THE WORKES OF THE MOST HIGH AND MIGHTIE PRINCE, IAMES

BY THE GRACE OF GOD, KING OF GREAT BRITAINE, FRANCE AND IRELAND, DEFENDER of the FAITH, &c.

PVBLISHED BY IAMES, BISHOP of Winton, and Deane of his MAIESTIES CHAPPEL ROYALL.

1. REG. 3. VERS. 12. Loe, I haue giuen thee a wise and an vnderstanding heart.
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LONDON PRINTED BY ROBERT BARKER AND IOHN BILL, PRINTERS TO THE KINGS most Excellent MAIESTIE. ANNO 1616.

Cum Priuilegio.

‘HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE’‘DIEV ET MON DROIT’
ILLUSTRISS ET POTEN PR. CAROLUS MAGNAE BRITAN ET HYB PR EB ET AL DUx.


TO THE THRICE ILLVSTRIOVS AND MOST EXCELLENT PRINCE, CHARLES, THE ONELY SONNE OF OVR SOVERAIGNE LORD THE KING.

SIR:

I Haue humbly sought leaue of his most Excellent MAIESTIE, to present your Highnesse with this Ʋolume of his MAIESTIES WORKES. I durst not but make the Suite; and his MAIESTIE could not well deny it. I will not say, that it had beene a peece of Iniustice in the KING to haue denyed you this right: But I dare say, it had beene a point of Sacri­ledge in a Churchman to haue stolne from you such a por­tion [Page]of your Inheritance, which consists as much in the WORKES of his Royall Ʋertues, as in the wealth of his mighty Kingdomes. Basilius wrote de Jnstitutione Principis to his Sonne Leo; Constantinus to his Sonne Romanus; Manuell to his Sonne Iohannes; and Charles the fift, to his Sonne Philip: The workes of the three former are ex­tant both in Greeke and Latine. His Maiestie, after the Example of those Emperours, and sundry other Kings, wrote his ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ-ΔΩΡΟΝ to Prince Henry, your Highnesse most worthy Brother: His part, by GOD his Prouidence, is falne to your Lot; and who may iustly detaine from you the rest? The rule in Scripture is; that if the first fruits be holy, so is the whole lumpe; and to whom the first was giuen, to him all the rest was due: To your Highnes therefore are these offered, as to the trew Heire and Inheritor of them. And that I may make you the better accompt of them; May it please your Highnesse to vnderstand, that of these Workes, some were out before; some other of them neuer saw light before; and others were almost lost and gone, or at least abused by false co­pies, to their owne disgrace and his Maiesties great dis­honour. Now it being the duetie of all Deanes in their Churches, Dispersa colligere; I thought it might sort well with the nature of my place in the Chappel, wherein I haue had the Honour so many yeeres to serue his Maiestie, to gather these things that were scattered, and to bring to light those that too long had lien in darkenes, and to pre­serue in one body, what might easily haue bin lost in parts. In this Presentment, I must humbly craue of your Highnes, not to be mistaken in the trew meaning and maner of it: For these Workes come not to you, as vsually Bookes doe to men of great Dignitie, for Patronage and Protection; for Protection is properly from iniurie; and that the Royall Author of them is best able to right: But to you they come partly for preseruation, and for that the Disposition [Page]of Nature hath made you more apt, and more principal­ly for a Patterne, and that not vnfitly; since the Samplar is euer more ancient then the Exemplification: And as in the preseruation, the Sonne hath his aduantage by succee­ding; so in the Patterne, the Father by preceding hath his Prerogatiue. Let these Workes therefore, most Gracious Prince, lie before you as a Patterne; you cannot haue a better: Neither doeth the Honour of a good Sonne con­sist in any thing more, then in immitating the good Presi­dents of a good Father; as we may very well perceiue by the Scripture phrase, where the vsuall Encomium of good Kings is, that they walked in the wayes of their Fathers. Al men see, how like the Patterne GOD and Nature haue framed the outward Lineaments: and who knowes your Highnes wel, knowes also, that the inward Abilliments hold in the like proportion. The Philosophers say, that Imita­tion proceeds from Inclination; And trewly, if your fu­ture Imitation be answerable to your forward Inclina­tion, in Religion, Learning and Ʋertue; your Highnesse cannot come farre short of your Patterne, nor yet of any of your Predecessors that euer went before you: Which GOD grant together with the length of many good and happy Dayes.

Your HIGHNESSE
Most humbly IA. WINTON.

THE PREFACE TO THE READER.

AMongst the infinite number of great Ʋolumes wherewith the world seemes, as it were, to bee wayed downe, there bee few of them that were written at once, or were at first published toge­ther. Writings as they consist of sun­dry natures; so they will beare a diuers maner of Edition. To set foorth an Art by pieces, is to shew you a body dismembred; the one is no more vncomely, then the other is vnproper. To publish a Histo­ry before it be at an end, is to turne the Hower-glasse before it bee runne out; neither of both will giue you a trew taste of the time. But writings of other Natures, Common places and Controuer­sies, Meditations and Commentaries, as they are for the most part, accidentally taken vp, so they are as occasionally set out: They craue no other birth into the world, then they had conceptions in our braines, singly by vs conceiued, and singly by themselues set out.

The different maner of GOD his setting foorth of his owne Workes, may instruct vs in this point. His diuine Wisedome held one course in his Naturall Workes, an other in his Ceremonialls, Politicalls and Moralls. Jn his Naturalls he made a masse at once, which speedily he diuersified into diuers formes. Hee gaue a kinde of potentiall delineation of all things in that vniuersall matter, which presently hee distinguished into diuers Species in [Page]perfection: But in his Ceremonialls, hee takes another course, he brings not them out of a Masse, but into a Masse: He doeth not out of a Totum produce the parts, but out of the parts make vp the whole. For example; Jn the Ceremonialls, first he beginnes with Sacrifice, long after he followes with Circumcision, then hee filleth a Tabernacle with them; at last makes them full vp in a Temple. Jn his Politicalls, hee beginnes with a paternall Go­uernment in a family, proceeds to an Election of a Captaine in an Armie, as in Iosuah and the Judges, perfects it by way of Suc­cession in a setled Kingdome, as in Solomon and his Successors. Jn his Moralls, hee beginnes with the word out of his owne mouth, proceeds with the Tables written by his owne fingers, followes on with the fiue Bookes penned by Moses, till hee make vp the Canon perfect by a number of succeeding Prophets.

What we haue from GOD in a president, it may wel beseeme vs to practise; and since his Bookes came out so farre asunder, it is no reproach to any man, though his Workes come not foorth together: for there is a reason for it in vs answerable in some proportion to that of the Workes of GOD, for workes of Nature haue their roote from within vs, and bring with them a radicall kinde of ver­tue, that neuer suffers them to rest, till they haue produced their fruite to perfect forme and perfection: Workes of deliberation and Art, haue their foundation from without vs, and giue vs occasion to worke vpon them, as our phantasies thinke fittest for the present time: Hence proceeds it, that the workes of Nature haue so few errors in them, those of Art so many; They of Nature so constant, they of Arte so variable; they of Nature so perma­nent, they of Art so soone perish; they of Nature so well accepted and approued of all, they of Art accepted or reiected, as it pleaseth the seuerall apprehensions of men to conceiue of them.

Now, albeit the workes of men be of Errors so full, of nature so different, subiect to so many Jnterpretations, published at so diuers times; Yet hath it bene euer esteemed a matter commendable to collect them together, and incorporate them into one Body, that we may behold at once, what diuers Off-springs haue proceeded [Page]from one braine, and how various Conceptions the wit of man is able to afford the world. To instance in a few of them beginning a little higher then the writings of ordinarie Men. The seruants of Hezekiah are commended in Scripture for collecting together the Sentences of Solomon. Iesus the sonne of Sirach is praised for searching out the Copies of his Grandfathers workes: But prin­cipally Ezra is had in great honour for setting in order the whole Bookes of the Old Testament, and deuiding them into Chapters and Ʋerses, which before were caried along in a scroule, by a con­tinuall Series, without any distinction at all. S. Iohn is reported to haue searched out the Copies of the three former Euangelists, and to haue added his owne for the fourth in that order, as now they are extant. And the Primitiue Church was curious to gather together the Epistles of the Holy Apostles; which, they being not able by reason of persecution perfectly to performe in euery place, gaue occasion to after-times, to call the authority of so many of them into question.

But to descend; How are we bound to those, who haue laboured in setting out the Counsells, and Works of the Fathers together? Jnsomuch, that we thinke our selues as much bound to Eusebius and Hierom, and of later times to Peter Crab and Erasmus and diuers others, who haue laboured in that kinde, as wee doe al­most to the Authors themselues. Traian commended Plutark for gathering the Apothegmes of wise men together. Constan­tinus the sonne of Leo, collected out of all Histories, both in the East and West, one Corpus Historicum, which they counted an inestimable Treasure. Iustinian by the helpe of Tribonia­nus did the like in the Lawes. Gratian compiled the Decrees out of the Epistles of Popes, Councells and Fathers. Damascen collected into one body of Diuinitie, the Sentences of the Greeke Fathers; And Peter Lumbard 400. yeeres after him by his ex­ample did the like in the Latine Fathers. And how doe wee labour to recouer Bookes that are lost? The Bookes of Origen that amounted to sixe thousand, as Epiphanius witnesseth, were much laboured for by Eusebius and others. The Bookes of Ci­cero [Page]de Repub. were much sought for by Cardinall Poole; and great summes of money haue bene spent to recouer the lost Decades of Liuie. Wherefore since it hath beene heretofore the practise of all aages, to collect the workes of Men of worth, and preserue them from perishing; to labour much in recouering those that haue bene lost; to giue to euery childe the owne Father; to euery Booke the trew Author: (for there neuer had bene halfe so many birds to haue flowen about the world with false feathers, if euery Author had set out his owne workes together in his owne time,) J hope then it shall not be now a matter of reproofe in a Seruant, to trauaile in the setting foorth of the Works of his Master; and for giuing you that together, which before yee could hardly get a­sunder; and for preseruing that in a Masse from perishing, that might easily be lost in a Mite.

But while I am collecting workes one way, I heare others scat­tering wordes as fast an other way, affirming, it had beene better his Maiestie had neuer written any Bookes at all; and being writ­ten, better they had perished with the present, like Proclamations, then haue remayned to Posterity: For say these Men, Little it befitts the Maiesty of a King to turne Clerke, and to make a warre with the penne, that were fitter to be fought with the Pike; to spend the powers of his so exquisite an vnderstanding vpon pa­per, which had they beene spent on powder, could not but haue pre­uayled ere this, for the Conquest of a Kingdome. For a King, say they, to enter a Controuersie with a Scholler, is, as if he should fight a Combate with a Kerne; he doth no more descend from his Honour in the one, then he bringes vpon himselfe Disgrace by the other. And since that Booke-writing is growen into a Trade; It is as dishonorable for a King to write bookes; as it is for him to be a Practitioner in a Profession. Jf a King will needs write; Let him write like a King, euery Lyne a Law, euery Word a Pre­cept, euery Letter a Mandate. Jn good trewth, I haue had my eares so oft dung through with these Obiections and the like, as I know not whether I conceiued amisse of my selfe or no, thinking I had more ability to answere these Calumnyes, then I had patience [Page]to heare them: And therefore hauing so fit opportunity, J shall not let to deliuer my opinion; Whether it may sorte with the Maiestie of a King, to be a writer of Bookes, or no. First I could neuer reade, that there was any Law against it; and where we haue no Law, the best is to follow good Examples: And many Diuines are of opinion, that examples that are not contrary to any Precept, doe binde vs in practise, at least so farre; that though they doe not inforce vs to the doing, yet they warrant the deede when it is done; And if Examples will serue the turne, wee haue Exam­ples enough.

First to beginne with the King of Kings God himselfe, who as he doth all things for our good; So doeth he many things for our Jmitation. Jt pleased his Diuine wisedome to bee the first in this Rancke, that we read of, that did euer write. Hee wrote, and the writing was the writing, saith Moses, of God; the maner was after the maner of engrauing; the matter was in Stone cut into two Tables, and the Tables were the worke of God written on both sides. Diuines hold, that the Heart is the principall Seate of the Soule; which Soule of ours is the immediate worke of God, as these Tables were the immediate worke of his owne fingers. The Stone, the expresse represent of the hardnesse of our heart; the engrauing the worke of God so deepely impressed, that it can neuer be blotted out; the writing, the writing of the Law in our hearts; In two Ta­bles, for our double duty to God and Man; on both sides to take vp our heart so wholly, that nothing contrary to those Precepts should euer haue any place in our Soules. And certainely from this little Library, that God hath erected within vs, is the foun­dation of all our Learning layd; So that people Ciuillized doe ac­count themselues depriued of one of the best abilities of nature, if they be not somewhat inabled by writing, to expresse their mindes: And there is no Nation so brutish or Barbarous, that haue not inuented one kinde of Character or other, whereby to conuey to o­thers their inward Conceptions. From these Tables of God, wee may come to the writing of our Blessed Sauiour, which we may put in the next place, though not for order yet for Honour. His Di­uine [Page]Maiestie left behinde him no Monument of writing, writ­ten by his owne hand in any externall Booke; for he was to induce and bring in an other maner of the writing of the Law of Loue; not in Tables of stone; written not with incke and paper, but in the Tables of our fleshly hearts written by the Spirit of the Liuing God: Yet did he once with his owne finger, write on the Pauement of the Temple of Ierusalem. What he writ, J will not now dis­cusse. S. Ambrose saith he wrote this Sentence: Festucam in oculo fratris cernis, trabem in tuo non vides. Beda thinkes, he wrote that Sentence that he spake: He that is with­out sinne, let him cast the first stone at her. Haymo hath a pretty Conceit: He thinketh, he wrote certaine Characters in the Pauement, which the Accusers beholding might see, as in a glasse, their owne wickednesse; and so blushing at it went their wayes. What euer it was, sure we are, our Sauiour would haue false accu­sations written in dust, to bee troden vnder foote of them that passe by. But howsoeuer, I say, our Blessed Sauiour did leaue behind him no writing of his owne hand; Yet we may not deny, but that God in the old Testament and our Sauiour in the New, haue left vs many bookes of their owne inditements: For all the Bookes of ho­ly Scripture were written by inspiration; and the Prophets and Apostles were but their Amanuenses, and writ onely as they were led and actuated by the Spirit of God: So that we may not make the Author of any of those Bookes any other then God Himselfe.

The old world before the flood wil afford vs no writings, neither did that aage require them; for the liues of Men of that aage were liuing Libraries, and lasted longer then the labors of Men doe in this aage: Yet S. Iude doeth insinuate somewhat of the writings of Enoch, who though he were not in Stile a King, Yet there is no reason to contend with him for that Title; for his Dominion would beare it, standing Heire-Apparent to the greater part of the world. Origen, Tertullian and Augustine report many things out of the supposititous writings that went vnder his name: And Iose­phus and that Berosus, that wee haue, tell vs, that hee erected [Page]two pillars, the one of Stone, the other of Bricke, wherein he wrote of the two-fold destructions of the world, the one by Water, the o­ther by Fire: But howsoeuer that be trew, it is very probable, he wrote something of that matter, which though it perished with that world; yet doubtlesse the memory thereof was preserued by Tradition vnto the dayes of the Apostles.

J will not here insist vpon the writings of Moses, who was not onely a Priest, and a Prophet, but was, as himselfe records, a­mongst the people a King, and was the first that euer receiued au­thoritie from GOD to write in Diuinitie: Neither will J insist vpon the Example of King Dauid, in whose Psalmes and Himnes, are resounded out the praises of GOD in all the Chur­ches; for that J finde nothing that these men writ, but what they writ as the Scribes of GOD, acted, as I said euen now, by GOD his Spirit, and not guided by their owne. Yet I suppose wee may safely collect thus much from them, that if GOD had thought it a matter derogatory to the Maiestie of a King to bee a Writer, he would not haue made choice of those, as his chiefe Instruments in this kinde, who were principalls in that other Order. J would easily beleeue, that such men as haue had the honour to be GOD his Pen-men, should neuer vouchsafe to write any thing of their owne: for as we hold in a pious opinion, that the blessed Virgine, hauing once conceiued by the holy Ghost, would neuer after con­ceiue by man; So surely men, that had deliuered nothing but the conceptions of that Spirit, should hardly be drawne euer to set out any of their owne labours. But we see the flat contrary both in Sa­muel and Solomon, the one the greatest Iudge, the other the most glorious King, that euer that Kingdome had. Samuel, who writ by GODS appointment, the greatest part of those two Bookes, that beare his name, writ also by his owne accord, a Booke contay­ning the Law of a King, or Institution of a Prince, whereby hee laboured to keepe the King as well from declining to Tyrannie, as the people from running into Libertie. Solomon, besides the Bookes of Scripture, which remaine, writ many likewise of his owne accord, which are lost: For to say nothing of his 3000. Para­bles, [Page]his 5000. Songes, that ingens opus, as the Hebrues call it, of the nature of all things, Birds and Beasts, Fowles and fishes, Trees and plants, from the Hysop to the Cedar: All these were rather workes to manifest humane wisedome, then Diuine know­ledge; written rather for the recreation of his owne spirit, then for the edification of the Church: For I cannot conceiue, but those Bookes would rather haue taught vs the learning of Nature; (for which GOD hath left vs to the writings of men) then edified vs in the gifts of Grace; for which hee hath giuen vs his owne Booke. Neither let any man suggest, that these writings, that are lost, and, as they say, were destroyed in the destruction of the Temple by the Babylonians, were of the same authoritie, as those that doe remaine: for J can hardly be induced to beleeue, that the writings, that were indited by the Spirit of GOD, layed vp in the Arke, receiued into the Canon, read publikely in the Church, are vtterly perished. Jt is a desperate thing to call, either the pro­uidence of GOD, or the fidelity of the Church in question in this point: For if those, that haue bene, are perished; then, why may not these that remaine as well be lost? which is contrary to our Saui­ours assertion, that one Iota shall not perish till all bee fulfilled: Therefore J rather incline to thinke; that what euer was Scrip­ture, still is, then that any is lost: Neither is this opinion so curious to hold, as the other is dangerous to beleeue; Better it is euer, to argue our selues of ignorance, then to accuse GOD of improuidence: But if so much Scripture be lost, as is alleadged, farewell GOD his prouidence, farewell the fidelitie of the Church, to whose care was concredited the Oracles of GOD. Let vs come to the wri­tings of Kings, where we shall not incurre any danger of this con­trouersie; that were so farre from being acted by GOD his Spirit; that they were more like those Disciples of Iohn, that had not heard whether there were an Holy-Ghost, or no; that knew no­thing of GOD, though they felt neuer so much of his Goodnesse; that neuer beleeued his Omnipotencie, though they had neuer so much experience of his Power.

To beginne with the Assyrians, whose first Monarch was [Page] Nimrod, and his chiefe Citie Babel: from his time to Sardana­palus the last of that Monarchie, there was no King amongst them, that gaue himselfe to Letters: for as their Kingdome was founded in Tyrannie, so they laboured to keepe it in Barbaritie; neither must we euer looke to see Learning flourish, where Tyran­nie beareth the Standerd; for Learning hath no more a facultie to bring the minde to vnderstanding, then it hath with it a power, that workes the will to libertie; neither of which, can euer consist with Tyrannie: And therefore it is no wonder, that this aage affoorded no learned Kings: for in that State, which continued thirteene or foureteene hundred yeeres, yee can scarce reade of a learned man: Therefore let either Histories or Poets paint that out for a Golden aage, as they please, there was neuer any aage, that hath left so little memory of the Golden tincture of their Witts.

After the time of Sardanapalus, in the dayes of Phull, Tig­lath-Philasar and Salmanasar, of whom mention is made in Scripture, and to whom, as it is thought, Ionas preached, and with whom some of the Prophets were conuersant, when as these Kings came into the land of Israel, as they did in the dayes of Menahem, who gaue to Phul-Belochus a thousand Talents of Siluer for a Tribute; And in the dayes of Hezechiah came Salmanasar and besieged Samaria three yeeres, and caried away a great part of the people of the Kingdome of Israel: From that time forward, their Kings gaue themselues to Letters; insomuch as in the dayes of Nabucodonolor, who set vp the Monarchy of the Babylonians, within one hundred yeeres of Salmanasar King of the Assyrians, learning was in great estimation, and the Kings Court was a Schoole for the best witts of the Kingdome to be bred in, that they might bee able to stand before the King fur­nished with all learning and vnderstanding. And if Stories do not intollerably deceiue vs; Daniel and his companions instructed fiue great Monarches, as in the trew knowledge of GOD, so in the vnderstanding of all excellent Arts and Sciences; Namely Nabuchodonosor, Euilmerodack, Baltazar, Darius of the [Page] Medes, and Cyrus of the Persians: And it were no hard mat­ter to proue the trewth of this out of Daniel himselfe.

Come to the Persians, who conuersed more with the Prophets, as with Ezra, Nehemiah, Zachary, Malachy and the people that were in captiuitie; we shall finde them giuen much to Letters. Cyrus the first Monarch is recorded to haue written large Commentaries of all his diurnall Actions: amongst those Books are found, saith Esdras, the Edicts of reducing of the Iewes to their Countrey: He wrote diuers Letters for the same purpose to all the chiefe Cities of Asia; some whereof, we haue in the 11. of Io­sephus, Chap. the first. Many things likewise are reported to haue bene written of Artaxerxes, Darius, and some others of those Monarches, as wee may partly conceiue by the Canoni­call Bookes of Ezra and Nehemiah, and more by the Apocri­phal-Esdras, who reports it to haue bene a custome of those Kings, so much to delight in learning, and in the sayings of wise men, that they vsed for an exercise in their greatest Solemnities, to haue so­lemne Orations made in the presence of the King and State, of sundry purposes, which, whoso performed to the liking of the King, was rewarded with the highest Preferments, that so mighty a Mo­narch could aduance them vnto.

Come we to the Graecians; and there we shall finde Learning in the Tropicke of Cancer at such a height, as it neuer was before, nor euer, that we read of, since. And surely it is worth the ob­seruing, that when that extarordinary Diuine Light went out, hu­mane Learning came in; and the ende of the Prophets was the beginning of the Poets: The last of the diuinity of the one, the first of the Philosophy of the other: for from the end of the Captiuity till the Comming of our Sauiour Christ, the space of foure hundreth yeares and more, in which there was no Prophet, that euer J reade of, there were so many Orators, Poets and Philosophers of such singular giftes in all kindes; as wee are onely their Schollers since, and can neuer attaine to the Excellency of our Master. Jn this time Alexander the Great was as famous for his Learning and writings, as he was for his Victories: He wrote to Antipater [Page]of all his owne Actions in Asia and in India, as Plutark reports in his Life. S. Ciprian in his Tractate of the vanitie of Jdoles, saith, that Alexander the Great wrote Insigne Volu­men to his Mother; wherein he signifies vnto her, how it was tolde him by a certaine Egyptian-Priest, that all the Gods of the Gentiles had bene but men. And S. Augustine also in his twelft Booke De ciuitate Dei makes mention of other of the wri­tings of Alexander to Olimpias his Mother about the Suc­cession of the Monarchies.

Amongst the Kings of Syria, Antiochus surnamed Epi­phanes, writ many Bookes, and sent them into Iudea, about changing the Rites and Ceremonies of the Iewes into the Reli­gion of the Grecians; The principall heades of his Bookes may be found in the Bookes of Machabes and in Iosephus. A­mongst the Romans, which of their Emperours did not ad­uance his fame by Letters? Iulius Caesar, besides many other things, writ his Commentaries after the example of Cyrus. Octauius, as Suetonius reportes, writ many Volumes, The historie of his owne life, Exhortations to Philosophie, He­roick Verses, Epigrams, Tragedies and diuers other things; of whom I will only relate two Stories not impertinent to my purpose. He is reported to haue bene a very diligent searcher out of all such Bookes, as appertayned to the Roman-Ethnick-Religion. All the Bookes Fatidicorum, of Fortune-tellers, that pro­ceeded not from approued Authors both of Greeke and Latin, he cast in the fire, to the number of two thousand: Onely he reserued the writings of the Sibills, but with that choise, as hee burnt all such of them as he thought to bee counterfeit. J relate this Story the rather, for that J thinke it were a good President for our Au­gustus to follow, to make a diligent search of all good and profita­ble Authors; As for all Hereticall Pamphlets, slaunderous Libells and impertinent writings, to commit them to Vulcane: for one of the maine meanes of corrupting this people in point of Religion, proceeds from the free vse of reading of all kinde of writings without any restraint.

[Page]The other Storie of Augustus is that famous Inscription of his, which he made to be set vp in the Altar of the Capitoll to our Sauiour Christ; of which Nicephorus makes mention; as also Suidas in the word Augustus. Caesar Augustus being proclai­med the first Emperour of Rome, hauing done many great things and achiued great Glory and felicity; came to the Oracle of Apollo, & offering vp a Heccatomb, which is of all other the greatest Sacrifice; demaunded of the Oracle, who should rule the Empire after his decease; receiuing no answere at all, offe­red vp an other Sacrifice, and asked with all, how it came to passe, that the Oracle that was wont to vse so many wordes, was now become so silent? The Oracle after a long pause, made this answere:

Me puer Hebraeus, Diuos, Deus ipse gubernans
Cedere sede iubet, tristemque redire sub Orcum:
Aris ergo dehinc tacitus abscedito nostris.

The Emperour receiuing this answere, returned to Rome, e­rected in the Capitoll the greatest Altar that was there, with this Inscription: Ara primogeniti Dei. Surely, our Au­gustus, in whose dayes our Blessed Sauiour Christ Iesus is come to a full and perfect aage: As hee was borne in the dayes of the other, studying nothing at all to know, who shall rule the Scepter af­ter him (for God be praised, he is much more happie then was Au­gustus in a Blessed Posterity of his owne) but indeauoring, that CHRIST his Kingdome, may euer Reigne in his King­dome, hath consulted all the Oracles of GOD, and hath found in them, that there is but one onely Altar to be erected to the onely Sonne of GOD, who is Blessed for euer; and therefore hath set himselfe and bestowed much paines to bid that Man of Sinne, cedere sede, and redire sub Orcum, that hath erected so many Altars Athenian-like, to vnknowne Gods, making more prayers and Supplications to supposed Saints, then euer the other did to Gods they knew not. But to returne, Clau­dius Caesar, that had so much wickednesse in him, had this [Page]good in him, that hee writte many good Bookes. Suetonius reports, hee writ so many Bookes in Greeke, as that hee erected a Schoole of purpose in Alexandria, called after his owne name, and caused his Bookes to be read yeerely in it: He writ in Latine likewise 43. Bookes, contayning a Historie from the murther of Caesar to his owne time. There would bee no ende of the reporting of the writings of the Heathen Emperours. That one example of Constantine amongst the Christian Emperors shall suffice: Eusebius hath written curiously his Life, and is not sparing to report of his Learning; How many Orations and dis­courses he made, exhorting his Subiects and seruants to a good and godly life; How many nights hee passed without sleepe in Medita­tions of Diuinitie; His Speeches in the beginning and ende of the Councell of Nice; That fomous Oration, Ad Sanctorum coetum, pronounced in Latine by him Selfe, after translated in­to Greeke by diuerse, doe shew, how much Glory hee gayned by Letters.

From these great Monarches abroad, giue mee leaue a little, to descend to our owne Kings at home. Alphredus King of the West-Saxons, translated Paulus Orosius, S. Gregorie De pastorali cura, and his Dialogues into the English tongue: He translated likewise Beda of the Actes of the English, and Boe­tius de consolatione Philosophiae, Dauids Psalmes, and ma­ny other things: Hee writ besides a Booke of Lawes and Institu­tions against wicked Judges: Hee writ the sayings of Wise­men, and a singular Booke of the fortune of Kings, a collection of Chronicles, and a Manuel of Meditations.

Ethelstanus (or Adelstan, as our Stories call him) Rex Anglorum, as Baleus calls him, caused to be translated the Bible out of Hebrew into Saxon, and writ himselfe a Booke of Astro­logie, the Constitutions of the Cleargie, corrected many olde Lawes, and made many new.

King Edgar writ to the Cleargie of England certaine Con­stitutions and Lawes, and other things.

Henrie the first, the yongest Sonne of the Conquerour, was [Page]brought vp in the Vniuersitie of Cambridge; and excelled so in the knowledge of all Liberall Arts and Sciences, that to this day he doeth retaine the name of Beau-Clerke.

Achaius King of the Scots, writ of the Acts of all his Prede­cessors. And Kenethus King of the Scots, writ a huge Vo­lume of all the Scottish Lawes, and like an other Iustinian, re­duced them into a Compendium.

Iames the first writ diuers Bookes both in English and La­tine Ʋerse: He writ also, as Baleus saith, De vxore futura.

Henrie the eight writ of the Institution of a Christian man, and of the Institution of youth: Hee writ also a defence of the 7. Sacraments against Martin Luther; for which hee was much magnified of the Pope, and all that partie; Jnsomuch as hee was stiled with the Title of Defensor fidei for that worke: And trewly it fell out well for the King, that hee writ a Booke on the Popes side; for otherwise, he should haue them raile on him for his writings as freely, as they reuile him for his Actions. For he writ two Bookes after that; the one De auctoritate Regia contra Papam; the other Sententia de Concilio Mantuano, as well written for the Stile and Argument, as the other is: But because they seeme to breath an other breath, there is no Trumpet sounded in their praise.

Edward the sixt, though his dayes were so short, as he could not giue full proofe of those singular parts that were in him; yet hee wrote diuers Epistles and Orations both in Greeke and La­tine: He wrote a Treatise De fide to the Duke of Somerset: He wrote a History of his owne time, which are all yet extant vnder his owne hand, in the Kings Library; as Mr. Patrick Young, his Maiesties learned and Industrious Bibliothecarius, hath shewed mee; And which is not to bee forgotten, so diligent a hearer of Sermons was that sweet Prince, that the notes of the most of the Sermons he heard, are yet to bee seene vnder his owne hand with the Preachers name, the time, and the place, and all o­ther circumstances.

Queene Elizabeth our late Soueraigne of blessed memory, [Page]translated the prayers of Queene Katherine into Latine, French, and Italian: Shee wrote also a Century of Sentences, and dedicated them to her Father. J haue heard of her Transla­tion of Salustius; but I neuer saw it: And there are yet fresh in our memories the Orations she made in both the Vniuersities in Latine; her entertayning of Embassadors in diuers Languages; her excellent Speaches in the Parliament, whereof diuers are ex­tant at this day in Print. And to come a little neerer his Maie­stie; The Kings Father translated Valerius Maximus into English; And the Queene his Maiesties Mother, wrote a Booke of Ʋerses in French of the Institution of a Prince, all with her owne hand, wrought the Couer of it with her needle, and is now of his Maiestie esteemed as a most pretious Iewell.

Therefore since wee are compassed about with such a Clowd of Witnesses (albeit these are but a little handfull in comparison of the infinite multitude, that might be produced,) Since we haue the examples of all the Mightie-men of the World, euen from the beginning thereof vnto this day; who haue striuen as much to get a Name for their writings, as fame for their doings; haue affected as much to be counted Learned as Ʋictorious; and to be reputed of, as much for their wise Sayings, as for their worthy Deeds; Why should it bee thought a thing strange in this time, that his Maie­stie, whom GOD hath adorned with as many rare perfections of Nature and Arte, as euer he did any that wee read of, (I except such as were Diuinely inspired) should lend the world a few leaues out of the large Volumes of his Learning? J commend the wisedome of our Aduersaries, who hauing assayed all meanes, the wit of man is able to inuent, to incline his Maiestie to like of their partie; and finding by all their Tricks, they haue got no ground, would at last put his Maiestie to silence, and gaine thus much of him, at least; that since he will doe nothing for them; yet that he would say nothing against them. Therefore they cry out against his Maiesties writing, and vpbrayd him more for that hee doeth write, then they doe for any thing that hee hath written: Jt is ynough to wonder at, that Rex scribit. These people are wise in [Page]their generation, and haue learned by long experience; that as the Kingdome of CHRIST is the Gospel of peace, so it hath bene from the beginning spread more by the Pennes of the Apo­stles, then by the power of Princes; more propagated by the sweet writings of the ancient Fathers, then it could bee suppressed by the seuere Edicts of Emperours; and of late, their Kingdome hath bene more shaken by a poore Monke, then it hath bene able to recouer by the helpe of Mighty Monarches. Therefore since the writings of poore Schollers haue so raised the Kingdome of CHRIST, and so discouered the Mysterie of Jniquitie; they do well to feare what may follow vpon the Writings of so great a King.

They liue securely from bleeding by his Maiesties Sword; but they are not safe from being blasted by the breath of his Maiesties Bookes. Jf they could bring it about therefore, to calme and quiet his Maiesties Spirit from working vpon them that way; as they see his Maiesties sweetnesse to bee farre from drawing of their bloods the other way, they would deeme it a greater Conquest, then all the conuersions of the Kings of the East and West-Indies they tell vs so many tales of: For they looke vpon his Maiesties Bookes, as men looke vpon Blasing-Starres, with amazement, fearing they portend some strange thing, and bring with them a certaine Influence to worke great change and alteration in the world: Neither is their expectation herein deceiued; for we haue seene with our eyes, the Operation of his Maiesties Workes in the Consciences of their men so farre, as from their highest Con­claue to their lowest Cells, there haue bene, that haue bene con­uerted by them; and that in such number, as wee want rather meanes to maintaine them, then they minds to come to vs. But to conclude this point, that Kings may write; Giue mee leaue to offer you this Meditation.

How many are the wayes that men doe inuent to perpetuate their Memorie! Insomuch, that mortall-men haue made them­selues Gods, when they were dead, that they might be adored, as if they were aliue. Wherein, is the Impetus of Nature so strong, [Page]as in the affection that propogates to Posteritie? Wherefore serue Pictures, but to continue our features? Why doe men bestow so much cost in sumptuous Buildings, but to leaue a Monument of their Magnificence? To what end doe we erect Holy-houses and Hospitalls, but to possesse mens mindes with the Deuotion of our Soules? And shall wee blesse a King, when wee behold him in his Posteritie! Shall wee admire his features, when wee contemplate them in his Pictures! Shall we wonder at his Mag­nificence, when we gaze vpon it in his stately Edifices! and may wee not as well bee rauished, when wee see his sharpe Wit, his pro­found Judgement, his infinite Memorie, his Excellent affe­ctions in his admirable Writings? Certainely it is a peruersnes to esteeme a man least, for that whereby hee liues the longest; to value him more for the outward worke of his hand, then for the inward operation of his minde; to esteeme him more for that which instructs but little, then for that which shall edifie for e­uer. What now remaines of Caesar so famous as his Commen­taries? What of Cicero, as his Orations? How comes Ari­stotle to be of more authoritie then Alexander? Seneca, then Nero? The Triumphes and Ʋictories of the one are vanished; the Ʋertues of the other remaine in their perfect vigour: And though all other Monuments by time consume and come to no­thing; yet these by time, gaine strength and get authoritie; and euer the more ancient, the more Excellent.

Hauing now deliuered my opinion, that J thinke it neither vn­lawfull nor inconuenient for a King to write, but that he hath the Liberty that other men haue, if hee can get the leysure; to shew his abilities for the present, to perpetuate his Memory to Poste­rity; to aduance his praise before his owne People, and gaine Glory from others; but especially to giue Glory vnto GOD.

J will craue leaue to descend to an other Consideration: for it may be, there will not be so much fault found with a King for wri­ting, as for the matter or Subiect whereof he treates: For Persona­ges of their eminent Degree and State, must not spend their paines on poore purposes; nor write so much to try their witts [Page]on triuiall thinges, as to winne themselues Honor by the Excellency of their subiect. Jndeed, if I were worthy to aduise a King, hee should meddle very sparingly, and but vpon important Causes, with Polemicalls: Hee should not often fight but in the field; for put the case a King writ neuer so modestly, that there be not in a whole Booke one word ad hominem, nor any touch of his Aduersary in any personall infirmity; yet J know not how it comes to passe, that in all Controuersies, a solide answere to an argument, is a very sufficient occasion to make an Aduersary wonderfull angrie. And so long as there are diuersity of Opinions, there will neuer want matter for Confutations. And in these Replications the per­son of a King is more exposed and lyes more open, then the person of a poore Scholler can doe; for as he is a farre greater marke, so he may farre more easily be hit: And though they misse him and can hit vpon nothing iustly to bee reprehended in him; yet they doe thinke it Operaepretium, to make a Scarre in the face of a King; Whereas on the contrary, if a King doe write of Piety or Deuo­tion, compile a History, giue Precepts of Policy, handle Mo­ralls, or treate of some rare Experiences of Nature; wee doe in these things commend his Iudgement, admire his parts without any euill cogitation against his Person. There can hardly be gi­uen a more viue Example in this case, then is to be found in the Writings of his Maiestie. When the King had published his Basilicon-Doron, a Booke so singularly penned; that a Pome­granat is not so full of kernells, as that is of Excellent Counsells: What applause had it in the world? How did it inflame mens minds to a loue and admiration of his Maiestie beyond measure; Insomuch that comming out iust at the time his Maiestie came in, it made the hearts of all his people as one Man, as much to Ho­nour him for Religion and Learning, as to obey him for Title and Authoritie; and gaue vs then a taste, or rather the first fruits, of that we haue since reaped a plentifull Haruest of, by his Maiesties most prudent and Gracious Gouernment ouer vs. The like I may say of his Maiesties Demonologie; a rare peece for many Pre­cepts and Experiments, both in Diuinitie and Naturall Philo­sophie. [Page]Jn these, there was nothing heard of, but Sunne-shine and faire-weather; euery countenance sweet and smiling vpon them: But as soone as his Maiestie dealt against the Pope, tooke the Cardinall in hand, made the world see the vsurped power of the one, and Sophistry of the other; Good Lord, what a stirre we had; what roaring of the wilde Bulls of Basan, what a commotion in euery Countrey; Jnsomuch, that I thinke, there is scarce a People, Language or Nation in Christendome, out of which his Maiestie hath not receiued some answere or other; ei­ther by way of resuting, or at least by rayling: So that, had not the King contemned and made himselfe sport and recreation by such kinde of Reuelling, rather then bene mooued to passion; It could not haue bene but a marueilous perturbation to a Prince of so exqui­site sense and vnderstanding. But what of all this? Shall wee wish his Maiestie had not fought with beasts at Ephesus, stopped the roaring of the Bull, nor encountered the Cardinall? Trewly when J thinke vpon the wonderfull abuses, and Hyperbolicall in­dignities his Maiestie hath receiued from these men; I am some­what of that minde: But when on the other side, J consider his Maiesties zeale for to maintaine the cause of GOD and Right of Kings; his singular dexteritie to doe it; the blessing of GOD that hath followed vpon his so doing of it; I cannot but change my opi­nion, and bee of another minde. And the better to induce you to bee of my minde; I will make vnto you a trew Relation of his Maiesties entering into this businesse, and then leaue it to your consideration; whether there were not a Diuine hand, that led his into it, or no. Jt is the Speach of our Blessed Sauiour, that there is nothing hid, that shall not be knowne; and what is spoken in darkenesse, shall be heard in the Light: This his Maiestie as himselfe confesseth, found trew in the comming foorth of one of his Bookes; and I thinke it may bee found as trew in the comming foorth of some other of them. For after the Pope had put forth his Breues, and the Cardinall had sent his Letters to the Arch­priest; the one to enioyne the People not to take the Oath of Al­legiance, affirming they could not take it with safety of their Sal­uation; [Page]the other to reproue the Arch-priest for that hee had ta­ken it, and to draw him to a penitencie for so foule a Lapse: His Maiestie like as became a Prudent and a Religious Prince, thought it not meete, that these things should passe for current, but that it was expedient his People should know, that the taking of this Oath was so farre from endangering their Soules, as that it intended nothing but ciuill Obedience, and without touching any point of their conscience, made the State secure of their Allegi­ance. To performe this worke, his Maiestie thought the Bishop of Winchester that then was, a very fit man, both for his sin­gular Learning, as for that he had long laboured in an Argument not much of a diuers nature from this: Whereupon his Maiestie calling for penne and incke, to giue my L. of Winchester dire­ctions, how and in what maner to proceed in this Argument, I know not how it came to passe; but it fell out trew, that the Poet saith,

— Amphora coepit
Institui, currente rota, post vrceus exit.

For the Kings Penne ranne so fast, that in the compasse of sixe dayes, his Maiestie had accomplished that, which hee now calleth his Apologie; which when my Lord of Canterburie that then was, and my Lord of Elie had perused, being indeed deliuered by his Maiestie but as briefe Notes, and in the nature of a Minute to bee explicated by the Bishop in a larger Ʋolume; yet they thought it so sufficient an Answere both to the Pope and Cardi­nall, as there needed no other: Whereupon his Maiestie was per­swaded, to giue way to the comming of it foorth, but was pleased to conceale his Name: And so haue wee the Apologie beyond his Maiesties owne purpose or determination.

After that the Apologie was out, his Maiestie diuerse times would bee pleased to vtter a Resolution of his; that if the Pope and Cardinall would not rest in his answere, and sit downe by it; take the Oath as it was intended for a point of Allegiance and Ciuill Obedience; Hee would publish the Apologie in his owne name with a Preface to all the Princes in Christen­dome; [Page]wherein hee would publish such a Confession of his Faith, perswade the Princes so to vindicate their owne Power, discouer so much of the Mysterie of Jniquitie vnto them; as the Popes Bulles should pull in their hornes, and himselfe wish he had neuer medled with this matter. The Cardinall contending against the Apologie, his Maiestie confirmed his Resolution, and with the like Celerity, in the compasse of one weeke, wrote his Monitory-Preface: for as Hirtius said of Caesars Comentaries, Qua foelicitate they were done, let others iudge; but Qua celeritate, J can tell: And being so written, published it and the Apologie in his owne Name; and made good his word, sent it to the Empe­rour and all the Kings and free Princes in Christendome.

Now hauing made this Relation, wherein J haue deliuered nothing but trewth; Let me offer vnto you some few things worthy Consideration.

First, that vpon the comming foorth of that Booke, there were no States, that disauowed the Doctrine of it in that point of the Kings power; And the Venetians mainetained it in their wri­tings, and put it in Execution; The Sorbons maintained it like­wise in France.

Secondly, their owne writers, that opposed it, so ouerlashed, as they were corrected and castigated of men of their owne Religi­on; Becanus his Booke corrected by the Cardinalles of Rome; Bellarmines Booke burnt in Paris; Suarez his Answere burnt al­so in France. As for the Raylers, I leaue them to God his Iudg­ment, whose hand hath bene vpon the most of them.

Thirdly, his Maiesties Confession of faith, hath bene so gene­rally approued, as it hath conuerted many of their partie: And had it not bene (as J haue bene informed by diuerse) for the Trea­tise of Antichrist, many more would easily haue bene induced, to subscribe to all in that Preface.

Fourthly, Kings and Princes haue by his Maiesties Pre­monition, had a more cleare insight, and a more perfect discouery into the Iniury offered them by the Pope in the point of their tem­porall Power, then euer they had; Jnsomuch, as that point was [Page]neuer so throughly disputed in Christendome, as it hath bene by the occasion of his Maiesties Booke.

Fiftly and lastly, for the point of Antichrist; I haue heard many confesse, that they neuer saw so much light giuen to that Mysterie, neuer descerned so much trewth by the vniforme con­sent of the Text, and strength of Interpretation of places, as they haue done by his Maiesties Booke. So that, though Contro­uersies be fitter subiects for Schollers ordinarily, then for Kings; Yet when there was such a necessitie in vndertaking, and such a successe being performed; I leaue it to the world to iudge, whether there were not a speciall hand of GOD in it, or no. Now since I haue begunne with this point of Antichrist, J will make bolde to proceed a little with his Maiesties Paraphrase vpon the Reue­lation, wherein that Treatise of Antichrist is principally grounded.

His Maiesties singular vnderstanding in all points of good Learning is not vnknowne: But yet aboue all other things, GOD hath giuen him an vnderstanding Heart in the Interpretation of that Booke, beyond the measure of other men: For this Para­phrase, that leades the way to all the rest of his Maiesties Workes, was written by his Maiestie before hee was twenty yeeres of aage; and therefore iustly in this Ʋolume hath the first place, the rest following in order according to the time of their first penning. Anciently Kings drempt dreames, and saw visions; and Prophets expounded them: So with King Pharaoh and Ioseph in Egypt; So with Nabuchodonosor and Daniel in Babylon. Jn this aage, Prophets haue written Ʋisions, and Kings haue expounded them. GOD raised vp Prophets to deliuer his People from a temporall captiuitie in Egypt and Ba­bylon, by the Jnterpretation of the one; And GOD hath in this aage stirred vp Kings to deliuer his People from a Spirituall E­gypt and Babylon, by the Interpretation of the other. It is an ob­seruable thing, that GOD neuer made his People any great pro­mise, but he added vnto his promise a famous Prophecie. Three great promises we reade of, that runne through all the Scriptures. [Page]The first of the Messiah; the second of the land of Canaan; the third of the Kingdome of Heauen: To these three promises, are reduced all the Prophecies. Of the promise of the Messiah, prophecied all the Prophets from the fall of the first Adam, to the comming of the second: Of the promise of the Land of Ca­naan, prophecied Iacob and Ioseph, and the rest, from the pro­mise made to Abraham, to the possessing of it by Iosuah and the children of Israel: Of the promise of the Kingdome of Heauen, made by our Sauiour CHRIST', prophecied the Apostles; principally S. Paul, and S. Iohn in the Reuelation. Now though all were to lay hold on the promises; yet few were able to vnderstand the Prophecies. And surely, though all the people of GOD are to lay hold on the promises of that Glorious King­dome described in that Booke; yet few are able to vnderstand the Prophecies therein contained, comprehending in them a per­fect History and State of the Church, euen from the destruction of Ierusalem, till the consummation of the whole world. Yet this I thinke, I may safely say; That Kings haue a kinde of interest in that Booke beyond any other: for as the execution of the most part of the Prophecies of that Booke is committed vnto them; So it may be, that the Interpretation of it, may more happily be made by them: And since they are the principall Instruments, that GOD hath described in that Booke to destroy the Kingdome of Antichrist, to consume his State and Citie; I see not, but it may stand with the Wisedome of GOD, to inspire their heart to ex­pound it; into whose handes hee hath put it to excute, vntill the LORD shall consume both him and it with the Spirit of his mouth, and shall abolish it with the brightnesse of his comming: For from the day that S. Iohn writ the Booke to this present houre; I doe not thinke that euer any King tooke such paines, or was so perfect in the Reuelation, as his Maiestie is; which will easily appeare by this Paraphrase, by his Maiesties Meditation on the 20. Chap. and his Monitorie Preface. Jt was my purpose to haue past through all his Maiesties Books; to haue expressed the Argument and the occasion of their writing; But I find by that J haue already [Page]said, I should be ouer tedious vnto you. This therefore in generall; They are all worthy of a King, and to be kept to Posterity: For if Ouid could imagine, that no time should eate out the memory of his Metamorphoseis, which were but fictions; J hope no time shall see an end of these Books, that carry in them so much diuine trewth and light. And as in this first worke of the Paraphrase, his Maiestie hath shewed his Piety; So in this last Pearle (I meane his Maiesties Speach in the Starr-Chamber) his Maiestie hath shewed his Policy: The first sheweth, hee vnderstands the Kingdome of GOD; this last, that hee as well apprehends the State of his Kingdomes in this World: The first sheweth him to haue a large Portion in that of Heauen; and this last sheweth him to haue a great Power and experience in these King­domes hee hath on earth. Therefore, let these men, that de­light so much in Detraction and to vilify him, whom GOD hath exalted; and to shed his blood, whose Soule GOD hath bound vp in the Bundle of life; Let them, J say, write what euer the Subtilty of the olde Serpent can put into their heads, or the Malice of Sa­than infuse into their hearts; Let them speake, what the poyson of Aspes is able to put into their lippes; they are not all able to make his Maiestie to appeare lesse then he is, nor to shew, that euer they had of theirs a King so accomplished. It is trew, that wee haue not had many Kings in this Kingdome of our Profession: But for those we haue had, this Iland of ours neuer saw the like, either for partes of Nature, giftes of Learning or Graces of Piety.

The little time of life, that God lent to King Edward, must needs lessen his prayses; But neuer did there appeare beginnings of more rare perfection, then in him.

The length of Queene Elizabeths dayes, together with the felicity of her time, was not only a Glory to her owne People, but a wonderment to the World, euen our Aduersaries, as Moses said, being Iudges. And praysed be GOD, the present time passeth a long with the like felicity and much more Securitie: for let me re­count a little, for the Glory of GOD and encouragement of his [Page] Maiestie, to goe on in his happie Course begunne, the Blessings of GOD we receiue by him; And then let our Aduersaries tell vs, whether we be a miserable People or no, as some of late haue gone about to perswade vs. Neither doe J stand in feare of any mans reprehension; for J will speake nothing but trewth, and I haue my President from GOD his owne Booke; wherein the good Actes of euery good King are to their eternall praises trewly recounted.

First to beginne with Religion, as the Generall to the Armie: Of all Gods Blessings wee haue it without any alteration or change contynued vnto vs. His Maiesties first Care was for the Confirmation of the Gospell: for at his Maiesties first comming in; who knowes not the endeauours of men, to haue made a change, either to the Papists, or to the Puritanes? His Maie­stie therefore, to quiet the State and Peace of the Church, called a Conference at Hampton-Court; where passing ouer the one, as being neuer in his heart to giue the least way vnto; He so tempered the other, as the Harmony hath bene the better euer since.

The Religion thus ratified; His Maiesties next Care was for the Translation of the Bible, it being the ground of our Religi­on: His Maiestie was desirous his People should haue it in as much perfection, as the Jndustrie and Labors of the best Learned were able to afford it them.

Hauing done what was necessary for the Spirituall part of the Church, his Maiestie tooke into consideration the Temporal State thereof: No sooner came the Parliament, but finding what spoile had bene made of the Lands thereof in the tyme of his Predeces­sors, by a libertie they had to take the Landes of the Church for a longer Terme then others could doe; Cut himselfe off from that libertie, and equalled himselfe to a common person in the taking of any State in the Churches Landes.

When his Maiestie had done this in England, he looked backe into Scotland, and reforming the State of the Church there, as farre as in his Princely-Wisedome he thought conuenient for the time; restored the Bishops there, as to their Spirituall Keies; [Page]so to their temporall Estates, though it were to the great losse and dammage of his owne Reuennue and Crowne.

From Scotland his Maiestie came to Ireland, that forlorne Kingdome both for Temporall and Spiritual estate, till be looked into it: There his Maiestie hath reduced the Bishoppricks, not only to their old Rents; but added vnto them many new Reuen­nues; so that many places there are answerable to the best Li­uings here: Neither hath his Care bene onely on these high places of the Church, but hath descended to the lowest in the same, hauing both protected the Benefices from being raysed to any higher Taxe, and hindred all courses, that might giue his Cleargie mole­station or trouble.

His Maiesties Bountie hath not bene wanting to Colledges and Hospitalls, hauing parted with his owne Tenures, to giue them power of larger Indowments; whereby there hath bene works of more sumptuousnes and cost done in his Maiesties time, then there hath bene in any one aage before.

J may not forget one thing, that since his Maiesties comming to this Crowne, he hath neuer put into his Coffers the meane prof­fitts of any Ecclesiasticall liuing, but hath bene a Fidus-Deposi­tarius, and euer giuen them to the next Jncumbent.

Let me descend a little from these workes of Piety to Peace. Neuer hath there bene so vniuersall a Peace in Christendome since the time of our Sauiour Christ, as in these his Dayes: And I dare say, as much, if not more, by the procurement of his Maie­stie, then by any other earthly meanes in this world. A Peace (to let forraigne partes passe) so entertayned at home; that in his Maiesties three Kingdomes, apt enough by constitution, and not vnaccustomed by practise to be at variance, there hath bene no Ci­uill dissension at all. With Peace GOD hath giuen vs Plentie: So that, if Peace and Plenty haue not made vs too too wanton, I know not what wee want. Neither is there any crying out for lacke of Iustice in our Courtes; for neuer was there Iustice ad­ministred with more liberty from the King, nor more vprightnes from the Judges; And yet in the free dispensation of Iustice, [Page]Mercie did neuer more triumph. If this bee to bee miserable, J know not what on earth they call Happinesse: GOD continue these still vnto vs; and then, let them call Happinesse, what they please.

But I know wherefore all is miserable; because there is no more Mercy shewed to their Catholiks.

J will put it as a Crowne vpon all his Maiesties Mercies: There was neuer King, that had so great a cause giuen him, that euer tooke so little bloode, extending his Mercy to all, that were not personall workers in that Powder-Plot: And before that you had hatched that Monster, neither was the person or purse of any your reputed Catholicks touched. And since that time, you may doe well to complaine of your Miseries; but the Church and Comonwealth both, doe trauaile and groane vnder the bur­then of your disobedience: But the worst J wish you, is, that at length by his Maiesties long Patience, you may bee drawne to Repentance; for as we are come out from you, lest we should bee partakers of your plagues; so we pray for you, that you may come in to vs, that you may be participants of our felicities.

To Conclude this Preface: GOD hath giuen vs a Solomon, and GOD aboue all things gaue Solomon Wisedome; Wisedome brought him peace; Peace brought him Riches; Riches gaue him Glory. His wisedome appeared in his wordes and Workes: his Peace, he preserued by the power of his Army: His riches he ray­sed, as by his Reuennue, so by the Trade of his Nauie: His Glory did accrue from them all. Now, as in these, GOD exalted him beyond all the Kings that euer were, or should be after him; So had he in other things Humiliations not farre behind the proportion of his Exaltations; the fearefullest fall, that the Scripture affords an Example of; the most vnchast life and immoderate excesse of Women, that we read of; the weakest Posterity for Wisedome and Gouernment, that we finde in all the Line of his Succession. GOD would haue it so, that he should no more be set out, as a Type of the Glory of his owne Sonne in the felicity of his State one way, then he would haue him proposed as a patterne of Humane [Page]frailty an other way. Therefore, though we may not approach him in his Typicall State; yet GODS Name be blessed, that hath gi­uen vs to goe farre beyond him in his personall Condition: For we haue already, blessed be GOD, seene the Constancie and perseue­rance of his Maiesty in his Holy Profession, without any Eclipse or Shaddow of change, longer then we are well able to deduce the whole life and reigne of Solomon. We haue not the Daughter of Pharao an Idolatrous King; nor feare we strange women to steale away his heart from the Seruice of GOD: But a Queene, as of a Royall, so of a Religious Stocke, professing the Gospell of Christ with him; A Mirrour of trew Modestie, a Queene of Bounty, both beloued and admired of all his People: A Posterity that we need not feare for folly in the one Sexe, nor for leuitie in the other; Both which made Solomon speake so much, (as the Iewes say) in his Prouerbes, of a foolish sonne, because his owne was not wise, and of wanton Women, because he feared the vani­ty of his owne Daughters. But GOD hath left his Maiestie a Sonne; a Prince, as in outward Liniaments, so in inward Abi­liments, (I need say no more) an Alter-Idem, a second-Selfe; A Daughter, a Princesse of that Piety, singular vertue and Modestie; as makes her both beloued at home and admired abroad. J haue done: Only I desire the Readers of these Workes, to pray to GOD, that as he hath so farre aduanced vs, as to bestowe vpon vs, with the Heauenly Treasures of his trewth, the riches of his earthly Iewels in so Sacred a King, so admired a Queene, so hopefull a Prince, so vertuous a Princes; He would for his Mer­cies sake, for his Sonnes sake, continue this the Light of his Counte­nance vpon vs in them and their Posterity, till the comming of that Kingdome, which neuer shall haue end. AMEN.

Thine in the Lord, IA. WINTON.

THE SEVERALL TREATISES ACCORDING TO THE TIME WHEREIN THEY WERE WRITTEN, AND THEIR PLACE IN THIS Collection, &c.

  • A PARAPHRASE vpon the Reuelation. Pag. 7.
  • Two Medi­tations; The
    • First vpon the 7. 8. 9. and 10. Verses of the 20. Chap. of the Reuelation. Pag. 73
    • Second vpon the 25. 26. 27. 28. and 29. Verses of the 15. Chapter of the first Booke of the Chronicles. Pag. 81
  • Daemonologie,
    • First Booke. Pag. 94
    • Second Booke. Pag. 108
    • Third Booke. Pag. 123.
  • Basilicon-Do­ron,
    • First Booke. Pag. 148
    • Second Booke. Pag. 155
    • Third Booke. Pag. 180.
  • The trew Law of Free Monarchies AnonymΩs. Pag. 193
  • A Counter-blast to Tobacco AnonymΩs. Pag. 214
  • A Discourse of the Powder Treason AnonymΩs. Pag. 223.
  • [Page]An Apologie for the Oath of Allegiance, first set out AnonymΩs, and afterwards published with the Prae­monition vnder His Maiesties owne name. Pag. 247
  • A Praemonition to all Christian Monarches, Free Prin­ces and States, written both in English and Latine by his Maiestie. Pag. 289
  • A Declaration against Ʋorstius, written by His Maiestie first in French, after translated into English by His Ma­iesties leaue. Pag. 349
  • A Defence of the Right of KINGS, against Cardinall Perron, written by His Maiestie in French, and there­after translated into English by His Maiesties leaue. Pag. 392
  • Fiue Spea­ches; THE
    • First in Parliament, ANNO 1603. Pag. 485.
    • Second in Parliament, ANNO 1605. Pag. 499.
    • Third at White-hall, ANNO 1607. Pag. 509.
    • Fourth at White-hall, ANNO 1609. Pag. 527.
    • Fift in the Starre­Chamber. ANNO 1616. Pag. 549.

THE EPISTLE TO THE WHOLE CHVRCH MILI­TANT, in whatsoeuer part of the Earth.

TO whom could I haue so fitly directed (Christian Readers) this Paraphrase of mine vpon the Re­uelation, as vnto you, who are the very and true posteritie of those Churches, to whom the Booke it selfe was dedicated, and for whose instruction and comfort the said E­pistle was endited by the Holy Spi­rit, and written by that great Theologue IOHN the Apostle, whom our Master beloued deerely? J doubt not but it will seeme strange to many, that any of my aage, calling, and litera­ture, should haue medled with so obscure, Theologicall, and high a subiect: But let my earnest desire (by manifesting the Trueth,) as well to teach my selfe as others, serue for excuse; considering also that where diuers others in our aage, haue medled with the interpretation of this Booke, pressing with preoccupied opinions, onely to wrest and conforme the meaning thereof to their parti­cular and priuate passions; J by the contrary protest, that all my trauailes tend to square and conforme my opinions to the trew and sincere meaning thereof: Which causes mooued me to vndertake this worke; not thereby to despise infinite others, who to the glory [Page 2]of God, and great comfort of his Church, hath giuen it a great light already, but rather that by oft perusing and dew considering therof, whereto this worke hath led mee, J might be the better acquain­ted with the meaning of this Booke, which J esteeme a speciall cannon against the Hereticall wall of our common aduersaries the Papists: whom I would wish to know, that in this my Paraphrase vpon it, J haue vsed nothing of my owne coniecture, or of the au­thoritie of others, but onely haue interpreted it, in that sense which may best agree with the methode of the Epistle, and not bee contradictorie to it selfe: The meaning whereof I expound, partly by it selfe, and partly by other parts of the Scriptures, as the worke it selfe will beare witnesse: And therefore this one thing J must craue of our Aduersaries, that they will not refute any part of my Interpretation, till they finde out a more probable them­selues, agreeing with the whole context, & cum serie tempo­rum; and where their consciences beare them witnesse that J speake the Trueth, that they will yeeld vnto it, and glorifie God therein, and this is all the reward I craue for my paines. But of one thing I must forewarne you (Christian Readers) to wit, that yee may vnderstand, that it is for the making of the Discourse more short and facile, that I haue made IOHN to be the Spea­ker in all this Paraphrase; and not that I am so presumptuously foolish, as to haue meant thereby, that my Paraphrase is the onely trew and certaine exposition of this Epistle, reiecting all others: For although through speaking in his person, I am onely bounded and limitted to vse one, and not diuers interpretations, of euery seuerall place; yet I condemne not others, but rather allow them to interpret it diuersly, so being, it agree with the analogie of faith, with the methode of the Text, & cum serie temporum, as I said before: for those three being obserued, it may fall out that di­uers, diuersly expound one place, and yet all be according to the trueth, and very meaning of the Spirit of God, as may easily be pro­ued by the Text it selfe: For in the 17. Chapter the Angel expoun­ding to Iohn, the seuen heads of the beastes that came out of the Sea, hee saith the seuen heads which thou sawest vpon the beast [Page 3]are the seuen Hills, and they are also seuen Kings: Here ye see one thing is expounded in two very farre different fashions, and yet both true; And therefore let wise men take their choice in these things, obseruing alwayes these rules I haue spoken of; as spe­cially for example; This Hebrew word Arma geddon in the 16. Chapter and sixt Phiale, although I expound it to signifie de­struction by deceipt, as composed of [...] Gnarma & Geddon which may very well agree with the History, because it is the name of the place, saith Iohn, where the wicked being assem­bled together by the alluring and deceipt of Satan, and his three spirits of Diuels to make warre with the faithfull, were all de­stroyed by God, and so their destruction came, and was procured by deceipt; Yet others interpret it to signifie destruction by waters, as composed of [...] Harma & Geddon, which also may very well agree with the Historie. For waters indeed in this Booke signifie oft many people and Nations, as appeareth by the very Text in the 17. Chapter; And others take it to be an allu­sion to the destruction that Ioshua made of Gods enemies vpon the hill of Mageddon, and therefore to bee composed of [...] Harr, which is called a Hill and Mageddon, which may also very well agree with the Historie.

And as J speake of this, so J speake the like of Gog and Ma­gog in the 20. Chapter, and of all other ambiguous places in this Booke.

Jt rests then that what ye finde amisse in this Paraphrase, yee impute it to my lacke of yeeres and learning; and what ye find worthy to be allowed in it, that yee attribute the full praise thereof to GOD, to whom onely all praise appertaineth.

Fare-well.

THE ARGVMENT OF THIS WHOLE EPISTLE.

THIS Booke or Epistle of Reuelation, was called in doubt, aswell for the incertaintie of the Author, as also for the canonicalnesse of the Booke it selfe, by sundry of the ancients, and specially by Eu­sebe; For soluing whereof I need not to insist, since it is both receiued now of all Christians, and also diuers of the Neoteriques, in speciall Beza in his Preface vpon it, hath handled that matter sufficiently alrea­dy; So that this doubt onely rests now in men, that this Booke is so obscure and allegorique, that it is in a maner vnprofitable to be taught or interpreted; Whereunto I will shortly make answere, and then goe forward to set downe the methode of the same: And therefore to make a deduction from the be­ginning, let vs vnderstand in what seuerall or principall parts the whole Scrip­tures may be diuided in; and then which of them this Booke is. How soone Adam being made perfect in his Creation, and hauing the choise of Life and Death, Good and Euill, did by his horrible defection make choise of Death, and cast off Life, and by that meanes infected his whole posteritie with double sinne, to wit, Ori­ginall and Actuall, God notwithstanding had such a Loue to mankinde, as being his most Noble workemanship, and Creature, made to his owne Likenesse and Image, that he selected a Church amongst them, whom first because of their weakenesse and incredulitie, he with his owne mouth taught, and next instructed and raised vp notable men amongst them to be their Rulers, whom he endued with such excellent gifts, as not onely their example in life preached, but also by Miracles they strengthe­ned and confirmed their Faith: But lest this ministrie of men should make them to depend onely vpon their mouthes, forgetting Him, and making Gods of them, he at length out of his owne mouth gaue them his Law, which he caused them to put in Writ, and retaine still amongst them; And then lest they should forget and neglect the same, he raised vp godly Rulers, as well Temporall, as Spirituall, who by their ho­ly liues and working of Miracles, reuiued and strengthened the Law in their hearts. [Page 5]But seeing, that notwithstanding all this, they cast themselues headlong in the gulfe of vices (such is the vnthankefull and repining Nature of Man,) hee raised vp Prophets, as especially Ieremie and Daniel, to accuse them of their sinnes, and by Visions to forewarne them of the times to come, whereby the godly might turne and arme themselues, and the wicked might be made inexcusable. And thus much for the Old Testament. But then God seeing that notwithstanding this, there crept in such a generall corruption amongst them, that scarce one might be found that bowed not his knee to Baal; Hee then by his vnsearchable Wisedome incarnated his E­ternall Sonne and Word THE LORD IESVS, who by his death and Pas­sion accomplished the faith of the Fathers; whose Saluation was by the beleeuing in him to come, as also made an open and patent way of Grace to all the world there­after: And then as vpon a new world, and a new Church, Gods Fatherly care to Mankind was renued, but in a more fauourable forme, because hee looked vpon the Merits of his deare Sonne: Then, first Christ with his owne mouth did instruct men, and confirmed his Doctrine by Miracles, and secondly raised vp the Apostles to giue the Law of Faith, confirming it by their liues and Miracles: And last, that not­withstanding this Defection was beginning to creepe in againe, hee inspired one of them, to wit, IOHN to write this Booke, that hee might thereby, euen as Ieremie and Daniel did in the old Law, aswell rebuke them of their sinnes, as by forewar­ning them, to arme them against the great tentations that were to come after. Then of it selfe it prooues, how profitable this Booke is for this aage, seeing it is the last Reuelation of Gods will and Prophesie, that euer was, or shall bee in the World: For wee shall haue no more Prophesies nor Miracles hereafter, but must content our selues with the Law and Prophecies already giuen, as Christ in his Parable of La­zarus and the rich man teacheth. Now as to the Methode, this holy Epistle is di­rected to the seuen Churches of Asia Minor, whom hee names and writes to parti­cularly in the first three Chapters of the same, and vnder their Names to all their trew Successors, the whole Church Militant in the World. The whole matter may bee diuided in sixe parts, to wit, The praise or dispraise of euery one of these Churches, according to their merits wherein they merit good or euill, what way they ought to reforme themselues, and this is contained in the three first Chapters: And to make them inexcusable, in case they slide againe, hee shewes the estate of the whole Church Militant in their time; he tells them what it shall be vntill the end of the World, and what it shalbe when it is Triumphant and immortall after the disso­lution: These three last parts are declared by Visions in the rest of the E­pistle, first the present estate of the Church then, and what it should be thereafter vn­to the later day, is summarily declared by the first sixe of the seuen Seales: in the sixt and seuenth Chapters, and afterwards more at large by the seuen Trumpets that came out of the seuenth Seale in the 8. 9. 10. 11. Chapters: And because through Tirannie and abuse of the Popedome, Poperie is the greatest temptation since Christes first comming, or that shalbe vnto his last; therefore he specially insists more at large and cleerly, in the declaration and painting forth of the same, by Vision of the woman in the wildernesse, and of the Beasts that rose out of the sea and the earth in the 12. 13. and 14. Chapters: And then to comfort men that might otherwise despaire, Chap. 15.16. because of the [Page 6]greatnesse of that temptation, he declares by the next following Vision of the Phials, what plagues shall light vpon the Pope and his followers: Next, he describes him a­gaine, Chap. 17.18.19. Chap. 20. farre clearer then any time before, and likewise his ruine, together with the sor­row of the Earth, and ioy of Heauen therefore: And then to inculcate and ingraue the better the foresaid Visions in the hearts and memories of Men, hee in a Vision makes a short summe and recapitulation of them, to wit, of the present estate of the Church then, and what it should bee thereafter, vnto the Day of Iudgement, to­gether with a short description of the said Day: And last he describes by a Vision, the glorious reward of them, who constantly persist in the Trueth, resisting all the temptations which he hath forespoken, To wit, he describes the blessed estate of the holy and Eternall Ierusalem, and Church Triumphant, and so with a short and pithie Conclusion makes an end.

A PARAPHRASE VPON THE REVELATION OF THE APOSTLE S. IOHN.

CHAP. I.

ARGVMENT.

The Booke, the Writer, and the Inditer; the end and vse thereof: The dedication of this Epistle to the Churches and Pastors, vnder the vision of the seuen Candlesticks and seuen Starres.

GOD THE FATHER hath directed his Sonne and Word, IESVS CHRIST, to send downe an Angel or Minister, to me Iohn his seruant, and by him to reueale vnto mee certaine things which are shortly to come to passe, to the effect in time the cho­sen may be forewarned by me; 2 Who haue borne witnes that the word of God is true, and that IESVS CHRIST is, and was a faithfull witnesse, and haue made true report of all I saw. 3 Happy are they that read and vnderstand this Prophesie, and conforme themselues there­unto in time, for in very short space it will be fulfilled: 4 I am directed to declare the same, specially to you the seuen Churches of Asia, with whom be grace and peace from the Eternall, the Father, and from the Holy Spirit: 5 And IESVS CHRIST, that faithfull witnesse, the first borne of the dead, the Mightie King of the world, and head of his Church; Who for the loue he bare vs, hath made vs innocent by his blood in the worke of Re­demption: 6 To him then we, whom hee hath made Spiritual Kings and Priests, in Honour and Holinesse, and ordained to serue and praise his Father, giue all glory and power for euer: so be it. 7 Assure your selues of his comming againe from Heauen in all glory, and all eyes shall see him; Yea the wicked shalbe compelled to acknowledge that it is euen very he, whom [Page 8]so they did persecute: Christ cruci­fied. And the whole world shall haue a feeling before him of their vnthankefulnesse. So be it. 8 I am Eternall, saith the Lord, before whom, all things (which is or was) are present, and I am only the worker of all, I who euer Was, and still am, shall surely come againe accor­ding to my promise: 1. Cor. 2. And as I am Eternall and true, so I am Almighty, preordinating all things before all beginnings. 9 I Iohn, your brother in the flesh, Iohn banish­ed to Pathmos for the trueth, writeth the Reuelation. and companion with you, aswell in the seruice of Christ, as in the patient suffering of the Crosse, being for that word of God and witnes­sing of Christ, whereof I spake, so persecuted, that for safety of my life I was constrained to flie all alone to the solitarie Ile of Pathmos. 10 Then was I bereft in spirit vpon the Sunday, which is hallowed to the Lord: Then heard I behind me, turne about and take heed, the mighty voyce of the Lord as a Trumpet, because he was to declare the estate of the battell of the Church Militant vnto me; 11 Saying these wordes, I am A and Ω, to wit, the first and the last, write thou in a Booke what thou seest, and send it to the Seuen Churches in Asia, the names of which are these, Ephesus, Smyr­na, Pergamos, Thyatyra, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea: 12 And when I turned mee to see the voyce, Vers. 10. I did see seuen Candlesticks representing these seuen Churches: 13 And in the middest of them the figure of the Sonne of man representing him, clothed with a side garment for grauitie, and gir­ded about the paps with a girdle of Gold for glory: 14 His head and haire were white as white Wooll, Psal. 51. Esay. 4. Matth. 3. Ierem. 1.15. Esay 17. or Snow for innocencie; and his eyes were bright like flames of fire, to signifie his all-seeing knowledge: 15 His feet were of brasse, brightly flaming as in a furnace, to declare his standing in Eternity: And his voice like the sounding of many waters, representing his Maiestie in commanding: 16 And hee had in his Right hand, the side that the Elect are on, Hebr. 1.10. Vers. 10. seuen Starres for you the seuen Angels, that is, Pastors of the seuen Churches: Ephes. 6. Esay. 60. Matth. 7. And from his mouth came a two-edged sword, to wit, the Sword of the word, which comes onely from him; and his face was as the Sunne shining bright, for from his Face comes all light to illuminate blind Man. 17 And when I thus did see him, I fell dead at his feet for asto­nishment, Psal. 63. Psal. 139. but he lifted mee vp againe with his right and fauourable hand, and comfortably said vnto mee, Feare not, be not astonished, for I am the first and the last. Christ is risen from death to life. Timoth. 1. Hebr. 2. 18 Who, as verily as now I liue, was once dead, as thou thy selfe beares witnesse, and yet now doe liue for euer and euer, and by my death onely I haue ouercome Hell and Death; and I onely and no other, keepe the Keyes that haue the power of them both. 19 And now I came to charge thee to write these things which thou hast now seene, because they are afterwards to come to passe.

CHAP. II.

ARGVMENT.

Admonition and exhortation to the Churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos and Thyatira.

WRite then this to the Angel, or Pastour of the Church of Ephesus: He that hath the seuen Starres, Chap. 1. v. 10. or seuen Pastours in his Right hand, or fauourable power, or protection, and who walkes among the seuen Golden Candlesticks, or watches ouer the seuen Churches, euen hee, I say, Chap. 1. sayes thus vnto thee: 2 I know thy workes, thy trauaile and patience, & that thou suffrest not the wicked to walke with thee, but hast learned them out, False apostles in the Church of Ephesus. that call themselues Apostles in the Church of Ephesus, and are not, and hast tried them to be lyers: 3 Thou art also loaded with a great burden, and yet wil­lingly sustainest it, and for the loue of my Name hast thou trauailed much, and yet weariest not: 4 But in this I must finde fault with thee, that thy former charitie is waxed cold: Destruction to the Church of Ephesus, ex­cept they re­pent. Chap. 1. Ioh. 12. v. 35. Nicolates. Pouerbs 15. 5 Remember then from whence thou hast fallen, and repent, turning thy selfe to thy first workes, otherwise I wil turne against thee soone, and will remoue thy Candlesticke out of the place it is in, to wit, the light of the Gospel, from thy Church, if thou repent not in time: 6 But this againe, thou doest well to hate the deeds of the Nico­laitans which also I hate. Matth. 23. 7 Let all who haue eares, or are willing to be fol­lowers of me, heare and take example by this which the Spirit of God sayes to the seuen Churches, or their seuen Pastours in the name of them: 1. Iohn 2. 1. Iohn 5. Prou. 3.5.18.22. And to him who is Victor in the battell against Satan and the flesh, I shall giue to eate of the Tree of Life, which is in the middest of the Paradise of God, to wit, I shall make him liue eternally in Heauen. 8 To the Angel or Pastour of the Church of Smyrna write thou, This sayes the first and the last, Ephes. 1.3. who was dead but now liues: 9 I know thy workes, thy trouble and pouertie, but thou art rich, to wit, in graces; I know also what blasphemies are vsed against thee, by them who call themselues Iewes, but are not, but by the contrary are of the Synagogue of Satan. The Church of Smyrna af­flicted and troubled, yet doeth conti­new. Psal. 91. 10 Feare not when yee shall be troubled by the deuil, for he will persecute and trouble some of you in the flesh, that your constancie may be tried, and ye shall haue great affliction for the space of tenne dayes, to wit, for a certaine space, but be yee faithfull vnto the death, and for your continuance I shall giue you the Crowne of life immortall. 11 Hee that hath an eare, let him heare what the Spirit saith to the Churches; and he that ouercommeth shall not be hurt by the second death, which is Hell. Pergame the principall Ci­tie in Attalia. 12 And to the Angel or Pastour of the Church of Per­game, write thou, Thus saith he that hath the two edged sword: 13 I know thy workes and where thou dwellest, euen where the throne of Satan is, to wit, among a great number of wicked; Yet hast thou not denied thy Faith in me, no not in straightest times, Antipas Mar­tyr. when Antipas my faithfull Martyr and [Page 10]witnesse, was slaine among you, where Satan, to wit, many wicked re­maine: 14 Yet haue I some few things to lay to your charge, to wit, That yee permit them to remaine amongst you, who retaine the doctrine of Balaam, 1. Cor. 10.14. who perswade men to eate of things immolate to Idoles, and to commit fornication, and filthinesse in the flesh: For the very same did Ba laam to Balac, to cause the Israelites stumble. 15 Thou offendest also in suf­fering some to be amongst you, who retaine the doctrine of the Nicolai­tans which I hate. 16 Repent therefore in time, otherwise I will come a­gainst thee soone, and I will fight and ouercome them who are amongst you, with the sword of my mouth, to wit, by the force of my word. 17 He that hath an eare, let him heare what the Spirit saith to the Churches: And to the Victour shall I giue to eate of that secret and hidden Manna, to wit, of Me the spirituall food of the faithfull, of whom that Manna which was hid in the Arke was a figure: And I will also giue him a White stone, or a Marke of his election and righteousnesse through imputation, and in it a New name written, to wit, his name shall be written vp in the Booke of life, which no man knoweth but he who receiues it; for no other may know the certaintie of ones Election, but onely he who is elected. 18 And to the Angel or Pastour of the Church of Thyatire, write, This saith the Sonne of God, whose eyes are like flames of fire, and whose feet are like to gliste­ring brasse: 19 I know thy workes, thy charitie, thy almes, and carefull helping of the weake, thy faith, thy patience, and shortly all thy workes; but in speciall I praise thy great constancie and firme continuance, euen so, as thy last workes are better then the first: 20 Yet some few things haue I to lay to thy charge, to wit, that thou sufferest a woman, like to Iezebel in wickednesse and Idolatrie, who calls her selfe a Prophetesse, to teach and seduce my seruants, to commit fornication and filthinesse of the flesh, and to eate of things immolate vnto Idols: 21 Yet gaue I her a time to repent from her filthinesse, but she would not. 22 Therefore loe I shall cast her into a bed, to wit, I shall destroy her in the puddle of her sinnes, and I shall trouble with great affliction all them who commit adulterie, to wit, spiri­tuall adulterie with her, if they repent not of their euill workes in time. 23 And I will kill and destroy her sonnes, to wit, all the followers of her doctrine, that all the Churches and faithfull may know me to be the sear­cher out of the secrets of all hearts, and the iust renderer and recompencer of euery man according to his workes. 24 But I say vnto the rest of you who are at Thyatire, who haue not receiued that false doctrine, nor know not the depth nor secrets of Satan or wickednesse, whereof the other falsely did purge themselues, I will not lay any other burthen vpon you, then that which already constantly yee beare: 25 But that which yee haue, holde it out valiantly vntill my comming againe. 26 For vnto him who is victour, and beares out to the end that burthen which I lay vpon him, I will giue power ouer Nations, to wit, hee shall triumph ouer the world: 27 And he shall rule them with an yron rod, and they shall be bro­ken [Page 11]like vessels of earth, according as I haue receiued the power from my Father: 28 And I shall giue vnto him the Morning starre; for as the mor­ning starre shines brighter then the rest, so shall he shine brighter in glory then his fellowes. 29 He that hath an eare, let him heare what the Spirit sayth to the Churches.

CHAP. III.

ARGVMENT.

Admonition and exhortation to the Churches of Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.

ANd to the Angel or Pastour of the Church of Sardis write thou, Thus sayth he who hath the seuen Spirits of God, Sardis. to wit, hee with whom the holy Spirit is vnseparably ioyned, and who hath the bestowing of all the graces of Gods Spi­rit on the Elect, and hath the seuen Starres, to wit, who is the head of you the seuen Pastours, I know thy workes, for ye say ye liue, and yet are dead, for your faith is fruitlesse. 2 Be watchfull then, and sleepe no longer in negligence and carelesse securitie, but strengthen againe that which is dying in you, to wit, reuiue your zeale and feruencie which is waxed cold, and almost quenched; for surely I haue not found your works so holy, and pure, as they are able to abide a triall before the face of God. 3 Remember then what thou hast once receiued & heard, that thou maist obserue the same and repent; but if thou watch not as I haue said, I will come as a thiefe, for the day of triall shall come when ye looke least for it, if ye be not alwayes, and at all times prepared: 4 Yet haue yee some few heads and notable persons in Sardis, who haue not defiled their garments, to wit, corrupted their workes as the rest haue done, and therefore they shall goe with me being made white, to wit, being made innocent by my merit, for they are worthy thereof: 5 And the Victour shall be clothed with a white garment of innocencie by imputation, neither shall I wipe his name out of the Booke of life, but shall auow him to be one of mine be­fore my Father and his Angels. 6 He that hath an eare, let him heare what the Spirit sayth to the Churches: 7 But to the Angelor Pastour of the Church of Philadelphia write thou, This sayth hee who is onely holy and trew, Philadelphia. and who hath the key of Dauid, who openeth and no man shutteth, who shuts and no man openeth, as sayes Esay; Chap. 22. for as Dauid was both King and Pro­phet, and was the figure of me, so I, as the veritie and end of that figure, am onely he, who hath the keyes of absolute condemning, or absoluting spiritu­ally and eternally. 8 I know thy workes, and loe, I haue set an open doore before thee, to wit, I haue made the way of grace patent vnto thee, which doore no man can shut, because I haue reserued the secret power of electi­on and reprobation onely to my selfe; and this fauour will I shew you, be­cause [Page 12]yee retaine some good and vertuous things amongst you, and hast kept my Word, and hast not beene ashamed of my Name, nor denyed the same; 9 Loe therefore I will make subiect vnto thee, these who are the Synagogue of Satan, to wit, those who call themselues Iewes, and are not, but lye: I shall make them (I say) come and adore before your feete, and they shall be compelled to know that I haue loued thee: 10 And this shall I do vnto thee, because thou hast faithfully retained the tidings of my trou­bles and sufferings, and therefore shal I deliuer thee also to trie the indwel­lers of the Earth. 11 Loe, I come shortly, therefore retaine surely to the end, that good which is in thee, lest another doe receiue thy Crowne and reward: 12 For I will make the Victor a pillar in the Temple of my God, to wit, a speciall and stedfast instrument in the Church, out of the which he shall neuer againe be cast foorth: for hee who once is elected, is neuer cast off; and I shall write on him, the Name of God, to wit, he shal beare the Marke and Seale of an Elect, and the name of the Citie of my God, which is new Ierusalem, to wit, the holy and blessed number of Saints and Angels which commeth downe from heauen from my God, to wit, is shortly and certeinly to come downe, by the generall compeiring at the latter day: And I shall also write on him mine owne Name, for I shall apply my gene­rall redemption of mankinde to him, in speciall, and so I shall write my new Name vpon him, to wit, of Redeemer and Sauiour, which name I haue lately acquired through my passion, death, and rising againe. 13 Hee that hath an eare, let him heare what the Spirit sayth vnto the Churches. 14 And to the Angel or Pastour of the Church of Laodicea, Laodicea. write thou, Thus sayth the Amen, to wit, he that is wholly and perfect holy, and true in all his promi­ses, that saithfull Witnesse, who is the beginning of the workemanship of God, as well because hee is that Word which did create all, and so is their beginning, for that they all receiued their beginning and being from him, as because the vniting of the Manhood with the Godhead in his person is the most excellent, and so the beginning, that is, the chiefe, or first in pre­eminence of all the workes of God. 15 I know thy workes, sayth hee, to wit, that thou art neither hote nor colde, would to God thou wert either hote or cold, to wit, either feruent and pure in the trueth, or altogether cold and ignorant, that is, seeing and confessing thine ignorance and slacknesse, that thou mightest be instructed in the same: Iudgement against Lao­dicea. 16 But thou art lukewarme, and neither hote nor cold, and so inexcusable; and therefore as lukewarme liquor prouokes vomit, so will I spew thee out of my mouth: 17 For thou sayest and thinkest thy selfe to be wealthy, and greatly enriched, and lacke nothing; but thou knowest not thy selfe to be spiritually in miserie and wretchednesse, poore, blinde, and naked of the grace and fauour of God: 18 I would wish thee to buy of me gold purged by the fire, that thou mayst thereby be made truely rich; I meane, I would wish thee to conquer by true repentance and earnest prayer, the Word and trueth of God; (which because it can receiue no filth or spot, and is able to abide the triall, Dauid [Page 13]properly in his Psalmes compares to golde purged by the fire) which will make thee rich in all spirituall graces: I would also wish thee to clothe thy selfe with a white garment, to wit, with innocencie and righteousnes, that the shame of thy nakednesse and vncleannesse appeare not, and to anoint thine eyes with an eye-salue, that thou mayst cleerly see from whence thou hast fallen: 19 But despaire thou not for these my sharpe words, for those whom I loue, I reprooue and fatherly chasten: Take vp therefore againe zealously the right way to saluation, and repent thee earnestly of thy for­mer iniquities. 20 Loe I stand at the doore, and knocke; for I offer my selfe vnto you by my Ambassadours, and my word in their mouth, who­soeuer heareth my voice and openeth the doore, to wit, whosoeuer heareth my voice, and yeeldeth thereunto due obedience, to him will I come in, to wit, my holy Spirit shall enter into him, and I will sup and be familiar with him, as he shall doe with me, and reuerence me with loue: 21 And I will make the Victour to sit with me in my Throne, to wit, he shalbe par­taker of my Glory, euen as I sit with my Father in his Throne, and am in my manhood, in which I ouercame, exalted to sit in glory at his right hand, equall in power, eternitie and glory with him. 22 Hee that hath an eare, let him heare what the Spirit sayth to the Churches.

CHAP. IIII.

ARGVMENT.

The rauishing of the Writer: The description of the Maiestie of God in Heauen, compassed about with Angels and Saints, vnder the figure of Saints and Elders.

ANd when this speech of IESVS was ended, I looked vp, Ezech. 1. and loe, I did see a doore opened in Heauen, to the effect that I might see and heare therein, the figuratiue represen­ting of those things that were to come after: And that first voice which spake vnto me before, lowd as a trumpet, and was the voice of IESVS CHRIST, spake vnto mee, and said, Mount vp thither, for I am to shew thee those things that are to be done here­after. 2 Then was I immediatly bereft in spirit; for the eyes of my earth­ly and grosse body, could not haue seene and comprehended those hea­uenly and spirituall mysteries: And loe, I did see a Throne set in heauen, and did see one sit thereon, to wit, GOD the Father in all Glory and Ma­iestie: 3 And he that sate thereon, was like in colour to the Iasper and Sar­dine stones; greene as the Iasper, to represent his euerlasting flourishing without decay; and fiery redde as the Sardine, to signifie his great bright­nesse and consuming power, who is the trier and separater of the Elect from the reprobate: and the Rainebow, coloured like the Emerauld, did compasse him round about, to testifie thereby, that as after the deluge [Page 14]hee made the Rainebow a Sacrament of the promises made to Noah, so this Rainebow which now I did see compassing his Throne, should serue for a sure Sacrament, that hee will neuer suffer his Elect to perish, but will alwayes, and at all times be compassed, with a great care and watchfulnes ouer them: Greene it was as the Emerauld, to signifie the continuance without ceasing of his care; as the Emerauld comforteth the sight, so is this Sacrament an vnspeakeable comfort vnto the Elect in their trouble­some dayes. 4 And about his Throne were foure and twentie other seats, and I saw foure and twentie Elders or Ecclesiasticall Rulers sitting there­upon, clothed with white garments, and hauing Crownes of Golde vpon their heads: These are the twelue Patriarkes, and then the twelue Apostles, [who for that they haue beene the speciall teachers both of the olde and new Law, to the saluation, aswell of Iewes as of Gentiles, are set in seates about his Throne for glory, and clothed with white garments for their innocencie and brightnesse] and crowned with crownes of golde in to­ken of their victory ouer Satan and the flesh, and of their glorious reward therefore. 5 And from his Throne went foorth thunder, lightening, and terrible voices, to represent the great seueritie and terriblenes of his Iudge­ments, denounced by the olde Law, and executed on the wicked: And there were seuen lampes of burning fire before his Throne, which is the infinite, mightie, and flaming bright holy Spirit, resembling the loue and light of the new Law of the Gospel of Christ. 6 And there was a sea of glasse like vnto Christall before his Throne, for that as in a glasse he cleere­ly sees euen all the secretest actions and cogitations of all in the world, de­scribed here by the Sea, which is euer before his face; for nothing can be hid from his presence and prescience: And though in lustre and glaunce the world be like the liuely fountaines of waters, which are the faithfull, daily springing and flowing with good workes by fruitfull faith, yet is it indeede without motion or liquor, dead and like glasse, whensoeuer the Lord IEHOVAH doeth thunder his Iudgements vpon it: And in the middest of the Throne, and about the same, were foure beasts; their foure hinder parts were in the midst of it, their shoulders bearing it vp, and their head and wings without and about the same; and these beasts were full of eyes behind and before: These are the holy Cherubims, the highest degree of Angels, Ezech. 10.12. foure in number, as well because of their foure qualities to exe­cute his will, (as yee shall heare hereafter) as for that the Lord directs them when it pleaseth him, to all the foure corners of the world, and are as it were his foure windes to blow, that is, to execute either fauour or Iustice, in whatsoeuer place he appointeth them; they are about his Throne, and as it were sustaine the same; testifying thereby, that they are most excel­lent of all others, & per [...], the pillars or footstooles of his glory: Their number of eyes before and behind, signifie their certaine know­ledge of things past, as to come, committed to their charge, together with their continuall vigilancie to execute GODS commandements: [Page 15] 7 And the first beast was like a Lion, the second like a Calfe, the third was faced like a man, and the fourth was like a flying Eagle; hereby represen­ting their excellent qualities in the execution of the Lords decrees, to wit, great power, courage, patience, and strength to trauell, how oft and how much they should be commanded; great wisedome and a wonderfull swiftnesse in the execution thereof. 8 And euery one of these beasts had sixe wings in circuit, (These are the sixe wings Esay speaketh of:) Esay 6.8. two at their armes, to signifie their great celeritie in accomplishing Gods com­mandements; two to couer their faces with, to testifie that the glory of God is so bright, and his Maiestie so great, as the very Angels, his most ex­cellent creatures, are not able to behold the same; and two at their feete, as well to wipe the filth of the earth off them, after they haue beene here be­low, (teaching vs thereby, that although they be oft in the world, by the direction of their Creatour, yet cannot the world infect them with her sinnefulnesse and corruptions) as also to let vs know, that they are so farre in glory aboue all men liuing in the earth, as it is impossible to vs with cor­porall eyes, to behold the least part of their glorious brightnesse without a vaile, euen as it is to them to behold the glory of the Almightie: And within they were all full of eyes, to represent their incessant looking on God, which commeth from that inward and inestimable loue they beare vnto him; which also they expressed in their continuall singing of these wordes, Holy, Holy, Holy, is that threefold Lord God Almightie, who euer was, now is, and shall come againe, replenished with all fulnesse of glory and power: 9 And when these Beasts were giuing all glory, honour, and thankes to him that sate on the Throne, to him (I say) who liues eter­nally; 10 The foure and twentie Elders, as next in ranke, fell downe vpon their faces before him that sate on the Throne, and adored Him who liues for euer, and cast downe their Crownes of golde at his feete, in token that they receiued them onely of him, saying, 11 Thou art onely worthy, O Lord, to be accounted glorious, honourable, and powerfull, for that thou hast created all things, and for thy will and pleasure haue they had their being, and were created. This glance did I see of the glory that is in heauen, at the receiuing of my Commission, contained in the following Visions which I did see of the things present and to come, in the generall Church militant.

CHAP. V.

ARGVMENT.

The description of the Booke, wherein was conteined all the Misteries which were reuealed to this Writer: Christs opening of them vnder the figure of a Lion, and of a Lambe: The praises giuen him by the Saints and Angels there­fore, who offer without any Intercessour, euery one his owne thankesgiuing, and praises to the Mediatour.

THen first I did see in the Right hand of him that sate on the Throne, Dan. 12.4. a Booke, the Booke wherein these mysteries are contained; Esay 24 11. and all the Booke was written vpon, aswell on the backe as within; on the backe was written these Visi­ons that I did see, Ezek. 2.10. and am presently to declare vnto you; within was written the plaine exposition, and the very proper names of all things which these Visions did represent, which are inclosed there, to signifie that the Lord hath not permitted me to manifest the same to the world, for the time thereof is not come yet; which Booke was sealed with seuen Seales, aswell to keepe euery part thereof vnreuealed to any, as also to giue the greater certaintie, that these things shall come to passe, which are prophesied therein. 2 And I saw a strong Angel proclayming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open this Booke, and to loose the Seales thereof? 3 But there could none be found worthy to doe it, neither in heauen nor in earth, nor beneath the earth, no not to looke on it, much lesse to open it: for neither Angel nor deuil either knows or dare meddle with the high mysteries of God, and things future, except so farre as plea­seth him to commit and reueale vnto them: 4 Then wept I very sore that none could be found worthy to open and read that Booke, no not to looke vpon the same: for I was very sorrowfull that I could not haue it reuealed vnto me: 5 At last one of the Elders said vnto mee, Weepe not, Loe the Lion of the Tribe of Iuda hath preuailed, to wit, he who is come of Iuda, and hath admirable force in his flesh, deriued from the Tribe of Iuda, by which he ouercame Sinne, Death, and Hell, and is the roote of Dauid, (for Dauid was his figure and fore-beer in the flesh) is worthy and onely worthy to open the Booke, and loose the Seales thereof. 6 And then I tooke heed, and behold, I did see in the middest of the Throne, and the foure beasts, a second person of the Trinitie sitting with God, and in the middest of the Elders, as a man and our brother, a Lambe standing like as hee had bene slaine, to signifie that once indeed hee was slaine, but had risen againe, and had seuen Hornes and seuen Eyes, representing the innumerable times, mighty and holy Spirit of God, which after his Resurrection he sent out through the whole earth to direct, instruct, and rule the same by his pro­uidence and power: 7 This Lambe then came and tooke the Booke out of the Right hand of him that did sit on the Throne: 8 And so soone as he had taken the Booke in his hand, these foure beasts, and these foure and [Page 17]twentie Elders fell vpon their faces before the Lambe, and adored him, and euery one of them had in his hand Harpes, and golden Phials, full of sweet odours; these are the prayers of the Saints, which the foure beasts, com­prehending all the degrees of Angels, and the foure and twentie Elders comprehending the whole Church, as well Militant as Triumphant, per­ceiuing that CHRIST is to reueale all the tentations which are to fall vpon the earth and Church, before the latter dayes; doe powre forth, aswel on the Church triumphants part, thankesgiuing, that by the reuealing or opening of the Booke, he armeth the Militant Church to resist all the tentations contained therein, as also on the Church Militants part, to pray him to hasten the end and dissolution; for the hastening whereof all crea­tures sigh and grone to their Creator. Euery one of these beasts and El­ders, presents their owne praiers vnto him who sits on the Throne, to teach vs, as he is Mediatour, and therefore our prayers must be offered vnto him onely, that so there is no Intercessour betweene him and vs, but euery one of vs must present our owne prayers before him, after the example of the beasts and Elders: These prayers were inclosed in harpes, to signifie the sweet and pleasing sound, that faithfull prayers make in the eares of God; they were inclosed in golden Phials, to teach vs that acceptable prayers must come from an vndefiled heart, and pure as gold; and they themselues are called incense, because their smell is pleasant and sweet like incense in the nostrils of God. Exod. 30.7. This did the incense at the sacrifice in the old Law signifie and figurate; and of this incense speakes Dauid in his Psalmes. Psal. 141.2. 9 And they, to wit the foure and twenty Elders did sing a new Canticle, for the matter of their Canticle, to wit, the accomplishment of the Mysterie of re­demption is new, Psal. 144. and euer ought to be new and fresh in the hearts of all them that would be accompted thankefull: Their song then was this; Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receiue the Booke, and open the Seales there­of, for thou hast bene slaine, though innocent; and by thy precious Blood hast redeemed vs to God thy Father, and hast chosen vs out of all Tribes, tongues, people and nations, aswell Iewes as Gentiles: 10 And thou hast made vs Kings and Priests spiritually to our God: And we shall reigne o­uer the earth at the last and generall Iudgement, and as Kings, shall be par­ticipant of the glory of the holy and new Citie Ierusalem. 11 Then I be­held and heard round about the Throne, the beasts, and the Elders, the voyces of many Angels, to the number of many thousand thousands, Dan. 7.10. to wit, innumerable Legions of them, 12 Who said all with a loud voice, The Lambe who was slaine, is worthy to haue all power, riches, wisedome strength, honour, glory and blessing for euer. 13 I also heard all creatures in Heauen, in earth, and beneath the earth, and in the seas, euen all that are in them, I heard saying in one voyce vnto him that sits vpon the Throne, and vnto the Lambe be Blessing, Glory, Honour and Power for euer, and euer. And the foure beastes said, Amen, and the foure and twenty Elders fell on their faces, and adored him that liues for euer, and euer.

CHAP. VI.

ARGVMENT.

The opening of the first sixe Seales: The spreading of the Euangel, signified by the white horse, in the first seale: The great Persecution by the red horse, in the se­cond: The number of diuers heresies by the blacke, in the third: The Popedome and Tyrannie thereof by the pale, in the fourth: The complaint of the Saints, and their deliuerance promised: Their blessed estate in the meane time, in the fift: The day of Iudgement, and the terriblenesse thereof, in the sixt.

AFter this I looked to see when the Lambe opened the first Seale, and loe, I heard one of the foure beasts, for they were appointed to assist me in the time of these Visions, as the most excellent creatures of God; and his voice was like a thunder, making me awake, with terrour to take heede to these great and terrible Prophesies, which God was to declare vnto me, and hee said, Come and see. 2 Then I looked and did see a white horse, and he that sate on him had a bow in his hand, Zach. 1.8. Zach. 6.2, 3. and a Crowne giuen vnto him, and hee came foorth a Victour to winne and ouercome: This man com­ming on the white horse, was the comming and incarnation of our Bright and Innocent Sauiour, armed with a bow; for euer since his com­ming till now, and a space hereafter, the dart and arrow of God, to wit, the holy Spirit by the preaching of the Gospel doeth subdue, and bring the world vnder his subiection, and taketh vengeance of his enemies: His crowne is giuen to him by his Father, in token of his victory ouer the se­cond death, and as King of the Catholike Church to crowne the faith­full, Conuersion of the Gen­tiles. and so he commeth foorth a Victour ouer Satan, and to ouercome by once, conuerting a great part of the world to the trew knowledge of God: This mysterie is already begunne, but is not yet accomplished. 3 And when he opened the second Seale, 4 Loe, there came forth a red horse, and there was power giuen to him that sate on him, to take away peace from the earth, that euery one might slay one another; and there was giuen him for that purpose a great sword; for with the spreading of the Euangel and rooting of the trueth in the hearts of the nations, Persecution of the body by the Ciuill sword, in the second Seale. Continuation of trew pastors after the Mar­tyres. shall a bloody persecu­tion of Tyrants by the ciuil sword, be ioyned; which is meant by the ri­der on the red horse: but notwithstanding the Euangel shall spread and flourish, for such is the power of God, resisting the pride of man, that vnder the Crosse, the puritie of the trueth most flourisheth in the Church. 5 And when he opened the third Seale, the third Beast said vnto me, Come and see: and loe, I did see a blacke horse, and hee that sate vpon him had balances in his hand: 6 And I heard a voice from among the foure Beasts, saying, A measure of Wheat for one peny, and three measures of Barley for one peny, but wine and oyle harme thou not: for after that this first mysterie shall be ac­complished, not onely dearth and famine shall ensue the contempt of the [Page 19]trueth, but God shall permit Satan to tempt and vexe his Church with a cloud of diuers and dangerous heresies, which may be meant by the rider on the blacke horse, for the blackenesse and darkenesse of them, Heresies ment in the third Seale. shall ob­scure the light of the Gospel; but yet God, to assure vs that hee will neuer forget his owne, speakes from his Throne, comforting vs thereby, that al­though (as the balances and measure signifies) good men shall bescant, who are the fine wheat and barley of his haruest, Luke 3. yet some shall there be that shall not bow their knee to Baal, no not in straighter times that shall come after; and alwayes giues vs assurance, that the word and trueth of God, which is an eternall Oyle and comfortable Vine, shall neuer be de­stroyed, nor any wayes corrupted, in spight of all the malice of Satan in his instruments. 7 And when hee opened the fourth Seale, the fourth Beast said vnto me, Come and see. 8 Then I beheld, and loe, I did see a pale horse, and the name of him that sate vpon him was Death: This is the greatest and heauiest plague; for after that the persecutions and heresies shall take an ende, and that infirmitie and coldnesse haue cropen into the Church, The Pope­dom is meant by the pale horse in the fourth Seale, of heresie and ciuil tyranny. then shall God redouble his former plagues, by permitting Satan to erect a tyrannie composed of both these former plagues; for it shall be full of he­resie like the one, and full of ciuill and temporall tyrannie like the other: and therefore because it brings with it al maner of death, both of body and soule, the rider is iustly called Death, as the fountaine of all the sorts of the same: and the palenesse of the horse is correspondent in all points to the qualitie of the rider; for as the rider is called Death, so the colour of pale­nesse represents the same: and as the riders qualities are composed of here­sies and tyrannie, so the colour of pale is composed chiefly of blacke and red: And hell followed after him to the vtter damnation of him and his followers: And power was giuen him ouer the fourth part of the earth, to wit, the rest who are not ouercome by the other three riders; for all they who were not marked by the white horse, nor killed in body by the red, nor killed in soule by the blacke, are killed both in body and soule by this last: And as he hath power of destroying thus, giuen him ouer the fourth part of the earth, so by foure plagues specially doeth he execute the same, to wit, by Sword, Hunger, Death, and the Beasts of the earth: These plagues allude to the plagues, mentioned in the Canticle of Moses; for this tyrannie shall begin with persecution, Scarcitie of trew Pastors and worship­ping. The cruelty of the Popes ty­ranny. this persecution shall cause a hun­ger, and great scarcitie of the true worship of God, this hunger shall breed a second and eternall death, and this tyranny shall then end with a crueller and bloodier persecution of the bodies then euer was before; which shall be so barbarous, that it is compared in this Vision to the execution, vsed by wilde beasts vpon offenders, and shall spare no degree, sexe nor aage, no more then beasts doe. 9 But when he opened the fift Seale, I did see vnder the Altar, the soules of them that were slaine for the word of God, and for his Testimonie which they maintained: 10 And they cryed with a lowd voice, saying, How long wilt thou delay (O Lord) since thou art holy [Page 20]and trew, to reuenge & iudge our blood vpon them that dwel on the earth; for this last persecution did enter so fiercely into the world, and did make so great a number of Martyrs, that their soules lying vnder the Altar, to wit, in the safegard of IESVS CHRIST (who is the only Altar, Hose. 14.3. whereupon, and by whom it is onely lawfull to vs, Hebr. 13.15. to offer the sacrifice of our hearts and lips, to wit, our humble prayers to God the Father) did pray, and their blood did cry to heauen, and craue at the hands of their Father a iust re­uenge of their torments vpon the wicked, and therewith a hastening of the generall dissolution, for the deliuerie of their brethren who did re­maine yet aliue. 11 Then white robes were giuen to euery one of them, and it was said vnto them, and they were willed to rest and haue patience for a short space, vnto the time the number of their fellow seruants to God, and brethren companions in the Crosse, were fulfilled, who were also to be slaine as they were already: This surely ought to be a wonderfull and inestimable comfort to all the Church militant, since by this Seale wee are assured, that both the soules of the Martyrs, so soone as their bodies are kil­led, shall immediatly be rewarded with perpetuall and bright glory in hea­uen, not going into any other place by the way, which is signified by the White robes; as also that so soone as their number shall be complete, which shall be within a short space, God shall then craue a full account at their persecutors hands; and then as the one number shall receiue a full and eter­nall glory in body and soule, the other shall receiue a full torment in soule and body, to the cleere shining of his Iustice in the one, and his mercy in the other. 12 Then I tooke heed when he opened the sixt, and loe, there was a great earthquake, Matth. 24.29. and the Sunne-beame blacke like sackecloth made of haire, and the Moone became all bloody: 13 And the Starres fell from the heauens vpon the earth, euen as the figgetree lets her vnripe figges fall, being beaten by a mightie winde: 14 And the heauen went away like a scrole that is rolled together, and all the hilles and Iles were remooued from their places: 15 And the Kings of the Earth, the Nobles, the rich men, the Tribunes or commanders of the people, the mighty men, and all the slaues, aswell as free-men, did hide themselues in cauerns and vnder rockes of hills: Luke 23.30. 16 And they said to the hilles and the rocks, Fall vpon vs, and hide vs from the sight of him that sits vpon the Throne, and from the wrath of the Lambe: 17 For that great day of his wrath is come, and who then may stand? This is the accomplishment of that dissolution, craued and promised in the fift Seale. These terrible things, mentioned in the sixt Seale, are the alterations and signes in the last time: the very same did our Master Christ prophesie, when he was walking on this Earth.

CHAP. VII.

ARGVMENT.

A proper and comfortable digression, interiected of Gods care ouer the Elect, in the times of greatest temptations, signified by the Visions of the foure An­gels, the Election and happie estate of the elected.

BVt lest I, or any other, should doubt of the safegard and sal­uation of the Elect, thinking that these terrible plagues should haue lighted vpon both good and bad indifferent­ly, he represented vnto my sight foure Angels, standing on the foure corners of the earth, and retayning the foure winds in their hands, and stopping them, either to blow vpon the earth, the sea, or any tree: 2 And I did see one Angel going vp from the rising of the Sunne, hauing the Seale of the liuing God, and hee cried with a loud voice to the foure Angels that had power giuen them to harme the earth, and the sea, 3 Saying; Harme not the earth nor the sea, nor the trees, vntill we haue marked the seruants of God on the forehead; These An­gels, foure in number, because they sit vpon the foure corners of the earth, ready to execute Gods iudgements vpon euery part of the World, although they already had stayed the winds to blow, to wit, the progresse of the E­uangel vpon the earth, which is the world, vpon the Sea, which is the num­bers of people, vpon the Trees, which are the Magistrates, Ciuill or Eccle­siasticall; Yet one Angel came from the rising of the Sunne, to wit, 2. Peter 1. Luke 1.7. Malach. 4. directed by CHRIST, who is comfortable like the Sunne-rising to his Elect, and is that Orient day-spring, and Sunne of Righteousnes, rising ouer all the faith­full, which is mentioned in the Scriptures; Who cries and forbids these foure Angels to doe any further temporall harme, while first the chosen be sealed on the forehead, by that Seale which he beares with him for that effect, that these Angels might know them, being marked in so eminent a place, in the generall destruction, and so spare them, assuring vs thereby, that he hath such a care ouer his Elect, as he hath prouided for them before hand, euen as he did for Noah and Loth, and their families, in the time of the deluge and destruction of Sodome. 4 And I heard the number of them that were sealed in Israel, reckoned to be one hundred fourtie and foure Thou­sand; for twelue thousand were sealed of euery one of the Tribes, which makes iustly that number. Out of euery one of the Tribes was a cer­taine number chosen, to assure vs, that a number of euery one of them shalbe saued: 9 And that I might be assured that a number, aswell of the Gentiles, as of the Iewes, shalbe saued, Loe, he shewed me a number so great, as I could not reckon the same, and it was composed of certaine out of eue­ry Nation, Tribe, people and tongue: And they stood before the Throne, and in presence of the Lambe, clothed with white robes, hauing palmes in [Page 22]their hands, in token of the victorie they obteined of their longsome bat­taile. 10 And they cried all with one voice, saying, Our health and our saluation commeth from our God that sits on the Throne, and from his Lambe, to wit, their health came from God the Father, by the Mediation of his Sonne. 11 Then all the Angels stood round about the Throne, the Elders, and the foure beastes, and bowed themselues downe vpon their faces, and adored God with thankesgiuing, for his mercy to the chosen, both of Iew and Gentile, and his Iustice vpon all the rest, 12 Saying, Amen, in allowance of the things done, with full confession, that Blessing, Glory, Wisedome, Thankesgiuing, Honour, Vertue, and Power, belongs only and most iustly to GOD, for euer and euer. 13 Then one of the Elders spake vnto me, and said, What are these, and from whence are they come, who are clo­thed with white robes? 14 And I answered and said, Thou knowest, my Lord. Then he said vnto me, These are they who are preserued, and come from that great affliction, which was represented to thee in some of the Seales, and they haue washed their garments, and made them white in the blood of the Lambe: for they, by vertue of his death, are made righte­ous by imputation, whose blood is the onely and full purgation of vs, from our sinnes: 15 And therefore they are before the Throne of GOD, and serue him day and night in his Temple, to wit, they, without any in­termission, contemplate his Glory, and euer serue him by continuall thankesgiuing, and praising his Name in Heauen, which is his eternall and celestiall Temple: and hee that sits on the Throne shall dwell with them; for they shall neuer be separated from his presence. 16 And they shall be no more an hungry, or thirstie, nor the Sunne, or any heate shall trouble them: 17 For the Lambe who is in the middest of the Throne, to wit, coequall in power with his Father, he shall feed them and guide them to the liuely fountaines of waters, to wit, they shall feed of that Spiri­tuall and liuely bread, and drinke of that Spirituall and liuely water, euen himselfe; Iohn 4.14. which Water he promised to the Samaritane woman, at the well: And GOD shall wipe all teares from their eyes; for he shall both by the greatnesse of their present ioyes, put quite out of their memories, all the sorrow of their former troubles; and shall also giue them eternall ioy, which shall neuer be mixed with any kind of trouble or feare: so shall they not be molested with the vehemencie of the Sunne, or any other heate, which signifies great troubles, and sorrow.

CHAP. VIII.

ARGVMENT.

The opening of the seuenth Seale: The seuen Trumpets comming out of it: The effect of the prayers of the faithfull, signified by the vision of the fire of the Altar: Some persecution, and some heresies, signified by haile mixt with blood and fire, in the first trumpet: The great persecution by the hill of fire, in the second: The number of heresies, by the starres, falling into the fountaines of water, in the third: The vniuersall infirmitie in the Church, in some things by the Sunne, Moone, and starres darkened, in the fourth.

ANd when hee opened the seuenth Seale, there was silence in heauen almost halfe an houre, aswell to let mee know that hee had once already summarily declared the whole things which was to come after, as by silence a while to giue me occasion to meditate vpon that vision which I had seene, to the effect that afterward I might the better vnderstand the more particular rehearsall thereof, which now vnder another vision and forme, was to be declared vnto me by the opening of the seuenth Seale. 2 And I saw seuen Angels standing before God, to execute whatsoeuer thing it should please him to command them; and by his direction there were se­uen Trumpets giuen vnto them, that by these Trumpets they might with one Maiestie denounce to the world such plagues, as they were by the command of God to powre foorth vpon it. 3 Then another Angel came and stood before the Altar, hauing a golden censer in his hand, and there was much incense giuen vnto him, that he might offer vp the prayers of the Saints vpon the golden Altar, that is before the Throne: 4 And the smoke of the incense, which is the prayers of the Saints, mounted vp from the hand of the Angel to the sight of God: 5 Then the Angel tooke this new emptied censer, and filled it againe with the fire of the Altar, and did cast it downe on the earth, and there were thundrings, voices, lightenings and earthquakes: By this Angel and his proceedings, we are assured and made certaine, that Christ shall euer be vigilant ouer his owne, and that specially in straightest times hee will heare their prayers, and euer renew them with some light of the Gospel, by the working of his holy Spirit: And to assure vs hereof, the vision of this Angel was showne vnto me im­mediatly before, that by the seuen Trumpets he is to dilate these visions, showen me in the former Seales: This Angel was Christ, he stood before the Altar: this Altar is likewise himselfe, as I declared before: his standing before it, meaneth, that by his office of Mediatour, hee was to doe as fol­lowes: He had a golden censer in his hand, for he keeps the censer where­in are contained the incense which the Saints giue him, to wit, their pray­ers, to be offered vp to God by his mediation, who is that golden and pure Altar, which is euer in the presence of God, and whose requests are no [Page 24]time refused, and therefore that incense and the smoke thereof, mounts vp to the sight of God, to assure vs that our prayers, being offered in that forme, are euer acceptable: The effect whereof doeth appeare, by the An­gels filling againe the censer with the fire of the Altar, and casting it on the earth; wherewith is ioyned the noise ye heard of; for these prayers pro­cure, that their Mediatour shall out of his golden boxe, to wit, out of his treasure of power, send downe the fire of the Altar, to wit, the holy Spirit which remaineth with him, to make thunders, voices, lightnings and earth­quakes, to wit, to giue againe the Law, by renewing the efficacie of the Gos­pel, in the hearts of the faithfull, alluding to the giuing of the olde Law, whereof these fearefull noises were the fore-runners: This surely is the care and effect that our Master in all troublesome times renewes to strengthen our weakenesse with. 6 And then the seuen Angels which had the seuen trumpets prepared themselues to blow; for although they were before di­rected, yet were they not permitted to execute their office, no more then the foure Angels, who stayed the foure windes while Christ had streng­thened and armed his owne, as is said, to assure vs, that euer before any great temptation, hee will make the backes of the elect ready, and able to beare such burthens as hee is to lay vpon them. 1. Cor. 10.13. 7 Then the first Angel blew, and there was a great haile, and fire mixed with blood, and this storme was cast downe vpon the earth; whereupon followed, that the third part of the trees was withered and burnt vp, and all greene grasse was withered and burnt vp, for the first plague which hath already begun to worke, shall be mixed partly of haile, which is heresie, for as haile showers by the harme they doe to the corne, makes them to become deare, so here­sie makes the true haruest of the Lord to become scant: This haile or he­resie, and spirituall persecution, is ioyned with the sword and persecution of the flesh, which is signified by the fire, and the blood: This fiery and two edged triall shall make the third part, to wit, a part, but not the greatest number of trees, to wit, of renowmed men; and all greene grasse, to wit, all them that are not wel founded and strong in the trewth, (this greene grasse is that sort of professours, Marke 4. vers. 5, 6, 7. of whom Christ spake in the parable of the seed sowen in sandie, and thornie ground;) it shall make them (I say) to fall from the trewth, and so become withered and vnprofitable. 8 Then the second Angel blew, and there fell as it had beene a great hill, all burning in fire; and this hill was cast into the sea, and the third part of the sea be­came blood: 9 And the third part of the liuing creatures in the sea was slaine, and the third part of the ships therein did perish; for after that this former plague shall haue an end, and yet the world not turne themselues from their iniquities, then the second shall follow, which is the corporall plague of persecution, signified by the red horse in the second Seale, more amply dilated heere: This great heape of fiery persecution, like a moun­taine of fire, shall make the third part, or a certaine number of people and nations, which is signified by the seas or many waters, to ouerflow in [Page 25]blood; for as it is said of the same in the second Scale, they shall slay one another, for euen among themselues, to wit, among the wicked shalbe great bloodshed and warres; for the third, or a certaine number of all sorts of li­uing things shall die, to wit, no sort of men shall be exempted from this trouble: But especially a number, and not the greatest part of the faithfull shalbe persecuted, which is signified by the ships; for euen as ships on a stormie Sea seeke a hauen, so the faithfull among the wicked of the world, tossed here and there resisting euery waue, striue in despight of many contrarious windes, to attaine to that hauen, where at last casting their An­chor, they are freed from all worldly tempests, and dwell there eternally in a perpetuall calmenesse. 10 Then the third Angel blew, and there fell from heauen a great Starre burning like a torch, and it fell vpon the third part of riuers and fountaines of waters, and the name of the starre was Wormewood: and the third part of the riuers and fountaines were turned in­to wormewood, and many men died, for the bitternesse of the waters: This is that same plague which is signified by the blacke horse and his rider, to wit, a cloud of defections, and Apostatical heresies, here signified by a great starre burning like a torch: for it shall haue a great light, but like the light of a torch; for as the torch and candle-light is false to the eye and makes the colours to appeare otherwise then they are, and is made dimme by the brightnes of the Sunne, so shall this light of false doctrine maske iniqui­tie for a space, and make it seeme to be the trueth, vnto the time the trew light of God obfuscat and blinde it: These heresies shall be stronger in deceit, then those before: for they shall seduce the very pastours and spirituall Magistrates, which is signified by the Starres falling in a part of the fountaines of waters: for these men are the worldly fountaines, whereout the rest of the faithfull, by the buckets of their eares, draw that spring of heauenly liquor. 11 This starre is called Wormewood, for as wormewood is a bitter hearbe, what greater bitternesse can be to the soule of man, then to procure the wrath of the Almightie, through such an horrible fall? and as it turned a part of the pastours, and made them to become of bitter qualitie like it selfe, so their bitternesse did slay with the second death, a great number of men; to wit, their disciples and followers. 12 Then the fourth Angel blew, and the third part of the Sunne, the third part of the Moone, and third part of the Starres was stricken, so that the third part of them, to wit, of their light was obscured, and the third part of the day, and the third part of the night was obscured, to wit, the third part of their light was darkened: For after that one part of the pastours shall make horrible defection, it shall fall out that the whole Church visible, shalbe blinded with some errours, but not yet make a full defection, which is signified by the obscuring of a part of the light of the Sunne, Moone, and starres, to wit, of all degrees of spirituall Magistrates; so that by their generall weaknesse in some points, a part of the meaning of the Gospel shal be falsly interpreted, which is meant by the light of the day, and of the [Page 26] night: for as the cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night did guide the people of Israel through the desart, to the land of Promise, so will this light shining, both day and night in our soules, conduct vs out through the wil­dernesse of this world, to that spirituall land of promise, where we with our God shall gloriously reigne in all Eternitie: This fourth blast is also a part of the third Seale. 13 And I saw and heard an other Angel flying through the middest of heauen, and saying with a lowd voice, Woe, woe, woe to the inhabitants of the earth, for the harme that shalbe done vnto them by the last three blasts of the Angels Trumpets: for the last three plagues shall be exceeding great, which, that I might the better note and take greater heed vnto, God wakens me vp and makes me see an Angel flying through the middest of heauen with celeritie, aswell to forewarne the holy Angels and Saints of these three plagues, so farre in greatnesse aboue the rest, as to sig­nifie by his swift flying, that they are hastily and within short space to be put in execution: And the number of Woes, to wit, which he cries, are an­swerable to the number of plagues which are hereafter to be declared.

CHAP. IX.

ARGVMENT.

In the fift Trumpet, the heresies cause a great blindnesse and ignorance, whereof commeth the Ecclesiasticall Papisticall orders, signified by the grashoppers breeding out of the smoake, and their power and qualities: Their King and head the Pope and his style: In the next Trumpet the beginning of his decay, signi­fied by the loosing of the foure Angels at Euphrates: The remedy he vseth for the same by hounding out the Iesuits, signified by the horse in the Vision: Their qualities signified by their breast-plates: The Popes and Turkes his gathering to destroy the Church, signified by a great armie of horse: The Pope is the plague for breaking of the first Table: and the Turke for breaking of the second.

THen the fift Angel blew, and I saw the starre that fell out of heauen vpon earth (for it is to be noted, that all these plagues did fall out of heauen vpon the earth, to teach vs, Quòd nullum malum est in ciuitate, quod non faciat Dominus, by his Iustice permitting, Amos 3.6. Esay 45.7. directing, ordering, and restray­ning it) I did see it get the key of the bottomlesse pit which was giuen vnto it; for this cloud of heresies spoken of in the third Trumpet and third Seale, by processe of time did breed this bastard tyran­nie, whereof I spoke in the fourth Seale, and so it brought from hell by the opening of the bottomlesse pit, whereof it gate the keyes, to wit, by the as­sistance, and deuice of Satan, it bred such plagues as follow. 2 First, by opening of the pit, came foorth a great smoke like the smoke of a furnace, to wit, it did breed such a darkenesse and ignorance in the minds of men, as the Sunne and the Aire were obscured, (to wit, the light of the trweth re­presented [Page 27]by the darkening of the Sunne) and so in place of liuing vnder, and by the true and cleare aire of the trueth, the world shall liue vnder, and by the bastard and darke aire of false doctrine. 3 And out of this smoake came Grashoppers vpon the earth: For this great blindnesse shall breed a multitude of diuers Orders of Ecclesiasticall persons, as well Monkes and Friers, as others, but all agreeing in one hereticall Religion: These are grashoppers, because they breed of that filthy smoke of heresies, euen as Grashoppers breed of corrupted aire; they are euer teaching false doctrine with their mouth, which carries with it as great destruction to the soules of men, as the mouthes of Grashoppers doe to the greene grasse and herbs, and the earth shalbe ouerloaden with multitudes of them, euen as Grashoppers sometimes come in great heapes, and ouercharge the face of a whole countrey: And like power was giuen to them, as hath the earthly Scorpions: for as the Scorpions sting is not felt sore at first, and is long in working, and impossible to be healed, but by the oyle of a dead scorpion, so the poysoning of the soule cannot be perceiued by the recei­uer at the first, but is long in operation, for by peece and peece they infect the world with heresies, and open not all their packe at first; and the world shall neuer be freed from their heresies, vnto the vtter destruction of these false teachers themselues: 4 And it was said vnto them, or they were for­bidden to harme the grasse, or any greene thing, or any tree, but onely these men that haue not the marke of God in their foreheads: for though earthly Grashoppers when they swarme in heapes, doe destroy all greene grasse or trees, yet God shall so bridle the rage of these spirituall Grashoppers, that they shall haue no power to peruert the Elect of whatsoeuer degree, or sort, compared to greene grasse and fruitful trees; but their power shall ex­tend onely vpon them that beare not the marke or Seale of God vpon their forehead, and as withered and vnfruitfull sticks are ready for the fire: 5 But they shall haue no power to slay them, to wit, they shall not discouer to the world their greatest blasphemies at the first, as I said before, but they shall torment them for the space of fiue moneths, and their torment shalbe like the torment that a man suffers, being stinged by a scorpion, to wit, they shal by peece & peece infect them with spirituall poison; and as I haue said already, they shall not feele the smart thereof, while the second death make them to feele the same: This torment shall endure fiue moneths, that is the time limitted them by God, which alludes to the fiue moneths in Summer when Grashoppers are; This forme of speech doeth declare the continuing of the Metaphore. 6 And in these daies men shal seeke death, and shall not finde the same, and men shall desire to die, but death shall flie from them, for then beginnes the troublesome times of the later dayes, the miserie whereof I heard our Master, while he was yet on the earth, de­clare in these words that I haue now repeated. 7 And the figure of these locusts, was like vnto the horse prepared for the war, to signifie that their forme of practise & policie, shalbe so worldly wise, that they shal lacke no­thing [Page 28]perteyning to the setting forth of their intents, more then a horse of seruice which is curiously barded, feated and prepared, for going forth to the battell. And they had crownes like crownes of gold vpon their heads; for they shall pretend to be holy like the Elders, who for their reward gate Crownes of pure gold set vpon their heads, as you heard before, and so shall outwardly glance in an hypocriticall holinesse; And their faces were like the faces of men, and the faces of men signifie reason, as man is a rea­sonable creature: the likenesse then of their faces vnto men, signifies that they shall, by curious arguments, pretend reason to maintaine their false doctrine, but it shall be but a counterfait resembling of reason indeed, euen as their crownes are like vnto gold, but are not gold indeed. 8 And they haue haire like the haire of women: for as the haire of women is a speciall part of their alluring beautie, so they haue such alluring heresies whereby they make the way of heauen so easie by their helpe to whomsoeuer, how wicked soeuer they be, that will vse the same, as they allure them to com­mit spirituall adulterie with them. And they haue teeth like Lions teeth: for as the Lion is stronger in the mouth, and so may doe greater harme with his teeth then any other beast, so all these that will not be perswaded with their shewes prepared like horses for the warre, with their crownes like crownes of gold, with their faces like the faces of men, nor with their haire like the haire of women, they shall be persecuted by the power of their mouth, to wit, by their threatnings and thundering curses. 9 And they had breast plates like breastplates of iron, for they shall haue to backe this their authoritie, the assistance of Princes, whose maintayning of them shall appeare vnto the world strong as iron. And the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots running with many horses vnto the warre: for as the grassehoppers make in the hot time of the yere & the day, a great sound with their wings, so these shalbe made so strong and fearefull by their brestplates like iron, as what they, being in the height of their day shall decree, it shal haue such a maiestie and fearefulnes, as the terrible noise of many horses and chariots hurling to battel: 10 But they had tailes like the tailes of Scorpions, and there were stings in their tailes: for at their first dealing with any, they appeare not harmeful to them that heare them, and beleeue them, but the effect and end of their practise is poison to the soule, and thereafter their tailes are like vnto the tailes of Scorpions, wherein is their sting: And they had power to trouble and harme men the space of fiue moneths: for as I shewed you before, that they should torment men the space of fiue moneths, to wit, a certaine space appointed them; so now I assure you to your comfort, that as grassehoppers last but fiue moneths that are hottest, so these shall be like vnto grassehoppers in that as well as in the rest; for they shall remaine but for a certaine space prescribed, and then shall be destroyed by the blast of Christs breath. 11 They haue also a King, but to rule ouer them, who is the Angel of the bottomlesse pit, and his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greeke Apollyon, for these by [Page 29]the permission of Gods iustice, and working of Satan, shall haue at the last a Monarch to be their head, who shall be like vnto themselues, the angel or messenger comming, to wit, instructed and inspired by Satan to bee his embassadour, and to teach his false doctrine to the counterfeit church, as well as the true Pastours are the Embassadours of God to the true Church: He is called Abaddon or Apollyon, because as hee is both a spi­rituall and ciuill Monarch, so he destroyes and killes both body and soule, as I tolde you in the fourth seale, where hee is called Death, for the same cause that hee is called heere Destroyer. 12 One woe is past, and loe two come after, for this which by the fift Trumpet is declared, is the first of the three last and greatest plagues, whereunto I wished you to take speciall heed; and therefore take good heed to the other two blasts of the trum­pets that follow. 13 Then the sixt Angel blewe, and I heard a voice comming from among the foure hornes of the golden Altar that stands euer before the eyes of God, saying these words to the next Angel that had a Trumpet, Loose these foure Angels bound at the great water Euphrates. 14 Now the summons and warning being giuen by the sixt blast of the trumpet of the sixt and fearefull plague that was to come; this command of Christ (which is the voice here mentioned) comes to the sixt Angel, commanding him to doe as ye now haue heard: For although the trum­pet was alreadie blowen, yet the execution followes not, while Christ command and permit it; for these foure Angels mentioned here, are the same who were standing before vpon the foure airths of the earth, ready to destroy the same, who were then, as you heard, stayed by Christ, while first he had sealed his owne; who now being all sealed, because this is the last plague that is to come vpon the world, except that of the consumma­tion; Christ therefore commands them to be loosed, for they were before stayed, as it were bound, to the effect they might now put in execution these things which they were ready to doe: When they were stayed, it is said they were bound at the great riuer Euphrates; alluding hereby to the history of Balthasar in Daniel, for as Euphrates diuided Babylon from the Persians and the Assyrians, which they crossed when they slew Balthasar, so this command of stay, giuen to these Angels by Christ, was that great riuer Euphrates, beyond the which they were bound, for they had no pow­er to crosse it, and to plague the world, while first all his chosen were sea­led, and that hee had loosed and permitted them, as by this command here is done: 15 And so these foure Angels were loosed, who were readie at the houre, the day, the moneth, and the yeere, to slay the third part of men, to wit, they were ready at the very moment prescribed to them by God, to destroy all men, except such as were sealed, ouer whom they had no power; and such as were reserued to the destruction of the last plague, to wit, the consummation; and so the third part was left to them to destroy. Now fol­lowes the plague of the sixt trumpet. 16 And first I saw an armie of horse­men, the number whereof were two hundred thousand thousand; for I [Page 30]heard the number reckoned: this double great number signifies, that there shall be raised vp at one time, two great Monarchies and seats of Tyrants; one ruling in the East, and another in the West, who shal cruelly persecute the Church. 17 And in this vision likewise I saw horses, whose riders had brestplates of fire, of Hyacinth and brimstone, and the heads of the horses were like the heads of Lions, and from their mouthes came fire, smoke, and brimstone; noting, that with fiery rage, smokie pride, and pretences, and loathsome and wicked courses, these two Monarches, the one secular, the other Ecclesiasticall, shall conquer and possesse the greatest part of the world: These horses are a part, yet not the least part of the forces of one of these Monarches, in whose description it is most insisted, because he is the Destroyer, of whom it is spoken in the fift Trumpet, where hee is named Abaddon: These horses and their riders are the last order and sect of his Ec­clesiasticall swarme: Their brestplates, to wit, their worldly defence is composed of fire, that is, persecution of the body, for they shall haue grea­ter credit at the hands of Princes, then all these grashoppers, spoken of in the fift Seale, and so shall vse their forces to defend themselues therewith: They are composed of the Hyacinth, for as this herbe is darke, and of a smoking colour and bitter to the taste, so shall they be defended and main­tained by the craft of their darke and bitter heresies, (which in the third Trumpet are called Wormewood, as here they are called Hyacynth;) and they are composed of brimstone, which signifieth the loathsomnesse and stench of sinne, and the flame and force of hell fire, to wit, Satan the au­thour of the one, and ruler of the other, shall by all maner of craft defend them as his speciall instruments, and the last vermine bred and come vp from the smoke of the bottomlesse pit: And they shall not onely haue power to defend themselues by these three meanes, but they shall also pur­sue and persecute the faithfull; which is meant by their horses heads like to the heads of Lions, that is, able to deuoure: The meanes whereby they deuoure, are the same whereby they defend themselues, to wit, by the pow­er of Princes, to persecute the bodies by false and hereticall bragges and sleights, which are here called Smoake, and by the drifts and frauds of Sa­tan in diuers fashions to deceiue and inflame the soule, which craft of Sa­tan is here resembled to brimstone. 18 By these three plagues, are slaine the third part of men, to wit, by fire, smoake, and brimstone, which came out of their mouthes, to wit, their malice and strength shall be so great, as they shall vse all meanes wherewith the third part of men shalbe destroy­ed, although these meanes shall not be vsed by them onely to worke this great destruction with. 19 For their strength is not in their mouthes one­ly, (as ye haue presently heard) but it is also in their tailes; for their tailes are like the tailes of serpents, hauing stings whereby they doe harme: In this they shall be like vnto the grashoppers. 20 But not the lesse, the wicked shall be so hard hearted, as the rest of them who were not destroyed by the plagues of this trumpet, shall not repent nor desist from the workmanship [Page 31]of their hands, to wit, from Idolatry, and adoring of deuils, and of images, of golde, of siluer, of brasse, of stone, and of wood, who neither can see, heare, nor goe, (whereof this hereticall Monarch is the punishment.) 21 Nor yet will they repent them nor desist from breaking the second Ta­ble, by slaughters, sorceries, fornications & thefts, whereof that other Mo­narch, who onely persecutes the body, is the reuenge, scourge, and plague.

CHAP. X.

ARGVMENT.

Iohn heares the explication of these mysteries, which was written vpon the backe of the Booke: It is not lawfull to him to manifest it: By foreknowing things to come, which is signified by swallowing the booke, he is mooued to a great ioy in the instant time, but it turneth in great bitternesse to him thereafter.

THen I saw another strong Angel comming downe from heauen; hee was clothed with a cloud, and at his head was the raine-bow, and his face was like the Sunne, and his feet like the pillars of fire: This strong Angel was Christ, clo­thed with a cloude; for in a cloud hee ascended, and in the clouds shall he come againe at the latter day: Which cloud was a guide to the people of Israel by day, while they trauailed through the wildernesse; and out of that cloud hee powres the raine and dew of his graces in abun­dance vpon his chosen: His head was clothed with the rainebow, which signifies his couenant he made with his Elect, as ye heard before: His face was like the Sunne, and his feet like pillars of fire: yee heard these two de­scribed in the beginning of my Epistle. 2 And he had in his hand an open Booke; this was the Booke of the Euangel, or glad tidings: And he set his right foote or strongest on the Sea, to make stable that liquid Element so vnstable of nature; and his left vpon the earth, which is sooner made firme, by this to shew the power he hath ouer all things contained in them, who hath no power to passe the bounds and order which he hath prescri­bed vnto them; and therefore the earth is called his footstoole, by Dauid in his Psalmes. 3 And he cryed with a mighty voice like a roaring Lyon, for they were terrible things and great which hee was to denounce: 4 And when he had cryed, the seuen thunders spake their voices; These were the seuen Spirits of God, who by his direction did speake, and I was to haue written what they did speake, of purpose to haue set it downe with the rest: But I heard a voice from heauen, saying, Seale what the seuen thunders haue spoken, but write them not: For the holy Spirit hauing declared vn­to me by them, the exposition of the sixe trumpets, the voice of God com­mands me not to manifest that vnto the world with the rest, but by sealing of it, to keepe it close vnto the due time. 5 And the Angel, to wit, Christ, [Page 32]whom I saw standing on the sea, and on the earth, lifted vp his hand to­wards heauen, 6 And swore by him that created heauen, the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, that the time should be no longer: 7 But in the dayes of the seuenth Angels voice, when he begins to blow, the mysterie of God should be consummate, according as he tolde to his seruants the Prophets: This oath he made to assure me, that the world should end im­mediatly after the accomplishing of these things, mentioned in the sixe Trumpets, and that the seuenth declares the things which are to be done at the consummation; the forme whereof will be as hee hath declared to his Prophets. 8 Then that voice which I heard, spake to me from heauen, to wit, the voice of God the Father, spake againe vnto me, and said, Goe and take that open booke which is in the hand of the Angel, who stands on the sea and the earth: 9 And so I went vnto the Angel, and desired him to giue me the booke: and hee answered, Take and swallow it, and it shall bring a bitternesse vnto thy belly, but in thy mouth it shall be as sweete as honie. 10 Then I tooke the booke, and found that which he said to me of it, to be true; for indeed I thought it delightfull vnto me, to know the my­steries of God, by swallowing the booke, and so it was sweet in my mouth; but so soon as by the digestion hereof I must preach it to the world, and for that cause become to be hated, contemned, and persecuted by the wicked, and see but a small increase of my great labours, then surely it will be bitter to my belly, as it was to Ionas, and shall be to all the true preachers thereof thereafter. 11 Then he said vnto me, Thou must prophesie againe before people, nations, tongues, and many kings for my children in Christ, to wit, my successours in doctrine, who shall be in the time of these plagues, shall haue the same commission to teach ouer againe the same Euangel, to the sal­uation of all the beleeuers: these shall haue such boldnesse giuen vnto them, as they shall constantly declare their commission, not only before the people, but euen before many kings, and shall not be afraid of their faces.

CHAP. XI.

ARGVMENT.

Babylon the Popes Empire, is the outward part of the Temple: The trew Church is in Sancto Sanctorum; but vnder the persecution of these hypocrites for a certaine space: Faithfull Pastours are sent from time to time to witnesse the trewth: They are persecuted, condemned, and slaine by Antichrist: God raiseth vp at the last stronger preachers, who shall describe the Popedome, and foretell the destruction thereof: In the seuenth Trumpet is the day of Iudgement described.

ANd then was a long reede like a rod giuen vnto me, and the Angel who gaue me the booke stood before me, and said, Arise, and measure the Temple of God, and the Altar, and all them that adore in it, with that reede that is giuen thee: 2 But the court that is without the Temple, exclude thou, [Page 33]and measure it not, for it is giuen vnto the Gentiles, who shall tread down the holy Citie for the space of two and fourtie moneths. Now lest I should despaire of any profit which my successors could haue made in doctrine in their time, because as it appeareth by the sixt Trumpet, the whole world should be subdued to these two Monarchies; Christ, aswell to assure me some should still remaine pure and vnspotted, as also to shew mee, and by me to forewarne the Church, that this most dangerous Monarch, called Apollyon, should corporally succeede in the Church, and should sit in the Temple of God, giues me a reede for that cause, and commands me to measure the Temple, for he will saue all them that are of the true Church, for they are the inward parts of the Temple; and the rest by reason of their hypocrisie, shalbe accounted of as Gentiles; and this diuision shalbe made by my successours in doctrine, (of whom I spake already) for they by the measure and triall of the word, signified by the reede, shall separate that holy Sanctum Sanctorum from the rest of the outward Temple of God, to wit, the hypocriticall and Antichristian Church, which shall tread downe and persecute the true Church, for the space of two and fourtie moneths, or three yeeres and an halfe, for it is both one number. This space prescri­bed by Christ, alludeth to Daniels prophecie of two times, a time, and halfe a time; for as Daniel meant thereby the halfe of his propheticall weeke, so Christ meanes by this, that the persecution of this Destroyer, shall last the halfe, to wit, it shall reigne about the midst of the last aage of this whole weeke, which begins at his incarnation and first comming, and ends at his last comming againe; which because it is the last period, it is here com­pared to a weeke: 3 But I shall giue that holy towne to two witnesses of mine, who clothed with sackecloth, shall prophesie the space of one thou­sand two hundred and threescore dayes; for these my successours he shall raise vp as witnesses, to wit, a sufficient number of them, (for out of the mouth of two or three witnesses, euery word is confirmed) to witnesse that their doctrine is false, who persecute the Church which he shal giue vnto them, for he shall make them their patrons, to defend and feed them by the pow­er of the true word, and they shall preach repentance to that counterfeit Church; and therefore they are said to be clothed in sackecloth. And to assure vs to our great comfort, that in all the time of blindnesse, God shall euer be raising vp some of these two witnesses against the hypocriticall De­stroyer, and to comfort and confirme his true Church, it is said, They shall prophesie the number of dayes that yee haue heard, which is correspon­dent iustly to the moneths before mentioned, to wit, they shall not leaue off to witnesse, all the time of the Antichristian kingdome. 4 These witnes­nesses, are two greene Oliues, who anoint the Elect with that holy oyle; and two Candlestickes (as Christ said, to enlighten the world with their brightnesse) who are set downe, and doe their office, in the presence of him, who is Lord and ruler of the earth. 5 And if any shal presse to harme them, fire shall come out of their mouthes, and deuoure their enemies; [Page 34]for whosoeuer will doe them any hurt, himselfe must be slaine so, to wit, the holy Spirit, who is the fire in their mouth, shall accuse and cause to be de­stroyed with the second death, all them that either persecute them, or will not heare, or obey their doctrine: 6 These witnesses haue power to shut heauen, that it raine not in the dayes of their prophesie; and they haue power ouer the waters, to turne them into blood, and to strike the earth with euery kinde of plague, so often as they please; for hee shall authorize them and their message, with as sure testimonies, as the shutting of the hea­uen, and stay of the raine was vnto Elias, so long as he forespake it should be so; and as vnto Moyses, the turning of the waters into blood, and the striking of the earth of the land of Egypt, with diuers and sundry plagues: 7 But these shall be witnesses, by their death as well as by their life: For how soone any of them shall haue runne that course in the earth, which God hath appointed them, they shall be persecuted, ouercome, and slaine by that beast, the Angel of that bottomlesse pit, and king of the locusts, and that great towne & seat of the Monarchy shal publikely put them down, as malefactours: 8 So as their dead bodies or carkeises shall lie in the streets thereof: And this towne is spiritually called Sodom, because of the spiri­tuall adultery, to wit, Idolatrie that it shall commit and maintaine; and spiri­tually Egypt, because it shall oppresse and intollerably burthen the soules of the chosen, euen as Egypt captiuated the bodies, and burthened the backes of the people of Israel, and in that towne also was our Lord cruci­fied; for where Christs members are put to death for their Masters cause, (as this towne and Kings therof shal do) there is Christ himselfe crucified in effect, and his crucifying shalbe as wel imputed to them, as to Iudas who betrayed him: 9 And men of all tribes, peoples, tongues, and nations, shall see their carkeises the space of three dayes and a halfe, and they shall not be suffered to be buried in sepulchres: 10 And the inhabitants of the earth shall be glad and reioyce for their slaughters, and shall send gifts one to another, in token of ioy, because they are made quit of these two pro­phets, who tormented the indwellers of the earth; for the whole world, who are not in Sancto Sanctorum, shall not onely suffer, but allow that these witnesses be not onely slaine, but also be so cruelly vsed an contemned, as not to be suffered to be buried amongst others: And the whole earth shall reioyce at their death; because that euen as Achab blamed Elias for troubling of Israel, so shall the world thinke these witnesses troublesome vnto them, because they discouer vnto them their shamefulnesse, and call them to the repentance thereof. 11 And thus shall they be contemned for the space of three dayes and a halfe, to wit, of three yeeres and a halfe; which signifies, that during the space of the Antichrists reigne, they shall be thus vsed; but after the space of three dayes and an halfe, the Spirit of life comming from God, shall enter into them, and they shall be set vpon their feete, and a great feare shall fall vpon them that did see them before: 12 And they heard a great voice from the heauen, saying vnto them, Come [Page 35]vp bither, then they ascended vp into heauen, and their enemies saw them doe so; for although that during the flourishing of this hereticall and by­pocriticall Monarchie, the trew Pastours no sooner appeared, then they were put to death, yet at the last this Monarchie shall begin to decay, when the three yeeres, or the three dayes and an halfe thereof shall be expired: and then shall the Spirit of life from God, to wit, the holy Spirit sent from God, worke mightier in the latter Pastours of these dayes, so as in them shall the by-past Martyrs be reuiued, and their doctrine shall take roote in the hearts of many, and their reasons shalbe so pithie, as the Antichristian sect, and the rest of the world shall know as perfectly that they shall pre­uaile, as if they heard God call them to heauen, to reward them there for their victory: Neither shall they haue power of their liues, for God shall mooue the hearts of many to defend them in such glory and safetie, as if they were mounting vp to heauen in a cloud, and they not able to hinder them. 13 And then at that time shall be a great earthquake, to wit, great tumults among nations, and the tenth part of the citie shall fall: This citie is diuided in tenne parts, to shew it is the same Monarchie that shall after­wards be described by a beast with ten heads: And by the falling of the tenth part thereof, is meant, that diuers nations shall shake off the yoke of that Monarchie, and so a part of the strength of that citie shall decay; and there was slaine in that earthquake, seuen thousand men, to wit, a great number of men shal be slaine in these tumults, and the rest were afraid, and gaue glory vnto the God of Heauen, for these tumults and iudgements of God, shall by their terrours reduce some to the knowledge of the trewth. 14 The second woe is past, for these are the plagues of the sixt Trumpet, and loe, the third woe comes soone; for next followes the declaration of these dayes, wherein the consummation shall be, first of that Antichristian kingdome, and next of the whole earth; take therefore good heede vnto the third woe, for it is the last. 15 Then the seuenth Angel blew, and there were great voices in heauen, saying, The kingdomes of the world are made the kingdomes of our Lord, and of his Christ, who shall reigne for euer and euer. This ioyfull cry was in heauen, because the dayes were come wherein the day of Iudgement should be, and so the power was to be taken from the kings of the earth, who were enemies to the Saints, and Christ was hereafter to be the great, sole, and immediate King ouer all. 16 Then the foure and twentie Elders, who sate vpon seats in the sight and presence of God, for ioy that the saluation of their brethren was at hand, did fall vpon their faces, and adored God, saying, 17 We thanke thee Lord God Almightie, who is, and who was, and who art presently to come a­gaine, because now thou art to make thy great power manifest, and art to begin thy glorious Kingdome. 18 And the Gentiles waxed wrathfull, for all the wicked now perceiue, that neither their force nor craft can auaile; for thy wrath is now come which none may resist, and the time of the dead is come, for now all the dead are to be iudged, and thou art to reward thy [Page 36]seruants the Prophets, and all the Saints, and all that feare thy Name, small or great, and thou art to destroy them that destroy the earth, by the perse­cuting of thy Saints, and defiling it with euery sort of vice. 19 Then the Temple of God was open in heauen, that the Arke of his couenant might be seene, which was within it: God now did shew the Arke of his coue­nant, to assure all the Saints that he would now haue mind of his promise, and according thereto would presently send downe Christ to Iudge the earth, as was done then in all terrour; which is signified by lightning, voi­ces, thunder, and earthquakes, which then were made; and a great haile, which signifies the destruction of the earth, as showres of haile of all o­thers, are the most harmefull and destroying.

CHAP. XII.

ARGVMENT.

A new vision: The deuils malice against Christ and his Church: The Church by Gods prouidence escapes his furie: Shee is secret, and lies hid for a space: The deuill raiseth vp heresies and persecutions to destroy her; but all that cannot preuaile; whereupon he goeth to raise vp her great enemie the Pope.

NOw as this seuenth Seale, wherein these seuen Trum­pets were (which ye haue presently heard declared) was no other thing, but the more ample dilating of the sixe former Seales, (as I did shew before) so this vision which I am next to declare vnto you, is nothing else but a clee­rer setting forth, and fore-warning of these times, which are most perillous for the Church of all them which are to come after, espe­cially of the three last woes. 1 And there was a great signe, and a woon­derfull vision seene in heauen, to wit, a woman clothed with the Sunne, and the Moone was vnder her feete, and she had a crowne of twelue starres vp­on her head, 2 And she was great with childe, and shee was so neere her childbirth, as she was alreadie crying, and was sore pained with the trauell to be deliuered of her childe: 3 And there was also another signe, and woonder seene in heauen; A great red dragon hauing seuen heads, and ten hornes, and vpon his head seuen diamonds: 4 And his taile drew the third part of the starres of heauen with him, and did cast them downe to the earth: This dragon stood before the woman, awaiting to deuoure her birth so soone as shee was deliuered of it: 5 But she brought forth a man­childe, who was to rule all nations with a rod of yron, and her sonne was caught vp to God, and his Throne: 6 But the woman fled into the wil­dernesse, where she hath a place prepared by God, that she might be fedde there the space of one thousand two hundred threescore dayes. 7 And there was a great battell stroken in heauen, for Michael and his Angels fought against the dragon and his angels: 8 And the dragon and his an­gels [Page 37]could not obtaine the victorie, but by the contrary their place was no more found in heauen: 9 And so that great dragon, to wit, that olde ser­pent who is called the deuill and Satan, who seduceth the whole face of the earth, was cast downe to the earth, and all his angels were cast downe with him. 10 And I heard a voice in heauen, saying, Now is wrought the health, the vertue, and the kingdome of our God, and the power of his Christ; for the accuser of our brethren is cast downe, who day and night accused them in the sight of our God: 11 For they that fought with him, haue o­uercome him, for the loue they beare vnto the Lambe and his blood, and to the word of his Testimonie, and haue prodigally giuen their liues euen vnto death for that cause: 12 Therefore reioyce ye heauens, and yee that dwell therein; but woe to the inhabitants of the earth, and the sea, for the deuill is come downe to you, and he is full of great wrath, because he hath but a short space to reigne. 13 And when the dragon saw himselfe cast down vpō the earth, he pursued the woman who had borne the manchild: 14 But there was giuen to the woman two great Eagle wings, that shee might flee from the sight of the serpent into the wildernes, to the place that was there appointed for her to be nourished for a time & times, and halfe a time. 15 Then the serpent did cast out of his mouth after the woman to ouertake her, a water like a great flood, to carry her away perforce: 16 But the earth helped the woman, and opened her mouth, and swallowed vp by the way the great flood which the dragon had cast out of his mouth: This part of the Vision was to declare vnto me, that howsoeuer the Church, which is signified here by a woman, (for she is the spouse of CHRIST, who is her head, her husband, and her glory, obeying him with a reuerent loue, and yet weake and infirme like to a woman) how soone, I say, the Church shining in all brightnesse and innocencie, which is represented by her gar­ment of the Sunne, and treading vnder feete, and contemning the world and the vanities thereof, here signified by the Moone, being vnder her feet; a Planet that hath no proper, but a borrowed light, and subiect to all mutabilitie, like the world, and being crowned with the shining glory of the twelue Patriarches and Prophets, and the twelue holy Apostles, succee­ding them in the vnitie of doctrine, and therefore are called here a Crowne of twelue starres vpon her head; How soone, I say, that she thus arayed did bring forth CHRIST in the flesh, who is that man-child, who rules the Gentiles with an Iron rod, as Dauid saith in his Psalmes: That great red and ancient Dragon, for in our first forefather he vttered his malice, to wit, the diuell, who is ruler of infinite numbers of men, which is signified by his seuen heads, and seuen diadems, or Crownes vpon them, and who hath innumerable meanes and instruments to be executors of his malicious will, which is signified by the tenne hornes, alluding to Daniel; and who is so mighty in deceipt, that he doeth not onely allure the infidels to follow him, but euen a part of the Pastours, and the visible Church to their de­struction, which is signified by his drawing after him with his taile as fol­lowers [Page 38]of his intisements, the third part of the Starres of heauen, and cast­ing them to the earth: This dragon hauing waited to destroy her birth, and for earnestnesse gaping for it before it was borne, and not able to pre­uaile, but by the contrary seeing CHRITS rising from the dead, and then his ascending into heauen, which is signified by the Childs pulling vp to GOD and his Throne, and seeing the Church to flourish, though vnder persecution, which is signified by her flying to a place in the wildernesse, which God had prepared for her, where thereafter she must lurke for the space of the dayes ye heard reckoned, to wit, the Church shalbe vnknowne, and as it were vnregarded, and no man shall know how it shalbe sustained; for GOD shall nourish it the space of the Antichrists kingdome, which is the number of dayes ye heard counted before: The Dragon, I say, hauing found this, that both CHRIST and his Church did escape his hands, and not onely that, but that himselfe also by the vertue of CHRISTS renew­ing of vs, was no moreable to accuse the Saints of God, as he did in time of the old Law, since now we are made righteous, which is signified by the battell in heauen, where GOD, to declare that none is like vnto him, made CHRIST, here called Michael, (whose name imports, Who is like GOD) with his Angels, to fight and ouercome the diuel and his angels, and to cast them on the earth; Satan, I say, finding himselfe thus debarred from further accusing of the Saints, hauing found that he should neuer haue place to doe that in any time thereafter; as on the one part it reioyced all the Angels and Saints in heauen, for their bretherens cause on the earth, as is witnessed by the song that the voyce did sing in Heauen, praising God therefore, and extolling the deed of Michael and his Angels, who fought so earnestly for the Saints on earth, as if they had bene mortall, they would not haue spared their liues in that cause for their sakes, whom CHRIST had redeemed with his blood, and of whose clection he had borne witnesse to his Father; so on the other part it enraged the Dragon, so that he became the crueller tempter of men vpon the earth, aswell for that his place of ac­cusing in heauen was taken away, by the mysterie of the redemption which is signified by this fight, as for that he knew within short space he was by CHRISTS second comming, to be cast downe from the earth in­to hell, there to be chained in eternall captiuitie and misery, euen as by the first comming he was cast from the heauen, which is signified by the last part of the Song, so as he pursueth the Church with heresie and ciuil pow­ers, which both are signified by the floods of waters which he spewed out of his mouth, after that the Eagle wings were giuen the woman to flie to that place appointed for her in the wildernes, where she must remaine the number of dayes ye haue heard, to wit, after that God had giuen his Church a sufficient swiftnesse to eschew the rage of Satan, and to lurke the space of Antichrists raigne, which lasteth three times or three yeeres and a halfe, that is, a time prefixed by GOD, and vnknowne to men, as ye haue sundry times heard already. But seeing that all this vanisheth, as if the earth had [Page 39]swallowed and dried vp that flood suddenly. 17 The Dragon therefore or the diuel, became more wrathfull and enraged then before against the woman, or the Church, and went about by some other way, to make warre against the rest of the womans seed, who kept the Commandements of GOD, and had the testimonies of CHRIST to GOD the Father, that they were chosen and called, for these are onely the true posteritie of the Church, to wit, the successours in grace, faith, and trewth. 18 And I stood vpon the Sea shore, I meane, it seemed to me that I stood vpon the Sea shore, because I did wait to see come out of it, which represented all peo­ples and nations, such powers, as Satan would imploy to fight against the Church; for the declaring whereof this Vision was shewen vnto me, and whereof these two last great wonders were but the introduction, that by these things past, as the roote, I might the better vnderstand the branches, which are to bud forth thereof as followeth.

CHAP. XIII.

ARGVMENT.

The Popes arising: His description: His rising caused by the ruine of the fourth Monarchie the Romane Empire: The rising of the false and Papisticall Church; her description; her conformitie with her Monarch the Pope: The great reue­rence borne to the Pope by many nations, and not onely to him, but to his Legates: A generall defection so great, as there shall not be an other visible Church, but the Popedome: Of the first Pope who did take to himselfe all their blasphemous and arrogant styles.

ANd then I saw a beast rising out of the Sea, to wit, from a­mong the number of Nations and peoples; I saw a Mo­narchie chosen and erected vp by this Dragon the deuil, and it had seuen heads and tenne hornes, and tenne dia­dems vpon the tenne hornes: the signification of these heads and hornes, was declared vnto me by an Angel, as ye shall heare in the place conuenient hereafter, Chap. 17. and vpon these heads was the name of blasphemie: for they by the persecution of the Saints, and adoring false gods, shall both by word and deed blaspheme the name of the Eternall. 2 This beast or Monarchie, Daniel 7. is the fourth King or Monarchie wherof Da­niel prophesied, to wit, euen that Monarchie which presently reignes, and hath the power of the other three reuiued in it, for it is farre greater then they: And therefore as that Monarchie of the Leopard, gat that name be­cause of the swiftnes of the conquest: and that of the Lion, because of the mightines and cruelty therof: and that of the Beare, because of the strength and long standing thereof; so this is called like the Leopard, to wit, in shape, whereof commeth her agilitie: headed like a Lion, because his strength is in the head, as ye heard already: and legged like a beare, because [Page 40]in the Beares legges consists his greatest strength, and durablenesse; this proportion signifies, that this Monarchie is farre greater then all the rest, and all their powers are reuiued in it, as I said before. 3 And I perceiued that one of the heads of the beast, had bene deadly wounded, but the wound thereof was healed, and the whole earth followed this beast with a great wondering; this was to signifie vnto me, that it was not of this beast that I was ordained to forewarne you, for the worst of this beast is almost past already, and this Monarchie shall be within short space de­stroyed, but this beast or Monarchie is shewen vnto me, because out of the ruines thereof shall rise in that same Seate where it was, that hereticall Monarchie whereof I am to forewarne you, which is signified by the dead­ly wound it gat on the head which was healed againe: for as the Phaenix re­uiues of her owne ashes (as prophane stories make mention) so out of the ashes of this Empire shall rise and be reuiued an other, which shall grow so mighty, that the whole earth that is without Sanctum Sanctorum, shall with amasement reuerence, obey and follow it, as ye heard presently declared. 4 And they adored the Dragon who gaue power to the Beast, for they shall giue themselues ouer to the workes of darkenes, which is to serue, and adore the diuel, who raised vp this beast to make warre against the seed of the woman, Chap. 12. as ye heard before. And they also adored the diuel in his instrument, by reuerencing that Beast and Monarchie erected by him: and they said, Who is like vnto the Beast, or who may fight with him? for this Monarchie shall be so strong in worldly power, as the world shall thinke it so farre in strength aboue all other powers, that it is impossible to ouercome it, especially, that the little stone which was cut without hands out of the mountaine mentioned by Daniel, Daniel 2. shall euer destroy it, which notwithstanding at the last shall bruise it in pieces. 5 And there was a mouth giuen vnto it to speake great things and blasphemies; It is said in Daniel, Daniel 7.11. that his mouth shall speake in magnificencie, and vtter words a­gainst the Soueraigne, to wit, this Monarchie and King thereof, shall extoll himselfe farre aboue all liuing creatures, and shal vsurpe farre higher Styles then euer were heard of before, by the which, and by his false doctrine to­gether, he shall so derogate from the honour of GOD, and vsurpe so all power onely proper vnto him, as it shall bee great wordes against him, and blasphemie of his Name. And there was power giuen him to doe, to wit, GOD shall permit his Tyrannie to encrease, and persecute the Saints the space of two and fourtie moneths: This space was men­tioned vnto me, to let me know thereby, that this Monarchie risen out of the ruines of the other, Chap. 11. is the same which is meant by that Citie, where­of ye heard alreadie in the sixt Trumpet, which persecuted the two Wit­nesses; for the same space is assigned to her there, and consequently it is that same seate and Monarchie which is meant by the angel of the bot­tomlesse pit, Chap. 9. called Apollyon in the fift Trumpet: by the Rider on the pale horse, Chap. 6. called Death, in the fourth Seale, and also obscurely meant in [Page 41]the sixt Trumpet by the halfe of that great hoste of horsemen, Chap. 9. of the which halfe the armed horse which I saw in the vision, was a part of the power, whose head and Monarchie was the plague for idolatry, as ye heard; which Monarchie, together with the other (of whom yee also heard obscurely in that place, as the plague of the sinnes against the second Table) to wit, this great beast here mentioned, and the other reuealed, a vowed and open ene­mie of Christs Church, shall both gather their forces to fight against it in that battell of the great day of the Lord, Chap. 16. whereof ye shal heare in the owne place: Then this beast, according to the power which was giuen him, opened his mouth in blasphemies against God, and spake iniurious words against his Name, his Tabernacle, to wit, his Sanctum Sanctorum, which is the Church militant, and them that dwell in heauen; for his reigne shall be so great, that hee shall not onely blaspheme the Name of God, in such sort as ye heard alreadie, and persecute the members of Christ that shall be on the earth in his dayes, but likewise vpbraid with calumnies the soules of the Saints departed: 7 And for that effect he was permitted by God to make warre against the Saints; and hee gaue him power to ouercome them cor­porally, and to rule ouer all tribes, tongues, and nations; so great shall his Monarchie and power be: 8 And so all the in-dwellers of the earth shal adore him, to wit, a great part of them shall reuerence him, whose names are not writen in the booke of life, which is the Lambes that was slaine, which booke was written before the foundation of the world was laide; for these are alwayes excepted from bowing their knees to Baal, who were predestinate by Christ to saluation before all beginnings. 9 He who hath an eare, let him heare and take heede vnto this sentence that followeth, to wit, 10 If any man leade in captiuitie, in captiuitie shall he be led againe: if any man slay with the sword, with the sword shall hee be slaine againe: then since ye are assured, that God in his good time shall iustly mete to their tyrannie, the same measure that they shall mete to his Church, let not your hearts in your affliction, through despaire of Gods reuenge, (because of his long suffering) swarue from the bold and plaine professing of his trueth; for in this shall the patience and constant faith of the Saints or the chosen, be tried. 11 And then I saw another beast rise vp vpon the earth, and it had two hornes like vnto the Lambe, but it spake like the dragon, for lest this Monarchie should be taken to be a ruler onely ouer the body, and that I might vnderstand the contrary, to wit, that he was specially a spirituall ty­rant ouer the soules and consciences of men, this other beast was shewen vnto me, which representeth the hereticall kingdome of the grashoppers, whereof Apollyon was made King in the fift Trumpet; Chap. 9. and it vseth the co­loured authoritie of Christ, by pretending two swords, or two keyes, as re­ceiued from Christ, which is signified by the two hornes like the Lambes, but the end whereof it vseth that authoritie, is to get obedience to that false doctrine which it teacheth, signified by speaking like the dragon or deuil. 12 It is this false and hypocriticall Church then, which doeth exercise all [Page 42]the power of the former beast, to wit, teacheth the Kings of this Monarchy and seat, by what meanes they shall allure and compell the people to obey their commands; and this Church shall also entise the earth and the inha­bitants of the same, to wit, all nations which beleeue the false doctrine that it teacheth, to adore this other beast, whose deadly wound was healed; for it shall perswade them that this hereticall Monarchie ought for conscience sake to be obeyed by all persons, in whatsoeuer it commandeth, as if it could not erre: 13 And to perswade men thereof, it makes great signes or wonders, yea euen causeth fire to fall out of heauen vpon earth in the sight of men; vpon whom, because they shall swarue from the loue of the trewth to beleeue lies, God shall iustly by the meanes of this false Church, as his instrument of reuenge, send a strong illusion and deceit, with great efficacie of miracles and woonders, 2. Thess. 2. 2. Kings 1. yea as mightie and strong as that of Elias was, calling for fire from heauen, which here is repeated. 14 And all these miracles it did in the presence of the beast, to make the beast to be a­dored therefore, by the inhabitants of the earth, and it perswades them to make an image of the beast, which was wounded by the sword, and reui­ued againe; for not onely shall this hereticall Monarchy haue power in his owne person to command absolutely many nations, but euen the nati­ons shall consent, by the perswasion of this false Church, to obey the abso­lute command of his Lieutenants, Legats and Embassadors in euery coun­trey, so as they shall not onely be exempted from the lawes of euery coun­trey, wherein they liue, but shall euen be fellowes and companions in all honours and priuiledges to the princes or kings thereof: And this willing consent of nations vnto this, by the perswasion of this false Church, is sig­nified here, by the making of this image at the Churches perswasion. 15 And power was giuen vnto it, to wit, vnto this false Church, to quicken this image, and to make it speake, and to cause that all those who will not adore this image, should be slaine corporally; for as the consent vnto this authoritie of the image must be giuen by the nations, and so they to be the makers thereof, so the authoritie, which is meant by the quickening of it, and making it speake, must be giuen it by the working of this false Church, whose rage shall be so great, as it shall persecute any who will not thinke the commands whatsoeuer of this Monarches embassadours and images, to be an infallible Law, as well as his owne. 16 And so this false Church makes that all, small or great, rich or poore, bond or free, in short, all men of whatsoeuer degree, shall take the Character or seale of this Mo­narchie into their right hand, or into their forehead, to wit, publikely pro­fesse obedience thereto, and assist the maintenance thereof, and downe-throwing of all resisters: 17 And that none may buy and sell except they haue the Character or the name of the beast, or the number of his name; for this defection shall be so vniuersall, and so receiued by all degrees of men, as it shall not be possible to any, neither shal that hypocriticall church permit any to be partakers of their ciuill societie, which is meant here by [Page 39] [...] [Page 40] [...] [Page 41] [...] [Page 42] [...] [Page 43]buying and selling, except they be knowen to be of his fellowship in reli­gion, which is meant by the character, and his name, and the number thereof. Then since you see that this defection shall be so generall, beware of euery one that shall say, Lord, Lord, thereby to deceiue you, for you see by this, that false prophets shall for a time so triumph, as they shall vaunt themselues to be the trew Church, because there shall be no other Church visible at that time, although there shall euer besome that shall not bow their knee to Baal; for the woman shall not be deuoured by the dragon, 1. Kings. 19. Chap. 12. but hid and nourished in the wildernesse out of sight for a space, as ye heard before. Retaine well in memorie these words, for the time shall come in the latter dayes, that this doctrine shall be thornes in the eyes of many. 18 Now, as to the number of the beast here is wisedome, let him that is endued with knowledge number it, for the number of the beast or Mo­narchie, is the number of the man, to wit, of the first Monarch of this seat, who shall first vsurpe all these styles of blasphemie, and who in the fourth Monarchie shall reuiue a spirituall supremacie and tyrannie; and his num­ber, to wit, the date of yeeres that he shall begin to reigne, in reckoning from the time of this Reuelation, is sixe hundred sixtie and sixe. Benedictus the 2. Platine.

CHAP. XIIII.

ARGVMENT.

The happie estate of the faithfull in the meane time of the Popes Tyrannie: His destruction: The faithfull onely are all saued.

NOw so soone as the tyrannicall gouernment of these two beasts, to wit, the false church and their king had bene de­clared by this last Vision vnto me, euen as before, after the denouncing of the fearefullest plagues, the happy estate of Christ and his Church was declared to comfort me, as ye heard before; so now the plagues that are to be wrought by this spirituall Tyrannie being declared, the estate of Christ and his followers in the meane time is next set forth as followeth. Then I did looke, and loe I saw the Lambe standing vpon Mount Sion, and with him a hundred fourtie and foure thousand, hauing the Name of his Father written vpon their foreheads: for in the meane time that this Tyrannie was raging on the earth, this Lambe Christ was standing vpon Mount Sion, to wit, vpon his ho­ly place, out of which he promised saluation to the faithfull, as Dauid saith, and is accompanied with this great number of faithfull, which number was composed of twelue thousand of euery Tribe, as ye heard before; but this number comprehends in this place all the faithfull, aswell of Gentiles as of Iewes, although it seeme to be vnderstood of the Iewes onely, which is done for continuing of the Metaphore, because as Sanctum Sanctorum, which was a part of the materiall Temple of Ierusalem, did signifie before [Page 44]all the faithfull, as ye haue heard, so now this number of Iewes here, signifies the faithfull, both of Gentiles and Iewes, as I haue said, who now are descri­bed here making publike profession of Christ, by bearing his marke on their forehead, an eminent part, euen as the wicked beare on their forehead the Character of their king, the angel of the bottomlesse pit: These faith­full followers of Christ did beare now his Marke, to testifie thereby, that they were preserued by it, euen in the very time that this Tyrannie was raging all the fastest. 2 And I heard a voyce from heauen like the sound of many waters in greatnesse, and like the roaring of the thunder in ter­riblenesse; And I also heard the voyce of many harpers playing on their harpes, 3 And singing as it were a New-song, before the Throne, and before the foure Beasts, and the Elders, and none could learne that Song, except these hundred foure and fourtie thousand, to wit, these who are bought from the earth: for they who were bought and redeemed by the precious Blood of Christ, from among the rest of the world, and so were no more of their number, were onely able to learne and vnderstand these voyces, for vnto them onely it apperteineth: Where first God promised, that he should shortly destroy that Tyrannie, (which voyce of God is here described by resembling it to the sound of many waters, as Dauid doeth, and to the roaring of the thunder;) And where next the thankes thereof is giuen by the Saints and Angels in singing the praises of God, as earnest­ly, and cheerefully, as if it were but a New-song, and to represent the har­monie thereof, they sing to the concords of the harpes and instruments in the presence of God sitting in his Maiestie, and compassed about with the foure Beastes, and foure and twentie Elders, of whom ye heard mention made before. 4 These attendants on the Lambe, are these who are not defiled with women, to wit, not guiltie of spirituall adulterie, for they are Virgines, as Christ called them in the parable of the Lampes: these fol­low the Lambe whithersoeuer he goeth, for they goe not astray from his footsteps, neither to the right, nor the left hand, and those are they who are bought from among men, and are the acceptable first fruits vnto their Father, and his Lambe. 5 And in their mouthes was found no guile, for they are inculpable before the Throne of God, because the Lambe hath fully payd their debts for them. 6 Then I did see another Angel flying through the middest of heauen, hauing the Eternall Euangel in his hand, that he might preach the same to all the inhabitants of the earth, euen to all nations, tribes, tongues, and peoples: for euen as ye heard before in the sixt Trumpet, of the reuiuing againe of the two Witnesses, who were slaine by this tyrannicall and hereticall Monarchie, so now the same was decla­red vnto me by this Angel, who when this Tyrannie is in the greatest pride, as ye haue heard, flies through the middest of heauen to be publike­ly heard and seene by all, hauing with him these eternall glad tidings to preach them to all the earth, to wit, God shall in the end of this Tyrannie, while it is yet triumphing, raise vp and send his Angels or messengers, [Page 45]who shall publikely teach the trewth, and refute the errours of this tyran­nie before the eyes of the Sunne and the Moone, to the saluation of a part of euery countrey, and to double condemnation of the rest through ma­king them inexcusable, who wil not turne in time. 7 And their exhor­tation shalbe this, which then I heard the Angel say with a lowd voyce; Feare God, and render him all glory, for the day of his iudgement comes at hand, adore him therefore who made heauen and earth, and seas, and fountaines of water, to wit, all things, good and euill: and the particular ap­plications that these Witnesses shall make of this generall doctrine, to the times of corruption that they shall be in, shall be this that I heard two An­gels folowing declare, of whom the first said; 8 It is fallen, It is fallen, Ba­bylon that great City, because she gaue to al nations to drinke of the Vine of wrath, of her fornication or spiritual adulterie, to wit, that great Monarchie called Babylon, because it leades and keepes the soules of men in spirituall thraldome, euen as the Monarchie of Babylon led, and kept the people of Israel in a corporall captiuitie, that Monarchie, I say, shall be suddenly de­stroyed: for it is to be noted, that as there is no distinction of times in the presence of God, but all things are present vnto him, so he and his Angels calleth oftentimes that thing done, that is shortly and certainly to be done thereafter, which forme of speach ye wil sundry times heare thus vsed here­after; That Monarchie, I say then, shall shortly be destroyed, and that iust­ly, because she hath abused a great part of the earth, by intising them to be senselesse (as if they were drunken,) and to embrace her errours and ido­latries or spirituall whoredome: For as men are entised by whores to leaue their owne spouse, and enter in to them, so shall they perswade the nations to leaue their societie with their spouse IESVS CHRIST, and onely settle their saluation vpon her, and for the committing of this spirituall whoredome, this Monarchie is here called Shee, Chap. 17. and afterward the great Whore, and the reason that they shall giue why they make this warning, shall be in these words, which I heard the third Angel proclaime, to wit, 9 For whosoeuer shall adore this Beast any longer, or his image, or take his character on his forehead, or his hand, as ye heard before, 10 He shall for his iust reward and punishment, drinke of the Wine of the wrath of God, yea of the pure and immixed wine thereof, powred out in the cup of his wrath: And he shalbe tormented with fire and brimstone, to wit, he shall be cast into hell, the torments whereof they doe signifie, and that in the presence of the holy Angels, for they shall beare witnesse against him in the sight of the Lambe: for the Lambe shall iudge and condemne him: 11 And the smoake of his torments shall mount vp in all worlds to come, to wit, he shalbe vncessantly tormented for euer: For all these that adore the Beast and his image, and hath the character of his name, shall not haue rest day nor night, to wit, they shalbe perpetually tormented without any release or reliefe. 12 And in these dayes when the Witnesses shalbe ma­king this exhortation, in these things shall the constancie of the Saints or [Page 46]faithfull be tried, and by this triall shall they be knowne and discerned, that obserue and retaine the Commandements of God, and the faith of Iesus the Sauiour. 13 Then I heard a voice from heauen, saying to me, Write, Blessed are the dead that die for the Lords cause hereafter, so sayes the Spirit, for they rest from their trauails, and their workes follow them: This voyce from heauen did by these wordes declare vnto me, that these Witnesses who should make this exhortation that ye haue heard, should be persecu­ted therefore by that spirituall Babylon; but that these should be happiest, who lost their liues for so good a cause, for the confirmation whereof the holy Spirit sayes, Yea, and subioynes the reason, to wit, because both they rest from these continuall labours and troubles, that they were alwayes subiect vnto in the earth, and in recompense thereof their workes follow them: for as faith is the onely leader of men to heauen, and so goes before them; so according to the greatnesse and honour of their calling in earth, if they discharge it well, they are rewarded in heauen with a measure of glory conformed thereunto; and so their workes follow them, to obtaine that measure in that place wherof they were already assured by the meanes of faith in Christ onely. For although the Sunne, and the Moone, and the starres be all bright lampes and lights of the heauen, yet are they not all a­like bright, but the brightnesse of euery one of them is different from the other; Alwayes let vs assure our selues, that although our measures shall be vnequall, yet from the greatest to the least, all the vessels of mercie shall en­ioy in all fulnesse, as much glory as they shalbe able to containe, and the vnequalitie of the measure shalbe, because they are notable euery one of them to containe alike in quantitie; and the like shalbe done with the mea­sures of paines to the reprobate in hell. 14 Then I beheld, and loe I saw a white cloud, and vpon the cloud sate one like a man, hauing on his head a crowne of gold, and in his hand a sharpe sickle: 15 And an other Angel came out of the temple, & cried with a lowd voice to him that sate vpon the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle to reape, for the houre of thy reaping is come, and the haruest of the earth is withered for ripenesse, and readinesse to be cut: He who was like the Sunne of man, and was sitting on a white cloud, was Christ in a bright cloud of glory, crowned with a Crowne of victory; all that was spoken of him here, was to declare to me, that the last dayes wherein his comming againe shalbe, shall be next following, to the reuea­ling of Babylon, by the reuiuing of the witnesses, as ye heard in the end of the sixt Trumpet; 16 At what time Christ shall gather his haruest of the elect together, as I heard himselfe say while he was yet on earth among vs. 17 Then another Angel came forth of the Temple that is in heauen, and he had an other sharp sickle in his hand: 18 And an other Angel came from the Altar, who had power ouer the fire, and he cried with a lowd voice to him that had the other sharpe sickle, saying, Put downe thy sharpe sickle, and gather the clusters of the Vine-trees, for the grapes are ripe. 19 Then the Angel put downe his sickle on the earth, and gathered the Vines of the [Page 47]earth, and cast them in the winepresse of the wrath of God: For so soone as Christ hath gathered his haruest together, then the reprobate are fully to be destroyed, as is declared here by the Anges command, who came from the Altar, to wit, as directed by Christ. Thi [...] Angel had power ouer the fire, to wit, he had direction to destroy, as he commanded, the messen­ger of Gods plagues, who had the sickle to doe it, who at his command cut the Vines and cast them in the great Winepresse of Gods wrath, to wit, destroyed the reprobate in the abundance of the writh of God: 20 And the Winepresse was troden without the Citie, and the blood came out of the Winepresse, euen to the horse bridles, and spred to the bounds of one thousand and sixe hundred furlongs. This is surely a great comfort to all the chosen, that notwithstanding all the rest of the world, except such as are Christes haruest, whom he hath gathered together in the holy Citie, the rest, I say, shalbe destroyed in such a great number, as their blood shall of deepenesse come to the horse bridles, and ouerflow the whole land of Canaan, whereof the number of furlongs, or eight parts of miles, ye heard, is the length; Yet though it ouerflow the whole earth, which is signified by Canaan, it shalbe without the holy Citie which is in the middest of the land, to wit, although the trew Church shalbe in the middest of the world, as Ierusalem was in Canaan, yet that destruction shall not make a haire of one of their heads to fall, but it shalbe without them, and they fully exemp­ted from it, as the land of Goshen was from the plagues of Egypt.

CHAP. XV.

ARGVMENT.

The faithfull praiseth God for the Popes destruction, and their deliuerance: The plagues which are to light on him and his followers, is to be declared by the powring forth of the seuen Phials.

THen I saw another signe in heauen, great and wonderfull, to wit, seuen Angels hauing the seuen last plagues, for by them is fulfilled the wrath of God; for the Spirit of God, hauing already declared vnto me the generall destruction of the whole world, which is without the holy citie, hee next declared vnto me, vnto my greater comfort, the particular plagues that are to light vpon spirituall Babylon, as a iust recompense of her sinnes, and of the plagues that shee is to loade the earth withall; and these are the seuen hinmost which are in the hands of the seuen Angels, of whom there is here mention made. 2 And I saw as it had beene a glassie Sea mixed with fire, and they that had wonne the victory ouer the beast, and ouer his image, or embassadours, and his character and the number of his name, to wit, from that time that the last beast rose out of the ruines of the other, I saw these victours (I say) standing aboue, or vpon this sea of glasse, [Page 48]and they had the harpes of God: For now hauing declared on the one part how vnhappie the state of Babylon shall be by the seuen last plagues, which shall fall vpon it; so on the other part, by these who stand on the sea of glasse mixed with fire, he declared vnto me what should be the bles­sed estate of the chosen at that time that these plagues shall fall vpon Ba­bylon, to wit, of these victours; for they shall reueale the Antichrist and deface him, they shall hen behold the rest of the world, which is here sig­nified by the sea of glase, and they shall haue the harpes of God, to wit, the praises of God in their mouthes, because he hath mixed this glassie sea with fire, to wit, hath destroyed and made his iudgements to fall vpon this wic­ked world, as their sorg which followes will declare: 3 And they sung the song of Moses the seruant of God, & the song of the Lambe: It was cal­led the song of Moses, as well because they did sing the praises of Gods iu­stice vpon this glassie Sea, to the reuenge of the blood of his chosen, as Mo­ses sayth in the very last wordes of his Canticle; as because Moses praised God for the deliuerance of his people, from the corporall thraldome of E­gypt; and the song of the Lambe, because they praised him for doing the like, by relieuing the Church from the thraldome of the spirituall Egypt in the times of the Euangel: and their song was this; Great and wonder­full are thy workes, O Lord God Almightie, iust in punishment, and trew, for the performance of thy promises are thy wayes, O King, and defender of all thy Saints and trew followers: 4 Who will notfeare, O Lord, and glorifie thy Name, since thou art onely perfectly holy, for all nations shall come at the latter day, and adore before thee, since thy iudgements are now made manifest, and lighted vpon the earth. 5 And next after this, I saw these particular plagues euery one, (for the which the Saints did thus praise God, as followeth) for I did looke, and I saw the Temple of the Tabernacle of the Testimonie in heauen opened; the like of this ye heard was done in the beginning of the seuenth Trumpet, and for the same cause it was also done here, to wit, to shew the Arke of the couenant which was therein, for thereby God did witnesse, that hee was now mindfull of his promise by the sending out of these seuen Angels, and seuen plagues, which were now to be executed. 6 And out of this Temple came seuen Angels, for from the remembrance of his Arke and Couenant proceeded their direction, and they were clothed with pure and white linnen, for innocencie and pu­ritie, and girded about their breasts with gold, for honour and glory. 7 And one of the foure beasts gaue these Angels seuen Phials of golde, full of the wrath of God that liues eternally, and for all worlds to come: These Angels are thus arayed, and these golden and precious Phials of the wrath of God, are giuen them by one of the foure beasts, the most excellent creatures of God, all to teach vs, that as these plagues shall be most bitter to Babylon and her followers, so shall they be most sweet to all the chosen for their deliuerance; for they are to light vpon the wicked, and no wayes to harme any of the holy Citie. 8 And the Temple in heauen was filled [Page 49]with the smoake comming from the Maiestie of God, and from his vertue and power: And there could none go in into the Temple while the seuen plagues of the seuen Angels were fulfilled, to teach vs that no flesh, how guiltlesse soeuer it be, can compeare before God, when in his wrathfull face he is clothed with iustice, but onely when with a cheerefull countenance, clothed with mercy, he stretcheth foorth his hands vnto vs.

CHAP. XVI.

ARGVMENT.

By the first Phyale the Popes followers are plagued with sundry new and vnknowen diseases: By the second Phiale all kinde of plagues, Juch as sword, famine, and pestilence light vpon the nations that acknowledge him: By the third, are di­uers Popes raised vp at one time, who striuing for the seats, fight among them­selues, and so they are iustly recompensed for shedding the blood of the Saints: By the fourth, the reuerence of him begins to waxe colde in the hearts of men: By the fift, his abuses begin to be discouered: By the fixt, his forces decay, which he perceiuing, houndeth out the Iesuits, to gather all his forces to destroy the faith­full, with whom God fights to his destruction: By the seuenth, the latter day is described, and the Popedome rent asunder.

THen I heard a voice out of the Temple, saying to these seuen Angels, Goe powre foorth in great abundance vp­on the earth, the seuen Phials of the wrath of God; for now they were to be shewen, and to be described vnto me. 2 Then the first Angel went to worke, and pow­red foorth his Phiale on the earth, and there fell a great and grieuous sore vpon all them that had the character of the beast, or ado­red his image: These plagues which were shewed to me, were onely or­dained to light on Babylon, (as I said before) and therefore they mete vnto her with the measure that shee shall measure others with, to wit, they shall plague her and her followers with the like plagues that she shall plague o­thers with, corresponding aswell in number as in qualitie: they also haue allusion to the plagues of Egypt, because she is called spiritually Egypt, (as yee heard in the sixt Trumpet) and so by this first plague is signified, that as shee persecuted the faithfull, and killed them, (as is declared in the sixt Trumpet) and as Moses made a scabbe to come vpon all the Egyptians for Pharaohs sake, so shall there fall a pestilent and pernicious sore vpon all his followers, to wit, they shall be troubled with diuers new and horrible dis­eases. 3 Then the second Angel powred foorth his Phiale vpon the sea, and the sea was made by it like the blood of a dead body, and euery liuing thing in thesea died; for as that beast should first so trouble thesea, to wit, the peoples and nations, with persecuting all them who wil not adore her, and by her abuse cause the world to become dead to all good workes and [Page 50]fruitfull faith, as is declared by the vision where I saw her rise out of the sea; and as Moses turned the redde sea into a corrupted blood, with drow­ning the Egyptians, (which is here called the blood of a carrion) by the which all the fishes therein were poisoned, so shal the nations and the peo­ples, which are the followers and partakers of Babylon, be troubled with warres within and without, and with all kinde of plagues, such as pesti­lence, and famine, and such others. 4 Then the third Angel powred foorth his phiale vpon the Riuers and fountaines of water, and they be­came blood; for as this false Church and grashoppers did corporally suc­ceed to the fountaines of waters, to wit, the trew Pastours, (as ye heard in the third Trumpet) and did assist their King Apollyon, to persecute bloodi­ly the liuely fountaines of waters, or trew Pastours, who yet remained vn­corrupted, as ye heard in the sixt Trumpet; and as Moyses made all the ri­uers and fountaines of waters in Egypt to become blood, so shall the tea­chers and heads of this false Church, be diuided among themselues, yea there shall be in three or foure diuers places, three or foure diuers persons, and euery one of them shall claime to be king of the locusts; which que­stion shall be decided by the cruell and bloodie edge of the sword: And therefore to shew me how iustly that great persecutor of the Saints, is now made to be the persecutor of himselfe, diuided in diuers persons, 5 I heard the Angel of the waters, to wit, the third Angel, who powred these plagues vpon the waters, vse these words; Iust art thou, O Lord, who is, who was, and holy for that thou hast iudged these things; 6 Because euen as they, to wit, these corrupt, filthie, and false fountaines of waters, haue shed the blood of thy Saints and Prophets; so hast thou now giuen them of blood to drinke, for they are worthy of such a reward. 7 Then I heard the voice of one from the Sanctuarie, for confirmation hereof, saying; Certainely, O Lord God, trew and iust are thy Iudgements, for thou hast perfourmed thy promise, and hast iustly recompensed them. 8 Then the fourth An­gel powred foorth his phiale vpon the Sunne, and power was giuen vnto him to afflict men with fire; for euen as the Sunne was darkened in the fourth Trumpet, to wit, the speciall teachers did begin to fall from the sin­ceritie of the trewth, enticed thereunto, though not by Apollyon himselfe, (for hee was not yet risen) yet by the qualities whereof hee is composed, and therefore is he here punished for the same: And as Moses troubled by the hote Easterne winde the land of Egypt by the breeding of grashop­pers, so shall the fierie spirit of God in the mouthes of his witnesses, so trouble Babylon with the burning sunne of Gods trewth, as men shall be troubled with a great heat, to wit, she and her followers shall be tormen­ted and vexed therewith. 9 But they blasphemed the name of God who had power ouer these plagues, and repented not, that they might giue him glory; for such is the nature of the wicked, and so hardened are their hearts, that the same scourges and afflictions which make the godly turne themselues to God, and so are the sauour of life vnto them to their eternall [Page 51]saluation, they by the contrary make the wicked to runne from euill vnto worse, and so are the sauour of death vnto them to their iust and eternall condemnation. 10 Then the fifth Angel powred forth his phiale euen vpon the very throne of the beast, and his kingdome was made darke, and they, to wit, he and his followers gnawed their tongues for dolour: for as this beast did breed and was nourished by the smoake and darkenesse that came foorth of the bottomlesse pit, whereof he is the Angel and messen­ger, as was declared in the fift Trumpet: And as Moses made a great darke­nesse to come vpon the land of Egypt, so now after the witnesses re­uealing him, which yee heard signified by the heat in the fourth phiale, shall follow, that this kingdome shall become obscure by the light of the trewth, and shall come to be despised by many, whereby he and his fol­lowers shall be mooued to a great rage, which I meant by gnawing their tongues for dolour. 11 And they blasphemed the God of heauen for their dolours and griefes, and repented them not of their workes: for as I said before, neither corporall punishments, signified by sores, nor spirituall, signified by dolours, can moue them to repent, but to a greater obstinacie and rage, as ye shall see by their actions, immediatly after the powring foorth of the sixt phiale vpon the great water Euphrates, 12 Then the sixt Angel powred foorth his phiale vpon the great riuer of Euphrates, and the waters thereof were dried vp, that the passage of the Kings, comming from the East might be prepared, so as that beast by the meanes of many people (signified by waters) did tyrannize ouer the Church of God; and as Moses by Aarons rod made a dry and safe passage through the Red-sea to the people of Israel, Exod. 14. so God by this plague dries vp that great water Euphra­tes, which compasseth Babylon, during his will, to wit, he makes now the power of this Monarchie to decay, and layes it open to inuasion and de­struction, as ye shall heare: This water was dried to make passage for the Kings comming from the Sun rising, alluding to Daniel, as I shewed in the sixt Trumpet: for euen as the Persians and Medes came from the East, Chap. 9. cros­sed Euphrates, ouercame Babylon and slew Balthasar King thereof, so imme­diately after that the Witnesses haue begun to reueale spirituall Babylon, as is declared in the fourth phiale, and that thereupon hath followed, that the kingdome thereof is become darke, as is declared in the fift phiale; then shall follow, that God shall prepare the destruction thereof, by dry­ing Euphrates', whereupon shall ensue, that such instruments as God shall appoint, directed by that Sunne rising, to wit, Christ (as ye heard in the sixt Seale) shall destroy that King, and sacke that great Citie, to the perpetuall confusion of all her followers, as ye wil heare more clearely declared here­after. 13 And then I saw from the mouth of the dragon, and from the mouth of the beast, and from the mouth of the false prophet, three vn­cleanespirits come foorth like to froggs; for this is all the repentance that these three phials shall worke in the heart of Babylon, as I said before, to wit, for the last remedie, the diuel or dragon shall inuent him a fresh order of [Page 52]Ecclesiasticall factours and Agents, as the diuels last brood: These are the same that I called horse, in the vision in the sixt Trumpet, three in number to correspond to their threefold armour, as ye heard in the said Trumpet, because there came out of their mouthes three sorts of persecutions and destructions; And themselues came out of three mouthes, out of the dra­gons, because the diuel is the inuenter of them, out of the beasts, because the beast or King of Locusts commands ouer them, directs and employes them for the standing of his kingdome, as the last refuge when now he sees the decay thereof euidently comming on, out of his false prophets or false Churches, because it authorises them for the aforesaid effects: These vncleane spirits and teachers of false and hereticall doctrines and wicked policies, resembling frogges, as well for that they are bred of an old, filthy, and corrupted false doctrine, which for a long space haue blinded the world before their comming, as frogges breed of rotten and slimie cor­ruption; as also for that they goe craftily about to vndermine and con­demne all Ecclesiasticall orders preceding them, as vnperfect and vnpro­fitable, because their kingdome is darkenesse; But howsoeuer they thus craftily insinuate themselues in the fauours of the people, surely their do­ctrine is nothing else, but the very same filthy puddle of vncleane and wic­ked heresies and impieties, taught by the grashoppers before, euen as the yong frogges grow like the former. 14 For they are spirits of diuels, to wit, wicked and craftie like them, doing myracles of deceipt, for they shall wonderfully deceiue men; and they goe to all the Kings of the earth, and to the whole world, to gather them together to the battell of that day of God Almightie; for they shall haue such credit of a great part of the Prin­ces of the earth, as I also shewed you in the sixt Trumpet, as they shall ga­ther great forces together, as the last brood of the diuel, as I told you be­fore, to fight against his Church, who notwithstanding shall ouercome them, as will after more clearely be declared. 15 Happy are they then that swarue not, nor despaire in the meane time, but awake and keepe their garments cleane and vndefiled from the generall corruption, lest o­therwise they walke naked, not clothed with the garment of righteousnes, and so their shamefull parts, or naturall inclination to euill be discouered: For loe I come as a thiefe, for no man shall know the houre, no time of my comming. 16 And the place whereunto these vncleane spirits gathered the Kings to this battell against Gods Church, in Hebrew is called Arma­geddon: for by deceipt they assembled the Kings and nations to their owne destruction. 17 Then the seuenth Angel powred out his phiale in the aire, and there came forth a great voyce from the Temple in heauen, euen from the Throne, saying, It is done. 18 Then was heard great sounds, and lightnings and thunders, and there was a great earthquake, and such in greatnesse was neuer seene since men were vpon the face of the earth; for euen as the aire was troubled and obscured by smoke of hell, out of the which the king of Locustes, bred in the first Seale, and as Moses made haile [Page 53]in great abundance to fall on Egypt, which Meteore doeth breed in the aire; so God hauing stricken the battell against Babylon, and her followers, and hauing ouercome them, as ye heard in the sixt Seale; now followeth immediatly the last plague of the consummation by the aire; for in the aire shall that great noise be heard, which is the fore-runner of that Great day, most comfortable to the trew Church, but most terrible to all the rest of the world, which day is proclaimed by the voice of God from his Temple, wherein was his Couenant, declaring the consummation in these words ye heard; and as the great noise signifies the same, so in speciall doeth the great earthquake, as Christ himselfe prophesying thereof, doeth declare. 19 And that Citie was rent in sunder in three parts, and that iustly, be­cause she destroyed the third part of the earth, as ye heard in the sixt Trum­pet: and the Cities of the nations fell, because they dranke the cup of her abominations: And great Babylon and her sinnes, came then in memorie before God; for then he was to make her drinke the cup full of his wrath, to her vtter destruction. 20 And all the Isles fled, and the mountaines were no more found, for no deepenes of Seas, nor inaccessiblenes of moun­taines shall haue power to saue the wicked, from the fearefull and terrible iudgements of that great and last day: This doeth also signifie the latter day, as ye heard before. 21 And a great haile to the greatnesse of talents fell vpon men, but they blasphemed God for the plague of haile, for it was exceeding great; This great haile signifieth also a great destruction at the latter day, as ye heard in the seuenth Trumpet, but yet the wicked shall be so stiffenecked, as euen at their last breath, their malice and obstinacie shall rather encrease then diminish, as is declared here by mens blaspheming of God for the plague of the haile.

CHAP. XVII.

ARGVMENT.

The Angel expounded to Iohn this vision of the Pope, describes him at large, and clearely declares the authors, and maner of his destruction.

BVt because that these plagues, and Babylon whereupon they lighted, did seeme obscure vnto me, therefore one of the seuen Angels who powred forth their phials ful of plagues, did say vnto me, Here then, I will shew vnto thee more plainely the condemnation of this great Whore, and what shee is that sitteth vpon many waters; 2 With whom the Kings of the earth haue committed spirituall adulterie, and with the wine of whose whoredome the inhabitants of the earth, to wit, a great number of nations, who are not of the Elect, are made drunke, as you heard before. 3 Then he bereft me in Spirit, as I told you in the beginning of this Epistle, to the [Page 54]wildernes, which signifies the Gentelisme, as saith Esay; for she and her fol­lowers are Gentiles in effect, as ye heard in the sixt Trumpet: And as our Master sayes, All these that gather not with vs, they scatter; for no more is there a middest betwixt God and the diuell, nor betwixt the rewards there­of, heauen and hell; and as one of these two Masters we must of necessitie follow, so of the same necessitie to one of these two places must we goe. And then I saw in the wildernes a woman, euen Babylon that whore, sit­ting on a scarlet coloured and bloody beast, euen as shee was sitting be­fore in the likenesse of a man vpon a pale horse, in the fourth Seale: And this beast was full of blasphemie, and had seuen heads and tenne hornes, as ye heard before. 4 And the woman was clothed with purple and scarlet and pretious stones and pearles, and had in her hand a golden Cup; for this Monarchie and the Monarch thereof, shall aswell be corporally clo­thed with these colours, and decked with pretious stones; as also, these co­lours which are finest of all others, and these pretious stones signifie, that this Monarchie and the seat thereof, shalbe most glorious and glaun­cing to the eyes of the world, as I said before, which shall not onely be the trew Church by appearance of outward glory, but euen retaine many of the generall points of religion, which is signified by her golden Cup; but this Cup was full of abhominations, and of the vncleannesse of her spiri­tuall whoredomes: For albeit in many points she shal retaine the trewth, which shall abuse men, and allure them to her, yet shall she mixe and poy­son this trewth with her owne abominable and hereticall inuentions, and traditions, and with the vncleannesse of her spirituall adulterie, whereof ye haue heard before. 5 And on her forehead was written a mysterie, Babylon the great, to wit, spirituall Babylon, as ye heard before, the mother of the whoredomes and the abhominations of the earth; for from her shall proceed the greatest, and in a maner, the onely chiefe abuses and heresies, coloured and clothed with the shew and title of Christiantie, with the which these, who shall outwardly say, Lord, Lord, shall euer be infected with, vntill the consummation, and as a mother, she shall not onely breed, but shalbe the chiefe nourisher and maintainer of them; And this is called a mysterie, because although this abuse shall be publike, as is signified by being written on her forehead, yet none shall consider the abuse thereof, but onely such, whose eyes it shall please God to illuminate for that effect. 6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the Saints, and of the Martyrs, and witnesses of Iesus the Sauiour, to wit, she shall greedily and cruelly shed their blood without all measure, reason or pitie, as yee haue often heard before: And when I thus saw her, I wondered at her maruei­lously, and I could not coniecture the meaning of the seuen heads and ten hornes that the beast had, on whom she sate. 7 And the Angel who had now shewen her vnto me, as ye now haue heard, seeing me thus wonder, sayes vnto me, Marueile not, for I will reueale vnto thee the mysterie of this woman, and of the beast shee rideth vpon, which hath seuen heads [Page 55]and ten hornes: 8 This beast that thou hast seene (or Monarchie) was, (for it is the fourth Monarchie, which is very great and flourishing) and is not, for it is now so farre decayed, that in a maner it is not, and it is to rise againe out of the bottomlesse pit, as yee heard in the fift Trumpet, how foone the wound of the head shall be healed, whereof ye heard before, and it shall goe to perdition, as ye often haue heard already, and the in-dwellers of the earth shall wonder, whose names are not written in the booke of life, before the foundation of the world was laide; of this wondering yee heard before; they shall wonder (I say) at this beast, which was, to wit, in great power, and is not, to wit, in a maner, as ye presently heard, and yet is, I meane doeth stand, though farre decayed from the former greatnesse: 9 Take good heede vnto this that I declare vnto thee, for herein shall the trew wisedome of men be tried, to wit, in knowing by this my description, what particular Empire and Tyrannie I speake of: And the seuen heads of this beast signifie, aswell seuen materiall hilles, whereupon the seate of this Monarchie is situated, as also seuen kings, or diuers formes of Ma­gistrates that this Empire hath had, and is to haue hereafter; 10 Fiue of them haue beene alreadie, one is presently, and makes the sixt, another shall follow it, and make the seuenth, but it is not yet come; and when it comes, it shall remaine but a very short space. 11 And this beast which was, to wit, so great, and is not, for now it is decaying, as thou presently hast heard it, is the eight, and yet one of the seuen; for this beast which rose out of the ruines of the fourth Monarchie, as ye heard before, in respect it vseth an hereticall Tyrannie ouer the consciences of men, by that new forme of Empire, is different from any of the rest, and so is the eight, and yet be­cause this forme of gouernment shall haue the same seate which the rest had, and vse as great Tyrannie, and greater vpon the world, and shall vse the same forme in ciuill gouernment, which one of the seuen vsed, there­fore because it is so like them, I call it one of the seuen. 12 And the tenne hornes which thou sawest, signifie tenne Kings, to wit, the great number of subalterne Magistrates in all the Prouinces vnder that Monarchy, who haue not yet receiued their kingdome; for vnder all the diuers sorts of go­uernments that shall be in it, except the last and hereticall sort, these sub­alterne powers shall be but in the ranke of subiects, but they shall take their kingly power with the beast, to wit, at the very time that this Apollyon shall rise out of the ashes of the fourth beast or Monarchie, the kings of the earth shall become his slaues and subalterne Magistrates, whereas the sub­iects were onely the power of that Monarchie before: so as the hornes or powers of this beast, were but of subiects before it was wounded, but af­ter the healing of it, the worldly kings and rulers shall become the powers and hornes of it. 13 These shall haue one counsell, and shall giue their strength and power to the beast, to wit, these kings shal all willingly yeeld obedience to Babylon, and shall employ their whole forces for the mainte­nance of that Monarchie, and the persecution of the Saints: 14 For they [Page 56]shal fight with the Lambe in his members, albeit all in vaine, for in the end the Lambe shall ouercome them, because he is Lord of lords, and King of all kings, and these that are with him and followeth him, are called Cho­sen and Faithfull. 15 He also said vnto me, The waters that thou saw this Whore sit vpon, are the peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues that haue subiected themselues to her Empire: 16 But as touching these ten hornes thou saw, thus farre I foretell vnto thee, although that for a time these kings shall be slaues and seruants to Babylon, and shall be her instru­ments to persecute the Saints, the time shall come before the consumma­tion, that they shall hate the Whore, who abused them so strongly and long, and shall make her to be alone, for they shall withdraw from her their Subiects, the nations that were her strength, and shall make her na­ked, for they shall discouer the mysterie of her abominations, and shall eate her flesh, and burne her with fire, to wit, they shall spoile her of her riches, power and glory, and so destroy her. 17 But doe not thou wonder at this, for God gaue them in their hearts, to wit, permitted them to be abused by her for a space, that they might doe what pleased her, and consent to all her vnlawfull policies and pretences, and giue their kingdomes vnto this beast, vntill the words of God might be accomplished, to wit, they shall submit their very Crownes, and take the right thereof from her, vnto the fulnesse of times here prophecied: At what time God shall raise them vp, as ye heard, to destroy Babylon; for the hearts of the greatest kings, as well as of the smallest subiects, are in the hands of the Lord, to be his instru­ments, and to turne them as it shall please him to employ them. 18 And this woman, or Whore which thou sawest, is that great citie and seate of this Beast or Monarchie, which beareth rule ouer the kings of the earth, as thou hast heard alreadie: But although it be one seat, yet diuers and a great number of kings or heads thereof, shall succeed into it, one to ano­ther, all vpholding an hereticall religion, and false worship of God, and one forme of gouernment, as the fourth Monarchie did, out of the which this did spring, as ye haue heard.

CHAP. XVIII.

ARGVMENT.

The sorrow of the earth for the destruction of the Popedome: The profite that worldly men had by his standing: The great riches and wealth of that Church: The Pope by his Pardons makes merchandise of the soules of men: Heauen and the Saints reioyce at his destruction, albeit the earth and the worldlings lament for the same.

ANd then I saw another Angel comming downe from hea­uen, hauing great power, so that the earth shined with his glory, for so soone as God, by one of the seauen Angels who had the phials, had more plainely described vnto mee this woman sitting on the beast, then he did before, hee now appointeth this other Angel, who is Christ, to declare vnto me, and pro­claime to the world (as is signified by his comming downe to the earth for that cause) the iust condemnation of Babylon according to her sinnes. 2 And hee cryed out with a loude voyce, saying, It is fallen, It is fallen, Baby­lon that great Citie, and it is made the dwelling place of vncleane spirits, and the habitation of all vncleane and hatefull fowles, to wit, it shall be de­stroyed, and that great Citie, the seate of that Monarchie, shall be desolate for euer, euen as it was prophesied of Ierusalem; 3 Because all nations haue drunke of the Vine of her whoredome, and the kings of the earth haue committed whoredome with her, and the Merchants of the earth are become rich by the great wealth of her delights, in so great a worldly glory and pompe did that Monarchie shine. 4 And I heard another voyce from heauen, to wit, the voyce of the holy Spirit, saying, Goe foorth from her my people, to wit, all the chosen, lest ye be participants of her sinnes, and of the plagues which are to fall vpon her for them: For if but out­wardly ye haunt with her, and seeme to beare with her abominations, yee shall bee accounted guiltie of her sinnes; for if ye will haue Christ to pro­fesse you publikely at the latter day, before his Father and his Angels, and reward both your body and soule with eternall felicitie, yee must not bee ashamed to serue him both in body and soule before men: And this war­ning I giue you before-hand to make you inexcusable, who will otherwise doe: 5 For her sinnes are come to such a height, as they haue touched the heauen, and God is mindfull of them; then not onely haunt not with her, as I haue said, (for it is not enough not to doe euil) but, 6 Rayse your selues vp against her, and render the like that she hath done to you, yea pay her with the double of her owne workes, and in the cup which she propi­ned vnto others, render her the double, to wit, trouble, and destroy her by all meanes, and in all things, euen as she troubled and destroyed others be­fore; and according to her pride and wantonnesse, recompence her with torment, woe, and wailing: 7 For she sayes in her mind, I fit a Queene, [Page 58]or am a stabled Monarch, neither am I a widow, or shall euer bee desolate, nor shall euer see dolour, or taste destruction. 8 And therefore because she thus builds her felicitie vpon her worldly strength, by worldly instru­ments shall shee bee plagued, with death, with dolour, with hunger, and burnt with fire, to wit, after suffering all sorts of torments, shee shall in the end be vtterly destroyed, for strong is the Lord God, who shall condemne her. 9 And then shall the kings of the earth, who were her hornes, and had committed whoredome and riotousnesse with her before, weepe and lament for pittie, when they see the smoake of her burning; for although some of themselues shall be the destroyers, as ye heard before, yet shall her destruction be so great, as their hearts shall pittie the worke of their hands, when they shall see the great smoake of her destruction. 10 And they shall stand farre off from her torment, to wit, her torment shall put them in memorie of their guiltinesse of her sinnes, which shall afray them wonder­fully, and shall say in great admiration, Alas, Alas, for that great Citie Ba­bylon, that strong Citie, whose iudgement and destruction is all come in one howre, and at once. 11 And the Merchants of the earth shall weepe and mourne for her, because their merchandise wil no more bee bought, for her pompe shall make the Merchants rich, by getting readie sale of all fine wares, 12 Such as gold, siluer, precious stones, pearles, fine linnen, purple, silke, and scarlet for her garments, and all kind of vessels to doe her idolatrous seruice, of Iuorie, costly wood, brasse, iron, or marble stone; 13 Cynamome, and all kind of odours for her Church, with oyntments, and incense for the same purpose, and the fine flower of wheat, and all kind of victuals and cattell, and sheepe for her sumptuous banquets, and horse, and Chariots, and slaues for her triumphes, and processions, and soules of men; for shee shall haue many that shall be Merchants vnto her of the soules of men, by selling for mony, Pardons giuen by that Monarch, which shall bee thought to haue power to saue, redeeme and free mens soules: but ye shal heare more shortly of this hereafter. 14 And the fruits of the desire of thy soule, O Babylon, shall goe from thee, to wit, thy ioyes and delights shall all turne to sorrow, and all fat and faire things are gone from thee, to wit, thou shalt leaue all profit and pleasure, neither shalt thou euer find them any more, for thou shalt be destroyed for euer. 15 And so the Merchants of these stuffes, being made rich by the buying and sel­ling of them, they shall stand afarre off from thy torments, and weepe, and waile, 16 saying, Alas, Alas; for that great Citie that was clothed with fine linnen, purple, and scarlet, and was of so glistering a pompe, as was gilded with gold, and decked with pretious stones and pearles: 17 For loe now how in one houre all her riches and pompe is evanished, and all the gouernours and owners of ships, and all the multitudes of men in the ships, and all the marriners in them, and all these who gaine their liuing vpon the sea, shal stand afarre off for feare, 18 And cry, seeing the smoke of her burning, saying with a great admiration, Who was like in power or [Page 59]shining glorie to this Citie? 19 And for pittie of her decay, and sorow for wanting by that meanes, the carrying to her from all other countries all sorts of merchandise, they shall cast dust and ashes vpon their heades, and say, Alas, Alas for that great Citie, wherein was made rich all these that had shippes vpon the sea, by the prices and trade shee made vs haue, and now she is made desolate in one houre: 20 But although the earthly men bee sorrowfull for her fall, as yee haue heard, because they want their earthly commodities and pleasures thereby, which she whose religion was earthly, to wit, founded vpon mens traditions and inuentions, and maintained by earthly pompe and power, did make them enioy; yet reioyce yee heauens for her fall, and ye holy Apostles and Prophets be glad thereof; for God, in punishing her hath reuenged your cause. 21 Then for confirmation of this Prophesie of her destruction, I sawe a strong Angel take a great stone like a milstone, and cast it in the sea, saying, Euen with such a force shall Ba­bylon that great Citie be casten downe, and the very place thereof shall no more be found, as Ieremy prophesied of corporall Babylon. 22 And the sound of harpers, and musitians, and players on pipes and trumpets shall no more be heard in thee; for no ioy nor mirth shall any more bee in that Monarchie, or the seate thereof, nor no craftes-man of any craft shall bee found in thee, neither shall the grinding of the mill be heard any more in thee; for that Citie, or seate and Monarchie shall no more bee inhabited: 23 And the light of a candle shal be no more found in thee, and the voice of the husband and the wife shall no more be heard in thee; for as it shall not be inhabited any more by the wicked, so neither shall the godly dwell therein; so accursed shall it be, so as the lampes of the fiue virgins shall not burne there, neither shall Christ and his spouse, the true Church any more be there, although that during the standing of that Monarchie, some cho­sen, though few and secret, were, and at all times shall be, euen within that City, the seate thereof, whose merchants were the great men of the earth, and with whose witchcrafts all nations wereseduced. 24 And the blood of the Prophets, and of the Saints was found in her, and of all them that were slaine vpon the earth, to wit, this plague of destruction shall iustly fall vpon her, aswell for that she made her messengers or embassadours, who are great in power, (as yee heard before) to bee the sellers of her Par­dons, Prayers, Sacraments, Merits, and euen of the sinnes, and soules of men, as ye haue presently heard; and so by that meanes and the like, bewit­ched, as it were, and abused many nations; as also for that shee had cruelly persecuted and murthered the Saints, so as the blood of all the Saints since Abel, who willingly sacrificed their liues for the loue of Gods trewth, and for the testimonie of his Sonne, shall be layd vpon her head, and imputed vnto her, in following, fulfilling, and exceeding the rage of former Ty­rants, oppressing and persecuting the Church of God.

CHAP. XIX.

ARGVMENT.

The Saints praise God for ioy that the Pope is destroyed: The glorious forme of Christes second comming set downe at large: The Pope and his Church is condemned for euer.

THen according to the voyces speaking to the heauen, and Prophets and Apostles there, to wit, that they should re­ioyce as much for the fall of Babylon, as the vnregenerate men did lament therefore, as ye haue heard; according, I say, to this exhortation, I heard the voyce of a great multi­tude in heauen, saying, Hallelu-iah, which is if ye interpret it, Praise God with a lowde voyce, Saluation, honour, glorie, and power is onely with our Lord God: 2 For true and iust are his Iudgements, and he hath condemned that great Whore, who hath defiled the earth with her whoredome, and he with his hand hath reuenged vpon her the blood of his seruants: 3 Then for the second time they said, Hallelu-iah; for the smoake of her destru­ction goeth vp in all worlds to come, for she shall neuer rise againe, but shalbe burned with a perpetuall fire. 4 And likewise for thankesgiuing for the same, the foure and twentie Elders fell downe vpon their faces be­fore God, and adored him, and the foure Beasts also adored God sitting vp­on his Throne, and all the beasts and Elders said with one voyce, Amen, Hallelu-iah. 5 And I heard a voyce come from the Throne, to wit, from one of the foure beastes that supported it, saying, Praise our God all ye his Seruants, and all ye that feare him, small and great. 6 And then con­formely to that direction I heard, as it had bene the sound or voyce of a great multitude, and as it had bene the sound of many waters, and as the sound of great thunders, to wit, the voyce of all the Creatures in heauen, whose sound in greatnes might be compared to the noise of many waters, or to the roaring of the thunder, and they said all in one Voyce, Hallelu-iah, because our Lord God Almightie hath now reigned by destroying Baby­lon, and her followers. 7 Let vs therefore reioyce and be glad, and render him all glory: for the Marriage of the Lambe is come, to wit, the latter Day is at hand, and his wife hath made herselfe ready for him, to wit, his Church is now purified from among the wicked. 8 And it was giuen vnto her to clothe herselfe with pure and bright linnen, which is the iustification of the Saints; for as fine linnen is a pure bright, white, and pretious stuffe, so are the Saints clothed with that pretious vndefiled, and glorious garment of righteousnes through imputation; And this our garment of Iustifica­tion, with the which we shalbe clothed at the latter day, must onely come of his righteousnesse, so (as ye presently heard,) it must be giuen vs by him; for as of our selues we cannot thinke a good thought, so can we merit no­thing but eternall death, and when we haue done all the good workes we [Page 61]can, we must thinke our selues but improfitable seruants, as Christ him­selfe said. 9 Then the same voyce, to wit, the voyce of the Angel that shewed me these things, said to me, Write and leaue in record to all poste­rities: Happie are they that are called to the Supper of the Lambes marriage, whereof thou thy selfe heard him speake parabolically; for those who are called, shall neuer againe be cast off, but are chosen for euer. And he said vnto me, these words of God are trew which I bad thee write, to leaue to posteritie, that God himselfe hath giuen this comfortable promise, which I haue specially willed thee to witnesse to thy Brethren, because it will come to passe in the later dayes, that this whoring and hereticall Babylon, shall diswade all her followers from trusting this promise, and so driue men to an vncertaintie of their Election. 10 And I fell downe at this Angels feete to haue adored him (so all flesh is giuen of it selfe, to adore some vi­sible thing which is idolatry, such is the corruption of our flesh, if it be not holden vp by grace from aboue,) but he did reproue me, and said, Beware thou doe it not: For although I be a more excellent creature of God then thou art, yet am I but thy fellow seruant, and so one of thy brethren, bearing the testimony of IESVS in heauen, to be his seruant and creature, as thou doest in earth: Adore therefore God onely, for no creature must either be prayed to, or adored, nor no mediation can come, but by Christ onely, and thinke mee not a God for prophesying thus vnto thee, (for the wit­nessing of Christ is the Spirit of prophesie) for that gift is common to others, aswell as to mee, and it is the same Spirit of prophesie, albeit not the same gift of it that foretells things to come, which giues grace to all the Elect, to beare trew and constant record of Christ. 11 Then I saw thereafter the forme of the day of Iudgement; for I saw the Hea­uens open, and loe, a white horse came downe from them, (of this white horse yee heard in the first Seale) and hee that sate vpon him, to wit, Christ, was called faithfull and trew, for by giuing Iudgement, hee was now to performe his promise; and hee was also called, Hee that iustly iudgeth, and fighteth, for hee was presently to iudge the world, and to con­demne perpetually all the reprobate: 12 And his eyes were like the flames of fire, (as yee heard in the beginning of this Epistle) and on his head were many diademes, for now he was to reigne eternally ouer all the kingdomes of the earth, as the Elders did sing in the seuenth Trumpet; and he had a Name written vpon him, which no man did know but himselfe; for the mysterie of his Name of Redemptor is so profound, as no creature is able to comprehend it by wisedome; and therefore I heard himselfe say, that no Angel, no not himselfe in so farre as he is man, did foreknow the day of his last comming, which shall be the fulfilling of that mysterie. 13 And he was clothed with a garment dipt in blood, wherewith the gar­ments of the soules of Martyrs are washed, as ye heard in the fift Seale, and he is named, The word of God, as I did shew you in the beginning of my Euangel. 14 And the hostes of Angels and Saints in heauen, followed [Page 62]him vpon white horses clothed in white, and pure linnen, whereof yee heard alreadie: 15 And from his mouth came foorth a sharpe sword, as ye heard in the beginning of this Epistle, that he might strike the Gentiles therewith; for hee shall rule them with a rod of yron, as Dauid sayth, and he treadeth, to wit, giueth command and power to tread the lake or sea of the vine of the fury and wrath of God Almightie, as ye heard in the se­uenth Trumpet: 16 And he hath vpon his garment, and vpon his thigh, as the strongest part of his body, this name written, The King of kings, and Lord of lords. 17 And I saw an Angel standing in the Sunne, that there he might be seene publikely of all, and that the Whole world might take heed to that which he was to proclaime, and he cried with a loude voice to all the fowles flying through the middest of heauen, Come and gather your selues to the supper of the Lord; 18 To eate the flesh of Kings, of Tribunes, of mightie men, of horses and of their riders: in short, come eate the flesh of all free-men and slaues, great and small: This was to de­clare, that the day of Iudgement was come, wherein should that destru­ction ensue, signified by fowles eating their flesh, (because fowles vse to eate the flesh of dead men vnburied) which should ouerwhelme all sorts of men, excepting alwayes these that were marked, who were sundry times excepted before, as ye heard. 19 Then I saw that beast, to wit, Ba­bylon, together with the kings of the earth who tooke her part, and their armies gathered together, to make warre with him that sate vpon the white horse, and with his armie: 20 But the Beast was taken, together with the false prophet, or false Church, which by her false miracles seduced the nations that did beare the Character of the Beast, and adored his image, as ye heard before, and they were both cast quicke in the lake of fire burning with brimstone: 21 And the rest were slaine by the sword which came out of his mouth, that sate vpon the horse, and the fowles were filled with their flesh; for how soone Christ shall come to Iudgement, then shall all the enemies of God be destroyed, and so full victory obtained of this bat­tell, whereof yee heard in the sixt Trumpet, and sixt phiale, and shall heare farther hereafter: And chiefly Babylon, and the false Church shall be cast into hell, because they merit double punishment for the abusing of men, although they shall not also want their damnation that followeth them, as is signified by their slaughter with the sword of his mouth, whereof yee heard in the beginning of this Epistle, and by the fowles eating their flesh, as ye presently perceiue.

CHAP. XX.

ARGVMENT.

The summe and recapitulation of all the former visions, to wit, the first estate of the Church in all puritie after Christ: The heresies, and specially the Popedome that followed: The destruction thereof, in their greatestrage: The latter day: The saluation of the Elect, and condemnation of all others.

THe Spirit of God hauing now shewen vnto me the estate of the Church militant, with the speciall temptations and troubles of the same, from the death of Christ to the con­summation of the world, and their ioyfull deliuerance and victory at that time, by the first sixe Seales; and next more amply by the seuenth Seale, wherin were the seuen trumpets; and thirdly, her greatest temptations and troubles, more cleerely and at large, by the vi­sion of the woman, persecuted by the Dragon; and lastly, the cleere and ample description, and damnation of Babylon, that great persecuter, the sorrow of the earth, and ioy of heauen therefore: This vision now that ye shall presently heare, was next shewen vnto me, to serue for a summe as it were, and a short recapitulation of the whole Prophecie, so often reitera­ted before; which is here diuided in three parts: First, the happy estate of Christes Church, though not in the eyes of the world, from his first com­ming to a long time after, as was declared by the first Seale: Next, the grieuous troubles and temptations, vnto the which shee shall be subiect thereafter, as was declared by the third and fourth Seale; and by the third, fourth, fift, and sixt blastes of the Trumpets: And thirdly, the destructi­on of all her enemies, her ioyfull deliuerance, and the consummation, as was declared by the sixt Seale, the seuenth Trumpet, the seuenth phiale, and the comming downe of the white horse, which in my last words be­fore these, yee heard described: But specially in this vision is declared, the punishment at the latter day of the deuill himselfe, before the destruction onely of his instruments, being mentioned, as ye formerly heard. The vi­sion then was this; 1 I saw an Angel come downe from heauen, and he had the key of the bottomlesse pit, and a great chaine in his hand: 2 And hee tooke the dragon, to wit, the ancient serpent, who is the deuill and Sa­tan, to wit, the Tempter, and bound him for the space of a thousand yeres: 3 And did cast him in the bottomlesse pit, and closed him in there, that it should not be opened, that he might come foorth and seduce the nations, till the space of a thousand yeeres were completed and past, for thereafter he must be loosed for a short space. 4 Then I saw seats, and persons sit­ting vpon them, and iudgment or power of iudging was giuen vnto them: And I also saw the soules of them who were beheaded, or otherwise put to death, for the testimonie of Christ, and the word of God, and adored not the Beast, nor tooke his image, neither his character on their foreheads, [Page 64]nor on their hands: These shal liue and reigne with Christ, the space of the thousand yeres ye heard: 5 But the rest of the dead shal not reuiue, till the space of these yeres be complete: This is the first resurrectiō. 6 Blessed and holy is he that is partaker of the first resurrection; for ouer such the second death shal haue no power, but they shalbe Priests of God and Christ, & shal reigne with him for euer. This is the first part of the diuision, wherof I pre­sently told you, to wit, Christ by his passion did bind the deuill, who before was raging in the world, and closed him in hell by the remouing of the vaile of blindnes from the whole earth, which remained so the space of a thou­sand yeres, to wit, a long space, & all that time the deuil remained bound and casten into hell by Christ, who only hath power of it; so as in all that space, the nations were not seduced: for the efficacie of heresies was not yet cro­pen in, and the Saints and Church visible shal so increase, albeit in the midst of persecution all this time, and so retaine the purity of the trewth, as by the glory of their constancie, and patience in the time of their persecution, they shall as it were reigne ouer the earth, and by their Martyrdome be Iudges therof; for it is called Christs reigning and the Saints vpon the earth, when his word, and trew professours thereof, shine visibly therein, as I haue said: and these were they who adored not the beast, to wit, they are the elect, who were predestinate before all beginnings, to be preserued from all infections and heresies, which is generally represented by this part of them, that the beast or Babylon shal raise and maintaine, as the greatest and most perillous that euer shall be raised by Satan: And the honourable sitting of the Saints and soules of Martyrs was shewed to me, to assure me, that how soone the soule of any faithfull man is parted from the body, it ascendeth immediatly vnto heauen, there abiding in all glory, the reioyning againe of his glorified body at the latter day, coniunctly to possesse all glory in heauen eternally; like as by the contrary, the reprobate soule, how soone it parteth from the body of the wicked, goes down immediatly to hell, there abiding in all tor­ment, the knitting again with his cursed body at the latter day, there iointly to be subiect to eternall paine; neither is there any resting place by the way for any of them: and the rest of the dead, to wit, all the wicked, shal not be re­uiued while this space be complete; for the wicked shall neither during this space, nor at any time thereafter, taste of the regeneration, which is the first resurrection, and second birth, as Christ said to Nicodemus: and therfore, as I said already, Blessed and happy are they who are partakers of the first resurrection, for the second death, to wit, hell, shall haue no power of them, but they shall be Priests of God and Christ, and reigne with him these thousand yeeres, to wit, they shal eternally in heauen offer vp that Eucharisticall Sacrifice of praise to God, and so be ioyned in fellowship with the chosen, which were vpon the earth in that aforesaid time. This first part of this vision is begun al­readie; now followeth the next part. 7 And when these happy dayes are expired, then shal the deuill be loosed out of his prison: 8 And he shal go forth with greater liberty to seduce the nations which are in the four airths [Page 65]of the earth, to wit, he shal not only, after the spreding of many heresies, cause a general blindnes & defection, but also make a great persecution vpon the faithful Church, by gathering Gog and Magog to battell against them, whose number is like the sand of the sea, to wit, after innumerable troubles, at last he shall gather to the great day of the battell of the Lord (of the which ye heard in the sixt Trumpet, and sixt phiale, and last immediately before this Vision) Gog and Magog, to wit, two great seates of Monarchies and Ty­rannies ouer the Church, who both at one time shall rise in the latter dayes, and both at another time shalbe destroyed by the blast of Christes breath, as ye shall heare; whereof the one is the auowed, and professed enemie of GOD, and his CHRIST, but the other is Babylon, the hypocriticall and most dangerous aduersary: Of these two ye heard in the sixt Trumpet, and so these two, although pride, and enuie, shall still keepe a rooted ma­lice betwixt them, yet they shall both with innumerable forces, make warre against the trew Church, as Herod and Pilate did band themselues against Christ, notwithstanding the particular dislikes which were be­twixt them: It is these and their forces that must fight against the Saints at Arma-geddon, as ye heard in the sixt phiale, and the special drawers on of this battell shalbe the three frogs, who are the last vermin, bred of the smoake of the bottomlesse pit, as ye also heard in the said phiale. 9 These great forces then went vp vpon the earth; for the diuel raised them out of the bottomlesse pit, and they spread themselues vpon the breadth of the earth, so great was their number, and compassed the Tents or dwellings of the Saints, and the holy Citie; for they were prepared to inuade the trew Church on all sides, and by all meanes, but the fire came downe from hea­uen and deuoured them; for God by his Almighty power, euen when their power was greatest, and nothing so like, as an apparant rooting out of all the faithfull, in rebus desperatis, did miraculously confound all the aduer­saries of his Church: And now comes in the third and last part of this Vi­sion, to wit, the description of the Consummation: 10 For I did see the diuel, who seduced these wicked, cast into a lake of fire and brimstone, to wit, in hell, out of the which he shall neuer come againe, where also the beast, and the false prophet were, as ye heard before; Here now I saw the diuel punished eternally, to my greater comfort, for troubling the Church, where before I saw onely his instruments punished, as I said in the begin­ning of this Vision: and he and his instruments shall be tormented there day and night, to wit, incessantly for euer and euer. 11 Then I saw a great white Throne, and one sitting thereupon in all glory and bright­nesse, to wit, IESVS CHRIST, now comming from heauen, to iudge the earth: and from his sight fled the earth and the heauen, and their place was not found; for the whole earth, and much of the heauen shall be de­stroyed and renewed at his last comming. 12 And I saw all the dead, great and small, standing in GOD his sight; for then is the resurrection of the dead, who at that time must be iudged: And the bookes were opened, [Page 66] to wit, the counsels, and secrets of all mens hearts; and another booke, to wit, the booke of Life was opened, to the effect that all those whose names were written into it, to wit, predestinated and elected for saluation before all beginnings, might there be selected for eternall Glory: And the dead were iudged out of these things which were written in the bookes, accor­ding to their workes; for as God is a Spirit, so iudgeth he the thoughts of man, and so by faith onely iustifies him, which notwithstanding is done according to his workes, because they, as the fruits of faith, cannot be sepa­rated from it, and beare witnesse of the same to men in the earth. 13 And the Sea gaue vp all the dead she had; for all the dead must then rise, as I haue shewed already; And death and hell gaue vp all they had, for not onely the bodies, but euen the soules of the wicked shalbe iudged there, and euery one was iudged according to his workes, as I presently did shew you. 14 And hell and death were casten in the Lake of fire, which is the second death, to wit, hell and death shall then be closed vp for euer within them­selues, and shall neuer againe come forth to trouble the Saints; for death, which is the last enemie, shallbe abolished from holy Ierusalem for euer. 15 And whosoeuers name is not found written in the booke of Life, is casten into the Lake of fire; for not onely the publike euill doers, but euen whosoeuer is not predestinate for saluation, shall at that time be casten into hell, for there is no midway; but whosoeuer gathereth not with Christ, he scattereth, as I shew before.

CHAP. XXI.

ARGVMENT.

A large and glorious description of the Church Triumphant in Heauen: and of all the members of that holy and Eternall Ierusalem.

NOw the Spirit of God hauing by this last vision made a summe and recapitulation of all the former, as yee haue heard, he, by this following and last vision, declareth, and gloriously describeth the reward of all them, who constant­ly perseuere vnto the end, in the trew seruice of God, not­withstanding all the assaults of Sathan, which ye haue heard dilated: the reward was then, to be eternall inheritours of holy Ierusalem, as yee shall presently heare. 1 For I saw a new heauen and a new earth: it is ouer this new heauen and new earth that the faithfull should reigne kings, and priests for euer, as yee heard before: And the first heauen, and the first earth went away, neither was the sea any more; for all shall be burnt with fire at the consummation, which fire shall renew them, and take away their corruption and mutablitie, releeuing them from the seruitude of death, to the liberty of the glory of the sonnes of God; who notwithstanding shall not dwel there but in heauen. 2 And euen I Iohn saw the holy new City [Page 67] Ierusalem comming downe from heauen, made ready of God like a bride, that is decked for her bridegroome: For this holy Church triumphant shal come downe in all shining glorie to meete Christ her husband, when hee shall haue iudged the world, (as ye haue heard before) to bee incorporated and ioyned with him for euer. 3 And I heard a mighty voyce from hea­uen, saying, for confirmation of this happy coniunction; Loe the Taber­nacle of God, and his dwelling place is with men, and hee will now dwell with them for euer, and they shall be his people, and he shall be a God with them, and their God: 4 And God shall wipe all teares from their eyes; for they shall feele no more any sorow, as ye haue often heard before, and death shall be no more, neither shal any sorow, crying, or dolour euer be in that Church triumphant; for the first are gone away, and all these things then shall haue an end. 5 And then hee that sate vpon the Throne, to wit, God the Father, said, Loe, I make new or renew all things, and he said vnto me, Write, and leaue in record what thou hast seene: for surely these words are faithfull and trew, and shall come certainely to passe. 6 And he also said vnto me, It is done, for when these things shall come to passe, then is the full accomplishment of all things, I am A and Ω, to wit, the be­ginning, and the ending of all things: For as I made the Creation, so shall I cause the Consummation. And I shall giue to him that thirsteth, of the fountaine of water of life, freely, or for nothing, to wit, he will grant salua­tion to all them who cal vpon him for it, and that for nothing; for it cōmeth of his free mercie, and not of any merit in vs: How foolish then are they to be accompted, who contemning that saluation which they may obtaine for the crauing, buie with their siluer a counterfeit saluation from Babylon, as ye heard before? 7 And he that ouercommeth Satan and his owne flesh shall possesse all, to wit, he shall be a full inheritour of Gods kingdome, and I shall be a God to him, and he shall be a sonne to me: 8 But for all them who are fearefull and vnbeleeuing, not hauing a sure confidence and trust in my promises, and for execrable men, and murtherers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all lyers, for all these sorts of men, I say, there is place appointed in that lake, which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death. 9 Then there came vnto me one of these seuen Angels, which had the seuen phials ful of the seuen last plagues, and he sayd vnto me, Come and I will shew vnto thee the Bride, which is the Wife of the Lambe: for this Angel was directed to shewe mee the glorie of this holy Hierusalem, the Church triumphant, not to satisfie my curiosity therewith, but that I might leaue in record to all posterities to come, not as a hearer onely, but as an Oculatus testis, what glorious, and eternall reward did abide all the faithfull. 10 And so he tooke me vp in the Spirit to a high and great Mountaine; for it became well, that so glorious a sight should be shewen vpon so eminent a place, and there hee did shew mee a great Citie, to wit, that holy Ierusalem, comming downe from heauen, and from God, as ye heard before. 11 And it had the glory of God in it, and [Page 68]the light or brightnesse of it, was like vnto the glittering of a most pretious stone, yea euen like the greene Iasper in flourishing eternitie, and like the cleare Cristall in shining brightnesse; 12 And this Citie had a great and high wall, to hold out all them who had not the marke of the Lambe, as ye shall heare after, and to protect the Citizens from all blastes of troubles, for all teares will then bee wipte from their eyes, as ye heard before; And this Citie had also twelue gates, and in them twelue Angels, and their names were written vpon them, which were the names of the twelue Tribes of the sonnes of Israel. 13 And there were three gates towards the East, three towards the West, three towards the South, and three to­wards the North, to signifie that out of all parts and places of the world, and whatsoeuer thy vocation be, if thou call to God with an vpright heart, thou shalt find that the entrance into the Citie, is equally distributed about the same. 14 And the wall of the Citie had twelue foundations, where­upon were written the twelue names of the Apostles of the Lambe: These twelue Angels of the twelue gates, and twelue foundations of the wall, are the foure and twentie Elders, of whom ye heard in the beginning of this my Epistle; the twelue Angels of the twelue gates, are the twelue Pa­triarkes, who were the first teachers of the way, and so the guides to this holy Ierusalem; for by the Law which they represent, we must first beginne to know the trewth, and to know our selues: and the twelue foundations are we, the twelue Apostles, for vpon our doctrine is that wall founded which hedgeth in the Saints in an eternall securitie, and debarreth all o­thers. 15 And the Angel who spake with me, had a golden reed in his hand, to measure therewith the Citie, and the gates, and the walles of the same, thereby to signifie the iust proportion and symmetrie, that shall be among all the parts of this holy Citie. 16 And this Citie was foure­square, because of the gates towards the foure parts of the earth, to receiue indifferently the commers out of any of them, as yee heard before; And it was alike long and broad, to signifie the infinite bounds thereof: and hee measured the Citie with his reed, and it came to twelue thousand furlongs: this number also expresseth the great bounds of this Citie; for it is here vsed for a number of perfection, as sundry times before: And this Citie was alike in length, breadth and height, for all the parts of it were alike large. 17 And the Angel did measure the wall of it, and it was an hun­dred and foure and fourtie cubites of height: this number is correspon­dent to the number of Saints, who were standing with the Lambe on Mount Sion, as ye heard before; and the measure wherewith this was mea­sured, was the measure of the man, which is the measure of the Angel; This Citie is measured with the measure of CHRIST, God and man, to teach vs that he is onely the Architectour of this Spirituall Citie, which he mea­sureth by his cubites, and not by the cubites of any man. 18 And the fabricke of the wall of the Citie, was composed of Iasper, to signifie that the wall thereof shall stand eternally: and the Citie it selfe was of pure [Page 69]gold, and like to cleere glasse, whereon no filth will remaine. 19 And the twelue foundations of the Citie were decked with all kind of precious stones: the first foundation was of Iasper, the second of Saphire, the third of Chalcedonie, the fourth of Emerald, 20 The fift of a Sardonix, the sixt of a Sardius, the seuenth of a Chrysolite, the eight of a Berill, the ninth of a Topaze, the tenth of a Chrysophrasus, the eleuenth of an Hyacinth, the twelfth of an Amethist: These twelue sundry stones, one for euery one of the foundations, signifie, that we, the twelue Apostles, who are these twelue foundations (as ye heard) shall euery one receiue a diuers reward and crowne of glory, according to the greatnesse and excellencie of our labours in the earth: these twelue precious stones allude also to the twelue precious stones in Aarons brestplate. 21 And the twelue gates were of twelue pearles, and euery gate of a sundry pearle; (this signifies the like of the Patriarches) and the Market place of the Citie was of pure golde, and like the glistering glasse, signifying thereby, as by an euident token, that seeing the Market place (which is the commonest place of euery towne) of this spirituall City, is of so fine and bright stuffe, that no base, and vn­cleane thing shall be in any part thereof: 22 And I saw no Temple in it, for the Lord God Almightie, euen the Lambe, is the Temple of it, for no other shall be there wherein God must be praised, but the person of Christ, in whom all the faithfull shall be incorporated, as I said before. 23 And this Citie shall neede no Sunne nor Moone to shine in it, for the glory of God hath made it bright, and the Lambe is the lampe thereof; for as it is no corporall paradise nor dwelling place on earth, which is heere spoken of, so is no part of the glory thereof earthly, but cele­stiall and spirituall: 24 And the Gentiles which are saued, shall walke in that light, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory vnto that citie; for all the faithfull kings shall resigne all their worldly glory in that citie, and receiue a new and incorruptible glory from the Lambe, who is the light thereof: 25 And the gates thereof shall not be shut in the day time; for there shall neuer be any suspicion of trouble there, for which cause worldly cities often shut their gates, and the night shall neuer be there, but an eternall brightnesse through all. 26 And the honour and the glory of the nations shall be brought into her, for all their worldly glory shalbe nothing in respect of the glory of this City. 27 And there shall nothing enter into this Citie that defileth or is defiled, nor no man that committeth any abominable deed, or that speakes lies, but onely these shall haue entrance into this holy City, whose names are written in the Lambe his booke of Life, as ye heard before.

CHAP. XXII.

ARGVMENT.

The rest of the same description: Mans pronenesse of his owne nature to idola­trie: The Writer tells his name, that no man may doubt who was the writer of this Booke, and who endited the same: The faithfull ought to wish the com­ming of the latter day: The curse vpon them who adde or take from this Booke, and vse it not aright.

THen to the effect that I might know that the inhabitants of this holy Citie, were as well eternall, as the walles and glory of the same, this Angel did shew vnto me the cleere and pure flood of the water of life, whereof Christ pro­mised to giue the Samaritane to drinke, as I said before: and it was cleere like crystall, and it flowed from the Throne of God, and the Lambe: This Riuer alludeth to that spring of Ezechiel, which came foorth from vnder the Temple floore; and it also alludeth to the Riuers of earth­ly Paradise: 2 And in the middest of the market place, and on either side of this Riuer, did grow the Tree of Life, hauing twelue maner of fruits, euery moneth bearing once, and bearing leaues for the health of the Gen­tiles: This Tree, and this water of Life, are the heauenly meat and drinke, meant by Christ, when the Capernaites were scandalized with his do­ctrine, as ye read in the Euangel written by me; and of this Tree and wa­ter were those of Ezechiel, and in earthly paradise the figures: the number of the fruits thereof answereth to the number of the tribes of Israel, who through eating the fruits thereof by faith, obtained saluation; as likewise the varietie and plentie of ioyes to all the faithfull there; and as it bare fruit to the Iewes for food, that is, to satisfie them, so it did beare leaues to the Gentiles, who being healed by these leaues of all spiritual diseases, were not onely preserued, but also prepared and got appetite thereby, to eat and turne into nutriment, or spirituall strength and contentation, the fruites thereof: This tree grew on euery side of the water of Life, to signifie that they are both but one thing and inseparable, both proceeding from the mightie and mercifull Throne of God, and his Lambe, and they were both in the middest of the Market place, to signifie by their being in so com­mon a place, that as they are the support, strength and comfort of the Church triumphant, or holy Citie, so all the in-dwellers therein haue the like free accesse thereunto, and are all alike participant thereof: 3 And no accursed thing shall be any more, for then shall hell and death be confi­ned, and restrained within themselues for euer, as ye heard in the former vision: for the seat and throne of God and his Lambe, shall remaine in this holy Citie for euer; and all his seruants shall be there, seruing him eternal­ly by thankesgiuing and praises: 4 And they shall see his face, and be e­uer reioycing at his presence, hauing his name written vpon their fore­heads, [Page 71]as yee haue often heard. 5 And no night nor darkenesse shall be there at all, neither haue they need of lampes, nor of light of the Sunne, nor any materiall light, for the Lord God makes them bright, as yee haue heard alreadie: and they shall reigne there in all glory for euer and euer. 6 Then the Angel, after all these things had beene reuealed vn­to me, sayde vnto me for the confirmation of them, All the wordes of this Prophecie are trew and faithfull, and the same Lord GOD who inspired from time to time his holy Prophets to forewarne his Church of things to come, hee also sent his Angel vnto mee, that by me hee might reueale vnto his seruants these things that are shortly to come to passe. 7 Loe, I come shortly, sayth the Lord, happy is hee there­fore that obserueth and obeyeth the wordes of the Prophecie in this Booke. 8 And I Iohn am he who haue heard and seene these things: I declare you my name the oftener, lest the authority of the Booke should be called in doubt, through the vncertaintie of the Writer: And when I had heard and seene these things, I fell at the Angels feet that shewed me them, with mind to haue adored him: 9 But he said vnto me, See thou doe it not, I am thy fellow-seruant, and one of thy Brethren the Prophets, although I be an Angel, and one of them which keepeth and obeyeth the words of this Booke: adore thou therefore God, to whom all worship onely apper­taineth: By this my reiterated fall and offence, notwithstanding that lately before I had committed the same, and was reprooued for it, and warned to forbeare it, as ye heard before, I am taught, and by my example the whole Church, of the great infirmitie of all mankind, and specially in that so great an offence of the adoring of creatures, whereof God is so iealous, as he saith in his Lawe: and vpon consideration of man his infirmitie in this point, not I, but the Spirit of God by me, in the very last words of one of my E­pistles, saith, Deare children, beware of Idoles: and in this I insist so much not without a cause; For I know that Babylon in the latter dayes, shall special­ly poison her followers with this spirituall adulterie or idolatrie, as ye haue heard mention made in this Booke. 10 And the Angel said vnto me, Seale not the words of the Prophecie of this Booke, for the time is at hand. Yee heard before, how I was commanded to seale that which the seuen Thun­ders spake, because it was not lawfull for me to reueale the same: but now on the contrarie I am commanded to write, and forbidden to seale these Prophecies, because I am appointed to reueale the same, in respect that the time of their accomplishment is at hand. 11 And hee also said vnto mee, Despaire thou not of the effect of this Prophecie, although it profite no­thing the wicked, but to make them the more inexcusable: For God hath fore-signified, that he who doeth harme, notwithstanding this Prophecie shall yet continue his wrongs; and hee who is filthie, shall yet notwith­standing this remaine filthie; euen as on the other part, it shall confirme and encrease the iust man in his iustnesse, and the holy man in his holines: for it is not the words of Prophecie spoken, but the Spirit which is coope­rant [Page 72]with it, which makes the seed of faith to take root in any mans heart. 12 Loe I come speedily, saith the Lord IESVS, and bring my reward with me, to render to euery man according to his workes, as ye haue heard be­fore. 13 I am A and Ω, the beginning and the end; the first and the last, as ye haue heard already. 14 Happie are they who obey and keepe Christes commandements, that they may haue right and part in the tree of life; (for by obeying they shall be made Citizens of that holy Citie, of the which that is the food) and that they may enter at the gates to that Citie: for the gates shall be readie and open to receiue them: 15 But without this Citie, as debarred thence, shall bee Dogges, to wit, all prophane liuers, fornicators, sorcerers, murtherers, and idolaters, and all who loue, and make lies; and shortly all, who continue in any kind of knowen sinne with­out repentance. 16 IIESVS, saith the Lord, sent my Angel to reueale these things to Iohn, that they might be testified to you the seuen Churches: I am the root and off-spring of Dauid, and I am the bright morning Starre, to wit, the fountaine of all your glorie. 17 And the Spirit, and the Bride saith, Come, to wit, the Church; for they for their deliuerance wish his se­cond comming to be hastened, and Christ, for the loue he beareth them, hath graunted them their request: and he that heares it, let him say, Come, for it becommeth all the faithfull to wish it: And he that thirsteth let him come, to wit, he that would drinke of the water of life, let him craue earnest­ly the dissolution and latter day: And let any who will, receiue the water of life freely and for nothing, as ye heard before. 18 And I protest vnto all that shall heare the words of the Prophesie of this Booke, that if any man adde vnto it any thing, God shall make all the plagues in this Booke to fall on him. 19 And if any man take away any thing from the words of the Booke of this Prophesie, God shal take his part away out of the book of life, and out of the holy Citie, and out of these blessings that are written in this Booke: For whosoeuer in coping or translating this Booke, adulte­rateth any waies the Originall, or in interpreting of it, wittingly strayes from the trew meaning of it, and from the analogie of Faith, to follow the fantasticall inuention of man, or his owne preoccupied opinions; he I say, that doeth any of these, shalbe accursed as a peruerter of the trewth of God and his Scriptures. 20 And now I will conclude with this comfort vnto you, to wit, He, euen Christ, that testifies these things that ye haue heard: he I say, doeth say, Surely I come shortly. Euen so come Lord IESVS to hasten our deliuerance. 21 The Grace of our Lord IESVS CHRIST be with you all, and all your successours in trew doctrine, by the which both yee and they may be so strengthened in the trewth, that by your resisting all the temptations contained in this Booke, and constantly perseuering to the end, yee may at last receiue that immortall Crowne of glorie mentioned in the last Vision. AMEN.

A FRVITFVLL MEDI­TATION, CONTAINING A PLAINE AND EASIE EXPOSITION, OR laying open of the VII. VIII. IX. and X. Verses of the 20. Chapter of the REVELATION, in forme and maner of a Sermon.

THE TEXT.7 And when the thousand yeeres are expired, or ended, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison.8 And shall goe out to deceiue the people, which are in the foure quarters of the earth, euen Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battaile, whose num­ber are as the sand of the Sea.9 And they went vp to the plaine of the earth, which compassed the tents of the Saints about, and the beloued Citie: but fire came downe from God out of the heauen, and deuoured them.10 And the diuel that deceiued them, was cast into a lake of fire and brimstone, where that beast and that false prophet are, and shalbe tormented euen day and night for euermore.

THE MEDITATION.

AS of all Bookes the holy Scripture is most necessary for the instruction of a Christian, and of all the Scriptures, the Booke of the REVELATION is most meete for this our last aage, The necessi­tie of the knowledge of the Reuela­tion. as a Prophesie of the latter times: so haue I selected or chosen out this place thereof, as most proper for the action we haue in hand presently. A summe of the 20. Chap. of the Reue­lation. For after the A­postle IOHN had prophesied of the latter times, in the nineteenth Chapter afore-go­ing, he now in this twentieth Chapter gathered vp a summe of the whole, wherein are expressed three heads or principall points.

1. First, the happie estate of the Church, from Christs dayes, to the dayes of the defection or falling away of the Antichrist, in the first sixe verses of this 20. Chapter.

[Page 74]2 Next, the defection or falling away it selfe, in this place that I haue in hand, to wit, the seuenth, eight, ninth, and tenth verses.

3 Thirdly, the generall punishment of the wicked in the great day of Iudgement, from the tenth verse vnto the end of the Chapter.

The Apostle his meaning in this place then is this, The meaning of this present text. That after that Sa­tan then had bene bound a thousand yeeres, which did appeare by his dis­course afore-going, of the Saints triumphing in the earth, hee shall at last breake forth againe loose, and for a space rage in the earth more then euer before: but yet shall in the end be ouercome and confounded for euer..

It resteth now, knowing the summe, that we come to the exposition or meaning of the Verses; The order ob­serued in handling this text. and first expound or lay open by way of a Para­phrase the hardnesse of the words, next declare the meaning of them, and thirdly note what we should learne of all.

THE FIRST PART.

AS touching the wordes in them for order sake, wee may note: 1 First Satan his loosing: 2 next his doing, after he is loosed: 3 and last his vnhappie successe.

Then for the first, Satan in his instruments is loosed to trouble the Church. by Satan is meant not onely the Dra­gon, enemie to Christ and his Church, but also with him all the instruments in whom he ruleth, and by whom he ruleth, and by whom he vttereth his cruell and crafty intentions, specially the Antichrist and his Clergie, ioyned with the Dragon before in the 16. Chap. verse 17. and called the beast, and the false prophet. For as Christ and his Church are called after one Name, Christ, by reason of their most strait and neere vnion, and heauenly effects flowing there from, 1. Cor. 12.12. So Satan and his sinagogue are here rightly called Satan, The thou­sand yeeres. by reason of their vnion, and cur­sed effects flowing therefrom. These thousand yeeres, are but a number cer­taine for an vncertaine, which phrase or maner of speaking, is often vsed by the Spirit of God in the Scriptures, meaning a great number of yeeres.

Moreouer, The prison whereout Sa­tan is loosed. the prison whereout he is loosed, is the hels, which by the Spirit of God are called his prison, for two causes: 1 One, because during the time of this world, at times appointed by God, he is debarred from walking on the earth, 2. Pet. 2.4. Ind. ver. 6. and sent thither, greatly to his torment, as was testi­fied or witnessed by the miracle at Genezareth among the Gadarens, Matth. 8.28. 2 Next, because that after the consummation or end of the world, he shall be perpetually or for euer imprisoned therein, as is written in the same Chapter, ver. 10. Finally, he is loosed by interruption or hindering, and for the most part, The loosing of Satan. to the iudgement of men, abolition or ouerthrow of the sincere preaching of the Gospel, the true vse of the Sacraments, which are seales and pledges of the promises contained therein, and lawfull exer­cise of Christian discipline, whereby both Word and Sacraments are main­tained in purity, called in the first verse the great chaine, whereby the di­uell [Page 75]is bound and signified by the white horse, gouerned by the Lambe. Chap. 6. verse 2. So the meaning of all this 7. verse is this: The diuel, ha­uing bene bound, and his power in his instruments hauing bene restrai­ned for a long space, by the preaching of the Gospel, at the last he is loosed out of hell by the raising vp of so many new errors and notable euill in­struments, especially the Antichrist and his Clergie, who not onely infect the earth a new, but rule also ouer the whole, through the decrease of trew doctrine, and the number of the faithfull following it, and the dayly in­crease of errours, and nations following them, and beleeuing lies hating the trewth, and taking pleasure in vnrighteousnes, 2. Thess. 2.11, 12. And thus farre for Satan his loosing.

Now to the next, his doing after he is loosed. Satan first de­ceaueth, then allures to fol­low him, and in the end maketh all his to take armour a­gainst the Church. First he goeth out to se­duce or beguile the nations that are into the foure corners of the earth, and they become his, though in certaine degrees his tyrannie and trauaile appeareth, and bursteth out in some more then in others: For as all that doe good, are inspired of God thereto, and doe vtter the same in certaine degrees, according vnto the measure of grace granted vnto them: so all that doe euill, are inspired by Satan, and doe vtter the same in diuers de­grees, according as that vncleane spirit taketh possession in them, and by diuers obiects and meanes, allureth them to doe his will, some by ambiti­on, some by enuie, some by malice, and some by feare, and so forth: and this is the first worke.

Secondly, he gathereth Gog and Magog to battell, Gog and Ma­gog. in number like the sand of the Sea, and so he and his inclined to battell and bloodshed, haue migh­tie armies, and in number many, inflamed with crueltie. The special heads and rulers of their armies, or rather rankes of their confederats, to goe to battel and to fight, are twaine, here named Gog and Magog; Gog in Hebrew is called Hid, and Magog Reuealed, to signifie that in two sorts of men chiefly Satan shall vtter himselfe, to wit, hypocrites, and auowed or open enemies to God: It is said then that Satan shall in the latter times rule a new ouer the world, who shall stirre vp the nations vnder the banners of these two enemies to God, the hypocriticall and open, to spread themselues in great multitudes vpon the earth.

Thirdly, they shall ascend vpon the plaine of the earth, presumptuously and proudly, bragging of their number and force, and thinking none shall be able to resist their rage: They shall compasse and besiege the campes of the Saints, and beloued Citie, that is, the handfull of the faithfull beloued of the Lord, against whome, trusting in their vntellable number, like the sand of the sea, they shall make a cruell and vncessable warre.

The elect are called Saints and beloued, The Elect are the Saints and beloued Citie of God. because they are in the loue of God selected and seuered out, and by grace engraffed in Christ, in whom they are counted and found iustified, sanctified, worthy of loue and end­lesse glorie: Their faithfull fellowship is compared to Tents, and to a Ci­tie beloued, to signifie their continuall warfare in the earth against Satan [Page 76]and sinne, with all his instruments: their mutual amitie, and friendly con­iunction in loue among themselues, and ioyning together to maintaine the good cause that their God hath clad them with: but chiefly to signifie the mightie and al-sufficient protection or defence in prosperity and aduersity, flowing from God for their iust aide against all powers that can pursue, whereby they also become faire as the Moone, pure as the Sunne, terrible as an armie with banners, Cant. 1.6, 9. Yea as a defenced Citie, and yron pil­lar and wals of Brasse against the whole earth, Ierem. 1.18.

The summe then of Satan his doing after he is loosed, The summe of Satan his doing after he is loosed. is this: hee shall deceiue the nations: he shall gather an infinite number of hypocrites and open enemies together, inflamed with crueltie, and these shall in pridefull presumption fiercely bend themselues against the chosen of God, and his trewth professed by them. But what at last shall the successe be? surely most vnhappy: for fire shall come downe from heauen and deuoure them, and the diuell that deceiued them, and all his instruments, chiefly the Beast and false Prophet shall be cast in a lake of fire and brimstone, The vnhappy successe of Satan. and shall bee tor­mented day and night incessantly for euer and euer: that is, how greatly soeuer their brags be, how neere soeuer they shall appeare to be to obtaine their purpose, God from heauen, as the pallace and throne, wherefrom hee giueth proofe of his mercie towards his owne, and of his iustice toward his enemies, shall send plagues and destruction, as well ordinary, as extra­ordinarie vpon them: Ordinarie, by reuealing their wickednesse by the thundring mouthes of trew pastors, which is oft called fire in the Scrip­tures: Extraordinarie, by all corporall plagues to their vtter destruction, and vntellable torment for euer in the hels. Thus farre for the exposition or paraphrase of the words.

THE SECOND PART.

NOw followeth the interpretation of the sentence accor­ding to the order vsed in the first part. The putitie of the Gospel induring, stay­eth the Ante­christ his ri­sing. And first we must know what time these thousand or many yeres was in, and when, and how Satan was loosed. This time is to be found in the sixt Chapter, in the opening of the first three seales of the secret booke of God his prouidence by the Lambe, to wit, the time when the white, red, and blacke horses had their course in the world: And to speake more plainely, the Diuell his power did lurke, which is called his binding, and the Gospel did flourish in a reasonable puritie many hun­dreth yeeres after Christ, as the Ecclesiasticall histories beare witnesse: For in great puritie the Gospel did continue long, which is signified by the course of the white horse, albeit the professors were vnder the crosse signi­fied by the red horse, and troubled wonderfully by heretickes, signified by the blacke horse, by wormewood that fell in the Fountaines of waters in the third trumpet, and by waters that the dragon spewed out of his mouth, in the vision of the Dragon and the woman, chap. 12. This time did endure [Page 77]from Christ a space after Augustine his dayes, when the bloodie Sword of persecution ceasing, the whole Church began to be defiled with diuers he­resies, which comming vnto a mature and ripe heape, did produce or bring foorth the Antechrist, signified by the pale horse in the fourth seale, by the king of the Locusts in the fift trumpet, by Babylon in the 11 and 18. Chapter, by the second Beast rising out of the sea in the 13. Chapter, and by the woman clad with scarlet in the 17. chapter. The arisings of the he­resies, and the Antichrist breeding of their smoake, is in this place called the loosing of Satan.

Now followeth after this his loosing, what he doeth: The Gospel being hid, the Antichrist beginneth to breed & tend to his height. He deceiueth the nations vniuersally: he gathereth Gog and Magog with vntellable armies to fight, he climeth vpon the plaine of the earth, he compasseth the tents of the Saints, and the beloued Citie about: These are his doings.

Now because these actions are most liuely declared in other places of the same booke, I will shortly alleadge them to make the matter cleere by conference of places, expounding euery one another. It is said in the ninth chapter, that the Antichrist shall send out his locusts or Ecclesiasticall or­ders, by faire allurements to entice the world, to yeeld to his and their a­bominable heresies, and shall preuaile ouer the most part. It is said in the 11. chapter, that he shall persecute the Saints, kill the two witnesses, and shall reioyce with the kings of the earth, for their killing, as hauing beene the onely lets to his full glory. It is said in the 13. chapter, that he shall blas­pheme God in vsurping his power, that by the aduice and assistance of the false Prophet, or false Church, hee shall send out his Images or Embassa­dours through the world, persecuting and destroying them that will not obey him and them, and acknowledge his supremacie; yea, none shall be suffered to buy or sell, or vse ciuill societie, that acknowledgeth not his su­preme power and dignity. It is said in the 16. chapter, that God plaguing him for these foresaid abuses, he shall be so farre from repentance, as by the contrarie he shall finde out a new sort of vermin, that is, a new Ecclesiasti­call order, which are called their frogges, who shall mooue and entice the Princes of the earth to ioyne with him, and make warre against the faith­full, pressing vtterly to destroy them: and of that battell, and the end ther­of doeth this place make mention.

Now shortly ioyne all these together, and so obtaine the meaning. There shall arise an Antichrist and enemie to God and his Church: hee shall bee head of a false and hypocriticall Church: hee shall claime a supreme power in earth: he shall vsurpe the power of God: he shall deceiue men with a­busing locusts: he shall persecute the faithfull: none shall bee found that dare openly resist him: In the end, feeling his kingdome decay, and the trew Church beginning to prosper, he shall by a new sort of deceiuing spi­rits, gather together the Kings of the earth in great multitudes like the sands of the Sea, and by ioyning or at least suffering of that other great open enemy, he shall with these numbers compasse the campes of the faithfull, [Page 78]besiege the beloued Citie, make warre against the Saints: but victorie shal he not haue, and shame and confusion shalbe his, and all his partakers end.

Now whether the Pope beareth these markes or not, The Pope is Antichrist, and Poperie the loosing of Satan, from whom procee­deth false do­ctrine & cru­eltie to sub­uert the king­dom of Christ. let any indifferent man iudge; I thinke surely it expounds it selfe: Doeth he not vsurpe Christ his office, calling himselfe vniuersall Bishop and head of the Church? Play­eth he not the part of Apollyon, and Abaddon the king of the Locusts and de­stroyer, or sonne of perdition, in chopping and changing of soules be­twixt heauen, hell, and his fantasticke or imagined purgatorie at his plea­sure? Blasphemeth he not, in denying vs to be saued by the imputation of Christ his righteousnesse? Moreouer, hath hee not sent forth and abused the world with innumerable orders of locusts and shauelings? Hath hee not so fully ruled ouer the world these many hundreth yeeres, as to the fire went hee, whosoeuer hee was, that durst deny any part of his vsurped su­premacie? And hath he not of late dayes, seeing his kingdome going to decay, The Iesuites pernicious vermine. sent out the Iesuites, his last and most pernicious vermin, to stirre vp the Princes of the earth his slaues, to gather and league themselues to­gether for his defence, and rooting out of all them that professe Christ truely? And whereas the open enemie of God, the Turke was vnder bloo­dy warres with him euer before, is there not of late a truce among them, that the faithfull may be the more easily rooted out? And are not the ar­mies presently assembled, yea vpon the very point of their execution in France against the Saints there? In Flanders for the like; and in Germa­nie, by whom already the Bishop of Collein is displaced? And what is pre­pared and come forward against this Ile? Doe we not daily heare, and by all appearance and likelihood shall shortly see? Now may we iudge if this be not the time, whereof this place that I haue made choice doeth meane, and so the due time for the reuealing of this Prophecie. Thus farre for the interpretation of the sentence or meaning.

THE THIRD PART.

NOw I come to the last part, what we may learne of this place, which I will shortly touch in few points, and so make an end.

And first of the deuill his loosing by the rising of An­tichrist, for the iust punishment of the vnthankefull world hating the trewth, and delighting in lies, and manifesting of his owne chosen that stucke to the trewth; we haue two things to note: One for instruction, Man his sinne procureth God his iu­stice to loose Satan. that the iustice of God in respect of man his falling wilfully frō the trewth, (as Paul saith) iustly did send to the world the great abuser with efficacie of lies; as well to tyrannize spiritually ouer the con­science by heresie, as corporally ouer their bodies by the ciuill sword. And therefore we must feare to fall from the trewth reuealed and professed by vs, that we may be free from the like punishment. The other for our com­fort, that this tyrannie of the Antichrist, sifting out the chaffe from the [Page 79]corne, as our Master sayth, Backe-sl [...]ers [...] constant [...]hri­stians shall be crowned. Matth. 10.22. shall tend to the double condemnation of the fallers backe, and to the double crowne of glory, to the perseuerers or stan­ders out to the end. Blessed therefore are they that perseuere or stand out to the end, for they shall be saued.

Next, 2 of the number of nations in the foure quarters of the earth decei­ued, and companies gathered together to fight like the sand of the sea, The defecti­on or falling away vnder Antichrist, shall be vni­uersall. Wee are taught, that the defection or falling away vnder the Antichrist, was generall, and so no visible Church was there: whereof two things doe follow: One, the Church may be corrupted and erre: another, the Church may lurke, and be vnknowen for a certaine space.

Thirdly, of that that Satan is not content onely to deceiue, 3 Satan his chil­dren both de­ceiue, and per­secute. except hee also gather to the battell his instruments; we are informed of the implaca­ble or vnappeaseable malice, borne by Satan in his instruments against God in his members, who neuer ceaseth like a roaring Lyon (as Peter sayth) to goe about assailing to deuoure. This his malice is notably laid foorth in the 12. and 13. Chap. of this Booke: For it is said, that when he had spew­ed out great riuers of waters, that is, infinite heresies and lies to swallow vp the woman, and notwithstanding shee was deliuered therefro, yet a­gaine hee raised vp a beast out of the sea, the bloody Romane Empire by the sword, to deuoure her, and her seed; and that being wounded deadly, yet hee raiseth another beast foorth of the earth, which is the Antichrist, by heresie and sword ioyned together to ferue his turne: So the deuill, see­ing that no mist of heresies can obscure or darken the Gospel in the hearts of the faithfull, and that the cruell sword of persecutors cannot stay the prosperous successe of Christ his kingdome, hee raiseth vp the Antichrist with both his swords, to the effect that as one of them sayth, That which Peter his keyes could not, Paul his sword should: And so hath hee done at this time; For seeing the true Church will not be abused with the absurd heresies, for last refuge, now rooted out must they be by the ciuill Sword.

Fourthly, of their great numbers, 4 The wicked in number euer ouerpasse the godly. able to compasse about the tents of the Saints, and to besiege the holy Cities, we are enformed that the wicked are euer the greatest part of the world: And therfore our Master sayth, Many are called, few chosen: And againe, Wide is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many enter thereat: but narrow is the way that leadeth to life, and few enter there­at. Also hee calleth them the world, and the Deuill the prince of the same.

Fiftly, the agreeance of Gog and Magog, the Turke the open enemy, 5 The wicked at variance a­mong them­selues, can wel agree in one against Christ and the Pope the couered enemie, to this persecution, declareth the rooted ha­tred of the wicked against the faithfull: who though they be otherwise in enmitie among themselues, yet agree in this respect, in odium tertij, as did Herod and Pilate.

Sixtly, the compassing of the Saints, and besieging of the beloued City, 6 The false Church euer persecuteth. declareth vnto vs a certaine note of a false Church, to be persecution: for they come to seeke the faithfull; the faithfull are those that are sought: The wicked are the besiegers; the faithfull the besieged.

[Page 80]Seuenthly, 7 Scripture by Scripture should be ex­pounded. 2. King. 1.10, 11. in the forme of language, and phrase or maner of speaking, of fire comming downe from heauen here vsed, and taken out of the Booke of the Kings, where, at Elias his prayers, with fire from heauen were de­stroyed Achazias his souldiers: as the greatest part of all the words, verses, and sentences of this booke are taken and borrowed of other parts of the Scripture, we are taught to vse onely Scripture for interpretation of Scrip­ture, if we would be sure, and neuer swarue from the analogie of faith in expounding, seeing it repeateth so oft the owne phrases, and thereby ex­poundeth them.

Eightly, 8 of the last part of the confusion of the wicked, euen at the top of their height and wheele, we haue two things to note: One that God al­though he suffereth the wicked to run on while their cup be full, yet in the end he striketh them, first in this world, and next in the world to come; to the deliuerance of his Church in this world, and the perpetuall glory of the same in the world to come: The other note is, that after the great perse­cution and the destruction of the pursuers, shall the day of Iudgement fol­low: For so declareth the 11. verse of this same Chapter; but in how short space it shall follow, that is onely knowne vnto God; Onely this farre are we certaine, that in the last estate, without any moe generall mutations, the world shall remaine till the consummation and end of the same.

To conclude then with exhortation: It is al our duties in this Isle at this time, to do two things: One, to consider our estate: And other to conforme our actions according thereunto: Our estate is, we are threefold besieged: First, spiritually by the heresies of the antichrist: Secondly, corporally & ge­nerally, as members of that Church, the which in the whole they persecute: Thirdly, All men should be law­fully armed spiritually and bodily to fight against the Antichrist, and his vphol­ders. corporally and particularly by this present armie. Our actions then conformed to our estate are these: First, to call for helpe at God his hands: Next, to assure vs of the same, seeing we haue a sufficient warrant, his constant promise expressed in his word: Thirdly, since with good consci­ence we may, being in the tents of the Saints, & beloued City, stand in our defence, encourage one another to vse lawfull resistance, and concurre or ioyne one with another as warriors in one Campe, and citizens of one be­loued City, for maintenance of the good cause God hath clad vs with, and in defence of our liberties, natiue countrey, and liues: For since we see God hath promised not only in the world to come, but also in this world, to giue vs victory ouer them, let vs in assurance hereof strongly trust in our God, cease to mistrust his promise, and fall through incredulitie or vnbeliefe: For then are we worthy of double punishment: For the stronger they waxe, and the neerer they come to their light, the faster approcheth their wracke, and the day of our deliuery: For kind, and louing, true, and constant, carefull, and watchfull, mighty, and reuenging is he that promiseth it: To whom be praise and glory for euer. AMEN.

A MEDITATION VPON THE xxv. xxvj. xxvij. xxviij. and xxix. verses of the xv. Chap. of the first Booke of the Chronicles of the Kings:

THE TEXT.25 So Dauid and the Elders of Israel and the Captaines of thousands went to bring vp the Arke of the Couenant of the Lord, from the house of Obed-Edom with ioy.26 And because that God helped the Leuites that bare the Arke of the Couenant of the Lord, they offered seuen Bullockes and seuen Rammes.27 And Dauid had on him a linnen garment, as all the Leuites that bare the Arke, and the singers and Chenaniah that had the chiefe charge of the singers: and vpon Dauid was a linnen Ephod.28 Thus all Israel brought vp the Arke of the Lords Couenant with shouting and sound of Cornet, and with Trumpets, and with Cymbales, making asound with Violes and with harpes.29 And when the Arke of the Couenant of the Lord came into the Citie of Dauid, Michal the daughter of Saul looked out at a window, and saw King Dauid dauncing and playing and shee despised him in her heart.

THE MEDITATION.

AS of late when greatest appearance of perill was by that forreine and godlesse fleete, I tooke occa­sion by a Text selected for the purpose, to exhort you to remaine constant, resting assured of a hap­py deliuerance: So now by the great mercies of God, my speeches hauing taken an euident effect, I could doe no lesse of my carefull duety, then out of this place cited, teach you what resteth on your part to be done; not of any opinion I haue of my abilitie to instruct you, but that these meditations of mine, may af­ter my death remaine to the posteritie, as a certaine testimony of my vp­right and honest meaning in this so great and weightie a cause. Now I [Page 82]come to the matter. Dauid that godly King, you see, hath no sooner ob­tained victory ouer Gods, and his enemies the Philistines, but his first acti­on which followes, is with concurrence of his whole estates, to translate the Arke of the Lords couenant to his house in great triumph and glad­nesse, accompanied with the sound of musicall instruments: And being so brought to the Kings house, he himselfe dances and reioyces before it: which thing Michal the daughter of Saul and his wife perceiuing, she con­temned and laughed at her husband in her minde. This is the summe.

THE METHOD.

FOr better vnderstanding whereof, these heades are to be ope­ned vp in order, and applied. And first what causes mooued Dauid to doe this worke. Secondly, what persons concurred with Dauid in doing of this worke. Thirdly, what was the a­ction it selfe, and forme of doing vsed in the same. Fourthly, the person of Michal. And fiftly, her action.

THE FIRST PART.

AS to the first part; Zeale in Da­uid and expe­riēce of Gods kindnesse to­wards him, moued Dauid to honour God. The causes moouing Dauid, passing all others, I note two: One internall, the other, external: the internall was a feruent and zealous mind in Dauid fully disposed to extoll the glorie of God that had cal­led him to be King, as he saith himselfe. The zeale of thy house it eats me vp, Psal. 69.9. But more largely ex­pressed in the 132. Psalme, composed at the same time while this worke was a doing. The externall was a notable victorie newly obtained by the power of God ouer and against the Philistines, olde and pernitious enemies to the people of God, expressed in the last part of the 14. chapter preceding. By this victorie or cause externall, the internal causes and zeale in Dauid is so doubly inflamed, that all things set aside, in this worke onely he will be occupied. These are the two weightie causes mo­uing him. Wherof we may learne, first that the chiefe vertue which should be in a christian Prince, and which the Spirit of God alwayes chiefly prai­ses in him, is a feruencie and constant zeale to promote the glorie of God, that hath honoured him. Next, that where this zeale is vnfained, God leaues neuer that person, without continuall powring of his blessings on him, thereby to stirre vp into him a double measure of zeale and thankful­nesse towards God. The Church euer troubled by men, hath a ioyfull end. Thirdly, that the Church of God neuer wanted ene­mies and notable victories ouer them, to assure them at all times of the con­stant kindnes of God towards them; euen, when as by the crosse, as a bit­ter medicine, he cureth their infirmities, saueth them from grosse sinnes, and trieth their faith: For we find plainely in the Scriptures, that no soo­ner [Page 83]God himselfe choosed Israel to be his people; but assoone, & euer ther­after as long as they remained his, the diuell so enuied their prosperity, as hee hounded out his instruments the nations, at all times to trouble and warre against them, yet to the comfort of his Church afflicted, and wrack of the afflicters in the end. This first was practised by Pharao in Egypt: and after their deliuerance, first by the Ammonites, and then by the Phi­listines continually thereafter, vntill the rising of the Monarchies, who euery one did exercise themselues in the same labour. But to note here the rage of all prophane Princes and nations which exercised their crueltie vp­on the Church of God, were superfluous and tedious, in respect of that which I haue set downe in my former meditation: Wherefore I onely goe forward then in this. As this was the continuall behauiour of the Nations towards Israel; So it was most especially in the time of Dauid, and among the rest at this time here cited; at what time hauing newly inuaded Israel, and beeing driuen backe, they would yet assemble againe in great multi­tudes to warre against the people of God, and not content to defend their owne countries as the Israelites did, would needes come out of the same to pursue them, and so spread themselues in the valley: But Dauid by Gods di­rection, brings foorth the people against them, who fights, and according to Gods promises, ouercomes them, onely by the hand of God, and not by their power, as the place it selfe most plainely doeth shew: So the Church of God may be troubled, but in trouble it cannot perish; and the end of their trouble is the very wracke and destruction of Gods enemies.

THE SECOND PART.

NOw followes secondly the persons who did concurre with Dauid in this action: Three rankes of persons concurre with Dauid in this worke. The Spirit noteth three rankes of them. In the first are the Elders of Israel: In the next, are the captaines ouer thousands: In the third; are the Priests and Leuites, of whom summarily I will speake. These Elders were substituted vnder Dauid in the kingdome, and as his hands in all parts of the countrey ministring iu­stice and iudgement to the Kings subiects: And they were of two sorts, maiestrates in walled townes, who in the gates of the cities executed iudge­ment; and chiefe in Tribes, and fathers of families, who in the countrey did iudge and minister iudgement as the Scripture reports: They were not vn­like to two of the estates of our kingdome, the Baron and the Burgesse. The Captaines ouer thousands were godly and valiant men, who vnder the King did rule in time of warre, had the custodie of the Kings person, and fought his battailes: These were necessarie officers for Dauid, who was appointed by God in his time (as wee are taught out of Gods owne words, speaking by Nathan to Dauid) to fight Gods battailes, to subdue the enemies of his Church, and to procure by so doing, a peaceable kingdome [Page 84]for Solomon his sonne, who should in peace, as a figure of Christ the Prince of peace, build the Lords Temple. These are spoken of here, to teach vs, first, that their calling is lawfull: next, that in their calling, they should be earnest to honour God: and thirdly, that these Captaines chiefly were law­fully called, and lawfully walked therein, as we haue plaine declaration out of Dauids owne mouth, expressed well in the whole 101. Psalme, seeing none were admitted in his seruice or houshold, but such as vnfainedly fea­red God. And without all question, godly and zealous Dauid would neuer haue committed the guard of his person, nor the fighting of Gods battailes to the enemies of God, or men of warre, of whose godlinesse and vertue he neuer had proofe: See then their names and praise, 1. Chron. 11.26. The third ranke of Priests and Leuites are set downe in the same chapter, vers. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. So men of all estates were present in this godly worke. This is to be marked well of Princes, and of all those of any high calling or degree that hath to doe in Gods cause. Dauid doth nothing in matters ap­pertaining to God without the presence and speciall concurrence of Gods Ministers, appointed to be spirituall rulers in his Church: and at the first meant to conuey the same Arke to Ierusalem, finding their absence and want of their counsell hurtfull: now in this chapter, vers. 12, 13. he saith to them, Ye are the chiefe Fathers of the Leuites, sanctifie your selues and your brethren, and bring vp the Arke of the Lord God of Israel vnto the place that I haue prepared for it. For because ye were not there at the first, the Lord our God made a breach a­mong vs: for we sought him not in due order. And thus farre for the second part concerning persons: Wherein we may learne, first, that a godly king findes, as his heart wisheth, godly estates concurring with him. Next a god­ly king of his godly foresight in choosing good vnder-rulers, reapeth this profit and pleasure, that as hee goeth before, so they with zealous hearts doe follow.

THE THIRD PART.

THe summe of this ioyfull conuoy may be digested in three actions, The Arke is transported with ioy to Ierusalem. which are these: The transporting of the Arke; the harmony of musicall instruments; and Dauids dancing and reioycing before it. He built a Tabernacle for the Arke in mount Sion, & transported it therunto, to signify his thank­fulnes for the many victories God had put in his hands: and this transpor­ting was the occasion of all this solemnitie and reioycing that followed thereupon. The signifi­cation of the Arke of the Couenant. As to the Arke it selfe, we know it was built by Moyses at the cōmand of God, in the wildernes of Sinai. This Arke was made of Shittim wood, which admits no corruption: It was of most comely shape and forme, two cubits and a halfe in length, a cubit and a halfe in height, and a cubit and a halfe in breadth, ouerlaid within and without with pure beaten gold, and was not only a figure of Iesus Christ our perfect Sauiour, in whom [Page 85]all the promises of God, are yea and Amen, 2. Corinth. 1.20. and in whom as a sure Arke, all abundance of Gods blessings are placed, that out of his ful­nesse we may all receiue grace vpon grace, Iohn 1.16. seeing he is made vn­to vs of God, wisedome, righteousnesse, sanctification and redemption, 1. Corinth. 1.30. but also a sure pledge of Gods continuall presence in Christ with his people, to blesse them with all maner of blessings. And to signi­fie this purpose more particularly, within the Arke was placed the Tables of the Couenant, and Law written by God, (for which cause also it was cal­led the Arke of the Couenant) Rom. 10.4. to teach them in Christ pro­mised, the perfection of the whole Law to be found, for all that beleeue in him. Aboue the Arke was a couer or lid called The Mercie Seate, and a­boue the lid the figures of two Cherubins, couering with their wings the Mercie Seat: betwixt the which two, the liuing God did louingly speake to the instruction and comfort of his people, to assure them that all Gods mercifull dealings with man (either in communicating his knowledge to them: or in sending his Angels ministring Spirits for their comfort,) Heb. 1.14. Ioh. 1.4, 11. hath the ground and foundation in CHRIST IESVS eternally. This Arke then being a sure Sacrament of Gods fauour towards them, and a Coue­nant of IESVS CHRIST, wherein corporally Gods mercifull promises did insue; followes the third part, the forme of doing vsed therein by these persons. Generally, the action was to bring vp the Arke of the Co­uenant of the Lord, from the house of Obed Edom with ioy, and to be placed in the Tabernacle built for it by the King in Mount Sion. The forme of doing vsed by euery person, is: The Priests offer Bullocks and Rammes, because that God blessed the worke; The King clad in a linnen garment, dances and playes before the Arke: Chenaniah the chiefe of the singers with his fellowes, praises God with Psalmes, and all the estates in Israel, bring the Arke of the Couenant with showting, sound of Cornet, Trum­pet, cymbals, violes, and harpes, and place it in the citie of Dauid. Briefly then, Dauid vpon his victories doeth transport to his house the same, to te­stifie hereby his care to receiue Gods fauour towards him and his people: Not thinking it enough to haue once or twise proofe thereof; but also to procure a continuance by the presence of his holy Arke, esteeming this the worthiest trophee or triumph, he could make or erect for his notable victories: A triumph indeed farre surpassing the Egyptian Piramides, the Grecian trophees, or yet the Romane triumphall chariots. As to the har­monie and musicall instruments that accompanied this holy Arke, I trust no man is ignorant of the custome that was among the Iewes, in praising. God with all kind of instruments, as Dauids Psalmes innumerable times beare witnesse. But in case some would demand wherefore the Church of God should more extraordinarily reioyce at one time, then at another, seeing we are assured that all Gods actions towards vs, are for our weale, ei­ther spiritually or corporally, suppose wee cannot at euery time compre­hend it: I answere, that although I must confesse that sentence to bee most [Page 86]orthodoxe, yet must I also confesse, that whensoeuer it shall please God to manifest by outward signes to the world, as at one time more then ano­ther the great loue to his Church, by some notable worke for their deliue­rance; We are then of duty bound in the highest degree to praise God, as well for confirming of the weake ones amongst vs, as for stopping of the mouthes, and dashing of the proud wicked without vs, to make the glory of his Name, as farre as in vs lieth, to resound: The manifold examples of the Saints of God through the whole Scriptures prooue this more then e­uidently, besides the examples of the prayers of sundry of the godly, who for the glory of his Name, more then for their particular weale, haue pray­ed him to giue publike testimonie of his loue towards them: So did Moses, Ioshua, Dauid, Elias, Elizeus, and innumerable others of the Prophets and ser­uants of God. As to the dancing of Dauid: dancing, playing, and such like actions we know are of themselues indifferent, and good or euil accor­ding to their vse, and the intention of the vser; and therefore being vsed at this time with a comely zeale, for the setting foorth of Gods glory, are not onely to be borne with and excused, but euen most highly to be pray­sed and commended, although that Michal dispraysed the same. Moreouer, it is to be marked that Dauid in this doing, did nothing without the special motion of the spirit of God, as an extraordinarie worke, which so fully possessed his soule at this present, that forgetfull, as it were, of the actions of his bodie; hee gaue his whole person ouer to be gouerned as it pleased him, alwayes seeking in all, the honour and glorie of his God, without res­pect to himselfe: Christ is the ground of all true Religion. And thus farre for the third part: Whereof wee haue to note first in the Arke: The ground of all true and ancient religion, and the body of the whole seruice of God that brings saluation, is to bee situate in Iesus Christ onely, as is plainely set downe, Act. 4.12. Ioh. 14.6. 1. Cor. 2.11. 1. Ioh. 1.7. Next, that they which will be saued by this Arke, must beare this Arke in their heart by faith, in their mouth by open confession, Rom. 1. and in their actions confirming their whole doing in their calling to his will, Matth. 7.21, 22, 23. Thirdly, that they who are sincerely ioyned with Christ, reioyce in the bearing of Christ, and count it their highest ioy to be occu­pied continually in his bearing.

THE FOVRTH PART.

AS to the person of Michal, Michals hy­pocrisie. shee was Sauls daughter, and Da­uids wife, a woman appearandly euill brought vp by amost wicked father; which the Spirit of God will signifie, by cal­ling her Sauls daughter as she was in hypocrisie his daugh­ter in deed, as well as by nature: yet shee was ioyned with the body of the Church visible, which is signified by the stile giuen her, when she was called Dauids wife: And so she was outwardly a person ioy­ned by mariage in societie with the Church, yet in effect a lurking hypo­crite [Page 87]within the bowels of the same. Such kinde of folkes (hypocrites I meane) are a malum necessarium inseparably and continually ioyned with the trew Church, neuer to be sifted while the Master of the Haruest come with the fanne in his hand.

THE FIFT PART.

HEr doings are, being quiet in her lodging, Michals do­ings. al the time of her husbands great and publike reioycing with the people not comming out; for not being able, as appeareth, to counter­feit finely euough a dissimulate ioyfull countenance: And therefore looking out at a window, shee spies her husband dancing before the Arke, incontinent interprets shee this indifferent action in malam partem, as not being touched with a true feeling of the cause of his ioy, and so despises she his doing in her minde, as onely proceeding of a lasciuious wantonnesse. A marueilous case; shee that be­fore of naturall loue to her husband did preserue him, although to her owne great perill, from the hands of her owne father Saul, cannot now abide to see him vse aright that indifferent action, which she her selfe (I doubt not) did oft through licentiousnes abuse. By this we may note the nature of the hypocrites, and interiour enemies of the Church, who al­though in their particulars not concerning Religion, there will be none in shew more friendly to the godly then they; yet how soone matters of Re­ligion or concerning the honour of God, comes in hand, O then are they no longer able to containe or bridle their passions, euen as here Michal de­fended her husband, euen in the particulars betwixt him and her owne fa­ther; but his dancing before the Arke to the honour of God she could no wise abide.

Now thus farre being said for the methodicall opening vp of the Text; The applica­tion of the purpose to vs. It rests onely to examine how pertinently this place doeth appertaine to vs and our present estate: And first as to the persons, the people of God and the nations their enemies, together with their pridefull pursuite of Dauid, and Gods most notable deliuerance. Is there not now a sincere profession of the trewth amongst vs in this Isle, oppugned by the nations about, ha­ters of the holy word? And doe we not also as Israel, professe one onely God, and are ruled by his pure word onely? on the other part, are they not as Philistines, adorers of legions of gods, and ruled by the foolish traditi­ons of men? Haue they not as the Philistines, beene continually the pur­suers, and we as Israel the defenders of our natiue soile and countrey? next, haue they not now at the last euen like the Philistines, come out of their owne soiles to pursue vs, and spread themselues to that effect vpon the great valley of our seas, presumptuously threatning the destruction and wracke of vs? But thirdly, had not our victory beene farre more notable then that of Israel, and hath not the one beene as well wrought by the [Page 88]hand of God, as the other? For as God by shaking the tops of the mulbery trees with his mightie windes, put the Philistines to flight, hath hee not euen in like maner by brangling with his mightie windes their timber ca­stles, scattered and shaken them asunder to the wracke of a great part, and confusion of the whole? Now that we may resemble Israel as well in the rest of this action, what triumph rests vs to make for the crowning of this blessed comedy? Euen to bring amongst vs the Arke with all reioycing. What is the Arke of Christians vnder grace, but the Lord Iesus Christ, whom with ioy wee bring amongst vs, when as receiuing with sinceritie and gladnesse the new Testament in the blood of Christ our Sauiour, in our heart we beleeue his promises, and in word and deede wee beare wit­nesse thereto before the whole world, and walke so in the light as it be­comes the sonnes of the same? this is the worthiest triumph of our victo­ry that we can make. And although there will doubtlesse be many Michals amongst vs, let vs reioyce and praise God for the discouerie of them, assu­ring our selues they were neuer of vs, accounting all them to be against vs, that either reioyce at the prosperitie of our enemies, or reioyce not with vs at our miraculous deliuerance: For all they that gather not with vs, they scatter. And let vs also diligently and warily trie out these craftie Michals: for it is in that respect that Christ recommends vnto vs the wisedome of Serpents, not thereby to deceiue and betray others (no, God forbid) but to arme vs against the deceit and treason of hypocrites that goe about to trap vs. And lest that these great benefits which God hath bestowed vpon vs, be turned through our vnthankfulnesse into a greater curse, in seruing for testimonies at the latter day against vs, to the procuring of our double stripes; let vs now to conclude, bring in the Arke amongst vs in two re­spects before mentioned, seeing we haue already receiued the Gospel; first by constant remaining in the puritie of the trewth, which is our most cer­teine couenant of saluation in the only merits of our Sauior: And next, let vs so reforme our defiled liues, as becomes regenerate Christians, to the great glory of our God, the vtter defacing of our aduersaries the wicked, and our vnspeakeable comfort both here and also for euer. AMEN.

His Maiesties owne Sonnet.

THe nations banded gainst the Lord of might
Prepar'd a force, and set them to the way:
Mars drest himselfe in such an awfull plight,
The like whereof was neuerseene they say:
They forward came in monstrous aray,
Both Sea and land beset vs euery where:
Bragges threatned vs a ruinous decay,
What came of that? the issue did declare.
The windes began to tosse them here and there,
The Seas begun in foming waues to swell:
The number that escap'd, it fell them faire:
The rest were swallowed vp in gulfes of hell:
But how were all these things miraculous done?
God laught at them out of his heauenly throne.

Idem Latinè.

INS ANO tumidae gentes coiere tumultu,
Ausae, insigne nefas, bello vltro ciere tonantem,
Mars sese accinxit, metuenda tot agmina nunquam,
Visa ferunt, properare truces miro ordine turmae,
Nosque mari & terra saeuo clasere duello,
Exitium diraque minantes strage ruinam;
Irrita sed tristi lugent conamina fine:
Nam laceras iecit ventus ludibria puppes,
Et mersit rapidis turgescens montibus aequor.
Foelix communi qui euasit clade superstes,
Dum reliquos misero, deglutit abyssus hiatu.
Qui vis tanta cadit? quis totque stupenda peregit?
Vanos Ioua sacro conatus risit Olympo.

Per Metellanum Cancellarium.

DAEMONOLOGIE, IN FORME OF A DIALOGVE, Diuided into three Bookes,

¶ THE PREFACE TO THE READER.

THe fearefull abounding at this time in this Countrey, of these detestable slaues of the Diuel, the Witches or en­chaunters, hath mooued mee (beloued Reader) to dispatch in post, this follow­ing Treatise of mine, not in any wise (as J protest) to serue for a shew of my learning and ingine, but onely (moued of conscience) to preasse thereby, so farre as I can, to resolue the doubting hearts of many; both that such assaults of Satan are most certainely practised, and that the instruments thereof, merits most seuerely to be punished: against the damnable opinions of two prin­cipally in our aage, whereof the one called Scot, an Englishman, is not ashamed in publike Print to deny, that there can be such a [Page 92]thing as Witch-craft: and so maintaines the old errour of the Sad­duces in denying of spirits; The other called Wierus, a German Physition, sets out a publike Apologie for all these crafts-folkes, whereby, procuring for their impunitie, he plainely bewrayes him­selfe to haue bene one of that profession. And for to make this Treatise the more pleasant and facill, J haue put it in forme of a Dialogue, which I haue diuided into three Bookes: The first speaking of Magie in generall, and Necromancie in speciall: The second, of Sorcerie and Witch-craft: and the third, containes a discourse of all these kinds of spirits, and Spectres that appeares and troubles persons, together with a conclusion of the whole worke. My intention in this labour, is onely to prooue two things, as I haue already said: The one, that such diuelish artes haue bene and are: The other, what exact triall and seuere pu­nishment they merit: and therefore reason I, What kinde of things are possible to be performed in these Arts, and by what naturall causes they may be, not that I touch euery particular thing of the Diuels power, for that were infinite: but onely to speake schola­stickely, (since this cannot be spoken in our language) J reason vp­on genus leauing species, and differentia to bee comprehended therein: As for example, speaking of the power of Magiciens, in the first booke and sixt Chapter, I say, that they can suddenly cause be brought vnto them, all kinds of daintie dishes, by their familiar spirit; since as a thiefe he delights to steale, and as a spi­rit he can subtilly and suddenly ynough transport the same. Now vnder this genus, may be comprehended all particulars, depen­ding thereupon; such as the bringing Wine out of a wall (as wee haue heard oft to haue bene practised) and such others; which particulars, are sufficiently prooued by the reasons of the generall. And such like in the second booke of Witch-craft in speciall, and fift Chapter, J say, and proue by diuers Arguments, that Witches can by the power of their master, cure or cast on diseases: Now by these same reasons, that proues their power by the Diuell of dis­eases in generall, is aswell proued their power in special; as of weak­ning the nature of some men, to make them vnable for women, and [Page 93]making it to abound in others, more then the ordinary course of na­ture would permit: And such like in all other particular sicknesses. But one thing I will pray thee to obserue in all these places, where I reason vpon the diuels power, which is the different ends and scopes, that God as the first cause, and the diuell as his instrument and second cause, shoots at in all these actions of the diuel, (as Gods hang-man:) For where the diuels intention in them is euer to pe­rish, either the soule, or the body, or both of them, that he is so per­mitted to deale with; God by the contrary, drawes euer out of that euill, glory to himselfe, either by the wracke of the wicked in his iu­stice, or by the triall of the patient, and amendment of the faithful, being wakened vp with that rod of correction. Hauing thus decla­red vnto thee then, my full intention in this Treatise, thou wilt ea­sily excuse, I doubt not, aswel my pretermitting, to declare the whole particular rites and secrets of these vnlawfull arts; as also their in­finit and wonderfull practises, as being neither of them pertinent to my purpose: the reason whereof, is giuen in the hinder end of the first Chapter of the third booke: and who likes to be curious in these things, he may reade, if he will heare of their practises, Bodinus Daemonomanie, collected with greater diligence, then written with iudgement, together with their confessions, that haue been at this time apprehended. If he would know what hath bene the opi­nion of the Ancients, concerning their power, he shall see it well de­scribed by Hyperius & Hemmingius, two late Germane wri­ters; Besides innumerable other neotericke Theologues, that write largely vpon that subject: And if he would know what are the particular rites, and curiosities of these blacke Arts (which is both vnnecessary and perillous) he will finde it in the fourth Booke of Cornelius Agrippa, and in Wierus, whom-of J spake. And so wishing my paines in this Treatise (beloued Reader) to be effe­ctuall, in arming all them that reade the same, against these a­boue mentioned errours, and recommending my good will to thy friendly acceptation, J bid thee heartily fare-well.

IAMES R.x.

DAEMONOLOGIE, IN FORME OF A DIALOGVE.
FIRST BOOKE.

ARGVMENT.

The exord of the whole. The description of Magie in speciall.

CHAP. I.

ARGVMENT.

Proued by the Scripture, that these vnlawfull arts in genere, haue bene and may be put in practise.

PHILOMATHES and EPISTEMON reason the matter.
PHILOMATHES.

IAm surely very glad to haue met with you this day: for I am of opinion, that ye can better resolue me of some thing, whereof I stand in great doubt, nor any other whom­with I could haue met.

EPI.

In what I can, that ye like to speir at me, I will willingly and freely tell my opi­nion, and if I proue it not sufficiently, I am heartily content that a better reason carry it away then.

PHI.

What thinke ye of these strange newes, which now onely fur­nishes purpose to all men at their meeting: I meane of these Witches?

EPI.

Surely they are wonderfull: And I thinke so cleare and plaine confessions in that purpose, haue neuer fallen out in any aage or countrey.

PHI.

No question if they be true, but thereof the Doctours doubts.

EPI.

What part of it doubt ye of?

PHI.
[Page 95]

Euen of all, for ought I can yet perceiue: and namely, that there is such a thing as Witch-craft or Witches, and I would pray you to resolue me thereof if ye may: for I haue reasoned with sundrie in that matter, and yet could neuer be satisfied therein.

EPI.

I shall with good will doe the best I can: But I thinke it the diffi­ciller, since ye deny the thing it selfe in generall: for as it is said in the Lo­gicke schooles, Contra negantem principia non est disputandum. Alwaies for that part, that Witch-craft, and Witches haue beene, and are, the former part is clearely prooued by the Scriptures, and the last by daily experience and confessions.

PHI.

I know ye wil alleadge me Sauls Pythonisse: but that as appeares will not make much for you.

EPI.

Not onely that place, but diuers others: But I maruell why that should not make much for me?

PHI.

The reasons are these, first yee may consider, that Saul beeing troubled in spirit, and hauing fasted long before, as the text testifieth, and being come to a woman that was bruted to haue such knowledge, and that to enquire so important newes, he hauing so guilty a conscience for his hai­nous offences, and specially, for that same vnlawfull curiositie, and horri­ble defection▪ and then the woman crying out vpon the suddaine in great admiration, for the vncouth sight that she alledged to haue seene, discoue­ring him to be the King, though disguised, and denied by him before: it was no wonder, I say, that his senses being thus distracted, hee could not perceaue her faining of her voice, he being himselfe in another chalmer, and seeing nothing. Next, what could be, or was raised? The spirit of Samuel? prophane, and against all Theologie: the deuill in his likenesse? as vnap­peirant, that either God would permit him to come in the shape of his Saints, (for then could neuer the Prophets in those dayes haue beene sure, what spirit spake to them in their visions) or then that he could fore-tell what was to come thereafter; for Prophecie proceedeth onely of GOD: and the diuell hath no knowledge of things to come.

EPI.

Yet if ye will marke the words of the text, yee will finde clearely, that Saul saw that apparition: for giuing you that Saul was in another chal­mer, at the making of the circles and coniurations, needfull for that pur­pose (as none of that craft wil permit any others to behold at that time) yet it is euident by the text, that how soone that once that vncleane spirit was fully risen, she called in vpon Saul: For it is said in the text, that Saul knew him to be Samuel, which could not haue beene, by the hearing tell onely of an olde man with a mantill, since there was many moe old men dead in Israel nor Samuel: And the common weid of that whole countrey was mantils. As to the next, that it was not the spirit of Samuel, I grant: In the prouing whereof ye need not to insist, since all Christians of whatsoeuer religion agrees vpon that: and none but either mere ignorants, or Necro­manciers, or Witches doubts thereof. And that the deuill is permitted at [Page 96]sometimes to put himselfe in the likenesse of the Saints, it is plaine in the Scriptures, 1. Cor. 11.14. where it is said, that Satan can transforme himselfe into an Angel of light. Neither could that bring any inconuenience with the visions of the Prophets, since it is most certaine, that God will not permit him so to de­ceiue his owne: but onely such, as first wilfully deceiue them-selues, by running vnto him, whom God then suffers to fall in their owne snares, and iustly permits them to be illuded with great efficacie of deceit, because they would not beleeue the trueth (as Paul sayth.) And as to the diuels foretel­ling of things to come, it is true that he knowes not all things future; but yet that hee knowes part, the tragicall euent of this historie declares it, (which the wit of woman could neuer haue fore-spoken) not that hee hath any prescience, which is onely proper to God; or yet knowes any thing by looking vpon God, as in a mirrour (as the good Angels doe) hee being for euer debarred from the fauourable presence and countenance of his Crea­tour, but onely by one of these two meanes: either, as being worldly wise, and taught by a continuall experience, euer since the Creation, iudges by likelyhood of things to come, according to the like that hath passed be­fore, and the naturall causes, in respect of the vicissitude of all things world­ly: or else by Gods imploying of him in a turne, and so foreseene thereof, as appeares to haue beene in this, 1. King. 22. whereof we finde the very like in Micheas propheticke discourse to king Achab. But to prooue this my first proposi­tion, that there can be such a thing as Witch-craft and Witches, there are many moe places in the Scriptures then this, as I said before. As first in the Lawe of GOD, Exod. 22. it is plainely prohibited: But certaine it is, that the Law of God speakes nothing in vaine, neither doeth it lay curses, or enioyne pu­nishments vpon shadowes, condemning that to be ill, which is not in es­sence or being, Exod. 7. & 2. as we call it. Secondly, it is plaine, where wicked Pharaobs Wise-men imitated a number of Moses miracles, to harden the tyrants heart thereby. Thirdly, said not Samuel to Saul, that disobedience is as the sinne of Witch-craft? 1 Sam. 15. To compare it to a thing that were not, it were too too ab­surd. Acts 8. Acts 16. Fourthly, was not Simon Magus a man of that craft? And fiftly, what was she that had the spirit of Python? beside innumerable other places that were irkesome to recite.

CHAP. II.

ARGV.

What kind of sinne the practisers of these vnlawfull arts commit. The diuision of these arts: And what are the meanes that allure any to practise them.

PHILOMATHES.

BVt I thinke it very strange, that God should permit any man-kind (since they beare his owne Image) to fall in so grosse and filthie a defection.

EPI.

Although man in his Creation was made to the i­mage of the Creator, Gene. 1. yet through his fall hauing once lost it, it is but restored againe in a part by grace onely to the elect: So all the rest falling away from God, are giuen ouer into the hands of the diuell that enemy, to beare his image; and being once so giuen ouer, the greatest and the grossest impretie is the pleasantest, and most delightfull vnto them.

PHI.

But may it not suffice him to haue indirectly the rule, and pro­cure the perdition of so many soules by alluring them to vices, and to the following of their owne appetites, suppose hee abuse not so many simple soules, in making them directly acknowledge him for their master?

EPI.

No surely, for he vses euery man, whom of he hath the rule, ac­cording to their complexion and knowledge: and so, whom hee findes most simple, he plaineliest discouers himselfe vnto them: For he being the enemie of mans saluation, vses all the meanes hee can to intrappe them so farre in his snares, as it may bee vnable to them thereafter (suppose they would) to rid themselues out of the same.

PHI.

Then this sinne is a sinne against the holy Ghost.

EPI.

It is in some, but not in all.

PHI.

How that? Are not all these that runne directly to the diuell in one Categorie?

EPI.

God forbid, for the sinne against the holy Ghost hath two bran­ches: The one, a falling backe from the whole seruice of God, and a refu­sall of all his precepts: The other is the doing of the first with knowledge, knowing that they doe wrong against their owne conscience, Hebr. 6.10. and the te­stimonie of the holy Spirit, hauing once had a taste of the sweetnes of Gods mercies: Now in the first of these two, all sorts of Necromancers, Enchan­ters or Witches, are compre hended, but in the last, none but such as erre with this knowledge that I haue spoken of.

PHI.

Then it appeares that there are more sorts nor one, that are di­rectly professours of his seruice [...] and if so be, I pray you tell me how many and what are they?

EPI.

There are principally two sorts, whereunto all the parts of that vnhappy Art are redacted; whereof the one is called Magie or Necromancie, the other Sorcerie or Witch-craft.

PHI.

What I pray you? and how many are the meanes, whereby the diuell allures persons in any of these snares?

EPI.
[Page 98]

Euen by these three passions that are within our selues: Curio­sitie in great ingines: thirst of reuenge, for some tortes deepely apprehen­ded: or greedy appetite of geare, caused through great pouertie. As to the first of these, Curiositie, it is onely the inticement of Magicians or Necro­manciers: and the other two are the allurers of the Sorcerers or Witches, for that old and craftie serpent being a Spirit, he easily spies our affections, and so conformes himselfe thereto, to deceiue vs to our wracke.

CHAP. III.

ARGV.

The significations and etymologies of the words of Magie and Necromancie. The difference betwixt Necromancie and Witchcraft: What are the en­tressis, and beginnings, that bring any to the knowledge thereof.

PHILOMATHES.

I Would gladly first heare, what thing it is that ye call Magie or Necromancie.

EPI.

This word Magi in the Persian tongue, imports as much as to be a contemplatour or Interpretour of Di­uine and heauenly sciences, which being first vsed among the Chaldees, through their ignorance of the true diuinitie, was esteemed and reputed amongst them, as a principall vertue: And therfore, was na­med vniustly with an honourable stile, which name the Greekes imitated, generally importing all these kindes of vnlawfull artes: And this word Necromancie is a Greeke word, compounded of [...], which is to say, the prophecie by the dead. This last name is giuen, to this blacke and vn­lawfull science, by the figure Synechdoche, because it is a principall part of that arte, to serue themselues with dead carcases in their diuinations.

PHI.

What difference is there betwixt this arte, and Witch-craft?

EPI.

Surely, the difference vulgare put betwixt them, is very merry, and in a maner true; for they say, that the Witches are seruants onely, and slaues to the diuel; but the Necromanciers are his Masters and com­manders.

PHI.

How can that be true, that any men being specially addicted to his seruice, can be his commanders?

EPI.

Yea they may be; but it is onely secundum quid: For it is not by any power that they can haue ouer him, but ex pacto allanerlie; whereby he obliges himselfe in some trifles to them, that he may on the other part obteine the fruition of their body and soule, which is the onely thing he huntes for.

PHI.

A very in-aequitable contract forsooth: But I pray you dis­course vnto me, what is the effect and secrets of that arte.

EPI.

That is an ouer large field ye giue me: yet I shall doe my good­will, the most summarly that I can, to runne through the principall points thereof. As there are two sorts of folkes, that may be entised to this art, to [Page 99]wit, learned or vnlearned: so is there two meanes, which are the first stee­rers vp and feeders of their curiositie, thereby to make them to giue them­selues ouer to the same: Which two meanes, I call the diuels schoole, and his rudiments. The learned haue their curiositie wakened vp, and fed by that which I cal his schole: this is the Astrologie iudiciar, For diuers men ha­uing attained to a great perfection in learning, and yet remayning ouer­bare (alas) of the Spirit of regeneration and fruits thereof, finding all na­turall things common, aswell to the stupide pedants, as vnto them, they as­say to vendicate vnto them a greater name, by not onely knowing the course of things heauenly, but likewise to clime to the knowledge of things to come thereby: Which, at the first face appearing lawfull vnto them, in respect the ground thereof seemeth to proceed of naturall causes onely, they are so allured thereby, that finding their practise to proue trew in sun­dry things, they study to know the cause thereof, and so mounting from degree to degree, vpon the slipperie and vncertaine scale of curiositie; they are at last entised, that where lawfull artes or sciences faile, to satisfie their restlesse minds, euen to seeke to that blacke and vnlawfull science of Magie: Where, finding at the first, that such diuers formes of circles and coniura­tions rightly ioyned thereunto, will raise such diuers formes of spirits, to resolue them of their doubts, and attributing the doing thereof, to the power inseparably tied, or inherent in the circles, and many wordes of God, confusedly wrapped in, they blindly glory of themselues, as if they had by their quicknesse of ingine, made a conquest of Plutoes dominion, and were become Emperours ouer the Stygian habitacles: Where, in the meane time (miserable wretches) they are become in very deed, bond­slaues to their mortall enemie: and their knowledge, for all that they pre­sume thereof, is nothing increased, except in knowing euill, and the hor­rors of hell for punishment thereof, Gene. 3. as Adams was by the eating of the forbidden tree.

CHAP. IIII.

ARGV.

The description of the rudiments and Schoole, which are the entresses to the arte of Magie: And in speciall the differences betwixt Astronomie and Astrolo­gie: Diuision of Astrologie in diuers parts.

PHILOMATHES.

BVt I pray you likewise forget not to tell what are the di­uels rudiments.

EPI.

His rudiments, I call first in generall, all that which is called vulgarly the vertue of word, herbe, and stone, which is vsed by vnlawfull charmes, without na­turall causes; as likewise all kinde of practicques, freites, or other like extraordinary actions, which cannot abide the trew touch of naturall reason.

PHI.
[Page 100]

I would haue you to make that plainer, by some particular ex­amples; for your proposition is very generall.

EPI.

I meane either by such kinde of Charmes as commonly daft wiues vse, for healing offorspoken goods, for preseruing them from euill eyes, by knitting roun trees, or sundriest kinde of hearbes, to the haire or tailes of the goods: by curing the worme, by stemming of blood, by hea­ling of Horse-crookes, by turning of the riddle, or doing of such like innu­merable things by words, without applying any thing, meete to the part offended, as Mediciners doe: Or else by staying married folkes, to haue naturally adoe with other (by knitting so many knots vpon a point at the time of their marriage,) And such like things, which men vse to practise in their merrinesse: For fra vnlearned men (being naturally curious, and lacking the trew knowledge of God) finde these practises to proue trew, as sundrie of them will doe, by the power of the diuell for deceiuing men, and not by any inherent vertue in these vaine words and freites; and being desirous to winne a reputation to themselues in such like turnes, they ei­ther (if they be of the shamefaster sort) seeke to be learned by some that are experimented in that Arte, (not knowing it to be euill at the first) or else being of the grosser sort, runne directly to the diuel for ambition or desire of gaine, and plainely contract with him thereupon.

PHI.

But me thinkes these meanes which ye call the Schoole and rudiments of the diuel, are things lawfull, and haue bene approued for such in all times and aages: as in speciall, this science of Astrologie, which is one of the speciall members of the Mathematiques.

EPI.

There are two things which the learned haue obserued from the beginning, in the science of the heauenly Creatures, the Planets, Starres, and such like: The one is their course and ordinarie motions, which for that cause is called Astronomia, Which word is a compound of [...], that is to say, the law of the Starres: And this Art indeed is one of the members of the Mathematiques, and not onely lawfull, but most necessary and com­mendable: The other is called Astrologia, being compounded of [...] and [...], which is to say, the word and preaching of the Starres: Which is diuided into two parts: The first, by knowing thereby the powers of simples, and sicknesses, the course of the seasons and the weather, being ruled by their influence; which part depending vpon the former, although it bee not of it selfe a part of Mathematiques: yet it is not vnlawfull, being moderately v­sed, suppose not so necessarie and commendable as the former. The se­cond part is to trust so much to their influences, as thereby to foretell what common-weales shall flourish or decay: what persons shall be fortunate or vnfortunate: what side shall winne in any battell: what man shal obtaine victorie at singular combate: what way, and of what aage shall men die: what horse shall winne at match-running: and diuers such like incredible things, wherein Cardanus, Cornelius Agrippa, and diuers others haue more curiously then profitably written at large. Of this roote last spoken of, [Page 101]springs innumerable branches; such as the knowledge by the natiuities; the Cheiromancie, Geomancie, Hydromancie, Arithmancie, Physiognomie, and a thousand others, which were much practised, and holden in great reue­rence by the Gentiles of old: And this last part of Astrologie whereof I haue spoken, which is the root of their branches, was called by them pars fortunae. This part now is vtterly vnlawfull to be trusted in, or practised amongst Christians, as leaning to no ground of naturall reason: and it is this part which I called before the Diuels schoole.

PHI.

But yet many of the learned are of the contrarie opinion.

EPI.

I grant, yet I could giue my reasons to fortifie and maintaine my opinion, if to enter into this disputation it would not draw me quite off the ground of our discourse, besides the mis-spending of the whole day thereupon: One word onely I will answere to them, and that in the Scrip­tures (which must be an infallible ground to all true Christians,) That in the Prophet Ieremie it is plainely forbidden, to beleeue or hearken vnto them that prophesie and fore-speake by the course of the Planets and Stars.

CHAP. V.

ARGV.

How farre the vsing of Charmes is lawfull or vnlawfull. The description of the formes of Circles and Coniurations: And what causeth the Magicians them­selues to be wearie thereof.

PHILOMATHES.

WEL, ye haue said farre inough in that argument. But how prooue yee now that these Charmes or vnnaturall pra­ctiques are vnlawfull: For so many honest and merry men and women haue publikely practised some of them, that I think if ye would accuse them all of Witch-craft, ye would affirme more nor ye will be beleeued in.

EPI.

I see if you had taken good tent (to the nature of that word, wher­by I named it,) ye would not haue beene in this doubt, nor mistaken mee so farre as ye haue done: For although, as none can be scholers in a schoole, and not be subiect to the master thereof: so none can studie and put in pra­ctise (for studie the alone, and knowledge, is more perillous nor offensiue; and it is the practise onely that makes the greatnesse of the offence;) the Circles and Art of Magie, without committing an horrible defection from God: And yet as they that reade and learne their rudiments, are not the more subiect to any schoole-master, if it please not their parents to put them to the schoole thereafter: So they who ignorantly prooue these pra­ctiques, which I call the Diuels rudiments, vnknowing them to be baits, cast out by him, for trapping such as God will permit to fall into his hands, this kinde of folkes I say, no doubt, are to be iudged the best of, in respect they vse no inuocation nor helpe of him (by their knowledge at least) in [Page 102]these turnes, and so haue neuer entred themselues into Satans seruice; Yet to speake trewly for mine owne part (I speake but for my selfe) I desire not to make so neere riding: For in my opinion our enemie is ouer craftie, and wee ouer weake (except the greater grace of God) to assay such hazards, wherein he preases to trap vs.

PHI.

Ye haue reason forsooth: for as the common prouerbe sayth; They that sup keile with the deuill, haue need of long spoones: But now I pray you goe forward in the describing of this arte of Magie.

EPI.

Fra they be come once vnto this perfection in euill, in hauing any knowledge (whether learned or vnlearned) of this blacke arte; they then begin to be wearie of the raising of their Maister, by coniured circles, be­ing both so difficile and perillous, and so come plainely to a contract with him, wherein is specially contained formes and effects.

PHI.

But I pray you or euer you goe further, discourse me somewhat of their circles and coniurations; and what should be the cause of their wea­rying thereof: For it should seeme that that forme should be lesse fearefull yet, then the direct haunting and societie, with that foule and vncleane Spirite.

EPI.

I thinke yee take me to be a Witch my selfe, or at the least would faine sweare your selfe prentise to that craft: Alwayes as I may, I shal short­ly satisfie you, in that kinde of coniurations, which are contained in such bookes, which I call the Deuils Schoole: There are foure principall parts: the persons of the coniurers; the action of the coniuration; the words and rites vsed to that effect; and the Spirits that are coniured. Ye must first re­member to lay the ground, that I tolde you before, which is, that it is no power inherent in the circles, or in the holinesse of the names of God blas­phemously vsed; nor in whatsoeuer rites or ceremonies at that time vsed, that either can raise any infernall spirit, or yet limitate him perforce with­in or without these circles. For it is he onely, the father of all lies, who ha­uing first of all prescribed that forme of doing, feining himselfe to be commanded and restrained thereby, will be loth to passe the boundes of these iniunctions; as wel thereby to make them glory in the impiring ouer him (as I said before:) as likewise to make himselfe so to be trusted in these little things, that he may haue the better commoditie thereafter, to deceiue them in the end with a tricke once for all; I meane the euerlasting perditi­on of their soule and body. Then laying this ground, as I haue said, these coniurations must haue fewe or moe in number of the persons coniurers (alwayes passing the singular number) according to the qualitie of the cir­cle, and forme of apparition. Two principall things cannot well in that errand be wanted: holy-water (whereby the deuill mockes the Papists) and some present of a liuing thing vnto him. There are likewise certaine seasons, dayes and houres, that they obserue in this purpose: These things being all ready and prepared, circles are made triangular, quadrangular, round, double or single, according to the forme of apparition that they [Page 103]craue. But to speake of the diuers formes of the circles, of the innumera­ble characters and crosses that are within and without, and out-through the same, of the diuers formes of apparitions, that that craftie spirit illudes them with, and of all such particulars in that action, I remit it to ouer­many that haue busied their heads in describing of the same; as being but curious, and altogether vnprofitable. And this farre onely I touch, that when the coniured Spirit appeares, which will not be while after many cir­cumstances, long prayers, and much muttring and murmuring of the con­iurers; like a Papist Priest, dispatching a hunting Masse: how soone I say, he appeares, if they haue missed one iote of all their rites; or if any of their feet once slyde ouer the circle through terrour of his fearefull apparition, hee payes himselfe at that time in his owne hand, of that due debt which they ought him; and otherwise would haue delayed longer to haue payed him: I meane, hee carries them with him body and soule. If this be not now a iust cause to make them weary of these formes of coniuration, I leaue it to you to iudge vpon, considering the long somnesse of the labour, the precise keeping of dayes and houres (as I haue said) the terriblenesse of apparition, and the present perill that they stand in, in missing the least cir­cumstance or freite, that they ought to obserue: And on the other part, the deuill is glad to mooue them to a plaine and square dealing with him, as I said before.

CHAP. VI.

ARGV.

The Deuils contract with the Magicians: The diuision there of in two parts: What is the difference betwixt Gods miracles and the Deuils.

PHILOMATHES.

INdeed there is cause enough, but rather to leaue him at all, then to runne more plainely to him, if they were wise hee dealt with: But goe forward now, I pray you, to these turnes, fra they become once deacons in this craft.

EPI.

From time that they once plainely begin to con­tract with him: The effect of their contract consists in two things: in formes and effects, as I began to tell already, were it not ye interrupted me: (for although the contract be mutual, I speake first of that part, wherein the diuel obliges himselfe to them) By formes, I meane in what shape or fashion he shall come vnto them, when they call vpon him; And by effects, I vn­derstand, in what speciall sorts or seruices he binds himselfe to bee subiect vnto them. The qualitie of these formes and effects, is lesse or greater, ac­cording to the skill and art of the Magician: For as to the formes, to some of the baser sort of them he obliges himselfe to appeare at their calling vpon him, by such a proper name which he shewes vnto them, either in likenes of a Dog, a Cat, an Ape, or such-like other beast; or else to answere by a [Page 104]voice onely. The effects, are to answere to such demands, as concerne cu­ring of diseases, their owne particular menagerie, or such other base things as they require of him. But to the most curious sort, in the formes hee will oblige himselfe, to enter into a dead bodie, and there out of to giue such answeres, of the euent of battels, of matters concerning the estate of com­monwealths, and such like other great questions: yea, to some he will bee a continuall attender, in forme of a Page: Hee will permit himselfe to bee coniured, for the space of so many yeeres, either in a tablet or a ring, or such like thing, which they may easily cary about with them: Hee giues them power to sell such wares to others, whereof some will be dearer, and some better cheape, according to the lying or true speaking of the Spirit that is coniured therein: Not but that in very deed, all deuils must be lyars; but so they abuse the simplicitie of these wretches, that become their scholers, that they make them beleeue, that at the fall of Lucifer, some Spirits fell in the aire, some in the fire, some in the water, some in the land, in which E­lements they still remaine. Whereupon they build, that such as fell in the fire, or in the aire, are trewer then they, who fell in the water, or in the land, which are all but meere trattles, and forged by the authour of all deceite. For they fell not by weight, as a solide substance, to sticke in any one part; but the principall part of their fall, consisting in qua­lity, by the falling from the grace of God, wherein they were created, they continued stil thereafter, and shall doe while the latter day, in wandring through the world, as Gods hang-men, to execute such turnes as hee employes them in: And when any of them are not occupied in that, re­turne they must to their prison in hell (as it is plaine in the miracle that CHRIST wrought at Gennezareth) therein at the latter day to be all en­closed for euer: Matth. 8. and as they deceiue their Schollers in this, so doe they, in imprinting in them the opinion, that there are so many Princes, Dukes, and Kings amongst them, euery one commanding fewer or moe Legions, and impiring in diuers artes, and quarters of the earth: For though that I will not deny that there be a forme of order amongst the Angels in Hea­uen, and consequently, was amongst them before their fall; yet, either that they bruike the same sensine; or that God will permit vs to know by dam­ned diuels, such heauenly mysteries of his, which he would not reueale to vs, neither by Scripture nor Prophets, I thinke no Christian will once thinke it. But by the contrary of all such mysteries, as he hath closed vp with his Seale of secrecie; it becommeth vs to be contented with an humble ignorance, they being things not necessary for our saluation. But to returne to the purpose, as these formes, wherein Satan obliges himselfe to the greatest of the Magicians, are wonderfull curious; so are the effects correspondent vnto the same: For he will oblige himselfe to teach them artes and sciences, which he may easily doe, being so learned a knaue as he is, to carry them newes from any part of the world, which the agilitie of a Spirit may easily performe: to reueale to them the secrets of any persons, [Page 105]so being they be once spoken, for the thought none knowes but GOD; except so farre as ye may ghesse by their countenance, as one who is doubt­lesly learned enough in the Physiognomie: Yea, hee will make his Schol­lers to creepe in credite with Princes, by fore-telling them many great things; part true, part false: For if all were false, hee would tyne credite at all handes; but alwayes doubtsome, as his Oracles were. And he will also make them to please Princes, by faire banquets and daintie dishes, car­ried in short space fra the farthest part of the world: For no man doubts but he is a thiefe, and his agilitie (as I spake before) makes him to come with such speed. Such like, he wil guard his Schollers with faire armies of horse­men and footmen in appearance, Castles and forts, Which all are but im­pressions in the aire, easily gathered by a Spirit, drawing so neere to that substance himselfe: As in like maner he will learne them many Iuglarie trickes at Cardes, dice, and such like, to deceiue mens senses thereby, and such innumerable false practiques, which are proued by ouer-many in this aage; as they who are acquainted with that Italian called SCOTO yet liuing, can report: And yet are all these things but deluding of the senses, and no wayes true in substance; as were the false miracles wrought by King Pharaos Magicians, for counterfeiting Moyses: For that is the diffe­rence betwixt GODS miracles and the diuels, GOD is a creatour, what he makes appeare in myracle, it is so in effect: As Moyses Rod being casten downe, was no doubt turned into a naturall Serpent: where as the diuel (as Gods Ape) counterfetting that by his Magicians, made their wandes to appeare so, onely to mens outward senses: as kythed in effect by their be­ing deuoured by the other; For it is no wonder, that the diuel may delude our senses, since we see by common proofe, that simple Iugglars wil make an hundreth things seeme both to our eyes and eares otherwayes then they are. Now as to the Magicians part of the contract, it is in a word that thing which I said before, the diuel hunts for in all men.

PHI.

Surely ye haue said much to mee in this art, if all that you haue said be as trew as wonderfull.

EPI.

For the trewth in these actions, it wil be easily confirmed, to any that pleases to take paine vpon the reading of diuers authenticke histories, and the enquiring of daily experiences. And as for the trewth of their pos­sibilitie, that they may be, and in what maner, I trust I haue alledged no­thing whereunto I haue not ioyned such probable reasons, as I leaue to your discretion, to weigh and consider: One word onely I omitted, con­cerning the forme of making of this contract, which is either written with the Magicians owne blood: or else being agreed vpon (in termes his schole­master) touches him in some part, though peraduenture no marke remain, as it doeth with all Witches.

CHAP. VII.

ARG.

The reason why the art of Magie is vnlawfull: What punishment they merit, And who may be accounted guilty of that crime.

PHILOMATHES.

SVrely, ye haue made this art to appeare very monstrous and detestable. But what I pray you shal be said to such as main­taine this arte to bee lawfull, for as euill as you haue made it?

EPI.

I say, they sauour of the panne themselues, or at least little better; and yet I would be glad to heare their reasons.

PHI.

There are two principally, that euer I heard vsed; beside that which is founded vpon the common Prouerbe (that the Necromancers command the deuill, which ye haue already refuted.) The one is grounded vpon a receiued custome: The other vpon an authoritie, which some think infallible. Vpon custome, we see that diuerse Christian Princes and Ma­gistrates seuere punishers of Witches, will not onely ouer-see Magicians to liue within their dominions; but euen sometimes delight to see them prooue some of their practicques. The other reason is, that Moyses beeing brought vp (as it is expresly said in the Scriptures) in all the sciences of the E­gyptians; whereof no doubt, this was one of the principals; and hee not­withstanding of this art, pleasing God, as he did, consequently that art pro­fessed by so godly a man, could not be vnlawfull.

EPI.

As to the first of your reasons, grounded vpon custome: I say, an euill custome can neuer be accepted for a good law, for the ouer great ig­norance of the word in some Princes and Magistrates, and the contempt thereof in others, mooues them to sinne heauily against their office in that point. As to the other reason, which seemes to be of greater weight, if it were formed in a Syllogisme; it behooued to be in many termes, and full of fallacies (to speake in termes of Logicque:) for first, that that generall propo­sition, affirming Moyses to be taught in all the sciences of the Egyptians, should conclude that he was taught in Magie, I see no necessitie: For we must vn­derstand, that the Spirit of God there, speaking of sciences, vnderstands them that are lawfull; for except they be lawfull, they are but abusiuè called sciences, and are but ignorances, indeed: Nam homo pictus, nonest homo. Se­condly, giuing that he had beene taught in it, there is great difference be­twixt knowledge and practising of a thing, as I said before: For God know­eth all things, being alwaies good, and of our sinne and our infirmitie pro­ceedeth our ignorance. Thirdly, giuing that he had both studied and pra­ctised the same (which is more then monstrous to bee beleeued by any Christian) yet we know well inough, that before that euer the Spirit of God began to call Moyses, he was fled out of Egypt, being fourtie yeeres of aage, for the slaughter of an Egyptian, and in his good father Iethroes land, [Page 107]first called at the fierie bush, hauing remained there other fourtie yeeres in exile: so that suppose hee had beene the wickeddest man in the world be­fore, he then became a changed and regenerate man, and very little of olde Moyses remained in him. Abraham was an Idolater in Vr of Chaldaea, before he was called: And Paul beeing called Saul, was a most sharpe persecutour of the Saints of God, while that name was changed.

PHI.

What punishment then thinke ye merit these Magicians and Ne­cromancers?

EPI.

The like no doubt, that Sorcerers and Witches merit; and rather so much greater, as their errour proceedes of the greater knowledge, and so drawes neerer to the sinne against the holy Ghost. And as I say of them, so say I the like of all such as consult, enquire, entertaine, and ouersee them, which is seene by the miserable ends of many that aske counsell of them: For the deuill hath neuer better tidings to tell to any, then hee told to Saul: neither is it lawfull to vse so vnlawful instruments, were it neuer for so good a purpose: Actes 3. For that axiome in Theologie is most certaine and infallible, Nunquam faciendum est malum, vt bonum inde eueniat.

THE SECOND BOOKE OF DAEMONOLOGIE.

ARGVMENT.

The description of Sorcerie and Witcheraft in speciall.

CHAP. I.

ARGVMENT.

Proued by the Scripture, that such a thing can be: And the reasons refuted of all such as would call it but an imagination and Melancholicque humour.

PHILOMATHES.

NOW, since ye haue satisfied mee now so fully, concerning Magie or Necromancie, I wil pray you to doe the like in Sorcerie or Witchcraft.

EPI.

That field is likewise very large, and although in the mouthes and pennes of many, yet few knowe the trewth thereof, so well as they beleeue themselues, as I shall so shortly as I can, make you (God willing) as easily to perceiue.

PHI.

But I pray you before ye goefurther, let mee interrupt you here with a short digres­sion, which is, that many can scarcely beleeue that there is such a thing as Witchcraft: Whose reasons I will shortly alleage vnto you, that yee may satisfie mee as well in that, as yee haue done in the rest. For first, whereas the Scripture seemes to prooue Witchcraft to bee, by diuers ex­amples, and specially by fundrie of the same, which ye haue alleaged; it is thought by some, that these places speake of Magicians and Necromancers onely, and not of Witches: As in speciall, these wise men of Pharaohs, that counterfeited Moyses myracles, were Magicians say they, and not Witches: As likewise that Pythonisse that Saul consulted with: And so was Simon Magus in the new Testament, as that very stile imports. Secondly, where ye would oppone the dayly practicque, and confession of so many, that is thought likewise to be but very Melancholicque imaginations of simple rauing creatures. Thirdly, if Witches had such power of Witching of folkes to death, (as they say they haue) there had bene none left aliue long since in the world but they; at the least, no good or godly person of whatsoeuer estate, could haue escaped their diuelrie.

EPI.
[Page 109]

Your three reasons, as I take, are grounded: the first of them nega­tiuè vpon the Scripture: The second affirmatiuè vpō Phisick: And the third vpon the certaine proofe of experience. As to your first, it is most trew indeede, that all these wise men of Pharaoh were Magicians of arte: As like­wise it appeares well, that the Pythonisse, with whom Saul consulted, was of that same profession: and so was Simon Magus. But ye omitted to speake of the Lawe of God, wherein are all Magicians, Diuiners, Enchanters, Sorcerers, Witches, and whatsoeuer of that kind that consult with the de­uill, plainely prohibited, and alike threatned against. And besides that, she who had the Spirit of Python, in the Actes, Acts 16. whose Spirit was put to silence by the Apostle, could be no other thing but a very Sorcerer or Witch, if ye admit the vulgar distinction, to be in a maner trew, whereof I spake in the beginning of our conference: For that spirit whereby she conquested such gaine to her Masters, was not at her raising or commanding, as shee pleased to appoint, but spake by her tongue, as well publikely as priuately: where­by she seemed to draw nearer to the sort of Demoniakes or possessed, if that coniunction betwixt them, had not beene of her owne consent; as it ap­peared by her, not being tormented therewith, and by her conquesting of such gaine to her Masters (as I haue alreadie said.) As to your second reason grounded vpon Physicke, in attributing their confessions or appre­hensions, to a naturall melancholique humour, any that please physically to consider vpon the naturall humour of melancholly, according to all the Physicians, that euer writ thereupon, they shall find that that will be ouer­short a cloake to couer their knauery with: For as the humour of Melan­cholly in the selfe is blacke, heauie and terrene, so are the symptomes there­of, in any persons that are subiect thereunto, leannesse, palenesse, desire of solitude, and if they come to the highest degree thereof, meere folly and Manie: whereas by the contrary, a great number of them that euer haue beene conuict or confessours of Witchcraft, as may be presently seene by many that haue at this time confessed; they are by the contrary, I say, some of them rich and worldly wise, some of them fat or corpulent in their bo­dies, and most part of them altogether giuen ouer to the pleasures of the flesh, continuall haunting of companie, and all kinde of merrinesse, both lawfull and vnlawful, which are things directly contrary to the symptomes of melancholly, whereof I spake; and further experience daily prooues, how loth they are to confesse without torture, which witnesseth their guiltinesse; where by the contrary, the Melancholiques neuer spare to be­wray themselues, by their continuall discourses, feeding thereby their hu­mor in that which they thinke no crime. As to your third reason, it scarse­ly merits an answere: for if the deuill their master were not bridled, as the Scriptures teach vs, suppose there were no men nor women to bee his instruments, he could finde wayes enough without any helpe of others to wracke all mankinde; whereunto he employes his whole study, and goeth about like a roaring Lyon (as Peter sayth) to that effect, but the limits of his [Page 110]power were set downe before the foundations of the world were laide, which he hath not power in the leastiote to transgresse. But beside all this, there is ouer great a certaintie to prooue that they are, by the daily experi­ence of the harmes that they doe, both to men, and whatsoeuer thing men possesse, whom God will permit them to be the instruments, so to trouble or visite, as in my discourse of that arte, ye shall heare clearely prooued.

CHAP. II.

ARGV.

The Etymologie and signification of that word Sorcerie: The first entresse and prentiship of them that giue themselues to that craft.

PHILOMATHES.

COme on then I pray you, and returne where ye left.

EPI.

This word of Sorcerie is a Latine word, which is taken from casting of the lot, and therefore he that vseth it, is called Sortiarius à sorte: As to the word of Witchcraft, it is nothing but a proper name giuen in our language: The cause wherefore they were called Sortiarij, proceeded of their practiques, seeming to come of lot or chance, such as the turning of the riddle, the knowing of the forme of prayers, or such like tokens, if a person diseased would liue or die: And in generall, that name was giuen them for vsing of such charmes, and freits, as that Craft teacheth them. Many points of their craft and practicques are common betwixt the Magi­cians and them: for they serue both one Master, although in diuers fashi­ons. And as I deuided the Necromancers into two sortes, learned and vn­learned; so must I deny them in other two, rich and of better accompt; poore and of baser degree. These two degrees now of persons, that practise this Craft, answere to the passions in them, which (I tolde you before) the Diuell vsed as meanes to entice them to his seruice: for such of them as are in great miserie and pouertie, he allures to follow him, by promising vnto them great riches, and worldly commoditie: Such as though rich, yet burne in a desperate desire of reuenge, he allures them by promises, to get their turne satisfied to their hearts contentment. It is to be noted now, that that olde and craftie enemie of ours, assailes none, though touched with any of these two extremities, except he first finde an entresse ready for him, either by the great ignorance of the person he deales with, ioyned with an euill life, or else by their carelesnesse and contempt of God: And finding them in an vtter despaire, for one of these two former causes that I haue spoken of, he prepares the way by feeding them craftely in their humour, and fil­ling them further and further with despaire, while hee finde the time pro­per to discouer himselfe vnto them: At which time, either vpon their wal­king solitarie in the fieldes, or else lying pansing in their bed, but alwaies without the company of any other, hee either by a voyce, or in likenesse [Page 111]of a man inquires of them, what troubles them, and promiseth them, a suddaine and certaine way of remedie, vpon condition on the other part, that they follow his aduise, and doe such things as he will require of them: Their mindes being prepared before-hand, as I haue alreadie spoken, they easily agreed vnto that demand of his, and syne sets an other tryist, where they may meete againe: At which time, before hee proceede any further with them, hee first perswades them to addict themselues to his seruice, which being easily obtained, he then discouers what he is vnto them, makes them to renounce their God and Baptisme directly, and giues them his marke vpon some secret place of their bodie, which remaines soare vnhea­led, while his next meeting with them, and thereafter euer insensible, how­soeuer it be nipped or pricked by any, as is daily prooued, to giue them a proofe thereby, that as in that doing, he could hurt and heale them; so all their ill and well doing thereafter, must depend vpon him: And besides that, the intolerable dolour that they feele in that place, where he hath mar­ked them, serues to waken them, and not to let them rest, while their next meeting againe: fearing lest otherwaies they might either forget him, be­ing as new Prentises, and not well enough founded yet, in that fiendly fol­lie: or else remembring of that horrible promise they made him at their last meeting, they might skunner at the same, and preasse to call it backe. At their third meeting, he makes a shew to be carefull to performe his promi­ses, either by teaching them waies how to get themselues reuenged, if they be of that sort: or else by teaching them lessons, how by most vile and vn­lawfull meanes, they may obtaine gaine, and wordly commoditie, if they be of the other sort.

CHAP. III.

ARGV.

The Witches actions diuided into two parts: The actions proper to their owne persons: Their actions toward others: The forme of their conuentions, and a­doring of their Master.

PHILOMATHES.

YEe haue said now enough of their initiating in that order, It rests then that yee discourse vpon their practises, fra they be passed Prentises: for I would faine heare what is possible to them to performe in very deed. Although they serue a com­mon Master with the Necromancers, (as I haue before said) yet serue they him in another forme: For as the meanes are diuers, which allure them to these vnlawful Arts of seruing the deuill; so by diuers waies vse they their practises, answering to these meanes, which first the deuill vsed as instruments in them, though all tending to one end, to wit, the en­larging of Satans tyrannie, and crossing of the propagation of the King­dome of CHRIST, so farre as lyeth in the possibilitie, either of the one or [Page 112]other sort, or of the deuill their master: For where the Magicians, as allured by curiositie, in the most part of their practises, seeke principally the satis­fying of the same, and to winne to themselues a popular honour and esti­mation; these Witches on the other part, being inticed, either for the desire of reuenge, or of worldly riches, their whole practises are either to hurt men and their goods, or what they possesse, for satisfying of their cruell mindes in the former, or else by the wracke in whatsoeuer sort, of any whom God will permit them to haue power of, to satisfie their greedie desire in the last point.

EPI.

In two parts their actions may be diuided; the actions of their owne persons, and the actions proceeding from them towards any other: And this diuision being well vnderstood, will easily resolue you, what is possible to them to doe: For although all that they confesse is no lie vp­on their part, yet doubtlesly, in my opinion, a part of it is not indeede, ac­cording as they take it to be: And in this I meane by the actions of their owne persons: For as I said before, speaking of Magie, that the diuell il­ludes the senses of these schollers of his, in many things, so say I the like of these Witches.

PHI.

Then I pray you first to speake of that part of their owne per­sons, and syne ye may come next to their actions towards others.

EPI.

To the effect that they may performe such seruices of their false Master, as he employes them in, the deuill as Gods Ape, counterfeits in his seruants this seruice and forme of adoration, that God prescribed and made his seruants to practise: For as the seruants of God publikely vse to con­veene for seruing of him, so makes he them in great numbers to conveene (though publikely they dare not) for his seruice. As none conveenes to the adoration and worshipping of God, except they be marked with his Seale, the Sacrament of Baptisme: So none serues Satan, and conveenes to the a­doring of him, that are not marked with that marke, whereof I alreadie spake. As the Minister sent by God teacheth plainely at the time of their publike conuentions, how to serue him in spirit and trewth; so that vnclean spirit, in his owne person teacheth his disciples at the time of their conuee­ning, how to worke all kind of mischiefe, and craues coumpt of all their horrible and detestable proceedings passed, for aduancement of his seruice: Yea that hee may the more vinely counterfeit and scorne God, he oft times makes his slaues to conueene in these very places, which are destinate and ordained for the conveening of the seruants of God (I meane by Churches) But this farre, which I haue yet said, I not onely take it to be trew in their opinions, but euen so to be indeed: For the forme that he vsed in counter­faiting God amongst the Gentiles, makes me so to thinke: As God spake by his Oracles, spake he not so by his? As God had aswell bloodie Sacrifices, as others without blood, had not he the like? As God had Churches san­ctified to his seruice, with Altars, Priests, Sacrifices, Ceremonies and Pray­ers; had he not the like polluted to his seruice? As God gaue responses by [Page 113] Vrim and Thummim, gaue he not his responses by the intralles of beasts, by the singing of fowles, and by their actions in the aire? As God by visions, dreames, and extasies reuealed what was to come, and what was his will vnto his seruants; vsed hee not the like meanes to forewarne his slaues of things to come? Yea euen as God loued cleanenesse, hated vice and impu­ritie, and appointed punishments therefore; vsed he not the like (though falsly I grant, and but in eschewing the lesse inconuenience, to draw them vpon a greater) yet dissimuled he not, I say, so farre as to appoint his priests to keepe their bodies cleane and vndefiled, before their asking responses of him? And fained he not God, to be a protectour of euery vertue, and a iust reuenger of the contrarie? This reason then mooues mee, that as he is that same diuell, and as crafty now as he was then, so will he not spare as pertly in these actions that I haue spoken of, concerning the Witches persons: but further, Witches of times confesse, not only his conueening in the Church with them, but his occupying of the Pulpit; Yea, their forme of adora­tion, to be the kissing of his hinder parts: Which though it seeme ridicu­lous, yet may it likewise be trew, seeing we reade that in Calicute, he appea­ring in forme of a Goat-bucke, hath publikely that vn-honest homage done vnto him, by euery one of the people: So ambitious is he, and greedy of honour (which procured his fall) that he will euen imitate God in that part, where it is said, that Moyses could see but the hinder parts of God, Exod. 33.for the brightnesse of his glory: And yet that speech is spoken but [...]

CHAP. IIII.

ARGV.

What are the wayes possible, whereby the Witches may transport themselues to places farre distant: And what are impossible and meere illusions of Satan: And the reasons thereof.

PHILOMATHES.

BVt by what way say they, or thinke yee it possible they can come to these vnlawfull conuentions?

EPI.

There is the thing which I esteeme their sen­ses to be deluded in, and though they lie not in confes­sing of it, because they thinke it to be trew, yet not to be so in substance or effect: for they say, that by diuers meanes they may conueene, either to the adoring of their Master, or to the putting in practise any seruice of his, committed vnto their charge: one way is naturall, which is naturall riding, going, or sailing, at what houre their master comes and aduertises them: and this way may be easily belee­ued; another way is some what more strange, and yet it is possible to bee trew: which is, by being caried by the force of the spirit which is their con­ducter, either aboue the earth, or aboue the Sea swiftly, to the place where they are to meete: which I am perswaded to bee likewise possible, in respect that as Habakkuk was carried by the Angel in that forme, to the den where Daniel lay; so thinke I, the diuell will be readie to imitate God, [Page 114]as well in that as in other things: Apocrypha of Bel and the Dragon. which is much more possible to him to doe, being a Spirit, then to a mighty wind, being but a naturall Meteore, to transport from one place to another, a solide body, as is commonly and daily seene in practise: But in this violent forme they cannot be caried, but a short bounds, agreeing with the space that they may retaine their breath: for if it were longer, their breath could not remaine vnextinguished, their body being caried in such a violent and forcible maner; as by example: If one fall off a small height, his life is but in perill, according to the hard or soft lighting: but if one fall from an high and stay rocke, his breath will be forcibly banished from the body, before he can win to the earth, as is oft seene by experience: And in this transporting they say themselues, that they are inuisible to any other, except amongst themselues, which may also be possible in my opinion: For if the deuill may forme what kinde of impressions he pleases in the aire, (as I haue said before, speaking of Magie) why may hee not farre easilier thicken and obscure so the aire, that is next about them, by contracting it straite together, that the beames of any o­ther mans eyes cannot pierce thorow the same, to see them? But the third way of their comming to their conuentions, is that, wherein I thinke them deluded: for some of them say, that being transformed in the likenesse of a little beast or foule, they will come and pierce through whatsoeuer house or Church, though all ordinarie passages be closed, by whatsoeuer open the aire may enter in at: And some say, that their bodies lying still, as in an extasie, their spirits will be rauished out of their bodies, and caried to such places; and for verifying thereof, will giue euident tokens, as well by witnesses that haue seene their body lying sencelesse in the meane time, as by naming persons whom-with they met, and giuing tokens what pur­pose was amongst them, whom otherwise they could not haue knowen: for this forme of iourneying, they affirme to vse most, when they are trans­ported from one countrey to another.

PHI.

Surely I long to heare your owne opinion of this: for they are like old wiues trattles about the fire. The reasons that mooue me to thinke that these are meere illusions, are these: First, for them that are transformed in likenesse of beasts or foules, can enter through so narrow passages, al­though I may easily beleeue that the diuell could by his workmanship vp­on the aire, make them appeare to be in such formes, either to themselues, or to others: yet how he can contract a solide body within so little roome, I thinke it is directly contrary to it selfe; for to be made so little, and yet not diminished; to be so straitly drawen together, and yet feele no paine, I thinke it is so contrary to the qualitie of a naturall bodie, and so like to the little transubstantiate god in the Papists Masse, that I can neuer beleeue it: So to haue a quantitie, is so proper to a solide body, that as all Philoso­phers conclude, it cannot be any more without one, then a spirit can haue one: Actes 12. For when Peter came out of the prison, and the doores all locked; it was not by any cōtracting of his body in so little roome, but by the giuing [Page 115]place of the doore, though vnespied by the Gaylors: And yet is there no comparison, when this is done, betwixt the power of God, and of the di­uel. As to their forme of extasie and spirituall transporting, it is certaine the soules going out of the body, is the onely definition of naturall death: and who are once dead, God forbid we should thinke that it should lie in the power of all the diuels in hell, to restore them to their life againe; although he can put his owne spirit in a dead body, which the Necromancers com­monly practise, as ye haue heard. For that is the office properly belonging to God; and besides that, the soule once parting from the body, cannot wander any longer in the world, but to the owne resting place must it goe immediately, abiding the coniunction of the body againe, at the latter day. And what Christ or the Prophets did miraculously in this case, it can in no Christian mans opinion, be made common with the diuel. As for a­ny tokens that they giue for prouing of this, it is very possible to the diuels craft, to perswade them to these meanes: for he being a spirit, may he not so rauish their thoughts, and dull their senses, that their body lying as dead, he may obiect to their spirits, as it were in a dreame, and (as the Poets write of Morpheus) represent such formes of persons, of places, and other circum­stances, as he pleases to illude them with? Yea, that he may deceiue them with the greater efficacie, may he not at that same instant by fellow angels of his, illude such other persons so in that same fashion, whom-with hee makes them to beleeue that they mette, that all their reports and tokens, though seuerally examined, may euery one agree with another? And that whatsoeuer actions, either in hurting men or beasts, or whatsoeuer other thing that they falsly imagine, at that time to haue done, may by himselfe or his marrowes, at that same time be done indeed; so as if they would giue for a token of their being rauished at the death of such a person with­in so short space thereafter, whom they beleeue to haue poisoned, or witch­ed at that instant, might he not at that same houre, haue smitten that same person, by the permission of GOD, to the farther deceiuing of them, and to mooue others to beleeue them? And this is surely the likelyest way, and most according to reason, which my iudgement can finde out in this, and whatsoeuer other vnnaturall points of their confession: And by these meanes shall we saile surely, betwixt Charybdis and Scylla, in eschewing the not beleeuing of them altogether on the one part, lest that draw vs to the errour, that there is no Witches: and on the other part in beleeuing of it, make vs to eschew the falling into innumerable absurdities, both mon­strously against all Theologie diuine, and Philosophie humane.

CHAP. V.

ARGV.

Witches actions towards others: Why there are more women of that craft then men: What things are possible to them to effectuate by the power of their ma­ster: The reasons thereof: What is the surest remedy of the harmes done by them.

PHILOMATHES.

FOrsooth your opinion in this, seemes to cary most reason with it; and since ye haue ended then the actions belong­ing properly to their owne persons, say forward now to their actions vsed towards others.

EPI.

In their actions vsed towards others, three things ought to be considered: First, the maner of their consulting thereupon: Next, their part as instruments: And last, their masters part, who puts the same in execution. As to their consultations thereupon, they vse them of­test in the Churches, where they conueene for adoring, at what time their master enquiring at them what they would be at, euery one of them pro­pones vnto him, what wicked turne they would haue done, either for ob­taining of riches, or for reuenging them vpon any whom they haue ma­lice at; who granting their demaund, as no doubt willingly he will, since it is to doe euill, hee teacheth them the meanes whereby they may doe the same: As for little trifling turnes that women haue adoe with, he causeth them to ioynt dead corpses, and to make powders thereof, mixing such o­ther things there amongst, as he giues vnto them.

PHI.

But before ye goe further, permit me, I pray you, to interrupt you one word, which ye haue put me in memorie of, by speaking of Wo­men; What can be the cause that there are twentie women giuen to that craft, where there is one man?

EPI.

The reason is easie, for as that sexe is frailer then man is, so is it easier to be intrapped in these grosse snares of the diuell, as was ouer-well prooued to be trew, by the Serpents deceiuing of Eua at the beginning, which makes him the homelier with that sexe sensine.

PHI.

Returne now where ye left.

EPI.

To some others at these times he teacheth, how to make pictures of waxe or clay, that by the roasting thereof, the persons that they beare the name of, may be continually melted or dried away by continuall sicke­nesse: To some he giues such stones or ponders, as will helpe to cure or cast on diseases: And to some hee teacheth kindes of vncouth poysons, which Mediciners vnderstand not (for he is farre cunninger then man, in the knowledge of all the occult proprieties of nature) not that any of these meanes which he teacheth them (except the poysons which are composed of things naturall,) can of themselues helpe any thing to these turnes, that they are employed in, but onely being GODS ape, as well in that, as in all other things; Euen as God by his Sacraments which are earthly of them­selues, [Page 117]workes a heauenly effect, though no wayes by any cooperation in them: And as Christ by clay and spettle wrought together, Iohn 9. opened the eyes of the blinde man, suppose there was no vertue in that which he outwardly ap­plied, so the diuel will haue his outward meanes to be shewes as it were of his doing, which hath no part or cooperation in his turnes with him, how farre that euer the ignorants be abused in the contrarie. And as to the ef­fects of these two former parts; to wit, the consultations and the outward meanes, they are so wonderfull, as I dare not alleadge any of them, without ioyning a sufficient reason of the possibilitie thereof; For leauing all the small trifles among wiues, and to speake of the principall points of their craft, for the common trifles thereof, they can doe without conuerting well enough by themselues, these principall points, I say, are these; They can make men or women to loue or hate other, which may be very pos­sible to the diuel to effectuate, seeing he being a subtile spirit, knowes well enough how to perswade the corrupted affection of them whom God wil permit him so to deale with: They can lay the sicknesse of one vpon an­other, which likewise is very possible vnto him: For since by Gods per­mission, he laide sickenesse vpon Iob, why may he not farre easilier lay it vpon any other; For as an old practitian, hee knowes well enough what humour domines most in any of vs, and as a spirit he can subtillie waken vp the same, making it peccant, or to abound, as hee thinkes meet for trou­bling of vs, when God will so permit him: And for the taking off of it, no doubt he will be glad to relieue such of present paine, as he may thinke by these meanes to perswade to be catched in his euerlasting snares and fet­ters. They can bewitch and take the life of men or women, by roasting of the Pictures, as I spake of before, which likewise is verie possible to their master to performe: for although (as I said before) that instrument of waxe haue no vertue in that turne doing, yet may he not very well, euen by the same measure, that his coniured slaues melts that waxe at the fire, may hee not, I say, at these same times, subtily, as a spirit, so weaken and scatter the spirits of life of the patient, as may make him on the one part, for faintnesse, to sweat out the humour of his bodie, and on the other part, for the not concurrence of these spirits, which causes his digestion, so debilitate his stomacke, that this humour radicall continually, sweating out on the one part, and no new good sucke being put in the place thereof, for lacke of di­gestion on the other, he at last shall vanish away, euen as his picture will doe at the fire? And that knauish and cunning workeman, by troubling him, onely at sometimes, makes a proportion, so neere betwixt the work­ing of the one and the other, that both shall end as it were at one time. They can raise stormes and tempests in the aire, either vpon Sea or land, though not vniuersally, but in such a particular place and prescribed bounds, as GOD will permit them so to trouble: Which likewise is very easie to be discerned from any other naturall tempests that are Meteores, in respect of the sudden and violent raising thereof, together with the [Page 118]short induring of the same. And this is likewise very possible to their ma­ster to doe, hee hauing such affinitie with the aire, as being a spirit, and ha­uing such power of the forming and moouing thereof, as yee haue heard me alreadie declare: Ephes. 2. For in the Scripture, that stile of the Prince of the aire, is giuen vnto him. They can make folkes to become Phrenticque or Ma­niacque, which likewise is very possible to their master to doe, since they are but naturall sicknesses: and so he may lay on these kindes, as well as any others. They can make spirits, either to follow and trouble persons, or haunt certaine houses, and affray oftentimes the inhabitants, as hath bene knowne to bee done by our Witches at this time. And likewise they can make some to bee possessed with spirits, and so to become very Daemo­niacques: and this last sort is very possible likewise to the diuel their master to doe, since he may easily send his owne angels to trouble in what forme he pleases, any whom God will permit him so to vse.

PHI.

But will God permit these wicked instruments by the power of the deuill their master, to trouble by any of these meanes, any that beleeue in him?

EPI.

No doubt, for there are three kindes of folkes whom God will permit so to be tempted or troubled; the wicked for their horrible sinnes, to punish them in the like measure; the godly that are sleeping in any great sinnes or infirmities, and weaknesse in faith, to waken them vp the faster by such an vncouth forme: and euen some of the best, that their patience may be tried before the world, as Iobs was: For why may not God vse any kinde of extraordinary punishment, when it pleases him; as well as the or­dinarie rods of sickenesse or other aduersities?

PHI.

Who then may be free from these deuilish practises?

EPI.

No man ought to presume so farre as to promise any impunitie to himselfe: for God hath before all beginnings, praeordinated, as well the particular sorts of plagues, as of benefites for euery man, which in the owne time he ordaines them to be visited with, and yet ought we not to be the more afraide for that, of any thing that the diuell and his wicked in­struments can doe against vs: for we daily fight against the diuell in a hun­dreth other wayes: And therefore, as a valiant captaine affraies no more being at the combate, nor stayes from his purpose for the rummishing shot of a Canon, nor the small clacke of a Pistolet, suppose he be not cer­taine what may light vpon him; Euen so ought we boldly to goe forward in fighting against the diuell without any greater terrour, for these his ra­rest weapons, nor for the ordinary whereof we haue daily the proofe.

PHI.

Is it not lawfull then, by the helpe of some other Witch, to cure the disease that is casten on by that craft?

EPI.

No wayes lawfull; for I gaue you the reason thereof in that axi­ome of Theologie, which was the last words I spake of Magie.

PHI.

How then may these diseases be lawfull cured?

EPI.

Only by earnest prayer vnto God, by amendment of their liues, [Page 119]and by sharpe pursuing euery one, according to his calling of these instru­ments of Satan, whose punishment to the death will be a salutarie sacrifice for the patient. And this is not onely the lawfull way, but likewise the most sure: For by the deuils meanes, can neuer the deuill be casten out, Marke 3. as Christ sayth. And when such a cure is vsed, it may well serue for a short time, but at the last, it will doubtlesly tend to the vtter perdition of the patient, both in body and soule.

CHAP. VI.

ARGV.

What sort of folkes are least or most subiect to receiue harme by Witchcraft: What power they haue to harme the Magistrate, and vpon what respects they haue any power in prison: And to what end may or will the deuill appeare to them therein: Vpon what respects the deuill appeares in sundry shapes to sundry of them at any time.

PHILOMATHES.

BVt who dare take vpon him to punish them, if no man can be sure to be free from their vnnaturall inuasions?

EPI.

Wee ought not the more of that restraine from vertue, that the way wherby we clime thereunto be straight and perillous: But besides that, as there is no kinde of per­sons so subiect to receiue harme of them, as these that are of infirme and weake faith (which is the best buckler against such inuasions:) so haue they so small power ouer none, as ouer such as zealously and earnestly pur­sue them, without sparing for any wordly respect.

PHI.

Then they are like the Pest, which smites these sickarest, that flies it farthest, and apprehends deepliest the perill thereof.

EPI.

It is euen so with them: for neither is it able to them to vse any false cure vpon a patient, except the patient first beleeue in their power, and so hazard the tinsell of his owne soule, nor yet can they haue lesse pow­er to hurt any, nor such as contemne most their doings, so being it comes of faith, and not of any vaine arrogancie in themselues.

PHI.

But what is their power against the Magistrate?

EPI.

Lesse or greater, according as he deales with them: for if hee be slothfull towards them, God is very able to make them instruments to wa­ken and punish his slouth: but if he be the contrary, hee according to the iust Law of God, and allowable law of all nations, will be diligent in exa­mining and punishing of them: God will not permit their master to trou­ble or hinder so good a worke.

PHI.

But fra they be once in hands and firmance, haue they any fur­ther power in their craft?

EPI.

That is according to the forme of their detention: If they be but apprehended and deteined by any priuate person, vpon other priuate respects, their power no doubt either in escaping, or in doing hurt, is no [Page 120]lesse nor euer it was before: But if on the other part, their apprehending and detention be by the lawfull Magistrate, vpon the iust respects of their guiltinesse in that craft, their power is then no greater then before that e­uer they medled with their master: For where God begins iustly to strike by his lawfull Lieutenants, it is not in the deuils power to defraud or be­reaue him of the office, or effect of his powerfull and reuenging Scepter.

PHI.

But will neuer their Master come to visite them, fra they be once apprehended and put in firmance?

EPI.

That is according to the estate that these miserable wretches are in: For if they be obstinate in still denying, he will not spare, when hee findes time to speake with them, either if he finde them in any comfort, to fill them more and more with the vaine hope of some manner of reliefe; or else if he finde them in a deepe despaire, by all meanes to augment the same, and to perswade them by some extraordinarie meanes to put them­selues downe, which very commonly they doe: But if they bee penitent and confesse, God will not permit him to trouble them any more with his presence and allurements.

PHI.

It is not good vsing his counsell I see then: But I would earnest­ly know when he appeares to them in prison, what formes vses hee then to take?

EPI.

Diuers formes, euen as hee vses to doe at other times vnto them: For as I told you, speaking of Magie, he appeares to that kind of craftes-men ordinarily in a forme, according as they agree vpon it among themselues; Or if they be but prentises, according to the qualitie of their circles or con­iurations: Yet to these capped creatures, he appeares as hee pleases, and as he findes meetest for their humors: For euen at their publicke conuenti­ons, hee appeares to diuers of them in diuers formes, as we haue found by the difference of their confessions in that point: For he deluding them with vaine impressions in the aire, makes himselfe to seeme more terrible to the grosser sort, that they may thereby be mooued to feare and reuerence him the more: and lesse monstrous and vncouth like againe to the craftier sort, lest otherwise they might sturre and skunner at his vglinesse.

PHI.

How can he then be felt, as they confesse they haue done him, if his body be but of aire?

EPI.

I heare little of that amongst their confessions, yet may hee make himselfe palpable, either by assuming any dead bodie, and vsing the mini­sterie thereof, or else by deluding as well their sence of feeling as seeing; which is not impossible to him to doe, since all our senses, as wee are so weake, and euen by ordinarie sicknesses will be oftentimes deluded.

PHI.

But I would speere one word further yet, concerning his appea­ring to them in prison, which is this: May any other that chances to be pre­sent at that time in the prison, see him as well as they?

EPI.

Sometimes they will, and sometimes not, as it pleases God.

CHAP. VII.

ARG.

Two formes of the diuels visible conuersing in the earth, with the reasons where­fore the one of them was commonest in the time of Papistrie, and the other sensine. Those that deny the power of the diuell, denie the power of God, and are guilty of the errour of the Sadduces.

PHILOMATHES.

HAth the Diuell then power to appeare to any other, except to such as are his sworne disciples; especially since all Ora­cles, and such like kinds of illusions were taken away and abolished by the comming of CHRIST?

EPI.

Although it be true indeede, that the brightnesse of the Gospel at his comming, scaled the cloudes of all these grosse errours in the Gentilisme; yet that these abusing spirits, cease not sensine at some­times to appeare, daily experience teaches vs. Indeed this difference is to be marked betwixt the formes of Satans conuersing visibly in the world: For of two different formes thereof, the one of them by the spreading of the Euangel, and conquest of the white horse, in the sixt Chapter of the Reue­lation, is much hindred and become rather there-through: This his appea­ring to any Christians, troubling of them outwardly, or possessing of them constrainedly: The other of them is become commoner and more vsed sensine, I meane by their vnlawfull artes, whereupon our whole purpose hath beene. This wee finde by experience in this Isle to be true: For as wee know, moe ghosts and spirits were seene, nor tongue can tell, in the time of blind Papistrie in these countries, where now by the contrarie, a man shall scarcely all his time heare once of such things; and yet were these vnlawful artes farre rarer at that time, and neuer were so much heard of, nor so rife as they are now.

PHI.

What should be the cause of that?

EPI.

The diuers nature of our sinnes procures at the Iustice of God, diuers sorts of punishments answering thereunto: and therefore as in the time of Papistrie, our fathers erring grossely, and through ignorance, that mist of errours ouershadowed the Diuell to walke the more familiarly a­mongst them, and as it were by barnely and affraying terrours, to mocke and accuse their barnely errours; by the contrarie, we now being sound of Religion, and in our life rebelling to our profession, God iustly by that sinne of rebellion, as Samuel calleth it, accuseth our life so wilfully fighting against our profession.

PHI.

Since ye are entred now to speake of the appearing of spirits, I would be glad to heare your opinion in that matter: for many denie that any such spirits can appeare in these daies, as I haue said.

EPI.

Doubtlesse who denieth the power of the Diuell, would like­wise [Page 122]denie the power of God, if they could for shame. For since the Diuel is the very contrarie opposite to God, there can bee no better way to know God, then by the contrarie; as by the ones power (though a creature) to admire the power of the great Creatour: by the falshood of the one to con­sider the trewth of the other: by the iniustice of the one, to consider the Iu­stice of the other: And by the cruelty of the one, to consider the merciful­nesse of the other: And so foorth in all the rest of the essence of God, and qualities of the Diuell. But I feare indeed, there bee ouer many Sadduces in this world, that denie all kindes of Spirits: For conuicting of whose errour, there is cause inough if there were no more, that God should permit at sometimes Spirits visibly to kyith.

THE THIRD BOOKE OF DAEMONOLOGIE.

ARGVMENT.

The description of all these kinds of Spirits that trouble men or women. The conclusion of the whole Dialogue.

CHAP. I.

ARGV.

The diuision of Spirits in foure principall kindes: The description of the first kinde of them, called Spectra & vmbrae mortuorum: What is the best way to be free of their trouble.

PHILOMATHES.

I Pray you now then goe forward in telling what ye thinke fabulous, or may be trowed in that case.

EPI.

That kind of the diuels cōuersing in the earth, may be diuided in foure different kindes, whereby he affraieth and troubleth the bodies of men: For of the abusing of the soule, I haue spo­ken alreadie. The first is, where spirits trouble some houses or solitarie places: The second, where Spirits follow vpon certaine persons, and at diuers houres trouble them: The third, when they enter within them, and possesse them: The fourth is these kinde of Spirits that are cal­led vulgarly the Fairie: Of the three former kinds, ye heard already, how they may artificially be made by Witchcraft to trouble folke; now it restes to speake of their naturall comming as it were, and not raised by Witch­craft. But generally I must forewarne you of one thing before I enter in this purpose: that is, that although in my discoursing of them, I deuide them in diuers kinds, ye must notwithstanding thereof note my phrase of speaking in that: For doubtleslie they are in effect, but all one kinde of Spi­rits, who for abusing the more of mankinde, take on these sundrie shapes, and vse diuers formes of outward actions, as if some were of nature better then other. Now I returne to my purpose: As to the first kinde of these spirits, that were called by the ancients by diuers names, according as their actions were: For if they were Spirits that haunted some houses, by appea­ring in diuers and horrible formes, and making great dinne, they were [Page 124]called Lemures or Spectra: If they appeared in likenesse of any defunct to some friends of his, they were called vmbraemortuorum: And so innume­rable stiles they got, according to their actions, as I haue said alreadie; as we see by experience, how many stiles they haue giuen them in our lan­guage in the like maner. Of the appearing of these Spirits, we are certified by the Scriptures, Esay 13. Iere. 50. where the Prophet Esay 13. and 34. Chap. threatning the destruction of Ierusalem, declares, that it shall not onely be wracked, but shall become so great a solitude, as it shall be the habitacle of Howlets, and of Zijm and Ijm, which are the proper Hebrew names for these Spi­rits. The cause why they haunt sollitarie places, it is by reason, that they may affray and brangle the more the faith of such as them alone hauntes such places: For our nature is such, as in companies we are not so soone moued to any such kind of feare, as being sollitarie, which the diuel know­ing well enough, he will not therefore assaile vs but when wee are weake: And besides that, God will not permit him so to dishonour the societies and companies of Christians, as in publicque times and places to walke vi­siblie amongst them: On the other part, when he troubles certaine houses that are dwelt in, it is a sure token either of grosse ignorance, or of some grosse and slanderous sinnes amongst the inhabitants thereof, which God by that extraordinarie rod punishes.

PHI.

But by what way or passage can these Spirits enter into these houses, seeing they alledge that they will enter, doore and window be­ing steiked?

EPI.

They will choose the passage for their entresse, according to the forme that they are in at that time: For if they haue assumed a dead bodie, whereinto they lodge themselues, they can easily enough open without dinne any doore or window, and enter in thereat; And if they enter as a Spirit onely, any place where the aire may come in at, is large enough an entrie for them: For as I said before, a Spirit can occupie no quantitie.

PHI.

And will God then permit these wicked Spirits to trouble the rest of a dead bodie, before the resurrection thereof? Or if hee will so, I thinke it should be of the reprobate onely.

EPI.

What more is the rest troubled of a dead bodie, when the diuell caries it out of the graue to serue his turne for a space, nor when the Witches take it vp and ioynts it, or when as Swine wortes vp the graues? The rest of them that the Scripture speakes of, is not meaned by a locall remaining continually in one place, but by their resting from their trauailes and mi­series of this world, while their latter coniunction againe with the soule at that time, to receiue full glorie in both: And that the diuel may vse as well the ministrie of the bodies of the faithfull in these cases, as of the vn­faithfull, there is no inconuenience; for his haunting with their bodies af­ter they are dead, can no-waies defile them, in respect of the soules absence: And for any dishonour it can be vnto them, by what reason can it be grea­ter, then the hanging, heading, or many such shamefull deaths, that good [Page 125]men will suffer? For there is nothing in the bodies of the faithfull, more worthie of honour, or freer from corruption by nature, nor in these of the vnfaithfull, while time they be purged and glorified in the latter Day, as is daily seene by the vilde diseases and corruptions, that the bodies of the faithfull are subiect vnto, as ye will see clearely proued, when I speake of the possessed and Daemoniacques.

PHI.

Yet there are sundry that affirme to haue haunted such places, where these spirits are alledged to be; and could neuer heare nor see any thing.

EPI.

I thinke well: for that is onely reserued to the secret knowledge of God, whom he will permit to see such things, and whom not.

PHI.

But where these spirits haunt and trouble any houses, what is the best way to banish them?

EPI.

By two meanes may onely the remeid of such things be procu­red: The one is ardent prayer to God, both of these persons that are trou­bled with them, and of that Church whereof they are: The other is the purging of themselues by amendment of life, from such sinnes, as haue procured that extraordinarie plague.

PHI.

And what meane then these kindes of spirits, when they ap­peare in the shadow of a person newly dead, or to die, to his friends?

EPI.

When they appeare vpon that occasion, they are called Wraithes in our language: Amongst the Gentiles the diuell vsed that much, to make them beleeue that it was some good spirit that appeared to them then, ei­ther to forewarne them of the death of their friend, or else to discouer vn­to them the will of the defunct, or what was the way of his slaughter, as it is written in the booke of the histories prodigious: and this way he easi­ly deceiued the Gentiles, because they knew not God: and to that same ef­fect is it, that he now appeares in that maner to some ignorant Christians: for hee dares not so illude any that knoweth that, neither can the spirit of the defunct returne to his friend, or yet an Angel vse such formes.

PHI.

And are not our war-woolfes one sort of these spirits also, that haunt and trouble some houses or dwelling places?

EPI.

There hath indeede beene an olde opinion of such like things; for by the Greekes they were called [...], which signifieth men-wolfes: But to tell you simply my opinion in this, if any such thing hath beene, I take it to haue proceeded but of a naturall super-abundance of Melancho­ly, which as we reade, that it hath made some thinke themselues pitchers, and some horses, and some one kinde of beast or other, so suppose I that it hath so viciat the imagination and memory of some, as per lucida interualla, it hath so highly occupied them, that they haue thought themselues very Woolfes indeed at these times and so haue counterfeited their actions in going on their hands and feete, preassing to deuoure women and barnes, fighting and snatching with all the towne dogges, and in vsing such like o­ther brutish actions, and so to become beasts by a strong apprehension, as [Page 126] Nebuchad-nezzar was seuen yeeres: Daniel 4. but as to their hauing and hiding of their hard and schelly sluiches, I take that to be but eiked, by vncertaine report, the author of all lies.

CHAP. II.

ARGV.

The description of the next two kinds of Spirits, whereof the one followes outward­ly, the other possesses inwardly the persons that they trouble: That since all prophe­cies and visions are now ceased, all spirits that appeare in these formes are euill.

PHILOMATHES.

COme forward now to the rest of these kinds of spirits.

EPI.

As to the next two kindes, that is, either these that outwardly trouble and follow some persons, or else in­wardly possesse them, I wil conioine them in one, because as well the causes are alike in the persons that they are permit­ted to trouble; as also the wayes whereby they may be remedied and cured.

PHI.

What kinde of persons are they that vse to be so troubled?

EPI.

Two kindes in speciall; either such as being guiltie of grieuous offences, God punishes by that horrible kinde of scourge; or else being persons of the best nature peraduenture, that ye shall finde in all the coun­trey about them, God permits them to be troubled in that sort, for the triall of their patience, and wakening vp of their zeale, for admonishing of the beholders, not to trust ouer-much in themselues, since they are made of no better stuffe, and peraduenture blotted with no smaller sinnes (as Christ said, Luke 13. speaking of them vpon whom the Tower of Sylo fell:) And for gi­uing likewise to the spectators, matter to praise God, that they meriting no better, are yet spared from being corrected in that fearefull forme.

PHI.

These are good reasons for the part of GOD, which apparantly moonues him so to permit the Diuell to trouble such persons: But since the Diuell hath euer a contrarie respect in all the actions that GOD imployes him in, which is I pray you the end and marke he shootes at in this turne?

EPI.

It is to obtaine one of two things thereby, if he may: The one is the tinsell of their life, by inducing them to such perillous places, at such time as he either followes or possesses them, which may procure the same, and such like, so farre as GOD will permit him, by tormenting them to weaken their bodie, and cast them into incurable diseases: The other thing that he preasses to obtaine by troubling of them, is the tinsell of their soule, by intising them to mistrust & blaspheme God, either for the intolerable­nesse of their torments, Iob 1. as hee assayed to haue done with Iob; or else for his promising vnto them to leaue the troubling of them, in case they would so doe, as is knowen by experience at this same time by the confession of a young one that was so troubled.

PHI.

Since ye haue spoken now of both these kinds of spirits compre­hending them in one, I must now goe backe againe in speering some que­stions [Page 127]of euery one of these kindes in speciall. And first for these that fol­low certaine persons, ye know that there are two sorts of them: One sorte that trouble and torment the persons that they haunt with: Another sort that are seruiceable vnto them in all kind of their necessaries, and omit ne­uer to forewarne them of any suddaine perill that they are to bee in: And so in this case, I would vnderstand whether both these sorts be but wicked and damned spirits, or if the last sort be rather Angels, (as should appeare by their actions) sent by God to assist such as hee specially fauours: For it is written in the Scriptures, Gene. 32. 1. Kings 6. Psal. 34. that God sends legions of Angels to guard and watch ouer his elect.

EPI.

I know well inough where fra that errour which ye alledge hath proceeded; For it was the ignorant Gentiles that were the fountaine there­of, Who for that they knew not God, they forged in their owne imagina­tions, euery man to be stil accompanied with two spirits, whereof they cal­led the one genius bonus, the other genius malus: the Greekes called them [...] and [...]: whereof the former they saide, perswaded him to all the good hee did; the other entised him to all the euill. But praised bee GOD, wee that are Christians, and walke not amongst the Cymmerian coniectures of man, know well inough, that it is the good Spirit of GOD onely, who is the fountaine of all goodnesse, that perswades vs to the thinking or doing of any good, and that it is our corrupted flesh and Satan, that intiseth vs to the contrarie: And yet the Diuell for confir­ming in the heades of ignorant Christians, that errour first maintained a­mong the Gentiles, he whiles among the first kind of spirits that I speake of, appeared in time of Papistrie and blindnesse, and haunted diuers hou­ses, without doing any euill, but doing as it were necessarie turnes vp and downe the house: and this spirit they called Brownie in our language, who appeared like a rough-man: yea, some were so blinded, as to beleeue that their house was all their sonsier, as they called it, that such spirits re­sorted there.

PHI.

But since the diuels intention in all his actions, is euer to doe e­uill, what euill was there in that forme of doing, since their actions out­wardly were good?

EPI.

Was it not euill inough to deceiue simple ignorants, in making them to take him for an Angel of light, and so to account of Gods enemy as of their particular friend? where by the contrary, all we that are Christi­ans, ought assuredly to know, that since the comming of Christ in the flesh, and establishing of his Church by the Apostles, al miracles, visions, prophe­cies, & appearances of Angels or good spirits, are ceased; which serued only for the first sowing of faith, and planting of the Church: Where now the Church being established, and the white Horse whereof I spake before, ha­uing made his conquest, the Law and Prophets are thought sufficient to serue vs, or make vs inexcusable, as Christ saith in his parable of Lazarus and the rich man.

CHAP. III.

ARGV.

The description of a particular sort of that kinde of following Spirits, called Incubi and Succubi: And what is the reason wherefore these kinds of Spirits haunt most the Northerne and barbarous parts of the world.

PHILOMATHES.

THe next question that I would speere, is likewise concer­ning this first of these two kinds of Spirits that ye haue conioyned; and it is this: ye know how it is commonly written and reported, that amongst the rest of the sorts of Spirits that follow certaine persons, there is one more monstrous nor all the rest, in respect as it is al­leaged, they conuerse naturally with them whom they trouble and haunt with: and therefore I would know in two things your opinion herein: First, if such a thing can be: and next if it be, whether there be a difference of sexes amongst these Spirits or not?

EPI.

That abhominable kinde of the diuels abusing of men or wo­men, was called of old, Incubi and Succubi, according to the difference of the sexes that they conuersed with. By two meanes this great kinde of abuse might possibly be performed: The one, when the diuel onely as a Spirit, and stealing out the sperme of a dead bodie, abuses them that way, they not graithly seeing any shape, or feeling any thing, but that which hee so conueyes in that part, as we reade of a Monasterie of Nunnes which were burnt for their being that way abused: The other meane is, when he borrowes a dead body and so visibly, and as it seemes vnto them naturally as a man conuerses with them. But it is to be noted, that in whatsoeuer way he vseth it, that sperme seemes intollerably cold to the person abused: For if he steale out the nature of a quicke person, it cannot be so quickly caried, but it will both tine the strength and heate by the way, which it could neuer haue had for lacke of agitation, which in the time of procrea­tion is the procurer and wakener vp of these two naturall qualities: And if he occupying the dead bodie as his lodging, expell the same out thereof in the due time, it must likewise be cold by the participation with the qua­lities of the dead body whereout of it comes. And whereas ye enquire if these Spirits be diuided in sexes or not, I thinke the rules of Philosophie may easily resolue a man of the contrary: For it is a sure principle of that Art, that nothing can be diuided in sexes, except such liuing bodies as must haue a naturall seed to genere by: But we know Spirits haue no seed pro­per to themselues, nor yet can they gender one with an other.

PHI.

How is it then, that they say sundrie monsters haue bene gotten by that way?

EPI.

These tales are nothing but Aniles fabulae: For that they haue no nature of their owne, I haue shewed you alreadie: And that the cold nature [Page 129]of a dead bodie, can worke nothing in generation, it is more nor plaine, as being alreadie dead of it selfe, as well as the rest of the bodie is, wanting the naturall heate, and such other naturall operation, as is necessarie for wor­king that effect, and in case such a thing were possible (which were vt­terly against all the rules of nature) it would breed no monster, but onely such a naturall off-spring, as would haue come betwixt that man or wo­man and that other abused person, in case they both being aliue had had a doe with other: For the Diuels part therein, is but the naked carrying or expelling of that substance; and so it could participate with no quality of the same. Indeede, it is possible to the craft of the Diuell to make a wo­mans belly to swell after he hath that way abused her, which hee may doe either by stirring vp her owne humour, or by hearbes, as wee see beggers daily doe: And when the time of her deliuery should come to make her thoil great dolours, like vnto that naturall course, and then subtilly to slip in the Mid-wiues hands, stocks, stones, or some monstrous barne brought from some other place: but this is more reported and guessed at by others, nor beleeued by me.

PHI.

But what is the cause that this kinde of abuse is thought to bee most common in such wilde parts of the world, as Lap-land, and Fin-land, or in our North Isles of Orknay and Schet-land?

EPI.

Because where the Diuell findes greatest ignorance and barbari­tie, there assailes he grosseliest, as I gaue you the reason wherfore there were moe Witches of women-kinde nor men.

PHI.

Can any be so vnhappie as to giue their willing consent to the Diuels vile abusing them in this forme?

EPI.

Yea, some of the Witches haue confessed, that he hath perswaded them to giue their willing consent thereunto, that hee may thereby haue them feltred the sikarer in his snares: but as the other compelled sort is to be pitied and prayed for, so is this most highly to be punished and detested.

PHI.

Is it not the thing which we call the Mare, which takes folkes sleeping in their beds, a kinde of these spirits, whereof ye are speaking?

EPI.

No, that is but a naturall sickenesse, which the Mediciners haue giuen that name of Incubus vnto, ab incubando, because it being a thicke fleume, falling into our breast vpon the heart, while we are sleeping, in­tercludes so our vitall spirits, and takes all powerfrom vs, as makes vs think that there were some vnnaturall burden or spirit, lying vpon vs, and hol­ding vs downe.

CHAP. IIII.

ARGV.

The description of the Daemoniackes and possessed: By what reason the Papists may haue power to cure them.

PHILOMATHES.

WEll, I haue tolde you now all my doubts, and ye haue satis­fied me therein, concerning the first of these two kindes of spirits that yee haue conioyned: now I am to enquire one­ly two things at you concerning the last kinde, I meane the Daemoniackes. The first is, whereby shall these possessed folkes be discerned fra them that are troubled with a naturall Phrensie or Manie: The next is, how can it be that they can be remedied by the Papists Church, whom we counting as Heretiques, it should appeare that one di­uell should not cast out another, Matth. 12. Marke 3. for then would his kingdome be diuided in it selfe, as Christ said.

EPI.

As to your first question; there are diuers symptomes, whereby that heauie trouble may be discerned from a naturall sickenesse, and speci­ally three, omitting the diuers vaine signes that the Papists attribute vnto it: Such as the raging at holy water, their fleeing abacke from the Crosse, their not abiding the hearing of God named, and innumerable such like vaine things that were alike fashious and feckles to recite: But to come to these three symptomes then, whereof I spake, I account the one of them to be the incredible strength of the possessed creature, which will farre ex­ceede the strength of sixe of the wightest and wodest of any other men that are not so troubled: The next is the boldening vp so farre of the pati­ents breast and belly, with such an vnnaturall sturring and vehement agi­tation within them, and such an ironie hardnesse of his sinewes so stiffely bended out, that it were not possible to pricke out as it were the skinne of any other person so farre; so mightily workes the diuell in all the members and senses of his body, hee being locally within the same, suppose of his soule and affections thereof, hee haue no more power then of any other mans: The last is, the speaking of sundry languages, which the patient is knowen, by them that were acquainted with him, neuer to haue learned, and that with an vncouth and hollow voice, and all the time of his spea­king, a greater motion being in his breast then in his mouth: But fra this last symptome is excepted such, as are altogether in the time of their posses­sing bereft of all their senses, being possessed with a dumbe and blind spi­rit, whereof Christ relieued one, in the 12. of Matthew. And as to your next demand, it is first to be doubted if the Papists, or any not professing the onely true Religion, can relieue any of that trouble: and next, in case they can, vpon what respect it is possible vnto them. As to the former, vp­on two reasons it is grounded: first that it is knowen so many of them to be counterfeit, which wyle the Clergie inuents for confirming of their [Page 131]rotten Religion: The next is, that by experience we finde, that few who are possessed indeed, are fully cured by them; but rather the diuell is con­tent to release the bodily hurting of them, for a short space, thereby to ob­taine the perpetuall hurt of the soules of so many that by these false mira­cles may be induced or confirmed in the profession of that erroneous Re­ligion; euen as I told you before that he doeth in the false cures or casting off of diseases by Witches. As to the other part of the argument in case they can, which rather (with reuerence of the learned thinking otherwise) I am induced to beleeue, by reason of the faithfull report that men sound of Religion, haue made according to their sight thereof, I thinke if so be I say these may be the respects, whereupon the Papists may haue that pow­er. Christ gaue a commission and power to his Apostles to cast out diuels, which they according thereunto put in execution: the rules he bade them obserue in that action, was fasting and prayer; and the action it selfe to be done in his name. This power of theirs proceeded not then of any vertue in them, but onely in him who directed them; as was clearely prooued by Iudas his hauing as great power in that commission, as any of the rest. It is easie then to be vnderstood that the casting out of diuels, is by the vertue of fasting and prayer, and in calling of the Name of God, suppose many imperfections be in the person that is the instrument, as Christ himselfe teacheth vs of the power that false prophets shall haue to cast out diuels. It is no wonder then, these respects of this action being considered, that it may be possible to the Papists, though erring in sundry points of Religion to accomplish this, if they vse the right forme prescribed by Christ herein: For what the worse is that action that they erre in other things; more then their Baptisme is the worse that they erre in the other Sacrament, and haue eiked many vaine freittes to the Baptisme it selfe.

PHI.

Surely it is no little wonder that God should permit the bodies of any of the faithfull to be so dishonoured, as to be adwelling place to that vncleane spirit.

EPI.

There is it which I told right now, would proue and strengthen my argument of the diuels entring into the dead bodies of the faithfull: For if he is permitted to enter into their liuing bodies, euen when they are ioyned with the soule; how much more will God permit him to enter into their dead carions, which is no more man, Marke 7. but the filthie and corrup­tible caise of man? For as Christ saith, It is not any thing that enters within man that defiles him, but onely that which proceedes and commeth out of him.

CHAP. V.

ARGV.

The description of the fourth kinde of Spirits, called the Phairie: What is possible therein, and what is but illusions. How farre this Dialogue entreates of all these things, and to what end.

PHILOMATHES.

NOw I pray you come on to that fourth kinde of Spirits.

EPI.

That fourth kinde of Spirits, which by the Gentiles was called Diana, and her wandering court, and amongst vs was called the Phairie (as I told you) or our good neighbours, was one of the sorts of illusions that was rifest in the time of Papistrie: for although it was holden odious to prophesie by the diuel, yet whom these kinde of Spirits caried away, and informed, they were thought to be sonsiest and of best life. To speake of the many vaine trattles founded vpon that illusion, How there was a King and Queene of Phairie, of such a iolly court and traine as they had, how they had a teynd, and duetie, as it were, of all goods, how they naturally rode and went, eate and dranke, and did all other actions like naturall men and women, I thinke it liker Virgils Campi Elysij, nor any thing that ought to be beleeued by Christians, except in generall, that as I spake sundrie times before, the diuell illuded the senses of sundrie simple creatures, in making them beleeue that they saw and heard such things as were nothing so indeed.

PHI.

But how can it be then, that sundrie Witches haue gone to death with that confession, that they haue bene transported with the Phairie to such a hill, which opening, they went in, and there saw a faire Queene, who being now lighter, gaue them a stone that had sundrie vertues, which at sundrie times hath bene produced in iudgement?

EPI.

I say that, euen as I said before of that imaginar rauishing of the Spirit foorth of the bodie: For may not the diuel obiect to their fantasie, their senses being dulled, and as it were asleepe, such hilles and houses within them, such glistering courtes and traines, and whatsoeuer such like wherewith he pleaseth to delude them, and in the meane time their bo­dies being senselesse, to conuey in their hand any stone or such like thing, which he makes them to imagine to haue receiued in such a place.

PHI.

But what say ye to their foretelling the death of sundrie per­sons, whom they alleage to haue seene in these places? that is, a sooth­dreame (as they say) since they see it walking.

EPI.

I thinke that either they haue not bene sharpely enough exa­mined, that gaue so blunt a reason for their prophesie, or otherwise, I thinke it likewise as possible that the diuel may prophesie to them when he de­ceiues their imaginations in that sort, as well as when hee plainely speakes vnto them at other times: for their prophesying, is but by a kind of vision, [Page 133]as it were, wherein he commonly counterfeites God among the Ethnicks, as I told you before.

PHI.

I would know now whether these kinds of Spirits may onely appeare to Witches, or if they may also appeare to any other.

EPI.

They may doe to both; to the innocent sort, either to affray them, or to seeme to be a better sort of folkes nor vncleane Spirits are; and to the Witches to be a colour of safetie for them, that ignorant Magistrates may not punish them for it, as I told euen now: But as the one sort, for be­ing perforce troubled with them ought to be pitied, so ought the other sort (who may be discerned by their taking vpon them to prophesie by them,) that sort, I say, ought as seuerely to be punished as any other Witches, and rather the more, that they goe dissemblingly to worke.

PHI.

And what makes the spirits haue so different names from others?

EPI.

Euen the knauerie of that same diuell; who as he illudes the Ne­cromancers with innumerable feined names for him and his angels, as in spe­ciall, making Satan, Beelzebub, and Lucifer, to bee three sundry spirits, where wee finde the two former, but diuers names giuen to the Prince of all the rebelling Angels by the Scripture; as by Christ, the Prince of all the diuels is called Beelzebub in that place, which I alleaged against the power of any hereticques to cast out diuels. By Iohn in the Reuelation, the old tempter is called Satan the Prince of all the euill Angels: And the last, to wit, Lucifer, is but by allegorie taken from the day Starre (so named in di­uers places of the Scriptures) because of his excellencie (I meane the Prince of them) in his creation before his fall; euen so I say hee deceiues the Witches, by attributing to himselfe diuers names; as if euery diuers shape that he transformes himselfe in, were a diuers kinde of spirit.

PHI.

But I haue heard many moe strange tales of this Phairie, nor ye haue yet told me.

EPI.

As well I doe in that, as I did in all the rest of my discourse: For because the ground of this conference of ours, proceeded of your speering at me at our meeting: if there was such a thing as Witches or spirits: and if they had any power: I therefore haue framed my whole discourse, onely to proue that such things are and may be, by such number of examples as I shew to be possible by reason, and keepe me from dipping any further in playing the part of a Dictionarie, to tell what euer I haue read or heard in that purpose, which both would exceede faith, and rather would seeme to teach such vnlawfull artes, nor to disallow and condemne them, as it is the duetie of all Christians to doe.

CHAP. VI.

ARG.

Of the tryall and punishment of Witches: What sort of accusation ought to be admit­ted against them: What is the cause of the increasing so farre of their number in this aage.

PHILOMATHES.

THen to make an end of our conference, since I see it drawes late, what forme of punishment thinke yee merite these Magicians and Witches? For I see that ye account them to be all alike guiltie.

EPI.

They ought to be put to death according to the Law of God, the ciuill and imperiall Law, and municipall Law of all Chri­stian nations.

PHI.

But what kinde of death I pray you?

EPI.

It is commonly vsed by fire, but that is an indifferent thing to be vsed in euery countrey, according to the Law or custome thereof.

PHI.

But ought no sexe, aage nor rancke to be exempted?

EPI.

None at all (being so vsed by the lawfull magistrate) for it is the highest point of Idolatry, wherein no exception is admitted by the law of God.

PHI.

Then barnes may not be spared.

EPI.

Yea; not a haire the lesse of my conclusion: For they are not that capable of reason as to pactise such things: And for any being in company and not reueiling thereof, their lesse and ignorant aage will no doubt ex­cuse them.

PHI.

I see ye condemne them all that are of the counsell of such craftes.

EPI.

No doubt, for as I said, speaking of Magie, the consulters, trusters in, ouer-seers, interteiners or stirrers vp of these craftes-folkes, are equally guiltie with themselues that are the practisers.

PHI.

Whether may the Prince then, or supreame Magistrate, spare or ouer-see any that are guilty of that craft, vpon some great respects knowen to him?

EPI.

The Prince or Magistrate for further trials cause, may continue the punishing of them such a certaine space as he thinkes conuenient: But in the end to spare the life, and not to strike when God bids strike, and so seuerely punish in so odious a fault and treason against God, it is not onely vnlawfull, but doubtlesse no lesse sinne in that Magistrate, nor it was in Saules sparing of Agag; 1. Sam. 15. and so comparable to the sinne of Witch-craft it selfe, as Samuel alledged at that time.

PHI.

Surely then, I thinke since this crime ought to be so seuerely pu­nished, Iudges ought to beware to condemne any, but such as they are sure are guiltie, neither should the clattering report of a carling serue in so weightie a case.

EPI.
[Page 135]

Iudges ought indeede to beware whom they condemne: for it is as great a crime (as Salomon saith,) To condemne the innocent, Prou. 17.as to let the guil­tie escape free; neither ought the report of any one infamous person, be ad­mitted for a sufficient proofe, which can stand of no law.

PHI.

And what may a number then of guilty persons confessions, worke against one that is accused?

EPI.

The Assise must serue for interpretour of our law in that respect: But in my opinion, since in a matter of treason against the Prince, barnes or wiues, or neuer so diffamed persons, may of our law serue for sufficient wit­nesses and proofes; I thinke surely that by a farre greater reason, such wit­nesses may be sufficient in matters of high treason against God: For who but Witches can be prooues, and so witnesses of the doings of Witches?

PHI.

Indeed, I trow they will be loath to put any honest man vpon their counsell: But what if they accuse folke to haue bene present at their Imaginar conuentions in the spirit, when their bodies lye sencelesse, as ye haue said?

EPI.

I thinke they are not a haire the lesse guiltie: For the Diuel durst neuer haue borrowed their shadow or similitude to that turne, if their con­sent had not beene at it: And the consent in these turnes is death of the lawe.

PHI.

Then Samuel was a Witch: For the diuell resembled his shape, and played his person in giuing response to Saul.

EPI.

Samuel was dead as well before that; and so none could slaunder him with medling in that vnlawful arte. For the cause why, as I take it, that God will not permit Satan to vse the shapes of similitudes of any innocent persons at such vnlawfull times, is, that God will not permit that any inno­cent persons shalbe slandered with that vile defection: for then the diuell would finde waies anew, to calumniate the best. And this wee haue in proofe by them that are carried with the Phairie, who neuer see the sha­dowes of any in that Court, but of them that thereafter are tryed to haue beene brethren and sisters of that craft: And this was likewise prooued by the confession of a young Lasse, troubled with spirits, laid on her by Witch­craft: that although she saw the shapes of diuers men and women trou­bling her, and naming the persons whom these shadowes represent: yet neuer one of them are found to be innocent, but all clearely tryed to bee most guiltie, and the most part of them confessing the same. And besides that, I thinke it hath beene seldome heard tell of, that any, whom persons guiltie of that crime accused, as hauing knowen them to be their marrowes by eye-sight, and not by heare-say, but such as were so accused of Witch­craft, could not be clearely tried vpon them, were at the least publikely knowen to be of a very euill life and reputation: so iealous is God I say, of the fame of them that are innocent in such causes. And besides that, there are two other good helps that may be vsed for their triall: The one is, the finding of their marke, and the trying the insensiblenes therof: The other [Page 136]is their fleeting on the water: for as in a secret murther, if the dead carkasse bee at any time thereafter handled by the murtherer, it will gush out of bloud, as if the bloud were crying to the heauen for reuenge of the mur­therer, God hauing appointed that secret supernaturall signe, for triall of that secret vnnaturall crime, so it appeares that God hath appointed (for a supernaturall signe of the monstrous impietie of Witches) that the water shall refuse to receiue them in her bosome, that haue shaken off them the sa­cred water of Baptisme, and wilfully refused the benefite thereof: No, not so much as their eyes are able to shed teares (threaten and torture them as ye please) while first they repent (God not permitting them to dissemble their obstinacie in so horrible a crime) albeit the women-kind especially, be able otherwayes to shed teares at euery light occasion when they will, yea, although it were dissemblingly like the Crocodiles.

PHI.

Well, wee haue made this conference to last as long as leisure would permit: and to conclude then, since I am to take my leaue of you, I pray God to purge this countrey of these diuellish practises: for they were neuer so rife in these parts, as they are now.

EPI.

I pray God that so be too. But the causes are ouer-manifest, that make them to be so rife: For the great wickednes of the people on the one part, procures this horrible defection, whereby God iustly punisheth sinne by a greater iniquitie: and on the other part, the consummation of the world, and our deliuerance drawing neere, makes Satan to rage the more in his instruments, knowing his king­dome to be so neere an end. And so fare­well for this time.

ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΔΩΡΟΝ. OR HIS MAIESTIES IN­STRVCTIONS TO HIS DEAREST SONNE, HENRY THE PRINCE.

THE ARGƲMENT.
SONNET.
GOD giues not Kings the stile of Gods in vaine,
For on his Throne his Scepter doe they swey:
And as their subiects ought them to obey,
So Kings should feare and serue their God againe:
If then ye would enioy a happie raigne,
Obserue the Statutes of your heauenly King,
And from his Law, make all your Lawes to spring:
Since his Lieutenant here ye should remaine,
Reward the iust, be stedfast, true, and plaine,
Represse the proud, maintayning aye the right,
Walke alwayes so, as euer in his sight,
Who guardes the godly, plaguing the prophane:
And so ye shall in Princely vertues shine,
Resembling right your mightie King Diuine.

TO HENRY MY DEAREST SONNE, AND NATVRAL SVCCESSOVR.

VVHom-to can so rightly appertaine this Booke of instructions to a Prince in all the points of his calling, aswell ge­nerall, as a Christian towards God; as particular, as a King towards his people? Whom-to, I say, can it so iust­ly appertaine, as vnto you my dearest Sonne? Since J the authour thereof, as your naturall Father, must be carefull for your godly and vertuous education, as my eldest Sonne, and the first fruits of Gods blessing towards mee in my posteritie: and as a King must ti­mously prouide for your trayning vp in all the points of a Kings Office; since yee are my naturall and lawfull successour therein: that being rightly informed hereby, of the waight of your burthen, ye may in time beginne to consider, that being borne to be a king, ye are rather borne to onus, then honos: not excelling all your people so farre in ranke and honour, as in daily care and hazardous paines-taking, for the dutifull administration of that great office, that God hath laide vpon your shoulders. Laying so a just sym­metrie and proportion, betwixt the height of your honourable place, and the heauie waight of your great charge: and con­sequently, [Page 139]in case of failing, which God forbid, of the sadnesse of your fall, according to the proportion of that height. J haue therefore for the greater ease to your memory, and that yee may at the first, cast vp any part that yee haue to doe with, deuided this Treatise in three parts. The first teacheth you your duetie to­wards God as a Christian: the next, your duetie in your Of­fice as a King: and the third informeth you how to behaue your selfe in indifferent things, which of them-selues are neither right nor wrong, but according as they are rightly or wrong vsed; and yet will serue according to your behauiour therein, to augment or empaire your fame and authoritie at the handes of your people. Receiue and welcome this Booke then, as a faithfull Praeceptour and counsellour vnto you: which, because my affaires will not permit mee euer to bee present with you, J ordaine to bee a resident faithfull admonisher of you: And because the houre of death is vncertaine to mee, as vnto all flesh, J leaue it as my Testament and latter will vnto you. Charge­ing you in the presence of GOD, and by the fatherly authori­tie J haue ouer you, that yee keepe it euer with you, as carefully, as Alexander did the Iliads of Homer. Yee will finde it a iust and impartiall counsellour; neither flattering you in any vice, nor importuning you at vnmeete times. Jt will not come vn-called, neither speake vnspeered at: and yet conferring with it when yee are at quiet, yee shall say with Scipio, that yee are nunquam minûs solus, quàm cum solus. To conclude then, J charge you, as euer yee thinke to deserue my Fatherly blessing, to follow and put in practise, as farre as lyeth in you, the praecepts hereafter following. And if yee follow the contrary course, I take the Great GOD to record, that this Booke shall one day bee a witnesse betwixt mee and you; and shall procure to bee ratified in Heauen, the curse that in that case here I giue vn­to you. For I protest before that Great GOD, I had rather not bee a Father, and childlesse, then bee a Father of wicked chil­dren. But hoping, yea, euen promising vnto my selfe, that GOD, who in his great blessing sent you vnto mee; shall in the [Page 140]same blessing, as hee hath giuen mee a Sonne; so make him a good and a godly Sonne; not repenting him of his Mercie shewed vnto mee, I end, with my earnest prayer to GOD, to worke effectually into you, the fruites of that blessing, which here from my heart I bestow vpon you.

Your louing Father I. R.

TO THE READER.

CHaritable Reader, it is one of the golden Sentences, which Christ our Sauiour vttered to his Apo­stles, that there is nothing so couered, Luk. 12.that shal not be reuealed, neither so hidde, that shall not be knowen: and whatsoeuer they haue spoken in darkenesse, should be heard in the light: and that which they had spoken in the eare in secret place, should be publikely preached on the tops of the houses: And since he hath said it, most trew must it be, fince the authour thereof is the fountaine and very being of trewth: which should mooue all godly and honest men, to be very warie in all their secretest actions, and whatsoeuer middesses they vse for attaining to their most wished ends; lest other­wise how auowable soeuer the marke be, whereat they aime, the middesses being dis­couered to be shamefull whereby they climbe, it may turne to the disgrace both of the good worke it selfe, and of the authour thereof; since the deepest of our secrets, can­not be hidde from that all-seeing eye and penetrant light, piercing through the bowels of very darkenesse it selfe.

But as this is generally trew in the actions of all men, so is it more specially trew in the affaires of Kings: for Kings being publike persons, by reason of their office and authority, are as it were set (as it was said of old) vpon a publike stage, in the sight of all the people; where all the beholders eyes are attentiuely bent to looke and pry in the least circumstance of their secretest drifts: Which should make Kings the more carefull not to harbour the secretest thought in their minde, but such as in the owne time they shall not be ashamed openly to auouch; assuring themselues that Time the mother of Veritie, will in the due season bring her owne daughter to perfection.

The trew practise hereof, I haue as a King oft found in my owne person, though I thanke God, neuer to my shame, hauing laide my count, euer to walke as in the eyes of the Almightie, examining euer so the secretest of my drifts, before I gaue them course, as how they might some day bide the touchstone of a publike triall. And a­mongst therest of my secret actions, which haue (vnlooked for of me) come to pub­like knowledge, it hath so fared with my [...], directed to my eldest son; which I wrote for exercise of mine owne ingyne, and instruction of him, who is ap­pointed by God (I hope) to sit on my Throne after me: For the purpose and matter thereof being onely fit for a King, as teaching him his office; and the person whom­for it was ordained, a Kings heire, whose secret counsellor and faithfull admonisher it must be, I thought it no wayes conuenient nor comely, that either it should to all be [Page 142]proclaimed, which to one onely appertained (and specially being a messenger betwixt two so coniunct persons) or yet that the mould whereupon he should frame his future behauiour, when hee comes both vnto the perfection of his yeeres, and possession of his inheritance, should before the hand be made common to the people, the subiect of his future happy gouernment. And therefore for the more secret and close keeping of them, I onely permitted seuen of them to be printed, the Printer being first sworne for secrecie: and these seuen I dispersed amongst some of my trustiest seruants, to be keeped closely by them, lest in case by the iniquitie or wearing of time, any of them might haue beene lost, yet some of them might haue remained after me, as witnesses to my Sonne, both of the honest integritie of my heart, and of my fatherly affection and naturall care towards him. But since contrary to my intention and expectation, as I haue alreadie said, this Booke is now vented, and set foorth to the publike view of the world, and consequently subiect to euery mans censure, as the current of his af­fection leades him, I am now forced, as well for resisting to the malice of the chil­dren of enuie, who like waspes sucke venome out of euery wholsome herbe; as for the satisfaction of the godly honest sort, in any thing that they may mistake therein, both to publish and spread the true copies thereof, for defacing of the false copies that are alreadie spread, as I am enformed; as likewise by this Preface, to cleare such parts thereof, as in respect of the concised shortnesse of my Style, may be mis-interpre­ted therein.

To come then particularly to the matter of my Booke, there are two speciall great points, which (as I am informed) the malicious sort of men haue detracted therein; and some of the honest sort haue seemed a little to mistake: whereof the first and greatest is, that some sentences therein should seeme to furnish grounds to men, to doubt of my sinceritie in that Religion, which I haue euer constantly professed: the other is, that in some parts thereof I should seeme to nourish in my minde, a vindi­ctiue resolution against England, or at the least, some principals there, for the Queene my mothers quarrell.

The first calumnie (most grieuous indeed) is grounded vpon the sharpe and bit­ter wordes, that therein are vsed in the description of the humors of Puritanes, and rash-headie Preachers, that thinke it their honour to contend with Kings, and per­turbe whole kingdomes. The other point is onely grounded vpon the strait charge. I giue my Sonne, not to heare nor suffer any vnreuerent speeches or bookes against any of his parents or progenitors: wherein I doe alledge my owne experience anent the Queene my mother; affirming, that I neuer found any that were of perfit aage the time of her reigne here, so stedfastly trew to me in all my troubles, as these that con­stantly kept their allegiance to her in her time. But if the charitable Reader will ad­uisedly consider, both the methode and matter of my Treatise, he will easily iudge, what wrong I haue sustained by the carping at both: For my Booke, suppose very small, being diuided in three seuerall parts; the first part thereof onely treats of a Kings duety towards God in Religion, wherein I haue so clearely made profession of my Re­ligion, calling it the Religion wherein I was brought vp, and euer made profession of, and wishing him euer to continue in the same, as the onely trew forme of Gods worship; that I would haue thought my sincere plainnesse in that first part vpon that subiect, should haue ditted the mouth of the most enuious Momus, that euer [Page 143]hell did hatch, from barking at any other part of my booke vpon that ground, except they would alledge me to be contrarie to my selfe, which in so small a volume would smell of too great weakenesse, and sliprinesse of memory. And the second part of my booke, teaches my Sonne how to vse his Office, in the administration of Iustice and Politicke Gouernment: The third onely containing a Kings outward behauiour in indifferent things; what agreeance and conformitie hee ought to keepe betwixt his outward behauiour in these things, and the vertuous qualities of his minde; and how they should serue for trunsh-men, to interprete the inward disposition of the minde, to the eyes of them that cannot see farther within him, and therefore must onely iudge of him by the outward appearance: So as if there were no more to be looked into, but the very methode and order of the booke, it will sufficiently cleare me of that first and grieuousest imputation, in the point of Religion: since in the first part, where Religi­on is onely treated of, I speake so plainely. And what in other parts I speake of Pu­ritanes, it is onely of their morall faults, in that part where I speake of Policie: de­claring when they contemne the Law and souereigne authoritie, what exemplare pu­nishment they deserue for the same. And now as to the matter it selfe whereupon this scandall is taken, that I may sufficiently satisfie all honest men, and by a iust Apologie raise vp a brasen wall or bulwarke against all the darts of the enuious, I will the more narrowly rip vp the words, whereat they seeme to be somewhat stomacked.

First then, as to the name of Puritanes, I am not ignorant that the style thereof doeth properly belong onely to that vile sect amongst the Anabaptists, called the Fa­mily of loue; because they thinke themselues onely pure, and in a maner without sinne, the onely trwe Church, and onely worthy to be participant of the Sacraments, and all the rest of the world to be but abomination in the sight of God. Of this speciall sect I principally meane, when I speake of Puritans; diuers of them, as Browne, Penry and others, hauing at sundrie times come into Scotland, to sow their popple amongst vs (and from my heart I wish, that they had left no schollers behinde them, who by their fruits will in the owne time be manifested) and partly indeede, I giue this style to such brain-sicke and headie Preachers their disciples and followers, as refusing to be called of that sect, yet participate too much with their humours, in maintaining the aboue mentioned errours; not onely agreeing with the generall rule of all Ana­baptists, in the contempt of the ciuill Magistrate, and in leaning to their owne dreams and reuelations; but particularly with this sect, in accounting all men profane that sweare not to all their fantasies, in making for euery particular question of the policie of the Church, as great commotion, as if the article of the Trinitie were called in controuersie, in making the scriptures to be ruled by their conscience, and not their con­science by the Scripture; and he that denies the least iote of their grounds, sit tibi tan­quam ethnicus & publicanus; not worthy to enioy the benefite of breathing, much lesse to participate with them of the Sacraments: and before that any of their grounds be impugned, let King, people, Law and all be trode vnder foote: Such holy warres are to be preferred to an vngodly peace: no, in such cases Christian Prin­ces are not onely to be resisted vnto, but not to be prayed for, for prayer must come of Faith; and it is reuealed to their consciences, that GOD will heare no prayer for such a Prince. Iudge then, Christian Reader, if I wrong this sort of people, in giuing them the stile of that sect, whose errours they imitate: and since they are contented [Page 144]to weare their liuerie let them not be ashamed to borrow also their name. It is onely of this kinde of men, that in this booke I write so sharply; and whom I wish my Sonne to punish, in-case they refuse to obey the Law, and will not cease to sturre vp a re­bellion: Whom against I haue written the more bitterly, in respect of diuers famous libels, and iniurious speaches spred by some of them, not onely dishonourably inuectiue against all Christian Princes, but euen reprochfull to our profession and Religion, in respect they are come out vnder coulour thereof: and yet were neuer answered but by Papists, who generally medle aswell against them, as the religion it selfe; whereby the skandale was rather doubled, then taken away. But on the other part, I protest vpon mine honour, I meane it not generally of all Preachers, or others, that like bet­ter of the single forme of policie in our Church, then of the many Ceremonies in the Church of England: that are perswaded, that their Bishops smell of a Papall supre­macie, that the Surplise, the cornerd cap, and such like, are the outward badges of Po­pish errours. No, I am so farre from being contentious in these things (which for my owne part I euer esteemed as indifferent) as I doe equally loue and honour the learned and graue men of either of these opinions. It can no wayes become me to pro­nounce so lightly a sentence, in so old a controuersie. Wee all (God be praised) doe agree in the grounds; and the bitternesse of men vpon such questions, doeth but trouble the peace of the Church; and giues aduantage and entry to the Papists by our diuision: But towards them, I onely vse this prouision, that where the Law is other­wayes, they may content themselues soberly and quietly with their owne opinions, not resisting to the authoritie, nor breaking the Law of the Countrey; neither aboue all, sturring any rebellion or schisme: but possessing their soules in peace, let them preasse by patience, and well grounded reasons, either to perswade all the rest to like of their iudgements; or where they see better grounds on the other part, not to bee ashamed peaceably to incline thereunto, laying aside all praeoccupied opinions.

And that this is the onely meaning of my Booke, and not any coldnesse or cracke in Religion, that place doeth plainely witnesse, where, after I haue spoken of the faults in our Ecclesiasticall estate I exhort my sonne to be beneficiall vnto the good-men of the Ministrie; praising God there, that there is presently a sufficient number of good men of them in this kingdome: and yet are they all knowne to be against the forme of the English Church. Yea, so farre I am in that place from admitting corruption in Religion, as I wish him in promoouing them, to vse such caution, as may preserue their estate from creeping to corruption; euer vsing that forme through the whole Booke, where euer I speake of bad Preachers, terming them some of the Ministers, and not Ministers or Ministrie in generall. And to conclude this point of Religion, what indifferencie of Religion can Momus call that in mee, where, speaking of my sonnes marriage (in case it pleased God before that time to cut the threed of my life) I plainly forewarne him of the inconuenients that were like to ensew, incase he should marry any that be of a different profession in Religion from him: notwithstanding that the number of Princes professing our Religion be so small, as it is hard to foresee, how he can be that way, meetly matched according to his ranke.

And as for the other point, that by some parts in this booke, it should appeare, that I doe nourish in my minde, a vindictiue resolution against England, or some princi­pals there; it is surely more then wonderfull vnto me, vpon what grounds they can [Page 145]haue gathered such conclusions. For as vpon the one part, Ineither by name nor de­scription poynt out England in that part of my discourse; so vpon the other, I plainly bewray my meaning to be of Scottish-men, where I conclude that purpose in these termes: ‘That the loue I beare to my Sonne, hath mooued me to be so plaine in this ar­gument: for so that I discharge my conscience to him in vttering the verity, I care not what any traitour or treason-allower doe thinke of it.’ And English-men could not thereby be meant, since they could be no traitours, where they ought no alleageance. I am not ignorant of a wise and princely apophthegme, which the same Queene of En­gland vttered about the time of her owne Coronation. But the drift of that discourse doth fully cleare my intention, being onely grounded vpon that precept to my Sonne, that he should not permit any vnreuerent detracting of his praedecessours; bringing in that purpose of my mother onely for an example of my experience anent Scottish­men, without vsing any perswasion to him of reuenge. For a Kings giuing of any fault the dew stile, inferres no reduction of the faulters pardon. No, I am by a degree nearer of kinne vnto my mother then he is, neither thinke I my selfe, either that vn­worthie, or that neere my end, that I neede to make such a Dauidicall testament; since I haue euer thought it the dewtie of a worthie Prince, rather with a pike, then a penne, to write his iust reuenge: But in this matter I haue no delite to be large, wishing all men to iudge of my future proiects, according to my by-past actions.

Thus hauing as much insisted in the clearing of these two points, as will (I hope) giue sufficient satisfaction to all honest men, and leauing the enuious to the foode of their owne venome; I will heartily pray thee, louing Reader, charitably to conceiue of my honest intention in this Booke. I know the greatest part of the people of this whole Isle, haue beene very curious for a sight thereof: some for the loue they beare me, either being particularly acquainted with me, or by a good report that perhappes they haue heard of me; and therefore longed to see any thing, that proceeded from that authour whom they so loued and honoured; since bookes are viue Idees of the authours minde. Some onely for meere curiositie, that thinke it their honour to know all new things, were curious to glut their eyes therewith, onely that they might vaunt them to haue seene it: and some fraughted with causlesse enuie at the Authour, did gree­dily search out the booke, thinking their stomacke jit ynough, for turning neuer so wholesome foode into noysome and infectiue bumours: So as this their great concur­rence in curiofitie (though proceeding from farre different complexions) hath enfor­ced the vn-timous divulgating of this Booke, farre contrarie to my intention, as I haue alreadie said. To which Hydra of diuersly-enclined spectatours, I haue no targe to oppone but plainenesse, patience, and sinceritie: plainenesse, for resoluing and satis­fying of the first sort; patience, for to beare with the shallownesse of the next; and sin­ceritie, to defie the malice of the third with-all. Though I cannot please all men there­in, I am contented, so that Ionely please the vertuous sort: and though they also finde not euery thing therein, so fully to answere their expectation, as the argument would seeme to require; although I would wish them modestly to remember, that God hes not bestowed all his gifts vpon one, but parted them by a iustice distributiue; and that many eyes see more then one; and that the varietie of mens mindes is such, that tot capita totsensus; yea, and that euen the very faces, that God hath by nature brought foorth in the world, doe euery one in some of their particular lineaments, differ from [Page 146]any other: yet in trewth it was not my intention in handling of this purpose (as it is easie to perceiue) fully to set downe heere all such grounds, as might out of the best wri­ters haue beene alledged, and out of my owne inuention and experience added, for the perfite institution of a King: but onely to giue some such precepts to my owne Sonne, for the gouernement of this kingdome, as was meetest for him to be instructed in, and best became me to be the informer of.

If I in this Booke haue beene too particularly plaine, impute it to the necessitie of the subiect, not so much being ordained for the institution of a Prince in generall, as I haue said, as containing particular precepts to my Sonne in speciall: whereof he could haue made but a generall vse, if they had not contained the particular diseases of this kingdome, with the best remedies for the same, which it became me best as a King, ha­uing learned both the theoricke and practicke thereof, more plainely to expresse, then any simple schoole man, that onely knowes matters of kingdomes by contemplation.

But if in some places it seeme too obscure, impute it to the shortnesse thereof, being both for the respect of my selfe, and of my Sonne, constrained there-unto: my owne re­spect, for fault of leasure, being so continually occupied in the affaires of my office, as my great burthen, and restlesse fashery is more then knowen, to all that knowes or beares of me: for my Sonnes respect, because I know by my self, that a Prince so long as he is young, wil be so caried away with some sort of delight or other, that he cannot pa­tiently abide the reading of any large volume: and when he comes to a ful maturity of aage, he must be so busied in the actiue part of his charge, as he will not be permitted to bestow many houres vpon the cōtemplatiue part therof: So as it was neither fit for him, nor possible for me, to haue made this Treatise any more ample then it is. Indeed I am li­tle beholden to the curiositie of some, who thinking it too large alreadie (as appears) for lacke of leisure to copy it, drew some notes out of it, for speeds sake; putting in the one halfe of the purpose, and leauing out the other: not vnlike the man that alledged that part of the Psalme, non est Deus, but left out the praeceeding words, Dixit insipi­ens in corde suo. And of these notes, making a little pamphlet (lacking both my methode and halfe of my matter) entituled it, forsooth, the Kings Testament, as if I had eiked a third Testament of my owne to the two that are in the holy Scriptures. It is trew that in a place thereof, for affirmation of the purpose I am speaking of to my Sonne, I bring my selfe in there, as speaking vpon my Testament: for in that sense, euery record in write of a mans opinion in anything (in respect that papers out-liue their authours) is as it were a Testament of that mans will in that case: and in that sense it is, that in that place I call this Treatise a Testament. But from any particu­lar sentence in a booke, to giue the booke it selfe a title, is as ridiculous, as to style the booke of the Psalmes, the booke of Dixit insipiens, because with these wordes one of them doeth begin.

Well, leauing these new baptizers and blockers of other mens books, to their owne follies, Ireturne to my purpose, anent the shortnesse of this booke, suspecting that all my excuses for the shortnesse thereof, shall not satisfie some, especially in our neigh­bour countrey: who thought, that as I haue so narrowly in this Treatise touched all the principall sicknesses in our kingdome, with ouertures for the remedies thereof, as I said before: so looked they to haue found something therein, that should haue touched the sicknesses of their state, in the like sort. But they will easily excuse me thereof, if they [Page 147]will consider the forme I haue vsed in this Treatise; wherein I onely teach my Son, out of my owne experience, what forme of gouernment is fittest for this kingdome: and in one part thereof speaking of the borders, I plainely there doe excuse my selfe, that I will speake nothing of the state of England, as a matter wherein I neuer had experience. I know indeed, no kingdome lackes her owne diseases, and likewise what interest I haue in the prosperitie of that state: for although I would be silent, my blood and discent doeth sufficiently proclaime it. But notwithstanding, since there is a law­full Queene there presently reigning, who hath so long with so great wisedome and fe­licitie gouerned her kingdomes, as (I must in trew sinceritie confesse) the like hath not beene read nor heard of, either in our time, or since the dayes of the Romane Empe­rour Augustus; it could no wayes become me, farre inferiour to her in knowledge and experience, to be a busie-body in other princes matters, and to fish in other folkes waters, as the prouerbe is: No, I hope by the contrary (with Gods grace) euer to keepe that Christian rule, To doe as I would be done to: and I doubt nothing, yea euen in her name I dare promise, by the bypast experience of her happy gouernment, as I haue already said, that no good subiect shall be more carefull to enforme her of any corruptions stollen in in her state, then shee shall be zealous for the discharge of her conscience and honour, to see the same purged, and restored to the ancient integritie; and further during her time, becomes me least of any to meddle in.

And thus hauing resolued all the doubts, so farre as I can imagine, may be moued against this Treatise; it onely rests to pray thee (charitable Reader) to interprete fauourably this birth of mine, according to the integritie of the author, and not looking for perfection in the worke it selfe. As for my part, I onely glory thereof in this point, that I trust no sort of vertue is condemned, nor any degree of vice allowed in it: and that (though it be not perhaps so gorgeously decked, and richly attired as it ought to be) it is at the least rightly proportioned in all the members, without any menstrous deformitie in any of them: and specially that since it was first written in secret, and is now published, not of ambition, but of a kinde of necessitie; it must be taken of all men, for the trew image of my very minde, and forme of the rule, which I haue pre­scribed to my selfe and mine; Which as in all my actions I haue bitherto preassed to expresse, so farre as the nature of my charge, and the condition of time would permit me: so beareth it a discouery of that which may be looked for at my hand, and where­to euen in my secret thoughts, I haue engaged my selfe for the time to come. And thus in a firme trust, that it shall please God, who with my being and Crowne, gaue me this minde, to maintaine and augment the same in me and my posteritie, to the dis­charge of our conscience, the maintenance of our Honour, and weale of our people, I bid thee heartily farewell.

OF A KINGS CHRISTIAN DVETIE TO WARDS GOD.
THE FIRST BOOKE.

AS he cannot be thought worthy to rule and command others, that cannot rule and dan­tone his owne proper affections and vnrea­sonable appetites, so can hee not be thought worthie to gouerne a Christian people, The trew ground of good gouern­ment. knowing and fearing God, that in his owne person and heart, feareth not and loueth not the Diuine Maiestie. Neither can any thing in his gouernment succeed well with him, (deuise and labour as he list) as comming from a filthie spring, if his person be vnsanctified: for (as that royal Prophet saith) Except the Lord build the house, Psal. 127 1.they labour in vaine that build it: except the Lord keepe the City, the keepers watch it in vaine: in respect the blessing of God hath onely power to giue the successe thereunto: and as Paul saith, he planteth, 1. Cor. 3.6.Apollos watereth; but it is God onely that giueth the increase. There­fore (my Sonne) first of all things, learne to know and loue that God, whom-to ye haue a double obligation; Double bond of a Prince to God. first, for that he made you a man; and next, for that he made you a little GOD to sit on his Throne, and rule ouer other men. Remember, that as in dignitie hee hath erected you a­boue others, so ought ye in thankfulnesse towards him, goe as farre beyond all others. A moate in anothers eye, is a beame into yours: a blemish in another, is a leprouse byle into you: and a veniall sinne (as the Papists call it) in another, is a great crime into you. Thinke not therefore, that the highnesse of your dignitie, The great­nesse of the fault of a Prince. dimmisheth your faults (much lesse giueth you a licence to sinne) but by the contrary your fault shall be aggrauated, ac­cording to the height of your dignitie; any sinne that ye commit, not be­ing a single sinne procuring but the fall of one; but being an exemplare [Page 149]sinne, and therefore drawing with it the whole multitude to be guiltie of the same. Remember then, that this glistering worldly glorie of Kings, The trew glo­rie of Kings. is giuen them by God, to teach them to preasse so to glister and shine before their people, in all workes of sanctification and righteousnesse, that their persons as bright lampes of godlinesse and vertue, may, going in and out before their people, giue light to all their steps. Remember also, that by the right knowledge, and feare of God (which is the beginning of Wisedome, Prou 9.10. as Salomon saith) ye shall know all the things necessarie for the discharge of your duetie, both as a Christian, and as a King; seeing in him, as in a mir­rour, the course of all earthly things, whereof hee is the spring and onely moouer.

Now, the onely way to bring you to this knowledge, The meanes to know God. is diligently to reade his word, and earnestly to pray for the right vnderstanding thereof. Search the Scriptures, sayth Christ, for they beare testimonie of me: and, Iohn 5.39. the whole Scripture, saith Paul, is giuen by inspiration of God, and is profitable to teach, 2. Tim. 3.16.17.to conuince, to correct, and to instruct in righteousnesse; that the man of God may be absolute, being made perfite vnto all good workes. And most properly of any o­ther, belongeth the reading thereof vnto Kings, Deut. 17. since in that part of Scrip­ture, where the godly Kings are first made mention of, that were ordained to rule ouer the people of God, there is an expresse and most notable ex­hortation and commandement giuen them, to reade and meditate in the Law of God. I ioyne to this, the carefull hearing of the doctrine with at­tendance and reuerence: for, faith commeth by hearing, Rom. 10.17. sayth the same Apo­stle. But aboue all, beware ye wrest not the word to your owne appe­tite, as ouer many doe, making it like a bell to sound as ye please to inter­prete: but by the contrary, frame all your affections, to follow precisely the rule there set downe.

The whole Scripture chiefly containeth two things: a command, Wherein chiefely the whole Scrip­ture consi­steth. and a prohibition, to doe such things, and to abstaine from the contrary. Obey in both; neither thinke it enough to abstaine from euill, and do no good; nor thinke not that if yee doe many good things, it may serue you for a cloake to mixe euill turnes therewith. And as in these two points, the whole Scripture principally consisteth, Two degrees of the seruice of God. so in two degrees standeth the whole seruice of God by man: interiour, or vpward; exteriour, or down­ward: the first, by prayer in faith towards God; the next, by workes flow­ing therefra before the world: which is nothing else, but the exercise of Religion towards God, and of equitie towards your neighbour.

As for the particular points of Religion, I need not to dilate them; I am no hypocrite, follow my footsteps, A regardable paterne. and your owne present education therein. I thanke God, I was neuer ashamed to giue account of my pro­fession, howsoeuer the malicious lying tongues of some haue traduced me: and if my conscience had not resolued me, that all my Religion pre­sently professed by me and my kingdome, was grounded vpon the plaine wordes of the Scripture, without the which all points of Religion are [Page 150]superfluous, as any thing contrary to the same is abomination, I had neuer outwardly auowed it, for pleasure or awe of any flesh.

And as for the points of equitie towards your neigbour (because that will fall in properly, vpon the second part concerning a Kings office) I leaue it to the owne roume.

For the first part then of mans seruice to his God, Religion. which is Religion, that is, the worship of God according to his reuealed will, it is wholly grounded vpon the Scripture, as I haue alreadie said, quickened by faith, and conserued by conscience: For the Scripture, I haue now spoken of it in generall, but that yee may the more readily make choice of any part thereof, for your instruction or comfort, remember shortly this me­thode.

The whole Scripture is dyted by Gods Spirit, The methode of Scripture. thereby, as by his liuely word, to instruct and rule the whole Church militant to the end of the word: It is composed of two parts, the Olde and New Testament: The ground of the former is the Lawe, which sheweth our sinne, and contai­neth iustice: the ground of the other is Christ, who pardoning sinne con­taineth grace. The summe of the Law is the tenne Commandements, more largely delated in the bookes of Moses, Of the Law. interpreted and applied by the Pro­phets; and by the histories, are the examples shewed of obedience or diso­bedience thereto, and what praemium or poena was accordingly giuen by God: But because no man was able to keepe the Law, nor any part thereof, it pleased God of his infinite wisedome and goodnesse, to incarnate his on­ly Sonne in our nature, for satisfaction of his iustice in his suffering for vs; that since we could not be saued by doing, we might at least, bee saued by beleeuing.

The ground therefore of the word of grace, Of Grace. is contained in the foure hi­stories of the birth, life, death, resurrection and ascention of Christ: The larger interpretation and vse thereof, is contained in the Epistles of the A­postles: and the practise in the faithfull or vnfaithfull, with the historie of the infancie and first progresse of the Church is contained in their Actes.

Would ye then know your sinne by the Lawe? Vse of the Law. reade the bookes of Mo­ses containing it. Would ye haue a commentarie thereupon? Reade the Prophets, and likewise the bookes of the Prouerbes and Ecclesiastes, written by that great patterne of wisedome Salomon; which will not only serue you for instruction, how to walke in the obedience of the Lawe of God, but is also so full of golden sentences, and morall precepts, in all things that can concerne your conuersation in the world, as among all the prophane Phi­losophers and Poets, ye shall not finde so rich a storehouse of precepts of naturall wisedome, agreeing with the will and diuine wisedome of God. Would ye see how good men are rewarded, and wicked punished? looke the historicall parts of these same bookes of Moses, together with the histo­ries of Ioshua, the Iudges, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Iob: but especially the bookes of the Kings and Chronicles, wherewith ye ought to bee familiarly [Page 151]acquainted: for there shall yee see your selfe, as in a myrrour, in the cata­logue either of the good or the euill Kings.

Would yee know the doctrine, life, and death of our Sauiour Christ? Vse of the Gospel. reade the Euangelists. Would ye bee more particularly trained vp in his Schoole? meditate vpon the Epistles of the Apostles. And would ye be ac­quainted with the practises of that doctrine in the persons of the primitiue Church? Cast vp the Apostles Actes. And as to the Apocryphe bookes, I omit them, because I am no Papist, as I said before; and indeed some of them are no wayes like the dytement of the Spirit of God.

But when ye reade the Scripture, How to reade the Scripture. reade it with a sanctified and chaste heart: admire reuerently such obscure places as ye vnderstand not, blaming onely your owne capacitie: read with delight the plaine places, and studie carefully to vnderstand those that are somewhat difficile: preasse to bee a good textuarie; for the Scripture is euer the best interpreter of it selfe; but preasse not curiously to seeke out farther then is contained therein; for that were ouer vnmannerly a presumption, to striue to bee further vpon Gods secrets, then he hath will ye be; for what hee thought needfull for vs to know, that hath he reuealed there: And delyte most in reading such parts of the Scripture, as may best serue for your instruction in your calling; re­iecting foolish curiosities vpon genealogies and contentions, Tit. 3.9. which are but vaine, and profite not, as Paul saith.

Now, as to Faith, which is the nourisher and quickner of Religion, Faith the nou­risher of Reli­gion. as I haue alreadie said, It is a sure perswasion and apprehension of the promises of God, applying them to your soule: and therefore may it iustly be called, the golden chaine that linketh the faithfull soule to Christ: And because it groweth not in our garden, but is the free gift of God, Philip. 1.29. as the same Apostle saith, it must be nourished by prayer, Which is nothing else, but a friendly talking with God.

As for teaching you the forme of your prayers, Prayer, and whence to learne the best forme thereof. the Psalmes of Dauid are the meetest schoole-master that ye can be acquainted with (next the prayer of our Sauiour, which is the onely rule of prayer) whereout of, as of most rich and pure fountaines, ye may learne all forme of prayer necessarie for your comfort at all occasions: And so much the fitter are they for you, then for the common sort, in respect the composer thereof was a King: and therefore best behoued to know a Kings wants, and what things were meetest to be required by a King at Gods hand for remedie thereof.

Vse often to pray when ye are quietest, Seuerall ex­ercise of pray­er. especially forget it not in your bed how oft soeuer ye doe it at other times: for publike prayer serueth as much for example, as for any particular comfort to the supplicant.

In your prayer, bee neither ouer strange with God, What rule or regard to be vsed in prayer. like the ignorant common sort, that prayeth nothing but out of bookes, nor yet ouer home­ly with him, like some of the vaine Pharisaicall puritanes, that thinke they rule him vpon their fingers: The former way will breede an vncouth coldnesse in you towards him, the other will breede in you a contempt of [Page 152]him. But in your prayer to God speake with all reuerence: for if a subiect will not speake but reuerently to a King, much lesse should any flesh pre­sume to talke with God as with his companion.

Craue in your prayer, not onely things spirituall, but also things tempo­rall, What to craue of God. sometimes of greater, and sometimes of lesse consequence; that yee may lay vp in store his grant of these things, for confirmation of your faith, and to be an arles-peny vnto you of his loue. Pray, as yee finde your heart moueth you, pro re nata: but see that yee sute no vnlawfull things, as re­uenge, Rom. 14.23. lust, or such like: for that prayer can not come of faith: and whatsoe­uer is done without faith, is sinne, as the Apostle saith.

When ye obtaine your prayer, How to inter­pret the issue of prayer. thanke him ioyfully therefore: if other­waies, beare patiently, preassing to winne him with importunitie, as the widow did the vnrighteous Iudge: and if notwithstanding thereof yee be not heard, assure your selfe, God foreseeth that which yee aske is not for your weale: and learne in time, so to interprete all the aduersities that God shall send vnto you; so shall yee in the middest of them, not onely be armed with patience, but ioyfully lift vp your eyes from the present trouble, to the happie end that God will turne it to. And when ye finde it once so fall out by proofe, arme your selfe with the experience thereof against the next trouble, assuring your selfe, though yee cannot in time of the showre see through the cloude, yet in the end shall ye find, God sent it for your weale, as ye found in the former.

And as for conscience, Conscience the conseruer of Religion. which I called the conseruer of Religion, It is nothing else, but the light of knowledge that God hath planted in man, which euer watching ouer all his actions, as it beareth him a ioyfull testi­monie when he does right, so choppeth it him with a feeling that hee hath done wrong, when euer he committeth any sinne. And surely, although this conscience be a great torture to the wicked, yet is it as great a comfort to the godly, if we will consider it rightly. For haue wee not a great ad­uantage, that haue within our selues while wee liue here, a Count-booke and Inuentarie of all the crimes that wee shall bee accused of, The inuenta­rie of our life. either at the houre of our death, or at the Great day of Iudgement; which when wee please (yea though we forget) will chop, and remember vs to looke vpon it; that while we haue leasure and are here, we may remember to amend; and so at the day of our triall, compeare with new and white garments washed in the blood of the Lambe, Reu 7.14. as S. Iohn saith. Aboue all then, my Sonne, labour to keepe sound this conscience, which many prattle of, but ouer few feele: especially be carefull to keepe it free from two diseases, wherewith it vseth oft to be infected; The diseases of conscience. to wit, Leaprosie, and Superstition: the former is the mother of Atheisme, the other of Heresies. By a leaprouse conscience, I meane a cauterized conscience, 1. Tim. 4.2. as Paul calleth it, being become senselesse of sinne, through sleeping in a carelesse securitie, as King Dauids was after his murther and adulterie, euer til he was wakened by the Prophet Nathans si­militude. And by superstition, I meane, when one restraines himselfe to any [Page 153]other rule in the seruice of God, then is warranted by the word, the onely trew square of Gods serucie.

As for a preseruatiue against this Leaprosie, Preseruatiue against lepro­sie of consci­ence. remember euer once in the foure and twentie houres, either in the night, or when yee are at greatest quiet, to call your selfe to account of all your last dayes actions, either wherein ye haue committed things yee should not, or omitted the things ye should doe, either in your Christian or Kingly calling: and in that ac­count, let not your selfe be smoothed ouer with that flattering [...], which is ouerkindly a sicknesse to all mankind: but censure your selfe as sharply, as if ye were your owne enemie: For if ye iudge your selfe, ye shall not be iudged, 1. Cor. 11.31. as the Apostle saith: and then according to your censure, reforme your actions as farre as yee may, eschewing euer wilfully and wittingly to con­trare your conscience: For a small sinne wilfully committed, with a deliberate resolution to breake the bridle of conscience therein, is farre more grieuous before God, then a greater sinne committed in a suddaine passion, when conscience is asleepe. Last account. Remember therefore in all your acti­ons, of the great account that yee are one day to make: in all the dayes of your life, euer learning to die, and liuing euery day as it were your last; ‘Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum.’ Horat. lib. 1. Epist.

And therefore, I would not haue you to pray with the Papists, to be pre­serued from suddaine death, but that God would giue you grace so to liue, as ye may euery houre of your life be ready for death: so shall ye attaine to the vertue of trew fortitude, neuer being afraid for the horrour of death, Trew forti­tude. come when he list: And especially, beware to offend your conscience with vse of swearing or lying, suppose but in iest; for others are but an vse, Foolish vse of oathes. and a sinne cloathed with no delight nor gaine, and therefore the more inexcu­sable euen in the sight of men: and lying commeth also much of a vile vse, which banisheth shame: Therfore beware euen to deny the trewth, which is a sort of lie, that may best be eschewed by a person of your ranke. For if any thing be asked at you that yee thinke not meete to reueale, if yee say, that question is not pertinent for them to aske, who dare examine you further? and vsing sometimes this answere both in trew and false things that shall be asked at you, such vnmanerly people will neuer be the wiser thereof.

And for keeping your conscience sound from that sickenesse of super­stition, Against super­stition. yee must neither lay the safetie of your conscience vpon the credit of your owne conceits, nor yet of other mens humors, how great doctors of Diuinitie that euer they be; but yee must onely ground it vpon the ex­presse Scripture: for conscience not grounded vpon sure knowledge, is ei­ther an ignorant fantasie, or an arrogant vanitie. Beware therefore in this case with two extremities: the one, to beleeue with the Papists, the Chur­ches authority, better then your owne knowledge; the other, to leane with the Anabaptists, to your owne conceits and dreamed reuelations.

But learne wisely to discerne betwixt points of saluation and indifferent [Page 154]things, Difference of internall and externall things. betwixt substance and ceremonies; and betwixt the expresse com­mandement and will of God in his word, and the inuention or ordinance of man; since all that is necessarie for saluation is contained in the Scrip­ture: For in any thing that is expressely commanded or prohibited in the booke of God, ye cannot be ouer precise, euen in the least thing; counting euery sinne, not according to the light estimation and common vse of it in the world, but as the booke of God counteth of it. But as for all other things not contained in the Scripture, spare not to vse or alter them, as the necessitie of the time shall require. Account of things exter­nall. And when any of the spirituall office­bearers in the Church, speake vnto you any thing that is well warranted by the word, reuerence and obey them as the heraulds of the most high God: but, if passing that bounds, they vrge you to embrace any of their fantasies in the place of Gods word, or would colour their particulars with a pretended zeale, acknowledge them for no other then vaine men, excee­ding the bounds of their calling; and according to your office, grauely and with authoritie redact them in order againe.

To conclude then, Conclusion. both this purpose of conscience, and the first part of this booke, keepe God more sparingly in your mouth, but abundantly in your heart: be precise in effect, but sociall in shew: kythe more by your deedes then by your wordes, the loue of vertue and hatred of vice: and delight more to be godly and vertuous indeed, then to be thought and cal­led so; expecting more for your praise and reward in heauen, then heere: and apply to all your outward actions Christs command, to pray and giue your almes secretly: So shal ye on the one part be inwardly garnished with trew Christian humilitie, not outwardly (with the proud Pharisie) glory­ing in your godlinesse; but saying, as Christ commandeth vs all, when we haue done all that we can, Luke 10.17. Inutiles serui sumus: And on the other part, yee shall eschew outwardly before the world, the suspition of filthie proude hypocrisie, and deceit­full dissimulation.

OF A KINGS DVETIE IN HIS OFFICE.
THE SECOND BOOKE.

BVT as ye are clothed with two callings, so must ye be alike careful for the discharge of them both: that as yee are a good Christian, so yee may be a good King, discharging your Office (as I shewed before) in the points of Iustice and Equitie: The Office of a King. which in two sundrie waies ye must doe: the one, in establishing and executing, Plato in Polit. (which is the life of the Law) good Lawes among your people: Isocr, in Sym. the other, by your behauiour in your owne person, and with your seruants, to teach your people by your example: for people are naturally inclined to counterfaite (like apes) their Princes maners, Plate in Polis. ac­cording to the notable saying of Plato, expressed by the Poet —

— Componitur orbis
Regis ad exemplum, nec sic inflectere sensus
Humanos edicta valent, quàm vitaregentis.

Claudian in 4. cons. Hon.

For the part of making, and executing of Lawes, consider first the trew difference betwixt a lawfull good King, and an vsurping Tyran, and yee shall the more easily vnderstand your duetie herein: Difference of a King and a Tyran. for contraria iuxta se po­sita magis elucescunt. The one acknowledgeth himselfe ordained for his people, hauing receiued from God a burthen of gouernment, Plato in Polit. whereof he must be countable: the other thinketh his people ordined for him, Arist. 5. Polit. a prey to his passions and inordinate appetites, as the fruites of his magnanimitie: And therefore, as their ends are directly contrarie, so are their whole acti­ons, as meanes, whereby they preasse to attaine to their endes. A good King, thinking his highest honour to consist in the due discharge of his calling, emploieth all his studie and paines, to procure and maintaine, Xen. 8. Cyr. by the making and execution of good Lawes, the well-fare and peace of his people; and as their naturall father and kindly Master, Cic. lib. 5. de Rep. thinketh his grea­test contentment standeth in their prosperitie, and his greatest suretie in ha­uing their hearts, subiecting his owne priuate affections and appetites to the weale and standing of his Subiects, euer thinking the common in­teresse his chiefest particular: where by the contrarie, an vsurping Tyran, [Page 156]thinking his greatest honour and felicitie to consist in attaining per fas, vel nefas, Arist. 5. Polit. Tacit. 4. hist. to his ambitious pretences, thinketh neuer himselfe sure, but by the dissention and factions among his people, and counterfaiting the Saint while he once creepe in credite, will then (by inuerting all good Lawes to serue onely for his vnrulie priuate affections) frame the common-weale euer to aduance his particular: building his suretie vpon his peoples mise­rie: and in the end (as a step-father and an vncouth hireling) make vp his owne hand vpon the ruines of the Republicke. And according to their actions, The issue and rewards of a good King. so receiue they their reward: For a good King (after a happie and famous reigne) dieth in peace, lamented by his subiects, and admired by his neighbours; and leauing a reuerent renowne behinde him in earth, ob­taineth the Crowne of eternall felicitie in heauen. Cic. 6. de Rep. And although some of them (which falleth out very rarelie) may be cut off by the treason of some vnnaturall subiects, yet liueth their fame after them, and some notable plague faileth neuer to ouertake the committers in this life, besides their infamie to all posterities hereafter: The issue of Tyrans, Arist. 5. Polit. Where by the contrarie, a Tyrannes mi­serable and infamous life, armeth in end his owne Subiects to become his burreaux: Isocr in Sym. and although that rebellion be euer vnlawfull on their part, yet is the world so wearied of him, that his fall is little meaned by the rest of his Subiects, and but smiled at by his neighbours. And besides the infa­mous memorie he leaueth behind him here, and the endlesse paine hee su­staineth hereafter, it oft falleth out, that the committers not onely escape vnpunished, but farther, the fact will remaine as allowed by the Law in di­uers aages thereafter. It is easie then for you (my Sonne) to make a choise of one of these two sorts of rulers, by following the way of vertue to esta­blish your standing; yea, incase ye fell in the high way, yet should it be with the honourable report, and iust regrate of all honest men.

And therefore to returne to my purpose anent the gouernement of your Subiects, Anent the making of Lawes. by making and putting good Lawes to execution; I remit the making of them to your owne discretion, as ye shall finde the necessi­tie of new-rising corruptions to require them: for, ex malis moribus bonae leges natae sunt: besides, that in this countrey, wee haue alreadie moe good Lawes then are well execute, and am onely to insist in your forme of go­uernment anent their execution. Onely remember, that as Parliaments haue bene ordained for making of Lawes, so ye abuse not their institution, in holding them for any mens particulars: The autho­ritie and trew vse of Parlia­ments. For as a Parliament is the ho­nourablest and highest iudgement in the land (as being the Kings head Court) if it be well vsed, which is by making of good Lawes in it; so is it the in-iustest Iudgement-seat that may be, L. 12. Tab. being abused to mens particu­lars: irreuocable decreits against particular parties, being giuen therein vn­der colour of generall Lawes, and oft-times th'Estates not knowing them­selues whom thereby they hurt. And therefore hold no Parliaments, but for necessitie of new Lawes, which would be but seldome: for few Lawes and well put in execution, are best in a well ruled common-weale. As for [Page 157]the matter of fore-faltures, which also are done in Parliament, it is not good tigging with these things; but my aduice is, Cic. 3 de leg. pro D. s. & pro Sest. ye fore-fault none but for such odious crimes as may make them vnworthie euer to be restored a­gaine: And for smaller offences, ye haue other penalties sharpe enough to be vsed against them.

And as for the execution of good Lawes, whereat I left, Anent the ex­ecution of Lawes. remember that among the differences that I put betwixt the formes of the gouernment of a good King, and an vsurping Tyran; I shew how a Tyran would enter like a Saint while he found himselfe fast vnder-foot, and then would suffer his vnrulie affections to burst foorth. A iust seneri­tic to be vsed at the first. Sen. de cl. Ar. 7. pol. Therefore be yee contrare at your first entrie to your Kingdome, to that Quinquennium Neronis, with his ten­der hearted wish, Vellem nescirem literas, in giuing the Law full execution a­gainst all breakers thereof but exception. For since ye come not to your reigne precariò, nor by conquest, but by right and due discent; feare no vp­roares for doing of iustice, since ye may assure your selfe, Plato 2. & 10 de Repub. Cic. ad Q. fr. the most part of your people will euer naturally fauour Iustice: prouiding alwaies, that ye doe it onely for loue to Iustice, and not for satisfying any particular pas­sions of yours, vnder colour thereof: otherwise, how iustly that euer the offender deserue it, ye are guiltie of murther before God: For ye must con­sider, that God euer looketh to your inward intention in all your actions.

And when yee haue by the seueritie of Iustice once setled your coun­tries, and made them know that ye can strike, A good mix­ture. Plato in Pol. & 9. de L. Sal. orat. ad Caesar. then may ye thereafter all the daies of your life mixe Iustice with Mercie, punishing or sparing, as ye shall finde the crime to haue bene wilfully or rashly committed, and according to the by-past behauiour of the committer. For if otherwise ye kyth your clemencie at the first, the offences would soone come to such heapes, and the contempt of you grow so great, that when ye would fall to punish, the number of them to be punished, would exceed the innocent; and yee would be troubled to resolue whom-at to begin: and against your nature would be compelled then to wracke many, whom the chastisement of few in the beginning might haue preserued. But in this, A deare pre­sident. But in this, my ouer-deare bought experience may serue you for a sufficient lesson: For I confesse, where I thought (by being gracious at the beginning) to win all mens hearts to a louing and willing obedience, I by the contrary found, the dis­order of the countrie, and the losse of my thankes to be all my reward.

But as this seuere Iustice of yours vpon all offences would bee but for a time, (as I haue alreadie said) so is there some horrible crimes that yee are bound in conscience neuer to forgiue: such as Witch-craft, Crimes vn­pardonable. wilfull mur­ther, Incest, (especially within the degrees of consanguinitie) Sodomie, poi­soning, and false coine. Treason a­gainst the Prince his person, or au­thoritie. As for offences against your owne person and au­thoritie, since the fault concerneth your selfe, I remit to your owne choise to punish or pardon therein, as your heart serueth you, and according to the circumstances of the turne, and the qualitie of the committer.

Here would I also eike another crime to bee vnpardonable, if I should [Page 158]not be thought partiall: but the fatherly loue I beare you, will make mee breake the bounds of shame in opening it vnto you. Stayning of the blood. It is then, the false and vnreuerent writing or speaking of malicious men against your Parents and Predecessors: Exod. 20.12. ye know the command in Gods lawe, Honour your Father and Mother: and consequently, sen ye are the lawful magistrate, suffer not both your Princes and your Parents to be dishonoured by any; especially, sith the example also toucheth your selfe, Plat. 4. de Legib. in leauing thereby to your successors, the measure of that which they shal mete out againe to you in your like be­halfe. I graunt wee haue all our faults, which, priuately betwixt you and God, should serue you for examples to meditate vpon, and mend in your person; but should not be a matter of discourse to others whatsoeuer. And sith yeare come of as honourable Predecessours as any Prince liuing, re­presse the insolence of such, as vnder pretence to taxe a vice in the person, seeke craftily to staine the race, and to steale the affection of the people from their posteritie: For how can they loue you, that hated them whom­of ye are come? Wherefore destroy men innocent young sucking Wolues and Foxes, but for the hatred they beare to their race? and why wil a coult of a Courser of Naples, giue a greater price in a market, then an Asse-colt, but for loue of the race? It is therefore a thing monstrous, to see a man loue the childe, and hate the Parents: as on the other part, the infaming and making odious of the parent, is the readiest way to bring the sonne in con­tempt. And for conclusion of this point, I may also alledge my owne ex­perience: For besides the iudgments of God, that with my eyes I haue seene fall vpon all them that were chiefe traitours to my parents, I may iustly af­firme, I neuer found yet a constant biding by me in all my straites, by any that were of perfite aage in my parents dayes, but onely by such as con­stantly bode by them; I meane specially by them that serued the Queene my mother for so that I discharge my conscience to you, my Sonne, in re­uealing to you the trewth, I care not, what any traitour or treason-allower thinke of it.

And although the crime of oppression be not in this ranke of vnpardo­nable crimes, Of oppres­sion. yet the ouer-common vse of it in this nation, as if it were a vertue, especially by the greatest ranke of subiects in the land, requireth the King to be a sharpe censurer thereof. Arist. 5. polit. Isocr. de reg. Cic. in Of. & ad Q. fr. Be diligent therefore to trie, and aw­full to beate downe the hornes of proud oppressours: embrace the quar­rell of the poore and distressed, as your owne particular, thinking it your greatest honour to represse the oppressours: The trew glo­rie of Kings. care for the pleasure of none, neither spare ye anie paines in your owne person, to see their wrongs re­dressed: and remember of the honourable stile giuen to my grand-father of worthie memorie, A memorable and worthie patterne. in being called the poore mans King. And as the most part of a Kings office, standeth in deciding that question of Meum and Tuum, among his subiects; so remember when ye sit in iudgement, that the Throne ye sit on is Gods, Deut. 1. as Moyses saith, and sway neither to the right hand nor to the left; either louing the rich, or pittying the poore. Iustice should [Page 159]be blinde and friendlesse: it is not there ye should reward your friends, Plat. in polit. C [...]a. Q. frat. Arist. 1. Ret. Plat. in Is. or seeke to crosse your enemies.

Here now speaking of oppressours and of iustice, the purpose leadeth me to speake of Hie-land and Border oppressions. As for the Hie-lands, Of the Hie­lands. I shortly comprehend them all in two sorts of people: the one, that dwel­leth in our maine land, that are barbarous for the most part, and yet mixed with some shewe of ciuilitie: the other, that dwelleth in the Iles, and are alluterly barbares, without any sort or shew of ciuilitie. For the first sort, put straitly to execution the Lawes made alreadie by me against their O­uer-lords, and the chiefes of their Clannes, and it will be no difficultie to danton them. As for the other sort, follow forth the course that I haue in­tended, in planting Colonies among them of answerable In-lands subiects, that within short time may reforme and ciuilize the best inclined among them; rooting out or transporting the barbarous and stubborne sort, and planting ciuilitie in their roomes.

But as for the Borders, because I know, if ye enioy not this whole Ile, Of the Bor­ders. ac­cording to Gods right and your lineall discent, yee will neuer get leaue to brooke this North and barrennest part thereof; no, not your owne head whereon the Crowne should stand; I neede not in that case trouble you with them: for then they will be the middest of the Ile, and so as easily ru­led as any part thereof.

And that yee may the readier with wisedome and Iustice gouerne your subiects, by knowing what vices they are naturallie most inclined to, A necesiarie point in a good gouern­ment. Plato in polis. as a good Physician, who must first know what peccant humours his Patient naturallie is most subiect vnto, before he can begin his cure: I shall there­fore shortly note vnto you, the principall faults that euery ranke of the peo­ple of this countrey is most affected vnto. And as for England, I will not speake be-gesse of them, neuer hauing been among them, although I hope in that God, who euer fauoureth the right, before I die, to be as well ac­quainted with their fashions.

As the whole Subiects of our countrey (by the ancient and fundamen­tall policie of our Kingdome) are diuided into three estates, A considera­tion of the three estates. so is euerie estate hereof generally subiect to some speciall vices; which in a maner by long habitude, are thought rather vertue then vice among them: not that euerie particular man in any of these rankes of men, is subiect vnto them, for there is good and euill of all sorts; but that I meane, I haue found by experience, these vices to haue taken greatest holde with these rankes of men.

And first, that I prejudge not the Church of her ancient priuiledges, reason would shee should haue the first place for orders sake, in this ca­talogue.

The naturall sickenesse that hath euer troubled, The diseases of the church. and beene the decay of all the Churches, since the beginning of the world, changing the candle­sticke from one to another, as Iohn saith, hath beene Pride, Ambition, and [Page 160]Auarice: and now last, these same infirmities wrought the ouerthrow of the Popish Church, in this countrey and diuers others. But the reforma­tion of Religion in Scotland, being extraordinarily wrought by God, wher­in many things were inordinately done by a popular tumult and rebelli­on, The occasion of the Tribu­nat of some Puritanes. of such as blindly were doing the worke of God, but clogged with their owne passions and particular respects, as well appeared by the destru­ction of our policie, and not proceeding from the Princes order, as it did in our neighbour countrey of England, as likewise in Denmarke, and sundry parts of Germanie; some fierie spirited men in the ministerie, got such a guiding of the people at that time of confusion, as finding the gust of go­uernment sweete, they begouth to fantasie to themselues a Democraticke forme of gouernment: and hauing (by the iniquitie of time) beene ouer­well baited vpon the wracke, first of my Grandmother, and next of mine owne mother, and after vsurping the libertie of the time in my long mino­ritie, Such were the Demagog [...] at Athens. setled themselues so fast vpon that imagined Democracie, as they fed themselues with the hope to become Tribuni plebis: and so in a popular go­uernment by leading the people by the nose, to beare the sway of all the rule. And for this cause, there neuer rose faction in the time of my mino­ritie, Their formes in the State. nor trouble sen-syne, but they that were vpon that factious part, were euer carefull to perswade and allure these vnruly spirits among the mini­sterie, to spouse that quarrell as their owne: where-through I was oft­times calumniated in their populare Sermons, not for any euill or vice in me, but because I was a King, which they thought the highest euill. And because they were ashamed to professe this quarrel, they were busie to look narrowly in all my actions; and I warrant you a mote in my eye, yea a false report, was matter enough for them to worke vpon: and yet for all their cunning, whereby they pretended to distinguish the lawfulnesse of the of­fice, from the vice of the person, some of them would sometimes snapper out well grossely with the trewth of their intentions, informing the peo­ple, Their razing the ground of the princely rule. that all Kings and Princes were naturally enemies to the libertie of the Church, and could neuer patiently beare the yoke of Christ: with such sound doctrine fed they their flockes. And because the learned, graue, and honest men of the ministerie, were euer ashamed and offended with their temeritie and presumption, preassing by all good meanes by their autho­ritie and example, to reduce them to a greater moderation; there could be no way found out so meete in their conceit, that were turbulent spirits a­mong them, for maintaining their plots, as paritie in the Church: where­by the ignorants were emboldened (as bairdes) to crie the learned, Their pre­tence of pa­ratie. godly, and modest out of it: paritie the mother of confusion, and enemie to Vni­tie, which is the mother of order: For if by the example thereof, once established in the Ecclesiasticall gouernment, the Politicke and ciuill estate should be drawen to the like, the great confusion that thereupon would arise may easily be discerned. Take heede therefore (my Sonne) to such Puritanes, verie pestes in the Church and Common-weale, whom no de­serts [Page 161]can oblige, neither oathes or promises binde, An cuill sort of seed-men in the State. breathing nothing but sedition and calumnies, aspiring without measure, railing without reason, and making their owne imaginations (without any warrant of the word) the square of their conscience. I protest before the great God, and since I am here as vpon my Testament, it is no place for me to lie in, that ye shall neuer finde with any Hie-land or Border-theeues greater ingratitude, and moe lies and vile periuries, then with these phanaticke spirits: And suffer not the principals of them to brooke your land, if ye like to sit at rest; ex­cept yee would keepe them for trying your patience, Xantippe. as Socrates did an e­uill wife.

And for preseruatiue against their poison, Preseruatiue against such poison. entertaine and aduance the godly, learned, and modest men of the ministerie, whom-of (God be prai­sed) there lacketh not a sufficient number: and by their prouision to Bisho­prickes and Benefices (annulling that vile acte of Annexation, if ye finde it not done to your hand) yee shall not onely banish their conceited paritie, whereof I haue spoken, and their other imaginarie grounds; Parity incom­patible with a Monarchie. which can neither stand with the order of the Church, nor the peace of a Common­weale and well ruled Monarchie: but ye shall also re-establish the olde in­stitution of three Estates in Parliament, which can no otherwise be done. But in this I hope (if God spare me dayes) to make you a faire entrie, al­wayes where I leaue, follow ye my steps.

And to end my aduice anent the Church estate, Generall ad­uice in be­halfe of the Church. cherish no man more then a good Pastor, hate no man more then a proude Puritane; thinking it one of your fairest styles, to be called a louing nourish-father to the Church, seeing all the Churches within your dominions planted with good Pastors, the Schooles (the seminarie of the Church) maintained, the doctrine and discipline preserued in puritie, according to Gods word, a sufficient prouision for their sustentation, a comely order in their policie, pride punished, humilitie aduanced, and they so to reuerence their supe­riours, and their flockes them, as the flourishing of your Church in pie­tie, peace, and learning, may be one of the chiefe points of your earthly glory, being euer alike ware with both the extremities; as well as yee re­presse the vaine Puritane, so not to suffer proude Papall Bishops: but as some for their qualities will deserue to bee preferred before others, so chaine them with such bondes as may preserue that estate from creeping to corruption.

The next estate now that by order commeth in purpose, according to their rankes in Parliament, is the Nobilitie, although second in ranke, Of the Nobi­litie and their formes. yet ouer farre first in greatnesse and power, either to doe good or euill, as they are inclined.

The naturall sickenesse that I haue perceiued this estate subiect to in my time, hath beene, a fectlesse arrogant conceit of their greatnes and power; drinking in with their very nourish-milke, that their honor stood in com­mitting three points of iniquitie: to thrall by oppression, the meaner sort [Page 162]that dwelleth neere them, to their seruice and following, although they holde nothing of them: to maintaine their seruants and dependers in any wrong, although they be not answerable to the lawes (for any body will maintaine his man in a right cause) and for anie displeasure, that they ap­prehend to be done vnto them by their neighbour, to take vp a plaine feide against him; and (without respect to God, King, or common-weale) to bang it out brauely, hee and all his kinne, against him and all his: yea they will thinke the King farre in their common, in-case they agree to grant an assurance to a short day, for keeping of the peace: where, by their na­turall dewtie, they are oblished to obey the lawe, and keepe the peace all the daies of their life, vpon the perill of their verie craigges.

For remeid to these euils in their estate, Remedie of such euils. Arist. 5. Polit. teach your Nobilitie to keepe your lawes as precisely as the meanest: feare not their orping or beeing discontented, as long as yee rule well; for their pretended reformation of Princes taketh neuer effect, but where euill gouernement precedeth. Ac­quaint your selfe so with all the honest men of your Barrons and Gentle­men, Zeno in Cyr. Iso. in En. Cic. ad Q. fra. and be in your giuing accesse so open and affable to euery ranke of honest persons, as may make them peart without scarring at you, to make their owne suites to you themselues, and not to employ the great Lordes their intercessours; for intercession to Saints is Papistrie: so shall ye bring to a measure their monstrous backes. And for their barbarous feides, put the lawes to due execution made by mee there-anent; beginning euer rathest at him that yee loue best, and is most oblished vnto you; to make him an example to the rest. For yee shall make all your reformations to beginne at your elbow, and so by degrees to flow to the extremities of the land. And rest not, vntill yee roote out these barbarous feides; that their ef­fects may bee as well smoared downe, as their barbarous name is vn­knowen to anie other nation: For if this Treatise were written either in French or Latine, I could not get them named vnto you but by circumlo­cution. And for your easier abolishing of them, put sharpelie to executi­on my lawes made against Gunnes and traiterous Pistolets; thinking in your heart, tearming in your speech, and vsing by your punishments, all such as weare and vse them, as brigands and cut-throates.

On the other part, eschew the other extremitie, in lightlying and con­temning your Nobilitie. Remember howe that errour brake the King my grand-fathers heart. Plat. in 1. Al. in pol. & 5. del. Arist. 2. oecom. But consider that vertue followeth oftest noble blood: the worthinesse of their antecessors craueth a reuerent regard to be had vnto them: honour them therfore that are obedient to the law among them, as Peeres and Fathers of your land: the more frequently that your Court can bee garnished with them; Zen [...] in Cyr. thinke it the more your honour; ac­quainting and employing them in all your greatest affaires; sen it is, they must be your armes and executers of your lawes: and so vse your selfe lo­uinglie to the obedient, and rigorously to the stubborne, as may make the greatest of them to thinke, that the chiefest point of their honour, stan­deth [Page 163]in striuing with the meanest of the land in humilitie towards you, and obedience to your Lawes: beating euer in their eares, that one of the prin­cipall points of seruice that ye craue of them, is, in their persons to practise, and by their power to procure due obedience to the Law, without the which, no seruice they can make, can be agreeable vnto you.

But the greatest hinderance to the execution of our Lawes in this coun­trie, are these heritable Shirefdomes and Regalities, Of Shiref­domes and Regalities. which being in the hands of the great men, do wracke the whole countrie: For which I know no present remedie, but by taking the sharper account of them in their Offices; vsing all punishment against the slouthfull, that the Law will per­mit: and euer as they vaike, for any offences committed by them, Ar. 2. pol. dispone them neuer heritably againe: preassing, with time, Laudable cu­stome of England. to draw it to the lau­dable custome of England: which ye may the easilier doe, being King of both, as I hope in God ye shall.

And as to the third and last estate, The third estate. which is our Burghes (for the small Barrones are but an inferiour part of the Nobilitie and of their estate) they are composed of two sorts of men; Merchants and Craftes-men: either of these sorts being subiect to their owne infirmities.

The Merchants thinke the whole common-weale ordeined for making them vp; and accounting it their lawfull gaine and trade, The formes of Merchants. to enrich them­selues vpon the losse of all the rest of the people, they transport from vs things necessarie; bringing backe sometimes vnnecessary things, and at o­ther times nothing at all. They buy for vs the worst wares, and sell them at the dearest prices: and albeit the victuals fall or rise of their prices, ac­cording to the aboundance or skantnesse thereof; yet the prices of their wares euer rise, but neuerfall: being as constant in that their euill custome, as if it were a setled Law for them. They are also the speciall cause of the corruption of the coyne, transporting all our owne, and bringing in for­raine, vpon what price they please to set on it: For order putting to them, put the good Lawes in execution that are already made anent these abuses; but especially doe three things: Establish honest, diligent, but few Search­ers, for many hands make slight worke; and haue an honest and diligent Thesaurer to take count of them: Pl. 2. de Rep. 8. & 11. de leg. Permit and allure forraine Merchants to trade here: so shall ye haue best and best cheape wares, not buying them at the third hand: And set euery yeere downe a certaine price of all things; considering first, how it is in other countries: and the price being set rea­sonably downe, if the Merchants will not bring them home on the price, cry forrainers free to bring them.

And because I haue made mention here of the coyne, A duice anent the coyne. make your money of fine Gold and Siluer; causing the people be payed with substance, and not abused with number: so shall ye enrich the common-weale, and haue a great treasure laid vp in store, if ye fall in warres or in any straites: For the making it baser, will breed your commoditie; but it is not to bee vsed, but at a great necessitie.

[Page 164]And the Craftes-men thinke, Of craftsmen. Plat. 11. de leg. we should be content with their worke, how bad and deare soeuer it be: and if they in any thing be controlled, vp goeth the blew-blanket: A good poli­cie of En­gland. But for their part, take example by ENGLAND, how it hath flourished both in wealth and policie, since the strangers Craftes-men came in among them: Plat. 9. de leg. Therefore not onely permit, but allure strangers to come heere also; taking as strait order for repressing the mu­tining of ours at them, as was done in ENGLAND, at their first in-brin­ging there.

But vnto one fault is all the common people of this Kingdome sub­iect, A generall fault in the people. as well burgh as land; which is, to iudge and speake rashly of their Prince, Sal. in Iug. setting the Common-weale vpon foure props, as wee call it; euer wearying of the present estate, and desirous of nouelties. For remedie whereof (besides the execution of Lawes that are to be vsed against vnre­uerent speakers) I know no better meane, then so to rule, as may iustly stop their mouthes from all such idle and vnreuerent speeches; and so to prop the weale of your people, with prouident care for their good go­uernment, that iustly, Momus himselfe may haue no ground to grudge at: and yet so to temper and mixe your seueritie with mildnes, that as the vn­iust railers may be restrained with a reuerentawe; so the good and louing Subiects, may not onely liue in suretie and wealth, but be stirred vp and inuited by your benigne courtesies, to open their mouthes in the iust praise of your so well moderated regiment. Arist. 5. pol. Isoc. in paneg. In respect whereof, and therewith also the more to allure them to a common amitie among them­selues, certaine dayes in the yeere would be appointed, for delighting the people with publicke spectacles of all honest games, and exercise of armes: as also for conueening of neighbours, for entertaining friendship and heartlinesse, by honest feasting and merrinesse: For I cannot see what greater superstition can be in making playes and lawfull games in Maie, and good cheere at Christmas, then in eating fish in Lent, and vpon Fri­dayes, the Papists as well vsing the one as the other: so that alwayes the Sabboths be kept holy, and no vnlawfull pastime be vsed: And as this forme of contenting the peoples mindes, hath beene vsed in all well go­uerned Republicks so will it make you to performe in your gouernment that olde good sentence, ‘Omne tulit punctum, Hor. de art. poet. qui miscuit vtile dulci.’

Ye see now (my Sonne) how for the zeale I beare to acquaint you with the plaine and single veritie of all things, I haue not spared to be something Satyricke, in touching well quickly the faults in all the estates of my king­dome: But I protest before God, I doe it with the fatherly loue that I owe to them all; onely hating their vices, whereof there is a good number of honest men free in euery estate.

And because, for the better reformation of all these abuses among your estates, it will be a great helpe vnto you, to be well acquainted with the nature and humours of all your Subiects, and to know particularly the [Page 165]estate of euery part of your dominions; I would therefore counsell you, Plat. in pol. & Min. Tacit. 7. an. Mart. once in the yeere to visite the principall parts of the countrey, ye shal be in for the time: and because I hope ye shall be King of moe countries then this; once in the three yeeres to visite all your Kingdomes; not lipening to Vice-royes, but hearing your selfe their complaints; and hauing ordinarie Councels and iustice-seates in euerie Kingdome, of their owne countrie­men: and the principall matters euer to be decided by your selfe when ye come in those parts.

Ye haue also to consider, Protection from forraine miuries. Xeno. 8. Cyr. Arist. 5 pol. Polib. 6. Dion. Hal. de Romul. that yee must not onely bee carefull to keepe your subiects, from receiuing anie wrong of others within; but also yee must be careful to keepe them from the wrong of any forraine Prince with­out: sen the sword is giuen you by God not onely to reuenge vpon your owne subiects, the wrongs committed amongst themselues; but further, to reuenge and free them of forraine iniuries done vnto them: And therefore warres vpon iust quarrels are lawful: but about all, let not the wrong cause be on your side.

Vse all other Princes, as your brethren, honestly and kindely: What formes to be vsed with other Princes. Isoc. in Plat. & Parag. Keepe precisely your promise vnto them, although to your hurt. Striue with eu [...]r [...]e one of them in courtesie and thankefulnesse: and as with all men, so especially with them, bee plaine and trewthfull; keeping euer that Chri­stian rule, to doe as yee would be done to: especially in counting rebellion a­gainst any other Prince, a crime against your owne selfe, because of the preparatiue. Supplie not therefore, nor trust not other Princes rebels; but pittie and succour all lawfull Princes in their troubles. Arist. ad A. Verr. 11. de V. p. R. Cu. 2. Of. Liu. lib. 4. But if any of them will not abstaine, notwithstanding what-soeuer your good deserts, to wrong you or your subiects, craue redresse at leasure; heare and doe all reason: and if no offer that is lawfull or honourable, can make him to ab­staine, nor repaire his wrong doing; then for last refuge, Liu. lib. 1. Cic. cod. commit the iust­nesse of your cause to God, giuing first honestly vp with him, and in a pub­licke and honourable forme.

But omitting now to teach you the forme of making warres, Of warre. because that arte is largely treated of by many, Prop. 4. Eleg. Lucan. 7. Varro 11. de V. P. R. and is better learned by practise then speculation; I will onely set downe to you heere a few precepts therein. Let first the iustnesse of your cause be your greatest strength; and then omitte not to vse all lawfull meanes for backing of the same. Consult therefore with no Necromancier nor false Prophet, vpon the successe of your warres, remembring on king Saules miserable end: 1. Sam. 31. but keepe your land cleane of all South-sayers, Deut. 18. according to the commaund in the Law of God, dilated by Ieremie. Neither commit your quarrell to bee tried by a Duell: for beside that generally all Duell appeareth to bee vnlawful, committing the quarrell, as it were, to a lot; whereof there is no warrant in the Scripture, since the abrogating of the olde Lawe: it is specially moste vn-lawfull in the person of a King; Plutat. in Sect. & Ant. who being a publicke person hath no power therefore to dispose of himselfe, in respect, that to his pre­seruation [Page 166]or fall, the safetie or wracke of the whole common-weale is ne­cessarily coupled, as the body is to the head.

Before ye take on warre, Luke 14. play the wise Kings part described by Christ; fore-seeing how ye may beare it out with all necessarie prouision: especi­ally remember, Thuc. 2. Sal in lug. Cic. prol. Man. Demost. olyn. 2. Liu. li. 30. Veger 1. Caes. 1. & 3. de [...], ciuil [...]. Proh. in Thras. that money is Neruus belli. Choose old experimented Cap­taines, and yong able souldiers. Be extreamely strait and seuere in martiall Discipline, as well for keeping of order, which is as requisite as hardinesse in the warres, and punishing of slouth, which at a time may put the whole armie in hazard; as likewise for repressing of mutinies, which in warres are wonderfull dangerous. And looke to the Spaniard, whose great successe in all his warres, hath onely come through straitnesse of Discipline and or­der: for such errours may be committed in the warres, as cannot be gotten mended againe.

Be in your owne person walkrife, Caes. 1. de bello ciu. Liu. l. 7. Xen. 1. & 5. C [...]r. & de dis­cip. mi. Xen. in Ages. diligent and painefull; vsing the ad­uice of such as are skilfullest in the craft, as ye must also doe in all other. Be homely with your souldiers as your companions, for winning their hearts; and extreamly liberall, for then is no time of sparing. Be cold and foresee­ing in deuising, constant in your resolutions, and forward and quicke in your executions. Pol. l 5. Fortifie well your Campe, and assaile not rashly without an aduantage: X [...]n. 1. Cyr. Thuc. 5. neither feare not lightly your enemie. Be curious in deui­sing stratagems, but alwayes honestly: for of any thing they worke grea­test effects in the warres, Isoc. ad Phil. Pla. 9. de leg. Liu. l. 22. & 31. Tac. 2. his. Plut. de fort. if secrecie be ioyned to inuention. And once or twise in your owne person hazard your selfe fairely; but, hauing acquired so the fame of courage and magnanimitie, make not a daily souldier of your selfe, exposing rashly your person to euery perill: but conserue your selfe thereafter for the weale of your people, for whose sake yee must more care for your selfe, then for your owne.

And as I haue counselled you to be slow in taking on a warre, Of Peace. so aduise I you to be slow in peace-making. Isocr in Arch. Before ye agree, looke that the ground of your warres be satisfied in your peace; Polib. 3. Cit. 1. Of. & 7. Phil. Tat. 4. his. and that ye see a good suretie for you and your people: otherwaies a honourable and iust warre is more tol­lerable, then a dishonourable and dis-aduantageous peace.

But it is not enough to a good King, by the scepter of good Lawes well execute to gouerne, and by force of armes to protect his people; if he ioyne not therewith his vertuous life in his owne person, and in the person of his Court and company; by good example alluring his Subiects to the loue of vertue, A Kings life must be ex­emplare. Plan pol. & 4. de leg. and hatred of vice. And therefore (my Sonne) sith all people are naturally inclined to follow their Princes example (as I shewed you before) let it not be said, that ye command others to keepe the contrary course to that, which in your owne person ye practise, making so your wordes and deedes to fight together: but by the contrary, let your owne life be a law­booke and a mirrour to your people; that therein they may read the pra­ctise of their owne Lawes; and therein they may see, by your image, what life they should leade.

[Page 167]And this example in your owne life and person, I likewise diuide in two parts: The first, in the gouernment of your Court and followers, in all godlinesse and vertue: the next, in hauing your owne minde decked and enriched so with all vertuous qualities, that therewith yee may wor­thily rule your people: Plat. in Thee. & Euth. For it is not ynough that ye haue and retaine (as prisoners) within your selfe neuer so many good qualities and vertues, ex­cept ye employ them, and set them on worke, Arist. 1. Eth. Cic. in Offic. for the weale of them that are committed to your charge: Virtutis enim laus omnis in actione consistit.

First then, as to the gouernment of your Court and followers, Of the Court. Psal. 101. King Dauid sets downe the best precepts, that any wise and Christian King can practise in that point: For as yee ought to haue a great care for the ruling well of all your Subiects, so ought yee to haue a double care for the ruling well of your owne seruants; since vnto them yee are both a Politicke and Oeconomicke gouernour. Cic. ad Q frat. And as euery one of the people will delite to follow the example of any of the Courteours, as well in euill as in good: so what crime so horrible can there be committed and ouer-seene in a Cour­teour, that will not be an exemplare excuse for any other boldly to com­mit the like? And therfore in two points haue ye to take good heed anent your Court and houshold: first, in choosing them wisely; next, in careful­ly ruling them whom ye haue chosen.

It is an olde and trew saying, That a kindly Auer will neuer become a good horse: Plat. 5. de Leg. for albeit good education and company be great helpes to Nature, and education be therefore most iustly called altera natura, Arist. 2. oecon. yet is it euill to get out of the flesh, that is bred in the bone, as the olde prouerbe sayth. Be very ware then in making choice of your seruants and companie;

— Nam
Turpius eiicitur, quàm non admittitur hospes:
Ouid. 5. de Trist.

and many respects may lawfully let an admission, that will not be sufficient causes of depriuation.

All your seruants and Court must be composed partly of minors, Of the choise of scruants. such as young Lords, to be brought vp in your company, or Pages and such like; and partly of men of perfit aage, for seruing you in such roumes, as ought to be filled with men of wisedome and discretion. For the first sort, ye can doe no more, but choose them within aage, Arist 1. & 5. p [...]lit. that are come of a good and vertuous kinde, In fide parentum, as Baptisme is vsed: For though anima non venit ex traduce, but is immediatly created by God, Cic. ad Q frat. and infu­sed from aboue; yet it is most certaine, that vertue or vice will oftentimes, with the heritage, be transferred from the parents to the posteritie, Witnesse the experience of the late house of Gowree. Plat. 6. de Leg. Arist 2. oecon. & 1. pol. and runne on a blood (as the Prouerbe is) the sickenesse of the minde becom­ming as kindly to some races, as these sickenesses of the body, that infect in the seede: Especially choose such minors as are come of a trew and ho­nest race, and haue not had the house whereof they are descended, infected with falshood.

And as for the other sort of your companie and seruants, that ought [Page 168]to be of perfit aage; Plat. 6. de leg. Isocr. in pan. Arist 5. pol. first see that they be of a good fame and without ble­mish, otherwise, what can the people thinke, but that yee haue chosen a company vnto you, according to your owne humour, and so haue prefer­red these men, for the loue of their vices and crimes, that ye knew them to beguiltie of? Dem. 2. ph. For the people that see you not within, cannot iudge of you, but according to the outward appearance of your actions and companie, which onely is subiect to their sight: Plat. 7. de Rep. 3. et 12. de Leg. Arist. 5. et 6. pobit. And next, see that they be indued with such honest qualities, as are meete for such offices, as ye ordaine them to serue in; that your iudgement may be knowen in imploying euery man according to his giftes: Psal. 101. And shortly, follow good king Dauids counsell in the choise of your seruants, by setting your eyes vpon the faithfull and vp­right of the land to dwell with you.

But here I must not forget to remember, A transmissi­on of heredi­tarie kindnes. and according to my fatherly authoritie, to charge you to preferre specially to your seruice, so many as haue trewly serued me, and are able for it: the rest, honourably to reward them, preferring their posteritie before others, as kindliest: so shall ye not onely be best serued, (for if the haters of your parents cannot loue you, as I shewed before, it followeth of necessitie their louers must loue you) but further, ye shall kyth your thankefull memorie of your father, and procure the blessing of these olde seruants, in not missing their olde master in you; which otherwise would be turned in a prayer for me, and a curse for you. Vse them therefore when God shall call me, as the testimonies of your affe­ction towards me; trusting and aduancing those farthest, whom I found faithfullest: which ye must not discerne by their rewards at my hand (for rewards, as they are called Bona fortunae, so are they subiect vnto fortune) but according to the trust I gaue them; hauing oft-times had better heart then hap to the rewarding of sundry: And on the other part, as I wish you to kyth your constant loue towards them that I loued, so desire I you to kyth in the same measure, your constant hatred to them that I hated: I meane, bring not home, nor restore not such, as ye finde standing bani­shed or fore-faulted by me. The contrary would kyth in you ouer great a contempt of me, and lightnesse in your owne nature: for how can they be trew to the Sonne, that were false to the Father?

But to returne to the purpose anent the choise of your seruants, yee shall by this wise forme of doing, eschew the inconuenients, that in my mi­noritie I fell in, anent the choise of my seruants: For by them that had the command where I was brought vp, were my seruants put vnto mee; not choosing them that were meetest to serue me, but whom they thought meetest to serue their turne about me, A domesticke and neere ex­ample. as kythed well in many of them at the first rebellion raised against mee, which compelled mee to make a great alteration among my seruants. And yet the example of that corrup­tion made mee to be long troubled there-after with solliciters, recom­mending seruants vnto me, more for seruing in effect, their friends that put them in, then their master that admitted them. Let my example then [Page 169]teach you to follow the rules here set downe, Arist. 2. pol. choosing your seruants for your owne vse, and not for the vse of others: And since ye must bee com­munis parens to all your people, so choose your seruants indifferently out of all quarters; not respecting other mens appetites, but their owne qualities: For as ye must command all, so reason would, ye should be serued out of al, as ye please to make choice.

But specially take good heed to the choice of your seruants, Of the offi­cers of the Crowne Plat. de repub. Cic. ad Q. frat Isoc. in Panath. ad Nic. & de pace. Thuc 6. Piutar. in pol. that ye pre­ferre to the offices of the Crowne and estate: for in other offices yee haue onely to take heede to your owne weale; but these concerne likewise the weale of your people, for the which yee must bee answerable to God. Choose then for all these Offices, men of knowen wisedome, honestie, and good conscience; well practised in the points of the craft, that yee ordaine them for, and free of all factions and partialities; but specially free of that filthie vice of Flatterie, the pest of all Princes, and wracke of Republicks: Plat. in Phedr. & Menex. Arist. 5 pol. Isoc. in Sym. Tacit. 3. hist. Curt. 8. For since in the first part of this Treatise, I fore-warned you to be at warre with your owne inward flatterer [...], how much more should ye be at war with outward flatterers, who are nothing so sib to you, as your selfe is; by the selling of such counterfeit wares, onely preassing to ground their great­nesse vpon your ruines? And therefore bee carefull to preferre none, as yee will bee answerable to God but onely for their worthinesse: Of publicke receiuers. But spe­cially choose honest, diligent, meane, but responsall men, to bee your re­ceiuers in money matters: meane I say, that ye may when yee please, take a sharpe account of their intromission, without perill of their breeding any trouble to your estate: for this ouersight hath beene the greatest cause of my mis-thriuing in money matters. Especially, put neuer a forrainer, A speciall principle in policie. Arist. 5. pol. Cic. ad Q. frat. in any principall office of estate: for that will neuer faile to stirre vp sedition and enuie in the countrey-mens hearts, both against you and him: But (as I saide before) if God prouide you with moe countries then this; choose the borne-men of euery countrey, to bee your chiefe counsellers therein.

And for conclusion of my aduice anent the choice of your seruants, Plat. in 1. Al. in pol. & 5. de legib. Arist. 2. oecon. de­light to be serued with men of the noblest blood that may bee had: for be­sides that their seruice shall breed you great good-will and least enuie, con­trarie to that of start-vps; ye shall oft finde vertue follow noble races, as I haue said before speaking of the Nobilitie.

Now, as to the other point, Gouernment of the Court. Isocr. in Arcop. anent your gouerning of your seruants when yee haue chosen them; make your Court and companie to bee a patterne of godlinesse and all honest vertues, to all the rest of the people. Idem in Pa­nath. Bee a daily watch-man ouer your seruants, that they obey your lawes pre­cisely: For how can your lawes bee kept in the countrey, if they be broken at your eare? Punishing the breach thereof in a Courteour, more seuerely, then in the person of any other of your subiects: and aboue all, suffer none of them (by abusing their credite with you) to oppresse or wrong any of your subiects. Be homely or strange with them, Arist. 2. pol. as ye thinke [Page 170]their behauiour deserueth, Tacit. 1. hist. and their nature may beare with. Thinke a quarrellous man a pest in your companie. Val. lib. 2. Curt. 4. Bee carefull euer to preferre the gentilest natured and trustiest, to the inwardest Offices about you, especi­ally in your chalmer. Suffer none about you to meddle in any mens parti­culars, Demost. 8. phil. Sal. in Cat. Lin. 22. but like the Turkes Ianisares, let them know no father but you, nor particular but yours. And if any wil meddle in their kinne or friends quar­rels, giue them their leaue: for since ye must be of no surname nor kinne, but equall to all honest men; it becommeth you not to bee followed with partiall or factious seruants. Tacit. eod. & 1. An. Teach obedience to your seruants, and not to thinke themselues ouer-wise: and, as when any of them deserueth it, ye must not spare to put them away, so, without a seene cause, change none of them. The ground­stone of good gouernment. At. 5. polit. Tacit. in Ag. Dion li. 52. Xent. in Ages. Isoc. in Sym. et ad Ph. Id. de permu­tat. Cic. ad Q. frat. Pay them, as all others your subiects, with praemium or poena as they deserue, which is the very ground-stone of good gouernement. Em­ploy euery man as ye thinke him qualified, but vse not one in all things, lest he waxe proude, and be enuied of his fellowes. Loue them best, that are plainnest with you, and disguise not the trewth for all their kinne: suf­fer none to be euill tongued, nor backbiters of them they hate: command a hartly and brotherly loue among all them that serue you. And shortly, maintaine peace in your Court, bannish enuie, cherish modestie, bannish deboshed insolence, foster humilitie, and represse pride: setting downe such a comely and honourable order in all the points of your seruice; that when strangers shall visite your Court, 1. King. 10. they may with the Queene of Sheba, admire your wisedome in the glorie of your house, and comely order a­mong your seruants.

But the principall blessing that yee can get of good companie, Of Mariage. will stand in your marrying of a godly and vertuous wife: for shee must bee nearer vnto you, Gen. 2.23. then any other companie, being Flesh of your flesh, and bone of your bone, as Adam saide of Heuah. And because I know not but God may call mee, before ye be readie for Mariage; I will shortly set downe to you heere my aduice therein.

First of all consider, that Mariage is the greatest earthly felicitie or mi­serie, that can come to a man, according as it pleaseth God to blesse or curse the same. Since then without the blessing of GOD, yee cannot looke for a happie successe in Mariage, yee must bee carefull both in your preparation for it, Preparation to mariage. and in the choice and vsage of your wife, to procure the same. By your preparation, I meane, that yee must keepe your bodie cleane and vnpolluted, till yee giue it to your wife, whom-to onely it belongeth. For how can ye iustly craue to bee ioyned with a pure vir­gine, if your bodie be polluted? why should the one halfe bee cleane, and the other defiled? And although I know, fornication is thought but a light and a veniall sinne, by the most part of the world, yet remember well what I said to you in my first Booke anent conscience, and count euery sinne and breach of Gods law, not according as the vaine world esteemeth of it, but as God the Iudge and maker of the lawe accounteth of the same [Page 171]Heare God commanding by the mouth of Paul, to abstaine from fornication, 1. Cor. 6.10. declaring that the fornicator shall not inherite the Kingdome of heauen: and by the mouth of Iohn, reckoning out fornication amongst other grieuous sinnes, that debarre the committers amongst dogs and swine, Reuel. 22.25.from entry in that spirituall and heauenly Ierusalem. And consider, if a man shall once take vpon him, to count that light, which God calleth heauie; and veniall that, which God calleth grieuous; The dange­rous effects of lust. beginning first to measure any one sinne by the rule of his lust and appetites, and not of his conscience; what shall let him to doe so with the next, that his affections shall stirre him to, the like reason seruing for all: and so to goe forward till he place his whole cor­rupted affections in Gods roome? And then what shall come of him; but, as a man giuen ouer to his owne filthy affections, shall perish into them? And because wee are all of that nature, that sibbest examples touch vs neerest, consider the difference of successe that God granted in the Ma­riages of the King my grand-father, and me your owne father: A domesticke example. the reward of his incontinencie, (proceeding from his euill education) being the sud­daine death at one time of two pleasant yong Princes; and a daughter onely borne to succeed to him, whom hee had neuer the hap, so much as once to see or blesse before his death: leauing a double curse behinde him to the land, both a Woman of sexe, and a new borne babe of aage to raigne ouer them. And as for the blessing God hath bestowed on mee, in gran­ting me both a greater continencie, and the fruits following there-upon, your selfe, and sib folkes to you, are (praise be to God) sufficient witnesses: which, I hope the same God of his infinite mercie, shall continue and in­crease, without repentance to me and my posteritie. Be not ashamed then, to keepe cleane your body, which is the Temple of the holy Spirit, 1. Cor. 6.19. not­withstanding all vaine allurements to the contrary, discerning trewly and wisely of euery vertue and vice, according to the trew qualities therof, and not according to the vaine conceits of men.

As for your choise in Mariage, respect chiefly the three causes, where­fore Mariage was first ordeined by God; and then ioyne three accessories, so farre as they may be obtained, not derogating to the principalles.

The three causes it was ordeined for, are, for staying of lust, Mariage or­dained for three causes. Arist. 7. pol. for procre­ation of children, and that man should by his Wife, get a helper like him­selfe. Deferre not then to Marie till your aage: for it is ordeined for quench­ing the lust of your youth: Especially a King must tymouslie Marie for the weale of his people. Neither Marie yee, Id. cod. for any accessory cause or worldly respects, a woman vnable, either through aage, nature, or accident, for procreation of children: for in a King that were a double fault, aswell against his owne weale, as against the weale of his people. Neither also Marie one of knowne euill conditions, or vicious education: for the wo­man is ordeined to be a helper, and not a hinderer to man. Accessory causes of ma­riage. AEg. Ro. 2. de reg. pr.

The three accessories, which as I haue said, ought also to be respected, without derogating to the principall causes, are beautie, riches, and friend­ship [Page 172]by alliance, which are all blessings of God. For beautie increaseth your loue to your Wife, contenting you the better with her, without caring for others: and riches and great alliance, doe both make her the abler to be a helper vnto you. But if ouer great respect being had to these accessories, the principall causes bee ouer-seene (which is ouer oft practised in the world) as of themselues they are a blessing being well vsed; so the abuse of them will turne them in a curse. For what can all these worldly respects auaile, when a man shall finde himselfe coupled with a diuel, to be one flesh with him, and the halfe marrow in his bed? Then (though too late) shall he finde that beautie without bountie, wealth without wisdome, and great friendship without grace and honestie; are but faire shewes, and the de­ceitfull masques of infinite miseries.

But haue ye respect, my Sonne, to these three speciall causes in your Ma­riage, Matth. 13. A special cau­tion in ma­riage. which flow from the first institution thereof, & caetera omnia adijcien­tur vobis. And therefore I would rathest haue you to Marie one that were fully of your owne Religion; her ranke and other qualities being agree­able to your estate. For although that to my great regrate, the number of any Princes of power and account, professing our Religion, bee but very small; and that therefore this aduice seemes to be the more strait and diffi­cile: yet ye haue deeply to weigh, and consider vpon these doubts, how ye and your wife can bee of one flesh, and keepe vnitie betwixt you, being members of two opposite Churches: disagreement in Religion bringeth euer with it, disagreement in maners; and the dissention betwixt your Preachers and hers, wil breed and foster a dissention among your subiects, taking their example from your family; besides the perill of the euill edu­cation of your children. Neither pride you that ye wil be able to frame and make her as ye please: that deceiued Salomon the wisest King that euer was; the grace of Perseuerance, not being a flowre that groweth in our garden.

Remember also that Mariage is one of the greatest actions that a man doeth in all his time, especially in taking of his first Wife: and if hee Marie first basely beneath his ranke, he will euer be the lesse accounted of there­after. For keeping the blood pure. Pla. 5. de Rep. Cic. 2. de Din. Arist. de gen. An. Lucr. 4. And lastly, remember to choose your Wife as I aduised you to choose your seruants: that she be of a whole and cleane race, not subiect to the he­reditary sicknesses, either of the soule or the body: For if a man wil be care­ful to breed horses and dogs of good kinds, how much more careful should he be, for the breed of his owne loines? So shal ye in your Mariage haue re­spect to your conscience, honour, and naturall weale in your successours.

When yee are Maried, keepe inuiolably your promise made to God in your Mariage; which standeth all in doing of one thing, and abstayning from another: to treat her in all things as your wife, and the halfe of your selfe; and to make your body (which then is no more yours, but properly hers) common with none other. Pl. 11. de leg. Is. in Sym. I trust I need not to insist here to dis­swade you from the filthy vice of adulterie: remember onely what so­lemne promise yee make to God at your Mariage: and since it is onely by [Page 173]the force of that promise that your children succeed to you, which other­wayes they could not doe; aequitie and reason would, ye should keepe your part thereof. God is euer a seuere auenger of all periuries; Cic. 2. de leg. and it is no oath made in iest, that giueth power to children to succeed to great kingdomes. Haue the King my grand-fathers example before your eyes, who by his adulterie, bred the wracke of his lawfull daughter and heire; in begetting that bastard, who vnnaturally rebelled, and procured the ruine of his owne Souerane and sister. And what good her posteritie hath gotten sensyne, of some of that vnlawfull generation, Bothuell his treacherous attempts can beare witnesse. Keepe praecisely then your promise made at Mariage, as ye would wish to be partaker of the blessing therein.

And for your behauiour to your Wife, the Scripture can best giue you counsell therein: Treat her as your owne flesh, command her as her Lord, cherish her as your helper, rule her as your pupill, and please her in all things reasonable; Arist. 8. Aeth. & 1 Pel. Xen. & Arist. in oeco. but teach her not to be curious in things that belong her not: Ye are the head, shee is your body; It is your office to command, and hers to obey; but yet with such a sweet harmonie, as shee should be as ready to obey, as ye to command; as willing to follow, as ye to go before; your loue being wholly knit vnto her, and all her affections louingly bent to follow your will.

And to conclude, keepe specially three rules with your Wife: first, Arist. 1 rhet. Plu. in Meron. Aegid R. de reg pr. Plu. 5. de Re [...] & 7. de leg. suffer her neuer to meddle with the Politicke gouernment of the Common­weale, but holde her at the Oeconomicke rule of the house; and yet all to be subiect to your direction: keepe carefully good and chaste company a­bout her, for women are the frailest sexe; and be neuer both angry at once, but when ye see her in passion, ye should with reason danton yours: for both when yee are setled, ye are meetest to iudge of her errours; and when she is come to her selfe, she may be best made to apprehend her of­fence, and reuerence your rebuke.

If God send you succession, be carefull for their vertuous education: A Kings be­hauiour to­wards his children. Plu. in Thes. 4. & 5 de Rep. & 6. & 7. de l. Arist. 7. pol. A caution foreshewing future diui­sion. loue them as ye ought, but let them know as much of it, as the gentlenesse of their nature will deserue; contayning them euer in a reuerent loue and feare of you. And in case it please God to prouide you to all these three Kingdomes, make your eldest sonne Isaac, leauing him all your king­domes; and prouide the rest with priuate possessions: Otherwayes by deuiding your kingdomes, yee shall leaue the seed of diuision and discord among your posteritie; as befell to this Ile, by the diuision and assigne­ment thereof, to the three sonnes of Brutus, Locrine, Albanact, and Camber. Polid. 1. Crownes come not in commerce. But if God giue you not succession, defraud neuer the nearest by right, what-soeuer conceit yee haue of the person: For Kingdomes are euer at Gods disposition, and in that case we are but liue-rentars, lying no more in the Kings, nor peoples hands to dispossesse the righteous heire.

And as your company should be a paterne to the rest of the people, Plu. in Pol. Cic. ad Q. frat. so should your person be a lampe and mirrour to your company giuing light [Page 174]to your seruants to walke in the path of vertue, and representing vnto them such worthie qualities, as they should preasse to imitate.

I need not to trouble you with the particular discourse of the foure Cardinall vertues, The right vse of tempe­rance. Arist. 5. pol. Pol. 6. Cic. 1. off. 2. de inuen. & in Par. it is so troden a path: but I will shortly say vnto you; make one of them, which is Temperance, Queene of all the rest within you. I meane not by the vulgar interpretation of Temperance, which one­ly consists in gustu & tactu, by the moderating of these two senses: but, I meane of that wise moderation, that first commaunding your selfe, shall as a Queene, command all the affections and passions of your minde, and as a Phisician, wisely mixe all your actions according thereto. Therefore, not onely in all your affections and passions, In holinesse. but euen in your most vertu­ous actions, make euer moderation to be the chiefe ruler: For although holinesse be the first and most requisite qualitie of a Christian, as procee­ding from a feeling feare and trew knowledge of God: yet yee remember how in the conclusion of my first booke, I aduised you to moderateal your outward actions flowing there-fra. The like say I now of Iustice, which is the greatest vertue that properly belongeth to a Kings office.

Vse Iustice, In iustice. Pla. 4 de Leg. Arist. 1. mag. mor. Cic. 1. off. pro Rab. & ad Q. frat. Seneca de cl. but with such moderation, as it turne not in Tyrannie: o­therwaies summum Ius, is summa iniuria. As for example: if a man of a knowen honest life, be inuaded by brigands or theeues for his purse, and in his owne defence slay one of them, they beeing both moe in number, and also knowen to bee deboshed and insolent liuers; where by the con­trarie, hee was single alone, beeing a man of sound reputation: yet because they were not at the horne, or there was no eye-witnesse present that could verifie their first inuading of him, shall hee therefore lose his head? And likewise, by the law-burrowes in our lawes, men are prohibited vnder great pecuniall paines, from any wayes inuading or molesting their neigh­bours person or bounds: if then his horse breake the halter, and pastour in his neighbours medow, shall he pay two or three thousand pounds for the wantonnesse of his horse, Arist. 5. aeth. & 1 rhet. Cicer. pro Caec. or the weaknesse of his halter? Surely no: for lawes are ordained as rules of vertuous and sociall liuing, and not to bee snares to trap your good subiects: and therefore the lawe must be interpre­ted according to the meaning, and not to the literall sense thereof: Nam ra­tio est anima legis.

And as I said of Iustice, so say I of Clemencie, Magnanimitie, Liberali­tie, Constancie, Humilitie, and all other Princely vertues; Nam in medio stat virtus. The false sem­blance of ex­tremities. And it is but the craft of the Diuell that falsly coloureth the two vices that are on either side thereof, with the borrowed titles of it, albeit in very deede they haue no affinitie therewith and the two ex­tremities themselues, although they seeme contrarie, yet growing to the height, Their co­incidence. runne euer both in one: For in infinitis omnia concurrunt; and what difference is betwixt extreame tyrannie, delighting to destroy all mankinde; and extreame slackenesse of punishment, permitting euery man to tyrannize ouer his companion? Or what differeth extreame [Page 175]prodigalitie, by wasting of all to possesse nothing; from extreame nig­gardnesse, by hoarding vp all to enioy nothing; like the Asse that carying victuall on her backe, is like to starue for hunger, and will bee glad of thrissels for her part? And what is betwixt the pride of a glorious Nebu­chadnezzar, and the preposterous humilitie of one of the proud Puritanes, claiming to their Paritie, and crying, Wee are all but vile wormes, and yet will iudge and giue Law to their King, but will be iudged nor control­led by none? Surely there is more pride vnder such a ones blacke bonnet, then vnder Alexander the great his Diademe, as was said of Diogenes in the like case.

But aboue all vertues, study to know well your owne craft, The right ex­tention of a kings craft. which is to rule your people. And when I say this, I bid you know all crafts: For except ye know euery one, how can yee controll euery one, Plat. in pol. 5. de Rep. & E­pist. 7. Cic. ad Q. frat. & de or. which is your proper office? Therefore besides your education, it is necessarie yee delight in reading, and seeking the knowledge of all lawfull things; but with these two restrictions: first, that yee choose idle houres for it, not interrupting therewith the discharge of your office: and next, that yee studie not for knowledge nakedly, but that your principall ende be, Id. 1. de fin. to make you able thereby to vse your office; practising according to your knowledge in all the points of your calling: Id. 1. Offic. not like these vaine Astrolo­gians, that studie night and day on the course of the starres, onely that they may, for satisfying their curiositie, know their course. But since all Artes and sciences are linked euery one with other, their greatest prin­ciples agreeing in one (which mooued the Poets to faine the nine Muses to be all sisters) studie them, that out of their harmonie, ye may sucke the knowledge of all faculties; and consequently be on the counsell of all crafts, that yee may be able to containe them all in order, as I haue alreadie said: For knowledge and learning is a light burthen, the weight whereof will neuer presse your shoulders.

First of all then, study to be well seene in the Scriptures, The Scrip­ture. Deut. 17. as I remem­bred you in the first booke; as well for the knowledge of your owne sal­uation, as that ye may be able to containe your Church in their calling, as Custos vtriusque Tabulae. For the ruling them well, is no small point of your office; taking specially heede, that they vague not from their text in the Pulpit: and if euer ye would haue peace in your land, suffer them not to meddle in that place with the estate or policie; but punish seuerely the first that presumeth to it. Doe nothing towards them without a good ground and warrant, but reason not much with them: for I haue ouer­much surfeited them with that, and it is not their fashion to yeeld. And suf­fer no conuentions nor meetings among Church-men, but by your know­ledge and permission.

Next the Scriptures, studie well your owne Lawes: Of the Lawes municipall. for how can ye dis­cerne by the thing yee know not? But preasse to draw all your Lawes and processes, to be as short and plaine as ye can: assure your selfe the long­somnesse [Page 176]both of rights and processes, Plat. 4. de Rep. & 6. de Leg. Arist 1. rhet. breedeth their vnsure loosenesse and obscuritie, the shortest being euer both the surest and plainest forme, and the longsomnesse seruing onely for the enriching of the Aduocates and Clerkes, Cic 1. de Orat. Sen in Lud Resort to the Session. with the spoile of the whole countrey: And therefore delite to haunt your Session, and spie carefully their proceedings; taking good heede, if any briberie may be tried among them, which cannot ouer se­uerely be punished. Spare not to goe there, for gracing that farre any that yee fauour, by your presence to procure them expedition of Iustice; al­though that should be specially done, for the poore that cannot waite on, or are debarred by mightier parties. Plat. in pol. Arist. 1. Rhet. Cic. ad Q. frat. Plut. in Is. But when yee are there, remember the throne is Gods and not yours, that ye sit in, and let no fauour, nor whatsoeuer respects mooue you from the right. Ye sit not there, as I shewe before, for rewarding of friends or seruants, nor for crossing of contem­ners, but onely for doing of Iustice. Learne also wisely to discerne betwixt Iustice and equitie; and for pitie of the poore, rob not the rich, because he may better spare it, but giue the little man the larger coat if it be his; es­chewing the errour of young Cyrus therein: Xen. 1. Cyr. For Iustice, by the Law, gi­ueth euery man his owne; and equitie in things arbitrall, giueth euery one that which is meetest for him.

Be an ordinarie sitter in your secret Counsell: But specially to the secret Counsell. that iudicature is onely ordained for matters of estate, and repressing of insolent oppressions. Make that iudgement as compendious and plaine as ye can; and suffer no Aduocates to be heard there with their dilatours, Cic. ad Q frat. Tac. 1. hist. Plut. in Demet. but let euery partie tell his owne tale himselfe: and wearie not to heare the complaints of the op­pressed, aut ne Rex sis. Remit euery thing to the ordinary iudicature, for eschewing of confusion: but let it be your owne craft, to take a sharpe ac­count of euery man in his office.

And next the Lawes, Reading of histories. I would haue you to be well versed in authentick histories, and in the Chronicles of all nations, but specially in our owne histories (Ne sis peregrinus domi) the example whereof most neerely con­cernes you: I meane not of such infamous inuectiues, as Buchanans or Knoxes Chronicles: and if any of these infamous libels remaine vntill your dayes, vse the Law vpon the keepers thereof: For in that point I would haue you a Pythagorist, Plat. in Menon. to thinke that the very spirits of these archibel­louses of rebellion, haue made transition in them that hoardes their bookes, Arist. 1 Rhet. Polit. 1. Plut. in Timo. Cic. 2. de Or. or maintaines their opinions; punishing them, euen as it were their authours risen againe. But by reading of authenticke histories and Chronicles, yee shall learne experience by Theoricke, applying the by­past things to the present estate, Eccles. 1. quia nihil nouum sub sole: such is the conti­nuall volubilitie of things earthly, according to the roundnesse of the world, and reuolution of the heauenly circles: which is expressed by the wheeles in Ezechiels visions, Ezech. 1. and counterfeited by the Poets in rota Fortunae. And likewise by the knowledge of histories, yee shall knowe how to behaue your selfe to all Embassadours and strangers; being able [Page 177]to discourse with them vpon the estate of their owne countrey. And a­mong al prophane histories, I must not omit most specially to recommend vnto you, the Commentaries of Caesar; both for the sweete flowing of the stile, as also for the worthinesse of the matter it selfe: For I haue euer beene of that opinion, that of all the Ethnick Emperors, or great Captaines that euer were, he hath farthest excelled, both in his practise, and in his pre­cepts in martiall affaires.

As for the studie of other liberall artes and sciences, Of the arts liberall. Sen. ep. 84. I would haue you reasonably versed in them, but not preassing to bee a passe-master in any of them: for that cannot but distract you from the points of your calling, as I shewed you before: and when, by the enemie winning the towne, yee shall bee interrupted in your demonstration, as Archimedes was; Liu. I 24. Plut. in Mart. your peo­ple (I thinke) will looke very bluntly vpon it. I graunt it is meete yee haue some entrance, specially in the Mathematickes; Of Mathema­tickes. Pl. 7. de leg. Arist. 2. Meta. Iam. 2.17. for the knowledge of the arte militarie, in situation of Campes, ordering of battels, making Forti­fications, placing of batteries, or such like. And let not this your know­ledge be dead without fruites, as Saint Iames speaketh of Faith: but let it ap­peare in your daily conuersation, and in all the actions of your life.

Embrace trew magnanimitie, not in beeing vindictiue, Of magna­nimitie. Arist. 4. eth. Sen. de cl. which the cor­rupted iudgements of the world thinke to be trew Magnanimitie; but by the contrarie, in thinking your offendour not worthie of your wrath, Cic. 1. off. Virg. 6. Aen. empyring ouer your owne passion, and triumphing in the commaunding your selfe to forgiue: husbanding the effects of your courage and wrath, to be rightly employed vpon repelling of iniuries within, by reuenge ta­king vpon the oppressours; and in reuenging iniuries without, by iust warres vpon forraine enemies. And so, where ye finde a notable iniurie, spare not to giue course to the torrents of your wrath. The wrath of a King, Prou. 20.is like to the roaring of a Lyon.

Foster trew Humilitie, in bannishing pride, Of humilitie. not onely towards God (considering yee differ not in stuffe, but in vse, and that onely by his ordi­nance, from the basest of your people) but also towards your Parents. Plat. 4. de Leg. Xen. 2. de dict. & fact. Soc. And if it fall out that my Wife shall out-liue me, as euer ye thinke to purchase my blessing, honour your mother: set Beersheba in a throne on your right hand: offend her for nothing, much lesse wrong her: remember her ‘Quae longa decem tulerit fastidia menses;’ and that your flesh and blood is made of hers: and beginne not, like the young lordes and lairdes, your first warres vpon your Mother; but preasse earnestly to deserue her blessing. Neither deceiue your selfe with many that say, they care not for their Parents curse, so they deserue it not. O inuert not the order of nature, by iudging your superiours, chiefly in your owne particular! But assure your selfe, the blessing or curse of the Parents, hath almost euer a Propheticke power ioyned with it: and if there were no more, honour your Parents, Exod. 20. for the lengthning of your owne [Page 178]dayes, Exod. 20. Xen. 1. & 3. Cyr. as GOD in his Law promiseth. Honour also them that are in loco Parentum vnto you, such as your gouernours, vp-bringers, and Praecep­tours: be thankefull vnto them and reward them, which is your dewtie and honour.

But on the other part, let not this trew humilitie stay your high indig­nation to appeare, Cic. ad Q frat. when any great oppressours shall praesume to come in your presence; then frowne as ye ought: And in-case they vse a colour of Law in oppressing their poore ones, as ouer-many doe; that which ye can­not mend by Law, Arist. 5 pol. mend by the withdrawing of your countenance from them: and once in the yeere crosse them, when their erands come in your way, Matth. 18. recompencing the oppressour, according to Christs parable of the two debtours.

Keepe trew Constancie, Of Constan­cie. Arist. 4. aeth. Thuc. 3.6. Cic. 1. Of. & ad Qf. Brut. ad Cic. not onely in your kindenesse towards honest men; but being also inuicti animi against all aduersities: not with that Stoicke insensible stupiditie, wherewith many in our dayes, preassing to winne honour, in imitating that ancient sect, by their inconstant behaui­our in their owne liues, belie their profession. But although ye are not a stocke, not to feele calamities; yet let not the feeling of them, so ouer-rule and doazen your reason, as may stay you from taking and vsing the best re­solution for remedie, that can be found out.

Vse trew Liberalitie in rewarding the good, and bestowing frankly for your honour and weale: Of Libera­litie. Cic. 1. & 2. Of. Sal. in Iug. Sen. 4. de ben. but with that proportionall discretion, that eue­ry man may be serued according to his measure, wherein respect must be had to his ranke, deserts, and necessitie: And prouide how to haue, but cast not away without cause. In speciall, empaire not by your Liberalitie the ordinarie rents of your crowne; whereby the estate Royall of you, and your successours, must be maintained, ne exhaurias fontem liberalitatis: for that would euer be kept sacrosanctum & extra commercium: otherwaies, your Liberalitie would decline to Prodigalitie, in helping others with your, and your successours hurt. Isoc epist. 7. Xen. 8. Cyr. Phil. Com. 10. And aboue all, enrich not your selfe with ex­actions vpon your subiects; but thinke the riches of your people your best treasure, by the sinnes of offenders, where no praeuention can auaile, making iustly your commoditie. And in-case necessitie of warres, or o­ther extraordinaries compell you to lift Subsidies, doe it as rarely as ye can: employing it onely to the vse it was ordained for; Arist. 5. pol. and vsing your selfe in that case, as fidus depositarius to your people.

And principally, Anent repor­ters. Isocr. ad Ph. in Panath. & de per. Cic. ad Q. fr. Plut. de curios. exercise trew Wisedome; in discerning wisely be­twixt trew and false reports: First, considering the nature of the person reporter; Next, what entresse he can haue in the weale or euill of him, of whom hee maketh the report; Thirdly, the likely-hood of the purpose it selfe; And last, the nature and by-past life of the dilated person: and where yee finde a tratler, away with him. And although it bee true, that a Prince can neuer without secrecie doe great things, yet it is better oft­times to try reports, then by credulitie to foster suspicion vpon an honest [Page 179]man. For since suspition is the Tyrants sickenesse, Isoc. de pac. Cic. 3. Os. as the fruites of an e­uill Conscience, potiùs in alteram partem peccato: I meane, in not mistrusting one, whom-to no such vnhonestie was knowne before. But as for such as haue slipped before, former experience may iustly breed praeuention by fore-sight.

And to conclude my aduice anent your behauiour in your person; consider that GOD is the authour of all vertue, hauing imprinted in mens mindes by the very light of nature, the loue of all morall vertues; Cicer. 3. Tusc. as was seene by the vertuous liues of the old Romanes: and preasse then to shine as farre before your people, in all vertue and honestie; as in great­nesse of ranke: that the vse therof in all your actions, may turne, with time, to a naturall habitude in you; and as by their hearing of your Lawes, so by their sight of your person, both their eyes and their eares, may leade and allure them to the loue of vertue, and ha­tred of vice.

OF A KINGS BEHAVI­OVR IN INDIFFERENT THINGS.
THE THIRD BOOKE.

IT is a trew old saying, C ph. 8.3. de leg. Ouid. ad Liu. Quin. 4. decl. That a King is as one set on a stage, whose smallest actions and gestures, all the people gazingly doe behold: and there­fore although a King be neuer so praecise in the discharging of his Office, the people, who seeth but the outward part, will euer iudge of the sub­stance, by the circumstances; and according to the outward appearance, if his behauiour bee light or dissolute, will conceiue prae-occupied conceits of the Kings inward intention: which although with time, (the trier of all trewth,) it will euanish, by the euidence of the contrary effects, yet interim patitur iustus; Arist. 5. pol. In different actions and their depen­dancie. Plato in Phil. & 9. de leg. and praeiudged conceits will, in the meane time, breed contempt, the mother of rebellion and disorder. And besides that, it is certaine, that all the indifferent actions and behauiour of a man, haue a certaine holding and dependance, either vpon vertue or vice, accor­ding as they are vsed or ruled: for there is not a middes betwixt them, no more then betwixt their rewards, heauen and hell.

Be carefull then, my Sonne, so to frame all your indifferent actions and outward behauiour, as they may serue for the furtherance and forth-set­ting of your inward vertuous disposition.

The whole indifferent actions of a man, Two sorts of them. I deuide in two sorts: in his be­hauiour in things necessary, as food, sleeping, raiment, speaking, writing, and gesture; and in things not necessary, though conuenient and lawfull, as pastimes or exercises, and vsing of company for recreation.

As to the indifferent things necessary, First sort, and how they be indifferent. although that of themselues they cannot bee wanted, and so in that case are not indifferent; as likewise in­case they bee not vsed with moderation, declining so to the extremitie, which is vice; yet the qualitie and forme of vsing them, may smell of ver­tue or vice, and be great furtherers to any of them.

To beginne then at the things necessarie; one of the publickest indif­ferent actions of a King, and that maniest, especially strangers, will nar­rowly [Page 181]take heed to; is his maner of refection at his Table, and his beha­uiour thereat. Therefore, as Kings vse oft to eate publickly, Formes at the Table. Xen. in Cyr. it is meete and honourable that ye also doe so, as well to eschew the opinion that yee loue not to haunt companie, which is one of the markes of a Tyrant; as likewise, that your delight to eate priuatlie, be not thought to be for pri­uate satisfying of your gluttonie; which ye would be ashamed should bee publicklie seene. Let your Table bee honourably serued; but serue your appetite with few dishes, as yong Cyrus did: which both is holesommest, Xen. 1. Cyr. and freest from the vice of delicacie, which is a degree of gluttonie. Plut. in Apoth. And vse most to eate of reasonablie-groffe, and common-meates; aswell for making your bodie strong and durable for trauell at all occasions, either in peace or in warre: as that yee may bee the heartlier receiued by your meane Subiects in their houses, when their cheare may suffice you: which otherwayes would be imputed to you for pride and daintinesse, and breed coldnesse and disdaine in them. Let all your food bee simple, Sen. ep. 96. with­out composition or sauces; which are more like medecines then meate. The vsing of them was counted amongst the ancient Romanes a filthie vice of delicacie; because they serue onely for pleasing of the taste, and not for satisfying of the necessitie of nature; Sen. de consol. ad Alb. Iuuen. sat. 2. abhorring Apicius their owne citizen, for his vice of delicacie and monsterous gluttonie. Like as both the Grecians and Romanes had in detestation the very name of Philoxenus, Arist. 4 eth. for his filthie wish of a Crane-craig. And therefore was that sentence vsed amongst them, against these artificiall false appetites, Xen. de dict. & fact. Socr. Laert. in Socr. Cic. 5. Tus. Plat. 6. de Leg. Plin. l. 14. optimum condimen­tum fames. But beware with vsing excesse of meat and drinke; and chief­ly, beware of drunkennesse, which is a beastlie vice, namely in a King: but specially beware with it, because it is one of those vices that increa­seth with aage. In the forme of your meate-eating, bee neither vnciuill, like a grosse Cynicke; nor affectatlie mignarde, like a daintie dame; but eate in a manlie, round, and honest fashion. Cic. 1. Off. It is no wayes comely to dispatch affaires, or to be pensiue at meate: but keepe then an open and cheerefull countenance, causing to reade pleasant histories vnto you, that profite may be mixed with pleasure: and when ye are not disposed, enter­taine pleasant, quicke, but honest discourses.

And because meat prouoketh sleeping, be also moderate in your sleepe; Of sleepe. Pla. 7. de leg. for it goeth much by vse: and remember that if your whole life were de­uided in foure parts, three of them would be found to be consumed on meat, drinke, sleepe, and vnnecessarie occupations.

But albeit ordinarie times would commonly bee kept in meate and sleepe; yet vse your selfe some-times so, Best forme of diet. Pla. 6. de leg. that any time in the foure and twen­tie houres may bee alike to you for any of them; that thereby your diet may be accommodate to your affaires, and not your affaires to your diet: not therefore vsing your selfe to ouer great-softnesse and delicacie in your sleepe, more then in your meate; and specially in-case yee haue adoe with the warres.

[Page 182]Let not your Chalmer be throng and common in the time of your rest, Formes in the Chalmer. aswell for comelinesse as for eschewing of carrying reports out of the same. Let them that haue the credite to serue in your Chalmer, Val. 2. Cur. 4. be trustie and se­cret; for a King will haue need to vse secrecie in many things: but yet be­haue your selfe so in your greatest secrets, as yee neede not bee ashamed, suppose they were all proclaimed at the mercate crosse: Pla. 6. de leg. But specially see that those of your Chalmer be of a sound fame, and without blemish.

Take no heede to any of your dreames, Dreames not to be taken heede to. for all prophecies, visions, and propheticke dreames are accomplished and ceased in Christ: And there­fore take no heede to freets either in dreames, or any other things; for that errour proceedeth of ignorance, and is vnworthy of a Christian, who should be assured, Rom. 14. Titus 1. Omnia esse pura puris, as Paul sayth; all dayes and meates being alike to Christians.

Next followeth to speake of raiment, Of apparell. the on-putting whereof is the ordinarie action that followeth next to sleepe. Isocr. de reg. Be also moderate in your raiment, neither ouer superfluous, like a deboshed waster; nor yet ouer base, like a miserable wretch; not artificially trimmed and decked, like a Courtizane, nor yet ouer sluggishly clothed, like a countrey clowne; not ouer lightly like a Candie souldier, or a vaine young Courtier; nor yet o­uer grauely, Cic. 1. Offic. like a Minister: but in your garments be proper, cleanely, comely and honest, wearing your clothes in a carelesse, yet comely forme: keeping in them a midde forme, inter Togatos & Paludatos, betwixt the grauitie of the one, and lightnesse of the other: thereby to signifie, that by your calling yee are mixed of both the professions; Plat. de rege. Togatus, as a Iudge making and pronouncing the Law; Paludatus, by the power of the sword: as your office is likewise mixed, betwixt the Ecclesiasticall and ciuill e­state: For a King is not merè laicus, as both the Papists and Anabaptists would haue him, to the which error also the Puritanes incline ouer farre. But to returne to the purpose of garments, they ought to be vsed accor­ding to their first institution by God, which was for three causes: first to hide our nakednesse and shame; next and consequently, to make vs more comely; and thirdly, to preserue vs from the iniuries of heate and colde. If to hide our nakednesse and shamefull parts, then these naturall parts or­dained to be hid, should not be represented by any vndecent formes in the cloathes: and if they should helpe our comelinesse, they should not then by their painted preened fashion, serue for baites to filthie lecherie, as false haire and fairding does amongst vnchast women: and if they should preserue vs from the iniuries of heat and colde, men should not, like sense­lesse stones, contemne God, in lightlying the seasons, glorying to con­quere honour on heate and colde. And although it be praise-worthy and necessarie in a Prince, to be patiens algoris & aestus, when he shall haue adoe with warres vpon the fields; yet I thinke it meeter that ye goe both cloa­thed and armed, then naked to the battell, except you would make you light for away-running: and yet for cowards, metus addit alas. And shortly, [Page 183]in your cloathes keepe a proportion, aswell with the seasons of the yeere, as of your aage: in the fashions of them being carelesse, vsing them accor­ding to the common forme of the time, some-times richlier, Cic. 1. Off. some-times meanlier cloathed, as occasion serueth, without keeping any precise rule therein: For if your mind be found occupied vpon them, Ar. ad. Alex. it wil be thought idle otherwaies, and ye shall bee accounted in the number of one of these compti iuuenes; which wil make your spirit and iudgment to be lesse thought of. But specially eschew to be effeminate in your cloathes, in perfu­ming, preening, or such like: and faile neuer in time of warres to bee galli­ardest and brauest, both in cloathes and countenance. And make not a foole of your selfe in disguising or wearing long haire or nailes, which are but excrements of nature, and bewray such misusers of them, to bee either of a vindictiue, or a vaine light naturall. Especially, make no vowes in such vaine and outward things, as concerne either meate or cloathes.

Let your selfe and all your Court weare no ordinarie armour with your cloathes, but such as is knightly and honourable; What ordina­rie armour to be worne at Court. I meane rapier­swordes, and daggers: For tuilyesome weapons in the Court, betokens confusion in the countrey. And therefore bannish not onely from your Court, all traiterous offensiue weapons, forbidden by the Lawes, as guns and such like (whereof I spake alreadie) but also all traiterous defensiue armes, as secrets, plate-sleeues, and such like vnseene armour: For, besides that the wearers thereof, may be presupposed to haue a secret euill inten­tion, they want both the vses that defensiue armour is ordained for; which is, to be able to holde out violence, and by their outward glaun­sing in their enemies eyes, to strike a terrour in their hearts: Where by the contrary, they can serue for neither, being not onely vnable to re­sist, but dangerous for shots, and giuing no outward showe against the enemie; beeing onely ordained, for betraying vnder trust, where­of honest men should be ashamed to beare the outward badge, not re­sembling the thing they are not. And for answere against these argu­ments, I know none but the olde Scots fashion; which if it be wrong, is no more to be allowed for ancientnesse, then the olde Masse is, which al­so our forefathers vsed.

The next thing that yee haue to take heed to, Of language and gesture. Arist. 3. ad Theod. Cic. in orat. ad Q. frat. & ad Bren. is your speaking and lan­guage; whereunto I ioyne your gesture, since action is one of the chiefest qualities, that is required in an oratour: for as the tongue speaketh to the eares, so doeth the gesture speake to the eyes of the auditour. In both your speaking and your gesture, vse a naturall and plaine forme, Cic. 1. Offic. not fairded with artifice: for (as the French-men say) Rien contre-faict fin: but eschew all af­fectate formes in both.

In your language be plaine, honest, naturall, comely, cleane, short, Id. cod. and sententious, eschewing both the extremities, aswell in not vsing any ru­sticall corrupt leide, as booke-language, and pen and inke-horne termes: [Page 184]and least of all mignard and effoeminate tearmes. But let the greatest part of your eloquence consist in a naturall, cleare, and sensible forme of the deliuerie of your minde, Cic. ad Q. frat. & ad Brut. builded euer vpon certaine and good grounds; tempering it with grauitie, quickenesse, or merinesse, according to the subiect, and occasion of the time; not taunting in Theologie, nor al­leadging and prophaning the Scripture in drinking purposes, as ouer ma­ny doe.

Vse also the like forme in your gesture; Idem. 1. Off. neither looking sillily, like a stu­pide pedant; nor vnsetledly, with an vncouth morgue, like a new-come­ouer Cavalier: but let your behauiour be naturall, graue, and according to the fashion of the countrey. Phil. ad Alex. Cic. 2. Off. Be not ouer-sparing in your courtesies, for that will be imputed to inciuilitie and arrogancie: nor yet ouer prodigall in iowking or nodding at euery step: for that forme of being popular, be­commeth better aspiring Absalons, Arist. 4. eth. Cic. ad At. then lawfull Kings: framing euer your gesture according to your present actions: looking grauely and with a maiestie when yee sit in iudgement, or giue audience to Embassadours; homely, when ye are in priuate with your owne seruants; merily, when ye are at any pastime or merrie discourse; and let your countenance smell of courage and magnanimitie when ye are at the warres. And remember (I say ouer againe) to be plaine and sensible in your language: Isoc. de reg. & in Euagr. for besides that it is the tongues office, to be the messenger of the mind, it may be thought a point of imbecillitie of spirit in a King, to speake obscurely, much more vntrewly; Cic. 3. Off. as if he stood in awe of any in vttering his thoughts.

Remember also, Id. 1. Off. Formes in reasoning. to put a difference betwixt your forme of language in reasoning, and your pronouncing of sentences, or declaratour of your wil in iudgement, or any other waies in the points of your office: For in the former case, yee must reason pleasantly and patiently, not like a king, but like a priuate man and a scholer; otherwaies, your impatience of contradi­ction will be interpreted to be for lacke of reason on your part. Where in the points of your office, ye should ripely aduise indeede, before yee giue foorth your sentence: but fra it be giuen foorth, the suffering of any con­tradiction diminisheth the maiestie of your authoritie, In iudgment. Isoc. ad Nic. Cic. ad Q. frat. and maketh the processes endlesse. The like forme would also bee obserued by all your in­feriour Iudges and Magistrates.

Now as to your writing, Of writing, and what stile fitteth a Prince. which is nothing else, but a forme of en-regi­strate speech; vse a plaine, short, but stately stile, both in your Proclama­tions and missiues, especially to forraine Princes. And if your engine spur you to write any workes, either in verse or in prose, I cannot but allow you to practise it: but take no longsome workes in hand, for distracting you from your calling.

Flatter not your selfe in your labours, Cic. 1. Off. but before they bee set foorth, let them first bee priuily censured by some of the best skilled men in that craft, that in these workes yee meddle with. And because your writes will remaine as true pictures of your minde, to all posterities; let them bee free [Page 185]of all vncomelinesse and vn-honestie: and according to Horace his counsell ‘— Nonum (que) premantur in annum. De arte Poe­tica. I meane both your verse and your prose; letting first that furie and heate, wherewith they were written, coole at leasure; and then as an vncouth iudge and censour, reuising them ouer againe, before they bee published, ‘— quia nescit vox missa reuerti. Idem eod.

If yee would write worthily, choose subiects worthie of you, that bee not full of vanitie, but of vertue; eschewing obscuritie, and delighting euer to bee plaine and sensible. And if yee write in verse, remember that it is not the principall part of a Poeme to rime right, and flowe well with many pretie wordes: but the chiefe commendation of a Poeme is, that when the verse shall bee shaken sundrie in prose, Ar. de art. Poet. it shall bee found so rich in quicke inuentions, and poeticke flowers, and in faire and perti­nent comparisons; as it shall retaine the lustre of a Poeme, although in prose. And I would also aduise you to write in your owne language: for there is nothing left to be saide in Greeke and Latine alreadie; and ynew of poore schollers would match you in these languages; and besides that, it best becommeth a King to purifie and make famous his owne tongue; wherein he may goe before all his subiects; as it setteth him well to doe in all honest and lawfull things.

And amongst all vnnecessarie things that are lawfull and expedient, Of the exer­cise of the bo­die. Xen. 1. Cyr. I thinke exercises of the bodie most commendable to be vsed by a young Prince, in such honest games or pastimes, as may further abilitie and maintaine health: For albeit I graunt it to be most requisite for a King to exercise his engine, which surely with idlenesse will ruste and become blunt; yet certainely bodily exercises and games are very commendable; Plat. 6. de leg. Ar. 7. & 8. pol. Cic. 1. Off. as well for bannishing of idlenesse (the mother of all vice) as for making his bodie able and durable for trauell, which is very necessarie for a King. But from this count I debarre all rough and violent exercises, as the foote­ball; meeter for laming, then making able the vsers thereof: as likewise such tumbling trickes as only serue for Comoedians and Balladines, to win their bread with. Pl. eod. But the exercises that I would haue you to vse (although but moderately, not making a craft of them) are running, leaping, wra­stling, fencing, dancing, and playing at the caitch or tennise, archerie, palle maille, and such like other faire and pleasant field-games. Xen. in Cyr. Is. deiug. And the honou­rablest and most commendable games that yee can vse, are on horse­backe: for it becommeth a Prince best of any man, to be a faire and good horse-man. Vse therefore to ride and danton great and couragious horses; that I may say of you, as Philip said of great Alexander his sonne, [...]. Plut. in Alex. And specially vse such games on horse-backe, as may teach you to handle your armes thereon; such as the tilt, the ring, and low-riding for handling of your sword.

I cannot omit heere the hunting, namely with running hounds; Of hunting. which is the most honourable and noblest sorte thereof: for it is a theeuish forme [Page 186]of hunting to shoote with gunnes and bowes; and grey hound hunting is not so martiall a game: But because I would not be thought a partiall praiser of this sport, In Cyn. 1. Cyr. & de rep. Lac. Cic. 1. Offic. I remit you to Xenophon, an olde and famous writer, who had no minde of flattering you or me in this purpose: and who also setteth downe a faire paterne, Cyropoedia. for the education of a yong king, vnder the supposed name of Cyrus.

As for hawking I condemne it not, but I must praise it more sparing­ly, Of hawking. because it neither resembleth the warres so neere as hunting doeth, in making a man hardie, and skilfully ridden in all grounds, and is more vn­certaine and subiect to mischances; and (which is worst of all) is there-through an extreme stirrer vp of passions: But in vsing either of these games, Arist. 10. Eth. obserue that moderation, that ye slip not therewith the houres ap­pointed for your affaires, which ye ought euer precisely to keepe; remem­bring that these games are but ordained for you, in enabling you for your office, for the which ye are ordained.

And as for sitting house-pastimes, Of house-games. wherewith men by driuing time, spurre a free and fast ynough running horse (as the prouerbe is) although they are not profitable for the exercise either of minde or body, Arist. 8. pol. yet can I not vtterly condemne them; since they may at times supply the roome, which being emptie, would be patent to pernicious idlenesse, quia nihil potest esse vacuum. Dan. de lus. al. I will not therefore agree with the curiositie of some learned men in our aage, in forbidding cardes, dice, and other such like games of hazard; although otherwayes surely I reuerence them as nota­ble and godly men: For they are deceiued therein, in founding their argu­ment vpon a mistaken ground, which is, that the playing at such games, is a kind of casting of lot, and therefore vnlawfull; wherein they deceiue themselues: For the casting of lot was vsed for triall of the trewth in any obscure thing, that otherwayes could not be gotten cleared; and therefore was a sort of prophecie: whereby the contrary, no man goeth to any of these playes, to cleare any obscure trewth, but onely to gage so much of his owne money, as hee pleaseth, vpon the hazard of the running of the cardes or dice, aswell as he would doe vpon the speede of a horse or a dog, or any such like gaigeour: And so, if they be vnlawfull, all gaigeours vp­on vncertainties must likewayes be condemned: Not that thereby I take the defence of vaine carders and dicers, that waste their moyen, and their time (whereof fewe consider the pretiousnesse) vpon prodigall and conti­nuall playing: Cic. 1. Offic. no, I would rather allow it to be discharged, where such corruption cannot be eschewed. But only I cannot condemne you at some times, when ye haue no other thing adoe (as a good King will be seldome) and are wearie of reading, or euill disposed in your person, and when it is foule and stormie weather; then, I say, may ye lawfully play at the cardes or tables: For as to dicing, I thinke it becommeth best deboshed souldiers to play at, on the head of their drums, being onely ruled by hazard, and subiect to knauish cogging. And as for the chesse, I thinke it ouer fond, [Page 187]because it is ouer-wise and Philosophicke a folly: For where all such light playes, are ordained to free mens heades for a time, from the fashions thoughts on their affaires; it by the contrarie filleth and troubleth mens heades, with as many fashious toyes of the play, as before it was filled with thoughts on his affaires.

But in your playing, I would haue you to keepe three rules: first, Rules in playing. or ye play, consider yee doe it onely for your recreation, and resolue to ha­zard the losse of all that ye play: and next, for that cause play no more then yee care to cast among Pages: and last, play alwaies faire play precisely, that ye come not in vse of tricking and lying in ieast: otherwise, if yee can­not keepe these rules, my counsell is that yee allutterly abstaine from these playes: For neither a madde passion for losse, nor falshood vsed for desire of gaine, can be called a play.

Now, it is not onely lawfull, but necessarie, What choise of companie. that yee haue companie meete for euery thing yee take on hand, aswell in your games and exercises, as in your graue and earnest affaires: Isoc. de reg. Cic. 1. Off. But learne to distinguish time accor­ding to the occasion, choosing your companie accordingly. Conferre not with hunters at your counsell, nor in your counsell affaires: nor dis­patch not affaires at hunting or other games. And haue the like respect to the seasons of your aage, vsing your sortes of recreation and companie therefore, agreeing thereunto: For it becommeth best, as kindliest, euery aage to smell of their owne qualitie, Ar. 2. ad Theod. insolence and vnlawful things beeing alwaies eschewed: and not that a colt should draw the plough, and an olde horse run away with the harrowes. But take heede specially, that your com­panie for recreation, be chosen of honest persons, not defamed or vicious, mixing filthie talke with merrinesse, ‘Corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia praua.’ And chiefly abstaine from haunting before your mariage, Men. the idle com­panie of dames, which are nothing else, but irritamenta libidinis. Bee warre likewaies to abuse your selfe, in making your sporters your counsellers: and delight not to keepe ordinarily in your companie, Comoedians or Bal­ladines: for the Tyrans delighted most in them, Pl. 3. de rep. Ar. 7. & 8. pol. Sen. 1. ep. Dyon. glorying to bee both au­thors and actors of Comoedies and Tragedies themselues: Wherupon the answere that the poet Philoxenus disdainefully gaue to the Tyran of Syra­cuse there-anent, is now come in a prouerbe, reduc me in latomias. Suidas. And all the ruse that Nero made of himselfe when he died, was Qualis artifexpereo? Suet. in Ner. meaning of his skill in menstrally, and playing of Tragoedies: as indeede his whole life and death, was all but one Tragoedie.

Delight not also to bee in your owne person a player vpon instru­ments; especially on such as commonly men winne their liuing with: nor yet to be fine of any mechanicke craft: 1. Sep. Leur esprit s'en fuit au bout des doigts, saith Du Bartas: whose workes, as they are all most worthie to bee read by any Prince, or other good Christian; so would I especially wish you to bee well versed in them. But spare not some-times by merie company, [Page 188]to be free from importunitie; for ye should be euer mooued with reason, which is the onely qualitie whereby men differ from beasts; and not with importunitie: Curt. 8. For the which cause (as also for augmenting your Maiestie) ye shall not be so facile of accesse-giuing at all times, as I haue beene; Liu. 35. Xen. in. Ages. Cit. ad Q frat. and yet not altogether retired or locked vp, like the Kings of Persia: appoin­ting also certaine houres for publicke audience.

And since my trust is, that God hath ordained you for moe Kingdomes then this (as I haue oft alreadie said) preasse by the outward behauiour as well of your owne person, A speciall good rule in gouernment. as of your court, in all indifferent things, to al­lure piece and piece, the rest of your kingdomes, to follow the fashions of that kingdome of yours, that yee finde most ciuill, easiest to be ruled, and most obedient to the Lawes: for these outward and indifferent things will serue greatly for allurements to the people, to embrace and follow vertue. But beware of thrawing or constraining them thereto; letting it bee brought on with time, and at leisure; specially by so mixing through alli­ance and daily conuersation, the inhabitants of euery kingdom with other, as may with time make them to grow and welde all in one: Which may ea­sily be done betwixt these two nations, being both but one Ile of Britaine, and alreadie ioyned in vnitie of Religion and language. The fruitfull effects of the vnion. So that euen as in the times of our ancestours, the long warres and many bloodie battels be­twixt these two countreys, bred a naturall and hereditarie hatred in euery of them, against the other: the vniting and welding of them hereafter in one, by all sort of friendship, commerce, and alliance, will by the contrary produce and maintaine a naturall and inseparable vnitie of loue amongst them. Alreadie ky­thing in the happy amitie. As we haue already (praise be to God) a great experience of the good beginning hereof, and of the quenching of the olde hate in the hearts of both the people; procured by the meanes of this long and happy amitie, betweene the Queene my dearest sister and me; which during the whole time of both our Reignes, hath euer beene inuiolably obserued.

And for conclusion of this my whole Treatise, Conclusion in forme of abridge of the whole Trea­tise. remember my Sonne, by your trew and constant depending vpon God, to looke for a blessing to all your actions in your office: by the outward vsing thereof, to testifie the inward vprightnesse of your heart; and by your behauiour in all in­different things, to set foorth the viue image of your vertuous disposition; and in respect of the greatnesse and weight of your burthen, to be patient in hearing, keeping your heart free from praeoccupation, ripe in conclu­ding, Thuc. 6. Dion. 52. and constant in your resolution: For better it is to bide at your re­solution, although there were some defect in it, then by daily changing, to effectuate nothing: taking the paterne thereof from the microcosme of your owne body; wherein ye haue two eyes, signifying great foresight and prouidence, with a narrow looking in all things; and also two eares, signifying patient hearing, and that of both the parties: but ye haue but one tongue, for pronouncing a plaine, sensible, and vniforme sentence; and but one head, and one heart, for keeping a constant & vniforme resolution, [Page 189]according to your apprehension: hauing two hands and two feete, with many fingers and toes for quicke execution, in employing all instruments meet for effectuating your deliberations.

But forget not to digest euer your passion, before ye determine vpon a­ny thing, since Ira furor breuis est: Hir. lib. 1. epist. vttering onely your anger according to the Apostles rule, Irascimini, sed ne peccetis: taking pleasure, not only to reward, Ephes. 4. but to aduance the good, which is a chiefe point of a Kings glory (but make none ouer-great, Arist. 5. pol. Dion. 52. but according as the power of the countrey may beare) and punishing the euill; but euery man according to his owne of­fence: not punishing nor blaming the father for the sonne, Plat. 9. de leg. nor the brother for the brother; much lesse generally to hate a whole race for the fault of one: for noxa caput sequitur.

And aboue all, let the measure of your loue to euery one, be according to the measure of his vertue; letting your fauour to be no longer tyed to any, then the continuance of his vertuous disposition shall deserue: not admit­ting the excuse vpon a iust reuenge, to procure ouersight to an iniurie: For the first iniurie is committed against the partie; but the parties reuenging thereof at his owne hand, is a wrong committed against you, in vsurping your office, whom to onely the sword belongeth, for reuenging of all the iniuries committed against any of your people.

Thus hoping in the goodnes of God, that your naturall inclination shall haue a happy sympathie with these pręcepts, making the wise-mans schole­master, which is the example of others, to bee your teacher, according to that old verse, Foelix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum; eschewing so the ouer-late repentance by your owne experience, which is the schoole-master of fooles; I wil for end of all, require you my Sonne, as euer ye thinke to deserue my fatherly blessing, to keepe continually before the eyes of your minde, the greatnesse of your charge: Plat. in pol. Cic. 5. d [...] re [...]. making the faithfull and due discharge thereof, the principal butt ye shoot at in all your actions: counting it euer the principall, and all your other actions but as accessories, to be emploied as middesses for the furthering of that principall. And be­ing content to let others excell in other things, let it be your chiefest earth­ly glory, to excell in your owne craft: according to the worthy counsel and charge of Anchises to his posteritie, in that sublime and heroicall Poet, wherein also my dicton is included; Virg 6. Aeu.

Excudent alij spirantia molliùs aera,
Credo equidem, & viuos ducent de marmore vultus,
Orabunt causas meliùs, coelique meatus
Describent radio, & surgentia sydera dicent.
Tu, regere imperio populos, Romane, memento
(Hae tibi erunt artes) pacique imponere morem,
"Parcere subiectis, & debellare superbos.

THE TREW LAW OF FREE MONARCHIES: OR THE RECIPROCK AND MVTVALL DVETIE BETWIXT A FREE KING, AND HIS naturall Subiects.

AN ADVERTISEMENT TO THE READER.

ACcept, J pray you (my deare countrey­men) as thankefully this Pamphlet that J offer vnto you, as louingly it is written for your weale. J would be loath both to be faschious, and fectlesse: And therefore, if it be not senten­tious, at least it is short. Jt may be yee misse many things that yee looke for in it: But for excuse thereof, consider rightly that I onely lay downe herein the trew grounds, to teach you the right-way, without wasting time vpon refuting the aduersaries. And yet I trust, if ye will take narrow tent, ye shall finde most of their great gunnes payed home againe, either with contrary conclusions, or tacite ob­iections, suppose in a dairned forme, and indirectly: For my in­tention [Page 192]is to instruct, and not irritat, if J may eschew it. The profite I would wish you to make of it, is, as well so to frame all your actions according to these grounds, as may confirme you in the course of honest and obedient Subiects to your King in all times comming, as also, when ye shall fall in purpose with any that shall praise or excuse the by-past rebellions that brake foorth either in this countrey, or in any other, ye shall herewith bee armed against their Sirene songs, laying their particular examples to the square of these grounds. Whereby yee shall soundly keepe the course of righteous Judgement, decerning wisely of euery action onely ac­cording to the qualitie thereof, and not according to your pre­iudged conceits of the committers: So shall ye, by reaping profit to your selues, turne my paine into pleasure. But least the whole Pamphlet runne out at the gaping mouth of this Preface, if it were any more enlarged; I end, with committing you to God, and me to your charitable censures.

C. [...]

THE TREW LAW OF FREE MONARCHIES: OR The Reciprock and mutuall duetie betwixt a free King and his naturall Subiects.

AS there is not a thing so necessarie to be knowne by the people of any land, next the knowledge of their God, as the right knowledge of their allea­geance, according to the forme of gouernement established among them, especially in a Monarchie (which forme of gouernment, as resembling the Diuinitie, approacheth nearest to perfection, as all the learned and wise men from the beginning haue agreed vpon; Vnitie being the perfection of all things,) So hath the ignorance, and (which is worse) the seduced opi­nion of the multitude blinded by them, who thinke themselues able to teach and instruct the ignorants, procured the wracke and ouerthrow of sundry flourishing Common-wealths; and heaped heauy calamities, threat­ning vtter destruction vpon others. And the smiling successe, that vnlaw­full rebellions haue oftentimes had against Princes in aages past (such hath bene the misery, and iniquitie of the time) hath by way of practise strength­ned many in their errour: albeit there cannot be a more deceiueable argu­ment; then to iudge ay the iustnesse of the cause by the euent thereof; as hereafter shalbe proued more at length. And among others, no Common-wealth, that euer hath bene since the beginning, hath had greater need of the trew knowledge of this ground, then this our so long disordered, and distracted Common-wealth hath: the misknowledge hereof being the onely spring, from whence haue flowed so many endlesse calamities, mise­ries, and confusions, as is better felt by many, then the cause thereof well knowne, and deepely considered. The naturall zeale therefore, that I beare to this my natiue countrie, with the great pittie I haue to see the so-long di­sturbance thereof for lacke of the trew knowledge of this ground (as I haue said before) hath compelled me at last to breake silence, to discharge my [Page 194]conscience to you my deare country men herein, that knowing the ground from whence these your many endlesse troubles haue proceeded, as well as ye haue already too-long tasted the bitter fruites thereof, ye may by know­ledge, and eschewing of the cause escape, and diuert the lamentable effects that euer necessarily follow thereupon. I haue chosen then onely to set downe in this short Treatise, the trew grounds of the mutuall duetie, and alleageance betwixt a free and absolute Monarche, and his people; not to trouble your patience with answering the contrary propositions, which some haue not bene ashamed to set downe in writ, to the poysoning of in­finite number of simple soules, and their owne perpetuall, and well deser­ued infamie: For by answering them, I could not haue eschewed whiles to pick, and byte wel saltly their persons; which would rather haue bred con­tentiousnesse among the readers (as they had liked or misliked) then sound instruction of the trewth: Which I protest to him that is the searcher of all hearts, is the onely marke that I shoot at herein.

First then, I will set downe the trew grounds, whereupon I am to build, out of the Scriptures, since Monarchie is the trew paterne of Diuinitie, as I haue already said: next, from the fundamental Lawes of our owne King­dome, which nearest must concerne vs: thirdly, from the law of Nature, by diuers similitudes drawne out of the same: and will conclude syne by answering the most waighty and appearing incommodities that can be obiected.

The Princes duetie to his Subiects is so clearely set downe in many pla­ces of the Scriptures, and so openly confessed by all the good Princes, ac­cording to their oath in their Coronation, as not needing to be long there­in, I shall as shortly as I can runne through it.

Kings are called Gods by the propheticall King Dauid, I sal. 82.6. because they sit vpon GOD his Throne in the earth, and haue the count of their admini­stration to giue vnto him. Psal. 101. Psal. 101. 2. King. 18. 2. Chron. 29. 2. King. 22. and 23.2. chro. 34. & 35. Psal. 72. 1. King 3. Their office is, To minister Iustice and Iudgement to the people, as the same Dauid saith: To aduance the good, and punish the euill, as he likewise saith: To establish good Lawes to his people, and procure obedience to the same, as diuers good Kings of Iudah did: To procure the peace of the people, as the same Dauid saith: To decide all controuersies that can arise among them, as Salomon did: To be the Minister of God for the weale of them that doe well, and as the minister of God, Rom. 13.to take vengeance vpon them that doe euill, as S. Paul saith. And finally, 1. Sam. 8. As a good Pastour, to goe out and in before his people as is said in the first of Samuel: Ierem. 29.That through the Princes prosperitie, the peoples peace may be pro­cured, as Ieremie saith.

And therefore in the Coronation of our owne Kings, as well as of eue­ry Christian Monarche they giue their Oath, first to maintaine the Religion presently professed within their countrie, according to their lawes, where­by it is established, and to punish all those that should presse to alter, or di­sturbe the profession thereof; And next to maintaine all the lowable and good Lawes made by their predecessours: to see them put in execution, [Page 195]and the breakers and violaters thereof, to be punished, according to the te­nour of the same: And lastly, to maintaine the whole countrey, and euery state therein, in all their ancient Priuiledges and Liberties, as well against all forreine enemies, as among themselues: And shortly to procure the weale and flourishing of his people, not onely in maintaining and putting to execution the olde lowable lawes of the countrey, and by establishing of new (as necessitie and euill maners will require) but by all other meanes possible to fore-see and preuent all dangers, that are likely to fall vpon them, and to maintaine concord, wealth, and ciuilitie among them, as a louing Father, and careful watchman, caring for them more then for him­selfe, knowing himselfe to be ordained for them, and they not for him; and therefore countable to that great God, who placed him as his lieute­nant ouer them, vpon the perill of his soule to procure the weale of both soules and bodies, as farre as in him lieth, of all them that are committed to his charge. And this oath in the Coronation is the clearest, ciuill, and fun­damentall Law, whereby the Kings office is properly defined.

By the Law of Nature the King becomes a naturall Father to all his Lie­ges at his Coronation: And as the Father of his fatherly duty is bound to care for the nourishing, education, and vertuous gouernment of his chil­dren; euen so is the king bound to care for all his subiects. As all the toile and paine that the father can take for his children, will be thought light and well bestowed by him, so that the effect thereof redound to their pro­fite and weale; so ought the Prince to doe towards his people. As the kind­ly father ought to foresee all inconuenients and dangers that may arise to­wards his children, and though with the hazard of his owne person presse to preuent the same; so ought the King towards his people. As the fathers wrath and correction vpon any of his children that offendeth, ought to be by a fatherly chastisement seasoned with pitie, as long as there is any hope of amendment in them; so ought the King towards any of his Lieges that offend in that measure. And shortly, as the Fathers chiefe ioy ought to be in procuring his childrens welfare, reioycing at their weale, sorrowing and pitying at their euill, to hazard for their safetie, trauell for their rest, wake for their sleepe; and in a word, to thinke that his earthly felicitie and life standeth and liueth more in them, nor in himselfe; so ought a good Prince thinke of his people.

As to the other branch of this mutuall and reciprock band, is the due­ty and alleageance that the Lieges owe to their King: the ground where­of, I take out of the words of Samuel, dited by Gods Spirit, when God had giuen him commandement to heare the peoples voice in choosing and annointing them a King. And because that place of Scripture being well vnderstood, is so pertinent for our purpose, I haue insert herein the very words of the Text.

  • [Page 196]9 NOw therefore hearken to their voice: howbeit yet testifie vnto them, and shew them the maner of the King, that shall raigne ouer them.
  • 10 So Samuel tolde all the wordes of the Lord vnto the people that asked a King of him.
  • 11 And he said, This shall be the maner of the King that shall raigne ouer you: he will take your sonnes, and appoint them to his Charets, and to be his horsemen, and some shall runne before his Charet.
  • 12 Also, hee will make them his captaines ouer thousands, and captaines ouer fif­ties, and to eare his ground, and to reape his haruest, and to make instruments of warre, and the things that serue for his charets:
  • 13 Hee will also take your daughters, and make them Apothicaries, and Cookes, and Bakers.
  • 14 And hee will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your best Oliue trees, and giue them to his seruants.
  • 15 And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your Vineyards, and giue it to his Eunuches, and to his seruants.
  • 16 And he will take your men seruants, and your maid seruants, and the chiefe of your yong men, and your asses, and put them to his worke.
  • 17 He will take the tenth of your sheepe: and ye shall be his seruants.
  • 18 And ye shall cry out at that day, because of your King, whom ye haue chosen you: and the Lord God will not beare you at that day.
  • 19 But the people would not heare the voice of Samuel, but did say: Nay, but there shalbe a King ouer vs.
  • 20 And we also will be like all other Nations, and our King shall iudge vs, and goe out before vs, and fight our battels.

That these words, and discourses of Samuel were dited by Gods Spirit, it needs no further probation, but that it is a place of Scripture; since the whole Scripture is dited by that inspiration, as Paul saith: which ground no good Christian will, or dare denie. Whereupon it must necessarily fol­low, that these speeches proceeded not from any ambition in Samuel, as one loath to quite the reines that he so long had ruled, and therefore desirous, by making odious the gouernment of a King, to disswade the people from their farther importunate crauing of one: For, as the text proueth it plain­ly, he then conueened them to giue them a resolute grant of their demand, as God by his owne mouth commanded him, saying, ‘Hearken to the voice of the people.’ And to presse to disswade them frō that, which he then came to grant vnto them, were a thing very impertinent in a wise man; much more in the Pro­phet of the most high God. And likewise, it well appeared in all the course of his life after, that his so long refusing of their sute before came not of any ambition in him: which he well proued in praying, & as it were importu­ning God for the weale of Saul. Yea, after God had declared his reprobation vnto him, yet he desisted not, while God himselfe was wrath at his pray­ing, [Page 197]and discharged his fathers suit in that errand. And that these words of Samuel were not vttered as a prophecie of Saul their first Kings defection, it well appeareth, as well because we heare no mention made in the Scrip­ture of any his tyrannie and oppression, (which, if it had beene, would not haue been left vnpainted out therein, as well as his other faults were, as in a trew mirrour of all the Kings behauiours, whom it describeth) as likewise in respect that Saul was chosen by God for his vertue, and meet qualities to gouerne his people: whereas his defection sprung after-hand from the corruption of his owne nature, & not through any default in God, whom they that thinke so, would make as a step-father to his people, in making wilfully a choise of the vnmeetest for gouerning them, since the election of that King lay absolutely and immediatly in Gods hand. But by the contra­ry it is plaine, and euident, that this speech of Samuel to the people, was to prepare their hearts before the hand to the due obedience of that King, which God was to giue vnto them; and therefore opened vp vnto them, what might be the intollerable qualities that might fall in some of their kings, thereby preparing them to patience, not to resist to Gods ordinance: but as he would haue said; Since God hath granted your importunate suit in giuing you a king, as yee haue else committed an errour in shaking off Gods yoke, and ouer-hastie seeking of a King; so beware yee fall not into the next, in casting off also rashly that yoke, which God at your earnest suite hath laid vpon you, how hard that euer it seeme to be: For as ye could not haue obtained one without the permission and ordinance of God, so may yee no more, fro hee be once set ouer you, shake him off without the same warrant. And therefore in time arme yourselues with patience and humi­litie, since he that hath the only power to make him, hath the onely power to vnmake him, and ye onely to obey, bearing with these straits that I now foreshew you, as with the finger of God, which lieth not in you to take off.

And will ye consider the very wordes of the text in order, as they are set downe, it shall plainely declare the obedience that the people owe to their King in all respects.

First, God commandeth Samuel to doe two things: the one, to grant the people their suit in giuing them a king; the other, to forewarne them, what some kings will doe vnto them, that they may not thereafter in their grud­ging and murmuring say, when they shal feele the snares here fore-spoken; We would neuer haue had a king of God, in case when we craued him, hee had let vs know how wee would haue beene vsed by him, as now we finde but ouer-late. And this is meant by these words:

Now therefore hearken vnto their voice: howbeit yet testifie vnto them, and shew them the maner of the King that shall rule ouer them.

And next, Samuel in execution of this commandement of God, hee like­wise doeth two things.

First, hee declares vnto them, what points of iustice and equitie their king will breake in his behauiour vnto them: And next he putteth them [Page 198]out of hope, that wearie as they will, they shall not haue leaue to shake off that yoke, which God through their importunitie hath laide vpon them. The points of equitie that the King shall breake vnto them, are expressed in these words:

  • 11 He will take your sonnes, and appoint them to his Charets, and to be his horse­men, and some shall run before his Charet.
  • 12 Also he will make them his captaines ouer thousands, and captaines ouer fifties, and to eare his ground, and to reape his haruest, and to make instruments of warre, and the things that serue for his charets.
  • 13 He will also take your daughters, and make them Apothecaries, and Cookes, and Bakers.

The points of Iustice, that hee shall breake vnto them, are expressed in these wordes:

  • 14 Hee will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your best Oliue trees, and giue them to his seruants.
  • 15 And he will take the tenth of your seede, and of your vineyards, and giue it to his Eunuches and to his seruants: and also the tenth of your sheepe.

As if he would say; The best and noblest of your blood shall be com­pelled in slauish and seruile offices to serue him: And not content of his owne patrimonie, will make vp a rent to his owne vse out of your best lands, vineyards, orchards, and store of cattell: So as inuerting the Law of nature, and office of a King, your persons and the persons of your poste­ritie, together with your lands, and all that ye possesse shal serue his priuate vse, and inordinate appetite.

And as vnto the next point (which is his fore-warning them, that, weary as they will, they shall not haue leaue to shake off the yoke, which God tho­row their importunity hath laid vpon them) it is expressed in these words:

  • 18 And yee shall crie out at that day, because of your King whom yee haue chosen you: and the Lord will not heare you at that day.

As he would say; When ye shall finde these things in proofe that now I fore-warne you of, although you shall grudge and murmure, yet it shal not be lawful to you to cast it off, in respect it is not only the ordinance of God, but also your selues haue chosen him vnto you, thereby renouncing for e­uer all priuiledges, by your willing consent out of your hands, whereby in any time hereafter ye would claime, and call backe vnto your selues againe that power, which God shall not permit you to doe. And for further taking away of all excuse, and retraction of this their contract, after their consent to vnder-lie this yoke with all the burthens that hee hath declared vnto them, he craues their answere, and consent to his proposition: which ap­peareth by their answere, as it is expressed in these words:

  • 19 Nay, but there shalbe a King ouer vs.
  • 20 And we also will be like all other nations: and our king shall iudge vs, and goe out before vs and fight our battels.

As if they would haue said; All your speeches and hard conditions shall not skarre vs, but we will take the good and euill of it vpon vs, and we will [Page 199]be content to beare whatsoeuer burthen it shal please our King to lay vpon vs, aswell as other nations doe. And for the good we will get of him in fighting our battels, we will more patiently beare any burthen that shall please him to lay on vs.

Now then, since the erection of this Kingdome and Monarchie among the Iewes, and the law thereof may, and ought to bee a paterne to all Chri­stian and well founded Monarchies, as beeing founded by God himselfe, who by his Oracle, and out of his owne mouth gaue the law thereof: what liberty can broiling spirits, and rebellious minds claime iustly to against any Christian Monarchie; since they can claime to no greater libertie on their part, nor the people of God might haue done, and no greater tyranny was euer executed by any Prince or tyrant, whom they can obiect, nor was here fore-warned to the people of God, (and yet all rebellion counterman­ded vnto them) if tyrannizing ouer mens persons, sonnes, daughters and seruants; redacting noble houses, and men, and women of noble blood, to slauish and scruile offices; and extortion, and spoile of their lands and goods to the princes owne priuate vse and commoditie, and of his courteours, and seruants, may be called a tyrannie?

And that this proposition grounded vpon the Scripture, may the more clearely appeare to be trew by the practise often prooued in the same booke, we neuer reade, that euer the Prophets perswaded the people to rebell a­gainst the Prince, how wicked soeuer he was.

When Samuel by Gods command pronounced to the same king Saul, 1. Sam. 15. that his kingdome was rent from him, and giuen to another (which in ef­fect was a degrading of him) yet his next action following that, was peace­ably to turne home, and with floods of teares to pray to God to haue some compassion vpon him.

And Dauid, notwithstanding hee was inaugurate in that same degraded Kings roome, not onely (when he was cruelly persecuted, for no offence; but good seruice done vnto him) would not presume, hauing him in his power, skantly, but with great reuerence, to touch the garment of the an­noynted of the Lord, and in his words blessed him: but likewise, 1. Sam. 2 4. 2. Sam. 1. when one came to him vanting himselfe vntrewly to haue slaine Saul, hee, without forme of proces, or triall of his guilt, caused onely for guiltinesse of his tongue, put him to sodaine death.

And although there was neuer a more monstrous persecutor, and tyrant nor Achab was: yet all the rebellion, that Elias euer raised against him, was to flie to the wildernes: where for fault of sustentation, he was fed with the Corbies. And I thinke no man will doubt but Samuel, Dauid, and Elias, had as great power to perswade the people, if they had liked to haue employed their credite to vproares & rebellions against these wicked kings, as any of our seditious preachers in these daies of whatsoeuer religion, either in this countrey or in France, had, that busied themselues most to stir vp rebellion vnder cloake of religion. This farre the only loue of veritie, I protest, with­out [Page 200]hatred at their persons, haue mooued me to be somewhat satyricke.

And if any will leane to the extraordinarie examples of degrading or killing of kings in the Scriptures, thereby to cloake the peoples rebellion, as by the deed of Iehu, and such like extraordinaries: I answere, besides that they want the like warrant that they had, if extraordinarie examples of the Scripture shall bee drawne in daily practise; murther vnder traist as in the persons of Ahud, and Iael; theft, as in the persons of the Israelites comming out of Egypt; lying to their parents to the hurt of their brother, as in the person of Iacob, shall all be counted as lawfull and allowable vertues, as re­bellion against Princes. And to conclude, the practise through the whole Scripture prooueth the peoples obedience giuen to that sentence in the law of God: ‘Thou shalt not rayle vpon the Iudges, neither speake euill of the ruler of thy people.’

To end then the ground of my proposition taken out of the Scripture, let two speciall, and notable examples, one vnder the law, another vnder the Euangel, Ier. 27. conclude this part of my alleageance. Vnder the lawe, Ieremie threatneth the people of God with vtter destruction for rebellion to Na­buchadnezar the king of Babel: who although he was an idolatrous persecu­ter, a forraine King, a Tyrant, and vsurper of their liberties; yet in respect they had once receiued and acknowledged him for their king, he not only commandeth them to obey him, Iere. 29. but euen to pray for his prosperitie, adioy­ning the reason to it; because in his prosperitie stood their peace.

And vnder the Euangel, that king, whom Paul bids the Romanes obey and serue for conscience sake, Iere. 13. was Nero that bloody tyrant, an infamie to his aage, and a monster to the world, being also an idolatrous persecuter, as the King of Babel was. If then Idolatrie and defection from God, tyranny o­uer their people, and persecution of the Saints, for their profession sake, hin­dred not the Spirit of God to command his people vnder all highest paine to giue them all due and heartie obedience for conscience sake, giuing to Caesar that which was Caesars, and to God that which was Gods, as Christ saith; and that this practise throughout the booke of God agreeth with this lawe, which he made in the erection of that Monarchie (as is at length be­fore deduced) what shamelesse presumption is it to any Christian people now adayes to claime to that vnlawfull libertie, which God refused to his owne peculiar and chosen people? Shortly then to take vp in two or three sentences, grounded vpon all these arguments, out of the lawe of God, the duetie, and alleageance of the people to their lawfull king, their obedience, I say, ought to be to him, as to Gods Lieutenant in earth, obeying his com­mands in all things, except directly against God, as the commands of Gods Minister, acknowledging him a Iudge set by GOD ouer them, hauing po­wer to iudge them, but to be iudged onely by GOD, whom to onely hee must giue count of his iudgement; fearing him as their Iudge; louing him as their father; praying for him as their protectour; for his continuance, if [Page 201]he be good; for his amendement, if he be wicked; following and obeying his lawfull commaunds, eschewing and flying his fury in his vnlawfull, without resistance, but by sobbes and teares to God, according to that sen­tence vsed in the primitiue Church in the time of the persecution.

Preces, & Lachrymae sunt arma Ecclesiae.

Now, as for the describing the alleageance, that the lieges owe to their natiue King, out of the fundamentall and ciuill Lawe, especially of this countrey, as I promised, the ground must first be set downe of the first ma­ner of establishing the Lawes and forme of gouernement among vs; that the ground being first right laide, we may thereafter build rightly thereup­on. Although it be trew (according to the affirmation of those that pryde themselues to be the scourges of Tyrants) that in the first beginning of Kings rising among Gentiles, in the time of the first aage, diuers common­wealths and societies of men choosed out one among themselues, who for his vertues and valour, being more eminent then the rest, was chosen out by them, and set vp in that roome, to maintaine the weakest in their right, to throw downe oppressours, and to foster and continue the societie a­mong men; which could not otherwise, but by vertue of that vnitie be wel done: yet these examples are nothing pertinent to vs; because our King­dome and diuers other Monarchies are not in that case, but had their be­ginning in a farre contrary fashion.

For as our Chronicles beare witnesse, this Ile, and especially our part of it, being scantly inhabited, but by very few, and they as barbarous and scant of ciuilitie, as number, there comes our first King Fergus, with a great number with him, out of Ireland, which was long inhabited before vs, and making himselfe master of the countrey, by his owne friendship, and force, as well of the Ireland-men that came with him, as of the countrey-men that willingly fell to him, hee made himselfe King and Lord, as well of the whole landes, as of the whole inhabitants within the same. Thereafter he and his successours, a long while after their being Kinges, made and esta­blished their lawes from time to time, and as the occasion required. So the trewth is directly contrarie in our state to the false affirmation of such sedi­tious writers, as would perswade vs, that the Lawes and state of our coun­trey were established before the admitting of a king: where by the contra­rie ye see it plainely prooued, that a wise king comming in among barbares, first established the estate and forme of gouernement, and thereafter made lawes by himselfe, and his successours according thereto.

The kings therefore in Scotland were before any estates or rankes of men within the same, before any Parliaments were holden, or lawes made: and by them was the land distributed (which at the first was whole theirs) states erected and decerned, and formes of gouernement deuised and e­stablished: And so it followes of necessitie, that the kings were the authors and makers of the Lawes, and not the Lawes of the kings. And to prooue this my assertion more clearly, it is euident by the rolles of our Chancellery [Page 202](which containe our eldest and fundamentall Lawes) that the King is Do­minus omnium bonorum, and Dominus directus totius Dominij, the whole sub­iects being but his vassals, and from him holding all their lands as their o­uer-lord, who according to good seruices done vnto him, chaungeth their holdings from tacke to few, from ward to blanch, erecteth new Baronies, and vniteth olde, without aduice or authoritie of either Parliament, or any other subalterin iudiciall seate: So as if wrong might bee admitted in play (albeit I grant wrong should be wrong in all persons) the King might haue a better colour for his pleasure, without further reason, to take the land from his lieges, as ouer-lord of the whole, and doe with it as pleaseth him, since all that they hold is of him, then, as foolish writers say, the people might vnmake the king, and put an other in his roome: But either of them as vnlawful, and against the ordinance of God, ought to be alike odious to be thought, much lesse put in practise.

And according to these fundamentall Lawes already alledged, we daily see that in the Parliament (which is nothing else but the head Court of the king and his vassals) the lawes are but craued by his subiects, and onely made by him at their rogation, and with their aduice: For albeit the king make daily statutes and ordinances, enioyning such paines thereto as hee thinkes meet, without any aduice of Parliament or estates; yet it lies in the power of no Parliament, to make any kinde of Lawe or Statute, without his Scepter be to it, for giuing it the force of a Law: And although diuers changes haue beene in other countries of the blood Royall, and kingly house, the kingdome being reft by conquest from one to another, as in our neighbour countrey in England, (which was neuer in ours) yet the same ground of the kings right ouer all the land, and subiects thereof remaineth alike in all other free Monarchies, as well as in this: For when the Bastard of Normandie came into England, and made himselfe king, was it not by force, and with a mighty army? Where he gaue the Law, and tooke none, changed the Lawes, inuerted the order of gouernement, set downe the strangers his followers in many of the old possessours roomes, as at this day well appeareth a great part of the Gentlemen in England, beeing come of the Norman blood, and their old Lawes, which to this day they are ruled by, are written in his language, and not in theirs: And yet his successours haue with great happinesse enioyed the Crowne to this day; Whereof the like was also done by all them that conquested them before.

And for conclusion of this point, that the king is ouer-lord ouer the whole lands, it is likewise daily proued by the Law of our hoordes, of want of Heires, and of Bastardies: For if a hoord be found vnder the earth, be­cause it is no more in the keeping or vse of any person, it of the law pertains to the king. If a person, inheritour of any lands or goods, dye without any sort of heires, all his landes and goods returne to the king. And if a bastard die vnrehabled without heires of his bodie (which rehabling one­ly lyes in the kings hands) all that hee hath likewise returnes to the king. [Page 203]And as ye see it manifest, that the King is ouer-Lord of the whole land: so is he Master ouer euery person that inhabiteth the same, hauing power ouer the life and death of euery one of them: For although a iust Prince will not take the life of any of his subiects without a cleare law; yet the same lawes whereby he taketh them, are made by himselfe, or his predecessours; and so the power flowes alwaies from him selfe; as by daily experience we see, good and iust Princes will from time to time make new lawes and statutes, adioyning the penalties to the breakers thereof, which before the law was made, had beene no crime to the subiect to haue committed. Not that I de­ny the old definition of a King, and of a law; which makes the king to bee a speaking law, and the Law a dumbe king: for certainely a king that go­uernes not by his lawe, can neither be countable to God for his admini­stration, nor haue a happy and established raigne: For albeit it be trew that I haue at length prooued, that the King is aboue the law, as both the author and giuer of strength thereto; yet a good king will not onely delight to rule his subiects by the lawe, but euen will conforme himselfe in his owne actions thereuneto, alwaies keeping that ground, that the health of the common-wealth be his chiefe lawe: And where he sees the lawe doubt­some or rigorous, hee may interpret or mitigate the same, lest otherwise Summum ius bee summa iniuria: And therefore generall lawes, made publikely in Parliament, may vpon knowen respects to the King by his authoritie bee mitigated, and suspended vpon causes onely knowen to him.

As likewise, although I haue said, a good king will frame all his actions to be according to the Law; yet is hee not bound thereto but of his good will, and for good example-giuing to his subiects: For as in the law of ab­staining from eating of flesh in Lenton, the king will, for examples sake, make his owne house to obserue the Law; yet no man will thinke he needs to take a licence to eate flesh. And although by our Lawes, the bearing and wearing of hag-buts, and pistolets be forbidden, yet no man can find any fault in the King, for causing his traine vse them in any raide vpon the Bor­derers, or other malefactours or rebellious subiects. So as I haue alreadie said, a good King, although hee be aboue the Law, will subiect and frame his actions thereto, for examples sake to his subiects, and of his owne free­will, but not as subiect or bound thereto.

Since I haue so clearely prooued then out of the fundamentall lawes and practise of this country, what right & power a king hath ouer his land and subiects, it is easie to be vnderstood, what allegeance & obedience his lieges owe vnto him; I meane alwaies of such free Monarchies as our king is, and not of electiue kings, and much lesse of such sort of gouernors, as the dukes of Venice are, whose Aristocratick and limited gouernment, is nothing like to free Monarchies; although the malice of some writers hath not beene ashamed to mis-know any difference to be betwixt them. And if it be not lawfull to any particular Lordes tenants or vassals, vpon whatsoeuer [Page 204]pretext, to controll and displace their Master, and ouer-lord (as is clearer nor the Sunne by all Lawes of the world) how much lesse may the subiects and vassals of the great ouer-lord the KING controll or displace him? And since in all inferiour iudgements in the land, the people may not vpon any respects displace their Magistrates, although but subaltern: for the people of a borough, cannot displace their Prouost before the time of their ele­ction: nor in Ecclesiasticall policie the flocke can vpon any pretence dis­place the Pastor, nor iudge of him: yea euen the poore Schoolemaster can­not be displaced by his schollers: If these, I say (whereof some are but infe­riour, subaltern, and temporall Magistrates, and none of them equall in any sort to the dignitie of a King) cannot be displaced for any occasion or pre­text by them that are ruled by them: how much lesse is it lawfull vpon any pretext to controll or displace the great Prouost, and great Schoole-master of the whole land: except by inuerting the order of all Law and reason, the commanded may be made to command their commander, the iudged to iudge their Iudge, and they that are gouerned, to gouerne their time about their Lord and gouernour.

And the agreement of the Law of nature in this our ground with the Lawes and constitutions of God, and man, already alledged, will by two similitudes easily appeare. The King towards his people is rightly compa­red to a father of children, and to a head of a body composed of diuers members: For as fathers, the good Princes, and Magistrates of the people of God acknowledged themselues to their subiects. And for all other well ruled Common-wealths, the stile of Pater patriae was euer, and is common­ly vsed to Kings. And the proper office of a King towards his Subiects, agrees very wel with the office of the head towards the body, and all mem­bers thereof: For from the head, being the seate of Iudgement, proceedeth the care and foresight of guiding, and preuenting all euill that may come to the body or any part thereof. The head cares for the body, so doeth the King for his people. As the discourse and direction flowes from the head, and the execution according thereunto belongs to the rest of the mem­bers, euery one according to their office: so is it betwixt a wise Prince, and his people. As the iudgement comming from the head may not onely im­ploy the members, euery one in their owne office, as long as they are able for it; but likewise in case any of them be affected with any infirmitie must care and prouide for their remedy, in-case it be curable, and if otherwise, gar cut them off for feare of infecting of the rest: euen so is it betwixt the Prince, and his people. And as there is euer hope of curing any diseased member by the direction of the head, as long as it is whole; but by the con­trary, if it be troubled, all the members are partakers of that paine, so is it be­twixt the Prince and his people.

And now first for the fathers part (whose naturall loue to his children I described in the first part of this my discourse, speaking of the dutie that Kings owe to their Subiects) consider, I pray you what duetie his children [Page 205]owe to him, & whether vpō any pretext whatsoeuer, it wil not be thought monstrous and vnnaturall to his sons, to rise vp against him, to control him at their appetite, and when they thinke good to sley him, or to cut him off, and adopt to themselues any other they please in his roome: Or can any pretence of wickednes or rigor on his part be a iust excuse for his children to put hand into him? And although wee see by the course of nature, that loue vseth to descend more then to ascend, in case it were trew, that the fa­ther hated and wronged the children neuer so much, will any man, endued with the least sponke of reason, thinke it lawfull for them to meet him with the line? Yea, suppose the father were furiously following his sonnes with a drawen sword, is it lawfull for them to turne and strike againe, or make any resistance but by flight? I thinke surely, if there were no more but the example of bruit beasts & vnreasonable creatures, it may serue well enough to qualifie and proue this my argnment. We reade often the pietie that the Storkes haue to their olde and decayed parents: And generally wee know, that there are many sorts of beasts and fowles, that with violence and many bloody strokes will beat and banish their yong ones from them, how soone they perceiue them to be able to fend themselues; but wee neuer read or heard of any resistance on their part, except among the vipers; which prooues such persons, as ought to be reasonable creatures, and yet vnnatu­rally follow this example, to be endued with their viperous nature.

And for the similitude of the head and the body, it may very well fall out that the head will be forced to garre cut off some rotten member (as I haue already said) to keepe the rest of the body in integritie: but what state the body can be in, if the head, for any infirmitie that can fall to it, be cut off, I leaue it to the readers iudgement.

So as (to conclude this part) if the children may vpon any pretext that can be imagined, lawfully rise vp against their Father, cut him off, & choose any other whom they please in his roome; and if the body for the weale of it, may for any infirmitie that can be in the head, strike it off, then I cannot deny that the people may rebell, controll, and displace, or cut off their king at their owne pleasure, and vpon respects moouing them. And whether these similitudes represent better the office of a King, or the offices of Ma­sters or Deacons of crafts, or Doctors in Physicke (which iolly compari­sons are vsed by such writers as maintaine the contrary proposition) I leaue it also to the readers discretion.

And in case any doubts might arise in any part of this treatise, I wil (ac­cording to my promise) with the solution of foure principall and most weightie doubts, that the aduersaries may obiect, conclude this discourse. And first it is casten vp by diuers, that employ their pennes vpon Apolo­gies for rebellions and treasons that euery man is borne to carry such a na­turall zeale and duety to his common-wealth, as to his mother; that seeing it so rent and deadly wounded, as whiles it will be by wicked and tyran­nous Kings, good Citizens will be forced, for the naturall zeale and duety [Page 206]they owe to their owne natiue countrey, to put their hand to worke for freeing their common-wealth from such a pest.

Whereunto I giue two answeres: First, it is a sure Axiome in Theologie, that euill should not be done, that good may come of it: The wickednesse therefore of the King can neuer make them that are ordained to be iudged by him, to become his Iudges. And if it be not lawfull to a priuate man to reuenge his priuate iniury vpon his priuate aduersary (since God hath one­ly giuen the sword to the Magistrate) how much lesse is it lawfull to the people, or any part of them (who all are but priuate men, the authoritie being alwayes with the Magistrate, as I haue already proued) to take vpon them the vse of the sword, whom to it belongs not, against the publicke Magistrate, whom to onely it belongeth.

Next, in place of relieuing the common-wealth out of distresse (which is their onely excuse and colour) they shall heape double distresse and desola­tion vpon it; and so their rebellion shall procure the contrary effects that they pretend it for: For a king cannot be imagined to be so vnruly and ty­rannous, but the common-wealth will be kept in better order, notwith­standing thereof, by him, then it can be by his way-taking. For first, all sudden mutations are perillous in common-wealths, hope being thereby giuen to all bare men to set vp themselues, and flie with other mens fea­thers, the reines being loosed to all the insolencies that disordered people can commit by hope of impunitie, because of the loosenesse of all things.

And next, it is certaine that a king can neuer be so monstrously vicious, but hee will generally fauour iustice, and maintaine some order, except in the particulars, wherein his inordinate lustes and passions cary him away; where by the contrary, no King being, nothing is vnlawfull to none: And so the olde opinion of the Philosophers prooues trew, That better it is to liue in a Common-wealth, where nothing is lawfull, then where all things are lawfull to all men; the Common-wealth at that time resembling an vndanted young horse that hath casten his rider: For as the diuine Poet DV BARTAS sayth, Better it were to suffer some disorder in the estate, and some spots in the Common-wealth, then in pretending to reforme, vtterly to ouer­throw the Republicke.

The second obiection they ground vpon the curse that hangs ouer the common-wealth, where a wicked king reigneth: and, say they, there can­not be a more acceptable deed in the sight of God, nor more dutiful to their common-weale, then to free the countrey of such a curse, and vindicate to them their libertie, which is naturall to all creatures to craue.

Whereunto for answere, I grant indeed, that a wicked king is sent by God for a curse to his people, and a plague for their sinnes: but that it is lawfull to them to shake off that curse at their owne hand, which God hath laid on them, that I deny, and may so do iustly. Will any deny that the king of Babel was a curse to the people of God, as was plainly fore-spoken and threatned vnto them in the prophecie of their captiuitie? And what was Nero to [Page 207]the Christian Church in his time? And yet Ieremy and Paul (as yee haue else heard) commanded them not onely to obey them, but heartily to pray for their welfare.

It is certaine then (as I haue already by the Law of God sufficiently pro­ued) that patience, earnest prayers to God, and amendment of their liues, are the onely lawful meanes to moue God to relieue them of that heauie curse. As for vindicating to themselues their owne libertie, what lawfull power haue they to reuoke to themselues againe those priuiledges, which by their owne consent before were so fully put out of their hands? for if a Prince cannot iustly bring backe againe to himself the priuiledges once bestowed by him or his predecessors vpon any state or ranke of his subiects; how much lesse may the subiects reaue out of the princes hand that superioritie, which he and his Predecessors haue so long brooked ouer them?

But the vnhappy iniquitie of the time, which hath oft times giuen ouer good successe to their treasonable attempts, furnisheth them the ground of their third obiection: For, say they, the fortunate successe that God hath so oft giuen to such enterprises, prooueth plainely by the practise, that God fauoured the iustnesse of their quarrell.

To the which I answere, that it is trew indeed, that all the successe of bat­tels, as well as other worldly things, lyeth onely in Gods hand: And there­fore it is that in the Scripture he takes to himselfe the style of God of Hosts. But vpon that generall to conclude, that hee euer giues victory to the iust quarrell, would prooue the Philistims, and diuers other neighbour enemies of the people of God to haue oft times had the iust quarrel against the peo­ple of God, in respect of the many victories they obtained against them. And by that same argument they had also iust quarrell against the Arke of God: For they wan it in the field, and kept it long prisoner in their coun­trey. As likewise by all good Writers, as well Theologues, as other, the Duels and singular combats are disallowed; which are onely made vpon pretence, that GOD will kith thereby the iustice of the quarrell: For wee must consider that the innocent partie is not innocent before God: And therefore God will make oft times them that haue the wrong side reuenge iustly his quarrell; and when he hath done, cast his scourge in the fire; as he oft times did to his owne people, stirring vp and strengthening their enemies, while they were humbled in his sight, and then deliuered them in their hands. So God, as the great Iudge may iustly punish his Deputie, and for his rebellion against him, stir vp his rebels to meet him with the like: And when it is done, the part of the instrument is no better then the diuels part is in tempting and torturing such as God committeth to him as his hangman to doe: Therefore, as I said in the beginning, it is oft times a very deceiueable argument, to iudge of the cause by the euent.

And the last obiection is grounded vpon the mutuall paction and ad­stipulation (as they call it) betwixt the King and his people, at the time of his coronation: For there, say they, there is a mutuall paction, and contract [Page 208]bound vp, and sworne betwixt the king, and the people: Whereupon it fol­loweth, that if the one part of the contract or the Indent bee broken vpon the Kings side, the people are no longer bound to keepe their part of it, but are thereby freed of their oath: For (say they) a contract betwixt two par­ties, of all Law frees the one partie, if the other breake vnto him.

As to this contract alledged made at the coronation of a King, although I deny any such contract to bee made then, especially containing such a clause irritant as they alledge; yet I confesse, that a king at his coronation, or at the entry to his kingdome, willingly promiseth to his people, to dis­charge honorably and trewly the office giuen him by God ouer them: But presuming that thereafter he breake his promise vnto them neuer so inex­cusable; the question is, who should bee iudge of the breake, giuing vnto them, this contractwere made vnto them neuer so sicker, according to their alleageance. I thinke no man that hath but the smallest entrance into the ci­uill Law, will doubt that of all Law, either ciuil or municipal of any nation, a contract cannot be thought broken by the one partie, and so the other likewise to be freed therefro, except that first a lawfull triall and cognition be had by the ordinary Iudge of the breakers thereof: Or else euery man may be both party and Iudge in his owne cause; which is absurd once to be thought. Now in this contract (I say) betwixt the king and his people, God is doubtles the only Iudge, both because to him onely the king must make count of his administration (as is oft said before) as likewise by the oath in the coronation, God is made iudge and reuenger of the breakers: For in his presence, as only iudge of oaths, all oaths ought to be made. Then since God is the onely Iudge betwixt the two parties contractors, the cognition and reuenge must onely appertaine to him: It followes therefore of necessitie, that God must first giue sentence vpon the King that breaketh, before the people can thinke themselues freed of their oath. What iustice then is it, that the partie shall be both iudge and partie, vsurping vpon himselfe the office of God, may by this argument easily appeare: And shall it lie in the hands of headlesse multitude, when they please to weary off subiection, to cast off the yoake of gouernement that God hath laid vpon them; to iudge and punish him, whom-by they should be iudged and punished; and in that case, wherein by their violence they kythe themselues to be most pas­sionate parties, to vse the office of an vngracious Iudge or Arbiter? Nay, to speake trewly of that case, as it stands betwixt the king and his people, none of them ought to iudge of the others breake: For considering rightly the two parties at the time of their mutuall promise, the king is the one party, and the whole people in one body are the other party. And therfore since it is certaine, that a king, in case so it should fal out, that his people in one body had rebelled against him, hee should not in that case, as thinking himselfe free of his promise and oath; become an vtter enemy, and practise the wreake of his whole people and natiue country: although he ought iustly to punish the principall authours and bellowes of that vniuersall rebel­lion: [Page 209]how much lesse then ought the people (that are alwaies subiect vnto him, and naked of all authoritie on their part) presse to iudge and ouer­throw him? otherwise the people, as the one partie contracters, shall no sooner challenge the king as breaker, but hee assoone shall iudge them as breakers: so as the victors making the tyners the traitors (as our prouerbe is) the partie shall aye become both iudge and partie in his owne particu­lar, as I haue alreadie said.

And it is here likewise to be noted, that the duty and alleageance, which the people sweareth to their prince, is not only bound to themselues, but likewise to their lawfull heires and posterity, the lineall successiō of crowns being begun among the people of God, and happily continued in diuers christian common-wealths: So as no obiection either of heresie, or what­soeuer priuate statute or law may free the people from their oath-giuing to their king, and his succession, established by the old fundamentall lawes of the kingdome: For, as hee is their heritable ouer-lord, and so by birth, not by any right in the coronation, commeth to his crowne, it is a like vnlaw­ful (the crowne euer standing full) to displace him that succeedeth thereto, as to eiect the former: For at the very moment of the expiring of the king reigning, the nearest and lawful heire entreth in his place: And so to refuse him, or intrude another, is not to holde out vncomming in, but to expell and put out their righteous King. And I trust at this time whole France ac­knowledgeth the superstitious rebellion of the liguers, who vpon pretence of heresie, by force of armes held so long out, to the great desolation of their whole countrey, their natiue and righteous king from possessing of his owne crowne and naturall kingdome.

Not that by all this former discourse of mine, and Apologie for kings, I meane that whatsoeuer errors and intollerable abominations a souereigne prince commit, hee ought to escape all punishment, as if thereby the world were only ordained for kings, & they without controlment to turne it vp­side down at their pleasure: but by the contrary, by remitting them to God (who is their onely ordinary Iudge) I remit them to the soreit and sharpest schoolemaster that can be deuised for them: for the further a king is prefer­red by God aboue all other ranks & degrees of men, and the higher that his seat is aboue theirs, the greater is his obligation to his maker. And therfore in case he forget himselfe (his vnthankfulnes being in the same measure of height) the sadder and sharper will his correction be; and according to the greatnes of the height he is in, the weight of his fall wil recōpense the same: for the further that any person is obliged to God, his offence becomes and growes so much the greater, then it would be in any other. Ioues thunder­claps light oftner and sorer vpon the high & stately oakes, then on the low and supple willow trees: and the highest bench is sliddriest to sit vpon. Neither is it euer heard that any king forgets himselfe towards God, or in his vocation; but God with the greatnesse of the plague reuengeth the greatnes of his ingratitude: Neither thinke I by the force and argument [Page 210]of this my discourse so to perswade the people, that none will hereafter be raised vp, and rebell against wicked Princes. But remitting to the iustice and prouidence of God to stirre vp such scourges as pleaseth him, for pu­nishment of wicked kings (who made the very vermine and filthy dust of the earth to bridle the insolencie of proud Pharaoh) my onely purpose and intention in this treatise is to perswade, as farre as lieth in me, by these sure and infallible grounds, all such good Christian readers, as beare not onely the naked name of a Christian, but kith the fruites thereof in their daily forme of life, to keepe their hearts and hands free from such monstrous and vnnaturall rebellions, whensoeuer the wickednesse of a Prince shall procure the same at Gods hands: that, when it shall please God to cast such scourges of princes, and instruments of his fury in the fire, ye may stand vp with cleane handes, and vnspotted consciences, hauing prooued your selues in all your actions trew Christians toward God, and dutifull subiects towards your King, hauing remitted the iudgement and punishment of all his wrongs to him, whom to onely of right it appertaineth.

But crauing at God, and hoping that God shall continue his blessing with vs, in not sending such fearefull desolation, I heartily wish our kings behauiour so to be, and continue among vs, as our God in earth, and louing Father, endued with such properties as I described a King in the first part of this Treatise. And that ye (my deare countreymen, and charitable rea­ders) may presse by all meanes to procure the prosperitie and welfare of your King; that as hee must on the one part thinke all his earthly felicitie and happinesse grounded vpon your weale, caring more for himselfe for your sake then for his owne, thinking himselfe onely ordained for your weale; such holy and happy emulation may arise betwixt him and you, as his care for your quietnes, and your care for his honour and preseruation, may in all your actions daily striue together, that the Land may thinke themselues blessed with such a King, and the king may thinke himselfe most happy in ruling ouer so louing and obedient subiects.

FINIS.

A COVNTERBLASTE TO TOBACCO.

TO THE READER.

AS euery humane body (deare Countrey men) how wholesome soeuer, is not­withstanding subiect, or at least natu­rally inclined to some sorts of diseases, or infirmities: so is there no Common-wealth, or Body-politicke, how well go­uerned, or peaceable soeuer it be, that lackes the owne popular errors, and na­turally inclined corruptions: and therefore is it no wonder, although this our Countrey and Common-wealth, though peaceable, though wealthy, though long flourishing in both, be amongst the rest, sub­iect to the owne naturall infirmities. We are of all Nations the people most louing, and most reuerently obedient to our Prince, yet are we (as time hath often borne witnesse) too easie to be seduced to make Rebellion vpon very slight grounds. Our fortunate and oft proued valour in warres abroad, our heartie and reuerent obe­dience to our Princes at home, hath bred vs a long, and a thrice happie peace: Our peace hath bread wealth: And peace and wealth hath brought forth a generall sluggishnesse, which makes vs wallow in all sorts of idle delights, and soft delicacies, the first [Page 212]seeds of the subuersion of all great Monarchies. Our Cleargie are become negligent and lazie, Our Nobilitie and Gentrie pro­digall, and sold to their priuate delights, Our Lawyers couetous, Our Common people prodigall and curious; and generally all sorts of people more carefull for their priuate ends, then for their mother the Common-wealth.

For remedie whereof, it is the Kings part (as the proper Phi­sician of his Politicke-bodie) to purge it of all those diseases, by Medicines meete for the same: as by a certaine milde, and yet iust forme of gouernment, to maintaine the Publicke quiet­nesse, and preuent all occasions of Commotion: by the example of his owne Person and Court, to make vs all ashamed of our slug­gish delicacie, and to stirre vs vp to the practise againe of all ho­nest exercises, and Martiall shadowes of Warre; As like­wise by his, and his Courts moderatenesse in Apparell, to make vs ashamed of our prodigalitie: By his quicke admonitions and carefull ouerseeing of the Cleargie, to waken them vp againe, to be more diligent in their Offices: By the sharpe triall, and se­uere punishment of the partiall, couetous and bribing Lawyers, to reforme their corruptions: And generally by the example of his owne Person, and by the due execution of good Lawes, to reforme and abolish, piece and piece, these olde and euill grounded abuses: For this will not be Opus vnius diei, but as euery one of these dis­eases, must from the King receiue the owne cure proper for it, so are there some sorts of abuses in Common-wealths, that though they bee of so base and contemptible a condition, as they are too low for the Law to looke on, and to meane for a King to interpone his authoritie, or bend his eye vpon; yet are they corruptions, as­well as the greatest of them. So is an Ant an Animal, aswell as an Elephant: so is a Wrenne Auis, aswell as a Swanne, and so is a small dint of the Tooth-ake, a disease aswell as the feare­full Plague is. But for these base sorts of corruption in Com­mon-wealths, not onely the King, or any inferiour Magistrate, but Quilibet è populo may serue to be a Phisician, by discouering and impugning the error, and by perswading reformation thereof.

[Page 213]And surely in my opinion, there cannot bee a more base, and yet hurtfull, corruption in a Countrey, then is the vile vse (or rather abuse) of taking Tobacco in this Kingdome, which hath mooued mee, shortly to discouer the abuses thereof in this following little Pamphlet.

Jf any thinke it a light Argument, so is it but a toy that is be­stowed vpon it. And since the Subiect is but of Smoke, J thinke the fume of an idle braine, may serue for a sufficient batterie a­gainst so fumous and feeble an enemie. Jf my grounds bee found trew, it is all J looke for; but if they cary the force of per­swasion with them, it is all J can wish, and more then I can ex­pect. My onely care is, that you, my deare Countrey-men, may rightly conceiue euen by this smallest trifle, of the since­ritie of my meaning in greater matters, neuer to spare any paine, that may tend to the procuring of your weale and prosperitie.

A COVNTERBLASTE TO TOBACCO.

THat the manifold abuses of this vile cu­stome of Tobacco taking, may the better be espied, it is fit, that first you enter into con­sideration both of the first originall thereof, and likewise of the reasons of the first entry thereof into this Countrey. For certainely as such customes, that haue their first insti­tution either from a godly, necessary, or ho­nourable ground, and are first brought in, by the meanes of some worthy, vertuous, and great Personage, are euer, and most iustly, holden in great and reuerent estimation and account, by all wise, vertuous, and temperate spirits: So should it by the contrary, iustly bring a great disgrace into that sort of cu­stomes, which hauing their originall from base corruption and barbaritie, doe in like sort, make their first entry into a Countrey, by an inconsiderate and childish affectation of Noueltie, as is the trew case of the first inuenti­on of Tobacco taking, and of the first entry thereof among vs. For Tobacco be­ing a common herbe, which (though vnder diuers names) growes almost euery where, was first found out by some of the barbarous Indians, to be a Preseruatiue or Antidote against the Pocks, a filthy disease, wherunto these barbarous people are (as all men know) very much subiect, what through the vncleanely and adust constitution of their bodies, and what through the intemperate heate of their Climate: so that as from them was first brought into Christendome, that most detestable disease; so from them likewise was brought this vse of Tobacco, as a stinking and vnsauourie An­tidote, for so corrupted and execrable a maladie, the stinking suffumigati­on whereof they yet vse against that disease, making so one canker or ve­nime to eate out another.

And now good Countrey-men, let vs (I pray you) consider, what ho­nour or policy can mooue vs to imitate the barbarous and beastly maners of the wilde, godlesse, and slauish Indians, especially in so vile and stinking a custome? Shall we that disdaine to imitate the maners of our neighbour [Page 215] France (hauing the stile of the first Christian Kingdome) and that cannot endure the spirit of the Spaniards (their King being now comparable in largenesse of Dominions, to the great Emperour of Turkie) Shall wee, I say, that haue bene so long ciuill and wealthy in Peace, famous and inuin­cible in Warre, fortunate in both, we that haue bene euer able to aide any of our neighbours (but neuer deafed any of their eares with any of our supplications for assistance) shall wee, I say, without blushing abase our selues so farre, as to imitate these beastly Indians, slaues to the Spaniards, re­fuse to the world, and as yet aliens from the holy Couenant of God? Why doe we not as well imitate them in walking naked as they doe? in prefer­ring glasses, feathers, and such toyes, to gold and precious stones, as they doe? yea why doe we not denie God and adore the diuel, as they doe?

Now to the corrupted basenesse of the first vse of this Tobacco, doeth ve­ry well agree the foolish and groundlesse first entry thereof into this King­dome. It is not so long since the first entry of this abuse amongst vs here, as this present aage cannot yet very well remember, both the first Authour, and the forme of the first introduction of it amongst vs. It was neither brought in by King, great Conquerour, nor learned doctour of Phisicke.

With the report of a great discouery for a Conquest, some two or three Sauage men, were brought in, together with this Sauage custome. But the pitie is, the poore wilde barbarous men died, but that vile barbarous cu­stome is yet aliue, yea in fresh vigor: so as it seemes a miracle to me, how a custome springing from so vile a ground, and brought in by a father so generally hated, should be welcomed vpon so slender a warrant. For if they that first put it in practise here, had remembred for what respect it was vsed by them from whence it came, I am sure they would haue bene loath, to haue taken so farre the imputation of that disease vpon them as they did, by vsing the cure thereof: For Sanis non est opus medico, and counterpoisons are neuer vsed, but where poison is thought to precede.

But since it is trew, that diuers customes slightly grounded, and with no better warrant entred in a Common-wealth, may yet in the vse of them thereafter, prooue both necessary and profitable; it is therefore next to bee examined, if there be not a full Sympathie and true Proportion, betweene the base ground and foolish entrie, and the loathsome and hurtfull vse of this stinking Antidote.

I am now therefore heartily to pray you to consider, first vpon what false and erroneous grounds you haue first built the generall good liking thereof; and next, what sinnes towards God, and foolish vanities before the world you commit, in the detestable vse of it.

As for these deceitfull grounds, that haue specially moued you to take a good and great conceit thereof, I shall content my selfe to examine here onely foure of the principals of them; two founded vpon the Theoricke of a deceiueable apparance of reason, and two of them vpon the mistaken practicke of generall experience.

[Page 216]First, it is thought by you a sure Aphorisme in the Physickes, That the braines of all men, beeing naturally cold and wet, all drie and hote things should be good for them; of which nature this stinking suffumigation is, and therefore of good vse to them. Of this argument, both the proposi­tion and assumption are false, and so the conclusion cannot but be voyd of it selfe. For as to the Proposition, That because the braines are colde and moist, therefore things that are hote and dry are best for them, it is an inept consequence: For man beeing compounded of the foure Complexions, (whose fathers are the foure Elements) although there be a mixture of them all in all the parts of his body, yet must the diuers parts of our Microcosme or little world within our selues, be diuersly more inclined, some to one, some to another complexion, according to the diuersitie of their vses, that of these discords a perfect harmonie may be made vp for the maintenance of the whole body.

The application then of a thing of a contrary nature, to any of these parts, is to interrupt them of their due function, and by consequence hurt­full to the health of the whole bodie. As if a man, because the Liuer is hote (as the fountaine of blood) and as it were an ouen to the stomacke, would therefore apply and weare close vpon his Liuer and stomacke a cake of lead; he might within a very short time (I hope) bee susteined very good cheape at an Ordinarie, beside the clearing of his conscience from that deadly sinne of gluttonie. And as if, because the Heart is full of vitall spirits, and in perpetuall motion, a man would therefore lay a heauie pound stone on his breast, for staying and holding downe that wanton palpitation, I doubt not but his breast would be more bruised with the weight therof, then the heart would be comforted with such a disagreeable and contrarious cure. And euen so is it with the braines: For if a man, because the braines are cold and humide, would therefore vse inwardly by smells, or outwardly by ap­plication, things of hot and dry qualitie, all the gaine that he could make thereof would onely be to put himselfe in a great forwardnes for running mad, by ouerwatching himselfe, the coldnesse and moistnesse of our braine being the onely ordinary meanes that procure our sleepe and rest. Indeed I doe not deny, but when it falls out that any of these, or any part of our bo­die growes to be distempered, and to tend to an extremitie, beyond the compasse of Natures temperate mixture, that in that case cures of contrary qualities, to the intemperate inclination of that part, being wisely prepared and discreetly ministred, may be both necessary and helpfull for strength­ning and assisting Nature in the expulsion of her enemies: for this is the trew definition of all profitable Phisicke.

But first these Cures ought not to be vsed, but where there is need of them, the contrary whereof, is daily practised in this generall vse of Tobacco by all sorts and complexions of people.

And next, I denie the Minor of this argument, as I haue already said, in regard that this Tobacco, is not simply of a dry and hote qualitie; but rather [Page 217]hath a certain venemous facultie ioyned with the heat therof, which makes it haue an Antipathy against nature, as by the hateful smel therof doth well appeare. For the nose being the proper Organ and conuoy of the sense of smelling to the braines, which are the only fountaine of that sense, doth euer serue vs for an infallible witnesse, whether that odour which we smell, be healthfull or hurtfull to the braine, (except when it fals out that the senseit selfe is corrupted and abused through some infirmitie, and distemper in the braine.) And that the suffumigation thereof cannot haue a drying quality, it needs no further probation, then that it is a smoke, all smoke and vapour, being of it selfe humide, as drawing neere to the nature of the aire, and easie to be resolued againe into water, whereof there needs no other proofe but the Meteors, which being bred of nothing else but of the vapors and exha­lations sucked vp by the Sun out of the earth, the sea, and waters, yet are the same smoakie vapors turned and transformed into raines, snowes, deawes, hoare frosts, and such like waterie Meteors, as by the contrary the rainie cloudes are often transformed and euaporated in blustering windes.

The second Argument grounded on a shew of reason is, That this filthy smoake, aswell through the heat and strength thereof, as by a naturall force and quality, is able and fit to purge both the head and stomack of rhewmes and distillations, as experience teacheth, by the spitting & auoiding fleame, immediatly after the taking of it. But the fallacie of this Argument may ea­sily appeare, by my late preceding description of the Meteors. For euen as the smoakie vapours sucked vp by the Sunne, and stayed in the lowest and cold Region of the aire, are there contracted into clouds, and turned into raine and such other watery Meteors: So this stinking smoake being suc­ked vp by the nose, & imprisoned in the cold and moyst braines, is by their cold and wet facultie, turned and cast forth againe in waterie distillations, and so are you made free and purged of nothing, but that wherewith you wilfully burdened your selues: and therefore are you no wiser in taking To­bacco for purging you of distillations, then if for preuenting the Cholicke you would take all kind of windie meats and drinkes; and for preuenting of the Stone, you would take all kinde of meates and drinkes that would breed grauell in the kidneys, and then when you were forced to auoide much winde out of your stomacke, and much grauell in your Vrine, that you should attribute the thanke therof to such nourishments, as bred those within you, that behooued either to be expelled by the force of Nature, or you to haue burst at the broad side, as the Prouerbe is.

As for the other two reasons founded vpon experience, the first of which is, That the whole people would not haue taken so generall a good liking thereof, if they had not by experience found it very soueraigne and good for them: For answere thereunto, how easily the mindes of any people, wherewith God hath replenished this world may be drawen to the foolish affectation of any noueltie, I leaue it to the discreet iudgement of any man that is reasonable.

[Page 218]Doe we not daily see, that a man can no sooner bring ouer from beyond the seas any new forme of apparell, but that he cannot be thought a man of spirit, that would not presently imitate the same? And so from hand to hand it spreads, till it be practised by all, not for any commodity that is in it, but only because it is come to be the fashion. For such is the force of that natu­rall selfe-loue in euery one of vs, and such is the corruption of enuy bred in the brest of euery one, as we cannot be content vnlesse wee imitate euery thing that our fellowes doe, and so prooue our selues capable of euery thing whereof they are capable, like Apes, counterfeiting the maners of others, to our owne destruction. For let one or two of the greatest Masters of Mathe­maticks in any of the two famous Vniuersities, but constantly affirme any cleare day, that they seesome strange apparition in the skies; they wil I war­rant you be seconded by the greatest part of the students in that profession: So loth will they be, to be thought inferior to their fellowes, either in depth of knowledge or sharpnes of sight: And therfore the generall good liking and imbracing of this foolish custome, doth but only proceed from that af­fectation of noueltie, and popular errour, whereof I haue already spoken.

The other argument drawn from a mistaken experience, is but the more particular probation of this generall, because it is alledged to be found trew by proofe, that by the taking of Tobacco diuers and very many doe finde themselues cured of diuers diseases; as on the other part, no man euer recei­ued harme thereby. In this argument there is first a great mistaking, and next a monstrous absurditie: For is it not a very great mistaking, to take non causam pro causa, as they say in the Logickes? because peraduenture when a sicke man hath had his disease at the height, hee hath at that instant taken Tobacco, and afterward his disease taking the naturall course of declining, and consequently the Patient of recouering his health, O then the Tobacco forsooth, was the worker of that miracle. Beside that, it is a thing wel known to all Physicians, that the apprehension and conceit of the patient, hath by wakening and vniting the vitall spirits, and so strengthening nature, a great power and vertue to cure diuers diseases. For an euident proofe of mista­king in the like case, I pray you what foolish boy, what silly wench, what olde doting wife, or ignorant countrey clowne, is not a Physician for the toothach, for the cholicke, and diuers such common diseases? Yea, will not euery man you meet withall, teach you a sundry curefor the same, & sweare by that meane either himselfe, or some of his neerest kinsemen and friends was cured? And yet I hope no man is so foolish as to beleeue them. And all these toyes do only proceed fro the mistaking Non causam pro causa, as I haue already said, and so if a man chance to recouer one of any disease, after hee hath taken Tobacco, that must haue the thanks of all. But by the contrary, if a man smoke himselfe to death with it (and many haue done) O then some other disease must beare the blame for that fault. So doe old harlots thanke their harlotrie for their many yeeres, that custome being healthfull (say they) ad purgandos Renes, but neuer haue mind how many die of the Pockes [Page 219]in the flower of their youth. And so doe olde drunkards thinke they pro­long their dayes, by their swinelike diet, but neuer remember how many die drowned in drinke before they be halfe olde.

And what greater absurditie can therebe, then to say that one cure shall serue for diuers, nay, cōtrarious sorts of diseases? It is an vndoubted ground among all Physicians, that there is almost no sort either of nourishment or medicine, that hath not some thing in it disagreeable to some part of mans bodie, because as I haue alreadie said, the nature of the temperature of euery part, is so different from another, that according to the olde pro­uerbe, That which is good for the head, is euill for the necke and the shoul­ders: For euen as a strong enemy, that inuades a town or fortresse, although in his siege thereof, he do belay and compasse it round about, yet he makes his breach and entry, at some one or fewe speciall parts thereof, which hee hath tried and found to be weakest and least able to resist; so sickenes doth make her particular assault, vpon such part or parts of our body, as are wea­kest and easiest to be ouercome by that sort of disease, which then doth as­saile vs, although all the rest of the body by Sympathie feele it selfe to be as it were belayed, and besieged by the affliction of that speciall part, the griefe and smart thereof being by the sense of feeling dispersed through all the rest of our members. And therefore the skilfull Physician presses by such cures to purge and strengthen that part which is afflicted, as are only fit for that sort of disease, and doe best agree with the nature of that infirme part; which being abused to a disease of another nature, would proue as hurtfull for the one, as helpfull for the other. Yea, not onely will a skilfull and wary Physician becarefull to vse no cure but that which is fit for that sort of dis­ease, but he will also consider all other circumstances, & make the remedies sutable therunto; as the temperature of the clime where the Patient is, the constitution of the Planets, the time of the Moone, the season of the yeere, the aage and complexion of the Patient, and the present state of his body, in strength or weaknes: For one cure must not euer be vsed for the selfesame disease, but according to the varying of any of the foresaid circumstances, that sort of remedy must be vsed which is fittest for the same. Where by the contrary in this case, such is the miraculous omnipotencie of our strong ta­sted Tobacco, as it cures al sorts of diseases (which neuer any drugge could do before) in all persons, and at all times. It cures all maner of distillations, ei­ther in the head or stomacke (if you beleeue their Axiomes) although in very deed it doe both corrupt the braine, and by causing ouer quicke dige­stion, fill the stomacke full of crudities. It cures the gowt in the feet, and (which is miraculous) in that very instant when the smoke thereof, as light, flies vp into the head, the vertue therof, as heauy, runs down to the litle toe. It helps all sorts of agues. It makes a man sober that was drunk. It refreshes a weary man, and yet makes a man hungry. Being taken when they goe to bed, it makes one sleepe soundly, and yet being taken when a man is sleepie and drowsie, it will, as they say, awake his braine, and quicken his vnder­standing. [Page 220]As for curing of the Pockes, it serues for that vse but among the pockie Indian slaues. Here in England it is refined, and will not deigne to cure here any other then cleanly and gentlemanly diseases. O omnipotent power of Tobacco! And if it could by the smoake thereof chase out deuils, as the smoake of Tobias fish did (which I am sure could smell no stronglier) it would serue for a precious Relicke, both for the superstitious Priests, and the insolent Puritanes, to cast out deuils withall.

Admitting then, and not confessing, that the vse thereof were healthful for some sorts of diseases; should it be vsed for all sicknesses? should it be v­sed by all men? should it be vsed at all times? yea should it be vsed by able, yong, strong, healthful men? Medicine hath that vertue, that it neuer leaues a man in that state wherein it finds him: it makes a sicke man whole, but a whole man sicke: And as Medicine helps nature being taken at times of ne­cessitie, so being euer and continually vsed, it doeth but weaken, weary, and weare nature. What speake I of Medicine? Nay let a man euery houre of the day, or as oft as many in this countrey vse to take Tobacco, let a man I say, but take as oft the best sorts of nourishments in meate and drinke that can be deuised, he shall with the continuall vse thereof weaken both his head and his stomacke: all his members shall becomefeeble, his spirits dull, and in the end, as a drowsie lazie belly-god, he shall euanish in a Lethargie.

And from this weakenesse it proceeds, that many in this kingdome haue had such a continuall vse of taking this vnsauorie smoake, as now they are not able to forbeare the same, no more then an old drunkard can abide to be long sober, without falling into an incurable weaknesse and euill constitu­tion: for their continuall custome hath made to them, habitum, alteram na­turam: so to those that from their birth haue beene continually nourished vpon poison and things venemous, wholsome meats are only poisonable.

Thus hauing, as I trust, sufficiently answered the most principall argu­ments that are vsed in defence of this vile custome, it rests only to informe you what sinnes and vanities you commit in the filthy abuse thereof. First, are you not guiltie of sinnefull and shamefull lust? (for lust may be as well in any of the senses as in feeling) that although you be troubled with no dis­ease, but in perfect health, yet can you neither be merry at an Ordinary, nor lasciuious in the Stewes, if you lacke Tobacco to prouoke your appetite to a­ny of those sorts of recreation, lusting after it as the children of Israel did in the wildernesse after Quailes? Secondly it is, as you vse or rather abuse it, a branch of the sinne of drunkennes, which is the root of all sinnes: for as the only delight that drunkards take in wine is in the strength of the taste, and the force of the fume therof that mounts vp to the braine: for no drunkards loue any weake, or sweet drinke: so are not those (I meane the strong heate and the fume) the onely qualities that make Tobacco so delectable to all the louers of it? And as no man likes strong heady drinke the first day (because nemo repentè fit turpissimus) but by custome is piece and piece allured, while in the ende, a drunkard will haue as great a thirst to be drunke, as a sober [Page 221]man to quench his thirst with a draught when he hath need of it: So is not this the very case of all the great takers of Tobacco? which therefore they themselues doe attribute to a bewitching qualitie in it. Thirdly, is it not the greatest sinne of all, that you the people of all sorts of this kingdome, who are created and ordeined by God, to bestow both your persons and goods, for the maintenance both of the honour and safety of your King and Common wealth, should disable your selues in both? In your persons ha­uing by this continuall vile custome brought your selues to this shamefull imbecilitie, that you are not able to ride or walke the iourney of a Iewes Sabboth, but you must haue a reekie cole brought you from the next poore house to kindle your Tobacco with? whereas he cannot be thought able for any seruice in the warres, that cannot endure oftentimes the want of meat, drinke, and sleepe, much more then must he endure the want of Tobacco. In the times of the many glorious and victorious battailes fought by this Nation, there was no word of Tobacco: but now if it were time of warres, and that you were to make some sudden Caualcado vpon your enemies, if a­ny of you should seeke leisure to stay behinde his fellow for taking of To­bacco, for my part I should neuer be sory for any euill chance that might be­fall him. To take a custome in any thing that cannot be left againe, is most harmeful to the people of any land. Mollicies and delicacie were the wracke and ouerthrow, first of the Persian, and next of the Romane Empire. And this very custome of taking Tobacco (whereof our present purpose is) is euen at this day accounted so effeminate among the Indians themselues, as in the market they will offer no price for a slaue to be sold, whom they find to be a great Tobacco taker.

Now how you are by this custome disabled in your goods, let the Gen­try of this land beare witnesse, some of them bestowing three, some foure hundred pounds a yeere vpon this precious stinke, which I am sure might be bestowed vpon many farre better vses. I read indeed of a knauish Cour­tier, who for abusing the fauour of the Emperor Alexander Seuerus his ma­ster, by taking bribes to intercede, for sundry persons in his masters eare, (for whō he neuer once opened his mouth) was iustly choked with smoke, with this doome, Fumo pereat, qui fumum vendidit: but of so many smoke­buyers, as are at this present in this kingdome, I neuer read nor heard.

And for the vanities committed in this filthy custome, is it not both great vanitie and vncleannesse, that at the table, a place of respect, of clean­linesse, of modestie, men should not be ashamed, to sit tossing of Tobacco pipes, and puffing of the smoke of Tobacco one to another, making the filthy smoke and stinke thereof, to exhale athwart the dishes, and infect the aire, when very often, men that abhorre it are at their repast? Surely smoke be­comes a kitchin farre better then a dining chamber, and yet it makes a kit­chin also oftentimes in the inward parts of men, soyling and infecting them, with an vnctuous and oily kind of soote, as hath bene found in some great Tobacco takers, that after their death were opened. And not onely [Page 222]meat time, but no other time nor action is exempted from the publike vse of this vnciuill tricke: so as if the wiues of Diepe list to contest with this Nation for good maners, their worst maners would in all reason be found at least not so dishonest (as ours are) in this point. The publike vse where­of, at all times, and in all places, hath now so farre preuailed, as diuers men very sound both in iudgement and complexion, haue beene at last forced to take it also without desire, partly because they were ashamed to seeme singular, (like the two Philosophers that were forced to ducke themselues in that raine water, and so become fooles as well as the rest of the people) and partly to be as one that was content to eate Garlick (which he did not loue) that he might not be troubled with the smell of it, in the breath of his fellowes. And is it not a great vanitie, that a man cannot heartily welcome his friend now, but straight they must be in hand with Tobacco: No it is become in place of a eure, a point of good fellowship, and hee that will re­fuse to take a pipe of Tobacco among his fellowes, (though by his owne e­lection hee would rather feele the sauour of a Sinke) is accounted peeuish and no good company, euen as they doe with tipling in the colde Easterne countreys. Yea the Mistresse cannot in a more manerly kind, entertaine her seruant, then by giuing him out of her faire hand a pipe of Tobacco. But here­in is not only a great vanity, but a great contempt of Gods good giftes, that the sweetnesse of mans breath, being a good gift of God, should be wilfully corrupted by this stinking smoke, wherin I must cōfesse, it hath too strong a vertue; and so that which is an ornament of nature, & can neither by any artifice be at the first acquired, nor once lost be recouered againe, shalbe fil­thily corrupted with an incurable stinke, which vile qualitie is as directly contrary to that wrong opinion which is holden of the wholesomnesse therof, as the venime of putrifaction is contrary to the vertue Preseruatiue.

Moreouer, which is a great iniquitie, and against all humanitie, the hus­band shal not be ashamed, to reduce therby his delicate, wholsom, & cleane complexioned wife to that extremity, that either she must also corrupt her sweet breath therwith, or els resolue to liue in a perpetual stinking torment.

Haue you not reason then to be ashamed, and to forbeare this filthie no­ueltie, so basely grounded, so foolishly receiued, and so grossely mistaken in the right vse thereof? In your abuse thereof sinning against God, harming your selues both in persons and goods, and raking also thereby the markes and notes of vanitie vpon you; by the custome thereof making your selues to be wondered at by all forreine ciuill Nations, and by all strangers that come among you, to be scorned and contemned: A custome loathsome to the eye, hatefull to the nose, harmefull to the braine, dangerous to the lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, neerest re­sembling the horrible Stigian smoake of the pit that is bottomlesse.

A DISCOVRSE OF THE MANER OF THE DISCO­VERIE OF THE POWDER­TREASON, JOYNED WITH THE EXAMINATION OF SOME OF THE PRISONERS.

THere is a time when no man ought to keepe silence. For it hath euer bene held as a generall rule, and vndoubted Maxime, in all well gouerned Common-wealthes (whether Christian, and so gui­ded by the diuine light of Gods word; or Ethnicke, and so led by the glimmering twi-light of Nature) yet howsoeuer their profession was, vpon this ground haue they all agreed, That when either their Religion, their King, or their countrey was in any extreme hazard, no good countreyman ought then to withhold either his tongue or his hand, according to his calling and facultie, from ayding to repell the iniurie, re­presse the violence, and auenge the guilt vpon the authors thereof. But if euer any people had such an occasion ministred vnto them, It is surely this people now, nay this whole Isle, and all the rest belonging to this great and glorious Monarchie. For if in any heathenish republique, no priuate man could thinke his life more happily and gloriously bestowed, then in the defence of any one of these three, That is, either pro Aris, pro Focis, or pro Patre patriae; And that the endangering of any one of these, would at once stirre the whole body of the Common-wealth, not any more as diui­ded members, but as a solide and indiuiduall lumpe: How much more ought we the trewly Christian people that inhabite this vnited and trewly [Page 224]happy Isle, Insula fortu­nata. vnder the wings of our gracious and religious Monarch? Nay, how infinitely greater cause haue we to feele and ressent our selues of the smart of that wound, not onely intended and execrated (not consecrated) for the vtter extinguishing of our trew Christian profession, nor ioyntly therwith onely for the cutting off of our Head and father Politike, Sed vt nefas istud & sacrilegiosum parricidium omnibus modis absolutum reddi possit? And that nothing might be wanting for making this sacrilegious parricide a patterne of mischiefe, and a crime (nay, a mother or storehouse of all crimes) without example, they should haue ioyned the destruction of the bodie to the head, so as Grex cum Rege, Arae cum focis, Lares cum Penatibus, should all at one thunderclap haue beene sent to heauen together: The King our head, the Queene our fertile mother, and those young and hopefull Oliue plants, not theirs but ours: Our reuerend Clergie, our honourable Nobili­tie, the faithfull Councellors, the graue Iudges, the greatest part of the wor­thy Knights and Gentry, aswell as of the wisest Burgesses; The whole Clerkes of the Crowne, Counsaile, Signet, Seales, or of any other principall Iudgement seate. All the learned Lawyers, together with an infinite num­ber of the Common people: Nay, their furious rage should not onely haue lighted vpon reasonable and sensible creatures without distinction either of degree, sexe or aage; But euen the insensible stockes and stones should not haue bin free of their fury. The hal of Iustice; The house of Parliament, The Church vsed for the Coronation of our Kings; The Monuments of our former Princes; The Crowne and other markes of Royaltie; Al the Re­cords, aswell of Parliament, as of euery particular mans right, with a great number of Charters and such like, should all haue bene comprehended vn­der that fearefull Chaos. And so the earth as it were opened, should haue sent foorth of the bottome of the Stygian lake such sulphured smoke, furious flames, and fearefull thunder, as should haue by their diabolicall Domesday destroyed and defaced, in the twinkling of an eye, not onely our present li­uing Princes and people, but euen our insensible Monuments reserued for future aages. So as not only our selues that are mortall, but the immortall Monuments of our ancient Princes and Nobility, that haue beene so preci­ously preserued from aage to aage, as the remaining Trophees of their eternal glory, and haue so long triumphed ouer enuious time, should now haue beene all consumed together; and so not onely we, but the memory of vs and ours, should haue beene thus extinguished in an instant. The trew hor­ror therefore of this detestable deuice, hath stirred mee vp to bethinke my selfe, wherein I may best discharge my conscience in a cause so generall and common, if it were to bring but one stone to the building, or rather with the Widow one mite to the common boxe. But since to so hatefull and vn­heard-of inuention, there can be no greater enemy then the selfe, the simple trewth thereof being once publikely knowen; and that there needes no stronger argument to bring such a plot in vniuersal detestatiō, then the cer­tainty that so monstrous a thing could once be deuised, nay cōcluded vpon, [Page 225]wrought in, in full readinesse, and within twelue houres of the execution: My threefold zeale to those blessings, whereof they would haue so violent­ly made vs all widowes, hath made me resolue to set downe here the trew Narration of that monstrous and vnnaturall intended Tragedie, hauing better occasion by the meanes of my seruice and continuall attendance in Court, to know the trewth thereof, then others that peraduenture haue it onely by relation at the third or fourth hand. So that whereas those worse then Catilines, thought to haue extirped vs and our memories; Their infa­mous memory shall by these meanes remaine to the end of the world, vp­on the one part: and vpon the other, Gods great and merciful deliuerance of his Anoynted and vs all, shall remaine in neuer-dying Records. And God graunt that it may be in marble tables of Thankefulnesse engrauen in our hearts.

WHile this Land and whole Monarchie flourished in a most happie and plentifull PEACE, as well at home as abroad, su­stained and conducted by these two maine Pillars of all good Gouernement, PIETIE and IVSTICE, no forreine grudge, nor inward whispering of discontentment any way appearing; The King being vpon his returne from his hunting exercise at Royston, vpon occasion of the drawing neere of the Parliament time, which had beene twise prorogued already, partly in regard of the season of the yeere, and partly of the Terme; As the winds are euer stillest immediatly before a storme; and as the Sunne blenks often hottest to foretell a following showre: So at that time of grea­test calme did this secretly-hatched thunder beginne to cast foorth the first flashes, and flaming lightnings of the approching tempest. For the Satur­day of the weeke immediatly preceding the Kings returne, which was vp­on a Thursday (being but tenne dayes before the Parliament) The Lord Mountegle, sonne and heire to the Lord Morley, A letter deli­uered to the Lord Mount­egle. being in his owne lodging ready to goe to supper at suen of the clocke at night, one of his foot-men (whom he had sent of an errand ouer the street) was met by an vnknowen man of a reasonable tall personage, who deliuered him a Letter, charging him to put it in my Lord his masters hands: which my Lord no sooner re­ceiued, but that hauing broken it vp, and perceiuing the same to bee of an vnknowen and somewhat vnlegible hand, and without either date or sub­scription; did call one of his men vnto him for helping him to reade it. But no sooner did he conceiue the strange contents thereof, although hee was somewhat perplexed what construction to make of it (as whether of a mat­ter of consequence, as indeed it was, or whether some foolish deuised Pas­quil by some of his enemies, to skarre him from his attendance at the Parlia­ment) yet did he as a most dutifull and loyall Subiect, conclude not to con­ceale it, what euer might come of it. Whereupon, notwithstauding the latenesse and darknesse of the night in that season of the yeere, he presently repaired to his Maiesties Pallace at Whitehall, and there deliuered the same [Page 226]to the Earle of Salisbury his Maiesties principall Secretarie. Reuealed to the Earle of Salisbury. Whereupon the said Earle of Salisbury hauing read the Letter, and heard the maner of the comming of it to his hands, did greatly encourage and commend my Lord for his discretion, telling him plainly, that whatsoeuer the purpose of the Letter might proue hereafter, yet did this accident put him in mind of diuers aduertisements he had receiued from beyond the Seas, wherewith he had acquainted aswell the King himselfe, as diuers of his Priuie Coun­sellors, concerning some businesse the Papists were in, both at home and abroad, making preparations for some combination amongst them against this Parliament time, for enabling them to deliuer at that time to the King some petition for toleration of Religion: Purpose of the Papists for de­liuering a pe­tition to his Maiestie, to craue tolera­tion of Reli­gion. which should bee deliuered in some such order and so well backed, as the King should be loth to refuse their requests; like the sturdie beggars crauing almes with one open hand, but carying a stone in the other, in case of refusall. And therefore did the Earle of Salisbury conclude with the Lord Mountegle, that he would in re­gard of the Kings absence impart the same Letter to some more of his Ma­iesties Councell; whereof my L. Mountegle liked well: onely adding this request by way of protestation, That whatsoeuer the euent hereof might proue, it should not be imputed to him, as proceeding from too light and too suddaine an apprehension, that he deliuered this Letter, being onely mooued thereunto for demonstration of his ready deuotion, and care for preseruation of his Maiestie and the State. And thus did the Earle of Sa­lisbury presently acquaint the Lord Chamberlaine with the said letter: The Lord Chamberlaine made priuie to the Letter by the Earle of Salubury. Where­upon they two in presence of the Lord Mountegle, calling to mind the for­mer intelligence already mentioned, which seemed to haue some relation with this Letter; The tender care which they euer caried to the preserua­tion of his Maiesties person, made them apprehend, that some perillous at­tempt did thereby appeare to be intended against the same, which did the more neerly concerne the said L. Chamberlaine to haue a care of, in regard that it doth belong to the charge of his Office to ouersee as well all places of As­sembly where his Maiesty is to repaire, as his Highnesse owne priuate hou­ses. And therfore did the said two Counsailors conclude, That they should ioyne vnto themselues three more of the Councell, to wit, the Lord Admi­ral, the Earles of Worcester and Northampton, to be also particularly acquain­ted with this accident, who hauing all of them concurred together to the re-examination of the Contents of the said Letter, they did conclude, That how slight a matter it might at the first appeare to bee, yet was it not absolutely to be contemned, in respect of the care which it behooued them to haue of the preseruation of his Maiesties person: But yet resolued for two reasons, Thought meet by the Councellors to acquaint the King with the Letter. first to acquaint the King himselfe with the same before they proceeded to any further inquisition in the matter, aswell for the expecta­tion and experience they had of his Maiesties fortunate Iudgement in clea­ring and soluing of obscure riddles and doubtful mysteries; as also because the more time would in the meane while be giuen for the Practise to ripen, [Page 227]if any was, whereby the Discouery might be the more cleere and euident, and the ground of proceeding thereupon more safe, iust, and easie. And so according to their determination did the sayd Earle of Salisbury repaire to the King in his Gallery vpon Friday, being Athallow day, in the afternoone, Vpon Alhal­low day the Earle of Sasu­burie shewed the Letter to the King. which was the day after his Maiesties arriuall, and none but himselfe being present with his Highnesse at that time, where without any other speach or iudgement giuing of the Letter, but onely relating simply the forme of the deliuery thereof, he presented it to his Maiestie. The contents whereof follow.

MY Lord, Out of the loue I beare to some of your friends, I haue a care of your preseruation. Therefore I would aduise you, as you tender your life, to de­uise some excuse to shift off your attendance at this Parliament. For God and man haue concurred to punish the wickednesse of this Time. And thinke not slightly of this Aduertisement, but retire your selfe into your Countrey, where you may expect the euent in safety. For though there be no apparance of any stirre, yet I say, they shal receiue a terrible Blow this Parliament, and yet they shall not see who burts them. This counsell is not to be contemned, because it may doe you good, and can doe you no harme; for the danger is past so soone as you haue burnt the Letter. And I hope God will giue you the grace to make good vse of it: To whose holy protection I com­mend you.

The King no sooner read the Letter, but after a little pause, His Maiesties iudgement of the Letter. and then reading it ouer againe, he deliuered his iudgement of it in such sort, as hee thought it was not to be contemned, for that the Style of it seemed to bee more quicke and pithie, then is vsuall to be in any Pasquil or libel (the su­perfluities of idle braines:) But the Earle of Salisbury perceiuing the King to apprehend it deepelier then he looked for, knowing his nature, told him that he thought by one sentence in it, that it was like to be written by some foole or madman, reading to him this sentence in it, For the danger is past as soone as you haue burnt the Letter; which hee said, was likely to bee the saying of a foole: for if the danger was past so soone as the Letter was burnt, then the warning behooued to bee of little auayle, when the burning of the Letter might make the danger to be eschewed. But the King by the contra­ry considering the former sentence in the Letter, That they should receiue a terrible Blow at this Parliament, and yet should not see who hurt them, Ioyning it to the sentence immediatly following, already alledged, did therupon con­iecture, That the danger mentioned, should bee some suddaine danger by blowing vp of Powder: For no other Insurrection, Rebellion, or what­soeuer other priuate and desperate Attempt could bee committed or at­tempted in time of Parliament, and the Authours thereof vnseene, except onely it were by a blowing vp of Powder, which might bee performed by one base knaue in a darke corner; whereupon he was moued to inter­prete and construe the latter Sentence in the Letter (alledged by the Earle of Salisburie) against all ordinarie sence and construction in Grammar, [Page 228]as if by these words, For the danger is past as soone as you haue burned the Let­ter, should be closely vnderstood the suddaintie and quickenesse of the danger, which should be as quickly perfourmed and at an end, as that pa­per should be of bleasing vp in the fire; turning that word of as soone, to the sense of, as quickly: And therefore wished, that before his going to the Par­liament, His Maiesties opinion for searching of the vnder roume: of the Parliament House. the vnder roumes of the Parliament house might be well and nar­rowly searched. But the Earle of Salisbury wondering at this his Maiesties Commentary, which he knew to be so farre contrary to his ordinary and naturall disposition, who did rather euer sinne vpon the other side; in not apprehending nor trusting due Aduertisements of Practises and Perils when hee was trewly enformed of them, whereby hee had many times drawen himselfe into many desperate dangers: and interpreting rightly this extraordinary Caution at this time to proceede from the vigilant care hee had of the whole State, more then of his owne Person, which could not but haue all perished together, if this designement had succeeded: Hee thought good to dissemble still vnto the King, that there had beene any iust cause of such apprehension: And ending the purpose with some mer­rie ieast vpon this Subiect, as his custome is, tooke his leaue for that time.

But though he seemed so to neglect it to his Maiestie; yet his customable and watchfull care of the King and the State still boyling within him, And hauing with the blessed Virgine Marie laid vp in his heart the Kings so strange iudgement and construction of it; He could not be at rest til he ac­quainted the foresaid Lords what had passed betweene the King and him in priuat: Wherupon they were all so earnest to renew againe the memory of the same purpose to his Maiestie, as it was agreed that he should the next day, being Saturday, repaire to his Highnesse: which hee did in the same priuie Gallery, and renewed the memory thereof, the L. Chamberlaine then being present with the King. The determi­nation to search the Parliament house and the roumes vnder it. At what time it was determined, that the said Lord Chamberlaine should, according to his custome and Office, view all the Parliament Houses, both aboue and below, and consider what likeli­hood or appearance of any such danger might possibly be gathered by the sight of them: But yet, as well for staying of idle rumours, as for beeing the more able to discerne any mysterie, the nearer that things were in readinesse, his iourney thither was ordeined to bee deferred till the afternoone before the sitting downe of the Parliament, which was vp­on the Munday following. At what time hee (according to this conclu­sion) went to the Parliament house accompanied with my Lord Mountegle, beeing in zeale to the Kings seruice earnest and curious to see the euent of that accident whereof hee had the fortune to be the first discouerer: where, hauing viewed all the lower roumes, Wood and Coale found by the Lord Chamberlaine in the Vault. hee found in the Vault vnder the vp­per House great store and prouision of Billets, Faggots, and Coales: And enquiring of Whyneard Keeper of the Wardrobe, to what vse hee had put those lower roumes and cellars: he told him, That Thomas Percie had hi­red [Page 229]both the House, and part of the Cellar or Vault vnder the same, and that the Wood and Coale therein was the said Gentlemansowne pro­uision: Whereupon the Lord Chamberlaine, casting his eye aside, percei­ued a fellow standing in a corner there, calling himself the said Percies man, and keeper of that house for him, but indeed was Guido Fawkes, Guido Fawkes bearing the name of Per­cies man. the owner of that hand which should haue acted that monstrous Tragedie.

The Lord Chamberlaine looking vpon all things with a heedfull indeed, yet in outward appearance with but a carelesse and racklesse eye (as became so wise and diligent a minister) hee presently addressed himselfe to the King in the said priuie Gallery, wherein the presence of the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Admirall, the Earles of Worcester, Northampton, and Salisbury, The Lord Chamberlaines report and iudgement of what he had obserued in the search. hee made his report, what hee had seene and obserued there; noting that Mountegle had told him, That he no sooner heard Thomas Percy named to be the possessour of that house, but considering both his backwardnes in Religion, and the old dearenesse in friendship betweene himselfe and the said Percy, hee did greatly suspect the matter, and that the Letter should come from him. The said Lord Chamberlaine also tolde, That he did not wonder a little at the extraordinary great prouision of wood and coale in that house, where Thomas Percie had so seldome occasion to remaine; As likewise it gaue him in his minde that his man looked like a very tall and desperate fellow.

This could not but encrease the Kings former apprehension and iea­lousie: whereupon hee insisted (as before) that the House was narrowly to bee searched, and that those Billets and Coales would be searched to the bottome, it beeing most suspicious that they were layed there onely for co­uering of the powder. Of this same minde also were all the Counsailours then present: Disputation about the ma­ner of the fur­ther search. But vpon the fashion of making of the search was it long debated: For vpon the one side they were all so iealous of the Kings safety, that they all agreed, that there could not be too much caution vsed for pre­uenting his danger. And yet vpon the other part they were all extreme loath and daintie, that in case this Letter should proue to bee nothing but the euaporation of an idle braine; then a curious search beeing made, and nothing found, should not onely turne to the generall scandall of the King and the State, as being so suspicious of euery light and friuolous toy, but likewise lay an ill fauoured imputation vpon the Earle of Northumberland one of his Maiesties greatest Subiects and Counsailors, this Tho. Percie be­ing his kinsman, and most confident familiar. And the rather were they cu­rious vpon this point, knowing how far the King detested to be thought suspitious or iealous of any of his good Subiects, though of the mea­nest degree. And therefore though they all agreed vpon the maine ground, which was to prouide for the securitie of the Kings Person, yet did they much differ in the circumstances, by which this action might be best caried with least dinne and occasion of slaunder. But the King him­selfe still persisting that there were diuers shrewd appearances, and that [Page 230]a narrow search of those places could preiudge no man that was innocent, hee at last plainely resolued them, That either must all the partes of those roumes bee narrowly searched, and no possibilitie of danger left vnexami­ned, or else hee and they all must resolue not to meddle in it at all, but plain­ly to goe the next day to the Parliament, and leaue the successe to Fortune, which he beleeued they would be loth to take vpon their consciences: for in such a case as this, Agreed that the search should be vn­der colour of seeking for Wardrobe stuffe missed by Whynniard. an halfe doing was worse then no doing at all. Where­upon it was at last concluded, That nothing should bee left vnsearched in those Houses: And yet for the better colour and stay of rumour, in case no­thing were found, it was thought meet, that vpon a pretence of Whyneards missing some of the Kings stuffe or Hangings which he had in keeping, all those roumes should be narrowly ripped for them. And to this purpose was Sir Thomas Kneuet (a Gentleman of his Maiesties priuie Chamber) em­ployed, being a Iustice of Peace in Westminster, and one, of whose ancient fidelitie both the late Queene and our now Soueraigne haue had large proofe: who according to the trust committed vnto him, went about the midnight next after, to the Parliament-house, accompanied with such a small number as was fit for that errand. But before his entry in the house, Fawkes found at midnight without the house. finding Thomas Percies alleaged man standing without the doores, his cloathes and bootes on at so dead a time of the night, he resol­ued to apprehend him, as hee did, and thereafter went forward to the sear­ching of the house, where after he had caused to be ouerturned some of the Billets and Coales, he first found one of the small Barrels of Powder, and after all the rest, to the number of thirty sixe Barrels, great and small: And thereafter searching the fellow, whom he had taken, found three matches, and all other instruments fit for blowing vp the Powder, readie vpon him, which made him instantly confesse his owne guiltinesse, declaring also vn­to him, That if hee had happened to be within the house when hee tooke him, as he was immediatly before (at the ending of his worke) hee would not haue failed to haue blowen him vp, house and all.

Thus after Sir Thomas had caused the wretch to bee surely bound, and well guarded by the company hee had brought with him, hee himselfe re­turned backe to the Kings Palace, and gaue warning of his successe to the Lord Chamberlaine, and Earle of Salisburie, who immediatly warning the rest of the Councell that lay in the house, as soone as they could get themselues ready, came, with their fellow Counsellers, to the Kings Bed­chamber, being at that time neere foure of the clocke in the morning. And at the first entry of the Kings Chamber doore, Vpon Sir Tho­mas Kneuets returne the Councel war­ned. the Lord Chamberlaine, be­ing not any longer able to conceale his ioy for the preuenting of so great a danger, told the King in a confused haste, that all was found and discoue­red, and the Traitor in hands and fast bound.

Then, order beeing first taken for sending for the rest of the Councell that lay in the Towne, The prisoner himselfe was brought into the house, where in respect of the strangenes of the accident, no man was stayed from [Page 231]the sight or speaking with him. And within a while after, the Council did examine him; Who seeming to put on a Romane resolution, did both to the Councill, and to euery other person that spake with him that day, ap­peare so constant and setled vpon his grounds, as wee all thought wee had found some new Mutius Scaeuola borne in England. For notwithstan­ding the horrour of the fact, the guilt of his conscience, his sudden surpri­sing, the terrour which should haue bene stroken in him by comming in­to the presence of so graue a Councill, and the restlesse and confused que­stions that euery man all that day did vexe him with; Yet was his counte­nance so farre from being deiected, as he often smiled in scornefull maner, not onely auowing the Fact, but repenting onely, with the said Scaeuola, his failing in the execution thereof, whereof (he said) the diuel and not God, was the discouerer: Answering quickly to euery mans obiection, scoffing at any idle questions which were propounded vnto him, and iesting with such as he thought had no authoritie to examine him. All that day could the Councill get nothing out of him touching his Complices, refusing to answere to any such questions which hee thought might discouer the plot, and laying all the blame vpon himselfe; Whereunto he said hee was mooued onely for Religion and conscience sake, denying the King to be his lawfull Soueraigne, or the Anoynted of God, in respect he was an here­ticke, and giuing himselfe no other name then Iohn Iohnson, seruant to Tho­mas Percie. But the next morning being caried to the Tower, hee did not there remaine aboue two or three dayes, being twise or thrise in that space reexamined, and the Racke onely offered and shewed vnto him, when the maske of his Romane fortitude did visibly beginne to weare and slide off his face; And then did hee beginne to confesse part of the trewth, and thereafter to open the whole matter, as doeth appeare by his depositions immediatly following.

THE TREW COPIE OF THE DECLARATION OF GVIDO FAWKES, TAKEN IN THE PRESENCE OF THE Counsellers, whose names are vnder written.

I Confesse, that a practise in generall was first broken vnto me, against his Maiestie for reliefe of the Catholique cause, and not inuented or propounded by my selfe. And this was first propounded vnto mee about Easter last was twelue moneth beyond the Seas, in the Low-Countreys of the Archdukes obeisance, by Thomas Winter, who came thereupon with mee [Page 232]into England, and there wee imparted our purpose to three other Gentle­men more, namely, Robert Catesby, Thomas Percie, and Iohn Wright; who all fiue consulting together of the meanes how to execute the same, and ta­king a vow among our selues for secrecie; Catesby propounded to haue it performed by Gunpowder, and by making a Myne vnder the vpper House of Parliament: which place wee made choice of the rather, because Reli­gion hauing bene vniustly suppressed there, it was fittest that Iustice and punishment should be executed there.

This being resolued amongst vs, Thomas Percy hired an house at West­minster for that purpose, neere adioyning to the Parliament House, and there we begun to make our Myne about the 11. of December 1604.

The fiue that first entred into the worke, were Thomas Percy, Robert Ca­tesby, Thomas Winter, Iohn Wright, and my selfe: and soone after wee tooke an­other vnto vs, Christopher Wright, hauing sworne him also, and taken the Sa­crament for secrecie.

When we came to the very foundation of the wall of the House, which was about three yards thicke, and found it a matter of great difficultie, wee tooke vnto vs another Gentleman, Robert Winter, in like maner with oath and Sacrament as aforesaid.

It was about Christmas when we brought our Myne vnto the Wal, and about Candlemas we had wrought the Wall halfe through: And whilest they were in working, I stood as Sentinell to descrie any man that came neere, whereof I gaue them warning, and so they ceased vntill I gaue notice againe to proceed.

All we seuen lay in the House, and had shot and powder, being resolued to die in that place before we should yeeld or be taken.

As they were working vpon the wall, they heard a rushing in a cellar of remoouing of coales, whereupon we feared wee had bene discouered: and they sent mee to goe to the cellar, who finding that the coales were a selling, and that the cellar was to be let, viewing the commoditie thereof for our purpose, Percy went and hired the same for yeerely rent.

Wee had before this prouided and brought into the House twentie bar­rels of powder, which we remooued into the cellar, and couered the same with billets and faggots, which were prouided for that purpose.

About Easter, the Parliament being prorogued till October next, wee dispersed our selues, and I retired into the Low countreys by aduice and di­rection of the rest, aswell to acquaint Owen with the particulars of the plot, as also lest by my longer stay I might haue growne suspicious, and so haue come in question.

In the meane time Percy hauing the key of the cellar, layd in more pow­der and wood into it. I returned about the beginning of September next, and then receiuing the key againe of Percy, wee brought in more powder and billets to couer the same againe, and so I went for a time into the coun­trey till the 30. of October.

[Page 233]It was further resolued amongst vs, that the same day that this acte should haue bene performed, some other of our confederates should haue surprised the person of the Lady ELIZABETH the Kings eldest daugh­ter, who was kept in Warwickshire at the Lord Haringtons house, and pre­sently haue proclaimed her Queene, hauing a proiect of a Proclamation ready for that purpose, wherein wee made no mention of altering of Re­ligion, nor would haue auowed the deed to be ours, vntill we should haue had power ynough to make our partie good, and then wee would haue auowed both.

Concerning duke CHARLES the Kings second sonne, we had sun­dry consultations how to seize on his person: But because wee found no meanes how to compasse it (the duke being kept neere London, where we had not forces ynough) wee resolued to serue our turne with the Lady ELIZABETH.

THE NAMES OF OTHER PRINCIPALL PERSONS, THAT WERE MADE PRIVIE AFTER­wards to this horrible conspiracie.
  • Euerard Digby knight.
  • Ambrose Rookwood.
  • Francis Tresham.
  • John Grant.
  • Robert Keyes.
Commiss.
  • Notingham.
  • Worcester.
  • Suffolke. Deuonshire.
  • Northampton. Salisbury.
  • Marre. Dunbar.
  • Popham.
  • Edw. Cooke.
  • William Waad.

ANd in regard that before this discourse could be ready to goe to the Presse, Thomas Winter being apprehended, and brought to the Tower, made a confession in substance agreeing with this former of Fawkes, onely larger in some circumstances: I haue thought good to in­sert the same likewise in this place, for the further clearing of the matter, and greater benefit of the Reader.

[Page 234]

THOMAS WINTERS CON­FESSION, TAKEN THE XXIII. OF NO­VEMBER 1605. IN THE PRESENCE OF the Counsellors, whose names are vnder-written.

My most Honourable Lords,

NOt out of hope to obtaine pardon: for, speaking of my temporall part, I may say, The fault is greater then can bee forgiuen; nor affecting hereby the title of a good Subiect; for I must redeeme my countrey from as great a danger, as I haue hazarded the bringing of her into, before I can pur­chase any such opinion, Onely at your Honours command I will briefly set downe mine owne accusation, and how farre I haue proceeded in this businesse; which I shall the faithfullier doe, since I see such courses are not pleasing to Almightie God, and that all, or the most materiall parts haue bene already confessed.

I remained with my brother in the countrey, from Alhallontyde vntill the beginning of Lent, in the yeere of our Lord 1603. the first yeere of the Kings reigne: about which time master Catesby sent thither, intreating me to come to London, where hee and other my friends would be glad to see me. I desired him to excuse me: for I found my selfe not very well dispo­sed; and (which had happened neuer to mee before) returned the messen­ger without my company. Shortly I receiued another letter, in any wise to come. At the second summons I presently came vp, and found him with master Iohn Wright at Lambeth, where he brake with me, how necessary it was not to forsake our countrey (for he knew I had then a resolution to goe ouer) but to deliuer her from the seruitude in which shee remained, or at least to assist her with our vttermost endeuours. I answered, That I had of­ten hazarded my life vpon farre lighter termes, and now would not refuse any good occasion, wherein I might doe seruice to the Catholicke cause; but for my selfe I knew no meane probable to succeed. He said that he had bethought him of a way at one instant to deliuer vs from all our bonds, and without any forraine helpe to replant againe the Catholicke Religion; and with all told mee in a word, It was to blow vp the Parliament house with Gunpowder; for, said he, in that place haue they done vs all the mis­chiefe, and perchance God hath desseigned that place for their punish­ment. I wondered at the strangenesse of the conceipt, and told him that trew it was, this strake at the root, and would breed a confusion fit to beget new alterations; But if it should not take effect (as most of this nature mis­caried) [Page 235]the scandall would be so great which Catholicke Religion might hereby sustaine, as not onely our enemies, but our friends also would with good reason condemne vs. He told me, The nature of the disease required so sharpe a remedie, and asked me if I would giue my consent. I told him, yes, in this or what els soeuer; if he resolued vpon it, I would venture my life. But I proposed many difficulties, As want of an house, and of one to cary the Myne, noyse in the working, and such like. His answere was, Let vs giue an attempt, and where it faileth, passe no further. But first, quoth hee, Because wee will leaue no peaceable and quiet way vntryed, you shall goe ouer, and informe the Constable of the state of the Catho­lickes here in England, intreating him to sollicite his Maiestie at his com­ming hither, that the penall Lawes may be recalled, and wee admitted in­to the rancke of his other Subiects; withall, you may bring ouer some con­fident Gentleman, such as you shall vnderstand best able for this businesse, and named vnto mee master Fawkes. Shortly after, I passed the Sea, and found the Constable at Bergen neere Dunkirke, where, by helpe of master O­wen I deliuered my message; Whose answere was, that hee had strict com­mand from his Master, to doe all good Offices for the Catholickes, and for his owne part hee thought himselfe bound in conscience so to doe, and that no good occasion should be omitted, but spake to him nothing of this matter.

Returning to Dunkirck with master Owen, wee had speach whether hee thought the Constable would faithfully helpe vs, or no. He said he belee­ued nothing lesse, and that they sought onely their owne ends, holding small account of Catholicks. I told him that there were many Gentlemen in England, who would not forsake their countrey vntill they had tried the vttermost, & rather venture their liues, then forsake her in this miserie. And to adde one more to our number, as a fit man both for counsel and executi­on of whatsoeuer we should resolue, wished for master Fawkes, whom I had heard good commendations of: hee told mee the Gentleman deserued no lesse, but was at Brussels, and that if he came not, as happily he might, before my departure, he would send him shortly after into England. I went soone after to Ostend, where sir William Stanley as then was not, but came two daies after. I remained with him three or foure daies, in which time I asked him, if the Catholicks in England should do any thing to helpe themselues, whe­ther he thought the Archduke would second them? He answered, No, for all those parts were so desirous of peace with England, as they would en­dure no speach of other enterprise: neither were it fit, said hee, to set any proiect afoot, now the Peace is vpon concluding. I told him there was no such resolution, and so fell to discourse of other matters, vntill I came to speake of master Fawkes, whose company I wished ouer into England. I asked of his sufficiencie in the warres, and told him wee should need such as hee, if occasion required; hee gaue very good commendations of him. And as wee were thus discoursing, and I ready to depart for New­port, [Page 236]and taking my leaue of Sir William, Master Fawkes came into our com­panie, newly returned, and saluted vs. This is the Gentleman, said Sir William, that you wished for, and so we embraced againe. I told him some good friends of his wished his companie in England, and that if hee plea­sed to come to Dunkircke, wee would haue further conference, whither I was then going: so taking my leaue of them both, I departed. About two dayes after came Master Fawkes to Dunkirck, where I told him that we were vpon a resolution to doe somewhat in England, if the Peace with Spaine helped vs not, but had as yet resolued vpon nothing; such or the like talke wee passed at Graueling, where I lay for a winde, and when it serued came both in one Passage to Greenwich, neere which place wee tooke a paire of Oares, and so came vp to London, and came to Master Catesby whom wee found in his lodging; hee welcommed vs into England, and asked mee what newes from the Constable. I told him, good words, but I feared the deedes would not answere: This was the beginning of Easter Terme, and about the middest of the same Terme, (whether sent for by Master Catesby, or vpon some businesse of his owne) vp came Master Thomas Percy. The first word hee spake (after hee came into our company) was, Shall we alwayes (Gentlemen) talke, and neuer doe any thing? Master Catesby took him aside, and had speach about somewhat to be done, so as first we might all take an oath of secrecie, which wee resolued within two or three dayes to doe: so as there we met behind S. Clements, Master Catesby, Master Percy, Master Wright, Master Guy Fawkes, and my selfe; and hauing vpon a Primer giuen each other the oath of secrecie, in a chamber where no other bodie was, wee went after into the next roome and heard Masse, and receiued the blessed Sacrament vpon the same. Then did Master Catesby disclose to Master Percy, and I together with Iacke Wright, tell to Master Fawkes the businesse for which wee tooke this oath, which they both approued. And then was M. Percy sent to take the house, which M. Catesby in mine ab­sence, had learned did belong to one Ferris, which with some difficultie in the end he obtained, and became, as Ferris before was, Tenant to Whynniard. M. Fawkes vnderwent the name of M. Percies man, calling himselfe Iohnson, because his face was the most vnknowen, and receiued the keyes of the house, vntill wee heard that the Parliament was adiourned to the seuenth of Februarie: At which time we all departed seuerall wayes into the coun­trey, to meete againe at the beginning of Michaelmas Terme. Before this time also it was thought conuenient to haue a house that might answere to M. Percies, where we might make prouision of powder and wood for the Mine, which beeing there made ready, should in a night be conueyed by boate to the house by the Parliament, because wee were loath to foile that with often going in and out. There was none that we could deuise so fit as Lambeth, where Master Catesby often lay, and to bee keeper thereof (by M. Catesbies choice) we receiued into the number, Keyes, as a trustie honest man: this was about a moneth before Michaelmas.

[Page 237]Some fortnight after towards the beginning of the Terme, M. Fawkes and I came to M. Catesby at Morecrofts, where we agreed that now was time to beginne and set things in order for the Mine. So as Master Fawkes went to London, and the next day sent for me to come ouer to him: when I came, the cause was, for that the Scottish Lords were appointed to sit in conference of the Vnion in Master Percies house. This hindered our be­ginning vntill a fortnight before Christmas, by which time both Master Percie and Master Wright were come to London, and wee against their com­ming had prouided a good part of the powder: so as wee all fiue entred with tooles fit to beginne our worke, hauing prouided our selues of Ba­ked-meates, the lesse to need sending abroad. We entred late in the night, and were neuer seene saue onely Master Percies man, vntill Christmas Eue, In which time we wrought vnder a little Entry to the wall of the Parlia­ment house, and vnderpropped it, as we went, with wood.

Whilest we were together, we began to fashion our businesse, and dis­coursed what we should doe after this deed was done. The first question was how we might surprize the next heire, the Prince haply would bee at the Parliament with the King his Father, how should wee then bee able to seaze on the Duke? This burthen Master Percie vndertooke, that by his acquaintance, hee, with another Gentleman would enter the Chamber without suspition, and hauing some doozen others at seuerall doores to ex­pect his comming, and two or three on horsebacke at the Court gate to receiue him, hee would vndertake (the blow beeing giuen, vntill which hee would attend in the Dukes Chamber) to carrie him safe away: for hee supposed most of the Court would bee absent, and such as were there not suspecting, or vnprouided for any such matter. For the Lady ELIZA­BETH, it were easie to surprize her in the Countrey, by drawing friends together at an hunting neere the Lord Haringtons, and Ashbie, M. Catesbies house, being not farre off was a fit place for preparation.

The next was for money and horses, which if wee could prouide in any reasonable measure (hauing the Heire apparant) and the first knowledge by foure or fiue dayes, was oddes sufficient.

Then what Lords we should saue from the Parliament, which was first agreed in generall as many as we could that were Catholickes, or so dispo­sed: but after we descended to speake of particulars.

Next, what forraine Princes wee should acquaint with this before, or ioyne with after. For this point wee agreed, that first wee could not enioyne Princes to that secrecie, nor oblige them by oath, so to be secure of their promise: besides, we knew not whether they will approue the pro­iect or dislike it: And if they doe allow thereof, to prepare before, might beget suspition, and not to prouide vntill the businesse were acted, the same letter that caried newes of the thing done, might as well intreate their helpe and furtherance. Spaine is too slow in his preparations to hope any good from in the first extremities, and France too neere and too dange­rous, [Page 238]who with the shipping of Holland, we feared of all the world might make away with vs.

But while we were in the middle of these discourses, we heard that the Parliament should bee anew adiourned vntill after Michaelmas, vpon which tidings we broke off both discourse and working vntill after Christ­mas. About Candlemas we brought ouer in a boate the powder, which we had prouided at Lambeth, and laide it in M. Percies house, because wee were willing to haue all our danger in one place.

We wrought also another fortnight in the Mine against the stone wall, which was very hard to beate thorow; at which time we called in Kit Wright, and neare to Easter, as we wrought the third time, opportunitie was giuen to hire the Cellar, in which we resolued to lay the powder, and leaue the Mine.

Now by reason that the charge of maintaining vs all so long together, besides the number of seuerall houses, which for seuerall vses had beene hi­red, and buying of powder &c. had layen heauie on M. Catesby alone to support; it was necessarie for him to call in some others to ease his charge, and to that ende desired leaue, that hee, with M. Percy, and a third, whom they should call, might acquaint whom they thought fit and willing to the businesse: for many, said hee, may be content that I should know, who would not therefore that all the company should be acquainted with their names: to this we all agreed.

After this Master Fawkes laid into the Cellar (which hee had newly ta­ken) a thousand of Billets, and fiue hundred of Faggots, and with that co­uered the Powder, because we might haue the House free, to suffer any one to enter that would. Master Catesby wished vs to consider, whether it were not now necessary to send M. Fawkes ouer, both to absent himselfe for a time, as also to acquaint Sir William Stanley and M. Owen with this matter. Wee agreed that he should (prouided that hee gaue it them with the same othe that wee had taken it before) videlicet, to keepe it secret from all the world. The reason why we desired Sir William Stanley should be acquain­ted herewith was, to haue him with vs so soone as he could: And for M. Owen, hee might holde good correspondencie after with forreine Princes. So M. Fawkes departed about Easter for Flanders, and returned the latter end of August. He tolde me that when he arriued at Brussels, Sir William Stanley was not returned from Spaine, so as hee vttered the matter onely to Owen, who seemed well pleased with the businesse, but tolde him that fure­ly Sir William would not be acquainted with any plot, as hauing businesse now afoot in the Court of England; but he himselfe would be alwayes rea­die to tell it him, and send him away so soone as it were done.

About this time did M. Percy and M. Catesby meete at the Bathe, where they agreed that the company being yet but few, M. Catesby should haue the others authoritie to call in whom hee thought best; By which autho­ritie hee called in after, Sir Euerard Digby, though at what time I know not, [Page 239]and last of all M. Francis Tresham. The first promised, as I heard M. Catesby say, fifteene hundred pounds; the second two thousand pounds; M. Percy himselfe promised all that hee could get of the Earle of Northumberlands rents, which was about foure thousand pounds, and to prouide many gal­loping horses to the number of ten.

Meane while M. Fawkes and my selfe alone bought some new Powder, as suspecting the first to be danke, and conueyed it into the Cellar, and set it in order, as wee resolued it should stand. Then was the Parliament anew prorogued vntill the fift of Nouember, so as we all went downe vntil some ten dayes before, when M. Catesby came vp with M. Fawkes to an house by Enfield Chace called White-webbes, whither I came to them, and M. Catesby willed me to enquire whether the yong Prince came to the Parliament: I tolde him that I heard that his Grace thought not to be there. Then must wee haue our Horses said M. Catesby beyond the water, and prouision of more company to surprise the Prince, and leaue the Duke alone.

Two dayes after being Sunday at night, in came one to my chamber, and told me that a letter had beene giuen to my L. Mountegle to this effect, That he wished his Lordships absence from the Parliament, because a blow would there be giuen; which letter he presently caried to my L. of Salisbury.

On the morrow I went to White-webbes, and told it M. Catesby, assuring him withall that the matter was disclosed; and wishing him in any case to forsake his Countrey. He told me he would see further as yet, and resolued to send M. Fawkes to trie the vttermost, protesting if the part belonged to himselfe, he would trie the same aduenture.

On Wednesday Master Fawkes went and returned at night, of which we were very glad.

Thursday I came to London, and Friday Master Catesby, Master Tresham and I met at Barnet, where wee questioned how this Letter should be sent to my L. Mountegle, but could not conceiue, for Master Tresham forsware it, whom we onely suspected.

On Saturday night I met M. Tresham againe in Lincolnes Inne walkes: wherein he tolde such speeches, that my Lord of Salisbury should vse to the King, as I gaue it lost the second time, and repeated the same to M. Catesby, who hereupon was resolued to be gone, but stayed to haue M. Percy come vp, whose consent herein wee wanted. On Sunday M. Percy being dealt with to that end, would needs abide the vttermost triall.

This suspicion of all hands put vs into such confusion, as M. Catesby re­solued to goe downe into the countrey the Munday that M. Percy went to Syon, and M. Percy resolued to follow the same night, or early the next mor­ning. About fiue of the clocke being Tuesday, came the yonger Wright to my Chamber, and tolde me that a Nobleman called the L. Mountegle, say­ing, Arise, and come along to Essex house, for I am going to call vp my L. of Northumberland, saying withall, The matter is discouered Goe backe M. Wright (quoth I) and learne what you can about Essex gate. Shortly hee [Page 240]returned and said, Surely all is lost: for Lepton is got on horsebacke at Essex doore, and as he parted, he asked if their Lordships would haue any more with him: and being answered No, is rode fast vp Fleetstreete as hee can ride. Goe you then (quoth I) to M. Percy, for sure it is for him they seeke, and bid him be gone, I will stay and see the vttermost. Then I went to the Court gates, and found them straitly guarded, so as no body could enter. From thence I went downe towards the Parliament house, and in the mid­dle of Kings-street, found the Guard standing that would not let me passe. And as I returned I heard one say, There is a Treason discouered, in which the King and the Lords should haue beene blowen vp. So then I was fully satisfied that all was knowen, and went to the Stable where my gelding stood, and rode into the countrey. Master Catesby had appointed our mee­ting at Dunchurch, but I could not ouertake them vntill I came to my bro­thers, which was Wednesday night. On Thursday wee tooke the Armour at my Lord Windsores, and went that night to one Stephen Littletons house, where the next day (being Friday) as I was early abroad to discouer, my man came to me, and said, that an heauie mischance had seuered all the company, for that M. Catesby, M. Rookwood, and M. Grant, were burned with Gunpowder vpon which sight the rest dispersed. Master Littleton wi­shed me to flie, and so would hee. I told him I would first see the body of my friend and bury him, whatsoeuer befell me. When I came, I found M. Catesby reasonable well, Master Percy, both the Wrights, M. Rookwood, and Master Grant. I asked them what they resolued to doe: they answered, We meane here to die. I said againe, I would take such part as they did. About eleuen of the clocke came the company to beset the house, and as I walked into the court, I was shot into the shoulder, which lost me the vse of mine arme: the next shot was the elder Wright stricken dead, after him the yon­ger M. Wright, and fourthly Ambrose Rookwood shot. Then said M. Catesby to me, (standing before the doore they were to enter) Stand by me Tom, and we will die together. Sir (quoth I) I haue lost the vse of my right arme, and I feare that will cause me to be taken. So as wee stood close together, M. Catesby, M. Percy, and my selfe, they two were shot (as farre as I could guesse with one Bullet) and then the company entred vpon me, hurt me in the Belly with a Pike, and gaue me other wounds, vntill one came be­hinde, and caught holde of both mine armes.

And so I remaine yours, &c.
Commiss.
  • Notingham, Suffolke, Worcester,
  • Deuonshire, Northampton, Salisburie,
  • Marr, Dunbar,
  • Popham.
  • Ed. Coke.
  • W. Waad.
[Page 241]The names of those that were first in the Treason, and laboured in the Mine.
  • Esquires.
    • Robert Catesby.
    • Robert Winter.
  • Gentlemen.
    • Thomas Percy.
    • Thomas Winter.
    • John Wright.
    • Christopher Wright.
    • Guido Fawkes.
  • And Bates, Catesbyes man.
Those that were made acquainted with it, though not personally labouring in the Mine, nor in the Cellar.
  • Euerard Digby. Knight.
  • Esquires.
    • Ambrose Rookewood.
    • Francis Tresham.
  • John Grant. Gent.
  • Robert Keyes.

BVt here let vs leaue Fawkes in a lodging fit for such a guest, and taking time to aduise vpon his conscience; and turne our selues to that part of the Historie, which concernes the for­tune of the rest of his partakers in that abominable Treason. The newes was no sooner spred abroad that morning, which was vpon a Tuesday, the 5. of Nouember, and the first day designed for that Session of Parliament; The newes (I say) of this so strange and vnlooked for accident, was no sooner diuulged, but some of those Conspiratours, namely Winter, and the two brothers of Wrights thought it high time for them to hasten out of the towne (for Catesby was gone the night before, and Percy at foure of the clocke in the morning the same day of the Discouerie) and all of them held their course, with more haste then good speed to Warwick Shire toward Couentry, where the next day morning being Wednesday, and about the same houre that Fawks was taken in Westminster, one Graunt a gentleman hauing associated vnto him some others of his opinion, all violent Papists and strong Recusants, came to a Stable of one Benocke a rider of great [Page 242]Horses, The taking of the horses out of the stable at Warwicke by Granut and o­thers. and hauing violently broken vp the same, caried along with them all the great Horses that were therein, to the number of seuen or eight, be­longing to diuers Noblemen and Gentlemen of that Countrey, who had put them into the Riders hands to be made fit for ther seruice. And so both that company of them which fledde out of London, as also Graunt and his complices met all together at Dunchurch at Sir Euerard Digby his lodging the Tuesday at night, after the discouerie of this treacherous Attempt: The which Digby had likewise for his part appointed a match of hunting to haue beene hunted the next day, The hunting match ap­pointed by Sir Euerard Digby. which was Wednesday, though his mind was Nimrod-like vpon a farre other maner of hunting, more bent vp­on the blood of reasonable men then bruite beasts.

This company and hellish societie thus conuened, finding their purpose discouered, Their going into armes af­ter the Plot discouered. and their treacherie preuented, did resolue to runne a desperate course, and since they could not preuaile by so priuate a Blow, to practise by a publike rebellion, either to attaine to their Intents, or at least to saue themselues in the throng of others. And therefore gathering all the com­pany they could vnto them, and pretending the quarrell of Religion, ha­uing intercepted such prouision of Armour, Horses, and Powder, as the time could permit, thought by running vp and downe the Countrey both to augment peece and peece their number (dreaming to themselues that they had the vertue of a Snow-ball, which being little at the first, and tum­bling downe from a great hill groweth to a great quantitie, by encreasing it selfe with the Snow that it meeteth by the way) and also that they begin­ning first this braue shewe in one part of the Countrey, should by their Sympathy and example stirre vp and encourage the rest of their Religion in other parts of England to rise, as they had done there. But when they had gathered their force to the greatest, Their number neuer aboue fourescore. they came not to the number of fourescore, and yet were they troubled all the houres of the day to keepe and containe their own seruants from stealing from them; who (notwith­standing of all their care) daily left them, being farre inferiour to Gedeons hoste in number, but farre more in faith or iustnesse of quarrell.

And so after that this Catholicke troupe had wandered a while through Warwicke-shire to Worcester-shire, and from thence to the edge and bor­ders of Stafford-shire, this gallantly armed band had not the honour at the last to be beaten with a Kings Lieutenant or extraordinary Commissioner sent downe for the purpose, Their flight. but onely by the ordinary Shiriffe of Worce­ster-shire were they all beaten, killed, taken and dispersed. Wherein yee haue to note this following circumstance so admirable, and so liuely dis­playing the greatnesse of Gods iustice, as it could not be concealed without betraying in a maner the glory due to the Almighty for the same.

Although diuers of the Kings Proclamations were posted downe after these Traitors with all the speed possible, declaring the odiousnesse of that bloodie attempt, the necessitie to haue had Percie preserued aliue, if it had beene possible, and the assembly together of that rightly-damned crew, [Page 243]now no more darned Conspirators, but open and auowed Rebels: yet the farre distance of the way (which was aboue an hundred miles) together with the extreme deepenesse thereof, ioyned also with the shortnesse of the day, was the cause that the heartie and louing affections of the Kings good Subiects in those partes preuented the speed of his Proclamations: For vp­on the third day after the flying downe of these Rebels, Ouertaken at Holbeech, in Stafford shire, Stephen Little­tons house. which was vpon the Friday next after the discouerie of their Plot, they were most of them all surprized by the Shiriffe of Worcester-shire at Holbeach, about the noone of the day, and that in manner following.

Graunt, of whom I haue made mention before for taking the great hor­ses, who had not all the preceding time stirred from his owne house till the next morning after the attempt should haue bene put in execution, he then laying his accompt without his Host (as the prouerbe is) that their Plot had, without failing, receiued the day before their hoped-for successe; Tooke, or rather stole out those horses (as I said before) for enabling him, and so many of that soule-lesse society that had still remained in the Coun­trey neere about him, to make a sudden surprize vpon the Kings elder daughter, the Lady ELIZABETH, hauing her residence nere by that place, Grant at­tempt to sur­prize the La­dy Elizabeth. whom they thought to haue vsed for the colour of their treacherous des­signe (His Maiestie her father, her mother, and male children being all de­stroyed aboue.) And to this purpose also had that Nimrod, Digby, prouided his hunting match against that same time, that numbers of people beeing flocked together vpon the pretence thereof, they might the easilier haue brought to passe the sudden surprise of her person.

Now the violent taking away of those horses long before day, did seeme to bee so great a ryot in the eyes of the Common-people, that knew of no greater mystery: And the bold attempting thereof did ingender such a suspition of some following Rebellion in the hearts of the wiser sort, as both great and small beganne to stirre and arme themselues, vpon this vn­looked-for accident: Among whom Sir Fulke Greuill the Elder, Knight, as became one both so ancient in yeeres and good reputation, and by his Of­fice, beeing Deputie Lieutenant of Warwicke-shire, though vnable in his bodie, yet by the zeale and trew feruencie of his mind, did first apprehend this foresaid Ryot to be nothing but the sparkles and sure indices of a fol­lowing Rebellion; whereupon both stoutly and honestly hee tooke order to get into his owne hands, the Munition and Armour of all such Gentle­men about him, as were either absent from their owne houses, or in doubt­full guard; and also sent such direction to the Townes about him, as there­upon did follow the striking of Winter by a poore Smith, who had likewise beene taken by those vulgar people, but that he was rescued by the rest of his company, who perceiuing that the Countrey before them had notice of them, hastened away with losse in their owne sight, sixteene of their fol­lowers being taken by the townes-men, and sent presently to the Shiriffe at Warwicke, and from thence to London.

[Page 244]But before twelue or sixteene houres past, Catesby, Percy, the Winters, Wrights, Rookewood and the rest, bringing then the assurance that their maine Plot was failed and bewrayed, whereupon they had builded the golden mountaines of their glorious hopes: They then tooke their last desperate resolution to flocke together in a troupe, and wander, as they did, for the reasons aforetold. But as vpon the one part, the zealous duety to their God and their Souereigne was so deepely imprinted in the hearts of all the meanest and poorest sort of the people (although then knowing of no further mysterie then such publike misbehauiours, as their owne eyes taught them) as notwithstanding of their faire shewes and pretence of their Catholicke cause, no creature, man or woman through all the Coun­trey, would once so much as giue them willingly a cuppe of drinke, or any sort of comfort or support, but with execrations detested them: So on the other part, the Sheriffes of the Shires, where-through they wandered, conuening their people with all speed possible, hunted as hotly after them, as the euilnesse of the way, and the vnprouidednesse of their people vpon that sudden could permit them. And so at last after Sir Richard Verney, Shiriffe of Warwicke-shire, had carefully and streightly beene in chase of them to the confines of his Countie, part of the meaner sort being also ap­prehended by him: Sir Richard Walsh Shiriffe of Worcester-shire did like­wise duetifully and hotely pursue them thorow his Shire; And hauing got­ten sure triall of their taking harbour at the house aboue-named, hee did send Trumpetters and Messengers to them, commaunding them in the Kings name to render vnto him, his Maiesties minister; and knowing no more at that time of their guilt then was publikely visible, did promise vp­on their duetifull and obedient rendring vnto him, to intercede at the Kings handes for the sparing of their liues: who receiued onely from them this scornefull answere (they being better witnesses to themselues of their inward euill consciences) That hee had need of better assistance, then of those few numbers that were with him, before hee could bee able to command or comp­troll them.

But here fell the wonderous worke of Gods Iustice, The prepara­tion to assault the house. That while this message passed betweene the Shiriffe and them, The Shiriffes and his peo­ples zeale beeing iustly kindled and augmented by their arrogant answere, and so they preparing themselues to giue a furious assault; and the other partie making themselues readie within the house to performe their pro­mise by a defence as resolute; It pleased God that in the mending of the fire in their chamber, one small sparke should flie out, and light among lesse then two pound weight of Powder, which was drying a little from the chimney; which being thereby blowen vp, so maymed the faces of some of the principall Rebels, and the hands and sides of others of them (blowing vp with it also a great bag full of Powder, which notwithstanding neuer tooke fire) as they were not only disabled and discouraged hereby from any further resistance, in respect Catesby himselfe, Rookwood, Grant, and diuers [Page 245]others of greatest account among them, Catesby who was the first inuentor of this Treason in generall, and of the maner of working the same by powder, in speciall, himselfe now first maimed with the blow­ing vp of pow­der, and next he and Percy both killed with one shot proceeding from powder. were thereby made vnable for de­fence: but also wonderfully stroken with amazement in their guiltie con­sciences, calling to memory how God had iustly punished them with that same Instrument, which they should haue vsed for the effectuating of so great a sinne, according to the olde Latine, saying, In quo peccamus, in eodem plectimur; as they presently (see the wonderfull power of Gods Iustice vpon guiltie consciences) did all fall downe vpon their knees, praying GOD to pardon them for their bloody enterprise; And thereafter giuing ouer any further debate, opened the gate, suffered the Sheriffes people to rush in fu­riously among them, and desperately sought their owne present destru­ction; The three specials of them ioyning backes together, Catesby, Percy, and Winter, whereof two with one shot, Catesby and Percy were slaine, and the third, VVinter, taken and saued aliue.

And thus these resolute and high aspiring Catholikes, who dreamed of no lesse then the destruction of Kings and kingdomes, and promised to themselues no lower estate then the gouernment of great and ancient Mo­narchies, were miserably defeated, and quite ouerthrowen in an instant, falling in the pit which they had prepared for others; and so fulfilling that sentence which his Maiestie did in a maner prophecie of them in his Ora­tion to the Parliament: some presently slaine, others deadly wounded, strip­ped of their clothes, left lying miserably naked, and so dying rather of cold, then of the danger of their wounds; and the rest that either were whole, or but lightly hurt, taken and led prisoners by the Sheriffe the ordinary mini­ster of Iustice, to the Gaole, the ordinarie place euen of the basest malefa­ctors, where they remained till their sending vp to London, being met with a huge confluence of people of all sorts, desirous to see them as the rarest sort of Monsters; fooles to laugh at them, women and children to won­der, all the common people to gaze, the wiser sort to satisfie their curiosity in seeing the outward cases of so vnheard of a villeny: & generally all sorts of people to satiate and fill their eyes with the sight of them, whom in their hearts they so farre admired and detested: seruing so for a fearfull and pub­like spectacle of Gods fierce wrath and iust indignation.

What hereafter will be done with them, is to be left to the Iustice of his Maiestie and the State: Which as no good Subiect needes to doubt will be performed in the owne due time by a publike and an exemplarie punish­ment: So haue we all that are faithfull and humble Subiects, great cause to pray earnestly to the Almighty, that it will please him who hath the hearts of all Princes in his hands, to put it in his Maiesties heart to make such a conclusion of this Tragedie to the Traitors, but Tragicomedie to the King and all his trew Subiects; as thereby the glory of God and his trew Reli­gion may be aduanced, the future securitie of the King and his estate pro­cured and prouided for, all hollow and vnhonest hearts discouered & pre­uented, & this horrible attempt (lacking due epitheres) to be so iustly auen­ged, That where they thought by one Catholike indeed & vniuersall blow [Page 246]to accomplish the wish of that Romane tyrant, who wished all the bodies in Rome to haue but one necke, and so by the violent force of Powder to breake vp as with a Pettard our triple locked peacefull gates of Ianus, which (God be thanked) they could not compasse by any other meanes; they may iustly be so recompensed for their trewly viperous intended par­ricide, As Aeneas Syl­ [...] doth nota­bly write con­cerning the mur­ther of K. Iames the first of Scot­land, and the fol­lowing punish­ment of the trai­tours, whereof himselfe was an eye witnesse. Hist. de Europa, cap. 46. as the shame and infamie that otherwise would light vpon this whole Nation, for hauing vnfortunately hatched such cockatrice egges, may be repaired by the execution of famous and honourable Iustice vpon the offendors; and so the kingdome purged of them, may hereafter perpe­tually flourish in peace and prosperitie, by the happy coniunction of the hearts of all honest and trew Subiects, with their iust and religious So­ueraigne.

And thus whereas they thought to haue effaced our memories, the me­mory of them shall remaine (but to their perpetuall infamie) and wee (as I said in the beginning) shall with all thankefulnesse eternally pre­serue the memory of so great a benefite. To which let euery good Subiect say AMEN.

Triplici nodo, triplex cuneus. OR AN APOLOGIE FOR THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE.
AGAINST THE TWO BREVES OF POPE PAVLVS QVINTVS, AND THE late Letter of Cardinall BELLARMINE to G. BLACKVVEL the Arch-priest.

VVHat a monstrous, rare, nay neuer heard-of Treacherous attempt, was plotted within these few yeeres here in England, for the de­struction of Mee, my Bed-fellow, and our posteritie, the whole house of Parliament, and a great number of good Subiects of all sorts and degrees; is so famous already through the whole world by the infamie thereof, as it is needlesse to bee repeated or published any more; the horrour of the sinne it selfe doeth so lowdly proclaime it. For if those Gen. 4.10. crying sinnes, (whereof mention is made in the Scripture) haue that epithet giuen them for their publique infamie, and for procuring as it were with a lowd cry from heauen a iust vengeance and recompense, and yet those sinnes are both old and too common, neither the world, nor any one Countrey be­ing euer at any time cleane voyd of them: If those sinnes (I say) are said in the Scripture to cry so lowd; What then must this sinne doe, plotted with­out cause, infinite in crueltie, and singular from all examples? What pro­ceeded hereupon is likewise notorious to the whole world; our Iustice onely taking hold vpon the offenders, and that in as honourable and pub­lique a forme of Triall, as euer was vsed in this Kingdome.

[Page 248]2. For although the onely reason they gaue for plotting so heinous an attempt, was the zeale they caried to the Romish Religion; yet were neuer any other of that profession the worse vsed for that cause, as by our graci­ous Proclamation immediatly after the discouery of the said fact doeth plainly appeare: onely at the next sitting downe againe of the Parliament, there were Lawes made, setting downe some such orders as were thought fit for preuenting the like mischiefe in time to come. Amongst which a forme of OATH was framed to be taken by my Subiects, whereby they should make a cleare profession of their resolution, faithfully to persist in their obedience vnto mee, according to their naturall allegiance; To the end that I might hereby make a separation, not onely betweene all my good Subiects in generall, and vnfaithfull Traitors, that intended to with­draw themselues from my obedience; But specially to make a separation betweene so many of my Subiects, who although they were otherwise Po­pishly affected, yet retained in their hearts the print of their naturall due­tie to their Soueraigne; and those who being caried away with the like fanaticall zeale that the Powder-Traitors were, could not conteine them­selues within the bounds of their naturall Allegiance, but thought diuer­sitie of religion a safe pretext for all kinde of treasons, and rebellions against their Soueraigne. Which godly and wise intent, God did blesse with suc­cesse accordingly: For very many of my Subiects that were Popishly af­fected, aswell Priests, as Layicks, did freely take the same Oath: whereby they both gaue me occasion to thinke the better of their fidelitie, and like­wise freed themselues of that heauie slander, that although they were fel­low professors of one Religion with the powder-Traitors, yet were they not ioyned with them in treasonable courses against their Soueraigne; whereby all quietly minded Papists were put out of despaire, and I gaue a good proofe that I intended no persecution against them for conscience cause, but onely desired to be secured of them for ciuill obedience, which for conscience cause they were bound to performe.

3. But the diuel could not haue deuised a more malicious tricke for in­terrupting this so calme and clement a course, then fell out by the sending hither, and publishing a Breue of the Popes, countermanding all them of his profession to take this Oath; Thereby sowing new seeds of ielousie betweene me and my Popish Subiects, by stirring them vp to disobey that lawfull commandement of their Soueraigne, which was ordeined to bee taken of them as a pledge of their fidelitie; And so by their refusall of so iust a charge, to giue mee so great and iust a ground for punishment of them, without touching any matter of conscience: throwing themselues needlesly into one of these desperate straits; either with the losse of their liues and goods to renounce their Allegiance to their naturall Soueraigne; or else to procure the condemnation of their soules by renouncing the Catholicke faith, as he alleadgeth.

4. And on the other part, although disparitie of Religion (the Pope [Page 249]being head of the contrary part) can permit no intelligence nor intercourse of messengers betweene mee and the Pope: yet there being no denounced warre betweene vs, he hath by this action broken the rules of common ci­uilitie and iustice betweene Christian Princes, in thus condemning me vn­heard, both by accounting me a persecutor, which cannot be but implied by exhorting the Papists to endure Martyrdome; as likewise by so straitly commanding all those of his profession in England, to refuse the taking of this Oath; thereby refusing to professe their naturall obedience to me their Soueraigne. For if he thinke himselfe my lawfull Iudge, wherefore hath he condemned me vnheard? And, if he haue nothing to doe with me and my gouernment (as indeed he hath not) why doeth he mittere falcem in alie­nam messem, to meddle betweene me and my Subiects, especially in matters that meerely and onely concerne ciuill obedience? And yet could Pius Quintus in his greatest fury and auowed quarrell against the late Queene, doe no more iniurie vnto her; then hee hath in this case offered vnto mee, without so much as a pretended or an alleadged cause. For what difference there is, betweene the commanding Subiects to rebell, and loosing them from their Oath of Allegiance as Pius Quintus did; and the commanding of Subiects not to obey in making profession of their Oath of their duti­full Allegiance, as this Pope hath now done: no man can easily discerne.

5. But to draw neere vnto his Brene, wherein certainely hee hath taken more paines then he needed, by setting downe in the said Breue the whole body of the Oath at length; whereas the onely naming of the Title thereof might as well haue serued, for any answere hee hath made thereunto (ma­king Vna litura, that is, the flat and generall condemnation of the whole Oath to serue for all his refutation.) Therein hauing as well in this respect as in the former, dealt both vndiscreetly with me, and iniuriously with his owne Catholickes. With mee; in not refuting particularly what speciall words he quarrelled in that Oath; which if hee had done, it might haue beene that for the fatherly care I haue not to put any of my Subiects to a needlesse extremitie, I might haue beene contented in some sort to haue re­formed or interpreted those wordes. With his owne Catholickes: for ei­ther if I had so done, they had beene thereby fully eased in that businesse; or at least if I would not haue condescended to haue altered any thing in the saide Oath, yet would thereby some appearance or shadow of excuse haue beene left vnto them for refusing the same not as seeming thereby to swarue from their Obedience and Allegiance vnto mee, but onely beeing stayed from taking the same vpon the scrupulous tendernesse of their con­sciences, in regard of those particular words which the Pope had noted and condemned therein.

And now let vs heare the words of his thunder.

POPE PAVLVS THE FIFT, to the ENGLISH Catholickes.

WElbeloued Sonnes, The Pope his first Breue. Salutation and Apostolicall Bene­diction. The tribulations and calamities, which yee haue continually sustained for the keeping of the Catholike Faith, haue alwayes afflicted vs with great griefe of minde. But for as much as we vnderstand that at this time all things are more grieuous, our affliction hereby is wonderfully increased. For wee haue heard how you are compelled, by most grieuous punishments set before you, to goe to the Churches of Heretikes, to frequent their as­semblies, to be present at their Sermons. Truely wee doe vndoubtedly beleeue, that they which with so great constancie and fortitude, haue hitherto indured most cruell persecutions and almost infinite miseries, that they may walke without spot in the Law of the Lord; will neuer suffer themselues to be defiled with the communion of those that haue forsaken the diuine Law. Yet notwithstanding, being compelled by the zeale of our Pastorall Office, and by our Fatherly care which we doe continually take for the saluation of your soules, we are inforced to admonish and desire you, that by no meanes you come vnto the Churches of the Heretickes, or heare their Sermons, or communicate with them in their Rites, lest you incurre the wrath of God: For these things may ye not doe without indamaging the worship of God, and your owne sal­uation. As likewise you cannot, without most euident and grieuous wronging of Gods Honour, bind your selues by the Oath, which in like maner we haue heard with very great griefe of our heart is administred vnto you, of the tenor vnder-written. viz.

I A. B. doe trewly and sincerely acknowledge, The Oath. professe, testifie and declare in my conscience before God and the world, That our Soueraigne Lord King IAMES, is lawfull King of this Realme, and of all other his Maiesties Dominions and Countreyes: And that the Pope neither of himselfe, nor by any authority of the Church or Sea of Rome, or by any other meanes with any other, hath any power or authoritie to depose the King, or to dispose of any of his Maiesties Kingdomes or Dominions, or to authorize any forreigne Prince to inuade or annoy him or his Countreys, or to discharge any of his Subiects of their Allegiance and obedience to his Maiestie, or to giue Licence or leaue to any of them to beare Armes, raise tumults, or to offer any violence or hurt to his Maiesties Royall Person, State or Gouern­ment, or to any of his Maiesties subiects within his Maiesties Dominions. Also I doe sweare from my heart, that, notwithstanding any declaration or sentence of Excommunication, or depriuation made or granted, or to be [Page 251]made or granted, by the Pope or his successors, or by any Authoritie deri­ued, or pretended to be deriued from him or his Sea, against the said King, his heires or successors, or any absolution of the said subiects from their obedience; I will beare faith and trew Allegiance to his Maiestie, his heires and successors, and him and them will defend to the vttermost of my power, against all conspiracies and attempts whatsoeuer, which shalbe made against his or their Persons, their Crowne and dignitie, by reason or colour of any such sentence, or declaration, or otherwise, and will doe my best endeuour to disclose and make knowne vnto his Maiestie, his heires and successors, all Treasons and traiterous conspiracies, which I shall know or heare of, to be against him or any of them. And I doe further sweare, That I doe from my heart abhorre, detest and abiure as impious and Here­ticall, this damnable doctrine and position, That Princes which be excom­municated or depriued by the Pope, may be deposed or murthered by their Subiects or any other whatsoeuer. And I doe beleeue, and in consci­ence am resolued, that neither the Pope nor any person whatsoeuer, hath po­wer to absolue me of this Oath, or any part therof; which I acknowledge by good and full authoritie to bee lawfully ministred vnto mee, and doe renounce all Pardons and Dispensations to the contrarie. And all these things I doe plainely and sincerely acknowledge and sweare, according to these expresse words by mee spoken, and according to the plaine and com­mon sense and vnderstanding of the same words, without any Equiuoca­tion, or mentall euasion, or secret reseruation whatsoeuer. And I do make this Recognition and acknowledgment heartily, willingly, and trewly, vp­on the trew faith of a Christian. So helpe me GOD.

Which things since they are thus; it must euidently appeare vnto you by the words themselues, That such an Oath cannot be taken without hurting of the Catho­like Faith, and the saluation of your soules; seeing it conteines many things which are flat contrary to Faith and saluation. Wherefore wee doe admonish you, that you doe vtterly abstaine from taking this and the like Oathes: which thing wee doe the more earnestly require of you, because wee haue experience of the constancie of your faith, which is tried like gold in the fire of perpetuall tribulation. Wee doe well know, that you will cheerefully vnder-goe all kinde of cruell torments whatsoeuer, yea and con­stantly endure death it selfe, rather then you will in any thing offend the Maiestie of GOD. And this our confidence is confirmed by those things, which are dayly re­ported vnto vs, of the singular vertue, valour, and fortitude which in these last times doeth no lesse shine in your Martyrs, then it did in the first beginning of the Church. Stand therefore, your loynes being girt about with veritie, and hauing on the brest-plate of righteousnesse, taking the shield of Faith, be ye strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might; And let nothing hinder you. Hee which will crowne you, and doeth in Heauen behold your conflicts, will finish the good worke which hee hath begun in you. You know how hee hath promised his disciples, that hee will neuer leaue them Orphanes: for hee is faithfull which hath promised. Hold fast therefore his correction, that is, being rooted and grounded in Charitie, whatsoeuer ye doe, [Page 252]whatsoeuer ye indeuour, doe it with one accord, in simplicitie of heart, in meekenesse of Spirit, without murmuring or doubting. For by this doe all men know that we are the disciples of CHRIST, if we haue loue one to another. Which charitie, as it is very greatly to be desired of all faithfull Christians; So certainely is it altogether ne­cessary for you, most blessed sonnes. For by this your charitie, the power of the diuel is weakened, who doeth so much assaile you, since that power of his is especially vp­held by the contentions and disagreement of our sonnes. Wee exhort you therefore by the bowels of our Lord IESVS CHRIST, by whose loue we are taken out of the iawes of eternall death; That aboue all things, you would haue mutuall charitie a­mong you. Surely Pope Clement the eight of happy memory, hath giuen you most profitable precepts of practising brotherly charitie one to another, in his Letters in forme of a Breue, to our welbeloued sonne M. George Arch priest of the Kingdome of England, dated the 5. day of the moneth of October 1602. Put them therefore di­ligently in practise, and be not hindered by any difficultie or doubtfulnesse. We com­mand you that ye doe exactly obserue the words of those letters, and that yee take and vnderstand them simply as they sound, and as they lie; all power to interpret them otherwise, being taken away. In the meane while, we will neuer cease to pray to the Father of Mercies, that he would with pitie behold your afflictions and your paines; And that he would keepe and defend you with his continuall protection: whom wee doe gently greet with our Apostolicall Benediction. Dated at Rome at S. Marke, vnder the Signet of the Fisherman, the tenth of the Calends of October, 1606. the second yeere of our Popedome.

THE ANSWERE TO THE FIRST BREVE.

FIrst, the Pope expresseth herein his sorrow, for that persecu­tion which the Catholiques sustaine for the faiths sake. Wherein, besides the maine vntrewth whereby I am so in­iuriously vsed, I must euer auow and maintaine, as the trewth is according to mine owne knowledge, that the late Queene of famous memory, neuer punished any Papist for Religion, but that their owne punishment was euer extorted out of her hands against her will, by their owne misbehauiour, which both the time and circum­stances of her actions will manifestly make proofe of. For before Pius Quintus his excommunication giuing her ouer for a prey, and setting her Subiects at libertie to rebell, it is well knowne she neuer medled with the blood or hard punishment of any Catholique, nor made any rigorous Lawes against them. And since that time, who list to compare with an indifferent eye, the manifold intended inuasions against her whole King­dome, [Page 253]the forreine practises, the internall publike rebellions, the pri­uate plots and machinations, poysonings, murthers, and all sorts of deui­ses, & quid non? daily set abroach; and all these wares continually foste­red and fomented from Rome; together with the continuall corrupting of her Subiects, as well by temporall bribes, as by faire and specious pro­mises of eternall felicitie; and nothing but booke vpon booke publike­ly set foorth by her fugitiues, for approbation of so holy designes: who list, I say, with an indifferent eye, to looke on the one part, vpon those infinite and intollerable temptations, and on the other part vpon the iust, yet moderate punishment of a part of these hainous offendors; shall ea­sily see that that blessed defunct LADIE was as free from persecuti­on, as they shall free these hellish Instruments from the honour of mar­tyrdome.

5. But now hauing sacrificed (if I may so say) to the Manes of my late Predecessour, I may next with Saint PAVL iustly vindicate mine owne fame, from those innumerable calumnies spread against me, in te­stifying the trewth of my behauiour toward the Papists: wherein I may trewly affirme, That whatsoeuer was her iust and mercifull Gouerne­ment ouer the Papists in her time, my Gouernement ouer them since hath so farre exceeded hers, in Mercie and Clemencie, as not onely the Papists themselues grewe to that height of pride, in confidence of my mildnesse, as they did directly expect, and assuredly promise to them­selues libertie of Conscience, and equalitie with other of my Subiects in all things; but euen a number of the best and faithfulliest of my sayde Subiects, were cast in great feare and amazement of my course and pro­ceedings, euer prognosticating and iustly suspecting that sowre fruite to come of it, which shewed it selfe clearely in the Powder-Treason. How many did I honour with Knighthood, of knowen and open Re­cusants? How indifferently did I giue audience, and accesse to both sides, bestowing equally all fauours and honours on both professions? How free and continuall accesse, had all rankes and degrees of Papists in my Court and company? And aboue all, how frankely and freely did I free Recusants of their ordinarie paiments? Besides, it is cuident what strait order was giuen out of my owne mouth to the Iudges, to spare the execution of all Priests, (notwithstanding their conuiction,) ioyning thereunto a gracious Proclamation, whereby all Priests, that were at li­bertie, and not taken, might goe out of the countrey by such a day: my generall Pardon hauing beene extended to all conuicted Priestes in pri­son: whereupon they were set at libertie as good Subiects: and all Priests that were taken after, sent ouer and set at libertie there. But time and pa­per will faile me to make enumeration of all the benefits and fauours that I bestowed in generall and particular vpon Papists: in recounting whereof, euery scrape of my penne would serue but for a blot of the Popes ingrati­tude and iniustice, in meating me with so hard a measure for the same. So [Page 254]as I thinke I haue sufficiently, or at least with good reason wiped the Magno cum anims moerore, &c. teares from the Popes eyes, for complaining vpon such persecution, who if hee had beene but politickely wise, although hee had had no respect to Iu­stice and Veritie, would haue in this complaint of his, made a difference betweene my present time, and the time of the late Queene: And so by his commending of my moderation, in regard of former times, might haue had hope to haue mooued me to haue continued in the same clement course: For it is a trew saying, that alledged kindnesse vpon noble mindes, doeth euer worke much. And for the maine vntrewth of any persecuti­on in my time, it can neuer bee prooued, that any were, or are put to death since I came to the Crowne for cause of Conscience; except that now this discharge giuen by the Pope to all Catholiques to take their Oath of Allegiance to me, be the cause of the due punishment of many: which if it fall out to be, let the blood light vpon the Popes head, who is the onely cause thereof.

As for the next point contained in his Breue concerning his discharge of all Papists to come to our Church, or frequent our rites and ceremo­nies, I am not to meddle at this time with that matter, because my er­rand now onely is to publish to the world the Iniurie and Iniustice done vnto me, in discharging my subiects to make profession of their obedience vnto mee. The intende­ment of this discourse. Now as to the point where the Oath is quarrelled, it is set downe in fewe, but very weighty wordes; to wit, That it ought to be cleare vnto all Catholiques, that this Oath cannot bee taken with safetie of the Catholique Faith, and of their soules health, since it containeth many things that are plainely and directly contrarie to their faith and saluation. To this, the old saying fathe­red vpon the Philosopher, may very fitly bee applied, Multa dicit, sed pauca probat; nay indeed, Nihil omnino probat: For how the profession of the na­turall Allegiance of Subiects to their Prince can be directly opposite to the faith and saluation of soules, is so farre beyond my simple reading in Di­uinitie, as I must thinke it a strange and new Assertion, to proceede out of the mouth of that pretended generall Pastor of all Christian soules. I reade indeede, and not in one, or two, or three places of Scripture, that Subiects are bound to obey their Princes for conscience sake, whether they were good or wicked Princes. So said the people to Iosh. 1.17. Ioshua, As wee obeyed Moses in all things, so will wee obey thee. So the Iere. 27.12. Prophet commanded the people to obey the King of Babel, saying, Put your neckes vnder the yoke of the King of Babel, and serue him and his people, that yee may liue. So were the children of Israel, vnto Exod. 5.1. Pharaoh, desiring him to let them goe: so to Ezra 1.3. Cyrus, obtaining leaue of him to returne to build the Temple: and in a word, the Apostle willed all men Rom. 13 5. to bee subiect to the higher powers for consci­ence sake. Agreeable to the Scriptures did the Fathers teach. August. in Psalm. 124. Augustine speaking of Iulian, saith, Iulian was an vnbeleeuing Emperour: was hee not an Apostata, an Oppressour, and an Idolater? Christian Souldiers serued that vnbelee­uing Emperour: when they came to the cause of CHRIST, they would acknowledge [Page 255]no Lord, but him that is in heauen. When hee would haue them to worship Idoles and to sacrifice, they preferred GOD before him: But when hee said, Goe forth to fight, inuade such a nation, they presently obeyed. They distinguished their eter­nall Lord from their temporall, and yet were they subiect euen vnto their tempo­rall Lord, for his sake that was their eternall Lord and Master. Tertull. ad Scap. Tertullian sayth, A Christian is enemie to no man, much lesse to the Prince, whom hee know­eth to bee appointed of God; and so of necessitie must loue, reuerence and honour him, and wish him safe with the whole Romane Empire, so long as the world shall last: for so long shall it endure. Wee honour therefore the Emperour in such sort, as is lawfull for vs, and expedient for him, as a man, the next vnto God, and ob­taining from God whatsoeuer hee hath, and onely inferiour vnto God. This the Emperour himselfe would: for so is hee greater then all, while hee is inferiour onely to the trew God. Iust. Martyr. Apol. 2. ad. Ant. Imperat. Iustine Martyr; Wee onely adore the Lord, and in all other things cheerefully performe seruice to you, professing that you are Emperours and Princes of men. Amb. in orat­cont. Auxentiū, de basilicis tra­den. habetur lib. 5. epist. Ambr. Ambrose; I may lament, weepe, and sigh: My teares are my weapons against their armes, souldiers, and the Gothes also such are the weapons of a Priest: Ocherwise neither ought I, neither can Iresist. Optat. contra Parmen. lib. 3. Optatus; Ouer the Emperour, there is none but onely God, that made the Emperour. And Greg. Mag. Epist. lib. 2. in­dict. 11. Epist. 61. Gre­gory writing to Mauritius about a certaine Law, that a Souldier should not be receiued into a Monasterie, nondum expleta militia, The Almightie God, sayth hee, holdes him guiltie, that is not vpright to the most excellent Emperour in all things that hee doeth or speaketh. And then calling himselfe the vnwor­thy seruant of his Godlinesse, goeth on in the whole Epistle to shewe the iniustice of that Lawe, as hee pretendeth: and in the end concludes his E­pistle with these wordes; I being subiect to your command, haue caused the same Law to be sent through diuers parts of your Dominions: and because the Law it selfe doeth not agree to the Law of the Almightie God, I haue signified the same by my Letters to your most excellent Lordship: so that on both parts I haue payed what I ought; because I haue yeelded obedience to the Emperour, and haue not holden my peace, in what I thought for God. Now how great a contrarietie there is, betwixt this ancient Popes action in obeying an Emperour by the publication of his Decree, which in his owne conscience hee thought vnlawfull, and this present Popes prohibition to a Kings Subiects from obedience vnto him in things most lawfull and meere temporall; I remit it to the Readers indifferencie. And answerably to the Fathers, spake the Councels in their Decrees. As the Councell of Concil Arela­tense sub Carolo Mag. Can. 26. Arles, submitting the whole Councell to the Emperour in these wordes; These things wee haue decreed to be presented to our Lord the Emperour, beseeching his Clemencie, that if wee haue done less then wee ought, it may be supplyed by his wisedome: if any thing otherwise then reason requireth, it may be corrected by his iudgement: if any thing be found fault with by vs with reason, it may bee perfected by his aide with GODS fauourable assistance.

But why should I speake of Charles the great, to whome not one Coun­cell, but sixe seuerall Councels, Frankeford, Arles, Tours, Chalons, Ments [Page 256]and Rhemes did wholy submit themselues? and not rather speake of all the generall Councels, that of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon, and the foure other commonly so reputed, which did submit themselues to the Emperours wisedome and piety in all things? Insomuch as that of Ephesus repeated it foure seuerall times, That they were summoned by the Emperours Oracle, becke, charge and commaund, and betooke themselues to his Godlinesse: Vide Episto­la [...] general [...] Conc. Ephes. ad August.beseeching him, that the Decrees made against Nestorius and his followers, might by his power haue their full force and validitie, as appeareth manifestly in the Epistle of the generall Councell of Ephesus written ad Augustos. I also reade that Christsaid, His 2 Iohn 18 36.kingdome was not of this world, bidding, Giue to 3 Matt. 22.21.Cesar what was Cesars, and to God what was Gods. And I euer held it for an infallible Maxime in Diuinitie, That temporall obedience to a temporall Magistrate, did nothing repugne to matters of faith or saluation of soules: But that euer temporall obedience was against faith and saluation of soules, as in this Breue is alledged, was neuer before heard nor read of in the Christian Church. And therefore I would haue wished the Pope, before hee had set downe this commandement to all Papists here, That, since in him is the power by the infabillity of his spirit, to make new Articles of Faith when euer it shall please him, he had first set it downe for an Article of Faith, be­fore he had commanded all Catholikes to beleeue and obey it. I will then conclude the answere to this point in a Dilemma.

Either it is lawfull to obey the Soueraigne in temporall things, Question. or not.

1 If it be lawfull (as I neuer heard nor read it doubted of) then why is the Pope so vniust, and so cruell towards his owne Catholikes, as to command them to disobey their Soueraignes lawfull commandement?

If it be vnlawfull, 2 why hath hee neither expressed any one cause or rea­son thereof, nor yet will giue them leaue (nay rather hee should command and perswade them in plaine termes) not to liue vnder a King whom vnto they ought no obedience?

And as for the vehement exhortation vnto them to perseuere in con­stancie, Answere to the Popes ex­hortation. and to suffer Martyrdome and all tribulation for this cause; it re­quireth no other answere then onely this, That if the ground be good whereupon hee hath commaunded them to stand, then exhortation to constancie is necessarie: but if the ground be vniust and naught (as indeed it is, and I haue in part already proued) then this exhortation of his can worke no other effect, then to make him guilty of the blood of so many of his sheepe, whom hee doeth thus wilfully cast away; not onely to the needlesse losse of their liues, and ruine of their families, but euen to the laying on of a perpetuall slander vpon all Papists; as if no zealous Papist could be a trew subiect to his Prince; and that the profession of that Religi­on, and the Temporall obedience to the Ciuill Magistrate, were two things repugnant and incompatible in themselues. Famae vires ac­quirit eundo. But euill information, and vntrew reports (which being caried so farre as betweene this and Rome, [Page 257]cannot but increase by the way) might haue abused the Pope, and made him dispatch this Breue so rashly: For that great Citie, Queene of the World, and as themselues confesse, Eusebius, Oe­cumenius and Leo hold, that by Babylon, in 1. Pet. 5.13. Rome is meant, as the Rhemists themselues confesse. mystically Babylon, cannot but be so full of all sorts of Intelligencies. Besides, all complainers (as the Catho­likes here are) be naturally giuen to exaggerate their owne griefes, and multiply thereupon: So that it is no wonder, that euen a iust Iudge sit­ting there, should vpon wrong information, giue an vnrighteous sen­tence; as some of their owne partie doe not sticke to confesse, That Pius Quintus was too rashly caried vpon wrong information, to pronounce his thunder of Excommunication vpon the late Queene. And it may be, the like excuse shall hereafter be made for the two Breues, which See the Re­lation of the whole procee­dings against the Traitours, Garnet and his confederates. Clemens Octauus sent to ENGLAND immediatly before her death, for debarring me of the Crowne, or any other that either would professe, or any wayes tolerate the professours of our Religion; contrary to his manifold vowes and protestations, simul & eodem tempore, and as it were, deliuered vno & eodem spiritu, to diuers of my ministers abroad, professing such kind­nesse, and shewing such forwardnesse to aduance me to this Crowne. The Catho­likes opinion of the Brene. Nay, the most part of Catholikes here, finding this Breue when it came to their handes to bee so farre against Diuinitie, Policie, or naturall sense, were firmely perswaded that it was but a counterfeit Libell, deuised in hatred of the Pope; or at the farthest, a thing hastily done vpon wrong informa­tion, as was before said. Of which opinion were not onely the simpler sort of Papists, but euen some amongst them of best account, both for learning and experience; whereof the Archpriest himselfe was one: But for soluing of this obiection, the Pope himselfe hath taken new paines by sending foorth a second Breue, onely for giuing faith and confirmation to the former; That whereas before, his sinne might haue beene thought to haue proceeded from rashnesse and mis-information, he will now wil­fully and willingly double the same; whereof the Copy followeth.

The second Breue.

TO OVR BELOVED SONNES the English Catholikes, Paulus P.P.Ʋ tus.

BEloued sonnes, Salutation and Apostolicall Benediction.

It is reported vnto vs, that there are found certaine amongst you, who when as we haue sufficiently declared by our Letters, dated the last yeere on the tenth of the Calends of October in the forme of a Breue, that yee cannot with safe Conscience take the Oath, which was then required of you; and when as wee haue further straitly commanded you, that by no meanes yee should take it: yet there are some, I say, among you, which dare now affirme, that such Letters concerning the forbidding of the Oath were not written of our owne accord, or of our owne proper will, but rather for the respect and at the instigation of other men. And for that cause the same men doe goe about to perswade you, that our commands in the said Letters are not to be regarded. Surely this newes did trouble vs; and that so much the more, because hauing had experience of your obedience (most dearely beloued sonnes) who to the end ye might obey this holy Sea, haue godlily and valiantly contemned your ri­ches wealth, honour, libertie, yea and life it selfe; wee should neuer haue suspected that the trewth of our Apostolike Letters could once be called into question among you, that by this pretence ye might exempt your selues from our Commandements. But we doe herein perceiue the subtiltie and craft of the enemie of mans saluation, and we doe attribute this your backwardnesse rather to him, then to your owne will. And for this cause, wee haue thought good to write the second time vnto you, and to signi­fie vnto you againe, That our Apostolike Letters dated the last yeere on the tenth of the Calends of October, concerning the prohibition of the Oath, were written not on­ly vpon our proper motion, and of our certaine knowledge, but also after long and weightie deliberation vsed concerning all those things, which are contained in them; and that for that cause ye are bound fully to obserue them, reiecting all interpreta­tion perswading to the contrary. And this is our meere, pure, and perfect will, being alwayes carefull of your saluation, and alwayes minding those things, which are most profitable vnto you. And we doe pray without ceasing, that hee that hath appointed our lowlinesse to the keeping of the flocke of Christ, would inlighten our thoughts and our counsels: whom we doe also continually desire, that he would increase in you (our beloued Sonnes) faith, constancie, and mutuall charitie and peace one to another. All whom, we doe most louingly blesse with all charitable affection.

THE ANSWERE TO THE second BREVE.

NOw for this Breue, I may iustly reflect his owne phrase vpon him, in tearming it to be The craft of the Deuill. For if the Deuill had studied a thousand yeeres, for to finde out a mischiefe for our Catholikes heere, hee hath found it in this; that now when many Catholikes haue taken their Oath, and some Priests also; yea, the Arch-priest himselfe, without com­punction or sticking, they shall not now onely be bound to refuse the profession of their naturall Allegiance to their Soueraigne, which might yet haue beene some way coloured vpon diuers scruples conceiued vpon the words of the Oath; but they must now renounce and forsweare their profession of obedience alreadie sworne, and so must as it were at the third instance forsweare their former two Oathes, first closely sworne, by their birth in their naturall Allegiance; and next, clearely confirmed by this Oath, which doeth nothing but expresse the same: so as no man can now holde the faith, or procure the saluation of his soule in ENGLAND, that must not abiure and renounce his borne and sworne Allegiance to his na­turall Soueraigne.

And yet it is not sufficient to ratifie the last yeeres Breue, by a new one come forth this yeere; but (that not onely euery yeere, but euery moneth may produce a new monster) the great and famous Writer of the Contro­uersies, the late vn-Iesuited Cardinall Bellarmine, must adde his talent to this good worke, by blowing the bellowes of sedition, and sharpening the spurre to rebellion, by sending such a Letter of his to the Arch­priest here, as it is a wonder how passion, and an ambitious desire of maintaining that Monarchie, should charme the wits of so famously lear­ned a man.

The Copy whereof here followeth.

TO THE VERY REVEREND Mr. GEORGE BLACKWELL, ARCH-PRIEST of the ENGLISH: ROBERT BELLARMINE Cardinall of the holy Church of Rome, Greeting.

REuerend Sir, and brother in CHRIST; It is almost fourtie yeeres since we did see one the other: but yet I haue neuer bene vn­mindfull of our ancient acquaintance, neither haue I ceased, seeing I could doe you no other good, to commend your labouring most pain­fully in the Lords Vineyard, in my prayers to God. And I doubt not, but that I haue liued all this while in your memory, and haue had some place in your prayers at the Lords Altar. So therfore euen vnto this time we haue abidden, as S. Iohn speaketh, in the mutuall loue one of the other, not by word or letter, but in deed and trewth. But alate message which was brought vnto vs within these few dayes, of your bonds and imprisonment, hath inforced mee to breake off this silence; which message, although it seemed heauie in regard of the losse which that Church hath receiued, by their being thus depriued of the comfort of your pastorall function amongst them, yet withall it seemed ioyous, because you drew neere vnto the glory of Martyrdome, then the which gift of God there is none more happy; That you, who haue fedde your flocke so many yeeres with the word and doctrine, should now feed it more gloriously by the example of your patience. But another heauie tidings did not a little disquiet and almost take away this ioy, which immediatly followed, of the aduersaries assault, and peraduenture of the slip and fall of your constancie in refu­sing an vnlawfull Oath. Neither trewly (most deare brother) could that Oath therefore bee lawfull, because it was offered in sort tempered and modified: for you know that those kinde of modifications are nothing else, but sleights and subtilties of Satan, that the Catholique faith touching the Primacie of the Sea Apostolike, might either secretly or openly be shot at; for the which faith so many worthy Martyrs e­uen in that very England it selfe, haue resisted vnto blood. For most certaine it is, that in whatsoeuer words the Oath is conceiued by the aduersaries of the faith in that Kingdome, it tends to this end, that the Authoritie of the head of the Church in Eng­land, may bee transferred from the successour of S. Peter, to the successour of King Henry the eight: For that which is pretended of the danger of the Kings life, if the high Priest should haue the same power in England, which hee hath in all o­ther Christian Kingdomes, it is altogether idle, as all that haue any vnderstanding, may easily perceiue. For it was neuer heard of from the Churches infancie vntill this day, that euer any Pope did command, that any Prince, though an Heretike, though an Ethnike, though a persecutour, should be murdered; or did approue of the fact, when it was done by any other. And why, I pray you, doeth onely the King of England seare that, which none of all other the Princes in Christendome either doeth feare, or euer did feare?

[Page 261]But, as I said, these vaine pretexts are but the traps and stratagemes of Satan: Of which kinde I could produce not a fewe out of ancient Stories, if I went about to write a Booke and not an Epistle. One onely for example sake, I will call to your memory. S. Gregorius Nazianzenus in his first Oration against Iulian the Em­perour, reporteth, That hee, the more easily to beguile the simple Christians, did in­sert the Images of the false gods into the pictures of the Emperour, which the Ro­manes did vse to bow downe vnto with a ciuill kinde of reuerence: so that no man could doe reuerence to the Emperours picture, but withall hee must adore the Images of the false gods; whereupon it came to passe that many were deceiued. And if there were any that found out the Emperours craft and refused to worship his pi­cture, those were most grieuously punished, as men that had contemned the Empe­rour in his Image. Some such like thing, me thinkes, I see in the Oath that is offe­red to you; which is so craftily composed, that no man can detest Treason against the King and make profession of his Ciuill subiection, but he must bee constramed perfidiously to denie the Primacie of the Apostolicke Sea. But the seruants of Christ, and especially the chiefe Priests of the Lord, ought to bee so farre from taking an vnlawfull Oath, where they may indamage the Faith, that they ought to beware that they giue not the least suspicion of dissimulation that they haue taken it, least they might seeme to haue left any example of preuarication to faithfull people. Which thing that worthy Eleazar did most notably performe, who would neither eate swines flesh, nor so much as faine to haue eaten it, although hee sawe the great torments that did hang ouer his head; least, as himselfe speaketh in the second Booke of the Machabees, many young men might bee brought through that simulation, to preuaricate with the Lawe. Neither did Basil the Great by his example, which is more fit for our purpose, cary himselfe lesse worthily toward Valens the Emperour. For as Theodoret writeth in his Historie, when the Deputy of that hereticall Em­perour did perswade Saint Basil, that hee would not resist the Emperour for a little subtiltie of a few points of doctrine; that most holy and prudent man made an­swere, That it was not to be indured, that the least syllable of Gods word should bee corrupted, but rather all kind of torment was to be embraced, for the maintenance of the Trewth thereof. Now I suppose, that there wants not amongst you, who say that they are but subtilties of Opinions that are contained in the Oath that is offered to the Catholikes, and that you are not to strius against the Kings Authoritie for such a little matter. But there are not wanting also amongst you holy men like vnto Basil the Great, which will openly auow, that the very least syllable of Gods diuine Trewth is not to bee corrupted, though many torments were to bee endured, and death it selfe set before you: Amongst whom it is meete, that you should bee one, or rather the Standard bearer, and Generall to the rest. And whatsoeuer hath beene the cause, that your Constancie hath quailed, whether it bee the suddainenesse of your apprehension, or the bitternesse of your persecution, or the imbecilitie of your old aage: yet wee trust in the goodnesse of God, and in your owne long continued vertue, that it will come to passe, that as you seeme in some part to haue imitated the fall of Peter and Marcellinus, so you shall happily imitate their valour in recouering your strength, and maintaining the Trewth: For if you will di­ligently weigh the whole matter with your selfe, trewly you shall see, it is no small [Page 262]matter that is called in question by this Oath, but one of the principall heads of our Faith, and foundations of Catholique Religion. For heare what your Apostle Saint Gregorie the Great hath written in his 24. Epistle of his 11. Booke. Let not the reuerence due to the Apostolique Sea, be troubled by any mans presump­tion; for then the state of the members doeth remaine entire, when the Head of the Faith is not bruised by any iniurie: Therefore by Saint Grego­ries testimonie, when they are busie about disturbing or diminishing, or taking away of the Primacie of the Apostolique Sea; then are they busie about cutting off the very head of the faith, and dissoluing of the state of the whole body, and of all the members. Which selfe same thing S. Le [...] [...]th confirme in his third Sermon of his Assumption to the Popedom, when he saith; Our Lord had a special care of Peter, & praied pro­perly for Peters faith, as though the state of others were more stable, when their Princes mind was not to be ouercome. Whereupon himselfe in his Epistle to the bishops of the prouince of Vienna, doth not doubt to affirme, that he is not par­taker of the diuine Mysterie, that dare depart from the solidity of Peter; who also saith, That who thinketh the Primacy to be denied to that Sea, he can in no sort lessen the authority of it; but by being puft vp with the spirit of his owne pride, doth cast himselfe headlong into hel. These and many other of this kind, I am very sure are most familiar to you: who besides many other books, haue dili­gently read ouer the visible Monarchy of your owne Sanders, a most diligent writer, and one who hath worthily deserued of the Church of England. Neither can you be ignorant, that these most holy and learned men, Iohn bishop of Rochester, and Tho. Moore, within our memory, for this one most weighty head of doctrine, led the way to Martyrdome to many others, to the exceeding glory of the English nation. But I would put you in remembrance that you should take heart, and considering the weigh­tines of the cause, not to trust too much to your owne iudgement, neither be wise aboue that is meet to be wise: and if peraduenture your fall haue proceeded not vpon want of consideration, but through humane infirmity, & for feare of punishment and impri­sonment, yet do not preferre a temporall liberty to the liberty of the glory of the Sonnes of God: neither for escaping a light & momentanie tribulation, lose an eternal weight of glory, which tribulation it selfe doeth worke in you. You haue fought a good fight a long time, you haue wel-neere finished your course; so many yeeres haue you kept the faith: do not therefore lose the reward of such labors; do not depriue your selfe of that crowne of righteousnes, which so long agone is prepared for you; Do not make the faces of so many yours both brethren and children ashamed. Vpon you at this time are fixed the eyes of all the Church: yea also, you are made a spectacle to the world, to Angels, to men; Do not so carry your selfe in this your last act, that you leaue nothing but laments to your friends, and ioy to your enemies. But rather on the contrary, which we assured­ly hope, and for which we continually powre forth prayers to God, display gloriously the banner of faith, and make to reioyce the Church, which you haue made heauy; so shall you not onely merite pardon at Gods hands, but a Crowne. Farewell. Quite you like a man, and let your heart be strengthened. From Rome the 28. day of Sep­tember 1607.

Your very Reuerendships brother and seruant in Christ, Robert Bellarmine Cardinall.

THE ANSWERE TO THE CARDINALS LETTER.

ANd now that I am to enter into the field against him by re­futing his Letter, I must first vse this protestation; That no desire of vaine-glory by matching with so learned a man, maketh me to vndertake this taske; but onely the care and conscience I haue, that such smooth Circes charmes and guilded pilles, as full of exterior eloquence, as of inward vntrewths, may not haue that publike passage through the world without an answere: whereby my reputation might vniustly be darkened, by such cloudie and foggie mists of vntrewths and false imputations, the hearts of vnstayed and simple men be misse-led, and the trewth it selfe smothered.

But before I come to the particular answere of this Letter, A great mista­king of the state of the Question, and case in hand. I must here desire the world to wonder with me, at the committing of so grosse an er­rour by so learned a man as that he should haue pained himselfe to haue set downe so elaborate a Letter, for the refutation of a quite mistaken que­stion: For it appeareth, that our English Fugitiues, of whose inward socie­tie with him he so greatly vaunteth, haue so fast hammered in his head the Oath of Supremacie, which hath euer bene so great a scarre vnto them, as he thinking by his Letter to haue refuted the last Oath, hath in place there­of onely paied the Oath of Supremacie, which was most in his head; as a man that being earnestly caried in his thoughts vpon another matter, then he is presently in doing, will often name the matter or person he is think­ing of, in place of the other thing he hath at that time in hand.

For as the Oath of Supremacie was deuised for putting a difference be­tweene Papists, and them of our profession: so was this Oath, The diffe­rence be­tweene the Oath of Su­premacie, and this of Allegi­ance. which hee would seeme to impugne, ordained for making a difference betweene the ciuilly obedient Papists, and the peruerse disciples of the Powder-Treason. Yet doeth all his Letter runne vpon an Inuectiue against the compulsion of Catholiques to deny the authoritie of S. Peters successors, and in place thereof to acknowledge the Successors of King Henry the eight: For in K. Henry the eights time, was the Oath of Supremacie first made: By him were Thomas Moore and Roffensis put to death, partly for refusing of it: From his time till now, haue all the Princes of this land professing this Religion, successiuely in effect maintained the same: and in that Oath onely is con­tained the Kings absolute power, to be Iudge ouer all persons, aswell Ciuill as Ecclesiastical, excluding al forraigne powers and Potentates to be Iudges within his dominions; whereas this last made Oath containeth no such [Page 264]matter, onely medling with the ciuill obedience of Subiects to their Soue­raigne, in meere temporall causes.

And that it may the better appeare, that whereas by name hee seemeth to condemne the last Oath; yet indeed his whole Letter runneth vpon no­thing, but vpon the condemnation of the Oath of Supremacie: I haue here thought good to set downe the said Oath, leauing it then to the discre­tion of euery indifferent reader to iudge, whether he doth not in substance onely answere to the Oath of Supremacie, but that hee giues the child a wrong name.

I A B. doe vtterly testifie and declare in my conscience, that the Kings Highnesse is the onely Supreame Gouernour of this Realme, and all other his Highnesse Do­minions and Countries, aswell in all Spirituall, or Ecclesiasticall things or causes, as Temporall: And that no forraine Prince, Person, Prelate, State or Potentate, hath or ought to haue any Iurisdiction, Power, Superioritie, Preeminence or Authori­tie Ecclesiasticall or Spirituall within this Realme. And therefore I doe vtterly re­nounce and forsake all forraine Iurisdictions, Powers, Superiorities and Autho­rities; and doe promise that from hencefoorth I shall beare faith and trew Allegi­ance to the Kings Highnesse, his Heires and lawfull Successours: and to my power shall assist and defend all Iurisdictions, Priuiledges, Preeminences and Authorities granted or belonging to the Kings Highnesse, his Heires and Successours, or vnited and annexed to the Imperiall Crowne of the Realme: So helpe me God; and by the Contents of this booke.

And that the iniustice, as well as the error of his grosse mistaking in this point, may yet be more clearely discouered; I haue also thought good to in­sert here immediatly after the Oath of Supremacie, the contrary conclusi­ons to all the points and Articles, whereof this other late Oath doeth con­sist: whereby it may appeare, what vnreasonable and rebellious points hee would driue my Subiects vnto, by refusing the whole body of that Oath, as it is conceiued: For he that shall refuse to take this Oath, must of necessitie hold all, or some of these propositions following.

That I King IAMES, 1 am not the lawfull King of this Kingdome, and of all other my Dominions.

That the Pope by his owne authoritie may depose me: 2 If not by his owne authoritie, yet by some other authoritie of the Church, or of the Sea of Rome: If not by some other authoritie of the Church and Sea of Rome, yet by other meanes with others helpe, he may depose me.

That the Pope may dispose of my Kingdomes and Dominions. 3

That the Pope may giue authoritie to some forreine Prince to inuade my Dominions. 4

That the Pope may discharge my Subiects of their Allegiance and Obe­dience to me. 5

That the Pope may giue licence to one, 6 or more of my Subiects to beare armes against me.

[Page 265]That the Pope may giue leaue to my Subiects to offer violence to my Person, or to my gouernement, or to some of my Subiects. 7

That if the Pope shall by Sentence excommunicate or depose mee, 8 my Subiects are not to beare Faith and Allegiance to me.

If the Pope shall by Sentence excommunicate or depose me, 9 my Subiects are not bound to defend with all their power my Person and Crowne.

If the Pope shall giue out any Sentence of Excommunication or Depri­uation against me, my Subiects by reason o [...] that Sentence, 10 are not bound to reueale all Conspiracies and Treasons against mee, which shall come to their hearing and knowledge.

That it is not hereticall and detestable to hold, 11 that Princes being excom­municated by the Pope, may be either deposed or killed by their Subiects, or any other.

That the Pope hath power to absolue my Subiects from this Oath, 12 or from some part thereof.

That this Oath is not administred to my Subiects, 13 by a full and lawfull authoritie.

That this Oath is to be taken with Equiuocation, mentall euasion, 14 or secret reseruation; and not with the heart and good will, sincerely in the trew faith of a Christian man.

These are the trew and naturall branches of the body of this Oath. The affirmatiue of all which negatiues, Touching the pretended Councell of Lateran. See Plat. In vita Innocen. III. doe neither concerne in any case the Popes Supremacie in Spirituall causes: nor yet were euer concluded, and de­fined by any complete generall Councell to belong to the Popes authori­tie; and their owne schoole Doctors are at irreconciliable oddes and iarres about them.

And that the world may yet farther see ours and the whole States set­ting downe of this Oath, The Oath of Allegiance confirmed by the authoritie of ancient Councels. did not proceed from any new inuention of our owne, but as it is warranted by the word of GOD: so doeth it take the ex­ample from an Oath of Allegiance decreed a thousand yeeres agone, which a famous Councell then, together with diuers other Councels, were so farre from condemning (as the Pope now hath done this Oath) as I haue thought good to set downe their owne wordes here in that purpose▪ whereby it may appeare that I craue nothing now of my Subiects in this Oath, which was not expresly and carefully commaunded then, by the Councels to be obeyed without exception of persons. Nay not in the very particular point of Equiuocatiō, The ancient Councels prouided for Equiuocation. The diffe­rence be­tweene the ancient Councels, and the Pope counselling of the Catho­liques. which I in this Oath was so carefull to haue eschewed: but you shall here see the said Councels in their Decrees, as care­full to prouide for the eschewing of the same; so as almost euery point of that action, & this of ours shalbe found to haue relation & agreeance one with the other, saue onely in this, that those old Councels were careful and strait in cōmanding the taking of the same: whereas by the contrary, he that now vanteth himselfe to be head of al Councels, is as careful & strait in the prohibition of all men from the taking of this Oath of Allegiance.

[Page 265]The words of the Councell be these:

Heare our Sentence.

Whosoeuer of vs, Concil. Tolet. 4 can. 47. Anno 633.or of all the people thorowout all Spaine, shall goe about by any meanes of conspiracie or practise, to violate the Oath of his fidelitie, which he hath taken for the preseruation of his Countrey, or of the Kings life; or who shall attempt to put violent handes vpon the King; or to depriue him of his kingly power; or that by tyrannicall presumption would vsurpe the Soueraigntie of the Kingdome: Let him bee accursed in the sight of God the Father, and of his An­gels; and let him bee made and declared a stranger from the Catholique Church, which hee hath prophaned by his periurie; and an aliant from the companie of all Christian people, together with all the complices of his impietie; because it behoo­ueth all those that bee guiltie of the like offence, to vnder-lie the like punishment. Which sentence is three seuerall times together, and almost in the same wordes, repeated in the same Canon. After this, the Synode desired, That this Sentence of theirs now this third time rehearsed, might bee confirmed by the voyce and consent of all that were present. Then the whole Clergie and people an­swered, Whosoeuer shall cary himselfe presumptuously against this your definitiue sen­tence, let them be Anathema maranatha, that is, let them bee vtterly destroyed at the Lords comming, and let them and their complices haue their portion with Iudas Is­carioth. Amen.

And in the fifth Concil. Tolet. 5. Can. 7. anno 636. Councell, there it is decreed, That this Acte touch­ing the Oath of Allegiance, shall bee repeated in euery Councell of the Bishops of Spaine. The Decree is in these wordes: In consideration that the mindes of men are easily inclined to euill and forgetfulnesse, therefore this most holy Synode hath ordained; and doeth enact, That in euery Councell of the Bishops of Spaine, the Decree of the generall Synod. Tolet 4. vniuersalis, & magna Sy­nodus dicta, Synod Tolet. 5. cap 2.Councell which was made for the safetie of our Princes, shall bee with an audible voyce proclaimed and pronounced, after the conclusion of all other things in the Synode: That so it beeing often sounded into their eares, at least by continuall remembrance, the mindes of wicked men beeing terrified, might bee reformed, which by obliuion and facilitie [to euill] are brought to preuaricate.

And in the sixt Concil. Tolet. 6. Can. 18. Anno 638. Councell, Wee doe protest before God, and all the orders of Angels, in the presence of the Prophets and Apostles, and all the companie of Martyrs, and before all the Catholique Church, and assemblies of the Christians; That no man shall goe about to seeke the destruction of the King: No man shall touch the life of the Prince: No man shall depriue him of the Kingdome: No man by any tyrannical pre­sumption shall vsurpe to himselfe the Soueraigntie of the Kingdome: No man by any Machination shall in his aduersitie associate to himselfe any packe of Conspirators against him: And that if any of vs shall be presumptuous by rashnesse in any of these cases, let him be stricken with the anatheme of God, and reputed as condemned in e­ternall iudgement without any hope of recouery.

And in the tenth Concil. Tolet. 10. Can. 2. Aera 694. Councell (to omit diuers others held also at Toledo) it is said: That if any religious man, euen from the Bishop to the lowest Order of the Church-men or Monkes, shall bee found to haue violated the generall Oathes [Page 267]made for the preseruation of the Kings Person, or of the Nation and Countrey with a prophane minde; foorth with let him bee depriued of all dignitie, and excluded from all place and Honour. The occasion of the Decrees made for this Oath, was, That the Christians were suspected for want of fidelitie to their Kings; and did either equiuocate in taking their Oath, or make no conscience to keepe it, when they had giuen it; as may appeare by sundry speeches in the Concil. Tolet. 4. cap. 74. Councell, saying, There is a generall report, that there is that perfidiousnesse in the mindes of many people of diuers Nations, that they make no conscience to keepe the Oath and fidelitie that they haue sworne vnto their Kings: but doe dissemble a profession of fidelitie in their mouthes, when they hold an im­pious perfidiousnesse in their mindes. And Concil. Tolet. 4. cap. 74. againe, They sweare to their Kings, and yet doe they preuaricate in the fidelitie which they haue promised: Neither doe they feare the Volume of Gods iudgement, by the which the curse of God is brought vpon them, with great threatning of punishments, which doe sweare lyingly in the Name of God. To the like effect spake they in the Councell of Concil. Aquis­gran. sub Ludo Pio, & Greg. 4. Can. 12. anno 836. Aquisgran: If any of the Bishops, or other Church-man of inferiour degree, hereafter thorow feare or couetousnesse, or any other perswasion, shall make defection from our Lord the Orthodoxe Emperour Lodowicke, or shall violate the Oath of fidelitie made vnto him, or shall with their peruerse intention adhere to his enemies; let him by this Canonicall and Synodall sentence bee depriued of whatsoeuer place hee is pos­sessed of.

And now to come to a particular answere of his Letter. First, as concer­ning the sweet memory hee hath of his old acquaintance with the Arch-priest; it may indeed be pleasing for him to recount: but sure I am, his ac­quaintance with him and the rest of his societie, our Fugitiues (whereof he also vanteth himselfe in his Preface to the Reader in his Booke of Contro­uersies) hath prooued sowre to vs and our State: For some of such Priests and Iesuits, as were the greatest Traitors and fomenters of the greatest con­spiracies against the late Queene, gaue vp Father Rob: Campian and Hart. See the conference in the Tower.Bellarmine for one of their greatest authorities and oracles: And therfore I do not enuy the great honour he can winne, by his vaunt of his inward familiarity with an other Princes traitors & fugitiues; whom vnto if he teach no better maners then hitherto he hath done, I thinke his fellowship are litle beholding vnto him.

And for desiring him to remember him in his prayers at the Altar of the Lord: if the Arch-Priests prayers prooue no more profitable to his soule, then Bellarmines counsell is like to proue profitable, both to the soule and bodie of Blackwell (if he would follow it) the authour of this Letter might very well be without his prayers.

Now the first messenger that I can finde which brought ioyfull newes of the Arch-Priest to Bellarmine, was hee that brought the newes of the Arch-Priests taking, and first appearance of Martyrdome. A great signe surely of the Cardinals mortification, that hee was so reioyced to heare of the apprehension, imprisonment and appearance of putting to death of so old and deare a friend of his. But yet apparantly he should first haue beene [Page 268]sure, that hee was onely to bee punished for cause of Religion, before hee had so triumphed vpon the expectation of his Martyrdome. For first, by what rule of charitie was it lawfull for him to iudge mee a persecu­tour, The Cardi­nals charitie. before proofe had beene made of it by the said Arch-Priests condem­nation and death? What could hee know, that the said Arch-Priest was not taken vpon suspicion of his guiltinesse in the Powder-Treason? What certaine information had hee then receiued vpon the particulars, whereupon hee was to bee accused? And last of all, by what inspiration could he foretell whereupon hee was to bee accused? For at that time there was yet nothing layed to his charge. And if charitie should not bee suspi­cious, what warrant had hee absolutely to condemne mee of vsing perse­cution and tyrannie, which could not bee but implyed vpon mee, if Black­wel was to bee a Martyr? But surely it may iustly be sayd of Bellarmine in this case, that our Sauiour CHRIST saith of all worldly and carnall men, who thinke it enough to loue their Mar. 5.43. friends, and hate their enemies; the limits of the Cardinals charitie extending no farther, then to them of his owne profession. For what euer hee added in superfluous charitie to Blackwel, in reioycing in the speculation of his future Martyrdome; hee detracted as much vniustly and vncharitably from me, in accounting of me thereby as of a bloody Persecutour. And whereas this ioy of his was interrupted by the next messenger, that brought the newes of the saide Arch-Priest his failing in his constancie, by taking of this Oath; he needed neuer to haue beene troubled, either with his former ioy or his second sor­row, both beeing alike falsly grounded. For as it was neuer my intention to lay any thing vnto the said Arch-Priests charge, as I haue neuer done to any for cause of conscience; so was Blackwels constancie neuer brangled by taking of this Oath; It beeing a thing which he euer thought lawfull be­fore his apprehension, and whereunto hee perswaded all Catholiques to giue obedience; like as after his apprehension, hee neuer made doubt or stop in it; but at the first offering it vnto him, did freely take it, as a thing most lawfull; neither meanes of threatening, or flatterie being euer vsed vnto him, as himselfe can yet beare witnesse.

And as for the temperature and modification of this Oath, except that a reasonable and lawfull matter is there set downe in reasonable and tem­perate wordes, agreeing thereunto; I know not what he can meane, by quarelling it for that fault: For no temperatnesse nor modifications in words therein, can iustly be called the Deuils craft; when the thing it selfe is so plaine, and so plainely interpreted to all them that take it; as the onely troublesome thing in it all, bee the wordes vsed in the end thereof, for es­chewing Aequiuocation and Mentall reseruation. Which new Catholike do­ctrine, may farre iustlier bee called the Deuils craft, then any plaine and temperate wordes, in so plaine and cleare a matter. But what shall we say of these strange countrey clownes, whom of with the Satyre we may iustly complaine, that they blow both hote & cold out of one mouth? For Luther [Page 269]and all our bold and free-speaking Writers are mightily railed vpon by them, as hote-brained fellowes, and speakers by the Deuils instinct: and now if we speake moderately and temperately of them, it must be tearmed the Deuils craft: And therefore wee may iustly complaine with CHRIST, that when we Mat. 11.17. mourne, they wil not lament: and when we pipe, they wil not dance. But neither Iohn Baptist his seueritie, nor CHRIST his meeke­nesse and lenitie can please them, who build but to their owne Monarchie vpon the ground of their owne Traditions; and not to CHRIST vpon the ground of his word and infallible trewth.

But what can bee meant by alleadging, that the craft of the Deuill herein, is onely vsed for subuersion of the Catholique Faith, and euersion of Saint Peters Primacie; had neede bee commented anew by Bellarmine himselfe: For in all this Letter of his, neuer one word is vsed, to prooue that by any part of this Oath the Primacie of Saint Peter is any way medled with, except Master Bellarmine his bare alleadging; which without proo­uing it by more cleare demonstration, can neuer satisfie the conscience of any reasonable man. For (for ought that I know) heauen and earth are no farther asunder, then the profession of a temporall obedience to a tempo­rall King, is different from any thing belonging to the Catholique Faith, or Supremacie of Saint Peter: For as for the Catholique Faith; No decision of any point of Religion in the Oath of Allegiance. can there be one word found in all that Oath, tending or sounding to matter of Reli­gion? Doeth he that taketh it, promise there to beleeue, or not to beleeue any article of Religion? Or doeth hee so much as name a trew or false Church there? And as for Saint Peters Primacie; I know no Apostles name that is therein named, except the name of IAMES, it being my Christen name: though it please him not to deigne to name me in all the Letter; al­beit, the contents thereof concerne mee in the highest degree. Neither is there any mention at all made therein, either disertis verbis, or by any other indirect meanes, either of the Hierarchie of the Church, of Saint Peters suc­cession, of the Sea Apostolike, or of any such matter: but that the Author of our Letter doeth brauely make