[Page] THE FAMOVS AND MEMORABLE WORKES OF IOSEPHVS, A MAN OF MVCH HONOVR AND LEARNING AMONG THE IEWES. Faithfully translated out of the Latin, and French, by Tho. Lodge Doctor in Physicke. Bernardus Epistola ad Suggerium.

Tune recentia incundius bona clarescunt, cum fuerint malis comparata prioribus.

Printed at the charges of G. Bishop, S. Waterson, P. Short, and Tho. Adams, 1602.

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE FATHER OF ARTS AND ARMES CHARLES LORD HOVV [...]RD, BARON OF EFFINGHAM, EARLE of Nottingham, High Constable of the Castle and Forrest of Windsore, Lord chiefe Iustice in Eyre of England, Gouernour and Captaine generall of all her Maiesties maritime Forts and Castles, High Admirall of Eng­land and Ireland, Lieutenant of Sussex and Surrey, Knight of the most noble order of the Garter, and one of her Maie­sties most honourable priuie councell.

RIght Honourable, there is a saying in Zenophon most worthie the citing and insight, that matters of worth and con­sequence are both to be committed and commended to their trust and protection, who know the waight and value thereof, and both can and will defend the same by authoritie and reason: For this cause and vpon this ground, I haue chosen your Honour out for a most noble patron of this most famous and accom­plished Historie of the Iewes, which (for dignitie and antiquitie of the subiect, the elegancie and puritie of the stile, the choice proprietie and copie of words, the grauitie and varietie of sentences, the altera­tions and memorable euents; and lastly for the birth and dignitie of the Author) requireth a spirit of no lesse wisedome, courage, and no­bilitie then your selfe, who haue power to defend, and knowledge to dis­cerne the worth thereof. Uouchsafe therefore to leuell the eie of your esteeme vpon the Center of this happy Historie: and as Themistocles was animated to noble actions by beholding Miltiades Trophies, and Alexander in seeing Achilles tombe, did grieuously sigh with an ho­nourable emulation: so let the zeale, magnanimitie, and admirable con­stancie which euerie where affronteth you in this booke (and rauisheth the best mindes from the boundlesse troubles of this world, and draw­eth them into the contemplation of true perfection) so settle your honou­rable loue and affection to emulate the same, that as for glorie in armes; [Page] so for preseruing and protecting artes, you may outstrip your competi­tors, and amaisse to curious expectation. And in mine opinion the time challengeth no lesse at your hands: for as your transcendent dignitie and courage hath returned vs a happy haruest in our expected and long pos­sessed peace, as by your second care and diligence next vnder her sacred Maiestie we all reape the fruit and felicitie of blessea abundance; so by your example in reading and respecting both learning and the learned, you shall pull downe that Babel, which confused ignorance hath raised to ouerreach industrie; yea you shall strengthen the weakned abilitie of learning which (alas the while) is now adaies like acommoditie with­out request scarce saileable by the hands of a cunning broker, nothing is more worth money, and lesse in request: onely the worlds blinde crea­tures (as S. Ierom tearmeth them) the vnlettered take delight in their errors, whose writings (as Plutarch speaketh of Aristophanes poems) are written for no moderate mans pleasure. Let therefore your vpright estimation of this worke (most noble Earle) awaken the dead deuotion of such as contemne Artes, and let no such corrupt drones (as make sale of sinfull thoughts for good merchandise) buz about the hiue of true science: But as Emperors, Kings, and Princes haue euer in their Greeke, Italian, and French with a respectiue acceptance, and bountifull hand entertained this Historie; so let this translation of Io­sephus which courteth you now in English, be accepted at your hands, and countenanced by your honour, for whose vnconfined felicitie both I and other of my name haue euer praied, and will neuer cease to study.

Your Honors vnfainedly deuoted, THOMAS LODGE.

TO THE COVRTEOVS READER As touching the vse and abuse of Historie.

IF Historie were as easily conceited and made vse of, as (according to Baldus) it hath true proportion and documents for the gouernment of mans life, I should hold it no sinne so precisely to prescribe a li­mitation and bound, to such as should enter the List, and consult with example. For what more pleasing to our selues; or profitable for societies could euer befall vs, then in this theatre of mans life, (where­in Historie affordeth all sorts of actors) to sit and learne preuention by other mens perils, and to grow amplie wise by forraine wreckes; al which being traduced to our priuate vses; we may either as partners in what we haue past, or obseruers of future casualties; by presedent euents, tie ages to our memories: and preuent our escapes, by suruew of other mens re­pentance, briefly beget experience by sight, or foresight of worldly casualties, and forme a mirror of forepassed errors, to foreiudge our future calamities. But for that it behoueth vs to enter this worldly Academie, the more prepared, the more that Historie is fraught and fulfilled with plentiful fruite, and whereas the difficultie and difference is a like, to yeeld an vpright verdict both of a mans owne, and other mens life, neither may any man rightly examine another (how wise so euer he be) except in equall ballance he weigh his own imperfections; it must necessarily follow on both sides, that with the more wisedome, and the greater obseruation wee ought to entertaine Historie, least our mind like the wind should wander vncertainely, and our deuotion should preuent our reso­lution; our esteeme our knowledge. For as in an ample and well furnished and affluent banquet, although some things, (and they to few men) seeme plea­sant, othersome to other are without taste and seeme tart, and euerie one iudg­eth his meate not by proofe, but by the pallate; yet notwithstanding there is a certaine mean, which either natures ordinarie, or the defined kind of nutriment (being simple and incorrupt) hath fashioned and fixed for most aptest for the body; from which whosoeuer varieth, or either beyond measure, or without iudgment, followeth his foolish appetite, and glutting himselfe beyond discre­tion, reapeth more in commoditie then pleasure by these pleasures: So in the diuersitie of mans life, although a thousand formes, a thousand similitudes bee offered, and that euerie man fashioneth other mens manners to his mind, yet is their but one true path that vertue walketh in, which whosoeuer tracketh with [Page] iudgement, doth truly know the vse of life; whereas they that sit in a plentifull banquet, in affecting all things, can make vse of nothing. Now how many are there, I pray you, that in respect either of their owne, or other mens acts & words (according to the rule of vertue) can be more choise in iudging minds, as meats, and that in this matter seemeth not sufficiently instructed? wherein I wonder that men espie not their errors, whereas they imagine that Historie is the instructor of such as read the same, whereas it onely yeeldeth matter of in­struction, euen as the banquet ministreth meat according to euerie mans affec­tion. Some therefore are seduced with the sweetnes of the stile, and in seeking their pleasure, lose their profit; who reape no other fruit of Historie, then to be­guile time, and beget officious idlenes, laughing away houres, and nourish re­pent: others in reading glorie, hunt it in a shadow, where if they could make vse of it in proportion, they could not fall to repent it. And whereas no man can aspire to true glorie without true vertue, neither no wise man will hope further, yet see we many men, that because they haue read many excellent works, will be Capricious and pretend wisedome; resembling those tra­gedians, who will after they haue discharged themselues of their parts, and apparrell wherein they counterfaited the Emperour, yet retaine his royall and princely manners: Some triuiall and light witted, that make an Eclipse of a shadow, make more of the embleme, then the worke; the habit then the Doctor: So admirable effects worketh history in mens mind. Now whereas it is the most exact and chiefest intent of historie to awaken mans idlenes, and arme them a­gainst casualties, and the whole bent of example hath no other issue, it falleth out thorow mens securitie (who suppose that their neighbours perils concer­neth them not) that whatsoeuer is of note, is ouerslipt with a deafe and slee­ping iudgement, and things that memorie should best loue, are lost in her. To conclude, there are some that will haue euerie mans shooe fitted on their owne last, & tie all mens pens to their own pleasures: For which cause partly by reason of this secret, partly thorow this ill ordered, confused, and rash method of rea­ding, as of corrupt humours, so is there growen a certaine [...] of iudgement and resolution: and as in intemperate bodies, meat yeeldeth verie little profit; so reape they no fruit or benefit by their reading. By this good reader thou maist easily conceiue, how a historie ought to be read: how mens liues ought in them selues be examined: finally how equal a proportiō is required in both. And tru­ly in my opinion the chiefest ground of this difficultie, is the peruersnes of our iudgements, which is the cause we the rather respect our own inclinations what they are, then the true life and force of example. Furthermore this is no lesse mi­serie then the former, that such as write set downe such things as are acted, not onely for their profit sake, but to feed their owne humours: and like to cer­taine Architects (by interposing their iudgements) doe vainely praise some things, supposing that our imitation should betied to their pleasure; where if they performed what they ought to do, the reader should incounter with no such di­stractions: but now in like manner as Cookes who rather expect their masters pleasurable taste, then his profit; would God the Historiographer did not affect flatterie. It therefore appeareth that in two sorts (first in our owne iudgement; and next to the preiudice of those that write) we are circumuented; in that [Page] they set not downe such euents as passe, in their owne nature and as they are. For he that writeth an Historie is the interpretor of those things that are past, whose iudgement being depraued, it fareth with him as with the purest & most richest wine, which waxeth mustie by reason of that vessel wherein it is inclosed, or is by sophistication corrupted, which is the greatest folly, & most intolerable deceit that may befal men. They therfore, who negligētly vndertake a historiy, (or suppose that life were to be past rashly, and without an exact obseruance of all offices) are no lesse deceiued then certaine countrey pesants in the last troubles of France (of whose folly I drewe some example) who attempting and entring vpon a citie not farre off from them, & lighting into an Apotheca­ries shop furnished with all kind of drugs and dainties, and being allured by the pleasure, odors and delight of the confections they tasted; and supposing all to be of the same kind, deuoured, tasted, and swallowed downe euery thing: whereupon some fell sicke of feauers, some grew phrensie, and manie lost their liues to please their appetites, at leastwise he that scaped best, gaue occasion of laughter to the lookers on. For as life, so Historie (the image of life) is fraught with pleasure, and displeasure; and onely in the vse of life, the wisedome of life consisteth. Fare well, vse this, and my selfe as two twinnes borne for thy profit.

Thine Thomas Lodge.

THE TITLES OF ALL SVCH BOOKES AS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS HISTORIE

  • 1. A Historie in twentie bookes, wherein the Antiquitie of the Iewes is discouered.
  • 2. Seuen bookes of the Warres of the Iewes.
  • 3. Two bookes against Apion the Gramarian, in Iustification of the Antiquitie of the Iewes.
  • 4. A booke as touching the memorable martyrdome of the Machabees.
  • 5. Iosephus Life. Written by himselfe all.

A briefe computation of time, verie profitable and necessarie in the vnderstanding of this Historie.

  • FRom-Adam vntill the Deluge, there were—1656
  • From the Deluge vntill Abrahams time—292
  • From Abraham vntill the departure out of Aegypt—500
  • From the departure out of Aegypt, vntill the building of the temple by Salomon—480
  • From the building of the temple, vntill the captiuitie in Babylon—410
  • From the returne from the captiuitie, vntill the Machabees time—432
  • From the Machabees time, vntill Herods—134
  • From Herods time, vntill the finall and fatall destruction of Ierusalem—103

The Iewes haue two sorts of yeeres: the Politique sort which beginneth in September, and the Sacred or Ecclesiastique which beginneth in March.

They haue twelue Moneths or Moones, euerie third yeere hath a thirteenth Moneth of 22. daies, and the fourth yeere hath a thirteenth moneth of 23. daies.

Before the captiuitie of Babylon, they accounted the moneths successiuely by 1. 2. 3. &c. since their returne they haue named them rather after the maner of the Chaldees then Hebrewes.

The Hebrew.The English.The Greeke.
NisanMarchAndimen
Ziu or IarAprillLeritien
SluanMayDistre
TamazIuneXantique
AbIulyArthemisien
E [...]ulAugustDesien
Ethanin or TisrijSeptemberPaneme
Bul or MarkesuanOctoberLoïe
CasleuNouemberGorpian
ThebetDecemberHiperberet [...]
SebathIanuarieDien
Adar.Februarie.Apelleen.
This nation in their beginning, was gouerned by Iudges.
  • Moyses
  • Iosuah
  • Othoniel
  • Aod
  • Baruc and Debora
  • Gedeon
  • Abimelech
  • Thola
  • Iair
  • Ieptha
  • Absan
  • Elon
  • Abdon
  • Sampson
  • Eli
  • Samuel.
After them, they had these King [...].
  • Saul
  • Dauid
  • Salomon
  • Roboam
  • Abia
  • Asa
  • Iosaphat
  • Ioram
  • Ochozias
  • Athalia
  • Ioas
  • Amasias
  • Ozias
  • Ioathan
  • Achaz
  • Ezechias
  • Manasses
  • Amon
  • Iosias
  • Ioachas
  • Eliachim
  • Ioachin
  • Sedechias.
The Captiuitie of Babylon continued 70. yeeres. Gouernors after the Captiuitie.
  • Zorobabel
  • Rhesa
  • Iehan Ben Resa
  • Iudas Hyrcanus
  • Ioseph
  • Abner
  • Heli
  • Mahat
  • Nagge
  • Haga [...]eli
  • Naum
  • Amos
  • Mat [...]hathias
  • Ioseph Arses
  • Iannes Hyrcan [...]
  • Mattathias.
The Machabees, who haue been [...]oth Gouernor [...] and Priests.
  • Iudas
  • Ionatha [...]
  • Simon
  • Iohn Hyrcanus.
These following haue been both Kings and Priests.
  • [Page]Aristobulus 1.
  • Iohn Alexander
  • Alexandra
  • Aristobulus 2.
  • Hyrcanus.
  • Aristobul [...] the son of Arist.
  • Aristobulus 3.
  • Hyrca [...]us.
The race of Herod.
  • Antipater
  • Herod the great
  • Archelaus the great
  • Agrippa the son of Agrippa
The names of such as were high Priests, from the time of their departure out of Egypt, vntill the building of the temple which was made by Salomon.
  • Aaron
  • Eleaz [...]
  • Phinees
  • Abi [...]a
  • Busqui
  • Oses
  • Heli
  • Achitob
  • Achimelech
  • Ab a [...] ha [...]
  • Sadoc
  • Achimaas
  • Azarias.
From the building of the temple, vntill the Captiu [...]tie of Babylon.
  • Iora [...]
  • Ioses
  • Axioram
  • Sudeas
  • Ioathan
  • Urias
  • Nerias
  • Odeas
  • Sellum
  • Helcias.
From their returne out of Babylon, vntill the Machabees time.
  • Sar [...]ia
  • Iosedech
  • Ios [...]
  • Ioacim
  • Eliasib
  • Eleazar
  • Manasses
  • Onias 2.
  • Simon 2.
  • Onias 3.
  • Ioiada
  • Ionatha [...]
  • Iadus
  • Onias 1.
  • Simon 1.
  • Iason
  • Onias 4.
  • Lysimachus
  • Alcimus.
High Priests since the Machabees time, vntill the last destruction and ouerthrow of that Citie and nation.
  • Simon B [...]thus
  • Ioseph 1.
  • Ioseph 2.
  • Ioazar
  • Eleazar
  • Iosuah the son of Sias
  • Ioazar
  • A [...]us
  • [...]
  • Theoph [...]
  • S [...]
  • Mattathias
  • Elion
  • Ioseph 3.
  • Ananias
  • Ismael
  • Ioseph
  • Annas
  • Eleazar
  • Simon
  • Ioseph Caiphas
  • Ionathan
  • Iosuah the son of Da [...]eus
  • Iosuah the son of G [...]liel
  • Matthias
  • Phinees or Pa [...]s.
King [...] of Israel, otherwise called kings of the ten tribes or of Samaria.
  • Ieroboam 1.
  • Nadab
  • Baasa
  • Ela
  • Zamri
  • Amri
  • Achab
  • Ioram
  • Iehu
  • Ioacha [...].
  • Ioas
  • Ieroboam 2.
  • Zacharie
  • Manahem
  • Pecha the son of Manahem
  • Pecha the son of Romelia
  • Oseas
Kings of Assyria and Babylon.
  • Phulhelechus
  • Phulassar
  • Salmanassar
  • Sennacherib
  • Assaradon
  • Berodach Benmerodach
  • Nabuchodonosor 1.
  • Nabuchodonosor the great
  • Euilmerodach
  • Neriglossorar
  • Labosardach
  • Baltassar.
Kings of Persia.
  • Cyrus
  • Cambyses
  • Smerdes Magus.
  • Darius the son of Hystaspis
  • Zerxes the son of Darius
  • Artabanus the tyrant
  • Artaxerxes wt a long hand
  • Zerxes
  • Sogdianus
  • Darius the bastard
  • Artaxerxes Mnemo [...]
  • Artaxerxes Ochus
  • Arsames
  • Darius the son of Arsames
Kings of Syria after the death of Alexander the great.
  • Seleucus Nicanor
  • Antiochus Soter
  • Antiochus surnamed God
  • Seleucus Callinicus
  • Seleucus Cerau [...]s
  • Antiochus the great
  • Seleucus Philopator.
  • Antiochus Epiphanes
  • Antiochus Eupator
  • Demetrius Soter
  • Alexander Epiphanes
  • Demetrius Nic [...]nor
  • Antiochus Sedetes
  • Demetrius Nicanor
  • Alexander Zebina
  • Antiochus Gryphus
  • Antiochus Cyzicen [...]
  • Seleucus Gryphius
  • Antiochus Pius.
The kings of Egypt after the death of Alexander the great.
  • Ptolomey Soter
  • Philadelphus
  • Euergetes
  • Philopator
  • Epiphanes
  • Philometor
  • Euergetes Phiscon.
  • Lathyrus
  • Alexander
  • Auletes
  • Cleopatra.
Kings of the Tyrians.
  • Abibalus
  • Hiram
  • Belastartus
  • Abdastartus
  • Astartus
  • Astarimus
  • Phelletes
  • Ithoballus
  • Badezor
  • Mett [...]
  • Pigm [...]lion.

For the better vnderstanding of the Coines and measures, whereof there is some mention made in this Historie; obserue I pray you that which followeth.

Sath was a measure containing about some seuen pintes French.

The Epha contained three Saths.

The Core or Homer contained ten Ephas, that is to say thirtie Saths, and was the same measure both in drie and liquid things.

The Log contained a French pinte in measure.

The Hin contained twelue Logs.

The Bath contained as much as the Epha.

The Cad was a kinde of pitcher containing such a quantitie as a young maiden might well carrie.

The common Sicle contained the waight of foure ounces, whether it were of gold, siluer, or of any other mettall.

The sacred or holy Sicle waied halfe an ounce of any mettall whatsoeuer.

The common Sicle of siluer was valued at about some shilling of our money.

The holy Si [...]e of siluer was valued at about some two sh [...]llings.

The common Drachme was the eight part of an ounce.

The sacred Diachme was the fou [...]th part of an ounce.

The Pound waied twelue ounces.

The ordinarie Tale [...] contained fiftie foure pounds, eight ounces, and a quarter of Troy waight in any mettall: yet was it not currant money, but a masse made vp after the manner of an ingot.

The sacred Talent contained one hundreth pounds.

Furthermore note this for your better knowledge, that when as Iosephus quoteth the Olympiades without any specification of the yeeres therein contained, he orderly comprehendeth the space of foure yeers compleat.

Furthermore, where the Latin word Stadium hath diuers Significations amongst both Greekes and Latins (as the [...] betweene P [...]ie and Diodorus Siculus may well testifie) and for that diuers of our En­glish translators haue somenmes called it a Stade, other whi [...]e a Stound, and otherwhiles improperly, a Fu [...] ­long; I pray you in reading this Historie wheras any of these words occurre, suppose them for one and the same measure of ground, and according to the Greekes account (which I suppose Iosephus most respected in this Historie) conclude it to be either of 600. foote as the Olympique, that is of 120. paces, or as the Pyr­ [...]hique, which contained 1000. foote, that is 200. paces. As for the furlong, either multiply him 8. times to make him a Stade, or as an ouersight in the printing, let it passe with the Errata.

The names of those Authors which are alleadged in this Historie.

A
  • Acusilaus
  • Agatharcid [...]s
  • Alexander
  • Andrew
  • Apio [...]
  • Apollonius Molo
  • Apollodorus
  • Ariphanes
  • Aristaeus
  • Aristotle.
B
  • Berosus.
C
  • Cadmus
  • Castor
  • Chaeremon
  • Chaerilus
  • Clearcus
  • Conon.
D
  • Demetrius Phalereus
  • Dius.
E
  • Ephorus
  • Euhemerus
  • Eupolen [...]us.
H
  • Hecataeus
  • Hellanicus
  • Hermippus
  • Hermogenes
  • Herodotus
  • Hesiodus
  • Hestiaeus.
  • Hier [...]m of Egypt
  • Homer
  • Hy [...]rochides.
I
  • Isidor [...].
L
  • Titus Liuius
  • Lysimachus.
M
  • Manethon
  • Menander
  • Mnaseas
  • Mochus.
N
  • Nicholas of Damas.
P
  • Pherecydes
  • Philon
  • Philostratu [...]
  • Polybi [...]
  • Polycratet
  • Posidonius
  • Pythagoras.
S
  • Strabo.
T
  • Thales
  • Theodotus
  • Theophilus
  • Theopompus.
  • Theophrastus
  • Thucydides
  • Timaeus.
Z
  • Zopyrion.
[Page] Francis. Patritius de Regno, lib. 2. cap. 10. Historiarum cognitio Regibus, Ducibus, Imperatoribus et omni­bus principibus perquam necessaria habenda est: quam Cicero appellat testem temporum, vitae Magistram, veram memoriae et veritatis nun­ciam.

GEntle reader, let it stand with thy patience I beseech thee, to correct those errors that shall occurre in this historie, as fauourablie as wee haue ouer­slipt them vnwillinglie; and count it no lesse virtue in thee to wincke at them with discretion, as for mee to let them passe thorowe ouer-sight: if thou doe this, hope better: for thy sufferance shall make me circumspect, if not according to that in Plautus: Quod dedi non datum vellem; quod reliquum est non dabo.

Errata.

Fol. 4. line 3. for who, read which. f. 21. l. 14. for s [...]aightes read straightes. Ibidem l. 50. for Sara read Rebecca. f. 37. l. 42. for thou read you. f. co [...]. l. 45. for thou read you. f. 134. l. 51. for deliuer them from those, read deliuer those f. 261. l. 40. for Babylon read Ierusalem. f. 274. l. 39. for be began read beg [...]n. f. 279.l. 38. for compassion read composition. f. 299. l.57. read for ould ould yeares, ould yeares. f. 361. l. 36. read for I [...]dea, Iudaea. f. [...]80. l. 40. for 15 read 50. f. 63 [...]. l. 1. for aide read warre.

THE FIRST BOOKE A B OF THE MOST AVNCIENT HIS­TORIE OF THE IEWES:
A most excellent Preface, containing the causes which indu­ced the Author to write this Historie, together with the contents and intents of the same. C

CHAP. I.

THEY that indeuour themselues to write Histories, seeme not (in my opinion) to haue one and the same intent and motiue, but diuers and verie different causes of their la­bours: for some of them are addicted to this studie, vnder pretence to exemplifie their eloquence, and vnder hope to purchase glorie thereby; other some to the end to giue them content, whose worthy actions they couch and com­mend D in their writings, haue intermitted no time nor (to their power) spared no labour. Some there are that hauing beene present in person, and eie witnesses in the execution of great affaires, haue necessarily beene inforced to reduce and digest the same in writing: neither wanted there some, who seeing occurrences of high and necessarie conse­quence (which otherwise had beene buried in ignorance) haue beene incited (in respect of com­mon good) to imploy both hand and head, in the publishing thereof: now of these forenamed causes; the two last are they that incited me to the like. For the warre which we had with the Ro­maines, and the accidents and issues on both parts, (all which in person I beheld, and to my pe­rill E I haue learned) do compell me to declare the same, and the rather for that there are some, who in their writings, haue depraued and peruerted the truth. I haue therefore taken this worke in hand, for that in my opinion the knowledge thereof, will be both pleasing and profitable to the Graecians: for it shal containe the antiquitie of our whole nation, their forme of common-weale, both translated and gathered out of the Antiquities and Chronicles of the Hebrewes. Truth tis, that heretofore, and at such time also as I composed the Historie of the foresaid warre, I had pr [...]e­cted and purposed with my selfe, to lay open to the world, how and whence the Iewes had their first originall, what alterations in fortune they had falne into, by what law-maker they had beene instructed in pietie, and incited to the exercise of vertue: how many warres they haue sustained by long and diuers times, and finally how against their will they haue beene intangled in this last F warre, which they waged against the Romaines. But for that the content of this matter, was too ample and copious, I haue separated it apart, assigning thereunto this treatise accomplished from the beginning euen vnto the end: afterwards in processe of time (as it vsually hapneth to those that attempt matters of mightie consequence) I was surprized with a certaine delay, and slothful­nesse that withdrew me from the translation of so waightie a matter, in an vnfamiliar and forraine language. Yet some there were, who inflamed with a desire of knowledge, animated me in this [Page 2] action; and especially Epaphroditus, a man enamoured of all learning, and who in especial, tooke G it for a pleasure, to take knowledge of the diuers occurrences of common-weales: as he that had beene agent, in diuers affaires of importance, and sundrie accidents; in all which he hath shewed, a marua [...]lous magnanimitie of courage, with an vnmoueable resolution to follow vertue. Being thus perswaded by him, who is accustomed to incourage those vnto good actions, whome hee perceiueth to be apte and prepared to performe things profitable and honest: and (that which is more) being ashamed in my selfe, that I should rather take delight to follow idlenesse, than ad­dict my selfe to any laudable exercise; I inforced my se [...]fe more couragiously then before time; and (besides all that which hath beene spoken) I haue effectually considered with my selfe, that our auncestors haue thought good to communicate and publish the knowledge of our Histories to the Grecians, if so be that any of them were curious to vnderstand the same: I haue found ther­fore H that Ptolomey king of Egypt the second of the name, (highly affectioned to good letters, and desirous to store and gather bookes) was earnestly desirous, that our lawe and the rules thereof, and the prescript forme of ou [...] liuing should be translated into the Greeke tongue. And as touching the hie Priest Eleazar (who hath not been second in vertue to any other what­soeuer) he refused not to make the said King partaker of the effect of his desire: to which he had wholy contradicted, had it not beene the ordinarie course of our auncestors, not to conceale from other men, what thing soeuer was honest. For which cause I haue helde it a matter no waies vndecent for me, to follow the vertuous courage of that same great sacrificer, and the rather for that at this day (onely in as much as concerned learning) I supposed many also to be no lesse affected to good letters then the king: for he vndertooke not to haue all the writings I which we had, but those translators who were sent vnto him to Alexandria, did onely com­municate that vnto him which was in our lawe. But those things that are found written in the sacred bookes of holy Scripture are infinite, being such as containe in them, the Historie of fiue thousand yeares, in which diuers vnexpected chances, sundry fortunes of warre, and many changes of politike estates are discouered. In some, if any one haue a desire to reade this Histo­rie, he shall principally learne and apprehend, that all things fall out happily, and beyond their expectation to those men, who obserue the will of God; and are affraid to transgresse the lawes of his commandements; and that God hath prepared for such the crowne and reward of felicitie. Contrariwise, if they shall depart from the diligent obseruance thereof, that which is easie, shall be made impossible, and their indeuours in their opinion good, shall end in incu­rable K calamities. For which cause I exhort all those that shall reade these bookes, to fix their mind vpon God, and that they approue our law-maker, if (as it worthely deserued) he hath considered the diuine nature; and attributed to the same such actions as are alwaies agreeable to his power, and hath kept and continued his narration, free from the vanitie of fables, wher­with others are poisoned: although in respect of the length of time, and the antiquity of things, he might without controule faine and imagine whatsoeuer vanities: for hee was borne more then two thousand yeeres ago, which is a continuance of ages, to which the Poets neither durst referre the original of their Gods; neither the deedes or lawes of men, whereof they make men­tion. But in pursuit of our Historie, the sequell of our discourse, shall declare all things exactly, and in conuenient order. For in compiling this worke, I haue promised to adde nothing, nei­ther L to pretermit any thing: and for that all whatsoeuer we shall declare, doth almost wholy de­pend, on the wisedome of our law-maker Moses; It is necessarie before all other things, that I speake somewhat of himselfe, least perhaps any man should wonder how this labour hauing been enterprised, to discouer the words and workes of certaine persons, is also employed for the greatest part in describing and discouering things that are naturall. We ought therefore to know, that Moses thought it most especially necessarie, either for him that will rightly dispose his life, or impose lawes to other men, that first and in especiall he haue the knowledge of the nature of God; to the ende that conceiuing in his mind the greatnes of his workes; he might as much as in him lieth, imitate his most vnequall example; and follow him with all diligence. For it is impossible, that a law-maker being voide of this contemplation, should M haue good sence; or that his writings should be of any moment to induce them vnto vertue, who should receaue those lawes, except before all things they should learne, that God who is the Father and Lord of all, and that seeth all, giueth happie life vnto those that follow him; and contrariwise inuironeth them with great calamities, who forsake the way of vertue and righte­ousnesse: Moses therefore intending to instruct his Citizens in this doctrine, began not his or­dinances with the treatise of contracts, and couenaunts, which we practise one with another, as [Page 3] other law-makers were accustomed to doe: but he hath lifted their spirits on high, to the ende A they might thinke on God, and on the ornament of this world made by him, perswading that the most accomplished worke among all those things which God had made in the world, was the creation of vs men: After that he had made them capable of things concerning pietie; then might he more easily perswade them in the rest. Whereas other law-makers, addicting them­selues vnto fables, haue in their discourse imposed on their Gods the infamie of sinnes commit­ted by men, and by that meanes haue brought to passe, that the wicked sort are yet more wic­ked and addicted to euill doing. But as touching our law-maker, after he had declared that God had in himselfe all vertue pure, and vnspotted, he hath thought good that men also should en­deuour themselues to be partakers of the same, and on those that neither conceiue nor be­licue those thing [...], he inflicteth a grieuous and inexorable punishment: I exhort the reader ther­fore B to examine our writings according to this Maxime: for to those that consider after this maner, nothing shal seeme either absurd, or vnworthy the magnificence of God; by reason that all things haue their disposition conformable to the vniuersall nature, which our Law-maker hath declared sometimes obscurely, sometimes in conuenient allegories grauelie; and otherwise expressing that manifestly, and publishing that in plaine words, which he ought openly to make knowne. The causes whereof if any man would search, he might find a most deepe and verie Philosophicall contemplation; which I ouerslip at this present, without longer staying thereon: but if God shall giue me time I will inforce my selfe to compose it in a volume as soone as I shal haue finished this worke. For this present then I will apply my selfe, to expose those thinges which haue beene done, beginning at the creation of the world, according as Moses hath spo­ken C and I haue found it written in the holy scriptures, which testifie and intreat to this effect a [...] followeth.

CHAP. II.

The Creation of the world.

IN the beginning, God created heauen and earth: now the earth, not being subiect to A [...] [...], 1. before the [...] of Christ, 3963. Gen [...]sis 1. Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 1. The creation of the world▪ The first day. sight, but couered with thicke darkenesse, and trauersed with an ayre comming from high: God commanded that there should be light; and after the light was made hauing considered the vniuersall matter, he seperated the light from the darkenesse, and named the dark­nesse D Night, and the light Day; calling the Morning the beginning of the day, and the Euening the time wherein we cease from trauell, and this was the first day which Moses in his language called a day, whereof at this present I could giue a sufficient reason: but for that in a particular discourse I haue promised to write the generall causes of all; I will referre the declaration thereof, to his conuenient time and place. After this, the second day, he placed [...]he heauen aboue all the The second day. world, and hauing separated it from other things, he thought good to giue it a place apart; and making it firme by the meanes of a Christalline matter, he endowed it with a qualitie moist and rainy, and did harmoniously accord the earth with it, to the end the increase thereof should be watred by dewes. The third day, he firmly established the earth, spreading the sea round about The third day. the same; and the same day, he with a word caused all plants and seedes to spring vpon the face of E the earth. The fourth day, he embellished the heauens with the Sunne, the Moone, and Starres, The fourth day. ordaining them their motions and cou [...]ses by which the seasons orderly ensuing, might be distin­guisht. In the fift day, he made all kinde of liuing creatures which dwell vpon the face of the The fift day. earth, as well they that swimme in the deepest waters, as those that flie in the ayre; vniting them togither by couples and paires, to the end that each in their kinde, might increase and multiply. The sixt day, he made all four-footed beasts, & distinguisht them into male and female: and in the The sixt day same day, he formed man. So that Moses saith, that the world and all that is therein was made in six whole daies, and that on the seuenth day, God tooke rest and ceased from his labours. By reason whereof we likewise desist from trauell on that day which we call Sabath, which is to say, Repose. Sabbat [...].

After the seuenth day, Moses began to describe the originall of man and the manner of his F Creation in these tearmes: God framed man of the dust of the earth, and powred into him a spi­rit and soule, which man was called Adam, an Hebrew worde signifying ruddie, because he Hedio & Ru [...] ­finus, chap G [...]es. [...] [...]entor [...]sicke. was made of e [...], tempered with redde or yeallow: for the earth which is rightly called a virgin, that is to say, earth not remooued but elementarie, is of that colour. Then brought God all kinde of liuing creatures before Adam, shewing him as well the male as the female: on w [...]m Adam bestowed those names, which to this present time they retaine. And seeing that Adam had [Page 4] female to accompany and liue with him (for as yet there was no woman) and for that he thought G The yeare of the world. 1. before Christis Natiui­t [...]e 3963. it strange that all other liuing creatures had their companions: God tooke one of his ribbes from him at such time as he slept, and of the same he formed a woman; who being brought before A­dam, he did acknowledge that she was made for him. Now in Hebrew a woman is called Isha, [...] the mo­ [...] o [...] all uing [...]ures. Pa [...]acice. but this was called Eua, which is as much to say, as the mother of all liuing creatures. He decla­reth also, that God planted in the East a garden, flourished and adorned with all sortes of plants; amongst which was the tree of life, and an other the tree of intelligence, by which was knowne both good and euill. And after he had brought Adam and his wife into this garden, he com­manded them to keepe and cherish the plants. Now this garden is watred by a riuer that inuiro­neth The [...]. slouds of Paradice The [...] P [...]ison or Gan [...], [...], Hed. Seth. 2. Eph [...]tes. 3. Tygris. 4. Geh [...]n, Nilus. Hedio Ruffinus, cap. 3. the whole earth, which diuideth it selfe into 4. chanels or riuers. That which is called Phison (which name signifieth abundance or multitude) floweth by the land of India, and entereth into H the great sea, and is by the Greekes called Ganges. As touching Euphrates and Tygris, they flow into the redde sea. Euphrates is called Phora (that is to say dispersion or flower.) Tygris is called Diglat (which signifieth streight and swift.) Gehon runneth by the countrey of Aegypt, and signi­fieth as much as comming from the East: the Greekes call it Nilus. Now God commanded A­dam and his wife to eate of the fruites of all other plantes, and that they should abstaine from that of science; telling them, that at what time soeuer they should taste of the same, they should die the death. Whereas then at that time, all liuing creatures were at accord one with another; the Serpent conuersing with Adam and his wife, was inflamed with enuie, for that he sawe they The subtilty of the Serpent. should be happy if they continued in the obseruation of Gods commandements: and that con­trariwise, they should cast themselues headlong into ruine and destruction, if they should disobey I the same. He therefore maliciously perswaded the woman, to taste the fruit of the tree of intel­ligence, giuing her to vnderstand, that the knowledge of good and euill was in the same; and that as soone as they had tasted thereof, they should lead a life no lesse happy then Gods: and by this meanes he caused the woman to fall, which tooke no regard of the ordinance of God. For ha­uing her selfe tasted of this fruit, and finding it pleasant and delicious in taste, she perswaded her husband also to taste the same, at which time they vnderstood that they were naked, and sought meanes to couer themselues: (for this fruit had in it selfe, the vertue to giue vnderstanding, and Adam and E­ [...]ahs fall. to quicken the thought.) Then couered they themselues with fig leaues, which they put before their priuities, esteeming themselues more happy then they were before, in that they had found out that which they wanted. But when as God came into the garden, Adam (who be­fore K times was accustomed familiarly to talke with him) finding himselfe guiltie of sinne, hid himselfe from his presence: but God wondring hereat, asked him for what cause he fled and shunned him at that time, whereas before time he had taken pleasure to talke familiarly with him? Adam knowing that he had transgressed the ordinances and commandements of God, God speaketh. vnto Adam. answered him not a word, but God spake vnto him after this manner: I had prouided for you the meanes whereby you might haue led your life without sufferance of any euill, or sense of any miserie: so that all whatsoeuer was requisite for necessitie or pleasure, might happen of it selfe vnto you, by my onely prouidence, without any trauell or care on your parts, which if you had well vsed, age had not so soone ouertaken you, but that you might haue liued many yeares: but thou hast scorned this mine ordinance, and broken my commandement. For in L that thou art silent at this time, it proceedeth not of vertue, but of euill; of which thou findest thy selfe culpable: wherefore both old age shall quicklier come vpon thee, and the daies of thy life shall be shortened. Adam excused his sinne, and required at Gods hands, that he would Adam asketh pardon. not be incensed against him, laying the fault of that which had happened on his wife, allead­ging that he had offended by reason he was suborned by her: and the woman accused the Ser­pent. Adams punish­ment. Eu [...]s punish­ment. The seed of the woman (that is Christ) shall br [...]ise the [...]rpents head. Genes. 3. [...] [...]pents [...] But at that time God punished him, because he had suffered himselfe to be ouercome by the counsaile of a woman; that the earth thence forward neuer more of her owne accord should bring foorth fruit: but that when they had trauailed and almost deuoured themselues in labour, it should sometimes giue them foode, and at other times refuse to sustaine them. And as touching Eue, he chastised her with child-bearing, and throwes in trauell, for that be­ing M her selfe deceiued by the Serpent, she had drawne her husband by the same meanes into extreame miserie. He tooke also from the Serpent his voice, and was displeased against him, * by reason of the malice he had conceiued against Adam, and he put venome on his tongue, declaring him an enemie both to man and woman, whom he commanded to bruise the head of the Serpent, as well for that the euill which chanced vnto men consisted in the head, as also [...]at being assaulted in that part he is most easily done to death. Moreouer hauing depriued [Page 5] him of his feete, he condemned him to slide and traile himselfe along the earth. And after The yeare of th [...] world. [...]. before Christs birth. 3963. A that God had ordained them to suffer those punishments, he translated Adam and Eue out of the garden into another place.

CHAP. III.

Of the Posteritie of Adam: and of the ten ages euen vnto the Deluge.

BVt Adam and Eue had two male children, the first whereof was called Cain (which sig­nifieth Hedio & Ruf [...] ­nus. chap. 4. Genef 4. Of Cain & A­bel brethren. acquisition) and the second was called Abel (which is as much to say as mour­ning) they had also daughters. These brothers addicted themselues each one of them to their particular exercises: Abel the younger honoured iustice, and (supposing that God was present in all his actions) he alwaies and wholy fixed his thoughts on vertue: and his exercise B was keeping of sheepe. But Cain (being the wickedest man amongst men, and addicted to In the yeare of the world. 70. before the birth of Christ. 3894. vnsatiable desire of profit) was he that first found out the vse of the Plough, and who killed his brother for the cause which ensueth. Hauing concluded among themselues to sacrifice vnto God, Cain offered the fruites of his labour, and planting; Abell presented milke, and the firstlings of his folde: which sacrifice of his, was more acceptable to God, in that it rather con­sisted The sacrifice o [...] Cain & Abel. of things produced of themselues by the order of nature, then that which a couetous man had forcibly in a manner extorted from nature. Hereupon Cain (being wroth because his Weake reason in Ioseph. Cain slew his brother Abel. The talk twixt God and Cain. brother Abell was more honoured by God then himselfe) slewe his brother; and hauing hid­den his bodie out of sight, he thought that such a murther should be concealed. But God knowing well this fact; appeared to Cain, and questioned with him as concerning his brother, C what might become of him, for that many daies since he had not seene him; when as hereto­fore he had alwaies seene him conuersant before him. Cain (being troubled, and ignorant what aunswere he should make vnto God) said first that he wondered what was the cause his brother was so long time absent: and finally aggreeued in that God continued the quest, and did more exactly seeke after him; he said he was [...]ot his brothers keeper, or bound to take care of his af­faires. Then God reproued and conuicted Cain of murthering his brother, and spake vnto him after this manner, saying, that he wondered he should denie the knowledge of his brothers death, whereas he himselfe had slaine him: notwithstanding he acquited him of the punish­ment deserued for this murther, by reason that Cain had done sacrifice, and made request vnto God, that it might please him, to remit somewhat of the seueritie of his iustice against him: D yet did God curse him, and threaten to punish his successors to the seuenth generation. Then Cains banish­ment. did he driue him & his wife out of that countrey, whereat being affrighted (for feare he should be encountred and taken by some sauage beast, and that he should perish after that sort) God commanded him to suspect no dangerous euent for that cause, assuring him that he might safe­ly trauaile thorow all regions without being eyther assaulted or seased by sauage beastes: and hauing set his marke vpon him, by which he might be knowen; he commaunded him to depart the countrey. After that Cain (accompanied with his wife) had trauailed thorow diuers re­gions, Cain is not bettered by Gods Cha­ [...]sements. he builded: Nais (it was a place so named) and made his aboad therein, and in that place had childre [...]: But he receiued not this chasticement for his better amendment, but rather be­came worse and worse: for he abandoned himselfe to all pleasures of the bodie, making it E his sport to outrage those with whom hee conuersed, filling his house with riches gotten by rapine and violence; and inciting other men to follow his pleasutes and theftes, he became their Lord and master of all mischieuous exercises: he ouerthrew that simplicitie which men before that time had vsed in their mutuall societies, by the inuentions of measures and waights; Measures and waights found out by Cain. the ignorance whereof was the cause that the life of man was estranged from deceite: but in steede and place of free and auncient courage he introduced fraud and deceit. He it was that first bounded the fieldes; and builded the first Citie, and made a wall and rampire, enforcing his followers to dwell therein. This Citie was named Enosa, by the n [...]me of Enos his first begot­ten Enosa the first Citie. sonne. But Iared was the sonne of Enos, of Iared issued Malehel, whose sonne was Mathusala, who begotte Lamech, who had 77. children by his two wiues Sella and Ada: amongst whom F Iobel the sonne of Ada was the first that made Tents, and tooke delight to lead a pastorall li [...] contenting himselfe with the same. Iubal his brother germaine exercised musicke, and inuented Iubal inuentor of musicke. the Psalterie, and the Harpe. And as touching Thobell one of his sonnes, by his other wife, he surpassed all other his brethren in force; and brauely managed the affaires of warre, by which waies he got more ample riches, and meanes to maintaine his life with more pleasure. He it was that first inuented the art of forging, and the shop also: and was father to a daughter named [Page 6] Naama. But Lamech being well exercised in Gods lawe, and foreseeing that he should suffer pu­nishment G In the yea [...]e of the world. [...]o. be. fore Christ [...] birth 3894. Cain the fa­ther of hipo­crites and cuill men. for the fratricide of Cain, told it to his wiues.

So it was that during the life of Adam himselfe, the successors of Cain were most wicked, teaching & imitating one an others wickednes, the last of them prouing alwaies the worst: so that they were strangely inflamed to follow warre and theft: and if perhaps some of them were more remisse then the other in murthers, and committing outrages; yet notwithstanding were they bould enough to spoyle and possesse the goods and heritage of other men.

But Adam the first man made of earth (for the Historie requireth that I should returne to speake of him) after the death of Abel, & the flight of Cain, betooke himselfe to beget children, highly affecting succession and posteritie, being about the age of two hundreth and thirty yeers: besides which, after he had liued some seuen hundreth more, at last he died: amongst whose H Adams yeares. 930. Seth the sonne of Adam a ver­tuous man. children (which were many) he had Seth. And for that it were too long to speake of all of them, I will onely touch that which concerneth Seth: He being nourished and trained vp by his fa­ther to the yeares of discretion; studied vertue, and left his succession heires, and followers, of his sanctitie: who being all of them well borne, remained in the world free from all contention, and liued happily: so that it neuer happened that any of them in any sort did iniury to any man. These inuented the science of the celestiall bodies, & all that which concerneth the beauty and order of the same. And to the end that their inuentions should not be defaced out of the me­mories of men, neither should perish before they were perfectly knowne: (insomuch as Adam had foretold them of the generall destruction of all things after two sorts, the one by the force of fire, and the other by the violence and abundance of waters) they made two pillers; the one I Two pillers raised. of bricke, and the other of stone; and ingraued in each of them such things as they had in­uented, to the end that if that of bricke should be abolished by the ouerflowes and rage of wa­ters, that other of stone should remaine, and expresse vnto men that which was imprinted therein for their instructions. That of bricke then was consecrated by them, and is in the coun­trey of Licia euen at this present day.

CHAP. IIII.

The Deluge from which Noe and his family escaped and dwelt in the field of Senaar.

IN this manner perseuered they during the course of seuen ages, honouring one God, the Lord of all things, hauing alwaies a respect of vertue. But afterwards in processe of K time, they degenerated from the auncient institutions of their forefathers, neither ob­seruing humane lawes, neither continuing their accustomed seruice of God; and they that Hedi [...] & Ruf­finus. chap. 6. Ge [...]es 5. 6. Those whom Iosephus na­meth in this place Angels Moses calleth the sonnes of God. Genes. 6. before time industriously exercised themselues in vertue, afterward with twise as zealous studie followed wickednes; and grew at last to that height of impietie, that they prouoked Gods hea­uie displeasure against them. For diuers Angels of God accompanying themselues with wo­men ingendred outragious infants, and contemners of all good, by reason of that trust they had in their forces, whose hainous actions were not much vnlike those which the Greekes haue in their fables fained of the Giants. But Noah perplexed and extreemely displeased with such their misdemeanors, exhorted them to chaunge their thoughts, and amend their misdeeds, and (seeing them mollified by no admonitions; but that they were wholly possessed with the plea­sure L which they tooke in vices; he fearing least they should kill him and his family, left them to their loosenes, and with his wife, children, and all his family departed into an other countrey. Noa [...] depar­teth into an other country. Then God (delighting in the iustice of the man) not onely condemned the men of that age of extreeme malice, but also concluded to destroy all whatsoeuer creatures were in the world, and to produce an other new race, deuoid, and repurged from all impietie: he abridged also the life of them, so that they liued not any more so long time as they were wont, but onely attained the terme of sixe score yeares: and he couered the land with waters, and by this meanes all of them were destroyed. Onely Noah escaped by the meanes and way which God had taught him in such manner as followeth: He builded an Arke of foure stages, in length, three hundreth cu­bites: in breadth fiftie; and in height thirtie: into this he entred with his mother, his wife and M Noahs Arke. his children and their wiues, purueying himselfe of all things requisite both for their sustenance and vse: he closed also therein all sorts of liuing creatures, two and two, male and fe­male, for the conseruation of euery kind, and of some of them seuen couples. The sides of this Arke were strong, and the couer also; so that no water could pearce the same, and whatso­euer storme might come it was able to resist it. Thus was Noe (by succession of nature the tenth Noahs genea­logie. The Deluge. from Adam) saued with all his household; for he was the son of Lamech whose father was Methu­sala [Page 7] the sonne of Enos, the sonne of Iared, the sonne of Maleel, who with diuers other brethren The yeare of the world. 1656. be­fore the Na [...] ­tie of Christ. 2308. A were begotten of Cainan by Enos: who was the son of Seth, the sonne of Adam. This destruc­tion happened, the sixe hundreth yeare of Noahs age (and the second moneth which was called Dius by the Macedons, and by the Hebrewes Marsomane) fo [...] so haue the Aegyptians distin­guisht the yeare (but Moses set downe Nisan for the first moneth in his Chronicles, which is Zan­thicus among the Macedons, for that in this moneth he brought the Israelites out of the Nisan or Zan­thicus is April to vs. thraldome of the Aegyptians.) He made this law therefore, that all things which appertaine to diuine seruice, should take their beginning and reckoning from this moneth, but in respect of the times and termes of buying and selling, and all other trafficke, he obserued the first polli­cie of the yeare, beginning in December: Moses wrote that the Deluge began the seuen & twen­tith day of the aboue named moneth which was the yeare two thousand sixe hundreth fiftie B and fixe, after the creation of the first man Adam (which time is carefully calculated in holy writ, in which the birth and death of great personages of that time are most exactly set downe.) At such time then as Adam was 230. yeares old, his sonne Seth was borne vnto him, and the said Adam liued 930. yeares; Seth about the age of 250. yeares, begat Enos, who after he had liued 905. yeares, left the gouernment of his affaires to his sonne Cainan, whom he had begotten a­bout the 190. yeare of his age. After that Cainan had liued 910. yeares, he had his sonne Maleel, This compari­son doth not exactly agree with the He­brewes, and the 70. inter­preters. begotten by him the 170. yeare of his age. The said Maleel hauing liued 195. yeares died, lea­uing his sonne Iared: who about the age of 162. yeares, engendered Enoch, who liued 962. yeares: After Enoch, succeeded his sonne Mathusala, begotten about the age of 162. yeares, at such time as the said Enochs father was yet aliue: and after that Enoch had liued 365. yeares, he was taken vp C vnto God (whence it commeth to passe that his decease hath not beene exemplified in writing) Mathusala the sonne of Enoch, in the yeare of [...] [...]ge 187. yeares, ha [...] Lamech for his sonne who Enochs death is not written in holy scrip­tures. liued 782. yeares, to whom he left the soueraintie, hauing he [...]d the same 969. yeares. And Lamech after he had gouerned 707. yeares, declared his sonne Noe for gouernour, at such time as the said Lamech had liued 182. yeares, which Noe gouerned for the space of 900. yeares.

All these yeares calculated into one sonne, accomplish the time aboue written. Yet to per­fect this accompt, we ought not to seeke out the decease of these personages (for they liued in the same time that their children and successors did:) but the onely thing we are to obserue is their birthes. As soone then as God had giuen the signe, and that it began to raine for the Gen. 7. 8. In the Greeke copie & Mose [...] ar [...] 40. daies. The Latin Io­seph 90. space of whole fortie daies, the water fell and ouerflowed the whole earth fourteene cubits hie, D (which was the cause that diuers could not escape, because there was no means of [...]ight, or place of refuge.) But as soone as the raine was ceased, the water began to decrease by little and little for the space of one hundreth and fiftie daies, about the 27. day of the seuenth moneth. Noe perceiuing then that the Arke was on ground vpon the top of a certaine mountaine of the coun­trey of Armenia; he opened the same, and seeing the earth did a little discouer it selfe round about the same, he conceiued some better hope and held himselfe satisfied: Some fewe daies Noe sendeth a crow out of the Ar [...]. after, when the water was ebbed somewhat more; he sent out a Crow (desiring to know if the rest of the earth were deliuered from the waters, and whether without danger he might issue out of the Arke:) but the Crow finding the earth bebayned in water, returned vnto Noe: who the seuenth day after sent out a Pigeon to finde out the estate of the earth, which returned bemi­red E and bearing in his neb an Oliue braunch: whereby Noe perceiued that the earth was de­liuered from the Deluge; and hauing as yet expected seuen daies more, he [...]et at libertie all Noe Forsake [...] the Arke, and sacrificeth to God. liuing creatures that were in the Arke. But as soone as himselfe, his wife, and his family, forsooke it, he offered sacrifice vnto God, and feasted and reioyced both he and al his houshold. The Ar­menians in their language haue called the place where Noe descended, by a name Aprobate­rion (which signifieth as much as discent) and in that place euen at this present the inhabi­tants of that countrey shewe some remnants and memories of the same. All those that haue written strange histories, haue made mention of this Deluge, and of the Arke: among the num­ber of whom is Berosus the Chaldean, who setting downe occurrences of this Deluge writeth af­ter this manner: Some say likewise that a certaine part of this Arke is in Armenia, neere to the F mountaine of the Cordaeans, and that some men haue br [...]ght from thence some part of the pitch wherewith it was calked, which the men of that place are wont to vse in stead of a preser­uatiue against inchantment: Hierome the Aegyptian also (who hath written the antiquitie of the Phenicians) hath made mention of this m [...]tter: as also Mnaseus with diuers other: Ni­cholas Nicholas Da­mascene of Noes Arke. of Damas likewise in his nintie sixe booke speaketh heereof after this manner. A­boue the Region of Mineans there is a great mountaine in Armenia called Baris, in which [Page 8] it is reported that diuers retyred themselues for safetie during the time of the Deluge, and there G Th [...]yeare of the [...]ld. 1687. be­for [...] the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1307. Hodio & Ruf­finus the 6. ch. escaped they: and that a certaine man borne on an Arke arriued vpon the highest top of that mountaine, and that certaine timbers of that bottome had beene kept a long while: and it may be that this is that whereof Moses the law-maker of the Iewes maketh mention. But Noe fearing least God (hauing condemned all men to a generall perdition) should euery yeare ouerflow the earth after this manner; offered burnt sacrifice vnto God: beseeching him, that hereafter he would entertaine the auncient order, and that no so great calamitie might succeede, by which all Noe prayeth God that he will drowne the carth no mo [...]e. liuing creatures should come in daunger to be vtterly extinct and exterm [...]nated: but that inflic­ting deserued punishment on the reprobate, he would spare the innocent, whom in his mercie he had preserued from daunger; otherwise they should be more miserable and condemned by a harder censure, if they were not wholy warranted, but should be reserued to be swallowed vp by H an other Deluge; and hauing suffered the feare and sight of the first, to perish by the second. He praied him therefore that he would be pleased to accept of his sacrifice, and in his mercy vouch­safe that he would hereafter conceiue no more any so hainous hate and displeasure against the earth, to the ende that men might by their labours till it, and building them Cities might pos­sesse the same in pcace, wanting none of those commod [...]ties which they enioyed before the Deluge: but that they might equall their forefathers in olde yeares, and length of life.

Noe hauing in this sort finished his requestes, God (who loued him for the vprightnes of his God heareth Noes praier. No [...]. Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 7. heart) granted him his request, denying himselfe to be the author of their deaths who were drowned, but that they themselues by their owne malice had procured those pnuishments due vnto them. For had he desired that they should be extinguished, he would not haue I brought them into the world. For better is [...]ot to grant life; then to destroy those to whom Man is the au­thor of his death, not God thou hast giuen it. But (saith God) thorow [...] [...]ntempt of my seruice and graces, they haue inforced me to humble [...]hem vnder the rigor [...] vengeance: hereafter I will not so exactly pursue and examine their iniquities, to the ende to chastice them in my displeasure; especially for thy sake: And if hereafter at any time I shall send any tempest, feare not (how huge and Gods coue­nāt with Noe. In the [...]eare of the world. 2007. before Christes Na [...]ty. 1959. hideous soeuer the stormes be) for there shall be no more Deluge of water vpon the earth. In the meane time I commaund you to keepe your hands innocent from murthers, and all man­slaughter, and to punish those that commit wickednes. I leaue the vse of all other liuing crea­tures to your sustenance or seruice; in as much as I haue made you Lord ouer all, as well those that breath vpon the face of the earth, as those that swimme in the waters, and such as inhabite K and flye amidst the ayre: but you shall not eate any bloud, in as much as therein consisteth the soule and life of liuing creatures. And I declare vnto you that I will desist to draw the shafts of my displeasure against men. And I will giue you the rainebow for a signe: for this bowe in The Rainbowe the signe of at­tonement be­tweene God and Noe. Hedio & Ru [...] ­fin. 8. chap. Noes age. 950. yeares. their opinion is the bow of God. And after that God had pronounced these words and made these promises, he departed.

Noe liued after the Deluge three hundreth and fiftie yeares, and hauing spent all this time of his life in happines, he died after he had liued in the world nine hundreth and fi [...]ie yeares. Nei­ther is there cause why any man (comparing this our present age, and the shortnesse of the yeares thereof, with the long life of the auncients) should thinke that false which I haue said: neither followeth it consequently, that because our present life extendeth not to such a terme L and continuance of yeares, that therefore they of the former world attained not the age and long life which we publish of them. For they being beloued of God, and newly created by him, Why they in times past li­ued longer then we doe. vsing also a kinde of nutriment agreeing with their natures, and proper to multiply their years, it is no absurd thing to suppose that their yeares were of that continuance: Considering that God gaue them long life, to the ende they should teach vertue, and should conueniently prac­tise those things which they had inuented in Astronomie, and by Geometry: the demon­strations whereof they neuer had attainde except, they had liued at the least sixe hundreth yeares. For the great yeare is accomplished by that number of yeares: whereof all they beare The greate yeare. me witnesse, who (either Greekes or Barbarians) haue written auncient histories. For both Manethon (who hath written the historie of Aegypt) and Berosus (who hath registred the acts M and affaires of the Chaldeans) together with Mochus Hestiaeus, Hierome of Aegypt (who histo­rified the state of the Phaenicians) with others accord with me in that which I haue said. Hesi [...] ­dus also, Hecataeus, Hellanicus, and Acusilaus, Ephorus and Nicolaus doe declare, that they of the first world liued one thousand yeares. Notwithstanding let euery man iudge of these things, as best liketh him.

CHAP. V. A

Of the tower of Babylon, and the c [...]unge of tongues.

NOe had three sonnes Sem, Iaphet, and Cham, borne one hundreth yeares before the The yeare of the world, 1790. be­fore [...] Na­ti [...]ie 2174. [...]. 10 Noes three sonnes. Deluge. These first descended from the mountaines into the plaines, and there made they their habitation, which when other men perceiued (who for feare of the Deluge had fled the plaines, and for that cause were loth to forsake the mountaines) they gathered courage and perswaded themselues to doe the like: and the plaine where they all dwelt was cal­led Senaar. And whereas they were commaunded by God that (by reason of the increase and multitude of men) they should send certaine distinct Colonies to inhabite diuers countries of God comman­ded [...] po [...]e or Noe [...] inha [...] the earth. B the world (to the ende that no seditions might grow betwixt the one and the other; but con­trariwise in labouring and tilling a great quantitie of ground, they might gather great store of fruite) they were so ignorant that they disobeyed God, and falling into great calamities suffe­red the punishment of their offences. For whereas they florished in increase (by reason of the great number of their youth) God counselled them againe that they should deuide themselues into colonies. But they (thinking that the goods which they possessed proceeded not from him, or his bountie, but presuming that their force was the onely cause of their aboundance) did not obey him, but rather suspected that God sought to betray them, to the ende that being thus deuided he might the better subdue them: Nemrod incited them in this sort to mocke and contemne God. He was the nephew of Cham, the sonne of Noe; a man valian [...] and apt for C armes: he put them in the head that they should not beleeue that their good hap proceeded from God, but that they ought to attribute it to their own vertue, which furnished them with so much riches: so that in a little space he reduced the estate to a tyrannie; supposing by this only meanes that he might make men reuolt against God, if he might perswade them to submit thē ­selues to his gouernment; giuing them to vnderstand, that if God should once more send a de­luge, he would take reuenge on him in mens behalfe, and that he would build a tower, to whose top the water should not attempt, and reuenge the death of his predecessors. The common sort was ready to follow these ordinances of Nemrod, supposing it to be pusillanimitie in themselues, Gen, 11 [...] if they should obey God. For which cause they began to build the tower with their vttermost industrie, neither was there any one idle in all that worke: yea so great a number of labourers D were there, that the worke was raised to a height beyond all expectation. The thicknesse there­of was so great that it obscured the height thereof: and it was builded of burnt bricke cimented and ioined with a bituminous morter, to the ende it should not receiue any cleft in the same.

But God seeing their madnesse, condemned them not to a generall extermination (by rea­son that they had made no profit by their example, who perished in the first Deluge) but made The confusion of tongues. them mutine the one against the other by chaunging of their tongues; so that by reason of their diuersities of language, they could not vnderstand one another. The plac [...] where this tower was builded, is at this present called Babylon (by reason of the confusion of tongues that first began in that place) for Babell in Hebrew signifieth confusion. Of this tower and the diuersitie of languages Sibilla hath made mention in these words. At such time as men v­sed E Sibils prophe­cie of the tow­er of Babel. one kind of language, they builded a most high tower, as if they meant by the same to mount vp into heauen: but the gods sent downe windes and ouerthrew the tower, and gaue euery one his distinct and seuerall language, whence sprong the cause that their Citie was called Babylon. But as touching that place which is called Senaar in Babylon, Hestiaeus testifieth after this man­ner. It is said of those sacrificers that being escaped, they tooke the sacred reliques of Iupiter Enyelius, and came into Senaar in Babylon.

CHAP. VI.

How Noes posteritie dispersed themselues thorow the whole world.

FRom that time forward (by reason of the diuersitie of tongues) they dispersed them­selues F into diuers countries, and planted colonies in all places; and occupied those places whither either God or their good fortune had conducted them: so that both the sea coasts, and the mid land were replenished with inhabitants. Some there were also who Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 10. passing the sea in ships and vessels, first peopled the Islands. And there are some nations like­wise, who at this day retaine the names which in times past were imposed on them: some other [Page 10] haue changed them. Others are altered into a more familiar and knowne name, to neighbors, G T [...] yeare of the world, 1790. be­for [...] Christs Na­ [...]iuitie, 1174. The names of Regions and Nations. deriuing them from the Greekes the authors of such titles. For they in these latter times hauing growne to great name and power, haue appropriated the auncient glory to themselues, in gi­uing names vnto nations deriued from the Greekes, and policying them, as if they had taken their originall from them.

CHAP. VII.

That euerie Nation deriued his name from his Author.

NOw they in honour of whom the Nations receiued their first names were the children Hedio & Ruf­finus, cap. 11. Gen. 10. of the sonnes of Noe. Iaphet the sonne of Noe had seuen children who began to make H their abode from the mountaines of Taurus and Amanus, and entered Asia, euen vn­to Tana; and Europa, vnto Gades, occupying the countrey which they first mette with, and was not before time by any man inhabited, each one calling his seuerall Nation by his owne name: for Gomar was the founder of the Gomarians, Magog dwelt amongst those (who ac­cording The Galatians descended from Gomar. The progenie of Iaphet. Noes first be­gotten sonne. to his name) were called Magogins, and by the Greekes Scithes. Of Madus (the first begotten sonne of Iaphet) issued the Madians, whom the greekes haue named Medes: and of Iauan his other sonne, the Ionians and Greekes tooke their originall: Thobelus gaue name likewise to the Theobelians, who at this day are called Iberians. Meschus was the author of them that were called Meschates, who are lately named Capadocians: for they shew euen at this day a token of their auncient name; to wit, the Citie of Masaca, which testifieth to those I that conceiue the same, that this nation hath beene so called. Theres named them Therians: who were vnder his gouernment whom the Greekes called Thracians: and thus many The progeny of the sons of Gomar. nations tooke their originall from the sonnes of Iaphet: but of the three sonnes which Gomar had, Aschanaxes gaue originall to the Aschanaxians (at this day termed Rhegians by the Greekes) Rhiphates ingendered the Rhiphateans called at this day Paphlagonians. Ty­granes ingendered the Tygraneans, who by the Greekes are called Phrigians. As touching Ia­uan The progeny of the sonnes of Iauam. Tharsus Saint Pauls country. [...]ctes. 9. the sonne of Iaphet, he had three sonnes, of whom Abisus gaue name to the Abisians, who at this present are the Aetolians, ouer whom he commaunded: Tharsus engendered the Tharsians, which was the auncient name of the Cilicians, as it appeareth by the name of their renowmed and Metropolitane Citie Tharsis; whose first letter is ☉. in steed of Th. Chetinus obtained the K Isle of Chetine, called at this day Cipris (whence it happeneth that not onely all the Islands, but also diuers other places on the sea coast are by the Hebrewes called by this word Cethim) witnesse one of the Cities of Cipris which hath had the reputation to conserue her auncient name. For it is called Citium, by those that wrest the same to the Greeke sense, a word not ve­rie much varying from Cethim. These Nations were occupied by the sonnes and young chil­dren of Iaphet. But I will first publish that which perhaps is vnknowne to the Greekes, and then Whence grew the chaunge of names. prosecute my purposed narration which I haue omitted, that is, that these names are formed after the maner of the Greeks, to the ende they should be more sweete and pleasaunt to them that should ouer read them. For this termination is not proper to our Nation, which hath but one forme, and no variation of termination, for whereas the Greeks pronounce [...] we say Adam, L and where they say Noches, the Hebrewes say Noe, and keepe this termination inall things.

But the sonnes of Cham possessed Siria and all the region that abutteth on the mountaines Of the sonnes o [...] Cham and their progeny. of Amanus and Libanus; extruding their Empyre towards the sea, and signiorizing all whatso­euer euen vnto the sea. Whose names are partly wholy abolished, and partly chaunged, and applied to others; so as they are very hard to be vnderstood: for of the foure sonnes of Cham, the name of Chus hath not beene chaunged by time: for the Aegyptians (ouer whom they ex­tended their Dominion) haue beene named Chuseans by them, and by all, the Asians: the name of Misraim hath continued also in the memorie of men: for we that bound vpon Aegypt, call that countrey, the countrey of Misraim, and the Aethiopians, Misramites. Phut likewise firmed the colonies of Libia, and called the inhabitants thereof according to his name Phutians; M and there is a riuer in the countrey of Mauritania which hath the same name, of which it is most manifest that diuers Greeke Histories make mention, as also of the countrey neere adioyning, which they call the countrey of Phut, but it hath chaunged his present name by the meanes of one Libis one of the sonnes of Misraim; (but why it is called Africa, I will heareafter signifie Libia or Africa The progeny of the Chana­neans. vnto you). As touching Canaan the fourth sonne of Cham, he dwelled in the countrey at this day called Iudaea, and called it the countrey of Canaan according to his name. They also had chil­dren: [Page 11] for Chus had sixe, amongst whom Sabas established the Sabians, and Euilas the Euileans, The yeare of th [...] world. 1790. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1174. A at this day called Getulians. Sabathes engendred the Sabatheans, whom the Greekes name A­stracrabians. Sabactes peopled the Sabactians: and the Romans were founded by Romus who also had two sonnes, of whom Indos, dwelt in the countrey of the Indians, amongst those that are called Hesperians in Aethiopia and Sabaeus founded the S [...]beans.

Nimrod the sonne of Chus, setled his Colonie vpon the confines of Babylon, and tyranni­zed Nabrodes or Nembroth. there as heretofore I haue declared:

All the eight sonnes of Misraim, occupied all the countrey from Gaza vnto Egypt: Onely Palestine so named of Phi­lest [...]ne. the countrey where Philistius gouerned, hath conserued his name: for the Greekes call Pale­stine a part thereof. As touching the rest, Lom, Enam and Labim (who onely inhabited Libia and called the countrey by his name) likewise as touching Nethom, Phetrosim Chreseen and B Chepthom, we know neither of their countries, nor of their names. For the Aethiopian warre (whereof hereafter we will make mention) hath ouerthrowne their Cities. Chanaan also had The children of Chanaan, sonnes, amongst whom Sidonius builded and named Sidon (a citie in Phaenicia) and Amathus builded Amate, which at this day the inhabitants call Amatha: but the Macedonians haue na­med it Epiphania (which is as much to say as famous) by reason of some that descended from Epiphanes. Arudeus possessed the Isles of Aradus, and Araceus builded the citie of Arce, scitu­ate in Libanus. And as touching the other seuen, the Eueans, Chetteans, Iebusaeans, Eudae­ans, Semaeans, Samarians, and Gergesaeans; there is no memorie remaining in sacred scrip­tures but only their names: for the Hebrewes raced their cities vpon these occasions.

After the Deluge, when the earth was established in his former estate, Noe gaue himselfe to Hedio & Ru [...] ­finus. cap. [...] Genes. 9. C tillage, and planted vineyards, and when the fruit thereof was ripe (and he had pressed and made wine thereof) he dronke and banqueted after he had done sacrifice: Being thereby made dronke, Noe is made drunke, lieth naked and is scorned, and curseth him that derideth him. and ouerpressed with sleepe, he lay discouered in a most vnseemely and shamefull fashion; which when his yonger sonne beheld, he scornefully discouered it to his brothers, who being ashamed; couered their fathers shame with reuerence. Which fact of his, comming at last to light, and the knowledge of Noe, he wished all felicitie to the two other, and as touching Cham (by reason he was his allie in bloud) he cursed him not, but his posteritie after him. But al­though Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 14. Gen. 7. 2. Of the sonnes of Sem the third sonne of Noe and of the [...]rs and A­brahams pro­geny. the others escaped this malediction, yet God inflicted it on the successors of Chanaan, whereof we will speake more hereafter. But Sem the third sonne of Noe had fiue sonnes, who inhabited the countrey of Asia, beginning at Euphrates, and extending to the Indian Ocean D sea. For Elymis left the Elemians or Elamites for his successors, whence proceeded the Persi­ans. Assur made his abode in Niniue, and imposed on his subiects the name of Assirians (who were rich amongst all the rest.) Arphaxad named those of his command Arphaxadians; who at this day are called Chaldeans. Aram had the Arameans (whom the Greekes called Sirians) and they that are now called Lidi, and in times past Ludi tooke their discent from Ludas. Of those foure sonnes which Aram had, Vses dwelt in Trachonite, and in the countrey of Damasco (scituate betweene Palestine and Siria, surnamed Caelen or hallow.) Otrus obtained Armenia: Gether Bactria. Misas was father to the Misureans (who dwelt in a fort which is called at this day Prasine.) Sale, Arphaxads sonne was Hebers father, by whose name in times past the Hebrewes were called: Heber begot Loctan and Phaleg, who was so called, for that he was borne at such The original of the Hebrewes. E time as the land was parted: for Phaleg in Hebrew signifieth partage. They that followe were sonnes of Loctan: Elmodad, Saleph, Azermoth, Erais, Edoram, Vzalis, Dallis, Ebal, Ebimarl, Sa­phas, Ophir, Euilus, and Iobel: who occupied some parcell of that which was about Cophen a riuer of India, and the hither Siria. Hitherto haue we spoken of the progenie of Sem, hereaf­ter will I speake of the Hebrewes; Of Phaleg the sonne of Heber Ragaus, by whom was begot Seruch, whence Nachor is descended, and of Nachor, Thares, who was Abrahams father, the tenth Abrahams ge­nealogy. in accompt from Noe, and borne in the yeare 292. after the Deluge. For Thares being seuenty yeares old begot Abraham. Nachor at six score yeares of his age, begot Thares. Nachor was borne to Seruch, when he was about the yeares of 132. of his life. And Ragaus begot Seruch when he was thirtie two yeares olde, and about those yeares Phaleg begot Ragaus. But Heber in F the 34. yeare of his age, begot Phaleg: (himselfe begotten by Sela, when he was one hundreth thirtie and fiue yeares olde:) which Sela was begotten by Arphaxad, when he was 135. yeares of age. And Arphaxad was the sonne of Sem, whom he begat some two yeares after the Deluge. Abraham had two brothers, Nachor and Aram, of whom Aram left Lot for his sonne, and Sara and Melcha for his daughters, and afterwards died in the land of Canaan in a citie called Vr, of the Chaldies, where his sepulchre is to be seene euen at this day. His daughters were married, [Page 12] Melcha to Nachor; and Sara to Abraham. But Thares growing wearie of Chaldaea, after the fu­nerals The yeare of the world, 1950. be­ [...]re Christs Na­tiuitie, 2014. G of Aram, they all of them transported themselues into Charan a citie of Mesapotamia, in which place they buried Thares, when he had liued the space of 250. yeares. For about this time the life of man was abridged, and grew more short vntill the time of Moses: when as the space of mans life limited by God himselfe was 120. yeares olde, to which tearme of yeares Moses had attained. Nachor had eight children by Melcha his wife; Vx, Barux, Mauel, Zacham, Azam, Pheldus, Ladelphus and Bathuel, (who were the legitimate sonnes of Nachor.) But Tabaeus and The terme of mans life about this terme, 120 Gadan, Taucus and Macham were begotten by him on his concubine Ruma. To Bathuel one of the legitimate sons of Nachor, was borne a daughter named Rebecca, and a sonne called Laban.

CHAP. VIII. H

How Abraham the Author of our nation departed from the land of the Chaldeans, and dwelt in a certaine countrey of the Chanaanites, which is now called Iudaea.

ABraham hauing no issue, adopted Lot the sonne of Aram his brother, and brother to The yeare of the world 2024. be­fore Christs birth. 1940. Hedio & Ruf­finus chap. 15. Genes 11. 12. The w [...]edome or Abraham. Sara his wife: he departed out of the countrey of the Chaldeis, when he was 75 yeares olde (hauing had commandement from God to depart thence into Canaan) in which countrey he remained, and left the same to his posteritie after him. He was a man accompli­shed in all things, full of vnderstanding, and apte to perswade those that gaue eare vnto him, without any default in his foresight and prouidence. For this cause he was supposed to sur­mount I all men in vertue, and was he that first vndertooke to conuince the receiued and erro­nious opinions of men, as touching the Deitie. He therefore first of all did most manifestly preach, and prooue, that there was but one God, gouernour, and maker of all things, and that o­therwise Abraham the first preacher of the word. if any thing conferred or furthered our felicitie, it hapned vnto vs not by our owne workings, but his holy will. And this obserued and approued he by that, which chanceth both in the earth and the sea, as also those things, which he saw daily occurre by the influences of the sunne, the moone, and other starres: namely, that there was a certaine power that disposed them, and decently administred all things, without whose assistance, nothing would be profitable vnto vs; whereas nothing of himselfe hath any vertue, but all things are obedient to his omnipotent will, and for that cause, that honor and thanksgiuing should wholy be ascribed to him. For which K causes and counsailes of his (seeing the Chaldeans and Mesapotamians began to mutiny against him) he thought it expedient to forsake that countrey, and following the will and fauour of God, he went and dwelt at Chanaan; where be [...]ng seated, he builded an aultar and sacrificed vnto God. Berosus amongst other things maketh mention of our father Abraham, although he nameth him not, when he speaketh after this manner. After the Deluge, and during the tenth Berosus. generation, there dwelt among the Chaldeans, a most iust, excellent, and vpright man, and exercised in the knowledge of the celestiall bodies. But Hecataeus made more then a mention of him: for he Hecataeus. Nicholaus Da­mascenus. hath left a volume which he hath written of him. And as touching Nicholaus Damascenus, heare what he saith of him in the fourth booke of his Histories. Abraham raigned in Damasco (where he was a stranger) whether he arriued with his army from a countrey scituate aboue Babylon called Chal­daea, L who a little while after (departing out of that region) went and dwelt with his people in a countrey at that time called Chanaan, and at this day Iudea, and his posteritie multiplied therein. In an other treatise I will recite that which is reported of him. The name of Abraham euen at this day, is honourable in the countrey of Damasco, a [...]d there is a village to be seene which beareth his name, and is called Abrahams house. Abrahams house.

CHAP. IX.

Abraham oppressed by famine, departeth into Egypt, where staying a while, at last he returned backe againe.

AFter this (when famine had inuaded the land of Chanaan, Abraham had intelligence M The yeare of the the world. 2026. before the birth of Christ. 1938. Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 16. Gen. 12. 13 that the Egyptians abounded in all plentie, and decreed with himselfe to retire himselfe towards them: as well to conferre with their priest (and discourse with them of diuine things, and their knowledge as touching God) as also to follow them, if they were more groun­ded in vnderstanding, or reconcile them, if his iudgement were more assured then theirs: he led with him his wife Sara, and vnderstanding that the Egyptians were much addicted vnto wo­men [Page 13] (to the end the King should not put him to death of purpose, that he might enioy his wife The yeare of th [...] world. 2026. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1938. The lu [...] of the Egyptia [...]. A Sara, who was very beautiful) he deuised this excuse, to say that she was his sister, charging her that if the matter came in question, she should not faile but confirme the like. But no sooner came he into Aegypt, but the like fortune encountred t [...]m, as Abraham had before time suspected: for the beawtie of his wife was sodainly published in euery place. For which cause Pharao the King of that Nation (desirous to see that with his eies, [...] which he had heard with his eares) he sought for, sent, and lusted after her: but God withstood this his vnbridled lust by afflicting the Kings subiects with a plague, and his affaires by sedition. Whereupon taking counsell of the Priests what remedie might be vsed, and meanes might be sought to appease the diuine maiesty, they answered him, that this was the cause of their afflictions, for that he thought to haue done violence to the straungers wife: whereat being much affrighted, the King first questioneth with B the woman what she was, and who her companion should be? and at last resolued of the trueth, he satisfied Abraham, saving, he supposed her to be his sister, not his wife, and that his purpose was not to offer iniury but seeke alliance: so giuing him a great summe of money, hegaue him leaue to conferre with the most excellentest & learnedest Priests among the Egyptians. Whence Abraham taught the E­gyptians reli­gion and arts. it came to passe, that he grew into great estimation in regard of his vertues: for whereas that Na­tion was deuided into different sects and opinions, & thorow mutuall contempt & diuision were incensed the one against the other; he declared that their opinions (different and confuted by themselues) in respect of religion, were most vaine and deuoide of all trueth. For these his dispu­tations he was held in great regard amongst them, and esteemed for a man most wise, and a per­sonage most exccellent; not onely in well conceiuing, but also in expressing and perswading C that which he vndertooke to teach: to these most gratiously imparted he the science of Arithme­tike, and the obseruation of the celestiall bodies. For before that Abraham came into Aegypt, the Abraham an excellent A­stronomer. Aegyptians vvere altogether ignorant of those sciences: but he transported them from Chal­daea into Aegypt, and from thence are they deriued to the Greekes. As soone as he returned into Chanaan, he deuided the countrey with Lot: and for that there grew a contention betwixt The deuision of the fields between Abra­ham and Lot. their shepheards (as touching the bounding of those pastures where they fed their cattel) he gaue Lot the choise and election of the countrey vvhich best pleased him, re [...]aining vnto himselfe that which was left. Thus pitching his tents neere the mountain in a Citie called Hebron (which is by seuen yeares more auncient then Tanis in Aegypt) he dwelled there. But Lot chose the plaine neere to the floud of Iordane, not farre from Sodome; vvhich in those daies vvas a goodlie D Citie, but at this present by the diuine iustice and vvrath of God is vtterly defaced; so that no memorie remayneth thereof. The causes of which iudgemen [...] shall bee expressed hereafter.

CHAP. X.

The ouerthrow of the Sodomites by the Syrians.

AT that time when the Assyrians were Lords ouer all Asia, the estate of Sodome flou­rished Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 17. Genes. 14. Fiue kings of Sodome. in all affluence, increased in great riches, and mul [...]itude of gallant youthes, and the countrey was gouerned by fiue Kings: these were Ballas, Bareas, Senabarus, Symobo­rus E and Balin (each one particularly seased of his prouince and kingdome.) Against these the Assyrians incamped themselues, and hauing deuided their armie into foure parts (vnder the conduct of foure gouernours) they waged battell with them; in which the Assyrians attayning the day, they imposed a tribute on the Kings of Sodome; who (after they had for twelue yeares space performed their duety and paid their tribute) in the thirteenth yeare reuolted from them. Whereby it came to passe that the Assyrians leuied a new armie against them, vnder the conduct and commaund of Marphad, Arioch, Chodollogomor, & Thargal, who sacked all Syria, and extin­guished The yeare of the world 2031. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1933. the posteritie of the Giants. And drawing neere to Sodome, they encamped neere to the bituminous pits (for at that time there were pits in that place) but as soone as Sodome was destroyed, there arose a lake in that place, which (by reason of the bituminous matter that F flowed in the same) was called Asphal [...]ites, that is to say, bituminous: of this lake hereafter we wil speake somewhat. But the Sodomites encountering with the Assyrians, there was a dangerous The lake of Alphaltites. skirmish fought, wherein many perished on both sides; and the most were eyther staine or taken, amongst whom was Lot led away captiue, who came thither to assist the Sodomites.

CHAP. XI. The yeare of the world 2031. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1933. G

Abraham pursueth the Assyrians, and returneth victorious.

ABraham hearing of these things, and moued (both with the surprisall of his cosen Lot, Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 18. Gen. 1 [...]5. as also with the slaughter of his friends and neighbours) presently addressed himselfe with all his followers to giue them succours: and such diligence shewed he in pursuite of them; that the fift night after he incountred the Assyrians neere to Dan, which is one of the sources of Iordaine.

Where surprising them on the sodaine (vnsuspitious and disarmed) he killed those that were asleepe without suspition of his comming, and they that were not yet asleepe, and lay wallow­ing H in their drunkennesse he easily defeated and put to flight, pursuing them in such sort, that the second day after he droue them all into Soba a Citie of Damasco: declaring hereby, that victo­rie On what victo­ry dependeth. consisteth not in the multitude of those that manage their armes, but rather in the courage of those that fight; and that a few generous hearts are more worth alwaies, then a faint-hearted multitude. For he had not with him aboue three hundreth and eighteene of his househould seruants, and three of his friends, to defeat this huge army; so that whatsoeuer they were that escaped out of this slaughter by flight, returned vnto their houses with ignominy.

As soone as Abraham had rescewed those prisoners of Sodome which were taken by the Sy­rians, Abraham brin­geth back both Lot and the Sodomites that were pri­soners. The kings field. Solima was af­terward called Ierusalem. Melchisedech the iust King. and his nephew Lot; he returned into his countrey, and met in his way with the King of So­dome (in a place called the Kings field) where also he was intertained by the King of Solyma cal­led I Melchisedech (which is as much to say as the iust King:) for in trueth he was no lesse; but was held worthy by reason of his iustice in all mens opinion to sacrifice as the high Priest of Almigh­tie God. This Solyma in processe of time was called Ierusalem. This Melchisedech did friend­ly entertaine all the fellowers of Abraham, not suffering them to want any thing that was fit for their sustenance, but intertaining him also at his owne table he highly praised him, and sung due hymnes of praise to the great God, for that by his fauour he had vouchsafed to grant him victory. Abraham on the other side presented him with the tenths of his spoyles: but the King of Sodome remitted all the pray that was taken, and onely required to be possessed of those Captiues which were of his countrey: which condition he accepted not, answering that he would receiue no profit of that pray, but that which he must needly haue for the entertainment of his seruants. K Yet gaue he a portion vnto his friends who had succoured him, the first whereof was called Es­chol, and the two other Ennerus and Mambres. For this cause God praised Abraham saying; thou shalt not want the reward which is due vnto thee for thy valiant actes. To which he replied, and Genesis 15. what good shall I reape of this recompence, if I haue no: an heire to possesse it after my de­cease? for as yet he had no issue. Then did God promise him a sonne, whose posteritie should God promiseth Abraham a sonne. be so multiplied, that they might in number equall the starres of heauen; which when he vnder­stood, he offered sacrifice vnto God, following that commaundement which he had receiued: he tooke therefore a Heifer of three yeares old, a Goat of three yeares, and a Ramme of three yeares, and a Turtle, and a Pigeon: all which he deuided in twaine as he was commaunded, the birds onely excepted. But before the Altar was prepared (at such time as the fowles houered L about to haue part of the bloud of those beastes which were sacrificed) he receiued an Oracle, that told him that his progeny should haue euill neighbours in Aegypt for the space of foure God promi­seth Abraham a progeny that should many yeares haue ill neighbours of the Egyptians. hundreth yeares, and that after they had suffered an insupportable seruitude, they should at last obtaine the victorie ouer their enemies. And after that they had by strong hand conquered the Chananites, they should be Lords and possessors of their countries and Cities. Abraham at that time dwelt neere to the Oake that was called Ogis, in the countrey of Chanaan neere to the Citie of Hebron. There being much grieued that his wife conceiued not, he besought God to giue him an issue male: God commaunded him to be of good cheere in all things, and that be­ing come from Mesopotamia vpon good occasions, he also should haue children. At that time Sara by the commaundement of God caused one of her handmaids which was an Aegyptian M Gen 16. Sara bringeth Hagar her handmaid to Abrahams bed. Agar contem­neth Sara. borne to enter in vnto her husband, to the end he might haue issue by her; now Agar as soone as she perceiued that she had conceiued, began to contemne Sara, aspiring to principality, and supposing that her issue should succeed in the kingdome. For which cause Abraham deliuered her vnto his wife, to the ende she should punish her: which she perceiuing, she decreed to flie, in that she was afraid of punishment; beseeching God to haue mercy on her: and as she trauailed on her way thorow the desart, the Angell of God appeared vnto her, cōmanding her that she should [Page 15] returne vnto her master and mistris, assuring her that if hereafter she would be more modest, The yeare of the world. 2034. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1930. A she should be better intreated; and how at that present she was fallen into those miseries, by reason she had proudly and insolently behaued her selfe towards her Mistris. Telling her more­ouer that if she disobeyed God, and wandred any further, she should die the death: but that if she returned from whence she came, she should be the mother of a sonne, who should one day be king of that countrey where she then was. The promise of Ismael.

To this commandement of God Agar submitted her selfe with all obedience, and returning backe againe to her master and mistris, she obtained pardon at their hands, and after a while brought forth Ismael, which is as much to say as, Heard of God, because God had heard the mo­thers prayers. Ismael was borne to Abraham when he was fourescore and six yeares old: but in the fourescore and nineteenth yeare of his age God appeared vnto him, and tolde him that he Isaac promised Genesis 17. B should haue a sonne by Sara, charging him to call him Isaac; giuing him to vnderstand, that great nations and kings shoud issue from his loines, who by force of armes should conquer all the countrey of Chanaan, from Sidon euen vnto Egypt. Commanding him, that his posteri­tie should be circumcised in their priuities, and that this circumcision should be done the viij. day after their birth, by reason that he would not that Abrahams posteritie should be intermed­led with other nations. But hereafter will I declare the cause of our circumcision. Abraham also asked counsell of God as touching Ismael, whether he should liue or no? who tolde him that he should flourish many yeares, and that he should become a father of many worthy nations. Then gaue Abraham thanks vnto God, and presently circumcised himselfe, his sonne Ismael, with all his family: and Ismael at that time was thirteene yeares olde, but Abraham about fourescore C and nineteene yeares of age.

CHAP. XII.

The punishment of Sodom.

ABout that time the inhabitants of Sodom became immeasurably proud, by reason Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 19. The sinnes of the Sodomites of their affluence, prosperitie, and great riches; and committed outrages against men, and impieties against God: in such manner as they had forgotten the benefits which they had receiued at his hands, hating strangers, and disdaining to conuerse the one with the other, but in disordinate and abhominable incests. Whereat God being dis­pleased D he decreed to punish their into lerable pride, to ruinate their citie from the top to the bottome, and in such sort to make desolate their countrey, that from thence forward it should neither nourish plant, nor bring foorth fruit. After that God had pronounced this sentence a­gainst the Sodomites; Abraham (as he sate vnder the Oake at Mambres before the dore of his tent) beheld three Angels, and supposing them to be men and strangers, he arose and saluted Abraham en­tertaineth An­gels. them; and approaching neere vnto them, he desired them that they would accept of his enter­tainment, and lodge with him. Whereunto when they had condescended, he commanded his seruants to bake them bread of the finest flower, and hauing killed and rosted a calfe, he set it before them (as they sate vnder the Oake) supposing they would eare: but they inquired of him where Sara his wife was, to whom he answered that she was within in the tent. They told him The yeare of the world. 2048. be­fore Christs birth 1916. The Angels promised A­braham that he shall haue a sonne, and foretell the de­struction of Sodome. E then that they would returne againe; and that they should find her a mother. But when his wife smiled thereat, and said that it was impossible for her to beare children; especially in that her selfe was at that time 90. yeares olde, and her husband 100. they discouered themselues, and said they were Angels of God, and that they were sent one of them to assure him that he should haue a sonne; the other two, to destroy the Sodomites. Which when Abraham heard, he was sorie for the Sodon ites, and arising, besought God that he would not destroy both the iust and the vniust to gither. To whom God gaue this answere, that there was not one iust man among the Sodomites, and that if he might but finde ten, he would spare the citie from punishment. Whereupon Abraham held his peace, and the Angels entred into Sodome: where no sooner were they arriued, but Lot inuited them to take their lodging in his house (for he was a man The Angels enter Lots house. F much giuen to hospitalitie, and such a one as for bountie had been Abrahams scholler.) But the Sodomites perceiuing that those yoong men which vvere entred Lots house, vvere of excellent beautie, began to offer outrage and villany to their persons: notwithstanding that Lot exhorted them to moderate themselues, and not to offer villanie to his guests, but in some sort to haue a respect to his house; telling them, that rather then they should continue in that intemperance, that he would giue them his daughters to vse at their pleasure. But he preuailed nothing with [Page 16] them: whereupon God was in such wise prouoked by their iniquitie, that he blinded their eies G The yeare of the world, 1948. be­fore Chri [...]s Na­ti [...]tie, 1916. The Sodomits are blinded. L [...]t and his fa­mily are saued. in such sort, as they could not find the gate to enter into Lots house, and condemned the Sodo­mites to a generall perdition. But Lot foremonished by him of their future ruine, departed from them, and tooke with him his wife and his two daughters as yet vnmaried: (for their be­trothed husbands, although they were forewarned by him, contemned & held him for a dotard.) Then did God shoote his arrow vpon the citie, burning it, and all the inhabitants therein: and desolating by the same fire all the countries round about; in such sort as it hath alreadie beene declared by me in the Historie I wrote of the warres of the Iewes. But Lots wife, as they retired thence, looking backe towards the Citie, and more curiously beholding the destruction thereof, contrarie to the commandement of God, was transformed into a piller of salt, which I haue seene, for it remaineth euen vntill this day. As touching Lot he and his daughters fledde and H dwelt in a little countrey farre from the fire, which was called Zoar (which in Hebrew signifi­eth Lot fled to Zoar. little:) In this place (which was void of men, and scant of victuals) Lot dwelled a long time, leading a solitarie and poore life: and his daughters supposing that all mankind was extinguish­ed vpon the earth, subtily circumuenting their father, they lay with him when he least suspected it, and the reason that drew them thereunto was, for that they feared least mankind should be vtterly exterminated. By this their approchment, they bare him two sons, the elder Moab (which is as much to say as of my father) and this is he that was the father of the Moabites, which euen The interpre­tation of the names of Mo­ab & Ammon. Hedio & Ruf­fi [...]us chap. 20. Genes 19. at this day are yet a great nation: and of the yoonger sister, came Ammon (which signifieth the sonne of Race or kind) and both these two nations inhabite the countrey of Coelesyria. In this sort departed Lot from the Sodomites. I

As touching Abraham, he went and dwelt in Gerar, in the countrey of Palestine; leading with him his wife Sara in manner of his sister; (vsing the same subtiltie which before time hee had practised for feare of the Egyptians:) for he feared Abimelech the king of that countrey, who surprised with the loue of Sara, would haue rauished her, had he not been hindred by a most Abimele [...]h surprised with the loue of Sara. grieuous sicknesse, which God inflicted vpon him: so that being out of all hope of recouerie, at such time as he slept, there appeared vnto him a vision, which tould him that he should take heed, least he offered any outrage to the strangers wife, who was come into his countrey: and after he was somewhat recouered, he tould his friends how God had sent him that sicknesse to warran­tise the right of the stranger, and to preserue his wife from violence; for that she was not his sister but his lawfull wife; willing Abraham thence forward to be of good cheere, promising him that K the honour of his wife was inuiolat. This said he dismissed Abraham by the counsaile of his friends; and tould him that he needed not to suspect his wife, by reason she had suffered no vil­lanie. Assuring him that God had care of her, and that he deliuered her in safetie to him (being to that end protected by his mightie power) and in confirmation thereof he called God to re­cord, and the vvomans conscience, vowing that he vvould not haue required her, if he had knowne she had been married: moreouer he required him to be at peace vvith him, and by his praiers to appease Gods vvrath, vvhich was kindled against him. And that if thenceforward he vvould stay vvith him, he should vvant nothing: or if he listed to depart, he promised him guides, and all other things, for vvhich he came vnto him. Abraham answered him, that he had in no sort dissembled vvith him as touching the alliance of his vvife; but that she vvas his brothers L daughter, and that he thought that he might not safely trauell thorough his countrey, except he had vsed that subtiltie, auowing moreouer, that he had not been the cause of that sicknesse vvhich had befalne him: but that he singularly affected his good, and vvas readie to abide vvith him. Whereupon Abimelech imparted vnto him both lands and money, and accorded to conuerse vvith him in all uprightnesse, and vvithout offer of offence, and made a couenant and sware vnto him by a certaine pit vvhich vvas called Bersabe (that is to say the pit of swearing or couenant) Bersabe the pit of swearing. vvhich name that place retaineth vntill this day. Not long time after Abraham had a sonne by Sara his vvife according as God had promised him, and he called his name Isaac (vvhich in the Isiac, laughter. Hebrew tongue signifieth laughter) because Sara laughed at such time as God said vnto her she should beare a sonne, hauing in her selfe no likelihood of conceiuing, by reason she vvas stro­ken M in yeares. For at that time she vvas ninetie yeares olde, and Abraham one hundreth vvhen the child was borne, and incontinently the eight day after vvas he circumcised; which custome is yet continued amongst the Iewes, who circumcise on the eight day.

CHAP. XIII. A

Of Ismael Abrahams sonne, and of the Arabians his posteritie. The yeare of the world. 2048. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1916. Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 21. Genes 21. The Iewes were wont to circumcise on the eight day. The Arabian [...] not before 13. yeares.

BVt the Arabians celebrate it in the thirteenth yeare. For Ismael the author thereof, and Abrahams sonne by his concubine, was circumcised in the thirteenth yeare after he was borne. Of which Ismael it behooueth we speake more exactly in this place. Sara loued Ismael (begotten on her seruant Agar) from the beginning with no lesse affection then as if he had been her owne sonne, for he was brought vp as Abrahams heire. But after she had brought foorth Isaac, she thought it no more requisite that Ismael should be brought vp with her sonne, in that he was the elder, and for feare least after his fathers decease, B he should offer his yonger brother iniurie. She incited Abraham therefore to send both him and his mother to some other place: but at the first he gaue no eare to Saraes request, thinking it to be more then barbarous crueltie, to driue away a tender child and his mother destitute of all necessaries. At length by the commandement of God he listned to his wiues counsaile, and Abraham ba­nisheth Ismael and Agar. committed the child vnto his mother (being of himselfe as yet vnapt to trauel) and giuing them a pitcher of water and bread, he commanded them to goe [...]ither, whither their necessitie should driue them. And when their victuals failed them, and their water was consumed, shee laid the childe being faint and weake, vnder an Oake; and to [...]e ende that in her presence hee should not breath his last, she went far away from him. At that time an Angell of God appeared Th Angell of God meeteth with Agar. vnto her, shewing her a fountaine hard by that place, and charging her to looke to the carefull C education of her childe: because that by the conseruation of Ismael, shee was to exspect great happinesse. Vpon these promises she tooke comfort, and falling into the companie of sheep­heards, she by their bountie escaped from miserie.

Afterwardes, when he attained mans estate, he married a wife of the nation of the Egypti­ans (from whence his mother had her originall) by whom Ismael had twelue sonnes: namely, Nabaioth, Cedarus, Abdeel, Edumas, Massamus, Memassus, Masmesus, Chodamus, Themanus, Ie­turus, The twelue sonnes of Is­mael. Genes 25. The Region of Nabathaea. Naphaesus, Calmasus (all which inhabite the lands which are betweene Euphrates and the redde sea; the name of which countrey is Nabathaea.) These are they that began and made fa­mous the nation of the Arabians, as well in respect of their prowesse, as also of the dignitie of Abraham. D

CHAP. XIIII.

Of Isaac, Abrahams legitimate sonne.

AS touching Isaac, Abraham loued him with an intire and fatherly affection, as his onely The yeare of the world, 2074. be­fore Chri [...]s na­tiuitie, 1890. begotten sonne engendred in his age by the bountie of God. The childe also addicting himselfe vnto all vertue, carefull to honour his father and mother, and studious of the seruice of God, inuited both his parents the rather to affect and loue him. So that Abraham was very desirous to forsake this present life: prouided, that he might leaue behind him all the goods which he had, vnto his sonne; which through the mercie of God he happely effected. Where­upon E (vnder triall and conformitie of his faith) God appeared vnto him, and reckoned vp all the benefits which he had bestowed on him, how he had granted him victorie ouer his enemies, and how (he had establisht and blest him with present felicitie by his fa [...]our) for which cause he required him to sacrifice and make an oblation vnto him of his sonne Isaac, commanding him that he should conduct him to the mountaine of Morea, and there to sacrifice him. In doing whereof, he should manifest the desire he had to serue him (in preferring that which was agree­able to God before the life of his sonne.) Abraham (supposing that it was no waies lawfull to Abraham [...] o­bedience. disobey God, but that he ought to submit himselfe to his will, as to him by whose prouidence all things had their being) said nothing to his wife, as concerning that which God had comman­ded him, neither how he had determined the death of his sonne. F

Moreouer, hee made it knowne to no one of his houshold seruants, because (as he sup­posed) they might haue hindered him from the seruice of God. He therefore tooke his sonne Isaac with two seruants (loading an Asse with such thinges as were requisite for sacrifice) and trauailed towardes the mountaine, his seruantes attending him for two daies space; and on the third daie following, as soone as he perceiued the mountaine, he lefte the rest of those that accompanied him in the plaine, and attended onely by his [Page 18] sonne and himselfe, he came vp vnto the mountaine (vpon which afterwards king Dauid appoin­ted The yeare of the world 2074. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1890. G that the Temple should be builded.) They caried with them also the rest of those things which were requisite for sacrifice (saue onely the beast that was to be offered) now about this time, Isaac was fiue and twentie yeares olde, and did himselfe prepare the Altar, and inquired of his father what he should offer, considering that as yet they had no sheepe for sacrifice. Abra­ham Isaac was 25. yeares old whē he should haue beene sa­crificed. answered him, that God would furnish them, who was of power sufficient, to giue men that in aboundance whereof they had neede, and to depriue them of that they had, and whereof they held themselues throughly possessed: and that it was he, would giue them wherewith to sa­crifice (if it should please him to shew himselfe fauorable, and propitious to that sacrifice of his) now as soone as the Altar was made readie, and the wood prepared and laid vpon the same, and all things were in a readines, he addressed his speech vnto his sonne and said thus. H

‘My sonne, I haue oftentimes demaunded at Gods hands that he should giue thee life, by my Abrahamsora­tion at such time as his sonne should haue beene sacrificed. infinite intercessions and praiers, and euer since thou wert borne into this world, I haue inter­mitted no care and diligence in thine education, neither haue I thought that in any thing I might be made more happie, then that departing out of this world, I might see thee at mans e­state, and leaue thee the heire and Lord of all my substance: but since it hath pleased God, that I should be thy father, and that the same God likewise now thinketh good that I should forsake thee, put vpon thee a constant mind, and take in good part that thus thou must be sacrifiecd: for in so doing I fulfill the comm [...]dements of God, who requireth at our hands that wee doe him this honour, for the fauours which he hath bestowed vpon me, in assisting me, and in fa­milier manner conuersing, and associating me both in warre and peace. Since therefore that be­ing I borne, thou art to die, (not after the accustomed manner of the liuing) but being offered in sacrifice, by thine owne father, to the generall father God: I deeme it reasonable, that since it seemeth good vnto him that thou depart out of this life, (not by sicknes, nor by warre, nor by any other inconuenience, that naturally happeneth vnto men) that it is behoofull also that thou render thy soule vnto him in the midst of praiers, and the celebration of this sacrifice, to the end he may receiue and seate thee neere himselfe: Thou shalt be my purueyor and stay of mine age (which is the cause for which I haue nourished thee, if thou leaue me God for my purueyor and comfort in thy place:’ Then Isaac with a noble heart, (like the gratious sonne of so godly a fa­ther) Isaach [...] answer. heard all that which his father said with great contentment, and answered, that he would rather neuer haue beene borne, then that he should once neglect the ordinance of God and of K his father: or shew himselfe negligent to submit his will to both their pleasures, considering that if his father onely should commaund the same, he should doe verie euill if he disobeyed him: which said, he marched towards the Altar, and offered himselfe to the slaughter: which had sure­ly happened at that instant, if God had not regarded him: for with a loud voice he called A­braham by his name, commaunding him that he should not kill his sonne, auerring that he had not giuen him that commaundement, because he tooke pleasure in humane bloud, neither for that by such impietie he would depriue him of that sonne, of whom it was his pleasure to make him the father, but that by this act he intended to proue his affection, to see whether being commaunded such a thing, he would be obedient, and for that he had made triall of his faith and readines, and his vnspeakable pietie, he did not repent him of that good he had done L vnto him: that the time should neuer be wherein he would forget to haue care of him, and his race, whensoeuer he should pray vnto him, and that when the course of his yeares were happily ouerpast, he should leaue a great signiory to those of his children, which should be good and legitimate. He tolde him moreouer, that he would multiply the race in diuers Nations, and that he would bestow great benefits vpon them, and that the memorie of the chiefe of his ofspring should be euerlasting, & that whē they had gotten the country of Chanaan by armes, they should be enuied by all men for their greatnes. After that God had spoken after this manner, it plea­sed him on the sodaine (no man knoweth how) to cause a Ramme to be seene, and found there abouts for the sacrifice, and thus (being deliuered from all euils and inconueniences beyond God offereth a Ramme to A­braham to sa­crifice in steed of Isaac. their expectations, after they had heard so many promises of so many blessings) they embraced M one another, and celebrated the sacrifice; which done, they returned towards Sara in safetie, and past the remnant of their liues in happinesse, God giuing them his blessing in whatsoeuer they vndertooke.

CHAP. XV. A

The death of Sara Abrahams wife.

NOt long time after this, Sara died, after she had liued one hundreth twentie and seuen The yeare of the world. 2087. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1877. Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 23. Genes. 23. The age of Sara. 127. yeares; and was buried in Hebron: (for the Chananeans freely offered them free bu­riall) yet Abraham chose rather to buy a place to burie in, of Ephrem a certaine Cittisen of Hebron, for fower hundreth sickles, where the monuments both of him and his posteritie are builded.

CHAP. XVI.

How the Nation of the Troglodytes came of Chetura the wife of Abraham. B

AFter this, Abraham married Chetura, by whom he had sixe children, strong in trauell, and Gen. 7. 25. 1. The originall of Troglodytes excellent in wisedome: namely Zembranes, Iazar, Madar, Madian, Lousoubac, Suus, who likewise had sons, Suus, had Sabacan & Dadanes. Of Dadanes issued Latusimus, Assu­rus, Luures. The children of Madan were Epha, Ophres, Anochus, Ebidas, Eldas. Of all these children and their successors Abraham gathered and established the Colonies which possessed the coun­trey of the Troglodytes, and all the countrey of Arabia the happie, whose confi [...]es extend e­uen vnto the red sea. Some report that this Ophres conducted an armie into Libia and possessed Libia called Africa. Alexander Po­lyhistor. the same: and that his successors (making their abode in that countrey) called it by the name of Aphrica. And this my opinion is confirmed by Alexander Polyhistor who writeth after this C maner. Cleodemus the Prophet who is also called Malchus, & hath written the actes of the Iewes, according as Moses their lawmaker hath compiled the same in writing) saith, that of Chetura there were diuers children borne vnto Abraham, and he nameth three by their names, to wit, A­pher, Surim and Iapher; and that of Surem the Assyrians tooke their name: of the two others Apher and Iapher the Citie of Affricke and the countrey of Africa take their names. That they warred with Hercules against Lybia and Antaeus, and how Hercules hauing taken Ophra his daughter to his wife, had begotten of her Dedor who was father to Sophon, from whom those Barbarians that are called Sophaces haue taken their name.’

But Abraham knowing that he should prouide a wife for Isaac his sonne, being almost fortie Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 24. Isaac marieth Rebecca. The manner of swearing a­mong the an­cient lewes. yeares olde, sent the oldest seruant of his famely to betroth and intreat for Rebecca the daughter D of the sonne of Nachor his brother for Isaac, and bound him to the performance thereof (with great othes celebrated according to these ceremonies, which were that laying their two hands one ore anothers theighes, they should call God to witnesse of there intent) he sent also straunge presents vnto them, such as were seldome seene in those parts: he then departing from him was long time vpon the way (because that in winter time it is troblesome to trauell through In the yeare of the world. 2089. before Christes Natiuity. 1875. Mesopotamia, by reason of the deep bogs, & in sommer for want of water) besides the robberies of the country, which strangers & trauellers could not possibly escape, except they stood vpon their guard, & h [...]d conuoy. Hereupon at length he arriued and entered a Citie called Carras, & being in the suburbes of the same, he encountered with diuers damsels that went to fetch water, where­upon he inwardly besought God, that if the mariage were pleasing in his sight, he might find Re­becca E amongst them, for whose cause Abraham had sent him thither to require her in mariage for his sonne: and that he might know her by this signe, that asking all the rest for water, they should refuse him, and she onely should satisfie him. Tormented and tossed with these thoughts, he appro­ched the well, and required those virgins that they would gi [...]e him drinke, which they denied him, saying that they could not get water but with great labour, which they must beare into their how­ses, and not lauishly bestow on others: whereupon one amongst them reproued the rest for that discourtesie, which they vsed towards the straunger, saying, that they had neuer beene conuersant amongst men, that refused to giue him water that requested it, wherupon she gaue him drink with an amiable countenance, and he conceiuing good hope of all his busines, yet being further desi­rous to know the euent of the matter, he praised the honestie and courtesie of Rebecca who had F not refused to trauell in her owne person to satisfie his necessitie, asking her of what parents she was, terming them happie that had such a daughter, praying God that it might please him to grant them the good hap to marrie her to their contentment, and match her with a man of ho­nest reputation, by whom she might be plentifull in good and lawfull children: Rebecca made no difficultie to tell him the names of her parents, (the better to gratefie him) neither concealed she her owne name, but answered in this sort. I am called said she Rebecca, my father was named Ba­thuel, [Page 20] who is long since dead. Laban is our brother, who together with my mother hath care of G The yeare of the world, 2089. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1875. Rebecca grows acquainted with Abra­hams seruant. all our family, and hath the charge and protection of my virginitie. Which when he vnderstood he reioiced at all that which had happened vnto him, and was comforted w [...]th those things which he had heard, perceiuing manifestly how God had prospered his iourney. Whereupon drawing out a Iewell (with certaine other ornaments, such as virgins take delight to weare) he offred them vnto the maid, telling her that he gaue her these presents in requitall of that kindnesse she had offered him in satisfying his thirst, for that she amongst so many other virgins had onely shewed her selfe affable and gracious, requiring her that he might be entertained in her brothers house, (by reason that night had depriued him of the means from trauelling any further) and that he was charged with certain Iewels of an espoused of great price, which in no place (as he said) might be in more safety then in their custody, whom in effect he had found so curteous & honest: assuring H her that the vertue which appeared in her, gaue him sufficient testimony both of the curtesy of her The talke which Abra­hams seruant had with Re­becca. mother and brother, who would not (as he supposed) take it in ill part if he were entertained: to conclude, that he would in no waies be chargeable vnto them, but would pay for his lodging and expences.

To this Rebecca answered, that he had reason to conceiue a good opinion of her parents hu­manitie, but yet did in some sort preiudice them in suspecting their liberalitie, assuring him that his entertainement should in no sort be mercenary but voluntary, and free & according to heir affection. Yet first (said she) I will certifie my brother Laban hereof, and afterwards guide and in­tertaine you in our house: which done, she conducted him into their tent commaund [...]g her brother Labans seruants to take care of his Camels, as for himselfe she entertained and feasted I him at her brother Labans table.

When supper was past, he spake both to the brother and mother of the virgin after this manner. Abraham the sonne of Thares is your cousen. For Nachor (good mistres) the grand­father of your children was Abrahams brother of one and the same father and mother. He now sendeth me vnto you, requiring you to giue this Damsell for wife to his legitimate and onely sonne, educated and brought vp to be heire of all his substance: whom although he might haue In the yeare of the world. 2124 before Chri [...] Natiuity. 1840. matcht with the richest maidens of his countrey, yet hath he refused all of them, desiring ra­ther to impart this honour to one of his kinred and nation: set not light therefore his good affection and desire. For besides all other blessings and good fortunes, which haue happily be­fallen me in this my iourney, I haue by Gods especiall prouidence, found out both the maid, and K your house. For at such time as I drew neere the Citie and beholding many virgins that went a watering, I besought God that I might light vpon this maiden, and he vouchsafed me my de­sire: Rat [...]fie therefore on your part this mariage contracted by Gods prouidence, and honour A­braham Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 28. Genes. 24. in granting your consent by this your daughters mariage, whom I am sent to request at your hands, with most intire affection. Now they in that they both allowed a thing so behoofull, and perceiued also that it was conformable to the will of God, they sent their sister vnto him vn­der the conditions demaunded: and Isaac then maried her at such time as he had the managing of Abrahams affaires, by reason that the other sonnes of Abraham were alreadie departed to take possession of their Colonies.

CHAP. XVII. L

Of Abrahams death.

AFew daies after this Abraham deceased (a man full of vertue vntill his last ende) and Abraham died after he had li­ued 175. yeares. honoured by God (according to that intire loue he had to vertue) with great affection. All the daies of his life contained one hundreth seuentie and fiue yeares, and he was buried in Hebron with his wife Sara, and by his sonnes Isaac and Ismael.

CHAP. XVIII.

Of Isaacs sonnes Esau and Iacob, and of their Natiuitie and education. M

AFter the death of Abraham, Rebecca (Isaacs wife) waxed bigge with child, and the Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 26. Gen. 25. time of her reckoning being neere at hand, Isaac was sore troubled, and sought counsell at Gods hands: who answered him, that Rebecca should bring forth two twins, and that of those two sonnes, two nations should be deriued, both which should be called by their names, and that he who seemed to be the least of them, should grow to be the greatest: not long time [Page 21] after (according as God had foretold him) she was brought a bed of two twins, the eldest of The yeare of th [...] world. 2124. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1840. A whom was verie hairy from the top of the head vnto the soale of the foote: and at such time as he issued out of his mothers wombe, his yonger brother held him by the heele. The Father lo­ued the elder, who was called Esau and Seir by reason of his haire, (which the Hebrewes call Seir in their language) but the younger who was called Iacob, was deerely beloued by his mother.

Now for that a great famine raigned in that countrey, Isaac (hauing resolued to retyre him­selfe to Egypt, by reason of the abundance and plen [...]ie of that countrey) he went and dwelt at Gerat, according as God had commanded: In which place king Abimelech receiued and enter­tained Isaac came vn­to Gerat. Gen. 26. him (according to the law of hospitalitie, and the league of friendship which was betwixt Abraham his father and him.) In the beginning therefore, he shewed vnto him great signes of B friendship; but afterwards the enuie he had conceiued, hindred him from persisting in the same: for perceiuing that God was fauourable vnto Isaac, and had an especiall care ouer him, he droue Abimelech ex­pelleth Isaac being moued the [...] eunto by enuie. Fauc [...]. him out of his countrey: but he perceiuing well that enuie had altered him, and that Abimelech began to be changed, he retyred himselfe not farre from Gerar into a place called the S [...]aights; and as he there digged to find out a watering, Abimelechs sheepheards came and set vpon him, & hindered him in such sort as he could not finish his purpose: and for that he purposely retyred from them, they verely supposed they had gotten the victorie: Anon after, when he began to digge in an other place, other sheepheards of Abimelech, outraged him anew, as at the first: for which cause he left this fountaine imperfect also; exspecting with ripe iudgement a more con­uenient oportunitie, which was afterwards offered him by reason that the king gaue him leaue C to digge, whereupon he laboured out a fountaine, and called it by the name of Rooboth, which signifieth large. And as touching the other two, he called the first of them Es [...]on, which is as much to say as strife: and the other Sienna, which signifieth hostilitie.

Thus increased he daily more and more both in power and riches. But Abimelech supposing that his affluence would be many waies hurtfull vnto him, and remembring himselfe that he had not faithfully entertained friendship with him, but in some sort giuen occasion of suspition, by meanes of some hard measure: fearing least hereafter the iniuries fresh in memory, should more distract him then their old and auncient plighted friendship; and misdoubting his reuenge, he repaired vnto him, and contracted a new league of amitie with him, leading with him one of his A [...]imelech [...]e­neweth friend­ship with Isaac. chiefest captaines, as an arbiter betweene them, by whose meanes he obtained whatsoeuer he D required, so courteous was Isaac, and so readie in memorie of his fathers olde couenant to for­giue new iniuries. And so Abimelech hauing obtained his purpose, returned to his house. Esau one of the two sonnes of Isaac (whom the father especially beloued aboue all the rest) ha­uing attained the age of fortie yeares, tooke to wiues Ada the daughter of Edom, and Alibama Esau his wiues. the daughter of Esebeon, two princes of the Chanaanites (and that of his owne [...]uthoritie, without his fathers aduise or priuitie) (who would not haue consented, had the matter beene re­mitted vnto him, because he held it inconuenient to mix and ioine him, or his, in affinitie with a­ny dwellers or inhabitants of the countrey. (This notwithstanding, he would not displease his sonne by commanding him to giue ouer his wiues: but determined with himselfe to conceale and keepe the matter silent. E

When Isaac was waxen olde and wholy depriued of his sight; he called for Esau his sonne and Genes. 27. said vnto him: That although he had not any default or blindnes in him, yet his age would hin­der him to denie that seruice, which he both ought and wished to doe: and therefore he willed him to go on hunting, and that he should make readie some meate for him, that he might eate, Isaac sendeth Esau on hun­ting. The yeare of the world, 2186. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1778. and after his repast, he might pray vnto God that it would please him to be assistant vnto him all his life time, and be a comforter and aide vnto him: protesting moreouer, that si [...]ce he was vn­certaine of the houre of his death, he thought good to blesse him, and by his prayers to procure Gods mercie towards him, before he slept with the dead. Hereupon Esau went on hunting: but [...] in the meane time (desirous that Isaacs blessing should light vpon her sonne Iacob) contra­rie to her husbands intent and mind, commanded him to go, and kill two kiddes, and prepare a F repast for his father. Iacob being obsequious and obedient to his mother in all things, fulfilled her command, and as soone as the meate was readie, he wrapped his armes and couered his Iacob by his mother [...] coun­sel stealeth his brothers bles­sing. hands with the Goates skins, hoping by the hairinesse thereof, to make his father beleeue that he was Esau. For being his brother at one and the same birth, he resembled him in all things ex­cept in this thing onely: but fearing least he should be surprised in his subtiltie before his father Isaac had finished his prayers, and in steed of his blessings he might be loaden with his curses, he [Page 22] presented the meat vnto his father. But Isaac perceiuing some alteration in his voice, calleth his G The yeare of the [...]ld 2186. be­fore Christs Na­ti [...]itie. 1778. sonne, who stretching out his hands vnto him couered with the kids skinnes▪ Thou art (saith he) more like vnto Iacob in thy voice, but by thy hairinesse, thou seemest vnto me to be Esau. Thus suspecting no deceit, and hauing alreadie eaten, he addressed himselfe to pray, and called vpon God saying. O Lord of all ages, and maker of all creatures, thou hast promised great blessings vnto my father, and hast giuen me many and present felicities, and hast vowed that thou wouldest be mercifull vnto my posteritie, and plentifully powre vpon them more and more ample benefits: let this thy fauour, I beseech thee, be continued towards me; neither despise thou me by reason of this my present weaknesse, which is the cause that I haue more need of thy helpe. Saue and keepe this my sonne by thy clemencie, warrantize him from all euill, giue him a happy life, and possession of all blessings and benefits which are in thy power to bestow vpon him: make him fear­full H to his enemies, and gracious to his friends. Thus prayed he vnto God, thinking he had bles­sed Esau. Scarce had he finished his prayers, but Esau returned from hunting, which though Isaac perceiued, he was no waies moued with displeasure, but held himselfe silent. Esau besought him Esau required a blessing. that he might obtaine as much as he had vouchsafed his brother: but Isaac denied him, in that he ha [...] bestowed all his blessings vpon Iacob: for which cause Esau lamented and wept. His father (a [...]ted and moued by his teares) foretold him that he should excell in hunting, in force of body, in armes, and other such exercises, whereby he should purchase immortall glorie both to him­selfe and his posteritie, yet notwithstanding that he should be his brothers vassall. But for that Ia­cob Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 27. feared least his brother should seeke to be reuenged of him for robbing him of his fathers bles­sing, he was by his mothers means deliuered from this perill. For she perswaded her husband to I take Iacob a wife neere allied vnto her out of Mesopotamia. Esau at that time had married an other wife called Bassemath the daughter of Ismaell: for neither Isaac nor his were well affectioned to­wards the Chanaanites: but were offended by reason of his former espousals. For which cause Esau to giue them contentment married Bassemath, whom afterward he loued more intirely then all the rest.

CHAP. XIX.

How Iacob fled into Mesopotamia for feare of his brother.

BVt Iacob being sent into Mesopotamia by his mother, vnder hope to marrie the daugh­ter K Gen. 28. of Laban her brother (whereunto Isaac consented through the counsaile of his wife) passed through the countrey of Chanaan. And for that there was a conceiued and open hatred betwixt Isaacs people and the inhabitants of Chanaan; he would not take vp his lodging amongst any of them, but lay abroad in the fields, resting his head vpon stones, which hee had heaped togither in steed of a pill [...]v: and during the time of his rest, this vision following was presented vnto him. It seemed vn [...] him, that he saw a ladder, that extending it selfe from the Iacobs ladder. earth, reached vp vnto heauen, along the steps whereof there descended certaine resemblances more excellent to looke on, then the ordinarie port of humane nature could impart; and on the top thereof God manifestly appeared, and calling him by his name, spake vnto him after this man­ner. Iacob, sure thou art the sonne of a good father, and descended from a grandfather renowned L God speaketh vnto Iacob. and famous for his great vertue: thou must not be daunted, or appauled by thy present trauels; but rather be confirmed in hope of future good hap. For by mine assistance thou shalt be bles­sed, a [...]d endowed with many benefites. For I am he that brought Abraham hither, from the countrey of Mesopotamia, at such time as he was pursued by his kinsmen: I haue also made thy father happy, and will be no lesse gracious and fauourable vnto thy selfe.

Be confident therefore, and prosecute thy iourney vnder mine assistance. The mariage which thou pursuest shall haue a happy issue, and thou shalt haue good children, who in number shall grow infinite, and shall likewise leaue after them a plentifull and famous posterity, and I wil giue them the soueraigntie ouer this countrey, both to them and their successors, and they shall peo­ple and replenish both the earth and the sea, as farre as the sunne enlighteneth the world. Let not M therefore any danger dismay thee, nor trauaile discomfort thee: for besides all this, whatsoeuer thou shalt vndertake, I will not cease to assist thee. These things did God foretell vnto Iacob, who verie highly reioycing at that which he had seene, and that which had been denounced vn­to Iacob voweth a sacrifice vnto God & calleth the place Be­thel which is ye house of God. him, annointed the stones on which the promises of so many blessings had beene made, and vowed to offer sacrifice vnto God on the same, if at such time as he had attained the good hee sought, he should grant him the grace to returne in health and safetie into his countrey: which [Page 23] as soone as he returned backe he performed, offering vnto God the tenth of all that which he The year [...] of th [...] world. 2186. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1778. Gen 29. Iacob arriueth at Charran in Mesopotamia among his mo­thers kindred. A had giuen him. And as touching the place where this vision appeared vnto him he hallowed it, and called it by the name of Bethel, which in the Greeke tongue signifieth the house of God. Continuing thus his iourney into Mesopotamia he trauelled so long, till at last he arriued at Charran, and hauing met in the suburbes of the Citie with certaine shepheards and yong men accōpanied with yong maidens, sitting neere to a certaine fountaine, he drewe neere vnto them, desiring them to giue him drinke: and falling in discourse with them, he asked them whether they knew one that was called Laban, and whether he were yet aliue. All of them answered that they knew him well, and that he was a man of that reputation that his name could not be con­cealed, that his daughter was accustomed to feede her flocke with them, and that they wondred that she was not as yet ariued: of whom (said they) thou maist perfectly vnderstand all that which B thou desirest to know. Whilest thus they past the time in talke, the Damsell drewe neere accom­panied with her shepheards: whom one of the companie informed that Iacob was inquisitiue af­ter her father; who, reioycing after the manner of young maidens, asked him what he was, and whence he came, and what necessitie had driuen him thither? wishing she had the meanes to supply whatsoeuer his necessities required. Iacob being ouercome, not by the force of affinitie, Iacobs talke with Rachel. Rachels ex­cellent beauty. or by her good behauiour and curtesie, but with the loue of the maiden was inflamed seeing her so faire and matchlesse in beautie, said vnto her. If thou art the daughter of Laban there is a greater and more ancient coniunction betwixt both thy father, thy selfe and me, then eyther thy yeares, or my birth can attaine vnto. For Abraham, Aran and Nachor were Thare [...] sonnes; Bathuel thy grandfather was Nachors sonne, Isaac my father was the sonne of Abraham, and Sara C daughter of Aran: there is yet a neerer and deerer bond of friendship wherewith we are linked one vnto another. For Rebecca my mother is sister vnto Laban thy father, borne of one father and mother; so that you and I are cosens: and therefore now am I come at this present to salute you, and renewe that auncient loue which our alliance requireth at our hands. But she remem­bring her of all those things which her father was wont to report and discourse of Rebecca, and knowing that her parents were desirous to heare some newes from her, she wept for ioy, remem­bring her of the loue of her father, & hung about his necke, and embraced the young man, and after she had saluted him she said vnto him. Thou bringest a most desired & great pleasure to my father & al his family, who neuer forgetteth thy mother, but often times maketh mention of her: & would esteeme it a great felicitie to heare tidings from her. Then desired she him presently to D follow her to her father, least any longer he might be depriued of so desired a pleasure. This said, she brought him vnto Laban, where being acknowledged by his vncle, he both by that means li­used securely amongst his friends, as also brought him great contentment, by his vnexpected ac­cesse vnto them. Some few daies after this Laban told him that he tooke so much contentment in Iacobs talke with Laban. The yeare of [...]he world. 2193. be­fore Christs birth 1771. his presence, that he could not expresse it in words, yet required he him to manifest the cause that had induced him to leaue his father and mother in their extreame age, at such time as they had most neede of him, to find him out; moreouer he promised him all assistance and fauour in whatsoeuer cause he had to make vse of him. Whereupon Iacob discoursed vnto him the whole matter, that Isaac had two sonnes, himselfe and Esau, that his brother (in that by his mothers de­uise and counsell, he had defrauded him of his fathers blessing) sought and desired to kill him, as E he that was the rauisher of that principalitie from him that was destinated vnto him by God, and the surpriser of all his fathers other intended vowes, that this, as also his mothers commaund was the cause why he came thither: by reason they are all brothers, and by reason that in especiall his mother was their neerest a kinne; telling him that next after God he hoped to finde his greatest assistance and helpe by the meanes of his vncle. Whereupon Laban promising vnto him whatsoeuer humanitie he could imagine (as well in respect of their common auncestors, as for the loue he bare vnto his mother, towards whom although she were absent, he would expresse his good affection, in shewing himselfe well affected towards him that was there present:) he told him then that he would giue him the charge of his flocke, and make him master ouer all his shepheards, and that when he should thinke good to returne backe againe to his friendes, he F should depart with such rewards and honours as might well beseeme a friend so neerely allied vnto him as he was. Which when Iacob vnderstood, he answered that he would willingly indure any sort of labour in Labans seruice, and that his deuoire towards him would be a delight to him­selfe, Iacob for re­compence re­quireth. Ra­chel for his wise. but that in lieu of his labours he required Rachel to wife, who deserued to be honoured by him with no lesse title for many causes, but in especiall for that she had brought him thither: a­uowing that the loue which he bare vnto her was the cause why he vsed those speeches. Laban [Page 24] (being highly delighted and contented with this his discourse) granted him his consent in the G The yeare of the world, 2193. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1771. mariage, telling him that he could not haue wisht for a better sonne in lawe: and that if he would soiourne a while with him, he would make him Lord of all that his heart desired, especially for that he was no waies minded to send his daughter among the Chananites; and that it repented him that (by reason of mariage) his sister had beene drawen thither. Iacob co [...]descended vpon these conditions, and couenanted to abide with him for the space of seuen yeares (for he deter­mined to serue his father in law during that terme of yeares, to the end that hauing made proofe of his vertue, it might the better appeare what he was.) Now the time which was couenanted be­tweene them being expired, and Iacob expecting the contented possession of his loue which was promised him, Laban prepared a nuptiall feast, and when the night drewe on and Iacob least sus­pected, lacob in steede of Rachel li­eth with Lea. he bringeth his daughter lesse faire in face, and more elder in yeares, and layeth her by H him, who deceiued with the darknes, and for that he had drunke liberally, lay with her: but the day after discouering the deceithe questioned with Laban and accused him, who asked him par­don, alledging the necessitie which inforced him to doe that which he did. For he had not brought in Lea vnder intent to deceiue him, but that the custome of the countrey compel­led him thereunto, yet that the same should no waies hinder him, but that he should enioy Ra­chel, and receiue, see, and haue vse of her after seuen yeares more were fully expired. Herewith Iacob grewe pacified, and suffered himselfe to be perswaded (in that the loue which he bare vnto Rachel suffered him to doe no other waies) and when the other seuen yeares were expired, he maried Rachel. Now both of these had two chambermaids which their father had giuen them, Leas maid was called Zelpha, and Rachels Bala, who were no slaues but onely subiectes. Lea was I touched with great griefe in that Iacob bare greater affection to her sister then to her selfe, be­thinking her oftentimes, that if she might haue children, she should be better esteemed and be­loued by her husband: for which cause she continually besought Almightie God that it might please him to giue her issue: whereupon it happened that God gaue her a sonne, and Iacobs af­fection was turned towards her, for which cause she called him Ruben: that is to say, the sonne of Vision, because she had obtained him thorow the mercy of God.

After him she bare three children, Simeon (whose name signifieth that, God had heard her) The explica­tion & names of Iacobs sons. Gen. 30. Rachel bringes in Iacob to Bala. Leui, (which is as much to say, as the firmenes of societie) and last of all Iuda, (which signifi­eth thanksgiuing.) At that time Rachel fearing least she should lose the better part of her hus­bands loue, by reason of the fertilitie and fruitfulriesse of her sister, caused her chambermaide K Bala to lie with him, by whom he had a sonne called Dan, that is to say, the iudgement of God: and after him Nepthalim (which signifieth ingenious) (by reason that she had vsed subtiltie to requite her sisters subtiltie.) In like sort of Zelpha he begat Gad (which signifieth aduentu­rous) Lea bringeth in Zelpha. and after him Aser (that is to say, good hap bringer) because that Lea was more honou­red by the multitude of her progeny.

Ruben, the eldest of all the sonnes of Lea, brought his mother apples of Mandragora, which The yeare of the world. 2206. be­fore Christs birth 1758. when Rachel had perceiued, she desired her to giue her a part thereof in that she longed to tast of the same: whereunto Lea would yeeld no consent, replying that she ought to contenthe [...] selfe, in that she had the prerogatiue in loue in respect of both their beloued, which was Iacob. Rachel mollifying the heart of her sister with kind words said vnto her, that she would be content that Ia­cob L Gen. 31. should lie with her for that night: which Iacob performed for the loue of Rachel, & Lea once more had children, namely Isachar which signifieth, Come by hire, and Zabulon, which importeth a pledge of good will; besides whom she had a daughter also called Dina. Not long after this; Rachel lay with Iacob, and brought forth a sonne who was called Ioseph, which name signifieth an addition. During all this time (which was for the space of twentie yeares) Iacob had the gouern­ment of his father in lawes flockes: but afterwards he thought good (accompanied with his wiues) to returne to his owne inheritance; which when his father in lawe apperceiued, he would Iacob with his wiues, childré and flocks flye without his fa­thers priuity. Rachel bea­reth away with her, her fa­thers house­hold gods. Labon pursu­eth Iacob, but God deliue­reth him from his purpose. in no sort giue his consent thereunto, for which cause he couertly determined to forsake him. To this intent he made trial of his wiues to see how theywere affected towards his flight, who hart­ned him by their consents, insomuch as Rachel hauing surprised all the Images of those Gods M which were honoured in that countrey, fled away with her sister, who both of them led with them all their children on both sides, their handmaids with the rest of all their substance: Iacob also droue away the moitie of the cattell without the witting or will of Laban. Rachel also bare with her the Images of the Gods, althongh she had beene taught by Iacob to contemne them and yeeld them no honour: but she supposed that if Laban pursued and ouertooke them, in hauing recourse to them she might obtaine pardon. But Laban a day after the departure of Iacob and his wiues [Page 25] had notice thereof; and being therewith sore aggreeued, he pursued after them, intending to The yeare of the world. 22 [...]. be­fore the Na [...]i­tie of Christ. 1758. A assaile them by force, and on the seuenth day he ouertooke them vpon a certaine hil where they sat them downe to take their rest, in that it was euening: but God appearing to him in a dreame gaue him counsell to vse no violence, neither towards his sonne in lawe, nor his daughters; but rather to pacifie his ire towards them, and to listen to a peaceable accord betwixt himselfe and Iacob: assuring him that if in contempt of Iacobs weaken esse he should lift vp his arme to assaile him, that he himselfe would ioyne with Iacob to yeeld him succours.

The next day, after that Laban had receiued this Oracle from the mouth of God, as soone as it was day he called Iacob vnto him, to the ende they might conferre together (hiding nothing from him which the night before he had beheld in his dreame.) As soone as Iacob was come vn­to him vnder safe conduct, he began to accuse him; alledging that he had receiued him into his B house, at such time as he came vnto him being poore and naked of all meanes: and how he had Labans accu­sation against Iacob. giuen him great aboundance of goods. I haue (saith hee) giuen thee my daughters in mari­age, hoping by that meanes to increase thy loue towards me more and more; but thou hast had neither respect of thy mother, neither of the acquaintance or parentage betwixt thee and mee, neither of the wiues which thou hast espoused, neither of thy children whose grandfather I am; but hast dealt with me after an iniurious and hostile manner, driuing away that which appertai­ned vnto me, seducing my daughters to abandon him that begat them, and carry away my house­hold gods with them, which both I and my predecessors haue serued and honoured; and euen as much as men of warre would not haue done vnto their enemies, that hast thou done vn­to me: yea thou that art my kinsman, my sisters sonne, the husband of my daughters, my pledge Iacobs answer: to Labans ob­iection. C and my familiar seruant, hast dealt thus with me. On the other side Iacob alleadged for himselfe, that God had not onely made impression in his heart, but that all men also are wholy addicted to the loue of their countrey; and that after so long space of time, it seemed good vnto him to visit his natiue soyle. And as concerning that crime (saith he) which thou obiectest against me, as touching the pray, if any other but thy selfe be iudge, thou shalt be conuicted to haue dealt in­iustly with me: for whereas thou oughtest to haue rewarded me, for the maintenance and in­crease I haue made of thy goods, hast thou not done vs great wrong to enuie vs a little part and portion thereof? And as concerning thy daughters, know this that they haue not followed me, by reason they haue beene conueyed away by subtiltie, but vnder that loue and duetie which ma­ried wiues beare vnto their husbands: they doe not therefore onely follow me, but they come D after their children. These things alledged he for himselfe. Further he replied and accused Laban, because that being his mothers brother, and hauing giuen his daughters to wife, he Iacobs accu­sation against Laban. had notwithstanding bitterly vexed him by his seuere commaundements, vnder which he had beene obedient during the space of twentie yeares, that the troubles he had endured vnder co­lour of mariage with Rachel had beene combersome vnto him; yet notwithstanding that it was but a trifle in respect of that which he suffered afterwards, which, had he borne him an enuious affection or hostile hatred, he could very well haue escaped. In effect Laban had dealt most Labans subtill dealing with Iacob. maliciously with Iacob. For seeing that God assisted him in all that he enterprised, Laban pro­mised to giue him all the cattell that were borne white, and sometime that which was brought forth blacke: and when as that which Iacob had named and chosen did increase, then did not E Laban performe his promise vnto him, but deferred him ouer to the next yeares increase, by reason he had alwaies a respect of the greater flocke, and promised that which he hoped would Labans coue­nant with Iacob. Genes. 32. not come to passe, and which if it fell contrarie, he was readie to infringe. And as touching the gods, he told him that he might make search for them.

This condition did Laban accept, but Rachel vnderstanding thereof, thrus [...] the said gods into a sacke, and made them to be caried on a Camels backe, and she sat vpon them, saying, that she was indisposed, by reason at that time she had her naturall purgations. And for this cause Laban desisted from searching any further, supposing his daughter being so affected would not conceale or set herself so neere things that were so sacred: and he made a couenāt with Iacob, that none of them should call to remembrance the interchangeable vnkindnesses that had F past betwixt them, but that he should cherish his daughters, all which they bound with an oath. This couenant was made vpon a certaine mountaine, where they reared a pillar in the forme of an Altar, whence it came to passe that this pillar was called Galaad, that is to say, the hill of witnes, from whence the countrey of Galaad hath taken his name euen vntill this day: and after that the alliance was made, and they had banquetted together, Laban returned backe againe into his owne countrey.

[Page 26] But as Iacob trauailed towards the countrey of Chanaan, he encountred many visions, which G The yeare of the world. 2206. be­fore Christs Na­tiu [...]. 1758. presaged vnto him good hope and fortunes to come; and he called the place where this thing hapned, the Field of God. And being desirous to know how his brother [...]sau was affected to­wards him, he sent messengers before him to sound and gather the exact truth thereof, by rea­son he stood in feare least the memone of his olde discontent should be renewed: charging his Iacob sendeth messengers to his brother Esau. messengers to signifie vnto Esau, that Iacob (deeming it to be a thing inconuenient to liue with his brother, who was displeased with him) had of his owne freewill forsaken: the countrey, and th [...]t at this present he was vpon his returne, thinking that the length of time were sufficient to proo [...]e a reconcili [...]tion betweene them. He therefore led with him his wiues and children, with all those riches which God had giuen him; offering himselfe vnto Esau with all that of most e­steeme which he had, by reason that he thought it the greatest benefite that might happen to H him, to impart vnto his brother a part of those commodities, which he had receiued at Gods hands. All which they signified vnto Esau, who reioiced verie much thereat, and went foorth to meete his brother, accompanied with foure hundred armed men. But Iacob hearing that he Genesis 38. marched forward to meete him, attended by so many men at armes, was verie much affraid: yet fixing his confidence in God, he prouided for the time, least any detriment should happen vnto him, studying euerie way to defend both him, and his from inuasion. Whereupon deuiding his [...]oupes, he caused some to march before, and the rest to follow speedily after: so that if any did assault the first, they might retire themselues to the troupe that followed.

After this maner hauing ordered all things about him, he sent certaine with presents to his brother, namely with beasts of charge, and a great number of diuers kinds of foure-footed beasts, I (which for their rarenesse might worke more content and admiration in those to whom they were presented.) All these marched one after another, to the intent, that being encountred thus in rankes, they might seeme to be of greater number then they were: to the end, that if as yet there remained any discontent in the heart of Esau, these presents might serue to mitigate the same. He commanded them also that marched formost; that they should vse courteous salutati­on Iacob reconci­leth his bro­ther with re­wards. Iacob wrastleth with an Angel and is called Israel. towards Esau. Hauing thus all the day disposed his troupes, as soone as the night was come, he caused all his companies to march, who passed the riuer of Iaboch: but Iacob, who was left hind most, was encountred with a vision, in which he wrastled with an apparition, and hee be­came victor.

Now this vision spake vnto him, exhorting him to reioice at that which had hapned vnto him, K assuring him that he had not atchieued an easie matter, but that he had surmuonted an Angell of God, which was a signe of great good which should befortune him, and that his posteritie should be inuincible, and that neuer man whatsoeuer he were, should ouercome him: com­manding him to call his name Israel, that is to say according to the Hebrewes, a resister of an Angell. These things were foretold vnto Iacob vpon his request, who perceiuing also that hee was an Angel of God, prayed him to informe him of that which should happen vnto him: which the vision did, and afterwards vanished. Iacob tooke great pleasure thereat, and called the place Phanuel, that is to say, the face of God: and for that in w [...]astling he had hurt his broad nerue, he afterwards abstained from eating of the same, and by reason thereof our nation doe neuer feede thereon. L

Now when he had intelligence that his brother neerely approched him, he commanded his wiues that they should march forward euery one with their handmaidens, to the end that they might from a farre behold the fight of the men, if so be that his brother should assaile them. But Iacob salu­teth his bro­ther Esau. himselfe he hūbled in reuerencing his brother, who drew neere vnto him, without intent of cir­cumuention: and Esau saluted him, and enquired of him as touching the companies of women and children, and after he vnderstood how all went, he was desirous to lead them to his father. But Iacob excused himselfe, by reason of the wearines of his cattell, and Esau retired to Sa [...]r where Gen. 34. he made his aboade, and had imposed that name on that countrey, by reason of his thicke haire. Iacob also retired himselfe to a place, which at this day also is called the Tents, and from thence Iacob com­meth to Sce­nas. The history of Dina, Iacobs daughter. into Sichem, a citie of the Chanaanites. M

Now at such time as the Sichemites celebrated their feast, Dina which was Iacobs only daugh­ter, went into the Citie to see the brauerie of the women of that countrey. But Sichem the sonne of king Emmor rauished her, and deflowred her: and being surprised with her loue, he be­sought his father that he might take her to wife: who listning there unto, went vnto Iacob, praying him to ioine Dina his daughter, in lawfull marriage, with his sonne Sichem. Iacob (nor daring to contradict him by reason of his authoritie and qualitie) and on the other side, not thinking it to [Page 27] be either a thing lawfull, or conuenient to match his daughter with a stranger, required at his The yeare of the world. 2206. be­fore Christs birth 17 [...]. A hands a time of deliberation to consult thereupon. Hereon the king departed, hoping that Iacob would listen to the mariage. But Iacob hauing discouered vnto his sonnes the rauishment of their sister, and the request of Emmor, desired them to deliberate amongst themselues what thing was to be done [...]n the matter: whereupon some held their peace, not knowing what to say; but Sime­on and Leui (the brothers of the same wombe, with their sister) complotted togither this practise. In as much as it was a festiuall, and that the Sichemites intended nought but pleasure and banquetting, they issued by night vpon their first guards, and killed them that were a bed; and from thence entring into the Citie, they killed all the males (and with them the king and his son) Simeon and Leui kill the S [...]chemites. Genes 35. but to the women they offered no violence. Which being executed without the knowledge of their father, they brought their sister backe againe. Iacob was verie much astonished at this ac­cident B so strangely executed, and was wroth with his children: but God appeared vnto him and comforted him, and commanded him that he should purifie his tents, and accomplish those sa­crifices which he had vowed to performe, at such time when first he went into Mesopotamia, and the vision appeared vnto him. Whilest then he cleansed those which followed him, he found the Gods of Laban, which beside his knowledge Rachel had stolne, and hid them in Sichem in the earth vnder an Oake. Iacob digging vp Labans god [...], goeth and sacrificeth at Bethel. Rachel dieth in childbed. Hedio & Ru [...] ­finus. chap. 28.

Afterwards departing from thence, he sacrificed in Bethel, where he had seene the vision; at such time as he first of all tooke his iourney into Mesopotamia: and as he trauailed in the land of Ephrata, Rachel died in child-bed, and was buried there: (and she onely hath not enioyed the honour, which is done in Hebron to those of her parentage.) After he had made great lamen­tation, C he named the child which she bare at that time, Beniamin, (by reason of the dolours which hapned vnto his mother). These are all the children of Iacob, twelue males and one daughter, of whom eight were begotten on his lawfull wiues, sixe of Lea, and two of Rachel, and on their chamber-maides, foure; two of each of them, whose names I haue heretofore recorded. From thence went Iacob to Hebron a Citie of Chanaan, where Isaac made his aboade, and they liued but a small time together, because Rachel was dead and departed from him.

CHAP. XX.

Isaac dieth and is buried in Hebron.

ISaac died a little time after the arriuall of his sonne, and was buried with his wife by his The yeare of the world, 2230. be­fore Christs birth, 1734. Isaac dieth 185 yeares old. Gen. 35. D sonne in Hebron, among their fathers. This Isaac was a man beloued of God; and gui­ded by his especiall prouidence. After the decease of Abraham, he liued a long time: and after he had passed his life in all vertue for the space of 185. yeares, he deceased.

THE SECOND BOOKE OF THE ANTIQVITIES OF THE E IEWES,

The Contents of the Chapters of the 2. booke.
  • 1 How Esau and Iacob, Isaacs sonnes, deuided their habitations, and how Idumaea fell to Esaus lot, and Chanaan to Iacobs.
  • 2 How Ioseph the yongest of Iacobs sonnes, by reason of his dreames which foretold his future fe­licitie incurred his brothers enuie.
  • 3 How Ioseph was sould by his brethren into Egypt, and grew in great authoritie in that countrey, F and how at length he had his brothers vnder his power.
  • 4 How Iacob with all his progenie came vnto his sonne.
  • 5 Of the affliction of the Hebrewes in Egypt, for the space of 400. yeares.
  • 6 How vnder the conduct of Moses, they forsooke Egypt.
  • 7 How the redde sea diuided it selfe, and gaue the Hebrewes a passage at such time as they fled out of Egypt.

CHAP. I. G

How Esau and Iacob, Isaacs sonnes, deuided their inheritance: and how Idumaea fell to Esaues lot, and Chanaan to Iacobs. The yeare of the world, 2230. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1734. Isaacs sonnes departed their habitations.

BVT when Isaac was dead, the sonnes deuided their habitations among them­selues, and were neither of them content with that which they inherited by their father: but Esau leauing the Citie of Hebron to his brother, went and dwelt in Seir; and was Lord of the countrey of Idumaea, which he named by his name (for it was surnamed Edom) for the occasion which followeth. He being verie yong, returned one day sore wearied, trauailed, and hungrie H from hunting; and finding his brother dressing for himselfe a messe of lentill pottage, which were verie red in colour, and further increased and incensed his appetite; he required them at his hands, that he might eate them. But he taking the oportunitie and occa­sion of his brother Esaues hunger, constrained him to forsake his birth-right, and to sell him the same, on condition, he should giue him what to eate. Esau then transported with famine, sur­rendred Esau the first begotten, s [...]l­leth his birth right. Esau called Edom. Gen. 36. Esaus sonnes and posterity. vnto him his birth-right, and confirmed it with a solemne oath. And thereupon, his e­quals in age, in way of mockerie, called him Edom, by reason of this redde meate: for Edom in Hebrew, signifieth Red. His countrey likewise was called Edom: but the Greekes, to the ende they might make the name more currant, called it Idumea. He became the father of fiue chil­dren, of whom he had three by his wife Alibamma, whose names were Iaus, Iolamus, and Chorae­us: I as touching the other two, Aliphaces was the sonne of Aza, and Raguel of Mosametha: these children had Esan. Aliphaces had fiue legitimate children, Theman, Omar, Ophus, Iotham, Oca­uaxes (for Amelech was illegitimate, borne by one of his concubines, whose name was Themana.) The [...]e dwelled in that part of Idumaea, which is called Gobolitus; and in that part, which by rea­son of Amelech, is called Amelechitis. For Idumaea being in times past a land of great extent, continued the name of Idumaea thorough the whole countrey: and the particular p [...]ouinces of the same, kept the names of those that first inhabited the same.

CHAP. II.

Ioseph the yongest of Iacobs children, is enuied by his brothers. K

BVt Iacob attained to that felicitie, that scarcely any other hath been so happy; for he The yeare of the world. 2206. be­fore Christs birth 1658. surpassed all the inhabitants of that countrey in riches: and by reason of the vertues of his children, he was both enuied, and regarded. For they were accomplished in all perfections, animated and endowed with stout hearts; prepared to execute any worke of the hand, and to indure all sorts of trauell: finally, all of them were furnished with knowledge and prouidence. But God had such care of him, and so diligently procured and fur­thered Gen 37. Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 2. his good fortunes, that that which seemed vnto him to be griefefull and contrarie, hee brought to an issue prosperous for him; and increasefull for his riches: and brought to passe, that both he and his children were the first motiue to our auncestors to forsake the land of Egypt, L for that cause which here insueth. Iacob hauing begotten Ioseph of Rachel, loued him intirely, both in respect of the beautie of his body, as also of the ornaments and vertues of his spirit: and besides both these, his prudence, wherein he outstripped all his other brothers. This cordiall af­fection Iacobs sonnes hated their brother Io­seph. of his father, moued enuie and hatred amongst his brothers towards him. And besides these, the dreames which he had seene, and told both to his father and brethren; which forepro­phecied vnto him a singular felicitie. For it is the common custome of men to be iealous of their prosperitie, with whom they are familiar.

Now the visions which Ioseph saw in his dreame, were these. Being sent by his father in the companie of his brothers, to reape come in the time of haruest, he saw a vision (farre different Iosephs dreame. from those which accustomably happen in sleepe) which (as soone as he awoake) he told vnto his M brethren, to the end, they should interpret it. He told them therefore, that him thought in his dreame the night past, that his sheafe of corne was setled in a place where he had fixed it, and that theirs ranne towards his, and worshipped the same. Which vision of his, seemed to fore­tell him of his ample fortune; and how he should obtaine the Lordship ouer all of them: But they concealed all these things from Ioseph, making shew that they could in no sort interpret the dreame: but being by themselues apart, they breathed foorth contrarie imprecations; wishing [Page 29] that nothing of that which they interpreted as touching his dreame, might take effect, but per­seuering A The yeare of the world. 2206. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1758. Iosephs dreame of the Sonne, Moone and Starres. more and more in enuie and hatred towardes him. But God (opposing his pow­er against their enuie) sent Ioseph a second and more strange vision. For he dreamed that the sunne, the moone, and eleuen of the starres descended downe to the earth, and hum­bled themselues before him. Which vision he reuealed to his father in the presence of his brethren (without suspition of any hatred in them towards him) and besought him to interpret vnto him the meaning thereof. Now as touching Iacob, he greatly reioiced at this dreame, by The interpre­tation of Io­sephs dreame. reason he conceiued in his mind the interpretation thereof, and (in comparing and alluding his coniectures not rashly, but with prudence) he reioiced at those great matters which were signi­fied by that dreame: which foretold, that his sonne Ioseph should be highly fortunate, and hap­py; and that the time should come in which his father, mother, and brethren should honor him, B and worship before him. For he compared the moone (which ripeneth and encreaseth al things that grow) to his mother: and the sunne (which giueth forme and force) to his father. And as touching his brothers, who were eleuen in number, he compared them to the eleuen starres, (which receiued their force both from the sunne and moone.) Neither did Iacob without iudge­ment and consideration so interpret this vision. But Iosephs brothers were highly aggrieued at this presage, conceiuing as hainously and hatefully thereof, as if this felicitie had been portended to a stranger, and not to their brother, with whom they might equally partake his good fortunes Iosephs bro­thers complot his death. whatsoeuer, being as well allied in felicitie vnto him as in consanguinitie. Whereupon they re­solued on his death and destruction, and hauing complotted these counsailes amongst them­selues, and gathered in their haruest, they retired themselues with their flockes towards Sichem Sicima a fit place to grase in. C (which was a part of that countrey) verie fit to nourish and feede their cattell, where they kept their flockes without giuing any notice of their departure to their father. But he perceiuing that no man came from the herd, that might tell him any tydings, being sorrowfull and carefull of his sonnes, he sent Ioseph to the flocks, to vnderstand how they did, and how their affaires pros­pered.

CHAP. III.

How Ioseph was solde into Egypt by his brethren, and grew in great credit in that countrey: and how his brethren at length were vnder his subiection.

BVt as soone as they saw their brother comming towards them, they reioiced, not as at Ioseph com­meth vnto his brothers, who resolue to murther him. D the arriuall of one of their houshold friends sent vnto thē by their father, but as if their enemie had encountred them; who by the will of God was deliuered into their hands. They therefore mutually agreed to put him to death, and not to let slip the present oportunitie. But Ruben the eldest amongst them seeing their disposition and conspiracie to kill him, ende­uoured Ruben dissw [...] ­deth his bro­thers death. to disswade them; setting before their eies how hainous and wicked the enterprise was, and what hatred they might incurre thereby. For (said he) if before God and before men it be a wicked and detestable thing to lay hands on, and to murther a stranger: how much more haynous a crime will it be helde for vs, to be conuicted to be the murtherers of our brother? whose death will heape sorrow on our fathers head: and draw our mother into great griefe and E desolation thorough the losse of her sonne, robbed and bereft from her beyond the ordinarie course of men. For which cause he praied them to be aduised in these things, & that they would consider in their mindes, what thing might happen, if this child, who was faire, vertuous and yoong, should be done to death: praying them to giue ouer this vnnaturall resolution, and to feare God, who was both the iudge and witnesse of their deliberation intended against their brother: and that if they would desist from this haynous act, God would take pleasure in their The yeare of the world, 2217. be­fore Christs na­tiui [...], 1747. repentance and reconcilement; but if they proceeded in their enterprise, he assured them that he would punish them like fratricides; since nothing is hidden from his prouidence, whether it be committed in the desart, or attempted in the Citie. For wheresoeuer men are, there is it alwaies to be thought, that God likewise is. Further, that when they should haue perpetrated this fact, F that they should alwaies haue their consciences as an armed aduersarie against them, which ne­uer would forsake them, whether they were good, or whether such as theirs would be, if they should fortune to murther their brother. Furthermore he alleadged, that it was an impious fact to kill a mans owne brother, although he had done him iniurie; and much more meritorious to forgiue a mans friend, that had offended against him. Moreouer he said, that Ioseph had done them no wrong, whose tender yeares rather required care and compassion at their handes, [Page 30] then hate and tyrannie. Besides that, the cause of his slaughter would aggrauate their offence, G The yeare of the world 2217. be­fore Christs Nae­tiuitie. 1747. if it should be knowen that for enuie of his future felicitie they should take away his life; all which good happe they likewise might participate by reason of consanguinitie, and that it was their dutie to thinke, that whatsoeuer blessing God imparted to, Ioseph was theirs; & that for that cause they were to imagine, that God would be more displeased against them, if they should endeuour to depriue him of his life, whom he had esteemed and adiudged worthy of pros­peritie to come. Ruben alledging these and many other things, besought them and laboured to diuert them from shedding their brothers bloud, but seeing that all these his motiues could in no sort mollifie them, but that they hastened the rather to commit and perpetrate the mur­ther; he counselled them that at least wise they should allot him some milder kinde of death. Telling them that he endeuoured all what in him lay at the first to disswade them, but since it H was throughly resolued among them that he should not liue, that lesse mischiefe should follow of it, if they would be ruled by his counsell, for by that meanes their will should haue effect, yet a more milde and lesse hurtfull in comparison of murther: that it were better for them to Ruben perswa­deth them to cast Ioseph in­to a pit. Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 3. temper their hands, and keepe them immaculate, by casting him into the next pit, and there leauing him in the hands of death: to this counsell all of them agreed. So Ruben tooke Ioseph and bound him with cords, and let him downe easily into a pit which was drie, which done, he departed to seeke out a more conuenient place for pasture.

But when Ruben was gone, Iuda one of Iacobs sonnes (espying certaine merchants of Ara­bia, Genes 37. 39. of the countrey of the Ismaelites, who from the countrey of Galadena caried Spicerie and Syrian merchandise into Egypt) he counselled his brothers to draw vp Ioseph out of the well, and I Ioseph by Iu­das counsell is sold to the A­rabian mer­chants. to sell him to those Arabians, assuring them that by that meanes it would come to passe that Io­seph should die, the farther off from them amongst straungers; and as touching themselues, they should be exempt from that pollution: which counsell of his being commended by them all, they drew Ioseph out of the pit, and sold him to the Arabians for the summe of twentie sil­uerlings, at such time as he was seuenteene yeares of age. Now had Ruben resolued in himselfe to saue Ioseph without his brothers priuitie, for which cause comming by night vnto the pit, he cal­led him with a loud voice, & seeing that he gaue him no answer, he began to coniecture with him­selfe Ruben by night commeth to the pit. that his brethren had done him to death, he reproued them therefore verie bitterly; but af­ter they had told him what was become of him, he gaue ouer his mourning. After these things were thus brought to passe, the brethren consulted amongst themselues in what sort they might K cleere themselues from their fathers suspition, and conclude among themselues to teare the coat wherewith Ioseph was attired, at such time as he came vnto them, and which they had taken from him, when they cast him into the well, to the end that hauing defiled it in the bloud of a Goate, they might afterwards beare it vnto their father and shew it him, to the ende he might suppose that Ioseph was slaine by wild beastes; which done, they came vnto the olde man (not altogether ignorant of his sonnes misfortunes) and told him that they had not seene their brother Ioseph, neither could they assure him what mishappe had befallen him; but that notwithstanding they had found his Ierkin altogether bebloudied and torne, which made them suspect that he was slaine by some wilde beastes, if so be he were sent vnto them attired in that coate.

But Iacob (that hitherto expected and hoped for more succesfull tidings, in that he supposed L Iosephs bro­thers perswade his father that he is deuou­red by wild beasts. and hoped that Ioseph had onely beene captiue) gaue ouer this opinion, and tooke the coate for a most assured testimonie of his sonnes death; for he knew that he was apparelled therewith at such time as he sent him to his brothers, for which cause he lamented Ioseph, from that time forward as being dead, and as if he had not any more sonnes. And such was the griefe of his heart, that he conceiued no consolation in the rest, but suffered himselfe to be perswaded by the brothers, that Ioseph had beene slaine by sauage beastes: he therefore sat him downe be­ing clothed in sackcloth, and charged with sorrow; and neither could his sonnes by their Iacob be wai­leth Ioseph for dead. Ioseph is sold in Egypt to Putifar. counsels mittigate his moanes, nor he himselfe remit the rigor of his Iamentation.

Now Ioseph was sold by the merchants and bought by Putiphar (an Aegyptian Lord, and a steward of King Pharaos houshold) who held him in high estimation, and trained him vp M in all liberall sciences, suffering him to liue not after a seruile, but liberall manner, and com­mitting vnto his charge the care of all his houshold, all which fauours he made vse of. Yet was he no waies diuerted by these his priuiledges and promotions from his innated vertue; testifying hereby, that prudence doth not submit to aduerse fortune, if a man vse the same orderly, and not at that time onely when fortune fauneth and flattereth. Putifars wife soliciteth Io­seph to lie with her.

It fortuned not long after, that his masters wife was enamoured with him, both in respect [Page 31] of his beautie, as also of his dexteritie and diligence, supposing that if she opened her minde The yeare of the world. 2217. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1747. A vnto him, she might the more easily enioy him, and that he might esteeme it a part of his feli­citie, to be beloued by his mistres. All which she supposed and imagined, hauing onely regard of that seruile condition, wherein at that present he was, and not of his manners which con­tinued alwaies intire; notwithstanding any chaunge that could happen vnto him: for which cause she discouered vnto him her desire, and desired him to grant her an amorous encountrey; but he refused her demaund, alledging that it were a most wicked requital of him towards his master, if it should come to passe that he who had bought him, & so greatly honored him, should receiue so great an iniurie and outrage: for which cause he exhorted her: to conquer her appe­tite, depriuing her of all hope of euer compassing her concupiscence, alledging vnto her, that desire is then lesse actiue when hope is extinguished; auowing that he had rather suffer all the B mischiefes that might be imagined, then to consent or condescend vnto her in that wickednes. And although (said he) it be vndecent for a seruant to contradict the will of his mistres, yet that the filthines of the fact did disswade him from attempting the same. But this his repulse did more and more inflame her, for that she supposed that Ioseph should not denie her: and her dis­ordinate affections increasing daily, she deuised and complotted a new meanes in hope to bring Putifars wife complotteth a second subtilty to allure Io­seph. her loue to her desired issue.

Whereas therefore a solemne and publike feast was at hand, wherein according to custome, the Ladies were wont to dignifie the solemnitie by their assistance: she fained a sicknes, perswa­ding her husband thereunto, hoping by that meanes she might haue the better opportunitie (in being solitarie and alone) to solicite Ioseph, which falling out accordingly (as she had her selfe de­sired) C she began to court and compasse him by these flattering and fawning allurements and per­swasions. Telling him that he had done well if vpon her first request he had obeyed her without any cōtradiction, in respect of her dignitie who required the same, & her incredible passion which had so farre commaunded her, that notwithstanding she were his mistres, she should indignifie and forget her selfe so much as to solicite him: that now he should behaue himselfe more wisely and better, if in amends of his forepassed obstinacie he now at last would consent. For if he re­spected this her second sommons, it was farre more affectionate and importunate then the for­mer, for (saith she) I haue fained sicknesse to this ende, to solicite and preferre thy company be­fore a publike triumph. Or if at first thou didst mistrust me, thou maist hereby conceiue that I doe not maliciously tempt thee, in that I yet continue in the same affection. For which cause ey­ther D make choise of this present pleasure, and be obsequious to her that loueth thee, vnder hope of further preferments, or be assured of my hate and reuenge if thou preferrest thy opinion of chastitie before my fauour. For be assured that thy chastitie shall profit thee nothing, if I shall accuse thee to my husband, and auow that thou hast sought to violate me: for although thy al­legations be more true, yet shall my words be of more force, and my accusations more accep­table in Putifars eares then thine. But neither by these words, nor her teares the witnesses of her vowes, could Ioseph be peruerted, neither could remorse ouerworke him, nor terrour com­pell Ioseph once more repul­seth the as­saults of her lust. him to forsake his purposed chastitie, but that he constantly resisted against those iniust af­flictions, wherewith she threatened him: choosing rather to suffer any misery whatsoeuer, then to be prisoned with the possession of her offered adulteries, being well assured that he was wor­thie E of extreame punishment, if on a womans intreatie he should condescend to any such tre­chery. He likewise admonished her of her duetie, alledging the lawes, rights, and customes of matrimonie, willing her rather to respect them, then her momentanie lust: for that the one was speedily followed with repentance, proceeding so dainly of griefe, not amendement of sinne, with a continuall and great feare likewise, least the fact should be discouered: whereas the com­pany she might haue with her husband, was void of daunger, and attended by a conscience, as well before God as men. Moreouer, that it was more conuenient for her to gouerne and com­maund him as his Ladie & Mistres, rather then to be shamed in making him the secretary of their common sinne: for that it is more conuenient to be assured in the confidence of a good life, then in secret to commit sinne. In these and such words sought he to abate the brunt of her fu­rious F affections, and to reuoke her from her depraued fansies, to submit to the law of reason; but she, the more instantly he disswaded, the more earnestly inuaded him; and where by no meanes she could peruert him by words, she laid violent hands vpon him, to constraine him perforce: but Ioseph (vnable to indure any longer the intemperancy of the woman, leauing his garment Ioseph leauing his rayment behinde him fled from the adulteresse. behind him whereby she held him) brake sodainly out of the chamber. She partly impelled by the griefe of repulse, partly affrighted with feare, least her lasciuiousnes should be made knowen [Page 32] to her husband, decreed first of all falsely to accuse Ioseph, and by this meanes to take reuenge G The yeare of the world, 2217. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1747. vpon him; holding it to be a craft worthy a womans wit, to anticipate and first of all accuse her accuser. She therefore sat her downe sad and perplexed, colouring the griefe of her defrau­ded lust vnder the cloake of indignation for her attempted honour, and violated chastitie. Now when her husband came home, and (being troubled in mind to behold these her ago­nies) demaunded the cause thereof: Liue thou no longer (said she) my husband, except thou The adulteresse accusation a­gainst Ioseph. rigorously punish that wretched slaue, who attempted to violate thy bed, forgetting both what he was whē he came into thy house, & with how great beneuolence thou hast intertained him, yea who was to be esteemed more ingrate then ingratitude, except euery way he approued himselfe faithfull vnto thee: yet hath he not forborne to offer iniury, no not to thine owne wife; and that which is more, on a holy day, & in thine absence; wherby it manifestly appeareth that the modera­tion H which hitherto he pretēded, rather proceeded of seruile feare, then natiue modesty. And that which hath the more emboldened him, is in that (besides all hope, and beyond his merit) thou hast fauored him: for seeing all thy goods were committed to his trust & dispensation, and perceiuing that he was preferred before all thine ancient seruants, he thought it lawfull likewise for him to at­tempt and outrage thy wife: and to procure more credit to her words, she produced his garment, which (as she said) he left behind him at such time as he sought to violate her. But Putiphar intan­gled by the words & teares of a woman, and attributing too much to his wiues dissembling loue, omitting the further and faithfull inquisition of the truth, after he had first of all praised his wiues faith & loyaltie, he cast Ioseph thus condemned of hainous wickednes into the prison of malefac­tors, esteeming his wiues chastitie, and commending it the more, in that he was now made a wit­nes I of her approued honestie. Ioseph is cast into prison. Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 4. Gen. 39.

But Ioseph committing his innocency vnto God, neither tooke care how to excuse himselfe, neither to expresse how the matter fell out: but silently suffering the necessitie of his bonds, he was onely comforted with this one hope, namely that God was more powerfull, then they that had imprisoned him: whose prouidence he presently experimented. For the keeper of the pri­son Iosephs pati­ence in bonds. The keeper of the prison dea­leth friendly wi [...] Ioseph. considering both his faith and diligence in all that wherein he imployed him, as also the dig­nity of his forme, loosed him out of bonds, and by that meanes in some sort lesned his misery, gi­uing him also an allowance more liberall then the rest of the prisoners had. Now when they that were in the prison (as often as they had intermission from their labor) conferred together (as men in misery are wont to do) and questioned among themselues of the cause of their damnation: K a certaine butler neere about the King (condemned by him in displeasure to be cast into Irons) grew familiar with Ioseph; and for that he accounted him to be a prudent and prouident man, he told him his dreame, praying him that if any presage might be gathered thereby, that he would expound it vnto him, lamenting his misfortune, who not onely was persecuted by the kings dis­pleasure, but also when he should take his rest, troubled from heauen by dreames. For he said that in his sleepe he beheld three great clusters of grapes, hanging on three seuerall branches of a vine, which were all ripe and readie to be gathered, and that him thought he pressed them in­to a cup which the king held, and that afterwards hauing strained the must, he offered it to the King, and that he willingly dranke thereof: now when he had shewed him his dreame, he desi­red him that if he had any knowledge giuen him from God, he would vouchsafe to interpret his L vision vnto him. Ioseph answered him that he should be of good courage, willing him to expect, The butlers dreame ex­pounded. The yeare of the world. 2238. be­fore Christs birth 1736. for that within three daies he should be deliuered from his bonds, and be admitted againe to the kings seruice, and restored to his former credit. For he interpreted that the vine bringeth forth a fruit verie good and profitable for mans vse, for that by the mediation thereof faith and friend­ship is fixed and confirmed amongst them, and discords dissolued: furthermore that troubles and sorrowes were asswaged by the vse thereof, in stead of which pleasures succeeded. This said he, as thou tellest me that the king receiued being pressed out by thy hands. Know therefore that thou hast a good dreame offered thee, and that it signifieth thy deliuerance from misery within three daies, according to the number of those clusters which thou gatheredst in thy dreame. Remember me therefore I pray thee, as soone as the euent hath approued this my pre­diction M to be faithfull and vnfained; and when thou art at liberty, forget vs not that are left here to lye in misery, who departest to enioy thy foretold felicitie; for I am not here thrust into bonds for my wickednes, but I am punished like a malefactor for my vertue and modesty, in that I ra­ther respected the honour of the house in which I liued, and his credit who committed me to [...]n the yeare of the world. 2228. before Christes Natiuity. 1726. prison, then mine owne pleasure. And thus the butler as it became him, reioyced at the inter­terpretation of his dreame, and expected the euent. Now a certaine other seruant, who had the [Page 33] commaund of the kings bakers, and liuing in the same prison with the butler, conceiuing some The yeare of the world. 2228. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1736. The Bakers dreame. A hope thorow Iosephs so happie interpretation (for that he likewise had seene a vision) desired him to expound vnto him what interpretation was to be had of a dreame, which he had the night past, which he expressed in these words. Me thought (said he) that I carried three baskets on my head, of which, two were replenished with bread, and the other with flesh (and diuers other kinds of acares, such as are prepared for kings.) But the birdes of the ayre houering round about me, deuoured all the victuals, being nothing appauled by me, although I droue them from thence. Which said, he expected a presage no lesse fortunate then the former.

But Ioseph (after he had coniectured vpon the circumstances of the dreame, and foretold him The expositi­on of the Ba­kers dreame. that he would rather haue informed him of more succesfull fortunes, then his dreame did in­tend:) told him that he had onely two daies left him, wherein he was to liue. For these were de­signated B by the two baskets: but by the third, that he should be hanged and deuoured by the foules, which he could not driue from him. Neither did it otherwise fall out with both of them, then Ioseph had foretold: For vpon the prefixed day, the king (celebrating the feast of his nati­uitie) commanded that the baker should be hanged: but as touching the butler, he deliuered him from his bonds, & restored him to his former office. But God deliuered Ioseph (after he had Genes. 41. for the space of two yeares spent his time in the misery of the prison: and was in the meane space no waies assisted by the vngrateful butler) by preordinating this meanes and maner of his liber­tie. Whereas king Pharao had that night in his sleepe seene two visions, and had also recei­ued the interpretation thereof, forgetting the one, he only remembred him of the dreams, which Pharao the King of Egypts dreame. in his opinion had no fortunate signification. Whereupon early in the morning (calling before C him the learnedst amongst the Egyptians) he required the interpretation thereof. Now when he could in no sort be satisfied by them, the king was the more and more moued: which when the butler apperceiued, he remembred him of Ioseph, and of his wisedome and prudence in these sorts of coniectures; and repairing vnto the king told him of Ioseph and of his vision, and the euent thereof, which he had whilest he was in prison, together with Iosephs interpretation; and how the same day, the master of the bakers condemned to the gallowes, gaue greater cre­dit to his predictions: how he was kept prisoner as a slaue by Putifar the master of his houshold, and that he said how amongst the Hebrewes he was descended of good and honourable parents. Command him therefore (said he) to be sent for, neither despise the man for his present miserie, for thou maiest manifestly vnderstand by him, the signification of thy dreames. Whereupon D the king sent for him presently, and friendly taking him by the hand, he spake vnto him after Ioseph is deli­uered from bonds this maner: Good yoong man, in that I vnderstand by the report of my seruant, that thou art prudent; shew me the interpretation of my dreames in such manner as thou discoueredst his vn­to him, and thou shalt doe me a hie pleasure: but beware thou neither conceale any thing for feare, or speake ought for flatterie, or to feed me with falsehoods, but tell me all things truely, although they shall in a sort breed my discontent to heare them. Me seemed that I walked by a Pharaos dreame of the seuen kine. riuer side, and that I saw seuen wel fed and verie fat kine, which retired themselues from the floud into the pasture: and againe, me thought that seuen others came from the pasture to encounter them, who were verie leane and vgly to behold, who when they had deuoured the seuen others The yeare of the world, 2231. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1733. that were fat and great, yet neuer the more increased, but were all of them miserably vexed with E hunger. But after this vision being awaked out of my sleepe, and troubled in my minde, think­ing with my selfe, what that vision might signifie, being seazed by little and little by a pleasant slumber, I fell a sleepe once againe. And againe, I saw a vision more prodigious then the former, The yeare of the world. 2238. be­fore Christs birth 1726. which doth likewise trouble and terrifie me the more. For I saw seuen eares sprong out of one roote, that hung downe and bowed their heads, because they were loaden with graine readie to be reapt: after which, there appeared seuen other, weake, and languishing for want of dewe, who deuouring those other great and full eares, left me highly astonished. Hereunto Ioseph answe­red: This dreame (O king) although it hath been seene in two figures, yet so it is that it importeth The interpre­tation of Pha­raos dreame. one and the same accident, which is to ensue. For both those oxen (which are creatures borne and bred vp for the plough and labour) which you saw deuoured by the leaner, and those eares F of corne consumed by the weaker; foresignifie a famine & scarcitie in Egypt for so many yeares, as there were Oxen and eares of corne in good plight: so that the fertilitie of these good yeares shall be consumed by the sterilitie of so many other yeares, according to their number; and there shall be such scarcitie of necessarie prouision, that it shall be hard to preuent and supply their de­fects, all which is signified by those seuen leane kine, who, hauing deuoured the good, could not be satisfied by the same. All these things God foretelleth vnto men, not to the end they should [Page 34] be terrified and affrighted; but that being forewarned, they might prouide for themselues, to G The yeare of the world, 2238. be­fore Christs birth 1726. By Iosephs counsell the succeeding scarcitie is made more tollerable. the end they might more easily preuent the imminent danger If therefore thou shalt lay vp and store the aboundance of the plentifull yeares, Egypt shall not feele the penurie that shall follow. And when as the king (admiring at Iosephs prudence and wisedome) demanded after what maner he might prouide in the time of plentie, how to preuent and redresse, the future sterilitie: hee warned and counsailed him, that the Egyptians should vse parcimony, and that that which re­mained of those yeares superfluitie, might be reserued for future necessities. He counselled him also to bind the husbandmen, that they should hoard vp their corne in their barnes, and only to distribute to the people as much as was sufficient, and no more. Hereupon the king (not onely praising Iosephs counsell, but also his interpretation of his dreames) made him Lord and com­missarie of all the store; and commanded him to prouide whatsoeuer he thought necessarie in H that behalfe, either of his owne or of the peoples: assuring him that he thought no man more necessarie to execute this counsell, then himselfe who was the author thereof. Hauing therefore Ioseph is en­titled by Pha­rao to great honours. this authoritie giuen him by the king to vse his owne signet, and to be cloathed in purple, he was conducted thorow all the countrey vpon a chariot: and he assembled the labourers of corne, and distributed to euerie one by measure, that which they wanted for seede corne, and for their nourishment, without letting any man vnderstand for what cause he did it. Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 5.

About this time had he already attained to thirtie yeares olde, being held in great honour by the king, and was for his incredible prudence, surnamed by him Psontom phanechus, which sig­nifieth the discouerer of hidden things: he was also honoured with a wife of great dignitie, for by Ioseph marieth a wife in Egypt on whom he begat Manas­ses & Ephraim the procuratiō of the king, he tooke to wife a virgin, daughter to Putifar the Heliopolitan priest, I whose name was Asaneth, by whom he begat children also, before the famine began in Egypt. The elder of whom was called Manasses, which signifieth Obliuion (because attaining better for­tune, he grew in obliuion of his former miserie:) but the yonger was called Ephraim (which sig­nifieth returne, for that he was restored to the libertie of his auncestors.) Now when as accor­ding to Iosephs interpretation, the seuen yeares of plentie and affluence were ouerpassed in E­gypt; the eight yeare of famine began to infest the land: and for that the euill was vnexspected, The famine in Egypt. the headlong multitude grieuously trauailed with hunger and miserie, began to flocke about the kings gates and garners. Hereon the king called for Ioseph, who presently distributing graine to those that wanted it, became without controuersie, the father and conseruer of the cōminaltie. Neither did he only make merchandize with those that inhabited that countrey: but with stran­gers K also, deeming that the whole race of mankind was allied the one with the other; and that it was conuenient, that such as wanted should be succoured by their meanes, who had better for­tune. And because the same calamitie both oppressed Chanaan and other kingdomes of the world, Iacob also sent all his sonnes into Egypt to fetch come; (as soone as he vnderstood that Iacob sendeth his sonnes into Egypt to buy wheat. strangers also had libertie to traffique in that place) onely with himselfe he retained Beniamin, whom he begat on Rachel, and who was brother german vnto Ioseph: who as soone as they arri­ued in Egypt, repaired vnto Ioseph, beseeching him that they might be permitted to buy come, (for nothing was done without his expresse command) for euen then found each man fit occasi­on Genesis 42. to honour the king, when they bethought themselues howe to honour Ioseph. He taking knowledge of his brothers, who thought on nothing lesse then of him (by reason that in his L youth he was sold away by them, and age had altered the lineaments of his face; and besides, no one of them might suspect that hee had attained to so great dignitie): determined to trie and tempt them, to the end he might the better gather how they were affected. For he both denied them his licence to buy come, & cōmanded them also to be apprehended for spies, telling them that they were gathered of diuers nations, and they fained kinred: for how can it be (saith he) that a priuat man should bring vp so many worthy sonnes, which felicitie scarcely and very sel­dome is granted vnto kings? This did he, to the end he might gather some intelligence of his Ioseph soūdeth his brothers to the end he might vnder­stand his fa­thers and Ben­iamins estate. Rubens answer vnto Ioseph, both for him­selfe and his brothers. father, and in what estate he liued, during the time of his absence; and what was become of Beniamin his brother: for he was sore afraid, least they had offered the same hard measure to the lad, which they had inflicted on him. But they were stroken with a mighty feare, bethinking M them on their imminent perill, supposing that they had trauailed this long iourney all in vaine: & for that they saw their accusation must be answered; Ruben the eldest of them, began after this maner to plead their cōmon cause. Neither are we come hither (said he) as spies, neither vnder pretence to indomage the king; but dire famine (whose furie we seeke to preuent) hath cōpelled vs to come into this countrey, grounding our selues on your humanitie; who (as we haue heard) haue not onely made offer of sale of come, and meanes of sustenance to your citizens: but also [Page 35] vnto all straungers. And that we are brothers and borne of the same father, our verie countenan­ces A The yeare of the world. 2238. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1726. testify no lesse, in that they varie not very much the one from the other. Our father by name, is Iacob; by nation, an Hebrew: who begat vs his twelue sonnes on foure women, who while they all were in safety, our affaires were fortunate and prosperous: but one of them being dead, whose name was Ioseph, our domesticall fortunes began to grow to ruine. Our father languisheth in continuall lamentations, whose teares do no lesse afflict vs, then in times past the vntimely death of our dearest brother did affect vs. Now are we come to buy corne, hauing left in our fathers custody the youngest of our brothers called Beniamin: That thus it is, if so thou please to send any one vnto our house, thou maist be assured. Thus spake Ruben both on his owne and his brothers behalfe, whereby he might exempt from Ioseph his sinister opinion of them, who knowing that both his father and brother were in health, commaunded them to be shut in prison, vnder pre­tence B Ioseph com­maundeth his brothers to prison. to call them to further examination vpon his better leasure. Some three daies after (cal­ling them before him) he began thus: Since (saith he) you protest that you came not hither into this kingdome on purpose, either to preiudice the King, or worke treasons towards the state; and that you pretend your selues to be the sonnes of one father: you shall induce me to beleeue that your allegations be true, if leauing some one with me as pledge of your loyalties (who shall be well entertained) you beare hence your desired corne vnto your father, and returne againe vnto me, bringing with you your brother, whom (as you say) you left behind you for this shall be an argument that you faine not. Amased at these words, and supposing that their extreame ca­lamitie was at hand, they lamented their fortunes, oftentimes expostulating amongst themselues, that the dire reuenge of their brother oppressed with vndecent tyranny, was fallen vpon them. C Moreouer Ruben reprehended their too late and vnprofitable penitencie, saying, that those af­flictions Iosephs bro­thers repent them of that euill they had done vnto him which God (the iust reuenger of innocencie) had inflicted on his impious brothers, were constantly to be borne. After this manner spake they one vnto another, supposing that no man was present who vnderstood the Hebrew tongue: and they all lamented being inwardly tou­ched with the words of Ruben, and condemned their perpetrated wickednes, as if they had not beene the authors of the fact, for which at that time they thought that God did most iustly pu­nish them. Ioseph beholding them in this perplexitie, vnable to dissemble any longer his bro­therly loue, in that the teares alreadie began to burst out of his eyes, which at that time he de­sired to conceale, he departed from among them.

Not long after returning againe vnto them, he retained Simeon with him, who in the meane Ioseph sendeth away his bro­thers, and only retaineth Si­meon. D time should remaine as pledge with him vntil their backe returne, and giuing them licence to buy their corne, he commaunded them to depart: giuing withall a speciall commaundement to one of his seruants, that the money which they had brought to buy corne, should secretly be shut vp into their sackes, and they permitted to depart; all which his seruant performed. But Iacobs sons returning into Chanaan told their father all that which had happened vnto them in Aegypt, and how they were attached for spies, and traitors to that countrey; and that when they protested that they were brethren, and that the eleuenth was left at home with their father, they would not beleeue them: moreouer that Simeon was left pledge with the gouernour, vntill Beniamin came thither to giue testimony of their truth: whereupon they desired their father, that without con­tradiction or sinister conceit, to send their yonger brother with them. But Iacob was displeased Iacob is sore grieued for Simeons ab­sence, and be­cause Benia­min should de­part from him. Genes 39. E with that which his sonnes had done; and whe [...]as he was not a little grieued that Simeon was left behind, he thought it worse then death also to be depriued of Beniamin; and neither could Ruben with his praiers (offering his sonnes for pledges, that if any sinister fortune should fall vpon Beniamin by the way, the Grandfather might reuenge him on his children) perswade Iacob to yeeld consent: but they vncertaine what to do, were more and more terrified, in that they found their money inclosed in their sackes of corne. Now when corne began alreadie to faile them, Iacob being compelled by force of famine, determined to send Beniamin with his other brothers: for it was vnlawfull for them to returne into Aegypt, except they kept their couenant. And whereas necessitie pressed them daily more and more, and his sonnes ceased not instantly to call vpon him; yet as yet was he doubtfull and vnresolued: at last Iuda a man vehement by nature, F began more liberally to reproue his father, in that he was too carefull of his brother, to whom Iacobs sonnes but in especiall Iuda vrge their father to send Beniamin with them. nothing might happen without the will of God, whether it were abroad or at home: and that without reason he had care of his sonne Beniamin, in such sort as it was not possible for them to get ought out of Pharaos countrey which was necessarie for their nourishment; that he ought also to haue care of the life of Simeon, least whilest he dallied and delayed to send Beniamin on the iourney, Simeon in the meane time should be slaine by the Aegyptians. Moreouer he exhorted [Page 36] him to commit the care of his sonne vnto God, promising to bring him backe againe in safetie, G The yeare of the world. 2238. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1726. Iacob sendeth his sonnes with presents into Egypt. or else to die together with him: Moreouer he said, that certaine giftes gathered from the pro­fits of Chanaan, as the iuice of Mirabolans, Stacte, Terebinth, and Hony, should be sent as pre­sents vnto Ioseph, together with the double price of their come. Thu [...] shedding teares on both sides, they depart from their father, leauing him miserably tormented for the health of his sonnes, & contrariwise suspecting with themselues, least thorow his absence their father should be slaine with sorrow. In this perplexitie spent they a whole day. At last the old man remained in his house wholy afflicted, and they trauailing into Aegypt, did mitigate their present griefe with the hope of better fortune; where no sooner were they atriued, but they repaired vnto Ioseph, being sore afraid least it should be laid to their charge, that vnder colour of fraud and deceit they had caried away with them the price of their former come; which presently before Iosephs steward they H carefully excused, saying, that they found the money among their wheat at such time as they emp­tied their sacks, which now in discharge of their truth they had brought backe againe: but he de­nying that he euer missed their money, & they being deliuered from this feare, began to be more secure; so that Simeon was sodainly set at liberty to conuerse among his brethren. Now when Ioseph was returned from the seruice of the King they offer him presents, and requiring of them Iacobs sonnes arriue in E­gypt, and Si­meon is set at liberty. how their father did, they answered that he was in health: then perceiuing that Beniamin was yet aliue, whom he saw among them, he asked whether that were their younger brother, and hea­ring that it was he, he onely vttered these words, that God had the prouidence of all things, and departed from them being vnwilling that any of them should see him shed teares, which he could not any longer containe. Inuiting them afterwards vnto a banquet, he commaunded I them to sit downe in order according as they were wont to do when they were with their father, Ioseph vn­knowen to his brethren salu­teth both them and Beniamin. and whereas he kindly intertained all of them; he honoured Beniamin with a double share. Af­ter the banquet, at such time as they were all laid downe to rest, he commaunded the Steward to measure out the wheat, which euery one should beare away with him, and to hide the price thereof againe in their sacks; but in Beniamins sacke he commaunded him to shut his cup where­in he most delighted: which he therefore did, with intent to make triall of their loues towards Beniamin, and whether they would sticke vnto him being accused of theft, or leauing him be­hind as a malefactor, returne vnto their father, as if the matter no waies touched them. Which being done according as he had commaunded it, earely in the morning all Iacobs sonnes arose, and taking with them Simeon, departed onwards of their iourney, reioycing as well at his re­stitution, Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 6. Gen. 44. Ioseph temp­ [...]eth Benia­mins brothers, whether they would assist him. Iosephs bre­thren are staid in their iourny. Iacobs sonnes are accused of theft. K as Beniamins returne, whom they both promised and protested to bring backe againe to their father; when behold sodainly a troupe of horsemen roundly beset them, amongst whom was that seruant who had hid the cup in the sacke. Now they being troubled by this sodaine in­cursion, and asking them why they set vpon them whom they so lately had both inuited & inter­tained so honourably? the Aegyptians answered and exclaimed against them, calling them wic­ked men, who forgetting their late benefits receiued, and Iosephs gentlenes and humanitie, were so wicked as to returne him iniuries for his courtesies, threatning them that they should be pu­nished for their theft: and telling them that although for a time they had deceiued the mini­ster of the table, yet could they not deceiue God; and againe, asking them whether they were well in their wits, in supposing that for this offence they should not be incontinently punished. L In these or such like speeches the seruant insulted ouer them. But they, who nothing at all sus­pected this subtilie, accused him, saying, that they wondred at the mans intemperancy, who durst so rashly accuse them of theft, who did not keepe backe, no not the price of their corne which they found in their sacks, whereas none but themselues knew ought of that money, so farre were they from purposely offring any wrong: yet in that they thought this inquisition would bet­ter satisfie them, then deniall, they bid them search their sacks; offering themselues each of them to suffer punishment if any one of them were found guiltie of the theft. This search which they offered, the Aegyptians accepted, yet referred they the punishment to be inflicted onely on him who had done the iniury. Afterwards beginning to search, and orderly looking into each mans sacke, at last they came vnto Beniamins, not for that they were ignorant that the cup lay hid in M his sacke, but that they might seeme to discharge their duty more cunningly: now all the rest be­ing secured in themselues, they onely as yet were carefull of their brother Beniamin; they ho­ped also that he would not be found guilty of falshood, for which cause they more freely vp­braided their persecuters, obiecting vnto them how thorow their importunitie they had beene hindered the better part of their iourney. Now as they searched Beniamins sacke, they found the cup, whereupon all the brothers began to mourne and lament, both bewayling their brothers [Page 37] fortune, who was like presently to suffer death for the theft; and their owne mishap, who hauing The yeare of [...] world. 2238. be­fore the [...] of Christ. 1726. A plighted their faiths vnto their father for Beniamins safe returne, were compelled to falsifie the same thorow this present accident. And that which further increased their griefe, was, that when as they most of all hoped to be free from dangers, they were by fortunes enuy thrust into so great calamitie: confessing themselues to be the authors both of their fathers, and this their brothers misfortune; who neuer ceased to importune and compell their father (although he were vnwil­ling and resisted) to send the child with them.

Now the ho [...]semen hauing la [...]d hands on Beniamin, led him vnto Ioseph; whom his brothers presently followed. Who beholding his brother thrust into prison, and the rest bemoaning Beniamin is attached for the [...]. them round about him in mourning habits: Haue you, said he (o most wicked men) either so contemned my humanity, or Gods prouidence, as that you durst attempt & offer such an hainous B iniurie against him, who enterta [...]ned you with hospitalitie, and dismissed you with benefits? To whom they answered, that they were ready to suffer punishment for Beniamin, calling againe to their remembrance Iosephs iniu [...]ies, saying that he was happy, who deliuered by death from life was exempt from all calamities; and that (if he liued) God inflicted that plague on them for his sake. They said also, that they were the plague and great misfortune of their father, because that (to his former sorrow, which he had conceiued euen vntil that time of Iosephs death) they had also annexed this new miserie: neither did Ruben desist to reprehend them in bitter manner of that wickednesse which they had committed. But Ioseph told them that he dismissed them all (saying that their innocencie was approued vnto him) and that he onely would be contented with the lads punishment: For (said he) neither is it reasonable that he should be deliuered for the loue of C those who had not offended: neither that they should be punished for him, who had done the theft. He commanded them therefore to depart, and promised them safe conduct on their way.

Whilest al of thē were grieuously wounded with these words (so that scarcely one of thē could speake for sorrow) Iuda (who had perswaded his father to send Beniamin with them, and who a­mongst the rest was a man of confidence) purposed to expose himselfe to all danger, vnder reso­lution to deliuer his brother from perill: whereupon he addressed himselfe to Ioseph and spake Iudas oratió vn to Ioseph for Beniamin. thus. ‘Dread Lord (quoth he) we confesse that we are all ready to suffer punishment (although we haue not all of vs committed the offence, but only the yongest amongst vs) and although we suppose his life to be almost desperate, yet our only hope as yet resteth in your goodnes and cle­mencie. For which cause we beseech you, that you will not only haue compassion of vs, but of D your owne nature, and that in this cause you would be pleased to take counsaile, not of your iust indignation, but your natiue goodnesse gouerning your wrath with a great mind, to which vul­gar men both in great and small occurrences, are wont to submit. Consider, I pray you, whe­ther it stand with your dignitie to kill those, who present themselues to be punished, & desire in no sort to liue, except it be by the benefit of your mercie. Suffer not your selfe to be depriued of this honour: that after you haue deliuered vs from famine and liberally furnished vs with come, so of your mercie likewise you haue permitted vs to returne vnto our family, being trauelled by the same perill, and to bring them home sustonance. For one and the same bounty is it to continue them in life, who are trauelled with famine; and to forgiue them death, who haue merited it by their offences: to whom their wickednes hath enuied that bounty which you haue heroically ex­tended E towards them. It is one and the same grace imparted by you in diuers manners. For thou shalt saue those whom thou hast fed; and that life which thou wouldest not suffer to faile by force of famine, thou shalt redeliuer and giue againe: whereby thy clemencie may be more commen­dable, whilest both thou giuest life, and those things likewise whereby life is maintained. Moreo­uer, I thinke that God himselfe hath giuen thee this meanes to expresse thy vertue, that it may ap­peare that thou settest lighter by the iniuries offered vnto thee, then by thy will to doe good; and that thou art not liberall to them only, who are poore and innocent. For although it bee a great praise to yeeld succour in aduersities; yet is a prince no lesse honoured by his clemencie, es­pecially in a cause that concerneth his particular interest. For if they that remit small offences, are followed by deserued praise; what is it to restraine a mans ire in a capitall crime? doth it not F most neerely approximate the diuine clemencie? And hadde I not good experience by Iosephs death, how grieuously my father digesteth the want of his children, I would not so earnestly in­treat for his safety, but so farre forth and no otherwise, but as it might redound to the praise of thy clemencie; and were there not some to whom our death would bring both griefe and discontent, we were willing all of vs to suffer punishment. But now whereas we haue not so much commi­seration of our selues (although as yet we be but yong, and haue not much tasted the pleasures [Page 38] and fruit of this life) as of our wretched parents being drowned in yeares and cares, we offer vp G The yeare of the world, 2238. be­f [...]e Christs birth 1726. vnto thee these our prayers in his name also, and beseech thee to graunt vs life, though at this day wee are vnder thy iustice for our offences. Assuredly hee is a good man, and begate vs, that we should be like vnto him: worthy is he neuer to taste or to be tried by any such calamitie, who now thorow our absence is discruciate with care and sorrow. Now if so be he should re­ceiue any tydings either of our death, or the cause thereof; he will not indure any more to liue: the infamy of our deaths will shorten his daies; and make his death by this meanes more vnhap­py, who rather then he should heare the rumors of our shame, would hasten his death in suppo­sing them. All these wel considered, (although thou art iustly moued by this offence;) remit the reuenge vnto our father, and rather let thy pity towards him, then our iniquity towards thee, pre­uaile with thee. Impart this honor to his old age, which if it be depriued of our presence, neither H wil, nor can desire to liue; yeeld this respect to thy fathers memory; yea ascribe it to the very name of a father, wherewith thou art honoured: so God the father of all men, will blesse thee in that name, and fortunate thee in thy increase: whom also thou shalt honour, if in respect of that com­mon name, thou take compassion of our father, in considering the sorrow that he shall en­dure, if perhaps he shall be depriued of his children. It now lieth in your power to giue vs that, which you may depriue vs of, by that power which God hath giuen you: and in doing vs this fa­uour, you shall imitate the nature of God; and in this respect become like vnto him. For since it lieth in your power to doe both the one and the other, it were better thou didst good then euill, and contenting thy selfe with thy power, not to remember or vrge thy reuenge: but onely to thinke that thy power was giuen thee, to keepe and conserue men; and that the more mercie I Power giuen to saue. thou extendest towards many, the more honour thou redoublest on thy head: now it lieth in thy power by for giuing our brothers errour to giue vs all life. For neither can we be safe, except he be saued; ne [...]ther may we returne home vnto our father, except he returne: but here must we suffer whatsoeuer our brother suffereth. Neither doe we craue any other mercy at thy hand (dread prince) if we be repulsed in this, but that thou wilt inflict one and the same punishment on vs, in no other manner, then as if we had been partakers of the felony: for this were more better for vs, then that we our selues thorow sorrow, should offer violence to our owne soules. I will not alleadge or vrge his youth, or iudgement as yet vnripened, neither will I inferre that pardon is vsually granted vnto such: but here will I make an end, that whether we be condemned in that I haue not sufficiently pleaded his cause, or whether we be absolued; we may wholy ascribe this K grace to your fauour and clemencie: to the bounds of whose praise this likewise shall be added, that not onely thou hast saued vs, but also in pardoning vs of the punishment which we haue iust­ly deserued, hast had more care of vs then we our selues. If therefore it be thy pleasure to ad­iudge him to die, suffer me to suffer for him, and send him backe vnto our father: or if it please thee to retaine him for thy slaue, I am more fit then he to doe all sorts of seruices, as you may perceiue; and am ready to suffer all that which may be inflicted on me.’ When Iuda had spo­ken thus, he humbled himselfe at Iosephs feete, indeuouring as much as in him lay, to mollifie Gen. 40. and appease his ire; in like sort also all the other brothers prostrated themselues, offering them­selues to die for Beniamin.

But Ioseph conquered with pitie, and vnable any longer to personate a displeased man, sent a­way L Ioseph maketh himself known to his brethren all those that were present, and being alone with them, discouered him [...]elfe vnto his bro­thers: and in this sort to them onely he disclosed himselfe and said. ‘I cannot but commend the pietie and loue which you beare vnto your brother, which I find to be greater then I did expect, gathering my coniectures from those things which in times past haue hapned vnto me. For to this end haue I done all this, that I might make triall of your brotherly beneuolence: whereof since you haue giuen me a notable proofe, I will not ascribe that which you haue done vnto me to your natures, but rather wholy to the will of God, who hath at this present furnished you with all things which are profitable for you, and will hereafter giue you greater things, if he with­draw not his fauourable hand from vs. When as therefore I vnderstood of my fathers rather de­sired then hoped health, and found you to be such as I desired you should be towards your bro­ther, M I freely forget those iniuries which in times past were done vnto me: rather making choice to giue you thankes as the ministers of Gods prouidence, that against this time prouided for our common profit, then remember me (as then it seemed vnto me) of your pretensed malice. I therefore pray you, that forgetting those things which are past, you will be of courage and waxe confident, suffering willingly the good euent of an ill intent, neither that blushing at your for­mer faults, you should be any waies amated. Let not therefore the euill sentence which in times [Page 39] past you pronounced against me, any waies trouble you, since you perceiue i [...] hath wanted ef­fect A In the yeare of the world. 2 [...]38. before Christes Natiuity. 1726. but reioice ye at these workes of God, and gō and tell your father that which you haue seene, for feare least he being cōsumed with immoderate care of you, I my selfe be depriued of the chie­fest fruit of my feliciti; before he come to my presence and be made partaker of those benefits. Wherfore depart you, & bringing with you him, your wiues, and children, and all your kinred, come backe vnto me: for it were inconuenient (my deare brethren) that you should not be parta­kers of my felicitie, especially since this famine is as yet to continue for the co [...]e of fiue yeares.’ This said, [...]eph embraced his brethren: but they were wholy confounded in teares and sorrow, and the grea [...]er was their repentance, in that they had sinned against so kind a brother. After all this, there followed a banquet. And the king vnderstanding that Iosephs brethren were arriued, (as if some good fortune had befallen him) right hartily reioyced, and he gaue them chariots The king re­ioyceth to know that Io­sephs brother [...] were arriued. Hedio & Ru [...] ­nus, ch. 7. al. 4, Iacob reioy­ceth to heare the promoti­ons and ho­nours of Io­seph. B laden with corne, and gold and siluer, with other presents to present their father with, who en­riched with diuers gifts (some by their brother vnto his father, other some to themselues, but in especiall to Beniamin) they returned home into their countrey. But after that Iacob vnderstood by his sonnes in what estate his sonne Ioseph was, that he had not only escaped from death (which he had so long time bewailed) but also that he liued in high prosperitie, and ministred to the king of Egypt, and had welnie the whole gouernment of the kingdome vnder his hands: he easily beleeued all things that were told him, & acknowledged the great works of God, and his good­nesse shewed vnto him, although for a time it seemed to be intermitted. And a little time af­ter, he addressed himselfe to go and visit his sonne Ioseph.

CHAP. IIII. C

How Iacob with all his progenie departed vnto his sonne.

BVt when he arriued neere the fountaine of Couenant; he offered in that place a sa­crifice vnto God; and fearing least his children should inhabit Egypt, by reason of The yeare of the world. 2239. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1725. the fertility of the place, and that his posteritie by not returning backe into the land of Chanaan, should leese the possession of that which God had promised them; and furthermore, doubting least that his iourney into Egypt, being by him enterprised against the will of God, should be ominous vnto his children; and suspecting likewise least he should die be­fore he came to Iosephs presence: he was wonderfully perplexed in mind. Whilest thus he rumina D ted and examined these things in his thought, he was surprised with a heauy sleepe, during which Genes. 46. God appeareth to Iacob abou [...] the fountaine of couenant. time God appeared vnto him and called him twise by his name: who asking who it was that cal­led him, God answered: ‘Doest thou not acknowledge (O Iacob) that God, who hath both pro­tected thee and thine auncestors, and succoured you all in your necessities? who contrarie to thy fathers purpose made thee Lord of his family, and when as by thy selfe thou diddest trauell into Mesopotamia, I brought to passe, that being matched in wedlocke verie happily, thou returnedst into thy countrey backe againe, being blessed with many children, and stored with much riches. I also kept thy progenie in safety, and when it seemed thou hadst lost Ioseph, I raised him to that high steppe of dignitie wherein now he liueth; and made him the next in person to the king of Egypt. And now also am I come vnto thee vnto this end, that I may guide thee in this thy iour­ney, E and that I may fo [...]ell thee that thou shalt leaue thy life betwixt the hands of Ioseph, and that thy posteritie shall be mightie and famous for many ages, and shall posses [...]e that land, the empire whereof I haue promised them.’Assured and made confident by this dreame, he more willingly [...]astened, both he, his sons, with all their progenie into Egypt, whose number amoun­ted Iacob with his [...]onnes and nephews depart into Egypt. to the summe of 70. Their names in that they are somewhat hard, I had not written downe, except it were to satisfie some, who contend that we are Egyptians and not Mesopotamians, The sonnes of Iacob therefore were twelue in number, of whom Ioseph came thither long before them. Now are the rest to be reckoned vp, with euerie one of their progenies. Ruben had foure sonnes, Iacobs proge­nie. Anoches, Phalles, Essaron, and Char [...]sus. Simeon had sixe, Iumilus, Iaminus, Puthodus, Iache­nus, G [...]r, Saar, Leui also had three, [...]lsemis, Caathus, and Mararis. Iuda had likewise three, F Sala, Phar [...]s, Zara; with two sonnes of Phares, Esrom and Amyrus. Issachar had foure, Thulas, Phruras, Iobus, and Samaron. Zabulon had three, Saradus, Elon, and Ianel. And these were the children [...]e had by Lea, who also led with her Dina her daughter: the number of whom amoun­teth to 33. But Rachel had two sonnes, of which the elder who was called Ioseph, had likewise two, Manasses and Ephraim. But Beniamin had ten, Bolossus, Baccharis, Asabel, G [...]a, Naemanes, Ises, Aros, Nomphthis, Optais, and Sarodus. These foureteene added to those abouenamed, make vp [Page 40] the number of fortie seuen. And this was the legitimate issue of Iacob. But on Bala Rachels hand­maid G The yeare of the world, 1293. be­fore Christs birth 1725. Dan and Nephthalim, who was attended by foure sonnes, Eleinus, Gunes, Sares and Hellimus. But Dan had onely one sonne called Vsis. Now if those be added to the aboue named, they make vp the number of 54. But Gad and Asser were borne by Zelpha Leas handmaid, of these Gad was attended by seuen sonnes: Zophonias, Vgis, Sunis, Zabros, Erines, Erodes and Ariel. Asser had one daughter and sixe male children, whose names were Iomnes, Essus, Iubes, Baris, Abarus, Melmiel. These fifteene being added to the foresaid fiftie foure, make vp the number abouenamed, together with Iacob. But Ioseph vnderstanding that his father was at hand (for Iuda posted before to giue him notice thereof) he went out to meete him, and incountered him neere to a towne called Heros, who was seased with such extreame and vnexpected ioy, that he had almost expired; Iacob almost dec [...]ased for ioy. but Ioseph recōforced him, being himself almost endangered thorow extreame ioy, yet not in such H extasie & extremitie as his father: afterwards desiring him to march softly onward, he taking with him his fiue brethren hasted vnto the King, signifying vnto him that his father with all his family were arriued. Who no sooner vnderstood therof, but that he ioifully asked Ioseph in what studies Ioseph with his fiue brethren re [...]orteth to Pi [...]arao. he tooke delight: who answered him that his exercise was keeping of cattell, and that he had no o­ther trade. And this answere made he to the intent they might not be deuided one from another, but that liuing altogether, they might take care of their father another reason was, least emulation should happen betwixt them and the Aegyptians, if so be they should be conuersant in the same studies; for it was not lawfull for that nation to exercise the shepheards trade. Now when Ia­cob was brought into the Kings presence, and after he had done him reuerence, and praied God G [...]sis 47. Iacob talketh with Pharao and is appoin­ted to inhabite Heliopolis. for the prosperity both of him and his Realme; Pharao asked him how long he had liued: and I when he vnderstood that he was a hundred and thirtie yeares old, he admired at the age of the man: and after he had certified him that his ancestors had liued farre longer time, he commaun­ded him and his sonnes to dwel in Heliopolis, where also the kings shepheards had their pastures. But the famine increased in Egypt, and the euill augmented more and more, by reason that Ni­lus The famine in Egypt. did not ouerflow the earth, neither extended his armes ouer the same: on the other side God ra [...]ned not vpon the earth: moreouer in that the euill was vnsuspected; it was more grieuous es­pecially to the communaltie, who had laid vp nothing, neither did Ioseph giue them come with­out readie money; which when they began to want, they exchaunged their cattell and slaues for come; but they that had lands, sold a certaine portion thereof vnto the king for their prouision. The yeare of the world, 2245. be­fore Christs birth 1719. And when as by this meanes al these possessions ca [...]e into the kings hands, they went to inhabite K the one heere, the other there, to the end that the King might be more assured of the possession of their land: the sacrificers only were excepted, to whom the lands which they had, remained intire. A great p [...] redounded to the king by this famine. Finally, this necessitie reduced both the bod [...] & minds of the wholenation into seruitude after such a maner, that they esteemed no labour or meanes vnseemely, that might serue them towards the maintenance of their sustenance. But when the famine ceased, & the earth watered by the ouer­flow of the floud, began to regather her former fertility; Ioseph visiting euery citie of the kingdom, and assembling the multitude in euery one of them, restored them the profits of th [...]se lands which they had sold vnto the king, & exhorted thē to manure the same in no worse maner thē they would do their owne; commaunding them to pay the fift part vnto the King, which was due vnto him by his prerogatiue & kingly right. Who reioycing at this vnexpected restitution earnestly intended L Ioseph com­manded them to pay the fift part of their profits to the king. and prosecuted their tillage, and by this meanes not onely Iosephs authoritie, but also the p [...]oples hearts were not a little tied vnto the King: and the inheritance of the fift part of the pro [...]s re­mained with the Kings that succeeded and all their posteri [...]e.

But Iacob after he had liued seuentene yeares in Aegypt, ended his life betwixt the hands of his sonnes, hauing first besought God to giue them prosperitie and aboundance, and prophecied that euery one of their posteritie should attaine to the possession of a part of the land of Cha­naan, Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 8. all which not long after came to passe. Besides, praising his sonne Ioseph for that forget­ting the iniuries done vnto him, he had bestowed diuers bene [...]s on his brethren, yea and such as well beseemed his benefactors; he commaunded his sonnes, that they should admit Ioseph sons Ephraim and Manasses into their number, at such time as they should deuide the land of Chanaan, M as hereafter it shall be declared. Last of all, he praied them to burie him in Hebron. And he died Iacob died when [...]e was 147. yeares old. at such time as he had liued one hundreth and fiftie yeares wa [...]ing three, being second to none of his auncestors in pietie, and obtained the reward which he ought iustly to possesse, in that he was a man adorned with so many vertues. But Ioseph by the Kings permission went and trans­ported his fathers bodie into Hebron, and there buried it very magnificently. But his brothers Iacob is buried in Hebron. fearing to returne with him, and refusing to follow him, in that they suspected their father being [Page 41] dead, that he would be reuenged on them in that they had not any friend left aliue, vnder whose The yeare of the world. 2311. be­fore the Na [...]ui­tie of Christ. [...]. Ioseph dieth when he was 110. years old. A fauour they might hope for pardon, he commanded them, that laying their suspitions aside they should suspect no euill: and hauing brought them backe againe with him, he gaue them great possessions; neither did he euer intermit to entertaine them with botherly kindnes. But he likewise died, when he had liued one hundreth and ten yeares; a man endowed with admirable vertue; and prudent in all affaires, and moderate in his gouernment: by which meanes it came to passe that neither his fortaine birth, neither his calamities whereof we haue spoken, did any waies hinder him, but [...]hat he was exalted and continued in high dignitie. The rest of his brothers also, hauing Ioseph [...] ho [...]es translated into Chana [...]n. spent their liues in happines, died in Aegypt, whose bodies their sonnes and nephewes transpor­ted and buried in Hebron: but Iosephs bones were afterwards translated by the Hebrewes into Chanaan, at such time as they departed out of Egypt into Chanaan: for hereunto had he bound B them by oath. But in that I am to declare this, and other actions of this Nation, I will first of all shew the cause why they departed out of Egypt.

CHAP. V.

Of the affliction which the Hebrewes endured in Egypt, for the space of foure hundreth yeares.

THe Aegyptians are a Nation addicted vnto delicacy, and impatient of labour, subiect The history of the booke of Exodus. Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 9. Exod. 1. The enuie of the Egyptians towards the Hebrewes. The yeare of the world, 2353. be­fore Christs na­tiuit [...]. 1611. The Hebrewes insupportable seruitude. onely to their pleasures, and affecting gaine: whence it came to passe, that bearing ha­tred toward the Hebrewes, and enuying their happines, they were very euilly disposed towards them. For seeing the race of the Israelites flourish and to abound in riches, which they C got by their labour and industrie, they conceiued an opinion that their aduancement and in­crease, would be the ouerthrow and decrease of the Aegyptians; so that at length they forgot the benefits which Ioseph had done vnto them: and after the royaltie was transported into an other family, they committed diuers outrages against the Israelites, and complotted a­gainst them in what manner they might more grieuously afflict them. For they were inioyned by them to cut Nilus into diuers trenches, and to e [...]iron their Cit [...]es with walles, and to build fortifications and banks, whereby the inundations of the floud might be diuerted. They also vexed our nation in building their hie and vaine Pyramides, compelling them to learne diuers artes, and to accustome themselues to endure labour; and in such afflictions led they their liues for the space of 400. yeares, the Aegyptians studying nought else but to tire the Israelites with D continuall labour, & our country men endeuouring themselues alwaies to performe farre more, then was expected from thē. Liuing thus in this estate, there grew afterwards an other occasion, which instigated them the more to seeke the ruine and desolation of our Nation. For one of the sacred secretaries (to whose predictions those kind of people do very much attribute) foretold the King, that about that time there should be one bred and borne amongst the Israelites, that in The prophecy as touching Moses. time to come should grieuously afflict the estate of the Aegyptians, and wonderously enhance the good hap of the Israelites; who should su [...]passe all other in vertue, and purchase to himselfe immortal glory, if so be he should attaine to [...]ns estate. Wherewith the King being greatly ter­rified, he published an edict by the aduise of this secretary, that whatsoeuer male child should be borne amongst the Israelites, he should be cast into the floud to be drowned: he commaunded E likewise the Aegyptian midwiues diligently to obserue the time when the Hebrew women trauel­led Pharao com­maunded that all the male children of the Israelites should be done to death. with child, carefully to keepe & marke their children at such time as they were deliuered, For it was enioyned thē that they should be brought to bed by such midwiues, who by reason of consan­guinitie with that Nation, should not transgresse the king [...] commaundement. He enacted also a law with a penaltie, that if any should be so bold to conceale their children, both they and all their family should be done to death. Great was this their calamity, not onely in that respect, be­cause they were depriued of their children, and for that the parents themselues were made the mi­nisters to murther their owne children, but foreseeing also the future time they were intolerably dismayed, expecting nought else but the certaine and fatall ex [...]pation of their wholenation, by reason that when the children were s [...]ine, the parents themselues not long after were ass [...]ed to F die: thus conceited they in themselues into what extreame misfortune they were fallen. But no man whosoeuer, although he complot neuer so many stratagems, can resist the wil of God. For Exod 2. both the child, of whom the sacred secretary had fore prophecied, was secretly brought vp vn­discouered by the kings spies, and approued by the euents of his life, that he was no false Pro­phet. Amarames an Hebrew borne & a noble man amongst his Nation, fearing both the pub like perill, least the wholenation should be brought to nothing thorow the want of issue, and his [Page 42] owne priuate misfortune, whose wife at home was big with child and readie to lye downe; was G The yeare of the world, 2373. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1591. Amarames Moses father praieth God to be mercifull to the He­brewes. troubled in his mind, and vncertaine what to doe. For which cause he made his recourse vnto God, beseeching him that at the length he would haue mercy on those men of whom one­ly he had beene perpetually honoured; and that it would please him to bring to end the present af­fliction which threatned the whole nation with vtter ruine and destruction. But God being mo­ued vnto mercy by his most humble prayer appeared to him in a dreame, and recomforted him, commaunding him to be confident: telling him that he had in memory the pietie of his aunce­cestors, and that he would for euer remunerate them, euen as in times past he had beene gratious to their forefathers. For it was he that had increased their posteritie, and multiplied them to so mighty a nation, that by his fauor Abraham departing alone out of Mesopotamia into Chanaan, besides other felicities, had issue by his wife that was before time barren, and left ample possessions H to his successors: to Ismael, Arabia; to Chaeturas children Troglottida, and to Isaac Chanaan. Neither can you euer forget without note of impietie and ingratitude, the attempts also which were hap­pily atchieued in warre by my meanes: but Iacobs name also is renowmed amongst forraine nati­ons, both in respect of the felicitie wherein he liued, & also for that prosperitie which by heredi­tarie right happened vnto his posteritie, who taking their originall from 70. men that accompa­nied their father into Egypt, are now increased to the number of sixe hundreth thousand: know therefore now also, that I inwardly and heartily affect your publike securitie, and priuately thy glory. For this child, for feare of whose natiuitie the Egyptians haue condemned all your chil­dren vnto death, shall be borne vnto thee: he neither shall be discouered by the constituted spies, and after he hath escaped beyond all expectation, shall he be brought vp, and in his time shall I he deliuer the Hebrewes from the thraldome of the Egyptians, and shall obtaine an eternall me­morie, for this his famous action, not onely amongst his owne nation, but also amongst straun­gers: for this fauour will I extend vnto thee, and on thy posteritie that followeth after thee; he shall also haue such a brother who shall deserue both in himselfe, and in his posteritie to inhe­rite the priesthood for euer. After these things were declared in a vision vnto Amram, he awaked and told it to his wife Iochabel, and by reason of the prediction of this dreame, their suspition and feare the rather increased more and more: for they were not onely pensiue in respect of their child, but also by reason of the future great good fortune that was promised them. But anone after Moses birth. the woman being brought a bed, gaue credit to the Oracle; who had so easie and gentle a labor, that she beguiled the ouerseers & spies, in that she felt none of those throwes which do common­ly K afflict such as are in labor: so that she nourished the infant three moneths secretly in her house, without being in any sort discouered. But afterwards Amram fearing to be surprised, & sore doub­ting least he should incurre the kings displeasure, if the matter were discouered, whereby both he and the child should be made away, and Gods promises should be frustrate; he had rather who­ly commit the safety of his sonne to his prouidence: supposing that if the boy were hidden, which notwithstanding would be hard to effect, yet that it would be troublesom vnto him to liue in con­tinuall perill both of his owne and his sonnes safetie: moreouer, he thought that God would pur­uey some meanes of assurance, to the intent that nothing of that which he had foretold might be proued false. Grounding himselfe on this resolution, they prepared and made a cradle of sedge, after the manner of a couch, so great as it was sufficient to lay the child in at ease, and hauing pit­ched L it on euery side least the water should pierce the same, they put the child into it, and suffered him to float along the streame in committing him to the mercy of God. Whilest in this manner Moses [...]ast in­to the floud. it was borne downe by the streame. Mariam, the sister of the young infant, by her mothers com­maund went along the banke on the other side of the riuer, obseruing whither at length the bas­ket would be caried, and where it did ariue. At that time God manifestly declared, that nothing is atchieued by mans wisedome, but that all things are brought to passe by his omnipotent boun­tie, and that they who for their profit and particular securitie seeke the ruine and destruction of others with neuer so much subtiltie, care, and diligence; yet are they often times deceiued in their expectations: againe, that they that submit their wils vnto Gods will, are warranted from all wrongs by such meanes as were neuer thought on; which may most manifestly be perceiued M by this child.

Thermuthis the kings daughter walking along the riuer side, espied this basket caried away by the Thermuthis Pharaos daugh ter causeth Moses to be taken out of the [...]uer. course of the streame, & presently commaunded certaine swimmers to draw the cradle on drie land, and bring it before her: who executing her commaund, she opened the basket and beheld the child, who in that he was faire and well featured did greatly delight her. For God so loued and fauoured Moses, that he caused him both to be nourished and brought vp by them, who for [Page 43] feare least he should be borne, had decreed to destroy all the rest of the race of the Hebrewes. The yeare of the world. 2273. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1591. A Thermuthis therefore commaunded them to fetch her some one nurse, who might giue the child sucke; who refusing the same, and all other nurses whatsoeuer that were sent for to suckle him: Mariam as if by good fortune and not of set purpose, she had light into their company, began to speake thus vnto Termuthis. In vaine (said she) O Queene, dost thou endeuour whilest thou stri­uest to giue this babe sucke by any but an Hebrewe nurse, for he will not accept it: but if thou call vnto thee a nurse of the same nation, and agreeable with his nature, doubtlesse he will take the nipple. This speech of hers being both heard and plausibly accepted; the Queene commaunded her to execute the same, and to bring her an Hebrew woman that gaue sucke: which she dili­gently performing, returned and brought her mother with her, whom none of the assistants knew, who presenting her breast vnto the child he willingly tooke the dugge; so that vpon the The yeare of the world, 2376. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1588. Moses whence he receiued his name. Moses the se­uenth after A­braham. B Queenes request the nourishment of the child was wholy committed vnto her. And by reason of this accident, and for that he was cast into the riuer, he was called Moses; for the Egyptians call water Mo, and saued, yses; so this name composed of these two, was imposed on this child, who afterwards vvithout exceptions became the wisest man among the Hebrewes, according as God had afore prophecled. For he was the seuenth after Abraham; for he was Amrams sonne, and Amram sonne vnto Cathus, and he to Leui, and Leui to Iacob; who tooke his originall from Isaac the sonne of Abraham. He had a iudgementriper then became his age, for euen amongst his childish delights he shewed himselfe more discreet then all his equals, and in whatsoeuer he did, it gaue testimony that at such time as he should attaine to mans estate, he would mannage migh­tie things. When he was but onely three yeares old, God adorned and endowed him with an C admirable audacitie. He was so faire and amiable, that there was not any one how austere and inhumane soeuer he were, which but in beholding him would not be astonished: and it chaunced also that diuers, who encountered him as he was borne thorow the streetes, turned themselues a­bout to behold him, and intermitted their other affaires onely to looke vpon him: for the ad­mirable and innated beautie which vvas in this infant, did rauish all those that beheld him. Whence it came to passe that Thermuthis in that she had no other issue, adopted him for her heir, Moses the a­dopted sonne of Thermuthis daughter vnto Pharao. and conducting him vnto her father, she presented him before him, saying, that she was carefull of a successor, by reason God had not vouchsafed him to haue any issue. For (saith she) I haue brought vp this infant no lesse excellent in vvit then diuine in beautie, and haue receiued him mi­raculously by the bountie and grace of Nilus, whom I haue decreed to adopt my child, and to e­stablish D him as successor to thee in thy kingdome. This said, she deliuered the infant into her fa­thers armes: who after he had embraced and hugged him at his breast (to giue his daughter the more content) he put his Diademe vpon the childs head: but Moses pulling it from his head af­ter a childish manner, cast it on the ground, and spurned it with his feete; which act of his vvas supposed ominous to the Realme, and daungerous for the King. Whereupon the sacred secre­tarie (vvho had foretold that his natiuitie would be the destruction of the Egyptians) vvilleth them to kill the child, and inforced himselfe to enact it, crying out with a loud voyce and speaking vn­to the King after this manner: O King, this child by whose death God promiseth vs securirie, hath alreadie confirmed the presage, insulting ouer thy kingdome and spurning at thy Diademe. Take from the Egyptians that feare which they haue conceiued thorow him, by his death: and from E the Hebrewes that hope, vvhich they build on his courage & life. But Thermuthis hastily conueied and snatched him thence, and the King was not ouer forward to lay hands on him, by reason that Moses deliue­red from death. God dispensed all things in that sort, in that he had a care of Moses preseruation. He was there­fore very carefully brought vp, and in respect of him the Hebrewes in generall were replenish­ed with good hope; but to the Egyptians his education both vvas suspected and grudged at: but by reason that if the lad should haue beene slaine, there vvas not any one eyther a kinne or adop­ted, or otherwise whatsoeuer, that had regard of the estate of the Egyptians, they abstained from his slaughter. Being therefore thus borne and after this manner brought vp, at such time as he in­creased in years, he euidently by his vertue made it knowen vnto the Egyptians, that he was borne Hedio & Ruf­finus chap. 10. al. 7. to abase their pride, and to exalt the Hebrewes by this occasion which ensueth: The Aethiopi­ans, F who confine vpon Egypt, hauing spoyled and destroyed the country round about them, spoi­led and made pillage of all the goods of the Egyptians; who incensed against them for the wrongs and iniuries which they had offered, leuied an armie, intending to reuenge them of that The Egyptians warre against the Ethiopi­ans. disgrace which their enemies had offered them: but in the battell they were all put to flight, so that some of them were slaine; and the rest shamefully flying, returned with ignominie worse then death, into their owne countrey. The Ethiopian made proud with this good fortune, [Page 44] instantly pursued them; and supposing it a cowa [...]dly part in them, not to take the benefite of G The yeare of the [...]ld 2376. be­fore Christs Na­ti [...] 1588. their present good fortune, and conceiuing an assured hope of conquering Egypt, they general­ly wasted the same: and hauing tasted of the sweetnesse of pillage, without anie temper or mo­deration in their victorie, they were incensed to attempt greater matters. And whereas they per­ceiued, that hauing wasted all their neighbour regions, no man durst sally out to encounter them in armes, they marched forward toward Memphis, euen vnto the sea, arriuing neere no Citie that either had the heart, or durst make head against them. By which calamities the Egyptians being ouersore oppressed, they send one to take counsell of the Oracle, in what manner they might preuent their miseries; and when as an answer was giuen them, that they should choose an Hebrew to assist them in the warres: the king commanded his daughter to giue them Moses, who The Egyptians require Moses to be their Captaine. together with the Empire, might gouerne the whole armie. She taking an oath of the king, H that no iniurie or violence should be offered him, deliuered him into his hands; esteeming it to be a great good fortune for Moses, that he was called to the succours of her countrey: and contrariwise she blamed the Sacrificers, who were not ashamed to demaund his aid and assi­stance, whom they had foreiudged, and adiudged to be slaine as their common enemie. But Moses exhorted by Thermuthis and the king, willingly tooke the charge vpon him. Whereat the Priests of both nations were verie ioyfull; for the Egyptians hoped, that when by his vertue and valou [...] he had ouercome their enemies, they afterwards might more easily dispatch & murther him, by some treason and sinister meanes: and the Hebrewes conceiued a hope, that they might depart out of Egypt, by reason that Moses was the Generall of the armie. Moses therefore making haste, before such time as the enemies had any notice that he was dislodged, he leuied his army, I and conducted them (not along the bankes of the riuer) but through the maine land; wherein Moses mar­cheth against the Ethiopiās he made manifest his most admirable prudence. For the iourney by land being very dangerous, by reason of the multitude of serpents (for the countrey thereabouts breedeth vp al sorts of thē, and some of that kind, as the like thereof are not seene in anie place els, all different in proprie­tie, malignitie, and horrible forme: and amongst these likewise there are some winged, and apt to fly, who not only offend those that they encounter on the earth very priuily, but also tower ve­rie high in the aire, who houer about to hurt those that are not aware of them) he for the securi­tie of his armie, and to the end he might march without anie inconuenience, inuented this mar­ueilous and admirable stratageme. For he caused two paniers of sedge to be made, in forme of cofers, and filled them with certaine birds which were called Ibes, who are mortall enemies to K serpents, and before whom the serpents flee: and sometimes in flying from them like Harts, they are laid hold of, and swallowed by them. Otherwise these birds are managed and made tame, and are not harmefull to any but to serpents, of whom I will now cease to write anie further, be­cause the Greekes do already know what kind of bird it is.

When as therefore he arriued in the countrie of serpents, he let flie his Ibes against the ve­nemous beasts, and made vse of them to encounter the other; and when he had marched in this sort, he attained and surprised the Ethiopians, before they suspected him; and sodainly c [...]ar­ging them, he ouercame them in battell, spoyling them of the hope they had to conquer Egypt; The victorie which Moses and the Egyp­tions had a­g [...]inst the Ethiopians. and entring the townes of Ethiopia, he rased them, and made a great slaughter of the inhabi­tants. The Egyptian armie hauing tasted the happie successe that happened vnto them vnder L the conduct of Moses, intermitted not their occasion, especially for that they saw that the Ethi­opians were welnigh conquered, or rather wholy destroyed: and in the end hauing driuen them euen vnto Saba, the chiefe citie of Ethiopia (which Cambyses called Meroë, for the loue which he bore vnto his sister, who was so called) they besieged them. The Citie was strong, and verie hard Saba their chiefe citie besieged. to be assailed, by reason of the riuer Nilus, which enuironed it round about: on the other side, the riuers of Astapus and Astaborra did flow in so freshly, as they could neither breake the course of the water, nor wade ouer the streame: for the citie is builded in an Island, inuironed with a strong wall round about, hauing great rampiers betwixt the riuers and the walles built, to resist the inundations of the waters; which are the cause that the Citie may be very hardly taken, although the opposite armie had found meanes to passe the water. Now when Moses was verie M sore grieued that his armie profited nothing, by reason that the enemies durst not encounter them in open field: behold what a chaunce happened: Tharbis the daughter of the king of Ethio­pia Tharbis the [...]. of Ethiops daughter re­quireth loue and mariage at Moses hands. beholding Moses, at such time as he approched with his armie neere vnto the walles of the Citie, and seeing how valiantly he fought and behaued himselfe, and wondering at the exploits and enterprises which he made (which was the cause that the Egyptians, almost despairing of their estates and libertie, were growne so forward; and how the Ethiopians, not long before estee­med [Page 45] the conquere [...]s, and happie in their warlike exploits and fortunate executions, were in the The yeare of the world. 2376. be­fore Christs birth 1588. A greatest extremitie of daunger; she was surprised with his loue: and for that this passion aug­mented more and more in her, she sent vnto him seuen of he [...] most faithfull and houshold ser­uants to offer him her loue, and intreat with him of mariage. The which he accepted, vnder that condition that she should deliuer the Citie into his hands, promising her vnder a solemne oath, that at such time as he were master thereof, he would take her to wife without falsifying or breach of his promise. The matter was no sooner motioned, but the effect followed; so that ha­uing surprised & conquered the Ethiopians, and after he had gi [...]en thankes vnto God, Moses ac­complished The yeare of the world. 2400. be­fore the birth of Christ. 156 [...]. the mariage, and sent the Egyptians backe againe into their countrey. Who con­ceiued an occasion of hatred against Moses, because he had beene the cause of their safetie; and began seriously to consult and deuise amongst themselues, how they might betray him, s [...]pec­ting B least he by reason of the happie successe he had had, should beginne to quicken and reuiue some alterations in Egypt: they accused him therefore of murther before the King, who alrea­die The Egyptian [...] seeke to be­tray Moses. of himselfe had him in suspicion, as well in respect of this hatred he bare him for his noble cariage and courage, during such time as he was generall; as also for the feare he had concei­ued of the destruction of Egypt foretold by his priestes; who incessantly incited him against Moses, so that the King was vpon the point to lay hands on him and m [...]rther him.

But he hauing intelligence of those his practises, escaped and fled secretly, flying from his pre­sence Exod. 2. The yeare of the world. 2413. be­fore Christs birth 1551. Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 11. [...]l. 8. Moses flieth to the Citie of Mad [...]n. thorow the desart, by which the enemies least suspected that he should haue fled: and al­though at no place in his iourney he found victuals to sustaine him, yet ouercame he his penu­ry by his patience. And arriuing neere a Citie of the Madians, scituate vpon the snoare of the C red sea (that was named by one of Abraham and Chaeturas sonnes) he sat him downe neere vnto a fountaine refreshing himselfe, and taking his ease after his laborious iourney: for it was abo [...] noonested, and the Citie alreadie appeared in his sight. In this place there befell an occasion vnto him, deriued from the manners and custome of liuing among the inhabitants of the coun­trey; by which he both expressed his vertue, and found an oportunitie to better his estate. For whereas that Region is sore trauailed with want of water, the shepheards had a custome to striue which of them should first possesse the pits, for feare least the water should be quite consumed by others, before that they and their cattell had quenched the [...] thirst. To th [...] [...]taine there­fore there cam [...] seuen virgins, which were sisters and daughters of Raguel [...] [...]st, whom the inhabitants of that place held in great estimation, who had the charge to attend their fathers D flockes, for that it is the exercise wherein the Troglodytes are wont to exercise their women. These hasted themselues to draw sufficient water for their troupes into the [...]oughes, expresly made to receiue the water; & when in the meane time the shepheards came and surprised them, Moses ass [...] ­teth [...] daughte [...] a­gainst the shephea [...]ds. and droue away the virgins, to the end they might be masters of the water: Moses suppos [...]ng it a matter vnworthie his honour, to suffer this o [...]rage, and to endure that by violence men should depriue virgins of their right and interest; he droue away the shepheards, who would haue en­ioyed that which appertained not vnto them, and gaue necessarie succours to the dismayed maydens. Who as soone as they were returned into their fathers presence, told him the outrage that was done them by the shepheards, and the succours that they found by the handes of a str [...]nger, beseeching him that the courtesie which he had shewen vnto them, should not be E [...], but that in some sort he might receiue recompence. The father commending his daughters thankfulnesse towards their bene factor, commaunded them to bring Moses into his presence, to the end he might remunerate him according as he deserued. As soone as he came into his presence, Raguel told him how his daughters had giuen him to vnderstand, how kindly he had assisted the [...], and hauing his vertue in admiration; he said that he had not aduentured himselfe, not done kindnesse to those that were without sense of the courtesies that were shewed vnto them, but vnto those who were capable to giue him thankes, yea so readie to requi [...]e him, that the greatnesse of their requitall should farre surpasse the measure of his humanitie. Hee therefore adopted him for his sonne, and gaue him one of his daughters to wife, and made him Raguel mari­eth one of his daughters to Moses. He [...]o & Ru [...] ­nus, ch. 12. [...]l. 9 [...]tendent and master of [...]s flockes (in which in times past [...]e wealth and riches of for­ [...] F nations consisted:) Moses hauing obtained this good fortune at Ietheglaeus hands (for such was Raguel [...] su [...]ame) he abode there with him and attended his flockes. But not long after he led his [...]attell to grase neere to the mountaine S [...], which is the highest of all those that are in that quarter, and good for pasturage, by reason of the holsome herbes that grow there abouts, which no [...]standing was not fed vpon before that time, because the shepheards durst not frequent there abouts, by reason of their opinion that dwelt in that countrey, who said that God inha­bited [Page 46] that mountaine: there happened there vnto him a maruailous prodigie, which was, that G The yeare of the world, 1454. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1510. Exod. 3. God appea­reth to Moses in the bush. God conuin­ceth Moses & the Israelites by miracles, to the end they might put trust in his promises. a flame of fire seemed round about him in a bush, without offensing eyther the greene herbes, or the flowers, or the bowes charged with fruit, although the flame were both great and vehe­ment. He not a little amased at this vnexpected spectacle, at last grew more and more amased when as he heard a voyce issuing out of the fire, which called him by his name; taxing and ac­cusing him of boldnes, in that he was not afraid to tread vpon that ground, which hitherto was vnaccessible, and religiously reuerenced, and vnhanted by men; counselling him that he should depart a farre off from the flame, and content himselfe with that vision: for although that he were a vertuous man, and descended from great personages, yet that he ought not to be curious to make further search into the same. The same voyce also told him, that the honour and glory which he obtained amongst men, was by the assistance of God; charging him to be of good cou­rage, H and to repayre into Egypt, for that in that place he should be captaine and guide of the Hebrew nation, and should deliuer that people which were therein, from the outrage & seruitude which they suffered. For (said the voyce) they shal inhabite this happie countrey, wherein your father Abraham hath dwelt; and they shall enioy all sorts of blessings vnder the conduct of thee and thy prudence. Moreouer it commaunded him, that hauing brought the Hebrewes out of Egypt, he should offer sacrifice of thanksgiuing, at such time, as he should arriue againe in that place. And such was the Oracle which he receiued from out of the flame. Moses altogither ra­uished at that which he had both heard and seene, spake thus: ‘O Lord, it were madnes in me, and no prudence, if I should distrust thy power the which I reuerence, and which as I know hath been manifested vnto my predecessors: notwithstanding I stand in doubt how I, who am a man of no I eloquence and of lesse force, should perswade my brethren by my words, to forsake the coun­trey wherein they inhabite, to follow me into that countrey whither I will conduct them: And although they should be perswaded to doe the same; how can I force Pharao to permit them to depart from thence, by whose labours and trauels, the Egyptians are daily increased in goods and riches?’ Whereupon God gaue him to vnderstand, that he should take vnto him a good cou­rage, and promised him, that he himselfe would assist him, and that if he had need of eloquence, he would bestow vpon him the facultie of perswasion; or if he were driuen to act any thing, that he would redoible his forces; commanding that in confirmation of those promises he had made Moses rod is turned into a serpent. him, he should le [...] f [...]ll his staffe vpon the ground: which hauing done, a Dragon began to creepe vpon the ground, and in turning and rouling himselfe, lifted vp his crest on high; making sem­blance K to defend himselfe against those that should assaile him: and againe, a little whiles after be­came a staffe againe. Afterwards he commaunded him to put his hand into his bosome, and no Moses hand is made white. sooner had he obeyed, but that he drew it out altogether white, & in colour resembling chalke: & a little while after it recouered his ordinarie forme. Moreouer, he further willed him to drawe Moses cow­reth water on the earth, and it turneth to bloud. water out of the next well, and to power it on the ground, and he sawe it turned into a bloodie colour. Amased at these accidents, he was commaunded to be of good courage, and assured that he should haue great assistance. Moreouer, that he should vse these signes before all men, to the end (said God) that all may beleeue that being sent by me, thou dost all this according to my commaundements. Furthermore I enioyne thee, that without any further delay, thou haste Moses is sent into Egypt, to deliuer the Is­raelites. thee into Egypt; and that thou [...]ell day and night, without leesing time, without delaying a­ny L more to succour the poore Hebrewes grieuously afflicted in Egypt. Moses hauing no cause to distrust that which God had promised him, and being confirmed by these things whereof he was both an eye witnesse, and auditor; he required God, that if there were any occasion to expresse the like power in Egypt, he would vouchsafe to further the effect; beseeching him further that he would not conceale his name from him, to whom he had participated the hearing of his voice, and the sight of his presence; that it might please him therefore to declare vnto him his name, to the end that when he should offer sacrifice vnto him, he might call vpon the same, God declared vnto him his name, which before time had beene concealed amongst men, and of which also it is not lawfull for me to speake. Moses wrought these signes not only at that time, but also when or wheresoeuer he thought it requisite: by all which he gaue further credit to the fire M which had appeared vnto him, and assured himselfe that God would be his fauourable defender, that he would deliuer his brethren, and intangle and enwrap the Egyptians in great calamities. And after that he had vnderstood that Pharao King of Egypt was dead (during whose life he Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. [...]3. al. 10. fled from thence) he requested Raguel that he would giue him leaue to depart into Egypt, for the profit of those of his nation; and taking with him Sephora (who was Raguel daughter and his maried wife) and Gerson and Eleazar his children which he had by her, he departed to [Page 47] go into Egypt. Now this name of Gerson in the Hebrew tongue signifieth, Forraine; and Elea­zar A The yeare of the world. 2454 be­fore Christs birth 1 [...]10. Moses depar­teth from Ma­dian to go in­to Egypt. Moses two sons Gerson & Eleazar. Moses inter­tayned by the Hebrewes she­weth them his miracles. signifieth, fauoured by God, in memory that Moses had escaped from amongst the Egypti­ans, by the assistance of the God of his fathers. And as he approched neere the mountaines, Aa­ron his brother by the commaundement of God came forth to meete him, to whom he decla­red all that which had happened vnto him in the mountaine, and that which God had giuen him in charge. And as they passed onward of their way, the men of greatest estimation amongst the Hebrewes (hauing intelligence of his comming) came out to meete him, to whom Moses pre­sented the abouenamed tokens, by reason that he could not perswade them by words: and they being astonished at that which they had seene him doe, beyond their expectation; waxed confi­dent, and conceiued a good hope of all things, seeing that God had a care of their safetie. When he perceiued that the Hebrewes were readie to obey him, and that they protested to follow him B in al that which he should command them, through the earnest desire they had to be at liberty: he presented himselfe before the king, who had newly vndertaken the gouernment, and shewed him the great benefits he had done vnto the Egyptians, at such time as they were despised by the Ethiopians, who had spoyled all their countrey; and how he had spared no trauell, but sustained all the charge of the warre, as if it had beene waged for his owne proper nation. On the other side, he opened vnto him the daungers which he had iniustly suffered for his recompence: he af­terwards discoursed vnto him that which had befallen him neere vnto the fountaine of Sinai, Exod. 5. 7. Moses perswa­deth the king of Egypt to dis misse the Is­raelits. and the talke which God had in that place with him; and the signes in particular which had been shewed vnto him, in confirmation of those things whereunto he was enioyned; exhorting the King not to mistrust or impeach the ordinance of God. The King hearing this, began to mocke C him: but Moses made him see in effect the signes, which were shewed vnto him neere to the moun­taine of Sinai. But the King waxed wroth, and grieuously reuiled him, accusing him for that in Moses sheweth Pharao his mi­racles. times past he fled away for feare to be slaine in Egypt, and at this present returned thither vn­der a subtill pretext, cloaking his craft with magike, and inchantment the more to afright him. And at the same instant he called into his presence the priests of Egypt, to let them see those signes, and to make it manifest that the Egyptians were exercised in those sciences: and that he onely was not master in those things, the which he boasted to performe by Gods power, but that they were but deceits & shadowes of meruailes to deceiue the multitude: whereupon the priests cast downe their rods, and they became serpents. Moses being nothing moued herewith, said: ‘O King, I despise not the wisedome of the Egyptians, but I protest that that which I haue done, D doth so farre surpasse all their magike and art, as there is difference betweene diuine and humane things: I will therefore shew you, that that which I do, is not by enchantment, nor vnder colour of apparent veritie, but by the prouidence and power of God.’This said, he cast his rod vpon the ground, commaunding it to change it selfe into a serpent, whereunto it obeyed, and wande­ring here and there, it deuoured all the rods of the Egyptians which seemed to be serpents, vn­till they were all of them consumed; and that done, Moses tooke his staffe into his hand againe, Moses [...]od de­uoureth the rods of the Egyptians. and it reassumed his pristine forme. But the King being neuer the more astonished, (but the rather incensed at that which was done) said, that this wisedome and subtilty of Moses should pro­fit him nothing, which he vsed in disgrace of the Egyptians. He commaunded therefore the ouerseer of the workes, who had the gouernment ouer the Hebrewes, that he should remit no­thing E Pharao enioy­neth the He­brewes to more grieuous taskes. of their labour, but that he should oppresse them with more tedious and grieuous taskes, then they were wont to be put vnto: whereupon (where he was wont to allowe them straw to make their tile with) he forbare after that time to giue them that allowance, and taxing them in the day time to follow their worke, he appointed them by night to find and bring in their straw, doubling thereby the waight of their former labour. Notwithstanding all this, Moses would nei­ther desist from his purpose, in regard of the kings threatning, nor the continuall cry of his coun­trimen, neither was in any sort appauled thereat; but with a confident and vnappauled mind (in regard of both) he wholy intended this, to restore his countrimen to their desired libertie. Hee therefore once againe accosted the King, perswading him to dismisse the Hebrewes, to the end they might repaire vnto the mountaine Sinai, and sacrifice vnto God in that place: for no lesse Exod. 6. Moses once more perswa­deth the king to dismisse the Hebrewes. F (saith hee) hath he commaunded, neither can any resist his will. For which cause he aduised the King to endeuour himselfe (least he should seeme to contemne his fauours) to grant the people free passage, for feare least if he should secretly forbid them the same, he might accuse and con­demne himselfe to suffer that which they in reason ought to endure, who resist the wil and works of God: for to those that stirre vp the wrath of God against themselues, al kind of mishaps do flock and flow on euery side: The earth befriendeth them not: neyther smileth the [...]yre vpon them, [Page 48] their children are not begotten according to nature; but all things oppose themselues as ene­mies The yeare of the world 2454. be­fore Christs Na­tiutie, 1510. G and contraries against them. Moreouer he added, that the Aegyptians should feele the plague, after that the people of the Hebrewes should (in despight of their resistance) depart out of their countrey: but in that the King despised these words of Moses, and would not be conuer­ted, most grieuous plagues fell vpon the land of Aegypt. (The which I will particularly set downe, by reason that at that time the Aegyptians suffered those things, which neuer before that time happened to any other people; and for that cause likewise that I may testifie and declare, that Moses hath not falsified or erred in any thing that he hath done: and besides, for that it is expe­dient for men to learne & do those things which are agreeable to gods wil, for feare least he being prouoked and incensed against them, should punish them for their vniustice.) For first of all by the commaundement of God, the riuers ouerflowed with bloud, neyther was it possible for H them to drinke (notwithstanding they had no other fountaines of water) neither was the water The first plague of the Egyptians, water turned into bloud. Exod. 7. only coloured like bloud, but when as likewise any one dranke therof, it ingendred & procured in him diuers dolors, and grieuous gripings. Such was the water to the Aegyptians, but to the Hebrewes it seemed good and sweet in taste, without any waies chaunging the nature thereof. Hereupon the King (not knowing what to doe, and seeing this straunge accident, and being a­fraid by reason of the Aegyptians) permitted the Hebrewes to depart: but no sooner was this plague ceased, but he presently chaunged his mind, and would not permit them liberty to depart: for which cause God (seeing his ingratitude, and that he would not be warned, notwith­standing he had deliuered him from the former calamitie) he inflicted an other plague vpon Exod. 8. 9. An other plague of frogs. the Aegyptians. He therefore sent an infinite number of frogs vpon them, that couered and in­fected I the whole countrey, and the riuers were so packed and stored with them in such manner, that they that drewe water to drinke, found it altogether infected with the putrefaction of them, dying & rotting in the waters: so that the whole countrey was full of filthie mud, by reason of the frogs that defaced & died on the same. They corrupted also their meats, mingling themselues in their houses amidst their meat and drink, & creeping amidst their chambers; from whence an odious stench exhaled by reason of the multitude of frogs that lay dead. Now when the Aegypti­ans saw themselues so sore pressed with these euils, the King commanded Moses that he should take the Hebrewes, & that he should depart: and as soone as he had spoken this, the multitude of frogs vanished and appeared no more, neither on the earth nor in the water, but that they re­tained their accustomed nature. No sooner was the earth deliuered frō this curse, but Pharao for­got K the cause therof, & retained the Hebrewes anew: & (as if he had a desire to experimēt the ma­ner of diuers miseries) he denied thē that issue which before time he had granted thē, rather infor­ced therunto by his feare, then forward good liking. For this cause God once againe rewarded his fraud, by sending him another plague: for a multitude of lice swarmed from the bodies of the Ae­gyptians, The third plague, lice. whence the wretched men perished wretchedly; neither could they exterminate that race, eyther by bathings or inunctions. The king troubled with this calamity, & fearing the ruine of his people, and bethinking him of the shamefull end therof, he was constrained to remit the better part of his malignitie. For as touching the Hebrewes he permitted them to depart, but (after the plague was appeased) he required at their hands that they would leaue their wiues and children behind them for pledges till their returne: and by this meanes he prouoked Gods L wrath more heauily against him, in that he supposed to delude his prouidence: as if it had not beene God, who (in the Hebrewes behalfe) had punished them, but Moses that had plagued the Aegyptians. For God filled their countrey with many and diuers sorts of beasts, (the like whereof before that time had not beene seene in that countrey) which killed them vp, so that the earth became desolate and vnmanured, and if any one amongst them escaped from death, they were The fourth plague, vene­mous beasts. afterwards destroyed by sicknes. But notwithstanding all these, the King still continuing obsti­nate in his wickednes, and disobedient vnto God, permitting onely that the women and men should depart, & that their children should be left behind them: but God desisted not to punish his wickednes by diuers and most grieuous plagues, farre more tedious then the former, yea The fift plague, the plague. such as were dispersed ouer all the people. M

For their bodies were grieuously tormented with vlcers, and corrupted inwardly; and after this sort the greater part of the Egyptians perished: but whenas the King was neither moderated, The six plague, borches. The seuenth plague, haile. nor mollified by this plague, God rained downe haile vpon them (which neuer before that time was engendred in the ayre of Aegypt, & further so great, or rather greater then that, which falleth to the Northward, neere to the Pole Attique in the midst of the spring) and spoyled all their The eight plague, Gras­hoppers. fruite. After which an armie of grashoppers deuoured all those buds and fruits which were vn­offenced [Page 49] by the hayle; so that all the hope which the Egyptians had of their haruest or fruite, The yeare of the world. 2454. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1510. A was vtterly ouerthrowne. These aforesaid afflictions had beene sufficient to perswade a man of the meanest vvit (except he had beene a reprobate) to grow wise, and make vse of that which was most profitable for him. But Pharao knowing the causes of the same, enforced himselfe to resist God, not onely thorow imprudence, but for malice; so that voluntarily he betraied his com­monweale. He therefore commaunded Moses, that he should lead away the Hebrewes with their wiues; but that they should leaue their substance behind them for a pray, in that they com­plained, that after all these calamities they had nothing left them. To whom Moses aunswered, that he demaunded an vnlawfull matter, by reason that they were to offer sacrifice vnto God of their pray or bootie. Now whilest the time was spent in these consultations, darknes altoge­ther deuoyd of light ouerspred the land of Aegypt, where through they died miserably in clo­sing B their eyes, by reason of the thickenesse thereof; so that they were afraid least the fogge should The ninth plague, dark­nes. choake them: which being dispersed, after three daies and so many nights, Moses seeing that Pharao would not repent nor let the people of Israel depart, he came vnto him and spake after this manner. As long as you shall resist the ordinance of God (who commaundeth you to suffer the Hebrewes to depart) there is no meanes, whereby you may be exempted from these mischiefes in doing that which you doe. The King enraged at these words, threatned him to cut off his head, if once more he durst appeare in his presence, to motion vnto him any such matter. Moses answered him, that he would no more speake vnto him as touching this matter; Pharao dri­ueth away Moses. Exod. 10. 11. 12. but that both himselfe and the chiefest among the Aegyptians woulde exhorte the He­brewes to depart: which said, he forsooke his presence. But God intending to expresse that he C meant yet once more to plague the Aegyptians, and to constraine them to deliuer the He­brewes: he commaunded Moses to declare vnto the people, that they should haue their sacri­fice in a readinesse, and hauing prepared it the thirteenth day of the moneth Xanthicus, to cele­brate the same the 14. of the said moneth (by the Egyptians called Pharmuth, and by the He­brewes Xanthicus a­mongst the Macedons is April, as Sui­das testifieth. Nisan, and Xanthicus by the Macedonians) and that he should lead forth all the He­brewes, bearing with them all their goods. Whereupon he who had the Hebrewes alreadie in a readinesse to depart, and had distributed them by families, kept them in one place, and in the same order: but when the fourteenth day was come, all of them addressed to depart, made sacrifice, and with the bloud of the lambe purged their houses, besprinkling them with branches of Isope. And after they had supped, they burned the flesh that remained, as being on the point D to addresse themselues to depart. Whereupon euen at this day we retaine the said custome to The Hebrewes passeouer signi fieth, a passage. sacrifice in like sort; and do call this solemnitie Pascha, which is as much to say, as the passage, by reason that on that day God leauing and ouerpassing the Hebrewes without harme, stroke the E­gyptians with sicknes: for that plague in the night time cut off all the first begotten in Egypt, so that by multitudes they that dwelt round about the pallace assembled them in the presence of the King, and besought him to let the Hebrewes go: for vvhich cause Pharao calling for Moses, The tenth plague the first begotten a­mongst the E­gyptians, both man & beastes die. The Israelites depart out of Egypt. gaue order that they should depart the countrey, supposing that assoone as they were gone, E­gypt should no more be afflicted with such like plagues. Moreouer, they honoured the Hebrewes with presents, partly to the end they should depart vvith the more expedition, partly for the neighborhood and acquaintance sake vvhich they had one with another. And as they departed E the Aegyptians wept, and repented them of the euill vsage they had shewed vnto them: but they tooke their way towards Latopolis at that time desert, and in which place afterwards Babylon was builded, at such time as Cambyses destroyed Aegypt. The third day they came vnto Beelzephon neere vnto the red sea, and for that they vvanted victuals, by reason of the desart, they tempered their meale with vvater, and hardened it with a little heat, and made cakes, with vvhich they sus­tained themselues for the space of thirtie daies: for they had not brought any more victuall out of Aegypt, but as much as would serue them for that time, and that which they had they dispensed The feast of the Azymes. verie sparingly, rather feeding for necessitie, then eating with sacietie. For which cause in me­morie of that want, we celebrate a feast for the space of eight daies, which we call the feast of Azymes, that is to say, of vnleauened bread. But it is not easie to number the multitude of them The number of the children of Israel. F that dislodged, if we consider the women and children; but of those that were of full age, and fit to beare armes, they were in number sixe hundreth thousand.

CHAP. VI. The yeare of the world, 2454. be­fore Christs birth 1510. G

The Hebrewes depart out of Egypt vnder the conduct of Moses.

THey therefere forsooke Aegypt the fourteenth day of the moneth Xanthicus, foure hundreth and thirtie yeares after Abraham our father came into Chanaan, and in the The time of their depar­ture out of E­gypt. Ex [...]d. 12. Iosephs bones. Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 14. al. 11. The Egyptians pursue the He­brewes. two hundreth and fifteenth yeare after Iacob was transported into Aegypt, the eightith yeare of Moses age, who had Aaron to his brother three yeares elder than himselfe. They caried also with them the bones of Ioseph, according as he had commanded his sonnes. But the Aegyptians repented themselues, because they had suffered the Hebrewes to depart: the King also was very sore moued, supposing that which was fallen vpon them had happened by Moses H meanes, and they all concluded to pursue and follow after them. They therefore armed them­selues, and furnished them with all their abiliments of warre, intending to pursue them vnder in­tent to bring them backe, if they might ouertake them: for they said that God would no more be displeased against them, for that alreadie they had giuen them leaue to depart. They hoped likewise verie easily to bring them vnder subiection, because they were all of them disarmed and wearied with trauaile. They therefore inquired of euery one which way they held, and hasted themselues to follow them, although they knew the Region was very hard to trauell in, not one­ly for those that were to march in troupe, but also for those that were to iourney one by one. And therefore did Moses conduct them this way, to the end that if the Aegyptians should repent them of their dismission, and should haste them to pursue them, they might receiue the reward of their I wickednes, and the breach of their promise: He chose this way likewise, least the Palestines should vnderstand of their departure, by reason they were displeased against the Hebrewes, be­cause Why Moses conducted them thorow Palestine. of an auncient grudge which they bare them. Now doth Palestine confine and border vpon Aegypt, and therefore led he them not by the way that directly leadeth thither: but he intended to bring them into Chanaan, by conducting them farre about, and thorow many ca­lamities, to the end that afterwards he might lead them to the mountaine of Sinai, where they might offer sacrifice, according to Gods commaundement. As soone as the Egyptians ouer­tooke the Israelites, they prepared themselues to fight, trusting themselues to the number which they had, and shut themselues into a place of securitie. For with them there serued sixe hun­dreth chariots, with fiftie thousand horsemen, and two hundreth thousand armed footemen. K They had also stopped the passages, wherethrough they thought the Hebrewes might escape, The Israelites are encompas­sed by the E­gyptian multi­tudes, and de­part to the red sea. Exod. 14. enclosing them betwixt vnaccessible rockes, and the sea; on which place there abutteth a moun­taine, vnfrequented by reason of the daungerousnes of the way, and by this meanes they ex­cluded them from all hope of escape or flight. For on the one side they were shut in by the mountaine that extended it selfe euen vnto the sea, and on the other side by their campe pitch­ed and embattailed before their faces, to cut them off from the champion, if so be they inten­ded to flie that waies. Seeing therefore that they were in no securitie, but were hemmed in by the importunitie of the place, and by the reason of their want could not endure the siege, and The perplexity of the I [...]rae­lites being en­closed by the Egyptians. for that they could not find any issue to fly from their enemies; neither although they greatly desired to fight had they meanes to defend themselues, because they were disarmed; finally, L when as they perceiued that there was no hope of safetie left them, but onely by their abiect submission: they began to accuse Moses, forgetting those prodigies, whereby God had fore-pro­mised them their libertie; and so farre forgot they themselues, that after hauing stoned the pro­phet, and thorow incredulitie contemned Gods promises, they were resolued to yeeld them­selues subiect to their former thraldome. For they were exasperated by the teares of their wiues and children, who expected nothing but death, seeing themselues begirt with rockes, seas, and soldiers; and left destitutè of all hope of flight. But although the multitude were exaspera­ted against Moses, yet ceased he not to take care of them, and to thinke on God; laying before Moses exhor­teth the people to put their trust in God. their eyes that which he had said in times past, as touching their deliuerance, and assuring them that God would not suffer them to be subiected or ouerthrowne by their enemies, and standing M vp in the midst of them he said: ‘If your affaires had hitherto beene managed by men onely, it were not amisse in you to distrust them, least hereafter they should not bring them to their de­termined and your desired issue. But in that at this time you distrust the prouidence of God, this sheweth you to be without sense or vnderstanding, considering it is he that hath made you see all those things which he hath promised you by me, tending to your saluation and deliuerance; yea euen at that time when you yourselues expected it not: you rather ought to hope that God [Page 51] will helpe and assist you in these difficulties, who hath brought to passe, that you are now in this In the yeare of the world. 2454. before Christes Natiuity. 1510. A streight, to the end that when he shall haue deliuered you from these extremities; from which neither you your selues, nor your enemies suppose that you may escape, he may shew his force and prouidence in your behalfe: For God is not accustomed to yeeld his fauourable assistance when the dangers are only easie and supportable, but in those wherein all humane When God is most ready to helpe vs. hope is void and exhausted. Therefore repose your selues and stay your fortunes vpon such a helper, who can make great things of small, and maketh the strongest feeble. Feare not the force and power of the Egyptians; neither, for that you haue the sea and mountaines before you, which permit you not to flie from them, despaire of your liues: for God (if he please) can turne the mountaines into plaines, and change the sea into drie land.’

CHAP. VII. B

The Hebrewes are pursued by the Egyptians, the sea deuideth it selfe, and giueth passage to the Hebrewes.

THis said, he conducted the Hebrewes towards the sea in the sight of the Aegyptians. For they were within sight of them, being very much wearied with pursuite and trauell, and made their account that it should be best for them to remit the combat vntill the next day.

But when Moses was arriued vpon the banke of the sea, hee tooke his rod and called vp­pon God, and implored his aide and succours in these words. O Lord, thou too well knowest Moses prayer vnto God. C that it is impossible for vs by force o [...] mans policie to escape these extremities: but thou art he only that canst saue this companie, who haue forsaken Aegypt, following thy commandement. And since of our selues we haue not anie hope or meanes, wee onely recommend our selues vnto thy prouidence, assuring our selues, that by that meanes onely we may be deliuered from the pursuit and hatred of the Aegyptians: Send vs therefore speedily thine assistance, to the end that thy power may be knowne in our weaknesse. Relieue, encourage, and hearten thy people, assuring them of their safetie, who through thi [...] distrust haue sinned against thee: we are in­uironed with difficulties, which notwithstanding thou canst make easie. For the sea is thine, and th [...]s mountaine that encloseth vs; the which shall open, and the sea also diuide it selfe into firme land, if thou commaundest them. We may likewise flie through the aire, if it please thy D power to deliuer vs in that maner. Hauing made his request vnto God after this manner, hee stroke the sea with his rod; which sodainly deuiding it selfe at that stroke, and retiring backe­wards, left a drie passage through the midst thereof, wherethrough the Hebrewes might escape. The red sea di­uideth it selfe. Moses seeing how God had made himselfe knowne, and how the sea had forsaken the land, and left his natiue channell; he first of all marched through the same, and commaunded the He­brewes to follow him, marching through that way which God had in his diuine power pro­uided for them, willing them to reioyce at the danger which attended their enemies, and to The Hebrewe [...] passe through the red sea, the Egyptians are drowned therein. giue God thanks for the vriexpected succours he had sent them: who were not negligent, but marched boldly forward. At the first the Egyptians supposed them to be mad, and that they did headlong cast themselues into manifest perdition: but when they perceiued that they were E forwardly entred without danger, and that they encountred no danger or let, they dislodged and followed them, as if the sea ought to haue giuen them issue also; and hauing set their horse in the vauntgard, they began to descend, and enter the way of the sea. The Hebrewes percei [...]ing that they spent the time in arming themselues, hasted them to flie to the opposite shore, where they arriued without anie disturbance; which made their enemies more bold, supposing that no euill should happen vnto them. They supposed not that this path was made expresly for the Hebrewes, but entred the same, as if it had beene a common beaten way, forgetting that it was made to saue the Hebrewes from daunger, and not themselues, who sought to ruinate them. But as soone as all the Egyptian armie was entred thereinto; the sea returned to his old course, and with winds and waues ouerwhelmed the Egyptians. The showers from heauen fell F vpon them, vehement thunders ratled from the aire, intermixed with flashings, and the lighte­nings tempested vpon them. In briefe, there was nothing that through the wrath of God might be inflicted vpon men, which at that time hapned not vnto them. For besides all that which hath beene spoken, an obscure and darke night surprised them, in such sort as they were all of them drowned; and there remained not one of them to beare backe the tydings of their misfor­tune: That the Hebrewes could not containe themselues, such ioy they had conceiued through [Page 52] this their vnexpected deliuerance, and the totall ruine of their enemies: so that they assured­ly G The yeare of the world, 2454. be­fore Christ [...] b [...]th 2510. perswaded themselues that they were deliuered; by reason that they, who had made them slaues vnto them perforce, were exterminated; and for that they had God so visibly assistant vnto them. When then they had escaped this daunger, and perceiuing likewise that their ene­mies were in this sort punished, yea and after such a manner as the like punishment hath neuer beene heard of amongst men; they all of them during the whole night sung hymnes and songs of reioyce. Moses likewise composed an Ode in Hexameter verse, contayning the prayses of God, and a thanksgiuing for the fauour he had done vnto them. All these things haue I parti­cularly Exod. 15. The Israelites with Moses sing songes for their deliue­rance. The sea of Pamphilia de­uided it selfe for Alexanders soldiers to passe there thorow, The wind and tide driue the Egyptiā armes into the He­brewes campe. declared, according as I haue found them written in holy scriptures. Neither ought any man to maruell at this so wonderfull a discourse, that thorow the sea there should a passage be found to saue so manie persons in times past, and they rude and simple, whether it were H done by the will of God, or that it chaunced of it selfe; since not long time agoe, God so thinking it good, the sea of Pamphilia deuided it selfe to giue way to Alexander King of Ma­cedons souldiours, hauing no other passage to destroy the empire of the Persians. The next day the Aegyptians armes transported by the force of the streame, were cast a shore into the armie of the Hebrewes: which when Moses perceiued that it was done by the prouidence of God, to the intent they might not be disarmed; he gathered them together, and furnished the Hebrewes therewith, who afterwardes led them to the mountaine of Sinai to sacrifice vnto God, and he offered him thankesgiuing for their deliuerance in the behalfe of the people, accor­ding as he himselfe had before time commaunded him. I

THE THIRD BOOKE OF THE ANTIQVITIES OF THE IEWES,

The Contents of the Chapters of the 3. booke. K
  • 1 How Moses conducted the people out of Egypt to the mountaine of Sinai.
  • 2 Of the slaughter of the Amalechites and their confederates, and of the pray which the Israe­lites attained thereby.
  • 3 Raguels counsaile vnto his sonne in law Moses.
  • 4 Moses ascending the mountaine of Sinai, bringeth downe the Tables of the ten commaunde­ments, which he had receiued at Gods hands, to the people.
  • 5 Of the Tabernacle made by Moses in the desart, resembling a portable Temple.
  • 6 Of the Arke wherein Moses inclosed the Tables of the Law.
  • 7 Of the golden Table and Candlesticke, and of the Altars of the Tabernacle. L
  • 8 Of the apparrell both of the high Priests and the inferiors.
  • 9 Of Aarons Priesthood, and of that which was ordained as touching the foastes and Sa­crifices.
  • 10 The Lawes of Sacrifices, and Purifications.
  • 11 The lawes and customes of warre.
  • 12 Sedition against Moses, by reason of the want of victualles, and the punishment of the seditious.
  • 13 Of the spies who hauing seene and searched the countrey of Chanaan, and returning backe a­gaine to the Israelites, amated them with feare. M

CHAP. I. A The years of the world. 2454. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 2510.

How Moses conducted the people out of Egypt to the Mountaine of Sinai.

THis new and vnexpected deliuerance of the Hebrewes from their daunger, was not alittle obscured by the wearines and tediousnes of their iourney, The Israelites in the desart are distressed for want of water. which they indured in their trauell towards the mountaine of Sinai: by rea­son that the countrey was desart and inhabitable, destitute of victuals, and wholy depriued of waters; and not onely barren of that which serued for the sustenance of men, but also euery waies destitute of pasturage and pro­uision B for cattell: for it was not onely drie and vtterly destitute of water, but also depriued of all meanes to nourish and increase fruit. Now they were inforced to prosecute their way thorow this countrey, by reason they could not otherwise chuse; so that they were constrained to beare with them the water which they had drawne before such time as they ente­red the desart, according as their Captaine and Conductor had commaunded [...]hem: which be­ing spent, they digged pits, out of which they drew water with great difficultie, by reason of the sterilitie of the countrey: and further, the water which they found in those places was bitter, and no waies fit to drinke, and that which was worse, very little in quantitie. Trauailing onwards of their iourney after this manner, they arriued about the euening in a certaine place, which by rea­son the waters thereabout were brackish, they called Mara, that is to say, bittemesse: there wea­ried C with their trauell and their prouision failing them, they began to be trauailed with necessitie; Mara signifi­eth bitternes. Exod. 15. so that they resolued to stay in that place; and the rather in that they found a certaine pit there, which although it were insufficient to satisfie so great an army, yet for that they found it in that countrey, it yeelded them no little consolation. For they were giuen to vnderstand, that if they trauelled onwards they should find no water; and as touching the water of that pit; it was so bitter and vnfit for their drinking, that it neyther was agreeable with mens taste, nor supportable by their verie cattell likewise. Whereupon Moses seeing them so discomforted, neither know­ing in what sort to satisfie them, in that he had not to deale with an opposite armie or enemy to the end to inforce, and to repell them with valor; and for that he manifestly perceiued that not onely a troupe of valiant men, but also a multitude of women and children were like to perish: D he was verie sore perplexed not knowing what to doe, and on himselfe he heaped the calamitie of them all; as if himselfe onely were to beare the heauie burthen of their misery. For all of them had their recourse vnto him, and to no man else; the women besought for their children, the husbands intreated for their wiues, beseeching him to take compassion of their desolations, and to furnish them with some meanes to escape their miserie. He addressed himselfe therefore Moses beseech­eth God to change the bitter waters into sweet. in most humble manner to beseech almightie God, that it might please him to conuert the euill qualitie of the water, and to make it potable: which grace and fauour he no sooner obtained, but he tooke the end of his staffe, and cast it at his feete, and afterwards brake it in the midst, and cleft it long-waies, and cast it into the pit; giuing the Hebrewes to vnderstand, that God had heard their prayers, and that he had promised them to giue them that water they desired, if so E be they would obey him, and with alacritie and diligence performe that which should be com­manded them. And when they were inquisitiue of that which they ought to do, to the intent the water might be changed, he enioyned euerie one of them, that was of best strength and abilitie amongst them, to draw water; giuing them to vnderstand, that so soone as they had drawne out great store of water from the pit, the rest that should remaine, would be verie good and con­uenient to be drunke: wherein they trauelled in such sort, that the water agitated and purified by often drawing, became potable, and refected the wearie multitude. Hereupon dislodging from that place they came to Helim, a countrey that a farre off seemed verie pleasant, by reason The Israelites came to Elim where they be­gan to mur­mure against Moses for want of suste­nance. that it was planted with Palme trees; but the neerer they approched it, the more tedious they found it (for there were no more then seuentie palme trees in that place, and they not verie tall F or well growne, by reason of the drinesse and barennesse of that countrey: for they were not wa­tered by the fountaines, whereof there were twelue in that place, neither did any one of them yeeld any moisture, to giue them sustenance) so that indeuouring themselues to dig vp the sand, they could light on no veines of water, and if perhaps any little deale appeared, it was so troubled by their digging as it became vnfit to be tasted: neither did the trees beare any store of fruit, by reason of the want of water. For which cause the whole multitude began to murmure against [Page 54] their guide, ascribing all the cause of their calamities and miseries vnto him. For hauing mar­ched The yeare of the world, 1454. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1510. Exod. 16. G for the space of thirtie dayes, they had consumed all that which they brought with them, and conceiuing in their imagination that there was no remedy, they were wholy surprised with despaire. Bethinking them therefore onely o [...] that euill which was before their eyes, and forget­ting the marueiles which God by the ministerie and prudence of Moses had made them both see and partake, they conceiued hatred against him, and were readie to stone him to death, as if he had beene the authour of that calamitie which oppressed them. But he perceiuing the multitude so inraged and incensed against him, strengthened himselfe in God, and warran­ted by the testimonie of a good conscience, and the vprightnesse of his actions, [...]hee came out into the middest of them; who reuiled him, and had gathered stones to cast at him. And for that he was adorned with a singular grace and alluring countenance, and endued with H pleasing eloquence, and fit to pacifie the popularitie, he began to appease their wrath; exhorting them not onely to forget their present difficulties, but also to remember their forepassed bles­sings, [...]ot permitting that the trauell which they endured at that time, should driue out of their remembrance the graces and great good turnes, which they had receiued at Gods hands. He willed them likewise diligently to expect their deliuerance from that extremitie, by the prouidence Moses exhor­teth the peo­ple to re mem­ber those be­nefits they had receiued at Gods hands. of God, who (as it was very likely) made triall of their vertue, to see what perseue­rance they had, or whether they kept in their remembrance those things which had hapned vnto them; or whether forgetting their forepassed pleasures, they would suffer themselues to be swallowed with their present miserie: he willed them therefore to take heed, least through their impatiencie and ingratitude, they should be found vnworthie of Gods fauour, who both I neglected his will, by whose direction they were brought out of Egypt, and sore threatened and hated him, which was Gods minister, especially since hitherto they might no wayes com­plaine of him in any thing, which hee had vndertaken to execute by the commandement of God. Then reckoned he vp particularly vnto them, how the Egyptians were ouerthrowne and Moses recko­neth vp vnto the people all the bene [...]ts which God had done vnto them. afflicted, whilest contrarie to Gods will they endeuoured to detaine them; how the same riuer which to them was bloudie and vnprofitable to drinke of, to themselues became both sweet and po [...]able: likewise how the sea retired it selfe, and furthered both their flight and passage, wherein they saw themselues secure and free from danger. And contrariwise, their enemies de­stroyed, ouerthrowne and drowned; and how euen vntill that day being disarmed, they were by Gods prouidence both furnished and fortified aboundantly. Againe, howe often God K had deliuered them from apparant death and daunger, besides all mens opinion, who be­ing all and alwayes omnipotent, gaue them at that time, no not the least suspition of his assi­stance. For which cause they were to suffer all things patiently, and to imagine with themselues that the succour, although it were deferred, was neuer too late, which was receiued before such time as the danger had preuailed: and so to thinke that God contemned not their perils, but that he made triall of their fortitude and free loue, to see whether they were able and wil­ling to abide the want of meate and drinke; or rather whether after the maner of bruite beasts, they had leifer be trained in seruile trauell, to the end they might be glutted like them, and made the better able to endure their labor. To conclude, that hee nothing feared his life (be­cause that being vniustly slaine, no euill could happen vnto him) but that he was fearefull of L their safetie, least lifting vp their handes to stone him, they should bee thought to oppose themselues against Gods ordinance. Thus pacified he them, and mollified the furie they had conceiued to endanger his life; and so much preuailed hee, that they repented them of that enterprise, whereby they sought to indanger him. And for that he knew that they had some reason to be thus moued, he addressed himself to prayer and supplication, and ascending a certaine rocke, he required Gods helpe to relieue their infirmities, wants, and afflictions, in Moses implo­reth Gods helpe. whose hands only the sa [...]ation of the people consisted, beseeching him in mercy to forgiue the people being exasperated with extreme miseries, and by reason thereof distracted & withdrawn from their duetie: whereupon God promised him to haue care of the people, assuring him to send them a speedie & present deliuerance. Which when Moses vnderstood, he came down vnto M the multitude, who perceiuing him altogether refreshed with ioy, by reason of those promises which he had receiued at Gods hands, exchaunged their dulsome lamentations, into a habit of delight. He therefore standing vp in the midst of them, told them that he brought vnto them a most speedie remedie for their present necessitie: and not long after, a number of Quailes (which about the gulfe of Arabia multiply and increase more then any other sorts of birds) flew and crossed the seas; and being wearied in their flight, and accustomably accosting and flying neere [Page 55] to the ground, came and fell amidst the campe of the Hebrewes: who caught them as a pro­uision A In the yeare of the world. 2454. before Christes Natiuity. 1510. God sendeth quailes into the Hebewes armie. prepared for them by God, and ordained to extinguish their famine. Whereupon Moses once more addressed himselfe to call vpon God, yeelding him thankes for the present and the future good he had promised him. Who being after this manner fed and refreshed, were presently supplied with a newe kind of food: for at such t [...]e as Moses stretched out his hande and prayed v [...]o God, a dewe descended from heauen that thickned betwixt his handes, which for that he supposed it, to be an otlier kind of sustenance sent them by God, he ta­sted the same; and taking pleasure for that the peop [...] knew not what it was, but thought God feedeth the Israelites with Mann [...]. it to be snowe which fell in that place, according to the season of the yeare, he taught them that it was no dew falling from heauen as they supposed, but that God had sent them that grace [...]e conseruation and nouriture of their bodies; and hauing eaten thereof, he gaue them of it, B [...] the end he might strengthen their beliefe: who tasting the same in like manner as their chief­taine had done, were greatly refreshed with the sustenance. For in sweetnes and pleasure it equal­led the honie, in odor Bdellium, and in forme and greatnes: the graine of a Coriander seede: of which euery one gathered, and by commaundement it was enioyned that euery one of them should particularly gather euery day the measure of an Assaron, which is the tenth part of an E­pha, A commaun­dement how mu [...]h Manna should be ga­thered. to the end that no one should be scant [...]ed of this foode: which was done to that end, least the weaker should want, whilest the stronger thorow auarice should gather more then sufficed them. And if any one contrarie to the prescript commaund, had ga [...]hered more then was per­mitted him, although he toyled and trauelled more then any of them, yet was his portion [...]o waies increased by that meanes. For whatsoeuer (beside the appointed measure of the Assaron) re­mained C till the next morning was of no value, thorow bitternes, and was putrefied thorow wormes: so diuine and admirable was this kind of foode, and of that nature, that who so had suf­ficient thereof, needed no other sort of sustenance. Moreouer euen in these our daies al that coun­trey is bestrewed and bedewed with that kind of aliment, which God in fauour of Moses sent for the peoples sustenance. The Hebrewes call it Manna, for in our tongue Man is an interrogation, signifying what is that? Thus liued they then ioifully, being sustained by this kind of meat sent thē Manna what it signifieth. Exod 17. The Israelites fed 40. yeares space on Man­na. The Israelites arriue at Ra­phidim, and are trauailed with▪ thirst. from heauen, and vsed the same for the space of fortie yeares; during that time which they liued in the desart. But afterwards when they were dislodged from that place, and encamped neere to Raphidim, they were extremely trauailed with thirst: where vpon their first arriuall they found some few springs, but afterwards they found the land wholy destitute of water. They therefore D once more were incensed against Moses: but he withdrawing himselfe apart from the furie of the people, conuerted himselfe vnto God in prayer, beseeching him that as he had giuen them food in their necessitie, he would now also giue them drinke at that present, wherein they were well nie choaked with thirst, praying him to prouide them of drinke also, or otherwise that their meat was vnprofitable to them: whereon God presently granted his prayer, promising Moses that he would giue him a fountaine and aboundance of water from that place from whence he least ex­pected it. Hereon he commaunded him, that striking vpon the rock with his rod, which was there­by hard at hand, he should from thence seeke that which they demaunded and wanted, assuring him that euerie one without trauell or labour should haue sufficient therefro: which counsaile when Moses had receiued from Gods hands, he returned vnto the people who expected him, and E had their eies fixed vpon him: for at that time they beheld him descending from the rocke where he had made his prayer. No sooner was he arriued, but he told them that God would in like sort deliuer them from that necessitie, and would gratiously grant them an vnexpected re­liefe; telling them that a floud should sodainly breake from the rocke: but they beeing amased at that which they heard, and doubting least tired with thirst and trauelled by iourneyes, they should be inforced to hewe and cleaue the rocke: Moses stroke the same in such sort with his rod, that he deuided it in sunder, and deliuered out most cleere and pure water in great aboundance. The people were very sore astonished at this so strange accident, so that beholding the water, their Moses striketh the rocke with his rod, and there issueth water. thirst was quenched. They afterward drunke of the water, and found it verie sweet and pleasant, resembling in the goodnes of it, the diuine bountie & power of the giuer thereof. For this cause F they highly esteemed Moses, seeing that God had honoured him in this sort, and they acknow­ledged Gods prouidence and their thanksgiuing by their sacrifices, humbly thanking him for the care he had ouer them. The sacred scriptures likewise, which are kept and consecrated in the Temple, testifie that God had foretold Moses also that water should in this sorte issue from the rocke.

CHAP. II. The yeare of the world 2454. be­fore Christs Na­ti [...]tie. 1510. G

How the Amalechites and their associates were ouercome, and how great a pray the Israelites obtained thereby.

BVt when the renowme of the Hebrewes waxed great, and was spred in the eares of all men (so as the brute thereof was heard in euerie part) it came to passe that the inha­bitants Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 2. of that countrey were in very great feare: whereupon (sending embassages the one vnto the other) they mutually incited themselues to expell and vtterly ruinate the whole nation.

Amongst the rest those of the countrey of Gobol; and the Citie Petra (who are called Ama­lechites, a nation verie warlike, and more actiue then the rest) were the chiefe agents in this H expedition; whose Kings both encouraged one another, and whetted their neighbour nations Exod. 17. The Amale­chites warre against the Israelites. to the Israelites destruction; telling them that a forraine army, flying from the thraldome of the Egyptians, had inuaded their countrey, whose increases were not a little to be suspected: coun­se [...]ng them (before they had gathered head, and [...]couered more meanes, and a countrey to dwell in, and withall waxed more confident by reason of their forbearance) to charge them first; rather then to expect their increases, and so to oppresse them: esteeming it to a better point of wisedome to represse their insolencie and forwardnes in the desart, then to expect whilest they were possessed of strong Cities, & rich meanes. For this (said they) is the part of wise men, to resist the vprisings and power o [...] their aduersaries; and not to expect, whilest by daily exploites they more & more increase; & rather to prouide to preuent, then deliuer themselues from perill. After I these embassages, it was decreed by generall councell, that they should endeuour to confront and assault the Hebrewes. These determinations and desseignes of theirs amated and troubled Moses verie much, for that he expected no hostilitie. When therefore he perceiued that the people were affrighted, and amased to see themselues (being wholy vnprouided) to be charged by so strong and well furnished an armie; he recomforted them, and willed them to bethinke them­selues of Gods promises, who by his power had set them at libertie; assuring them that they should ouercome all those that made party and head against them to destroy them: wishing them to thinke, that though they were inferiour vnto their enemies in weapons, wealth, money, and munition, and such like; yet since they had God to friend, and readie to fight for them against Moses encou­rageth the people to ex­pect nothing else but victo­rie. their enemies, that they ought to conceiue such courage, as if they were furnished with farre more K then humane supplies. Alledging further, that they were not ignorant how great an assister God was, hauing had so often triall of his goodnes in their greatest daungers, whom both he knew to be an enemie to their enemies, and fauourable to their proceedings: which fauour of his he most manifestly expressed, by his miraculous deliuerance of them from hunger and thirst, by yeelding them free escape when they were shut in by sea and mountaines; and that which should most animate them to the fight and victorie at that time was, that after this plunge they should want nothing that appertained to a more commodious and peaceable life. Moses thus ha­uing encouraged the people by his words, he called vnto him the chiefest of the tribes, and eue­rie one of them that had the charge of them, both in priuate and publike assembly; commaun­ding the younger to obey the elder, and the elders to be obedient to their Generall. But they L contemning their daunger, and desirous of fight, hoped that this conflict would proue the fi­nal end of their calamity: for which cause they instantly besought Moses to lead them forth against the enemie, praying him not to dull the alacritie of the soldiers, by any vntimely delay. Where­upon (chusing out amongst the whole multitude, such as were most fitte for warre) he chose Iesus the sonne of Naueus the Ephraimite to lead them, a man valiant in armes, and prouident in Iosuah made captaine ouer the Israelites. counsaile, and exceeding in pietie, and not degenerating in that respect from Moses his master. He also in such sort disposed certaine bands that he might not in any sort be cut off from water; he left also so many as might guard the multitude, & keepe the campe and weake company. Thus stood they all the night long in a readines to take armes, such as they had fitted for them, expec­ting their captaines, who should lead them out to fight as soone as Moses should command them. M On the other side Moses slept not, but instructed Iosuah how he should conduct the army. And as soone as the day appeared, he encouraged Iosuah to shew himselfe such a one in that battell, as both the place where with he was honoured, and the cause for which they fought, required; wish­ing him by his prowesse and good deserts to giue life and courage to his soldiers that followed him. He likewise exhorted the chiefest of the Hebrewes in particular, and in generall heartned and emboldened all other that entred the battell.

[Page 57] And as touching himselfe (after he had thus disposed the armie, by words and effect) he re­tired A The yeare of the world. 2454. be­fore Christs birth 1510. himselfe vnto a mountaine, committing the armie to Gods protection, and Iosuahs con­duct. Then encountred the armies on both sides, and euerieone foug [...]t most valiantly, neither wanted there encouragements on either sides; and as long as Moses lifted vp his hands, the He­brewes had the better against the Amalekites. B [...] for that he was vnable continually to sup­port the same, (and because hee throughly perceiued: and obserued, that as often as he held downe his hands, so long the enemies droue the Israelites to re [...]eat) he willed his brother Aa­ron, and Vron (his sister Maries husband) to stand on each side of him, and sustaine his hands and succour him, for feare his forces should faile him. Which when they had perfourmed, the Hebrewes by maine force ouercame the Amalechites, so that all of them had beene slaine, if so be the chace had continued, and had not beene cut off by the approch of the night. At B this time our predecessours obtained a most happie and necessarie victorie. For they had the vpper hand ouer them that were embattelled agai [...]st them; and astonished and amated the nations round about, and got great strength and riches by their trauell: for being seased of the enemies campe, they generally gate great riches; and particularly were all of them relieued, whereas before that time they had not necessarie meanes to maintaine themselues. And this victorie of theirs was the cause of their verie great good fortune, not onely for the present, but also for the time to come. For not onely had they their enemies bodies vnder their subiection, but also their spirits; so as they were feared by all the nations round about. And they multipli­ed both in strength, and riches: for there was a great quantitie of gold and siluer taken in the campe. Diuers vessels likewise and tables of brasse we [...]e found therein: likewise great quantity C of tissue worke and excellent furniture for armes. Moreouer, they had all their baggage, tents, The Israelites recouer a g [...]eat praie in the campe of the Amalec [...]es. harnesse, and horses, and generally the whole prouision of an arranged battel became their pray. Then after also they became more vertuous, and industrious then before; supposing that the end of all actions was obtained by industrie. Thus ended this battell. The next day Moses cau­sed the enemies that were slaine to be rifled, and gathered the scattered armes of those that fled. The distribu­tion of the [...]poiles & pray. He honored them also that had brauely demeaned themselues in the battell, & praised the Cap­taine Iosuah in publique, whose honour was confirmed by the applause of the whole armie. There was not one Hebrew that perished that day, and so manie of the enemies were there put to the sword, as their number cannot be expressed. He offered likewise a sacrifice of thanks gi­uing vnto God, and erected an altar vnto him; and dedicated it to God the victor. Hee pro­phesied D moreouer, that all the Amalechites should be vtterly extinguished, so that none of them The prediction of the vtter ruine of the Amalechites. shuld be left aliue, in that they had assaulted the Hebrewes, & that in the desart, and at such time as they were in affliction. He feasted the Generall in like sort. This issue had this battell, which was the first that was leuied against them, or dur [...]t assault them, since their departure out of Egypt. But as soone as Moses had celebrated a fe [...]st in memorie of the victorie, to the end he might giue the Hebrewes some repose after the battell abouenamed, hee caused them to march in array; for now at that time they had manie armed souldiers. Thus passing onwards by The Israelites come to the mountaine of Sinai. little & little, they arriued the third month after their departure out of Egypt, neere to the moun­taine of Sinai, where (as before time it hath beene declared) Moses saw the vision in the bush, and other such like wonders. E

CHAP. III.

What counsel Raguell gaue to his sonne in law.

WHen Raguel Moses father in law vnderstood of this his good successe, he came with great He [...]o & Ruf­finu [...]. chap. 3. Exod. 10. Raguel com­meth to Moses to the desart of Sinai. ioy vnto Moses, vnder purpose to salute him, his daughter Zephorah, and her childrē; who (greatly reiovcing at his arriuall) prepared a sacrifice, and feasted the people neere vnto the bush which could not be consumed by fire; and in the banquet time the people was di­stinguished, according to the order and place of euerie family. But Aaron with the assistance F tooke Raguel, and they sung praises vnto God, ascrib [...]g to him both the meanes and manne [...] of their libertie. They also spake much in honour of their Generall, by whose vertue all things had had so fortunate an issue. Raguel on his side highly praised the people, and dignified Mo­ses their Gouernour, by whose prudence so many good and valiant men were g [...]ded. But on Hedio & Ruf­finus. ch. 4. the next day Raguel seeing Moses oppressed with the multitude of businesse (by reason that he decided all their debates that appealed vnto him, who were thus perswaded of him, that at Raguel, other­wise called [Page 58] that time they were onely rightly censured, when Moses gaue the sentence; and they that were G Iethro, Moses father in law, counselleth him to choose Iudges amōgst the Israelites. The yeare of the world, 2454. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1510. condemned by him, endured the verdict patiently, knowing that their cause was by him deci­ded rather by the rule of iustice, then the instinct of amerce) he for that time kept silence (in that he was loath to hinder them, who anie wayes pretended to receiue anie fruit of the vertue of his sonne in lawe.) But when he found him at conuenient leisure, he withdrew him apart, and told him betwixt them twaine, that which he ought to doe; counselling him that hee should discharge himselfe of that paine, concerning affaires of so little consequence, and re­serue onely to himselfe those affaires which were of the greatest importance, and concerned the publike estate of them all. For that there were diuers persons amongst the Hebrewes to bee found, who would be capable and sufficient to heare and determine the pleas; but touching the care of so many thousand soules, no man could vndertake it, except he were another Moses. H ‘Knowing therefore (said he) thy vertue, and how worthily thou hast be haued thy selfe towards the people, being the Minister of God, as concerning their safetie: suffer them to comprimit amongst themselues those actions and quarels that fall amongst them; and reserue this inte­rest to thy selfe, that thou maist wholy intend the seruice of God, whereby thou maist more easily exempt the people from their present necessities. If therefore thou giuest credit to my counsails in humane affaires, thou shalt make diligent search and musters of thy whole army, and thou shalt establish Chieftaines that shall gouerne ouer ten thousands, and thousands, and fiue hundreths, and ouer fifties, and shalt ordaine Gouernours ouer them, who diuiding them by thirties, twenties, and tennes, may conduct and gouerne them: and let some be appoin­ted amongst them, who may receiue their titles, according to the number and names of those I he commaundeth. Who being approued by the whole companie, to bee of good fame and vpright conscience, may censure and compound all their differences; and if any controuersie shall fall out amongst any of them in authoritie, they shall referre the deciding of that difficul­tie to thine owne person. By this meanes neither shall any one of the Hebrewes be defrauded of his right, and thou thy selfe seruing God without molestation, maist procure God to bee more fauourable vnto thine armie.’

This coun̄sell of Raguel highly contented Moses, so that he fulfilled all that whereunto hee Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 5. Moses allow­eth his father in laws aduice. had suggested him, not concealing the inuention of this policie, neither attributing it to him­selfe, but declaring publikely vnto all men, that his father in law was the inuenter thereof. He hath likewise written in his bookes, that Raguel was the authour of this gouernement; accoun­ting K it no lesse honour to attribute praise to those that deserue it, then shame to vsurpe vpon another mans desert; so that hereby you may coniecture his vertue, of which hereafter in many places we haue more to say. Moses afterwards assembling all the people, told them that hee would ascend the mountaine of Sinai to talke with God, to the end that he might afterwardes returne vnto them, and impart vnto them whatsoeuer profitable thing hee had receiued from him in their behalfe. He likewise commaunded them to pitch their tents about the mountaine, and to haue it in reuerence, by reason of the Proximitie of God.

CHAP. IIII.

Moses ascendeth the mountaine, and receiueth the Tables of the ten Commande­ments L at Gods hands, and gaue them to the people.

THis said, he ascended the mountaine Sinai (which is the highest beyond comparison of Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 6. Moses ascen­deth the mountaine of Sinai. all that countrey, and which, by reason of his strange height, and for his steepe and vn­accessible ragged rockes, is not onely vnfrequented by men, but also may not be be­held, by reason it trauelleth the eye.) Further, for that it is reported, that God conuerseth and dwelleth on the same, it is held sacred by the inhabitants, and dreadfull and vnaccessible to all that behold it. But the Hebrewes, according to the commandement of the Prophet, remouing their tents, pitched them at the foote of the hil, suspending their iudgements, and expecting the execution of the promises of those goods which Moses had foreprophesied vnto them, at such M time as he returned frō God. And in the meane space, while they expected their guide, they kept holy day, and feasted, and purified themselues for the space of three daies in all sorts of purifi­cation, and abstinence from the company of their wiues, following that which Moses had com­maunded them. They besought God also that he would be fauourable and assist Moses, and by his means to blesse them with some fauor, that might make their life good & happie. They ban­quetted also in great pompe, and their wiues and children were richly attired: Now after they had [Page 59] feasted fortie daies space, on the third day before sunne rising, a cloud couered all the Hebrewes The yeare of the world. 2454 be­fore Christs birth 1510. Horrible light­nings about the moun­taine of Sunai. A camp (a thing before time vnseene by them) and inuironed al the place where they pitched their pauillions. And although all the rest of the countrey had a cleere and vntroubled skie; yet there­about violent winds were raised, and hideously rored, and a tempestuous raine succeeded them; and thunderclaps dreadfull to heare, and lightnings horrible to behold, signified that God was there present, and that Moses (with good successe, and for their profit) had conferred with him. Let those that read this iudge thereof, as it shall please them: but as touching my selfe, it is not any waies lawfull for me to depart in any sort from that which is written in holy scriptures.That which the Hebrewes both heard and saw, in that it was straunge and vnaccustomed vnto them, troubled them greatly Furthermore, the report that was published as touching that mountaine, that God repaired and dwelt on the same, marueilously amated their spirits: they therefore sad B and pensiue, contained themselues within their rents, thinking that Moses was destroyed tho­row the wrath of God, and expecting no lesse miserie themselues. But whilest they were thus troubled in thought, Moses presented himselfe vnto them (with a countenance full fraught with a pleasing maiestie, and lookes so contented, as they testified the inward consolation of his mind) whom they no sooner beheld, but so dainly all their feare vanished, and in place thereof a hope of some great good happe succeeded, and withall the ayre vpon his arriuall recouered his former cleerenesse and serenitie. Hereupon he summoned the people to a solemne and gene­rall assembly; to the end he might report, and they heare, what commaundements God had gi­uen Moses oration to the Israe­lites. them by him: no sooner were they assembled, but he (from an vpper place, to the end that all the people might both see and heare him) stood vp and spake after this manner. ‘Know (saith he) C you Hebrewes, that Almightie God, as he hath neuer neglected my prayers hitherto; so at this time also hath he entertained me (being your truchman and messenger) verie gratiously; & behold himselfe here in presence in your companie, and propitious to your supplications; readie to pro­uide you of meat to sustaine your bodies, and order and dispose your policy to make it lasting and happie: now although that you see me, and that a humane tongue speaketh vnto you, yet de­spise not my words, no more then you doe his workes alreadie executed and testified vpon our nation. For if you consider the worth and wonder thereof, you shall conceiue his greatnes that hath brought them to passe, and hath neuer denied to talke with me, & heare me when I spake for your profit. For it is not Moses the sonne of Amram and of Iochabel, but he it is that con­strained Nilus to flow with bloud, and that thorow diuers plagues hath tamed the pride of the D Aegyptians: it is he that hath giuen you passage thorow the midst of the sea: it is he that hath furnished you with meat prepared from heauen, at such time as you were in extremitie: it is he that made water spring out of the rocke to coole your thirsts, at such time as you were in necessitie: it is he, by whom Adam had the possession and fruition both of the fruit of the earth, and the fishes of the sea: By him Noe escaped from the Deluge; by him our auncient father Abraham of a wandring pilgrime, became an inhabiter of the land of Chanaan: by him Isaac was borne at such time as his father and mother were olde: by him Iocob hath beene en­nobled by the vertue of his twelue sonnes: by him Ioseph became Lord ouer all the forces of the Aegyptians: He it is that gratiously imparteth these words vnto you by me his messenger; let therefore these holsome lawes of his be holy and inuiolable amongst you, and more deere E vnto you then eyther your wiues or children; for in obseruing the same, you shall lead a happie life, enioy a fruitfull countrey, a calme sea, and a progenie made happie according to the lawes of nature: finally you shall become alwaies dreadfull vnto your enemies. For I haue talked face to face with God, and haue heard his immortall voice; so dearely beloued are you vnto him, and so carefull is he of the prosperitie of your nation.’This said, he conducted the people (both men, women and children) to the end they might heare God talke vnto them, and teach them what to do (for feare the law should haue been in lesser regard, if it had beene presented to their vnder­standings The people of Israel heareth. God speaking vnto thē from the mountaine of Sinai. by a humane tongue) they all of them therefore heard his voyce descending from the mountaine, so that euerie one vnderstood the same. But these precepts which Moses left re­gistred in two Tables, it is not lawfull for me to expresse in so many words, and therefore I will F onely expresse the sentences. For he teacheth vs:

  • First of all that there is one God, who is onely to be worshipped.
    The Ten com­mandements. Exod 20. Deuter. 5.
  • Secondly, that no Image of any creature is to be adored.
  • Thirdly, that no man ought to sweare rashly.
  • Fourthly, that the seuenth day is not to be prophaned by any worke.
  • Fiftly, that father and mother should be honoured.
  • [Page 60] Sixtly, that we should abstaine from murther.
    The yeare of the world 2454. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1510.
  • Seuenthly, that adultery is not to be committed. G
  • Eightly, that no man ought to steale.
  • Ninthly, that false witnesse must not be borne.
  • Tenthly, that no man ought to couet his neighbours goods.

When the multitude with great ioy had heard God himselfe speake vnto them (according Exod. 21. as Moses had foretold them) he dismissed them, and each one departed to his tent. But some few daies after they presented themselues before his pauilion, beseeching him that he would bring them those lawes, which he had receiued at Gods hands: He [...]o the intent to gratifie them, ope­ned the lawes, and prescribed vnto each of them what they ought to doe at the same time (as in due place it shall be expressed.) But the greater part of the lawes I deferre till an other time, mea­ning H in priuate to comment thereupon. About the verie same time Moses once more ascended the mountaine of Sinai (hauing premonished the people thereof) and ascended the same in Exod. 24. their sights: but when the time seemed tedious vnto them (for he was sequestred from them for Moses remay­ned on the mountaine fortie daies & fortie nights. the space of fortie dayes) they were in great feare, least some inconuenient had hapned vnto him; neither were they so much aggrieued at that which had chanced vnto them, as for that they were perswaded of the death of Moses. For there fell a contention amongst them, the one affirming that he was dead and deuoured by wild beasts (which was their opinion, who conceiued a hatred against him) the other said that he was rauished vp vnto God: But they of the wiser sort among them, who tooke no pleasure to heare any one of these them suspitions, contayned themselues; be­ing equally affected in respect of both the opinions; for that the one seemed not to be estranged I from humane chance, and the other had some correspondence with the vertues of the man: so that they indured his fortune with an equall mind, and lamented their owne mishap, in that they were depriued of such a gouernour and patron as he was, and whose like they thought it a matter impossible to find: neither did their care suffer them to hope; neither depriued of hope could they choose but complaine: neyther durst they remoue their tents, in that they were com­maunded to expect his returne. At length (when fortie daies and fortie nights were past) he Moses fasted fortie daies & nightes. returned vnto them; hauing (during that time) tasted no mortall sustenance: and by his arriuall the whole host was replenished with great ioy; whom he certified that Gods prouidence was al­waies assisting them, and that during the terme of those daies, he had learned the meanes how they should liue ciuilly, orderly, and blessedly: telling them that God commaunded them to K make him a Tabernacle, whereinto he would descend as often as it pleased him, which also in their trauell they might carry about with them; so that they should haue no more need to ascend vnto Sinai, but that he himselfe might come and lodge with them, and be assistant to their pray­ers. He told them likewise the measure and order of the said Tabernacle, and that there wanted nothing but that they presently addressed themselues to the building thereof. This said, he shewed them the two Tables, contayning the ten commaundements written therein, in each of Moses two Tables. Exod. 35. them fiue: now were these written by the hand of God. They all of them (reioycing at that which they had heard and seene) ceased not to employ themselues to their vttermost: so that they brought in siluer, gold, brasse, and store of wood fit for building, and which would not be worme eaten, the haires of goates, and the skins of sheepe, the one died azure, and the other white; L wools of the same colour, fine linnen, stones enchased in gold, wherewith men were accustomed to decke themselues, with great quantitie of perfumes. Such was the matter of the Tabernacle, which was made like to a portable & mouing Temple: this stuffe being thus gathered together, & The Israelites with great ioy addresse them­selues to the building of the Tabernacle. Exod. 36. Beseleel and Eliab are workmasters of the Tabernacle The people are restrained bye­dict, from brin [...]ing any more offrings toward the building of the Taber­nacle. collected with so great affection (according to each mans vtmost abilitie) he appointed work-ma­sters according to the commandement of God, but such as the like might not haue been chosen, although the matter had beene committed to the peoples suffrages: their names are now like­wise extant in the volumes of the sacred scriptures. Beseleel of the tribe of Iuda, the sonne of Vron of the tribe of Iuda, & Mary Moses sister: and Eliab the sonne of Isamach of the tribe of Dan. The people shewed themselues so forward in the finishing of this worke, that Moses was compelled to restrain them, causing it to be proclaimed, that they had sufficiently gathered for the worke al­readie: M for the workemasters certified him no lesse. They therefore addressed themselues to finish the Tabernacle being particularly instructed by Moses of the measure and greatnes thereof, and how many vessels they ought to haue, according to the modle which god had proposed to Moses. The women also stroue with emulation to exceed each other in the making of the vestures of the priests, and other things which were conuenient for that worke, to the end to honour the ser­uice of God.

CHAP. V. A The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1509.

Of the Tabernacle made by Moses in the desart, resembling a portable Temple.

NOw when all things were prepared for this worke, as gold, brasse, and wouen worke, Moses commaunded them to feast and sacrifice each one according to his abilitie, and set for­ward the building of the Tabernacle. First of all therefore he measured the outward Exod. 36. Hedio & Ruf­finus chap 7. Moses crecteth a Tabernacle in the desart. court, which in breadth contained fiftie, and in length one hundreth cubits, in such manner as followeth. He raised pales of fiue cubits high, and twentie in length from the one side to the o­ther, and ten in breadth; in the hindside to euerie one of these pales or posts there were fastned rings, the chapters whereof were siluer, and the bases thereof of gold, and the lower parts of B these resembled the points of a speare made of brasse, and fixed in the earth. Thorow the rings The first court of the Temple. there passed certaine cords of fiue cubits length, which on the one side fastned in the ground with brasen nayles of a cubits length, did fasten each of the pales, and defended the Tabernacle against the force of winds. Then was there a most fine silken curtaine drawne about the Iame, which hanging from the chapters of the bases and enclosing al that place, seemed to differ in no­thing from a wall. And after this manner were the three sides of the inclosure arounded. But the fourth side, being of fiftie cubits, was the front of the whole frame; the doore whereof was twen­tie cubits wide, hauing on both sides double barres in stead of posts; and these also were of siluer, except the bases which were of brasse; and on both sides there stood three barres well fastened, which were also hung round about with a curtaine of wouen silke: but at the gate there hung C a vaile of twentie cubits long, and fiue deepe, wouen of purple, violet and fine silke, embrodered with diuers flowers, without any figures of sensible creatures: within the gates there was a brasen Ewer with a foote of the same mettall, wherein the priests might wash their hands and feete. And after this manner was the inclosure of the court. In the midst hereof he placed the Tabernacle, turning it toward the East, that the rising sunne might shine vpon it: the length thereof was thirty cubits, and the bredth twelue; the one of the walles thereof was towards the South, an other towards the North, but the hinder part was towards the West; and it was as high as long; and on each side there were twentie wooden planks foure square, and ioyned together, foure fin­gers thicke and a cubit and a halfe broad, lined both within and without with plates of gold; and euerie boord had two hinges, which were put thorow the two bases that were of siluer, & in their D sockets receiued the hinges of the boords: the plankes of the west wall were sixe in number, and guilded both within and without, all of them so closed together as it seemed to be but one wall. But on both the sides there were certaine boords neerly ioyned together, which in bredth contay­ned the measure of one cubite and a halfe; and in thicknes, the third part of a hand bredth; and so made vp thirtie cubits: but sixe boords made vp the nine cubits of the hinder wall, to which were ioyned other two boords cut halfe a cubit broad, which they placed in the corners in stead of whole ones: euery boord had rings of gold fastned to the outward front thereof, riueted in order, and answering one another on euery side. Thorow these rings were put certaine barres which were couered with gold, euery one fiue cubits long, which ioyned the boords together: and the end of euerie barre was put into the beginning of the other after the manner of a E boxe. And on the backe side of the wals of the Tabernacle, there was one ranke of barres pla­ced long-wise, passing thorow all the planks, in which by hookes or haspes, the sides of eyther were held together, and riueted and fastned one within the other; by which meanes the Taber­nacle was secured from the force of winds and kept steddie, and immoueable. Within, the length thereof was diuided into three parts: next to one part thereof contayning ten cubits, on the in­side were placed foure pillers made of the same worke and matter, planted on like bases, and dis­tant one from the other by equall spaces ouerthwart; beyond these was the secret place, The rest of the Tabernacle was for all the priests; and this tripartite diuision of the Tabernacle resembled the nature of the world, for the third part (which was contained within the foure pillers, to which the priests had no accesse) did in a manner represent heauen the seate of God: but the space The Taber­nacle. F of twentie cubits (which was onely permitted to the priest, and was vnaccessible to o­thers) resembled the sea and land. In the front where the entrance was, they placed fiue pil­lers vpon brasen bases; after these, the courtaines were spred about the Tabernacle, wouen of silke, and embrodered with purple, violet and scarlet colours; the first of these was spred tenne cubits euery way, & was drawn about the pillers, which separated the Adyt from the other space; and seuered it from the sight of men; and all this Temple was called holy. As for the Adyt that [Page 62] was situate beyond the foure pillers, it was called the Sanctum sanctorum, or holie of holiest: and G The yeare of the world, 2455. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1509. this curtaine or vaile was pictured with all sorts of flowers which the earth bringeth forth, and diuersified with all that which might giue it ornament: but that there were no figures of li­uing creatures to be found therein. The second vaile equalled the first in greatnesse, workman­ship, and colour; and encompassed the fiue pillers of the entrie, which reaching from the top to the middest of them, and fastened to each of them by a certaine ring, gaue accesse to the Priests that entered the same: To this almost was there annexed on the outside another vaile of like bignesse and wouen of linnen, drawne vpon cordes from the one side to the other, by meanes of certaine rings; which was sometimes spred, and other times (especially on the holy dayes) vnspred, least it should hinder the peoples sight: on the other daies (especially such as were cloudie) it was spred, and serued for a couerture to defend the painted vaile from the weather. H Sithence, that custome hath continued after the building of the Temple, that another such like vaile (as this) should be spred in the entrance. Besides this, there were ten other vailes foure cubites broad, and twentie eight cubites long, with certaine golden hookes, enchased the one within the other, to the end to conioyne them, so that they seemed to bee one; which being spred did couer the Tabernacle in the vpper part, and the walles on the sides and behind; not ex­tending The Sanctuary to the earth within the compasse of a foot. Moreouer there were eleuen other hangings of equall breadth, but longer, namely, euery one of them of thirty cubits, wouen with as great art of haires, as the other out of wooll: which couering all the rest extending to the earth, resem­bled the forme of a bed chamber, one of them couered and extended from the front, which be­ing the eleuenth, was annexed to this vse: these also were couered with certaine skinnes sowed I The significa­tion of the di­uision of the Tabernacle. together, which protected the fame against the storme and iniurie of raine: for which cause, to them that beheld it from farre, it seemed a thing most worthy of admiration. For the colours of the Tabernacle did in no other sort shine, then as if a man should haue beheld the heauens. But the vailes of haire and skinnes hung after such a maner, as that did about the entrance of the Tabernacle, set to resist the force and outrage of stormes and tempests.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Arke, wherein Moses placed the Tables of the Law.

AFter that the Tabernacle was after this maner builded, they erected also an Arke, which K was dedicated vnto God, of a certaine wood that was naturally strong, and such as was Exod. 37. Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 8. permanent and resisted corruption. This in our natiue tongue is called Heoron, framed af­ter this maner. The length thereof was of fiue handfuls, and the bredth and height of three hand­fuls; and both within and without it was couered with golden plates, and it had a couer fitted with golden hinges, egall on euerie side. And to euerie side in length there were fastened two rings of gold, driuen and riueted through the whole wood, and through them certaine barres of gold were thrust, that whensoeuer there were anie need, it might be caried anie wayes: for nei­ther was it borne on beasts backes, but the Priests bare it on their shoulders. On the couer there­of there were two semblances planted, which the Hebrewes call Cherubins (which are winged Cherubin. creatures, of a strange forme, the like whereof were neuer seene by any man) which Moses saw fi­gured L on Gods seate. In this Arke he placed the Tables containing the ten commandements: The Tables of the law placed in the Arke. in euery one fiue, and in euery page two and a halfe: and this Arke hid hee within the San­ctuarie.

CHAP. VII.

Of the Table and Candlesticke of gold, and of the Altars of the Tabernacle.

IN the Tabernacle he placed a Table not vnlike to that at Delphos, two cubits in length, and one in breadth, and of the height of three handfuls: the feete thereof, from the Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 9. The Table. midst downwards were like those feete which the Doriens set vnto their beds; but that M which ascended from the other halfe vpwards, was square: The bodie of this Table was aroun­ded with a border standing out foure fingers length, and in euerie of the feete there were rings fastened about the top of the foote, to which were annexed on both sides two things after the maner of handles, guilded and framed of most firme wood, which were not thrust through the circle on both sides like barres, but with a button tooke hold of the vpper border of the Table, and beneath cōprehended the ring of the foot, being a means to transfer it whithersoeuer need [Page 63] required. This was wont to bee placed in the Temple towards the North wall, not farre from The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509. A the Sanctuarie: and on it were placed twelue vnleauened loaues, set sixe by sixe the one ouer against the other, and made of two Assars of the purest wheate, which measure of the Hebrewes contained seuen Cotylas of the Athenians; and aboue these loaues two golden pots filled with frankincense; but after seuen dayes other loaues were set in their place on that festiuall day, which we call the Sabboth. The cause of which ceremony shall hereafter be declared by vs. Hard Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 10. The golden candlesticke. by this Table neere the South wall, was placed a Candlesticke of molten gold (but not solide) of one hundred pound weight (this weight the Hebrewes call Cinchares, the Grecians frame it a Talent in their tongue) and it was wrought with bowles, lillies, pomgranats, and little cuppes; then arising vpwards from one base, it was diuided into seuen branches, according to the number of the Sunne and the rest of the Planets: it stretched out likewise into seuen B heads, hauing orderly correspondence the one with the other, on which were planted seuen candles, according to the number of the seuen Planets, which branched out towards the East and South, in that the Candlestick was set sidelong. Betweene this and the Table (as I said) was a little Altar erected for incense, made of lasting wood likewise, and couered on euerie side with The Altar of incense. a solide plate, being a cubite broad from euerie corner, and twise as high, on which there stood a little hearth enuironed with a golden crowne on euerie side, in which were rings with their barres and staues, whereby it might be borne by the Priests in the way. There was another Al­tar of wood also before the doore of the Tabernacle, couered with plates of brasse, fiue cubits Exod. 38. square, and three high, decked with gold in like sort, and plated with brasse, the hearth whereof was made after the manner of a grate: for the earth receiued whatsoeuer fire fell from aboue by C reason there was no base there vnder, but neere vnto the Altar there were tunnels and pots, and censers, & cups, with other instruments made for the diuine seruice, all which were of pure gold.

CHAP. VIII.

Of the vestment, of the Priest, and of the high Priest,

SVch was the Tabernacle with all that belonged thereunto. Now remaineth it for mee Hedio & Ruf­finus, ch. 11. Exod. 39. The Priests vestures. to discourse as well of the vestmēts of the other Priests, which they call Chaneas, as of the Priest, whom they name Sar-Hazabachin, signifying thereby the high Priest. And first of all as touching the ordinarie Priests. When as the Sacrificer (purified according to the pu­rification D which is ordained by the Law) addresseth himselfe to sacrifice; he first of all inuesteth himself with Manachasses (which is as much to say, a trusse or restrainer, which is a kind of breech, Manacasses. or slop, couering the priuities, made of wouen silke) wherethrough he thrusts his feete, as in a paire of vpper breeches, and fastens the same about his loynes: On this hee casts a lin­nen shirt or surplice, made of double linnen (which wee call Chetomene) and that word signi­fieth a linnen garment or surplice: for we call linnen Cheton (that kinde of garment is a coate Chetomene. comming downe to the anckles, bound to the bodie (hauing narrow sleeues about the armes) which is tied vpon the breast a little beneath the armeholes, with a girdle foure fingers broad, inwardly void, so wrought as it seemed to be like a serpents skinne.) It is likewise pictured with red, purple, Hyacinthine & silken flowers, but the ground is only silk; which being twise doubled E about his breast, extendeth downe to his anckles at such time as he desisteth from sacrifice, (and this seemed they to weare in way of ornament) but when as he is to minister in sacrifice, then (least blowne vp by the wind, it should hinder his worke) he casts it on his left shoulder. This girdle Moses calleth Abaneth, and we by a word borrowed from the Babylonians, name it Emian (for so call they it.) This coat was in no maner pleited, and in the necke hath a broad ope­ning, Abaneth. fastened about the two shoulders with claspes, from the edge of the coller to the breast and the middest of the backe: This call they Massabassanes. But on his head hee weareth a hat (not made with a high crowne, neither comprehending the whole head, but somewhat more then Massabassanes. the halfe:) this is called Masnaemphthes; which is decked and dight after such a rate, that it see­med a Chaplet made of thicke Riban, or of wouen linnen often times doubled and sowed, Masnaempthes F which in the vpper part is couered with another linnen, descending to the front, hiding those seames of the Riban which were vnseemely to be beheld; this is curiously fitted, least during the time of sacrifice it should slip off. Such in generall were the ornaments of the Priestes.

The high priest also vseth the verie same (omitting none of those thinges which wee haue The high priests orna­ments. Methir. reckoned vp) but beside the [...]est he put on a Hyacinthine coloured coat, extending in length to his hammes (which our countrey call Methir) this girdeth he vnto him with a girdle of diuers [Page 64] colours (not vnlike the former) but that it is studded with gold: but the skirt of the vesture is G The yeare of the world 2455. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1509. bordered with fringes, sowed together, to which are tied certaine counterfait pomgranates with certaine golden bels, properly disposed; so that betweene two Pomgranates, there is placed a bell, and betweene two bels one Pomgranate. This coat is not made of two pieces (as hauing seames on the shoulders, and on the sides) but a long vaile wouen and left open in the coller, not a thwart but long-waies, from the breast to the midst of the backe. To it is a riban or hemme fastned, least the opening should be perceiued: it is likewise open in that place where the hands should be put out. Besides these vestures, he hath a third called an Ephod (resembling Ephod. a Grecian frocke, that is made after this manner.) It is wouen of diuers colours, intermixed with gold; in the midst of the breast there is a space left open: the sleeues are made in such a maner, and all the rest in such sort composed, that it seemeth to be a coat: in this void space thereis a piece H enchased of the bignes of a span long, embrodered with the same colours, gold, and flowers as the Ephod is. This piece is called Essen, that is as much to say, as Rationall (which wholy fil­leth the space that was left void by them that haue wouen the Ephod.) And this piece is ioyned Essen seu Lo­gion. with the Ephod, and to euerie corner thereof with buckles of gold, which are tied with a lace of Hyacinth applied to tie them together with these buckles. And to the end the space between the buckles be not slacke, they filled the future with a Hyacinthine threed: but on eyther shoul­der two Sardonix stones enchased in gold (in stead of buttons) doe tie the hood or Ephod; in these are ingrauen the names of Iacobs sonnes in Hebrewe Characters in eyther stone sixe: so that the elder of them were placed on the right shoulder. Moreouer twelue precious stones distinguish the Essen or Rationall it selfe, of excellent greatnes and beautie, which for their inestimable price I could not be bought by any priuate man. They were enchased three and three in foure ranks in certaine crownes of gold, to the end they might not fall out: in the first order was a Sardonyx, a Topaze, and a Smaragd: in the second, a Carbuncle, a Iaspis, and a Saphir: in the third, a Lyncurius, an Amethyst, and an Agate: in the fourth, a Chrisolite, an Onyx, and a Berill stone. In these were the names of Iacobs sonnes engrauen, whom we esteeme for the first authors of our tribes (euery stone being honoured with a seuerall name, according to the order of their birth.) But whereas these rings (whereof before we haue spoken) are weake and cannot sustaine the waight of the precious stones, they made other two greater in the top of the Rationall incli­ning toward the necke ward, being eminent aboue the texture, which might receiue the gol­den chaines that were made, which met at the top of the shoulders to be fastned with the little K chaines, the end whereof was croked, and conueied certaine pipes, put thorow the rings, and were more prominent then the brim behind the Ephod, to fasten the Rationall, to the The high priests triple golden crown. end it should neyther sway this waies nor that waies. To the same Rational also was there a girdle sowed, distinguished with the said colours & gold, which comprehending the whole, and againe knit vpon the seame was suffered to hang downewards. And as touching the fringes, they were shut in hollow loops of gold from the one end vnto the other. Now his hat was such as the other priests vsed, on which there stood an other sowed thereto, and flourished with Hyacinthine: this after a triple order was inuironed with a golden crowne, in which there were diuers vessels of gold made after such a sort as may be seene in that herbe which we call Daccharus, and amongst the Grecian herbalists, Henbane. And least any man that hath heretofore seene the same, should L be ignorant of the nature thereof or rather knowing the same, hath not seene the herbe it selfe; I haue thought good to set downe the description thereof in this place. This herbe is of the height of three spans, it hath a roote like a Turnep or Na [...]ew (and he shal not erre, that in regard thereof shall compare it therewith) it hath leaues that resemble Smallage or Rocquet: this out of the stem thereof yeeldeth forth a certaine bud cleauing to the branches of it, inuested with a coat, which it casteth off when the fruit waxeth ripe. This bud is as big as the ioynt of a little finger hauing a circumference like vnto a cup, which I will describe more fitly, once againe that the ignorant may the better discouer it. In the lower part therof about the bottome it resembleth in roundnes a halfe bowle; and according as it groweth euery part thereof is streightned, vntill being againe dilated in the extremitie or brim thereof, it end in a partition, not much vnlike to M a Pomgranate cut in the middest, to which there is annexed and groweth a round couer as if turned and framed on purpose, hauing those eminent clefts (as I said) like to the midst of a Pomgranate, resembling the pointed and sharp thornes, and pricking blades. Now it contay­neth a certaine fruit vnder the couer, and in the whole cup is like to the seed of the herbe Side­ritis, his flower is not much vnlike that which springeth from the poppey. Such was this crowne Sideritis. about the necke and the two Temples, for these cups came not neere the front or brow. For on [Page 65] the same there was as it were a bend of gold, on which the name of God was engrauen. Such In the yeare of the world. 2455. before Christes Natiuity. 1509. A were the ornaments of the high priest.

I cannot therfore but greatly wonder at the strange and causelesse malice, which other nations haue conceiued against vs, as if we were iniurious against the diuine maiestie, which (they say) they so much honour. For if a man marke the composition of the Tabernacle, and examine the habit of the high priest, and consider all the necessaries which we vse in celebrating the diuine seruice; they shall find that our lawmaker was a man of a diuine spirit, and that we without any desert are iniuried by other nations. For if without partialitie a man will duely examine it, he shall find that all things haue beene done to represent and figure the world. For the Tabernacle The significa­tion of the fa­brike of the Ta­bernacle, & the priests orna­ment. is of thirtie cubits, diuided into three parts, whereof two are left for the sacrificers as a place pro­phaned and common, signifying the land and sea wherein all sorts of creatures are conuer­sant. B But the third part is sequestred and reserued for God alone: in like sort as the heauen is vnaccessible by men. The table on which the twelue loaues were placed, signifieth the yeare di­uided into twelue moneths. The candlestick made of seuentie pieces, signifieth the twelue signes, thorow which euery one of the seuen planets passe: the seuen lampes that were therein represen­ted the seuen planets. The vailes made of foure seuerall kinds of stuffes resembled the foure E­lements. For the linnen seemed to represent the earth, from whence it was drawen and deriued. The purple resembled the sea, because the purple colour is made of the bloud of a shell fish called Murex. The Hyacinth signifieth the ayre: and as touching the Scarlet, it signifieth the fire. The tunicle likewise of the high priest demonstrateth the earth, for it is made of linnen. The Hyacinth sheweth the pole: the Pomgranates resembled the lightning; as the bels, the noyse of C the thunder. The sircot sheweth that the whole world is compassed of foure Elements resembled in his foure colours, to which gold is annexed (as I interprete it) for that light is annexed to all things; Essen also is planted in the middle thereof, in such sort as the earth obtaineth the middle place of the world. Likewise the girdle wherewith he is girt resembleth the sea, which enfoldeth and begirteth all things. The two Sardonix stones (set as buttons or loops in the high Priests gar­ment) signifie the Sunne and Moone: the number of the gems are alluded to the number of the moneths, or the twelue houses, or the equall number of the parts of that circle, which the Grae­cians call the Zodiacke (he shall not much erre that followeth eyther the one, or the other of these opinions.) The cap likewise hath an allusion to heauen, by reason of his azure or Hya­cinthine colour, for otherwise the name of God might not be placed therein. For it was beau­tified D with a crowne of gold, to signifie the light wherein God highly delighteth. Let this suffice for the present, for that which we shall discourse hereafter, will furnish vs with sufficient and ample matter to shew and set out the vertue of our lawmaker.

CHAP. IX.

Of Aarons priesthood, and the lawes which appertaine to the feastes and sacrifices.

AFter these things abouesaid were finished and left as yet vnconsecrated, God appeared vnto Moses, commaunding him to establish Aaron his brother in the priesthood (who Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 12. Exod 28. 29. 30. 40. God elected Aaron. Moses brother for high priest. E in respect of his vertue, deserued that title of honour aboue all the rest.) For which cause Moses (assembling the congregation) discoursed vnto them his vertues, and discouered his good affection, and reckoned vp vnto them how many daungers he had suffered in their behalfe, (whereof each of them gaue ample testimonie, declaring the forward zeale and loue they alwaies bare vnto him) whereupon he spake vnto them after this manner. ‘The worke is now brought to such an end as it hath pleased God, and hath beene possible for vs: and for that you know we are to receiue him into this Tabernacle, we ought aboue all things to haue an especiall care in the election of such a one, who shall make sacrifice and supplication for vs. Touching my selfe, if the matter depended on my priuate choise, I should esteeme no man more worthy then my selfe to execute this function, both for that naturally men loue themselues, and for that I am well F assured, how many trauels I haue supported for your safetie sake: But God himselfe hath iudged Aaron worthy of this honour, and hath chosen him for his high priest and sacrificer, in that he excelleth all other of vs in equitie and iustice: commaunding that he should be inuested with the robe consecrated to God, and that he should take charge of the altars and sacrifices. He shall make prayers for you vnto God, who will heare them willingly, by reason that he hath care of your race, and will receiue them proceeding from a personage whom he himselfe had e­lected.’ [Page 66] These words of his were gratefull vnto the people, and they all of them approued the G The yeare of the world, 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509. election which God had made. For Aaron was more capable of that honour then any other, both by reason of his race, as also in regard of the prophecing spirit and vertue of his brother: he had at that time foure sonnes, Nadab, Abihu, Eleasar, and Ithamar. But whatsoeuer remai­ned of those things which were gathered for the building of the Tabernacle, was employed to Aarons sonnes make vailes to couer the Tabernacle, Candlesticke, Altar, and the other instruments, to the end that in their trauaile they should not be soiled, eyther by raine or dust. And hauing once more Exod. 36. assembled the people together, he commaunded them to offer euerie one of them halfe a sicle; (now the sicle is a kind of Hebrew coyne, that is as much in value as foure Athenian drammes) whereunto they obeyed willingly, so that the number of them that offered was sixe times one Sicle. The number of the Israelites betwixt 20. and 50. yeares of age. hundreth thousand, fiue hundreth and fiftie: and they that brought this money were such H as were of a free condition, and betwixt the yeares of twentie and fiftie; and that which was receiued, was imployed in the necessaries of the Temple. Then did he purifie the Tabernacle, and the priests in manner and forme following. He tooke the waight of fiue hundreth sicles of chosen Mirrhe, and the like quantitie of Ireos, of Cinnamon, and of Calamus (which is a most The holy oynt­ment. odoriferous drugge) the halfe of the said waight; and he caused all these to be beaten and in­fused in a Hin of oyle of oliue, others write palme (this Hin is one of our measures contayning two Choas of Athens) all which he mixed & boyled together, according to the art of perfumers, and he made thereof a most odoriferous oyntment: which he tooke and annoynted the priest The sacrifices. withall, and all that which belonged to the Tabernacle, to the intent to purifie them; offering many and sundrie sorts of beasts of great price to sacrifice within the Temple vpon the Altar of I gold (whereof I forbeare to speake any further, for feare I should grow offensiue and tedious to the readers.) Twice a day before the sunne rise, and sunne set, they were to burne incense, and purifie the oyle and refresh the lampes, whereof three ought to burne euerie day vpon the sa­cred Candlesticke in honour of God, and the rest were lighted in the euening. Amongst them that wrought and finished these things, Beseleel and Eliab were the most excellent and expertest workemen: for whatsoeuer had been enterprised by others, they in their art polished and per­fected; Beseleel. and they of themselues found many new things of their owne inuention (yet was Be­seleel iudged the most excellent of them two.)

All the time employed in this worke, was seuen months, and at that time was the yeare ac­complished, which began at their departure out of Egypt. In the beginning of the second yeare, K in the month which the Macedonians call Xanthicus, and the Hebrewes Nisan, vpon the new moone they dedicated the Tabernacle with all things belonging thereunto (according as I haue Exod. 45 The Taber­nacle was de­dicated on the first day of A­pril, the second yeare after their departure out of Egypt, the yeare after the creation of the world. 1455 before Christs birth. 1509. made mention.) And God presently testified that both their gifts were gratious in his eyes, and the Hebrewes labors fruitfull and pleasant in his sight, testifying his presence in that Temple af­ter this manner: Whereas the heauen was otherwaies cleere and faire, ouer the Tabernacle only there was a cloud, not wholy thicke like a winter storme, nor obscure; and yet not so thin as a man could see thorow the same, from whence there descended a dewe that gaue testimonie of Gods presence vnto them that had will, and beliefe. Moses honoured the workemasters that made the worke, with such rewards as appertained vnto them by desart; and sacrificed according as God had commanded him in the doore or porch of the Tabernacle, a Bull, a Ramme, and a Kid L for their sinnes (but with what ceremonie these things are done, I will declare when I intreat of sacrifices, as also what offerings are to be burned by fire, and according to the law are allowed to be fed vpon) and with the blood of the slaughtred beasts he besprinkled the vestment of Aaron, and purified both him and his children with fountaine water and the pretious oynt [...] [...] to the end they might be sanctified to God. And for seuen daies space he consecrated both themselues, The dedicatiō of the Taber­nacle and the Priests. Leuit. 8. and their vestments and the Tabernacle, with those things which appertained thereunto, with that oyle whereof I haue before time foretold you, with the bloud of Buls, and Rammes slaine euery other day after their kind. But on the eight day he proclaimed a holy day and festiuall to all the people, and decreed that euery one of them should particularly sacrifice according to his abilitie, and they with emulation (striuing to exceed one another) obeyed him, and offered vp M their sacrifices according as it was commaunded them.

Whilest thus the sacrifices were vpon the Altar, sodainly there issued a fire from them, which kindled of it selfe, the flame whereof resembled the light or brightnes of lightning; and consu­med Leuit. 9. The sacrifice is consumed of it selfe. Leuit. 10. all that which vvas vpon the Altar. At that time there happened an inconuenient to Aaron, which although it somewhat moued and amated his fatherly patience, yet digested he it with a constant and generous mind: for he was a man of much constancie, and such a one as knew that [Page 67] nothing could befal him without the prescience and prouidence of God. For of those foure sons The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509. A (which I told you that he had) the two elder brethren Nadab and Abihu, bringing sacrifices vnto the Altar (not such as were appointed by Moses, but of that sort they were accustomed to offer before times) were burned by the violent flame that issued from the Altar, seasing both their breasts and faces, in such a sort, as by no meanes possible that might be extinguished; so Nadab and A­bihu Aarons sons burned. that at length they died. Moses commaunded both their father and brothers to take their bodies, and carry them out of the host, and burie them sumptuously: all the people wept and were a­mased verie much at this their death, so straunge and vnsuspected. But Moses ordained that nei­ther the father, nor his sonnes should lament; but that they should rather make estimate of Gods honour, then of their owne misfortune: for Aaron was alreadie inuested in the sacred robe. But as touching Moses, he refused all honours which were offered him by the people, neither ap­plied B he himselfe vnto any other thing but to the seruice of God: neyther did hee ascend any more vp to the mountaine of Sinai, but entred into the Tabernacle to take counsaile at Gods hands in those things, whereof he had neede to be informed. He demeaned himselfe like a pri­uate man, not onely in his apparrell, but in all other things, and liued verie popularly, per­seuering in that familiar and ciuill course of life, and challenging no priuiledge aboue a­nie man, but onely in those things which pertayned to the administration of the com­mon weale.

Besides these, he reduced vnder writing both the lawes and ordinances as touching Policie, in due performance whereof if they should liue, they should bee both agreeable to God, and liue without cause of controuersie the one against the other. And all this established he, follow­ing C those directions which God had instructed him in. But now will I returne and bend my stile to discourse vpon that which I haue omitted in the ornament of the high priest: for this appar­rell of theirs leaueth not any occasion to false prophets, to execute their wicked impostures: and if there be any such, as dare intermeddle with that which appertaineth to Gods ma­iestie, this habite maketh them know, that it is in Gods power to be present with the sa­crificers, at such time as it pleaseth him; and to be absent when him listeth: which God would haue made knowne not onely to the Hebrewes, but to all those straungers, who by any occur­rence might be eye witnesses of the same. For of those stones which the high Priest bare or his A miracle of the stones in the high priests vestment. shoulders (which were Sardonixs, whose nature is so notorious to all men, that it were vn­necessarie to reueale it) the one shined at such times as there was any offering, & that other which D was fastened on his right shoulder, shined verie cleerely at such time as God was present at the sacrifice, and cast his raies a farre off, that it might be perceiued by those that beheld the same, both contrarie to his nature and custome: which truly deserueth admiration amongst all men, except those who thorow contempt of religion, doe hunt after an opinion of wisedome. But that which I will now speake of is more to be admired at, which is, that by the twelue stones which the high priest bare (sowed and inchased in his Rational in the midst of his breast) God vvas vvont to foresignifie victorie to those that were addressed to battell. For such brightnesse lightned out of them, euen before such time as the army did dislodge or enter skirmish, that it was notoriously knowne to the people, that God vvas present and readie to assist them: for which cause the Greeks making account of our manner of liuing, in that they had no power or reason E to contradict it, haue called that Rational vvhich we terme Essen (moued there unto by this ex­presse miracle which may not be contradicted.) This Rational and the stone Sardonix gaue ouer to shine two hundreth yeares before I began to vvrite these Antiquities, by reason of Gods vvrath vvhich he had conceiued through the breach of his lawes (of which at another time I will more fitly intreat, and at this time continue and prosecute my intended discourse and purpose.) After the Tabernacle had beene thus consecrated, and that which appertained to the priests vvas set in order, the people was perswaded that God dwelt with them in his Tabernacle, and began to sacrifice and sing hymnes of praises, as to him that had driuen The sacrifices and gifts of the Princes of the tribes. Num. 7. farre from them all suspition of euill, and from vvhom they expected in time to come farre bet­ter and more prosperous things; and both in generall and in particular they offered gifts F vnto God according to their tribes: for the gouernours of the tribes (assembling them­selues together two by two) prepared a chariot and a yoake of oxen, so that there were sixe chariots to beare the Tabernacle by the vvay. Furthermore euery one of them offered a viall and a censor, and a cofer to keepe incense in, vvhich was esteemed to be worth ten Dariques, and this vvas filled with odoriferous perfumes, and the censor vvas of siluer, and both of them to­gether wayed two hundreth sicles; yet on the viall there were but 70. employed: and both the [Page 68] cofer and viall vvere filled vvith meale steeped and moulded in oyle, vvhich they vvere vvont to G The yeare of the world, 2455. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1509. vse at the Altar, at such time as they offered sacrifice. They offered likewise a Calfe, and a Ram, with a Lambe of one yeare old, for a burnt sacrifice; and a Goat for a sinne offering. All the o­ther gouernours likewise brought euery one of them their sacrifice called Salutarie, for euerie day two Oxen and fiue Rams, with a Lambe and a Goat of a yeare old, and sacrificed them du­ring the terme of twelue daies euery day one. But Moses ascended no more the mountaine of Sinai, but entred into the Tabernacle, where he was instructed by God of that which he had to doe, and what lawes he ought to make, which are so good and laudable as they ought not to be attributed to humane wisedome: They haue beene faithfully obserued likewise alwaies, be­cause they are supposed to be receiued from God. So that not any one of his lawes haue beene transgressed by the Hebrewes, neither in peace (at such time as they liued to their content) nei­ther Moses asketh counsel of God in the Taber­nacle. H in war, at such time as they were afflicted therewith. But I will now cease to speake of these lawes, being resolued to compose an other treatise as touching the same.

CHAP. X.

The ordinances of Sacrifices and Purifications.

NOw will I only reckon vp a few things as touching the purifications & sacrifices (in that we haue begun to talke of sacrifices.) The sacrifices are of two sorts, the one of them is Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 13. al. 12. Two kinds of sacrifices. made for a priuate person; the other for the people in generall: and these are made in two manners; for in the one, all is consumed vvhich is vpon the Altar, vvhich for that cause I are called Holocausts, that is to say, Burned. The other are of thanksgiuing, and they are made with banquets of those that sacrifice. But first of all I will speake of the first kind. The particu­lar Holocautoma. Leuit. 1. person that offered a burnt offering, killed an Oxe, a Lambe, and a Goat of one yeare olde, (yet is it lawfull to kill oxen more elder.) But all those creatures vvhich must be consumed by fire, ought to be males; and after their throats are cut, the priests besprinkle the Altar round a­bout with the bloud; then dresse they the beast, and cut it in pieces, and pouder it vvith salt, and lay it on the Altar alreadie charged vvith cleft wood, and flaming fire: then after they haue well clensed the feete and intrails, they lay them vvith the rest; and the priests take the skins. Such is the manner of a burnt offering or Holocaust. They that offer sacrifices of thanksgiuing, kill like­wise such sorts of beasts without spot, and more then a yeare old; both male and female: and K A sacrifice of thanksgiuing. after they haue cut their throats, they sprinkle the bloud on the Altar: then take they the raynes the caull, and all the fat; with the lobe of the liuer, and the tayle of the mutton, and lay it on the Leuit. 4. 5. Altar; but the breast, and the left leg is left to the priests: and as touching the rest of the flesh, the priests banquet therewith for the space of two daies; and if then there remaineany thing thereof it is burned. The same custome and ceremonie likewise is obserued in the sacrifice for sins: but those that are not of ability to offer the greater offerings, offer vp two Pigeons, or two Turtles, the one of which the priests haue to feast vvithall, & the other is consumed with fire. We will in­treat more expresly of the sacrifices of such beasts, at such time as we shall discourse vpon sacri­fices. For he that hath sinned vpon ignorance offereth a Lambe, and a shee Goat at the same The sacrifice for sinne. time. The priest besprinkleth the Altar with the bloud thereof, not in such manner as it is said L heretofore, but the hornes of the Altar only: and on the Altar they offer the kidneies, and the rest of the fat, vvith the lobe of the liuer: the priests cary away the skins, and eate the flesh vvithin the Temple the very same day; because the law permitteth them not to reserue any thing till the next morrow: he that hath sinned (and that knoweth it in himselfe vvithout the knowledge or The sacrifice of him that hath sinned wirtingly. Leuit. 4. 9. priuity of any other man) offereth a Lambe according as the law commandeth, the flesh where­of is in like sort deuoured by the priestes the same day: but if the gouernours offer for their sinnes, they sacrifice in like manner as priuate men doe, and are different from them in that they bring a Bull, or a male Kid. The law also ordaineth, that in sacrifices both priuate and com­mon, there should be fine flower brought, for a Lambe, the measure of an Assar; for a Ramme, The custome obserued in sacrifices. the measure of two; with a Bull, three; which flower is first of all mingled and wrought M with oyle, and set vpon the Altar to be sanctified. They that sacrifice likewise doe bring oyle, the halfe part of a Hin for a Bull; for a Ramme, the third of the same measure; and for a Lambe, the fourth part: this Hin is an Hebrew measure, which contayneth two Attique Choas: they brought also the like measure of wine as of oyle, and poured out the wine neere to the Altar. And if any without sacrificing offer vp fine flower, he putteth the first fruits vpon the Altar, that is to say one handfull, and the rest is taken by the priests for their maintenance, eyther fried [Page 69] (for they are kneaded in oyle) or with loaues made thereof: but whatsoeuer the priest offereth, The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1509. Leuit. 2. A all that must be burned. The law likewise forbiddeth to offer any beast whatsoeuer that day that it is borne, or to kill it with his damme, or in any other sort before it hath fed twelue daies. There are also other sacrifices made for deliuerance from sicknes, or for other causes; in which sacrifices they employ wine or licour with that which is offered, of which licours it is not lawfull to reserue any thing against the next morrow, when the priests haue taken that portion which belongeth to them, and sufficeth them. The law commandeth that on the common purse there be euery day killed a Lambe of a yeare old, the one in the morning, the other at the shut­ting Num. 28. 29. vp of the euening: and on the seuenth day, which is called the Sabaoth, that two should be offered in that manner as hath beene declared. And on the new moone besides their daily offe­rings they sacrifice two Oxen, seuen yearling Lambes, and a Wether and a Kid, for the abolition B of those sinnes which are committed thorow forgetfulnes. On the seuenth moneth (which the Macedonians call Hiperberete) besides the aboue-named, they sacrifice a Bull, one Mutton, se­uen Lambes, and a Kid for sinnes. The tenth day of the same month according to the Moone, The sacrifice of the month of October. they fast till the euening, and on the same day they sacrifice a Bull, two Muttons, seuen Lambes, and a Goat for a sinne offering: besides which they bring two Kids, one of which is sent aliue out of the limits of the campe into the desart (on whom all the euill may fall, if so be any be threatned to the people) the other is borne without the campe into a cleane place, where it is burned with the skin, being not any waies purged: with this they burne a Bull which is not al­lowed out of the common charge, but by the proper costs of the priest. This Bull being opened and slain, & the bloud therof (with that of the goat) being caried into the Tabernacle, he besprink­leth C the couer thereof with his finger seuen times, & the pauement as many times, and the Ta­bernacle and the Altar of gold, and al the rest about the great Altar, which is abroad in the court. Besides that, they set on the Altar the raynes, and the fat with the lobe of the liuer, and the priest offereth vnto God a Mutton for a burnt offering. The fifteenth day of the said month (at such time as it draweth towards winter) he commaunded them to plant Tabernacles euerie one in his The feast of Tabernacles. Exod. 29. Leuit. 23. Deut. 21. 31. family against the instant cold weather which the increasing yeer was wont to bring, & that when they should enioy their countrey, and should enter that Citie which they should hold for their Metropolitane (by reason of the Temple which should be there builded) they might celebrate a feast during eight daies space in offering burnt offerings and sacrifices vnto God: and that in witnesse of their thanksgiuing, they should beare in their hands a braunch of Mirtle, and of Wil­low D tied together with woole, and a bough of Palme likewise, to which a Peach was fastned; and that the first day they should sacrifice thirteene Oxen, and fourteene Lambs, and two Sheepe, with a Goat for a sinne offering. Those daies that insued they sacrificed likewise a like number of Lambes, and Wethers, with a Kid, and in rebating day by day the number of Oxen, they come backe to the seuenth. The eight day they cease from worke, on this day (as we haue said) they sa­crifice a Calfe, a Ram, and seuen Lambs, and a Kid for a sinne offering: and it is the custome of the Hebrewes to performe these sacrifices at such time as they pitch their Tabernacles. In the month Xantique (which we call Nisan) which is the first month of the yeare, the fourteenth day after the new Moone, the Sunne being in Aries (for at that time were we deliuered out of Aegypt) he ordained that euerie yeare we should do sacrifice, vvhich we cal the Passeouer, which (as I said) E was celebrated the same time that we departed out of Aegypt. This solemnitie of Easter we cele­brate by companies, without reseruing any thing of that vvhich is offered till the next day. The Exod. 12. 13. 23 Leuit 23. Deut. 16. The Easter was the 14. of Aprill. fifteenth day the feast of vnleuened bread followeth the solēnity of the Passeouer, & during those seuen daies, it is vnlawfull to eate any le [...]ened bread, and euerie day are slaine two Buls, one Ram, and seuen Lambes, vvhich are all consumed vvith fire, to vvhich there is added a Kid for a sinne offering, for a seuerall daies banquet to feast the priests vvith. The second day of this feast of vnleuened bread (vvhich is the sixteenth of the month) they begin to enioy the fruits that are mowed, and before that time vntouched: and for that it is verie conuenient that God should be honoured vvith the first fruites thereof, from whom they receiue such aboundance, they offer the first fruits of Barley after this manner. After they haue dried a handfull of the eares, F they beat or thresh it, and clense the Barley from the chaffe, and offer an Assar of the same vpon the Altar vnto God, and after they haue cast a handful of the same on the Altar, they leaue the rest Leuit. 2. The first fruits. for the priestes vse: and from that time forward it is lawfull for them to reape as wel in publike as in particular. With these first fruits they sacrifice vnto God a Lambe for a burnt offering. Seuen weekes after the feast of the Passeouer (that is fortie nine dayes) on the fiftieth (which the He­brewes by reason of the number, call Asartha) they offer vnto God a leauened bread made of The sacrifice of Pentecost. [Page 70] wheate flower of the quantitie of two Assars, and sacrifice two Lambes, which are onely offe­red The yeare of the world, 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509. What is obser­ued in euerie feast and sacri­fice. The bread of proposition. G vp to God; and afterwards are prepared for the Priests dinner; and it is not lawfull for them to reserue any thing thereof vntill the next day. But the burnt offerings are of three Calfes, two Wethers, and fourteen Lambs, besides two Kids for a sin offering. There is not any feast wherein they offer not a burnt offering, and desist not from all manuel labor: but in euerie one of the same there is ordained a certaine sort of sacrifice which they ought to do; and it is presently ordered, that they rest from their labours, and after sacrifice fal to banquet. On the common charge they offered vnleauened bread of twentie foure Assars of flower; and those loaues they baked two by two the day before the Sabboth, and the day of the Sabboth in the morning they bring it, and set it on the sacred Table, opposing sixe to sixe, the one against the other; and vpon them are imposed two platters full of incense; and these things remaine after this maner till the next Sab­both; H and then set they new in the place of the first, which are giuen to the Priests for their main­tenance. The incense is cast into the sacred fire in which the burnt offerings are consumed, and in place thereof there is new incense put. The Priest also sacrificeth on his owne charge flower mingled with oyle, and a little baked by fire, and this doth he twise euerie day, and bringeth to the Leuit. 8. Num. 3. fire halfe an Assar of flower in the morning, and the other halfe in the euening. But I will entreat hereof more expresly hereafter, & for the present me thinks I haue sufficiently spoken already.

Moses separated the tribe of Leui, and exempted them from the other people, to the end they might be consecrated vnto God; and he purified them with liuing fountaine water, and purged The tribe of Leui sacred to God. them with solemne sacrifice, and committed the Tabernacle to their charge, with all the holy things pertaining therunto, and all the rest which had bin made for the couer of the Tabemacle, I to the end they might be ministers to the Priests their superiours, who were already consecrated to God. After this he distinguished the beasts also, namely those that were to be eaten, frō those which were to be forborne and abstained from (of which we will speak at such time as occasion is Vncleane things. Leuit. 12. 13. 14 & 15. offered vs, and will bring proofes; and the reason which induced him to ordaine, that some were proper to feede vpon, and for what cause he would that we should abstaine from other some) He hath generally interdicted all vse of bloud in meates, esteeming the bloud to be the soule and spirit of beasts. He hath also generally prohibited to eat the flesh of those beasts that died by thē ­selues: likewise the caule and fat of goates, of sheepe and oxen. He thrust them likewise out of the company and conuersation of men, who were leprous, & such as were troubled with the fluxe of What men are vncleane. their seed. And as touching women that haue their sicknesse, he sequestred them for the space K of seuen dayes, after which it was lawfull for them to conuerse indifferently the one with the o­ther. The like decreed he of those that had assisted the buriall of a dead man, whom he permit­ted, to conuerse with other after seuen dayes were expired. It was a thing also decreed by law, that he that was surprised with vncleannesse and vnpurified beyond the number of those dayes, he should sacrifice two Wethers, one of which should bee purified, and the other giuen to the Priests. The like sacrifice is made for him that hath had vnnaturall pollution, who first washeth Gonorrliaea. himselfe in cold water. The like must they offer that haue vse of their lawfull wiues. Hee altoge­ther droue the leprous out of the citie, not permitting them to frequent any mans companie, Of Lepers. but esteeming them as men little differing from the dead. And if any one by his prayers made vnto God, was deliuered from this disease, and his skin reduced to his natiue colour, such a one L presented himselfe before God in diuers oblations and sacrifices, of which wee will speake here­after. For which cause they are worthy to be laughed at, who say that Moses fled out of Aegypt, because he was a leper, and that he conducted with him other such as were trauelled with that Against them that obiect a­gainst Moses and his follo­wers, that they fled out of E­gypt for lepro­sie. disease, and brought them into the land of Canaan. For if that were true, Moses had not made these ordinances to his owne preiudice, which if other had proposed, it behooued him to haue opposed himselfe against them: especially since amongst diuers other nations there are lepers [...] who are held in great honour, and who are so far from disdaine and contempt, as that they haue beene made Generals of most notable armies, and elected for Gouernours of common-weales, hauing libertie to enter the Temples, and to be present at the sacrifices. What therefore hindred Moses (if he had beene polluted with the like hatefull sicknesse) to make such lawes, and ordaine M such statutes among those people, who honoured and obeyed him; whereby such as were there­with infected might be preferred? By which it is manifest, that those things that are obiected against him, are rather of malice then probability. But Moses being cleane from such sickenesse, and conuersing amongst his countrimen which were vntainted, made these ordinances for them that were sicke, hauing regard to the honour of God. But of these things, let each man censure as best liketh him.

[Page 71] He forbad that women should enter into the Temple after their deliuerance, or to assist the In the yeare of the world. 2455. before Christes Natiuity 1509. He [...]o & Ruf­finus, chap. 14. The lawes of women that are brought a bed A sacrifice, vntill fortie dayes were expired (if they had beene brought a bed of a sonne) but if it were a daughter, he willed that the number of the dayes should be doubled; and that when they should enter, they should present their offerings vnto God, and to the Priests that offered them. And if any one suspected that his wife had committed adultery, hee brought an Assar of grin­ded barley, and cast a handfull thereof before God, and the rest was reserued for the maintenance of the Priests: and then the Priest placing the woman in the porch which is right ouer against the Temple, and taking the couer from her head, writeth the name of God vpon a skinne, and maketh her sweare that she hath not plaid false with her husband; and wish if she had trans­gressed Num. 5. The lawes of adultery and ielousie. thè bounds of chastity, that her right thigh might be put out of ioint, her womb might rot, and that death might follow thereupon: but if (through entire loue and iealousie proceeding B therefro) her husband had beene inconsiderately drawne into that suspition, that she might with­in ten moneths bring forth a male child. And after such an oath ministred vnto her, the Priest wipeth out the name of God that was written on the skinne, and wringeth it into a viall; and then taking of the earth of the Temple, according as he findeth it, and hauing mingled the same, giueth it the woman to drinke; and if she hath beene vniustly accused, she continueth with child, and beareth her fruit her full time: but if she hath falsified her faith to her husband, Of adulterie and incest. & forsworn herselfe before God, then dieth she a shameful death; for her thigh is nummed, & her wombe growes full of water. See here how Moses hath prouided for these sacrifices at the pu­rifying of a woman. He furthermore made these lawes which ensue. He generally forbad adul­terie, Exod. 22 Deutero. 17. Leuit. 18. 20. 21 29. iudging it to be a great good hap, if men demeaned themselues honestly in mariagē: & that C both in politique estates, and priuate families it was a thing most profitable, that children should be borne in lawfull matrimonie.

The law also forbiddeth a man to haue the vse of his mother (for that it is a thing most abo­minable) and likewise prohibiteth him to keepe vnlawful companie with his fathers wife, his Ant, and his sister, or his sonnes wife: and detesteth it as a most hainous and hideous offence. It pro­hibiteth also the vse of a woman when she hath her monthly sicknesse; the vse of beasts also, espe­cially the male, by reason that such affections are abominable: and against the transgressours of these lawes he established most strict and mortall punishments. Hee willed also that the Priests should be twise more chast then the rest, for he not onely forbad them that which he prohibited others; but moreouer he enioyned them not to marie those that had bin abādoned, or Leuit. 21. D slaues, or prisoners, or victualers and tauerners, forsaken by their husbands for any occasion whatsoeuer. And as touching the high Priest, he permitted him not to match with the widowe What wife the high Priest might mary with. of him that was dead (although it were made lawfull for the other Priests) and granted him on­ly libertie to take a virgin to his wife, and to keepe her. The said high Priest is also forbidden to approch a dead man (although the other Priests are not scantled of that libertie to approch their brothers, fathers and mothers, and children deceased) Willing that they should be simple in all kind of simplicitie.

He likewise ordained, that the Priest which should not be sound in bodie, should be main­tained by the other Priests, but in the meane time that he should not approch the Altar, neither enter into the Temple: willing that not onely they should be neat in that which concerned the E diuine seruice, but also that they should studie and indeuour to be the like in all the actions of their life, to the end that no man might reproue them. For which cause they that beare the habit of the Priests are vnreproueable, and in all things pure and sober, being forbidden to drinke wine as long as they ware the priestly vesture. They were willed also to offer vp entire sacrifices, and no wayes maimed. These statutes did Moses decree, and make during his life time. And after­wards he deuised others also, at such time as he remained in the desart; which both the people might practise in that place; and then also when they had possessed the land of Canaan. He gaue Leuit. 25. The law of e­uerie seuenth yeare. rest vnto the earth the seuenth yeare; so that it was neither tilled nor planted (in like manner as he had commaunded them to rest from their labours on the seuenth day of the weeke) and hee ordained, that the fruits which the earth of it selfe brought forth, should be common to all those F that would make vse thereof, as well to those of the countrey, as strangers, without any forbid­ding or reseruation. He likewise decreed that his should be done after the seuenth week of yeers, which containeth the space of fiftie yeares, which the Hebrewes call Iubile, in which the debtors are acquited by their creditors, and the bond-men made free, who being of the people (and for that they had forfeited against some one law) had beene punished, being handled after the maner ofslaues, and not put to death; and to those, who from the beginning had beene possessours of [Page 72] lands, they were restored vnto thē in this maner following. The Iubile being at hand (which word G The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1509. The yeare of Iubile. signifieth libertie) both he that sold, and he that bought the land, meete together, and cast vp the account of the profits and expences that haue beene reaped & bestowed on the land; and if it be found that the profits do amount, he that sold the land repossesseth it: but if the charges ex­ceed the value of the profits, he restoreth the surplusage to the buier that is due vnto him, and re­taineth the land to him selfe. And if the profits and expences are answerable the one vnto the o­ther, the restitution is made to him that had the auncient inheritance. He ratified likewise the same law in houses that were bought in Villages or Cities. For if he that sold, counted down the money he had receiued before the yeare were finished; he compelled the purchaser to re­store him his house: and if he stayed till the yeare were fully finished, the possession and free purchase remained vnto him that bought it. Moses receiued this disposition of his lawes from H God, at such time as his flocks fed at the foot of the mountaine of Sinai, and he gaue them in writing to the Hebrewes.

CHAP. XI.

The lawes and customes of warre.

AFter that these lawes had beene after this manner digested, Moses addressed himselfe to the affaires and lawes of warre (for thinking him of those battels which should follow.) Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 15. al. 12. Num. 1. Moses num­breth the people. He therefore commaunded the gouernours of the tribes (the tribe of Leui onely ex­cepted) to take a precise view and musters of those men that were capable and able to I beare armes (for the Leuites were sacred and exempt from those functions) and the search being made, there were found sixe hundreth and three thousand, sixe hundreth and fiftie fighting men betwixt the yeares of twentie, and fiftie. But in stead of Leui he chose Manasses the sonne of Io­seph; and Ephraim for his father Ioseph: for so much had Iacob intreated at Iosephs hands that he would giue him his sonnes, that he might adopt them (as it hath beene aforetime declared.) Num. 2. 3. 4 When they pitched the Tabernacle, it was planted in the midst of the campe, guarded and defen­ced with the tribes which were incamped three by three on euery side. There were certaine waies or paths likewise laid out betweene them, and a market place was quarteraed out, and shops The dispofitiō of the army. for all sorts of merchandise disposed by order, and workemen and artizans of all occupations, trauailing in their shops; so that to looke vpon it, it resembled a Citie that marched and K encamped.

The Priests first were planted next vnto the Tabernacle, and after them followed all the com­munitie of the Leuites (for there was a viewe also made of them, accounting all the males ex­ceeding the age of thirtie daies, and they were counted to be twentie and three thousand, eight hundreth and eightie.) And when it chanced that a cloud descended vpon the Tabernacle, then rested they, as if God thought good to rest in that place; and if it departed from the same, then A cloud on the Tabernacles. remoued they likewise. He inuented also a certaine kind of Cornet made of siluer, and framed after this manner. In length it was almost a cubit, and it was like the narrow whistle of a Fife, Num. 9. but a little more thicker, yet naithelesse it was wide inough for the space of the mouth, to the end to receiue the breath, and the end thereof was made like a little Bell, in forme of a Trumpet. They L Num. 10. Two trumpets made of siluer. call it in the Hebrew tongue Asosra. There were two of them, whereof the one of them serued to assemble and call the people to publike assemblies; and the other to conuocate the gouer­nours when they were to consult vpon affaires of estate: and if both of them were sounded, then all of them in generall gathered together: When the Tabernacle was remoued, this manner was obserued. Assoone as the first charge was sounded, they that were encamped towards the East, The order of the army with the Taber­nacle. first of all dislodged: at the second charge, they to the southward disincamped; then was the Ta­bernacle vnpitched, and caried in the midst, sixe of the tribes marching before, and sixe of them after: the Leuites were all about the Tabernacle. And when they sounded the third time, the quarter towards the Westward remoued: and the fourth was that to the Northward. They made vse also of these Cornets in the diuine seruice, with which they ordered the sacrifices on the M Sabboth and other daies. Then also was the first Passeouer celebrated with solemne offerings af­ter their departure out of Aegypt, they being in the desart.

CHAP. XII. A The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509.

Sedition against Moses through the scarcitie of victuals, and the punish­ment of the Rebellious.

NOt long after this they remoued their campe from the mountaine of Sinai; and after Hedio & Ruf­finus, ch. 16. al. 13. Num. 11. Sedition a­gainst Moses. certaine encampings (of which we will speake) they came to a place which is called Iseremoth, where the people once more began to ruminate and reuiue their seditions, and lay the fault of their laborious pilgrimage vpon Moses, obiecting that by his perswasion they had left a fertile countrey, and now not onely that they were destitute of the plentie thereof, but also in stead of hoped felicitie, forced to wander here and there in extreame miserie, and trauel­led B with want of water: and that if Manna likewise should in any sort faile them, they were like all of them without question to perish for want of sustenance. Hereunto annexed they diuers contumelies, which were euery where inflicted against him, being a man of so great desert and consequence. Meane while there arose one amongst the people, who (admonishing them of the forepassed benefits receiued by the hands of Moses) counselled them to be of good courage; assuring them that at that time they should not be frustrate either of that hope or helpe, which they expected at Gods hands. But the people were the rather incēsed against him by these words, and more & more whetted their spleanes against the prophet; who seeing them so desperate, wil­led them to be of a good courage; promising them, that although by iniurious speeches he had vndeseruedly beene offenced by them, yet that he would giue them store of flesh, not for one day C onely, but also for many. But they being incredulous (and some one amongst them demaun­ding how he could make prouision for so many thousand men) God (saith he) and I, although we be euill spoken of by you, yet will we neuer desist to be carefull for you, and that shall you short­ly perceiue. Scarce had he spoken this, but that all the campe was filled with quailes, which they hunted for by heapes. Yet God not long after that, punished the insolencie and slaunder of the The Israelites obtain quailes in the desart. The graues of concupiscence Hebrewes, by the death of no small number; for at this day the place retayneth his name, which for that cause vvas imposed thereon, and it is called Cabrothaba, as if you should say, the mo­numents of concupiscence.

CHAP. XIII. D

Of the spies that were sent to search the land of Chanaan, and how returning to the Israelites, they amated them with feare.

BVt after that Moses had led them out of that place, and had brought them into a coun­trey Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 17. al. 14. Num. 13. 14. not so apt for habitation (not farre from the borders of the Chanaanites, which is called the Iawes) he called the people to a councell, and standing vp in the midst of them, he spake after this manner. ‘God (saith he) hauing decreed to grant you two great benefits, namely the libertie and possession of a happie countrey, hath granted you al­readie the possession of the one, and will shortly make you partakers of the other. For we are vpon the borders of Chanaan, from whence both the Cities and Kings are so farre from driuing E vs, as the vvhole nation being vnited together is not of power to expell vs. Let vs therefore addresse our selues verie confidently to attempt the matter: for neither vvithout fight will they Moses sendeth spies to search the land of Chanaan. resigne the title of their countrey vnto vs; neither vvithout great conflicts may we obtaine the palme of victorie. Let vs therefore send out certaine spies to search into the secrets of the coun­trey, and such as may coniecture how great their power is: but aboue all things, let vs be at vni­tie one with another, and let vs honour God, who assisteth vs in all daungers, and fighteth for vs.’ After that Moses had spoken after this manner, the people (applauding his counsels) chose twelue out of the most noblest families of the tribes, to go and search the countrey, out of euery tribe one; vvho beginning from the parts extending towards Egypt, visited all the countrey of the Chanaanites vntill they came to the Citie of Amathe, & the mountaine of Libanus: and hauing F searched out both the land and the nature of the inhabitants, they returned home againe, hauing consumed fortie daies in those affaires. Moreouer, they brought with thē such fruits as the coūtrey yeelded, & by the beautie thereof & by the quantity of those riches (which they reported to be in that countrey) they incouraged the harts of the people to fight valiantly: but on the other side they dismaid thē with the difficultie of the conquest, saying, that there were certaine riuers impossible to be ouerpassed, both for their greatnes & depth: that there were therin also inaccessible moūtalnes, [Page 74] and Cities fortified both with wals and bulwarks: moreouer they told them, that in Hebron they G The yeare of the world. 2455. before Christes Natiuity. 1509. found a race of Giants. And thus these spies (when as they had found all things farre greater a­mongst the Chanaanites, then to that day they had seene since their departure out of Egypt) they of set purpose by their feare brought the rest of the multitude into a dangerous suspition and per­plexitie. Who coniecturing by their discourse that it was impossible to conquer the land, dissol­uing The spies driue feare into the Israelites. the assembly returned each one to their houses, lamenting with their wiues and children, saying that God had onely in words promised many things, but that in effect he gaue them no assistance: moreouer they blamed Moses, & reuiled both him and his brother Aaron the high priest. The murmur of the people against Moles. And thus spent they all the night in disquiet, vrging their discontents, both against the one and the other: but on the morrow they reassembled their councell vnder this pretence, that stoning Moses and his brother, they might returne backe againe to Egypt from whence they came. Which H euent, when two of the spies greatly suspected (namely Iesus the sonne of Naue of the tribe of Ephraim, and Caleb of the tribe of Iuda) they went into the middest of them, and appeased the Iosuah & Ca­leb appease the people. multitude, praying them to be of good hope, and not to challenge Almightie God of deceit, by yeelding certaine slight beliefe to some, who by spreading vaine rumors of the affaires of Cha­naan, had terrified the credulous multitude; but rather that they should follow them, who both would be the actors and conductors also of them in the conquest of the countrey: and that ney­ther the greatnes of the mountaines, nor the depth of the riuers could hinder them, that like vali­ant men were prepared to attempt, especially God being their guide, and readie to fight for them in that battell. March forward therefore (said they) and laying aside all feare (and being assured of the diuine succors) follow vs with a bold courage whither soeuer we lead you. With I these words laboured they to appease the insulting multitude. In the meane while Moses and Aaron falling prostrate on their faces, besought God (not for their owne safetie) but that it wouldHedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 18. al. 14.please him to restore the despairing multitude to a better mind, who were troubled with so many present and instant necessities. Whereupon sodainly a cloud appeared on the Tabernacle, and gaue testimonie that God was there present: which when Moses perceiued (drawing his spi­rits vnto him) he pressed into the presence of the multitude, and told them how God was in­cited and whetted to take punishment of the outrage which they had committed against him; yet not so seuerely as the iniquitie of their sinnes deserued, but in that discipline which fathers are accustomed to vse for the instruction of their children. For at such time as he stood before God in the Tabernacle, and besought him with teares for the safetie of the multitude, God had K recounted vnto him, how many benefits and fauours they had receiued from him, and how vn­gratefull they shewed themselues towards him: and that at the present being transported with the feare of the spies, they had esteemed their reports more true, then his promises. Notwith­standing all which, that he would not vtterly consume them all, nor exterminate their whole race (whom he had honoured aboue all the nations of the earth) but that he would not grant them the grace to conquer the land of Chanaan, neyther make them partakers thereof, but wouldThe Israelites should wander in the desart 40. yeeres.bring to passe that they should liue in the desart without house or Citie for the space of fortie yeares, for punishment of their transgression. Yet hath he promised (said he) to giue the coun­trey to your successors, whom he will make Lords of their goods, and heires of those possessions which you haue enuied your selues. L

After that Moses had discoursed these things after this manner, according to the ordinance of God, the people were in great sorrow and calamitie, and besought Moses that he would ap­pease The repentāce of the people. Gods wrath conceiued against them; beseeching him that forgetting their faults that were past in the desart, he would make them Lords of their enemies Cities Moses answered them, that God was not incited against thē according to the maner of humane weaknes, but that he had gi­uen a iust sentence against them. In this place it is not to be supposed, that Moses (who was but a man onely) did appease so many multitudes of displeased men, but that God assisted him, and brought to passe that the people were conquered with his words (hauing by diuers disobedien­ces, and by the calamities whereinto they were fallen, knowne that obedience was both good and commendable.) Furthermore, for that Moses was admirable for his vertue, and the force procee­ding M from his faith: of whom not onely they haue spoken, who liued in his time, but euen at this day there is not any one amongst the Hebrewes, who (as if Moses were now here present to Moses a man of great autho­ritie. chastice him) if he ran astray, would not obey the ordinances made by him, although he might make breach of them in secret.

There are besides diuers great and euident signes of the more then humane vertue which was in him, and amongst the rest this was not the least, that certaine straungers trauailing out of the [Page 75] Regions beyond Euphrates a foure months iourney, to their great charges and with no lesse pe­rill A The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1509. to honour our Temple, and offer sacrifice; yet could they not obtaine licence or permission to offer, in that by our lawes it was not lawfull for them to doe it: and some other without sacrifi­cing (other some the sacrifice halfe finished, the rest not permitted to enter the Temple) haue re­turned backe againe to their owne homes, without finishing their purposes, chosing rather to obey Moses law, then their owne vvils: yet being reproued therein by none but their owne con­sciences. So much did the opinion once conceiued of this man preuaile, that he is esteemed more then a man, who is supposed to haue receiued lawes from God, and to haue deliuered them to men. Of late also (not long before the warres of the Iewes, during the Empire of Clau­dius, and Ismael being high priest amongst vs) when as so great a famine oppressed our nation, The great scar­citie during the Empire of Claudius. that an Assar was sold for foure drams, and there was brought to the feasts of Azymes the quan­titie B of seuentie Cores (which make thirtie Sicilian, and fortie Athenian Medin ni, which are two bushels of ours almost) some of the priests were not so bold as to eate one graine of Barley, notwithstanding the countrey was in that extremitie, fearing the law, and Gods displeasure ex­tended alwaies against sinnes concealed. For which cause vve ought not to wonder at that which happened at that time, considering that the writings left by Moses are in such force, euen at this day, that they themselues, who hate vs, confesse that he that hath instituted our gouernment is God, by the meanes and ministerie of Moses and his vertue. But of these things let euery man thinke, as it pleaseth him.

THE FOVRTH BOOKE C OF THE ANTIQVITIES OF THE IEWES,

The Contents of the Chapters of the 4 booke. D
  • 1 The fight of the Hebrewes with the Chanaanites, and their ouerthrow by them, without Moses knowledge.
  • 2 The sedition raysed by Chore against Moses and his brother for the Priesthood.
  • 3 How the authors of the sedition were slaine by Gods iudgement, and the Priesthood confirmed to Aaron and his sonnes.
  • 4 What chanced to the Hebrewes in the desart for the space of 38. yeares.
  • 5 How Moses ouercame Schon, and Og Kings of the Amorites, and ouerthrewe their armies. E
  • 6 Of the prophet Balaam.
  • 7 The victorie of the Hebrewes against the Madianites, and how the countrey of the Amorites was granted by Moses to two and a halfe of the Tribes.
  • 8 Moses lawes, and how he was taken out of the world.

CHAP. I. The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1509. G

The fight of the Hebrewes with the Chanaanites, and their ouerthrow by them without Moses knowledge.

WHilest thus the Hebrewes passed their life in great penurie and per­plexitie in the desart, groning vnder the burthen of their grieuous Num. 14. The Israelites without Gods or Moses com­maund deuise how to assayle the enemies. afflictions; there was nothing that more distracted and distempered them than this, that God had forbidden them to hazard or enter bat­tell against the Chanaanites: neither would they now any longer giue eare vnto Moses (who perswaded them to peace) but waxed confi­dent H in themselues, that both without his conduct and counsails, they might easily obtaine victorie ouer their enemies: and accused him likewise, as if he sought after no other thing, but that they being daily pressed with great wants, should be enforced conti­nually to depend vpon his counsels. Whereupon they embattailed themselues against the Cha­naanites, presuming with themselues, that God would succour them, not onely in regard of Moses; but also for that he had a general care of their natiō, euer since the time of their forefathers, whom he had alwaies held vnder his protection; and by reason of whose vertues he had alreadie granted them libertie. They said likewise, that if they would take the paines at that time and en­deuour themselues, that God would alwaies fight with them: protesting that they were able to o­uerrunne the nations, although they were but themselues; yea although Moses would endeuour to I estraunge God from them. In a word, that it was behoouefull, that all of them should be Lords of themselues, and that being recomforted and redeemed from the seruitude of Egypt, they ought not to suffer Moses to tyrannize ouer them, or to conforme their liues to his will, vnder this vaine beliefe, that God had onely discouered to Moses that which was behoouefull for them, by reason of the affection which he bare him: As if all of them were not deriued from the loynes of A­braham, and that he onely were the motiue of all, in foreknowing the things that should happen vnto them, by particular instruction from God? That euen then they should seeme to be wise, if (condemning his pride, and fixing their trust vpon God) they would take possession of the coun­trey which he had promised them, in spight of Moses contradiction; who for this cause hindred them, setting the name of God before them: that therefore putting before their eies their ne­cessitie K and the desart, which daily more and more aggrauated their miserie, they should ende­uour themselues couragiously to sally out against the enemie the Chanaanites; alledging that God would be their guide: so as they had no reason to expect the assistance of their lawmaker. At last when this sentence was approued by a generall allowance, they flocke out in multitudes against their enemies, who neither affrighted by their fierce assault, neither terrified with their in­finite multitude, valiantly resisted them, who desperately charged them: so that (the better part The Chanaa­nites put the Hebrewes to flight. of the Hebrewes being slaine) they pursued the rest (enforced shamefully to turne their backes) euen vnto their campe. This ouerthrow (hapning beside all mens opinion) wonderously deiected the minds of the multitude, that they grew desperate of all future good fortune, con­cluding that God had sent and inflicted that plague vpon them, because without his counsell L and fauour they had enterprised the battell. But when Moses perceiued that both his owne coun­trimen were dismaid with the ouerthrow which they had, and the enemie was waxen proud with their late victorie, fearing likewise least (not content with their present successe) they should attempt further; he determined to retire his forces backe againe into the desart. And whereas the people promised thereafter to be obedient to him (being taught by their owne miserie, that nothing would fall out prosperously vnto them without the counsell and conduct of their guide) they disincamping themselues, retired into the desart vnder this resolution, that they would no Moses rety­reth the people into the desart more attempt the battell against the Chanaanites, before they receiued a signe of their good suc­cesse from heauen. But euen as in a great army it accustomably falleth out (especially in time of trouble) that the common multitude wax headstrong and disobedient to their gouernours; so did M the like also happen amongst the Iewes: for whereas they were in number sixe hundreth thou­sand, and euen in their better fortunes seemed disobedient to their gouernours, so much the more were they exasperated by their wants and misfortunes, both amongst themselues, as against their gouernour. For which cause there arose so great a sedition, as neither amongst the Greeks or Barbarians the like was euer heard of: which things without doubt had ouerthrowne them (being brought into so desperate an estate) except Moses (forgetting the iniurie he had receiued, Sedition a­gainst Moses. [Page 77] which was no lesse then a pretence to stone him to death) had succoured and relieued their di­stressed A The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509. fortunes. Neither did God vtterly abandon the care of them, but although they were contumelious against their law-maker, and transgressed also against the lawes which hee had deliuered them by Moses; yet deliuered he them out of that dangerous sedition, of which (without his especiall prouidence) there could be expected no other but a lamentable issue. This sedition, as also how Moses gouerned the estate when the troubles were ended, we will now declare, ha­uing first expressed the cause thereof.

CHAP. II.

The sedition raised by Chore against Moses and his brother for the Priesthood. B

CHores (a man noble in birth, and famous for his wealth amongst the Hebrewes, and en­dowed Numb 16. Chore ende­uoureth to perswade the multitude to mutine against Moles. with a certaine kind of popular eloquence) seeing Moses placed in the highest estate of dignitie, was sore troubled and oppressed with enuie. For although he were of the same Tribe and kinred; yet thought he it to be a great indignitie in himselfe to be held his inferiour, beeing both more enabled in riches, and nothing inferiour in parentage: For which cause he began to mutine and murmure amongst the Leuites (which were of the same Tribe with him, and his kinsmen) telling them (in vehement discourse) that it was not to bee suffered nor permitted, that Moses, vnder a pretext of certaine diuinitie, should by ambitious policie (to other mens preiudice) onely studie his owne glorie: shewing them how of late without all law C and right he had giuen the Priesthood to his brother Aaron, and distributed other dignities at his owne pleasure like a king, without the allowance and approbation of the people: That this iniurie done by him was not to be endured, by reason that so couertly he had insinuated himselfe into the gouernement, that before he might be espied, the people should be brought vnder ser­uitude. For he that knoweth himselfe to be worthy of a gouernement, striueth to obtaine the same by kind perswasions and consent of the people, and not by force and violence: but they that despaire by good meanes to attaine thereunto, doe notwithstanding abstaine from force, least they should lose the opinion of their goodnesse and honestie; yet endeuour they by malicious subtilties to attaine thereunto. That it concerned the common-weale to extinguish and roote out the subtill insinuations of such men, least of priuate, they should at last grow publike enemies. D For what reason (said he) can Moses yeeld, why he hath bestowed the Priesthood on Aaron and his sonnes? For if that God had decreed that this honour should be bestowed on one of the tribe of Leui, there were more reason that I should haue it, who am of the same kinred with Moses, and who surpasse him both in riches & age: And if this honor appertained to the most ancient of the Tribes, that those of Rubens loynes ought by right to enioy it, namely Dathan, and Abiram and Phalal, who are the most ancient of that Tribe, and the most powerfull in riches. These things Alias Balas. spake Chores (vnder colour and pretence of the weale of the common-weale, but in effect onely to raise a tumult amongst the multitude, and intrude into the office of the high Priest. This Dis­course of his passing by little and little from one eare to another amongst the multitude, and multiplied by the enuious, and such as maligned Aaron, at last brought the whole Tribes into E a mutinie: so that two hundred and fiftie of the chiefest Nobles grew at length to be partakers of Two hundred and fiftie men follow Chores faction. They crie out to stone Moses Chores conspiracie, and all of these inforced themselues to take away the Priesthood from Mo­ses brother, and to transferre it to him. The people likewise were in such sort incensed, as that they sought to stone Moses; and ranne all of them by confused heapes with noise and vprore, crying out before the Tabernacle of God, that the tyrāt was to be cut off, & the people deliuered from thraldome, who vnder pretext of religion, had insupportable thraldome imposed on them: For if it were God that had chosen him to bee high Priest, he would haue preferred such a one to the dignitie who had beene worthy, and would not haue departed it to those who were farre inferiour to others; that if he had decreed to bestow it on Aaron, he had remitted the com­mission of his election to the people, and not left the disposition thereof to his brother. Moses, F who long before that time had perceiued Chores treacherous slander, and saw the people verie sore incensed; was notwithstanding nothing at all abashed thereat: but being resolued in his con­science that he had gouerned the estate vprightly, and well assured that his brother obtained the Priesthood (not by his fauour but Gods election) he came into the congregation, where he vt­tered Moses oration to seditious Chore. no one word against the people, but addressing himselfe to Chore, he expostulated with him, and accused him in as much as was for him possible; being (besides his other qualities) fa­shioned [Page 78] and composed by nature, eloquently to speake in publique assemblies. ‘I thinke (saith he) G The yeare of the world, 1455. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1509. Chore, that both thou and euerie one of these (pointing with his finger at the two hundred and fifty men of his faction) are worthy of honour: yea I contemne not the rest of this assembly, (although they are not to be compared with you in riches, and other endowments.) For neither doth Aaron therefore possesse the Priesthood because he is richer (for thou hast more ample possessions then either of vs) neither because he is more noble (for God hath equally imparted the same vnto vs all, hauing giuen vs one and the same Grandfather) neither haue I beene mo­ued thereunto by brotherly affection, to bestow that on him which was due vnto others. For had I not respected God and right in disposing of this dignitie, I had not forgotten my selfe, to further and preferre another, since there is no man more neere my selfe then my selfe, or whom I had rather wish well to, then to my selfe: for what wisdome had it beene for me, to expose my H selfe to those dangers which they incurre, who make breach of lawes, to suffer another man reap the fruits of my impietie? But God forbid that my conscience should be stained with any such sin: neither were the fault mine also would God leaue it vnpunished; neither in me, who should con­temn him, neither in you, for that you were ignorant of that you ought to do, & of that which was gratefull in his sight. He himselfe it is that hath chosen the high Priest, and by this meanes hath acquited me of that accusation, that in this respect might be obiected against me. For although Aaron hath obtained this degree (not by my fauour, but by Gods owne appointment) yet not­withstanding he referreth and remitteth the matter to the publike disposition and order of you all, neither requiring he any prerogatiue (for that he hath alreadie exercised the charge, or for that at this present it is granted him to entermeddle with the same) but esteemeth it to be the I greatest good fortune that may befal him, to see your mutinies and seditions cease; although with the losse of that honour, which he hath receiued from your owne election: for neither haue we iniured Gods will, in this that we also wish your assent and allowance; but that which of his own accord he hath giuen, it was not lawfull to refuse with a safe conscience: As reciprocally it is a thing most reasonable, that they which receiue it should alwayes enioy it, since God himselfe had giuen thē both the assurance and confirmation. God therefore shall once againe determine who amongst you shall be chosen to offer sacrifice vnto him, and to take charge of those things which appertaine to pietie. For it is a most absurd matter that Chore should haue power to de­sire a dignitie, and that God should be depriued of that authoritie to dispose the same as best liked him. K

‘Cease therefore to mutine amongst your selues, and to bee troubled vpon these occasions: and let euerie one of you that desire the Priesthood, to morrow bring each of you his censor with perfumes, and fire from his house. But thou ô Chore, giue place vnto God, and expect his election, neither arrogate to thy selfe a greater authoritie then God hath, but come thou also amongst the rest thy competitors in this honour, to heare his iudgement. Neither see I cause why Aaron should not be there also present to be iudged with thee, in that hitherto he hath vertuously and vprightly behaued himselfe in the execution of that office, and is likewise of the same tribe and race that thou art of. You shall likewise offer incense in the presence of all the people, and when the perfume shall be past, let him whose sacrifice shall be most acceptable in Gods sight, be declared and published for the high Priest: so shall I be acquit of that slaunder L which is wrongfully vrged against me, whereby I am charged to haue (vpon my particular grace and fauour) bestowed the officer of the Priesthood on my brother.’After that Moses had spoken in this maner the people gaue ouer murmuring, and forbare to suspect Moses, allowing in them­selues all that which had beene spoken, as being profitable for the common weale: so that here­upon they dismissed the assemblie.

CHAP. III.

How the authors of the sedition were slaine by Gods iudgement, and the Priesthood confirmed to Aaron and his sonnes. M

THe next day the people reassembled themselues together to assist the sacrifice, and to Rufin. chap. 1. Numb. 16. heare the strife decided amongst the Competitors; neither was this assembly without tumult: For the whole multitude were in suspence in expectation of the euent, and some of them were desirous that Moses might be conuicted of deceit. But such as were of the wiser sort amongst them, desired an end of the sedition: for they feared least the common weale should be vtterly ruinated, if the tumult should proceed any further. The multitude likewise (being natural­ly [Page 79] desirous of noueltie, and prone to speake euill of their Magistrates) were diuersly disposed The yeare of the world. 2455. before Christes Natiuity. 1509. A vpon euerie occurrent. Moses also sent his seruants to Abiram and Dathan, to summon them to appeare (according to the couenants and accord) to attend the issue of the sacrifice. But their answere was, that they would not obey him, neither that they would any longer permit that Moses by his subtill and sinister deuices, should signiorize ouer the people. Which when Moses vnderstood, he tooke diuers of the Elders amongst the people with him, and being no wayes moued with Dathan and his contumacie, he came vnto him (being willingly attended by those who were drawne to accompanie him.) Now when Dathan and his friends vnderstood that Dathan and Abiram rebel­lious. Moses with the Nobles came vnto them, both they, their wiues and children assembled them­selues before the Tabernacle, expecting that which would ensue. They came likewise guarded with their seruants, who were armed to oppose themselues against Moses, if so be he should offer B them any violence: But no sooner drew he neere vnto them, but that lifting vp his hands vnto heauen, he cried out with a loud voice in the hearing of the whole multitude, and prayed after this maner. ‘O God (said he) thou Lord ouerall that which either heauen, earth, or sea containeth, Moses prayer vnto God. thou art a sufficient witnesse with me of all mine actions for that I haue managed all things by thy will; and thou art he who hast giuen me power to execute my purposes: thou that alwayes in commiseration of the Hebrewes hast beene my perpetuall helpe and assistance: heare this my prayer. For nothing that is either done, or thought, is hidden from thee: for which cause I hope thou wilt not disdaine to testifie and iustifie my truth, and manifest the ingratitude of these men. Thou doest exactly know the antiquitie of my race, not for that thou hast heard it, but for that thou hast seene and assisted it; in effect, now also testifie the truth for me in those things which C these men (although they know they contrarie) are not ashamed to impute vnto me. At such time as I led a peaceable life, and that by my vertue and thy counsell, and my father in law Raguels fauour, I had sufficient to liue vpon; I forsooke the possession of my goods, and the fruit on of my peace, to ingage my selfe in these miseries, which I haue suffered for these men: and first of all for their libertie, and now likewise for their safetie, I haue most readily vndertaken grieuous trauels. Now therefore since I am growne into suspition amongst those men, who by my care and prouidence haue escaped so manie mischiefes and miseries; thou that appearedst vnto me in that fire on the mountaine of Sinai, and vouchsafedst both to speake vnto me, and to confirme D me by the sight of miracles; that in thy name sentst me a messenger into Aegypt; that hast aba­ted the great fortunes of the Aegyptians and hast giuen me meanes to escape from their serui­tude; and hast made Pharaoes power and armie inferiour to my fortunes, that when we were igno­rant of our way gauedst vs a passage through the sea, in whose bottom and wombe afterward the Aegyptians were drowned; that gauedst vs armes, when we were vnweaponed; that madest the bitter water sauoury and fit to be drunke of; and in our scarcitie of water enforcedst drinke for vs out of the bowels of the hard rocke; when we found no meat on the land, didst send it vs from the sea; moreouer (as a thing neuer before heard of) affoordedst vs meat from heauen, and hast established our estate with lawes and customes: Be thou, ô Lord, my Iudge in all things, and my vnpartiall witnesse, that neither I haue beene corrupted by any bribe of any particular Hebrew, E to fauour iniustice, neither that I haue suffered a poore man in his iust cause to lose his right against a rich aduersarie. And now hauing administred the common weale with all synceritie, I am called in question for a crime, whereof I am altogether guiltlesse, as if I had bestowed thy Priesthood on my brother for priuate affection, and not for thy command sake: make it knowne that all things are dispensed by thy prouidence, and that nothing is brought to effect by casualty, but by thy especiall ordinance: And to expresse that thou hast care of the Hebrewes, testifie the same by thy iust punishment inflicted on Dathan and Abiram, who accuse thee to be insensible and boast that thou art circumuented by my subtilties. But thou shalt make thy reuenge more notorious against the vnbrideled detractors of thy glorie, if they perish after no common ma­ner, least any man should suspect that they suffer nothing inhumane: but let the earth which F they vnworthily tread vpon, open it selfe and swallow them vp both with their families and fa­culties. By this means both thy power will manifestly appeare vnto all men, and thou shalt leaue an example to posteritie, that no man hereafter shal dare to thinke otherwise of thy maiesty then becommeth him, & my ministerie shall be approued to proceed from thy direction. But if those crimes be truly vrged which are inforced against me, then let the curses returne and light on mine owne head, and let those whom I haue cursed liue in safetie. And thus exacting a punishment from those that disturbe thy people, keep the rest of the multitude in peace, concord, and obseruation of thy commandements, secure and void of that punishment which is due vnto[Page 80] wicked men, for that it is contrarie to thy iustice, that the innocent multitude of the Israelites G The yeare of the world, 2455. be­fore Christs birth 1509. should answere their misdeeds, and suffer their punishments.’ Whilest he spake these words, and intermixed them with teares, the earth instantly trembled, and shaking began to remoue (after such a manner, as when by the violence of the wind a great billow of the sea floateth and walte­reth.) Hereat were all the people amased. But after that, a horrible and shattering noyse was made about their tents, the earth opened, and swallowed vp both them and all that which they estee­med deere, which was after a maner so exterminate, as nothing remained of theirs to be beheld. Dathan and Abiram swal­lowed vp. Whereupon in a moment the earth closed againe, and the vast gaping was fast shut, so as there appeared not any signe of that which had hapned. Thus perished they all, leauing behind them an example of Gods power and iudgements. And this accident was the more miserable, in that there were no one, no not of their kinsfolke or allies that had compassion of them: so that all the H people whatsoeuer, forgetting those things which were past, did allow Gods iustice with ioy­ful acclamations, esteeming them vnworthie to be bemoned, but to be held as the plague & per­uerters of the people. After that Dathan with his family was extinguished, Moses assembled all those that contended for the Priesthood together, cōmitting again the election of the priesthood vnto God, concluding that the estate should bee ratified to him, whose sacrifice was most ac­ceptable in Gods sight. For which cause the two hundred and fiftie men assembled themselues, who were both honoured for the vertue of their ancestors, and for their owne abilities farre grea­ter then theirs: with these also stood Aaron and Chore, and all of them offered with their censors before the Tabernacle, with perfumes such as they brought with them, when sodainly so great a fire shone, as neither the like was euer kindled by mans hand, nor vsually breaketh from the bow­els I of the burning earth, neyther was euer quickned in the woods, split and borne downe in the sommer time by a southerne brize, but such a one as seemed to be kindled in heauen most bright­some and flaming, by force and power whereof those two hundreth and fiftie (together with Chore with two hundreth and fiftie men is consumed with fire. Chore) were so consumed, that there scarce appeared any reliques of their carcasses: Only Aaron remained vntouched, to the end it might appeare that this fire came from heauen. These things thus brought to passe, Moses (intending to leaue a perpetual memory to posteritie of that punish­ment) to the end they should not be ignorant thereof, commaunded Eleazar the sonne of Aaron to consecrate their censors affixed to the brasen Altar, that by reason of this monument, all men might be terrified, who thinke that the diuine power can be circumuented by humane policy.

CHAP. IIII. K

What things happened in 38. yeares space to the Hebrewes in the desart.

AFter that by so euident an argument it appeared very sufficiently, that Aaron neither by sinister insinuations, neither by the fauour of his brother, but onely by Gods election had obtained the Priesthood; he euer afterwards held it without any contradiction: yet Num. 17. for all this, the sedition was not sufficiently ceased, but that it brake out with a more vrgent furie then at first: for it tooke his originall from such causes that it might easily appeare that it would be of long continuance. For whereas this perswasion had once taken roote in the hearts of men, L Another sedi­tion against Moses. that nothing is brought to passe without Gods wil, they imagined that God wrought these things in fauor of Moses; to him therfore imputed they all these things, as if God had not punished those men thorow the hate he bare against their sinnes, but onely on Moses solicitation: and they were sore aggrieued that Moses (hauing giuen this mayme vnto the people, by the losse of so many noble men, that onely perished thorow the zeale they bare to Gods seruice) not onely had done them open wrong; but that which was more, had assured the Priesthood to his brother after such a manner, that thereafter no man durst oppose himselfe to purchase the same; seeing how vnfor­tunately those others were ouerthrowne by a violent death. Moreouer the kinsmen of those that were slaine, solicited and stirred the people, praying them to restraine the pride and ouergreat power of Moses, in that it lay in their power easily to perform the same. But Moses perceiuing that the people was incensed, and fearing least once more they should bethinke them on some inno­uation; M whereby some great misfortune might succeed, he assembled them together, and gaue audience to their accusations, without replying any waies (for feare he might the more incense them) hee onely commaunded the heads of the tribes, that each of them should bring a rod, wherein the name of each tribe should be written, promising that the Priesthood should re­maine with them, in whose rod God should shew any signe. Which iudgement of his being al­lowed [Page 81] by all men, both they, and Aaron brought theirs with their inscriptions; and Aaron had The yeare of the world. 2455. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1509. Aarons rod fructifieth. A written in his the tribe of Leui. These Moses tooke from them, and laid them in Gods Taber­nacle: the next day he brought them forth euery one of them (which were easily knowne to be those which the Princes brought, & the rest of the people had marked) and they saw that al theirs remained in the same forme which the day before they retained, when Moses tooke them; but out of Aarons rod there grew branches and buds: and that which is more to be wondred at, it bare ripe Almonds, which in a rod of that kind of wood was admirable and miraculous. The people amated at the noueltie of this spectacle (dismissing their hatreds wherewith they both prosecuted Moses and Aaron) became wholy amased and drawne into admiration of Gods iudge­ment, and forbare any more to repugne against God, or to oppose themselues against Aarons Priesthood. And thus three times confirmed by the approbation of God, by all mens consent he B became hie Priest, and the people of the Hebrewes turmoyled with long seditions, at last by this meanes grew setled in peace and quietnes. But after that Moses had made the tribe of Leui (which He [...]o & Ruf­finus. chap. 3. 4 Num. 18. 35. Leuit. 14. 18. 28. was dedicate to Gods seruice) free and exempt from warfare (for feare least being occupied in prouiding themselues necessaries for their maintenance, they should grow negligent in execu­ting their duties in sacrifice) he ordained that after the land of Chanaan was conquered by their forces and Gods fauour, that of the Cities they should conquer, they should distribute fortie The reuenues of the Priests. eight of the best & fairest on the Leuites, & certain lands abutting on their Cities, to the quantity and space of two thousand cubits. Moreouer, he commaunded that the tenths of all the yearly fruit that was gathered by the whole people, should be giuen and bestowed on the Leuites and Priests; and euer after this tribe had their solemne reuenues. Now must I declare what things C are proper to the Priests. Of the fortie eight Cities which were granted to the Leuites, he com­maunded them to grant thirteene to the Priests; and that of those tenthes which they receiued of the people, they should pay vnto them a tenth share. Besides, he gaue charge that the people should offer vp vnto God all the first fruits of whatsoeuer the earth yeelded them: and that the first borne of foure footed beasts dedicated for sacrifice, if it were a male, should be deliuered to the Priests to sacrifice, to the end they might be nourished with all their family in the sacred Ci­tie of Ierusalem; and that they which are not fit to be sacrificed to God, should be eaten by them according to the vse and custome of the countrey, the owners paying in lieu of a firstling a sicle and a halfe, and for the first borne of a man, fiue sicles. He allotted them likewise the first fruits of sheep-shearing, and ordered that the bakers should offer them some cakes. But they that D consecrate themselues by vow, and are called Nazarites (nourishing their haire, and tasting no Num. 6. Of the Na­zarites. wine) when as they consecrate their haire, were bound to offer it vnto the Priests. They likewise who call themselues Corban, which is called the gift of God, if they desire to be dismissed from that ministerie (whereunto by voluntarie vow they bound themselues) must pay money to the Priests, for a woman thirtie sicles, for a man fiftie; and that those that had not so much money should be left to the discretion of the Priests. And if any man should kill (for his priuate feast) The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1471. any beast, and not for Gods seruice, yet that he ought to offer vnto the Priest the breast and leg of the beast. This is that allowance which Moses ratified to the Priests, and besides this, what­soeuer the people offered for sinnes (as we declared in the next precedent volume.) And what soeuer was contributed by the people to the order of the Priests, he commaunded that both E their wiues, children and seruants should be made partakers of the same (onely except those things which were offered for sinne offerings, for these things the Priests onely themselues eate vp in the Temple the same day.) After that this policy was in this sort ratified by Moses, & that the Num. 20. Moses Embas­sage to the Idumaeans. mutinie was appeased, he remoued his campe, and with all his forces came to the borders of I­dumaea, where he sent Embassadours to the King thereof, requiring him to grant him and his free passage (and offering him such and so sufficient pledges, as he should esteeme and recken of, to assure him that no violence or iniurie should be offered; assuring him to make payment for whatsoeuer victuall or drinke, eyther he or his army should receiue) But he setting light by their Embassage, denied them passage, and with a well furnished armie marched forth against Moses to withstand him, if contrarie to his will he should attempt to passe thorow his countrey. F And for that God had not counselled Moses to begin the combate, if he were inforced by the e­nemie, he retired backe againe, determining to seeke his passage athwart the desart. At that Mariam Moses sister Num. 19. dieth. The manner of purification. time died his sister Mary, the fortith yeare after their departure out of Aegypt, and the first Moone of the moneth Xantique: she was magnifically entombed at the common charge, on a cer­taine mountaine called Sein: and after the people had mourned for her fortie daies, he puri­fied them after this manner. The Priest taking a young heifer (which had neuer as yet borne yoake [Page 82] nor laboured) in colour wholy red, led him a little apart from the campe, in a most cleane place, G The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1471. and there cut his throat, & with the bloud thereof taken on his finger, he seuen times besprinkled the Tabernacle of God; and after he had consumed in fire the whole heifer, with his skin and en­trailes, he cast a branch of Cedar into the fire with a little Hysope, and red woole, and wholy ga­thered vp the ashes thereof. A man that is cleansed putteth it in a cleane place, and they that are vncleane by meanes of one that is dead, put a little of these ashes into a fountaine with Hy­sope, and after they haue mixed the ashes in the fountaine, they besprinkle themselues three times, and on the seuenth day, and after that are they purified. He likewise ordained that the like purification should be vsed, when a man should take possession of his inheritance.

But after the army (that had so long mourned the dead sister of the generall) were thus pu­rified, he led them thorow the desart into Arabia; and arriuing in a place (which the Arabians H Num. 20. account for their Metropolitane citie, in times past called Arce, and at this present Petra) which is inuironed with a high mountaine; Aaron ascended the said mountaine, & Moses shewed him the place, where he should yeeld vp his soule vnto God; and in the sight of all the army standing on a high place, he put off his stoale, and gaue it to his sonne Eleazar, to whom by eldership the suc­cession appertained: and thus (in the sight of the people) he died in that verie yeare wherein he lost his sister; and in the hundreth, twentie and third yeare of his age: he departed on the newe moone, in the moneth of August (called by the Athenians Hecatombeon, by the Macedonians Ious, and Sabba by the Hebrewes.) The people mourned for him for the space of fortie daies, Ruffinus. ch. 4. Hedio. chap. 5. Num. 21. and then desisted. Moses displaced his campe from thence, and pitched his tents neere vnto a riuer called Arnon (which springeth from the mountaines of Arabia, and runneth along the I desart, and then entreth into the Asphaltique lake, separating the Region of the Moabites from that of the Amorites.) The countrey is fertill and sufficient to yeeld fruit to all the inhabitants in great foison: to Sehon King of this countrey Moses sent Embassadors, requiring passage tho­row his kingdome, vnder such assurance as should best please him, that no wrong should be of­fered, Moses sent Embassadors to Sehon, king of the Amorits. neither to his countrey, nor the inhabitants thereof, assuring him to pay the price of what soeuer his soldiers tooke either in victuals or water. But Sehon refused him, and arming his peo­ple, pitched his tents on the banks of Arnon, being readie to repulse the Hebrewes if they presu­med to passe the riuer.

CHAP. V. K

Moses ouercommeth Sehon and Og, Kings of the Amorites, and distri­buteth their countrey by Lot vnto two Tribes, and a halfe of the Hebrewes

BVt when Moses perceiued that the Amorites were disposed to hostilitie, for which cause supposing that the iniury and contempt was not to be endured, and seeing the Hebrews were an intractable kind of men (and such as either by idlenes or want, might be easily Num. 21. The Hebrewes addresse them­selues to fight against the A­morites. perswaded to renue their former seditions and tumults, and being willing to preuent all these oc­casions) he asked counsell at Gods hands, whether he would permit him to enforce his passage by the sword. Now when God had allowed his purpose, and besides that promised him the vic­torie, L he was greatly confirmed in hope, and animated and encouraged his soldiers, telling them that the time was now come, wherein they might enterprise their long desired warre with Gods fauour, and his approbation and encouragement: who reioycing at this libertie that was gran­ted them, sodainly tooke armes, and in a set battell hasted to charge the enemie. On the other side the Amorite (as soone as he saw them march forward, and begin the onset) forgetting his former fiercenes was both himselfe terrified, and his soldiers likewise (who before the sight of their enemies were as cruel and bloudy as Lions) now waxed as feareful and as meeke as Lambs. So that they scarcely had endured the first assault, but that they fled, reposing the whole hope of their prosperitie in their retreat: they trusted likewise to their walled townes (which notwithstan­ding The Hebrewes ouerthrow the Amorites, and put them to flight. did nought at al auaile them.) For no sooner did the Hebrewes perceiue that their enemies M began to trust their feete and that their rankes were broken, but they more freshly pursued them, and brought them into extreme feare: so that being vtterly put to flight and dispersed vpon the field, they were inforced to flie vnto their Cities. Yet ceased not the Hebrewes to pursue them more fiercely, but began more and more to molest them with those kind of weapons wherein they were exercised before time: for being expert and well trained in the sling and bow, and per­fect in casting the dart, and nimble in bodie (by reason of their light armours) they ran after their [Page 83] enemies, and with their shafts and bowes shot at those which were a farre off, and might not bee The yeare of the world, 2493. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1571. A ouertaken. So that there followed a most huge slaughter, and they that escaped were grie­uously wounded: yet were they more afflicted with thirst then anie other hostilitie (in that it was sommer time) so that all those that went to refresh & coole their thirst at the riuer (besides all those that had turned their backs to flie) were pursued with all kinds of missile weapons and darts, vntill they were all slaine. The king Sehon himselfe also was slaine in this fight. And the Hebrewes spoiled those that were slaine, & caried away great store of pillage. They had likewise Sehon king of the Amorites slaine. great foison and abundance of all kinds of fruits (in that the haruest was not as yet gathered.) Thus passed the Armie through the whole countrey, foraging and spoyling the same without any resist; by reason that the enemie was discomfited, and that all his forces in warre were de­feated. This was the destruction which hapned to the Amorites, who neither vsed their counsel The Hebrewes possesse the land of the A­morites. B prudently, nor managed their warre valiantly. But the Hebrewes occupied their countrey (si­tuate betweene three riuers, after the maner of an Island) For the banks of Arnon do terminate the Southerne coasts thereof, and Iobacchus the Northerne, which flowing into Iordan, leeseth his name: now the Westerne coast is watered by the riuer of Iordan. Amidst this prosperous estate The situation of the land of the Amorites. Og king of Ba­san is slaine with his army. of the Israelites, there arose a new enemy against them, called Og king of Galadine, & of the coun­tries of Gaulanitis, who came as a friend and companion to assist Sehon; who seeing his fortunes and estate so desolate and desperate, yet in hope to obtaine the victorie, determined to make triall both of his owne mens vertue, and his enemies valour: which hope of his failed him, for he both died in the battell, and his whole host was likewise discomfited. But Moses no sooner ouerpassed the floud of Iobacchus, but that entring Ogs kingdom, he ouerthrew one citie after C another, and destroyed all the inhabitants thereof (who for riches and fruitfull pastures exceeded all other men of that countrey.) Og also was a man of a most heroicke and high stature, and nothing inferiour thereunto either in strength or vertue; the argument of whose strength and stature was extant in the sacke of the chiefe citie & pallace of the country of the Ammonites, cal­led Rabatha, where there was an Iron bed found of foure cubits breadth, and nine in length. The fal of this man did not only further the present felicity of the Hebrews, but also became the cause of manie their future and more fortunate successes: for they tooke sixtie well fortified cities which were vnder his gouernement; and what with their priuie praies and publike pillage, they were all enriched. After this Moses remoued his campe towards Iordan, and pitched it in a broad plaine neere vnto the citie of Iericho (which is rich and fruitfull, and aboundeth with palme trees and D balme) And now were the minds of the Israelites in such sort confirmed, as they desired nothing Ruffin. cap. 5. Hedio cap. 6. more then warre and battell; and Moses thinking good to make vse of this their forwardnesse, (hauing sacrificed to God in way of thanksgiuing, and feasted the people) he sent part of them Hierico. armed to destroy the countrey of the Madianites, and to spoyle the cities of that region, the cause of which warre had this originall.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Prophet Balaam.

WHen Balac king of the Moabites (who was both an old friend and confederate with E the Madianites) saw the Israelites increase to such greatnesse, he began to suspect the se­curitie Num. 22. 23. 24 of his owne fortune and estate: for he knew not that God had inhibited the He­brewes to couer to possesse any other countrey but the land of Canaan, and therefore more rashly then prudently he bethought him of new matters; and for that he durst not assaile them in battell, whom he knew to be puffed vp with the successe of manie victories (yet desirous to hinder them from proceeding any further) he sendeth Embassadours to the Madianites to con­sult with them, as concerning their common profit. They knowing that beyond Euphrates there was a famous Deuine called Balaam (who was their especiall friend) sent some of their most ho­nourable princes together with Balacs Embassadours, beseeching him that he would come vnto Balacs king of the Moabites embass. ge to the Madianite. Balacs and the Madianits em­bassage to Ba­laam. them and curse the Israelites. The Prophet entertaining the Embassadours with great humanity, F and feasting them at his owne table, asked counsell of God as touching that which the Madia­nites had required at his hands: but seeing that God forbad him to obey them, he returned vnto them and told them that he wanted not will to gratifie them, but that God withstood him; to whose mercie he ascribed the glorie which he had hitherto gotten by true predictions and pro­phecies: for that armie which they desired should be cursed, was dearly beloued by God. For which cause he gaue them counsell, that seeking out the Israelites, they should make peace with [Page 84] them vnder whatsoeuer conditions: which said, he dismissed the Embassadours. But the Madia­nites The yeare of the world, 2493 be­fore Christs birth 1471. The second Embassage to Balaam. The Angel re­sisteth Balaam. The Asse spea­keth to Balaa. Balaam is re­proued by the Angel. G (being instantly requested by Balac) once more sent their Embassadours vnto Balaam to that purpose; who desirous to satisfy them in their demands, consulted with God. But God (offen­ded with him) commanded him to assent to the Embassadours: and he supposing that God had indeed licensed him therein, departed onward with the Embassadours. But as he trauelled vpon the way, the Angell of God came & met him in a certaine narrow way, betweene two mounds or wals made of stones; which when the Asse perceiued whereon Balaam was mounted, he star­ted out of the way and thrust Balaam, and crushed him against one of the wals; and neither by the strokes which his rider gaue him (being sore grieued by his bruise) nor by any other meanes might he be drawne forward. And when as neither the Angell forsooke the way, neither the Pro­phet gaue ouer tormenting the Asse, at length the beast falling downe by the will of God, spake H to Balaam in a humane and articulate voice; blaming him, for that hauing neuer before that time receiued domage by him, he had so cruelly tormented and beatē him; considering that he vnderstood not that God did prohibit him from the performance of that which he desired. Whilest thus he was troubled with the prodigious speech of the Asse, an Angell appeared vnto him, blaming Balaam, and telling him that the Asse was not in the fault, but that he hindred his iourney, by reason he attempted it against Gods will. Hereat the Prophet terrified, addressed himselfe to returne backe againe: but God commanded him to prosecute that iourney which he had intended, charging him to declare and doe that which hee should aduise and instruct him in.

After that God had giuen him this charge, he went vnto Balac, who entertained him honou­rably, I and caused him to be brought to a certaine mountaine, from whence he might behold the Balaam com­meth to Balac. Hebrewes campe. Balac also himselfe being royally attended, accompanied the Prophet, con­ducting him honourably vnto a certaine mountaine, which ouerhung the Israelites, being three­score furlongs from their campe. Which when he perceiued, he caused the King to build seuen Altars, on which he laid seuen Bulles, and seuen Rams. All which being readily executed by the Balaams pro­phecie of the people of Is­rael. King, he offered a burnt sacrifice, to the end hee might presage and foreprophecie the victorie: which done, he spake after this maner. ‘Happie are you, on whom God bestoweth so large a bles­sing and abundance of riches, and vouchsafeth you his prouidence for your perpetuall guide and assistance. Because there is not any sort of men, before whom in innocencie of maners and study of honestie and vertue, you are not to be preferred: your successours also shall haue a more fa­mous K posteritie, because amongst men God onely fauoureth you, and taketh care that no na­tion vnder the Sunne shall either exceede or equall you in happinesse. You shal likewise possesse that land whereto he hath sent you: and your posteritie shall be perpetuall Lords thereof; and the glorie of your name shall fulfill both the whole earth and sea; and so shall your nation bee multiplied, that there shall be no nation of the world that snall not bee intermixed with your bloud and line. Blessed are you (most worthy armie) and deseruing great admiration, hauing your increase thus multiplied by the meanes of one parent. For the land of Canaan at this pre­sent shall entertaine you, but in little number; but know that hereafter the whole world is destina­ted for your habitation: so that both in the Islands and in the continent you shall liue in so great number, that you shall equall the starres of the firmament. And whereas you are like to growe L so innumerable, yet notwithstanding he shall not suffer you to want the vtmost of plentie and abundance; neither in warre shall he cease to animate and leade you against your enemies. Let your enemies resolue to take armes and to assault you, yet shall there no one returne from them to beare message of the victorie, or to bring glad tidings to their wiues and children. This pru­dence and prowesie is giuen you by Gods prouidence, who onely can and may abase the power of greatnesse, and repaire the weakenesse of obscuritie. Thus spake the Wisard in his propheti­call Balac being displeased re­prehendeth Balaam. spirit, being transported beyond himselfe, and rauished with a supernaturall furie. But Balac was sore incensed against him, exclaiming that he had not kept couenant, although by great re­wards he had been by his Confederate drawne thither to curse them, vrging it against him, that in steed of execrations against them, he had published their pietie and praises. To whom the Pro­phet M made this answer: Thinkest thou (said he) that it lyeth in our power, as often as destinies are Balaams answer. to be discouered, to speak or conceale what we list, at such time, as God speaketh in our mouthes? No, he himselfe vttereth those words which him listeth, and publisheth those oracles by vs, which neither we know, nor euer thought vpon. Verily I sufficiētly remember whereunto I was perswa­ded by the sollicitation of the Madianites, & for that cause came I hither, to execute that which they extorted from my hands; but God is more powerfull then my will, who contrary to the [Page 85] will of God, and for the particular fauour of men, had purposed to speake otherwise: but as soone The yeare of the world, 2493. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1471. A as he entreth into our hearts, there remayneth no more of our selues in our selues. Truly I had de­termined in my self to speak nothing in their praises, neither was it in my mind to reckon vp what God had decreed to bestow vpon that nation, but the fauourable power which befriendeth them, & studieth nothing more then the felicitie & glory of that nation, hath in his prescience put these words into my mouth: now therfore (since it is my desire to gratifie both thee, & the Madianites, whose prayers I ought not but admit) go to let vs erect new Altars, & prepare fresh sacrifice, and make trial if perhaps God wil be moued to grant me licence to curse these kind of men.’Hereunto Balac gaue his consent, yet did not God ratifie those his imprecations made against the Israelites, notwithstanding he had sacrificed twice; so that falling on his face, he declared the occurrences Num. 25. Balaams pro­phecy of things to come. of their kingdomes and commonweales, of most esteeme (of which some one were not as yet B built) and such things likewise as should thereafter happen to those men both by land and sea, euen to our daies: out of all which things (accomplished according to his predictions) we may gather most assuredly that, which of his prophecie is to be fulfilled, will surely take effect. Balac being sore displeased because the Israelites could not be cursed, sent Balaam backe againe without honor: who returning homewards (at such time as he came vnto Euphrates) called Balac Balaams coun­sell against the Hebrewes. and the Princes of the Madianites, & spake thus vnto them. Balac and you Princes of Madian, it be­hooueth me to gratifie you (although it be against the will of God) for which cause giue eare vnto me: All the sorts of death that may be to the vttermost, cannot extinguish the race of the Hebrewes, neyther by warre or pestilence, or famine, or any other chance may they be ruinated: for God hath care to preserue that nation from all euill, so that no slaughter can fall vpon them, C whereby the whole multitude shall be extinguished: yet in the meane while some things may not be auoyded, whereby afflicted for a time; they may presently flourish more then they did be­fore, being by such a chasticement reduced to better health. For which cause if you seeke to ob­taine some short victorie ouer them; by this my counsell you shall bring your wishes to effect.’ Send me the fairest of your daughters, as trimly decked and beautified as is possible, who by their beautie may conquer, and by their loue allure their hearts; let these wander about their campe, and offer themselues to entertaine a familiar embrace, if by the young men they shall be solici­ted thereunto: and as soone as they shall espie them to be surprised with desire, let them sodain­ly breake from them, and when as they shall be required by them to stay, let them not yeeld, ex­cept they will be perswaded to forsake their countrey lawes, and the seruice of God from whom D they receiued them, and honour the gods of the Madianites, and Moabites. For by this meanes shal they incense Gods wrath against themselues. Which when he had certified and admonished them of, he departed. Now whē the Madianites (according as they were counselled) sent out their daughters, the younger sort of the Hebrewes were intangled with the beautie of the damsels, and The daughters of the Madia­nites come to the campe of the Hebrewes. growing in talke with them, they prayed them that they would not enuie them the opportunity to reape the pleasure and enioyment of their beautie, neyther that they would disdaine their in­tercourse: they willingly both admit the words, and the embraces of the young men, and ha­uing well hette them with dalliance, they addressed themselues to leaue them in the heat of their desires. Whereupon they discomforted at the womens departure did instantly intreat them, that they should not in that sort forsake them, but that in hope of future mariage and possession of E their greatest goods, they should remaine and dwell with them. These promises they confirmed with othes, and sealed with teares, calling God to witnesse (the rather to perswade and con­forme them vnto mercy) where upon they (after they perceiued that they were surprised, and be­sorted with their company) answered after this manner. ‘Valiant young men, we want not at home neyther ample faculties, or the affections of our, parents, and domesticall friends; nei­ther edme we hither vnto you for want of these things; neyther admit will your prayers, in that we meane to make sale of our beauties but being perswaded that you are honest men, we haue not disdained to entertaine you with this gracious hospitalitie, in that we see ye had need thereof, and for that cause haue we shewed our selues courteous vnto you: now therefore because you say you loue vs, and that you are sore aggrieued at this our departure, we haue thought good not F to gainsay your intreaties: if therefore you will plight your faith, and promise vs mariage (which thing onely is that which must satisfie vs) we will willingly liue with you as your lawfull wiues; but we feare least when your lusts are satisfied, you should with iniurie and continuely send vs backe againe to our parents: to which suspect of ours it becommeth you (if you so please) to giue a lawfull pardon. But they promised to giue their faith in what manner soeuer, & refused no con­dition (by reason of their extreme loue.) Well then (said the virgins) since that you are so pleased, [Page 86] and that you haue manners so different from others, that you also vse your proper meats ac­cording The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1471. The daughters of Madiā allure the Israelites to idolatrie. G to your peculiar manner, neyther can you endure that your drinke be common with o­ther mens; it behooueth you if you will liue with vs to adore our gods. For by no other ar­gument may you perswade vs that your loue is vnfained, except you honour as we doe the same gods: neither shall you be blamed if you honour the Gods of that countrey into which you are come, considering that our gods are common vnto all nations, whereas your god is adored by none other but your selues. It behooued you therefore (said they) to conforme your selues in opinion with other men, or that you seeke out an other world, wherein you might liue soly accor­ding to your particular policy and religion.’

The Hebrewes blinded with the loue which they bare vnto the virgins, conceiued wel of their The Hebrewes blinded with the loue of the women, reuolt from the lawes of their fathers words, & consented to that which they said, suffering themselues to be seduced according as they H were inuited; so that they transgressed the ordinances of their fathers in following strange gods, to whom they purposed to do sacrifice according to the maner of the countrey. They tooke pleasure also to eat strange kinds of meats which were prohibited them by the law, & addicted themselues to all kinds of pleasure, according as the women perswaded them; so that the whole armie was in­fected with a dissolute disorder (amongst the yonger sort) & a worse mutinie arose therby then the precedent, wherethrough it was to be suspected, least the whole course of law and gouernment should be peruerted. For the youth hauing once had a touch of these forrain & lasciuious fashiōs were vnsatiably transported with the same: and if there were any more excellent then others in nobilitie, they together (with the rest of the multitude) were retchlesly corrupted. Zambrias also of the tribe of Simeon (& one of the Princes among them) marying Chosby the Madianite (daughter I Zambrias and Chosbi. Moses accuseth the Israelites of idolatrie and voluptuousnes vnto Vri a gouernour of that country) at the commandement of his wife, & in contempt of Moses lawes, for her sake did sacrifice after a forrain maner, & contrary to the law disported with his for­raine wife which was a stranger. During this estate of affaires, Moses being afraid least some more grieuous mischiefe should succeed, called the people together, accusing no man in particular, (for that he was vnwilling to draw them into desperatiō, who whilest they thinke they lye hidden, may be reduced to a better mind) but he told them that it was a thing vnworthie & ill beseeming themselues or their elders, that they should set more by their pleasures, then by God and their religion. That it behooued them whilest they had time, to repent themselues, & that they shewed themselues to be valiant men, not by contempt of lawes, but by appeasing their disordinate de­sires. Besides he told them that it was an absurd thing, that whereas in the desart they liued mo­destly, K they should now in a plentifull countrey grow so dissolute and disordinate, as to lose that by affluence, which they had got by temperance. In such like speeches he indeuoured to correct the youth, and to reduce them to a better mind: whereupon Zambrias rising vp, spake after this manner. Moses (saith he) vse thou thine owne lawes (whereunto by long vse thou hast addedZambrias ora­tion against Moses.strength and confirmation) which hadst thou not done, oft times ere this hadst thou suffered pu­nishment, and learnt (to thine owne miserie) that the Hebrewes were not to be deluded: for my selfe thou shalt neuer tye me to thy tyrannical decrees, for hitherto hast thou indeuoured nought else, but vnder pretext of law & religion to bring vs into seruitude and subiection; and thy selfe by thy subtile and sinister meanes, to honour and soueraintie; taking from vs the pleasures and li­bertie of our liues (things that belong to free men, and such as appertaine or liue not vnder any L mans gouernment.) For this should be worse then an Aegyptian thraldome to punish euery man by thy lawes, according to thine owne pleasure; whereas thou thy selfe art more worthie to be pu­nished, in that thou disanullest that thing which is approued by all mens consent: and desirest that thy decrees should be of more force, then all the resolutions of all other mortall men what­soeuer. But I (as touching that which I doe) in that I suppose it to be well done, am not af­fraid to confesse it in this assemblie, namely, that I haue taken a straunger to wife: thou hearest mine actions from mine owne mouth, as from a free and resolute man, neither doe I desire that they should be hidden. I likewise sacrifice to the gods contrarie to our custome, because I suppose it to be both iust and necessarie, that from many I seeke the truth, and (not depending as it were vpon a tyranny, or liuing thereunder) to build my faith vpon one only: for no man shal please me, M that will haue more interest in mine actions then my selfe. Whilest Zambrias alledged this both for himselfe, and other of his faction; the people silently expected the issue of this audacious boldnes, especially for that they saw their lawmaker would not contend any longer, least he should make an insolent man more outragious; for he feared least diuers such in imitation of him growing impudent in their speeches, should stirre vp tumults amongst the people: so that the as­sembly for this time was after this manner dissolued, and perhaps this mischiefe had taken further [Page 87] head, except Zambrias had beene sodainly cut off, by such a meanes as ensueth. Phinees (both The yeare of the world, 2493. be­fore Christs Na­ [...]itie, 1571. A in respect of other things, as also the dignitie of his father, the chiefest among the youths, and the sonne of Eleazar the high Priest, whose great vncle Moses was) was grieuously discontented with Zambrias contumacy, and least by his impunitie the law might grow into contempt, he re­solued to be reuenged vpon the transgressors, being well assured how [...]uch the example of great men preuaileth on both parts: and whereas he was of so much strength of mind and of bodie, as that he would not attempt any thing rashly which he would not bring to issue, he repayred to Zambrias tent, and at one stroke slew both him and Chosbi his wife. By whose example the rest Phinees thru­steth Zambri, and Chosbi thorow at one time. of the youth (being exasperated by this his worthie act) enforced thēselues to do iustice on those that had committed the like offence; so that they slew a great part of them by the sword, and the rest by the pestilence (which was inflicted by Gods iudgement on them) were vtterly rooted out. B Neither spared he those, who though by reason of consanguinity theyought to haue restrained & disswaded their kinsmen from lewdnes, yet had rather either dissemble or kindle their lust in them, then counsaile them; neyther intermitted he from punishing those men till fourteene thousand of them were done to death by sicknes. For which cause Moses (being incensed against the Madia­nites) Otherwise. 240 [...]0. Moses sendeth forces against the Madia­nites. sent out an army to destroy that nation (of which expeditiō we wil presently discourse, after that we haue annexed that which was omitted in this historie.) For reason would that we should not pretermit to praise the deseigne of our law maker in this behalfe. For in regard of Balaam, (sought out by the Madianites vnder the intent to curse the Hebrewes, although he could not do it, being hindred therefro by the prouidence of God, who notwithstanding gaue that counsell to the enemie, by meanes whereof within a little space a great multitude of the Hebrewes were C corrupted in their course of life, and diuers haue been grieuously plagued with sicknes) in regard I say of this Balaam, he hath greatly honoured him in chronicling his predictions in his writings. And although it had beene easie for him to haue depriued him of the glory, and to haue appro­priated it to himselfe, by reason that there was not any witnesse that might contradict him; yet neglected he not to giue testimonie of him, and to make mention of him in his writings: Yet let euerie one thinke of this according as it shall seeme good vnto him. But Moses (as I began to say) sent an army of twelue thousand men against the Madianites, chosing out of euerie tribe one thousand soldiers, and appointed Phinees captaine ouer these forces, by whose industrie (as a little before I haue declared) both the lawes were satisfied, and Zambri (that brake the same) was punished. D

CHAP. VII.

The Hebrewes fight against the Madianites, and ouer­come them.

BVt the Madianites (hauing intelligence that their enemies drew neere vnto them, and that they were not farre o [...]f from their borders) gathered their forces together, and be­set Hedio cap. 9. Ruffinus. ch. 5. all those passages of their countrey, by which they thought their enemie might breake in, addressing themselues to repulse them with force and valour: but no sooner did Phinees with his forces charge them and set vpon them, but that (vpon the first encounter) so great a multi­tude E of the Madianites was slaine, that the number of the carcasses might not be accounted: Fiue kings of the Madianit [...] slaine. Otherwise A­receme or Arcae. neyther were their kings in like sort saued from the sword. These were Og, Sures, Robeas, Vbes & the fift Recemus (from whom the chiefest Citie of the Arabians deriueth his name, and at this day retayneth the same, and is called Receme, which the Graecians had rather call Petra.) The He­brewes hauing thus put their enemies to flight, foraged the whole Region, and caried and droue away with them a great pray; and killing all the inhabitants threof both men & women, they only spared the virgins (for this commaund had Phinees receiued from Moses hand [...]) who returning home with his armie in safetie, brought with him a memorable and mightie pray of Oxen, fiftie A great pray gotten from the Madia­nites. and two thousand, sixtie and seuen: of Asses, sixtie thousand: of golden and siluer vessels a great number (which those of that countrey were wont to vse in their domesticall affaires.) For by F reason of their great riches, they liued verie delicately: there were also led captiue from thence a­bout thirtie thousand virgins. But Moses (diuiding the pray) gaue the fiftith part thereof to Eleazar and the Priests, and to the Leuites another fiftie: as for the remainder he distributed it N [...]. 27. Deut. 3. Moses appoin­teth Iosuah for his successor. amongst the people. Whence i [...] came to passe, that euer afterwards they liued in great security, ha­uing gotten riches by their ver [...]ue, and peace also to enioy the same. Now for that Moses was well [Page 88] stricken in yeares, he appoynted Iesus (who if need were might succeed him in the offices, both G The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1471. of a Prophet and a Prince and gouernour; for God had so commaunded that he should make choyse of him) to be his successor in the principalitie. For he was most expert in all diuine and humane knowledge; being therein instructed by his master Moses. About that time the two tribes of [...]d and Ruben, with the halfe tribe of Manasses (being abundantly stored with cattell, and all other manner of riches) by common consent besought Moses, that he would giue and assigne to them in particular the countrey of the Amorites, which not long since they had conquered by the sword, for that it was full of rich pastures. But he (suspecting least surprised with feare, they did detract and withdraw themselues from the battell of the Chanaanites, and that vnder pretext of the care of their cattell, they couered their sloth) highly taunted and controuled them, saying, that they were fearefull dissemblers: H Num. 32. The tribes of Ruben, G [...]d, and the halfe of Manasses, require the l [...]d of the Amorites. He accused them likewise, that their desire was to possesse that land which was conquered by the common valour of the people, to the end they might lead their liues in idlenes and plea­sure; and that bearing armes with the rest of the host, they would not helpe to possesse the land beyond Iordane which God had promised them, by ouercomming those nations which he commaunded them to account for their enemies. Who perceiuing that hee was dis­pleased (least he should seeme to be deseruedly incensed against them) aunswered, that ney­ther thorow feare they fled daunger, neyther by reason of sloth esteemed labour, but onely shot at this, that leauing their pray in commodious places, they might be more fit to enter conflict: saying, that they were readie (if so be they might receiue Cities for the defence and receit of their wiues, children, and substance) to follow the rest of the armie whither soeuer I they were conducted; and to aduenture their liues with them for the common successe. Whereupon Moses (allowing their forwardnes, and assembling Eleazar the high Priest, and Iesus, with the rest of the Magistrates) granted them the land of the Amorites, with this condition, that (together with the people ioyned vnto them in c [...]nsanguinitie) they should warfare against their common enemie, till all things were accomplished according to their de­sires: and by this meanes hauing receiued that which they demaunded, and building them walled Cities, they left their children, wiues, and substance in the same. Moses also builded ten Cities in that Region (which are to be reckoned in the number of those fortie and eight) Num. 35. Deut. 4. 43. Ios. 20. in three whereof he appointed sanctuaries and places of refuge, which they onely might take benefit of, who fled thither for chaunce-medlie; and he appointed them their tearme of K exile till such time as the high Priest died, vnder whom the manslaughter was committed: at such time they might safely returne into their countrey. And during the time of their exile, it was lawfull for any of the kinne, to take reuenge against the offender by his death, onely at The Cities of refuge. such time as he found him without the Citie of refuge, and that right he onely ratified to those that were akinne, but not vnto others. Now the Cities of refuge were these: in the confines of Arabia Bosora: in the Region of Galadena, Arimanum: in the countrey of Bataneades, Gaula­deaman: And after the conquest of Chanaan so many Cities of the Leuites (by the com­maundement of Moses) were appointed to that end that they might giue refuge and habita­tior to such sort of offenders. At that time when one of the Magistrates called Salpades, of the tribe of Manasses, was dead (and had onely left behind him children of the worser sexe) the L gouernours of the tribe came vnto Moses, and asked his counsell, whether in the distribution Num. 27. 36 The daughters of Salpades haue their in­heritance in their fathers place. of the lands, they should leuie out any part of portion for them: who aunswered them, that if they married within their tribe, they should haue their dowrie; but if they made choyce to handfast themselues in an other tribe, that then they should leese their patrimonie in their owne: and for this cause made he this ordinaunce, to the ende that euerie tribe should continually possesse his proper inheritaunce. But whereas now there remayned but thirtie daies onely, to fulfill the number of those fortie yeares since their departure The historie of Deuteronomy. out of Egypt, he (sommoning an assemblie in that place neere to Iordan, where now the Citie of Abila is scituate, inuironed with a fielde beset with Palme trees) as soone as hee Ruffin, cha. 5. Hedio. chap. 8. Deut. 4. saw the people addressed to heare him, spake vnto them after this manner. M

CHAP. VIII. The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore Christs birth 1471. A

Moses Lawes, and how he was taken out of this world from the compa­nie of men.

MY deare friends and fellow soldiers, companions in my long trauell, since it is so thought requisite by God, and mine age (attayning to the full number of one hundreth and twentie yeares) requireth no lesse, but that I must depart out of this life; and sinceMoses oration vnto the peo­ple before his death.it seemeth not good in Gods sight, that eyther I should be agent; or assistant in your affaires be­yond Iordan: I haue thought it requisite that (in as much as appertayneth to your felicitie) I should not now also faile or default in my dutie towards you; but that according to the grace that is giuē me, I should prouide, that by laying open the way vnto you that leadeth to the same, I may B seeme worthie amongst you to merit eternal glorie & memorie. Giue therfore eare vnto me, that when as I haue first declared vnto you, wherein both your felicitie and the happines of your po­sterity consisteth, and haue left this perpetual testimonie & monument of my intire loue towards you, I may willingly depart out of this life: for well I know that I deserue to be credited by you, both for that before times I haue incessantly (in studying for your profits) neuer deceiued you, as also for that the soule (being readie to be separated from the bodie) becommeth more ac­complished in all vertue and veritie. Ye sonnes of Israel, there is but one onely cause whereby men attaine vnto felicitie, to wit, the fauour of God, which he is onely able to giue to those that deserue it, and to withdraw if from those that offend him: towards whom if you continue dutiful (according as he requireth, and in such manner as I according to his direction, do institute you) C you shall neuer faile to multiply in vertue, and to draw all men into emulation of your happines, and that which is more, those goods which you haue now obtayned shall be perpetuall, and that which you want shall shortly be plentifully bestowed on you. Onely indeuour you your selues to be subiect to Gods will, and obedient to his commandements: and neither propose vnto yourMoses exhor­teth the people to be obedient to Gods will.selues any other lawes then those I haue giuen you, neither thorow contempt innouate any thing in your religion. Which if you shall performe, you shall excell all other nations in warre, and grow inuincible against your enemies: for by Gods assistance all threats are easily contemned. Moreouer there are great rewards (in all the course of life) proposed vnto vertue, and she her selfe to her selfe is a chiefe and especiall reward: besides, by her all other blessings are easily obtayned, which if you intertaine amongst your selues, you shal both lead a blessed life & obtaine immortal D glorie, not onely amongst straungers, but also in all posterities. These things are you to hope v­pon, if neither you your selues violate those lawes which (by Gods commaund, and mine indu­strie)The promise of Gods assistāce.are set downe vnto you, neither suffer any other to violate the same, but in your selues con­tinually meditate vpon the vnderstanding & vse therof. As for my selfe, I depart this life in fulnes of ioy, reioycing at these your good fortunes, & commending you all to the lawes of pietie and prudence, & the vertue of your guides & magistrates, who hereafter are to take care of your safe­ [...]ie and felicitie. God likewise, vnder whose conduct you haue liued (and to whose fauour you owe whatsoeuer profit you haue receiued by me) will not faile to take care of you, but (as longObedience to the Magi­strates.as you shall honour both him and pietie, so long shall you remaine in securitie vnder his protec­tion: neither shall you want such men, who shall giue you ghostly instructions, whose counsels if E you obey, you shal be fortunate (namely Eleazar the high priest, & Iesus, with the Senate and Ma­gistrates of the tribes) towards whom beware that you grow stifnecked, knowing and remem­bring this, that he that is instructed to obey well (when he shall attaine vnto dignitie) will go­uerne well. Neither suppose you that libertie consisteth herein, if you mutine against the com­maundements of your Princes: for hitherto haue you reposed your libertie in your contumacie towards your benefactors; from which sinne if hereafter you shall blesse your selues, you shall see your estate waxe still more flourishing, and fortunate: And God forbid that you should euer be so exasperated against these, as you haue beene sometimes incensed against me. For if you remember your selues, I haue beene more oftentimes in hazard of my life by your meanes, then by the enemie: Which I speake not therefore vnto you to vpb [...]aid you therewith; F for I would not leaue you afflicted with the remembrance hereof, at the houre of my death, (who euen at that time entertained the iniurie with a quiet mind) but to the end that be­ing by mee admonished, you should henceforward bee wiser in those things which hereaf­ter shall concerne you; and least you should grow contumelious against your gouernours, being made proude with the affluence of your riches, which you shall enioy at such time as you haue ouerpassed Iordan, and conquered Chanaan. Otherwise if made more insolent [Page 90] by these blessings you fall into contumacie and contempt of vertue, Gods fauour will ne­uerThe yeare of the world. 2493. before Christes Natiuity. 1471.G bee extended towards you; whom if by your sinnes you shall incense against your selues, you shall both lose the land which you haue conquered by your courage (by be­ing shamefully oppressed by your enemies) and beeing dispersed ouer the face of the whole earth, you shall fill both the land and sea with your seruitude; which if it should come to passe, then were it too late to repent you, that you haue not obserued the lawes of your nation. Wherefore (to the intent to auoid this danger, and for feare you violate the same) suffer not any of your enemies, after your victorie is once gotten, to liue; and think it more conducible for your affaires, for feare least liuing with them, and entangled in the like studies & delights, you corruptThe Israelites are comman­ded to kil their enemies, and destroy their idols.and depraue your countrie lawes and institutions. Moreouer, I command you to destroy their woods, their altars, and temples, as many soeuer as you shall meet with, and so to race them both H with fire and flame, as there may not remaine anie token or memorie of them anie more: For so shall you more safely maintaine your estates. But least through ignorance of better things, your nature be depraued by the worser, by Gods commandement I haue written you lawes, and a forme of administration both of the common weale, and your priuate estates; from which if you shall no wayes diuert or wander, you shall proue the most fortunate people of the earth. When he had spoken these things, he deliuered them a booke, containing in writing their lawes, Moses deliue­reth the I [...]rae­lites a booke wherein their lawes and ma­ner of life was written. and customes of good life: which when they had heard and receiued, they melted in teares, and now lamented they both for the losse of their Captaine, as also for that they remembred them how many perils he had suffered, and how diligently he had procured their safetie and se­curitie: & they grew carefull of the time to come, for that they were not like to recouer so good I a Prince: and they suspected likewise that God would not hereafter be so fauourable vnto them, in that they had not a Moses to pray for them. Besides, they repented them of those things which (through furie) they committed against him in the desart, and were grieuously sorie; so that all the people (breaking out into teares) would admit no consolation. But Moses recomforted them, and prayed them to giue ouer weeping, & encouraged them to receiue their lawes: and so for this time dissolued the assembly. But now before I addresse my self to manifest the rest, I haue thought it meete to insert in this place the lawes of this lawgiuer, worthy both his maiestie and vertue: [...]awes made by Moses. Ru [...]finus. ch. 7. The excuse of the Writer of this Historie why he inno­uated the or­der of the lawes. whereby the Reader may know what our lawes haue beene, euen from the first time, and in­stitution of our common weale. For all those things are extant which this man wrote, for that wee neede not faine or affixe anie thing in way of ornament: we haue onely renewed the order, K and those lawes which he scatteringly set downe according as he receiued them from God, we haue generally digested into their places: whereof I thought good to admonish the Reader, for feare least herafter anie of our Tribes comming to the view hereof, should rashly accuse me, for that I had not scarce faithfully deliuered the writings & institutions of Moses. Now will I rec­kon vp those lawes in especiall, which appertaine to the publike institution and rites of our Na­tion: but those things that concerne priuate customes and contracts, either betwixt our selues or forraine nations, I haue deferred to bee discoursed of in that commentarie, wherein (by Gods assistance) I intend to debate of our maners and method in sacred causes.

After that you haue gotten the land of Canaan, built your cities, and haue begun in secu­ritie Item the Israe­lites shall liue in the land of Canaan. A sacred citie and Temple in Canaan. to reape the fruit thereof; in obseruation of these commandements, you shall gratifie God L highly, and establish your atchieued felicitie. Let there be one sacred citie in the region of Ca­naan, situate in a famous & fertile place, which God shal make choise of for himself, and his Pro­phets: In the same let there be one onely Temple built, and one Altar erected of rough and vn­polished stones, & such as are gathered here and there, which shall be conueniently placed and finished with decencie, as touching the outward ornament: and let not the ascent of the same be made by degrees, but let the earth be easily and fitly raised. But in anie other Citie let there neither be Altar, nor Temple: for God is one, and the Hebrew nation is one. Whosoeuer shall blaspheme God, let him be stoned to death, and hanged for a day, and bee afterwards ignomi­niously Blasphemie against God. and obscurely buried.

Let all the Hebrewes from their seuerall prouinces assemble themselues thrise in the yeare M in the sacred Citie and Temple; that they may giue thankes vnto God for the benefites they Leuit. 4. Deut. 16. Thrise in the yeare the He­brewes ought to meete. haue receiued, and that they may by their prayers demerit his graces in future time; and that by their conuersation and mutuall entertainments, they may increase their beneuolence and loue the one towards the other. For it is behoouefull that they should know one another, who are of the same stocke, and are delighted in the same studies. And this very fitly falleth out by their meetings after this kind of maner, whilest both the countenance and discourse as yet taketh [Page 91] deepe roote in mens minds; as contrariwise, they that neuer meet, it behooueth them to be stran­gers A The yeare of the world, 2493. be­fore Chri [...]s Na­ [...]tie, 1571. Tenths. De [...]. 18. the one vnto the other.

Besides, let the tenth part of the fruits (besides them that are due to the Priests and Leuites) which you are accustomed to sell in your markets (being reduced into readie money) be spent on sacrifices and banquets in the sacred Citie. For it is requisite to celebrate feasts in Gods ho­nour of the fruits of the earth, which we haue receiued from his hands.

Let no sacrifice be made of the hire of an harlot: for neither doth any thing delight God which is annexed with iniurie; neither is there greater vncleannes, then the shamefull and vnlaw­full The hire of a harlot. mixture of our bodies.

Likewise, if any man take reward for couering a bitch (whether she be for the chase, or for the flocke) it is not lawfull to make sacrifice vnto God thereof. Let no man speake ill of those B gods which other countries and Cities suppose to be gods. Let no man spoile any straunge Other gods. Deut. 22. Linnen and woollen. Deut. 11. The booke of the law is to be read on the fea [...]t of the Ta­bernacles. Temple, nor take that which is dedicated to any god. Let no man weare a garment wouen of linnen and woollen, for it belongeth onely to the Priests.

Euerie seuenth yeare, when the people shall be assembled together in the sacred Citie to sa­crifice vpon the feast of Tabernacles, at such time as the feast approcheth, the high Priest from a high pulpit (from whence he may be heard by the whole multitude) shall read the law vnto all of them: so that neither women nor children shall be exempted from the hearing of the same, no not the verie slaues and bondmen. For it is requisite that they retaine the perpetuall memory thereof alwaies imprinted in their minds: for so shall they sinne the lesse, in that they vnderstand what is decreed in the law. The lawes likewise shall be of more force in the consciences of those C that shall offend, whilest they infixe in the minds of those that heare them, their doctrines inter­mingled with menaces: so that the wil to performe the law shal neuer be inwardly extinguished; & besides that the remembrance wil liue in thē, how many plagues they incur by contempt therof. Let children in especiall learne the lawes, then which discipline there is not any more honest, nei­ther Children shall learne the law. Deut. 6. more conducible vnto felicitie. Twice in the day, in the morning, & in the euening about bed time, let God be honoured for his benefit of our deliuerance out of Egypt. For it is a thing in [...]ture reasonable, to giue thanks vnto God as well in acknowledgement of the goods which we haue before time receiued, as in expectation of his future mercies. The chiefe of these also are to be written ouer our doores, and worne on our armes: and those things which declare his Th [...] signes of the law. power and beneficence, are to be borne about written on the head and armes, that euerie way D Gods bountie may be seene towards his people. In euerie Citie or township let there be seuen gouernours, such as are approued in vertue and famous for their iustice: let each one of these ma­gistrats The seuen P [...]dents. Honour to the Magistrate. haue two ministers of the tribe of Leui. Let those that are appointed Iudges in the Ci­ties be held in high reputation: so that in their presence no man presume either to vrge contume­lies, or iniurious speeches: for so shall it come to passe that men accustomed to doe reuerence, shall also exercise themselues in pietie, and grow so much the farther from contempt of God and his power. Whatsoeuer seemeth good to the Iudges to decree, let that be held inuiolable; except it be apparant that they be corrupted with money, or that they may be manifestly conuicted of a wrongfull iudgement. They ought likewise to iudge without respect of lucre or dignitie, and pre­ferre iustice before all other things: for this iniurie sorteth out to Gods contumelie, as if it were E to be supposed, that he is to be suspected to be weaker then they, for whose sake they wrest the The office of Iudges. law contrarie to equitie: for Gods power is iustice; he therefore that giueth iudgement in fauour and partialitie of great men, he maketh them greater then God himselfe. And if the Iudges can­not Iustice is Gods power. determine of the matter in question (as it oftentimes falleth out) let them referre the cause to the sacred Citie, and then shall the high Priest and the Prophet, with the assistance of the Se­nate, determine that which shall be conuenient.

The testimonie of one witnesse shall not be receiued, but of three, or at leastwise of two, whose testimonie shall be made good by the examination of their behauiour and life. As for women, it Deut. 19. is not lawfull for them to beare any witnesse; by reason of the leuitie and temeritie of that sexe. Neither is it lawfull for a man seruant to bring in testimonie, by reason of his degenerate and ig­noble F The punish­ment of a falle witnesse. Deut. 21. mind: for it is to be suspected, that either for lucre sake, or for feare, he will depose an vn­true testimonie. And if any false witnesse shall fortune to be beleeued, and he afterwards be con­uicted of periurie, let him be subiect to that penaltie, which he should haue endured that should haue beene cast by his false accusation. If manslaughter be committed in any place, and the of­fender may not be found out, neither there appeare any likelihood, that the man is slaine of ma­lice, Of homicide committed. let there be a diligent and carefull inquisition made (with rewards prefixed to the disco­uerer) [Page 92] but if no probabilities or coniectures may be gathered, then let the magistrates of the G The yeare of the world, 2493. be­fore Christs birth 1471. next Cities (that adioyne the place where the slaughter is committed) and the ancients of the same, assemble together, and measure from the place where the dead bodie lieth: and let the township that is found to be neerest, and the inhabitants thereof, buy a Heifer which they shall bring into a place vnlaboured and vnplanted, where they shall (after they haue cut the nerues of the necke) kill it, and the Priests, the Leuites and ancients of the Citie shall wash their hands in the bloud: then shall they lift vp their hands ouer the head of the said Heifer, and crie out with a loud voice, that they haue their hands cleane frō that homicide, the which they haue not done, neither were they present at such time as it was perpetrated; and they shall call vpon the mercie of God, beseeching him not to permit that any such grieuous accident euer fall out in their countrey. H

The gouernment of the Peeres is the best kind of regiment of all other sorts of gouernment, take you therefore heed that you desire no other forme of pollicy, but retaine and continue the Aristocracie the best kind of gouernment. Deus. 17 same, hauing no other superiours but the lawes; and managing your affaires by your selues. For it sufficeth you that God is your Prince.

Yet notwithstanding if you shall grow in desire to haue a King, see that you elect one of your owne nation, that he in all things be studious to procure iustice and all other vertues, perswading Of the election of a king. himselfe that God and the lawes are most vpright: Let him not vndertake any thing without the aduice of the high Priest, and the counsell of the elders. Let him not haue diuers wiues, ney­ther let him hunt after huge treasures, nor multitudes of horse: for feare least possessing them, he become so insolent, as that he raise his power and will aboue the lawes: and if you see him affe­ctioned I vnto these things, beware least he grow more puissant then is expedient for you.

It is not lawfull for any man to remoue the land markes, neither of his owne land, or any o­ther mans whatsoeuer; for by this meanes is the peace conserued: Let each one therefore for­beare Deus 19. The bounds of lands are not to be remoued to remooue them, because they are as the voyce of God, assured for euer. For warres and soldiers are raised thereby, when such as would augment their inheritance, striue alwaies to en­large the bounds of their dominion: And they that are so hardie to remooue the same, are not farre from contempt of the lawes.

He that shall plant a peece of ground, and the trees begin to fructifie before the fourth yeare, the first fruits thereof shall not be offerd vnto God, neither shall any man eate thereof, by reason Leui [...]. 25. The plants that are not of foure yeares grouth are prohibited. that the time is inconuenient, and permitteth not that the trees should fructifie as yet; and nature K her selfe is as it were inforced before her time, whereby the fruite is neither conuenable for God, nor conuenient for the vse of man. But all that fruit that shall grow in the fourth yeare (for then is the time that the trees should beare) shall be gathered and brought into the holy Citie (toge­ther with the tenth of all other fruits) and they shalbe eaten during the feast which the Lord ther­of maketh to his friends, and with Orphanes and Widowes: But in the fift yeare it shall be law­full for him to gather the fruit for himselfe.

Sow not a field that is planted with vines, for it sufficeth that it nourisheth one sort of plants: so that it needeth not to be laboured and manured with the plough. The land is to be plowed Vines to [...] planted. The law of the plough. with Oxen: neither are any other sorts of beasts to be yoaked with them, but the tillage must al­waies be performed by beasts of the same kind. L

The seeds also ought to be cleane and without any mixture; so that two or three sorts ought not to be sowed together: for nature alloweth not a commixtion of things that are different.

It is not lawfull also to couer the female with a male of an other kind: for it is to be feared that this filthines should draw men to forget themselues; and grow in contempt of that sexe which is appropriate vnto them: for it often falleth out, that from small beginnings things waxe worser and worser. For nothing ought to be admitted, by the imitation whereof, there might chance to grow any maime in policie: for which cause the lawes dissemble not (no not the lightest) things, to the end they may no way seeme to be deficient in their nature.

They that mow and reape corne, ought not to gleane, but to leaue some eares for those that are in necessitie, to the end to succour them. They likewise that plant vines, ought to leaue some M clusters for the poore, and some fruit on the Oliue trees, to the intent that they that haue none of these, may gather some little thing for their reliefe: for the owners of the field shall not reape so much profit by the sparing inning of their corne, as may be compared with the good and pro­fit Som gleanings are to be left for the poore in the field. which the poore shall reape by their gleaning: for God will bring to passe that their land (who regard not their particular profit, but shall haue care of the nourishment of those that are in ne­cessitie, shal be farre more fat and fertile to bring forth and nourish her fruit.

[Page 93] Neither is the mouth of the Oxe to be mouzled, at such time as he treadeth the corne in the The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1571. De [...]. 25. Oxen [...]eading or g [...]inding. Trauelle [...]s a [...]e not to be d [...] ­uen away from ripe fruits. A mowe: for it standeth not with reason, that they who haue beene partakers of the labour, and haue trauelled for the increase of the fruites, should bee bridled from the vse and benefite thereof.

Neither ought the trauailer also in his iourney to be denied to gather and taste the fruits of Autumne; but he is to be permitted to take his fill, as if they were his owne, whether hee be of the countrey or a stranger, who shall depart ioyfully, in that they haue beene made partakers of such fruite; but it is not lawfull for them to carie anie away with them.

They likewise that gather grapes, ought not to forbid any man to taste of them as they beare them to the presse: for it is an vniust thing, that the goods which are giuen by the will of God for the sustenance of man, should be denied them that desire to taste the fruit which God B giueth in due season, and must sodainly passe away.

They likewise are to be inuited, that through shame make nice to touch the same, yea and to be intreated to take part (if they be Israelites) for such are companions and maisters, in that they are of the same race; and if they trauell into anie place they ought to be intreated to take part of those benefites which God presented vnto them according to the season. For it is not to be sup­posed, that that is ill imployed, which in way of curtesie a man permitteth another man to take, since it is God that furnisheth and giueth the abundance and fo [...]son of all things, not to the end to enioy them in priuate, but also to bestow them willingly; and he it is that by this means would declare vnto other people, the good will he beareth to the people of Israel, and the felicitie whereof he maketh them partakers, by reason that in that abundance which they haue, his will is C that other men should haue part thereof. But whosoeuer shall do the contrarie, let him be chasti­sed Thirtie nin [...] stripes. for this his dishonestie, and in publike receiue thirtie nine stripes (if he be a free man) for that making himselfe a slaue vnto his gaine, he hath dishonoured his excellent qualitie.

It shall verie well become you (said Moses) since you haue tasted miseries both in Egypt and the desart; that you haue care of those who are in like estate; and for that you are made rich by Gods mercie and prouidence, it behooueth and becommeth you to impart somewhat to the in­digent, who at the present are in that estate in which you were.

Besides the two tenthes which I commaunded you yearely to pay (the one to the Leuites, and The tenth for the poo [...]e. The first fruits Deu [...]. 26. the other for your festiuals) you shal for euery yeare annexe a third, to be distributed amongst the poore, to women, widowes and orphanes. D

Incontinently after a man hath gathered his first fruits, he shall bring them to the Temple; & after he hath giuen thanks vnto God (for that the land which he hath giuen him in possessiō hath brought forth fruit) and as soone as he hath accomplished that sacrifice (which the law com­mandeth him to make) he shall giue the first portion to the Priests. And after he hath done all that which concerneth him to do (as well the tenths vnto the Leuites, as also those other things which were ordained for the feasts, and first fruits) being readie to returne vnto his home, let him stand vpright neere vnto the Temple, and aboue all things, giue thanks vnto God, that hauing deliuered them from the grieuous seruitude of Egypt, he hath giuen them a plentifull and am­ple land to enioy: and making protestation that he hath paid the tenths according to Moses law, let him beseech God that he will be fauourable both to himselfe in priuate, and the Hebrewes in E publique; and that he will continue those goods vnto him which hitherto he hath bestowed vpon him, and of his great goodnesse and mercie vouchsafe to encrease them.

Let those that are of full yeares to be married, match themselues with vertuous virgins, and Of marriage. such as are borne of honest parents. And he that will not take a virgin to wife, let him not abuse himselfe with one that is married to another man, least he breed discontent and sorrow in her first husband. Let not free men match themselues with such as are seruants, no not although they be Free men ought not to marry seruāts. thereunto moued by loue. For it is a thing worthie and besitting honour, to surmount a mans af­fections. Let no man meddle with an Harlot (whose sacrifice God refuseth, by reason of the fil­thinesse The marriage of an harlot. of her bodie.) For the children shall be of a free heart, and addressed in vertue, not if they be engendred in villanous and vnlawfull concupiscence; but if they be begotten and borne F by a free father and mother. If anie one that is married for a virgin, bee afterwards found to the contrarie, let her be brought before the Iudge, and let him produce all the signes that hee can, The penaltie of a woman married for a virgin, and not found so. and let the new married wiues cause be defended by her father, or brother, or by them who next vnto them shall seeme to be her next in bloud; and if the Damosell be found to haue commit­ted no crime, let her returne & dwell with him that hath accused her, who cannot any more refuse her, except she giue him great occasions, whereunto she cannot contradict. But hee that Deu [...]. 24. [Page 94] without cause and rashly shall accuse and slaunder his wife, he shall be punished with thirtie nine G The yeare of the world. 2493. before Christes Natiuity. 1471. stripes; and in way of amends shall pay fiftie sicles to her father. But if it be proued that she hath beene defloured; and hath beene common, then shall she be stoned to death, for that she hath not chastlie conserued her virginitie, till the time of her lawfull marriage; and if she be of the race of the Priests, she shall be burned aliue.

If any man haue two wiues, the one of which he holdeth in great honour and amitie, either for loue, or by reason of her beautie; and that the other be not in the like condition and estimate; Deut 21. The first be­gotten should hold his right. if the sonne of her that is better beloued, demaundeth to haue the prerogatiue of the elder, which is two portions of that which commeth to all the rest by his fathers patrimonie (for so much import our ordinances) and challengeth the same by reason that his father more dearely loueth his mother then the other, let it not be granted him. For it is an act against iustice, H that the eldest should be depriued of that which appertaineth vnto him, because his mothers condition is inferiour to that of the others, by reason of his fathers affection.

Whosoeuer shall violate a maiden being betrothed to another man (if by perswasion she hath consented to lie with him) let her die with him. For they are both of them equally guiltie The punish­ment of adul­terie, or rather rauishing, Deut. 22. of sinne: the man, because he hath perswaded the maiden to suffer an insufferable dishonour, and to preferre her lust before an honest mariage: and the maid, for suffering her selfe to be ouer­come, and abandoning her bodie to villany either for lust or lucres sake: But if meeting her alone he inforce her, and she haue none to succour her hard by, let him die alone.

He that shall defloure the virgin that is vnmarried, he shall take her to wife: but if he con­descend not to the father to entertaine her in wedlocke, he shall pay fiftie sicles for amends of I The deflou­ring of a virgin the iniurie.

If any man pretend to separate himselfe from his wife for certaine causes, such as ordinari­ly happen amongst married couples: let him confirme it in writing, that he will neuer more entertaine her againe, and so may she marrie againe vnto another, and refuse the former husband: And if it hapned that she were euill intreated by the second, or that he being dead, the first would take her againe in marriage, it is not lawfull for the wife to returne vnto him.

If the brother of him that is deceased without issue, take to wife her whom his deceased brother had married; and that the sonne which was borne by this second wedlocke, beareth his name: let Leuit. 25. The wife of the dead brother married. him be brought vp as the successor of his inheritāce (which thing is granted for publike profit sake K to the end that families should not come to ruine, and that the goods should remaine to those of the same kinred.) Furthermore it is allowed for the comfort of afflicted women, that they may be ioyned in marriage with the next akin of their first husbands: but if the brother will not take her to wife, she shall repaire vnto the Senate and make this protestation, that the brother of her de­ceased husband will not intertaine her (although she had desired to remaine in that line, and bring forth infants vnto him) protesting that by him onely the memorie of her deceased hus­band was dishonoured. And when the Senate shall haue examined the cause why he estrangeth himselfe from this marriage, his excuse shall be allowed of how great or sleight consequence so­euer it be; and then shall the widow vnloose his shoe, and spit in his face, and tell him that he hath deseruedly suffered these things, in that he hath iniured the memorie of his dead brother: and L thus shall he depart out of the court, being defamed for his whole life time, and the woman may marry whomsoeuer she list.

If any man take a virgin prisoner, or such a one as hath beene alreadie married, and bee desi­rous to take her to his wife, it is not lawfull for him to touch or approch her before such time as Marriage with a bondman. Deut. 21. she hath beene shauen, and (hauing put on her mourning apparrell) hath bewailed her parents, or friends slaine in battell: but after she hath in this sort asswaged her sorrow, she may afterwards addict her selfe to mirth and marriage. For it is a matter both honest and iust, that he that enter­taineth her to haue issue by her, should condescend vnto her wil in all that wherein he might gra­tifie her, and that he should not onely addict himselfe to the pursuit of his pleasure: when as then The lamenta­tion & mour ning of thirtie daies. the thirtie daies of mourning shall be expired (for that time is sufficient for the wife to bewaile M her friends in) then may she harken after marriage: and if after he hath had his pleasure with her, it fortune that he mislike her, and will not accept her for his wife, he can no more make her his slaue, but she may goe whither soeuer she pleaseth, for that she beareth with her, her liberite.

All those young men that shall make no reckoning of their fathers and mothers, and that shall not doe them that honour which belongeth vnto them (whether the same proceed of shame, or Deut. 21. Disobedience. [...]. spring from folly, by which meanes they grow to neglect their dutie) these first of all shall be [Page 95] admonished by discreete counsel of their parents (who are by nature appointed sufficient iudges The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1571. A in that behalfe) who shall signifie vnto them, that they were matched together in matrimonie, not for their pleasures sake, neither that by vniting their possessions, they might become the more richer; but to the end they might beget children, who might nourish them in their age, and mi­nister vnto them in their necessities. That they had receiued them at Gods hands with great thanksgiuing and infinite ioy, and brought them vp with great care and diligence, sparing no­thing that might appertaine to their sustenance or instruction. Now therfore (shall they say, surely the follies of youth are to be pardoned) let this suffice you that hitherto you haue forgotten your duetie: for which cause, remember your selfe, and grow wise: thinking with your selfe that God is grieuously offended against those who disobey or disdaine their parents, by reason that he him­selfe is the father of all mankind, who seemeth to be preiudiced in himselfe, in that dishonour B which is done vnto those that beare his name, at such time as they receiue not such dutie from their childrens hands, as he commaundeth. The law likewise inflicted an meuitable punishment against such, which thou oughtest with all prouidence to preuent and not incurre. If by these me­dicines the vnbridled irregard of youth may be healed, let no man either impute or reproch him in his submission: for in so doing, the law-maker shall be accounted mercifull, and the pa­rents shall be held to be happie, when as they see that their sonne or daughter is exempt from punishment. But if such speeches and instructions of the father are set light by the sonne, let the lawes be irreconciliable enemies against such continuall outrages committed by the children a­gainst their parents, and let them drag them out of the Citie in the sight and presence of all the people, and there let him be stoned to death: and after the offender hath lien there a whole day in C the sight of the people, let him be interred and buried by night. In like manner ought they to be buried, who for any occasion whatsoeuer are condemned and executed by iustice.

Let the enemie also be enterred after the same manner, and let no dead man lye vnburied after such time as he hath beene iudged, and hath satisfied the lawes. Enemies to be buried. Deut. 23.

It is not lawfull for any Hebrewe to lend vpon vsurie, whether it be meat or drinke: for it is an vniust thing to make profit of the forumes of the tribes; but it is better to succour their necessi­ties; and impute their thanksgiuing and Gods retribution, to be a gaine vnto them, which are wont to follow such kind of benefits. But they that haue borrowed either money or any fruit, either drie or moist; when as by the fauour and assistance of God, they shall reape their owne That which is borrowed must be paid. Deut. 24. A pledge. haruest and gather their fruit, let them make a willing restitution to those that haue lent them, D as if they laid them vp for themselues, to possesse them at such time as they had need of them. But if there be any so impudent as they will not make satisfaction, let no man enter into their houses to take a pawne, before the iudges haue giuen order that the pledge should be demanded before their doore; and the debter without contradiction shall bring it vnto him, being assi­sted by the maiestie of the law. If he of whom the pledge is taken haue sufficient abilitie, the cre­ditor may retaine the gage, till such time as he be paid: but if he be poore, he shall restore him his pawne before the sunne set; and especially if it be any garment whereon he is accustomed to sleepe: for God doth naturally bestow his mercy on those that are poore. It is not lawful to re­ceiue in way of gage either a mill, or ought else that belongeth thereunto; least any debter should be depriued of the necessarie instruments to prouide his victuals with, and he should endure any E euill thorow pouertie. Let him that committeth any theft be punished with death, but he that hath stolne either gold or siluer, let him restore it twofold. If any man kill such as breake into Theft. their houses to rob them, or they that breake their walles, let not such a one be punished. Who so shall steale a beast shall restore foure for it, except it be an Oxe, for which one shall satisfie fiue­folde and if the thiefe want meanes to pay this penaltie, let him be their slaue against whom they haue trespassed, and at whose suit they are condemned. If any one be sold vnto one of his owne tribe, let him serue him seuen yeares, and at the seuen yeares end, he shall depart with libertie: An Hebrew slaue is to be set at liberty after seuen yeares. but if during the time that he remaineth with the buyer, he beget any child vpon a female fellow slaue, and that he be willing to serue by reason of the good affection and great amitie that he beareth vnto the house, in the yeare of lubile (which happeneth euerie fiftith yeare) let him be set F at liberty, leading away with him his children, & wife, with their freedom. If any man find money or gold by the way, let him seeke out him that hath lost it, and make knowne the place where he Goods that are sound. found it, to the intent he may restore it, knowing that the profit is not good, which commeth and accrueth by an other mans iniurie. The like is to be done with beasts, for if any man find them straied in the desart, if he find not out the owner, let him presently keepe it by him, taking God to witnesse that he will not detaine with him an other mans goods. If any man find an other [Page 96] mans beasts bemired or bebogd, let him not passe further, but succour them: or if he find them G The yeare of the world. 2493. before Christes Natiuity. 1471. trauailed with foule weather, let him indeuour himselfe to saue the same, and helpe him that is the owner, not sparing or making nice of any labour.

Let each man direct the ignorant trauailer in his way, and set him in the right path if he wan­der, without deluding him, or hindering him in his necessities, or misleading him in his iourney. Let no man speake ill of him that is either absent or deafe. If any man be stroken in a quarrell, and it be not with a weapon, let him that stroke him be presently punished in receiuing the like Deut. 22 The law of violence. outrage, as he hath offered him. But if he be caried into his house, and lie sicke vpon it diuers daies, and in the end die thereof, he shall be exempt of the penaltie. But if he escapeth, and du­ring the time of his sicknes hath beene greatly hindred and charged; then let him that stroke him pay all the charges he hath beene at during the time he kept his bed, and satisfie the Phisiti­ons. H He that with his foot shall strike a woman with child, if the woman miscarry, he shall be by the Iudges amerced in a summe of money: for that he hath lesned the number of the people by the losse of him that is dead in his mothers wombe. Let him likewise be condemned to pay a summe of money vnto the husband. But if the woman die of the stroke, he that offered the vio­lence must die the death also, by reason that the law iustly ordaineth, that life should be satisfied with life.

Let not any one among the Israelites vse any mortall poyson, nor any drugge that may do hurt vnto any man: and if any man be found with such things about him, let him die, dying that death Poyson. which he determined they should suffer, for whō he had prepared the poyson. Who so hath mai­med any man, or puld out his eye, let him in like manner be maimed and blinded, being depri­ued Talions law. I of the same member of his bodie whereof he hath depriued another man; except he that is maimed had rather haue a pecuniarie amends, by reason that the law remitteth it to the election of the offender to estimate his iniurie, and if he will be more seuere he may. If any one haue an Oxe that striketh with his horne, let him kill him: and if the same Oxe striketh and killeth any Of an Oxe stri­king with his horne. man in the field, or mow, let him be stoned to death, and let no man eate the flesh thereof. And if it be approued that the master which oweth the same hath heretofore knowne the qualitie of the beast, and hath not taken order he should do no harme, let him also he put to death, as being the author of the murther committed by the Oxe. But if the said Oxe kill a slaue, either male or female, he shall be stoned; and the owner thereof shall pay thirtie fieles to the master of the slaue that is slaine. If one Oxe be strooken by another, so as he die thereof, let both of them (both K that which is dead, and that which stroke the other to death) be sold, and the price thereof shall be departed equally betwixt both their owners. They that dig a pit or cesteme, must be carefull that they inclose and fence it in with planks or bars, not to hinder any man from drawing water, Deut. 21. A pit. but least any man by misfortune should fall into the same. And if any mans beast shall fall into the same (and it vndefenced) the owner of the pit must pay to the owner of the beast the price thereof: and euer after let it be conered as it were with a wall; for feare least any thereafter fall into the same. Let him that receiueth any thing in trust keepe it carefully, as a thing sacred and Deut. 24. diuine; and let neither man nor woman attempt to alien that which is committed to his custody, although thereby he might gaine an infinite sum of gold; and although there were not any man that could conuince him therof. For since that generally the conscience knoweth the same, euery L one ought to indeuour himselfe to deale vprightly; & supposing himselfe to be a sufficient witnes against himselfe, let him do those things which are laudable in the sight of men, but in especiall that which is pleasing to God; from whose sight no wrongfull dealing is concealed: if notwith­standing he to whom this trust is committed (without any fraud on his part) shall chance to lose the thing that is so left in trust; let him present himself before seuen Iudges, and there take an oth that nothing is lost by his wil or witting; & that he hath not conuerted any part dierof to his own vse, whereupon let him be dismissed without any further enquirie. But if he haue made vse of the least part of that which hath beene committed to his charge & trust, and that he happen to lose it, In the same place. he shall be condemned to restore all that which was committed to his keeping. As it hath beene ordained in respect of matters in trust, the like is decreed as touching hire which is due vnto the M labourer; and let each man take heed least he defraud a poore man of his hire, knowing that Hire. God gaue him his hands in stead of lands and other possessions. For which cause the paiment of hire ought not to be deferred, but satisfied the same day, by reason that God permitteth not that the labourer should lose the fruit of his trauell. The children shall not be punished for the mis­deeds Children are not to be pu­nished for their parents offences. of their parents, but if they be vertuous and are begotten by lewde fathers, they rather merit that men should haue compassion of them, then that they should hate them: neither are [Page 97] the offences of the children to be imputed to the parents, by reason that youth oftentimes enga­geth A The yeare of the world, 2493. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1471. Eunuches. it selfe in those follies, which he neither learned by examples, nor for which he endureth not to be reproued. Eunuches are to be detested, and their companies to be fled, because they depriue themselues of manhood, and the gift of begetting children, which God hath giuen vn­to men for the increase of mankind. Such people therefore are to be driuen farre from vs, and esteemed wholie inexcusable, who kill their children before they be borne. For it is a matter ve­rie manifest, that their spirits being effeminate, their bodies also are degenerate. Each thing also that is monstrous to behold, is to be driuen away: neither is it lawfull to geld either men or beasts. Let this be the disposition of those lawes, wherewith you shall be pollicied and gouerned in time of peace, and God be fauourable vnto you, and giue you grace to vse them in good or­der, and without confusion. And since it cannot otherwise be but that humane affaires must som­times B fall into troubles and daungers, somewhiles beyond desire and expectation, and other­whiles of set purpose: I will briefely set you downe certaine lawes as touching that point, to the intent that being fore instructed of that which you ought to do, you may haue aboundance of holsome remedies, and being well prouided and instructed in that which you ought to do, you may preuent and not fall into any daunger and calamitie.

God grant that you may inioy the countrey (which he hath giuen you) in contempt of tra­uels, and in exercise of vertues: and that you may possesse the same in securitie and peace, and that strangers may not leuie armies to ouerthrow you, and that no ciuill mutinie may be raised amongst you, which may bring to passe that that, which hath been well ordered and decreed by your auncestors, doe come to nought, when you shall happen to commit the contrarie. Liue C therefore, and persist you to conforme your selues to those lawes, which both God hath appro­ued for good, and hath also giuen you. But if perhaps your selues at this present, or your succes­sours hereafter, shall fortune to entertaine and vndertake a warre, God grant it may happen with­out The lawes of warre. Deut., 20. Heraulds to be sent. the confines of your countrey: But if the matter must needs be tried out by the sword, you shall send certaine heraulds to your destinated enemies. For before you enter battell, it shall be requisite first of all to parlee with them, and to declare vnto them that you haue a great army, and horses, and weapons, and (besides all these) that you haue Gods fauour and assistance: who shall require them therefore that you may not be inforced to warre against them, nor to make bootie of their goods, and to carrie them away in spight of their resist. If they condescend vnto any reasonable conditions, then entertaine peace; making your accompt that they are stron­ger D then you be: but if they will needs offer you iniurie, you shall lead foorth your army against them, hauing God for your Generall and soueraigne conductor; and for his Lieutenant, him whom you your selues haue chosen; surpassing all the rest in valour. For whereas there are di­uers commanders, it falleth out that that which ought necessarily and readily to be executed, is hindered; and commonly the issue is vnfortunate, where there are diuers commanders. Let your army be generally leuied of men that are strong in body, and hardie in courage, and sequester from your armie him that is fearefull, least such men hapning to flie when they ought to fight, do giue your enemies the aduantage. Let them also be free from warre, who hauing built them a new house, haue not enioyed the same for a yeares space; as also he, that hath planted a vineyard and hath not gathered the fruit thereof; and besides these, he that hath wedded a wife, and hath E not as yet brought her home to his house: least being transported with the desire of these things, and reseruing themselues to their forsaken pleasures, in the behalfe of their wiues, they fight but faintly and coldly.

But when you haue brought your army into the field, take heed you commit no outrage: and when you shall assault any Cities, if you fortune to haue any need of matter to make engins of; grub not the land, neither see you cut downe the fruitfull trees, but spare them, remembring you Fruitfull trees are not to be cut downe. that they are planted for the good of men, and that if they could speake they would accuse you, alledging that without cause of warre they are ill intreated against all right: and that if they had the power to depart from thence, they would dislodge and remoue into another countrey.

But when the battell is ended, and the day is yours, kill all those enemies that resisted you in F the skirmish, the rest reserue as your tributaries (except the people of the land of Chanaan, for The Chanaa­nites are who­ly to be extin­guished. Deut 30. 31. 32 33. 34. Moses song and blessing. they with all their families are to be ruinated.) Beware also (but especially in warre) that nei­ther a woman vse a mans apparrell, neither a man a womans raiment. These are the lawes which Moses left. He gaue them likewise certaine institutions (which he had written fortie yeares before that time) whereof we will speake in an other treatise. Some few daies after (for he assembled the people sixe daies one after the other) he gaue them his blessing, and pronounced his maledictions [Page 98] against those which should not liue according to his lawes, but should transgresse the determi­nations The yeare of the world, 2493 be­fore Christs birth 1471. G thereof: He red also vnto them a Poeme of sixe measures (which he had enregistred in the holy booke) contayning a prediction of things to come, according to which all things haue and doe fall out, without varying any waies from the truth and veritie. These volumes and the Arke, gaue he vnto the Priests; in which he also placed the ten commaundements written in the two tables. He committed also vnto them the custodie of the Tabernacle. He likewise ex­horted the people that (at such time as by force they had conquered the promised countrey, and were planted therein) they should not forget the iniurie which the Amalechites had done vnto them, but that they should lead forth their army against them, and take vengeance of the wrongs The Amale­chites to be punished. they had done them, at such time, as they were in the desart. And commaunded them that as soone as they had taken the countrey of Chanaan, they should exterminate and extinguish all H the people.

He willed them also to erect an Altar toward the rising of the sunne (not farre from the citie of Sichem, betweene two mountaines, the one Garizim, on the right hand; and the other called Gebal, on the left) and that distributing the people into two parts (sixe tribes in euery part) they should plant them on the mountaines. And he commaunded that the Leuites and Priests should be with them, to the intent that they first of all that were vpon the mountaine of Garizim, should beseech God that he would multiply his blessings vpon them that should be zealous of his ser­uice, and carefull of the conseruation of his lawes, without diuerting from that which Moses had commaunded. The sixe other also were appointed to answere the like: and when as likewise these six last had praied the sixe first were to answere them, and confirme that which they had pronoun­ced. I This done, they pronounced maledictions against the transgressors (each one answering other) in ratification of that which had beene spoken. He reduced also vnder writing these bles­sings and curses, to the intent that the memorie thereof might neuer be suppressed or extin­guished by time, which he also (being neere vnto his death) caused to be written in the Altar on the one side thereof, in that part which extended it selfe toward the place where the people stood, at such time as they sacrificed and offered burnt offerings. Since which day there were no more sacrafices offered in that place: because it was contrarie to law. Thus did Moses esta­blish, Deut. 29. and these the Hebrewe nation obserue continually and vnuiolably, euen vnto this day.

On the next morrow, he reassembled all the people, themselues, their wiues, and children: he likewise commaunded that the slaues should be there present, binding them by an oth that they K Moses bindeth the Hebrewes by an oth to keepe the law. should maintaine & keepe the lawes, and that diligently tying themselues to the will of God, they should not so much esteeme either their kinred, or meanes of perils, or any other cause what­soeuer, as that thereby they should be driuen to neglect their lawes, or depart from the ordinan­ces thereof: but whether it were any one of their kinred, or any Citie whatsoeuer, that would seeke to alter and disturbe the same, or striue to weaken the estate thereof, that both in particu­lar and in publike, they should expose themselues and endeuour to punish them: and if they should fortune to take such a Citie, that they should race and vtterly deface the same; and if it were possible not to leaue one stone vpon another, but to destroy the foundation. But if they were too feeble to take such a reuenge, yet that they should make it knowen that they were not consenting to their impietie. Hereunto the whole people subscribed and sealed it with an oth. L He afterwards told them, how the people should know when the sacrifice were agreeable vn­to God, and how they ought to march out to battell, taking a signe of the stones of which I haue forespoken.

Iosuah likewise, during the life and in the presence of Moses, foreprophecied whatsoeuer he in­tended to performe for the profit of the people, either abroad in the administration of warre, or home in prescribing lawes; and preparing them to an order of life (which was newly prescribed them) he told them that by instructions from God he foreprophecied, that if they violated their countrey religion, they should not escape their destruction; for that both their country should be filled with forraine armes, and their Cities sackt, and their Temple burnt, & that they themselues should be sold vnder the speare, & that they should serue a nation which would not be moued M or touched with commiseration of their afflictions and miseries; and that at length they should too lately and vnprofitably repent them of their errour: yet that God their establisher should re­store Cities to the Citizens, and a Temple to his people: And that it should come to passe, that they should not lose this only one time, but also very many times. Then did Moses also exhort Iesus that he should lead his army against the Chanaanits, promising him that God would be assistant in his actions, prophecying besides much good hap vnto the people. Moses exhor­teth Iosuah.

[Page 99] ‘Since that (saith he) I go vnto mine ancestors, and that God hath prefixed this day and time The yeare of the world. 2493. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1471. Deut 31. Deut. 33. 34. A of my departure, I protest before you, that liuing as yet and standing in your presence. I giue him thanks for the care and prouidence, which he hath hitherto had of your affaires, not onely in propulsing your aduersaries, but also in largely imparting his blessings vnto you, and for that he hath alwaies fauourably helpt me whilst I indeuoured by my labour and care to reduce your fortunes to a better state: And that which is more, it is he that hath giuen both the entrance and the issue; making vse of me but as his committee and seruant in all that good, which he would should be done vnto his people. For all which things I haue thought it requisite, that (in depar­ting from you) I should blesse the power of God, who in time to come shall haue the care and charge of you: And to acquit my selfe of that debt, I leaue you this in remembrance, which is, that you ought to serue and honour him, and reuerence the ordinances which he hath giuen you, B whereby (continuing his fauours towards you) he will grant you grace to conserue and keepe this excellent gift. Truly that law-maker (that were no more then a man) would be greatly dis­pleased and highly discontented with those men, who should violate his ordinances, and should set them at noughts: doe not you therefore tempt God, who is prouoked vnto anger, when those lawes, which he himselfe hath established and giuen you, shall be contemned and neglected.’

Whilest Moses pronounced these his last words, and discoursed vnto the tribes their seuerall The Hebrewes lamentation at Moses death. destinies, the whole multitude brake into teares; and the women beating their breasts, shewed and expressed the sorrow they had conceiued at his death. The children likewise lamented, ma­king it knowne that they could not be masters of their owne sorrow, because that in their tender yeares they had vnderstood the vertue and famous acts of Moses; and betwixt the elder C and younger sort, there was as it were a conflict who should weepe more bitterly: for the one vn­derstanding of how worthie a gouernour they were depriued, lamented the time to come; and the other were perplexed, because they should then forsake him, before they had sufficiently ta­sted and made triall how great his vertue was. But how great the compassion and complaint of the people was, a man may make coniecture by this that then befell the Prophet. For although he were assuredly perswaded, that a man was not to lament vpon the instant of his death (in that it chanced vnto him both according to the will of God, and the law of nature) yet he beholding the affection of the people could not temperate and restraine himselfe from teares: And whilest he was borne thither where he vanished out of their sight, all of them followed him, wetting their faces and bosomes with flowing teares. Then did Moses (beckening with his hand) warne D them from a farre off, that they should stand stil and keep their places, & exhorted them that were neerest him, by word of mouth, that they should not follow nor prosecute him any further with teares, for feare least they should make his departure tragicall and lamentable. Onely the Se­nate led him forth, and Eleazar the high Priest, and the chiefetaine Iesus. And when he was ar­riued vpon the mountaine called Abarim (which is verie hie, and scituate neere vnto Iericho, and from whence he might discouer the greater part of the land of Chanaan) he dismissed the elders: and whilest with mutuall embraces he tooke his last leaue of Eleazar and Iesus, and dis­coursed with them, a cloud sodainly enuironed him, and he was taken away into a certaine val­ley: but in the scripture he writeth that he died, fearing least for the excellencie of his vertue, they might report that he was rauished and taken away by God. The whole time of his life was one E hundreth and twentie yeares, the third part whereof he spent in gouernment (one month onely Moses when he died was 120, yeares old. exempted.) He died the last month of the yeare, & the first day of that month which the Macedo­nians call Dystrus, and our countrimen Adar. Of all men the wisest that euer was, and who in execution of his good counsels had no man to equall him. Moreouer in eloquence he was in­comparable, Amongst the Hebrewes A­dar is the 12. month, but a­mongst vs it is called March. and in dexteritie and grace to intertaine and perswade the people, he had no se­cond: and so were his affections alwaies leuelled and limited by his wisedome, that he seemed vt­terly to want them, and that onely he knew the names of those passions which he perceiued to be too actiue in other men. In his gouernment he was matchlesse, in his prophecies peerlesse, so that all the orations that he made seemed to be Oracles. For which cause the whole multitude mour­ned for him during the terme of thirtie daies: neither were the Hebrewes euer seased with so ex­treme F griefe, as they were at that time when the Prophet died; neither did he onely leaue behind Moses was a good gouer­nour, and a great prophet. him a present desire of him, but a great estimation amongst all men, who haue euer chanced to read and examine his writings, whilst by them they make estimate of his vertues. And these are those things which I thought good to be spoken of the death of Moses.

THE FIFTH BOOKE G OF THE ANTIQVITIES OF THE IEWES,

The Contents of the Chapters of the 5. booke. H
  • 1 How Iesus Generall of the Hebrewes, hauing ouercome and slaine the Chanaanites, deuided their land amongst the Tribes by Lot.
  • 2 How after the death of the Generall, the Israelites (neglecting the ordinances of their forefathers) fell into extreme calamities, and thorow a ciuill warre that was raised amongst them, there were but 300. of the tribe of Beniamin left aliue.
  • 3 How for their impietie the people of Israel were deliuered by God into captiuitie under the As­syrians.
  • 4 Their libertie by Cenizus.
  • 5 How the people once more were ouercome by the Moabites, and exempt from seruitude by Iodes I otherwise called Ehud.
  • 6 How they were brought vnder the subiection of the Chanaanites, and restored to their libertie by Barac.
  • 7 How the Amalechites (hauing entred the countrey of the Israelites, and conquered them) posses­sed and spoyled the same for the space of seuen yeares.
  • 8 How Gedeon deliuered the people.
  • 9 How some successors of Gedeon waged warre against the neighbour nations round about them.
  • 10 Of Sampsons strength, and what mischiefes he did in Palestine.
  • 11 How the sonnes of Eli the Prophet were slaine in battell by the Palestines.
  • 12 How Eli (hearing of the death of his sonnes, and the losse of the Arke) fell downe from his K throne and died.

CHAP. I.

How Iesus Generall of the Hebrewes, hauing ouercome and slaine the Chanaanites, deuided their land amongst the tribes by Lot.

AFter that Moses had bin taken from amongst men (after the manner as I haue The yeare of the world. 2494. before Christes Natiuity. 1470. declared) and that all whatsoeuer he had ordained, was dulie performed, and his funerall obsequies were at an end: Iesus commaunded the people to pre­pare themselues, and to march forward into battell. He sent espials likewise into Iericho, who might both sound their minds, and discouer their forces: L Iesus sendeth spies into Ie­richo. presently after he dislodged, and encamped in the open field, intending with all expedition to passe the riuer of Iordan, as soone as any oportunitie offe­red it selfe. Then assembled he together the Princes of the tribes of Ruben and Gad, and the halfe tribe of Manasses (for to this half tribe the countrey of the Amorites was giuen for an habitation, which was the seuenth part of Chanaan) and remembred them of that which they had promised vnto Moses, entreating them (in memorie and fauour of him, who in the last period of his life was not wearied to take care of their common-weale, and publike profit) speedily and willingly to Iesus calleth to memory & reckoneth vp what the tribes of Gad. Ruben, and Manasses had promised Moses. Num 13. performe that which they had promised vnto him: who shewing themselues readie and willing, to performe that which hee commaunded them, he armed and arranged fiftie thousand men, that were his followers, and afterwards (departing from the Citie of Abila) he drewe towards Ior­dan, M and marched forward some sixtie furlongs. As soone as he was encamped, the spies re­turned againe and presented themselues vnto him, certifying him of the whole estate of the Chanaanites. For being vnknowne and vnsuspected, vpon their first arriuall they obser­ued and viewed the walles and strength of the Citie at their pleasure, searching which of The spies sur­uay Iericho. them were more or lesse defensed, and which of the gates were easiest or hardest to assault; neither did any of those that mette them, offer any offence vnto them: Whilest they [Page 101] thus pried into, and viewed euerie place, the Citizens interpreted their diligence to be The yeare of the world. 2494. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1470. A rather an accustomed curiositie of straungers, then suspected them that they intended any hostile stratageme. About the shutting in of the euening they retired themselues into a certaine hostrie that adioyned the walles, into which they had beene directed to take their re­past: and whilest after supper time they consulted vpon their returne, the King was giuen to vn­derstand (as he sate at his supper) that certaine Spies sent out of the Hebrewes campe, had sur­uayed the Citie, and taken vp their lodging in Rahabs house, where they supposed to conceale themselues til they might gaine them opportunitie to depart. Whereupon the King sent a spee­die commandement and officers to apprehend them, to the end that being brought before him, he might by torture extort from them the cause and reason why they came into his Citie. Of whose approch, when Rahab had gotten some priuate intelligence, she hid the Spies vnder cer­taine B Rachab hideth the spies. packes of linnen, which she dried neere vnto the wals, and told them that were sent by the King, that certaine strange guests a little before Sunne-set had supt in her house, but that they were departed; who if they were suspected by the King, as such as intended any detriment to the common weale, they might with little labour and pursuit be easily surprised in their way. They hearing the woman speake after this maner, and imagining no subtiltie or deceit in her, returned backe againe without searching the hostrie. But after they were busied and trauelled in the pursuit and search after them euerie way, and tracting of euery path, whereby they might be suspected to trauell towards Iordan, and perceiuing no signe of their flight, they desisted anie fur­ther to pursue them. No sooner was the tumult appeased, but Rahab called forth the Spies, and told them the dangers to which shee had exposed her selfe for their securitie sake (for had she C beene conuinced to haue concealed them, she might by no meanes haue escaped the punish­ment of the King, but that both she & all her family had miserably perished:) She therfore requi­red them, that at such time as they should be Lords of the countrey of Canaan, and had both the occasion and power to requite her curtesies, that they would haue her in remembrance. This said, she dismissed them (to the end they might returne home againe.) But before their departure she tooke an oth of them, to warrantize both her selfe and all that which appertained vnto her, at such time as they should become Maisters of the citie, and had destroyed all the citizens thereof, according to the arrest & sentence giuen against them; which she knew should come to passe, hauing certaine apprehension of the same, by certaine signes and tokens from God: whereupon for the present with manie thankesgiuings they protested, and for the future auowed and swore D vnto her, to acknowledge her kindnesse not in words, but in deedes. At such time therefore as she should perceiue that the Citie was readie to be surprised, they counselled her that she should retire all her substance, and all those that appertained vnto her, into her house; and that before the doore thereof she should spread some crimson garment, to the intent that the Generall per­ceiuing the same, might inhibite the souldiours from pillaging and spoyling her house: For said they) we will giue him notice hereof (by reason of that willing forwardnesse that hath beene in thee to saue our liues) and if by misfortune anie of thy friends die in the combate, do not im­pute the fault vnto vs; and we beseech God (by whom we haue sworne) that he be not displea­sed with anie of vs, except against such as falsifie their oathes. Hauing after this manner accor­ded vpon the couenant, they let downe one another from the wall; and when they were arri­ued E in fafetie among their nation, they recounted vnto them all that which had happened since their arriuall in the Citie. Iosuah hereupon declared vnto Eleazar the high Priest and the rest Iosuh. 3. Iesus passeth Iordan with his armie. of the Elders, what oath his Spies had sworne vnto Rahab, who all of them ratified the promise they had made. But the Generall was pensiue and sore troubled, for that he knew not which way he might passe the riuer of Iordan, by reason that for the present it was verie deepe and without bridges. For before that time there was not any bridge built thereupon; and if they would haue built one, the enemie would haue interrupted them: and further besides that, there were not anie places conuenient to stay in. But God made him a promise that he would make the wa­ters fall, and giue them passage therethrough. Iosuah therefore encamped his hoste for the terme of two dayes (to the end he might passe ouer his whole Armie, and the rest of the people, after F this maner following.) The Priests marched before with the Arke. After them went the Leuites bearing the Tabernacle, and those vessels which were destinated for sacrifice. Then followed the Iosuah. 4. 3 whole multitude, distinguished in their Tribes, hauing inclosed within their battels the women & children, whereby they might be the more secure from the force of the floud. But when as the Priests had marched formost, and found the riuer passible, and that the water was decreased, and that the current thereof was not so violent, neither the billowes so incensed, but that in the [Page 102] bottome there was good footing (for that the grauell and sand was not quicke but setled) G The yeare of the world, 2494. be­fore Christs birth 1470. then all of them without feare passed ouer the foord, finding all things assuredly perfourmed vnto them, which God had both foreprophesied, and promised vnto them: but the Priests kept them in the midst of the channell vntill the multitude were past ouer, and were in securitie, and when as euerie one had go [...]en the other banke, the priests issued out, permitting the riuer to flow according to his free and ordinarie course: which pleasantly flowing grew to that great­nesse and swiftnes which it retained at the first. Now when the Hebrewes had marched fiftie fur­longs, they incamped themselues some ten furlongs from Hiericho. But Iesus building an Al­tar of stones (which euery one of the Princes of the tribes had gathered out of the channell of Iesus buildeth an Altar on the other side of Iordan. The Israelites celebrate Ea­ster, enioy the fruites of the earth, and cease to feede on Manna. Iordan, according as the Prophet had commaunded) to the end it might be a monument of the prodigious restrainment of the floud, and on the same he sacrificed vnto God, and the solemnity H of the Paschal was celebrated in that place; and at that time they, who in times past were in great necessitie, were largely furnished with all plentie and aboundance: for they did reape the corne of the Chanaanits (which at that time was ripe) & caried away the rest for a pray. In the same season likewise their nourishment of Manna failed thē, wheron they had fed for the space of forty yeers. And whereas the Israelites did all these things with securitie and freely, and the Chanaanites ne­uer sallied out against them, but appauled with feare, shut themselues vp within their wals; Iesus decreed and resolued to besiege them in their cities: so that on the first day of the feast, the Priests bearing the arke, and garded on euerie side with troupes of armed men drew neere vnto the Ci­tie, Iosuah. 6. Iesus with his army walketh about the citie. sounding their seuen hornes: and exhorting their soldiers to behaue themselues manfully, they walked about and inuironed the walles round about, being attended both by the Senate and I Elders, neither did they any other thing but blow their hornes, and so returned backe into their campe. Which when they had done for the space of sixe daies, on the seuenth Iosuah assembled the armie and all the people, bringing them ioyfull newes of the Citie, which that day should be surprised without labour (the walles falling downe of their owne accord, and without mans hand, and yeelding them free passage and entrance into the Citie) and he encouraged them to kill all those whom they met withall, and not to giue ouer the slaughter of their enemies, although they were wearie, neither to be moued with compassion, nor allured from the slaughter and execu­tion by desire of pray, or to permit the enemie in any sort to flie, but that they should extinguish and roote out all that which breathed and had life, reseruing nothing for pray or priuate profit. He commaunded likewise that all that which was found (either of gold or siluer) should be K brought into one place, & reserued to be the first fruites of the happie works of God; and after the surprisall first of the Citie, that onely Rahab with her kinred should be saued, by reason of the othes which the spies had sworn vnto her. This said, he arranged his host, and made them approch Iesus commā ­deth that none but Rahab and hirs should be saued. the Citie, then did they once more walke round about the City, the Arke marching before them, and encouraging the armie to valour by the sound of their Cornets. And after they had enuiro­ned the wals seuen times, and had a little reposed themselues, the walles fell (whereas then neither the Hebrewes had enforced any engine against them, or vsed any other violence.) So that they entring into the Citie slue all those that were therein, who were alreadie discomforted by the so­daine The wals of Iericho fall downe of themselues. and vnexpected ouerthrow of their walles, and thorow their sodaine feare made vnapt to fight, so that they were slaine amidst their streets, finding neither refuge nor reliefe to succour L them: yea so were they fleshed in the slaughter, that they neither spared women nor children, but Iericho is takē the men slain, the citie de­stroyed, and burnt: Rahab and hers re­serued. filled the Citie with dead carcasses, which at length being set on fire, serued them for a funerall flame to consume them in, and with equall furie rauaged and burnt the fields. Only Rahab and her houshold (who kept themselues within her hostrie) were saued by the spies, who brought to Io­suahs presence, he gaue her thanks for sauing his spies, and promised her that he would reward her courtesies, and anone after gaue her possessions, and euer after held her in great honour. All that of the Citie which the fire spared, the sword consumed. And Iosuah pronounced curses a­gainst those, who should afterward endeuour to erect that which he had ruinated: namely that he that should lay the first foundation, should be depriued of his first begotten sonne, and he that should finish the worke might lose his yongest sonne; neither pleased it God that this impreca­tion M of his should be frustrate, as hereafter it shall be spoken. At the surprise and sacke of this Ci­tie, there was gathered an infinite quantitie of gold, siluer, and brasse; so that no man brake the Edict, or sought any pray or lucre thereby for himselfe. These spoiles Iesus deliuered vnto the Priests, to be laid vp in the treasurie, and after this manner was the citie of Iericho destroied. But Achar the sonne of Zebed of the tribe of Iuda, hauing gotten a royall pall altogether embro­dered with gold, with an ingot of gold of three hundreth sicles in waight, and thinking in himselfe [Page 103] that it were a verie fond thing, that the profit he had made by the hazard of his life, should be ta­ken A The yeare of the world. 2494. be­fore Christs birth 1470. Ios. 7. 8. Achar hideth certaine parts of the pray contrary to Gods com­mandement. Galgal signi­fieth liberty. Iosuah. 5. The Israelites are put to flight by the Ainites. from him and presented vnto God, who had no need thereof, digged a deepe pit in his tent, and buried his spoiles therein, thinking by this means to defraud God, and deceiue his compa­nions. At that time their tents were pitched in a place which was called Galgal (which signifieth Enfranchized, because that hauing past the riuer Iordan they knew that they should be delmered from the affliction of Egypt, and the penurie of the desart.) But some few daies after the destru­ction of Iericho, Iosuah sent out three thousand armed men against Ainan (a Citie scituate a little aboue lericho) who encountring with the Ainites in battell, and by them put to flight, lost thirtie and sixe of their company. The newes of which disaster being brought into the campe, the Is­raelites were seased with exceeding griefe, not onely for the men they had lost (which were all of them valiant men and worthie of honour) but also by reason of the despaire they conceiued B of their future successe. For being alreadie perswaded that they were masters of the field, and that their armie should be alwaies warranted and safe at such time as they should fight (according as before times God had promised them) they saw (contrarie to their opinion) that their aduersaries had taken heart; insomuch as clothing themselues in sackcloth vpon their raiments, they spent all the day in teares & lamentations without tasting any meate; so grieuously were they afflicted with the inconuenient that had hapned. But Iosuah perceiuing the army discomfited after this manner, Iosuahs praier vnto God. and conceiuing some sinister hope of their estates, boldly addressed himselfe vnto God saying. ‘We haue not beene induced by our owne temerity to attempt the conquest of this land by force, but we haue beene hereunto incouraged by thy seruant Moses, to whom thou hast promised by diuers signes that thou wouldest giue vs this country to inhabite in, & that our army should haue C alwaies the vpper hand in battell, and of these thy promises we haue often times experimented the euent. But now beyond all expectation (hauing receiued an ouerthrow and lost some of our soldiers) being terrified by this accident, and suspitious of thy promises to Moses, we both abstaine from warre, and (after so many enterprises and entrances of warre) we cannot hope of any fortu­nate or succesful proceedings. Be thou therefore assistant vnto vs, O Lord (for it lieth in thy power) & by thy mercy relieue our present sorrow with a largesse of victory, & take from vs the thought of despaire wherein we are too farre plunged.’ Iosuah lying prostrate on his face made this praier vnto God, who presently answered him, that he should arise; commāding him to purge the army Gods answere to losuahs praier. of that pollution that had hapned therein, and of a theft committed by one of the multitude, who was so hardie as to violate and conceale those things which were [...]onsecrated vnto him, D assuring him that that cause was the meanes of the present calamitie: but that as soone as he had searched out, and punished the sacriledge, the Israelites should become fortunate and obtaine the victory. This Oracle Iosuah declared vnto the people, and calling for the high Priest and the Magistrates, he cast lots vpon the tribes, and when as the lot had fallen on the tribe of Iuda, it was againe cast by kinreds; and when againe the sacriledge was found to be committed in Zacha­rias kinred, they examined the same once more man by man, and found out Achar: who ha­uing no meanes to denie the same, and being discouered by God himselfe, confessed the fact, and Achar found out by Lot and punished. brought forth those things, which he had concealed: Whereupon being presently put to death, he was by night buried after an ignominious manner, according as he deserued it. But Iosuah ha­uing purified the people, led them forth against Ainan, and laying an Ambuscado by night E time aboue the Citie, early in the morning he drew the enemie out to fight, who boldly broke forth (being incouraged by their former victorie) but Iosuah making a shew of retreat, drew them farther off from their Citie (forming in them an imaginarie hope that the Israelites fled, and that they should gaine a second victorie ouer them.) But when Iosuah sodainly made a stand, and fresh­ly charged them, and gaue a signall vnto those that lay in ambush, they were incontinently ad­dressed Ainan sackt and burnt. and incouraged to fight, and with all expedition entred the gates of the Citie, on the walles whereof there stood diuers of the inhabitants, being eye witnesses (as they thought) of their atchieued victorie. In this manner was the Citie taken, and all they that were therein, were slaine: and Iosuah on the other side inforced those in such manner (with whom he maintai­ned skirmish) that they turned their backs, and fled towards the Citie, as if it had beene in F the same estate as they left it: but when they perceiued that it was surprised, and saw both it, their wiues, and children consumed with fire, they scattered themselues about the fields, not being able to rallie themselues, by reason of their disturbance and disorder. After this ouerthrow of the Ainites, there were a great number of women, children, and bondslaues taken captiue, and store of all sorts of moueables. The Hebrewes also became Lords of much cattell, and gathe­red The pray di­stributed a­mongst the people. a great quantitie of siluer (for the countrey was rich.) All which Iosuah (vpon his returue to [Page 104] Galgal) distributed amongst the soldiers. But the Gabeonites (who dwelt not farre off from Ie­rusalem) The yeare of the world. 2494. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1470. Iosua. 9. G vnderstanding what had hapned to them of Hiericho (and seeing the estate of the Ainites, and fearing least the like misfortune might fall vpon them) thought it not good to offer treaties of peace to Iosuah, supposing they should find no tolerable conditions at his hands because they knew that he warred vnder that resolution, vtterly to roote out and extinguish the nation of the Canaanites from off the earth. They therefore made a league with the Cephe­rites, and Cathierimites their neighbours, telling them that they should not escape the daunger if so be it so fell out that the Gabeonites were first taken by the Israelites: but that if they were vnited together, they might both resist the greatnesse, and auoid the dangers of them. Which counsell of theirs being accepted, they sent Embassadours vnto Iosuah (such men as they thought The Gabeo­nites send Em­bassors to Iesus to be both most capable and wisest amongst them in the affaires of common-weale) to the intent H to entreate a peace betwixt them and the Israelites: who knowing that it would be verie dan­gerous for them, if they should say that they were Canaanites; & that on the contrarie side, they should auoid the danger, if they protested that they had no communitie or alliance with them, but that they dwelled far off from them; told Iosuah that (being incited by his fame) they had vn­dertaken a long iourney, the truth whereof he might coniecture by their habits: for vpon their setting forth their garments were new, and now by their long iourney quite worne (for they had purposely put vpon them old raiment, to the end it might be sutable to their subtill insinuation.) Standing vp therefore in the middest of the multitude (attired after this maner) they told them The Gabeo­nites oration to the He­brewes. that they were sent by the Gabeonites, and the neighbouring Cities thereabouts (farre disioyned from that countrey) to articulate and ratifie a peace betweene them, according as they haue bin I accustomed to proceed in their accords: For knowing well that the countrey of Canaan was gi­uen vnto them by the grace and gratuitie of God (to the end they should be maste [...] and pos­sessours thereof) they were much reioyced thereat, and required them to be receiued as their confederates. By these words, and tokens of their garments, and intimation of their long iour­ney, they perswaded the Hebrewes to intreate an accord and amitie with them. And the high Iesus maketh a couenant with the Gabeonits. Priest Eleazar with the councell of the Elders sware vnto them, that they should be reputed for friends and allies, and that no vniust action should be enterprised against them; the people like­wise approued their oathes. But Iosuah encamping with his Armie vpon their confines, and vn­derstanding that the Gabeonites dwelt not far off from Ierusalem, and that they likewise were of the race of the Canaanites, he sent for the principall and princes amongst them, and complai­ned K and vp braided them of their deceit: whereunto they answered, that they had no other means to procure their safetie and securitie, and for that cause (and their necessitie sake) that they had sought their refuge thereby. Whereupon he called vnto him Eleazar the high Priest and the councell of the Elders, who told him that he might not infringe the oath which they had made The Gabeo­nites are ap­pointed to publike mini­steries. Iosuah. 10. The king of Ie­rusalem mo­ueth warre a­gainst the Ga­beonites. vnto them, but that he might depute them to serue the publique ministeries. Whereupon they were adiudged to attend on these seruices: and by this meanes deliuered they themselues from their imminent perill. But for that the king of Ierusalem was sore incensed against the Gabeo­nites (for that they had reuolted, and submitted to Iesus) he assembled together the Kings of his neighbour nations, to make warre against them. The Gabeonites perceiuing the danger they were in, and how the enemie was prepared to assault them (and how to that intent they had pit­ched L their tents neere vnto a certaine fountaine not farre off from the Citie) they required Iesus to assist and defend them. For their affaires were in that estate, that they expected death from the hands of their friends: & contrariwise hoped for helpe to be warranted by those Hebrewes, with whō they had contracted amitie (notwithstāding that they arriued in that countrie to destroy the whole nation of the Cananites) Iosuah therefore (hastning onward with his whole armie to giue Iesus driueth them of Ieru­salem to flight. them assistance, and marching both day and night) early in the morning charged the enemie (at such time as he entended his assault) and hauing put them to flight, he pursued them by a steepy tract, which place is called Bethora, where hee knew that God had fought for him (as it appea­red manifestly by the thunder, lightening and haile that fell at that time, far bigger then was ac­customed.) The day likewise (the like whereof was neuer heard of before) was lengthened, least by M the speedy approch of the night the enemie should escape from the victor: whereupon it came The Sun stood still. to passe that Iesus tooke all those fiue Kings in a certaine caue neere Makkedah, where they were hidden, and condemned them all to the death. And that the day at that time increased aboue common custome it is extant & registred in the sacred volumes, which are reserued in the Tem­ple. When after this manner the Kings that inuaded the Gabeonites were slaine and conque­red, Fiue kings slaine. Iosuah 11. Iesus led his Armie into the mountaines of Canaan, where hauing made a great slaugh­ter [Page 105] of men, and taken a rich bootie, he brought backe his armie into Galgal. Now when The yeare of the world, 2494. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1470. The kings of the Chanaa­nites moue warre against the Hebrewes. A the renowne of the Hebrewes valiant acts, and the admirable number of those that were slaugh­tered, were bruited and scattered farre and neere amongst the neighbour nations; they were sur­prised with a sodaine feare: so that the Kings of the Chanaanites that bordered vpon Libanus, and they also of the plaine of Cha [...]an, ioyned themselues confederates with the Palestines, and all of them were incensed against them, and incamped neere vnto Berotha (a Citie of the higher Galilee, not farre from Cedesa, which is also scituate in the land of Chanaan.) The whole ar­mie of them consisted of three hundreth thousand footmen, ten thousand horsemen, and twenty The huge ar­my of the Chanaanites. thousand chariots. This great multitude of the enemie astonished Iosuah, and the Israelites, and (by reason of the assured feare wherewith they were seased) they conceiued but little hope of obtaining the vpper hand: but God reproched him, and vp braided him of that his timiditie; and B for that they suspected themselues to be scarcely secured vnder his protection, he promised them likewise that he would ouercome their enemies, and make their horses vnprofitable, and would consume their chariots by fire. Iosuah therefore was emboldened by these promises from God, and marched out against his enemies, whom he surprised on the fift day. The incounter was strong, & the slaughter so great, that they who should but heare the same would scarcely beleeue it: many also were slaine in the pursuite; so that (a few onely excepted) the whole armie was put to the sword. The Kings also were all of them slaine, and of their men there remained not any All the kings of the Cha­naanites slain, Iosuah spoy­leth the whole land of Cha­naan. one aliue. Iosuah also commaunded that their horses should be slaine, and hee burned their chariots, & securely marched thorow the whole countrey: so that no man durst sallie out, or make head against him. He besieged likewise their strong places, and killed all those whom he might C apprehend. Now when the fift yeare was fully finished, and not any one of the Chanaanites were left al [...]e (except such as were fled into their Cities and forts of defences) Iosuah once more retired his campe toward the mountaines, and placed the sacred Tabernacle in the Citie of Si­loe (which seemed to be a verie conuenient place, by reason of the beautie of the same, where the arke might remaine til such time as their affaires of estate permitted them to build a Temple.) From thence he departed with all the people to repaire vnto Sichem, and there builded he an Altar in that place (according as before time Moses had commaunded and enioyned) and hauing deuided his army, he planted the halfe of them on the mountaine of Garizim, and the other Iosuah deui­deth his armie into parts. halfe on the mountain of Gebal (on which also there is an Altar) with the Leuites and the Priests, and after they had sacrificed and done their execrations, and ingrauen them on the Altars, they D returned into Siloe. Now insomuch as Iosuah was wel strooken in yeares, and verie well perceiued that the cities of the Chanaanits were hardly to be assaulted (both in respect of the places wherin they were scituate, as also for the munitions, wherwith (besides other aduantages of nature) their The yeare of the world. 2499. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1465. Hedio & Ruf­finus. ch. 3. Ios. 13. 14. 18. walles were strengthned and fortified: for the Chanaanites hauing intelligence of the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt, and how they hastned thitherward, to the intent vtterly to extin­guish and ouerthrow that nation, spent all that time in defencing and fortifying their Cities) he assembled all the people in Siloe, where when (with mutuall and frequent concourse) they were assembled, he declared vnto them the happy successe (which till that time) had befallen them; and the braue executions worthy in their euents to challenge God for their author; further­more the excellency of the ordinances vnder which they liued, alledging that the thirty one kings E which had beene so hardy as to encounter them hand to hand, had by them beene ouercome: that all the army that had vndertaken to ouerthrow them in battell, was wholy discomfited, so that there remained not any memory of them. But for that certaine of the Cities were taken, and the rest better defenced, & for this cause more obstinate; had need of a longer assault and exp [...]g­nation, he thought good that they (who had beene drawne from out the countrey scituate be­yond Iordan to be associates in this common cause of conquest, and by reason of affinitie had Iosuah com­mandeth the deuiding of the countrey, & counselleth that the two tribes and a halfe should be dismissed. made themselues copartners and companions in their perils) should be sent backe into their owne countrey with all complement of thankes, and gratuitie. Afterwards, that some one of each tribe of approued vprightnes and loyalty; should be pickt out, who leuying out and suruay­ing the countrey, might faithfully and without fraud report the greatnes thereof. This sentence F was approued by the whole multitude, and thereupon diuers men were sent (accompanied with such as were skilfull in Geometry, who in respect of their science could neither erre, nor be de­ceiued) to measure out the land, according to the goodnes thereof. For the nature of the land of Iosuah sendeth certaine men, to measure and deuide the land. Chanaan is such, that there are great plaines very fruitfull, and which (being compared with o­ther places) might be esteemed happy and fruitfull in all sorts of fruit: but if they be compared with the other countries of Iericho, and the land about Ierusalem, they seeme to be nothing [Page 106] worth: for although in generalitie the whole countrey be small, and for the greater part moun­tainous, The yeare of the world. 2499. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1465. Iosuah. 9. G yet in respect of the aboundance, bountie, and incredible beautie of the fruits thereof, it is second to no other whatsoeuer. For this cause he thought good that the portions should ra­ther be estimated according to their value, thē their measure; by reason that oftentimes one plow land was worth one thousand other. Those which were sent were ten in number, who (hauing trauailed ouer the whole countrey and suruaied the same) returned againe to Siloe, at the end of sixe moneths, where the Arke was kept.

Then Iosuah (taking vnto him Eleazar with the Elders, and Princes of the tribes) deuided the Region amongst nine tribes, and the halfe part of the tribe of Manasses (hauing an vnparti­all Iosuah deui­deth the Re­gion of Cha­naāto thenine tribes, and the halfe tribe of Manasses. respect of the greatnes of euery tribe) and when as each mans lot was cast, there fell to Iudahs part all the higher Iudaea (which extendeth it selfe in length euen vnto Ierusalem, and in H breadth to the lake of Sodome; to which likewise were annexed the cities of Ascalon and Gaza.) The tribe of Simeon (which was the second) obtained a part of Idumaea, confining vpon Aegypt and Arabia. The Beniamites had that countrey which extendeth from Iordan vnto the sea in Iosua. 16. 17. 18 length, and in breadth vnto Ierusalem and Bethel: and this portion was verie small (by reason that the countrey was good) for it contained the Cities of Iericho and Ierusalem. The tribe of Ephraim was allotted his portion in length, from Iordan vnto Gadera; and in bredth from Bethel vnto the great plaine. The halfe tribe of the Manassites was valued from Iordan to the citie of Dor in length, and in bredth vnto Bethsan (which is at this day called Scythopolis.) After them Isa­char had the mount of Carmel, and the floud of Iordan, for their limits and termes of his length, and the mountaine Itabir for the bounds of his bredth. The Zabulonites were allowed that I countrey, which stretcheth out as farre as Genazereth, and that abutteth on the mountaine Car­mel, and the sea. The countrey which is betwixt Carmell and Sidon, was adiudged to the Asse­rites, in which portion was comprised the Citie of Arce, which is also called Actipus. The Neph­thalites possessed that quarter that stretcheth out from the East vnto the Citie of Damascus, and the lower Galilee as farre as the mountaine of Libanus, and the head of Iordan, that issueth from the same, on that side where are the borders of the Citie of Arce on the North side. To them of Dan was assigned the valley that is extended to the Westward, and is terminated by the Supra lib. 4. chap. 7. Cities of Azoth and Dor, that containeth all the countrey of Iamnia and Gitta, from Abaron euen vnto that mountaine where beginneth the tribe of Iuda. After this manner did Iesus deuide the countrey of the sixe nations (bearing the name of Chanaan) and gaue it in possession to K nine tribes and a halfe. For Amorrhaea (so called by one of the sonnes of Chanaan) had beene Num. 32. Iosuah. 13. alreadie taken by Moses, and assigned by him to two tribes and a halfe, as I haue alreadie hereto­fore declared. But all the quarter of Sidon, of the Aruceans, Amatheans and Aritheans were not comprised in this deuision, neither was it tilled. But Iesus seeing himselfe ouerburdned with yeares, and vnfit to execute in his owne person those counsels, which he had concluded vpon; and foreseeing that the Gouemours of the people which should succeed after him, would be neg­ligent in procuring the common profit) commaunded euery seuerall tribe in particular, that Iesus seuerally commaundeth euerl tribe to root out the race of the Chanaanites. (when they should possesse the countrey thus distributed amongst them) they should not suffer any one of the race of the Chanaanites to liue. For Moses had before time told and perswaded them, that their securitie and the maintenance of the customes of their forefathers consisted in L that one point) which he had likewise leamt by his owne experience. Further, that they should deliuer vnto the Leuites thirtie and eight Cities, because they had alreadie ten in their possession, within the land of Amorrhea: three of which were ordained for Cities of refuge to those that fled: (for he aduised them with all consideration and care to omit nothing of that which Moses had commaunded them) of the tribe of Iuda Hebron; of that of Ephraim, Sichem; and of Nepthali, Cedesa: which is a place in higher Galilee. Moreouer he distributed vnto them the surplusage of the pray which was verie great, so that not onely in publike, but in priuate, they got no small The eities of refuge. Num. 35. Deut 4. Iosuah. 20. The distribu­tion of the pray. Iosuahs ora­tion to those that dwelt on the other side of lordan, and had serued with the rest. quantitie of substance, for there was so much gold and rayment, and household stuffe, and so great store of cattell and horses, as the number may not be comprehended. After which he assembled the whole armie, and to those that were planted on the other side of Iordan (who had borne M armes with the rest, and were in number no lesse then fiftie thousand) he spake after this manner.

Since God (the father and master of our Hebrew nation) hath giuen this countrey into our possession, and hath promised (that at such time as it shall be conquered) that he will continue and conserue the same in our possession, and since likewise you haue willingly and forwardly as­assisted vs in all our necessities and daungers (according to Gods commaund and direction) it [Page 107] is requisite at this present (since there remaineth not any further matter wherein we haue neede The yeare of the world. 2499. be­fore Christs birth 1465. A to employ you) that we dismisse you, and abuse not your forwardnesse and readinesse any further, (by reason we are assured that if hereafter we shall haue need of you, you will with no lesse en­deuour and willingnes be as industrious to do vs kindnes.) We therfore yeeld you heartie thanks for that you haue vouchsafed to be companions in our perils: and we require you, that you will perseuere in this your mutual beneuolence, remembring you of your friends, and how you haue gotten your possessions by our helpe, as we (by Gods fauour and your assistance) haue attained to this our present felicite. Neither hau you aduentured without some reward of your trauels: for in this your warfare you are inriched, and shal beare away with you a great pray both of gold and siluer: and besides all these, our beneuolence and loue, tied ynto you with all alacritie and rea­dines when soeuer you shall haue cause to vse vs. For you haue neither forgot nor set light by B Moses commaund before he departed out of this life, and haue spared no indeuour, whereby you might allie and tie our affections to you: we therefore dismisse you to your owne possessions in complete fulnes of your delight, praying you to remember your selues onely of these things, that you will suppose that no terme can terminate our kinred: Neither (by reason of the entercourse of the riuer Iordan betwixt you and vs) suppose you vs to be any others then Hebrewes. For all of vs (both those that dwell on this side, and on the other side of Iordan) are the posteritie of Abraham: and one and the same God hath brought to light both yours and our progenitors, whose lawes and religion (instituted by Moses) are diligently to be obser­ued: for by this meanes, he will become our helper and fauourer; as on the contrarie side (if we shall degenerate from his statutes) he will be an enemie against vs.After he had spoken vnto C them after this manner, he embraced in particular all those that were in dignitie, and in generall the whole people. This done, he stayed in that place, but the rest of the whole people conueyed Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 4. Iosuah. 22 The Israelites after they had past ouer lor­dan builded an Altar on the banke thereof. them onward with teares, and they departed the one from the other with great griefe and re­morse. But after that the tribe of Ruben and of Gad, and the rest of the Manassites had passed ouer Iordan, they builded an Altar vpon the banke of the riuer, that might serue for a memoriall to posteritie, and a token for the present of the coniunction, which they had with those that dwelt on the other side of Iordan. But when the tidings hereof came vnto their eares that dwelt on the further side of the riuer, and that they knew that they had builded an Altar, but notwithstan­ding were ignorant of the respect and cause they had in building it, they supposed that seeking to innouate their religion, they would introduce the seruice of forraine and false gods; and be­ing D rashly stirred vp with this suspition of the violation of their religion, they put themselues in armes with this resolution, to reuenge themselues of those who had builded that Altar, and to take punishment of them for that they had forsaken the lawes and ordinances of their forefa­thers. For they supposed that they were not so farre to respect their parentage or dignitie (who were accused) as to forget the will of God, and that seruice which was agreeable in his sight: for which cause (being in this manner incensed) they prepared themselues to the expedition. But Iosuah and the high Priest Eleazar, with the rest of the Elders restrained them, counselling them first of all to sound their deliberation, and afterward (if it should be apparant vnto them that they did it vnder a sinister intent) at that time they might lawfully inuade them by the sword. The embas­sage of the ten tribes to the rest of the Is­raelites. Hereupon they sent Phinees the sonne of Eleazar, and ten other of the most noblest amongst the E Hebrewes, as Embassadours vnto them, to know what the intent and reason was, why they had builded that Altar on the banke of Iordan.

Now when these Embassadours had past the floud, and were come amongst them, they sum­moned Phinees orati­on to the Ru­bonites. an assembly, and Phinees standing vp in the midst of them, spake after this manner. ‘You haue committed so hainous an offence (saith he) as there is no question either to reproue or pu­nish the same hence forward in words: yet notwithstanding we haue not vpon the instant taken armes, neither assaulted you in battell, or had reference or regard to the hainousnesse of your crime, to the intent to punish you, but we haue bin sent vnto you as Embassadours (in considera tion of our alliance) & for that (as we suppose) you may be drawen by good perswasions to the ac­knowledgement and detestation of your misdeeds, to the end that when we are informed of the F cause that hath induced you to erect this Altar, it might not be thought that we haue headlong thrust our selues into armes against you, if vnder an holy affection you haue builded the same: and if it appeareth otherwise, that the offence is iustly imputed and grounded against you, we may take reuenge of the same, according as reason requireth. For scarcely could we beleeue that you (who are inwardly grounded in the knowledge of God, and who are hearers of those lawes which he himselfe hath giuen you) should (since your departure from vs, and vpon your arriuall [Page 108] in your owne patrimonie (which you haue obtained by lot by the meanes of his grace, and pea­ceably The yeare of the world. 2499. before Christes Natiuity. 1565. G enioy by the power of his prouidence) should forget him, so soone as to forsake the Ta­bernacle, Arke, and Altar, which we haue by hereditarie right receiued from our progenitours, and introduce strange gods, to the intent to be partakers of the impieties of the Chanaanites. But if you repent your misdeedes, and plunge your selues no further in so great madnesse, but re­claime your thoughts, and reuerence your domesticall and ancient lawes, the pardon is graun­ted you: but if you obstinately persist in your wickednes, we will refuse no trauell for the main­tenance of our lawes, but passing the riuer in defence both of them (or to speake more fitly) of our God, and accounting you no lesse hatefull and impious then Chanaanites, we will vtterly roote out and race both their memorie, and your posteritie together. For do not suppose this, that because you haue past the riuer, you are exempt from Gods power, because in what place H soeuer you be, you are numbred amongst them that appertaine vnto him; and it is impossible for you to auoid either his power, or his vengeance: And if you thinke that the place is an im­pediment and let vnto you from following the better course, it were better for you to make a new diuision of lands, and leaue this region to be conuerted into pastures. It behooueth you therefore to grow better aduised, and that changing your purpose, you desist from innouation: Whereunto we exhort you by that loue which you beare to your children and wines, and be­seech you by the respect you hold of that which is most deare vnto you, that you enforce vs not to wage warre against you, who are wholy vnwilling to listen to your iniuries. Resolue yourselues therefore in this present matter, assuring your selues that therein consisteth the issue, whether you had rather perpetually enioy your peace and affections by our perswasion, or expose both I you and yours to the perill of a bloudy warre.’

After that Phinees had finished this his oration, they that were the Peeres and principals of The Rubenites answer. the assembly, gaue this answere in defence of the common cause. ‘Men and brethren, neither will we neglect our kinred, neither innouate any thing in that religion, of which we make a re­uerend account: we know that there is one God cōmon vnto all the nation of the Hebrewes, and acknowledge also his brasen Altar which is before the Tabernacle, and no other but that shal re­ceiue our sacrifices. As for that which we haue now erected, and that breedeth in you at this pre­sent a cause of suspition, we built it not to the intent to pacific God by sacrifices, but that it might remaine as a perpetuall argument of our friendship, and might admonish vs of our countrey re­ligion, not to the end you should suspect it were an induction toward the violating of religion: K And that this was the onely cause which allured and induced vs to build the same, we onely chal­lenge God for our faithfull witnesse (for which cause hereafter conceiue a better opinion of vs) and God forbid you should suppose vs to be so besotted in that sinne, of which, whosoeuer of Abrahams posteritie is guiltie, and whosoeuer shall degenerate from the maners and customes of his forefathers, may not expiate that crime without a capitall punishment.’As soone as Phi­nees had heard these things, and praised their constancie; he returned vnto Iesus, and declared all those things vnto the people, who reioycing (in that they had no occasion to leuie men, nor cause of ciuill warre or bloudshed) offered vnto God their sacrifices of thankgiuing, and presently dis­soluing the assembly, each man returned vnto his owne home, but Iesus chose his habitation in Iosuah dwelt in Sichama. Sichama. Twentie yeares after, Iosuah being extremely old (calling vnto him the most honou­rable L of euery Citie, and both the Elders and Magistrates, and as many of the people as might commodiously be assistant) spake vnto them after this maner. First he called vnto their Iosuahs ex­hortation at his death, to the magistrates and Elders amongst the Hebrewes. remembrance the diuers benefites which God had bestowed vpon them, by meanes whereof from their poore and afflicted estates, they had attained to so great riches and glorie: then ex­horted he them, that they should endeuour themselues hereafter in such sort as God might hold and continue his mercifull hand ouer them; since they knew, that his beneuolence could be al­lied vnto them by no other meanes, but by their good indeuours he further alledged, that it was his dutie before he departed out of this life to admonish them of their duty; last of all he required them that they should accept of that his good admonition, and should be perpetually mindfull of the same. After this his oration he paid the due of nature, and died in the hundreth and tenth M yeere of his life, whereof he spent fortie as minister vnder Moses their magistrate, and after his Iosuh, 23. 24. Iosuahs death. death, gouerned the common-weale twentie fiue yeares: a man of incomparable both prudence and eloquence. Moreouer strong and expedite in matter of gouernement, and both good and profitable in affaires of peace; finally most exact in all sorts of vertue: he was buried in a Citie called Thamna belonging to the Tribe of the Ephraimites. About the same time likewise died Eleazar the high Priest (leauing the inheritance of the Priesthood to Phinees) the monument Eleazars death [Page 109] laid on his sepulcher is extant in the Citie Gabatha. After their deaths Phinees being demaun­ded A The yeare of the world. 24 [...]. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 14 [...]5. Iudg. 1. by the people what Gods pleasure was, and to whose charge the affaires and warres against the Chanaanites should be committed, answered them that God commaunded them to giue the gouernment to the tribe of Iuda, which by election chosing Simeon and his, they for their as­sociates vndertook the warre vnder this condition, that when they had vtterly rooted out the rem­nant of the Chanaanites out of their owne dition, they should likewise employ themselues to extinguish all the reliques of that race amongst the other tribes.

CHAP. II.

How the Israelites after the death of their Emperour, forgetting the religion of their forefathers, fell into extreme calamities: and how thorow a ciuill B warre raised amongst them, therewere onely 600. of the tribe of Beniamin left aliue.

BVt the Chanaanites (whose estate at that time was in sufficient securitie) expected them with a great host about the Citie of Bezeca, hauing their army conducted by the Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 5. al. 2. king of that place called Adoni-Bezec, which name signifieth Lord of the Bezecenites: (for Adoni in the Hebrewe tongue is as much to say as Lord) now these men promised vnto themselues the vpper hand, by reason that Iosuah was deceased. Against these (of whom I haue forespoken) the two tribes sought verie valiantly, and slaying ten thousand of them (whilest they pursued the rest) they tooke Adoni-Bezec captiue, who hauing his hands and feete cut off, ac­knowledged C the diuine iustice: for he confessed that he had vsed seuentie and two kings before Ten thousand Chanaanites flame, and Adoni-Bezec taken. The yeare of the world. 2525. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1439. Ios. 11. times after the same maner. In this plight they conducted him neere vnto Ierusalem, where depar­ting out of this life they buried him. Then ouerranne they the countrey, sacking and taking the Cities, and after they had diuers of them in their possession they besieged Ierusalem, and entring the lower Citie thereof, they put all the inhabitants to the sword. But the higher towne was verie hard to be assaulted (by reason of the fortresses and strength of the walles, and the naturall and strong scituation of the place) which was the cause that they leuied their campe to goe and besiege Hebron, which they tooke, & slew all those that were therin. In that time there were some remainder of the race of Giants, who in that they were greater in stature, & vnlike vnto other mē, were horrible to behold, and terrible to be heard. Their bones are to be seene as yet at this day, D which for their highnes surpasse all credulitie or conceit. This Citie was giuen in way of honour to the Leuites with two thousand cubits of land, or there abouts: and as touching the rest of the countrey, it was freely giuen to Caleb, according as Moses had commaunded it (this was one of those spies which Moses sent to ouerlooke the land of Chanaan.) They gaue lands and possessi­ons Iethroes poste­ritie who was the father of Moses pos­sested of lands. likewise to Iethro the Madianites posteritie (who was father in law to Moses) for that they had forsaken their owne territories, and annexed themselues to the Israelites, and had beene with them in the desart. The tribe of Iuda and Simeon tooke those Cities of the mountainous coun­trey of Chanaan, and those that were in the plaine neere vnto the sea coast (namely Ascalon and Azoth.) But as touching Gaza and Accaron, they escaped: for these Cities being in the plaine, and defenced with a great number of chariots, repulsed those that assaulted the same to their dis­aduantage. E So these two tribes hauing had good successe in warres, retired themselues into their Cities, and laid aside their weapons.

As touching the Beniamites to whom Ierusalem appertained, they receiued the inhabitants The Israelites ouercame [...] the Chanaa­nites at one time. thereof as their tributaries, so that all of them being in peace, and the one ceasing from slaughter, and the other assured from daunger, both of them imployed themselues in manuring the coun­trey. The rest of the tribes did the like, conforming themselues according to the example of the Beniamites; and contenting themselues to receiue their tributes, they suffered the Chanaanites to liue in peace. The tribe of Ephraim (besieging the Citie of Bethel) could not see such an end of their desseigne, as the length of time and the trauels they had taken in the siege required: and The Ephrai­mites recouer Bethel by a stratageme. although they were very much toyled and wearied with the same, yet desisted they not the con­tinuance F of the siege. At last they tooke one of the Citie (who issued forth to find out certaine ne­cessarie things that he wanted) whom they assured that if he would deliuer them the Citie, they would saue him, and grant life and liberty likewise to all them that were of his linage; who sware vnto them that he would deliuer the Citie into their hand: which when he had performed, both he and his were wholy warranted; but all the rest of the inhabitants were put to the sword. From that time forward the Israelites behaued themselues more mildly towards the enemie, and im­ployed [Page 110] them in tillage of their lands, and husbanding their fruits: and being growen in riches G The yeare of the world, 2525. be­fore Christs birth 1439. Hedio & Ruf­finus, ch. 6. al 3. The Israelites omit warre. they followed the delights and pleasures of the world, yea in such sort grew they dissolute, that they had no mind neither of their pollicy, nor the lawes of their forefathers. Whereupon God was grieuously incensed against them, who gaue them to vnderstand first of all, that contrarie to his commaund they had spared the Chanaanites: & afterwards, that those Chanaanites in time to come should exercise great cruelties against them. And although they were astonished at that which was declared vnto them, yet notwithstanding they tooke no pleasure in feats of armes, both for that they had receiued many profits by the Chanaanits, as also for that (being effeminate tho­row delights) they were vnapt for labour. It hapned thē at such time as their Aristocratical gouer­ment was corrupted, and that they respected not their elders, or any other magistrates before time ordained, and were extremly addicted vnto gaine, & infinitely tooke pleasure therein; that amidst H their greatest securitie, a grieuous mutinie and commotion was once more raysed amongst them, so that at length they fell at oddes one with another, on that occasion which ensueth.

A certaine Leuite and one of them of the common sort, that dwelt within the dominions of the Ephraimites, tooke a wife that was borne in the Citie of Bethleem, which pertaineth to the Iudg. 19. The historie of the Leuites wife. tribe of Iuda, whom (by reason of her incomparable beautie) he most intirely loued; and found himselfe much aggrieued, for that he found not her affection answerable to his loue: at last his passion so much preuailed with him, as they grew at ods, and fell into contentious mislikes, whence at last it fell out that the woman (tired with disquiet) forsooke her husband, and went and dwelt with her father: The husband sore aggrieued thereat (by reason of the loue which he bare her) came vnto her fathers house and appeased the differents, and was reconciled vnto her: I There abode he for the space of foure daies, being friendly intreated and intertained by his wiues father and mother. On the fift day, he thought good to returne to his owne dwel­ling, and both of them departed about mid-day (by reason that the father and the mother gaue them a loth farewell, and consumed the better part of the day in entertainement.) They had a seruant which followed them, & an asse likewise, on which the woman was mounted. Now when they had traueled the space of thirty Stadia or furlongs, & that they drew neere the citie of Ierusa­lem: their seruant counselled them to take vp their lodging in some place, for feare least by their The yeare of the world. 2526. be­fore Christs birth 1438. Thirtie stadia are foure Ita­lian miles. Two Italian miles & a halfe late trauell they might fall into some disaster, the rather for that they were not farre from the ene­mies countrie, and that the present time was such, as might make those things that were most assured, suspected. But this opinion of his pleased not his maister, who would not lodge amongst K those of a forraine nation (for the citie pertained to the Chanaanites) but his intent was to passe further, and trauell yet twentie furlongs more, to take vp his lodging in one of their cities. This aduise of his being allowed, they came to Gaba of the Tribe of Beniemin, when it was late: and whereas they found no man in the market place that might lodge them; at length a certaine old man, returning out of the countrey to his house (who was by birth an Ephraimite, and dwelt in that Citie) meeting with him, asked him what he was, and for what cause so late as it was hee sought for his supper? He answered, that he was a Leuite, and that he brought his wife with him from her father and mother, and was returning to his house, which was amongst the Tribe of Ephraim. The old man hauing regard vnto parentage (by reason that he was of the same tribe, and that by good hap they had after that maner met the one with the other) lodged him in his L The horrible wickednes of the Gabeo­nites. owne house. But certaine yong men amongst the Gabeonites, perceiuing the woman in that place, were rauished in admiration of her beautie and good graces, and getting some notice afterwards that she had beene brought thither as a guest, they set light by him (by reason of his weakenes and age, and the smal retinue that he had in his house) and came & knockt at his doore. The old man required them to depart, and that they should offer him no violence, nor to her outrage. But contrariwise they importuned him to deliuer them his guest, and that done they promised him in no sort to procure his further molestation. But although that the old man al­leaged that she was of his parentage, and that her husband was a Leuite, and that they should commit an hainous offence, in sinning for their corrupt pleasures sake against the lawes: yet had they no regard of equitie, but mocked him, menacing him likewise to murther him, because he M hindred them from satisfying their lust. Finally, he was driuen to that exigent, that (to the in­tent they should not offer violence to his guest, and a stranger) he abandoned and prostituted vn­to them his owne daughter, supposing it to be a lesse inconuenient to let them satisfie their vn­bridled concupiscence on her, then that his guest should suffer any villany; at leastwise he made this account, that by this meanes he should not be guiltie of any iniurie done vnto them. Not­withstanding all this, they intermitted not to sollicit and vrge the deliuerie of the woman (being [Page 111] incēnsed in vnbridled lust towards her.) Contrariwise he besought them that they would not be so The yeare of the world, 2526. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1438. A audacious as to violate the lawes: but they seconded their disordinate desires with extreme vio­lence, and rauished her perforce, and led her to their owne lodgings. Afterwards (when as du­ring all the night time they had lewdly appeased their lusts on her) they thrust her out of doores from them vpon the breake of day. But she being wholy desolate, and discomforted by this de­saster, returned to her lodging, and both by reason of the agonie which she had suffered, as also for the shame that hindered her from appearing before her husband, who would be incredibly and extremely tormented with that accident, she fell downe and gaue vp the ghost. Her husband supposing that she was onely seased with some sound sleepe (not suspecting any other inconue­nient) thought to awake her, with that deliberation to comfort her, because she had not wil­lingly condescended to their violences and lusts, but maugre her resist was rauished by them, and B taken out of his lodging. But so soone as he perceiued that she was dead, he moderated his af­fections, considering the extremitie of his euils, and laying the dead bodie vpon his Asse, he ca­ried it to his house; where he no sooner arriued, but that he deuided and cut the same into twelue pieces, which he sent to the twelue tribes of Israel; commaunding them that bare the same to tell The Leuite deuideth the bodie of his wife into 12. parts, and sent them to the 12. tribes, Iudg. 20. euerie tribe, who they were that were the authors of the death of his wife, and what villany they had practised against her. The tribes were verie much discontented at that which they both saw, and heard (hauing neuer before that time heard of any the like aduenture) and incensed with extreme displeasure (and yet iust) they assembled themselues in Siloe, and being arraunged be­fore the Arke, they resolued sodainly to take armes, and to assaile the Gabeonites as their capi­tall and mortall enemies. But the elders with-held them, declaring vnto them that they ought C not after that manner enterprise a headlong warre against their brethren, before they had confer­red and debated the cause with them, and examined the crimes whereof they were accused; the rather, for that the law permitteth not any warre (no not against straungers) before an enterparle & embassage, which might reclaime those that were held culpable & reduce them to reason. For which cause they told them that they should conforme themselues both according to the letter of the law, and the bond of brotherhood, to send certaine messengers to the Gabeonites to de­maund at their hands the authors of that villanie, to the end that when they were deliuered, they might take their satisfaction by their punishment: but if they should not regard that which was demaunded, then that it was lawfull for them to assaile them with open warre. Hereupon they The Israelites send Embassa. dours to the Gabeonites to require those at their hands that had com­mitted the rape. They de­nie to yeeld thē vp, hereup­on the Israe­lites make an oth neuer to match their daughters with any one of thē tribe of Benia­min, and they leuy and lead out against thē an army of foure hundreth thousand men. Twenty two thousand Isra­elites slain in battell. Eighteen thou­sand Israelites more slaine. The Israelites place one half of their battell in ambush, and as if they fought with disaduantage they retired by little and little. sent certaine messengers to the Gabeonites to accuse those yong men that had perpetrated that D indignity against the woman, to demaund them at their hands, to the intent they might suffer con­digne punishment by death for the breach they had made of the law. But the Gabeonites would not yeeld vp the young men, supposing it to be an indignity for them for feare of warre to be obe­dient to other mens commaundements, by reason that they thought themselues no waies inferi­our vnto others in feats of warre, both in respect of their number, and the courage both in the one and the other. The rest of the tribe also made great preparation, by reason they were all of thē resolued, & vnited together mutually to defend thēselues against whosoeuer should assaile them. After that the report of the Gabeonites answer was brought vnto the Israelites, they sware an oth the one vnto the other, that none of thē would giue their daughters in mariage to a Beniamite, promising each of them to issue & make warre against them: against whom they were more in­censed, E then our predecessors haue bin animated against the Chanaanites, as we haue bin giuen to vnderstand. They speedily therfore leuied & led into the field an armie of 400000, men against them. The Beniamites host consisted of 26000. armed men, and 600. others, fiftie of which were expert in shooting, and fighting with the left hand. The field was fought neere to Gaba, wherein the Beniamites put the Israelites to flight, who were slaine to the number of twentie & two thou­sand, and more of them had bin slaughtered that day, had not the night sodainly ouertaken them and ended the skirmish. Thus did the Beniamites ioyfully returne vnto their cities, & the Israelites were discomforted thorow their vnexpected calamitie. The next day they once more renewed the battel, and the Beniamites had the vpper hand once againe: so that the Israelites lost eighteene thousand men more, and by that meane forsooke their campe thorow feare, and retired to Bethel, F which was not farre off from the place. The day after they fasted, and besought God (by the mediation of Phinees the high Priest) that it would please him to appease his wrath against them, and that contenting himselfe with the two ouerthrowes which he had sent them, he would now at last both giue them victorie and valour to encounter their enemies. All which God promised them by the prophecy of Phinees. Whereupon they deuided their army into two parts, and laid the one thereof in ambush neere vnto the Citie. In the meane time (whilest the other halfe that [Page 112] made head against the Beniamites retired themselues, to the intent their enemies should assault G The yeare of the world. 2526. before Christes Natiuity. 1438. them) the Beniamites sodainly issued, and set vpon them that orderly retired, and the more they retired (vnder purpose to draw them the further from the towne) the more eagerly the enemie insisted: so that all they likewise, who thorow age and weaknes were left in the Citie, sallied out as companions and sharers in the future pray. But when as they were drawne farre enough from the Citie, the Hebrewes staied, made head and fought against them. Then gaue they a signe to those that were in ambush, in such sort as was accorded amongst them: who sodainly issuing out to­gether, rushed in vpon their enemies with a huge crie. Who seeing themselues so sodain­ly surprised knew not what to doe, but retiring themselues into certaine Baricadoes, they de­fended themselues with arrowes, but all of them were slaine (except it were sixe hundreth) who making head, and closely filletted and embattailed together, thrust themselues desperately into H the midst of their enemies, and by this meanes escaped they into the mountaines hard by, where Fiue and twen­tie thousand Beniamites slaine, & onely sixe hundreth escapealiue. labes & other Cities of the Beniamites burned. Iud. 21. they encamped. All the rest to the number of twentie fiue thousand or thereabouts were slaine. And the Israelites burned Gaba vtterly, & slew both the women and children. They exercised no lesse iustice on the other cities of Beniamin (so much were they fleshed and transported with furie) And for that Iabes (a Citie of Galaad) would not ioyne with them in battell against the Benia­mites, they sent twelue thousand chosen men out of their companies to destroy the same, who slew all those that might beare armes, with their wiues and children, except foure hundreth vir­gins. So much griefe and furie had they conceiued thorow the accident that chaunced to this woman, and the despight they had conceiued against the Beniamites for prouoking them vnto armes: which furie when it was somewhat appeased, they repented themselues, reputing them­selues I to be depriued of one tribe: And although they thought them iustly oppressed in battell (by reason they had offended against the lawes of God) yet celebrated they a fast in the behalfe The Israelites reuoke the sixe hundreth that were fled. of the dead. They sent Embassadours also, and reuoked those sixe hundreth that were fled, and held a certaine rocke in the desart which was call Rhoa. The Embassadours complained not onely for that the warre had extinguished them, but also for that the Israelites had lost their pa­rents: and by these perswasions they preuailed so much, that they bare their crosse and losse with lesse grief; and they came vnto them & besought them that they would not giue sentence of the to­tal extinctiō of the tribe of Beniamin. We grant you (said they) the reuenues of your whole tribe, and as much bootie as you may driue away. But they acknowledging their iniustice, and that they were condemned by the iustiudgement of God, returned into the possessions of their tribe, K and the Israelites gaue them in marriage those foure hundreth virgins of Iabes: and for the rest The Israelites gaue the Ben­iamites the foure hundreth virgins of la­bes in mariage (which were two hundreth) they deliberated with themselues how they might prouide them of wiues, to the intent they might haue issue. And when as before time in the beginning of their warre it was decreed by an oath, that none of them might match his daughter with any of the tribe of Beniamin; there were some of them that thought good that the oth might be despensed withal (by reason it was grounded vpon wrath, & not on iudgement) alledging further, that they should do nothing contrarie to the will of God, if they might saue a tribe which was in daunger When & how an oth ought to be kept. vtterly to be extinct. That periuries were daungerous and noysome, not at such time as they are inforced by constraint, but when they are practised with an intent to do euill. But when as the Elders reclaimed hereagainst (abhorring the mention of periurie) there arose vp a certaine L The Benia­mites are per­mitted to ra­uish them wiues. man amongst them, that said he had a pollicie, whereby without breach of oth the Beniamites might light vpon wiues. And being commaunded by the Senate to expresse the same, we haue a custome euery yeare (said he) to assemble and keepe a feast at Siloe, and for companions in those our congregations we haue both our wiues and daughters: as many of these as they can rauish, let the Beniamites lay hold of, without reproofe (neither being inhibited nor encoura­ged by vs) and if their fathers shall be displeased therewith, and shall require reuenge, we will say that they are in the fault who haue negligently kept their daughters, & that we ought not too much to whet our wrath against the Beniamites, for that we had too much alreadie vsed and abu­sed the same towards them. This sentence was allowed by all of them, and it was decreed, that it was lawfull for the Beniamites to rauish and violently take to themselues wiues amongst them. M Now when the feast was at hand, the two hundreth Beniamites (of whom we haue spoken) came two by two, and three by three, and lay in ambush neere vnto the Citie (amongst the vines and other thickets, and close places, in which they might hide themselues to surprise the Damsels.) Now they suspecting nothing, securely and pleasantly wantoned on their way: but the yong men breaking from their ambush, laid hold of them (being scattered and diuided here and there) and after they had married them, they departed home to labour their land, and began to studie [Page 113] anew how to recouer their former good hap. Thus the tribe of Beniamin (which was welny vtterly The yeare of the world. 2526. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1438. A exterminated) was restored to his former dignitie after this manner, by the wisedome of the Isra­elites: and it incontinently flourished and increased in a little time, as well in number of men as in all other things. Thus finished this fatall warre.

The like accident hapned to the Tribe of Dan, which fell into the like incombrance for this Hedio & Ruf­sinus, chap. 7. al. 4. cause which ensueth.

The Israelites about this time hauing forgotten the exercise of armes, and being onely occu­pied in tilling, and trimming their land: the Chanaanites (in contempt of that nation) raised for­ces, Iudg. 18. The tribe of Dan oppressed by the Chana­anites. not for that they were affraid of their owne estates, but to the intent that ouerlopping the Hebrewes with some memorable ouerthrow, they might more securely inhabite their Cities thereafter: and conspiring togither (and arming a great number of footmen; and ioyning to B them certaine chariots) they drew Ascalon and Accharon (two cities within the Lot of Iuda) into their confederacie, and diuers other cities of the Champion countrey: so as they of Dan were driuen into the mountaines, hauing no place in the champion where they might peaceably in­habite; who (for that neither in warre they were able to confront them, neither had sufficient habitation for the number of men, which they had) sent fiue men of their tribe into the Cham­pion countrey and Midland, to spie if they could finde any place that were fit and conuenient for them to establish and fixe their Colonies in. These trauelled a daies iourney not farre from the mountaine of Libanus, and more lower then are the sources of Iordan, bordering vpon the They of Dan seeke out a place to inha­bite. great plaine of the Citie of Sidon. In which place (hauing obserued that the land was good and fertile in all sorts of fruites) they made it knowne vnto their people, who trauailing thither C with their army, builded a citie in that place called Dan (by the name of the sonne of Iacob so called, and in honour of the tribe of Dan.) Many aduersities befell the Israelites from that time forwards, both for that they were vnexercised in trauaile, and for that they contemned pietie. For hauing once forsaken the obseruation of their ordinances, they suffered themselues to be deuou­red in pleasures, liuing according to their own appetites: so that they gorged and glutted them­selues with those vices, which were most of all accustomed and vsuall amongst the Chanaanites.

CHAP. III.

How the people of Israell by reason of their wickednesse, were by God deliuered to the D seruitude of the Assyrians.

FOr this cause the wrath of God was kindled against them in such sort, as (thorow their negligence) they lost the good which they had gotten by infinite trauaile. For Schisart Iudg. 3. The Israelites oppressed by Schisar. king of the Assyrians leuied an army against them, who killed a great number of their men in the fight, and either by force, or composition, tooke diuers of them prisoners; and brought their citie vnder his subiection. Diuers also willingly submitted themselues vnto him, (thorow the feare they had conceiued) and they paied tributes exceeding their powers, indu­ring all kind of outrage for the space of eight yeares, after which they were deliuered by these meanes following.

CHAP. IIII. E

Their libertie restored by Cenizus.

A Certaine man of the Tribe of Iuda called Cenizus, a man of execution and of braue Ibidem. Cenizus or as the holy scrip­ture speakes, his sonne Ath­niel raigned eight yeares. courage, was aduertised by a voice from heauen, that he should not permit the Israe­lites in that sort to be reduced into so extreame necessitie, without taking care for them, but that he ought to aduenture himselfe to set them at libertie. For which cause, calling vnto him some fewe companions of his perils, who were discontented with their present estate, and desired a change, he first of all discomfited the garrison which Schisart had placed ouer them: and so much was he furthered with his first successe, that the number of his followers increased F more and more, so that they seemed sufficient to equall the enemy in open field: whereupon en­countring him in one battaile, they ouercame him, and recouered their libertie; and the rest of the scattered and confused army retyred themselues toward Euphrates. Now after that Cenizus had by this effect giuen proofe of his valour, he receiued the gouernment at the peoples hands, and exercised the office of iudge fortie yeares, at the end whereof he died.

CHAP. V. The yeare of the world, 2526 be­fore Christs birth 1438. G

How the people were againe made subiect to the Moabites, and how by Iodes they were exempt from seruitude.

AFter whose death (the gouernment and seate being voide) the affaires of the Israelites be­gan againe to fall to ruine, and the rather for that they neither yeelded due honour vnto Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 8. Iudg. 3. Eglon king of the Moabites cōquereth the Israelites. God, neither obedience to the lawes: whence it came to passe, that Eglon king of the Moa­bites (seeing the disorder of their pollicie) set them at nought, so that he waged warre against them, and ouercame them many times. And for that he was a prince of greater forecast then any of his predecessors, he fought against them and weakened their forces, and constrained them to H pay tribute.

This man (translating his court to Iericho, and proud in his victories) omitted no meanes whereby he might vexe and molest the people: so that they liued for the space of 18. yeares in great miserie. But God (being moued with their calamities, and supplications) deliuered them The yeare of the world. 2534. be­fore Christs birth 1430. Iodes or Ehud insinuateth himselfe into Eglons famili­aritie. from their intolerable thraldome after this manner. Iodes the sonne of Gera of the tribe of Ben­iamin (a yong man, both addressed by valour of minde, and strength of hand to attempt any worthy action) dwelt at Iericho. This man insinuated himselfe into Eglons familiaritie, and by presents and gifts entertained and courted him in such sort, as he was well beloued and estee­med amongst all those courtiers that were neerest about the king. It chanced one day, that bea­ring certaine presents vnto the king (attended by two of his houshold seruants) he secretly girt a I dagger to his right thigh, at such time as he entred into the king: now it was about midsommer and mid-day likewise, whereby the watch was growne the more carelesse and slothfull, partly by reason of the heate, and partly for that the guard were occupied about their dinner. The yong man therefore offering his presents vnto Eglon (who at that time disported himselfe in a certaine sommer chamber) began to discourse with him. Now they were both alone (by reason that the king resoluing to talke familiarlie with Iodes, had sent away his guard, and sate him downe in a seate:) but Iodes fearing, least failing to stab home enough, he should not giue him a fatall and deadly wound, required him to rise, telling him that he had a dreame to report vnto him by the commandement of God. Whereat he reioicing very much, leapt from his seate; whereupon Iodes stabd him to the heart: and leauing the poiniard sticking in his wound, he escaped and loc­ked Iodes killeth Eglon. K the doore after him; the guard making no noise at all, supposing that the king had laide him downe to rest. But Iodes giuing priuate notice hereof to them of Iericho, offered himselfe to be their leader in the recouerie of their former libertie: who (willingly accepting thereof) pre­sently tooke armes, and sent trumpets to publish the same thorow the whole countrey: (for after that manner were they woont to assemble the people.) They that were about Eglon were wholy ignorant of that which had hapned: but about the eeuen-tide (fearing least some mishap had be­fallen him) they entred into the place where he was, & found him dead; wherat they were greatly astonished, so as they knew not what to doe. For before they had assembled their forces togither, the Israelites fiercely charged them, and some they killed instantly; the rest that were ten thou­sand The Moabites put to flight & slaine by the Israelites. L in number, betooke then selues to flie, vnder hope to recouer their countrey of Moab: but the Israelites (hauing before that, laide and fortified the passages of Iordan) pursued them and slew them: so that diuers of them perished in the Ferrie, and not one of them remained that es­caped their hands. By this meanes the Israelites were deliuered from the seruitude of the Moa­bites: and for this cause Iodes was aduanced to the gouernment of the people. Finally, after he had liued for the space of fourescore yeares, he died. A man (besides the act of late rehearsed) worthy of praise in all other things. After him Sanagar the sonne of Anath was elected gouer­nour, The yeare of the world. 2614. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1350. and in the first yeare of his raigne, he left this life to partake the fruition of another.

CHAP. VI.

How the Israelites were brought vnder the subiection of the Chanaanites, and raunsomed M from seruitude by Barac.

BVt the Israelites (in no sort reclaimed or reconciled by their forepassed calamities) fell Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 9. Iudg. 4. Iabin king of the Chanaa­nites, subdueth the Israelites. againe into their former impietie and disobedlence: and before they had sufficiently sha­ken off the seruitude of the Moabites, were subiected vnto Iabin king of the Chanaa­nites. This man kept his residence imperiall at Asor (a Citie scituate on the lake of Sachonites) [Page 115] he had in pay thirtie thousand foore, and ten thousand horse: and besides these, hee had three The yeare of the world 2614. be­fore Christs birth 1350. Sylares or Sy­lara the cap­tain of the host A thousand warlike Chariots. Ouer all this huge army commanded Sisares (an especiall man a­mongst the kings fauourites) who encountring with the Israelites, brought their affaires into so desperate an estate, that they willingly (for their owne securitie sake) accepted seruitude, and paied tribute (whereunto they were inforced through the austeritie of their subiection, almost for the space of twentie yeares, not daring to lift vp their heads) all which fell vpon them by the will of God, to the end he might punish the too great contumacie and ingratitude of that na­tion. Who at length repenting themselues, and acknowledging the cause of their calamities (namely that it proceeded from the contempt of their lawes) they repaired to a certaine Prophe­tesse called Debora (which name in the Hebrew toong signifieth a Bee) beseeching her that by Debora the Prophetesse. her prayers she would endeuour to prouoke God vnto mercie (to the intent he should not suffer B them so to be oppressed by the Chanaanites.) Hereupon God (being inclined to take compas­sion on them) granted them helpe, and appointed Barac to be their gouernour (a man of the Barac appoin­ted Emperour against the e­nemy. tribe of Nephthali, whose name signifieth lightning.) Debora therefore sending for Barac com­mandeth him to picke out, and muster ten thousand chosen men, and lead them foorth against the enemy: alleadging that they were sufficient to obtaine the victorie which God had promi­sed by his Oracle. But Barac denying to vndertake the gouernment, except she also would ad­minister the same with him, she moued therewith, spake thes: ‘Wilt thou (said she) surrender the dignitie which God hath giuen thee to a woman? well I will not refuse it.’Whereupon leuying ten thousand men, they pitched their tents neere to the mountaine of Itabyr. Sisara at that time (according as the king had commanded him) presently marched out to meete them, and C encamped himselfe not farre from the enemy. But Barac and the rest of the Israelites (being terrified with the multitude of the enemies) was encouraged by Debora, who commanded them Debora and Barac charge the enemy. that verie day to enter and vndertake the battell, assuring them that the victorie should be theirs, and that God would both assist and helpe them: whereupon they charged the enemy, and there sodainly fell a storme of raine mixed with haile, which the winde droue against the faces of the Chanaanites, and tooke away their sight, making those that carried dartes, and such as serued with the sling, vnprofitable in their seruice: the Targetiers likewise hauing their hands benum­bed with colde, could scarcely wield their swords. But the tempest beating on the backes of the Israelites, not onely wrought them lesse offence, but made them also more forward (being whet­ted thereunto by the manifest signe of Gods fauour and presence:) Whereupon disarraying D and breaking thorow their enemies battell, they made a great slaughter of them, so as part of them fell by the weapons of the Israelites: the rest were ouerrunne by their owne horsemen and chariots. Sisara also as soone as he saw his souldiers turne their backes (leaping from his chari­ot) Sisara slaine with his host. fled away hastily, till at last he arriued in the tent of a woman of Cenetis called Iael, who being desired by him to conceale and hide him, entertained him: and whereas he required drink she gaue him sowre milke, which when he had ouergreedily drunke, he fell a sleepe: and whilest he so lay buried in his slumbers, Iael tooke a mallet and droue an yron nayle thorow his temples, Iael killeth Sy­sara with an yron naile. and fastned him to the pauement: and anon after, when Baracs souldiers came vnto her, she shewed him vnto them, in such manner as he was nailed. And thus a woman (according as De­bora had foretold) was the author of this victorie. But Barac leading his army to Asor, slew Ia­bin E Barac gouer­ned the Israe­lites 40. years. that came out against him: and hauing slaine the king, and leuelled the citie with the ground, he gouerned the Israelites for the space of fortie yeares.

CHAP. VII.

How the Amalechites ouer comming the Israelites, destroyed their countrey for the The yeare of the world, 2654. be­fore Christs birth 1310. Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 10. Iudg. 6. The Madia­nites confede­rate with the Amelechites ouercome the Israelites in a great battell. space of seuen yeares.

BVt when Barac and Debora were dead, about the verie same time and hard after, the Madianites (accompanied with the Amalechites and Arabians) armed themselues against the men of Israell; and encountring them in open field ouercame them in a great battell, and (destroying their fruits and haruest) led away a great pray, and when as they continued these their incursions for the space of seuen yeares, they compelled the Israelites to forsake the Champion, and flie vnto the mountaines: who digging them dens and houses vnder the earth, kept al that secretly hiddē which they had reserued & conueied from the surie of the enemy. For the Madianites inuading them in the sommer time, permitted the Israe­lites to plie their husbandrie in the winter, to the intent they might spoile and depopulate their [Page 116] countrey the more. Thus liued they in perpetuall famine and want: neither was there any other G The yeare of the world. 2654. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1310. hope or succours left them, but onely by prayers and supplications vnto God.

CHAP. VIII.

How Gedeon deliuered the Israelites.

ABout that time, Gedeon (the sonne of Iasus, one of the chiefest of the tribe of Manasses) ground certaine sheaues of corne which he had secretly conueied into his presse: for he durst not bring them openly, for feare the enemy should haue espied him. To him ap­peared God comman­deth Gedeon to deliuer the Israelites from the Madianites Iudg. 7. there a vision in the forme of a yoong man, which said vnto him, that he was happy and H beloued of God: and that a certaine signe of his good happe should bee, that he should vse his presse in steed of his grange; willing him to be of good courage, and to endeuour himselfe to re­couer his countries libertie. Gedeon answered, that it was impossible, by reason that the tribe whereof he was descended, had verie few men in it; and that hee was too yoong and feeble to thinke on affaires of so great consequence: but God promised him to supply his necessities in whatsoeuer he held himselfe deficient; and assured him (vnder his conduct) that he would giue the Israelites the victorie. These things Gedeon communicated with certaine yoong men, who willingly beleeuing the Oracle, answered, that for the present they had ten thousand souldiers in a readinesse, most readie to attempt any thing in regard of their libertie. But God appeared to Gedeon in a dreame, and told him that men naturally were louers of themselues, and haters I God comman­deth Gedeon to choose a few men. The victorie is to be attribu­ted to God. of those who were excellent in vertues: so that if there grow any question of victorie they for­get God, and appropriate the same vnto themselues, saying; that they are many, and all va­liant men at armes. To the end therefore that they may conceiue his handie worke in their de­liuerance, he counselled him that about the mid-time of the day, at such time as the heate was most vehement, he should conduct his army to the riuer; and that being there, he should dili­gently obserue those that bowed themselues to drinke, which he might esteeme for men of va­lour: but all those that dranke hastily and with noise, should be marked as men fearefull and affraid of the enemy. Gedeon did according as God had commaunded him, and there were found three hundreth men that lifted water to their mouthes with their handes, with feare and trouble: God willed him that he should assaile the enemy with those three hundred, promising K that he would giue him the victorie. About this time were they incamped vpon the banke of Iordan, readie to passe the foord the next morrow. But Gedeon was sore troubled, by reason that God had before times told him that he should assaile the enemy by night: but God willing to deliuer him of this feare, commanded him to take one of his souldiers with him, and enter the Gedeon repai­reth to the e­nemies tents, and by them in confirmed by a dreame. campe of the Madianites, assuring him that he should be both aduised and encouraged by them­selues: whereunto he obeyed, and for his better assurance, he tooke with him one of his ser­uants: Now as he drew nie a certaine tent, he perceiued that they that were within the same were awake, and that one of them with a loud voice, told his companion the dreame which that night he had had; which Gedeon ouer-heard, and thus it was. Him seemed that he saw a barley cake (so loathsome as no man would feed vpon the same) which rowled thorow the camp, which L first ouerthrew the kings tent, & afterward the tents of all his soldiers: alleadging that this vision signified the losse of the whole army. Annexing to this his allegation the reasons that induced him thereunto; namely that of all sortes of corne barley is most contemptible; and amongst all the nations of Asia, there were not this day any people to be found more disgraced and con­temned then the Israelites, and that in this respect they resembled barley. That which at this day seemeth to encourage them is Gedeon, and the army that is with him: and whereas this cake tur­ned to ouerthrow our tents, I feare me least God hath giuen some signe of victorie vnto Gedeon. Gedeon (hauing ouerheard all these things) conceiued good hope, and attempted with a valiant heart, and presently commanded his domesticall seruants to arme themselues, discoursing vnto them the vision which appeared to their enemy: whereupon they speedily prepared themselues M at his commaundement, ruminating and hammering in their mindes vpon that discourse which he had declared vnto them. About the latter watch of the night, Gedeon led foorth his army, and diuided them into three bands, and in euery band he put a hundreth men: all of these bare in their hands emptie pots, in which were hidden burning torches, in such sort as the ene­my might not discouer them when they sallied out: moreouer they bare rams hornes in their Gedeon with three hūdreth attempteth the fight. right hands, which they vsed in steed of trumpets. The aduerse army tooke vp much ground (by [Page 117] reason that they had a great number of Camels, and were distributed by nations) yet notwith­standing A The yeare of the world, 2054. be­fore Christ Na­tiuitie, 1310. were all of them comprehended in one inclosure.

The Hebrewes hauing had instructions from their captaine what they ought to doe, at such time as they approched neere vnto their enemies, and the signe of battell was giuen, they soun­ded their hornes, and brake their pots, and with their flaming lights brake into the enemies campe; crying victorie, victorie, by the assistance of God, and the strength of Gedeon. Hereup­on such a trouble and feare surprised the enemie, as they lay a sleepe (for this accident fell out in the night time, and God disposed all things to this issue) that few of them fel by the Hebrewes sword, but they thēselues slew one another in great numbers (by reason that they were different The Madia­nites and their confederates kill one ano­ther. in language.) For confusedly encountring one another, they massacred all those that encountred them, supposing them to be enemies. When the rumour of this slaughter, and Gedeons victo­rie B came vnto the eares of the rest of the Israelites, they armed themselues, and pursued and ouer­tooke the enemie (being entangled and circumuented in certaine places made vnpassable thorow many running brooks) so that being inuironed on euery side, they were all of thē put to the sword, amongst which were their two kings Oreb and Zeb. The rest of the chieftaines trouping onward with their soldiers to the number of eighteene thousand or thereabouts, encamped not farre from The Israelites pursue their enemies, and kill Oreb and Zeb. Iudg. 8. Gedeon ta­keth Zeeb and Ezarbon. One hundreth and twentie thousand Ma­dianites with their confede­rates slaine. the Israelites: but Gedeon was no waies astonished hereat, but pursuing them valiantly with his whole armie, & charging them desperately, he discomfited all the rest of the enemies, & led away captiues those chieftaines which remained, namely Zeeb & Ezarbon. There died in this battell of the Madianites and Arabians their allies to the number almost of six score thousand: besides that the Hebrewes tooke an inestimable pray of gold, siluer, apparrel, Camels, & other horses. But Ge­deon C returning into his country, Ephraim slue the rest of the kings of the Madianites: naitheles the tribe of Ephraim being displeased with his happie execution, resolued to make warre against him, accusing him for that he had not made them priuy of his stratageme intended against the enemy. But Gedeon being a temperate man, and endowed with all kind of vertue, gaue them this mo­dest answere, that it was not he that by his owne direction had set vpon the enemie, but that it was Gods onely handie worke: notwithstaning that the victorie was no lesse theirs, then his or those his followers that atchieued the enterprise. And with these his words appeasing their wrath, he no lesse profited the Hebrewes thereby, then by his valiant actions, by reason that he deliue­red them from a ciuill warre, whereunto they had fallen, if his discretion had not preuented it. This tribe was punished for this outrage offered to so noble a personage, as we will declare D hereafter in his place. Gedeon labouring to dismisse himselfe of the gouernment, was forced to The yeare of the world, 2292. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1270. Gedeon raig­ned 40. yeares. continue the same, and ruled the Israelites for the space of fortie yeares, doing iustice to euerie one that required the same at his hands, and deciding their controuersies (so irreuocable and certaine was that esteemed which he had decreed.) Finally he died when he was verie old, and was buried in the countrey of Ephraim.

CHAP. IX.

How some of Gedeons successours made warre with the nations round about them.

GEdeon had seuentie lawfull sonnes begotten on diuers lawfull wiues: he had likewise one Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 1. Iudg. 69. Abimelech kil­leth 69. of his brethren. bastard by his concubine Druma, which he called Abimelech, who after the decease of his father, retired himselfe to Sichem (where his mother was borne) there (assisted with money by his mothers kinred, & backed by thē who were men resolute & addressed to all facino­rous actions) he returned vnto his fathers house, where he slue all his brethren (except Iothan, who by good hap saued himselfe by flight) now when as Abimelech had once obtained the tyrannie, he ruled all things according to his lust, and neglected the ordinances and prescript of law, hating all those that in any sort were maintainers of equitie. One day therefore whilest there was a so­lemne feast held at Sichem (whereunto the whole people were vsually wont to resort) Iothan his brother (who as we said, saued himselfe by flight) climing the mountaine of Garizim, which Iothan by an allusion vp­braideth the Sichemites of their ingrati­tude towards Gedeon. The counsaile, of the trees in choice of a king. F ouerhangeth the Citie of Sichem, with a loud voyce (which might easily be ouerheard by the people, and in a generall silence of the whole multitude) he besought them that they would heare him in a few words, and when as they intentiuely listned with a greater and more reuerend silence: He told them in times past the trees were accustomed articulately to speake after the manner of men, and that (in a certaine assembly wherein they were to consult of their gouern­ment) they besought the fig tree to accept the soueraigntie ouer them, which when she refused, [Page 118] and pleaded in his owne behalfe that he was contented with that honour which he reaped by the G The yeare of the world. 1694. before Christes Natiuity. 1270. meanes of the fruit which he bare, & sought not further. The trees surceased not to seeke an other prince, resoluing with themselues to ascribe that honour to the Vine, which in as many words as the Fig tree refused the same: and no lesse did the Oliue tree: At last they preferred their humble protestation of election to the great Bramble (whose wood is good for firing) he answered if you do vnfainedly require me for your king, repose your selues vnder my shadow; but if you in­tend treasons against me, there shall a fire issue from me and consume you. These things, said Io­than, I report vnto you not to moue you to laughter, but for that you (hauing receiued many benefits at the hands of Gedeon) suffer Abimelech, who in spirit differeth nothing from the fire to vsurpe the Princedome after the slaughter of my brethren. When he had spoken after this man­ner he departed, and for three yeares space liued hidden amongst the mountaines, flying the H power of Abimelech. Neither did there many daies ouerpasse, but that the Sichemites (being The Siche­mites banish Abimelech. moued with compassion and iust reuenge in respect of the murther which was committed vpon the sonnes of Gedeon) banished Abimelech out of their Citie, and the whole tribe. Whereupon he resolued to do some mischief to both the Citie and Citizens: and for that their vintage was at hand, & they durst not gather the fruit, fearing least they should receiue some iniury at the hands of Abimelech. By good hap about that time a certaine Prince called Gaal retired thither with a troupe of soldiours and his kinred, him did the Sichemites beseech that he would grant them a conuoy, whilest they had gathered in their haruest: which request of theirs being accepted by Gaal, they issued out with their forces, being seconded by him and his, and securely brought in their fruits, and feasting one with another in companies, they were so bold as to scoffe at Abi­melech, I and the chiefest of his followers: and the chiefest of those straungers among them, that came into the city to their assistance, surprised by Ambuscado diuers of Abimelechs people & slew them. But Zebel one of the Sichemites and Abimeleches host signified vnto him by a messen­ger, how Gaal incited the people against him, inuiting him to lie in wait for him neere about the Abimelechs practise against the Sichemits. Citie, promising him that he would bring Gaal thither, to the end that he might easily reuenge him of that iniurie which his enemie had offered him. Which done, he promised to worke so wisely that he would reconcile him to the peoples fauour againe, and whenas Abimelech had cho­sen a place fit to lie in ambush, and Gaal with Zebel too carelesly liued and walked in the suburbes, at length he sodainly espying certaine armed men, cried out to Zebel, that he had discouered the enemie, whereunto Zebel replied that they were the shadowes of rocks: but Gaal drawing more K neere vnto them, and perceiuing apparantly who they were, answered Zebel, that they were no shadowes, but ambushes of men. Whereunto Zebel replied, dost not thou obiect cowardise to Abimelech, why therefore shewest thou not thy great valour in fighting with him? Gaal confu­sedly amazed, assailed the soldiours of Abimelech, in which conflict certaine of his followers were slaine, and he himselfe fled into the Citie (giuing example vnto the rest to follow him.) Hereupon Zebel laboured that Gaal might be expulsed out of the Citie, accusing him of his co­wardly Gaal put to flight by Abi­melech, is ba­nished out of Sichem. encountry with the soldiers of Abimelech. Now when as the same Abimelech had after­wards gotten certaine intelligence, that the Sichemites would issue anew to gather to their vin­tage, he laid an ambush neere vnto the Citie. And no sooner were they issued, but that the third part of his troopes surprised and seazed the gates to cut them off from their returne, that thought L to reenter; the rest ranne after those that were scattered here and there: so that there was a great slaughter on euerie side, and the Citie was ruinated euen vnto the verie foundations (for they could not withstand the siege) and they sowed salt vpon the ruines thereof. Thus peri­shed all they that were in the Citie of Sichem. But they that escaped thorow the conntrey, Sichem takē and sacked and rased to the ground. and had auoided the daunger, assembled and fortified themselues vpon a strong rocke, and there incamped and began to defence the same. But as soone as Abimelech had notice of their inten­tion, he hasted thither with his forces, and inuironed the place with fagots of dry wood (carying them thither in his owne person, and encouraging thereby those of his armie to doe the like) so that the rocke was incontinently compassed with wood. Whereunto he set fire round about, and The Siche­mites flying are burned vpō a rocke. in an instant it flamed and burned vehemently, so as none of them were saued, but all of them M perished with their wiues and children, to the number of fifteene hundred men, besides many o­ther of the weaker sort. This calamitie hapned to the Sichemites (in so grieuous a measure that there is not any griefe sufficient to deplore it) were it not that that so horrible misfortune fel vpon them, by reason of their ingratitude they had shewed to so vpright a iudge, and so gratious a be­nefactor. Abimelech alaid the courage of the Israelites by this encounter and conquest of the Sichemites, and gaue sufficient testimonie that he aspired more higher, and that he would neuer [Page 119] terminate his violence vntill he had vtterly extinguished them. He therefore led forth his army The yeare of the world 2694. be­fore Christis birth 1270. Abimelech taketh Tebe [...]. A against the Tebeans and their Citie, which he tookè: but in that towne there was a great tower, whither all the people had retired themselues, and whilest he prepared himselfe to besiege the same, and approched likewise neere vnto the gates, a certaine woman cast a peece of a mil­stone at him, and hit him on the head: which was the cause that Abimelech called at that time for his squier, commaunding him to dispatch him, to the intent it might not be reported that he died by the hands of a woman. His squier did according as he had commaunded him, and re­uenged A woman wou­deth Abime­lech and his squier killeth him. on Abimelech (by putting him to death) the crueltie he had committed against his bre­thren, and the tyranny executed vpon the Sichemites; on whom all these misfortunes fell accor­ding as Iothan had foretold them. As soone as Abimelech was slaine, all the armie was dispersed, and euery one returned vnto his dwelling place: and Iair the Galeadite of the tribe of Manasses Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 12. al. 19. Iudg. 10. B tooke vpon him the gouernment. Amongst other conditions of this man, these were of the greatest note, that he was rich, and had thirtie worthie sonnes, all expert vpon horse backe, and exercised the magistracie in the countrey of Galaad: he (after he had gouerned the people for the space of twentie yeares) died, when he was very old, and was honourably intombed in Chamon a citie of Galaad. From this time forward the pollicie and estate of the Hebrewes grew The yeare of the world. 2697. be­fore Christs birth 1267. Thola raigned 23. yeares. After him lair 22. yeares. more and more disordered, and the lawes began to be neglected: Whence it came to passe that the Ammonites and Philistines (setting light by them) destroyed all their countrey with a great army, during which time they occupied all the land on this side Iordan, and so much were they heartned, as that they pressed further, and possessed the better part on the other side of the riuer, and conquered the same. Wherupon the Hebrewes being brought to more moderation by these C their aduersities, had their recourse vnto God by praiers and sacrifices, requiring him that it might please him to moderate his wrath, and that hauing regard and respect of their supplica­tion, he would be pleased to stay his heauie hand ouer them. This submission of theirs preuailed with God, who inclined himselfe to assist them. Whilest therefore the Ammonites led their ar­mie into Galaad, they of the countrey arose to meete and fight with them, being disfurnished of a gouernour to conduct them. Now there was a certaine man called Ieptha, of great estima­tion, The yeare of the world. 2719. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1245. The Israelites oppressed by the Ammo­nites and Pa­lestines. as well for the vertue of his ancestors, as his owne particular valour (the rather for that he had beene trained and maintained in warlike seruice.) To him they sent a messenger, requiring him that he would assist them; promising him, that he should continue in the gouernment during the terme of his life. But he was nothing mollified with this their request, but reprochfully ob­iected D against them, that they had abandoned him at that time, when as his brothers had done him open wrong: for (by reason he was not their brother by the same mother, but a straunger, begotten on a woman which their father had entertained for his paramour, they had driuen him out of their family, setting light by him, by reason of his base birth) yet notwithstanding he had liued in Galaad, receiuing all those into wages which came vnto him, of what place soeuer they were. But after they had besought him, and sworne vnto him that he should continue in the go­uernment, The yeare of the world. 2742, be Christs birth. 1222. Ieptha is crea­ted the Iudge of Israel. he became their generall in warre, and speedily (prouiding and foreseeing whatsoe­uer was necessarie) he encamped himselfe neere vnto Maspha, and sent Embassadours to the Am­monites, accusing them for inuading a countrey that belonged not vnto them. They contrari­wise blamed the Israelites, for that they were fled like fugitiues from Egypt, and commaunded E that the Israelites should depart out of Amorrhaea (which was their ancient patrimonie.) Ieptha answered that they had no reason to accuse their ancestors, in respect of Amorrhaea: but rather that they ought to giue them thanks, for that they hac permitted them to enioy the countrey of Ammon, by reason it was in Moses power to haue commaunded the same. In a word, they were The yeare of the world, 2760 be­fore Christs birth 1204. resolued not to forsake the countrey which God had both giuen and purchased for them, and which they had held in their possession for the space of three hundreth yeares, alledging that he would defend the same against them by dint of sword: with these words dismissed he the Embas­sadours of the Ammonites. Then besought he God that it might please him to grant him victo­tie: Ieptha maketh a vow. and he made a vow, that if he returned vnto his house whole and in safetie, he would offer vp in sacrifice, that of his which he should first meete withall in his returne: whereupon incoun­tring F the enemie he defeated him, and pursued him, killing those that fled continually till he came to the Citie of Maniathen. Then entring the countrey of the Ammonites, he destroyed di­uers He ouercom­meth the Am­monites. Cities, and led away a great pray, and deliuered and ransomed diuers slaues of that nation, who had endured that seruitude for the space of eighteene yeares. But as he returned homeward, he fell into such an inconuenient, as was no waies answerable to his noble actions. For his onely daughter (of the age of eighteene yeares) came out to meete him: whereupon resoluing and [Page 120] melting himself into teares, he began to checke her for that so hastily she had issued forth to meet G The yeare of the world 2760. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1204. him, by reason he had consecrated the first thing he mette withal to God. But this accident was no waies displeasant vnto the Damsell, but that she willingly died, both for the victorie of her father, and the deliuerance of her brethren: she therefore besought her father that it would please him to grant her two months before she should be sacrificed, to the end she might lament her youth with her companions: and that after that terme, her father might acquit himselfe of that vowe which he had made. Ieptha granted her the terme and time she had limited, which being expi­red, he sacrificed his daughter for a burnt offering: which oblation of his was neither confor­mable to the law, nor agreeable vnto God (by reason he examined not in his vnderstan­ding Ieptha sacrifi­ceth his daughter. before [...]ee committed the act, how it would be taken by those that should heare the report thereof.) H

The tribe of Ephraim hearing of his victories, would haue sent out men of warre against The Ephai­mites are in­censed against Ieptha. Iud. 12. him (by reason he had not communicated his enterprise against the Ammonites with them, but had onely reserued the pray, and vsurped the honour of the execution to himselfe) where­unto he answered first of all, that being of his kinred, they could not be ignorant that both hee and his were assailed by warre; and had besides that also beene required to giue them their as­sistance, whereunto they had answered verie faintly, and being requested would not be present. Secondly, he tould them that that which they vndertooke was both vnlawfull and most wicked, in that (not daring to confront or assaile the enemie) they made no bones to set vpon and assault their own brothers and familiars, threatning them that if they gouerned not themselues, he would (by the assistance of God) be reuenged on them. But these words of his were both neglected and I despised, so that he was forced to arme himselfe against them, and with an host of men sent from Galaad, he made a great slaughter, partly in pursuing those that fled, partly also in preuenting Almost fortie thousand of the Ephrai­mites slaine. Ieptha dieth. Apsan was for seuen yeares space the Iudge in Israel. Elon raigned ten yeares. their passage who fled vnto Iordan, and the number of those that were slaine amounted to fortie thousand or thereabouts. But after that Ieptha had gouerned sixe yeares he deceased, and was bu­ried in Sebei, in the place where he was borne, and in the countrey of Galaad. After his decease, Apsan tooke vpon him the gouernment. He was of the tribe of Iuda, of the Citie of Bethleem, and had sixtie children, thirtie males & thirtie females, which he left all aliue and maried: he died when he was verie old, without performing any thing worthie either recitall or memory, during the space of his seuen yeers gouerment: he was buried in his countrey. Elon a Zabulonite his suc­cessour differed nothing from him in the same, & during the terme of ten yeares wherein he go­uerned, The yeare of the world, 27 [...]3. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1191. Abdon Iudge. K he atchieued nothing that was worthie commendation. Abdon the sonne of Elon (of the tribe of Ephraim of the Citie of Pharathon) was declared soueraigne Iudge after Elon, and is renowmed onely for his felicitie in his children (by reason that the estate was in peace and secu­ritie, and that he exployted nothing worthy glorie) he had fortie sonnes, who had thirtie other children, and he rode accompanied with these seuentie, who were all of them expert on horse­backe. He left them all aliue, and died when he was verie old, and was magnifically buried in Pharathon.

CHAP. X.

Of Sampsons valour, and how many mischiefes he did vnto the Philistines. L

AFter his death, the Philistines had the vpper hand ouer the Israelites, and exacted tri­bute from them for the space of fortie yeares. From that miserie were they ransomed after this manner: Manoach (an excellent man, and one of the chiefest of the tribe of The Israelites are ouercome by the Pale­stines. Dan, recounted without exception for the onely esteemed Prince amongst them) had a wife most famous for her beautie, and excellent amongst all other of that time; yet had he no children by her: whereat he was verie sore displeased: and for this cause he made his continuall Hedio & Ruf­finus. cap. 13. al. 10. praiers vnto God (departing with his wife to his countrey farme) beseeching him that it might please his maiestie, to grant him some lawfull heire and successour (now the place whither they resorted was scituate in a broad plaine.) Furthermore he loued his wife so exceedingly, that he M almost doted on her, and for this occasion he was extremely iealous of her. Whilest thus the woman liued solitarily by her selfe, an Angell of God appeared vnto her in a vision, promising The yeare of the world. 2783. be­fore Christs birth 1181. The Angell foretelleth Sampsons birth. her a goodly, faire and puissant sonne, who denounced vnto her the pleasant message of the birth of her child, which God by his prouidence would bestow vpon her, who should be goodly and admirable in his forces, and vnder whom also as soone (as he should attaine to mans estate) the Philistines should endure many ouerthrowes: exhorting her not to cut his haire, commaunding [Page 121] likewise that he should tast no other drinke but water (because that God had so commanded it:) The yeare of the world 2783. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1181. A and after he had finished these sayings, he departed according to the pleasure of God. As soone as her husband returned home againe, she told him all that which the Angell had said vnto her, who was amased at the beautie and greatnesse of the yoong messenger, who appeared vnto her after so strange a manner, as Manoach was almost spent with iealousie and suspition (which such a passion is woont to engender.) But she desirous to mitigate his discontent, and that distrust which he had vainely and vnaduisedly conceiued; besought God that it might please him once more to send his Angell vnto her, to the intent that her husband might see him. Whilest there­fore they liued in this sort out of towne, the Angell presented himselfe againe (thorow the grace of God) and appeared vnto the woman (being apart from her husband.) But she besought him The Angel ap­peareth once more vnto Manoach. to abide vntill such time as she had called her husband: which when she had obtained, she went B and fetcht Manoach, who notwithstanding was not deliuered of his suspition: but required him that he would relate againe vnto him all that which he had signified to his wife. The Angell an­swered him, that it sufficed that she onely knew it: whereupon he asked him what he was, to the end that when his sonne should be borne, he might both giue him presents, and present him thanks. The Angell answered, that he had no need thereof, by reason that he had not brought that good newes of the birth of his sonne for any necessitie that he had: Manoach besought him to stay and receiue some token of kindnes: but he would not consent. Finally, being instantly pressed to abide and receiue some gift: Manoach killed a kid, and commanded his wife to rost the same. And when as all things were in readinesse, the Angell commanded them to lay the bread and flesh vpon a rock without dishes: which being done, he touched the flesh with a wand C which he bare in his hand, and sodainly a flaming fire consumed both the bread, and flesh; and the Angell was seene to ascend vp into heauen in the smoake as it were in a chariot. Manoach was affraid least some inconuenient should happen vnto him, by reason that they had in that sort seene God: but his wife recomforted him, by reason that God had appeared vnto them for their profit sake. Anon after she became big with childe, and obserued all that which had been commanded her, and when the infant was borne she called his name Sampson (which is as much to say, as strong) who presently endowed with an excellent beautie both of mind and body, vsing Sampsons birth. Iudg. 14. his haire vnshorne, and sobriety in his diet, he seemed to make shew in himselfe of some prophe­ticall, and more then humane forwardnesse.

It happened one day that there was a solemnitie celebrated in Thamna a Citie of the Phili­stines, D whither Sampson resorted with his father and mother, and was surprised with the loue of one of the damsels of that place, requiring his father and mother that this mayden might be gi­uen him in marriage: which they refused to doe; alleadging that she was not of the same linage that he was of, and that God would prouide him of a match to the good and profit of those of his nation: but in the end he preuailed so much, that he espoused the maiden. Now as he ordi­narily walked to her parents, it hapned one day, that being disarmed, he met with a Lyon vpon the way, whom he grasped and strangled with his hands; and hauing slaine him, he cast the bo­die of the beast into a wood not farre distant from the hie way. An other day, and at another Sampsons tea­reth a lion in pieces with his hands. time, returning in like sort to the damsell, he found a swarme of Bees which went and made their hony and habitation in the breast of the same beast, and he tooke three hony combes which he E caried with other presents vnto his betrothed. After this he inuited the Thamnites to the cele­bration Sampson mar­rieth one of the daughters of the Pale­stines. of his marriage, who (for that they suspected his forces) vnder colour to doe him ho­nour, chose out thirtie of their strongest and valiantest yoong men, whom in words they assig­ned for his companions, but in effect appointed for his guardians; to the end he might not at­tempt any commotion at such time as he had drunke deepely: and there was nothing intended but sport, according as it is the custome in other such like occasions. To whom Sampson said, I will propose a question vnto you, which if any one of you can resolue, I wil giue each of you a fine linnen shirt, & other vestments in reward of your prudence. They being very desirous both to be reputed wise, as also to gaine the reward which was proposed, willed him to propound his que­stion: which he did in these tearmes. He that deuoureth all, and that of himselfe is vnpleasant Sampson pro­poundeth a riddle to the Thamnites. F to be fed vpon, hath brought foorth a most pleasant kind of meat. They trauelled for the space of three daies to finde out the sense thereof, but they could not: and therefore they required Sampsons best beloued, that she would sound the secrets thereof, and disclose the same vnto them; which if she failed to performe, they threatned to burne her to death. Sampson at the first (not­withstanding all her flatteries and solicitations) denyed to tell it her: at last she vrged him so in­stantly, and shed so many teares (telling him that if he did not expound the question vnto her, [Page 122] that she would take it for a certaine signe that he hated her) that at last he told her what hapned G The yeare of the world, 2791. be­fore Christs birth 1173. Sampsons wife discouereth the riddle to the Thamnites with the Lyon which he had slaine, and how in him he had the three hony combes which hee brought vnto her: and (suspectlesse of either fraud or guile) he disciphered the whole storie vnto her, and she afterwards reported the same to those that had besought her in that behalfe. When as therefore the seuenth day was come wherein the question was to be decided, they assembled themselues togither about sunne set, and said: There is nothing more irkesome to meete withal then a Lyon, neither any thing more pleasant to tast, then hony: Whereunto Sampson replied, that there was not any thing more fraudulent then a woman, for she it is that hath reported my Sampson kil­leth certaine Ascalonites & his wife mari­eth with an o­ther. Iudg. 15. words vnto you. Notwithstanding all this, he deliuered that which he had promised them out of that bootie, which he had taken from certaine Ascalonites, whom he encountred vpon the way. From that time forward he forsooke this marriage, and the woman (the more to despite him) H married one of his friends, who had in his behalfe first sollicited the marriage. Sampson (being the more incensed by this iniurie) resolued to reuenge himselfe both on her, and the whole na­tion: For which cause in the sommer season (when the corne was readie to be reapt) he tooke Sampson bur­neth the Pale­stines fruit. three hundreth foxes, to whose tailes he fastned flaming torches, and droue them into the Phi­listines fields of corne, consuming by this meanes all their haruest hope. The Philistines vnder­standing that Sampson had done this, and conceiuing the reason that induced him to execute this action, sent their garrison of Thamna, and burnt this woman aliue with all her kinred, as the authors of that losse that had hapned vnto them. After that Sampson had slaine diuers Phili­stines in the countrey, he went and dwelt at Etam (which is a strong rocke in the tribe of Iuda.) For which cause the Philistines assailed that tribe, who certified them that there was no reason I why they should suffer for those offences which were committed by Sampson, and that in especi­all, because they paied them tribute. The Philistines replied, that except they would not be main­tainers of this act of iniustice, they should deliuer Sampson vnto them. They therefore (desirous that the Philistines should haue no cause of quarrell against them) came vnto the rocke to the number of three thousand men, or thereabouts, and blamed Sampson for those actions which he dared to commit against the Philistines (a people that might endomage all the nation of the He­brewes) alleadging further, that they came to the end to take, surprise, and deliuer him into the Philistines hands, praying him to submit himselfe voluntarily to that their resolution. Sampson made them sweare that they would doe him no further iniurie, but deliuer him only vnto their enemies, and that done he descended from the rocke, surrendring himselfe to the hands of those K of Iuda, who bound him with two cables, and led him away to deliuer him to the Philistines. Now being arriued in a certaine place, which before that time had no name, and at this present Sampson is de­liuered to the Palestines. is called the Maxilla, that is to say, a Iawe (by reason of the valour which Sampson shewed in that place) and approching neere the Philistines campe, shouting and reioycing in their presence, (by reason that they had faithfully executed that which they willed them) Sampson brake his bonds, and catching vp the iawe of an Asse which he found at his feet, and marching foorth a­gainst Sampson with the lawbone of an Asse kil­leth a thou­sand men. the Philistines, he slew and beat downe to the number almost of two thousand of them, putting all the rest to flight and confusion. Sampson (becomming more elate after this executi­on then he ought to haue been, and confessing not that it was done by the assistance of God, but attributing the same to his owne vertue) gloried, that with the iawe of an Asse he had partly L slaine, and partly constrained the enemies both to feare and flie. But being seased with an excee­ding Sampson by his praiers cau­seth a fountain to breake out of a rocke. thirst, he reknowledged and confessed that mans force is of no force, and protested that all ought to be ascribed to God, whom he besought that he would not be displeased with that which he had spoken, but that it might be remitted, and himselfe deliuered from the present danger. Whereupon God heard his praiers, and caused a pleasant and aboundant fountaine to issue and spring from the foote of a rocke: for which cause Sampson called the place Maxilla or Iaw, which name continueth euen vnto this day. After this battaile Sampson set light by the Philistines, and went to Gaza where he soiourned in an Inne. The gouernours of the Citie vnderstanding of his arriuall, set men to keepe the gates, to the end he might not depart without their knowledge. But Sampson (being no waies ignorant of that which they intended against him) arose about M midnight and caried away the gates, with the hinges and lockes and all the furniture of the same, Sampson bea­reth away the gates of Gaza. and laying them on his shoulders, caried and cast them on the mountaine Hebron. Not long after that he transgressed the ordinance of his fathers, and corrupted his domesticall manner of liuing, conforming himselfe to the fashions of the Gentiles, which was the source and ofspring of all his ruine. For he was surprised and entangled with the loue of one that was called Dalila (which was a common strumpet amongst the Philistines.) To her resorted the gouernours of the [Page 123] Philistines, and by promises wrought so much with her, that they wrought her to worke out of The yeare of the world, 2791. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1171. Dalila the strumpet soun­deth Sampson to finde our wherein his strength con­sisted and is dcluded. A him wherein his force consisted, & what the cause was that he might not be apprehended by his enemies. She (conuersing with him in drinking and keeping him company) tolde him that she maruailed at his actions, and by subtill insinuations practised to vnderstand the manner and cause that made him so excellent in vertue. But Sampson (that as yet was subtill, staied and well gouerned) in counter check of her craft answered her: that if he were tied with seuen vine bran­ches that were yoong and pliant, he should become the most feeblest amongst men. Where­upon for that time she contented her selfe; and hauing giuen notice thereof to the gouernours of the Philistines, she had in her house certaine men of warre; then when he was drunke and a sleepe, she bound him as strongly fast as might be possible, and sodainly waking him told him that certaine souldiers were at hand to assaile him: but Sampson brake his bonds of the vine bran­ches, B and addressed himselfe to repulse the assaults of those that lay in waight to offend him. The woman frustrate of that hope which she expected, not longtime after that (getting a fit oportu­nitie, in that Sampson conuersed continually) began grieuously to complaine against him, for that distrusting her loue and constancie, he had concealed that from her which she most of all desired to know, as if she had been insufficient to conceale that which might any waies concerne the fortune and safetie of her beloued: But he deceiued her the second time, and said vnto her, that if he were tied with seuen cordes, he should lose his force. Which when she had done, and found a contrarie issue to her expectation, the third time Sampson told her, that if she pligh­ted his haire with a fillet, he should be weakened: and hauing experimented that also, she found that it was false. Finally (for that a great misfortune attended vpon him) she besought him so C much, that at last he condescended to gratifie her, and spake vnto her after this manner. God hath care ouer me, and I am by his especiall prouidence bred and brought vp: for this cause I Sampson dis­couereth to Dalila wherin his strength consisted, his eies are pulled out and he is led away priso­ner. The yeare of the world, 2811. be­fore Christs birth 1153. nourish this haire, for that God hath commanded me not to cut the same, because my force shal endure and augment as long as these lockes shall endure and grow. Which when she vnder­stood, she shaued off his haire and betraied him to his enemies, whose forces at that time he was too feeble to resist, who plucked out his eies, and led him away bound. But in space of time his haire grew againe, and at such time as the Philistines celebrated a publike feast (wherein the princes and peeres banquetted and entertained one another in one place, which was a house, the couer whereof was sustained with two pillars) Sampson was sent for, and brought to the feast, to the end they might mocke at him in the midst of their feasts and drunkennesse. But he taking it D more grieuously then all other the euils which he indured, that he might not reuenge himselfe on those that thus iniuriously did iniure him: he wrought so much with the boy that led him, that he approched and tooke hold of the foresaid pillars, telling him that he had great need to repose himselfe, considering the trauaile that he had sustained. As soone as therfore he got hold on them, he shooke them in such a sort, as they were ouerturned, & the house fell vpon those that Sampson with three thousand Palestines is slaine. Sampson ruled twenty yeares. were therein, who died to the number of three thousand men: with these also died Sampson, who finished his daies in this sort, after he had commanded ouer Israell for the space of twenty yeares. He was a man of great vertue, force, and magnanimitie: and especially in that which concer­neth his end, he meriteth to be admired at, because that euen vnto his latter houre he was anima­ted against the Philistines. And whereas he was allured and besotted by a woman, it ought to be E attributed to humane nature, which is so weake that it cannot resist sinne: otherwise in all other things, we ought to yeeld testimony of his vertue. His kinsfolke tooke his body and buried it in Sarasa his countrey, by his parents.

CHAP. XI.

How the sonnes of Eli the high Priest, were slaine in battell by the Palestines.

AFter the decease of Sampson, Eli the high Priest tooke vpon him the gouernment ouer Ruth. 1. Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 14. A famine in the daies of Eli. the Israelites. During his time there was a great famine, and Elimelech vnable to endure the miserie thereof, came from Bethleem a Citie of the tribe of Iuda to inhabite in the F countrey of Moab, bringing with him Naomi his wife, and Chelion and Maalon his sons, whom he had by her. Now when as his affaires had fallen out with as fortunate successe as might be de­sired, he married his sonnes to certaine daughters of the Moabites, Chelion vnto Orpha, and Maa­lon to Ruth. Some ten yeares after, Elimelech and his sonnes died, the one after the other. By which mishappe Naomi being cast into great sorrowe and destitute of their companie, whose deare familiaritie she had preferred before the loue of her countrey: changing her resolution [Page 124] (according to those occurrences that had happened her) she determined to returne vnto her G The yeare of the world. 2811. before Christes Natiuity. 1153. friends, by reason she had receiued intelligence that her countrey at that time was in good e­state. But her daughter in lawes could no waies endure to be separated from her, and will shee nill shee, they would needs accompany her: but she wishing them a more happy marriage then that which they enioyed with her sonnes, and in all other things prosperitie, and protesting vn­to them that there was no abilitie in her to doe them good; she besought them that they would stay in that place, and not (desiring to follow their wretched mother in law in an vncertaine e­uent) to lose the certaine pleasure and peaceable fruition of their countrey. These her perswa­sions tooke effect with Orpha: but Ruth (resolued in no sort to forsake her) attended on her mo­ther Naomi after the decease of her husband & sonnes depar­teth with Ruth into her owne countrey. Ruth goeth in­to Bethleem. Ruth 2. in law (as an assured and future companion of whatsoeuer fortune should fal vpon her.) Now when as both of them were arriued in Bethleem, Boos (Abimelechs kinsman) entertained them in H his house: and whereas the Citizens called her by the name of Naamis, she said vnto them, that it was more seemely for them to call her Mara (for Naomi in the Hebrew toong signifieth good hap, and Mara is as much to say as bitternesse.) Whereas then it was haruest time, Ruth by the permission of her mother, went out into the fields to glean, and gather corne for her sustenance: and it fortuned that she met by good hap in the fields with Boos, who came thither likewise not Boos friend to Naomi and Ruth. long after; who beholding her, enquired and questioned with the chiefe reaper as touching the woman. Now had he a little before that time vnderstood by her, her whole estate, which hee declared vnto his master, who gaue her thankes for the good affection which she bare vnto her mother in law, and of the care she had of her deceased sonne, whom Ruth had married, wishing her in effect all good fortune, and not suffering her to gleane, he permitted her to reape and to I gather all that which she might, commanding his master-reaper that he should no waies let her from taking whatsoeuer she pleased: giuing order likewise that when the reapers should take their refection, they should giue her both meate and drinke. Now when as Ruth had receiued graine at their hands, she reserued it for her mother in lawe, and came home at night and brought her the sheaues. In like manner Naomi had reserued a portion of certaine victuals for her, which in way of honour her neighbours had sent her. Vpon her returne Ruth reported vnto her all those words that Boos had said vnto her: and Naomi gaue her to vnderstand that Boos was of her kin, & that it might be that he was moued by deuotion towards God to haue care of her. Some other daies after, Ruth issued againe with Boos handmaides to gather her gleanings. And certaine daies Ruth 3. after (and about that time that they threshed barley) Boos came and slept on the floore: which K when Naomi vnderstood, she bethought her selfe of some subtill practise, whereby shee might make Ruth lie with him (presuming that it would be a verie good fortune for the yoong woman Ruth by her mother in laws perswasion li­eth at Boos feete. if they might grow in acquaintance togither) for which cause she sent her to sleepe at his feeto. Ruth (that made it a conscience to contradict hir mother in lawe in whatsoeuer she commaun­ded her) repaired thither, and vpon her first arriuall Boos perceiued nothing (because he was fast asleepe:) but when he awaked about midnight, and felt that there was some body that lay fast by him, he demaunded what she was: whereupon she told him her name, requesting him as her master, that he would permit her to repose in that place for that time. But early in the morning before the seruants began to fall to their worke, he commanded her to arise, and to take as much barley with her as she could beare, to the end she might returne vnto her mother in lawe, before L that any man might perceiue that she had slept in that place (because it is wisedome to auoide slaunder, especially at such time when there is occasion offered for a man to speake ill.) Touch­ing the rest (said he) the matter standeth thus: Thou hast a kinsman (said he) that is more neere thee in bloud then I am; thou must enquire of him, if it be his pleasure to take thee to his wife: & if he saith that he liketh thee, thou then must necessarily submit vnto him: but if he refuse thee, I will take thee for my wife, according as the lawe intendeth. Now when she had reported these Ruth 4. newes vnto her mother in lawe, she gathered courage and conceiued hope that Boos would take care of her. Thereupon Boos came into the Citie about noone-daies, and called a councell of the Elders, and sent for Ruth and his kinsman, to whom in person he spake thus: Doest thou possesse the heritage of Abimelech and his successors? Who when he had publikely declared that M he was seased thereof in right of proximitie, according to the ordinance of the lawe: Boos re­plyed. Thou must not (saith he) onely obserue the lawes in part; but thou must precisely exe­cute them according as they are. For behold here a yoong woman, whom it behooueth thee to marrie according to the law, if thou wilt be inheritor of his possessions. But he surrendred Boos exhor­teth his kins­man to marry Ruth. vnto Boos, not onely the possessions, but also the woman; by reason that Boos was allied also to those that were dead, and especially for that the said kinsman had already both wife and children. [Page 125] Boos therefore (hauing first of all taken witnesse of all the councell) called for the woman, The yeare of the world. 28 [...]1. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1153. A and willed her to draw neere vnto her kinsman, and to vnloose his shoe, and strike him on the face (according as the law had ordained) which done, Boos espoused Ruth, by whom (about a yeare after) he had a sonne which Naomi brought vp, and by the aduice of the women she called his name Obed (because she had nourished him in her age: for Obed in the Hebrew tongue signifieth a slaue.) Obed begat Iesse, and Iesse Dauid, who was king, and Boos beget­teth Obed Da­uids grandfa­ther vpon Ruth. 1 King. 2. who left the Realme vnto his successours for one and twentie generations of men. I haue beene enforced to declare these things as touching Ruth, because I haue an intent to declare the power of God, to whom it is possible to raise men from obscuritie to the highest tip and tittle of dignitie, as he hath chosen Dauid, who descended from these of whom I haue spoken. B

The affaires of the Hebrewes were at this time in verie poore estate, and they armed them­selues Ophni and Phinees the wicked sonnes [...] Eli the high Priest. Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 15. al. 12. anew against the Philistines vpon this occasion. The high Priest Eli had two sonnes Ophni and Phinees. They against all right and law (offering outrages to men, and vrging impieties a­gainst God) suffered no sinne to ouerslip them which they committed not: for they tooke pre­sents (partly in way of honour, partly rauished by force and rapine.) And as touching those wo­men that came vnto the Tabernacle in way of deuotion, they abused them, and rauishing some against their wils, and corrupting some other by presents, they so lewdly liued, that their life see­med to be a true and licentious tyrannie: for this cause their father was sore displeased with them, but the people were so much the more ouerburdened with griefe, because as yet they perceiued not that Gods punishmēt should so sodainly fal vpon them. But incontinently after that God had C declared to Eli and the Prophet Samuel (who about that time was verie young) what mishappe should fall vpon Elies children, he mourned ouer them, as if they had beene alreadie dead. (But I will first of all declare somwhat vnto you as concerning the Prophet Samuel, and afterwards wil I speak of the children of Eli, & what inconueniēt fell vpon all the Hebrew nation.) Elcana was a Leuite of base condition, liuing in Ramatha a part of Ephraim: he had maried two wiues, the one called Anna, the other Phenanna: by Phenanna he had children; yet notwithstanding loued he Anna verie intirely, although she were barren. Now as Elcana with his wiues repaired to Silo, Anna the wife of Elcana re­quireth a son at Gods hands. The yeare of the world. 2818. be­fore Christs birth 1146. where the Tabernacle of God was resident (as we haue before declared) to the intent to offer sa­crifice in that place: whilest I say, during the festiuall he distributed the portion of his meat to his wiues and children, Anna (beholding the children of his other wife sitting round about their D mother) began to weepe and lament with her selfe, because she was without issue and alone. And after that by her grief she had ouercome all that consolation which her husband could giue her, she went vnto the Tabernacle to beseech God that it might please him to giue her a sonne, and make her a mother; promising that her first begotten sonne should be dedicated vnto the ser­uice of God, and should lead a particular life farre differing from that of other liuing men. And for that she employed long time in making her praiers, the hie Priest Eli, who sate before the Ta­bernacle, commaunded hir to depart from thence, supposing that she had tasted too much wine: but after that she had told him that she drunke nothing but water, and that (being oppressed with griefe) she was come into the Tabernacle to beseech God that it might please him to grant her children; he exhorted her to be of good courage, promising her that God had heard her praiers: E whereupon she returned to her husband replenished with good hope, and tooke her repast with ioy and gladnes. When as then they returned to their owne house, she began to waxe big with child, and at last she bare a little young sonne, whom she called Samuel (that is to say, Requested at Gods hands.) Afterwards they returned to offer sacrifice and giue thanks vnto God for the birth of the child, which God had giuen them, and to bring their tenths: whereupon the woman (remembring her of the vow she had made in his behalfe) deliuered him into the hands of Eli, and consecrated him vnto God to be his Prophet. For which cause they suffered his haire to grow, and he dranke nothing but water, and Samuel was nourished and brought vp in the Anna bare Sa­muel to Elca­na her hus­band. Temple: Elcana had by Anna other sonnes and three daughters. But as touching Samuel (in­continently after he attained to the age of twelue yeares) he prophecied. On a certaine night F therefore whilest he slept, God called him by his name: and he supposing that the high Priest had wakened him, came vnto him: but he told him that he had not called him. This notwithstanding, God continued to call him three times: whereat Eli being fore amased, he said vnto him, Samuel, I neither now at this present, nor before this time haue spoken vnto thee, but it is God that calleth 1. King. 3. thee, answere him therefore, and say here I am. Now it chanced that he heard the voice of God once more; and he required him that it might please him to speake, and he would answere, not [Page 126] failing any waies to doe him seruice in that wherein he should command him. Whereunto God G The yeare of the world, 2818 be­fore Christs birth 1146. God fore­shewed Sa­muel of the death of Eli and his sonnes Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 16. 1. Reg. 4. answered saying: since (saith he) thou art here, know that so great a calamitie shall fall vpon the Israelites, that there is not any tongue that may expresse the same, or man that may beleeue it. The sonnes of Eli shall die, and the Priesthood shall be transported into the family of Elea­zar: For Eli hath more loued his children then my seruice, and more then was expedient for them.

Eli inforced the Prophet by imprecations to declare vnto him that, which he had heard. But Samuel (for feare he should discomfort him) would not disclose the same vnto him, which made him the more assured of the intended and imminent death of his sonnes. And because that which Samuel prophecied in effect proued true, his reputation increased daily more and more. H

In that time the Philistines (leading out their armie against the Israelites) incamped neere The Palestines kill foure thou­sand of the Israelites. The yeare of the world, 2850. be­fore Christs birth 1114. vnto the Citie of Amphec, and for that the Hebrewes were negligent to withstand them, they pas­sed further into the countries thereabout: so that in fighting with their enemies, the Philistines at last got the vpper hand, and slew the Hebrewes, and had them in chace for the space of foure miles, pursuing the rest of those that fled euen vnto their owne tents. Whereupon the Hebrewes grew iealous and affraid of their whole estate: and therefore sent they to the councell of the Elders and the high Priest, praying them to bring the Arke of God with them, to the end that (hauing it in presence with them) they might strike the battell and ouercome their enemies. But they bethought them not that he, that had pronounced the sentence of their calamitie against The Hebrewes bring the Arke into the battel them, was greater then the Arke which was made for him. The Arke then was brought, and I the sonnes of Eli attended it, whom their father had expresly commaunded, that if it so fell out that the Arke were taken, they should neuer more come before his presence, except they would die. Now Phinees executed the office of the high Priest, by the permission of his father, by rea­son he was verie aged.

The Hebrewes (because of the presence of the Arke) conceiued very great hope and assu­rance, that they should haue the vpper hand of their enemies. The Philistines likewise were sore amazed, fearing the presence of the same: but the issues were not answerable according to the one or the others expectation. For when they ioyned battell, the victorie which the Hebrewes hoped should be theirs, fell vnto the Philistines; & the losse which the Philistines feared, fell vpon Ophni and Phinees with thirty thou­sand are slaine. and the Arke is surprised by the enemie. the Hebrewes, who at last perceiued that they had reposed their confidence on the Arke all in K vaine. For as soone as their enemies, and they fought pell mell with them, they turned their backs and lost about thirtie thousand men, amongst whom the sonnes of the high Priest were slaine, and the Arke was taken and carried away by the enemie.

CHAP. XII.

Eli vnderstanding of the losse of his sonnes, fell from his seate and died.

AS soone as the newes of this ouerthrow was brought into Silo, and that it was certainly knowne that the Arke was taken (for a young Beniamite, who was at the execution, L was come to bring tidings thereof) all the Citie was filled with sorrow: and Eli the high Eli vnderstan­deth of the losse of his sonnes, and the surprisall of the Arke. Priest (who sate in one of the gates on a high throne) vnderstanding the lamentation, and iudg­ing that some desaster had befallen his people; sent to seeke out this young messenger, by whom he was aduertised of that which had hapned. This accident of his sonnes and the army he bare with great moderation, because that before that time he had vnderstood by God what should happen (for those aduersities which are least suspected do more grieuously oppresse vs, at such time as they happen:) But when he knew that the Arke was surprised, and in the enemies hands, by reason that it hapned beyond his expectation, he was in such sort attainted with griefe, that Eli hearing of the losse of the Arke died. he suffered himselfe to fall from his throne vpon the ground where he died: he liued ninetie and eight yeares in all, and had spent fortie of them in the gouernment of the people. M

The same day died the wife of Phinees the sonne of Eli, who had no more power to liue when she vnderstood of the misfortune of her husband: for she was with child at such time as the message of this his death was brought vnto her, and she brought forth a sonne in the seuenth month, which liued and was called Ichabod (which signifieth ignominie) by reason of the infa­mie Phinees wife bare Ichabod and died. receiued at that time by the armie.

Eli was the first that gouerned among the successours of Ithamar, one of the sonnes of Aaron: [Page 127] for before that time the house of Eleazar was possessed of the Priesthood (the sonne receiuing The yeare of the world. 2850. be­fore Christs birth 1114. The genealo­gie and proge­nie of Eli the high priest. A it from his father) Eli transferred it to Phinees, after him Abiezar his sonne occupied the place, and left it to his sonne Boci, whose sonne called Ozes receiued it, after whom Eli (of whom we speake at this present) tooke the same, whose posteritie retained that dignitie till the time of the raigne of Salomon: for at that time the posteritie of Eleazar were reinstalled.

THE SIXTH BOOKE OF THE ANTIQVITIES OF THE B IEWES,

The Contents of the Chapters of the 6. booke.
  • 1 How the Palestines compelled by pestilence and famine, sent the Arke of God backe againe vnto the Hebrewes.
  • 2 The victorie of the Hebrewes vnder the conduct of Samuel.
  • 3 How Samuel when his strength failed him thorow age, committed the administration of the af­faires C to his sonnes.
  • 4 How the people being offended with the manners of Samuels sonnes, required a King that might rule ouer them.
  • 5 Saul by Gods commaundement was annointed King.
  • 6 Sauls victorie against the Ammonites.
  • 7 The Palestines assailing the Hebrewes, are ouercome by them in battell.
  • 8 The victorie of Saul against the Amalechites.
  • 9 Samuel translateth the Royall dignitie vnto Dauid.
  • 10 The expedition of the Palestines against the Hebrewes.
  • 11 Dauids single fight with Golias, and the slaughter of the Palestines that succeeded. D
  • 12 Saul admiring Dauids fortitude, giueth him his daughter in marriage.
  • 13 How the King sought Dauids death.
  • 14 How Dauid oftentimes hardly escaped from the kings treasons, yet hauing him twice in his power how he would not hurt him.
  • 15 The Hebrewes are ouercome in a great battell by the Palestines, wherein Saul the king, and his sonnes fighting valiantly are slaine.

CHAP. I.

How the Palestines compelled by pestilence and famine, sent backe the Arke of coue­nant vnto the Hebrewes. E

AFter that the Philistines had gotten the victorie ouer the Hebrewes, and taken the sacred Arke (as we haue before this declared) they brought it with other their spoiles vnto the City of Azot, and placed it in maner of a trophee in the Temple of Dagon their Idoll. But on the next day after (when earely in the morning they came and entred into the Temple to adore their god) 1. King. 5. Hedio & Ruf­finus. ch. 1. The sacred Arke is caried into the Tem­ple of Dagon. They of Azot are horribly plagued for ta­king away the Arke. Mice deuoure the fruit of the countrey of Azot. they found him fallen from that base or pillar that sustained him, and lay a­long vpon the ground, his face vpward before the Arke; whereat being fore moued, they tooke and fastned him in his former place: and whenas they came verie oftentimes thither, and alwaies found him prostrate, and adoring before the Arke, a great feare F and perturbation inuaded the whole people. At length a grieuous plague, not onely raunged in the Citie of Azot, but also seased on all the inhabitants of the countrey. For the people being sodainly taken with the flixe, died in great torment, and some of them vomited vp their bowels, being corrupted and corroded with the disease. Besides this, the whole land swarmed with mice, who destroying all things, neither spared the corne, nor any other fruit. The Azo­tians being thus ouerpressed with these calamities, and vnable any longer to indure the same, [Page 128] vnderstood that the Arke was the the cause thereof, and that neither the victorie, neither the sur­prisall Thereare of the world. 2350. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1 [...]4. G of the same, had any waies procured either their good or profit. They therefore sent vnto the Ascalonites, requiring them that they would receiue the Arke into their Citie, who (willingly condescending to their embassage and demaund) receiued the Arke, and were presently plagued with the same sicknesses and mishappes which the Azotians had suffe­red. For together with the Arke the calamities also were translated, for which cause it was likewise sent from this place into an other, with whom it remained but a little while: for the inha­bitants of that place being afflicted by the same grieuāces which the other indured, sent it to their neighbour Cities, so that after this sort the Arke was conuaied to fiue Cities of the Palestines: (exacting as it were by those plagues a tribute in euerie one of them of violated religion) who wearied with so many euils, and made examples vnto others not to entertaine the Arke, which so H grieuously recompenced those that receiued the same, perceiued that there was no other waies 1. King. 6. left them but to finde out some good meanes to rid themselues of the same. Whenas therefore the Princes of the fiue Cities, of Geth, Accaron, Ascalon, Gaza, and Azot were assembled, they consulted amongst themselues what were best to be done, and first of all they resolued to send Consultation about the Arke. backe the Arke vnto those to whom it appertained, whose captiuitie God did reuenge in that with it many plagues entred into the same Region, & ceased not to wast both their men and their countrey. There were some that said that this resolution was vnseemely to be executed, denying that these things should be imputed to the captiuitie of the Arke (whose power if it were so great as they intended, or if God had any waies care of the same; he would neuer haue permit­ted it to haue fallen into the hands of men of a contrarie religion) perswading them to digest these I misfortunes with an equall mind, and so to thinke that all these things were nothing else but the effects of nature, which in certaine periods of times is wont to ingenerate in mens bodies, in the earth, and in plants (and in other things subiect to her power) these kinds of alterations and mu­tations. But the counsell of those men, that had approued their vnderstanding and wisedome in times past, was preferred before their opinion. For the assistance supposed that in this de­liberation, as also their opinion and counsell was most conuenient. They therefore adui­sed that the Arke should be sent backe and not retained, and that the fiue Cities should de­dicate fiue golden statuaes in testimonie of their gratuitie, because they had beene preserued by his fauour from that plague, from which by humane remedies it was impossible to escape: they annexed also so many golden mice vnto them, like vnto those that spoiled their countrey; K all these locked in a chest and laid vpon the Arke, they commaunded that a new Cart should be built, and that they should yoake and tie to the same certaine kine that had new calued, locking vp their calues from them, least they should be an impediment to their dammes, and (to the in­tent that thorow the desire to see their young) they should haste the faster. That done, that dri­uing the chariot and them, they should leaue them in a place that had three waies, and suffer them to draw that way that them listed: and if they tooke the way of the Hebrewes, and should trauell towards their countrey, they then should assure themselues that it was the Arke which was the cause of their euils; but if they drewe another way, let them (said they) be driuen backe againe, being most assured that the Arke hath no such vertue in it. This counsell was ap­proued The conclu­sion of the counsaile as touching the sacred Arke. by euery one of the assembly, and presently effected: so hauing prepared all those things L whereof we haue spoken, they brought the chariot into a high way that extended three waies, and leauing it in that place they returned backe againe.

CHAP. II.

The victorie of the Hebrewes vnder the conduct of Samuel.

NOw when the kine entred and kept the right beaten way, and trauailed therein no other­waies then if some men had led them, the gouernours of the Philistines followed after The yeare of the world. 2851. be­fore the birth of Christ. 1113. The sacred Arke commeth to Bethsama The gratulatiō of the Bethsa­mites vpon the artiuall of the Arke. them, desirous to vnderstand whither they would trauel, & in what place they would rest M both themselues and the chariot. There is a borough in the tribe of Iuda called Bethsama, to­wards which they drewe: and although they had a verie faire plaine before them, yet would they not trauell any further, but rested the chariot in that place. The inhabitants came vnto this spe­ctacle, and greatly reioyced thereat: for although it was sommer time (wherein euery one busied himself in gathering in the fruits of the field) yet so it was, that when they perceiued the Arke, they were so transported with the pleasure that they had, that they laid aside the worke which they had [Page 129] in hand, and ran presently vnto the chariot. Then taking downe the Arke and the Cofer (wherein The yeare of the world, 285 [...]. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 11 13. A the statuaes of golde, and golden rats were) they laid them vpon a certaine rocke in the field, and after they had solemnly sacrificed and royally feasted togither; they offered vp both the chariot and kine for a burnt offring vnto God. Which when the Princes of the Palestines perceiued, they returned backe againe into their owne countrey. But Gods indignation and displeasure was Ruffinus wri­teth that God strooke 70. of the greatest, and 50000 of the common sort as it is, 1. Kin. 6, 1 Kin. 7. whetted against the Bethsamites: so that seuentie of them were slaine, by reason they had tou­ched the Arke, and with prophane hands (not being Priests) attempted to sustaine it. For which cause the inhabitants thereabouts lamented their losse, and mourned for that their countrimen were extinguished by no fatall death, but by a punishment and plague sent from God, lamen­ting in particular euerie one of their alliance. And supposing that they were vnworthy that the Arke should remaine with them, they sent messengers to the gouernours and the rest of the He­brewes, B to let them vnderstand that they had recouered the Arke out of the hands of the Phili­stines; who being made priuie to euerie accident, placed the same in Cariathiarim a Citie bor­dering vpon the Bethsamites. In that place there dwelt a man of the race of the Leuites called The Arke is transferred in­to Cariathia­rim. Aminadab (who had the honour and reputation of a good man, and was renowmed for his good and godly life) to his house directed they the Arke, as to a place agreeable vnto God, because there dwelled in the same a man of so much vertue. His sonnes had the charge of the Arke, Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 2. I he punish­ment of the Israelites. and continued in that seruice for the space of twenty yeares, during which time it remained in Cariathiarim, after it had only remained 4. moneths with the Philistines. During the time that the Arke was in the Citie of Cariathiarim, all the people conuerted themselues vnto God with prayers and sacrifices, shewing great deuotion and forwardnesse in his seruice. The Prophet C Samuel perceiuing this their readinesse in courage, and supposing he had got a fit occasion to ex­hort Samuels orati­on to the peo­ple. them vnto libertie, and those profits which consequently follow the same; and applying his speech vnto the oportunitie, time, & affaires, spake vnto them such words as sounded to this effect. ‘Yee men of Israel, since at this present the Philistines cease not to molest you, and God begin­neth to shew himselfe mercifull and fauourable vnto you: it behooueth you, not only to be tou­ched with a desire to recouer your libertie, but also to endeuour your selues to purchase the same in effect. Beware therefore least thorow your owne manners you make your selues vnworthy thereof, and let each one of you endeuour to follow iustice; and expulsing all sinne out of your mindes, conuert your selues in all puritie vnto God, and perseuer constantly in his seruice. For Samuels ex­hortation to the people, as touching their repentance. in doing these things, you shall shortly obtaine all felicitie, and especially purchase vnto your D selues a new libertie, and an assured victorie against your enemies; which neither by armes, nei­ther by the strength of your bodies, neither by the multitude of your armies, you were able to obtaine: for God hath not proposed rewards for these things, but for vertue and iustice, who (trust me) will not deceiue your expectation, nor faile in the execution of his promises.’When he had spoken after this manner, all the people testified their consent in good words, shewing the pleasure they had conceiued by his discourse; promising to doe that which should be well li­king and agreeable vnto God. Whereupon Samuel assembled them the second time in the ci­tie of Maspha (which word signifieth conspicuous) there erected they an altar and sacrificed vnto God, and after they had fasted for a daies space, they publikely addressed them to call vpon the The yeare of the world, 2871. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1093. The praiers, supplications and fasts of the Israelites in Maspha. name of God. The Philistines in the mean space, who were assembled togither in the same place, E had an inckling of that which the Hebrewes did, and being certified of this assembly came with a great army and many forces, intending to intrap the Hebrewes, who neither expected or were prepared for them. This sodaine attempt of theirs sore dismaied and troubled the Hebrewes: so that they repairing and running vnto Samuel, told him that their hearts failed them thorow feare, and their mindes were troubled thorow the remembrance of those precedent losses which they had receiued: For which cause they ought to hold themselues in quiet, for feare least the enemy should inforce his power against them. Whilest (said they) thou hast led vs hither to pray, acrifice, & offer vp our vowes vnto God, they are encamped nere vnto vs, being ready to surprise What things in warfare are to be opposed a­gainst the ene­mie. Samuel cōfor­ted the people vs that are naked and disarmed: we haue no other hope therefore of our security, but that procee­deth from thee and God; who being moued by thy prayer, may giue vs meanes to escape from F their hands. Samuel in way of answere wished them to be of good cheere, promising them that God would yeeld them some testimony of his assistance: whereupon sacrificing a sucking lamb for the people, he besought God that it might please him to stretch forth his right hand for them in this battell against the Philistines, and that he would not permit them to fall this second time into the enemies hands. To these prayers of his God listned with intentiue eares, and accepted Samuels sacri­fice and praier. their humble hearts and dutifull obseruance, smiling vpon their offering, and promising them [Page 130] both force, and victorie. But before the sacrifice was wholy consumed with flame, and the ce­remonies The yeare of the world. 2871. before Christes Natiuity. 1093. The sacrifice deuoured by caelestial firme a token of Gods assistāce. A horrible earthquake among the e­nemies. G performed; the enemies arranged their battels in the Israelites sight, supposing that the day was already theirs, in that they had intercepted the Iewes who were vnprepared for the fight (who were not onely disappointed, but also assembled in that place to no such end.) But the matter fell out farre contrarie to that which they expected (and had they beene foretold the same, they had scarcely beleeued it.) For first of all by Gods commandement the earth trembled vnder their feet, and with vncertaine pace they knocked their heads the one against the other; some likewise were sodainly swallowed vp by the earth-quake: at length astonished by often flashes, and hauing both their eies and hands halfe blasted and burned by the firie lightnings that fell (so that they could not wield nor mannage their weapons) they reposed all their hope and confidence in flight. But Samuel seeing them in this sort dismaied, sodainly set vpon them, H Samuels victo­rie ouer the e­nemy. and killing many of them, he ceased not to pursue the rest as farre as a place called Corraeus, where he fixed and erected a stone or trophee, as a marke both of his owne victorie, and the ene­mies flight, and called the same the strong rocke; as a witnesse of the force that God had giuen him against the Philistines; who after they receiued this ouerthrow, sallied not out any more a­gainst the Israelites. But remembring themselues of their feare and those accidents that fell vp­on them, they remained in peace, offering no further inuasion: for the confidence which the Philistines had before that time conceiued and gotten against the Hebrewes, translated it selfe and remained with the Hebrewes euer after this victorie. And Samuel led forth his army against Samuel reco­uereth those lands which the Israelites had lost. them, and slew a great number of them, and for euer abased their pride, taking from them that countrey which before times they by conquest had cut off from the inheritance of the Iewes, I which countrey extendeth it selfe from the frontire of Geth, to the Citie of Accaron: and the rest of the Chanaanites at that time had peace with the Israelites.

CHAP. III.

Samuel weakned by reason of his olde age cannot any longer gouerne the estate, and committeth it to the administration of his sonnes.

NOw when the Prophet Samuel had reduced and brought the people to a good forme of gouernment, he assigned them a Citie whither they might appeale and decide those dif­ferents Samuel pre­scribeth lawes and disposeth the iudgment seat in seuerall cities. K that might fall out amongst them: and as touching himselfe, he trauailed twice euerie yeare from citie to citie, to administer iustice vnto them, and continued the maintenance of this pollicie for a long time. But as soone as he perceiued himselfe to be ouerburdened with yeares, and vnapt to execute his ordinarie offices, he reserued the gouernment and superinten­dence Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 3. 1. King. 8. Samuel com­mitteth the go­uernment and care of the commonweale to his two sons locl and Abia. of the people to his sonnes, the elder of whom was called Ioel and the yonger Abia; and he commanded that the one of them should make his seat of iustice in Bethel, and that the other should giue audience at Bersabe, diuiding the people, and attributing each part to his par­ticular Iudge. In these was there a manifest example and infallible testimonie, that children are not alwaies borne like vnto their fathers: but that sometimes of euil parents there are good chil­dren bred, as contrariwise at that time of a good father there were euill sonnes begotten. For L forsaking the instructions of their father, they followed a quite contrarie course; and oppressed iustice thorow corruptions and rewards; and swallowed vp and surfeited in delights and plea­sures, they both contemned the will of God, and the instructions of their father, who had no o­ther care, then that the people should study to liue well, and vprightly.

CHAP. IIII.

How the people being displeased with the manners and gouernment of the sonnes of Samuel demanded a King.

WHen as therefore the people perceiued, that the sonnes of the Prophet had committed M The Israelites report vnto Samuel the lewd behaui­our of his sons and beseech him to nomi­nate a king that may raign ouer them. so many outrages against their lawes and pollicie, they were very sore displeased, and had recourse vnto their father where hee dwelled in the Citie of Ramatha; where reckoning vp vnto him the misdemeanors of his sonnes, and how thorow the multitude of his yeares, he was vnfit according to his accustomed manner to administer the affaires of the com­mon weale, they earnestly intreated and besought him, that he would nominate and elect some King ouer them, who might both command their nation and Empire, and exact due punish­ment [Page 131] on the Palestines, for their many and too oftentimes offered iniuries. This resolution of The yeare of the world 2871. be­fore Christs birth 1093. A the people grieuously tormented Samuels minde, who by reason of his innated and vpright iu­stice misliked of the kingly authoritie, as a stile and state too imperious: for he greatly delighted himselfe in the Aristocracie or gouernment of the elders, deeming no estate more conducible, or auaileable for the securitie and prosperitie of the people, then that was. And so did this mat­ter Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 4. Samuel is dis­comforted tho­row the peo­ples demand. Samuel is com­forted by God. distemper and distract this man, as by reason of his care he could neither tast food, nor en­tertaine sleepe: but all the night long tossed and tumbled in his bed, during those tmies com­plotting & imagining many things in his mind. Whilest these his indispositions continued, God appeared vnto him, & comforted him, willing him not to be agrieued at that which the people had required: but that he should suppose that this iniurie, not onely concerned him, but God himselfe, whom they disclaimed also for their king and sole gouernour ouer them. The effect B whereof they had complotted, from the day that they departed out of Aegypt: but eare it be long (said he) they shall repent themselues, yet shall not their repentance vndoe that which shall be done; and it shall appeare by those counsailes they haue taken, that they haue bin contemners & ingratefull toward me by their own confession, and towards thee also which hast been their Pro­phet. I will therefore that thou choose them a king, and such a one as I shall nominate vnto thee, God comman­deth Samuel to create a king. (after thou hast aduertised them what euils they shall endure, at such time as they shall haue a King) and hast publikely declared vnto them, what inconuenients follow the change which so vehemently and vnhappily they pursue. When Samuel vnderstood these sayings, he assembled the people about the breake of day, and protested publikely vnto them, that he would establish them a King. ‘But saith he, before I shall effect that which you request, I must expose and de­clare C vnto you what estate you shall liue in, being vnder the subiection of royaltie; & how many Samuel expres­seth vnto the Israelites those inconuenien­ces they shall suffer vnder a king. and grieuous euils you shall be pressed withall, by those Kings that shal gouerne you. Know ther­fore first of all, that they will take your children from you, & make some of them coachmen, and other some their horsemen and archers of their guard others their posts, and tribunes and centu­rions; some likewise their handicraftsmen, and armorers, and chariot-makers, and smithes, and forgers of other sorts of weapons, besides husbandmen of his fields, and plowes, and diggers of his vineyards: neither is there any thing which they shall not be cōpelled to do after the manner of bondslaues, that are bought with money. They shall take your daughters also, and make them their perfumers, cookes and bakers; and they shall imploy them in all seruile offices, whereunto their chambermaides are to be imployed either by stripes or torture. They shall take from you D your substance, and giue it to their Eunuches, and guard. They shall take your slocks, and distri­bute them amongst their seruants: In a word, you and all yours shall serue one king, and shall be of no better reckoning then the slaues of his houshold. When you shall endure these paines, then shall you call to remembrance all these things which I haue tolde you, and with repentance you shall beseech God, that he will haue mercie vpon you, and giue you a speedy deliuerance from the seruitude of your kings: but he shall not respect your prayers, but neglecting and re­pulsing them, shall suffer you to beare the penaltie of your euill counsaile.’Although these future inconueniences were foretold them, yet did the people neglect and set light by them: and not suffering that sinister opinion which before that time they had conceiued in their minds, to be altered or frustrated in them, they insisted with all obstinacie; requiring (without any care of fu­ture E mishaps) that they might haue a king created ouer them, because (as they said) it was very ne­cessary that they should haue a king that might wage warre with them, to reuenge them on their The people ob­stinarely per­seuereth in cra­uing a king. enemies, and represse their aduersaries forces, and that there was no absurditie in it, but that they might be gouerned in the same sort as their neighbours were. Samuel perceiuing that his perswasions could preuaile nothing at all with them, and that they could not be diuerted from that resolution wherein they persisted, he spake thus: Go your waies for this time euerie one of you vnto your houses, and I will cause you to be assembled when the cause requireth, and when God shall haue informed me what king he will giue you.

CHAP. V. F

Saul by the commandement of God is declared King.

THere was a certaine man of the tribe of Beniamin, noble in birth, and commendable The yeare of the world, 2880. be­fore Christs na­tiuitie, 1084. 1. King. 9. in manners called Cis, who had a yoong sonne faire in face, great in body; hauing a spi­rit and iudgement farre more excellent then were the lineaments and perfections of his body, whose name was Saul. This Cis hauing faire Asses, wherein he tooke more pleasure then [Page 132] in any other kinde of cattell, had lost certaine of them which were straied from the rest of his G The yeare of the world. 2880. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1084. Saul seeketh the Asses that were lost. flocke: whereupon he sent his son accompanied with a seruant to search & seeke them out; who hauing trauersed and trauailed in quest of them thorow all his fathers tribe, iourneied thorow the rest of the tribes, without any hope or inckling of them: for which cause hee determined to re­turne home againe, for feare least his father should conceiue some care and griefe in his absence. Whilest then he arriued neere vnto the Citie of Ramatha, the seruant that followed him, certifi­ed him that there dwelt a Prophet in that place, to whose foresight the knowledge of the truth was subiect, towards whom he counsailed him to addresse himselfe, with assurance and confi­dence, that by him he should vnderstand what was become of his Asses. Saul replied, that he had no meanes lest to recompence the Prophet, by reason they had consumed all the money they had brought foorth with them in their iourney. His seruant told him that he had as yet the H fourth part of a sicle, which they might giue him: but they were both of them deceiued, in that they were ignorant that the Prophet was not to be bribed. When as therefore they drew neere vnto the gates of the Citie, they met with certaine maidens that went out to fetch water, of whom Saul asketh where the Pro­phet dwelleth. they demaunded where the Prophet dwelt: who gaue them directions, telling them that they were to make haste before that he were set downe to supper, by reason he at that time entertai­ned diuers guests, and he himselfe was first wont to sit downe at the vpper end of the table. Sa­muel had inuited this company, by reason that all the day long he had instantly besought God, that he would declare vnto him, who it was that should be established king, and God also gaue him to vnderstand that he would informe him the next day after, and that about the same houre he would send a yoong man vnto him of the tribe of Beniamin. For this cause Samuel I sat in his house expecting the assignation, which being come, he came downe vnder pretence to God certifieth Samuel whom he should create king. go to supper, and in the way he met with Saul. At that verie instant God signified vnto Samuel, that it was he whom he should elect Prince and gouernour ouer the people.

Saul addressing himselfe vnto Samuel, besought him that he would shew him the Prophets lod­ging, by reason that he was a stranger and knew it not. Samuel told him that himselfe was the Saul com­meth vnto Sa­muel. Samuel certifi­eth Saul how he shall enioy the kingdome. Samuel con­ducteth Saul vnto the ban­quet. man to whom hee spake, and led him to the banquet; assuring him that his Asses (in search of whom he had trauailed so long) were in safetie, and that all mens goods were at his commaund. Saul answered: My Lord, I am too base to hope or expect so much; and further, my family is the least of all the families: you therefore iest and mocke at me, in speaking of such things as sur­passe my condition. The Prophet tooke him by the hand, and brought both him and his ser­uant K to the table, and placed him aboue all those that were inuited, who were to the number of seuentie. Samuel commanded that the royall portion should be set before Saul: and when the houre of bed time came, all the rest arose and departed to their houses, but Saul and his seruant lodged that night with the Prophet: and as soone as it was day, Samuel awaked Saul, and depar­ting with him out of towne, he commanded him to send his seruant before, and to remaine him­selfe with him behind, because he had certaine things to impart vnto him in priuate. Hereupon Saul sent away his seruant, and Samuel taking a cruet with oyle, poured the same vpon the yong mans head, and embracing him said: Be thou King elected by God against the Philistines, and 1. King. 10. Samuel an­nointed Saul king. for the defence of the Hebrewes. Thou shalt haue this signe which I now shall informe thee of, of thy future honour. When thou shalt bee parted from hence, thou shalt ouertake three men L in the way, who trauell to Bethel to adore and sacrifice vnto God: the first of which, thou shalt Samuel in way of confirmatiō telleth Saul what shall be­fortune him in his iourney. see bearing three loaues, the second shall beare a goate, and the third shal follow carrying a glasse of wine. These shall embrace thee and caresse thee: they shall giue thee two loaues, and thou shalt receiue them. And from thence shalt thou depart vnto that monument that beareth the name of Rachel, where thou shalt meet with a messenger, that shall certifie thee that the Asses are found. From thence comming vnto Gabatha, thou shalt finde the Prophets assembled in their congregation, and being rauished by the spirit of God, thou shalt prophecy amongst them: so that whosoeuer shall behold thee, shall be rauished in admiration, and shall say: whence com­meth it to passe, that the sonne of Cis hath attained to so good fortune? and when thou hast had these signes, know that God shall be with thee: salute thy Father and thy kinsmen in my behalfe. M Hereafter thou shalt repaire and be sent vnto me vnto Galgal, to ofter sacrifices of thankes giuing vnto God. Hauing in this manner told and foretold him that which is forespoken, he gaue him licence to depart, and all these things hapned vnto Saul, according as the Prophet Samuel had prophecied vnto him. When Saul was arriued at Abenars house, who was his vnckle, whom he loued aboue all the rest of his other familiars: Abner questioned with him about his voiage, and as touching those things which had chaunced vnto him: and Saul hid nothing from him, [Page 133] but point by point informed him of all that which had hapned vnto him, during his being and a­boad A The yeare of the world. 2880. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1084. Saul concealed his royall dig­nitie. The vncon­stancie of mans loue. with the Prophet Samuel, and how he had declared vnto him the recouery of his Asles: but as touching the royaltie and those things that concerned the same, he concealed them; suppo­sing that if it should be made knowen, it would not be beleeued; but that he should reape hate thereby. For although he were both his friend and cousen; yet thought he it more secure and conuenient for him to burie the same in silence, reputing (as I suppose) in himselfe the infir­mitie of mans nature, that no man is constant in loue, but although by manifest assistance from God felicitie fall vpon any man, yet other men do grieue & repine that any one should be prefer­red before them.

After this, Samuel assembled the people in the Citie of Maspha, where he framed his speech in such sort as he certified them of those things which he had receiued from God, namely, that he B hauing procured their libertie, and brought their enemies in subiection vnder them; next how Samuels ora­tion to the people as con­cerning Saul. they were forgetfull of so many benefits, and had degraded God of his royaltie; as if they were ignorant, that the greatest good that might happen vnto men, is to be gouerned by him that is the soueraigne good; how they had determined to haue a man to their King, who according to his pleasure & appetite, or according to the vnbridled bent of his passion, would vse them like slaues made subiect vnto him, and would vsurpe vpon their goods without forbearing any thing what­soeuer; that men are not so studious to maintaine their handie works and labours, as God, who hath an inestimable care of those whom he hath created. Notwithstanding (saith he) since you haue thus determined, and are after this manner resolued, and that the outrage which you haue enterprised against God, preuaileth with you, set your selues all of you in order according C to your tribes and families, and let each of you cast your lots. To this the people condescended, and the lot fell on the tribe of Beniamin, which being cast the second time light on the family of Lots cast tho­row euery tribe & family. Metri, and afterwards being approued by the people it fell to Sauls lot, who was the sonne of Cis, to haue the kingdome. The young man, who before that time knew what should happen, had stept aside, to the intent (as I suppose) that it might not seeme that he had desired this dignitie: and such moderation & temperance shewed he in this matter, that although it so fel out that di­uers cannot conceale the ioy they conceiue, if any face of felicitie smile vpon them, bur manifest Sauls modesty and temperāce in vnderta­king the go­uernment. Saul hideth himselfe from the presence of the people. the same vnto all men; yet notwithstanding he not onely was void of vaine appearance (although he were to be King and Lord of so many worthie people) but that which is more, he stole away from the presence of those men ouer whom he should commaund, and so handled all things D that he made them seeke after him, and trauell to find him out. Whilest therefore they carefully sought & knew not what was become of Saul, the Prophet praied God that he would shew them where he was, & that he would bring him into their presence: whenas therfore he was enformed by God in what place he remained; Samuel sent out certaine messengers to conduct him thither, & assoone as he came amongst them Samuel set and placed him in the midst of the people: now Saul of a high slature. was he more higher then any of the company by the shoulders; and had a kingly and goodly shape and appearence: then spake the Prophet after this manner. God hath giuen you this man to be your King, behold how he surpasseth you al, and sheweth himselfe worthy to be your Prince. Saul saluted by the people for their king. But assoone as the people had cried God saue the King; the Prophet, who had reduced into wri­tings all those mischiefes that should befall them, red the same vnto them in the hearing of the E King, and put the booke into the Tabernacle of God for a perpetual testimonie vnto posterity of those things, which in future ages should succeed, according as he had foreprophecied, which done, Samuel dismissed the people and returned to the Citie of Ramath, which was his countrey. Diuers attend on Saul, other some cōtemn [...] him. But Saul departing vnto Gabatha, diuers worthy men gaue their attendance on him, and did him the honour that appertained vnto a king. But diuers seditious and loose companions, who set him at noughts, both mocked them and those things which they did, neither brought they any pre­sents vnto Saul, neither seemed they either in affection or in word, any waies to respect their King. A moneth after his instalment there fell a warre betwixt him and Naas King of the Am­monites, which was the originall of that honour which was generally attributed vnto him by the Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 5. 1. King. [...]. whole multitude: this Naas had offered diuers outrages vnto those Iewes that dwell on the other F side of Iordan. For he had trauersed the riuer with a great and huge armie leuied against them, & had ouercome diuers of their Cities. For at that time he vsed force and violence against thē, & to the intent that they might not rebel, neither deliuer thēselues from his subiection, he vsed this subtiltie and preuention to cut off all colour and occasion from them of opposition. For to those that surrendred themselues, & subscribed to his mercy, & to those that were takē captiues, or con­quered in the warres, he plucked out their right eies: and this did he to that intent that when they [Page 134] should defend themselues, they should haue their left eies couered with their bucklers, and by G The yeare of the world, 2880. be­fore Christs birth 1084. Sauls warre a­gainst the Am­monites. that meanes be made vnapt to enter battell. The King of the Ammonites hauing after this man­ner dealt with those on the other side of Iordan, he led his army towards the Galaadites, and encamped neere vnto their chiefe Citie called Iabes, to which he sent heraulds to sommon the inhabitantes to surrender the same vnder these conditions: Either to suffer their right eies to be pulled out, or else by induring the siege, to see the finall ouerthrow both of themselues and of their Citie: wishing them to make choice of which they list, whether they would lose a little part of their bodie, or hazard both their fortunes and liues at once. The Galaadites, terrified with this so doubtfull and dreadfull an election, neither durst returne an hostile or peaceable answere, but asked truce for seuen daies, to the end, that sending their messenger to their kinsfolke, they might craue their aide: which if they could obtaine they would warre; and otherwise they pro­mised H to submit themselues vnto the enemie vnder what condition soeuer were best pleasing vn­to him. Naas, that neither cared for the Galaadites, neither for their answere, granted them that Naas king of the Ammonits offereth vniust conditions of peace to the Galaadites. The Embassa­dours of the Galaadites to the Israelites. time of truce which they demaunded, and permitted them likewise to craue assistance at all their hands, who were their associates. Wherupon they presently sent messengers from citie to Citie, and certified the Israelites of all that which Naas had done vnto them, and the extremitie where­unto they were reduced. The Israelites hauing before time vnderstood in what estate they of Iabes were, had grieuously lamented and conceiued great displeasure thereat; but the feare that afflic­ted them, suffered them to assist their friends in no other manner then by commiseration: yet as soone as their messengers arriued in the Citie where Saul was, and that they had recounted vnto him the daungers wherewith the Iabasites were oppressed; the people were as in times past I moued with compassion. For they lamented the miserie of their parents: but as touching Saul, he returning from the fields into the Citie, perceiued the inhabitants drowned in their teares, and enquiring of them for what cause they were so confused and abashed, he was certified of that, which the messengers had reported: and on the instant he was rauished by a diuine motion, and sent the Embassadours backe againe to those that sent them, promising that within three daies he would come and succour them, and that he would haue the vpper hand of the enemie be­fore Saul promiseth assistance to the Iabasites. sunne rise, to the end that the rising sunne might behold them victorious, and deliuered from all feare. Meane while he commaunded some of them to make stay with him, to the intent they might guide and direct him in his way.

CHAP. VI. K

The combate and victorie of Saul against the Ammonites.

SAul desirous to incite the people to issue out and make warre vpon the Ammonites, to the intent vnder a penaltie he might assemble them with more readines, he houghed his Sauls serious exhortation and command for warre. owne oxen, and threatned all those whom he met withall to doe the like vnto theirs, ex­cept the next day they presented themselues with their armes vpon the banke of Iordan to follow the King and the Prophet Samuel, and march vnto the place whither by them they should be conducted.

The feare of this penaltie published among the tribes made them gather to head about the L same time, so that all the assemblies of the people were mustered in the Citie of Bala. In this sur­uey 1. Reg. 12. besides those of the tribe of Iuda, there were numbred seuen hundreth thousand men, and of the tribe of Iuda in particular there were seuentie thousand. Hauing therefore passed Iordan, and marched some ten cables length of Nilus (which is about some three leagues) all the night Ten Schaeni or cables length of Nilus so-cal­led by the cords that drew the ships vp Nilus, make 37. Italian miles. Saul killeth the Ammonites, and Naas their king. Saul made his name famous amongst the Hebrewes. Saul is praised by the people. time, before the sunne rise he attained the place whither he intended to conduct them, and de­uiding his army into three parts, he assailed the enemie on euery side that expected no such en­country, and fighting valiantly against them, he slew diuers, and amongst the rest Nahas king of the Ammonites. This victorie made Sauls name famous amongst all the Hebrewes, so that he was wonderfully praised and honoured for his valour: so that if before that time any one had contemned him, at that time they chaunged their opinions, and honoured him, and accounted M him the worthiest of them all. For he was not satisfied to redeeme and deliuer those of Iabes, but he entred the countrey of the Ammonites also, and forraged the same with his army, and vtterly ouerthrew them: and after he had obtained a great bootie and pray, both he and his victoriously & magnifically returnd to their dwelling places. The people highly pleased with this noble action atchieued by Saul, reioyced because they had chosen them so noble a King, and exclaimed against those that said, that it would be discommodious and vnprofitable for their [Page 135] common-weale, saying, where are now these murmurers, let them be put to death: with other The yeare of the world, 2880. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie, 1084. Sauls lenitie against his aduersaries. A such like words that a people besorted with some good successe, is wont to speake and inforce a­gainst them that set light by the authors & inducers of the same. Saul receiued great content and comfort thorow this good liking and allowance of the people: yet notwithstanding he swore that no one of their tribe should be put to death that day, because it would not seeme conueni­ent nor agreeable, that the victorie which was giuen them by God should be mixed with the bloud of their brethren; but rather that it was more decent and comely, that the time should be spent in feast and iollitie. Hereupon Samuel told them, that it behooued them to confirme the kingdome to Saul by a second election, and to that end, they assembled together in the Citie of Galgal, according as he had commanded them: and there in the sight of all the people Samuel annointed Saul the second time with the consecrated oyle, and proclaimed him king ar [...]ew. Thus B was the Aristocracie and gouernment of the better sort amongst the Hebrewes, turned into a Saul once more annoin­ted king by Sa­muel. The distinct gouernments of the He­brewes. Monarchie. For vnder Moses and his disciple Iesus, who gouerned the Empyre and armie at that time, the nobilitie and elected worthie men ruled the state. After whose death for the space of 18. whole yeares, the people was without gouernment, the common-weale not long after reassu­med her pristine pollicie, and the gouernment was giuen vnto him, which was esteemed the most valiant in warre, and the most vpright in doing of Iustice. All which time for this cause hath beene called the time of the Iudges.

After this the Prophet Samuel assembled the people, and spake vnto them after this manner: ‘I coniure you by that great God that hath giuen life to those two brothers (I meane Moses and Samuels iusti­fication of him selfe in the presence of the people. Aaron) and that hath deliuered your forefathers from the Egyptians, and their tyranny, that with­out C any affection either of feare or shame, or instigation of any other passion, you truly testifie whether I haue committed any sinister or wicked act, either for profit sake, or for auarice, or fauor. Reproue me, if I haue taken away any mans calfe, or sheepe, or any other thing-whatsoeuer, but that which I might lawfully take for my reliefe and sustenance, and at such hands as willingly of­fered me the same; or if I haue drawen any mans beasts to my vse, or vsed his cattell to my profit and his hinderance: in these and such like, if I haue offended any man, let him now accuse me in the presence of the king. All of them cried out with one voice, that no such default had beene committed by him, but that he had gouerned their nation in holines and iustice.’ After that the people had thus publikely testified in the behalfe of Samuel, he said vnto them: ‘Since you haue liberally & freely protested, that you haue no cause of wrong to vrge or inforce against me, heare, D I pray you, that wherewith I can iustly accuse you of. You haue grieuously offended against the maiestie of God, in that you haue required a king at his hands: you should haue rather remem­bred, that your old father Iacob accompanied onely with his 70. sons came into Egypt, constrai­ned Samuel expo­stulateth with the people, and obiecteth their sinnes & ingratitude. thereunto by famine, and that in that countrey diuers thousands of persons issued from his loynes, whom the Egyptians kept in captiuitie, offering them extreme outrages: And whenas your fathers called vpon God, how he wonderfully deliuered thē from the necessities wherin they were, without giuing them any king, contenting themselues with two brothers Moses and Aaron, who brought and conducted you into this countrey which you possesse at this present. And al­though you participated these benefits by the hands of God, yet notwithstanding you haue not forborne both to forget religion, and neglect pietie. This notwithstanding, at such time as you E haue beene conquered by your enemies, he hath set you free, gracing you first of all with the o­uerthrow of the Assyrians & their forces: secondly, giuing you victorie ouer the Ammonites, and Moabites: and finally ouer the Philistines. Now these great exploits were performed by you, not vnder the conduct of a king, but by the direction of Ieptha and Gedeon, what folly therefore hath bewirched you to make you flie from God, and to seeke to liue vnder the subiection of a king? But I haue named such a one vnto you, whom God hath chosen to be your gouernour. Notwith­stāding to the intent that I may giue you a manifest testimony, that Gods wrath is whetted against you, because you haue desired to haue a king; I will striue to expresse it vnto you, by visible signes done by God himselfe. I will therefore require of God that he wil make you see in this place, and in the hart of sommer such a storme, that there is not any one of you that hath euer seene the F like thereof:’Scarce had he spoken the words, but that so dainly there fell great store of lightning, thunder and haile, in approbation of that which the Prophet had said: so that amased and trans­ported with feare, all of them confessed that they had offended. They notwithstanding pro­fessed A huge tem­pest falleth vpon Samuels praier. that their errour was of ignorance, not of obstinacie, and besought the Prophet that with a good and fatherly affection, he would beseech God to appease his wrath towards them, and forgiue them their offences at that present, which to their other grieuous negligences they had [Page 136] annexed, and whereby they had transgressed his holy will. All which Samuel promised them to G The yeare of the world. 2880. before Christes Natiuity. 1084. do, and besought God that it would please him to pardon them the errour which they had com­mitted in that behalfe, and that it would please him to be appeased by his praiers. Besides this, he exhorted them to liue vprightly, and to keepe in their continuall remembrance what euils had hapned vnto them, for that they had forsaken the way of vertue; and what wonders God had done, and what lawes he had giuen by Moses, all which they ought to meditate on, if they de­sired to be in safetie, and liue happily with their king. But if they should contemne the same, he An exhortatiō to the conside­ration of Gods assistance and benefits be­stowed on the Israelites. foretold them that both themselues & their kings should be grieuously punished. Samuel hauing prophecied these things vnto the Hebrewes, dismissed them to their own dwellings, after he had confirmed the kingdome to Saul the second time.

CHAP. VII. H

The Palestines assailing the Hebrewes, are ouercome in battell.

BVt when the king had mustered his men, and chosen out three thousand of the choisest soldiers, he appointed two thousand of thē for the guard of his person, & with them went Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 6. Saul elected two thousand for his owne guard, and one thousand for Ionathans. Saul ouercom­meth the Phi­listines. & dwelt at Bethel. The rest he gaue in charge to his son Ionathan, & sent them into Gaba to attend and guard him there, who followed by them valiantly ouercame a garrison of the Phili­stines neere vnto Gebal. For the Philistines of Gaba hauing gotten the vpper hand ouer the Iewes, had taken their armes from them, and seased and fortified both with men and munition I the strongest Cities of their countrey; prohibiting them to beare armes, and in generall from the vse of any yron: by reason of which inhibition, if their husbandmen had at any time need of anie yron worke, as of plough-shares, mattockes, or any other such instrument fit for man­nuring or tillage of their landes, they were inforced to fetch it and get it forged amongst the Philistines.

Now when the Philistines had gotten some intelligence that their garrison was after this ma­ner defeated, they were wonderfully moued, and supposing amongst themselues that the iniurie The Philistines prepare to in­uade the Israe­lites. and outrage was in no sort to be suffered, they armed themselues against the Iewes, and went out embattailed with three hundreth thousand footmen, thirtie thousand chariots, and sixe thousand horse, encamping with their whole host neere vnto the Citie of Machmas. Which when Saul the K king of the Hebrewes vnderstood, he marched towards the Citie of Galgal, and as he trauailed thorow the countrey, he animated and encouraged the people to recouer their libertie, proclai­ming warre against the Philistines: whose forces he so little feared, as he mockt thereat, saying, that they deserued not to be feared for their multitudes, nor any daunger which might acrewe by their encountry. But when Sauls souldiers were certified of the true number of their enemies, they were wholy discomforted, so that some of them hid themselues in dennes and places vnder The Israelites dismaid at the report of the army of the Philistines. the earth, othersome fled on the other side of Iordan into the countrey of the Gadites and Rube­nites. But Saul sent for the Prophet, resoluing to consult with him vpō the estate of the warre, who gaue him answere that he should attend in the same place where he was, and that he should pre­pare beasts for sacrifice, because that within seuen daies he would come vnto him and sacrifice on L the seuenth day, which done, he might encounter the enemie. According to this direction of the Prophet he expected, yet obserued he not intirely all that which Samuel had enioyned him. For when he perceiued that he was somewhat slacke in comming, and that his soldiers waxed wearie, he tooke the beasts that were prepared for the sacrifice, and offered a burnt offering: but after­wards Saul sacrificeth contrarie to God and the Prophets di­rection. Samuel accu­seth Saul. vnderstanding that Samuel was arriued, he went out to meete him, and doe him honour. Samuel told him, that he had done amisse, by reason he had neglected that which was comman­ded him, presuming before his arriuall (who was sent thither by the conduct and will of God) to offer praiers and sacrifice for the people: in which action of his, he both discouered his rashnes, and disorder in sacrificing. Saul excused himselfe, alledging that he had staied during the terme of seuen daies which were appointed him: vrging further that necessitie, and the depart of his M soldiours, together with the feare of the aduerse army which were in Machmas, and the intel­ligence he had receiued that Samuel was gone to Galgal, had induced him to offer sacrifice: Samuel replied saying. Thou hadst done more aduisedly, if thou hadst obeyed, and not con­temned God by thine ouerhaste, whose minister and Prophet I am: for by thine obedience thou mightest both haue gotten an assurance and continuance of thy kingdome to thy selfe, and suc­cession to thy posteritie. This said, being displeased with that which had hapned, he retired backe [Page 137] to his owne house, and Saul with sixe hundreth soldiers (onely accompanied with his sonne Io­nathan) A The yeare of the world. 2880. be­fore the Natiui­tie of Christ. 1084. Hedio & Ruf­finus. Galgala. The Palestines spoile the countrey of the Hebrewes. came vnto the Citie of Gabeon. The greater part of these men were disarmed, by reason that the countrey was intirely destitute of iron, and workemen that were expert and skilfull in forging & making armour: for the Philistines permitted them not to haue any, as we haue decla­red a little before. These diuiding their army into three battels, inuaded the countrey of the He­brewes by so many waies, destroying and foraging all things both in the sight of king Saul, and of his son, who neither could inhibite their incursions, nor by reason of their multitudes make head against them. Both he therefore and his sonne and Achias the high Priest, sate them downe vpon a hillocke, and seeing the countrey spoyled round about them, they were much dismaied. But Sauls sonne conspired and concluded with his esquire and harnesse-bearer, to enter secretly into the enemies campe, and raise an vprore and allarum in the same; who willingly promising 1. Reg 14. Ionathan with his harnes bea­rer doe priuily enter the ene­mies campe. B and offering him his seruice to aduenture with him in all occasions and places, with the hazard of his life: they both of them descended from the mountaine, and marched directly towards the enemies campe, who had pitched their tents on a hie pointed rocke, which extended it selfe in length with three Angles, and was each way begirt with a banke, as it were a wall and fortificati­on against the incursion of their enemies. For which cause they kept their watch somewhat too carelesly, because the place was fortified by nature: so that no man might ascend or assaile them, but with disaduantage. When as therefore they had gotten neere vnto the campe, Ionathan in­couraged his companion, and animated him to assaile the enemy after this manner. If (saith he) they espie vs and will vs ascend, let vs take this sommons of theirs for an assured token of victo­rie: but if they hold their peace and call vs not, let vs returne backe againe. C

As therefore they approched the enemies host about the beginning and brie of day, the Phili­stines said the one vnto the other: the Hebrewes creepe out of their caues and dens. Then cried they out to Ionathan and his harnesse-bearer, saying: Come hither, come hither vnto vs, to the end we may plague you according to your audacious enterprise. Sauls sonne quickly taking hold of these their words, and esteeming them for an ominous and assured token of victorie, de­parted with his esquire from the place where they were first discouered; answering them that he would shortly visit them. So withdrawing himselfe on the other side of the rocke, which by reason of the scituation thereof was left vnguarded, ouercomming the difficultie of the place with great labour; at last they attained the place where the enemy was, whom they found asleepe, and assai­ling Ionathan slay­eth a certaine number in the enimies camp, the rest inuade one another, and are put to flight. them slew twenty of them, and filled the whole army with terrour and amasednesse: so that D casting away their weapons they fled amain: some other, being ignorant which were either their friends or foes, inuaded one another as enemies. For imagining with themselues that onely two Hebrewes durst neuer ascend and enter their campe, they addressed themselues to their mutuall murther and slaughter: so that some of them were slaine, others fled to escape the sword and fell headlong downe the rockes. But when as the kings espials had told him what confusion and dis­order was befallen in the campe of the Philistines, Saul demaunded whether any of his compa­nie were absent, and hearing that his sonne and his harnesse-bearer were missing, he commanded the high Priest, that attired in his pontificall ornamens, he should prophecie that which should Hedio & Ruf­finus, chap. 7. Saul hearing that there was a tumult in the Palestines campe, sallieth out vpon thē. succeede, who assuring him that he should obtaine the victorie ouer his enemies, he sallied out and assaulted the Philistines, and ran vpon them, who were thus confused and disordered, and E whetted the one against the other. To him there flocked in great multitudes such, as before times were fled into dens and places vnder ground, as soone as they heard that the victorie inclined on Sauls side: so that gathering togither to the number often thousand Hebrewes, he pursued his scattered enemies thorow all the countrey. But afterward, a great inconuenient hapned vnto Saul, proceeding from the ioy he had conceiued by this victorie (for commonly such as are blessed by such good fortunes, are not masters of their owne affections and reasons) or rather proceeding from his ignorance. For intending to saciate himselfe with reuenge for all those in­iuries he had receiued from the Philistines, he published an imprecation or curse amongst the Hebrewes against any one whomsoeuer, that intermitting the chase and slaughter should take su­stenance before night, purposing vntill darke night neither to giue ouer pursuit or slaughter. F This execration thus published by Saul, it chanced that his sonne that had not as yet heard of the imprecation of his father, nor the generall ratification and allowance of the same by the peo­ple, Sauls edict vn­wittingly bro­ken by Iona­than. falling into a certaine groue belonging to the tribe of Ephraim, wherein were many swarms of bees, he by chance light vpon a hony combe, and pressing the hony thereout, afterwards did eat the same. Afterwards hauing intelligence that his father had vnder a grieuous penaltie of ex­ecration, forbidden any man to taste any sort of meate before sunne set, he gaue ouer eating fur­ther: [Page 138] yet said he, that his father had done amisse therein in publishing that prohibition, by rea­son The yeare of the world, 2880 be­fore Christs birth 1084. G that if they had receiued sustenance, they might with greater force and forwardnesse pursue the enemy that fled, and ouertake and slaughter them in greater number. Killing therefore ma­ny thousands on the Palestines partie, about the euening they began to ransacke and spoyle the campe of the Philistines, and bore away from thence great spoyles, and a wonderfull number of cattell, part of which were slaine and eaten with the bloud, contrarie to lawe. Which when the Scribes had certified and signified to the king, how the people had offended against God, by The Hebrewes feed on bloudy flesh. slaughtering the beasts and eating the flesh of them, before it was either washt or purified from the bloud: Saul commanded that a great stone should be rowled into the midst of the place, and commanded the people to kill and sacrifice their beasts vpon the same: and that they should for­beare to eate the flesh with the bloud, because it was not agreeable vnto God. All which was H performed according as the king had commanded; and Saul erected an altar in that place, on which he offered a burnt sacrifice vnto God. This was the first altar that he erected. But Saul be­ing desirous incontinently to assaile the enemies campe, and sacke all that was therein before the day spring, whilest his men of warre diligently followed him, and shewed great forwardnes in the execution of his command: the king asked counsaile of the high Priest Achitob, whether God would giue him the victorie, and permit those that should enter the enemies campe, to returne from thence with victorie. The high Priest certified him that God returned him no answere: which when he vnderstood; It is not without cause, said he, that God is thus silent, who hereto­fore was wont to giue a willing answere in that which we ought to doe: but there must needs be some hidden sinne in vs, that breeding an offence in him, procureth him to be silent. But I sweare I by the same God, that although mine owne sonne Ionathan hath committed that sinne, to the end I may appease God, I will with no lesse seueritie execute him, then any one stranger that is nei­ther by alliance nor affinitie tied vnto me. Now when the people cried out and encouraged him to the performance of that he had spoken, he presently assembled them in one place, and he stan­ding Saul trieth by lot who hath displeased God. with his sonne apart, began by casting lots to find out him that was faultie. Now when the lot fell on Ionathan, he asked him what he had committed, and what crime in his owne consci­ence he was guiltie of. To whom he answered, I know no other thing, but that yesterday being in pursuit of the enemy, and ignorant of thine edict, I tasted of a hony combe: but Saul swore that he would slay him, setting more by his oath, then either by kinred, nature, or affection. He Saul intendeth to kil his owne sonne, being prepared and resolute to die. nothing astonished with his present perill, with a generous and dreadlesse mind presented him­selfe K with this reply: O father (saith he) I intreat no fauour at thy hands: for I will willingly sub­mit to that death, which may discharge thee of thy vow, the more contentedly because I haue seene so famous a victorie: For I shall die thorowly contented to see the insolencie of the Pale­stines ouermastred by the power of the Hebrewes. This valour and courage of the yoong man moued the whole multitude to remorse and commiseration: so that they swore all of them that they would not suffer that Ionathan, who was the author of so famous a victorie, should be slaine: The Israelites rescue Iona­than from his displeased fa­ther. and therefore rescued they the yoong man from his displeased father, and made vowes vnto God to the end he might pardon him that fault. Saul after he had slaine about sixtie thousand of his enemies, returned with victorie to his owne home, and raigned afterwards very happily, and ouer­came by force the Ammonites, Philistines, Moabites, Idumeans, Amalechites, and king Oba L that dwelt neere about him. He had three sonnes, Ionathan, Iosuah and Melchi; and two daugh­ters, Merob and Michal. The generall of his army was Abner, the sonne of his vnckle called Ner: Oba or Soba. for Ner and Cis Sauls father, were brothers and sonnes of Abiel. He was verie rich both in horse and chariots, and against whatsoeuer enemy he marched forth, he alwaies returned with victo­rie: so that he reduced the affaires of the Hebrewes to a happy estate, and so much increased Saul alwaies conquerour. their power that they weare feared by all those nations that neighboured vpon them. But the chiefest of the youth, that either preuailed in strength, or exceeded in beauty, he chose to be of his guarde.

CHAP. VIII. M

Sauls victorie against the Amalechites.

BVt Samuel comming vnto Saul, told him that he was sent vnto him by God, to admo­nish him how he had chosen him aboue the rest, and preferred him to the kingdome: Hedio & Ruf­finus. ch. 8. 1. Reg. 15. & for that cause that it behooued him to be obedient vnto him in all things, because he ruled the people; but God both kings, kingdomes, and all things. Thus therefore (said hee) [Page 139] doth God command thee. Since the Amalechites offered many iniuries vnto the Hebrewes in The yeare of the world 2883. be­fore Christs birth 1081. Samuel by Gods com­mandement addresseth Saul to make warre vpon the Amalechites. Saul mustring his people, fin­deth in the tribe of Iuda onely thirtie thousand men A the desert, whilest in their departure out of Aegypt, they trauelled into that region which they now inhabite: it behooueth thee to punish them by a most iust warre; and hauing ouercome them, that thou vtterly extinguish their memorie, without regard of either sex or yeares; and this reuenge shalt thou execute vpon them in repaiment of those iniuries they in times past offe­red to our forefathers. Neither shalt thou spare either beast or horse, or flocke to apply them to thy profit or particular vse: but thou shalt consecrate all vnto God, and according as Moses com­manded it, deface the name of the Amalechites from of the earth. All these things did Saul promise to performe, and supposing obedience consisted in this, not onely in the acting, but also the speedie execution of that which was enioyned him, he presently assembled all his forces to­gither, and mustring his souldiers at Galgal, he found about fortie thousand besides the tribe of B Iuda, which of it selfe affoorded and allowed thirty thousand chosen men: with these did Saul en­ter the countrey of the Amalechites, and layd diuers ambushes neere vnto a riuer, not onely to afflict them with open and hostile warre, but also to enclose and surprise them at vnwares, and kill them amidst their hie waies: He charged them therefore and put them to flight, and dis­comfited Saul raseth the cities of the Amalechites. their whole army, pursuing them that fled. Which execution of his, hauing that an­swerable successe (according as God had promised him before) he marched onwards, and besie­ged the Cities of the Amalechites, and ouercame some of them by batterie, some by mines and countermures raised on the outside: other some by famine and thirst, and diuers other waies. And in those Cities which he ouercame, he neither spared women nor children, neither supposing their murther to be cruell, neither inhumane: first for that he executed it vpon his enemie; next C for that he did nothing but according to Gods commandement, towards whom his disobedi­ence might redound to his vtter ouerthrow. He tooke Agag prisoner also, who was the king Saul taketh Agag the king of the A­malechites prisoner, and keepeth him aliue contrarie to Gods com­mandement. of the Amalechites, whose beautie and personage seemed vnto him so well proportioned and perfect, that he wondred thereat and thought him worthy to be kept aliue; and that not by Gods commandement, but ouercome by his owne affection, vsurping vpon an vngranted priuiledge of mercie to his owne preiudice: For God so hated the Amalechites, that he spared not their infants, who ought in naturall compassion to haue beene more pitied then the rest. But Saul kept aliue the king of his enemies and the author of all the Hebrewes euils, setting more by his beauty then Gods commandement. This sinne of his the people presently imitated: for they spa­red both horse and other kind of cattell, and made pray of them, notwithstanding that God had D charged them to reserue nothing. They caried away with them all other moueables and riches, The people contrarie to that which god had ordained driue away the horse and cat­tell of the A­malechites. and only consumed those things which were of smalest valew by fire. This victorie had Saul ouer those people that dwell betwixt Pelusium, which is a Citie on the borders of Aegypt, vnto the red sea. But he medled not with the Sichemites, which inhabite in the midst of the Madia­nites, whom before the battell he had commaunded to retire themselues, least they should par­take the calamities of the Amalechites: for in that they were allied vnto them, by reason of Ra­guel Moses father in lawe; the Hebrewes had cause to procure their safetie. Saul hauing obtained this victorie & reioycing at his good successe, returned to his owne home as full of content, as if he had pretermitted nothing of that, which God had commanded him by the Prophet Samuel before his warre with the Amalechites, but as if he had precisely obserued all that which was en­ioyned E him. But God was sore displeased, both for that the king of the Amalechites was pre­serued, and for that the people had made pray of their cattell: for both these actions of theirs Hedio & Ruf­finus. chap. 9. God displeased with Sauls dis­obdience. were expressely against Gods permission. For it was not to be tolerated no not in a mortall king, that they should neglect and contemne his lawes and decrees, by whose onely meanes they were furthered and fauoured in their victorie. For which cause God told the Prophet Samuel, that he repented him in that he had chosen Saul for their king, considering that he infringed his com­mandements, and gouerned himselfe according to his owne appetites. When Samuel heard these words, he was sore troubled, and besought God all the night long, that he would appease his wrath and displeasure conceiued against Saul: but notwithstanding al the importunities and Samuel stri­ueth to recon­cile Saul vnto God. praiers which the Prophet made for him, God would in no sort be reconciled, because it was F inconuenient that the sinnes, which were committed by Saul, should be remitted by Samuels submission and intercession. For sinne neuer more augmenteth and increaseth, then when such as are offenced are too remisse in their punishments: for whilest they would be reputed both for Too much in­dulgence and lenity confir­meth the wic­ked in their vngodlines. good and mercifull, they themselues both vnwares and vnwitting become the authors of sinne. When as therefore God had denied the Prophet his request, and it manifestly appeared that no praiers or supplication might appease him; as soone as it was day, Samuel repaired to Saul, who [Page 140] at that time remained in Galgal. Now as soone as the king apperceiued him, he ranne vnto him G The yeare of the world. 2883. be­fore Christs Na­tiuitie. 1081. and embraced him, saying: I giue God thankes for the victorie; and all those things which hee commanded me,