then their mutte­ring and murmuring will cease of it selfe. Heere likewise Kings are taught, not to be curious inquirers after those, that speakeill of them, nor to giue eare to euery idle com­plaint; For if it be once perceiued, that their eares itche af­ter this, infinite will the number of Delators, and Informers be. In the raigne of Tiberius, and of Nero, more then in any other were these Sycophants and priuie Accusers fauou­red; and things were then so glazed ouer, that they had set spies, that should curiously obserue the semblance, which e­uery [Page 242] one made of his Actions, euen to the knitting of the brow, biting the lip or the like, which kind of carriage, seru'd as a condemnation, and was seuerely punished. But it is fitter for Tyrants then Christian Kings, to stand thus in feare of the tongues of the vulgar, it being the part of a magnanimous minde, to know how to forget, and forgiue in­iuries, especially those of the tongue, to whose iurisdiction, the most powerfull, are most subiect. And if they should re­uenge this wrong vpon account, the number would be so great, and rise to such an infinite sum, that they may quick­ly bring their Monarchie to an end. That which most im­porteth for their own and their Empires quiet, is to shake all kinde of suspition out of their minde; and whatsoeuer others thinke of them and their affaires, they ought to be so farre from being troubled therewith, that it should no whit moue them. [...] cap. 33. Holding it to be (as Seneca sayth) the sweetest maner of pardon, to pretend ignorance of the delict, and to exa­mine with care his owne care ese carriage, and open neglects, if he haue committed any, and if not, not to care a pin what they say. For the Vulgar is a beast of many heads, and as it is impossible to satisfie al of them, so is there no rea­son, that they should haue an Account giuen them of that which the Prince doth. It is sufficient, that the wiser and grauer sort, know, and esteeme both him, and his procee­dings. This was the doctrine of that great King, Philip [...]he second, who wrote vnto his Viceroy in Naples, as fol­loweth: Necessario es, que gouerneys de manera, quae todos buenos y malos, no se quexen de vos. It is requisit, you should so carry your selfe in your gouernment, that all, as well good as bad, may not complaine of you. And this was ano­ther of his which he deliuered to his successour, Forc, oso sera, que los malos nos murmuren, y aborr [...]zca [...]; Lo que à nosotros toca, es proceder de manera, que tambien no nos aborrezean los buenos: It cannot otherwise be, but that the bad will murmure at vs, and hate vs; But that which be­longeth [Page 243] vnto vs, is, To proceede so, that the good may not likewise hate vs. And this King very well vnderstood, that it is proper vnto Kings (as Alexander said) to doe well, & to heare ill. Yet are they not to imagine, that that which is causelesse sayd against them, can any whit diminish or lessen their honour; For it stands not with their condition and greatnesse, that none should speake ill of them, but that they should doe no ill: And then no such thing can be sayd of them, but by the way of falshood and lying, which wil soone vanish. Yet notwithstanding will I not say, nor shall it once enter into my thought, to approue the impudencie and insolencie of the licentious Satyrists but rather holde them worthy of seuere punishment, especially when they touch vpon the persons of Kings, whom all their sub­iects, both by Gods Law, and the Law of nature, ought to respect, honour, and obey. Yet withall I say, that it is great prudence, to dissemble vpon some occasions, be they neuer so great, and to be close and secret in their intentions, till they see a fit time to inflict punishment, and when it may be done with least noyse. For some men sometimes, seeking to sup­presse the fire, by turning and stirring the sticks, inflame it the more. And if at any time vpon vrgent occasions, and vp­on the odiousnesse and foulenesse of this or that other fact, (reason and iustice so requiring it) they shall be forced to vse seuere punishment, let it be mingled with moderation and mildenesse, that all men may vnderstand, that it doth not arise out of anger and displeasure, but out of zeale and loue to the publick good, which forceth them thereunto, & obligeth them in conscience thus rigorously to proceede a­gainst them.Chrys [...]in Mas. lib. 5 de Ciuis. dei. Cap. 20. For (as Saint Chrysostome saith) Qui cum causa non irascitur, peccat, He sinnes in not being angrie, that hath iust cause to be angrie. And then (saith Saint Austin) shall a Prince be happy, when his subiects shall perceiue, that hee punisheth not onely vpon iust ground;Seneca. lib. 1. de Clem [...]nt cap. 22. but (as Seneca saith) non tanquam probet, sed tanquam inuit us, & cum magno tor­mento [Page 244] ad castigandum veniat: That it grieueth him to the very Soule, that he is driuen, contrary to his nature and dis­position, to let the sentence of death, or other torment, to passe vpon them. And when they shall know, that in this punish­ment, he only pretendeth the conseruation of the Common­wealth, and not the reuenging of any particular wrong or offence done vnto himselfe. And that, if he doe extend his pardon, it is not for that he is willing to leaue sin vnpunish­ed, but because hee pretendeth the amendment of the delin­quent. And more especially, when they see, that he recom­penceth with benefits, the rigour and sharpenesse of his cha­sticements by throwing fauours on a brother, a father or a sonne of that party, whose Head he hath commanded to be taken from his shoulders. Which gracious dealing will assure the people of the sweetnesse of the Princes nature, and his pitifull disposition, nor will they attribute the iustice he shall doe vpon them to crueltie. The conclusion of this Discourse shall be, this; That it is of great importance, that all men should know, that nothing can be hid from the King, be it neuer so close and secret, for the many and priuate diligences which he vseth for intelligence, by the meanes of sundry per­sons of all sorts, high and low, of all Estates and qualities, (whom the wisest and the waryest cannot avoyde) deputed by his Maiestie diligently to labour to heare, and vnderstand the rumours and complaints of the people, and the good & ill, that is either said or done, and to giue him aduise there­of, that he may informe himselfe of the truth of them, and ap­ply such remedies, as he in his wisedome shall thinke fit. And let all men know, that there was neuer any thing so closely carried, which either early or late, at one time, or other, hath not (by good diligences vsed) bin brought to light,Eccl. 10. 26. & made known to the king. And therfore my aduise vnto thee, shallbe that which Salomon giues thee; Curse not the King, no not in thy thought: For a birde of the ayre, sha [...]l carry the voyce, and that which hath wings, shall tell the matter. And when thou thinkest thy selfe safest, then shalt thou be taken in the [Page 245] snare. And let Kings likewise know, that if they haue a minde to see, and know all, they ought also to be milde, and mercifull in punishing, mingling mercie with seuerietie. For it is fit and necessary, that he that desires to know all, should likewise dissemble, and pardon much.

§. II.
Of the Blandure, Gentlenes, and Loue, which Kings ought to haue.

THis blandure, and gentlenesse, is like­wise an Effect of prudence, and Mag­nanimitie, and is a Lordly kinde of vertue, and which hath made many excellent, and memorable in the world. As Alexander the great, whom no­thing made so great, as that his Excel­lencie of minde, which he had, in par­doning those whom not onely himselfe, but all the world knew, had iustly deserued his displeasure. Hee, that is gentle of heart, and (like Dauid) meeke spirited, nothing troubles him, nothing alters him, but alwayes keepes his iudgement firme and enytre, that hee may the more freely iudge of that, which is worthy of pardon, or punishment, and is a qualitie very proper, and well beseeming royall Maiestie. Many great Monarckes and Kings haue had this in high esteeme, and made it the top of their glory, for by this meanes, they came to be as great in the loue of their subiects, as in their rule and Command. Of whose examples hu­mane Histories are full; but I shall only cite those are that Di­uine, which neither adde, nor diminish, by indeering things more then they deserue. Where it is storyed of that great Captaine and Gouernour of Gods people, that he was of the [Page 246] mildest and peaceablest condition, and of so soft and sweete a nature, that the world afforded not his like: Erat Moses vir mitissimus, Num. 12. 3. super omnes homines, qui morabantur in terra: Moses was very meeke, aboue all the men, which were vpon the face of the earth. And he of all other, had most neede of this most noble qualitie, for to beare with the bit­ter taunts, and reproachfull words of that stiffe-necked, and vnthankfull people. And this is indeared by Saint Am­brose, Ambr. lib. 2. Offi. cap. 7. and Philo Iudaeus, both of them affirming; That to­wards God onely, hee shewd himselfe as stout as a Lyon, and full of courage, resisting the vengeance, that God would haue taken of his people, but with them, was as meeke and gentle as a Lambe. A generous breast, and the courteous and plaine carriage of Kings ouercometh all, pacifieth all, and leuelleth the vneuenest and crookedest dispositions. Which we may well exemplifie in Iacob, and Dauid. Of the former the Scripture saith;Sen▪ 27. 11. Erat homo lenis: He was a smoth man. He was smooth in his countenance, sweete in his conuersati­on, and naturally of a generous and peaceable condition. Now see, what he got by this; Hee gayned his fathers blessing, his brothers birth right, his Vnckles daughters and wealth, and the good will and loue of all men. And of Dauid, it is sayd; Erat rufus, & pulcher aspectu, facieque decora: [...] King. 16. 12. That hee was ruddy, and withall, of a beautifull countenance, and goodly to looke to. He was of a louely and gracious aspect, milde, affable, and aboue all, a great friend vnto goodnesse and well doing, onely with his plea­sing presence, hee drew the eyes of all the people after him, who ioyed in the fight of him; And with this, did he winne their hearts, got their good wills, and gayned the kingdome. When by a good and painefull industrie, and a sweet beha­uiour, the hearts are first seazed on, it is an easie matter to conquer Kingdomes.1 Mac [...]h. [...]. In the sacred Historie of the Ma­chabees, are recounted the heroyicall Acts which that great Captaine Iudas, and his brethren, atcheiued in Spaine, the [Page 247] Kings and Kingdomes which they subdued; the nations which they conquered, and made tributary to their Em­pire; and the great treasure of gold and siluer, which they purchased. And all this they effected by their good Coun­sayle, gentlenesse, and patience; giuing Kings thereby to vnderstand, that if they be of a meeke, peaceable, and no­ble condition, they shall be Lords and Masters of mens wealths, and hearts. And this made Polibius to say; that a courteous and peaceable King, conquers all with quiet­nesse, euery man being willing to yeelde and submit him­selfe to a soft and generous disposition, that is free from anger, and full of clemencie. And this is that Legacie which God allotted and left vnto them long agoe in the olde Testament.Psal. 37. [...]1. Mansueti, haereditabunt terram: The meeke shall inherit the earth. And afterwards, in the new Testa­ment,M [...]t. 5. 5. he renewes this promise: Ipsi possidebunt terram: They shall inherit the earth. They shall be Lords of the earth; That is: of the men vpon earth, and of their pos­sessions. For, by this earth which God promiseth vnto them, S. Bernard vnderstands the same earth, whereof men are formed. And it is vsuall in Scripture, to call men earth. And thereby is likewise vnderstood, that of this world, which wee heere inhabit, the possessions thereof, it's go­uernment, Scepter and Monarchie, for all this, is but a Pa­trimonie, bequeathed to a kinde, smooth, and louing nature. The best Titles, that a King can present before God, for to pretend the preseruation, and perpetuitie of his King­dome, are meekenesse, and gentlenesse. These Dauid re­presented vnto him, when hee petitioned him, that hee would be pleased to continue and confirme his kingdome in his sonne.Psal. 131. 1. Memento Domine Dauid, & omnis mansuetu­dinis eius: Lord remember Dauid, and all his lowly carri­age. Whose heart, was not haughty, nor his eyes lofty, but behaued and quieted himselfe, as a childe that is weaned of his Mother. And presently God collated this [Page 248] benefit vpon him, saying; Com cumpleti suerint dies tui, suscitabo semen tuum post te, 2 King. 7. 12. & firmabo regnum eius: When thy dayes be fullfille [...] and thou shalt sleepe with thy fa­thers, I will set vp thy seede after thee, which shall pro­ceede out of thy bowells, and I will establish his King­dome. Such effects doth the smooth breast, and soft heart of a King worke; And this is so sure a Tenet, that for to keepe a Kingdome secure, and to be Lord of many moe, there needeth no other claime, then that which Loue and Gentlenesse maketh. For, in regard that the heart of man is generous, it will not be led by the necke with a halter, nor will subiects long indure the yoake of a Tyrannizing and proud Lord: whereas on the contrary, they are easily led a long, by a smooth and gentle hand. And reason teacheth vs as much; for by how much the more easily is the heart of man moued by conueniences, then by menaces, by faire meanes then by foule, by so much the better is it to gouerne by meekenesse and gentlenesse, then by force and rigour. Whence we draw this Conclusion, That too much sharpnesse, and excesse of rigour in a Prince, procuteth hatred; and affabilitie and clemencie, Loue. Which is that, which Kings ought most to seeke after, as by and by we shall shew vnto you, when wee come to tell you, that these two qualities of blandure, and clemencie, so befitting a supreme Lord, are quite contrarie to that good expedition of Iustice, and that integritie, which God doth require in a Iudge; whom hee willeth and commaundeth. That in matter of iudgement, hee shall not pittie the case of the poore: According to which Instruction, it of force followeth, that a King must represent two contrary persons; that of a kind and pittifull Father; and that of a iust, and angry Iudge. For, if in his owne nature, hee be kinde, and tender hearted, there is not that offender, which will not be set free by the power of Intreaties, and Teares, weapons; [Page 249] wherewith the hardest and cruellest hearts suffer them­selues to be ouercome. And if he be otherwise, what can the delinquents hopes end in, but death and despaire? Againe, if he be vertuous, and seuere, it is impossible that he should not hate the vicious, and grow into choller, when hee shall heare of their cruell outrages and insolencies.Hie [...]. Sup. I [...]r [...]. 22. Now, what remedy in this case is to be vsed? Saint Ierom, and Saint Austen, Aug. lib. 5. de Ciuit. cap. 24. Isid lib. 3. are of opinion, that a King, by his owne person, is to punish, and premiate, to execute chasticement with iustice,Sent. cap. 52. S. Th 2. 2. [...]. 137 [...] 2. ad 2. and to mitigate it with mercy. Nor is it vnwor­thy our consideration, nor lyable to inconueniencie, that a King should represent two persons, so contrary in shew, as iudging with Iustice, and Mercie. For two vertues cannot bee contrary. And as the Saints and holy Doctors say, (and they are in the right) Mercie doth not hinder the execution of Iustice, but it moderateth the crueltie of the punishment. And it is very necessary in a good Iudge, that hee should haue a true and faithfull paire of balance in his hands, and in either scale to put rigor, and equitie, that hee may know how to correct the one by the other. The Kings of Portugall, (especially Don Iuan the third) did vse to iudge Capitall crimes, accompanied with his Councell, and were alway accounted fathers of the people, because with them, Iustice, and Mercie, walked hand in hand; shewing them­selues iust in punishing the fault, and mercifull in mitiga­ting the punishment. By which meanes, they were of all, both feared and beloued. And let not Kings perswade themselues, that this doth lessen their authoritie, and take of from their greatnesse, but giues an addition; and the oftner they sit in iudgement, they shall doe God the more seruice, and the Kingdome more good: And in conscience, the surest and safest course, for that recipro­call obligation, which is between the King and his subiects. For they owe obedience, seruice, and acknowledgement to him, as their Lord and Master. And he vnto them, Iustice, [Page 250] Defence and Protection. For to this end and purpose, doe they pay him so many great Tributes, and Taxes. Nor is it enough for him to doe it by others, but he must also doe it by himselfe. For, neither that great Gouernor of Gods people, Moses, nor any other after him, is, in all the whole body of the Bible to be found, that euer yet condemned the occupation of iudging the people, to bee vnworthy royall Maiestie nor contrarie to the reputation of a King. I know no other preiudice in it, saue that it is impossible for one sole man, to vndergoe so great a taske. And this impossibilitie ariseth from the multitude of subiects; and in that case▪ they aduise, That a King should not wholly take away his hand from the doing of Iustice, but that the lesser and more ordinary businesses, hee should remit and referr them to different Ministers, and the weightier causes, take to his owne charge, and be present in person, when they come to be sit vpon, and determined; as formerly haue done the wisest and greatest Monarkes, that euer were in the world. Who did euer equall King Salomon, in wisedome, greatnesse, and Maiestie? yet did hee hold it no disgrace vnto him, to humble himselfe to heare suitors, iudge their causes and to doe them Iustice. The Kings of the Hebrew people, were called Iudges, because they did glorie in nothing so much, as to heare, and iudge the people. And in all Nations, this hath alwayes beene the principall Office appertaining vnto Kings. And the Holy Ghost saith; That the King,Prou. 19. 14. that faithfully iudgeth the poore, his throne shall be established for euer.

§. III.
That it much importeth Kings, to haue the good Loue and affection of their Subiects.

KIngs, (as already hath beene sayd) are the Heads of their Kingdomes; Their Estates serue them as Members; With­out which it is impossible they should be that, which their name speakes them. And therefore, it is not onely conueni­ent, but necessarie, that they should seeke to gaine the good wills of all, su­ting themselues, (though they force their owne) to the na­ture of their subiects, and beholding them, as if they were his children. Which is the best course to keepe them well affected, and contented, and to be beloued, and obayed by them. Which they may easily doe, if they will but thinke themselues, that they are sheepheards, and fathers of those people, which God hath recommended vnto them, easing them of those wrongs and grieuances, which they vniust­ly suffer; laying no more vpon them, then they are able to beare; suffring them, when reason shall require, to take their ease and their quiet; and helping to sustaine them, when they grow poore, and are decayd. Plato tells vs, That for a Prince to be good, and to be beloued of all, hee must bestow all his loue, and his whole heart, vpon the Common-wealth; his will, on the Gods; his secret, on his friends; and his Time, on businesses. For, by thus reparting himselfe with all, he shall haue a part in all, by all of them comming to vnite themselues with him. Onely in this good Corres­pondency of Loue betweene Kings, and their subiects, wise Periander placeth all the safetie, and good fortune of [Page 252] Kings and Kingdomes. Agesilaus, King of Lacedaemon, was once askt the question, How a King might liue secure; For that it is oftentimes seene, that neither multitude of seruants, nor a guard of Halbardiers can defend them from violence? To which demand, hee returned this answer: Si suis populis ita imperet, vt parentes filijs; If he so rule ouer his people, as a father doth ouer his children. The King that loueth his subiects, and is againe beloued by them, neede no guarde, they are his guard. For Loue, where it is true and faithfull, plainesheth the knottiest peece of timber, smootheth the roughest and most vnhewen dis­position, and makes all faire, safe, and peaceable. It is a most strong wall, and more durable, yea then Kings them­selues. With this, no difficulty can offer it selfe vnto them, which they may not ouercome; no danger, whose impetu­ousnesse they may not oppose; no command, which they will not obay. For as Kings desire no more of their subiects, but to be well serued by them; so subiects, pretend nothing from their Kings, but to be beloued by them. And indeede, the one dependeth on the other. For, if a King loue not his subiects, he shall neither be well serued, beloued, nor obayed by them. And as little, if he loue him­selfe too much. For the more care he takes of himselfe and at­tends his owne particular, so much the more his subiects loue departs from him. For the harmonie of a Common-wealth consisteth, in that all should liue by the Kings fa­uour, and they by their subiects loue. For they ought to be vigilant in all that belongs to their seruice: and Kings most watchfull in that, which concernes their generall good▪ So that none is to haue lesse part in the King, then the King himselfe. And because it is impossible to content all, by reason not onely of their different, but contrary natures, it is necessary at least to content the most. There are two dif­ferences of States, or two sorts of people, to be considered in a Kingdome; The Citizens, (or which comprehendeth all) the common people: Or your Peeres, and such as either [Page 253] are persons of Title, or aspire to be. It shall be good dis­cretion & prudence, to procure to content the people, (espe­cially in a Kings first entrance into his raigne) in that which is reasonable and honest. And if their demaunds shall be o­therwise, to dissemble with them, and to take time to con­sider of it, and so by little and litle, let their blood goe coo­ling. This was the Counsayle of your olde Counsailours. Which had it beene followed by that young King Reho­boam, 3 King. 12▪ his people had not rebelled against him, nor hee in the beginning of his Empire, (before he was scarce warme in his throne) haue lost ten Tribes of the Twelue. The Common people, are alwayes grumbling, and complayning, and ready to runne into rebellion, as being fearelesse, in regard of their multitude, and carelesse, for that they haue little or nothing to loose. The Minor Plinie, after that hee had made a large Catalogue of the naturall vertues of the Emperour Traiane, after that he had shewen what great ac­count he made of the Common people, he sayth; Let not a Prince deceiue himselfe, in thinking, that hee is not to make any reckoning of the common people; for without them he cannot sustaine, nor defend his Empyre. And in vaine shall hee procure other helpe, for that were to seeke to liue with a head, without a body; which besides that it were mon­strous, it must needes toter and tumble downe with it's owne weight, because it hath nothing to beare it vp. And if Kings will needes know what kinde of thing the Com­mon people is, and what able to doe vpon all changes and alterations, let them take into their consideration, that which passed at the arraignment and death of our Sauiour Christ, where there was not that Rule of reason of State in the vilest manner, which was not then practized. And the first stone that the Princes of the Scribes and Pharisees moued against him, was the people; for they knew well enough, that with­out them they could not awe, and feare Pilate, nor moue him by their accusations, and false witnesses to condemne him. [Page 254] In the next place, they had recourse to the particular con­ueniency of the Iudge, that he should not be a friend vnto Caesar, but should loose his loue, if vpon this occasion the people should rise and rebell; by which tricke they inclined him to their partie, and wrought him to preferre his priuate Interest, before publicke Iustice, and his owne preseruation, before that which was both honest and reasonable. Againe, it is more secure, to procure the fauour and loue of the people, and more easie to effect his purpose by them. More secure, because without their loue and assistance, no alteration in the state can take effect. This their loue doth vphold Kings, and gets them the opinion of good and vertuous Princes. This qualifieth all wrongs, or makes the offenders pay soundly for them, against whom none dare seeme to be sin­gular. Lastly, for that the common people; hauing onely re­spect to their particular profit & their own priuate Interest, cannot desire nor pretend that, which your greater Peeres, and principall men of the State do, who alwayes (out of their ambition) aspire to more, and stand bea [...]ing their braines, how they may compasse that, which their imagination tells them they want; And by so much the more doth this their Ambition increase, in how much the greater place they are, and in a neere possibilitie of that which they desire. I sayd (before) more easie; because the people content themsel [...]es with aequalitie (and his likewise makes well for Kings) with the administration of Iustice with common ease and rest, with plenty, and with the mildenesse, gentlenesse, and peace­ablenesse of him that ruleth ouer them. Now, that Kings may procure this popular loue, it is fit they should make choyse of such Ministers, as are well beloued of the people, that will heare them with patience; comfort, and hearten them vp, that they may the more willingly beare the bur­thens that are laid vpon them, the Tributes, Taxes, and trou­bles of the Kingdome, which in the end must light all vpon them. For it is not to be doubted, and experience teacheth the [Page 255] truth of it, That the Ministers and seruants of a Prince, make him either beloued, or hated; And all their defects or Ver­tues turne to his hurt, or profit. And let not Kings make slight reckoning thereof, nor let them colour it ouer with Reasons of State; For he, that once begins to be hated out of an ill conceiued opinion, they charge him withall that is either well, or ill done. For, there is nothing, be it neuer so good, which being ill interpreted, may not change it's first quali [...]e in the eyes of men, who iudge things by apparences: Which is another principall cause, why Princes ought to procure the loue of the people. For, in conclusion, most cer­taine it is, that the Common people, is not onely the Iudge of Kings, but is their Attourny, also whose censure none of them can escape; And is that Minister, which God makes choyse of for to punish them in their name and fame, which is the greatest of all Temporall punishments. Suting with that which we sayd heeretofore of the voyce of the people, that it is the voyce of God. For his diuine Maiestie vseth this as a meanes to torment those, who haue no other superiour vpon earth. And therefore it behoueth them to preuent this mischiefe, and to winne vnto them the peoples affection by as many wayes as possibly they can deuise, as by their owne proper person with some; with other some, by their fauou­rites and familiar friends; and with all by their Ministers. For, there is not such a Tully, nor Demosthenes, withall their eloquence, for to prayse, or disprayse the Actions of a King, either to salue, or condemne them, as is the peoples loue, or hatred. A great cause likewise of procuring this loue, and to winne the hearts of the people, & to giue them all good con­tent, will be, if Kings would be but pleased, who are Lords of many Kingdomes, and Prouinces, to haue neere about them naturall Ministers and Counsaylours of all the sayd seuerall Kingdomes, and Prouinces; For Common-wealths, & king­domes, risent it exceedingly, to see themselues cast out of ad­ministration, and gouernment, when they doe not see at the [Page 256] Kings elbow, or in his Counsell any one of their own nation, and countrie, conceiuing, that they doe either basely esteeme of them, or that they dare not trust them; Whence, the one ingendreth hatred, and the other, desireth libertie. Let a King therefore consider with himselfe, that hee is a publicke person, and that he ought not to make himselfe particular; that he is a naturall Citizen of all his Kingdomes and Pro­uinces; and therefore ought not willingly to make himselfe a stranger to any one of them. That he is a father to them all, & therfore must not shew himself a Step-father to any. And therefore let him still haue some one naturall childe of euery Prouince in his Councel. For, it is a great vnhapines to a king­dome, not to haue any one childe of theirs (amongst so many) by the Kings side, with whom the Naturalls thereof may holde the better correspondencie. For these more speedily, & with more diligence and loue, treate and dispatch their busi­nesses, then strangers either can or will, who must be sued vn­to, and will do nothing but vpon earnest intreaty, or by force and compulsion, or like good wary Merchants, by trading for ready mony. Let Kings weigh with themselues, that it is as naturall a worke in them to afforde fauour vnto all, as in a tree to afford fruit And it is a great glorie to a king, to oblige all nations to loue him. For that King much deceiueth him­selfe, who will make himselfe King of this, or that Prouince, and no more; Sithence, that God himselfe, whom he repre­senteth on earth, professes himselfe, to be Lord of t'one, and t'other, and of all. And therefore, hee that is Lord of many, should not throw all his loue and affection on a few. Let him in such sort conferre his fauours on the one, that he may not giue occasion of affront and disgrace to the other. For, these generall fauours, make much for the honor and estimation of Kings. It faring with them, as it doth with those trees, when all sorts of passengers, goe gathering, & inioying their fruits.

I say farther that for the augmentation and conseruation of the loue of Common-wealths, and Kingdomes, towards [Page 257] their Kings, (a maine and principall point, which o [...]ght to be esteemed in more, then other great treasures) it will be very conuenient (and is the Counsayle of persons of great pru­dencie, throughly acquainted with Kings, and Kingdomes) that they should haue some person, or persons of these good parts and qualities; To wit: Men of good naturall abilities, & of great wisedom, to whom in particular, they should ommit the care to heare those that are wronged, and male-content. For the graces and fauours of Kings, as proceeding from humane power, which cannot doe all it would, haue euer­more beene lesse in number then the pretenders. And therefore must of force follow, that there must needs bee a great number of discontented persons in all Kingdomes, euen in the best, and most sweetely gouerned. Some hol­ding themselues wronged, induced thereunto by their own opinion; others, by disfauours; Some, by bad dispatch; others, by delayes; And some, (and those perhapps the most) by finding themselues deceiued in their pretensions; A thing that ought much to be thought on, though there be few, that take pleasure to heare on that eare. These men, I say, troubled with cares, and transported with pas­sion, thrust themselues into all Companies, great, and small, high, and low, entring into discourse with Male-Contents, and laying open their wounds vnto them; which kinde of men, I would haue to be kindly dealt withall, that the Kings Ministers, should giue them the hearing, that they should temper and allay this their passion, that they should hearten and encourage them, and indeede make shew in some things to goe hand in hand with them, though it be in some sort against their king and Master, seeking rea­sons to maintaine their part, and that hee cannot blame them if they complaine, hauing so much cause, laying the fault either on the iniquitie of the times, or the care­lessenesse of those, through whose fingers these things were to passe; and that, as it was no fault of the Kings, for not [Page 258] hauing beene truly informed, so can hee not but rest well assured of their good bowells and sound intention to his Maiestie and the State. This is a cunning artifice, and admirable art, against that deadly poyson, of those mens hatred and discontent, which repute themselues wronged and disgraced. And the better will this take with them, if this care be committed to such either person, or persons, that are well liked and beloued of the people, and haue to­gether with their naturall grace, the grace of heauen, a gift which Kings can neither giue, nor take away; how­beit, they giue that grace and fauour, whence resulteth the peoples respect. For, it will not alwayes serue the turne, to bee beloued of all; nor will this generall loue some­times excuse him from being hated of many. And there­fore in this the grace of heauen must bee sought after, and such a man made choyse of, as hath this naturall gift; for by the helpe thereof, hee shall be the better be­loued, and ouer them all haue the more commaund. This Counsayle, was well esteemed and approued by that wise and prudent King, Don Philip the second, as a very neces­sary, & conuenient meanes for to temper mens mindes, & to get generall notice of all that passeth, either in word or deed, and thereupon be able to giue all possible remedie thereunto. And this aduice pleased him so well, that hee committed the execution thereof to him that gaue it him and purposely remitted some businesses vnto him, that he might haue the better occasion to sound mens mindes, and to effect what he pretended by that kinde of course: And in short time gaue good satisfaction by the proofe, and made knowen to his Maiestie how much good was inclosed in this Artifice, for the conseruation of Kings, and Kingdomes.

§. IIII.
Of the sagacitie, sharpenesse of wit, and quicknesse of appre­hension, which Kings ought to haue.

GEnebrard, and other graue Authors say; That this statly Tower, and nose of the Spouse, whereof wee discourse, signifieth those, which gouerne the Church, or the Kingdome, and such as excell the rest in vnderstanding, iudge­ment, sagacitie, and prudence. The Egyptians likewise in their Hiero­glyphicks, by a high rising nose, vnderstand a wise and sage minde, that hath an eye vnto dangers, fore-sees mis­chiefes, and takes order for them in time, that it may not be ouertaken by them. And such a one as this, a King ought to haue. And certaine it is, that if that olde Serpent had not had that hap in that first deceit, exercised on our first Mother Eue, it had beene needelesse for one man to watch another and to be so wary and circumspect, as now they are. But because he, with such great craft, and subtle­tie, did powre forth this his poyson into the originall foun­taine of our nature, it was necessary that against this his venome, we should take this Antidote and Treacle, for a preseruatiue, and preuent one poyson, by another. And as Treacle, being made of poyson, serues as a remedie a­gainst poyson it selfe, so, for to resist that poyson▪ which that Serpent by his subtletie, scattred and spred abroad a­mongst vs; it is needefull, that men, following the Coun­sayle, which our Sauiour Christ gaue vnto his Disciples; Be yee wise as Serpents, and harmelesse as Doues; should ioyne these two together. For of these two, is made that [Page 260] fine Treacle, whereof we intend to speake. Not of simplicitie alone, nor prudence alone, but of both together. This is that true and perfect Confection; for prudence, with­out a sound and harmelesse Intention, is but meere craft and subtletie, (as Aristotle sayth) and produceth nothing but trickes and deuises, to delude and deceiue. And a plaine and sincere intention, deuoyd of prudence, doth but deceiue and damnifie a mans selfe. I meane particular persons. For in Kings this want of warinesse, and prudent sagacitie, will procure greater hurt to the generall affayres of the Com­mon wealth. Too notorious and well knowen is that sen­tence of the glorious S. Ierome; Sancta rusticitas solum sibi prodest: Holy plainenesse and simplicitie, doth onely pro­fit a mans selfe, That is; some particular person. But Kings besides their good intention, and sinceritie of minde, must haue prudence & sagacitie, for to resist the plots and traps of the ambitious, who still lye in wayte, watching a fit occasion for to deceiue them, vnlesse they be minded to loose their reputation, their authoritie, and their Kingdome all at once. This is not a Prognostication, broached out of mine owne braine, but vented by the holy ghost; That an imprudent King,Eccl. 10. 3. shall ruine a Kingdome. Rex insipiens, perdet popu­lam suum: An vnwise King, destroyeth his people. The Prophet Esay, after he had made a recapitulation of the graces and gifts of wisedome, vnderstanding, counsayle, might, knowledge, and diuerse other wherewith the holy-Ghost was to adorne the person of our Sauiour Christ, that King of Kings, and liuely patterne and true example of all good Kings,Esay 11. 3. sayth; Et replebit eum spiritus timoris Domini: And the spirit of the fear of the Lord shall rest vpon him: Now the Hebrew Rabins, whom Pagninus, and Vatablus follow, reade; Olfactio odoratus eius, erit cum timore Do­mini: Ita [...]sido. Cla [...]us. The pleasant sent of his sweete odour, shall be with the feare of the Lord. That is to say; Together with the feare of the Lord, and all other vertues, hee shall haue an [Page 261] admirable vnderstanding, and a dainty delicate iudgement: Odorari faciam eum: I will make him to sent and winde out. So that hee shall nose out any thing whatsoeuer, though neuer so farre off, and without seeing, or hearing them, be they neuer so secret and hid, shall make a right and true iudgement of things. By this quicknesse of sent, they vnder­stand that nimblenesse of apprehension, sharpenesse of vnder­standing, and sagacitie, which a King ought to haue: (borow­ing the Metaphore from your Line-hound, or blood-hound, who running vpon the sent, and nosing the footing of what he is put vpon, discouers the game he pursues, be it in the thickest brakes, and closest bushes in the Forrest.) Hee must be so subtill and so quicke of sent, that nothing must escape his knowledge, nothing be hidden from his vnderstanding; he must like a Surgeon, search into the depth of the wound: there is no mysterie so secret, which hee must not pry, and diue into, he must nose from a farre the impstoures, artifices, fraudulent dealings, and cunning disguises of those that go about to deceiue him. When wee will signifie such a mans trace, or which way hee tends, Wee vsually say; Ya yo avia olido algo desso: Now I begin to smell his drift. I haue an in­ckling what hee intends. But Kings must haue more then an Inckling; they must haue a full knowledge of all; There must not be that thing in the world, which mainely con­cernes them, and their Kingdomes, which they must not winde and sift out. And from that high place, wherein they are seated, they are, like sentinalls in a watch-Tower, to see, and make discouery, of all the cunning practises, and diuelish plots deuised against them, and of the slye and sub­tile carriage of such crafty and double-dealing men, with whom they treate, be they Naturells, or Strangers. For (as it is in the Prouerb) La nistad del anno, viuen con arte y eng [...]nno; y la otra parte, con enganno, y arte: One halfe part of the yeare, they liue by arte, and deceit; The o­ther halfe part, by deceit, and arte. And because these [Page 262] workers of mischiefe, arme themselues with the more care, and lye in closer ambush against Kings, and their great E­states; it is necessary that they likewise should stand vpon their guard, and be very vigilant and circumspect, not only for to discouer their proiects, and to defend themselues from their designes, but to take them in the manner; Or (as it is in the Spanish prouerb) Cogerles con el hurtoen las manos. Whilest the theft is yet in their hands, to lay hold on them. One of the greatest Attributes and noblest Titles, which holy Iob, giueth vnto God, is that, where he sayes, Apprehendit sapientes in astutia eorum: Iob. 5. 12. That hee taketh the wise in their owne craftinesse. He well vnderstands vp­on what point insist the Sophistries and fallacies of the wise men of this world, and at what marke their Counsailes ayme;Iob. 12. Et consilia prauorum dissipat: He disappointeth the deuises of the crafty; and scattreth the Counsayles of the wicked.Rex, qui sedet in solio, dissipat omne malum, in­tuitu suo. And what they haue forget in their hearts, hee hammereth in that sort, that they shall not fulfill their de­sires. Cogitationes malignorum: The cogitations of the wicked; So sayth another letter. Hee calls them Malignos, that are men of a noble heart, That haue a thousand turnings, and windings. Another Letter hath Versutorum; Variable, oft changing, subtile, shifting: being all of them true Epi­thetes of a double disposed, and crafty generation▪ Ne possint implere manus eorum, [...]. quod coeperunt: That their hands can­not performe their enterprise, nor make an end of the web, which they haue begun to weaue, but their Counsell is carryed headlong; meeting with darkenesse in the day time, being taken in their owne net, as Absalon was with his owne hayre; neuer being able to set the same foote for­ward againe. Christ, calls these kinde of men, Foxes, which neuer goe on in a straight and direct way, but crossing from one side to another and making many doubles; as he doth, that hath doubling thoughts, and playes, with the Foxe, Wyly, beguile yee. And by this beast, did the Egyptians [Page 263] signifie that man, which vseth double dealing, and in his words and workes, is nothing but impostures, tricks, and deuices;Eccl. 2. 12. Vae duplici corde, & labijs scelestis terram ingredi­enti duabus vijs: Woe to the double heart, to deceitfull lips, and to the sinner, that goeth two wayes. To deale with these men will be required a great deale of prudence and sagacitie, a Countermine must be made, and a pit digg'd whereinto they may fall, & that like silk-wormes, they might be wrap­ped and inuolued in the same bottome, that themselues haue wrought,Prou. 1 [...]. 6. to their vtter vndoing. In insidijs suis capientur iniqui (saith the wise man.) The transgressours shall be taken in their owne naughtinesse. Their plots and proiects shall make for their finall perdition. When the Pharisees with soft & smooth words questioned our Sauiour Iesus Christ, what should be done with that woman, whom they had newly taken in the Act of adulterie, made vse of that his admirable prudence and wisedome, accompanied with the simplicitie and harmelessenes of the Doue;Iohn 8. 7. saying vnto them. Qui sine peccato est vestrum, pri [...]us in illam lapidem mittat: He that is without sinne among you, let him first cast a stone at her. And presently thereupon, hee stouped down, and fell to wri­ting with his finger on the ground, to the end, that without making them farther ashamed, being conuicted by their own conscience, they might one by one get them gon, and leaue the poore woman free. These men came armed with the Serpentine subtletie of the Diuell, and presuppossing that he would haue absolued her of that crime, they would then haue accused him for an infringer and breaker of the Law; And in case hee should haue condemned her, they would haue charg'd him with crueltie. But our Sauiour was euery way well prouided for them, and to this their pestiferous poyson, he applyed the pure and perfect Treacle of his pru­dence. The like trick they would haue put vpon him, & with no lesse cunning, when they demaunded of him; whether it were lawfull to pay tribute vnto Caesar, or no? Conuincing [Page 264] them with the very same peece of money, which they brought vnto him; telling them; Reddite ergo quae sunt Caesa­ris Caesari; Mat. 12. 21. & quae sunt Dei, Deo: Render therefore vnto Cae­sar, the things which are Caesars, and vnto God, the things, that are Gods. It is a great happinesse for prudent Kings, and for those Princes also, that haue not as yet gained with all men the opinion of wise, that some occasions might be of­fered vnto them, wherein they might catch these crafty & subtill Foxes; And they ought purposely to hunt after them, & to perfourme some exteriour, and publick actions in order to this end: And so to carry them, that all the people may take notice of them. For therby, they shall gaine a great deale of authoritie and reputation throughout the Kingdome▪ And of all, both subiects, and strangers, be feared & esteemed, for men of wisedome, worth, and prudence. As it befell King Salomon at his first comming to the Crowne,3 King 28. when the peo­p [...]e of Israel perceiued the discretion and prudence, wherwith he had proceeded in de [...]iding that difference betweene the two women, touching the liuing childe, which each of them pretended. Insomuch that when they saw how wisely, & how iustly it was carryed by him, they shouted a [...]l for ioy, saying; surely, the wisedom of God is in him; And from thence forth they began to respect, & feare him. Yet mistake me not, I be­seech yee; For, I do not say, that Kings should desire, that any ill should betide any man; but that they ought, & may desire, that some such occasion might be offered vnto them, wherein they might shew their zeale and loue vnto Iustice, and mani­fest to the world, that they are wise enough of themselues to execute the same. For there is nothing, that makes a King more worthy of his Monarchie, as to win, by meanes of his good Counsel and gouerment, greater credit and authoritie, then what he had, when he began first to gouern: For a king­dome is only the gift of fortune; but this other, argues his owne wisedome, and iudgement.

But that, which I shall conclude this point withall, is this; [Page 265] That this prudence & sagacitie of the Serpent, so much com­mended by Christ, ioyned with the Doues simplicitie, produ­ceth two effects of much importance in kings, which are these Neither to deceiue, nor to be deceiued. Simplicitie, is without welt or garde, plaine & true, and knowes not how to deceiue any man. Prudence, on the other side, is very wary & circum­spect, and will not suffer her selfe to be deceiued by any man. Nay, it goes a little farther; for it perfecteth the whole essence and being of prudence, and causeth a certaine dexteritie in the dispatch of businesses, which is a great help vnto Princes, and is the only Mistris to make them to vnderstand & iudge things aright. And likewise to see and discerne them by out­ward actions, and the exterior sences. The eye, the foote, the hand, shall not wag▪ moue, or stirre, but it shal discouer the in­ward thought. Lastly, it is it's proper office, (Reason assisting and the discourse of the vnderstanding) to anticipate occasi­ons, and to diuert in time the euill that may happen; For, (as Tully sayth, and very truly) Nihil turpius in sapiente est, quam dicere, non putaram: Nor ought it to be the Language of kings to say; I did not thinke on such a thing, I did not dreame, that things would haue fallen out thus, & thus; or that I did not throughly vnderstand the busines. For, in Kings, it is no lesse shame to suffer themselues to be deceiued, or to be ouercome by Artes, and tricks, then to be subdued in the open field by force of Armes. Kings therefore, being necessarily to heare, and negociate with so many and so sundry persons, to free themselues from the slightes & subtleties of some, must make vse of this circumspection and sagacitie. Homer representeth vnto vs a most prudent Prince, who (though vnlearned) yet for that he was very crafty & subtile, did gouerne very well, and freed himselfe from many great dangers. Subtletie and Sagacity, accompanied (I say) with a sound intention, and a good conscience, (for that is it, we [...] aime at in gouernment) proceedeth not from sagacity, and subtletie, but from good­nesse and Iustice.

§. V.
Of the Discretion, which Kings ought to haue.

VEnerable Beda, Bede: in Ioh Greg. Pastor. p 1. c 11. and S Gregory say, of the nose and it's nostrills; that they are the Instrument, or Conduite, to conuay all sorts of sents vp to the head; And that they are purposely placed in so high a Station, that they may the better dis­cerne the good and the bad. And they signifie thereby the vertue of discreti­on, which is the knowledge of good and ill, and by Rea­sons helpe, distinguisheth the one from the other. Per na­sum, discretio exprimitur, per quam virtutes eligimus, & delecta reprobamus: By the nose, is vnderstood discretion, by which wee make choyse of vertue, and reiect our plea­sures. And is of that great excellencie, that the Ancient made her Reginam virtutum: the Queene of the Vertues; redu­cing all the rest vnto it. Another call'd her the Mother. A third, the fountaine or well-spring of the Vertues; A fourth, will haue euery particular vertue to beare the name of Discretion. And there is not one wanting, who affirmeth that these did not hit the marke aright; for farre better (saith hee) might they haue said, that there is no vertue at all, without discretion. For albeit the Vertues in themselues be perfect and full, and doe qualifie the person that posses­seth them, as Fortitude, makes a man valiant; Iustice, makes a man iust; Wisedome makes a man wise. And so in the rest; Yet if the vse of discretion be wanting to any one of these, they loose their Punctum & medium; wherein they consist and light vpon the extreames. So the Liberall turnes Prodigall; the Valiant, foole-hardy; The wise, imprudent; [Page 267] and the Iust,Ber. in Cant. Ser. 49. iniurious. Discretio (sayth S. Bernard) omni virtuti ordinem ponit: Discretion, is the rule, by which eue­ry vertue is directed. And in matter of Counsell the Vote of discretion strikes a great stroake; for it distinguisheth false­hood from truth; things certaine, from things doubtfull; and from amidst what is ill, maketh choice of that which is good. It qualifieth all things, and puts them in their punto, and pro­per being. And the Philosopher sayth; That it is a vertue pro­per vnto Kings,Arist. 3. Polit. c. 3. Princes, and Gouernours to whom by office it belongs to intermeddle, and haue a hand in such a world of businesses, as require their direction and discretion; where­with, all they must help themselues for the better disposing, and ordring to a good end the affayres of the Common-wealth. It is a neere neighbour vnto prudence, and bordreth much vpon her, these vertues (as we sayd before) being so in­chained, and interlinked one with another that we cannot touch one peece, without trenching vpon the other. And are both so necessarie, that though I should say neuer so much of them, I could not out-speake them.

But to come to the point; Let the first point of aduise and discretion in a King be▪ not trust so much to his own wise▪ and discretion, as to forbeare, out of a presumption of his owne sufficiencie, to treate and Consult businesses with persons of prudence and vnderstanding. For, being that so and so various are the cases, which dayly offer themselues vnto Kings, and so graue and weighty the businesses, whereof they treate, they must be canuased to and fro, and well and throughly debated, for the better ordring and setting of them; making former errours, to serue as land-markes, for the avoyding of those to come. And like a wise, and experienced Physitian, let him apply that medi­cine there, and in that case, where, for want thereof he had formerly erred. Out of ignorance, to draw knowledge; out of errours, certainties, & out of bad successes, future war­nings, is admirable discretion.Arist. lib. [...]. Rheto [...]. c. 9▪ Ex praeteritis conijcientes, iudi­camus: [Page 268] (sayth Aristotle) By coniecturing of things past, wee come to make our iudgement of things to come. And it is a very good course to diuine by that which is past; and in Kings exceeding necessary; to draw experience from some times, for other some; And to beware (as they say) not onely by other mens harmes, but likewise by their owne. For, let a man be neuer so wary, neuer so circum­spect, and let him watch and looke about, as if his life lay on it, hee must either fall, or hath fallen at some one time or other, or hath err'd in this, or that particular, whereby his designes haue beene frustrated, or hath seene, or read the downe falls of others. And therfore shall be shew him­selfe very discreet, if hee shall gather a Doctrine out of these, and make such good vse of them that they may serue vnto him for a warning; [...]. 1. 1 [...]. Castigasti me Domine, & eruditus sum: O Lord, thou hast chastised mee, and af­ter that, I was instructed. For, (as it is in the Prouerb) Delos escarmentados, salen los arteros: No men, are more their Craft-Masters, then those that haue bin most bitten. Nor is it much, that a man of reason and vnderstanding discoursing with himselfe of forepassed passages, should benefit himselfe by comparing cases past, with cases pre­sent, and by experience and knowledge of those which heretofore haue beene remedilesse, hee may apply remedy to those, which threaten future mischiefe: Sithence that brute beastes (as it is obserued,Isidor. lib. 4. Epist. Polyb. by S. Isidore, and Polybius) who haue no discourse, but onely a naturall instinct, leading them to their conseruation, make vse of the like kinde of Accidents, not onely when they themselues fall into some quack-mire, or otherwise haue runne the danger of this baite; or that net; but euen then also, when they see others fall before them, they hang an arse, and will not easily suf­fer themselues to be drawne into the like danger, but hold that place euer after in suspicion, where they haue seene their fellowes indangered, and shunne (all that they can) [Page 269] that hole, or bog, whereinto they haue once either fallen, or beene myred. And shall not men of vnderstanding, and good discourse, which heare, and see, what other men suffer, as likewise the great hurt, which they themselues haue re­ceiued by the like cause, shall not they (I say) grow wise by other mens harmes, and their owne; shall not they seeke to shunne and auoyd (as much as in them lies) the like in­conueniences, but that some pleasing thing shall bee no sooner propounded vnto them, but forthwith they will suf­fer themselues to fall into the pit, and to be taken in the snare, that lyes before them, and will not offer to fly ther­fro, nor forbeare to eate of that deceiuing foode, where­unto they are inuited, and know for certaine, that neuer any did come off with safety? He, that by the forepassed Ac­cidents, and falls of others, or of himselfe, doth not take aduise and warning, the name of beast, nay of a senselesse creature, will better befit him, then of a discreete and well-aduised man. This is that complaint, which Moses made of that foolish people. Vtinam saperent, & intelligerent, acnouissima prouiderent: Would to God, that they would call to minde, and make vse, of the so many, and various successes, which they haue seene, and past through, and that quoting the present, with the past, they would be proui­dent in that, which is to come; especially, since the wise man sayth;Eccl. [...]. 9. That the thing, that hath beene, is that which shall be; and that, which is done, is that which shall be done; and that there is no new thing vnder the Sunne. Let the conclusion therefore of this discourse be, first; That it is not heere required of a discreete King, that he should beare about him in his [...]leeue good lucke, and drawe out when he listeth a faire lot, and a certaine and happy successe in all his businesses; for this is only, and wholy, in Gods hands, and not in his. And therefore to require any such thing of him, were great indiscretion: but that hee should enter into them (if time will giue him leaue) with sound aduise, [Page 270] and mature deliberation, and to intertaine them till hee be able to bring his purposes to passe; And, si sit periculum in mora: If there be danger in delay, and that they will not suffer the deferring, let him call to minde the successe of former businesses, and let him well consider with him­selfe, what in like cases hath vsually succeeded, and accor­dingly let him settle in the present, and prouide in the future, that which is most fitting, euermore hauing respect to the iustnesse of his cause, relying altogether vpon God, and humbly beseeching him, that hee will direct him in all his wayes.Prou. 16. 9. For (as it is in the Prouerbs) Cor hominis dis­ponit viam suam, sed Domini est, dirigere gressus eius: A mans heart deuiseth his way; but the Lord directeth his steps. Suting with that common saying; Homo proponit, & Deus disponit. Man purposeth, but God disposeth. The second thing required of him is; That hee looke well a­bout him, that he diligently obserue the maner of gouern­ment throughout his whole kingdome, and that he haue a watchfull eye on his publike Ministers, and Counsailours of State; and more particularly vpon those, that are in highest place and authoritie, and haue his eare most; And that hee likewise labour to know the qualities, conditions, and naturall dispositions of those, that now are, and to conferre and compare them with those of former times that hee hath seene, and knowen, or hath heard, and read of in Histories; to the ende, that by the knowledge of the affecti­ons, and naturall inclinations of those, hee may prognosti­cate the end whereunto these tend; and by those passages and proiects of precedent times, make a diuination of the designes of the present. For, this prudentia in principe, quodammodo diuinatio est: Plutar. in Pom­pon. Artic. This prudence and discretion in a Prince, is a kinde of diuination. And let them not tell mee that mens manners, are changed with their names; nor their naturall inclinations with the declination of times, and that there is no correspondency betwixt those that are [Page 271] now, and those of olde, for (as Cornelius Tacitus saith, who was a singular Master in this science, speaking of his owne times, in respect of the former) the men are other, but now their manners. They are now, as they were then; and then as now. Well may it be, that for some considerations, men may represse, and couer their affections moreat one time, then another, but not, that they are not one and the same, those of this time and that; and that early or late they doe not the same worke, they antiently did. For, from one and the same causes, it must necessarily follow, that we must see one and the same effects. Let Kings therefore see (once more I speake it) and consider well the estate wherein stand the affaires of their Kingdome, how it is in the go­uernment, in their Ministers, and their Counsellours, what their affections, naturall inclinations, passions, ambitions, de­sires, and the like, and make a iudgement of the one and the other, of the present, and the past, and they shall finde, that these, and those, great & small, and all one with another tread in one and the same steps, and ayme all at that faire white, of their owne black and fowle Interest. And weighing likewise with themselues, that some, if not most of those Kings and Monarkes, that haue gone along in that track and held the like course of gouernment, and made vse of the like Ministers, either haue beene ruined thereby, or brought neere vnto it, let them stand aloofe from it, or them, or ought else whatsoeuer whereby they may either see, or know, other their predecessours haue beene vtterly ouer­throwne. For, most certaine it is, that by the effects of Cases past, we may know what were the causes of them; and how in the like, the like may likewise succeede. The science and knowledge of Kings, is like vnto that of Astro­logie, wherein are better skill'd those of latter then former times, in regard of those many proofes and experiences, which they haue seene, heard, and read. Historie therefore and experience, being the fountaines of humane wisedome, [Page 272] Princes ought to peruse Histories, and procure to know how it hath succeeded with others, that thereby they may take aduice and warning in cases to come; and from this experience and knowledge of mens naturall inclinations and affections, to draw thence a doctrine, for to moderate their owne, and to know other mens dispositions, and withall, to take notice, that the naturall dispositions of the men of these times, are not more strong and able to resist their ap­petites, but are more weake in the naturall, and lesse perfect in the spirituall, then those of our Ancestors. Whence that followeth, which wee said before, that by the Knowledge of the past, wee may prognosticate of the present, if wee haue once seene, and made triall, that it fell out so with o­ther men of the like state, and condition. So that it may be collected, by what hath hitherto beene deliuered, how necessarie it is, that a King, or supreme Lord, should exer­cise himselfe for some few yeeres, in the studie of the va­rious Lections of Histories, and may (if he will) come by them, to know the customes, and inclinations of forraigne nations, as well of those, that are free States, as those that are vnder subiection; with whom he must indure so many demaunds, and Answeres. To the end that the varietie of Accidents, may no whit afflict, nor trouble him. For it were a kinde of disparagement to a great Prince, to admire any noueltie whatsoeuer, or to seeme a stranger, to the strangest Accidents, that shall occurre vnto him. And hee must ne­cessarily suffer this, and other great inconueniences and deceits in matters of State, if hee be not well aduanced in the knowledge of them, and with the people, with whom hee is to treat. For many are they, that pretend to deceiue him, and will not suffer the truth to come to his eares in it's naked nature, but shadowed with some colour, as shall make best for their pretension. For to cut off which mis­chiefe, histories serue the turne, which supply the want of experience, and set before his eyes in a short peece of paper [Page 273] the successes of an age so large and of such a length, that many liues cannot reach thereunto. A thing very necessa­ry in Kings, whereby to finde themselues prepared for the present, and prouided for the future. For hee, that hath still before his eyes what is past, is seldome deceiued in that which is to come. And hee, that shall turne ouer the Histories of former times, shall meete with the nouelties of the present; as also with those truths which Sycophants conceale, and such as are not flatterers dare not to tell him. Onely Histories, without feare or dread, speake plaine language to Kings, and yet remaine as whole, sound, and in­tire, as they were before.

Another point of Discretion, is; That for as much as the aduice and wisdome, and more particularly in Kings and persons of great name and ranke, is great, they should not intermeddle in small matters, not shew themselues in your lesser occasions, where the glory is none, and the losse of reputation great, not onely if they be ouercome, but also if they doe not ouercome to their great aduantage, They ought not likewise lightly and without very good ground to thrust themselues into businesses of great conse­quence, and of that danger and difficultie, that they shall not afterwards know well how to winde themselues out of them: For it argues but a small talent of wisedome, to know dangers then onely, when a man is in the midst of them: And sauours of much leuitie, to put himselfe des­perately vpon cases of aduenture. And this is no other Counsayle, then that which a very graue and wise man, gaue the Emperour Vespasian, deseruing to be written in letters of gold, and in the Cabbinies of Kings.Refert. Cor. Tacit An [...]al. lib. 8. Qui magnarum rerum consilia suscipiunt, aestimare debent, an quod inchoa­tur reip: vtile, ipsis gloriosum, aut promptum effectu, aut certè non arduumsit. They that aduise and consult the vn­dertaking of great enterprises, ought to weigh and consi­der with themselues, whether that they goe about, be pro­fitable [Page 274] or no for the common-wealth, honourable for them­selues, or whether it may easily be effected, or at least with­out any great difficultie? And this is a Lecture, which Christ reades vnto all, aduising vs, that before wee begin any busines of importance, wee enter into an account and reckoning with our selues, whether wee bee able to goe through with it, or noe, and when hauing well weighted the difficulties, dangeres and expences wee must bee at, wee shall finde it to be of more charge then profit, to let it a­lone. So shall wee rid our selues of a great deale of care, and excuse the murmurings and censure of the people, who will much risent it, that in businesses, wherein the wealth, peace, and reputation of a Kingdome is interessed, Kings should aduenture for the gaining of a little, to put themselues in hazard of loosing much. As likewise, be­cause thereby is giuen occasion, of measuring the extent and limits of the power of Kings, and of plainely mani­festing to the open view of the world, that they cannot alwayes doe what they would nor against whom they will, and therefore must not giue way, that men should en­ter into iudgement, that their power cannot reach whi­ther they themselues will haue it, but ought alwayes and by all meanes they can, to maintaine the credite and estima­tion of their power, and greatnesse. The words of our Sa­uiour Christ, Luk. 1 [...]. are these; Which of you disposed to build a Tower, sitteth not downe before, and counteth the cost, whether he haue sufficient to performe it? Lest after hee hath laid the foundation, and is not able to goe through with it, all that behold him, begin to mock him, saying; This man began to builde, and was not able to make an end. Or what King going to make warre against another King, sit­teth not downe first, and casteth in his minde, whether hee be able with ten thousand to meete him, that commeth a­gainst him with twenty thousand, &c.

The like I say of competitions, whether this, or that other [Page 275] doth this, or that better? Though it be in matters of re­creation. For all occasions of incounters with Kings are in any hand to be avoyded. And it likewise seemeth ill in point of policie, that they in any kinde should haue any competition with their vassalls.Pont. 20. 3. And King Salomon sets it downe for a point of policie; for that it is a thing vnwor­thy authoritie Royall. It is a mans honour (saith he) to keepe himselfe from strife. Alexander the Great, being askt the question, whether he would goe and sport himselfe at the Olympick games with the rest of the Great ones of his Court? made answere; yes, if there were other Kings with whom I might contend.

Yet would I not haue Kings so farre to mistake mee, as to vnderstand that they may not enterprise great things, and haue competence with others, that are as great, or greater then themselues, following their stepps and imita­ting their heroycall Actions; nay, it is a point rather of Discretion, and wisedome, in a prudent King, to tread in the track of their Ancestors, that walked in the right way, and to set before their eyes the good things that they did, that according thereunto they may take the like resolution in the like Cases. The Romanes were so religious in the Pre­cedents and Examples of their Predecessours, that they made them the line and rule of all their Actions, and made them as a Law to be kept and obserued, and could not depart ther-fro without the fowle note of ignominie, gouer­ning new enterprises, by former old Actions. Neither ought a King likewise to esteeme so meanely and so basely of him­selfe, as to thinke, that hee is not able to doe as much as others haue done in times past. For if they of olde, had had that minde and conceit of themselues, in calling to minde the braue and noble deedes, which they haue either heard, or read in Histories of their Ancestours, they would not haue imitated them, as many of them haue, in their great and glorious Acts. And certaine it is, that neuer any man [Page 276] did any such illustrious and heroycall Action heeretofore, which might not be done by another. And therfore, the Actions of Kings being such, as conduce to the seruice of God and the well-fare of the Common-wealth, it will con­uene very well (the said circumstances being duly conside­red) to commence and giue a beginning vnto them, to the end that fortune, or (to say better) God, putting a helping hand to our good diligence and industrie, may giue vnto them a full and perfect end. It was the saying of King Agesilaus: That fortune, in great affayres, and high en­terprises, neuer shew'd her selfe liberall and generous, but when shee met with noble and generous mindes. And it hath beene often seene, that men loose, at least let slip, many things, not because they are not able to atcheiue them, but because they want courage to vndergoe them. And let them not onely content themselues with the bare reading of them, but endeuour to be like those famous Captaines, in matter of warre; those great Common-wealthes, in matter of gouern­ment; and those Christan Politicians, in matter of State. For examples perswade much. And albeit that Homer saith, that great enterprises are sooner spoken of, then done; easily vttered, but hardly executed, yet let Princes doe their best, which will be no small matter. For thereby, their subiects will receiue benefit, their successors beare them enuie, and their enemies stand in feare of them.

Now let vs draw out of this discourse that discretion, which is a vertue so necessary, that when it is wanting, good is conuerted into ill; and vertue, into Vice; and where a man thought to winne fame, in stead thereof, growes in­famous, affronted, and ashamed. For discretion, worketh in man that effect, as salt doth in flesh, which dryes vp the moysture, drawes forth the blood, and keepes it from cor­ruption. As doth salte, so doth discretion, keepe man free from perturbations, or any vnseemelinesse and discompo­sure, in any Action whatsoeuer he vndergoeth. Christ re­commended [Page 277] this vertue to his Disciples,Mark. 9. 49. when hee com­manded them to haue salte within themselues. This was in the Gospell.Leuit. 2. 13. But long before in the Leuiticall Law, it was commanded; that euery Sacrifice, should be saked with salte.Ezech. 43. 24. The wordes, are these; Euery oblation of thy meate offering, shalt thou season with salt, neither shalt thou suffer the salte of the Couenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat offering: With all thine offring, thou shalt offer salt. Giuing vs thereby to vnderstand the wisedome and discretion, wherewith hee would haue vs to serue him, And Saint Paul chargeth vs, not to vtter that word which shall not be seasoned with the salt of wisdome, and discretion. A qualitie very necessary and requisite in all, but more particularly, and without comparison with much more ad­uantage in Kings, as hath wisely beene obserued by An­selmus, and venerable Bede. In that safe-conduct, which Artaxerxes gaue vnto Esdras, wherein was set downe in a list,Esdras 6. all the allowances that they were to make him, and what prouisions he was to haue along with him, and though in the rest there was a limitation, Salverò absque mensura; yet was hee to haue salte without measure. Hee was not stinted in that. For in all things belonging vnto Kings, there is such a proportion, taxe, or measure set vpon them; but there are no bounds, no limitts to be set vpon their wisedome and discretion. Let them (a Gods name) haue that without measure, without limitation. For, let them haue neuer so much, it is no more then they haue neede of. God, of his goodnesse, giue them as much as is needefull for them, and that shall suffice them. And let vs extract this, out of all that which hath beene said touching this sence of smel­ling, that there are two sorts, or two kindes of prudence, (according to S. Basil.) The one good, and the other bad; The one of flesh, and blood; and the other of spirit, and life. Of the former, doe the wise men of this world boast. For they denominate that man to be wise, that is crafty and [Page 278] subtill, a slye, cunning Companion, that by ouer-reaching; and damnifying his neighbour, procures his owne priuate profit.Rom. 8. 8. The one (sayth Saint Paul) kills, the other quickens; This brings death, that life. Nam prudentis carnis, mors est; prudentia autem spiritus, pax & vita: For, to be carnal­ly minded, is death; but to be spiritually minded, is life and peace. Let that then be condemned for ill, and let that suffice, which hath beene spoken thereof. And let vs set vp our rest vpon this, which is such and so good, that no vertue with­out it, is pleasing and acceptable vnto God, as no Sacrifice was without salte. So that chastitie, and cleanesse it selfe, a vertue so high prized by God, and allianced so neerely with the Angels, is of no reckoning without prudence. And that his best beloued,Mat. 25. beautifullest, and fairest Spouse, should shee be wanting in this, he would repudiate her, and abhorre her. Wee read in Saint Mathewes Gospell, of ten hand­some Virgines, well attyred and fitted for to attend the bride­gromes comming, whereof fiue of them, for their impruden­cie,Ambr. lib. 2. de bene [...]. 14, were shut out, and not suffred to goe in with him to the wedding. So that, it is good for all; and without it, all is as nothing. Omnia operatur prudentia: (saith S. Ambrose) Wise­dome worketh all things. It doth not onely put mans reason and will in the right way, direct his forces and faculties, and order all his actions; but without it, man is no man, but the Counterfaite, and figure of a man. Fortherein consisteth the absolutenesse and perfection of man, and that similitude and likenesse, which he hath with God, in his being capable of Reason, and prudence. By his Memorie he makes that, which is past, present; by his wisedome, he foresees that which is to come; and by his Counsell and aduise, he disposeth and or­dereth the present estate of things, which are those parts of prudence, which we specified before.

Of the sence of Tasting, and of the vertue of Temperance, and how well it befitteth Kings.

AMongst the many miseries, which ac­compaine man, euen from the cradle to his graue, and from his mothers wombe, to that of the Earth, the mo­ther of vs all, that hungry appetite and precise necessitie of eating, and drinking is not the least. It is (as S. Isidore saith) a rigorous, a cruell and importunat cre­ditour;Isidor: Nullus hominis tam improtunus exactor est, quàm venter; bodie suscipit, & cras exigit: There is not any so earnest and eager an Exactor on man, as is the belly; It receiues to day, and requires the same againe to morrow. It is continually demaunding that troublesome tribute of meate and drinke, of recreation and pleasure, and all other things necessary for the body; for all these passe, and are registred, vnder the sense of the Taste. Which albeit it be lesse noble then the rest, yet is it more necessary then all of them. For (as S. Ierom sayth, and experience teacheth) without it wee cannot liue long, but without the other we may. Aristotle sayth, that this sence directs it's eye to these two obiects; to the pleasure it receiueth in eating, and to the delight it taketh in drinking. Both being very power­full, and walking still hand in hand, the one seconding the other, taking their seuerall turnes. And their Signorie so farre extends it selfe, that it trenches vpon the rest of the sences, and all of them are willing to accompaine him. For Hearing, Seeing, and Smelling, neither like vs, nor last long, vnlesse they haue the fellowship of the Taste, Yet are they [Page 280] differenced in this, that the Species of those things, that are to be seene, heard, and smelt, are to passe by the Medi­um, or meanes of another kinde of transparent body, as is the Ayre. Whereas those that are to be tasted, are to touch immediatly vpon the tongue, and to haue their dwel­ling and abiding in the palate, that it may the better relish & distinguish the seuerall sorts of Tastes. And it is worthy our obseruation, that in that part of the Head, which is the mouth, where principally the Taste hath it's seate, though it's Iurisdiction be so short, and so curtall'd, that it scaree occupieth the least space of the Tongue, and that it's de­light is so short, that it indureth but for a moment, yet it should come to be of that power and force, that it forced the wise man to say; That it was insatiable. And though it alwayes hath, and doth still shew it's rule and Empire ouer all mortall men, yet does it make it's greatest oftenta­tion in Kings, in Princes, and your great and principall per­sons, who are most subiect to it's Command. Some com­pare it to the fire, whereinto the more fuell you fling, the more infinite is it's power, and rests neuer satisfied. In like manner, such a Tyrant is the Taste, that be our riches, rents and patrimonies neuer so great, like fire, it wastes and consumes them, though it selfe remaine still whole and intire, without being lessened or diminished. Nor will I heere cite the Examples of prophane Kings and Emperours giuen ouer to the pleasure of their palate and sensuall de­lights, to the losse of great Estates and Kingdomes, and the scandall of their suiects; because my purpose is to quote some places of the sacred Scripture, dictated by the Holy Ghost, the Author of Truth. It is reported of King Salo­mon, that being so wise, so rich, and so powerfull a Prince, that hee did in such sort let loose the reines to his vnbri­dled appetite, as if there were not the least footing of wisedome, or reason to be found in him. Hee himselfe says as much in Ecclesiastes, Eccl. 2. 8. where (as one that saw at last his [Page 281] owne errour) hee expresseth his minde in this manner; Dixiin corde meo: Vadam & affluam delicijs, & sruar bonis: I sayd in mine heart, Goe to now, (for so the vulgar renders it) I will proue thee with mirth, therefore inioy pleasure. I sayd so, and as I sayd, so I did. Vadam; I will goe; That is to say, after my appetite, I will abound in wealth, I will inioy the good things of this world, by which are vnderstood all sortes of delights, and pleasures, as eating, drinking, intertainments, recreations, sportes, and pastimes, and whatsoeuer in that kinde may be conceiued or imagined.Eccl. 2. 10. Omnia quae desiderauerunt oculi mei non ne­gaui eis; &c. Whatsoeuer mine eyes desired, I kept not from them; I with-held not my heart from any ioy. For my heart reioyced in all; &c. And at last, hee conclndeth with this saying;lbi 25. Quis it à deuorauit, & delicijs affluit, vt ego: Who, of all the Kings that euer were in the world, could eate more then I? Or who could hasten more thereunto then I, hauing the world so much at will, and more then all they had? Was it not a thousand pities (thinke you) to see so wise a King to become Tributary and subiect to so vile a slaue as is the belly? I haue of­ten times mused and wondred with my selfe at the blind­nesse of our noble men of these times, who making it such a point of honour, and standing so strictly vpon it, not to pay any taxe, or tribute, though it amount not to aboue a blanke, and that they will sooner loose their liues, then acknowledge themselues Tributaries, and yet that these the more noble and greater Lords they are, should the more glory to be Tributaries, and render and submit themselues most, to this infamous tribute, and tyrannicall taxe, which is payd to the palate? What sumptuous tables? What costly diet? What dainty dishes? What exquisite curiosities? What rich and precious wines? What Regalos? And what recreations, more befitting Heathens, then Christians? And all, for to pay the Taste this vnlawfull [Page 282] custome? Which in plaine language, is a greater taske, and a greater Tribute, then the poorest labourer, or the meanest hedger and ditcher is seassed at. For, when he pays this Tribute, it is onely with a peece of houshold bread, and a dish of small drinke, and other the like poore con­tentments, denying to his Taste those excessiue Tributes, which your Kings and greater persons pay, being in this particular better gentlemen then they. O the blindnesse of our Christian Nobilitie! Let me put this question vn­to you; when the Collector of Subsedyes comes to a poore husbandmans house, to demand so much of him as he is [...]eassed at, if hee should pay him more then is due vnto him by the Law, or any Act ordained in that kinde, or should be earnest with him to take more then hee is set at, would not all men thinke him to be a foole, and a very sim­ple fellow? The like errour doe they commit, who con­sume their goods, their lands, and their whole Estates in seruing the belly, and satisfying the Taste with such diuer­sitie of delicate Viands, and choyse wines, when as they may well pay this Tribute with that little, or small modi­cum, mentioned by the Apostle; Habentes alimenta, & quibus tegamur, 1 Tim. 6. 8. his contenti simus: Hauing foode, and rai­ment, let vs be therewith contented. And with this, let vs goe dayly redeeming those seassements and Tributes, which were imposed vpon vs by sinne, and in particular this sinne of eating and drinking, wherewith so often euery day we make such large payments. And if wee cannot quit the whole score, let vs doe herein, like your bad payma­sters, who doe huck and pinch, and pay as little as they can. But this (the more is the pitie) is not in vse amongst them. For men, when they are call'd vpon to pay either priuate debts, or publick seassements, they driue the de­mander off with delayes, and when they should make pay­ment, fall a caffling, and refuse to lay downe what is due. But in eating, and drinking, they will pay much more then [Page 283] is due, and presse the belly to take more, then either it is willing, or able to receiue. When Caesars Collectors came to demand Tribute of our Sauiour Iesus Christ, hee put this question to Saint Peter; Reges terrae, à quibus accipiunt Tributum, velcensum? A filijs, an ab Altenis? The kings of the earth, of whom doe they receiue Tribute? Of the Children, or of strangers? To whom Peter answered; of strangers. Thereupon our Sauiour persently replyes, Ergo liberi sunt filij: Therefore the children are free. And if Kings and their children are, and ought to be free from this royall Tribute; it standeth with much more reason, that they should be freed (as much as is possible) from the Tri­bute of their proper gusts and pleasures, which is much more preiudiciall vnto them, then that can be, should they pay it. For that payment is made but once yeare at most, or from halfe yeare to halfe yeare, and it is payd in money; But this is daily and howerly, and must be payd with a mans wealth, with his Health, with his life, and with his honour. A man cannot lap vp in a little peece of paper the misbehauiours and misdemeanors which Princes haue fallen into, by giuing themselues to riotous banqueting, nor the excesses, which they haue beene forced to commit, when they haue broke the bounds of Temperance.Prou. 30. 22. There are two things (sayth the Wise man) which disquieteth the world,Prou. 31. 4. and turneth it topsie-turuy; To see a slaue when he reigneth; And a foole, when hee is filled with meate. And therefore the sayd Wiseman forbiddeth wine vnto Kings. And Seneca doth much reproue Alexander the Great,Senec. [...]pist. 84. and Marcus Antonius, for their distemper in their diet; A thing so vnworthy the royall dignitie,Cicero. Philip. 2. Orat. 4. that Cicero did affirme, that cruditie of the stomack in Princes, was a great indignitie, and altogether vnbeseeming them. For, by delighting in drinking, they dull their spirits, enfeeble their strength, and discouer a thousand weakness [...]s to the world, the concea­ling whereof did import them very much, and neerely con­cerne [Page 284] them. King Salomon sayth in his Prouerbs, Much more strong is that man, which ouercomes himselfe, and subdues his owne affections, then hee that getteth great victories ouer his enemies: Suting with that vulgar saying; Fortior est quise, quàm qui fortissima vincit moe [...]a. And therefore, it not so much importeth Kings, to conquer others, and to make themselues Lords of new Prouinces and Kingdomes, as not to become perpetuall slaues to their proper gustes & appetites. For this doth not fit and sute so well with the greatnesse of their Office, nor is eating in it selfe so generous an Act, that they ought so much to prize and esteeme it. In the booke of the Iudges, Iudg. 9. 8. we finde a Parable of the trees, who hauing resolued with themselues to choose a King, to whom all the rest should owe homage, they came first to the Oliue, afterwards to the Fig-tree, and lastly to the Vine, intreating them that they would be pleased to take the Crowne vpon them, and to raigne ouer them. The first answered; That he could not leaue his fatnesse, to goe to be promoted ouer the Trees; The Fig-tree, hee excused himselfe in the like manner, saying; Hee could not forsake his sweetnesse, and his good fruite, for the inioying of a Crowne; And the Vine, he plain­ly told them, that he would not leaue his wine, which chee­reth God, and Man, to become a King. The purpose and in­tent of Parables, (according to the doctrine of glorious S. Austin, and other holy Doctors) is, to infold in them the truth. And in this is it giuen Kings to vnderstand, that ex­cesse in their Tastes and delicious meates, is not compatible with their Estate, nor doth it become a Crowne Royall, (that wee may say all we can, though we somewhat exceede from the obiect of the Tast) to loose it's time in pleasures, and pas­times, but that in that very instant, wherin Kings take them, they should as sodainly leaue them; in regard, that they haue so many and so great businesses committed to their charge, wherein if they should bestow all their time, they haue scarce time enough. Which requiring (so much as it doth) the [Page 285] assistance, and obseruation of kings, if they should mis-spend this time in sports and intertainements, they must of neces­sitie want time for that which is more necessary; & be driuen (considering that there is not any thing, that doth cause a greater relaxation, and distraction in the vnderstanding, and that more abateth the edge and vigor of graue and weighty consideration, then sports, pastimes, and pleasing of their owne gustes and palates) to neglect State-businesses, vnlesse they will be pleased to vse them seldome, and with modera­tion. Insomuch, that they being to repart and diuide the time betweene themselues and the Common-wealth, they should so employ it, that it might not be wanting vnto them for their businesses, nor super-abound vnto them for their Vices.

Yet for all this doe not I pretend (it being the least part of my meaning) to take from Kings their intertainments, but rather much desire that they would take them with modera­tion, and without neglecting businesses of State, and after that they shall haue fully cumply'de with the Common­wealths affayres. To the end, that all the world may see, that these their pleasures, are not as principall, but accessary, and as an ayuda de costa, an ayde and helpe, the better to beare their trouble, & to wade through that wearisomenesse, which the continuall assist [...]nce on graue and weighty occasions, causeth. Intertainments and sports must be like vnto salt, wherewith if [...]our me [...]te be sprinckled but a little, and in a moderate kinde of manner, it makes them sauoury, and sea­sons them in that good sort, that they doe not onely relish, but digest the better and breede better nutriment. But if your hand be too heauy, and that you lay on loade (as they say) without measure, or moderation, it marrs your meate, and makes it sower and vnsauory. And for mine owne part, I am of opinion [...], th [...]t there was neuer any time, wherein Kings had more cause, or greater obligation to moderate their plea­sure, then at this present, it being the onely thing that is now [Page 284] [...] [Page 285] [...] [Page 286] in request amongst your great persons, and the onely talke that passeth amongst them, how they shall passe the time. My thinkes, that time is here represented vnto me, which the Apostle Saint Paul, 2 Tim. 3. 1. inspired by the Holy Ghost, did prophe­cie, & foretell vnto vs; That in the last dayes, perillous times shall come (which are now wholly and truly ours) wherein men shall be louers of their owne selues, and their pleasures, more then louers of God; and shall regard more their owne particular then either their neighbour, [...]ustice, or the cōmon good. In a word, they shall take more care to fulfill their lusts and their delights, then to please God, and therefore shall fall into innumerable sinnes. The Apostle Saint Peter and Saint Iude, doe much indeare the great euills which vsually arise from corporall pleasures, & the terrible chasticements which are reserued for those, that giue themselues over vnto them. The vniust (sayth Saint Peter) the Lord will reserue vnto the day of iudgement to be punished;2 Pet. 2. 9. but cheifly them, that walke after the flesh in the lust of vncleannesse, that are pre­sumptuous,Iude 1. 4. selfe willed, &c. And Iude hee pronounces con­demnation against those vngodly men, that turne the grace of God into lasciuiousnesse, &c. And this hath, and doth still increase dayly in such sort, that the madnesse and dotage of those wicked times seemeth to be againe renewed in the world,Wisd. 2. 1. mentioned in the booke of Wisedome, where a com­panie of gallants, and boone-Companions, banketting and making merry amongst themselues, vttred this Epicuraean; Exiguum, & cum taedio est Tempus vitae nostrae: Our life is short and tedious, and in the death of man there is no re­medy,Ibi. 6, neither was there any knowen to haue returned from the graue, &c. Venite [...]rgò, & fruamur bonis quaesunt: Come on therefore, let vs inioy the good things that are present. Let vs eate and drinke, quaffe and carowse, and be merry, and let vs speedily vse the creatures like as in youth.Ibi. 7. Vin [...] pretioso, & vnguentis nos impleamus. Let vs fill our selues with costly wines, and oyntments. Let vs be puruayours and [Page 287] Caterers to our owne bodies, let vs prouide the pleasingest obiects for our eyes, the sauourest meates for our tastes, the sweetest Musicke for our eares, the softest silkes for our fee­ling, and the daintiest perfumes for our smelling.Ibi. 8. Corone­mus nos rosis, antequam marcescant, nullum pratum sit, quod non pertranseat luxuri [...] nostra. Let vs Crowne our selues with rose-budds, before they bee withered. And let no flower of the spring passe by vs. Let none of vs goe with out his part of voluptuousnesse; and let vs leaue tokens of our ioyfullnesse in euery place. Let God doe what hee list in Heauen, and let vs laugh and be merry here on earth. We haue but a little time to liue, let vs therefore take our pleasures, while wee may. This is all the care, the wantons of this world take, who do not thinke, that there in an eter­nitie, onely they study how they may best inioy themselues and their pleasures, not once dreaming, that there is a God, or a iudgement to come to make them stand in awe of him, but as men, that make a scoffe and iest of that other world, and that other life, they wholly wed themselues to this. Ma­king that good which Salomon sayd;Eccl. 8. 15. Quod non esset homini bonum sub sole, nisi quod comederet, & biberet, atque gauderet: Man, hath no better thing vnder the Sunne, then to eate and to drink, and to be merry; A Language onely beseeming such men, as are to be carbonadoed for hel, and made a dish for the Diuell; for their disseruice towards God, and their seruice to their belly. Which kind of men Saint Paul lamenteth with teares flowing from his heart, as being enemies to the Crosse of Christ, and abhorred of God, and his Saints.

When, and at what time, sports and pastimes, are worthyest reprehension in Kings.

TO euery thing, there is a season (saith the Wiseman). There is a time to weepe, and a time to laugh. A time for recreation, and a time for labour. Tempus plangendi, & Tempus saltandi; Tempus amplexandi, & Tempus longe fieri ab amplexibus: A time to mourne and a time to dance. A time to im­brace, and a time to refraine from imbracing. The Chalde Paraphrase reades; Opportunitas omni rei: There is an opportunitie, or fit season for euery thing. And this op­portunitie is a great matter in all whatsoeuer wee doe, for it teacheth vs to take our due time and season. To weepe, when we should laugh, is a ridiculous thing; And to laugh when wee should shed teares, is no lesse. For Kings to play away so many thousand Ducatts, and to spend, I know not what, meerely for their owne pleasure, whilest their souldiers are ready to perish through hunger for want of pay, and their house-hold Seruants runne in debt, because they cannot receiue, their wages in due time, this sorteth not with that rule, which the wise man would haue vs to obserue. And is it not I pray you a dispro­portionable and vnseasonable thing, to spend the time in intertainments, and sports, which is due vnto publicke causes, and businesses of State? In the second booke of the Kings is set downe a notable case, wherewith God was highly offended. And the case was this; Factum est autem, vertente anno, eo tempore, quo solent Reges ad bella [Page 289] procedere,2 King. 11, 1.misit Dauid Ioab, & seruos suos cum eo, et vni­uersum Israel, et vastauerunt filios Ammon, et obsederunt Rab [...]a. Dauid autem remansit in Hierusalem. Dum haec agerentur, accidit, vt surgeret Dauid de strato suo post meridiem, et deambularet in solario domus regiae, viditque mulieremse lauantem ex aduerso super solarium suum &c. And it came to passe, that after the yeare was expired, at the time, when Kings goe forth to battel, that Dauid sent Ioab, and his seruants with him, and all Israel, and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But Dauid tarryed still at Ierusalem. And it came to passe in an Euening tyde, that Dauid arose from his bed, and walked vpon the roofe of the Kings house, and from the roofe hee saw a woman washing her selfe, and the woman was very beautifull to looke vpon &c. What a companie of aggrauating circumstances did heere precede the sinne of Dauid? It fell out about that time of the yeare when Kings vsed to goe into the field against their enemies, and to muster vp their souldiars. But instead of going himselfe in person, hee sent forth his Captaine Ioab, with all the choyse men of Israel, himselfe remaining in the meane while sporting and recreating himselfe in his princely Pal­lace. And not thinking on those cares, which so dangerous a warre did at that time require, hee rose one day after dinner from his Table, and went to walke in a gallerie or Tarras, that lay open to the Sunne, and from thence it was his chance to espie Vriahs wife washing and bathing of her selfe in a place of the like nature, right ouer against him, who likewise on her part gaue occasion to this sinne, for that her husband being abroad in the warres, and ex­posing himselfe to so many troubles and perills, she should take pleasure in washing her hayre, and in the curious decking and dressing her person in a place, from whence shee might be so easily seene. Whom he no sooner saw but coueted, and no soner made loue vnto, but he inioyed [Page 290] her. And that he might possesse her with the more safety, and cloake the adulterie the better, and the childe wherewith­all shee went, hee gaue order for the making away of her husband, vpon the neck whereof an infinite number of other euills did insue. When Kings wage warre, and their subiects fight their battailes, hazarding therein their liues, or when any other common calamities happen, as of Fa­mine, or Pestilence, in their Kingdomes, they are not then to follow their pleasures and intertainments, but to ab­staine from them, and to shew and make knowen to the world, that they haue a fellow-feeling of these common euills, and generall afflictions; For so did the King of Niniue, as soone as hee was informed what the Prophet Ionas had preached in his Court, threatning them with the punishment which God would send vpon that Citie. And the holy Scripture saith; That the King himselfe was the first man that forsooke his pleasures, layd his roabe from him, and couered him with sack-cloath, and sate in ashes, and caused it to be proclaimed through Nineue, Ionah. 3. 6. saying, Let neither man, nor beast, heard nor flocke tast any thing; let them not feede, nor drinke water. But let man and beast be couered with sack-cloath, and cry mightily vnto God; yea let them turne euery one from his euill way, and from the violence that is in their hands, &c. And this was the Course, that hee tooke for to appease Gods anger. When King Dauid heard of the great slaughter which the Pestilence had wrought in his Kingdome, sorrowing exceedingly, that the Plague was so hot amongst his peo­ple, and shewing, that it grieued his very heart and soule, hee cryed out vnto the Lord, [...] King. 24. 17. and sayd, Ego sum, qui pec­caui, ego qui iniquè egi &c. Vertatur (obsecro) manus tua contra me, et contra domum patris mei: I haue sinned and I haue done wickedly, but these sheepe what haue they done? Let thine hand (I pray) be against me, and against my fathers house. King Ioram reigning in Israel, [Page 291] there was so great a Famine, and so fore a Death in that Kingdome, that two women by consent did agree to kill their children, and to eate them by turnes. Which the King had no sooner heard of, but that he was so inwardly grieued therewith, that in expression of his sorrow he rent his garments, (according to the custome of the Hebrewes on such like sad occasions) and put on sack-cloath with­in vpon his flesh;1 King. 14. 43. Because Prince Ionathan did but dip the tippe of his rod in the hony-combe, when as his fa­ther King Saul, and all his men of warre, were fighting against the Philistins, God was much offended with it. Thereby, teaching Kings, that on the like occasions, they ought to be the first that should abstaine from their plea­sures and delightes, signified by the Hony-combe: That valiant Captaine Vrias, 2 King. 1 [...], 11. was a good master of this doctrine, who being returned from the Armie to the Court, called thither by the King, would by no meanes be perswaded to goe home to his owne house, to refresh himselfe, and make merry with his wife, though his Maiestie willed him so to doe; And the reason which he rendred, why he would not doe it, was this; Arca Dei, et Iuda habitant in papilio­nibus &c. The Arke, and Israel and Iudah, abiding in Tents, and my Lord Ioab with the whole Army lying incamped in the open fields, without any other shelter, and being in that great danger that they are: shall I then goe into mine house to eate, and to drinke, and to lye with my wise? Per salutem tuam, et per salutem animae, tuae, non faciam rem hanc: As thou liuest, and as thy soule liueth, I will not doe this thing. And not only in the common calamities of a whole Common-wealth, but also in those particular ones of great persons, that haue beene seruiceable to the state, it is fit and requisit, and well will it become Kings, that they make shew of their sorrow, by laying aside their feastings, and all other kinde of solacings and mirthfull Intertainments.2 King. 3. 33. When King Dauid vnderstood of the death [Page 290] [...] [Page 291] [...] [Page 292] of that braue Commander Abner, he wept bitterly before the people, and commanded, that none should taste bread, or ought else,Ibi. vers. 38. till the Sunne were downe: saying vnto his seruants; Num ignoratis, quoniam princeps, et Maximus cecidit hodiè in Israel? Know yee not, that there is a Prince, and a great man fallen this day in Israel?

But some will say, that we do not well in aduising Kings or the Common people, on sad occasions, to forbeare their sports and pastimes, it seeming vnto them, that they ought rather then to seeke after them for the diuerting of melancholy, and banishing of sorrow; Vrging Plutarkes authoritie, who reprehendeth those men, who when they are already merrily disposed, hunt after intertainments and pastimes, wishing them to doe that, when they finde them­selues sad and heauie, for then they haue most neede of it. Here vnto, I first of all answer, that the reason is not alike in a particular person, as in a King, and a Common-wealth, which (as wee sayd before) are to be considered and vn­derstood, as a body, with it's Head. And as in a mans body, the head doth naturally feele the paine of the arme, the foote, or any other member; So Kings, which are the Heads of the people, are to haue a feeling of their subiects miseries, & to pittie the ill case, wherein they at any time are, as if it were their owne. And this was that, which moued the Apostle S Paul to say; Quando patitur vnum membrum, compatiuntur omnia membra. 1 Cor. 12. 26. When one member suffreth, all the members suffer with it. This is that Trauazon, or coupling peece of timber in a Common-wealth, and this, both humane policie, and mans naturall disposition, doth re­quire, that when we see others suffer we should suffer with them in our common cōpassion towards them. And the Law of charitie, goes some what farther and would stretch this obligation to a greater and higher perfection, as was to be seene in the sayd Apostle. Quis infirmatur, et ego non in­firmor? Quis scandalizatur, [...] Cor. 11. 29. et ego non vror? Who is weake, [Page 293] and I am not weake? Who is offended,Cor. 11. 2. 29. and I burne not? And in that which the Prophet Ieremie sayd,Ierem 20. [...]. who crossing the Kings humour, and opposing his vaine plea­sures and delights, and representing the truth of things vnto him, and what was fitting for him to doe, his heart was all on a flame, a burning fire was shut vp in his bones, and hee was weary with bearing, and could not holde, so farre was he transported, and so mightily inflamed with the zeale of the Kings, and the Common-wealthes good.

Secondly I say; That (as before hath beene deliuered by mee) I do not pretend, to debarre Kings and Com­mon-wealths of their pleasures and recreations; But my desire is (which I wish with all my heart) that they may be such as may be harmelesse and vn-offensiue, with out remordment and sting of Conscience, and without the mur­muration and notice of the people. And this may easily be done, by doing of that which the glorious S. Ierome aduiseth vs to doe, ex necessitate virtutem: making a ver­tue of necessitie; but I doe not say ex necessitate, but ex vo­luptate, virtutem: That is to say; I would haue them to place their delight and content in that, which is true vertue and godlinesse, in cumplying with the obligations of their Office and Calling, in giuing free and frequent Audience, in hearing those that are wronged and oppressed, in dispo­sing of Offices, in Dispatching of businesses, or in causing them to be dispatcht, and to spend their time, or the most part thereof in these, and the like, cumplying with that of that Royall Prophet:Psal. 21. 1. In virtute tua Laetabitur Rex, & super salutare tuum exultabit vehementer: The King shall ioy in thy strength, O Lord; And in thy Saluation, how greatly shall hee reioyce? And from thence will follow that, which presently followeth in the next Verse; Desi­derium cordis eius tribuisti ei, Ibi. 2. et voluntate babiorum eius non fraudastieum: Thou hast giuen him his hearts de­sire, and hast not with-holden the request of his lips. King [Page 294] Salomon sayes of himselfe, that he gaue his desires as much as they could desire, & that he gaue himself ouer to his delights & contents with that freedome and libertie, as suted with the greatnes of so powerful a king. But that which he got therby, was not the content which he sought after, but distaste, irke­somnes, wearines, griefe, & vexatiō of spirit; which he himself hath left firmed & signed with his own name, for an example not only to all kings, but to all the whole world. Vidi inomni­bus vanitatem, Eccl. 2. 11. et afflictionem animi, et nihil permanere sib sole: Behold, all was vanitie, & vexation of spirit, and there was no profit vnder the sunne. Who could more giue themselues to their delightes, and pleasures, then those, whom the booke of Wisedome speaketh of, who with such a deale of care and greedinesse did runne after all the content, that the world could afford? Yet they say and confesse, that they were so vaine and so false, and such a wearisomnesse vnto them, that they were quite tyred out with them, and are now in hell for their labour, and shall continue there for euer.

Thirdly, I say; That to the end our sports and intertain­ments may be the more pleasing vnto vs, it is fit that they should be vsed with much moderation, and very seldome. Feastings and banquetings, when they are too frequent and too ordinary, they cause a wearinesse, and loathing; And as the glorious S. Ambrose wisely saith, Gratiores post famem epule fiunt, quae assiduitate viluerant: Feastings please most after fasting, which by affiduitie and continuance grow into contempt. And here by the way occasion may be taken, to ad­uise kings of the remedy which they ought to apply in mat­ter of Playes & Interludes, as wel in the quality of that which is represented, as in the requency wherewith they are vsed; Comedies being now as common as our meate & drinke. But I see, that that succeedeth now, which did in those more ancient times; Which though they were often ba­nished out of Rome, yet the times altering, they came to be introduced and brought in again. And King Philip the second [Page 295] who is now in glory, in the latter yeares of his raigne did wholy prohibite them, and for the better furthering of this his determination, he had many, and those very effectuall reasons for it. And that which of late hath beene obserued, is, That neuer in any time, hath there beene seene so much loosenesse and shamelesnesse in youth, as since the time, they haue beene dayly permitted to be playd and repre­sented on the stage, and in those places, where is the greatest Audience, there is the greatest dissolutenesse of manners, especially among your younger sort of people; For those their words, Accents, Tunes, Songs, wanton carriage of the body, idle gestures, and actions, performed with so much artifice and cunning, is no other thing (as the Prophet sayd) but to sow tares, and vicious weedes in good ground, whence they ought with much care to be rooted out. And very blinde is that man, which doth not see the danger that there is, in prouoking and stirting vp wanton blood, with such lasciuious behauiour, being able enough of it selfe to a­waken the appetite of sensualitie. Euen those dishonest pictures, which neither speake, nor moue, doe catch and lay hold on our eyes, and dragge the Soule after them, especial­ly, if they be drawen to the life, and haue the true postures and expressions of a wanton woman. Questionlesse, they cannot choose but leaue a liuely impression in the Soule. And I know not (I confesse) what worke of pietie, or of charitable Almes for Hospitalls, (to which vse a great part of the Stage-Players gaynes goe) can recompence this harme. For of more weight and moment, is one sinne of theirs, which is there committed; then all the Almes that are giuen throughout the whole world. And we know, it is the Apostles rule, That we are not either to doe, or per­mit an euill, that good may come thereof. And that which I know is; That they which enter in there, doe not come thither to giue an Almes, but for those ends and purposes, which haue beene sufficiently deliuered and reprehended, [Page 296] by many holy Doctours, and famous Preachers. Nor doth it boote them to say; That the people, that spend their time in seing of Comedies, are there met together to see a harme­lesse Interlude. Which were they not shut vp in that open Assembly, would perhaps be wandring abroad, committing worse sinnes, which by this Intercourse are excused; for in this one particular, in this very thing, is it plainely to be per­ceiued, how bad Playes be, since for their defence, they haue neede of the fauour of avoyding a greater euill. And in realitie of truth, they doe not excuse, or diuert sinnes, but sinnes are there rather learned, the spectators carrying them away with them conceiued in their minds, by the ones vaine apprehension, and the others fowle and wanton representa­tion, and anon after, bring forth monstrous birthes. And in very truth, the troubles, and temporall scourges, of warre, famine, and pestilence; the many Cities that are battred and beaten downe [...]o the ground, and destroyed; the persecuti­on and the continuall wants and necessities of these King­domes, doe not require so many, and such contents, and re­ioycings; Musica in luctu, Eccl. 22. 6. importuna narratio, saith the Holy Ghost; Musick in mourning, is as a tale out of season. Besides, we are to vnderstand, that God sendeth these his scourges, that wee may feele his stripes, and repent, and a­mend our sinfull liues. And therefore the Prophet Esay, re­presenteth the wrath which God had conceiued against his people, because they were not sensible of his chasticements. Et non est reuersus ad percutientem se, et Dominum non inqui­sierunt: The people turneth not vnto him that smiteth them, neither doe they seeke the Lord of Hostes. Haue yee seene the like dullnesse in any nation? That God chastising them, they wi [...]l not so much as turne backe their eyes, and craue pardon and forgiuenes of him, that is whipping of them, and goes increasing their punishment? There is no demonstration of [...] wi [...] them, but they goe on st [...]ll in their pleasures and del [...]ghts [...] Dominus Deu [...], ad fletum, Isay 22. 12. & ad planctum, ad [Page 297] caluitiem, & ad cingulum sacci, et eccè gaudium, et laetiria, oc­cidere vitulos, et iugulare arietes, comedere carnes, et bibere vinum. Comedamus et bibamus, cras enim mor [...]emur: The Lord God of Hostes calls to weeping and to mourning, and to baldnesse, and to girding with sack-cloth; and behold ioy and gladnesse slaying oxen, and killing sheepe, eating flesh, and drinking wine; Let vs eate and drinke, for to morrow we shall dye. God hauing called them to repentance with a de­sire to pardon them, they answer him with quite contrary ex­ercises, and in stead of weeping, fal into extraordinary laugh­ing; and in stead of sack-cloath, put on rich and glorious ap­parrel; and in stead of fasting, betake themselues to feasting; & in stead of sobbs, and sighes, to sports and pleasures. Which preposterous kinde of course did offend God in that high de­gree, that he threatned to shut the gate of mercy against those that shut the doore of their hearts against sorrow, and repen­tance Et reuelata est in auribus meis vox Domini; Ibi. 14▪ non dimitte­tur iniquitas haec vobis, donec moriamur, dicit Dominus: And it was reuealed in mine eares by the Lord of Hosts; Surely this iniquitie shall not be purged from you, till yee dye, saith the Lord of Hosts. In the book of the Prouerbs, God sheweth the like risentment,Prou. 1. 24. in these words; Quia vocaui, et renuistis, extendi manum meam, et non fuit qui aspiceret; despexistis omne consilium meum, et increpationes meas neglexistis, ego quoque in interitu vestro ridebo, et subsannabo, cùm vobis id, quod timebatis, adu [...]nerit: Because I haue called and yee refu­sed; I also stretched out my hand, and no man regarded; But yee haue set at nought all my Counsayle, and would none of my reproofe; I also will laugh at your calamitie. I will mock, when your feare commeth. Those, whom neither faire words, kind vsage, louing inspirations, nor the powerful hand of God, stretched out to punishment, cannot worke vpon, nor moue to mourne, nor to leaue off their sports and pleasures & their discomposed mirth & laughter; the Lord saith, that this their dis [...]espectfullnesse of him, and shamel [...]ssenes of their sins shal [Page 298] neuer be forgiuen them. And in stead of mourning, and grieuing for them, hee will laugh them to scorne, and make a mocke of them, when he shall see them fallen into the an­guishment, and vexation of their perdition, because they would not correspond with his gentle admonitions, nor be reclaymed by those his fatherly chasticements, which were for the calling of them home, and to make them to returne from their euill waies. And if (besides all that hitherto hath been sayd) wee shall but consider how deceitfull and vaine are these pastimes and delights, we shall therewith likewise see, what little reason Kings and men that are, (or at least ought to be in regard of the grauitie and greatnesse of their places) of a constant and settled disposition, to be carryed away with such idle toyes which presently dis-appeare, and do not only not giue that fullnesse & satisfaction, which they promise; but rather, as vicious thirst & hunger, which ariseth from a corrupt and euil humour, increaseth the more, the more we either eate, or drinke; so these temporall delights, the more we vse them, the more in seeking after them doe we finde our selues mocked and deluded, and the lesse satisfied.

Let vs conclude this point with the testimonie of our Sauiour Iesus Christ, and of that most wise King, Salo­mon, and of Saint Gregorie the Great who citing both the other, speakes thus. Voluptatum, nos fallaciae nulla decipiat, nulla vana laetitia seducat, in proximo namque est Iudex, qui dixit; Vae vobis qui ridetis nunc, quia lugebitis, et flebitis Hinc enim Salomon [...]it, Risus dolore miscebitur, et extrema gaudijs luctus occupat. Hinc iterum dicit; Risum reputaui errorem, et gaudio dixi; Quid frustrà deciperis? Hinc rursus ait. Greg Hom. 10. Cor sapientium vbi tristitia est, et cor stulto­rum, vbi laetitia: Let not the falsehood of pleasures deceiue vs, nor vaine ioy seduce vs; For there is a Iudge at hand, that pronounceth this wofull sentence;Luk. 6. 25. Woe vnto you that laugh now, for yee shall mourne and weepe. And hence is it that Salomon sayth;Prou: 14. 13. Euen in laughter the heart is sorrow­full, [Page 299] and the end of that mirth is heauinesse.Eccl. 2. 2. Hence againe, hee that saith;Eccl. 7. 4. I sayd of laughter it is mad: And of mirth, what doth it? And that hee sayth yet once againe; The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning, but the heart of fooles, is in the house of mirth. But continuing our dis­course concerning Kings, and things so generally receiued and intertained, as sports, pastimes, and temporall delights; rigorous is that qualification, which the greatest, and most approued qualifiers of Heauen and earth, haue left firmed & signed vnto vs with their owne handes and names. That mirrour of Wisdome, King Salomon, or (to say better) the Holy Ghost speaking by him; Our Sauiour Iesus Christ, the true wisedom of his father, and that great Bishop and Doctor of the Church, S. Gregorie, plainely tell vs, That those de­lights and merriments, which are so well receiued in the world, are but lyes, and mocks, and prognostications of euils to come; and that they haue their reception and residence in the hearts of fooles, and that they remaine banished from those, that are truly wise. These Authenticall persons haue sayd it, and all the Saints of God haue confirmed the same, both by example, and doctrine. And I, whilest I am now writing of this subiect (though the meanest of a thousand) am verily perswaded, that my pen cannot doe better seruice, then to iustifie Gods cause, and to make the faults of Kings the more without excuse, and to let the mighty know, that they shall be mightily punished. And since that I cannot take away the vse of these things, giue me leaue to aduise you of the abuse, and if it shall not be of force to worke an a­mendment, yet let it so farre preuaile with you as to put you out of your error; And to take it into your consideration, that in the way to Heauen you are to meete and incounter with many dangers, and that the Diuell is wonderfull busie and carefu [...]l in setting of his gynn's and his s [...]ares, without our laying in the way these new stumbling blocks, to breake our own necks, and to make the way more dangerous, and to [Page 298] [...] [Page 299] [...] [Page 300] adde new occasions of sinning, whereby to put the busi­nesse of our Saluation in the more contingencie and hazard. Here, might I take occasion to say something of that Tem­perance, which should temper and moderate the excesses of the tast. Whereof we will speake, when we come to treate of the sence of Touching. And now let vs passe to another Mi­nistrie, which likewise belongs vnto the Tast, from the Office and function of the Tongue, it being one of it's principall properties, to speake, deuided by these insuing Paragrahpes.

§. I.
Of the Language and Truth, which Kings, and where­with Kings, are to treate, and to be treated with.

THe braine, as Minister to all the rest of the sences, sends to the Tongue two sorts of members, the one soft, and smooth, for to tast our meates withall, and to know and distinguish (as already hath beene sayd) the seuerall sorts of sauours and relishes, which the Taste intertaineth: The other somewhat more stiffe and strong, for to turne and winde the tongue, and to moue it with that nimble motion, as wee see, as like­wise to hold backe the spring, and to restraine and lock it fast, when it is not fitting for the tongue to speake. This is the Master-key, (as we may tearme it) and the ordina­ry Mistresse of Nature, which by the helpe of one onely Instrument performeth diuerse Offices; As of the Ayre, to refrigerate and coole the heart, to refresh and comfort it, and to make it breathe the better and with the more ease, and likewise, to forme our words, for without it, it is as [Page 301] impossible to speake, as without breath to winde a Horne, or blow to play vpon the Fi [...]e; The tongue serues vs for our taste, it serues to turne and roll our meate vp and downe in our mouth; it serues to cleanse the roofe there­of, gumm [...]s and teeth, it serues vs to talke withall, and to vtter those conceits, which are hatched in the braine, which is it's most proper Office; And though it be written of some, that they haue spoken without a tongue, yet this is the vsuall meanes of vtterance, and the ordinary instrument wherwith we pronounce our words, which are the thoughts Interpreters. I omit here to treate, of good, or better language, or whether this, or that, ought to be in greatest request, since the Master himselfe of Eloquence saith;Cicero Tuse. lib. 2. That in euery part, and place, wee are to speake with those words, which are there vnderstood; And that such a people, or such a Nation, is Lord of a Language, and may by a kinde of prerogatiue power, either coyne new, or call in old words. It being like vnto money of seuerall Kingdomes, and Pro­uinces, that being currant in one Countrie, which will not passe in another. And therefore that language, ought to be spoken by vs, which is generally approued, and common­ly vsed and receiued. And therefore many times men alter the fashion of their Language, as they do of their cloathes. And wee our selues finde, that in this our Spanish tongue, wee haue made almost as many changes and alterations, as we haue of our garments, and are able to make two such different languages, that the one should not vnderstand the other. For, wee make such hast to inuent new words, and to take them vpon loane from other Languages, that thinking thereby to inrich it, we come to loose and forget our own naturall Language. So different is it (to some mens seeming) in these, from what it was informer times. For the Spanish tongue in it selfe, is an humble and lowly language, if they had not painted it ouer and adulterated it with new words; Not considering in the meane while with themselues, that [Page 302] the best Language (according vnto Tully) is that, which wee haue beene taught by our Mothers, and which chaste Matrones, and those that haue beene well bred, speake fa­miliarly at home in their owne houses. And the reason of it, is, for that they hauing not gone abroad out of their owne Countrie, to forraine nations, nor treated and con­uersed with strangers, they conserue the naturall phrase and speech of their own Towne, or Country, without so­phisticating their Language with new words, or those that are not of ordinary vse. And therefore it is fitting, that wee should speake in that, which is most passable, and which is best vnderstood, vsing sober, proper, and plaine words; for words were ordayned to that end, that they might be well vnderstood. He speakes best, and in the best Language, that is best vnderstood; not hee, that shall speake in an vn­co [...]th stile, and in words that are neither in vse, nor easie to be vnderstood. It is a common saying with vs; Delos antiquos, auemos de imitar las virtudes, y delos modernos, el Lenguaje: Wee are to imitate the ancient in their ver­tues: and the Moderne, in their Language. And Quintilian tells vs, Loquendum, vt vulgus; sentiendum, vt pauci. We must speake, with the many; but thinke, with the fewest. Many moe therebe, which speak much in matter of tongues, and languages, vsed throughout the world. But I will onely treate of those, which imports Kings, and Kingdomes. Such as is that truth and sinceritie, wherewith they are to treate, that faith and word, which they are to cumply with­all, and that secret, which they are to keepe. Two things (sayth Pythagoras) did the moderate men of the earth, receiue from heauen, well worthy our consideration, in re­gard of the great fauour done them therein; The one, that they should haue the power to be able to doe good vnto others; And the other, to treat Truth. And that in them they should hold competition with the Gods. Properties, both of them well befitting Kings. Of the power, that [Page 303] Kings haue, to doe good vnto their friends, and to de­fend themselues from their enemies, wee haue already sig­nified vnto you, how proper it is to the greatnesse of a King, and how like therein hee is vnto God. But the sayd Philosopher being demanded, wherein man was likest vnto God, made answer;Refert. Hilar de va [...]ia histor. Lib. [...]. Quandò veritatem sciuerit: When hee shall know the Truth. For God is truth it selfe: And that man that treates truth, resembles him in nothing more; and it is so proper to our vnderstanding, that it intertaines it for it's obiect, and still goes in search thereof; the con­trary whereof, is repugnant to the nature, as likewise to the essence and greatnesse of Kings, from whom wee are euer to expect the iudgement of truth.Prou. 177. Non decet Principem labium mentiens: Lying lipps, becometh not a Prince. It is the saying of a King; and of a King, that was a Salo­mon, who spake with the tongue of the Holy Ghost; and it is an avouched and ratified Conclusion, that the pen and the tongue of a King, should alwayes tell the truth. though it were against himselfe: As likewise for to teach, and instruct his subiects that they doe the like; as also all others, that shall treate with them. For in vaine doth hee desire to heare truth, that will not deale truly; And per­happs for this cause, the shortest of all other your words in allmost all Languages, are your Yea, and Nay. There can be no shifting, or doubling in them; no going about the bush. These words will admit no other constructi­on but a bare affirmation, or negation. In the fewest words are the least falsehood; and the least quarrell to be pick't against them. Men cannot expatiate their excuses, as they may where larger Language is vsed. And therefore the o­ther, as it is the shortest, so it is the surest way. Where­fore Kings ought all wayes, and in all, and with all, to treate truth; being that it may be vttred with so much ease and facility, and to suffer himselfe to be plainely vnderstood; Contrary to the Tenent of a sort of vp-start Hereticks, [Page 304] which these Times tearme Politicians, who for to make good their Policie, and Tyrannic [...]ll gouernment, affirme; That a King may, for reason of State, if hee see it may make for the conseruation thereof, Dissemble, deceiue, breake his word, and plight his faith, without any purpose or meaning to keepe it; fraud, dissimulation, and deceit, of what con­dition soeuer it be, being contrary vnto truth, and contrary to the Law of nature, which in all that it treates, requi­reth truth; and contrary to the Diuine Law, which con­demneth him, that speakes not the truth, but goes about to deceiue. And our Sauiour Christ, calls King Herod Foxe, reprouing his wily shifts, and deepe dissimulations, and more particularly, in putting on a face of sorrow before his Guestes that he feasted, when he commanded Iohn Baptist's head to be smitten off, it being the onely thing that hee most defired. And hee likewise condemneth those Pharisai­call Hypocrites, who by exteriour showes, would haue that to be supposed of them, which they neuer interained in their heart.D. Th. 2. 2. q. [...]. art. 1. And the Angelicall Docter renders the reason of this Truth. To dissemble (saith he) is to lye in the deed, or thing it selfe. For a Lye, doth not cease to be a Lye, nor to alter it's nature, be it either in workes, or in words. So that a Lye may be found in the behauiour, gesture or sem­blance, that one maketh, wherewith to deceiue, and to giue vs to vnderstand that, which is not; As also in the man­ner of the word spoken, or some circumstance to be ga­thered out of it. Now that which makes it culpable is the doublenesse in the heart.Aug. lib. de Men­dacio ad Consen­ [...]m. cap. 3. Which S. Austen subtlely con­sidereth in that incounter of a mans meaning, with his wordes; Wherein there ought to be all equalitie and consonancie; which is not truly kept, when in our words, wee shall say the contrary to that, which is in our mindes. Therefore a Christian King, or his Minister may silence some things, cast a cloake ouer them, and not suffer themselues to be vnderstood, and cunningly to dissem­ble [Page 305] that, which they know of them, as long as they shall thinke it necessary to be kept close and secrete, for the good expedition of that which is in Treaty; But a King, or his Minister may not faigne, deceiue, dissemble, or to giue that to be vnderstood by any open Act of his, which he had not in his heart and bosome to doe. All which hath no place in that, which appertaineth vnto Faith, wherein, by the Law of God, we haue obligation, not onely to beleeue, but also to confesse, with all truth and plainnesse, that which we be­leeue, without giuing to vnderstand, by the least word, or gesture, ought to the contrary; nor for the least moment of time, though thereby we might saue our liues. Whereby, Kings, and Christian Ministers are admonished, how they may vse dissimulation, how farre, and for what time, with­out treading in the path of their priuate profit, through which your Politicians pretend to leade them, leauing the high way of Truth, wherewith accordeth whatsoeuer is iust and right, & shunneth all manner of lying, which Truth and Time will at last bring to light. It was the saying of King Theopompus; That kingdomes, and great Estates, were con­serued by Kings speaking Truth, and by suffring others to speake the Truth vnto them. For, they being those, whom it most importeth to heare truths, none heare lesse. King Antiochus, all the time of his raigne, sayd; that he did not re­member, that euer hee had heard any more then one only truth. It being the plague of Kings and Princes to haue that verified in their Pallaces and Courtes, which was de­liuered by Democritus, Quod veritas in profundo puteo demersa latet: That Truth l [...]es buryed in a deepe pit. You shall scarce meete with one in an Age, that dare tell Kings the Truth, there being so many about them, that sooth them vp with lyes and flatteries. Seneca saith; That of ten hun­dred thousand souldiers, which Artaxerxes had in his Army, there was but one onely that told him the truth in a case wherein all the rest did lye. And amongst innu­merable [Page 306] Prophets, which concealed the truth from the king, only Michah made bold to tell it him. And only Solon did the like with king Croesus. Seldom times doth the truth enter into the Kings priuy-chamber, and when it enters, they scare expresse it in that bare and naked maner as did Iohn Baptist. And for this cause, did Demetrius the Philosopher wish king Ptolomie, to reade bookes & Histories, which treated of Pre­cepts for Kings, and Captaines, for they would tell him that which none durst deliuer vnto him. Socrates sayd; That there was not any one, that made open protestation to speake the truth, that attained (as he did) to the age of 70. yeares. And certaine it is, that Kings cannot indure to heare those plaine and naked truths, which the common people, and o­ther their subiects are able to tel them, and proue vnto them; nor must they that are in place presume to vtter them, for feare of indangering their authoritie, and reputation; And therefore it is fit, that they should haue some such persons about them, which should both heare, and vnderstand them, and take their time to informe them of them. And this is a rul'd, Case, taken out of those great Instructions, and wise A­phorismes, which Mecaenas gaue to Augustus, worthy to be taken notice of, and to be kept and obserued, as com­ing from so great a Counsailour, and proposed to a Prince, who was so wise in this kinde. To wit; That Kings, ought to giue libertie and way, that their subiects vpon occasion might be admitted to tell them the Truth, assu­ring them on their part, that they will not bee offended with that which they shall say vnto them. For, it is per­mitted vnto a Physician to prescribe corrasiues, and to cut a­way the dead flesh till it come to the quicke; And it may as well be lawfull for a good subiect, a faithfull Minister and Counseller of state, to speake freely vnto his King with re­spect and reuerence to their royall dignitie) the truth of that they thinke, and to condemne him in his iudgement, or otherwise, when he shall goe about to doe any thing contra­ry [Page 307] to Iustice, and reason. Nor ought this to seeme oftensiue to any man, nor to the King himselfe, who (if he haue a Chri­stian feeling) will approue in his minde & vnderstanding the reasons that they shall represent vnto him; so that if he be wil­ling to heare the truths they shall tel him, it may turne much to his profit. And if he like not well of it there is no harme done, neither doth he receiue any preiudice by it. And if he shall thinke it fit for the furthering of his ends to follow the Counsaile of any, let him cōmend, & honour that person: For by that plot, which he shall haue deuised, & inuented, he shall gaine honour and greatnesse by it. And it is meete & conue­nient, that he should incourage both him, and others with thankes, and rewards. Because this is the sunne, which giues life, and the hea [...]e, which warmes good wits, and makes them actiue, & nimble. And in case he shall not admit of his aduise, let him not disgrace him, nor finde fault with him for his good will, and the desire that he hath to do him seruice. But like a great Prince (wherein he shall shew his goodnesse) let his eye rather looke on the good desire and affection where­with he doth it, then on the effect thereof; As likewise, be­cause others may not be disheartned, for there is not any the poorest plante, that hath not some vertue in it; nor any brayne so barrene, whence at one time or other some fruite may not be gathered for the publickegood.

I conclude then this first point of that plaine and sincere truth, which Kings are to treate, and wherewith they are to be treated, in signifying vnto them, that their own and the Kingdomes safety relyes on searching out the truth, and in hauing those about them which will freely speake it (a thing so necessarie for to gouerne vprightly) and to re­ward him (though it cost him well) that shall tell him. For Kings shall meete with few, that will tell it them (as they say) for a song. For, considering the danger where­into they put themselues by speaking the truth, it costes them much. And it is an old and ancient kinde of cosenage [Page 308] and deceit, which Kings and Princes suffer in not hearing truthes, contenting themselues with applause and adulation of that only which pleaseth their humour, though it be in thing [...] of much importance, and such as neerely concerne them. A notable example whereof, we haue in the Tri-partite Historie, [...] lib. 1. cap. 7. (reported by Sozomenus) of the Emperour Con­stantine the great, who being one day desirous of make tria [...]l of the integritie, and truth of those that seru'd him, hee called them all before him, and to [...]d them; My good friends, it is now many yeares, that I haue liued vnder the obseruance of the Christian Law, but now I grow weary of it, for it is a very painefull and troublesome thing to sub­mit our necke to the yoake of the Gospell and to submit ou [...] selfe to a Law, that will not allow vs so much liber­tie, as to swarue one tittle from it. I pray you, let me haue your opinions in it, for we, for our part, are reso [...]ued what we will doe. When the Emperour had thus exprest him­selfe, those that were flatterers & Sycophants, and time plea­sers, sayd vnto him; Wee thinke your Maiestie shall doe well in so doing, and wee shall be obedient to what you shall ordaine therein. But those good and faithfull seruants, which desired the good and prosperous estate of their Prince both in soule and body, humbly besought him on their knees, saying; Sir For Gods honour, and your own, doe not doe so vile a thing, for it is neither fitting nor law­full, nor shall wee follow you therein, or serue you one day longer. Then did the Emperour know by this, which were good seruants, and of greatest trust, and presently dismi [...] ­sed the other; Credens, nunquam eos, circa principem suum fore d [...]bitos, qui suerunt Dei sui sic paratissimi proditores: Perswading himselfe, that they would neuer be faithfull to their Prince, that would so soone turne traytours vnto God. And if Kings would know how true this is, and the errour wherein they liue, by hauing the truth kept from them, let them at some one time or other (when they see fit) make [Page 309] shew to affect the contrary to that, which before they were hot vpon, and did earnestly desire; and then shall they see, that those very men, which approued the one, will likewise make good the other, and then will they know how in the one, or in the other, nay in all, they are deceiued by them; or at least, that they dare not plainely and simply tell him that truth, which their hearts thinke. If they be Ministers and Counsellours of State, if they once finde out their Kings homour, and the ayre that most delightes his eare, they play vpon that string: If they be bed-chamber men, or the like familiar Attendants about his person, they haue naturally a seruile inclination, and make it their common custome to intertaine him with matters of mirth, or iolli­tie, and intertaynment: if they be his freinds, or his fauourites, they also are not without their applauding and adulation, and by so much the more to be suspected, by how much the greter it is. But what if all these shall ioyne to abuse a good King? Then this miserie likewise comes of it. That what a few of them shall begin to say, all the rest will approue it. And if Kings (as they cannot without being knowen) could but heare their talke and conuersati­on, they might heare and know many truths, they should know the mindes of many, and the desires of all, and they would reioyce in knowing the truth of that, which none durst tell them. For some, nay many of them, will report what they heare, and amongst themselues speake plainely the truth one to another, so as they be sure that the King cannot heare them. This would be somewhat, if not much remedyed, if Kings would but doe that, which we but euen now deliuered of the Emperour Constantine the Great, who would not suffer that Minister or Fauourit that hee had once caught in a Lye euer to see his face any more, but wholly dismist him from his seruices: For both in wisedome and Christianitie, it is to be presumed, that in all or alwayes that hee can, at least as oft as it toucheth [Page 310] his owne particular, hee will not make him a faithfull rela­tion, and liuing in this iust iealousie and suspicion of his truth, and plaine dealing, with much scruple of conscience, and in great danger, doth that King liue which giues him his eare, or vpholds him in his office. But let vs pause heere, and passe to that second point, which is the faith and word, which Kings ought to keepe.

§. II.
That Kings ought to keepe their faith, and word.

THis word Faith, in our Common Lan­guage, signifies Credit; And sometimes Faith, is taken for that beliefe, which wee giue vnto that, which others tell vs. And other whiles, for that, which others giue vnto that, which we tell them. And to say, that a man is such a one, is Hombre de fee, a man of faith, is all one, as if we should say, that he is a man of Credit, and that wee giue saith and credit to that he saith. Marcus Tullius, who knew better then all the Latinists besides, the proper signification and elegancie of the Latin words, saith: That fides, is so called, quasi fiat, quod dictum est, That faith, hath it's denomination, from not fayling in our word. And hence it is, that men hauing shewen themselues honest in doing that which they had past their word they would doe, we grew in the end, to giue faith and credit vnto them. And this humane faith, being taken in this sence, is so neces­sary, that people were not able to liue, nor conuerse to­gether, or hold any commerce or traffick, if they shou [...]d not giue Faith and credit one to another. For the conseruation whereof, it is very fitting, that euery one should make good his word, by his workes, and to see that faithfully perfor­med [Page 311] and indeede, for which hee hath past his honest word and promise. And by how much the more noble a man is, so much the more obligation hee hath, to keepe this his faith and word. And if not, see the offence which is taken at it, when men are taxed with this faulte, who are satis­fied with no lesse, then with taking away that mans life, that goes about to take away another mans faith and credit, by telling him, hee lyes. And it is a thing much to be laughed at, (or to say better much to be lamented) to see the great folly and rash proceeding which passeth in this kinde, and concerning this matter for they acknowledging in these their Lawes, and Duels, what a great obligation they haue to maintaine this their faith, reputation, and credit, by alwayes saying, and treating truth, vpon the very least a [...]persion, shadowe, or note of falshood, they risent it so much, that they sticke not to fall into a worse sinne such as is a very Lye it selfe, a loude lye, by lying so easily, and ordinarily, as some doe. I aske the question; which is worse, to bee lame, or crooked, or to say such a one is so, when as there is no such thing? Certainly, it is much worse to be so, then to be sayd, to be so. And to him, that is not so, me thinkes he should make but little reckoning of what they say in that kinde; and should rather indeauour to flye from any default in himselfe, then from the bare opi­nion and shadowe thereof. Now a lye, being a greater ill, and a farre fouler default then all these, m [...]n fall so easily thereinto, and make so little scruple of Lying, and more Lying, vying Lye vpon lye; yea euen those, that will lay downe their life, rather then indure that men should tell them they Lye, though themselues know they lye, and that they lye not, who tell them they lye, being onely of­fended with them, that they will not take a Lye, for a truth; or at least let them goe away with it, without the lest reproofe or contradiction, which ingenious natures can hardly indure, especially when they know that they are in [Page 312] the right, and the other in the wrong. Certainely, of all other Vices, Lying, is the most vnworthy noble and gentle blood. And it is such a Labrinth, that the more a man seekes to get out of it, the more he findes himselfe out of the way. So that a man striuing to get out of one lye, falls into another, and from that to a third, and all of them worse then the former. Heere I will aduertise by the way, that it is a common and vsuall Language with your Courtiers, which may seeme to carrye a shew of truth, but indeede is full of lyes and falsehood. And this it is: When they will cumply in words, with them who recommend themselues or their suites vnto them, they say; Sir vse you your best diligences, for I will doe my part, and God knowes, that I haue, and doe that, which belongs to mee; And true it is; for God knowes, that his part, is to lye, and onely to compliment with this poore pretender, and to doe nothing at all in that, which he pretendeth. I apply my selfe, to that olde and ancient language of the Noblemen of Castile, in­grauen on the sword, of Cid Rui Diaz. Si, si, no, no, yea yea nay, nay, which is a Lesson, that is taught vs by our Sa­uiour Christ in his holy Gospell. This is that, which be­fitteth all men, but more especially Kings; for, to indeare this or that mans truth, we vsually say, Que tiene palabra de Rey: That a King cannot keepe his word, better then hee doth, or is more precise of his promise, And there­fore I hold for certaine, that that which Plato yeelds vnto Kings and Magistrates concerning this point, if it bee well vnderstood, is not to lye, but to vse stratagemes and poli­ticke deuises, for to defeate and deceiue the enemies spyes, and Intelligencers. And I very well remember that my selfe communicating this conceit, vpon occasion, with one of the learnedst men, and greatest Platonists, that this Age affor­ded, he approued of it, and did much commend it; for, as con­cerning that truth, and faith, whereof we now treate, Plato himselfe, and all other the good Philosophers, teach the [Page 313] rigour and strictnesse, wherewith men ought to keepe their word. In the booke of Iosua, is recounted the craft, wher­with the Ghibeonites, mooued the Princes of Israel to plight them their faith, that they would doe them no harme. And though afterwards this their cunning dealing was discoue­red and brought to light, and that all the people were wil­ling, that this promise should not be kept; yet the Princes of the people made answer thereunto, that they could not but cumply with their word, especially hauing confirmed it with an oath.Iosh. 9. 15. Iurauimus eis in nomine Domini Dei Israel, & idcircò non possumus eos contingere. We haue sworne vnto them by the Lord God of Israel, and therefore wee may not hurt them. And because many yeares after, King Saul (out of a zeale to the good of his people) broake that their word and promise, there fell vpon him and his people a great famine, which continued for the space of three yeares. King Don Sancho, whom they slew by treason, confessed; that that death, lighted worthily vpon him, be­cause hee had broaken his word, giuen to his father King Don Fernando, to passe the partition made with his bre­thren; And the constancie of Dauid is knowen to all, in keeping that his word, which all the while he liued hee gaue to Shimei, that hee would not put him to death, ac­cording to the desert of his irreuerent language, and dis­respect to his person. And both diuine, and humane Letters are full of the seuere chasticements, which God hath inflicted vpon those, who haue not beene faithfull in the keeping of their faith and word. For, being that he him­selfe is most faithfull, and doth boast himselfe to bee so, he will likewise that men should be so one towards another. S. Isidore, Isidor. lib. 2. Synonimorum. D. Th. 2. 2. q. 100. art. 4. ad 5. with a great number of words, affirmeth; That we ought not to deceiue any man: and that all infidelitie, is sinne; That no man ought to faile in that which he hath promised; That it is requisite in all men, that their workes concurre with their words, without admitting any excepti­on [Page 314] more then in two Cases; As when that which is pro­mised, cannot be performed without sinne; Or when the businesses, or the persons, admit some notable change. And hee citeth the example of Saint Paul▪ Who promised to go to Corinth, 1 Cor. 1. 19. but could not be as good as his word, for those lawfull impediments, which hindred this his intended Iour­ney. Whence, it followeth; That things continuing in the same Estate, a man may not, for the conueniences of his priuate profit, be wanting to his promise: And to maintaine the contrarie, is to lay trapps against the truth of faith, and to arme policie against the religion of an oath. In a word, all doe resolue, that all promises are to be kept, and that no deceite or faithlesse dealing ought to be tolerated. And the reason, whereupon they ground it, is common; for that fi­delitas est fundamentum Iustitiae; Faithfullnesse is the founda­tion of Iustice, and all Contractation; And that this being taken away, all commerce amongst men, must expire with it, without the which the world cannot be conserued. For they, not resting assured, that that which is promised, shall be performed, they will not trust one another. Marcus Tullius, sayth very well, that this humane faith is so neces­sary amongst men, that, euen Thieues and Pyrates could not liue, if they were not true amongst themselues, and kept their word one with another. And though all, euen the mea­nest, ought to keepe their word, yet much more carefully ought Kings, and Princes; for there is nothing more vn­worthy them, then to fayle in their faith, and word, which aboue all earthly things they ought to keepe, and cumply with all, because they are as Gods vpon earth, and the Head of their people. Wherefore, their single word ought to be as an Oracle, and to be more firme, sure, and of greater credit, then any bond or obligation whatsoeuer that is sealed and signed with an oath. Let the Politicians say what they please, and that it is good and sound aduise, that a Prince, for to conserue his State, may do an act contrary to Fa [...]th & [Page 315] Religion, and neither keepe his word, nor oath; yet must I be bold to tell them, that this is wicked, vngodly, and beastly Counsaile, and contrary to the whole Schoole of learned Doctors, and holy fathers; who affirme: that a Prince is bound to keepe his word, though hee take not an oath for the performance thereof, but much more if he shall sweare, and binde it by an oath. And if they will not yeeld to this, let these Politicians plucke off their maske, and let those that be their sectuaries, speake plaine language, and tell mee what they thinke of those Princes, (as of Si­gism [...]nd, and others) who made no reckoning of that they promise and sweare, when as by the breach thereof, they haue beene vtterly ouerthrowne, when they most assured themselues of Victorie. I doubt not but they will hold it for a foolish reason of State. For by this falsifying, Princes shall presently loose all their credit and reputation, and all their cunning shall not profit them, for they will neuer afterwards be beleeued.L. 3. Tit. 4. Part. 2. As it is in one of the lawes of the Partida. No le creerian los homes, que le oyessen maguer que dixessen ver­dad. Men will not beleeue, what they heare from them, though they speake truth. Titus Liutus, holdes it a bar­barous Act, That Princes should tye their faithfullnesse to Fortune, to runne along with the times, and to shift sayles with euery winde. For by this meanes the word of a Prince will come to be like vnto the Lesbian rule,August. i [...] Apolog. which chan­geth and altereth it selfe, according to the building, and is crooked, and streight, short, or long, sutable to the bignesse or proportion of the stone, or timber which the carpenter, or mason, heweth, or cutteth.

But let vs conclude this second point, with this; That realitie, and sinceritie both in words and deedes, is very ne­cessary for all sortes of persons, but more particularly, for Kings and Princes, who should rather see Heauen and earth to fayle, then that they should faile in their promises. Let them first well weigh and consider with themselues, what [Page 314] [...] [Page 315] [...] [Page 316] they either say, or promise, that it be agreeable to the Law of God, and to the precepts of the Church, but af­terwards, let them infallibly obserue and keepe the same. For in this, consisteth the conseruation, and augmentati­on of great States; And is that true reason of State, which makes Kings more powerfull, more rich, more esteemed, and more obeyed. For hee that keepes his faith, and his word, holdes the hearts of men in his hand, is Master of all their wealth, and all because they rest assured, that they may con­fidently relye vpon his faith and word. Wheras, by the con­trary, hath insued the destruction of Common-wealths, the distrustfullnesse of their subiects, the scorne and contempt of their enemies, and the iealousie of their friends and confe­derates, who all hang and depend vpon the truth of his words, and the performance of his Contracts. And this being once lost, with it hee looseth his credit, and after that all goes to wracke with it. For Malignitas (saith the Wise man) enertet sedes potentium: Malignitie or ill-min­dednesse,Wisd. 5. 14. (which is nothing else, but a Lye or deceit) shall ouerthrowe the seates of the Mighty. And Cicero saith; That it is a most wicked and abhominable thing, to breake that word, which conserueth a sociable life betwixt man and man. For (as Aristotle affirmeth) Pacts and Couenants, being broaken & violated, there is taken away from amongst men, the vse, trading, and commerce of things. These, and the like effects, cause in a King, either the keeping, or loosing of his Credit. But of no lesse importance is that third point, which followeth in the next place, concerning secrecie.

§ III.
Of that secrecie which Kings, and their Ministers ought to keepe.

IT is likewise the Tongues Office, to holde it's peace. And as it is not of the least difficultie, so in nothing more doth mans wisedome and prudence shew it selfe. Plato, will not haue him held to be a wise man,Diog. Laert. de Vit. Philos. that knowes not how to hold his peace. Diogenes Laertius; Pliny lib. 8. [...]. bis. cap. 25 Cocodri [...]. that there is no greater token of a Foole, then to be loose-tongued, and lauish of talke; N [...]minem stultum tacere posse: It is impossible for a foole, to hold his peace. The Ancient, esteem'd him a God vp­on earth, that was a friend to silence, representing him in a creature of that Region, which hath no tongue. Imply­ing thereby, that that man is the liuely image and true picture of God, whose discretion teacheth him, how, when, and where, to holde his peace: Alluding happily vnto that of Dauid, Psal. 62. 11. who finding eyes, eares, and hands in God, seemeth not to finde that hee had a tongue. For, as hee is God, he neuer spake but once. Semel locutus est Deus: God hath spoaken once. And the Spouse speaketh much of all the parts of her beloued, but of his Tongue, as if hee had no such thing. And he, that shall not speake a word out of sea­son, nor say any more then what is fitting, it may bee sayd of that man, that hee hath no Tongue. And there­fore did that holy King Dauid so often beg of God, that hee would open his mouth with his owne hand, and so order his Tongue that he might not speake, but when he [Page 318] would haue him, and that he would teach him what, and how to speake. Illius labia aperit (saith S. Austen) qui non solum, quod loqu [...]tur, sed etiam quandò, & vbi, & cuiloquatur, attendit: God opens that mans lips, who at­tendeth not onely what he speaketh, but also when, where, and to whom he speaketh. Merito igitur sapiens est (addeth the same holy father) qui accipit a Domino, quo tempore loquendum sit: Deseruedly therefore is he to be held a wise man, which receiueth instruction from the Lord, when he ought to speake. And the Scripture saith; Vir sapiens tacebit vsque ad tempus: A wise man will holde his peace till hee see his time. Nay Christ himselfe, that King of Kings saith of himselfe by the Prophet Esay; Is [...]y. 50. 4. that his eternall Father gaue him an exceeding wise and prudent tongue. Dedit mihi Dominus linguam eruditam: The Lord God, hath giuen me a learned tongue; Or, as the Hebrew renders it, Eruditiorum; The tongue of the learned; Not an ordinary tongue, but such a Tongue, wherin was to be found the wise­dome, and prudence of all the wise men of the world, and from whence all might learne. Vt sciam sustentare eum, qui lapsus est verbo: That I may know how to vphold him, that hath slipt in his word; Or (as the 70. translate it) Vt sciam quando oporteat loqui verbum: That I should know how to speake a word in season to him that is weary. So that a wise, discreete, and prudent Tongue, and such a one as is giuen by God, is that, which knowes when to speake, and when to hold it's peace. Teaching Kings, who are in a manner Gods, at least Gods Liuetenants, should in this particular imitate him. That they should haue a wise Tongue, to know when to open the doore of the lips, and when to shut them, what to vtter, and what to conceale. For, this is the Learning and wisedome of the Tongue, either to speake, or be silent, as shall sute best with time, and occasion. Tempus tacendi, & tempus loquendi: It is Salomons; Eccl. 3. [...]. A time to keepe silence, and a time to speake. [Page 319] And in Kings, this is so much the more important, by how much the more graue and weighty are those businesses, which are treated with them. For, it doth not onely be­nefit them, in not hauing their purposes preuented, nor their designes ouerthrowne, but likewise winn's them much authoritie and credit. For the world will stand as it were a­stonished and amazed, and men will wonder at that, which they both doe, and say, and out of euery kinde of gesture, or word of theirs, will make a Mystery, deliuer their iudge­ments, and draw thence a thousand discourses, all which are but cranes and pullyes to make them mount higher in opinion, and reputation. Likewise, when Ministers shall take notice, that their King knowes how to heare, and how to hold his peace, and in it's due time, to execute his in­tentions, they liue in a great deale the more awe and feare, lest such and such things (wherein they doe amisse) might come to his knowledge: And when they see, that he knowes how to conceale a secret, till it's fit time and season, it keepes them within their Compasse, and is the only bridle, that restraines them from doing ill, either by way of oppression (whereunto great Ministers are too much subiect) or other­wise. And therefore, it shall much concerne a King, not onely to be secret in those things, which might cause some inconuenience, if he should speake of them, and make them knowen, but also in those things, which bring no profit by their publication. For, if they shall once perceiue, that their King cannot conceale, what is deliuered vnto him vnder the seale of silence, in preiudice of this, or that par­ticular party, no man will dare to informe, and aduise him of that, which may redound to Gods seruice, and the good of the Common-wealth. And so like bad gamesters, they will for want of keeping close their cardes, let their con­trary winne the game, by discouering their hand. A Kings h [...]art, should be so deepe and profound, that none should be able to pry into it, nor to know what is hidden there. [Page 320] And therefore he must haue such a secret heart, as S. Austen speakes of; Coraltum: August. Psal. 63. ve [...]. 7. That is, Cor secretum: or (as others reade it) profund [...]m, an inscrutable heart; or so deepe, that none shall be able to diue into it. And some compare a kings heart vnto punctum, a little point or pricke, which to diuide, or to draw any thing out of it, is (if not impossible at least very difficult. The heart of a king, must be closed and shut vp, like this pun­ctum, whence there shal be an impossibility, or at least a great deale of difficulty,P [...]ou 21. 1. in extracting any one word or secret, recō ­mended vnto him. Salomon sayth; That the hearts of Kings, are in the hands of God; and are guided & directed by him. And that therfore their secretes & mysteries, are not to be di­vulged, and made common, no not to his neerest Minions and Fauourites; & when at most, but to some one particular priua­do, and that vpon very good & iust cause. Our Sauiour Christ, once, (vpon necessary occasiō) discouered a secret to his great Priuado, or fauourite, S. Iohn, but it was with these circum­stances; That thee told it him in his eare, forbidding him to speake therof vnto any. And because, neither by signes, or any other outward demonstration, he might make it knowen, he bound vp all his senses in a deepe and profound sleepe, to the end, that by none of them, he might expresse that, which it behooued him to conceale. Great is the importancie of secre­cie, & the authoritie which it giues to the iudgements, & mo­tiues of those that gouerne. For, if all might know the causes, which moue a Prince to make this or that prouision, to giue, this this or iudgement, to pardon, or to punish, to craue, or to giue, many censures wold passe vpō it, & it might cause many scandalls & alterations in a Cōmon-wealth. And therfore it much concerneth so supreme a Maiesty not to suffer the secret which is shut vp in his bosome, to be published to the world. And in some cases, it may come to be a mor [...]al sin, when such things as are aduertised a king, & such Memorials as are giuen him firmed & signed with this or that mans hand, he shal shew them to the parties, whom they touch and concerne, be they [Page 321] sters, or fauourites, in regard of the great hurt, opposition, and dissention, which there-fro may arise. But hee may doe this, in case it may well sort with the secret it selfe, to take out the pithe and substance of it, and without shewing any firme, or vttring any word whereby the Author may be knowen, and shew it to the Delinquent (if so he thinke fit) for his correction, and amendment. And when hee findes that to be true which hath beene told him, and that it cannot be denyed, let him apply a due and fitting reme­dy. For many times Dissimulation in the Prince (not see­ming to take notice of a fault) causeth but the more disso­lutenesse in the subiect.

This is so farre forth,Caelius. Lib. 13. Lectio antiq. c. [...] as concerneth Kings, for whom may suffice, that aduice of Caelius Rodiginus, who tells them more at large, how considerate they ought to be in this particular. For many Cities and Kingdomes haue beene lost and ouerthrowen for want of secrecie.

But let vs now begin to speake of Ministers, and Secre­taries of State, in whom vsually lyes the greater fault. And to whom, by their Office, secrecie more properly belongs. The name it selfe expresing as much. For, out of that obli­gation which they haue to be secret, they are called Secre­taries, and are the Archiues and Cabinets of the secrets of the King, and the kingdom. Though this name through the soothing and flattery of your suitors,He means the Escri [...]anos, and Notaries of Spaine▪ hath falsely exten­ded it selfe to those, which neither keepe secret, nor treate of such businesses as require secrecie. And it is fit, that these names should not be thus confounded, or that that Ho­nor and Title should be giuen to him, to whom by Office it not appertaineth. Secretaryes I say, shut vp with that secrecie,Apoc. 5. 1. as was that booke of those secret Mysteries which Saint Iohn found sealed with seuen seales,Tobit. 12. 7. which none, but the King himselfe could open. Sacramentum Regis bonum est (sayd the Angel Raphael to Toby) opera autem Dei reuelare, honorificum est: It is good to keepe close the se­cret [Page 322] of a King, but it is honourable to reueale the worke of God. Which is as much to say, as that the determina­tions of a King should be kept secret, but that the effects and execution of them should be published and made ma­nifest, when it is fitting for the seruice of God, and the King­dome. For a Kings secret, is his heart, and till that God shall▪ moue him to expresse it by some outward worke, there is no reason that any one else should discouer it. To reueale a secret, is by the Lawes of God, and Nature, and by all men generally condemned, and all Lawes, and Na­tions, doe seuerely punish the same, for the great hurt, and many inconueniences, that may follow thereupon. The Lawes, they are defrauded, the resolutions of Kings, they are hindred; their enemies, they are aduertised; their friends they are offended; mens mindes, they are perturbed; king­domes, they are altered; peace; that is lost; the delinquents, they are not punished; And lastly all publicke and priuate businesses are ouerthrowen. And there is not any thing, that goes crosse, or amisse in a State, or that miscarryes or is lost, but by the reuealing of the secrets of Kings, and of their Counsells. As that great Chancellour Gerson told the King of France, touching the ill successe of some things in his time, for that some of his Ministers did publish that which was treated and determined at the Counsell-Table. And the like befell Enrique, King of Portugall; Who, because hee was deafe, they were faigne to speake so loud vnto him,Valer. lib. 2. Mi­rabi. Caepola; Si­mancus de rep. lib. 7. cap. 14. &▪ cap. 15. that all men might heare what they said. Vale­rius Maximus much commendeth the secrecie of the Ro­mane Senate, and says, that for this cause, that Consistorie was held in high esteeme, and that it was a great occasion of inlarging their Empire. And they, and the Persians, did keepe with that faith the secrets of their Kings, that there was no feare of plumping them, or being able to draw any thing from them, no not so much as the least word, whereby to discouer the businesse. Vse, together with the [Page 323] feare of punishment, and hazard of their liues, had so settled and confirmed this silence in them. For, they did punish no offence with greater rigour, then that of vnfaithfullnesse, in matters of secrecie; and with a great deale of reason, be­cause it is in so neere a degree vnto Treason; and I thinke, I should not say amisse,Osor. lib. 8. de Regis instituti­one. if I stiled it in the highest. Regis proditor, & Patriae euer for aestimandus est (saith Osorius) such aone, is to be held a Traytour to the King,Ley. 5. Tit. 9. p. 2. in fine. Ibi. Faria traycion. Excepto encaso detraycion [...] heregia, enlo qual por dottrina de santo Thomas se puedes dist. 21. & dist. 10. q. 2. artic. 3. q. 1. ad. 2. L. 5. Tit. lib. 2. and a subuer­ter of the state. A Law of the Partida sayth; That those Counsellours, which reueale their Kings secretes, commit treason; yea, though secrecie be not inionyed them, nor they charged there with. But hee, that takes an oath to be secret, and reuealeth any thing contrary thereunto; besides that he is a periur'd and infamous person, hee sinnes mortally, and is bound to satisfaction of all the harme, that shall hap­pen thereby, and incurres the punishment of depriuation of his Office. For, if hee be sworne to secrecie, or bee made a Secretary, and hath silence for the seale of his Office, he is iustly depriued thereof, if he vse it amisse. And the Law of the Recopilation saith, that hee is lyable to that punishment which the King will inflict vpon him, according to the qualitie of the offence, or the hurt thereby receiued. And the Imperiall Law, (chapter the first, Quibus modis feudum amittit.) that hee shall loose the fee, which hee holdes of his Lord. Plutarke reporteth of Philipides, that he being in great grace and fauour with Lysimachus, King of Lacae­demonia, begged no other boone of him but this; That he would not recommend any secret vnto him; As one that knew very well that saying of one of the wise men of Greece: That there was not any thing of more difficultie, then to be silent in matters of secrecie. As also, for that it being communicated to others, though it come to be discouered by anothers fault, and none of his, yet the imputation is laid as well vpon him, that was silent, as on him that reuealed; and so must suffer for another mans errour. And in case any [Page 324] man shall incurre any iust suspition thereof, let the King withdraw his fauour from him, dismisse him the Court, and put another in his place, that shall be more secret; for that which they most pretend, is their fidelitie in this point. And howbeit, they haue neuer so many other vertues, and good abilities, yet wanting this, they want all; and are of no vse, no more then were those vessells in Gods House, which had no Couers to their mouthes. For such open vessells are they, that cannot keepe close a secret, and al­together vnworthy the seruice of kings. The substance and vertue of your flowres goes out in vapours and exhalati­ons of the Lymbecke; And heate passeth out through the mouth of the fornace: and a secret from betweene the lipps of a Foole; it being a kinde of disease amongst those that know least, to talke most, and to vent through their mouth, whatsoeuer they haue in their heart. In ore fatuorum, Eccl. 21. 26. Cor illorum (sayth the Wise man) & in corde sapientium, os illorum: The heart of fooles is in their mouth, but the mouth of the wise is in their hearts. Co­gitauerunt, Psal. 72. et locuti sunt. Looke what a Foole hath in his head, hee will presently out with it. But a wise man, will not speake all that hee knowes. And therefore your Naturallists say; that Nature placed two vaines in the Tongue; the one going to the heart, the other to the braine. To the end that that which remaines secret in the heart, the Tongue should not vtter, saue what reason and the vnderstanding haue first registred, conformable to that Order, which is betweene the faculties of the Soule, and of the Body, it being fit that the Imagination should first conceiue, and the Tongue afterwards bring forth: that thinke, the other speake. Not like vnto that foole, who vnaduisedly, and without preme­ditation, went all day long babbling vp and downe. Tota die iniustitiam cogitauit lingua tua: Psa. 52. 2. Thy tongue, all day­long, deuiseth mischiefe. That is, whatsoeuer it imagineth, it easily vttreth, nay sometimes the Tongue speaketh with­out [Page 325] booke, and runnes riot, afore euer it is a ware. But let vs conclude this with that of Salomon; Prou. [...]8. 21. That Death, and Life, are in the power of the tongue; A dangerous weapon in the hands of him, that is not Master thereof, and knowes not how to rule it. For all Mans good, or ill, consisteth in the good, or ill vse of this Instrument. The well go­uerning whereof, is like a good Pilot, that gouerneth a ship; and the ill guiding of it, like a dangerous rocke whereon men split their honour, and often loose their liues. And therefore the Diuell left patient Iob, when all the rest of his body was wounded with sores, his tongue whole and sound: Not with intent to doe him any kind­nesse therein, but because hee knew very well, that that alone was sufficient, if hee were carelesse thereof, for to make him loose his honour, his life, and his soule: For all these lye in the power of the Tongue.Prou. 13. 3 [...] Qui in consi­deratus est, ad loquendum, sentiet mala: He that openeth wide his lipps, shall haue destruction. And the plagues which shall befall him, will bee so remedilesse, that he shall not meete with any medicine to cure them. Nor is there any defence against the carelesse negligences of a babbling tongue which are so many, that the Holy Ghost stiles such a kinde of tongue, the Vniuersitie, or Schoole of wickednesse. Vniuer sitas iniquitatis: Iam. 3. 6. Wherein is read a Lecture of all the Vices. Whereas on the contrary, Vir prudens secreta non prodit; Seneca. lib. 4. ae Virtut. Tacenda enim tacet, et loquenda loquitur: A wise man will not betray a secret; But silenceth those things, that are to be silenced, and vttereth those things, that are to be vttered.

It is worthy our weighing, how much importeth the warinesse in our words, for Gods honour, and the Kings credit and authoritie, which is much abused and lessened by futile, and flippant tongues, to the great hurt of a king­dome, and the good gouernment of the Common-wealth. And let Kings correct this so great a disorder in the dis­closing [Page 326] closing of secrets, either out of their respect to such and such persons, or for their particular Interests, or out of the weakenesse of a slippery tongue. Let Priuie-Counsellours (I say) and Secretaries of State, bridle their tongues; If not, let Kings, if they can, restraine them. And if they cannot do it of themselues, let them petition God, as Dauid did; In camo et frae [...]o maxillas eorum constringe: Psal 31. 91 Iames 3. 8. Hold in their mouth with bit and bridle. For I am of Saint Iames his be­liefe; Nullus hominum domare potest: The tongue can no man tame; it is an vnruly euill. I say moreouer that the harmes which the Tongue doth, are so many, and in such a diuerse manner, that the euill consisteth not onely in spea­king, but many times likewise in being silent, and saying nothing; by forbearing to speake the truth in that which is fitting, and when it ought to speake, (as already hath beene sayd) and in not reprouing and amending his neighbour, being obliged, thereunto, by the Law Naturall, Diuine▪ and Positiue; And in not reprehending Murmurers, and Back­biters; for then, for a man to hold his peace, and not to checke them for it, is to consent and concurre with them, and to approue that which they say. And S. Bernard tells vs, that he cannot determine which of the two is worser; Detrahere, [...]ern. lib. 2. de Conside. ad Eugen. ant detrahentem audire, quid horum damnabilius sit, non facile dixerim: To detract, or to heare him that detra­cteth, which is the more damnable, I cannot easily define. But more especially in Kings & persons of authoritie, who with a blast only of their breath, or with a sower looke, may make them hold their peace. I leaue the charge of this vnto them, and charge their consciencs with it. And for the discharge of mine owne, I will now aduertise them of another sort of peo­ple, whom for their tongue and talke none can exceede.

§. IIII.
Of Flatterers, and their Flatteries.

AMongst those infinite hurtes, and mis­chiefes which an euill tongue causeth, one amongst the rest, and not the least, is that of Adulation and flattery. Which is so much the greater, by how much the more dissembled and feigned it is. The sacred Scripture tearmes it abso­lutely a sinne, and says, that a flatterer, is absolutely a sinner. So some doe paraphrase vpon that Verse; Oleum autem peccatoris: The oyle, or balme of a sinner. For in it is included all sortes of sinne whatsoeuer, and aboue all a great neglect and contempt of God: for although this be to be seene in all kinde of sinnes, yet doth it more particularly expresse it selfe in those, which draw not with them any delight, which they doe as it were vnprofitably, and sine pretio; for it brings them no profit at all, vnlesse (when most) a little Vanitie, which they more esteeme, then God. These, that they may gaine the kings elbowe, or that they may not bee put from it, speake al­wayes vnto him in fauour of that, which hee desireth; and all their Artifice and cunning is, to conceale the Truth, and that the doore may be shut against him, that may tell it him, or those that know not (like themselues) how to please the Kings palate. And being confident, that they will giue eare to euery word which they speake, they lay falsehoods and lyes athwart their way, fathering such Acti­ons of Prowesse and valour vpon Kings, that they haue much adoe to for-beare laughing, that heare their folly. For there are some prayses, that are dis-prayses, and re­dound much to the disgrace and dishonour of Princes. [Page 328] For by those vntruths, wherewith they sooth and flatter them, they breed suspition of that good which is in them. And because they make pleasing the marke whereat they shoote, they neuer looke, whether it be a lye, or a truth, which they deliuer, nor haue an eye more vnto good, then ill; iuste or vniust, against God, or his neighbour, all is one: Cannonizing their King for a Saint, though they know the contrary. These (saith Nazianzene) are like to your Sorcerers of Egypt, which were about Pharaohs person, who with feigned Prodigies, did pretend to ease his heart of that griefe which those plagues did cause in him. Ambitious and proud men are these, which thus re­sist the truth, and that they may not fall from their bias, oppose themselues to those that speake the truth, and minde nothing else, but to cast a fayre colour on those things, whereunto they see their Prince stands affected. They come of the race of your Cameleons, which liue by the ayre, and cloath themselues with the colour of that whereunto they approach neerest. If they see the King troubled, they are troubled; if merry, they are merry; if sad, they are sad; Hauing their teares as neere at hand, as their smiles, for to deceiue him; And the better to content him, they change themselues into a thousand colours: in all they imitate him: in all doe they labour to represent him to the true life. There is not that glasse, which so liuely represents the face, the semblance, and actions of those that looke therein, as the flatterer (who is that shadow which alwayes followes the body of him hee flattereth) doth his Kings countenance, his motions, his postures, his gestures, his saying, and his doings. For, as they see him either say, or doe, so doe they. Being like vnto the Echo, which answereth to the last syllable of euery word that is voyced in the Ayre. These are the Kings Echos, which answer him in all, not onely in that which the voyce soun­deth; but in that which they imagine to be to his liking: [Page 329] Being herein very like vnto those lying Hypocrites which thinke one thing, and make shew of another. But they are presently discouered, and this their second intention soone vnderstood, which is, To lye, and flatter, to make themselues gratious, and to bring their businesses the bet­ter about, though it be to the hurt of others. With one single truth, they will dawbe ouer a thousand lyes; As per­fumers doe a great deale of Leather, with a little Ciuit. And thus soothing and suppling the eares of Princes with a subtill softenesse, and deceitful sweetnesse, thy powre lyes into them, and working them with a gentle hand, they passe for truths, Whilst these false perswaders falsifie the Truth, and are worse members in a Common-wealth then those that falsifie the Kings Coine; and sinne more grieuously then those that beare false witnesse. For these, by their testification, deceiue onely the Iudge, that is to sentence the cause; but these with their faire and false flatteries, not on­ly cozen and deceiue Kings, but corrupt and infect them, & make them to perseuere in their errours. Per dulces sermones, & benedictiones, Rom. 16. 18. seducunt Corda innocentium (saith S. Paul) by good words, and faire speeches they deceiue the hearts of the simple. And therefore with the greater and more grieuous punishments ought they to be punished. They are not so squezy stomackt, as to make dainty of Lying, nor make they any bones to tell an vntruth, if thereby they thinke they may please. And as soone will they lay hold on a Lye, as a truth, so as they rest well apayd there­with to whom they vent their flatterie and their Leasings. And some are so trayned and bred vp to them, that they take delight to heare them, and doe as verily beleeue them, as they doe their Creede. And so close doth this falsehood cleaue vnto them, that without any occasion or cause giuen they leane thereunto, and stedfastly beleeue, that they haue that goodnesse in them, which they want, and not that bad­nesse, wherein they exceede. For, being sencelesse of their [Page 330] owne defects, they no sooner heare themselues commended but they are presently puffed vp, and conceit themselues to surpasse all other Princes. And thus doe they liue all their life long deluded, taking themselues to be othewise, then they are, being abused and vndone, by Lyes, and flatteries; Whence it is now growne to be a Prouerb; Princeps, qui libenter audit verba mendacij, Prou▪ 29. 12. omnes Ministros habet im­pios: If a Ruler hearken to Lyes, all his seruants are wicked. For euery man will frame his Tongue, according to his eare and feede him with that fruit, which they know best pleaseth his palate. It being a dangerous disease in Kings, not to indure the truth; and as mortall in the subiects, that they know not well, how to acquaint them therewith. The one, because they minde no other things; The other because they dare not speake their minde. Many seekeing to please them, most to flatter them, and some not to contra­dict them, being loath to distast them, of whose helpe & fauour they may stand in neede, hauing so much the kings eare, and such great power in Court. They know that the bread of Lyes is sauory, and that flatterers are too well heard, that they buzze into Kings eares a thousand ficti­ons and falsehoods, which they themselues inuent, and by their smooth carriage of them, perswade them to be truths. And for that Kings (vsually) treate with few, they cannot be informed of the truth, and so are forced to beleeue those, who of purpose seeke to deceiue them. And ther­fore the wise men of Athens did set such a watch about their Kings, that flatterers should not bee suffred to speake with them. For these their smooth words, their adulations, and flatteries when they are once receiued by the eare, do not slightly passe away, entring in at one eare, and going out at another, but they cleaue vnto the Soule, and make their way euen to the innermost part of the heart, and there make their seate, and abode. Verba susurronis, quasi simplicia, Prou. 26. 21. & ipsa perueniunt ad intima cordis: The words [Page 331] of a Tale-bearer, carry a faire shew, but they are as wounds, and they goe downe into the innermost parts of the belly. And albeit they be cast out, and doe not wholy either pos­sesse, or perswade vs, as knowing of what stampe they are, and in what mould they are cast, yet at least they leaue be­hind them a kinde of guste, and content, and with that wherewith they seeme to please, they kill. As water doth those, that are sicke of a Hectick-feuer, which they drinke with so much pleasure, and swallow downe with so much greedinesse: so these men come to tast that, which turnes to their owne hurt. Crossing the opinion of Iob; who would haue none to tast that, which being tasted, should occasion his death. Of your rich red wine, the wise man saith, that it is pleasant and sweete in the going downe, but after­wards that it biteth and gnaweth in the belly▪ like a Serpent; In like manner, soothing is very sweete and sauory, and and seemeth least sower, to those, that are most powerfull, and, although they see the poyson that it is mingled with, yet they drinke it downe with a good will, and their ser­uants will be sure to serue them with the best and the strongest, contrary to that precept of Gods, which saith; Noli vinum dare regibus: Prou. 31. 4. 5. Giue not wine vnto Kings, lest they drinke, and forget the Law, and peruert the iudge­ment of any of the afflicted. Let Kings therefore take heede of these flatterers, and false deceiuers, who pretend no more then to vphold themselues in their place, and grace, and to receiue thankes for doing ill. And the miserie of it is, that they finde this to be a good way for their rising in Court, and to grow in fauour with Princes; and the onely sure course, whereby to shape and worke out their aduance­ment. Plutarke sayth,Plut. Moral. lib. de Amico, & [...]ff [...]ctatore. That it is the fashion and Language of vile and base people, and besides many other infamous names and foule Attributes, that hee giues them, hee de­clares, them to be of as base condition, as are your slaues, which of necessitie must cumply in all their Actions, and [Page 332] their Answers with their Masters liking, and plea­sure. The doing whereof, were there no other slauerie, is slauerie inough of it selfe. But in some cases, it may be some­what more tollerable, as when their flatteries shall doe little or no hurt, and when as their lyes and vntruths shall tend to no other end, but merriment, and to inter­taine, and please him whom they serue. But in the rest it is Treason and Treacherie. [...]. [...]. Ti [...]. 13. par. 2. King Don Alonso (surna­med the Wise) in a Law of the Partida, sayth Que si alguno, &c. That if any one should speake words of Lea­sing and of flatterie to the King, that hee should not bee suffred to come neere him. For such kinde of men, are like like vnto their tamer sort of Bees, that are housed in their hiues, which haue honey in their mouthes, but wound with their stings. They speake sweete words, but their tongues are full of poyson;Psal. 140. 3. Venenum aspidum sub labijs eorum: The poyson of Aspes is vnder their lipps. Sagiita vulnerans, Ierem. 9. lingua eorum: Their tongue is as an arrow shot out. And they bend their tongue, like their bow, for lyes.Hieroni. Epist. 88. They are worse (saith Saint Ierom) then Scorpi­ons, who wooe vs with their face, and wound vs with their taile. And therefore the Prophet Ezechiel, discour­sing of Kings, aduiseth them, saying; Looke well to your se [...]ues, for you dwell among Scorpions. And well was that holy King acquainted with their ill condition, who did cast them off from him, when he said; Depart from me ye wicked.Iob. 19. 22. Quare persequimini me, & carnibus meis satura­mini? Why doe yee persecute me (saith Iob) and are not satisfied with my flesh? Other Creatures, (though neuer so fierce, and cruell) content themselues with feeding on dead carkasses; but these must liue and be sustained by liuing flesh, and like your birdes of rapine, prey vpon the bosomes and hearts of Kings. Nullum quidem animantium genus (saith Plutarke) assentatoribus est perniciosius: Plut. in Moral. lib. de Educan. tiberis. No creature so dangerous as is the flatterer. Diogenes and [Page 333] Bias, both great Philosophers, were of opinion, that a­mongst your wilde beastes, the most hurtfull, and which did bite sorest, were the Tyrant, and the Tale-bearer, but amongst your tame ones, and such as are bred by hand, the flatterer. The Scripture tearmes flattering, biting. They are snarling Currs; Qui mordent dentibus suis: Which bite with their teeth. They come towards you with a fleering Countenance, but no sooner haue you in their reach, but they snap at you. And therefore a great Monarch, to one that made towards him, with a feigned smile, and fawning looke, when hee came neere him, gaue him, (as to a Dogge) a Kick, saying; Cur me mordes? Why doest thou bite mee? Isocrates affirmeth, that there is not any Pestilence more pernicious and praeiudiciall to Kings, then the flatterer; and aduiseth them, that they should shunne them that applaud all that they say, or doe; but should cherish and make much of those, who in good tearmes tell them their errours; for these are true friends and loyall subiects; and those other, kinde enemies and familiar Traytours, who with the soft silken scarfe of smooth-tongued flatterie gently strangle them, receiuing, but not perceiuing their death, like little children that in­sensibly fall asleepe, being lull'd in their nurses lapps. And they are by so much the more dangerous (saith S. Gregory) by how much the lesse they are knowen and vnderstood.Gregor. in regist. lib. 4. cap. 82. Kings carefully guard their royall persons, with many guardes of Porters, halbardeers, and Soldiars. But there is no guard set, nor no doore shut against these false friends, these domesticke enemies; for those their soft words, oyled ouer with adulation, are those darts, and brasse Ordnance wherewith they kill and slay.Psal. 5. 5. 2 [...]. Molliti sunt sermones eius super [...]leum, & ipsi sunt iacula▪ The words of his mouth were smoother then butter, but warre was in his heart, his words were softer then oyle, yet were they drawen swords. They are men, that carry two faces vnder one hood, they [Page 334] are counterfaite doblones that haue two seuerall stampes, but neither of them golde, which God abhorreth, and throwes them a thousand Leagues off from him, such is the hatred hee beares vnto them. Spiritus enim sanctus effugiet fictum: Wisd. 1. 5. For the holy Spirit of discipline, will fly deceit, and will not abide, when vnrighteousnesse com­meth in. Therein, teaching discreete Kings, how they ought to avoyde this kinde of vaine men, and dissembling dispositions, whose pills of poyson, are confectioned with Sugar, and fairely, but falsely gilded ouer. The Emperour Tiberius, was such an enemie vnto them, and to whatso­euer did sauour of flattery, that neuer either in publicke, or in secret, did hee giue way to intertayning any speech with them, and held those hearts to be base and vile, which did vse the like feigned courtesies. And the two Seueri, Alexander & Septimus: did seuerely prosecute these beasts, and pursued them to the death, as most mischeiuous to a Common-wealth. Theodoricus, stabd one of his seruants, because thinking thereby to please him, and to curry fa­uour with him, he had changed his Religion. And the Athe­nians, beheaded an Embassadour of theirs, whom they imployed to the King of Persia, because in an insinuating and flattering kinde of fashion, hee made his entrance, when hee came to haue his Audience, with great submis­sions, and thereupon enacted a Law, whereby they con­demned flatterers to death. And the Emperours, Arcadius and Honorius ordeyned the like in their Lawes. And good King Dauid did well instruct Kings,2. Kings. 1. 15. how they were to deale with these Traytors, in that rigorous chasticement, which hee exercised on an Amalakite, who thought to winne his fauour by bringing him newes of Sauls death; whom presently there vpon the place in his own presence, hee caused to be slaine. This kingly Prophet, did hate them exceedingly, and was much the more wary and heedefull of them, as being the Diuells Ministers, and be­ing [Page 335] instructed by him, in the trade of counterfeite gilding, and laying oyle colours on rusty yron, wherein hee had so played the cunning merchant with our first parents, & met with such good and rich Indyes. And therefore did so earnestly beg of God, that not one drop of that oyle of these Traders with Hell,Psal. 141. 5. might touch his head. Oleum autem pe [...]catoris, non impinguet capu [...] meum: Let not their precious oyle make fatte my head. For that soft and sweete oyntment of theirs, is full of poyson. Others, translate it, Non srangat: Let it not breake my head. For, though their words seeme to be like oyle, or Balsamum that is powred forth, yet are they sharpe arrowes, and deadly Darts. This oyle, or Balsamum (saith Casiodorus) is flatterie, which is an inuention of the Diuells to bereaue men of their sences. He tooke this course with the first of men, and neither hath, nor will giue ouer till hee haue made an end (if hee can) with the last. For great is that vngodly gaine which hee maketh by this kinde of mer­chandise. With this pleasant bath, and mouth-oyntment hee came to our first parents, and began to smooth, and annoynt them with his inticing flatteries, telling them, that they should be no whit inferiour vnto God, if they would but taste of the forbidden fruit. They (vnfortu­nate therein) beleeu'd it, And who is he, that knowes not what a bad bargaine they made of it, and what great losse they sustained? And what an ill market, they make, and what they loose by their trading, who by these fomenta­tions, suffer the crowne of their head to be annoynted? The fall of that Prince, is very neere at hand, if not very certaine, that lets his eares lye open to the like lyes; for by listning vnto Sycophants and Flatterers, good kings haue become bad, and by dancing after their pipe, and gouerning themselues by their aduise, Kings and kingdomes haue come to ruine. Commodum, iuuenem imperatorem, per­diderunt: Herodia. lib. 1. (saith Herodian.) They vndid thereby the young [Page 336] Emperour Commodus. They likewise (saith Plutarke) were the cause of the disastrous death of Iulius Caesar, Plut. in vita, Mar. Brut. and of diuerse others. And as some wise and holy Saints haue obserued, many more Kings and kingdomes haue beene vndone by flatterers, then by the warrs; for they are the rootes and beginning of all mischiefes, and all the pub­licke miseries of Common-wealths,Ansel. epist. ad Rom. c. 6. are to be attributed vnto them. Let Kings in this particular be well aduised, and not suffer themselues to be deceiued, nor to haue dust throwen in their eyes, that they may not see the hurt, which flattery causeth.Cicero lib. de A [...]icitia. S. Ierom saith, that it is an vnlucky starre, and an vnfortunat fate, or Constellation, that thus leades the soule and heart aside with flatteries,Augustin [...] and carries them which way they list. For although by fits, we see the face of our owne shame vn-masked, and know our selues to be vnworthy of what we heare, yet inward­ly wee reioyce thereat; like vnto those, who by fortune­tellers, being told their good fortune, take pleasure in hearing of it, though they finde it afterwards to bee bad.

The remedy against this,Tom. 8. in, Psal. [...], is that which the Holy Ghost setteth downe vnto vs. To wit; That wee should sowe our eares with bushes and thornes, that they may paine and pricke his tongue that shall come to court them with flatteries. Let Kings haue reprehension and chasticement in readinesse against these plotters and impostors.2. Hler. ad Sabian. Plus enim persequitur lingua adulatoris, quàm manus interfecto­ris: For a flatterers tongue does more harme, then a mur­derers hand. Seneca in his Epistles, tells vs how exceeding­ly Alexander the Great was incensed against his friends, because they tolde him,Seneca. epist. 124 that hee was the Sonne of a God. Hee told them they ly'd. And hee was in the right. For all that flatter, lye; and that is not to be beleeu'd which they say, but that which euery man knowes of himselfe, and what his owne conscience dictates vnto him: And [Page 337] what good doth their commendation doe mee, if that ac­cuse mee? And in case that they doe not doe this base office, but that they themselues sooth vp themselues, and beleeue that of themselues, which they are not, this, of all other adulation, is the worst, and the most incurable, because it ariseth from selfe-loue, and a proper estimation of our owne worth, which is that inward flatterer which we all beare about vs in our owne bosomes, and are wil­ling to intertane his false perswasions. For hee that is flat­tered by another, doth sometimes know, that all is Lyes and adulation, which they tell him, and makes a game and scoffe of it, which hee doth not doe, when it proceedes from himselfe, but doth rather desire, that all should fa­uour him in this his opinion; And it is a strange thing, and much to be wondred at, that without himselfe, and in another, a man should so easily perceiue adulation, and should not see it in himselfe. But the reason of it is; That some doe rest so well satisfied of themselues, that all what­soeuer they imagine in their owne conceit, they opinion it to be truly in them, and to be their due.

Let vs therefore conclude this discourse, with aduising Kings, that it is basenesse in a brest and heart that is tru­ly noble and royall, to suffer himselfe to be so lightly led away by men of such vile thoughts, and base preten­sions, which follow more a Prince his fortune, then his Person. They feare not his hurt, nor pittie his paines, for that they are Traytours, and easily vary from their faith and loyaltie, and passe ouer to another. They flatter this man, and backbite that: They sooth one, and flout another. Their tongues, are like double sawes, which sawe on both sides, which comming and going, cut wheresoeuer they come, and slice and mince all that they light vpon, not sparing any man. There is no trusting of these men, nor can we safely haue ought to doe with them; for, to serue their turne, they haue still two contrary weapons ready at hand, [Page 338] and with one and the same Prince, make vse of them both. One while they lye, and another while speake truth, but flatter in both. Their tongue droppeth forth words of hony, and their lips are canded with Sugar; for they know, that in Kings houses much sweete meates are spent, and they hold him that shall season things with a contrary relish for their palate, to be offensiue and trou­blesome, and it will not goe downe with them, so harsh doth it seeme vnto them in the swallowing. King Ahab renders no other reason of his hatred towards the Prophet Micah, but because hee did not speake pleasing things, and such as did agree with his guste and palate; for hee that is accustomed to this kinde of diet, will hardly be brought to digest any other. [...] Chron. 18. 7. Quia non prophetat mihi bonum, sed malum (saith the text.) There is yet one man, by whom wee may inquire of the Lord; But I hate him, for hee neuer prophesieth good vnto mee, but alwayes euill. Hee had signified some truthes vnto him, but hee did not like well of them; for those eares, that haue beene accusto­med to flatteries, will hardly indure to be tolde their owne, and to heare that, which may dis-deceiue them, and put them out of their errour. But this wicked King payd the price of his [...]olly, at no lesse a rate then his life. For these his false Prophets, and flatterers, led him along into the doores of death, as fooles by faire words are led vnto the stocks. But hee, that is a good King, will not suffer him­selfe to be carried away with euery winde, nor be moued with soothing and artificiall words; and all such, as are of a generous minde, and of a graue and constant disposition, and men of reckoning and authoritie, are enemies to such kinde of lightnesse, and meere strangers to all manner of leasings and adulation. This being so, wee ought not on­ly to keepe the doores of our eares shut against these their accursed tongues, but of our houses against these vaine and lying Sycophants, and to desire of God, that he will be pleased to illighten the vnderstanding of Kings and [Page 339] Princes, that they may get at least out of this blindnesse wherein they liue, and that he will free them from these eare-wiggs, and incroaching flatterers, who onely for to please, and for their particular Interest, celebrate their euill actions, and approue for lawfull, all their disordinate appetites. Whilest they, out of seelinesse, or willfullnesse, will not see the truth of that saying; Qui te beatum di­cunt, Esay. 3. 1 [...]. ipsi te decipiunt. &c. They, which call thee blessed, cause thee to erre, and destroy the way of thy pathes.

Lastly, That wee may put an end to this discourse, I say, That there are another sort of flatterers, which they call Iesters, and men of pleasure, very hurtfull and preiudici­all both in the Common-wealth, and Kings Courtes; And by so much the more, by how much the more eare is giuen vnto them. Their Laughters, their applause, their flatteries, and their fooleries, are all Lyes; one word crossing ano­ther, and their last reasons incountring with their first, and by laying hold on all, confound themselues in the end in all. Their Office is to persecute the truth; and whereso­euer they are, there is heard nothing but Musicke, songs, and inchantments of lyes and falsehoods, wherewith they deceiue, and fill mens heads with ayre. Hee hath small store of braine (saith a wise man) which hearkens vnto such kinde of idle Companions; who, for that they finde they haue entrance into the Courtes and Palaces of Kings, loose all shame, and feare, and assume vnto themselues the libertie to runne this large course of life, whereby they thriue so well, and get their bread with so much ease. Salo­mon, amongst those beasts, which represent the Actions and gestures of men, which liue by their trickes, and sustaine themselues by their arte and industrie, reckoneth vp the Ape. And according to the Hebrew truth, and Pagninu [...] his translation, that word Stellio signifieth as much. And saith thereof, that it hath it's reception in Kings houses. Stellio manibus nititur, & moratur in aedibus regis. And [Page 340] thereby vnderstand this linage of mimick men, which liue meerely by their industry, exercising a thousand Apish gestures before Kings and Princes to please them all they can, and to make them to laugh and be merry. They are birdes of rapine, hauing long bills, and double pawes, sea­zing on what they see, and you must part with something to them either by faire meanes, or by force, vpon paine of putting you in feare, that they will speake that of you, which they doe of others. These ill condition'd birdes; are vsually bred in high places, although, like lewd women, they stoope to all, admit of all, and take of all, with a pre­tension to deceiue all, fitting euery one according to his humour, soothing that sinne, whereunto they see the party most affected. They are traytours of their tongue, cogging Companions, and lying Knaues, who, a man hath no sooner turned his backe, but they scoffe most at him, that giues them most; and not onely rob him of his money, but his honour, and goe laughing away at their owne folly; They are Rogues by consent, Villaines by permission, Knaues Cum priuilegio, instruments of the Diuell, and Hawkes­meate for Hell; Deseruing to be banished for euer from the presence of Kings, and men of authoritie. But the greife of it is; That the more they lye, the more they are beleeued; and the more impudently and vnciuilly they talke, they are the better heard. Vnhappy are they in themselues, and as vnhappy they that heare them: The one, in their tongues, the other, in their eares. But they shall not remaine without punishment, for their Harpes and their Ghitterns, their Lutes, and their Vialls, their singing of new and lasciuious songs, their descanting vpon other mens liues, their lyes, and their flatteries, in that sad and miserable hower of their death, shall be turned into sighes and groanes, into roarings and howlings, and into hideous and fearefull shrikes, as they write of the Syrens, to whom Esay compares them; Who in their life [Page 341] time sing sweetly, and deceiue the hearing with their sweete notes, and murder the men that listen to them; but after­wards die themselues, bellowing forth terrible and rauing out-cryes. For then, doth that blood faile and forsake them, which did cheere their heart. In like manner, the Sea-beasts, of this Sea of the world, when this their na­turall heate shall goe decaying, and their blood shall waxe cold and frozen within them, they will depart hence with horrible anguish of Soule, terrible gripings of the heart, stinging vexations of conscience, rauing yellings, and shreike vpon shrieke, one ouertaking another tearing the very soule in sunder, caused by their euill Conscience, which neuer leaues racking and tormenting them, till it haue brought them downe to the deepe pit of Hell, where they shall abide for euer weeping and gnashing their teeth. Where I will now leaue them, and passe on to the sense of Touching; which though it be the first in being, yet is it the last, that comes to be handled.

Of the Sence of Touching.

OF those fiue Senses, which Nature gaue vnto the Creatures, in these two, Tasting, and Touching, man exceedeth all the rest; but in those other three, Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling, is ex­ceeded by many. And amongst all the fiue, the most animall, materiall, grosse, and brutall, is the Touching, as also all those delightes which by it are inioyed.Arist 3. E [...]hi. 8. cap. 10. Aristotle saith; That they are sensuall, beastly, and base, as like­wise are those of the Tast. It hath, as the rest, the Ori­ginall [Page 342] and beginning of it's Sensation in the braine, and from thence, goes to this, and to all the nerues of sensibi­litie, that are either more, or lesse subtill and delicate, ac­cording to their seuerall necessities. It is a wonderfull thing, that out of this trunke onely, nay this little chip, (man) Nature should hew and cut out so many Materialls, for instruments for such prime and subtill Operations, as those of the sences and so different, that it is impossible for one exteriour sense to doe that, which another doth. And ther­fore, speaking of the Head, whence all, and euery one haue their sensible Instrument; it is fitting, that we should likewise say something of Touching, and to set downe it's Office; which is, to haue a sense and feeling of the foure primarie Qualities, Frigiditie, Caliditie, Humiditie, and S [...]ccitie; and some o [...]her, which from a mixture with these doe arise, as are hard, soft, rough, plaine, sharpe, flat; great, little; And in a word, all that whatsoeuer, that is knowne and discerned by touching. It hath no set place, or determinate situation in the body, but is equally scat­tred and diffused throughout the whole bulke of man, by vertue of a nerue, which like a fine thine net doth o­uer-spread and comprehend the whole lumpe or masse, both within, and without; by meanes whereof, it hath a feeling in all the parts, but there the more and the bet­ter, where the body is more soft and tender, whereunto assisteth the subtiller, [...] lib. 2. de [...] ▪ c. 17. & 27. and colder blood. Aristotle saith; That it is the first of the sences, and the foundation of all the other foure, and that there is not any creature, but hath it. And as we said of the Tast, they say of this, that it is so necessary, that without it, no liuing Creature can liue; But without some of the other may. And in man, in regard of the goodnesse of his Complexion, which in him is better then in other Creatures, it is more subtill and de [...]icate, then in any-one, or all of them; and farre more certaine, and lesse lyable to be deceiued; and sup­plieth [Page 343] (as Nissenus affirmeth) the defects of the other.Greg. Nis. de bomi. opifici▪ Et videtur datus a Natura propter caecos: And it seemes to be giuen by Nature, for the good and benefit of blinde men. For when that spiritfull sense of the sight faileth them, which should be their Guide, they make vse of this more grosse and materiall sense by groping and feeling the walls. Is caecus est, 2 Pe [...]. & mann tentans, (said Saint Peter) and S. Ambrose; Ambr. lib. 6 Quod Tactu probamus, quae oculis probare non possumus: Exam c. [...]. That wee proue those things by Touching, which wee cannot try by the eyes.

Some of the qualities of this sence, which appertaine to Kings, hath already beene handled in those that went be­fore; all of them, hauing their delight, which wee com­monly call Guste, or Taste. That which remaineth, is to aduise them, to beware thereof, if they will not die by their owne hands; for it is an ill and vnruly beast, and makes men brutish and beastly.Basil. lib. de vere Virgini [...]. S. Basil saith thereof; That of all the other sences it is the most pernicious, because it trailes and draggs the rest after it, or seemed to haue hired them, to serue it in it's pleasures and delights, making them pay it tribute and custome of all their gaines and commodities. For, that which the eies see, the eares, heare, the nose smells, and the heart desires, is onely there with to serue this sence, letting it share with them, and inuiting it to take part of their best and choysest morsells. The rest haue recourse but to one thing; this, to all; nothing comes amisse to it, it lays hand on all. The rest are but as the Media, and breues dispositiones. But this is the finis, or end, which all doe pretend. To touch that, which is not lawfull, doth discompose and put the heart out of order and confoundeth mans soule. For thence (saith S. Bernard) first arise euill thoughts,Bern. de inter [...] domo. c. 39. fowle motions, then con­sent, next Act, and lastly Death. It is not fit we should suf­fer flaxe to come to neere, the flame, nor is it it conuenient, that man should Regalar and cocker vp himselfe with this [Page 344] sence; for that presently such sparkles thence fly forth, as in­flame the body, and set the soule on fire. And therefore it is requisite that we carrie a hard hand vpon this sence▪ & looke well thereunto. For euen in the plainest and euenest way man often times stumbles, how much more where there is appa­rent danger. And let not kings thinke, because they are kings, that they are free from this Tyrant, but in that they are kings, are so daintilie bread, so deliciously fed, and make so much of themselues, they are more subiect thereunto, for that their na­tural condition, conformes it selfe more to it's guste, & plea­s [...]re, and is a great friend of Regalos, of daint [...]nesse, and nice vsage, of fine linnen, soft raiment, choice deliacies, and a [...] that wh [...]ch causeth delight, & prouoketh pleasure. And in Courts, and Kings Pallaces,Luk. 7. 25. and in the houses of Princes and great Persons, these things are in greatest request. Ecce, qui in veste pretiosa sunt & delicijs, in domibus Regum sunt. Behold, they which are go [...]geously apparel ed, and liue delicately, are in Kings Courts. So says our Sa­uiour Christ. And many dangers doe they runne, who measure out all their life by the Compasse of Contents, and passe times, that goe cloathed in Silkes and Veluetts and are continually conuersant amidst the sweetest per­fumes, the purest Holland, the finest Damaske, and the richest c'oathes of Silke and Gold. Yet for all this doe not I say, That Princes, and great Lords, liuing in this State and Pompe, cannot [...]o nom [...]ne bee saued, but to shew that in all Estates there is a great deale of danger; but much more in your daintier, and nicer sort of people: Nor will I with all my force straine this vnto Kings. as well witting, what their Estate and Greatnesse, doth admit and require. And that as Nature did d [...]fference them from the rest both in blood, and birth so likewise ought there to be a distinction in their diet, raiment, and in the fur­n [...]shing and adorning of their houses. But I say that which cannot be denied, that in excuse of this their state and [Page 345] conueniencie, they take vnto themselues heerein too large a li­cence, and passe to soone from the foote, to the hand; & from the hand, to the mouth; making of an inch an ell, and of an, elll an Aker. So hard a matter is it for great Princes to mode­rate themselues, and vse a meane. And that Heathen was not much wide of the marke, who sayd in the Senate, That that is an vnfortunate Estate, that obligeth a man to liue alwayes vp to the eyes grazing in his pleasures and delightes: And that it is a very bad Omen, for a man, to liue all his life time, according to the sauour and guste of his palate. Consuetudi­nem nullam peiorem esse, quàm vt semper viuat quis ad vo­luptatem: There is not any custome so bad, as that of a mans liu [...]ng according to his owne pleasure. Such men, are ra­ther to be pittied, then enuied; for there is not that hower of their contents and de [...]ightes, which doth not pay it's tribute of teares and sorrow. Onely for to please and sa­tisfie this sense, and to recreate that of the sight, haue so many Artes beene inuented, so many sorts of Trades, and Trades-men set a worke, so much varietie of fashions and costly cloathes, such a world of curious Silkes, Lawnes, Cambricks, and Hollands, such large beds, rich bedding, sumptuous bed-steds, so sensuall, and so ouer nice and dainty, that it may well be questioned whether is greater, the costlinesse or the curiositie; the richnesse, or the ryot occasio­ned by them? Nor (which is the miserie of it) is it yet known, whether or how farre this Humour will extend it selfe. But sure I am, that thereby houses are disordred, much monyes consumed, ancient Inheritances solde away, and a thou­sand other inconueniences introduced. And (to say the truth) this sense hath not neede of so much nicetie, but abuse hath now brought it to that passe, that it hath no sooner a liking to a thing, but it greedily runn's after it, as a beast that is put into a fresh ground, runnes vp and downe, smelling out the choice grasse, and will not bite but at the sweetest. But he that doth Regalar, and pamper [Page 346] vp this sense most, doth most of all make it his enemie; Which will neuer giue him ouer till it haue vndone him. This is so large a Theame, and so copious a subiect, that if I should heere write and set downe all that, which in this kinde would fairly offer it selfe, I must be driuen much to inlarge my pen. But it is not my Intent, to set my cloath on the Tenters, nor in this little Loome to weaue large Histories, and long discourses, but onely to giue a short touch, and away, of the effects, which this sence causeth, and of the miseries and misfortunes, which are incident to Touching, and that all the worke, & paines which it does and takes for it's friends, and best well­wishers, is not so freely bestow'd, nor that good assurance giuen thereof, but that this it's momentary pleasure▪ makes quick payment, in groanes, in diseases, and in Tem­porall, and Eternall Death; The condition of the obliga­tion being drawen and signed by no worse a Scriuener then Saint Paul; Rom. 8. 13. Si enim secundum carnem vixeritis, mori­eimni: For if yee liue after the flesh, yee shall dye. Wee haue examples of Kings good store, and of ancient and moderne Kingdomes, forraine, and domestick. The first shall be of Charles the 8. King of France, in whom vo­luptuousnesse and delights, wrought so great an alterati­on in that his most fortunate and happy entrance, which hee made into Italy; where without putting hand to his sword, hee became Master of all the whole Kingdome of Naples, and did so amuze and affright all the World, that the Great Turke was afraid of being ouer-runne by him, and many of his Commaunders, which had the keeping of his Fortes on that Coast, forsooke them and fled. And if that King had but well followed that Enterprize, hee had beene Lord of all Greece. But being a young Gen­tileman, hee suffered himselfe to be ouercome by the Dainties and Delicacies of that Countrie, spending his Time in delightes, banquets, shewes, maskings, dancings, [Page 347] and feastings; So that hee, who had so soone filled the world with feare, was as soone ouercome by yeelding to the pleasure of this sense. For hee and his did so glut themselues with the fruites of that Country, and so followed the delights of the flesh, that hauing entred victorious, they became subiect, and were subdued by that new and loathsome disease, which possesseth the whole body, and to dissemble it's name, they call it Cor­rimiento, which in plaine English, is the French Pocks: There, and then it was, where and when it first began to rage, and from thence spred it selfe hither and thi­ther, and now is so generally knowen in all parts of the world, and which by Touching onely cleaues close vnto man. And this, had it's roote and beginning in carnall delight,Don Alons the sixt of Castile and Leons. Vide Fernan Perez. lib. 2. T [...]. 4. cap. 5. as it was resolued in a Consultation of Physiti­ans, which King Don Alonso called together in Toledo (which is another notable Example) who hauing wonne that Citie from the Moores, and many other places, ioy­ing themselues in the victorie, layd aside their Armes, and gaue themselues in that manner to their pleasures and delights, that within a few dayes they were growen so lazye and so weake, that they were not able to fight, nor to beare armes against the enemie; and being forced to take them vp in a certaine skirmish, which they had neere vnto Veles, they were ouerthrowen and shamefully put to flight, leauing dead in the place the sonne of their King. Who being very sensible of this so great an in­famie, consulted his Physicians, what should be the cause of this so great a weakenesse both in the strength and courage of his soldiars, who in the first incounter ha­uing shew'd themselues as fierce as Lyons, in this last con­flict seemed as fearefull as Hares. Who answered him with that,lin. nat. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 3. which Pliny speakes of the Romans, who fell from their ancient greatnesse, because in their meate, drinke, and apparell, and in the delicacies of their bathes, and [Page 348] companie keeping with women, they exceeded all those, whom before they had ouercome. And therefore, Vin­cendo, victi sumus: Wee are ouercome, by ouercoming. And thereupon, that good King forthwith commanded the bathes to be destroyed, together with the houses of pleasure, gardens, and other the like places of recreation, wherewith that dammage was in part repayred. In these two things, daintinesse in diet, and wantoning with women, the Diuell imploies his vttmost strength and force, that hee may quit those of it, and vtterly dis-in­able them, that giue themselues thereunto. And this was that Counsaile and Aduice, which that member of Satan, and false Prophet, Balaam gaue to the King of Moab; That in those places, through which the chil­dren of Israel were to passe, hee should appoint certaine of his fayrest women to be there in readinesse, to receiue and intertaine them, to cherish and make much of them, and to inuite them to eate and drinke with them, as the onely meanes to draw them on to their destruction as it afterwards fell out.Num. 25. 1. This is pointed at in Numbers but set forth more at large in Iosephus. Ioseph de Antiq. lib. 4. cap. 5. Where it is added, That those are not to be feared, which giue themselues to the like gustes and delights, for in waxing weary of the clat­tering of armour, and taking pleasure in the sound of musicke, in putting off harnesse, and putting on silkes; in changing a field-Tent, for a soft bed; and forsaking the conuersation of soldiars, and Captaines, to follow the com­panie of women, they stuck a naile in the wheele of their fortunes. These are examples, that cannot be excepted a­gainst; But much lesse that which followes of King Salomon, whose pompe, musick, dancings, feastings, huntings, dainties, delights, and passe times, were such, as he himselfe, inspired by the Holy Ghost, reckons vp. Now that, which he got by all these, what was it? Onely this, that these Vices, and wanton delights, made him forget himselfe, and to blot [Page 349] out all the good of his felicitie, and that good correspon­dence, which hee held with God, and in such sort did turne his braines, that hee came to committ idolatrie, and to call his saluation in question. And therefore let euery one command his flesh, as hee would command his slaue, lest it make him a slaue. For to him that yeelds himselfe there­unto, it is a fierce; to him, that feares it, a cruell; and to him, that deliuers the keyes of his libertie vp vnto him, a dominering Tyrant, which like a haltred beast, it hales after him. There are two remedies found, for the curing of so many dammages and disorders, as we perceiue to be in this sense of Touching, and that of the Tast. One generall for all; which is Temperance, whereof wee will treate by and by; The other more particular, drawne from the example of Kings, whereof we will discourse here­after.

§. I.
Of Temperance.

THe Office of Temperance, is to keepe a man from flying out, and to make him not to incline to a little more, or a little lesse, but to liue alwayes in very good Order, not exceeding in any thing the bounds of Reason.Ciccro lib. 2, de sin. Est mode­ratio Cupiditatum, rationi obediens: Aug. lib. de moribus. It consisteth in a certaine moderation and mediocritie in pleasures and delights, from which a Tem­perate man abstaineth, refrayning from superfluities and excesses, vsing things according to necessitie, and not ac­cording to his appetite. And it is that rule and Compasse, which doth mete and measure out the desires of man, [Page 350] that they may not passe from their point and Center, not suffring the heart, like the Rauen, to flesh it selfe on the dead flesh of sensuall delights.Dionis. S. Dionisius saith; That it serueth to incline a Man to all good; according to the rule of reason; as well in that which appertaineth to the sense of Touching, as of the Taste, that it may not, like an vnbridled colte, breake out into those two vnruly ap­petites, whose operations are so furious and vehement, that in earth, water and ayre, they leaue nothing safe and secure; and therefore had neede of this great vertue, to restraine their disorders, and concupiscences. These are those that make the cruellest warre against both body and soule; and this is that, which bridleth, tempreth, and mo­derateth her in her Excesses.S. Prosper lib. 3. de [...]i [...] Contemp. cap 19. Temperantia (saith Prosperus) temperantem facit, abstinentem parcum, sobrium, moderatum, pudicum, tacitum, serium, & verecundum: Temperance makes a man temperate, abstemious, sparing, sober, moderate, modest, silent, serious, & yet shamefac't. It is a Vertue worthy Kings and Princes, and much commended by the Saints, and many are those Vertues which accompany it; As modestie, shamefastnesse, chastitie, abstinence, faire and comely be­hauiour, moderation, sobrietie, grauitie, and humilitie. Aristotle calls it,Arist 6. Ethic. cap. 5. & 6. Conseruatricem prudentiae, & sapientiae, the Conservresse of prudence and wisedome. For intem­perance in eating and drinking, or in any other kinde of delight, doth ouerthrow the braine, dull the vnder­standing, darken the iudgement, blunt the best and shar­pest wit, and makes man, as it were, a beast, as is to be seene by experience. Quotidiano experimento probatur (saith Pope Leo) potus satietate, S. Leo. Serm. de leiun▪ aciem mentis obtundi, & vigorem cordis hebetari: It is made good by daily ex­perience, that sacietie of drinke, dulleth the edge of the minde, and blunteth the vigour of the heart. Temperance like wise preserueth the health, and makes mans life more long, more sound, and more pleasing. For, to be Princes, and [Page 351] Monarkes, and Lords of all the world, and whatsoeuer therein is, is not sufficient to content them, if they want their health, which is of more worth then all the world besides.Eccl. 30. 14▪ Melior est pauper sanus, & fortis viribus quam diues imbecillis; & corpus validum, quàm census immen­sus: Better is the poore, being sound and strong of Con­stitution, then a rich man, that is afflicted in his body. Health, and good state of body, are aboue all gold; and a strong body, aboue infinite wealth. In distempering the humours, the Lotts of mens Estates are changed. The sicke man, be hee neuer so great a Lord, would be con­tent to change States, to haue a poore plough-mans health. To what vse serue Kingdomes, Signories, and great trea­sures, if, day and night, a King leade a more miserable life, then a day-Labourer? To what vse serue his rich bed and downe pillowes, if he can take no rest in them? To what vse serue his delicate Cates, and dainty dishes, if hee no sooner sees them, but loaths them? To what vse serue his rich and pretious wines, if he must be driuen to drinke Barly-water? Or what guste and content can hee take in any thing, whose taste is as bitter as gall? Or how can he haue contentment in these outward things, that hath it not within himselfe? Iulius Caesar wearyed out with his want of health, did hate and abhorre his life. For, (as the wise man saith) Melior est mors, quàm vita amara: Better is Death, then a bitter life. A sicke life, is no life; nor is there any happinesse, where health is wanting. And all things without it, are as nothing. For to liue without paine, is more to be prized then all. And this doth Temperance effect. This preserued Marcus Vale­rius more then a hundred yeares sound in iudgement, and strong in body; And by this Socrates liued all his life time free from sicknesses and diseases. It was the saying of the elder Cato, that hee gouerned his house, increased his wealth, preserued his health, and inlarged his life, by Tem­perance. [Page 352] In multis escis erit infirmitas (saith Ecclesiasticus) Qui autem abstinens est, Eccl. [...]7. 30. adijciet vitam: Excesse of meates bringeth sicknesse; By surfeiting haue many perished, but hee, that taketh heede, prolongeth his life. King Masinoja, was wonderfull temperate, his fare was ordinary and with out curiositie, which made him liue so sound and so heal­thy, that, at 87. yeares of age, hee begat a Sonne, and at 94. wanne a battaile, wherein he shewed himselfe a very good Soldiar, but a better Captaine. And therefore let those dis-deceiue themselues, and acknowledge their errour, who thinke they shall preserue their life, by faring deliciously▪ Pliny saith of grasse;Plin. That, Quanto peius tractatur, tanto prouenit melius: The worse it is vsed, the better it proues. As with it, so is it with man. Homo sicut faenum: Man is but as grasse, or as the flower of the field; Which is no sooner vp, but is cut downe; no sooner flourisheth, but it fadeth; and all it's beautie no sooner appeareth, but it pe­risheth, and withereth away, and is no more to be seene. And the more wee make of much our selues, the lesse while we liue. We are alwayes crazy; soone downe, but not so soone vp; Quickly fall into a disease, but long ere we can get out of it; Loosing our strength, before we come to it, and waxing olde, before euer wee be aware of it. But if a man will lay aside this Cockering and pampering vp of himselfe, and habituate himselfe to labour and trauaile, he shall passe his life the better. For health neuer dwells with delights; nor strength, ioyne hands with choice fare. Nor shall hee euer doe any famous Acts, and worthy renowne, that feares to take paines, and is willing to take his ease. The Emperour Hadrian, was singular herein. Frigora enim, & tempestates, ita patienter tulit, vt nunquam caput tegeret: Hee did indure colds, and all kinde of fowle weather with that patience, that hee neuer put on his hatt, but alwayes went bare-headed. And Alexander the Great, would tell his Soldiars that it was for lazy Companions, and effe­minate [Page 353] fellowes, to apply themselues to the pleasures and contentments of this life; but for Noble hearts, and gene­rous spirits, to accustome themselues to labour, and to take paines. In a word, Temperance is a vertue very necessarie for all estates; it will sute well with all: but more particular­ly with Kings, and Princes, and great persons; because it is in it selfe a vertue so gentleman-like, so worthy Noble persons, and so proper for royall Maiestie. As likewise, for that they liue, as they doe, amidst so many regalos, and de­lights, so many curious meates, and a thousand other occa­sions, whereby, if they doe not arme themselues with this vertue, not onely their liues, but their soules, are like to in­curre the great danger. For like theeues in a mans owne house, or close traitours lurking in secret corners, some while one, some while another, are neuer from their elbow, till they deliuer them ouer into the hands of death; or at least hoxe their courage, and cut off their health. Which in good Kings so much importeth, and which all men desire may be long and prosperous. The want whereof in a parti­cular person importeth little; but in them it mattereth much, in regard of the great losse which the Common-wealth thereby receiueth. For on their welfare, dependeth the generall comfort and gouernment of the whole king­dome, which when it is wanting in them, that want is com­mon to all.

Let then the conclusion of this discourse be, That Kings ought to keepe an orderly and temperate diet, hauing more regard to the law of Nature, and vnto Christian reason, then to their greatnes of state, and Maiestie of Empire; And to carry themselues amidst so many occasions of pleasures and delights with that modestie and moderation, as if they were without them, if they haue a minde to preserue their bodies and their soules healths; and to giue vnto all a good example; which is another (as already hath beene said) so powerfull a remedy for to perswade other Princes and Po­tentates [Page 354] of his kingdome, to the embracing of this vertue. And besides that obseruation of Hipocrates, Quod plures cecîdit gula, quam gladius: That surfeiting hath killed more then the sword. Let those that place all their care in these their delights and pleasures, consider that saying of Cato, That our much carefulnesse in this, causeth much for­getfulnesse of God. And there are some that count it an honour and reputation vnto them to eate and to drinke, (though Sanitas est animae & corporis sobrius potus) and be­cause they are great in estate, they will also be great feeders. Which indeed is not Greatnesse, nor Lordlinesse, but great basenesse, and vnbeseeming their authoritie, to suffer them­selues to be giuen to gluttony, and to the excesse of eating and drinking. Saint Bernard did blesse himselfe, and much wonder, at so much time and wealth as herein was spent; and at so many Cookes, and other Officers, herein em­ployed. And that he should be the most commended, and best rewarded, that could inuent any other new kinde of choice dish, then had by gluttonies curious enquiry been as yet found out And all to giue gust to the Gust, and to please the palate, with the losse of their honour, the wasting of their wealth, and to their great hurt both of bodies and soules. But these must I inroll in the list of vnfortunate per­sons,Eccl. 10. 17. and account that kingdome happy (as the wise man saith) where the King and his Peeres liue soberly and tem­perately. Beata terra, cuius Rex nobilis est, & cuius Prin­cipes vescuntur in tempore suo, ad reficiendum, & non luxu­riandum: Blessed art thou (O Land) when thy King is the sonne of Nobles, and thy Princes eate in due season, for strength, and not for drunkennesse.

§. II.
Of another remedie against excesses, and superfluities, de­pending on the example of Kings.

A King being (as hath beene said) the soule and heart of a kingdome, and like another Sunne, which with its light and motion, affoords light and health to the world; being the true picture and liuely Image of God vpon earth; and he that is most (being iust) like vnto him, hath a great and precise obligation lying vpon him, both by his life and example, to giue life vnto his kingdome, and to set himselfe, as a patterne, before his subiects, that, and they, being that mysticall bodie, whereof he is the head. And see what dependencie the members in mans bodie haue on the head; the same, or little lesse, haue subiects on their Kings. And if that be sound and good, it is well with all the mem­bers; but if ill affected, all of them suffer with it. The Pro­uerbe saith, Cum caput dolet, caetera membra dolent. When the head aketh, the rest of the members ake with it. And as it is so true, as nothing more, so it it more in Common-wealths, then mens bodies. For, as the humours of these are in or out of order, according to those which the head communicateth vnto them. So likewise the composition of a whole kingdome, dependeth on the good or ill compo­sition of their King and Head. Whence it followeth, that the same necessitie which a body hath of a good head, the very selfesame hath a kingdome of a good King; being that he as hee is King (as already hath beene deliuered) doth therein supply the Office of the Head. And therefore it was well said of Plato, That the inclining of a King to [Page 356] good, or ill, is the inclining of the whole kingdome, accor­ding to his scale or ballance; they bend all the same way, & follow him, as the shadow doth the body. Mouetur cū Prin­cipe mobile vulgus: As the Prince moues, so doth the wauer­ing multitude. In vaine do we seeke to rectifie the shadow, if the body be crooked. The waues of the sea, go that way as the winde driues them; and the vulgar are led along by the example of those their Kings, that gouerne them. Aquae multae populi sunt: The common people are as many wa­ters. The spirit and winde that moues them, is the King, who with great force carries the mindes of his subiects this way or that way, as best pleaseth him. By onely seeing Saint Peter abstaine from some meate, and eate of other some, without commanding it, or saying any thing there­of to those new conuerted Christians,Galat. 2. 14. Saint Paul saith, that he carried them away, and drew them to doe the like. For, there is neither Law, nor Precept, nor force, can be compa­red with that which the example of a King works vpon his subiects, forcing them to imitate and follow him. King Manasses (saith the sacred Text) fecit malum coram Domi­no: He did that which was euill in the sight of the Lord; for he forsooke him to follow strange Gods, like vnto the ab­homination of the heathen. And anon after drawes thence this consequence or conclusion:2 Chron. 33. 9. Igitur Manasses seduxit po­pulum, vt faceret malum: So Manasses made Iudah, and the Inhabitants of Ierusalem to erre, and doe worse then the heathen, &c. But tell me, I pray, how came it to passe, that this King should cast such a mist before his subiects eyes, that he should thus deceiue them, and make them doe as he did? For we doe not finde there, that he said any one word vnto them, or induced them thereunto by any other diligences, whereby to perswade them to commit the like sinne. Though he did not, yet he did enough, in doing that which he did, as being their King and Head. For, as the Soueraigne doth, so doth the subiect. King Hamor, and [Page 357] Prince Shechem his sonne, by their bare example onely per­swaded their people the Shechemites, to leaue that law, wherein they had beene bred and brought vp, and to en­tertaine that of the Hebrewes, though it turned to the losse of all their liues. Of Kings, saith a Romane Philosopher, Quaecunque vitia ipsi concipiunt, Iulius lib. 3. de Legibus. ea infundunt in ciustates; plus exemplo, quam peccato nocent: Whatsoeuer vices they conceiue, they infuse the same into their Cities, offending more by their example then by their sinne. By the sinne, they doe but aggrauate and wrong their owne conscience; but by the example, the consciences of all the common peo­ple, which haue no other eyes whereby they see, no other rule or square whereby to rule and gouerne themselues in their actions; Nor is there any other meanes, whereby vices are communicated with more facilitie, and larger licence. And therefore it concernes them very much, not to make any the least breach in good manners, nor to turne (though neuer so little aside) from the way of vertue. For they can­not build vp so fast by their good, as they pull downe by their bad example. Besides, the vulgar iudge thei [...] vitious actions, for vertuous; their bad, for good. And if not so, then will they iustifie their owne loosenesse, by laying the same on their King: Hee doth thus and thus, And why should not I? This same Regis ad exemplum, runnes ouer all the world; and men are willing enough to make their aduantage of it. Of Dionysius the Siracusan, Plutarch re­porteth, that at first he was very studious, and much giuen to his booke, and whilest hee so continued, all his subiects applied themselues to the exercise of good letters. But growing weary of so good a worke, he left off his learning, and betooke himselfe to the vice of gaming and wanton­nesse; and presently all his subiects, as if they had beene be­witched, began to loath their bookes, and fall to vice. Isi­dorus saith of the Ethiopians, that they were such Apish counterfeits of their Kings, that they held it a kinde of re­proach [Page 358] and infamie, that if their King did want a member, or were lame, all his houshold seruants were likewise of that fashion; and would willingly mayme and dismember them­selues that they might be like vnto their King.

I say therefore againe; Let Kings looke well vnto that which they affect, and whereunto they are inclined; for the same will his Subiects affect, and thereunto will they all be inclined. And therefore Isocrates did counsell his King, that hee should loue and esteeme the Arts, and such Offices as might be most profitable for the commonwealth, and should abhorre the contrary; for these would bring him augmenta­tion of honour, when those other would bee forgotten, or but ript vp to his shame; that he should approue good, and reproue bad customes, and euill manners, that these might fall, and those other be in vse. For in regard that the King is Censor morum, he that censures our manners and behauiour, and sets downe and determineth, which we are to flie, which to follow: Looke which he approueth, and keepeth, are kept and approued by all, and euery one does his best to excell therein. And those which he shall reproue and mislike, all men will shunne and auoide them. And more particularly, these two pernicious ones, which appertaine to Tasting and Tou­ching, I desire to haue them be condemned and reproued by the example of Kings; such as are excesse in sumptuousnesse of apparell, and in meates and drinkes, and the like publike and common vices. For, by these two abuses, great Mo­narchies haue beene ruined, and ouerthrowne.

Let vs fall a little vpon the first; wherein is such excesse and superfluitie in this age, as neuer more. Howbeit, as it was not wanting to former times, so was there a great deale of care taken for the reforming thereof. Your Romanes made Lawes, for to moderate the expences and excesses of appar­rell and diet. The imperiall Lawes of the kingdome, and those of the Partida prohibite it, and many other prematicas and Statute Lawes, which haue beene made thereupon, and con­firmed [Page 359] by Act of Parliament. And the sacred Scripture like­wise in many places doth condemne it. And therefore a re­medie in this kinde (if possibly it can bee procured) is very needfull: For excesse, doth not serue so much for sustenta­tion, as for pompe and ostentation, wherewith is fomented Ambition, vaineglory, concupiscence, and dishonestie, euen to the falling into those vices, that were neuer before seene, or vsed. Their expence, that increaseth, and their substance decreaseth: what wealth can a man haue, that will suffice for the arraying and apparrelling of women, as also for the clo­thing of men, which is no lesse vicious, and expencefull then theirs? What doth it benefit vs, that the riches of our times are greater then those of our predecessours, if our expences be more excesssiue? By running on in this lauish course, great and ancient houses haue beene brought to nothing, and new ones haue started vp in their roome, borne and bred in bad Trades, and worse manners, who alwayes haue a smacke with them, or some touch or other of their former meaner fortune. And for this cause onely, are there so many misfortunes and disorders in the houses of many your ordinary and common sort of people, and euen in some of those that are of meaner ranke. For they had rather perish and vndoe themselues, then to be accounted needy and poore. And without doubt, the most of their substance is spent in meate, and clothes. Which vice shame would moderate in them. But the feare of seeming to be oflesse abilitie then their neighbours, hath quite altered the case, and serues to helpe them on to their ruine. For euery one counts it a disgrace vnto him, that he shall not go as well clad as his neighbour, and eate as good meate, and drinke as good drinke as he doth, though he pay soundly for it, both in his honour and estate. And hence proceede your briberies, corruptions, subornations, and iniustice. For ne­cessitie, the mother of vice, and that which makes (as we say) the old wife trott; putts them so hard to their shifts, that for to free themselues from want, there is not that wickednesse [Page 360] which they will not giue way vnto; and all, because they will not lacke these instruments of their gustes, nor want the ap­parence of Maiestie in their houses.

And another no lesse mischiefe then the former, is the ine­qualitie in the estates, and qualities of the persons; and the equalitie wherewith the said accoutrements both in meate and apparrell is vsed. For (as Plato saith) in a well ordered commonwealth, all ought to be equall. And yet we see, that meane women, that haue neither meanes nor qualitie, weare Kirtles, Peticoates, and Gownes of cloth of gold, and rich imbroderies, that Queenes can scarce weare better. And as for our ordinary sort of men, there are very few of them, but will go in such good clothes, that Kings can not bee better clad. Of the Emperour Tiberius Caesar, Tacitus reporteth, that by a Decree of the Senate, he did prohibite men the wea­ring of gownes of silke, saying, That they did disgrace them­selues by putting on such an effeminate habite. And of the Emperour Aurelius it is noted, that hee did not onely not weare silke, but would not so much as suffer any to be in his wardrope, saying, That hee would not buy clothes at the weight of gold. And Lampridius saith, That the first Empe­rour that euer had any Wardrobe, was that wicked and lux [...] ­rious Emperour Heliogabalus▪ Scipio Aphricanus, and Alex­ander Magnus, were very singular in this carelesse many weare, whereof others are so curiously carefull. And let vs say no more hereof, then what Isocrates said, writing to his King, Haue a care (saith he) of the things of particular per­sons, and thinke that those that liue at high and excessiue rates, waste and spend out of thy treasure; and that those that take paines to scrape vp a little mucke, and to get into some wealth by their thrift, are the onely men that s [...]ll your coffers, and increase your treasure. For the Subiects purse is as the Kings owne purse, if he rule and gouerne well. But when men shall not haue meanes sufficient for to supply that excesse in diet, and clothes, which vice and mans foolish pride hath in­troduced, [Page 361] how is it possible that they should serue and assist their King in the necessary occasions of the kingdome? it is impossible but that there must be a failing in the one, being that the ends are so opposite. How can they haue any heart or guste for the one, hauing placed all their care and content in the other? And questionlesse, if these superfluities were ta­ken away, the Subiect would haue wealth enough, and then it would neuer grieue them to part with part thereof to their Kings, or to spend it in his seruice. But that which is now per­mitted amongst vs, is the same which the Romans permit­ted, and procured in the Nations, they had subdued, for to consume and eate them out, and to keepe them in the better obedience. But in their owne commonwealth they did euer­more feare it, and seeke to excuse it. What Prince hath there euer beene, either of those that were held to be good or indif­ferent, that did not treate of this remedie? Not any, Yet they did most of them erre in the manner.

Now, to remedie this excesse, experience hath and doth shew vnto vs, that it is not the penaltie, nor rigour of the Lawes and Statutes that our Ancestours seemed to haue er­red in, who by those penalties alone, thought to amend these extrauagancies in their subiects. But the cure of this exorbi­tancie is that which the Ancient did prescribe, and we haue declared, touching the example of Kings, and of their imita­tion. The desire of giuing them content, is more powerfull with them then the feare of punishment. This doctrine Ta­citus taught, rendering the reason of that temperance and moderation, which was in the Emperour Vespasian his time in clothes and diet, and in the vitious superfluitie of these vices. And after that he hath gone varying from one reason to another, he saith, That this Prince was the principall Au­thor of that sparingnesse and thriftinesse amongst the Ro­manes of those times in their wastfull expences; by exerci­sing himselfe in that their ancient manner of liuing in matter of maintenance, apparell and the like. And hence it succeeded, [Page 362] that all his subiects did the like, conforming themselues ac­cording to his fashion, their respect to their Prince, and their desire to imitate him, preuailing more with them, then the punishment or feare of the Lawes. And this is a sure and sound point of doctrine, and of that great consequence, that it neuer ought to slip out of the memorie and good liking of Kings, and their principall Ministers, as being the mirrour or looking glasse wherein the Subiects see and behold whe­ther their manners be foule or faire, become or not become them, according to the liking which they take from their su­periours.

Of Augustus Caesar, Dion reporteth, That because hee would not weare such clothes, as were prohibited by his Lawes, there was not a man in all his Empire that did offer to put them on. Componitur Orbis (saith Claudian) Regis ad exemplar, nec sic inflectere sensus Humanos edicta valent, quàm vita regentis. The whole world shapes and fashions it selfe according to the patterne their King sets before them; nor can Edicts and Decrees worke so much vpon mens hu­mours, as the life of him that ruleth. Of all the reasons what­soeuer that the wit of man can deuise, there is not any more effectuall to perswade hard and difficult things, then the ex­ample of Kings. Let therefore a Prince lay a more hard and cruell punishment vpon them, then either imprisonment, ba­nishment, or some sound fine, or pecuniary mulct, as not to doe them any grace or fauour, or not to affoord a good looke on him, that shall not imitate and follow his fashion. For there is no man such a foole, that will loose the fruite of his hope, for not apparelling himselfe after this or that manner, as he sees the Prince himselfe is contented to go. Let Kings amend this fault in themselues, and then his Peeres, and other their inferiours, will not be ashamed to imitate them. I pray tell me, if men of the baser and meaner condition should one­ly be those, that were vicious in their meate and clothes, who would imitate them therein? Assuredly none. All would be [Page 363] Noblemen, or Gentlemen, or at least seeme to be so in their fashion and apparrell, howbeit they would bee lesse curious and dainty, if they saw those that were noble, or gentile, go onely plaine and handsome. That ancient Romane, pure, neate, cleane, and comely attire of those who conquered the world, did then wholly loose it selfe, when your great and Noble persons of that commonwealth left it off. For in all things, but more especially in those that are vicious, men seeke to make a fairer shew then their estate will beare, and thereby procure to content and please their Kings vnder whom they liue; knowing that there is no intercession or fauour like vnto that, as the similiancie of manners, and the kindred which this doth cause. Let Kings, by their example, cut off the vse of costly clothes and sumptuous banquets, and whatsoeuer in that kinde is vicious and superfluous, and they shall straightway see, how a great part of the greedi­nesse of gaine, and couetousnesse of money will cease, and many other euils and mischiefes which proceed from thence, which would not be sought after nor esteemed, were it not for the execution of the appetite, and fulfilling of our pleasures. And for this end and purpose, money is kept with such great anxietie and trouble, but procured and sought after with much more; because it is the master and commander of all pleasures and delights whatsoeuer. For which we will buy and sell, and giue all that we haue.

The second point concerning vices and sinnes, common and publike, the hurt that comes thereby is well knowne both to God and man, and is harder to be reformed then the former. That, is moderated either with age or necessitie; but this, neither necessitie nor time can lessen, but with it increa­seth, and shooteth forth new sprigges and suckers, neuer be­fore seene, nor vsed in the world, against which neither suf­fice Lawes nor Statutes. And that doctrine of Tacitus is now come to bee verified, That there is not any gre [...]ter signe of corruption of manners, then multiplicitie of Lawes. And [Page 364] we now liue in those dangerous times, whereof Saint Paul speaketh; and I know not whether I may be so bold as to say, That it is likewise an argument or signe, that the Subiect is neare it's end, or at least daily growes decaying, wherein these signes and tokens are to bee seene; One disorder begetting another, which is the order which Nature keepes with things that are to perish, till at last all comes to ruine; and this vniuersall fabricke sinkes to the bottome, neuer more to be repaired. I wot well, that whilest there be men, there must be vices, and sinnes, and that few or none will cease to bee that which they are, in regard of humane weakenesse, and mans propension and inclination to sinne, and that there are not any remedies which will serue and turne wholly to cure and cut them off, it being a thing impossible, for that their beginning and cause doth proceed from Nature it selfe being corrupted. That which the worth and wisedome of Kings, and their Ministers, may be able to effect, is; That they may daily proue lesse and lesse preiudiciall to the publike: and that the dissembling of abuses in the beginning, before they take head, be not a cause of seeing our selues brought to that e­state, which Salust writeth Rome was found in in Catilines time, there being so good cause for to feare it. As also that they will draw after them Gods comminations and chastise­ments. When a kingdome (saith hee) comes to the corrup­tion of manners, that men doe pamper and apparell them­selues in curious manner, like women, and make no reckon­ing of their honestie, but deale therewith as with any other thing that is vendible, or set out to sale; and that exquisite things, for to please the palate, are diligently sought after both by sea and land; that they betake themselues to their ease and sleepe, before the due time of their rest and sleepe be come; that after their bellies be as full as euer they can hold, they neuer cease crauing and cramming till it be noone; that they doe not forbeare from eating and drinking, till they be either hungry or thirsty; not that they ease themselues out of [Page 365] wearinesse, or keepe themselues warme against the extremity of the weather: but that they do all these things out of vici­ousnesse, and before there is neede; well may that Empire be giuen for lost, and that it is drawing neare to its last gaspe. For the people thereof, when their owne meanes shall faile them, for to fulfil their appetites, out of a thirsting and greedy desire of these things, what mischiefes will not they moue, or what villanies will not they attempt? For the minde that hath beene ill, and long accustomed to delights, can hardly be without them. And, that they may enioy them, by hooke or by crooke, by one meanes or another, though neuer so vniust and vnlawfull, they will make a shift to get themselues into money, though they spend it afterward idly & vainly in that profuse and lauish manner, for which they did intend it.

Let euery good King begge of God, and let vs all ioyne in the same prayer, that in our times, it may not come to these termes, and that Kings will striue and studie to quench these sparkes before they breake forth into a flame, and to put out the fire whilest it is but newly kindled, lest it take hold on the whole building, and helpe come too late. And because there are so many sortes of vices, that it is not possible to procure an vniuersall cure for them all; that which is likeliest to doe most good, will bee that selfe same medicine mentioned be­fore in dyet and apparrell, to wit, the good example of Kings; and in imitation of them, that of the great Lords of the land, and those that are nearest in Court about their persons; ioy­ning herewith the feare of their disfauour: letting them both see and know, that the vicious fall backward, and the ver­tuous come forward in honour; and that onely vertue is the true meanes and surest way to bring men to great place and preferrement in the commonwealth. Let Kings hate these idle droanes, these honey-suckers of other mens labours, that liue all vpon the waste and spoile. Which kinde of people, euen in reason of state, are not good for the quiet of a king­dome, in regard of the euill cogitations and dangerous deui­ses [Page 366] that are bred in their mindes, and in their time breake out. I would haue this imitation to bee the remedie for this so great an ill; for neither penalties nor feare of punishment will doe any good vpon them. For hee that will not forbeare to sinne for feare of Gods Law, will hardly refraine from mans. Let Kings therefore say and doe those things, that they would haue their Subiects say and doe. And let their fauourites, and those that are nearest about them, runne the like course, and let it extend to the better sort, and those that are of ranke and qualitie; for by this meane it will descend to those like­wise that are of meaner condition: and then shall they see, how much more good it will worke, then either lawes or pu­nishment. And this is the more naturall of the two; for the one is founded vpon imitation, and the other grounded vpon feare. And men doe more easily imitate those better things which they see actually put in execution, then depart from those worser things, which they either heare or know to be prohibited. And when they shall see that their superiours, and those that are in place and authoritie, command one thing and doe another, they neither dread their threatnings, nor obey their commandements. For perceiuing that they doe but imitate their actions, they perswade themselues that none can, without blushing, punish the same sinne in them. Salust did aduise Caesar in the entrance to his Empire, that if he would order his commonwealth aright, he should first of all begin with reformation in himselfe, and his; (as Pliny saith) Vita Principis censura est, eaque perpetua; ad hanc di­rigimur, Plin. Iun. lib. Epist. ad semp. Rufum. ad hanc conuertimur. The life of a Prince is a per­petuall censure; and according thereunto doe we guide and gouerne our selues. And let it not seeme vnto any, that this remedie of the imitation of Kings is slow, and long, and will aske a great deale of time; for where there is met together, as it were in it's center, whatsoeuer may corrupt and hurt that, which is capable of being corrupted, when as neither Kings nor their Lawes are able to hinder it, in vaine is it [Page 367] indeuoured, or to be imagined, that that may bee cured in a few yeares, which hath layen sicke so many. But till such time, as men grow vp like new plants, and haue accustomed themselues to vertue, to the end, that through the tendernesse of their youth they may not grow awry; Being therein like­wise holpen, by the example of their betters; for there is not any Artifice, so powerfull and effectuall, as that of imitation, which I now speake of; for it being a cure so conformable vnto nature, it will worke by degrees; whereof we shall not know the benefit, till we haue enioyed it.

And because there are both diseased persons,Chrysost. hom▪ 19. in Gen. and diseases (as Saint Chrysostome hath obserued) which are neither re­medied by sweet potions, nor purged away by bitter pills; A maine reason whereof is, because they themselues are not willing to be cured, nor will admit of the example of Kings, nor the feare of their Lawes: it is fit this other remedie should be vsed, of punishment and chastisement, without dis­simulation. For many times the motiue of sinning is the faci­litie of forgiuing. And it is a knowne case, that people by pu­nishment become obedient; but by pardoning, proud and in­solent. The ill and vicious, are so possessed and inabled in their vices, by their long continuance, that if Kings should not shew some mettall and courage, they would possesse the world, and carry all things away before them, in that violent manner,Bald. in l. Pro­uinoiarum C, d [...] ­ferijs. that the good should not be able to liue amongst thē. By chastising the bad, (saith Baldus) the good liue in safety. And for this cause (and not in vaine) according to Plato, and others, were Lawes instituted, and regall power, the stroke of the sword, the discipline of the Clergie, and the common hangmans whip, all of them as necessary for mans life, as those 4. Elements, by which we liue & breathe. Let Kings take this from me, and beleeue it, That that commonwealth is in great danger, where the Kings reputation goes decaying; and the force of Iustice looseth it's strength. For thereby vices as­sume licence vnto themselues; and their owners perseuere, [Page 368] and go on in them. Here a remisse Prince is a sharpe sword, and doth neuer more grieuously punish then when hee doth most pardon. Punishment and chastisement onely offend the delinquent; but remission, la ley, al Rey, y la Grey, the Law, King, and people. By remission, Lawes and Kings grow in contempt, and the whole commonwealth infected. Where­as by chastisement the Law is obeyed and kept; the King feared and honoured; and the kingdome maintained in peace and iustice. I doe not treat here of those cruell and rigorous punishments which some seuere Iudges inflict, for remedies and cures of so much rigour, are violent, and do sooner kill, and make an end of their Subiects, then heale and recouer them by little and little. Wherefore in point of correction, a commonwealth must vse a great deale of caution and pru­dence. And for that hee who pretends by maine strength to resist the furious current of a swift riuer; or by roughnesse, to tame a head-strong horse, shall shew himselfe as insolent, as impertinent; rigour with gentlenesse, and iustice with mer­cie, will doe well: which if they go not hand in hand, and kisse each other, they are both but the occasion of greater corruption. For it is an erronious discourse in those that thinke, that publike conseruation consisteth in the execution of cruell chastisements, and sharpe and rigorous sentences, bee they of death or otherwise; For these doe rather dispeo­ple, and desolate, then correct and amend a kingdome. And as it is a signe of bad Physitians, or of a corrupt and infecti­ous aire, to see many fall sicke, and dye; so likewise is it of carelesse Ministers, and ill preuention, and of a contagious corruption of vices, and euill manners, when there are many criminall iudgements, many punishments, and cruell cha­stisements. And who is he that knowes the principall cause thereof? it may bee this, or it may bee that, or all together, howsoeuer I am sure it is all ill. And in a word, so great, so vniuersall, and so pernicious an ill, that if Christian Kings carry not a very watchfull eye ouer their Subiects manners, [Page 369] in not suffering them to flie out, they shall not, when they would, be able to refraine them, and remedie what is amisse; for euill custome being once habituated (according vnto Ga­len, and others) is an acquired nature, and engendreth an habite, which being mans naturall inclination, carries him along after it; and so great is his inclination to delights, and so many the prouocations, and ill examples which draw him thereunto, and poure oyle as it were vpon that fire, that if there be not the more diligence and care vsed in the quench­ing of it, it must necessarily spread it selfe abroad, and extend it selfe daily more and more, and more especially into those Cities and countries where there is much commerce and trading in Merchandise, and in the Courts of Kings, where there is such a concourse of diuerse and sundrie nations, there being not any one of them which hath not it's proper and peculiar vertues, as also it's proper and peculiar vices. Their vertues men hardly take hold on; but their vices, those cleaue easily vnto them of themselues: and by this their Commerce and Trading, remaine engrauen in their hearts. And what was before but an inclination, being now become a custome, vice engendreth vice; and one appetite maketh way for ano­ther. Lycurgus saith, That it more importeth a State to see that it's Cities bee not infected with the ill customes and manners of Strangers, then to preserue them from the plague, the pestilence, or other the like contagious diseases. For these, Time asswageth and consumeth; but those, are with time in­creased and augmented. Three Embassadours of the Cretans, each of them being of a different Sect, made their ioynt en­trance into Rome. The Senate gaue them audience. And Cato being there, whom (for his great authoritie) they did much reuerence, and was indeed as an Oracle amongst them, gaue his vote, and opinion, that hee would haue them d [...]s­patcht thence with all possible speed, before the corruption of their manners should corrupt the Romane Common­wealth.

[Page 370] This care ought Kings to take; and so much the rather, for that they haue neuer a Cato, that will tell them; neuer a Councellour that will aduise them, that in no kinde of man­ner, nor vpon any occasion whatsoeuer, ought they either in their Court, or kingdome, suffer any man (no though hee be an Ambassadour) to reside there, being different in his Religion, manners, and Ceremonies. For their treating and conuersing with vs, serues to no other purpose, but to bring in vices, and banish vertues, to worke vpon weake and wa­uering mindes, and to draw the naturall Subiects of another Prince, from Gods true worship, and due obseruance of his diuine Law. And this was the care of the Ancients of those times, who would neuer giue consent and allowance, that there should bee any thing intertained or receiued into their commonwealths, whereby mens mindes might grow cold, or be withdrawne in any one point or tittle from the worship and adoration of their Gods. And very fit for these times were that Law of the Persians, which did punish him with death, that should bring in any new vse, or strange custome. And the Cretans, did in their ordinarie Letanies desire, that no new custome might enter into their city, which is as a con­tagious disease, and cleaueth as close as the plague or pesti­lence. Nor did the Lawes of Egypt permit any new tune in their Musicke, or any new kinde of song, vnlesse they were first examined by those that were in place of gouernment. For (as Plato affirmeth) a Commonwealth, as well as Mu­sicke,Plato Dial. 2. de Legibus. admitteth changes; And that for the auoiding of this mischiefe, it ought not to be permitted, that there should be introduced any new kinde of tunes, or Musicke, together wherewith mens mindes receiue some change and alteration. Aristotle did aduise those that would bee vertuous, that they should not vse Musicke, nor musicall instruments, to in­cite them to be vicious. For Musicke being a diuine gift, and very powerfull to moue the hearts of men, and to perswade the thing that is sung, if they accustome themselues to play [Page 371] and sing holy lessons, & honest songs, they therby accustome themselues to be honest and vertuous. And therefore anci­ently your Kings, as Dauid, the Prophets, and Priests, the better to apply themselues to contemplation, did vse Mu­sicke, wherewith they suspended their senses, and remained as it were swallowed vp in God. In a word, many men haue therewith beene robbed of their soules, and of their honours, and daily much hurt doth ensue thereby. For it is able to doe much, and greate is the force and power which it hath ouer mens manners. And if you will not beleeue me, obserue but the hurt, which your new wanton tunes, together with the lasciuious wordes, and gesticulations vsed in them, haue wrought of late amongst not onely the common, but better sort of people.

Now to shut vp all that hath beene said in three points. First of all I say, that it much importeth, that a Prince bee good in himselfe; for that all men make their Imitation after that patterne that hee sets before them. And for this cause, God placed him in so high and eminent a place, to the end that by the resplendour of his vertues, hee should giue light to the whole kingdome; and that both by his life and exam­ple, he should exemplifie and indoctrinate his Subiects: for it is not onely included in the name and office of King, to rule and gouerne the kingdome by good and wholsome Lawes, but likewise to teach and instruct the people by his vertues. This ought to bee (say Socrates and Plato) the end and ayme of Kings, to direct their Subiects in the truth, they practising it first themselues, which is the strongest and for­ciblest argument to perswade it. For the execution of that which is perswaded and commanded, doth secure the pas­sage, doth make the worke sauourie, and doth facilitate the trouble. Secondly, to the end that the Lawes may bee the better kept, Kings must obey, and keepe them; for it will seeme an vniust thing in them, to establish and ordaine that, which themselues will not keepe and obserue. They must [Page 372] doe as Lycurgus did, who neuer enacted any thing which he himselfe did not punctually performe. And it was a Ro­mane Edict; Vse el Rey de la Ley, que hiziere para la grey: Let the King that law keepe, which he makes for his sheepe. Lastly, that they bee very carefull and watchfull ouer the whole kingdome, but more particularly ouer the Court; for from thence is diffused all the good, or ill; as likewise in cur­talling the excesses of apparrell, the superfluities of feasts and banquets, of gaming, of sports, and pastimes, of lightnesse in behauiour, of licentiousnesse in courting of women, and of those wastefull expences which might very well be excused, in weddings, in iewells, and dressings both in the women and the men. Then began Rome to grow ranke in Luxurie, and prophanenesse, when your gilded bed-steds, your costly pa­uilions, your stately canopies, your ritch hangings, your cu­rious tables, your glorious cupboords of plate, your gybing Iesters, and your various Instruments of Musicke were brought in, which were then in great vse and request, for to prouoke and stirre vp the appetite in those their tedious and sumptuous suppers; as if, for to go to hell, there were neede of such a wind-lace, or wheeling about, the way being (as it is) so easie and direct, that a man may go it blindfold. Causes all of them of iust feare, and fore-runners likewise of the ruine and perdition of any Monarchy whatsoeuer, as they haue beene heretofore of others that haue been ouerthrowne by the like meanes.

But to conclude with this sense, and to shut vp the doore likewise to all the rest; wee are to presuppose that, which is very common both in diuine and humane Letters, That by the hands, wherein particularly consists the Touching, are vnderstood workes; because they are the Instruments by which they are done, Moses deliuering vnto vs, that the He­brewes did see the wonders which God had wrought in their fauour,Exod. 14. 31. saith, Viderunt manum magnam, quam exercuerat Dominus: They saw that great worke (which the originall [Page 375] renders, that great hand) which the Lord exercised vpon the Aegyptians.Fier. lib. 35. Tit. Opus. And besides this, it hath another signification (as is obserued by Pierius Valerianus) an open hand, being the Symbole of eloquence; expressing that efficacy, and perswa­siue power that lies in well couched words. Works and words being both very necessary in Kings, Execution in the one; and Elocution in the other. And because all Prin­ces cannot performe these offices of doing and saying, by themselues, they must haue another tongue, and other hands, by which they must speake, and doe; and the tongue whereby they must speake; and the hands, whereby they must touch, and handle all things (for their owne are not able to doe it) must bee their fauourites. Policratus, in his booke directed to Traiane, saith, That your great Lords in Court, and Kings fauourites, are the hands of the kingdome. And, as in mans body, they are naturally disposed, and ready prepared for to succour and assist all the other members; so they should be at hand for to helpe and reliue all the neces­sities of the kingdome, and to be the formost in all dangers, and a thousand other occasions that will offer themselues, which neither are, nor can bee wanting to Kings and king­domes. And therefore the Philosopher said of the hands, that they are the Instrument of Instruments. For without them nothing can be done; neither can Kings of themselues do all. They haue need of their Ministers, and Fauourites, which are their feet, and their hands. In the subsequent Chapters, we shall discourse somewhat a little of them. God grant, that little, or somewhat, what ere it bee, may worke some good. And first of all we will treate, whether it be fitting to haue Fauourites.

Whether it be fit for Kings to haue Fauourites.

FAuourites being (as they are) the work­manship of Kings, receiuing their forme and fashion from their good liking; which creatures of their making, wee haue mentioned in the former Chapter. We shall handsomely fall here vpon that which in this is put to the question. Nor is the answer thereunto very easie. For a Fauourite being of the same nature, as a particular friend, and friendship being to bee inter aequales, betweene those that are of equall condition, it seemeth that those that are Subiects and seruants to their King and Master can not hold it with him; whom they are to behold, and treate with, with a great deale of reuerence, respecting alwayes his royall Maiestie, which (according to that other Poet) No cabe en vn saco con el Amor; is not in one and the same sacke with loue. And without loue, there is no friendship. True it is that Aristotle and some other Philosophers affirme, that this difference may easily bee reconciled, forasmuch as hee that is in the higher and more eminent place, may stoope so low, and fa­shion himselfe in that euen measure to his Inferiour, that they may both remaine vpon equall tearmes. But this can hardly square and suite well with Kings towards their Fauourites. For, as it were an indecorum, and vnseemely thing in a hu­mane bodie, that the head should abase it selfe, and become equall with the shoulder; so, were it prodigious and mon­strous, that Kings, which are Heads, and hold that Soue­raigntie which God hath giuen them, should stoope so low to their Subiects, that the eminencie should not appeare [Page 375] they haue ouer them. And that other meanes which may be vsed in raysing a subiect, or Fauorite to that hight that hee may be equall with his King, bringeth with that a great in­conuenience. For a Crowne & Scepter royall, cannot endure any fellowship with equality. And therefore these two meanes may pare and fit well with friends, that hauing pro­fessed friendship, when their estates were equall, the one growes inferiour to the other, eyther good fortune, or good diligence, hauing preferred his fellow and friend. But with Kings there cannot be held this correspondency and equality. And it is King Salomons counsaill, who saith; That it is not fitting for any man to entertaine friendship and communica­tion, with those that are too mighty. Ditiori te, ne socius fueris; Quid communicabit cacabus ad [...]llam? Quando enim se colliserint, confringetur: Haue no fellowship with one that is mightier and richer then thy selfe. For how agree the Kettle and the earthen Pot together? For, if the one bee smitten against the other, it shall be broken. And againe, if you will but diligently obserue the sacred history of the Kings which were ouer Gods people, you shall there finde little mention of Fauorites. On the other side, it will like­wise seeme vnreasonable, that kings should be debarr'd that, without which (to all mens seeming) mans life cannot bee well past ouer. [...]Nemo sine amicis, spectet viuere; (said the said Philosopher) Let no man looke to liue without friends. And the holy Scriptures are full of the commoditie, and benefit, which faithfull friends afford, being as necessary for the life of man, as fire, and water; and for no estate so important, as for that of Kings, who for that they haue so many, so weigh­ty, and so secret businesses, their estate were intollerable, and more then they were able to beare, if they might not haue the libertie of hauing friends, with whom they might communicate, and by whom they might receiue some ease, of those troubles, and care, which great offices (ordinarily) bring with them.

[Page 376] Now for to giue satisfaction vnto that which is here pre­tended to be auerred, we are to consider, That Aristotle, and other, both Philosophers and Diuines teach (which is no more then what experience plainly prooues vnto vs) That there are two sorts of Loue, or friendship; The one Interessall, or cum foenore, whose end, is its proper profit. The other hath with it a more gentile & noble intent, which is, to loue and wish well to that which deserueth to bee belo­ued: and this is called Amor amicitiae, the loue of friendship. The other, Amor concupiscentiae, the loue of concupiscence. And with very good reason, for that therein there is not to be found the face of true friendship. From these two Loues, as from two diuerse rootes, spring forth two different sorts of Fauorites. The one, who for their great parts and quali­ties haue deserued to carry after them, not only the good wills and affections of their equals, but euen of Kings them­selues. And when these abilities are so extraordinary and ad­uantagious, no man can deeme it inconuenient that Kings should more particularly, and in a more extraordinary man­ner, apply their affection vnto them. Nay, it would rather lay a spot and blemish vpon them, if notice should be taken, that they equally entertaine all, or not esteeme and prize them most that merit most to be esteemed. For in all good reason; there is no greater inequality, then to equall all alike.

Plato said very well, That there is not any virtue of that force and efficacie, for to catch and steale away mens hearts. Nor herein doe we need the testimonies of Philosophers, for the holy Ghost saith, Vt mors, est dilectio, loue is strong as death. The coales thereof are coales of fire, which hath a most vehement flame, it beares all away before it. And in this its force and strength, friendship and loue are much alike. And building on this ground, I say; That very well there may be said to bee friendship betweene a King and a Fauorite; for that their soules haue in their birth and begin­ning, or (as I may say, their first originall) equall noblenesse. [Page 377] And your noblest friendship proceeds from the soule. Very famous and much celebrated was that friendship betwixt Prince Ionathan (the onely heire of the kingdome) and that worthy noble Dauid. And so great was the loue that was be­tweene them,1. Reg. 18. 2. that the sacred Scripture saith, That anima Ionathae conglutinata erat animae Dauid, & dilexit eum Iona­thas quasi animam suam. The soule of Ionathan was knit with the soule of Dauid; and that Ionathan loued him, as his owne soule. And I further affirme, that it is very fit and conuenient that Kings should loue those with aduantage, that haue the aduantage of others in vertue, wisedome, and learning. And such should be those, that serue and attend the persons of Princes; for ordinarily, out of that Nursery are these plants your Fauourites drawne. When Nabuchadnezzar, King of Babilon, besieged and tooke by force of armes the Citie of Ierusalem, he carried away from thence great spoiles of gold and siluer; but that, which hee much more prized then all this Treasure, were the sonnes of the chiefest Noblemen, and such as were lineally descended of the Kings of that kingdome; and gaue especiall order, that they should choose and cull out those that had the best and ablest parts, both of nature and acquisition; those that were of the best disposition, the most learned, and best taught, to the end that being ac­companied with these good qualities, they might merit to attend in the Court and Chamber of the King.Dan. [...]. 3. Et ait Rex Asphenez Praeposito Eunuchorum, vt introduceret de filijs Israel, & de semine Regio, & Tyrannorum pueros, in quibus nulla esset macula, decoros forma, & eruditos omni sapientia, cautos scientia, & doctos disciplina, & qui possent stare in pa­latio Regis: And the King spake vnto Ashpenez, the Master of his Eunuchs, that hee should bring certaine of the chil­dren of Israel, and of the Kings seed, and of the Princes; Children in whom was no blemish, but well-fauoured, and skilfull in all wisedome, and cunning in knowledge, and vn­derstanding, Science, and such as had abilitie in them to stand [Page 378] in the Kings palace. And this election fell out so luckily, and proued to be of that profit and benefit, that amongst those which (indewed with these qualities) were made choice of, for to serue the King, there were three of them did excell, but one more then all the rest, not onely in vertue, but in the knowledge likewise of secret businesses, and matters of State and gouernment, which was Daniel; who so well deserued to be a Fauourite to those Kings of Babylon, and more espe­cially to Darius, that hee did not content himselfe with ma­king him onely a priuie Councellour, but the prime man amongst them. For hauing set ouer the kingdome an 120. Princes, which should bee ouer the whole kingdome, and ouer these, three Presidents (of whom, Daniell was first) that the Princes might giue account vnto them, that the King might haue no damage; And as hee was the greatest Subiect and Fauourite in the world, so was hee superiour in the vertues and qualities of his person. Igitur Daniel supera­bat omnes Principes & satrapas, quia Spiritus Domini am­plior erat in illo: Dan. 6. 3. Therefore was Daniel preferred before the Presidents and Princes, because an excellent spirit was in him. The holy Scripture likewise tells vs, that Ioseph was such a Fauourite of King Pharaoh, that hee gaue him absolute power ouer all his kingdome, and commanded, that in pub­like pompe he should ride in the Kings owne Chariot, and in his owne seate, and haue a Crier go before to proclaime the fauour that the King was pleased to doe him. Dixit quoque Rex Aegypti ad Ioseph; Gen. 41. 44. Ego sum Pharaoh, absque tuo impe­rio non mouebit quisquam manum, aut pedem in omni terra. And Pharaoh said vnto Ioseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift vp his hand, or foot, in all the land of Aegypt. And well did hee deserue this honour, for by his great industrie and wisedome, he freed that King and king­dome from that terrible famine, besides those many other great and troublesome imployments, wherein he was busied for the space of seuen yeares together. In the fourth booke of [Page 379] Kings, we reade that Naaman, who was Captaine of the host of the King of Syria, was the onely Fauourite of the King; Erat vir magnus apud Dominum suum, 4. Reg. 5. 1. & honoratus: Hee was a great man with his Master, and honourable. And ren­dering the reason of this his great priuacie with his King, and the honour he had done him, it is there specified; Per illumenim dedit dominus salutem Syriae; erat enim vir fortis. Because by him the Lord had giuen deliuerance vnto Syria; and was also a mighty man in valour. For all the life and soule that kingdome had, came from him, God vsing him as his instrument for his puisance and prudence. And when Fa­uourites are of these aduantagious abilities, those reasons and inconueniences doe cease (before mentioned) touching the disequalitie of Kings, with their Inferiours. For vertue hath this excellence and preheminence; that from the very dust of the earth it doth lift vp men vnto honour, and doth raise them to that height, that it equalls them, and sets them cheeke by [...]ole with the greatest Princes in the world.Eccl: 11. [...]. Sapi­entia humiliati, exalta [...]it caput illius, & in medio magnatum considere illum faciet: Wisedome lifteth vp the head of him, that is of low degree, and maketh him to sit among great men. Anna, that was mother to that great Priest and Pro­phet Samuel, amongst other things which shee sung in the praise of God, and his great power, this was one worthy the obseruation, and well befitting the subiect we haue in hand; Dominus suscitat de puluere egenum, 1. King. 2. [...]. & de stercore eleuat pau­perem, vt sedeat cum Principibus, & solium gloriae teneat: The Lord raiseth the poore out of the dust, and lifteth vp the begger from the dunghill, to set him among Princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory. The like note sings that Kingly Prophet Dauid: Psal. 113. 7. Suscitans à terra inopem, vt col­locet eum cum Principibus populi sui: He raiseth vp the poore out of the dust, and lifteth the needy out of the dunghill. And King Salomon his sonne, seconds this of his father in this short Antheme: Seruus sapiens, dominabitur filijs stultis: [Page 380] A wise seruant shall haue rule ouer a sonne that causeth shame.Prou. 17. 2. So great is the force of wisedome and discretion, that it doth not onely exalt, and raise to greatnesse, men that are free borne (though in a poore meane cottage) but brings euen the basest slaues to bee Lords ouer their owne Masters. A certaine Philosopher being taken captiue, was brought forth into the open Market to bee sold, and they that were to buy him, demanded of him, what hee could doe; He told them, That the best thing that he was skild in, was, to com­mand his Masters. In many places of Scripture, is repeated and confirmed the Testimonie of King Salomons great power and wisedome; And amongst other things, which are men­tioned of the Maiestie of his house and Court, it is said; That therein he had a great many Princes, whose names are registred in the third booke of the Kings. And amongst them there is but one onely that is made remarkable by the name and title of the Kings Fauourite and friend. Zabud, filius Na­than, amicus Regis; And Zabud, the sonne of Nathan, was principall Officer, and the Kings friend. Some Translations in the place of principall Officer, put Priest. And these two titles of Priest, and the Kings friend, are therefore thus ioy­ned together, that they may giue vs to vnderstand, that the friendship and affection towards a Fauourite, should take it's growth from that learning and vertue which is annexed to the state and condition of the Priest. And in the first booke of the Chronicles, in that Catalogue, which is there made of those which bare principall offices in King Dauids Court, it is onely said of Hushai the Archite, that hee was the Kings companion. And in the second booke of the Kings, are set downe at large the great and many reasons, why Hushai on his part might well deserue this Title. Our Sauiour Christ likewise seemed to make shew of his more particular affecti­on to Peter, Iohn, and Iames, making choice of them from among the twelue, to retire himselfe in priuate with them, and to make them witnesses of his glorious transfiguration; and [Page 381] afterwards of diuers other particular things. Whence it seemeth that they might haue the name of Fauourites; but not without great grounds, and those extraordinary vertues, wherein they out-shined others. Howbeit the choise and ele­ction of this supreme King, is not to bee ruled and measured out by that of the Kings of this world; for they can not by the alone power of their loue better men, nor affoord them necessary parts, whereby to merit to bee their friends. But this true King and Lord of all, in placing his good will and affection on those whom hee is pleased to make choice of for his friends, doth likewise indow and adorne them with strong abilities, whereby to bee accounted worthy of his friendship and fauour. Whereas with the Fauourites of the Kings of this world, it fareth cleane contrary. For those, which before they were Fauourites, were good and honest, by their priuacie, and great power with their King, haue come to be starke nought; and the more footing they haue in the Kings friendship, they are vsually the lesse worthy of it. Whereof we shall more in the Chapter following.

Of another sort of Fauourites.

THose most learned bookes, which the glo­rious Saint Austen writ, De Ciuitate Dei, lay before vs two sorts of loue: That loue which man beareth vnto God, euen to the contemning and despising of himselfe; And from this is the constitution and fa­bricke of that holy Citie of Ierusalem; vnder which name, is vnderstood the good concord and agreement of the Christian Church and commonwealth, as [Page 382] also of all Christian soules. The other loue is that which euery one beareth to himselfe, in that high manner and ex­cesse, that it reacheth euen to the contemning and despising of God. And from this is built that City of Babylon, which is as much to say as Confusion; & signifieth that, which euery sinner hath within himself, as also that which is in ill ordered commonwealths. And therefore (as wee said in the former Chapter) that from those two Loues of friendship and con­cupiscence, did issue forth two sorts of Fauourites: The one good and profitable; the other, bad and couetous: So, consi­dering Loue, not in respect of outward things, but in respect of it selfe, it differenceth the vse of Fauourites, according to the different meanes and ends, wherewith, and for which they are made choice of: And the vse likewise, which they make thereof, when they see they are thus aduanced, and re­ceiued into fauour. The meanes haue the denomination of their goodnesse, or badnesse, from their end. Whence it fol­loweth, that when Kings shall make choice of their Fauo­rites by good meanes, not out of a selfe-humour, or wo­manish kinde of longing, nor for to please his owne proper affection, but that they may comply the better with those obligations, which they haue to the good dispatch of busi­nesse, and to haue one to helpe them to beare the burthen that l [...]es vpon them; As this end is good, so of force must the meanes likewise bee. For to obtaine good ends, bad meanes are not taken. And therefore Kings shall doe well, in taking such Fauourites vnto them, as shall bee sollicitous, and care­full in the dispatching of businesse, faithfull in their seruices, and endowed with such parts afore specified, as were those Fauourites, recommended vnto you in the former Chapter. For Ioseph (as we told you) grew in fauour with King Pha­raoh, for his great wisedome, and for his supernaturall know­ledge of things to come, and reuealing such secret mysteries as other his Ministers could not tell what to make of them. The like befell Daniel, with the Caldean, and Macedonian [Page 383] Kings; for before euer he became a Fauourite, they saw his great wisedome and constancie in the true seruice of his God, his singular prudence, and those other his good gifts, which are recorded in the booke of his prophesies. The extraordi­nary graces of Peter, Iohn, and Iames, who is he that is igno­rant of them? Being that the Euangelists say of Saint Peter, that his extraordinary loue was examined, and proued in those so often repeated questions: Petre amas me? Simon Io­hannis, diligis me plus his? And againe, Simon Iohannis, amas me? And the Apostle Saint Iames was the first of the Apo­stles, that by his bloud and death gaue testimonie of this his loue. And Saint Iohn shewed no lesse, at his last Supper, at his passion, and at the foote of the Crosse, hauing followed and accompanied his Master euen to his death, when the rest fled and forsooke him. But when Kings make not choice of their Fauourites for the foresaid ends, and for the publike good, but for their owne particular gusts and humours, and to let loose the reines with more libertie and freedome to their owne delights and pleasures, such kinde of Fauourites set vsually before them the same ends, and commonly preferre their owne priuate gustes and interests before those of their Kings, or the publike good of the commonwealth, and come to be the firebrands and destruction of States. This lesson the holy Scripture doth likewise teach vs, whose mysteries are so high and so deepe, that euen in that which it silenceth, it speaketh vnto vs; and in saying little, instructeth much. I haue much obserued that which is recounted in the History of Esther, touching the priuacie of that proud and vnfor­tunate Haman, Ioseph. de An­tiq. lib 1. cap. 6. 1. Reg. 15. 33. whom King Assuerus raised from so low a degree, and from so wicked a race, as he came of. For (accor­ding to Iosephus) he descended from that Amalakite whom the Prophet Samuel caused to be hewen in peeces. And for that it is the condition of Kings, when they once begin to fauour a man, to make him like froath to rise and swell, this fauourite grew to that heighth through his Kings grace and [Page 384] fauour, that all the Subiects of that Monarch respected him as a God, and kneeled downe in his presence, his person being much more adored, serued, and feared, then the Kings; because the King had put the staffe (as they say) into his hands, giuing him the absolute command ouer all his estates; insomuch that neither in, nor out of Court, nor elsewhere, was there ought done, but by the order of Haman; and the King himselfe held him in the place of a father. And for that Vanitie is the daughter of Pride, all this his great fauour and priuacie with his Prince, did but make the more for his owne hurt, as doth the Ants wings, for hers; or like those of Icarus, which being of waxe, the nearer they came to the Sunne, the sooner they melted, working then his death and downfall, when he was at the highest. For Haman came to hang, and dye on that gallowes which he had prouided for Mardoche, and for no other offence in the world, but because he would not bowe the knee vnto him, and adore him as the rest did. So that (if you marke the Storie) Hamans owne greatnesse and power was the axe, which did frame and hew out that gallowes, whereon himselfe was hanged. And hauing often thought with my selfe on this mans end, and considering likewise the beginning of this his priuacie, I doe not finde, that it was for the excellencie of his merits, or for any heroi­call vertues that were in him; such as were those which King Pharaoh, Nabuchadnezzar, and Darius did consider in those their Fauourites, which they made choice of, but for some particular guste and liking, that his King tooke to him. For the Scripture speakes not one word, nor maketh not any the least mention of the merits of this Fauourite, nor of any notable thing, that hee had done either for the good of the kingdome, or the seruice of his King; but rather without any preambles to that purpose, in the very entrance of the third Chapter we reade thus.Esther 3. 1. Rex Assuerus exaltauit Aman, filium Amadathi, qui erat de stirpe Agag, & posuit solium eius super omnes Principes quos habebat, cunctique serui [Page 385] Regis, qui in foribus Palatij versabantur, flectebant genua, et adorabant Aman: King Assuerus did promote Haman the sonne of Amedatha, the Agagite, and aduanced him, and set his seate aboue all the Princes that were with him. And all the Kings seruants, that were in the Kings gate, bowed, and reuerenced Haman. And in this so true a relation, and so fully setting forth the priuacie of this great Fauorite, with­out any foundation or ground of desert; the Scripture there­by hath instructed vs, how inconsiderately this King did proceed in the choice which he made. But he did correct this his errour, by opening his eyes, and inflicting that punish­ment vpon him which he deserued, and is there set downe. I could wish that Fauourites would likewise open their eyes, and consider with themselues, that the happines which they hold, is but borrowed ware, lent vnto them but for a short time, and that they neither vse, nor possesse it as their owne proper good or inheritance. And being that by one meanes or other, it must leaue them, that they would not wholly giue themselues ouer thereunto; for it forsaketh few without their finall ruine. Let them bire vpon this bit, and with the remem­brance thereof, bridle their pride and insolencie, lest (how­soeuer they flatter themselues) that hand may pull them downe, which raised them vp. For there are some, which will neuer be able to indure this their felicitie and happinesse, but one way or other, will worke their ouerthrow, and make them pay the price of their ambition at too deare a rate: Nay the King himselfe will sometimes put to his helping hand, as we see King Assuerus did, who after that hee had made Haman his onely Fauourite, and raised him to that highth of honour, as could not well bee more, turned his face from him, and did so much distaste him, for his sower and inso­lent behauiour, that for to make him stoope and hang the head, he commanded him to be hanged vpon the same gal­lowes that he had set vp for another, who had deserued well both of the King and State. The Emperour Alexander did [Page 386] the like, who waxing wearie of the arrogancie of one of his Fauourites, and not being able longer to endure it, caused him to be staked, and the stake to be set on the top of an high hill; giuing him a death answerable to his vanitie. For, al­though Kings loue them, and in some sort acknowledge a kinde of beholdingnesse, yet they vsually withdraw their fa­uour quite from them, and are oftentimes ashamed of their choice; whereunto being added the complaints of the people, and other principall persons, offended with the iniuries offer­ed vnto them, remoue that scandall, by remouing their Fauo­rite, and make them satisfaction by making him be punished, neuer in this case aduising with any, nor so much as hearing what the Fauourite in his owne discharge can say for him­selfe; for in such desperate cases, when things are brought to that extremitie, Kings vse to take that course as your Prot [...] ­medici, and skilfuller sort of Physitians doe with their infe­riours; who in weightie and vrgent occasions fall speedily to worke themselues, without any further consultation; but in ordinarie diseases, heare, resolue, and consult with others. Againe, let Fauourites, for their learning, reade the Histo­ries, and peruse the generall booke of Time, and they shall there finde a thousand of these examples, and other as many faire warnings, worthy their sight and knowledge, for the admonishing of men, for to feare their priuacie with Kings, and to tremble at humane prosperitie, and the securitie wherein they liue. And hee that shall diligently reade these things, will seeke to come fairely off from these his high for­tunes and fauours. For ordinarily, from a prosperous and high-raised estate, great disasters haue had their beginning; as from your highest places come your greatest falls. And peraduenture because this desenganno, and dis-deceiuing of our selues, doth so much import mankinde, and that men might liue in this feare, God hath and doth permit of such like examples, and admonitions. And it may likewise be be­leeued, that such violent and sudden accidents haue not onely [Page 387] happened through the default of those that fall, or for want of wisedome, but by a diuine prouidence and permission, for their owne particular sinnes; or for that God was wi [...]ling, as being the master workeman, and onely Potter of these our earthen vessells, to breake these with a rodde of iron, and to choose others for vessells of honour, through which the ho­ly liquor of his Gospell, and other good graces, might be poured forth, and diffused throughout the world.

Whether it be fit for Kings to haue any more then one Fauourite.

THe name wherewith the Greekes named God, is deriued from a word, which signifies to see. So that to say God, is to say, Hee that sees. For, as the Apostle Saint Paul, and faith teacheth vs; all is subiect to Gods view; and vnto Kings, who are his Lieutenants here vpon earth, nothing can conuene so well with them, as to seéme to the world, to haue so quicke and large a sight, that they may see all whatsoeuer mans capacitie is able to reach vnto. And because they cannot doe this alone by themselues, Xe­nophon said very well and wisely, that it was needfull, that they should haue other eyes, whereunto to trust as much, as vnto their owne, and to see as it were by spectacles; for Kings are so vnhappy, that they cannot come to see all without them. And those (as the same Philosopher said) are those friends and Fauourites, who are to see, and know that which passeth in the world, as also what is needfull in common­wealths, and to giue notice thereof vnto their Kings, and to helpe them to ordaine, and execute that, which is fitting and [Page 388] conuenient. And Fauourites being intertained (as we said be­fore) for this end, and for the publike good of the common­wealth, it is requisite that Kings should not haue one onely, but many. One day, some about the person of Alexander the Great, shewed him a maruellous faire Pomegranate, which being cut in two, discouered a great company of kernels: and one of them asking him, of what he would wish to haue such store, as of those Pomegranate kernels which appeared vnto him? He answered, that he would wish that hee might haue so many Z [...]piri; This Zopirus being a Fauourite of his, and one that was very faithfull vnto him, and of great abilities. For, it is not contrary to royall greatnesse, to haue many, but very necessary for the better dispatch of businesses. For if they should passe onely through the hands of the Prince, their dispatch would bee very slow, and subiect likewise to many errours, whereinto they would ordinarily runne, for want of their care and assistance. Darius, King of Persia, tooke three Fauourites vnto him, to whom the rest of the Princes rendered an account of all the affaires of the kingdome. And from the beginning of the world, euen to this present time, Kings haue had, some more, and others lesse. For this must be regulated and ordered according to the greatnesse of the kingdomes. For by how much the more they are in number and greatnesse, so much the more increase haue those weigh­tie affaires which are necessarily to haue their recourse to their royall persons; and according to the measure of them, is there an addition to be made of those, that are to assist and attend businesses, to passe through all, to prouide for all, and in all places. The people of Israel, when Moses gouerned them, were all ioyntly together in one body in forme of an Armie; and all that made not vp so much as a meane king­dome; and they remaining (as then they did) without pos­sessions, incamped in a desart, and being all Israelites, it see­meth in all likelihood, that their ordinary businesses could not be either so many, or so great, as those which are incident [Page 389] to a King, who is Lord and Master of diuers kingdomes and Prouinces, and of sundry seuerall Nations. And yet notwith­standing, that great Gouernour Moses, by negotiating from morning vntill night, without diuerting himselfe, could not giue conuenient dispatch vnto all, but was forced (as is be­fore specified) to take vnto him no lesse then seuenty assistants, all chosen men, and endewed with those good qualities, whereof we now treate. Let Kings therefore haue many for to aide and helpe them, and let them be the Ministers of his minde, and the Conducts whereby to conuay his will and pleasure to his Subiects. For in the administration of pub­like affaires, it is euermore to bee indeauoured, that many beare a part therein; As well for the common satisfaction, that shall thereby be giuen vnto all; as also for that they may be able to make the better account of all businesses, bee they neuer so many. And likewise, for that few being instructed and experienced in them, occasion may not bee giuen; that (those failing) the commonwealth and publike gouernment may thereby incurre any danger. This was Augustus his con­ceit, deliuered by Suetonius; which that he might the better execute, and that his bounty might inlarge it selfe towards the more persons; he inuented new publike Offices, wherein to imploy them. But I do not speake this, as inferring there­by, that there should bee so many, but that at least (for the foresaid reasons) there should bee some: And in conclusion, more then one, because it will bee more easie to negotiate with them, and lesse costly and troublesome; and bee a meanes, that the Prince may be the better eased, and freed in great part of those cares and troubles, which otherwise must needs weary him out, and worke his vnrest and disquiet. For his body is not made of brasse, nor can he occurre to all oc­casions; Besides, being more then one, their competition will make them the more both carefull and fearefull: as know­ing that in case they shall grow carelesse, there are persons enough besides of sufficiencie to supply their place; Whereas [Page 390] the opinion and conceit of the contrary, puffes him vp with pride, and vndoes it's Master. For they fondly and foolishly perswade themselues, that their King and Master cannot liue and subsist without the assistance of their wit, and that there is not that fault they commit, but must be forgiuen them, out of the necessitie of their seruice. Forgetting in the meane while, that their King may imagine them to bee dead, and how that in such a case, though it grieue him, yet must hee prouide himselfe of others▪ Let Kings therefore bee beaten from this their errour, for he that shall otherwise aduise them, and seeke to be the onely man in their fauour and seruice, and take vnto himselfe both the right side and the left, thrusting all others from thence, and gouerning both high and low, letting nothing escape his fingers, which hee pretendeth out of the necessary vse of his person, and so absolutely to become Master of their wills, and to haue that hand ouer their Kings, that they must not looke vpon any, but with their Fauorites eyes; such a Fauourite (I say) pretends to tyrannize a king­dome, and by little and little will go crushing the Princes of the bloud, the ancient Nobilitie, and such as are of power to stand in their way, thrusting this man out of Court to day, and that other to morrow, that hee alone may rule all with­out any contradiction or opposition in the world. Let euery man say or thinke as they list, for mine owne part I am per­swaded that this is his maine end and drift; And the cause thereof is his feare of falling; knowing (besides his owne consciousnes) that there are not onely one or two, but many in Court, that are able to supply his place, and farre better deseruing then himselfe. Your Alchymists make gold: But how? Onely in the colour; they will not let it come to the Touch, nor any other reall Essay; neither will they endure to haue it compared with any other minerall gold, for feare lest it should bee discouered, that theirs hath no more but a bare shew and apparence. Let Princes therefore assure themselues, that those Fauourites are but Alchimists, that will not admit [Page 391] of any other companie, as being priuie to themselues, that their vnderstanding is not such pure gold, that it can abide the Touch, nor any reall Essay. But say it should passe for currant, and that their mindes were all made of pure gold, me thinkes they should aduise and consider with themselues, that those that are ingenious and wise men, will therefore the rather desire that there should be many: for, by comparing the one with the other, the true light shineth the more, and makes it selfe knowne whether it be so or no. And onely your fooles, and such as are vnworthy of that they possesse, are iealous of that good, which they feare to loose, when by com­paring they shall come to be knowne. God did not in vaine place so many members in mans bodie, and most of them double; had it not beene thereby to teach vs, that many are needfull in humane actions: and that one is not able to doe all, without an infinite deale of toyle, extraordinary spend­ing of his spirits, and the sudden wasting and consuming of his body. And here will suite very well to this our purpose, that which Tiberius affirmed, when feigning not to bee wil­ling to accept of the Empire, hee said, (going about the bush to discouer the mindes of the Romane Nobilitie, and Senate) that he alone of himselfe, was not sufficient, nor yet with the helpe of another, for so great a gouernment. Whereupon, Sa­lustius Crispus taking his Qu, a great Fauourite of his, starts mee vp, and makes me a long Harenga, or artificiall oration; shewing that Signiorie and Empire could not well consist, without being conferred vpon one particular person (which is the maine foundation and ground-worke of the good and safetie of a Monarchicall gouernment) and that therein him­selfe (if no body else would take the paines) would bee as it were another Ioseph, his faithfull Vice [...]gerent: lest the reso­lution of things, depending on the will of many, it might cause a distraction in businesses, either by way of competi­tion or of passion. In conclusion, after Tiberius had heard this, and had throughly sounded their mindes, he took oc­casion [Page 392] to tell them, That in such a Citie as Rome was, sustai­ned and vpheld by so many and such illustrious persons, it was not fit that the businesses of State should be remitted to one man alone, for many would much more easily execute the offices and affaires of the commonwealth by a fellow­bearing of the burthen. For, as vnitie in some degrees is both profitable and pleasing; so in other some it is hatefull, and preiudiciall. And therefore, (out of this consideration) I say, That a King, as the supreme person, and principall Head of a kingdome, ought to be one alone. For the couetousnesse of ruling being insatiable, and the nature of power incommuni­cable, it is not possible that two Princes of equall authoritie should continue any long time, but both of them suffer in the end, or at least the businesses that are committed to their charge. But for Fauourites, there may bee two, or three, or more, the vnitie remaining reserued for the greater and su­premer person. And likewise this pluralitie will not be much amisse; for if any one of them shall by some accident faile, there be others, whom the King knoweth, and they know him, that are fit for his seruice, and that haue good experi­ence and knowledge of businesses, and all such matters as are current and passable in the commonwealth, without being driuen to seeke out new Ministers, or to instruct them what to doe in a time of necessitie, when things go not well, but stand in ill Tearmes, laying otherwise hold on the first that offer themselues vnto them, to the ouerthrowing of the busi­nesses in hand, and the proper hurt and dammage of their Lord and Master; at whose cost and by meere erring in great matters, they must come to get their learning. Let Kings (a Gods name) reserue for themselues those businesses that are of greatest importance (for in this likewise must there bee a setled course and order) as is in all well gouerned kingdomes. Referring (as we said before) to the ordinary Councells and Tribunalls, ordinary businesses, consulting with their Kings those that are of most importance; And these Kings by [Page 393] themselues (as before mentioned) ought to dispatch, if there­in they be not hindered by default of their health, and not to remit and referre them to their Fauourites; who, in mat­ter of Iustice (were it but distributiue) should haue no lande of power. For thereby they oppresse those Tribunalls and seates of iustice, together with their Ministers and Officers, who, for that they know, they must haue much dependancy on the Fauourite; if he shall haue a hand in Courts of Iustice, and distribution of Offices, cannot but remaine much op­pressed, and debarred of their libertie, and the more, if they haue any pretension for their owne interest, or increasing of their estate and honour. And the reason of all this will plain­ly appeare, if wee will but weigh those words of the wise man;Prou. 8. 15. Per me Reges regnant, & Legum conditores iusta de­cernunt: Through me Kings raigne, Through mee Coun­cellours make iust Lawes. Whereby is giuen to vnderstand, the particular fauour which God giues to the lawfull Kings and Gouernours of their kingdomes and commonwealths, to hit right in that which appertaineth vnto gouernment. And therefore was it well said of that wise King Salomon; Prou. 16. 10. Diuinatio in labijs Regis, in iudicio, non errabit os eius: Pro­phecie is in the lippes of the King; his mouth shall not go wrong in iudgement. And your Diuines are of opinion, that Kings haue more helpe and aide from their Angels of guard, then other men haue. And besides all this, the publike pray­ers that are poured forth throughout all their kingdomes and Prouinces, are of most great vse for Gods illightning of their vnderstanding. And therefore for these reasons aforesaid, al­though your Fauourites and more secret Councellours of State may be very learned and wise vnderstanding men, yet is there a great deale of reason, why in graue and weightie causes, they should craue and attend their Kings opinion; esteeming it as the more certaine, being it comes from a head, so much fauoured by God, and so well assisted and strength­ened on all sides. Which doth not concurre in Fauourites; [Page 394] for God hath not made that promise vnto them, as he hath vnto Kings; nor (peraduenture) doe they deserue it. And if he bee the sole and onely Fauourite, much lesse can hee pre­sume, that either his opinion or paines can be greater or surer then that of so many learned Councellours and Councells, that haue met and sate thereupon, and haue spent so much time and studie in State-affaires. Nor is it to bee imagined, that when Councellours doe consult, and craue their Kings opinion and resolution, that they doe it to that end, that they should receiue it from another inferiour person; whom let Kings loue them neuer so much, or conferre all that they can vpon them, they cannot giue them more vnderstanding, or more knowledge, nor a better minde and disposition, then what they haue already; for this is reserued for God onely, as also it properly belongeth vnto him to giue light vnto Kings, that they may giue a fitting and direct answer to that point wherein they are consulted, who alwayes supplyes them with that knowledge which is needfull for them, if they shall but begge it at his hands, and make good vse thereof. Hence are two things inferred, which are very sure and true. The first, That Kings are bound in conscience to attend in their owne person graue and weightie businesses; for that this is their principall office; which is euidently proued by this reason. Whosoeuer beares an Office, and hath salarie for the same, is thereby obliged to cumply fully therewith, Sub poena peccati, vpon penaltie of sinning. And by so much the more grieuous shall the sinne be, by how much the greater is the Office, and by how much the more the stipend is aug­mented. Now Kings (you will confesse vnto me) haue the greater office, and greater stipend in all things, and there­fore shall they more grieuously sinne, if they do not cumply therewith. And this is made good in the sixth of Wisedome, wherein these very words it is expresly said: Potentes poten­ter tormenta patientur; Wisd. 6. 5, 6. & fortioribus fortior instat cruciatio: A sharpe punishment shall be to them that be in high places; [Page 395] and the mighty shall bee mightily tormented. The second; That Fauourites are obliged, on paine of the said penaltie, to serue their Kings in their owne persons well and faithfully in those businesses, which they shall commit to their charge; and that in taking their pleasure and ease, more then their Kings themselues, and substituting others to performe that trust and charge which is put vpon them, they cannot iustly enioy that authoritie, nor those interests and profits which doe result from their priuacie. And let they themselues tell me, what title they haue to enioy so much as they doe, when they take lesse paines then their Kings, but pleasure more? And to conclude with that which is here questioned in this Chapter, I say, That admitting Fauourites, to bee such as they ought to be, it is fit notwithstanding that there should be more then one, or two. For thereby Kings shall haue the more helpe, and out of that emulation and zeale, which is wont to bee amongst them, each of them will striue to bee more considerate and better aduised in commanding others, and in begging and applying things to himselfe, and his owne priuate profit, and more solicitous in doing seruice to the State, lest others might get the start of him in his Kings fauour. And howbeit the name of fauourite seemeth not to indure a companion, yet, if they fixe their eyes on that which they ought, which is the common good of the common­wealth, and the seruice of their Kings, it would neuer grieue them, that there should bee others to assist for the same end and purpose; but like that great Fauourite and friend of God, Moses, they would say, Vtinam omnes prophetarent: Would to God they did all prophecie.

Of the Conditions and Qualities of Fauourites.

SVpposing that that then which hath beene said in the former Chapters, and that Kings are to haue such persons a­bout them, who with proprietie may hold the name of friends (for such qua­litie and condition must they be of, who possesse the bosome and soule of their Master by the communication of the greatest and most se­cret affaires) and performe the office of Fauourites; For, al­though it be true, that it cannot properly be said, that Kings haue friends, for that all (saue of their owne ranke) are infe­riour vnto them; yet is it likewise true, that the holy Scrip­ture (as we shewed you before) stiles Fauourites, friends. For the force of loue is of that great power, that it remoueth and lifteth vp things from their point and center, giuing the name of friend to a seruant and subiect.Prou. 22. 11. Qui diligit cordis munditiam, propter gratiam labiorum suorum, habebit ami­cum Regem: He that loueth purenesse of heart, for the grace of his lippes; the King shall bee his friend. Aristotle doth admit betwixt the King and his subiect, a certaine kinde of friendship, howbeit and disparitie and inequalitie bee very great, your Histories doe celebrate the friendships of great Princes, held with their particular subiects. And those which with other their equalls are called faithfull friends; with Kings, carry the name of Loyall-Subiects. Which (for that effect which wee pretend) importeth little this altering or changing of the name. That which most importeth and con­ueneth most, is, That we giue you some notice of those qua­lities [Page 397] which they ought to haue, and of those signes, where­by those may be knowne, that are fittest and best for so great a Ministery.

There are two qualities amongst the rest, which are pre­cisely necessarie in a Fauourite. And first I will set downe the first. First of all then he must loue his King truly, and must not suffer himselfe to be ouercome by couetousnesse, and his owne priuate interest. In the first particular, all doe agree with Aristotle and Plato. For no man can more faithfully giue counsell, then hee that loues his King more then his gifts. Which of all other is the most necessary to make one man trust another, and to beleeue that which hee saith. For who will not credit that man whom he knowes loues him, and in all that he can, seekes to procure his good, without any re­spect to his owne particular interest? He (saith Saint Gregory) that is fit to be a Fauourite, must haue a loue that is full, and dis-interessed.Gregor. [...]x re­gist. li. 1. Epist. cap. 33. Nullus fidelior tibi ad consulendum esse potest, quam qui non tua, sed te diligit: No man can be more faith­full in aduising thee, then he that loues not thine, but thee. This qualitie of Loue and friendship, Nazianzene likewise handleth.Part. 2. Tit. 9. L. 5. And a certaine Law of the Partida maketh men­tion thereof, saying, Que los, que han de aconseiar los Reyes, han de ser amigos bien entendidos, y [...]de buen seso: That those, that are to counsell Kings, must bee friends that haue beene throughly knowne and tried, and that are of good vnder­standing and iudgement. Salomon saith, That hee is a true Fauourite indeed, that studies to walke in cleannesse of heart, and purenesse of tongue; that is to say, when hee shall place all his care in seruing his King with Loue; and informing him nothing but what is truth, and desiring him to walke in that way, which shall make most for Gods seruice, and the good of the kingdome; Qualities sufficient for Fauourites to insinuate themselues into the grace and fauour of good Prin­ces. Saint Iohn, in the Apocalypse, sets before vs (though somewhat darkly shadowed) a picture of good Fauourites [Page 398] and Councellers. Which were certaine old men, clothed in white, wearing Crownes on their heads. To bee somewhat ancient, and well stricken in yeares, was a qualitie wont to be required in those that were to aduise Kings, and giue them good counsell, in regard of their great experience and mature iudgement, which commonly accompanies such kinde of men. And they are said to be clothed in white, because this colour signifies a pure heart, and a cleare conscience, where­with they ought to bee as it were apparrelled and adorned. How can he giue good counsell that is not clothed in white? That hath not Cor candidum, a white and vpright heart, pure and cleane from those affections and passions that may smu [...]t and sullye it? And it is there likewise set downe, that euery one of them had like a King, a Crowne vpon his head. To giue vs thereby to vnderstand, that hee that is to giue counsell vnto Kings, for the maintaining and vpholding of a kingdome, and to remedy what is therein amisse, may in some sort conceit himselfe to be a King; my meaning is, that he is to giue counsell, as if hee himselfe were the King, and to ad­uise for him, as he would for himselfe, were he in his place. And that hee is to giue his vote and opinion, as if the king­dome were his. And to be so free from expecting or respect­ing his owne particular interest, as if he were King himselfe. Who neither expecteth nor pretendeth any merced, or re­ward, nor any addition of honour, or otherwise in his king­dome, for that hee hath already attained to the highest and supremest dignitie, which is the Crowne. In like manner, Kings Fauourites, and Counsellours should liue as free from pretensions, as if (hauing already got the Crowne) they had nothing more to pretend. Whose breast and bosome must be as white and as pure as whitenesse it selfe And will be the better able to iudge betwixt white and blacke, right and wrong, by reason of their many yeares, and long expe­rience.

This kinde of seruants and friends, which must be the life [Page 399] and soule of their actions; let Kings bee very carefull how they make choice of them, and receiue them into fauour. For there is not any one thing, that doth so much manifest a Kings minde, as the election which he makes of his Fauou­rites and Councellours of State. For by them is his naturall inclination as well knowne, as in a workeman, by his manu­factures, is discouered the Art and Trade whereunto hee is most inclined. And therefore I shall make bold to aduise Kings, that they make such their Fauourites, that are men of worth, wise, prudent, dis-interessed, and of a noble and gene­rous disposition. For by their choice, men make iudgement of their King accordingly. And likewise when the Kings grace and fauour shall fall vpon good Subiects, his owne glory will be the greater. Let Kings (laying aside all affecti­on) choose such as are men of knowledge and experience, and that are powerfull in perswading, and disswading. That know how to go in and out, with good satisfaction, amidst those so many, so diuers, and such important businesses, as daily offer themselues; and to giue good, subtill, and graue answers, both by word of mouth, and by writing, to such Ambassadours, and other great persons, that shall come to treate and negociate with them. That haue seene and read much, and haue a generall knowledge in all things, but more particularly in the countries and Prouinces that are vnder their Kings command. That know what forces they are able to make, and to vnderstand the strength as well of their friends, as of their foes. Let them be of a franke and liberall minde. For this vertue the common people much loue and affect, and are wonderfully well satisfied therewith. And on the contrary, couetousnesse is much hated and abhorred by them. Let them (I say) bee bountifull, and desirous to doe good to all in common, and to euery one in particular. In a word, let them be men well knowne to be faithfull and trusty, and such as loue their Kings so well, as that they will preferre their authoritie and reputation before their owne, and studie [Page 400] and endeuour in all, and aboue all, what may make most for their good and aduantage. That they be wise, discreet, expe­rienced, patient, without passion, disinteressed, and more zealous of the publike good, then of their priuate profit. For if they shall regard their owne interest and proper commo­ditie, they are neither good for the seruice of their Kings, nor for the gouernment of the commonwealth. For, in going about to measure out their priuacie by the yard of their par­ticular profit, they will make merchandise of all; and their doing good to others, shall bee for the benefiting of them­selues. Nothing comming vnder their hands, whereof (that they may not be accounted bad Cookes) they will not licke their owne fingers. The clingenst and strongest affection, is that of couetousnesse; it is like the head [...]ch, which hinder­eth the free vse of mans faculties and senses, not suffering him to doe any thing that is good. And though it bee true, that there are other vices, of greater offence to God, and more hurtfull to a mans neighbour, yet this hath I know not what mischiefe in it, and more particularly in publike per­sons, which doth shew it selfe more openly then all the rest, and doth breede, and nourish other sinnes, as the roote doth the tree. Radix omnium malorum cupiditas; Quidam appetentes, 1. Tim. 6. errauerunt à fide: Couetousnesse of money, is the roote of all euill. Which while some lusted after, they erred from the faith, and tangled themselues with many sorrowes. Ex auaritia profecto (saith Saint Ambrose) septem nequitiae procreantur: Ambr. in Apo­log. cap. 4. scilicet, Proditio, fraus, fallacia, periurium, in­quietudo, violentia, & contra misericordiam, obduratio: There are seuen kinde of sinnes that proceed from couetousnesse▪ viz. Treason, Fraud, deceit, Periury, Inquietude, Violence, and (which shuts the doore to all pitie and compassion) Hardnesse of heart. Vpon this foundation of couetousnesse, is built whatsoeuer tyrannicall imagination; and many through it, haue, and doe daily loose the faith, and that loy­altie which is due vnto God, and their Kings. Auri cupi­ditas [Page 401] (saith the same Saint) materia est perfidiae; The loue of gold is the cause of the losse of faith. When this pulls a Fa­uourite, it easily drawes him aside, and carries him headlong to all these vices; for it is of more force then the Load-ston, and drawes him more after them, then that doth the iron; And is holpen on the more by the winde of vanitie and am­bition. The Philosopher Her [...]litus saith, That those that serue Vanity and Couetousnesse, suddenly depart from Truth and Iustice; and hold that onely for iust and most right, which is directed aright to their owne priuate interest. And this onely doe they make their aime, in all whatsoeuer they aduise their King; as was to be seene in that so often repeated case of King Assuerus, with his great Fauourite Amann▪ of whom hee demanded, what grace and fauour should bee showne to that Subiect, whom for his good seruices, hee de­sired to honour. Whereupon, the winde of vaine-glory wor­king in the head of him, and thinking this could be no man, but himselfe, shewed himselfe very magnificent and liberall in ordaining the honours and fauours, that were to be done vnto him. The vaine conceit of a couetous man, cuts out for himselfe large thongs out of another mans leather. And when hee growes a little warme in the King his Masters bosome (poore snake as hee was) with a false and feigned loue, hee goes hunting after his commoditie; and this failing, his loue also faileth. For his heart stretcheth it selfe no farther to loue, then what his hands c [...]n come to take hold on. Elpan comido, y la compania desecha (saith the Prouerbe) No longer Cake, n [...] longer company. Of such friends, as these, the Prophet Michah bids vs beware.Micah 7. 6. For no friend, that seeketh his owne gaine,Arist. lib. 8. Ethic. cap. 4. can euer (according vnto Aristotle) be faithfull and loyall to his King. Let Kings (I say) consider once againe, and haue an especiall care, that those Fauourites, whom hee maketh choice of for his friends, be out of his owne proper election, and approued by his owne minde, and by the opi­nion and fame of their vertue, and not intertaining them at [Page 402] any time by the sole intercession of others, especially such as are great and powerfull, nor let them suffer themselues to be carried away with the secret considerations of those familiar and particular persons which are about them, nor by the in­sinuating and soothing perswasions of your flatterers and Sycophants; Who, as they are men, worke vpon discourse, and corporall meanes, altogether framing them in order to their owne ends; Let them not giue beliefe and credit vnto them, but to the common fame and good report that goes of them; and thereon, let them place their eares and their vn­derstanding. For (as Tacitus saith) that is it which vsually makes the best choice. For it is not to bee doubted, but that concerning such a ones vertues or goodnesse, we ought ra­ther to giue credit to the generall report, then to the voices of one or two. For one, may easily bee deceiued, and deceiue others by his tricks, and his particular interest; but neuer yet could one deceiue all; nor is it possible, that all should in that their approbation, deceiue another. As for those other seruants, which are to attend and waight vpon the Kings person, more for dignitie of place, and for outward appa­rence and ostentation of greatnesse, then for vse and conue­niencie, which likewise in their kinde are very necessarie; let Kings a Gods name receiue them into their seruice, either vpon the intercession of others, or out of other particular re­spects. For in this, there is little hazard, and may easily chop and change them, if they proue not good and fit for their turne. But in the choice of the former a great deale of care must be taken, for the chopp [...]ng and changing of them is very dangerous, and vnlesse there be very great cause for the do­ing of it, it breeds an opinion of inconstancie; which as it cannot but be hurtfull vnto all, so is it of great dishonour vn­to Kings, much weakening their authoritie. But say there be iust cause of remouing them, why it is but as a Vomite; which howbeit it be true, that it remoueth the malignant hu­mour, and expells it from the stomacke, yet withall it carries [Page 403] the good likewise away with it, and makes an end of that Subiect it works vpon, if it be too often vsed. For our horses wee seeke bits and bridles, wherewith to make them to go well and handsomely, and if with those they do not raigne, and carry themselues according to our mind, we take others; and when we finde once that they are fitted as wee would haue them, we neuer chop nor change, but still vse the same. In like manner, it is not good to chop and change either Fa­uourites, or priuie Councellours too often, but to seeke out such as are fit for their turne, and to carry such a hand ouer them, as to bridle their insolencie, and to reyne them in hard, if they finde them head-strong. For being that they are those horses which guide the chariot of a Monarchie, if they bee not well bridled, of a gentle and tender mouth, and an easie reyne, they will play the iades, and breake both their owne neckes and their Masters. In a word, euery King hath, or at least representeth two persons, one publike, the other priuate. And therefore his actions ought likewise to be of two qua­lities. In those that are particular, let them proceed therein as they will themselues, according to their owne guste and pleasure; but in those that are publike, as shall make most for the publike good. Hauing still an eye to it's conseruation and augmentation; and to the common approbation of the peo­ple. And those qualities, which formerly wee required in Councellers of State, wee here likewise conclude, that all of them are necessary for Fauourites. And if Kings peraduen­ture (in regard of humane imperfection) cannot meete with men so perfect, let them bee as absolute, as they can possibly light vpon; at least, let them haue these two qualities, of loue, and an vnspotted life; And let not Kings content themselues that they haue them in a mediocritie, but in all perfection. For without these two, there are not any Statuas so [...]pro­fitable, as are such men, being not good enough to be slaues, or to serue in the basest and vilest offices about a house, much more vnworthy to be Fauourites, and priuie Councellours.

[Page 404] And because the heart of man, which God hath hid out of sight, to the end that he might reserue it to bee the seate and mansion of his loue, is hard to bee knowne, and the thoughts thereof very secret and hid; for that by one and the same instruments, it worketh and expresseth it's conceits, be they false, or be they true, it is necessary that by some meanes the truth or deceit of it's words may be knowne, for to dif­ference thereby the true loue from the false. Amongst other signes and coniectures whereof Kings may make vse, for to know the minde of those that are to hold so great and neare a place about their persons, and to treate and communicate with them as it were the secrets of their soules; let them con­sider and obserue very well, in what kinde of manner they do proceed, and haue proceeded with those with whom they haue formerly held friendship, and to whom they stand in­debted and obliged for curtesies already done; if they shall see they carry themselues well towards them, and performe all offices of true loue and friendship, then may they be indu­ced to beleeue, that shewing themselues louing and thankfull to others, they will be so towards them. And he that loueth not him, whom hee ought to loue, out of this or that other respect, will not loue his King, do he neuer so much for him. For this difference of more or lesse altereth not the substance nor condition. The true loue of Fauourites (they being such as they ought to be) consisteth (as we said already) in louing their King dis-interessedly, and to aduertile him of all that, which is fitting and conuenient for him, and that all, or the most desire, that in their workes and actions for their greater perfection, there should be credit and estimation; And last­ly, of all that which (according to the more common opini­on) requireth reformation and amendment (for onely the workes of the most high can be wholly inculpable) And of that which may in some sort withdraw his Subiects loue from him, and aduising him thereof, worke so with him for to gratifie them in this or that publike benefit, whereby to [Page 405] wedge the peoples loue the faster vnto their Prince and So­ueraigne. But false and feigned loue, that runnes a contrarie course; it alwayes hunts after it's owne commoditie, it com­mendeth all, whatsoeuer his Prince doth; he excuseth it in his presence, and qualifies it for good, iust, and conuenient. Which being no other but a tricke of Court-cunning, and though they may well march vnder the standard of vn­knowne enemies, yet are they esteemed and rewarded as friends. And notwithstanding all this, their Kings backe is no sooner turned, but they murmure at him, or set others a worke to doe it for them; Complaining, that in regard of the naturall ill disposition of Kings and great Princes eares (fa­cile enough to heare smooth flatteries, but too harsh and hard to hearken to the truth) they dare not for their liues tell it him, not aduenture to giue him the least distaste, though it concerne him neuer so neare, and that they plainly see, the not doing of it cannot but redound much to his hurt. And the true reason thereof is, for that the former, loue more the per­son of their Prince, then his fortune, and let him take it ill or well, all's one, they will treate truth, especially in those things that may concerne his safetie, or the good and quiet of his kingdome; and their good minde, true heart, and plaine-ho­nest meaning, make them bold to speake, without fearing to offend, in that their good aduice, which they shall giue him. But this second sort of Fauourites loue not his person, but his fortune; And these, for their owne proper interest, and that they may not hazard their hopes, dare not speake the truth, though they see the danger before their eyes: as per­sons that would easily alter their faith and loyaltie, and take part with him whose sword is strongest, and therefore care not though their King fall, so as they may stand. And of such, it may bee suspected that they desire a change, like those which in gaming liue by Baratos, who for their owne benefit would haue fortune turne from the one to the other, their good wishes no longer following their first man, as not [Page 406] hoping to haue any more from him, then what they haue already receiued; not caring to see them blowne vp, one after another, so as they may get by the bargaine. And most cer­taine it is, that those who so much loue themselues, and their owne proper interest, there is no trusting of them; for they haue no loue left either for their owne Lord and Master, or any body else. For such base soules, and vngenerate spirits, drowned and swallowed vp in those muddy materialls of In­terest, and Auarice, cannot loue any other thing with excel­lencie, and in a noble fashion. And therefore it importeth much, that Fauourites bee dis [...]roabed, and stript quite and cleane of all that, which goes vnder the name of proper or selfe-loue, priuate interest, vsefull friendship, faction or kin­dred; and that they should bee clothed with a wise and dis­creet kinde of goodnesse, which nor knowes, nor can, nor will fauour ought, but vertue, and Iustice, and that which is good and honest. It is likewise spoken by way of Prouerbe, Quien ama à su Rey, ama à su grey: He that loues his King, loues his flocke. And he that is in the place of a Fauourite, and so neare about his Kings person, ought to bee as a com­mon father to all his Subiects, treating them as if they were his children, and procuring that not any one of them may depart discontented from his presence, which would be the the onely Load-stone to draw all their loue and affection to­wards him. So did that great Fauourite of the King of Syria, Naaman, whom all the people with a full and open mouth, called Father, corresponding with him in the loue of so many sonnes, or children. For those that are seated in so high a place, haue great cause, for many reasons, to procure pub­like loue; and, together with the grace of their Prince, to haue the good wills and affections of the people; for this, makes the other to be more durable and firme. For this is the naturall miserie of great and powerfull persons, that Enuie and Greatnesse go alwayes hand in hand: the one still accom­panying the other. And there is not any poyson like vnto it, [Page 307] which moues and stirres vp such violent pangs and passions in the stomacke, and more especially if it worke vpon the priuacie and inwardnesse of Fauourites with their Kings, as if that it selfe were not a true and sufficient strong poyson. Seeing that it is held for certaine, that one word of a King, nay (which is more) one angry looke, or bended brow, hath sent many a Fauourite to his graue. For (as Salomon saith) the life of the Subiect depends on the countenance of the King. And if we will not beleeue him, let vs see and obserue how many Fauourites escape, which doe not dye of that wound, or the feare thereof; and more particularly with those Kings which are of that condition (as one said) that there is not two fingers breadth betweene their smile and their sword; to the end that this their priuacie might bee had in the lesse esteeme. For your best Fauourites are but like your better sort of fruits, which are soonest subiect to be worme­eaten. For Enuie is a very worme, and hath the same quali­ties as a worme hath; and spreads it selfe so farre, that it ex­tends it selfe euen to those that haue beene benefited by the Fauourite; the couetousnesse and risentment of that which they doe not receiue, working more vpon them then the Law of thankfulnesse, or of a gratefull acknowledgement for that, which they haue receiued. So that wee may say, That few are they who loue those from whose hand they haue re­ceiued some good, because it was no greater. And those that haue receiued none, that they are therein iniured, and wrong­ed. So, that to qualifie and temper this inconuenience, it shall be wisedome in Fauourites (and it will concerne them to vse all the meanes they can deuise to effect it) to procure to bee wellbeloued. And no lesse in Kings to seeke out such as are modest, louing, affable, vertuous, honest, well beloued, and of a gratefull and thankfull disposition.

How Kings ought to carry themselues towards their Fauourites.

FOr to resolue this Question, and to giue satisfaction to that which is here propo­sed in this Chapter, it being a matter of so tender and dangerous a touch: I will first lay for my foundation, a true point of doctrine in naturall Philosophie, cele­brated with that sentence of the glorious Saint Austen; Amor meus, pondus me­um, illo feror, quocunque feror: The plummet which peaseth man, and the wings wherewith the heart makes it's flight, is loue, which doth leade the dance to all the other passions of the soule. And as those that saile in a deepe sea, with full sailes, runne on their course without any danger; but when they draw neare the shore, they take them downe and ruffle them that they may not runne their ship vpon some shelfe, or split it selfe against some rocke; so likewise, when the heart is lift­ed vp vnto the loue of God, which is infinite goodnesse, it may without perill plough the seas of this world, and with full sayles cut the Maine, without danger of shelues, quick­sands, or rockes. For (according to that saying of the glori­ous Saint Bernard) as the cause of our louing God, is God himselfe: so, the measure of louing him, is to loue him with­out measure. Causa diligendi Deum, Deus est; modus dilectio­nis, sine modo diligere. As the cause of our loue is infinite; so must it be without taxe or limitation, wherein there can be no excesse. But when the heart drawes but little water, and touches too close vpon these things of the earth, which haue [Page 409] their goodnesse much limited, it will be high time, and very fit and conuenient, to strike the sayles of our loue, and to go on with a great deale of caution and consideration, lest this our vessell should sticke in the sands, neuer to bee gotten out againe, or fall vpon some rocke or other of vnaduisednesse and indiscretion. And this is so certaine a truth, that albeit the loue to our parents be so naturall, and obligatory, and so giuen vs in charge by God, with the promises of so many blessings on those children which shall cumply with this loue, and with so many threatnings on those that shall faile therein; yet notwithstanding God himselfe will, that therein there should be a limitation and moderation.Mat. 10. [...]7. Qui amat pa­trem, aut matrem, plus quam me, non est me dignus: He that loueth father or mother more then me, is not worthy of me. And the common old Adage saith, That friendship must go no further then vsque ad ar as, and stop there. And howbeit some would haue the limit, which is here put to loue, to be Death; I say, that it's limit, is Reason, and obedience to Gods Commandements. For when our Loue shall come to en­counter with them, it is to make a stand, and go no fur­ther.

Our second ground or foundation whereon we shall build, is this, That in Kings, next vnto the loue of God, and his Christian Religion, no loue ought to be like vnto that, which they ought to beare vnto their kingdomes and common­wealths; for the end, for which Kings were first instituted and ordained, was the common good of their kingdomes. And as children haue a naturall obligation to loue their pa­rents, because from them, they haue receiued their natu­rall being; so Kings owe the like to their kingdomes, and Commonwealths, because next vnder God, they gaue them their being of Kings, and that power and authoritie, whereby they were to protect, defend, and augment them. Vpon these grounds and foundations must that loue and friendship be laid, which is to be held with Fauourites. Lo­uing [Page 410] them, and giuing them power and authoritie, confor­mable to that, which for this end shall be thought most con­uenient.Senec. lib. 1. For albeit they (as Seneca saith) keepe the key of their Kings heart,Epist. 3. and in matters of secresie and benefits, are preferred before the rest; yet this must be done with a Chri­stian kinde of prudence and discretion. Hauing euermore an especiall care, that the force of his loue be not so violent, and so boundlesse, that to giue content to one sole Fauourite, hee discontent all the rest of his Subiects; and to shew himselfe faithfull and true vnto him, breake that faith and truth, which he owes vnto God, and his diuine Law. And that he proceed likewise therein with that freedome and libertie, that his Loue may not passe the bounds of reason, nor bee (like some ships that are runne on ground) so surely setled, that he cannot get off when hee will, and to turne that loue into ha­tred, and a full determination and resolution of punishment, when the faults of a Fauourite shall deserue his iust displea­sure Non habitabit in medio domus meae, Psal. 101. 7. qui facit superbiam, &c. Whoso hath a proud looke, and an high stomacke, I will not suffer him. Mine eyes looke vnto such, as be faithfull in the land, that they may dwell with mee. And whoso lea­deth a godly life, he shall be my seruant; but there shall no deceitfull person dwell in my house. And he that telleth lies shall not tarry in my sight. As likewise it is iust and meete, that on the contrary, hatred, punishment, and chastisement, should be turned into amitie, loue, and friendship, when the person hated, shall deserue well. And this is the meaning of that ancient Prouerbe, Ama, tanquam osurus & odio habe, tanquam amaturus. The drift and scope of all which is this; That when wee shall place our loue and affection vpon hu­mane things, it be done with aduisednesse, considering how subiect they are to change and alteration. So that, that which to day deserues our loue, may to morrow deserue our hate: And on the contrary, that which is disliked and abhorred, may merit our loue, and good esteeme. And we haue hereof a [Page 411] very good example in the foresaid King Assuerus, who so soone turned that loue which he bare vnto Haman, into that hatred, that hee caused him to be hanged vp; and Mardoche, that was condemned to the gallowes, he raised vnto honour, and put him into that place of priuacie and greatnesse, which proud Haman so lately enioyed. Nor can Fauourites haue cause to complaine, if it be granted vnto them, that their pri­uacie may reach so farre, that their Kings may loue them, as they do their owne royall persons. But it is a doctrine recei­ued by all the Philosophers, That the rule of that true friend­ship and loue, which one man beareth vnto another, is to be measured and considered by that which euery man beares vnto himselfe. And that which equalls it selfe in this, is very perfect loue.Aug. lib. [...]. Amicitiae lex prescribitur, vt non minus, nec plus quisquam, Soliloq. [...]a. 3. amicum suum, quàm seipsum diligat. The Law of friendship is, that a man should not loue his friend lesse, or more,Ephes. [...] then himselfe. Nem [...] (saith Saint Paul) animam suam odio habet, sed nutrit, & fouet eam: No man euer yet hated his owne flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth it. And yet notwithstanding this selfe-loue ought so to bee ordered by reason, that whensoeuer it shall desire any thing contrarie thereunto, it must sharply be denyed it. A criter reijciendus est (saith the learned Saint Chrisostome) In like manner, when Fauourites shall craue or desire any thing contrary to reason, or the publike good of the commonwealth, they must bee denyed, what they demand, and Kings vpon those occasions must shew themselues seuere and austere towards them. And this doctrine is so cleare and so plaine, that our Sauiour Christ left it for a patterne vnto Princes, in that answer of his which he gaue vnto his two kinsmen and Fauourites, Iohn and Iames, when hee told them; Nescitis, quid petatis; Po­test is bibere calicem? &c. Ye know not what ye aske. Can ye drinke of the cup, &c. Non est meum dare vobis, sed quibus paratum est à Patre meo. Mark. 20. 37. To sit on my right hand, and on my left hand, is not mine to giue, but it shall bee giuen vnto [Page 412] them, for whom it is prepared. And how beit the words in this answer haue so many sundry expositions, and diuers con­structions, as the Interpreters vpon this place doe render; yet haue I noted three things therein, worthy the considera­tion, and of much conueniencie for Kings. In the first place, I obserue the tartnesse and sharpnesse of the answer, together with the ill-aduised and indiscreete request of those two Fa­uourites, set downe in these three words: Nescitis quid petatis: Ye know not what ye aske. And when Fauourites shall not weigh and consider with themselues, what, and how they aske; Let Kings bethinke themselues, what, and how they giue. And let them not giue so much to one, as may giue oc­casion to all the rest to murmure, and complaine. And let them likewise take into their consideration, that the common condition of your Fauourites, is like vnto that of other par­ticular men, still to desire to better themselues in their estate and degree. And therefore it shall bee a great point of wise­dome, not to grant vnto them all that they shall aske; as here our Sauiour Christ aduiseth Kings. Wotting well, that though they grant them their request, yet are they not con­tented therewith, but rather take heart and courage vnto them to craue more and more, and with greater earnestnesse then they did before. For, Ambition and Couetousnesse are not satisfied, nor slackened with abundance, but are like vn­to those that are sicke of the Dropsie, who the more they drinke, the more they thirst. And besides this heaping of honour vpon honour, and gift vpon gift, hath a greater dan­ger with it, in regard of those persons that receiue them. For most certaine it is, that the appetite of man is Hydropicall, which the more he drinketh, the more he thirsteth; and the more he getteth, the more he desireth. And Princes may giue so much, that like Lucifer, they may come at last to couet and desire that, which their Kings possesse. What an hono­rable creature was he, and of what singular parts, yet did he rebell against his Creator, out of Enuie and Pride, and onely [Page 413] occasioned through those many graces and fauours which God had enriched him withall. And for that we are all of vs creatures, the like may be feared from vs; Being that we are not so incapable of this, as was that Angell of that which hee desired. And it is fit, that wee should leaue our selues some­thing to giue; for ordinarily we do all of vs desire (a qualitie wherewith mans appetite is well acquainted) and which hath caused the greatest and the foulest falls. For who is he, that would not (if he could) haue command, and be a King? And wee ought likewise to keepe something in our hands to be­stow, that we may not grow weary of seruing, being we can expect no further fauours, nor looke for any more rewards. For this also is very naturall, and a fashion of ancient stand­ing with most men, to waxe weary of standing at a stay, not contenting themselues to continue that grace, place, and re­wards, which they haue already acquired; but hold that for an affront, being now growne rich, which before they would haue taken for a great fauour, when they were poore. Thus doe we grow vnthankfull; and thus doe we grow forgetfull, being vainly carried away with the conceit of what we are. And we loose the sight of that low and meane estate, where­in we were, by being raised to that highth and eminencie, wherein wee see our selues to bee seated. A naturall fault in mans eye-sight, which knowes not how to looke downe­ward; and as vnwilling to looke backward, but as much for­ward as you will. But these forward birds, doe well deserue to haue the waxe, wherewith their wings are fastened, to be melted by that very Sunne, that gaue them their first warmth and light, and by their fall to be left an example to the world, to terrifie others. And in case, for some especiall respect, Kings shall resolue with themselues, that all the beames of their greatnesse shall illighten and giue life to one particular person, let the foundation of their fauours bee layed vpon those qualities, desarts, and seruices, which ought to con­curre on those persons on whom they purpose thus to parti­cularize.

[Page 414] Kings likewise are to consider the Petitions of those that sue vnto them; which is my second obseruation, and taught by Christ himselfe:Mark. 10. 38. Potestis bibere calicem, quem ego bibiturus s [...]m? Can ye drinke of the cup that I drinke of? Iudging by himselfe, in this demand which hee makes to these his Fauourites, who so rashly and vnaduisedly came vnto him to petition him for the two principall places, that for to possesse them, they should haue all sufficient and requisite necessaries; vpon which point Christ examines them; and the like exa­mination ought Kings to make of those qualities, specified by vs, touching both Pretenders and Fauourites.

The third thing which I recommend to your considera­tion, and which Christ teacheth Kings, is, the great caution and warinesse which they are to vse, in not being too facile, in granting all that their Fauourites shall require of them. Which is to bee gathered out of the last words of this his answer: Non est meum dare vobis: It is not mine to giue. Which, to my seeming, soundeth thus; It will not stand with my truth and iustice, to giue for kindreds-sake, or other humane respects, that which my eternall Father hath pre­pared for those which deserue best. Kings ought to bee very circumspect in promising, and not ouer easie in granting; for, if he shall be facile in granting what others shall desire, hee may haue cause to repent himselfe; and if he promiseth, hee looseth his liberty. A great gentleman of qualitie, whom King Philip the second much fauoured for his worthy parts, and great abilities, talking one day with him, and walking a good while with his Maiestie, after that hee had discoursed with him of diuers things, to the Kings so great good con­tent and liking, that hee thought with himselfe, that there was now a faire occasion offered vnto him, to propound vn­to him (as he did) a businesse of his owne. He told a friend of his, anon after that hee came from him, that in that very in­stant he proposed it, he cast such a strange and austere looke towards him, as if hee had neuer seene him before. Which [Page 415] was no want of affection in the King towards him, for hee had had many sufficient testimonies thereof; but because it was fitting for so wise and prudent a King to haue that cir­cumspection, lest this his affection might minister occasion vnto him to call his discretion in question, in granting, or not granting that which either is not, or at least shall seeme vnto him, not to be conuenient for him. For Kings must haue re­course to these two things; To haue a good and safe consci­ence with God, and intire [...]horitie, and good opinion with men. For with none doth that holy and prudent counsell of Saint Paul suite more properly,2. Cor. [...]. 11. then with them; Prouidemus bona, non solum coram Deo, sed etiam coram hominibus: Pro­uiding for honest things, not onely in the sight of the Lord, but in the sight of men. Which cannot be, when as Fauou­rites either doe all what they list of themselues, or get their Kings to doe it for them. When the Sensitiue appetite ef­fecteth whatsoeuer it affecteth, the vnderstanding (which is the soules king) remaines oppressed and disgraced, and with that soule note, which the kingly Prophet Dauid giues it; Homo, Psal. 49. 12. cum in honore esset, non intellexit, comparatus est iu­mentis insipientibus & similis factus est illis: Man being in honour hath no vnderstanding, he is like the beasts that pe­rish. And ther