THE Opinion, Judgement, and Determination of two reverend, learned, and conformable Divines of the Church of England, concerning bowing at the name, or naming of JESVS.

The one somtime a member of the Vniver­tie of Cambridge, in a letter to his Christian freind: The other sometime a member of the Vniversitie of Oxford, in a Treatise to his Brethren the Ministers of the Church of England.

To the most Reverend, GEORGE, Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, &c. and to the right re­verend the rest of the Orthodox Bishops of the the Church of England: This twofold Trac­tate is inscribed and commended.

Printed at Hambourgh, 1632. Reprinted Anno 1634.

Mr. H. B. Bachelour in Divinitie to his Christian freind H. D. residing at H. concerning bowing and doffing at the name of IESVS.

LOving and beloved freind, being pressed by your Christian importuni­ty, to declare my opinion in a poinct, which though it may seeme to be of small importance, and lesse consequence, yet hath proved matter of no small controversie, and fewell to sett on [...]ire some tongues, of those that would [...]eeme and affect to be some great Clerks; [...]o as they have not spared in the Pulpit [...]like proper Squires, but improper Prea­chers, to breake forth into bitter invec­tives, and have, as it were with the finger [Page 4] pointed at some, who have crossed the opinion herein; I thought it my dutie t [...] satisfie your desire, for your self, and you [...] Christian freinds; not to justifie my self [...] but the Truth of God, whose Childre [...] and Scholars we professe to be, so as w [...] ought to speake nothing against but fo [...] that Truth; herein having our Maste [...] Christ for our Precedent, who sai [...]h: Fo [...] this cause came I into the World, Ioh. 18, 37 that [...] should beare witnesse to the Truth.

The poinct in question is, about bovv [...]ing the Knee at the name or naming o [...] Iesus.

They that are for it, and tooth an [...] nayle do urge it, presse us with Antiquitie, and Authoritie. Antiquitie is venerable [...] indeed, if grounded on Veritie, Antiquitie is Auncient. Else, as Tertullianus saith,Consuc­tudo sine veritate vetustas erroris est Tertull. Custome without truth is but an old moath-eaten Errour. But this Custome (say they) is grounded upon, & backed by a double Authoritie: the one of the Church, the other of the expresse syllables of the Scripture. The authoritie of the Scrip­ture is to be adored, the authoritie of the [Page 5] Church to be obeyed, when grounded [...]n the Scripture.

First then, let us see what Antiquitie [...]n say for the poinct.Hinc non dubito quin pro­fecta sit il­la anti­quissima cōsuetudo in Eccle­sijs, ut cum nomina­tur Iesus, omnes ap­periūt ca­put, in te­stimoniū reverētiae & adora­tionis, &c. Zanch. in Phil. 2. 10 Zanchius is spe­ [...]ally here alleaged, who saith, Hinc non abito, &c. Hence I doubt not, but that most ancient custome sprang up in Churches, that [...]hen Iesus is named, all uncover their heads, [...] token of reverence and adoration. Zanchy [...]ubts it not, but with all he proves it [...]t. Only he addeth, This Custome (saith [...]) vvas confirmed against the Arrians, [...]d other Heretiques, vvho affirmed this Ie­ [...]s to be a meere man. And this Custome [...]as not to be disliked, but aftervvards it [...]as turned into Superstition, as also many [...]her pious and holy institntions. So he.

Now, it had been well, if this learned [...]uthor had distinctly sett downe, both [...]hen this Custome was instituted and [...]nfirmed, and when turned into super­ [...]tion, that so we might be resolved, whe­ [...]er the capping or crowching now in [...] be not the Relique of that superstitiō mentioned. Perhaps he fetcheth the first [...]stitution from the Counsell of Mentz, [Page 6] under Charles the Great Anno 813. cap.Pari reli­gione ad nomen Salvatoris nostri D. Iesu Chri­sti, simili­ter ad Euā gelium, Magnifi­cat, Bene­dictus, Nunc di­mittis, Gloria in Excelsis, Gloria Pa­tri, ceteras que id ge­nus divi­norum of­ficiorum partes, sic genuum flexione, apertione Capitis, ac totius cor­poris gestu se component, ut ad ea, quae ibi aguntur animum intendere videantur. Synopsis Pap. 9. Generall controversie concerning the saints departed. 59. as sett downe by our reverend Doc [...]tour Willet, in his Synopsis Papismi, Par [...] religione, &c. Let men vvith the like de­votion at the name of our Lord and Saviour Iesus Christ, as likevvise at the Gospell, th [...] Magnifica, Benedictus nunc dimittis, Glo [...]ria in Excelsis, Gloria Patri, and other part of the Divine Service, so commpose themselv [...] by bowing the knee uncovering the head, an [...] the like gesture of the whole body, as the may seeme to have their minde occupied [...] those things that are done. So the Counsell whereupon Dr. Willet saith this: I no [...] out of this Decree 3 things; First, that the should bovv at the name of Christ, as well a when Iesus is named; Secondly, that the lik [...] reverence should be vsed, when as othe [...] psalmes are sung, and vvhen mention is ma [...] of the Father, and the Holy Ghost, as in th [...] Gloria Patri; Thirdly, that this gestur [...] should not be done in reverence to name Words, or Syllables so pronounced, but on [...] to declare our attention.

[Page 7] Thus then we see, that this Superstitions Custom, in bowing to the name of Iesus only, [...]s contrarie even to their owne Popish Ca­ [...]ons and Decrees. The like thing also was decreed Synod. Augustens. cap. 23. So he.

This then happily being the institution mentioned by Zanchy, let us en­quire out the time, when it began to be [...]e turned to superstition. In the 13. Centurie, about Anno 1273. at Lyons in France was a Generall Counsell held, where Pope Gregorie the 10. instituted this Superstitious Custome, now in use in the Popish Synagogues.Genua cunctorū fidelium ad men­tionem S. Sti. nomi­nis Iesu, non solū corpore, sed, mente etiam flecti ibidem de­cernitur. Epitome mundi Cent. 13. ca. 9. de Synodis. Convenientes ibidem nomen il­lud, quod est supra omne nomen, a quo aliud subo caelo non est datum hominibus in quo salvôs fieri credē tes oporteat, nomē vid. Iesu Christi qui salvum faciet populum suum ex­hibitione reverētiae specialis attollant, & quod generali­ter scribi­tur ut in nomine Iesu om­ne genu flectitur, singuli sin gulariter inseipsis implētes, precipuè dum agū ­tur Missa­rum sacra mysteria, gloriosum illud, No­mēquoties cunque re colitur fl [...]ctant genua cordis sui, quod vel capitis sui inclinatione testentur. The Centu­riatours sett downe the Counsell words: Convenientes ibidem, &c. Let the people, assembling in the church, with an exhibition of speciall reverence honour that name, which is above every name under Heaven given to [Page 8] men, wherby beleevers must be saved, to weet, the name of Iesus Christ, who shall save his people from their sinnes; and vvhich is gene­rally written, that in the name of Iesus every knee should bow, every one performing it for himself in particular, and especially while the sacred mysteries of the Masse are in hand, so often as that glorious name is named, let them bow the knee of their hearts, testifying it vvith the bowing downe of their heads. So the Counsell. And these very words of the Counsell are recorded also in the Decretales of Boniface the S. in Sexti lib. 3. De immunitate Ecclesiae Tit. 23. cap. 2. Decret.

Now, hereby the way, it will not be impertinent to note some coincident cir­cumstances of the time of this supersti­tious Institution. Pope Gregorie, the Author of it, was he, who of an Arch­deacon was chosen Pope, after 3 yeares vacancie of the Popedome, such was the dissention and ambition of the Cardinals, each aspiring to make himself Pope, [...] that being assembled at Viterbium, to e­lect [Page 9] the Pope, and invocating the com­ming downe of the Holy Ghost, one of the Cardinalls said: O Lord, let us uucover the roofe of this House, because the Holy Ghost cannot come down amongst us, through [...]o many roofes and seelings. And when [...]his Archdeacon was chosen Pope, the same Cardinall made this Distick;

Papatus munus tulit Archidiaconus unus:
Platina in vita Gre­gorij Pa­pae 10.
[...]t Patrem Patrum fecit discordia fratrum,
The Papall Throne befell an Arch­deacone,
An. 1230.
Whom breth'rens jarre made Father of Fathers one.

This may note the corruption pride & ambition of that Age, wherein this su­perstition obtained a Papall Institution. The superstition, if not Idolatrie, is pal­pable:Note. for we see honour and adoration [...]oth of mind and body, is given to the [...]ery Name Iesus, whensoever it is named, [...]nd that especially during the Mysterie of the Masse; as if this name had some sin­gular vertue, when mentioned in the [Page 10] Masse, more then out of all the Masse. And who doubteth, but this superstitious Institution was a notable meanes to mask the abominable Idole of their transub­stantiate breaden God, not long before decreed by Pope Innocent 3. in the Counsell of Lateran; the adoring now of the very name of jesus, making the a­doration of the corporall presence of Christ (as they imagine) the lesse to be stuck at; For if the very name be to be adored, much more the body it selfe. And by this bowing in the Masse, I take it, our ignorant people, in the beginning of the Reformation, had learned to make leggs at the naming of Iesus in the time of the Gospell, especially when the Gospell was not preached. But this may suffice briefly to have shewed the Gi­beonitish,See Sr. Edwin Sā ­dye his Europae speculum, 1629. pa. 16. This pope lived about the yeare 103. mouldie and hoary Antiquitie of this superstitious Institution, set up by Antichrist, not above 355 yeares ago.

Not but that this superstition was in use long before. As, Pope John the 20. gave Indulgence of 20 yeares pardon so often as any bowed at the name of Iesus; not un­practized [Page 11] in Italie at this day.

Now, to the avouched for this adora­tion; and 1. of the Church. For this the 15. Canon is alleaged. The words are, When in time of Divine Service the Lord Iesus shall be mentioned, due and lowly re­verence shall be done of all persons present, as it hath bene accustomed. Now first, who will understand that this due reverence is to be done, only in time of Divine Ser­vice, and not also of the Sermon? This might seeme to come too close at the heeles of Popish Superstition.

Secondly, it is not said (as in the Papall Canon) When the name of Iesus is named: but, When the Lord Iesus is mentioned▪ Now, the Lord Iesus is the person of Iesus (and not the name of Iesus) to whom all due reverence is to be done, by what name soever he is in Scripture made knowne unto us. For doe we reverence the per­son for the name-sake? or the name for the person-sake? If the person for the name-sake, that were flat Idolatrie: but if the name for the person-sake, then every name of the Lord Iesus, as Christ, Imma­nuell, [Page 12] &c. should draw from us reverence to our Lord Christ.

Thirdly, the Canon wills due reverence to the Lord Jesus, and who so imprudent, so impious, as to denie it? But this due reverence is such as is grounded on Gods Word; Else, it is no due reverence, but will-worship rather. Now,Note. Gods word putts no such difference betweene Iesus and Christ, as that we should more wor­ship the Lord Christ by the name Iesus, than the Lord Iesus by the name Christ; as we shall see anone.

Fourthly, the Canon commands such reverence, as hath beene accustomed. Now, I hope no good Protestant will say, that here we are sent to the superstitious cu­stome of the Synagogue of Antichrist, taken up from that Papall Institution a­bove named. For as for superstitious Ceremonies ourPreface to the Cō ­munion Booke: of Ceremo­nies, why some abo­lished, some reteined. Church hath long ago professedly abolished, & sent them pac­king to their mother and inventer at Rome. But if any former custome founded upon the Institution at Mentz (fore-specified) be there meant in the Ca­non, [Page 13] then this due lowly Reverence, what­soever it is, is to be done to Christ, whensoever by any of his names he is mentioned: as the Learned Doctor Willet (now with God) hath before observed.

In the second place, they presse us with the Authoritie of the Scripture; what Scripture? Phil. 2, 10. And hath given him a name above every name, that at the name of Iesus every knee should bow. But our comfort is, that the Canon expresseth no such thing, as grounding any such re­verence upon this Scripture: which is a thing well-worth our noting. Yet because many ground their bowing at the Name of Jesus upon the said place, there­in concurring with the Papall Institu­tion, fore-mentioned: Let us a little exa­mine the place.

First, our Church in all her Transla­tions of the Bible, hath by her judi­cious collations, and marginall quo­tations of other places of Scripture with that (Phil. 2. 10.) cleerely interpreted [Page 14] the place to meane, the supreame and So­vereigne Power of Christ over all Creatures, men and Angells, which shall be fully ac­complished at his comming to judge the quicke and the dead, when all knees shall bow unto him the knee of subjection, recei­ving at his mouth their sentence, either of Absolution or Condemnation: For these purpose, one place quoted in the margent, is Rom. 14, & 11. the other Isai. 45, and 23. Both which places shew that the bowing of the knee is taken metapho­rically, betokening subjection and acknow­ledgement of Christs supreame Authoritie over all Creatures in Heaven, Earth, and under Earth, as sole Iudge of all; So as the name of Iesus is taken for the Power of Ie­sus Christ over all Creatures, as Mark. 16. 17 Act. 3, 16, and 4, 10, Prov. 18, 10, and in­finite places more, and [...] in the originall, in the vulgar Latin, and our eldest English Translations render. In the name of Iesus. Not, at the name of Iesus. And though revereud Beza ren­der it, Ad nomen Iesu, yet in his Annota­tions he interprets it of Subjection of all [Page 15] creatures to Christ, taking bowing of the knee methaphorically, or in a borrowed sence.

Besides, this giving to Christ a name above every name, is not any addition, but a manifestation of Christs supreame Authoritie in the full execution of it, as Mediatour, now after his resurrection in the state of glory: as Matth. 28, 18, and Ioh. 5, 21. His Godhead now shining forth in its full brightnes (as Rom. 1, 4) Which had bene cloweded under the vayle of his flesh, in the State of his humiliation, Phil. 2, 7, 8. Theoph: Filius Dei vocabitur, quae ap­pellatio universo­rū nomen excedit. Theophylact by this name above every name, understands, the Son of God, which Title surpasseth all names. AndNullus nomen il­lud super omne no­men existēs populus Christi in hunc usque diem, praeterquam ad sanctam viuificantem Trinitatem retulit. Naz. in Epist Germani Episcopi Constantinop, ad Thomā Episco. Claudiopollôs. In Synodi Nycaenae 2. arti. 4. Gre­gory Nazianzen understands it of the Holy Trinitie, and saith, that the people of Christ to this day never understood it otherwise.

[Page 16] AndNomen super om­ne nomen est nomen explicans ineffabilē potestatem & naturam. Greg. Nyss. in Ec­clesiastem homil. 7. Gregory Nyssen saith, that this name above every name doth signifie an unspeake­able power and nature. AndNomen quod est supra omne nomen & cui n. Angelorum dixit filius meus tu es. S. Hierome in this place understands this name above every name of the Sonne of God. Thus the old Interpreters.

To these I might adde many more: as Hilary,Biblioth. Sacta. lib. 5. Annot. 150. to. 2. cited by Sixtus Senensis; who ex­pounds that in the second Psalme: I will give thee the Heathen for thine inheri­tance, &c. by Phil. 2, 10. So Tertullian; So Origen. Genu. flectere, non est carnaliter accipiēdū, sed sub­jecta esse omnia & cultui Dei obe­dire de­clarat. Origen; So Cyril. Thesauri lib. 3. cap. 2. So Chrysostome de Iona Propheta; Super verbis Zachariae, Ecce vir, Oriens nomen ejus. So Cyprian, expositio in Symbolum Apostolo­rum. Christus tria pariter regna subjecit: hoc judicat, ubi ait, Quia in nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur caelestium, &c. So A­thanasius, de incarnatione Christi. Et contra Arrianos lib. 2. Nomen super omne nomen: ut regnaret in Coelis, & potestatem haberet judicij cū faciendi, &c. So Ambr. in Phil. 2. [Page 17] So Augustin. in Psal. 109. So Gloss. in­ [...]rlin. & Ordinar. Quia Christus ostendi­ [...]r post Resurrectionem esse Dominus Caele­ [...]stium, & terrestrium, & infernorum, &c.

And all the Fathers [...]nanimously runn [...] this straine. And among Popish in­ [...]rpreters, let the testimony of Aquinas [...]d Anselme suffice, understanding it [...] the subjection of all Creatures. And [...]uno: Donavit nomen, id est, honorificen­ [...]m, ut ad honorem Iesu, omne genu flecta­ [...] [...]d est, omnia ipsi plene subjiciantur, Ho [...] [...]t in die judici [...]. And that this is the [...]e sense of the place, according to o­ [...]er Scriptures, the Church of England [...] testifie, which in the margent of the [...]glish Translations conferreth, Phil. [...] 10. with Rom. 14. 11. and Isay 45. 23. [...]sal. 2. 10.

For the latter, let Beza speak: This name [...]aith he signifieth dignitie, and renowne, [...]t joyned with the thing it selfe; as Ephe. [...] 21. For that Osiander referreth this to [...] very name of Iesus, which he confounded [...]th Iehovah, is the meere doctage of a mad [...]utheran. So he.

[Page 18] Againe, the Holy Ghost himself ex­poundeth the name of Iesus here, of [...] person of Iesus, as Isa. 45. 23. and Rom▪ 14. 11. to which this place hath speci [...] reference; as also Mal. 1. 1. and Ioh. 12. [...] ▪ as also of the power of Christ, Exod. 2 [...] ▪ 21. For my name is in him; that is, my [...] ­vine power is in him (that Angell of [...] Covenant) to protect or punish.

To this purpose, the late Revere [...] Bishop Babington (one of the late G [...] ­vernours of our Church) on the Lo [...] Prayer, the first Petition expounded these words, [that at the name of Iesus [...] ­ry knee should bow] thus: that is (saith [...] not when the word is pronounced, we sho [...] make a curtesie, but we shall all and ev [...] creature be subject to his power, authority, [...] dominion. The place is worth the r [...] ­ding at large: also in his exposition up [...] the Creed, where confuting the Pop [...] superstition about this name Iesus, as [...] ­mong the rest, how by this name a so [...] ­diour was helped out of S. Patricks P [...] ­gatorie, and the like: He saith, I thi [...] the place to the Philippians is not well und [...] ­stood [Page 19] hath and doth deceive them. Indeed [...]hey are easily deceived, that will not [...]earch [...]o [...] truth, and they are justly given [...]ver to strong delusions, that delight in [...]rrou [...], and have not a love of the Truth:

(They lies do love that ertours do defend,
And he is vertues fo, that is errours freind.)

Otherwise the place to the Philip­ [...]ians would not be so grossely mistakē, if [...]e ma [...]ke whence the Apostle tooke it, [...]d compare spirituall things with spiri­ [...]uall things. The place is borrowed [...]rom the Prophet Isaih, and therefore by [...]onsequence evidēt, that the word name, [...]ignifieth Power glorie, honour, and autho­ [...]itie, above all powers, glories, honours, and [...]uthorities, and bowing the knee, signifieth [...]ubjection, submission, and obedience of all Creatures to his beck, rule, and Govern­ment.

This knew the auncient Fathers, S. Origen, (Non est carnaliter hoc accipiendum, [Page 20] quasi caelestia, ut Sol, Luna, Angeli, genu [...] aut lingua habeant: Sed genu flectere signifi­cat, cuncta subjecta esse, & cultui Dei obe [...] dire.) who upon Rom. 14. 11. where these words be againe saith, These words are no [...] to be taken carnally, as though things in Hea­ven, as the Sunne, Moone, Angels, &c. ha [...] knees, or tongues: but to bow the knee signi­fieth, that all things shall be subject and obe­dient to the service of God. So he; wher [...] he also alleageth Ierome, Theophylact, Am­brose, The Imperij ejus subji­ci fatean­tur Ange­li, Homi­nes Demo [...]nes, Gloss. so Anselm. so Bruno. Carthu­rianus. Glosse, Beda, and some Popis [...] Authours of the same mind. And Gre [...]gory Nyssen in his disputation, de Anim [...] & Resurrectione, saith, that this bowing [...] the knee signifyeth the unanimity of men an [...] Angells, in confessing Christ.

Hereunto let me ad whatSynopsis 9. generall contro­versy, Qu. 5. Appen­dix, con­cerning the name of Iesus. D. Wille [...] hath said of this matter in an answer to the Rhemists cavil against Protestāts abou [...] it. The name of Iesus, say they, ought to [...] worshipped by capping and kneeling there unto, by wearing it in their capps, vnd setti [...] it up in solemne places: alleaging for the [...] purpose that of S. Paul, that at the nam [...] of Iesus every knee should bow, Phi. 2, 10 [Page 21] Yea, they say, that Protestants, by aboli­shing the name and image of Christ, doe make a way for Antichrist. Rhem. Annot. Phil. 2, Sect. 2, and Rev. 13. 7.

To this he answereth in the Protestants name, saying: The bovving at the name of Iesus, as it is used in Poperie, to bend the knee at the sound thereof, is not commanded [...]n this place; which shevveth especially the subjection of all Creatures, of Turks, Iewes, Infidels, yea of the Devills themselves, to the power and judgement of Christ.

Secondly, Protestants have only taken away the Superstitious abuse of the name of Iesus.

Thirdly, the kneeling at the name of Iesus is Superstitiously abused in Poperie: For the people stoop only at the Sound, not uuder­standingThus is Idolatry commit­ted. what is read, and so make an Idoll of the Letters and Syllables, adoring & wor­shipping the very name, when they heare or see it: And againe, in sitting, and not v [...]il­ling at the name of Christ, Immauuell, God the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost, and bovving only at the name of Iesus. Dis Fulk ibid.

[Page 22] Fourthly, due reverence may be used to our Saviour, without any such Cere­mony of capping and kneeling saith Fulk: neither doc vve binde any of necessitie to use this Reverence to the Name of Iesus, as the Papists doe, which thinke Christ cannot otherwise be honoured; neither doe we judge and condemne those that doe use it, being free from Superstition, and groun­ded in knowledge, and carefull not to give offence; for superstitions and offensive igno­rance is not in any case to be defended.

Fifthly, this outward reverence at the name of Iesus was taken up amongst Chri­stians, because of all other names it was most derided and scorned of the Pagans and Iews: and therefore they did the more honour it. But now there is greater daunger of Popish Superstition, in abusing holy things,Note. than of Paganisme, in utterly contemning them, and therefore there is not such necessity, and just occasion of using this externall gesture, as was in former times: it was not used of necessitie [...]hen, much lesse now. So he. D. Fulk also in his answer to the Rhemists on that place, (besides that alleaged by Dr. [Page 23] Willet from him) saith, in particular, to the Iesuites. You complaine that to remove such impietie, as the Image and name of Ie­sus, is to abolish all true Religion out of the World; and to make men plaine Atheists. The same was the complaints of the Pagans against the Christians. But to worship God only, according to the Prescript of his HolyNote this well. Word, is true Religion, and to teach men to worship contrary thereunto, it maketh men either Idolaters, or altogether Atheists. And when you say the Popish Church doth not honour those things, nor count them holy, for their matter, colour, sound, &c. but for respect and relation they have to our Saviour; it is too short a Cloke to cover your Idolatry. For the same was the perswasion of the Israe­lites, in their Golden Calfe, which they did not honour for the matter, colour, fashion, but for the relation it had to God, that brought them out of Egypt, Exod. 32. 4. 5. The like of Ieroboams Golden Calves, 1 King. 12. 28. So he. Yea, we may note also from the Rhemists owne confession, that they place all their Religion in such supersti­tion, as the adoration of Images, of the [Page 24] Crosse, and of the name Iesus, &c. Seeing they charge Protestants, with abolishing all true Religion out of the world, by their abolishing Popish Superstitions. And howsoever, they would salve and colour over the matter, that they wor­ship no [...] the very syllables, and name sim­ply Rhemes Annot. on this place. of Iesus: yet in Revel. 13. 17. they bew [...]ay their Hypocrasie and Idolatrie, in charging Protestants, for taking away the honour and reverence of the name of Iesus: which name, as the Iesuites Cha­racterize in capitall Letters, so they doe not obscurely ascribe honour and reve­rence to the very name IESVS. But whereas they charge the Protestants by removing the worship of Images, Crosses of the name Iesus, and the like, together with the things themselves out of their Churches, to make roome for Antichrists Here is the de­cript of Sathan to bring in false wor­ship. Image, Marke, and Name; We answer, that these superstitions and idolatries of the whore of Babylon have beene the fittest Vshers, to make roome for the An­tichrist of Rome, and the fairest colours to painte the whores face wath all, spe­cially [Page 25] this seemingly pious word innocent bowing at the name of Iesus. And of all other, the Iesuites have most need to ad­vance the adoration of the name IEsus, they having nothing of Christ, but bare Iesus, to make them Bar Iesusses, to be­witch the World with this name, that when men either heare the Societate Iesu, they may bow to this Iesuiticall Societie, or when they see I [...]HS in the frōt of their Books, they may beleeve all to be Gospel written therein.

Thus we have sufficiently with a Cloud of witnesses cleered the Scripture from being any ground of superstitious adoration of the name of Iesus: to which might be added a Catalogue more both of old and new writers, and that both PROTESTANTS and Papists, but it were both needlesse, and would make an Epistle endlesse, as this allready hath passed the bounds of an ordinary Letter. And chiefly needlesse, to heap up more testimonies, seeing the Canon al­leaged doth not alleage this, or any [Page 26] other Scripture, as hath beene ob­served.

How far then reacheth the command of the Canon in this case? Surely, not to any superstitious adoration of the name Jesus. Superstition we all disclaime. If to cap or knee, bow or doffe, at the na­ming of Iesus, be superstitious, the Canon chargeth it not. Worship to Christ it commandeth, spirituall, and corporall, Right and reason. This command is Apostolicall, Corinth. 16. 20.

But corporally or spiritually to wor­ship Christ at the naming of Iesus, rather than at the naming of Christ, is to prefer the name Iesus before the name Christ, a [...] of higher accompt; whereas the Apostle Peter saith: Let all the House of IsraellAct. 2. 36. know assuredly, that God hath made that same Iesus, whom ye have crucified, both the Lord and Christ. So that, to be Lord & Christ, is that name above every name, seeing that Iesus, in his humiliation is now made Lord and Christ in his exaltation. Wherenpon it is, that Beleevers are called Christians, of Christ the Lord, though the [Page 27] Antichristian Society▪ affect to be called Iesuites, as the more honourable Title. When therefore the Canon saith, When [...]he Lord Iesus is mentioned, &c. it meaneth plainly the [...] of Christ by any of his Name, Titles, or Attributes, and so by a Synechdoche, a part for the whole, commandeth all due and lowly reverence to Christ, yea, to the whole Trinitie; when­soever they are solemly mentioned by other of their Names.

For the purpose, the person of Christ the Mediatour, is expressed by sundry nams, not only by the name IEsus, but by the name Christ, Immanuell, by the Titles of Mediatour, Saviour, (which is but Jesus in English) David our King, the Lord our righteousnesse, This is the name whereby he shall be called, The Lord our righteous­nesse: Ier. 33. 6. also Isa 9. 6. His name shall be called Wonderfull, Counseller, the Mightie God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace; Also Revel. 19. 13. His name is called the Word of God, and the like.

Now then, we being commanded, to give due and lowly reverence when we heare [Page 28] the Lord Iesus mentioned, to weet, when we heare his sacred Person mentioned: we are consequently enjoyned to give due and lowly reverence to Christ, when­soever by any of his sacred names what­soever made knowne unto us in Scrip­tyre, he is mentioned unto us.

Obj. But this, will some say, will be an in­finite labour, for then in time of divine service we should do nothing else almost, but be bovving or doffing, or the like.

Answ. Why? who prescribes bovving or dof­fing, or the like particular reverence, or gesture?

Would they force or streine the CA­NON beyond the due limites? It pre­scribes only due and lowly reverence in ge­nerall, How is that? Is not the ge­nerall externall reverence expressed in having our Heads uncovered in time of Service and Sermon? Is not this a token of our subjection to the Lord Iesus Christ? See Corinth. 1. 11. 3. 4.

So then we being in the Church with our heads uncovered, in time of prayer and preaching; Is not this a due and lowly [Page 29] reverenca? Yea, I say, during the time of prayer and preaching; For, is it not all done in the name of Iesus Christ? Doe we not pray in his name? Doe we not preach in his name?

Christs name then being the summe & subject of the sacred ministration, who shall denie all due and lowly, not only internall, but also externall reverence to the Lord Iesus, and to God the Father in his name, while all along and through­out the name of Christ is celebrated in the sacred Ministration? And this see­meth to be the summe of the CA­NON.

Obj. But some may object: That the Ca­non enjoyneth reverence in generall, as uncovering of the head, and also some speciall reverence over and above when the Lord Iesus is mentioned.

Answ. I answer; first, this speciall reverence is not expressed what, or how, but as hath beene accustomed.

But the Superstitious custome of the Synagogue of Rome, our Church dis­claimeth, as before.

[Page 30] Againe, saying, when the Lord Iesus is is mentioned (not when the name Iesus is named:) If there be a speciall outward reverence to be done, when the person of Christ, or the Lord Iesus is mentioned: then, by the very words of the Canon, this re­verence is to be done, wheu the Lord Ie­sus is expressed, or mentioned by any one of his names, titles, or attributes, as we shewed before; which agreeth with the Institution at the Councell of Mentz, ac­cording to Dr. Willets judicious obser­vation, fore-noted. Otherwise, to bo [...] or doe some other speciall outward reve­tence when Iesus is named, and not as well when Christ is named, or Immanuell, or the like, or the Father, or the Holy Ghost, is superstitiously to preferre Iesus before Christ, Thus doe men com­mitt Ido­latrie. if not to make an Idoll of the name IEsus, in the very syllables and let­tres of it, seeing those that bow at the name IEsus, do not bow at the name Sa­viour, which is the English of Iesus; This is to do reverence to IEsus in Greek or La­tine, but not in English. Or, is there more vertue, than in the name Christ? To think [Page 31] so, is popish superstition and sottish igno­rance, like that of the Iewes, in the scrupulous naming Iehovah.

Or, if a man will stiffly hold to the Letter of the Canon, then he must not simply do reverence, when IEsus is men­tioned, but when the Lord Iesus is mentio­ned. And this were a more safe way to prevent the perill of bowing to any other IEsus, as Iesus, which is Iosuah, or the like; Into which errour, the vulgar easily and usually runne into; (yea, and some great men in mine owne observation,) If men bowed onely at the mention of the Lord Jesus, (as the Canon hath it) which title of Lord, distinguisheth this IEsus from all other Iesusses in Scripture.

Here let me sett downe some form of Arguments, proving, that the CA­NON cannot meane, that externall Adoration is to be used at the na­ming of Jesus.

Whatsoever is spoken of the Lord Ie­sus, is spoken of the person of Iesus, and [Page 32] not of the name of Iesus.

Obj. But the Canon speaketh of the Lord Jesus. Ergo, the Canon speaketh, and so meaneth the person of the Lord Iesus, & not of the name Iesus, where it saith, when the Lord Iesus is mentioned.

The Minor is plaine. The Major is no lesse plaine.

Answ. But it is answered, the Lord Iesus is mētioned under the name Iesus. I answer, not only the name IEsus, but other names are aequall expressions of the person of the Lord Iesus. If therefore the person of the Lord Iesus be to be adored, when he is named, or mentioned, then as well when he is named Christ as Iesus. But the Canon mentioneth no Adoration at the name of Christ; Ergo, neither mea­neth any at the naming of Iesus.

Or thus:

Whatsoever is spoken of the Lord Iesus, is spoken of his Person. But the name of Iesus, is not the Person of the Lord Iesus; Ergo, the mention of the Lord [Page 33] Iesus, is not meant of the name of Ie­sus.

Or thus:

He that saith, that when the Lord Ie­sus, which is the Person of Iesus, is men­tioned, the name Iesus only of all his o­ther names is meant, he denieth and ex­cludeth all other names, whereby the per­son of Christ is expressed.

But the CANON doth not denie other names of Christ, wherby he is mentioned or expressed. Ergo, the Canon doth not mean by the mention of the Lord Iesus the name Iesus onely of all his other names.

Or thus:

He that saith, that by the mention of the Lord Iesus, is meant the name or the naming of Iesus,Observe this. confounds the name Iesus with the person of Iesus, and so makes the name Iesus an Idoll, as all one with the Lord Iesus.

But the Canon doth not confound the name Iesus with the Lord Iesus. Ergo, the Canon, by the mention of the Lord Iesus, [...]annot meane the name Iesus, when it is mentioned. [Page 34] Else it must necessarily command the Creature to be worshipped. If any reply that the adoration at the name Iesus hath relation to the Person of Iesus: The Ie­suites say as much for this adoration, and for all other Idoll worship. But the Canon speakes not of the name Jesus, but of the Lord Jesus personally.

Or thus:

He that worshippeth the Lord Iesus, when the name Iesus is only mentioned, and not when he is mentioned by any o­ther of his names, (because the Canon saith, when the Lord Iesus is mentio­ned, &c.) preferrs the name Iesus be­fore other of his names, as Christ, &c.

But the CANON doth not preferre the name Iesus before the name Christ.

Ergo, the Canon meaneth not by the Lord Iesus the name Iesus only.

Or thus:

If the CANON be taken and meant o [...] [Page 35] the name Iesus, when it saith vvhen the Lord Iesus is mentioned, then the name Iesus is the Lord Iesus.

But the name Iesus is not the Lord Iesus.

Ergo, the Canon cannot be taken and meant of the name Iesus, when it saith, when the Lord Iesus is mentioned.

Or thus:

All Adoration must be grounded on the Word of God. But this Adoration at the name Iesus, or naming of Iesus, is not grounded upon the Word of God.

Ergo, the Canon cannot mean adoration at the name Iesus, or the naming of Ie­sus.

The Major is proved, Isai. 29. 13, & Mar. 7. 7.

For the Minor, if it have any ground in Gods Word, then, Phil. 2. 10. But that is no ground, as hath beene proved. For it is not said there, In or at the name Iesus, but in or at the name of Iesus; so as Iesus there is plainly meant of the per­son, [Page 36] not of the name. And therefore all our Translations have it, either, In the name of Iesus, or, At the name of Iesus, and not, in, or at the name Iesus.

But here I am pressed by some (me thinks) to declare my conscience, whe­ther in good sadnesse I do not thinke it was the mind of those that compiled and cast the Canons, that an outward speciall reverence, as capping, or kneeing should be done when the name Iesus is named. I answer, first, we are to make the most charitables construction, and such as is agreeable to Truth, of the words, espe­cially of our Forefathers, as farre as they are capable.

Secondly, suppose some one or two of them had any such meaning, as so [...] would pin upon them, yet were it the duty of good Children to cover their Fathers naked meaning with the mantle of filiall charitie, and of a favourable construction.

Thirdly, howsoever, some perhaps in their meaning suffer as men, yet herein [Page 37] were they wise men, in not expressing more in words than Gods word doth warrant. And in a word, for my part, I have a good hope, that their meaning was no worse than their saying.

But at length,Note this well. to shut up all: Let me tell you what I have observed in those that are most superstitiously observant of bow­ing or doffing at the naming of Iesus: They are commonly ignorant, or very prophan persons, that with the Iewes will singe Hosanna to Iesus, and cry crucifie Christ. So these will deifie Iesus with their head, and crucifie him with their hands and tongues, by their lying and swearing and wicked living. Or else, such are couzening Papists, or popishly affected, combining and complying with Poperie, placing all their Religion in ex­ternall Rites, and Superstitious Ceremonies, and abandoning the power and sub­stance of true Religion, feeding Hypo­crasie, with a vaine opinion, that they have done God good service, when they thus honour this name IEsus, being mor­tall ennemies to Christ and his Gospell, and [Page 38] the true professours of it. Such are they that would set up Antichrist againe, that are so ready to bow, cap, cring, or kneel to this Superstitions,Phil. 3, 18, 19. being ennemies of the crosse of Christ; Whose end is damnation, whose God is their belly, which mind Earthly things.

Now, the Lord purge us more and more from all Antichristian Superstition and Idolatrie, and establish our hearts in his saving Truth, to our eternall salvation AMEN.

Your true loving freind in Christ Iesus.

OF Doing reverence, and particularly of bowing the knee at the name of IESVS.
Who sometimes having erred, and gone astray from the Church, af­terwards at a publike place, prea­ched, & by command published a Testimonie of his heartie re-union & humble submission to the church of England, his acknowledged deere Mother.

To his reverend Brethren, the Ministers of the Church of England.

IT is certaine, that the Christians, who lived in the best Ages of the Church, did aunciently observe the Ceremonies of uncovering the Head at the Name of Ie­sus, as learned Zanchy doth manifestly confesse, in his Comment▪ upon Phil. 2, 10. A custome (saith he) not to be dissa­lovved; for it was a testimony of reverence & adoration of our Lord Iesus Christ, which was introduced Originally, in regard of the Iewes and Gentile, who despised him; and re­teined afterwards against Arrians and o­ther Hereticks, impugning the Divinitie of Christ.

This reason of the said Ceremonie now ceassing, the Ceremonie it selfe might ceasse with it: for so it is in the Law, the soule thereof, (namely the rea­son of it) being gone, the Law doth con­sequently ceasse with it. Notwithstan­ding, [Page 41] because Mr. Hooker, lib. 5. Sect. 50. and many learned men doe observe some other reasons for the continuance of the Ceremonie of bowing the knee at the name of Iesus, as a thing Lawfull, yea law­dable, in some sort, but in no wise necessarie, (as it shall afterward appeare,) I will co [...]f [...]sse with that famous Divine Doc­tour Fulk, on Phil. 2, 10. that it may be well used. Howbeit, as Zanchy noteth of uncovering the Head; so I may say of bovving the knee at the name of Iesus, that it hath beene perverted to a superstitious practise▪ For, as many abuse this Cere­monie in the Church of Rome, so some abus [...] it in the Church of England.

Now, the reasons why Christians did use reverence at the name of Iesus, by cap or knee, or both, rather than at any other name, (though it and they importing one and the same thing so their understan­din) are many.

First,Reasons of the an­cient use of this ge­sture. because this name above all other Names, was in great detestation and con­tempt, as Festus speaketh of him, Acts 25. 19. The Ievves had question against Paul, [Page 42] touching one Iesus. This name also by the ignominie of the Crosse, upon his title Iesus of Nazareth was placed, became more execrable to the unbeleevinge World.

Secondly, it was his proper name, or the name of his person, appointed by God, foretold by the Angell, Luke. 1, 31. imposed in his circumcision, Luke. 2, 21. where he had his peculiar and distinct ap­pellation, and yet this is his personall Name, not only as he is Man, but as he is one Christ, and subsisteth in two na­tures, Divine and Humane.

Thirdly, because of the signification, for it doth expresse the Office of the Redeemer, in the worke of Salvation, Matth. 1, 21.

Fourthly, men tooke occasion of this complementall reverence from the very Text it selfe, Phil. 2, 10, as sounding to that purpose.

The question is therefore, whether or how far forth we are bound to this ex­ternall act of reverence, either by force of the said Scripture, or by authority of [Page 43] any constitution of the Church? Of both which I will treat in order.

1. Of the true meaning of the Scrip­ture, Phil▪ 2, 10.

At the name of Iesus shall every knee bow, both of things in Heaven, and things in Earth, and thiugs under the Earth.

If it be the true proper and literall sense of this Text, that we must bow the knee by externall reverence at the name of Iesus, then it is a precept binding us to the ne­cessitie of this practise by indispensable obligation. If it be not the true proper and literall sense of the said Scripture, to bow the knee at the name of Iesus, by such an externall act of reverence, then are we not bound to the practise of this Ce­remonie, by the force and vertue of the Scripture.

To enter therefore into a more exact and sound discussion of this point, wee must observe 3. rules, which serve to o­pen this particular, and sundry other in the sacred Scripture.

1. Whereas no point of Religion can [Page 44] be demonstrated out of the Scripture, but as the Scripture is taken in the true, pro­per, and literall sense (which the learnedst in the church of Rome do also confesse) we must acknowledge, that the Scripture hath but one true, proper, & literall sense; the sense of it being the very forme of it, and every thing hath but one forme, as reason and Philosophy do dictate to our understanding, so that all other senses, (so called) as, Tropilogicall, Allegoricall, Ana­logicall, Keckerm. syst. theol. li. 1. c. 9. are inded not properly senses of the Scripture, but an accommodation of the Scripture, to the use of the Readers & Hearers.

2. Secondly, that is the true, proper, & literall sense of the Scripture, which the intention of the speaker, and the na­ture of the thing it selfe doe importe to our understanding, by what words soever (proper or unproper) the said sense be expressed in the Scripture.

3. Thirdly, we must therefore observe that the true, proper, and literall sense of the Scripture, is not allwayes that which the words do beare immediately in their [Page 45] grammaticall signification; but that the words of the Scripture are sometimes proper, as, Christ is the Son of God; some­times improper, or methaphoricall, as, Christ is a vine, a Dore. Now, if the words be improper, and metaphoricall (as we shall see anon) we must note that (as D [...]s Whitakers did truely advertise Bellarmine) the improper vvords carry not in them the li­terall sense of the Scripture immediately (for then great absurditie would follow) but mediatly, that is to say, as they are reduced unto proper words, as here bowing the knee at the name of Iesus, is an improper or methaphoricall speech, and is reduced to this proper speech, viz. a subjection of the Creaturs to the Sonne of God; which being the true, proper, & literall sense of that Scripture, is contained in an impro­per & metaphoricall speech.

I come therefore punctually to the thing in question, and say; that the true, proper, & literall sense of the Scripture doth, (according to the intention of S. Paul, and the nature of the thinge it selfe) ‘represent unto our under­standing, [Page 46] not an outward Cere­monie of bowing the knee of the body, but a reall subject on of all the Creatures in Heaven, Earth, and Hell, unto the Sonne of God, even as he is the Sonne of Man also, now exalted unto Glory.’

Whereas therefore S. Paul saith: God hath given him a name above every name, Phil. 2, 9. The cleere and evident sense whereof is this, that Christ, (so humbled before in the assumption of our nature, in the cours of this life, in the maner of his death, &c. is now advaunced and honoured by his Father, first by the publike manifestation of his Divinitie, which before seemed obscure; and secondly by exaltation of his humanitie. So that now he having a name above all names, in Glory and Pow­er, all Creatures voluntarily, or ne­cessarily, are subject to his Domi­nion; which subjection is expressed by a metaphoricall act, as Esther 3, 2. The Ser­vants of Ahashuerosh the King bowed the knee unto Hamon, and reverenced him, which Mordechai refused to performe, [Page 47] and therefore incurred his indignation, vers. 5.

That this sense is the true, proper, and literall sense of the Scripture, according to the intention of the writer, and accor­ding to the nature of the thing it selfe, you may cleerely discerne by all the cir­cumstances of the Text; and amongst ma­ny, to evince the same, I present these 5. ensuing to your consideration.

First,5. Circum­stances, to prove it to be un­derstood not of bowing the bodily knee. because it is not the very name of Iesu (literally and syllabically taken) to which reverence is here due, and should be performed by every Creuture, but the person signified by this Name, and so in other of his Names. For when we heare this Name of Iesus, and thereupon do an Act of reverence, either inwardly in the mind, or outwardly in the body; it is by mediate inference of it in our under­standings, unto the thing or person it self signified in and by tha [...] Name; otherwise this Act were a literall or syllabicall Ido­latrie, by restraining it to the Name, and not extending it to the Person Wherefore when I heare any other of his Names, as [Page 48] Immanuell, Christ, &c. I am (by vertue of the said reason) bound to do the like reverence at the sound of these other names, if I be bound unto it at the name of Iesus, because the same person is in every name imported to my understan­ding; Else in regarding one Name of his person, more than an other, I shew that I regard the Name more than the person, or the name without the person; the first being wicked, the second a foolish conceipt, And yet neverthelesse that these Ceremonialists, entertaining Iesus with reverence, dismisse Christ with ne­glect.

2. Againe, if the Text bind us (in the true, proper, and literall sense) to this ex­ternall act of adoration, in bowing the knee at the name of Iesus, then those Ceremo­nialists (who say so, or must say so, or else they say nothing) must performe this Act of adoration at all times, and in all places whensoever, and wheresoever they heare the sound of this name; for the text spea­keth absolutely, generally, & definitely of bowing the knee, without any imitation or [Page 49] restreint: And yet these Ceremonialists (either wanting judgement in what they would affirme, or conscience, in what they should performe) do not exercise this Act of Adoration, at all times, and in al [...] places, at the sound of this Name. Yea, which is more, they ought by force of their owne reason ( [...]f it had any force) [...]o practise this act of reverence, whenso­ever they read this name of Iesus in the Scripture, or any other Author. Nay ought they not, whensoeyer they thinke of this Name, bow the knee? For their [...]eason (if it enforce what obey pretend) enforceth all this which I alleage.

3. Thirdly, these grave & supercilious Ceremonialists, as when they sit, they can [...]ot do this peculiar act of reverence (or [...]t the least not with due cōplement, which [...]n all things they effect,) so some times [...]hough they stand, yet they bow not their knees, but only uncover their heads up­on the sound of the Name. But now wher [...]s their Science? Or where is their con­science? For if they bind us so strictly [...]o the Letter of the Text, we will bind [Page 50] them also as strictly to the same: An [...] therefore we say, that, though by uncove [...]ring their heads, they do an act of reve [...]rence; yet this act answereth not precisel [...] to the letter of the text; aud though ther [...] be often a Commutation of Pennance i [...] the Bishops Court, yet we cannot allo [...] them (and the Scripture will not her [...] allow them) this Commutation of rev [...]rence in the Court of Christ. First, becaus [...] the knee, and not the Cap, is here strict [...] prescribed. Secondly, because the Ca [...] is a lesser dutie than the knee. Eithe [...] therefore observe your owne rule, [...] discharge us from the necessitie there [...]of.

4. Fourthly, we may observe by a pe [...]spicuous and forcible reason, drawne [...] impossibile, that this Ceremonious-act [...] bowing the knee at the name of Iesus, is n [...] the true, proper, and literall sense of th [...] Scripture; for whereas we have here a d [...]stinction of 3. sorts of Creatures, whic [...] must bow the knee at the name of Iesus; vi [...] Angells, things in Heaven; Men, thin [...] [...]n Earth? and Devills, things under t [...] [Page 51] Earth; We know that the first and the last have no knees to bow, and so it is two to one, that this externall act of bowing the knee at the name of Iesus, is not the true, proper, and literall sense of this Scrip­ture, and that, by force of it, we are not obliged to this externall act.

5. Lastly, you must observe, that S. Paul in this place, Phil. 2. 10, alludeth to the word of God, Isai. 45. 23. Every knee shvll bow to me; which is properly and li­terally understood, not of corporal genu­flexion, but of actuall subjection unto God. This very place in Isai, the Pro­phet understandeth to be verified in the person of Christ at the last Iudgement, when every knee shall bow to him, as the great Iudge of all the world: For, to this purpose, S. Paul produceth that place Rom. 14. 11. namely, by the subjection of all Creatures, voluntary in some, invo­luntary in others, but necessarily to the Lord Iesus, sitting on his Tribunall seat of Iustice; not that all shall do this out­ward act of reverence; but that all shall be in subjection, which is signified and in­tended [Page 52] in the same. For God descendeth often unto Man, to speak after the man­ner of Man, because Man cannot imme­diatly and freely assent unto the things of God.

To conclude therefore, you may easi­ly perceive, that S. Paul understandeth this bowing of the knee no otherwise, than he understandeth it, Rom. 14, 11. and no otherwise in either place, than the Pro­phet Isaiah before him, Isai. 45, 23.

And so much of the Scripture, by which the Ceremonialists in­force the external act of Court­like Complement at the name of Iesus.

Of the Canon, viz. 18.

I come therefore from the Sripture to the Canon, which runneth in these words: ‘When in the time of Divine Service the Lord Jesus shall be mentioned, due & lowly reverence shall be done by all persons present, as it hath been accustomed.’

[Page 53] But if the Scripture be not against us, in that which the Ceremonialists pre­tend, we shall the lesse feare the shot out of this CANON; and therfore we answer briefly unto them.

1. First, we dislike not simply the prac­tise of this externall reverence at the Name of Iesus (for we condemne not the Church of England, much lesse the auncient and Vniversall Church in this behalfe,) it being done upon good and sufficient knowledge without supersti­tion, and without opinion of necessitie, according to the purpose of the Church. Hence it is that Mr. Hooker lib. 5, 5, 30. confesseth in expresse words, touching this externall act of reverence at the name of Iesus; No man is constrained to use it by auy Obligation of Divine Law or Hu­mane.

2. Secondly, I observe, that the externall act of reverence at the name of Iesus, hath bin usually practised in the time of Divin Service, not whensoever men do staud, & when in the time of their standing the name of Iesus is sounded forth, (for we [Page 54] do stand at the recitation of the Cr [...]ed, where mention is made of Iesus (with no bowing of the knee) but at the reading of the Gospell; and therefore the CANON must be understood peculiarly of that custome, when it requireth a reverence, as it hath beene accustomed

If any Ceremonialist will contend with me in this point, let the same Mr. Hooker in the same place, be an Arbitra­tour betwixt us, to decide the Contro­versie.

Because the Gospels, which are weekly read, do all historically declare, something which our Lord Iesus Christ did, or suffred in his owne Person, it hath been the custome of Christian men, then especially, in token of the greater reverence, to stand, to utter certaine words of ac­clamation, Glorie be to thee, O Lord; and at the name of Iesus to bow. It was therefore a Custome aunciently so to do.

[Page 55] But I finde in Antiquitie no CANON to establish it, (and verily generall custom was not sufficient in this behalfe by the rule of S. Austin. Ep. 118.) much lesse was it a matter of necessary observation, by the literall sense of the Scripture. And to declare this point yet more plainely. Zozomen. Hist. Eccl. 7. c. 19. relating sun­dry different Customes of the auncient Church, writeth thus: It is a new custome in the Church Alexandria, that the Bishop there doth not rise up at the reading of the Gospell, which custome I have neither found nor read of in any other place: So that lea­ving the Bishops of Alexandria to their owne reason herein, and defence, for this diversitie of their practise, contrary to the generall action of the Church.

I may conclude, that neither the scrip­ture bound any, nor that the Canon or Custome bound all to the observation of this Ceremonial act, which the pro­found Ceremonialists, partly by vertue of the Scripture, and partly by authoritie of the CANON would enforce upon their Brethren. And this might suffice con­cerning [Page 56] the C [...]NON in this behalfe.

But if I shall not offend them, I could presse them further with the Relation of an auncient and very Learned Bishop,Note this well. who being present at the making of this CANON, did freely and confidently pro­test, that neither he, nor any of his Colle­gues, did ever condiscend unto it, when it was first concluded, nor when it came afterwards to the byrth, it being, as he said, a matter caried, he knew not how, by the power and policie of a few, with­out the consent or approbation of all, or of the greatest part. He added further, wherereas S. Paul speaketh of the name of Iesus, that it is a name above all names, he conceiveth the word name to be putt there for Person, as in Acts 4, 12. There is no salvation in any other name under Hea­ven, whereby we must be saved, Quasi dice­ret; God the Father hath now declared the excellencie of this Person Christ Iesus, that he is the Lord of all Creatures, and that they must be in subjection to his power So he.

Well, I will leave this particular, (as [Page 57] perhaps offensive, though true) and I will confirme it, if need were, by sacred Oath, that such was the resolution of the said B [...]shop, and shutt up all the whole with 3. observations, which I wish men to weigh well, in the Ballance of a true judgement, and of an upright conscience.

1. First, though I have often and cu­riously noted the behaviour of the prin­cipall Authours of this Canon in time of divine service, and especially in the rea­ding of the Gospell, yet I could never see them performe any externall act of reverence at the name of Iesus.

2. Secondly, though many good Chri­stians bow not their knees, or bend their bodies at the name of Iesus, in the time of Divine Service or Sermons, yet this o­mission of outward Complement, pro­ceedeth not from a want of due & hearty reverence to our Lord Iesus Christ, but because the Ceremonialists would impose it upon them, by a plaine misconstructiō of the Scripture, therefore they are not willing by such an act of reverēce to give testimonie and approbation to such a [Page 58] plain ignorant misconstructiō of the text; Though otherwise they may be tractable to performe it, according to knowledg,, and to shew their obedience to the order of the Church, which yet doth not com­pell men to the practise of this Cere­monie. For as it hath beene intermit­ted in many Congregations, and by dis­use is wholy laid aside; So we do not heare, that, by vertue of this CANON, ei­ther any Minister is brought into question for not stirring and provoking the people unto it, nor any of the people presented in the Spirituall Court, for neglect therof. But if the Scripture enforce it, and the Ca­non require it, why is neither the Pastor, nor the Parishioner, more sharply entrea­ted in this behalfe?

3. Thirdly,N. B. many, yea most that per­forme not this Ceremonie of bowing the knee at the name of Iesus, do appeare by the best effects of Religion, and in all due Circumstances thereof, to have more true zeale, devotion, and love unto the the Lord Iesus, than many, yea the most of these Ceremonialists, who seeming to [Page 59] honour him with Cap and Knee, do by their Superstition rather than Religion, herein, prepare a way for Iesuites to creep in with the Serpent by such holes into the Gardeu of Eden, the true Church of God in this Kingdome.

Let us therefore, not so much affect the outward forme of Religion, as make true demonstration of our love, honour, and obedience unto the Lord Jesus, by the most essentiall and proper effects therof: Lest, when we have reverenced him with so many Capps and Knees (whereby we please our selves rather than him) he turn us away with a Non novi vos, in the great & fearefull Day.

A Post-script Question.

VVHen any man sweateth by Jesus (as some men do in passion or glory) whether the stander by hearing the oath, be bound, to bow his knee at the name of Iesus?


The Publisher hereof to the Chri­stian Reader, of what rank or degree soever.

BEloved, I (qualis quisque sum) travai­ling and residing, ef [...]soones, about my lawfull negotiations in divers Trans­marine places, both in France, Germanie, and the Netherlands, have done, and do observe in the truly Reformed Chur­ches in all those Countries, That they all, as it were with an unanimous consent, do abandon in their Congregations, this ex­ternall bodily bowing, capping, crowching, oringiug at the Name or naming of Jesus, and their Ministers do hold it to be an ignorant practise, and impious Ceremo­monie: Yea, I dare be bold to say, all the rest of the purely Reformed Churches in Christendome are of like unanime Iudg­ment and practise. And I having, not without Divine Providence, obteined the Manuscript, which by the same Provi­dence have passed the Presse, do here communicate & present unto your view the Opinion, Iudgement, and Determination [Page 61] of a Pair of reverend and learned Di­vines of our owne Church, members of our two famous Vniversities, (the one of Cambridg, the other of Oxford) concer­ning the same bovving, capping, crowching, & cringing at the nam of Iesus: which letter and Treatise I confesse and professe, have given me and some Christian freinds of mine aboundant satisfaction in the point. Our latter learned Authour calls them that so much use & plead for it, not unproperly, Ceremonialists you may easily know them; They are all for Ceremonie, naught for sinceritie; like the Apples of Sodome, all shevv, no substance; somewhat like unto painted sepulchres, glorious without, rotten within; Not much unlike a fantasticall Picture, which this Age hath produced, all belly, Nobody; nor much unlike the Datestone, all shell, no-kernell; Even so are these men, (like Baalls consening Priests) all for externall vvillworship an adoration, preferring it before internall & spirituall true worship & devotion: though the Holy Ghost hath plainly said: God will be served in spirit & in truth.

[Page 62] Yea, some of their Lives and Doctrines do declare, as if (we may doubt) they wished that that and other sacred Texts of Holy-writ for inward sinceritie were obli­terated, and as if they drew all their doc­trines and devotions out of the large vo­lume, entituled Ceremoniale Romanae Eccle­siae. O Fearefull! O Tempora! O Mo­res!

And hath indeed my learned Authour t [...]rmed them Ceremonialists? I hope, I may, without offence, change two Letters in the word, and theu they are just Cere­moniall-astes, or asses rather. All which so much use and advocate for the super­stitious use of this Ceremonie of bowing, capping, &c. (and are readie to cry downe preaching, alleaging it is no part of Gods Worship, with other grosse erronious points; and, squaring the word with the crooked squire of their own Inventions,Mat. 15. 9 teach, indeed, for Doctrines the Traditions and Precepts of Men.) I challenge, charge, and adjure them, or any of them, whether Bishop, Doctor, Parson, Vicar, Priest, Curate, or Chaplaine, in the Name [Page 63] of the Lord Jesus, (which they so super­stitiously abuse) as they will once answer at his Tribunall, either punctually to an­swere (with the spirit of meeknesse, let­ting Gods Word be their Warrant, Touchstone, or Vmper) these precedent Tractates; (They need not doubt of law­dable License at London House) Or els, to recant their Superstitious and Erroni­ous Doctrines, and practises; or, at least­wise to leave pleading for Baall: And I desire all other moderate minded Chri­stians to be satisfied in the controverted point: But, if any list stil to be contentious, 1 Cor. 11, 16. I must answer them, we have no such cu­stome, neither the churches of God.

And besides the Opinion, Iudgement, and Determination of these two reve­rend Divines, doubtlesse you may have seen allready published, the learned and accute Layick of Lincolns-Inn (that hathMr. W. P. stood so stoutly, and written so piously & profoundly in defence of the Orthodox Doctrine of the Church of England, against Papists, Arminians, and all other Eunemies of the Church,) his opinion, [Page 64] judgement, and discussion, also in this point of bovving, capping, crovvching, and cring at the name of Iesus: And a three­fold Cord (I trow) is not easily broke: I cannot but equallize his writing with these two Divines: And though I have, I thinke I need not challenge an answer to them or him, seeing now my second cogitations tells me, that both theirs and his, are alltogether unanswerable (for I hold Widdows nor Page, to be any direct answeres to the point but the one a Ray­lar, and the other a Sophister. And they not answering, I say, directly and punc­tually, to the Premisses, I professe (whoe­ver I am) if ever I be called from the Hagh in Holland to Pauls Crosse, will there proolame: That all those Ceremo­niall asses are silenced, gravelled, and can not answere, and therefore ought to sub­scribe to the Premisses. But me thinks I heare still some of them mumbling, that these precedent Authours, nor the others by them cited, are sufficient to stop their mouths, and stay their practise; Then let me have leave to propose to them, That, [Page 65] That if the matter may be putt for the voyces or hands to the Clergie-men, I dare pawne my deerest life, that most, or the greatest part of Bishops, Doctors, and other Divines of the Church of En­land will subscribe to our-learned Au­thours: And that will be doubtlasse sa­tis superque.

The superstitious Ephesians we know cried Great is (the Goddesse) Diana of the Ephesians: So we may say, Great is the Goddesse Dotage of these Ceremonial asses. Whom therefore we must leave to S. Pauls Doome, alleaged by our first learned Authour in his Conclusion.

Yet for all this, let me not be mistaken, that I doe by the promisses, in approving these learned and pious Authours, Iudge­ments & discussions out of Gods Word, in this point, disapprove or dislike (allto­gether) the Ceremonies of our Church; For, as they are conformable to the law­full Ceremonies, so I am perswaded there is a moderate laudable use of them, so a [...] they that use them, doe them for decencie & in order, according to S. Pauls Precept.

[Page 66] Our last learned Authour, at the Con­clusion of his Treatise, asketh the Oppo­sites a Question: In like manner, if these Ceremoniall-asses would give me leave, I would aske them an other; and that is: whether our Common Beggars, when they aske, beg and iterate for Iesus sake, which sacred Name they take in vaine (though many of their numberlesse num­ber know neither God nor Christ Iesus his Sonne) perhapps 100. or 1000. times in a day, whether, I say, we that hea [...] them, be bound to bow, cap, crowch, cring, or no?

And so, beloved reader, if thou reapes [...] any contentment by this twofold Trea­tise, give God the Glorie, the Authour [...] their merited prayse and thanks, and m [...] the Publisher hereof (if thy Charitie wi [...]afford it) thy Prayers at the Throne [...] Grace.

[Page 67] And so I betake you to God and the Word of his Grace, which is able to build you up, and give you an Inheritance among them that are sanctified.

Magna est Veritas
  • Et praevalet
  • Et praevalebit.
Tuus in Christo Iesu H. D.

The second Publisher to indiffernt Reader.

I Do judge these Reverend Devines faithfull, and therefore one occasion I will hould communion with them in the worship of God, and although they do in some things practise some su­perstitions, which I dare not partake in, yet I do professe to hould communion with them in all holy parts of Gods wor­ship, and because we do thus practise: Here is one IOHN CAN have published a [Page 68] spitefull, if not rayling booke, against al [...] that doe complaine of the superstitions, used in our Land. And yet hould com­munionSee his book 55. 56. 57. Folio. with them in holy graces o [...] Gods Worship. For this cause he chard­geth us to be pervertours of the truth, saying: Dr. Ames, of famous memory▪ who utterly denies, that the calling of ou [...] He saith, the best Ministers have no other call then the ignorant asses, and idols have Minister doe essentially depend on th [...] Bishops call, yet otherwayes have a law­full calling. Against this he doth paren­torily affirme the Ministers in our Land by the Laws of our Land, doth certainl [...] depend on the Bishops, calling holy, an [...] no mens else. Herein he doth affirm, th [...] this pretence is worse then the family o [...] Love, which are the grossest Heretick [...] risen in this Adge.In the most con gregatiōs the patarn doe first chose be­fore the Bishop can or­dain.

Therefore we will examine his accu­sation; For, if he be false in this, then let all, that feare God, judge him a false accu­ser, like his Father the Devill is. And I de here call all discret men to witnes, that b [...] the Laws of our Land, the Bishop, canno [...] send a Minister to be made in the church▪ till the Patron do first choose him, an [...] [Page 69] send him with his Letters to the Bishopp,Iohn Can proved a false acu­ser. to ordaine him. And it is well knowne, there are sundry Congregations, which have agreed with their Patrons, that they choose and call their Pastor. And sundry Gentlemen, fearing God, which are Pa­trons, and do use to advise with the most discret in that Church, about the choyse of one, wherein they do take the advise of learned Devines, approvin him, and he is choosen by that Church, before the Bishops see him; and therefore Dr. AmesFol. 234. his sentence is true, allthough Iohn CAN revile him for it; and he after in the same book doth justifie this course of chusing by the Congregation, to be good, accor­ding to trueth; Therefore his owne mouth do give sentence against himselfeSee Mr. Padgets arrow a­gainst the Brownists and the reprove of Iohn [...] & May, An. 1632. to be a false accuser.

IF Iohn CAN would have triyed and defended his cause of Separatiō from all the Godly Ministers and Profes­sours in the Church of England, a­gainst Doctor Ames, he should have an­swered his first and second Manuduction [Page 70] against M. Robinson, and tryed, if he cold hav don more thē M. Robinson have don, for ther is his cause proved erronious, & it is in other books provd fals, in denying the Grace of God, given us in Iesus Christ. He doth know, there are books have been published this 16 years, which have proved sundry artikels of their faith false and erronious, yet Iohn Can dare not write against till the Authours be dead.

It appeareth unto me, Iohn Can know­eth not the right calling of a Teacher in­to the Church, because he putts no diffe­rence betwixt Election, Approbation, & Ordination, which th [...] Word of God doth distinguish, yet in his book he count them all one thing.

He writeth, they practise nothing, but that the Teachers of our Church have affirmed to be truth, which I manifest, is not so: for, we affirm, God hath ordained Schooles, to educate and fitt men to be teachers in his Church, and such are ne­cessary instruments, to increase heavenly graces. This we hold, is a worke of Faith, for us, to heare them preach, which Iohn Can do condemne, Act. 13. 15.

[Page 71] We doe beleeve the communion of Saints, and thus the Church have be­leeved since the Apostles dayes, and though Iohn Can doth confesse, they were first converted by our Ministerie, yet he condemneth those that doth par­take in that holy worship, contrary to the Counsell of the Holy Ghost, in dispising Prophe [...]ie, Thess. 5. 20.

He writes himself Pastor of the aun­cient English Church,Yet those that chose him, and ordained him, did depose him, they say, for that he deceived them. and he doth con­demne all the divines of our nation, that there is not one a lawfull teacher in this age, but himselfe, yet it appeareth, he is ignorant of the grounds of Religion. Hebr. 6. 2.

Whereas John Can doe command all those which do denie his grounds, to sett downe their names, and the place where they dwell, I desire of him to shew his commission, for I think he is vainly con­saited, and one that doth not know him­selfe, therefore fare unfitt to reprove those, which have laboured more yeares in studie then he hath monts. See his Booke Folio 60.

The Publisher, Post-scripe to the Reader.

IF any will-worship or Ceremonialist say: that this bowing and ducking at the name or naming of Iesus, is justified in Mr. Widdowes his Answer to Mr. Prin: I reply, first let us observe what a brand of an evill conscience he have, which do defend this Superstition; It is certainely knowne, that Mr. Widdowes is knowne▪ and detected to be but a drunken Divine, a kind of mad-fellow and pot-compa­nion: and though [...]e useth often, (as is credibly or reported) to sweare by the sacred name of Iesus, yet his answer for bowing at it, was nothing but a Sottishe mad, rayling Pamphlet; replied unto, and utterly confuted by Mr. Prin, and he putt to a limping silence, and a non plus.

But some of you, Advocates for Baal, will happily say, that Mr, Page (forsooth) hath hard, and killed the Cow, in justify­ing Widdowes and defending of bowing [Page 73] and cringing at the name or naming of Ie­sus, which his pretended gravitie, seeming grave stile, and colloguing Dedication to his deere Mother the Vniversitie of Ox­ford. But whosoever readeth his book with a single and impartiall eye, must [...]eeds say, that it is, likewise, farced fuli of idle impertinencies, sophistications, and not free from absurdities, falsities, and blasphemous comparisons; and revilings towards the person, and junioritie of M. Prion: though upon my certaine know­ledge the learned Laick, being betwixt 30 & 40 yeares old, is of sufficient age, & ambilitie, to encounter with any Iesuites, Priest, Arminian, Anti-puritane, or Col­legelubber in Christendom; as his learned Labours doe sufficiently testifie to the World: And herein I will not decline, but dare and doe appeale to all that are Orthodox, Learned, Godly, and Wise-hearted of the aforesaid famous Vni­versities: And that the first of these a­bove [...]named Advocates babbleth, and the other blattereth.

[Page 74] They are allready fully confuted by these Pair of Orthodox Divines, before in the twofold Treatise: Aud therefore my premised Challenge standeth good. Let therefore any opposite Reader, in the name and feare of Christ Iesus, for­beare further scoffing, rayling or giering, and in stead thereof, if he be able, take pen in hand, and see what he can say to to the Challenge. Iterum vale.

I have thought it not impertinent, but very pertinent, to annex hereto the Copie of an Armi­nians Character, which I re­ceived from a freind, as fol­loweth:
An Arminian or meere Mountaguist,

IS an Animal, scarce rational,His study. whose custome is, before he hath well con [...]'d his Catechisme, to read (and applaud) Pe­ter [Page 75] Lombard and John Duns, rather than Peter Martyr, and Iohn Calvin: and for more moderne Polemicks, he preferres Bellarmine above Chamierus.

His garb or fashion, when he comes from the Vniversity,His Garb▪ with affectation, is to weare a long Cloke; and a correspon­dent Cassock, short no where, but in the w [...]st which is girt up with a girdle and a knot or rose, allmost up to his nose: commonly a falling-band; because Proci­sians weare small set-ruffs.

His Religion, is (like a Confection,)His Reli­gion. compounded of many, the least ingre­dient, being Protestantisme, and to believe as the Church doth.

His first ambition, is to addresse him­self to be some great-mens Trenchers-Chaplaine;His Am­bition. that so he may not be out of the Path-way to preferment, not an Igno­ramus in Court-curtesies, nor a sot in State affaires.

His Devotion, is so conformable to the Ceremonies of the Church,His De­votion. that he thinks it impietie to decline the least par­ticle thereof: and yet he declines the [Page 76] Doctrine of the Church so much, that he wisheth with all his heart, the Prayer in the Letanie of our English Liturgie, From all false Doctrine & Heresie, good Lord de­liver vs, were oblitera [...]d. And he is so bent to externall bowing at the name of Iesus, that he cannot forbeare to do the like at the Picture of Iesus crucified, alias a Crucifix, if it stand in his way.

He is a mungreel Divine, who, as it were betwixt Hawke and buzzard,His Divi­nitie. N. C. his Acnito­phes. see nicely to distinguish betwixt a Puri­tane in opinion, and a Puritane in disci­pline: and hath taught the nam, which was contrary to the first institution, so farre to enlarge it selfe, that a Protestant must make hard shift, to save himselfe harm­lesse. And he is one that makes the Grace of God lackey it after the will of men,I. R. his speech in Parlamēt 12. Ianua. 1628. His poli­tik part. the Sheep to keepe the Sheepheard, and a mortall seed of an immortall God. Also, he holds not Perseverance, but Apostasie of the Saints.

He is the spawn of a Papist, and if there come the warmth of favour upon him, you shall see him turne into one of those [Page 77] Frogs, which arose out of the bottom­lesse Pit: And if you marke it well, you shall see him reaching out his hand to a Papist; (a Papist to a Iesuite, and a Iesuite gives one hand to the Pope, and another to the King of Spaine:) And so wee leave him to get more Grace, professe, and practise more goodnesse.

His Motto Orthodoxus. CONCORDIA DISCORS.

[Page 78] VVHere as Iohn Can doth plead for the Antiquity of their Se­paration, and saith, it was in King Ed­wards dayes, but I answer him such a Se­paration, as they do practise, was not knowne 55 yeares since, and the first Au­thours of these were Henrison and Ro­bert Brown, which they did partly recal, there was of their Disciples, that were apprehended in suffock, 3. at Nayland, for distributing of their Bookes, and condemned, after the Iudge offered them pardon, if they would live obediently, as the book of Common Prayer did direct, but they answered, that the booke of Common Prayer was the great Idoll of the Land, on which the Iudge was excee­dingly offended against them,Iudge An­derson, Lord chief [...]ustus of [...] com­mon pleas An. 1583. or 1584. at Berry in Suffock and saith, he would hang them, before he went out of the towne, if they did maintaine this. Then they did desire of him a conference with some Ministers there present, which they had graunted, and the next day the Iudge called them, and demandeth of them, what they said to the booke of [Page 79] Common Prayer? And they affirmed it Idolatrous, and on this they were hanged in the presence of the Iudge. Sundry others I knew in the Contry, that would not be present at the worship of the book of Common Prayer, yet they would and did diligently frequent the hearing of the zealous preaching the word; therfore in some Parishes they had a bell d [...]d ring when the Service was ended, & thē they would com into the Congregation. And I knew 3 preachers, which fled in Queen Maryes Raigne, and they were zealous preachers; yet I perceived som difference betwixt them, the one (Mr. Brodish) he tooke a living neere where I lived, and he was a zealous preacher. The other was a Gentleman, (named Larrans) he did usually preach in divers parts of the con­try,In Nor [...] ­fock. and kept a Lector at a market town (calld Harlston) the other (namd Simond Harlson) who was a Minister at Sto [...]num (in K. Edwards dayes) he was in t [...]ble then, [...] because he would [...] weare the Surplus, he did preach in the Country, & these 2 were proferred benifices sundry [Page 80] times, but they would not accept there. This l [...]tter did use a Lector every 14 dayes in his house, at which I have been sundry times present, he was very ould, I take it, he lived to the yeare 1591. I have con­ferred with him sundry times, and had speech with him concerning Browne, and he disallowed Brownes Separation, from the hearing of the zealous preachers in our Land. I desired of them to know why they would not use the Booke of Common prayer in the worship of God? and they answered, and said: because I­dolatours did so worship, and they were forbidden to worship after the manner of Idolaters.

This is a true Relation.

S. O.

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