THE SECOND AND LAST part of Reasons for Refusall of Subscrip­tion to the Booke of Common prayer, vnder the hands of certaine Ministers of Deuon. and Cornwall, as they were exhibited by them to the right Reuerend Father in God WILLIAM COTTON Doctor of Diuinitie, and Lord Bishop of Exceter.

As also an APPENDIX, or Compendious Briefe of all other Exceptions taken by others against the Bookes of Communion, Homilies, and Ordination, word for word, as it came to the hands of an Honorable Personage.

VVith an ANSVVERE to both at seuerall times returned them in publike conference, and in diuerse Sermons vpon occasion preached in the Cathedrall Church of Exceter by Thomas Hutton Bachiler of Diuinitie, and Fellow of S. Iohns Colledge in Oxon.

Fuerant hortamenta, vt Deus, & Christus eius à popu­lo in vnum conueniente pariter rogaretur: Nullus erat primitus terror, Nemo viderat virgam, nemo custodiam: Sola vt diximus fuerant hortamenta Optatus Lib. Tertio.

LONDON. Printed by Iohn Windet for the Com­panie of Stationers. 1606.

To the most Reuerend father in God my very good Lord, the Lord Arch bishop his Grace, Primate, and Metropolitan of all England.

MOst Reuerend in Christ my late trauiles in laboring other of my fellow brethren their godly, peaceable, quiet con­tentment in such doubts as their busie learning, and too much paines hath vnnecessarily occasioned, I began, and withall at once thought to haue fi­nished, but since finding I haue but begun (for somewhat remained, and that somewhat much in their opinion, whose opinions goe for articles of faith) much or little, such as it is, I present vnto your Graces fauour: May it stand with your good pleasure to take know­ledge of my best affections, how deepely in­debted to God his Church, the Kings most excellent Maiestie, and your Honorable selfe for your speciall fauours done me in the prime [Page]of my studies after some few yeares spent in the Vniuersitie of Oxford, I shall take it for no small comfort, specially as the times now are, wherein like the daies of Moses that blessed peace maker,Act. 7.27. I am sure to receaue no small por­tion of griefe from them, whose vnderstand­ing I labour to reconcile vnto our forme of publike praiers. And were not that duetifull remembrance I haue of your auncient fauour, sufficient cause as I must and doe professe, it is farre more, then any seruice of mine can tho­roughly recompence, yet your continuall, long, graue experience in this argument, your Reuerend, learned, great paines heretofore in the daies of our Renowned late Queene both by preaching and writing, as also in that late conference (where our now dread soueraigne Lord King Iames royally to the admiration of all there present moderated the controuersies then proposed) are effectuall motiues to im­bolden me in the humble offer, which I make of this present treatise: Nor are all these the onely persuasiue, though euery of them forci­ble inough, but the eminencie of your place, and highest prelacie, whereunto you are now called, farder exacteth of me submission of [Page]my writings, because your greatest authoritie next after the Kings highnesse may in these Ec­clesiasticall causes giue me best approbation. VVherefore be intreated to vouchsafe your gracious acceptance of a few lines, and what­soeuer may be thought defectiue, I hartily craue it may no way impeach that fuller de­fence, with which our Church can make sup­plie, to whose most sacred iudgement I wholy commend my selfe. Now that God of power, who hath so mercifully appointed the times and seasons, in aduancing the throne of King Iames aboue the throne of Queene Elizabeth, be blessed and praised of vs all this day and for euer. So are mine and euery true harted subiect his vnfained thanks to Godward for roote and branch, for our King, Queene, their roiall progenie, with the high Court of Parliament, graue Senators, Reuerend Bishops, Honora­ble Iudges, our Worshipfull knights, & choi­sest Burgesses so lately, so mightily, so mira­culously preserued to the euerlasting shame of all mischieuous traitors,Nouemb. 5.1605. and to the incredible ioy of all them that truely feare God and the King. More it is my thoughts conceaue in this point: But remembring, as I pray to God in [Page]heauen, so I write to men on earth, I stay my selfe for this time. Humblie beseeching your Grace to pardon this my attempt, and to in­terpret it (as I vnfainedly intend it) the earnest of greater, in deede (as the truth is) of all pos­sible thankfulnesses.

Your Graces in all duty. Thomas Hutton.

To my fellow brethren the ministers of [...] Cornwall, whose exceptions made against subscription, follow farder to bee examined.

ACcording to my promise, I proceed and send the rest of that answer, which be­fore was intended reuiew your grieuā ces with the seueral defence annexed. It may be vpon examinatiō of what you reproue & we maintaine, if you spare a little time to keep re­petitions with your selues, and read that ouer, which you did dislike, you wilbee of another mind. Second thoghts are better then the first. [...] Consider what peril may come to the Church & to your selues, knowing that many of your congregation did not so much admire your paines as they now heartily lament to see thē soil be­stowed in vncharitablie taxing,Inuidiam faci­tis Macario qui sialiquid asper [...] ­fecit pro vnita­te, leue viders poterit d [...] v [...] pro dissentione, &c. Optat. lib. 2. what the wisdome, and zeale of our godlie auncients haue faithfullie penned. Drawe not blessed Macarius into enuie, who if he haue done anie thing sharplie for preseruation of godlie vnitie, Quiduis facer [...] ­debuisse poti [...] ­q [...]m ecclesiam schismate sci [...]d [...] [...]e. Diony. Ale [...] ­ad N [...]at apud Hieronan Cataelo. it may seeme light to the harme, which commeth by needlesse opposition: Anie thing you should haue done (as Dionysius Alexandrinus writeth to Nouatian) rather then cause a rent in the Church remembring,Manus dextra & prasbyter. Origen homil. 7. in Iosu [...]. though you bee taken for right hand and be called Presbiters, and seeme to preach [Page]the word of God, yet if you doe any thing against the discipline of the Church, Si aliquid con­tra [...]cclesiasts­cam discipl [...] ­nam ibid. In vno consen­s [...] ecclesia e [...] cidat dexteram suam, &c. or rule of the Gospell, the Church with one consent must cut you off being their right hand and cast you from them. VVhich seuere course some you know that (fauour the discipline you stand for) took (in places where it preuaileth) against others that were contra­ry minded.Ducto Sutr. in the [...]al [...]e sem­blār. pag. 182. For whē one Iohn Morellie disputed in a certaine treatise that the wordes. Tell the Church belonged not to the consistorie, his booke was burnt, and the man excommuni­cate. Two ministers at Geneua were deposed, and banished for speaking against vsurie allowed in that estate, and a third was glad to flie for speaking against vnleauened bread. But fear­ing the allegation of these examples may dis­tast your liking of that, which I write, my conclusion shalbe to you with the wordes of Saint Paul to his scholler Timothie and in the same manner I rpotest before the Lord that yee striue not about words, 2. Tim. 2.14. which are good for nothing, but to peruert the hearers, he might (vnder Apos­tolical correctiō be it spokē) haue said which peruert the readers. VVherefore intreating your care, & diligence to bethink your selues better, then you haue done, I cōmend you to God, & to the grace of our Lord Iesus Christ, whose holy spirit be with vs all. Amen.

To the Christian Reader.

NOtwithstanding that my weeke­lie and dailie vrgent occasions scarcelie aford mee any laisure to write much, specially in this kind, yet because of a former promise made, as also somewhat (I con­fesse) was left vnanswered, I haue renewed these paines for thy sake (good Reader) whom I intreat, if thou bee not partiall and vnlearned, to become an indifferent iudge of the answere once heretofore and now againe farder tendred. Would thou didst knowe how painefull, and chargeable a worke it hath beene vnto mee, surely then might I hope it will proue thank worthie. Howsoeuer, thus farre I presume of thy charitable Christian affection, whereunto thou art dailie called vpon, by the operation of Gods spi­rit in the ministrie of his worde, that I shall haue thy praiers to him for mee. Other recompence I looke not for, and lesse thy loue cannot yeeld mee. Through­out the whole argument handled in this, and the for­mer booke, I haue dealt with men of some learning and grauitie, to whome peraduenture in manie re­spects thou maiest thinke me far inferior, and J think the same. But to the glorie of God be it spoken, & the truth of the cause I vndertake, herein I well know, I am nothing inferior. Yea did I spare my appeale to the truth, for anie thing I see, they are compassed with [Page]like infirmities, as my selfe and others. So little cause haue they or others for them, to boast of their learn­ing, zeale, integrity and painefulnesse, which is made their crest in the worlds blason of their commendable well doing. Such popular applause I alway suspected holding S. Austin his choise best, if anie must needes haue such applause,Toleramus illa­sed tremimus inter [...]l [...]a [...]. Aug. de verb, dom: s [...]rm. 5. yet to feare and tremble, when they haue it. A danger which were the lesse if the vnitie of the Church and the saints were not in­iuried thereby in prizing of one to the disgrace of ma­nie others. But to leaue this to the effects better or worse, which may follow vpon it, I am to remember thee of one thing had like to haue escaped my memory, and so peraduenture thy knowledge: namely, where­as in the former part of our answer. I set downe the Reasons for refusal of subscription al together, and afterwardes in the handling did refer thee with this watchworde See their reasons &c. J haue cho­sen (as I thinke) a better course to set them, and their answer ioyntly together, that in seeing one thou mai­est see both, holding it lesse comber some to the Prin­ter, and euery way more conuenient for thy selfe. Some other things there are, which I would giue thee notice of, but considering thou hast much to read, if thou read all (and I pray that thou so doe) it shall not bee amisse to abridge this preface. And therefore re­questing thee to turne ouer a new leafe, see the chap­ters and their contents in the Page following.

The Contents of the Chapters in this Booke and in the APPENDIX, which APPENDIX beginneth Pag 156. and so forward continneth to the end of this Booke.

  • OF Buriall chap. 1. Pag. 1. 2. 3. & 167.
  • Praiers dare not presume. chap. 2. Pag 20. 21. & 182.
  • vnworthinesse in asking chap. 3. Pag 37. [...]. 183.
  • Rubricks how vnderstood, chap. 4.
  • Free from all Aduersity chap. 5.
  • The name PRIEST. chap. 6.
  • Christ this day to be borne. chap. 7
  • Fall into no sinne. chap 8.
  • Kneeling at the Lords supper. chap. 9.
  • Priuate Communion chap. 10. Pag 65. 172.
  • Confirmation chap. 11. Pag 79.
  • Confession made by any [...]t the Communion chap. 12. Pag 97. 204.
  • Euerie Parishioner to communicate and receiue the sacraments chap. 13. Pag 100.
  • Faith and Repentance in persons to be baptized cap. 14. Pag 104. 166
  • Two sacraments generally necessarie. chap. 15. Pag 107. 172.
  • The bodie and blood of Christ chap. 16. Pag 110.
  • Matrimonie an excellent misterie. chap. 17. Pag 112.
  • From fornication and all other deadly sinne chap. 18. Pag 114.
  • From suddaine death chap. 19. Pag 115.
  • Often repetition Good Lord d [...]li [...]r [...]s. chap. 20. Pag 119.
  • Three orders of Ministers chap. 21. Pag 126. 227.
  • Receiue the holie Ghost chap. 22. Pag 127. 235. 236.
  • Matrimonie how a sacrament chap. 23. Pag 146.
  • Pluralitie of wiues chap. 24. Pag 149. 239.

The Printer to the friendly Reader.

Hereafter in this booke Pag 156. followeth the AP­PENDIX or Compendious briefe which we cal An An­swer to the additionals. Wherfore we intreat thee good Reader to take euery Page after the 156. & so forward to be to that purpose; though we haue not set down that same title in these expresse termes, nor now cannot wel, the Booke being as it was already finished before wee did remember our selues hereof.

The APPENDIX or Additionals begin at Pag 156.

Ratio I. NO reasonable sense as in these following.
  • 1 Ephes. 5.13. what is manifest the same is light. Read for Epist. on the third Sunday in Lent Pag 157.
  • 2 Collect for Trinitie sunday. In the power of the diuine maiestie to worshippe the vnitie. 158.
  • 3 Euery parishioner to communicate and to receiue the Sacra­ments Ibid and Pag 100.
  • 4 Ephesians 3.15. God the father of all that is called in heauen Read for epist. on 17. sunday after Trinitie 159.
  • 5 Luke 1.36. this is the sixt moneth, which was called barr [...] read for epist on Annunciation to Mary Ibid.
  • 6 Psalme 5 & 8. or euer your pots be made hot 160.
  • 7 Psalme 68.30. when the companie of speare-men &c. Ibid.
Ratio 2. Contradiction.
  • 1 COnfirmation no visible signe, and yet a visible signe Pag. 79. 160. 161.
  • 2 But two sacraments and yet Confirmation is made [...] 79.162.
Ratio 3. Vntruth.
  • 1 INnocents called Gods witnesses 162.163.226.
  • 2 Faith and repentance in infants how 104.165.
  • 3 Children baptised haue althings necessary to saluation 166.
  • 4 Sure & certaine hope of euery one to be buried Pag 1. & 167.
  • 5 Nothing ordained to be read but the pure word of God 167.
  • 6 Read without breaking of one piece from another Ibid.
Ratio 4. Doubtfull maters.
  • 1 ARchangels and Michael for one 168.227.
  • 2 Baptisme meerely prinate 172.
  • 3 Conditional baptisme Ibid.
  • 4 2. sacraments onely as necessary 107.172.
  • 5 Prinate communion 65.173.
  • [Page]6 Ceremonies apt to edification 173.190.190.
  • 7 Ministers Priests 173. and before chap. 6.
  • 8 Prinate absolution 173.
Ratio 5. Scriptures disgraced 175.
  • 1 APocrypha called scriptures Ibid. 176.
  • 2 Read on a holyday rather then, Canonical 177.
  • 3 Canonical left vnread 178.
  • 4 Apocryphal read oftener Ibid.
  • 5 Genealogie of Christ not read Ibid.
  • 6 Ʋntruths in Apocrypha Ibid.
Ratio 6. No dependance 179.
  • 1 INnocents day the Collect Ibid.
  • 2 3 Sunday after Easter the Collect Ibid.
  • 3 Epiphany Ibid.
  • 4 1 Sunday in Lent the Collect 181.
  • 5 Collect on Trinity sunday Ibid.
  • 6 Collect on sunday before Easter 182.
  • 7 Collect on 15. sunday after Trinity Ibid.
  • No presumption to aske any thing lawfull Ibid.
  • Wee say wee dare not presume 21.22.183.
  • Wee pray and yet say we dare not pray Ibid.
  • Ceremonies vnlawfull 184.
  • Humaine inuentions Ibid.
  • Without warrant of Gods word 189.
  • Of misticall signification 190.
  • Defiled with superstition Ibid. 191.
  • Scandalous Ibid.
  • No necessary vse 192.
  • Appropriated to Gods seruice Ibid. 193.194.
  • Wee subscribe to Homilies we cannot tell what. Pag. 199.
  • Collects, Epistles, Gospels sauour of superstition 200.201.
  • Of Lent and of fasting 202.
  • Custome of open pennance 204.
  • Confession of sinne at communion by any pag 97. 98. 204.
Corrupt translations. Leaning out 205.
  • [Page]1 Higgai [...] Sel [...]l [...] Ibid 206.
  • 2 Conclusion of the [...] Psal. & praise the Lord Ibid
  • 3 Conclusion of the Lords praier 206.
  • 4 brought thee out of the house of bondage 207.
  • 5 Holy and beloued on the fist sunday after Epiph. Ibid
Putting 10.
  • VVhole verses to the Psalme 14.208.
  • A whole verse in Psalme 15.209.
  • Psalme 24.6. Ibid.
  • Matthew 10.25. pag. 210.
  • Ierem. 23.5. Ibid.
  • Luke. 19.42.211.
  • Luke 24.36. Ibid.
  • 2. Tim 4.5.212.
Peruerting the meaning of the holy Ghost.
  • Psalme 17.4. pag. 212. 18. 26. pag. 213. 28. 28. pag. 241.
  • 37.38. Ibid. Ibd. 75.3.244. a.
  • 76.5. Ibid. 93.1.244. b. Ibid.
  • 107.40. Ibid. b. 119.122. Ibid.
  • Ibid.
  • Isa 63.11.218.
  • Matthew 27.9.219.
  • Luke
  • 1. Cor. 9.27.222.
  • Gal. 4. [...]5.223.
  • Phil. 2.7. Ibid.
  • Heb. 9.25.224.
  • 1. Pet. 3.20.225.
Misapplication. 225.
  • Reuelat. 14.1. Ibid.
  • 1. Pet. 3.17.227.
  • Reuelat. 12.7.
Book of Ordination
  • Whither Stephen a Deacon as [...]r [...].
  • [Page]Whither Stephen did preach 229:
  • Whither Philippe did preach 230:
  • Whither they did it by ordinary office 231:
  • Whither Lords supper greater then baptisme 234:
  • Whither it profer priuate prayer before publike 235:
  • The Bishope his ordaining Priests & Deacons Ibid.
  • Receiue the holy Ghost. 127.235: 236:
  • Apocrypha called scriptures 236.
  • World not destroyed for [...] slaughter Ibid. 237.
  • After Ahabs example to turne to God Ibid.
  • Ambrose commended for excommunicating he Emperor Ibid.
  • Indith a despensation to we are vaine apparrell 238.
  • P [...]ura [...]itse of wiues 149. 239. 240:
  • Concubin a lawfull wife how. 240.
  • Concubin an honest name Ibid.
  • Sanctifie the flood, Iordan 245.
  • August 26. story of Bel and Dragon 246:
  • Nouember 7 wisdome created 247.
  • Nouember 18. Ecclesiasticus chapter 48. of Elias Ibid.
  • second sunday after Epiphanie Rom. 12.11.248.
  • Collect on S. Thomas day 249.
  • Conuersion of Paul Taught al the world 250.
  • Bartholomew day Collect men and weomen preachers 252.
  • 19. sunday after Trinitie past repentance Ephes. 4.19. Pag. 254.
  • 25. sunday after Trinitie Collect good works may be [...]warded 255.
Aduantages taken by way of retortion against the com­munion Booke which was exhibited to the Par­liament and would be obtruded by some vpon our Church.
  • 1 Doubtfull pag. 256. 257.
  • 2 Disgracefull Ibid.
  • 3 Ʋntruths Ibid.
  • 4 Misapplying scriptures 258.
  • 5 Misinterpreting Ibid.
  • 6 Contradiction Ibid.
  • 7 Leauing out Ibid.
  • 8 Putting in.

The Conclusion of all.

Faults escaped.

Entreat for enter [...]8. crauers for caruers 35. any for and 39. [...]. [...]7. we may for which may 44. a. humanity for summarily 54. a. pa [...]ly for pertly [...]. b. eyes which for with 51. b. vp with for which 120. proue ceremony for proue their ceremony 58. full godlinesse for al [...] godlinesse [...]9. know [...] for know not Ibid. But for but 70. be for by 8 [...]. 86. 97. 18 [...]. [...]91 now th [...]se for now are these 80. or impious for are 87. where for were 9 [...]. pre [...]ti [...]er for parishioner 100. Not for Note 101. he for we 120. de [...]ding for deri­ding 137. before so. for before. So 143. springeth [...] taken for springeth and is taken 146. treat for mete 154. in Caluin for C. cum. m. 156. now for [...]aw 160. answer before part for answer part. 172. 216. 236. do so more for do so no more 176. vseth of for vseth of it 177. diuersitie for aduersitie 181. or for our 184. not for. Not 187. being for brings 188. if for If 189. of necessary for of no necessary vse 191. fantastically for fantasticals 192. saith the mini­stry for saith in the ministry 193. before this time in these hundred for Before this time in those hundred 194. arguments for garments 198. pur [...]e for p [...] zel Ibid godile for godly 204. Doctor Eureux for D'eureux [...]07. Doctor Ambrose for Diuus Ambrose 252. weare for we are 223. pen, to some for pen to some, 250. world. Farder. for world farder proueth 252.

Cyphars misplaced.

37. to 56. are twice numbred, so is 144. so is 177. for 185. which so far as occasion in this table is offred, we distinguish by a and b. 2 [...] 37. a and 37. b. &c. Likewise chap. 14. put for cap. 15. pag 172. Other faults in printing wee pray thee pardon vs. Fare well.

The second and last part of the an­swere to the Reasons for refusall of Subscription.

Chap. 1. Of Buriall. VVe may not Subscribe, because we see not, how it may agree with the Scripture to commit the body of a notorious wicked man, dying without tokens of re­pentance to the earth, in sure and certaine hope of resurrection to eternall life.

BEcause we sée not, how exact and strict some are in their verdict, they passe against what they imagine, not what they can prooue blame-worthie: we intreate them in the feare of the Lord, as they shall an­swere in that great day of accounts for false witnes-bearing, that they shew vs in what line, leafe, Page of the Communion Booke, there is so much as one sillable of a wicked man, of a notorious wicked man, or impenitent person dying with­out tokens of Repentance. For the persons, of whom the Communion Booke speaketh are living, or dead: Liuing they are prayed for, the dead, God is praised for: Liuing put in mind of Iesus Christ, and of themselues. Of Iesus Christ who is the resurrection and the life, &c. Of themselues, their ori­ginall, continuance, fall, and recouerie, Originall from a vessell of much weakenesse, and therefore themselues not much better (Man that is borne of a woman) Continuance short, and sharpe: Short a sembriefe of daies, for he hath but a short time to liue, Sharpe stored with paines and troubles: for it (is full of miseries) The fall like a flower (soone cut downe) The recouery in Christ in whom they shall be made aliue.

For with their owne eies they shall see their Redeemer. Wherefore the suruiuers at the graue in viewe of their owne estate, by a present spectacle of mortalitie presented to their eye, make their confession with a prayer, and then after fol­loweth a thankesgiuing. The confession with a Prayer. In the midst of life we be in death, of whom may we seeke for succour but of thee O Lord, which for our sinnes art iustly displeased? Yet O Lord God most holy, O Lord most mightie, O holy and most mercifull Sauiour deliuer vs not into the bitter paines of eternall death. Then followeth a thankesgiuing for the dead, who depart in the Lord, and in whom the soules of them that be elect, after they be deli­uered from the burthen of their flesh, be in ioy and felicitie. Thus it is for the dead, but commonly such as depart in the true faith of Christ, that they may haue their perfit consum­mation both in body and soule in eternall and euerlasting glory: For the dead, but those which rest in Christ, that at the generall resurrection in the last day they may be found acceptable in his sight, and receiue the blessing, &c. In all which limitations, no word of a notorious wicked person dying without tokens of Repentance. But suppose that the Booke did require that the body of such a person should be in­terred, and committed to the earth, how appeareth it contrary vnto Scripture? Doth Scripture any where forbid to commit the carcasse of a wicked man that is dead to the ground?2 King, 9, 34 Ra­ther as was said of Iezabel Bury hir, she was a Kings daughter, so may it well be said Bury him, or hir, be they like Iezabel for wickednesse, yet bury them: for time was, their Christian pro­fession made vs account them sanctified by the blood of the Te­stament.

But it saith, In sure and certaine hope of the resurrection.

Quando nos pra dicamus. &c: Nobis liquere [...]on potest, qui ad verītatis agnitionem sin [...] peruenturi, qui non, vndesenti­re nos decet sal [...] tem vniuerso­rum, qui audi­ent. Proponimus en [...] ̄ omnibus in me [...] dium sicutietiā nobis praec [...]ptū est, ne cui prae [...] iudicemusin malum praeser­tim. Marlo: in 1, Ioh. 4, 14, When we preach the Gospell (saith Marlorat) it cannot be manifest to vs, who will reach through to the acknow­ledging of the truth, and who will not, wherevpon it be­commeth vs to thinke the Saluation of all, vho doe heare the word of God. For we propose it indifferently to all, [Page 3]as we are also commanded, that we preiudice none, speci­ally in the worse part. For it is better & a more safe course to thinke well of bad persons, then of the good to iudge ill, vnlesse we fully see they are obstinate, stubbourne, and contumelious. And yet in such, or toward such we may not giue too hastie a sentence. Now as the Church of God in preaching the Gospell deliuereth it pell mell in the hearing of elect and reprobate, which directly pertaineth to the faithfull that loue and feare the Lord, so in giuing thankes to God for this, or that brother the Church intendeth hir direction in generall for buriall of the dead, which in speciall belongeth to them, that die in the Lord, At whose sickenesse the Minister was either present, or not present: If present, by exhortation, conference, prayer,Nam tutius est de malis bene sentire quam de bonis &c. Ibidem. quanquam [...] in his quidem pracipitari d [...] bet sententia. Ibidem. and all such good meanes he did labour the sicke mans amendment, and therefore may well giue a com­fortable testimonie in the audience of his people: If absent and could not come, he is to bethinke himselfe, how farre forth the sicke partie had profited in knowledge, and what hope he gaue thereof in health, sicknesse, or both: If some one he were that gaue no testimony at all, but liued a wretched life, and made a wretched end, as it may fall out sometimes, then must the Mi­nister know the censures of the Church were exercised vpon him, or not: If not vpon him, he may be held a member of Christ his visible Church, till he be cut off, because all things must be done in order, and in their due place, neither till then néede the Minister take knowledge to the contrarie.Semel bonus, semper bonus, do necprobetur esse malus. For as once an honest man is euer presumed to be an honest man, till euidence come in against him, so once a member of Christ to be thought euer after, till sentence be pronounced by those to whom Authoritie is committed. And if sentence be pronounced, but not reuersed, or otherwise a man be taken in some notorious sinne of Treason, wilfully murdering, strangling, browning himselfe, or the like, and good proofe made thereof, at such times this order for buriall of such a no­torious, wicked person is not prescribed to any Minister, nor required of him.

The Minister must peremtorilie affirme, that God hath taken the Soule.

And if the Minister doe, it is no other necessitie, nor peremp­torie affirmation, then is agréeable to Gods word. For be he a wicked, or a godly man that teath seazeth vpon, indifferent it is in the forme of the prayer Booke, and no vntruth either way, because God hath taken him of his great mercy, though not toward the reprobate, yet of his great mercy toward his Church, in disburdening the world of him. Some haue thought, and more then thought it, for they haue disputed the contrarie.

The soule of a wicked man God cannot be said to take vnto him. For Luke 12.20. This night shall they fetch away thy Soule (that is) the Deuill, and his Angels shall.

The place misconstrued bréeds a wrong conclusion. For first they shal take &c. is a spéech vsuall in the language of Hebrew, Greeke, Ferunt, aiunt, pradicant, cla­mitant, [...] 1 Cor. 6. [...] Luc: 12.48. [...] Ibid: Latine, and English: They say, they report, they giue out, &c. When our meaning is no other, but in the destrate indefinitly to be vnderstood, not determining, who saith, or who reporteth, for that we cannot distinctly tell, only a generall re­port: it is like that of Paul It is generally said, that there is fornication, &c. So Luke 12. to whom much is giuen, of him they require much (that is) as the same Euangelist there in the same verse rendreth, it shall be required: Secondly to say (that by those words obiected) the deuill and his Angels are meant is to restraine it, and ouerstreighten the libertie of the obseruation. Whereas these words They shall fetch may well note any, whether men, Angels, deuils, or other creatures of what kinde soeuer: And all to teach vs, that all are to be feared, and are as well knowne to the Lord, as we are to one another, where being demaunded Who it is that calleth,Ioh. 18.8 we answere It is I, and who it is that fetcheth his soule, It is they. They it is: not one onely executioner of the Lord his wrath, but many. Sisera a naile in his temples:Iud: 4.21 2. King. 19, 37. Sennacherib his owne bowels Ad­ramelech and Sharezar: Herod his wormes: Egyptians frogs, [Page 5]li [...]e, &c. A Fi [...]e in the vttermost parts of the floods,Act, 12, 13. Exod, 8, 4, 17. Isay, 5, 27. a Bée in the lande of Ashur. And what ministers of indignation can be wante for any exploite by death, that hath a mightie and strong host like a tempest of haile and a whirlewinde?Luc. 28, 2. that causeth the blood fall on the head of Ioab and all his Fathers house, that the house of Ioab was neuer without some, [...] Sam. 3.29. that had running issues, or a Lepar, or that leaneth on a staffe, or that doth fall on the sword, or that lacketh bread. So as what Rab­sake said for his Master is true of the Almightie How canst thou despise any Captame of the least of my Masters seruants? 2 King. 18.24. The least of them (contemptible though they seeme) are able to take our life, and soule from vs, and yet at such times they come not without the Lord; yea what euer deadly arrest is made vpon any man, it is a Capias from the Lord. Be it deuill, or any imp of the deuill, few or many they fetch away a wretched soule, yet God it is, who (greater then the Prince of this world) so commaundeth and appointeth, and therefore to be held his acti­on, and worke. As Psal. 78.49. Psalm, 78, 49. He did cast vpon them the fierce­nesse of his anger, and [...]dignation, and wrath, and vengeance by sen­ding out of euill Angels. So that did we know (which we doe not) that such a day, such an houre, such a man a reprobate is to be buried, yet the words of Scripture allow vs to say, The Lord hath taken the soule of such a one. For the body is com­mitted to the graue, & his Soule to God that gaue it.Eccles, 12.7. Iob, 27, 8. Iob maketh it plaine Chap. 27. in his demand what hope hath an hypocrite when he hath heaped vp riches, if God take away his Soule? Heb. 10, 31. In iudgement it is (we confesse) because a fearefull thing to fall into the hands of the liuing God.

He must affirme him to be a deare brother.

And reason. For we are somewhat beholding to the recei­ued stile of our countrie, somewhat to humanitie, [...] Act. 27.27. somewhat to our opinion and the outward appearance of a thing. In Paul his voyage the Mariners thought that some countrie did ap­proch vnto them: That was their opinion, such was the appea­rance, for in failing the eye so informeth. Humanitie some­times so tempereth a mans speech, as were it precisely censu­red, [Page 6]might peraduenture be suspected for an vntruth. Saint Au­stin writing to Macedonius giueth him in his letter the name of a good man,Ego quidem in­tuens mores tu­as appellaus te virum bonu [...]s, sed to intuens verba Christi die tibi-ipsi &c. August: Maced epist: 54. Quod cū verū sit hoc eni veri­tas dixit &c. Fallacia ssenta­tione dixisse, & dominicis verbis quasi contrari­us extitisse Ibid. Nō enim et ipse do [...]inus cōtra­r [...]a sibi loquu­tus est &c: Nee [...]egitur con­uersus fuisse ad fidem et paenitent [...]am. Auctor compilation. Chron [...]log. Temput est be­at a memoria Liberii pracepta reuoluere Am­bros [...]a a vurgim: Lib. 3. Ad Liberium Beatum Roma episcopum vna & Epiphan. hares. 75. A beatisims Liberis &c. Basil, epist 74. ad episcop: oc­cidentales. hereat Macedonius pausing, because there is none good but God, the answer is returned him by Saint Au­stin. In deede (quoth hee) looking vpon thy manners I cal­led the a good man, but you looking vppon the wordes of Christ say to your selfe their is none good but God: Which being a truth, (for the truth hath spoken it) yet would I not bee thought to haue spoken in a dissembling sort, and to contrarie (as it were) the Lord his owne wordes nor did the Lord himselfe contrarie his owne sa­ing Luke. 6. A good manous of the good treasure of the heart bringeth foorth good thinges: Afterwardes resoluing the doubt hee sheweth that God of himselfe is singularlie good by himselfe, and vnchangeablie, but man is not so, and yet be there proueth withall, how man may be called good. So as euerie scripture inforced to lend the coppie of a countenance for some notable obiection must not detaine vs from vsing kinde termes of one another, or to one another, though happslie at the first catch, a dest wi [...]te may be thought to haue saide some­what. Liberius Bishoppe of Rome in the daies of Constan­tius the Emperor became an Arrian, and an some histories write was not thought to haue reuoked his heresie and re­pented. Yet Saint Ambrose speaking of him nameth him not, but with greate reuerence, Time is (sayeth he) O holy sister to reuolue, and con ouer the precepts of Liberius of blessed memorie &c. In the Grecke church the ancient fathers Epi­phanius, & Basill doe the like: Epiphanius in this wise, Eu­stachius (saith hee) together with a manie Bishoppes went in embassic to blessed Liberius Bishoppe of Rome. Saint Basill hath these wordes Certaine thinges were proposed him by most blessed Liberius All these good men in their grati­ous hope call Liberius more then a deere brother though som­time liuing, and (as histories doe record) dying a profest Ar­rian, and in sure and certaine hope of resurrection to eter­nall life call him blessed of the Lord, the memory of his name blessed, yea himselfe a most blessed man: Vppon oc­casion or which wordes Maister Iunius obserueth in the [Page 7]monuments of antiquitie that it is a verie vsuall thing to call the deade whether men or weomen by the name of blessed, [...]. Beatos app el­lari defunctos &c. qui etsi cul­patè vixerunt tamē in gratians & gloriama deo recepti prasis­mun tur chari­tatis ethumani tat is officio, Iun. con. Bellar. controuers. 3. Lib 4. c 9. Math. 21 1 [...] [...]. Luc. 16.25 [...]. who though they liued blame-worthie yet by the duetie of charitie and humanitie are presumed by vs to bee recei­ued into grace and glorie. If the duetie of charitie, and humanitie binde vs so to speake, our church must bee reue­renced for taking this order for the deade, and others bet­ter aduise, who not knowing to the contrarie the last estate of some particular persons, yet thwartinglie in opposition will needes holde the contraries, But beside this receiued practise, (if sarder proofe neede) adde this hereunto: our bles­sed sauiour calleth him, that had not on a wedding garment fellow, and Abraham nameth the glutton in hell Sonne: He was not his sonne, nor the other hailefellow. Noe such fault therefore (as somethinke) to call a man Brother, deare brother. The phrase of our countrie, the guise of eiuill conuersation, the outward appearance, the rule of charitie all iustifie this appellation, though a sharpe-sighted eye sée it not, and a sharpedged dislike approue it not. Yet a bro­ther

  • 1. because of the same nation and people if a brother 1 an Hebrue or hebruesse.
    Deut. 15.12
  • 2. because of the same kindred, 2 so Christ taketh them for his brethren because of consangui­nitie,
    Ioh. 7.3.
    though they did not belieue in him: He disclaimeth not the bond of nature though they knit not with him in the 3 bond of the spirit.
    1 Kings. 20.33.
  • 3. a brother sometimes because of the same office Ahab and Benhadad call one the other so, be­cause they were both Kinges,
  • 4. a brother because some­what 4 somuch, or so little (as a man hath) is the image of 5 God:
    1 Cor. 6.6.
  • 5. a brother because of the same profession a bro­ther goeth to law with a brother.
    Malus propter sacramenta communia frater esset Aug breuicicollat. 3. c. 3.
    A wicked man is a bro­ther saith Saint Austin euen for this, because of his out­ward profession, and fellowshippe in the Sacrements. So manie of these waies one that dyeth may bee a brother, a deare brother, how much rather may wee vse the name, not knoweing his finall and last end, as wee doe not.

How can we say, In sure and certains hope of resur­rection to eternall life.

Such a sure and certaine hope it is, as in such a case née­deth to relie vpon things apprehended in part, for so doth hope, receiuing hir direction from the rules of Christian charitie, which otherwhiles kindely qualifieth, what knowledge would ouer seuerely censure. A sure and certaine hope of resur­rection to eternall life in so many as doe beleeue, which whi­ther this or that particular person now to be interred, as we know not, so of our knowledge we speake not, but hoping in the rules of our Christian loue we make a fauourable constructi­on such as (we nothing doubt) is most acceptable to God and men.Potest fieri, vt ribi asiud vide­atur quam ve­ritas habet, dum tamen abt te non aliud fi­at, quam chari­tas habet opist 15: Hieron. One (saith Saint Austin) may thinke otherwise then truth hath, so he speake not otherwise then charitie hath.

This is besides his knowledge.

Doth any one know to the contrary, and can so well skill of all the infallible tokens of an impenitent heart, which is no ordinarie knowledge, the Booke no more inforceth him to vse euery word in that precise manner there set downe, then to say a deere brother when it is a sister? And with as much rea­son men may urge this cauill, as thus impertinently pretend that the Booke inioyneth vs to account a reprobate for an elect child of God. But at any time will a Minister bary from the standing rule, and order prescribed, let him consult epi­scopall authoritie to whom direction at such times belongeth, and from thence reciue warrant for his proceedings? And withall let him be of sure ground, that he speake according to knowledge, which bold ignorance cannot, yea let him see in his seuerall course that he giue not offence to others, and draw vp­on himselfe a needelesse hatred,De nullo quam nis pessimo in hac vita despe­randum est. Aug. Retract. lib. 1. c, 19. as no other likelihood but he shall, vnlesse at such times for that particular he be lawfully authorized, remembring what Saint Austin aduertiseth, Not to despaire of any, be he neuer so bad, while his Soule is within him. And in his last gaspe, who art thou that iudgest [Page 9]of his estate to be dammed?Perkin. how far a Reprobate may go. Pag. 12. B. Notes (saith Maister Perkins) that this often betalleth reprobates to be effeemed christians and they are often like them, that none but Christ can discerne shéepe frō goates true christians from apperant. Wherefore it is to bee thought far more besides a man his knowledge to denie, rather then it is to hope.

And it is against Gods word.

Whatsoeuer disagreeth with Gods word deferueth to be condemned,Sed quia hicsa­pe hallucinars conting it pra­cedat modesta & placida in­quisitie, vt sa­num sit, ac so­brium iudicium Cal. in Iob. 5. v. 10. Curiose inqui­rere nō vt emen­des &c. ld. in Math. 7. Sed notes, tibi­que vel probi­tatis opinionem sicū aliis cōfera ris, vel praus a nimi oblectati­nem concilies. Ibid. Superciliose de re qualibet sint strum feramus indicium, etiam si in bonam pat tem accipi pote­rat. Ibid. Hoe vitio labe­rant partim in­uidi: partim hy­pocrita: partim amantes sui. Ibid. Vi morosi sumus & maligui magis pendemus in s [...]ifram parsem Id. Act. 10. 1 f. Qui Iudi­dicat ex verbo des, Legem domini & Iudicium suum̄ ad charitatis regulam exigit, semper a soip so mititum faciens, &c. Ibid. Math. 7.1. but because in the misapplying it often falleth out we may be deceiued, let a modest and temperat inquisition goe before that the iudgement giuen may prooue sober, discrete, and sound, otherwise it is no better then curiously inquiring into other folkes their words and deedes not to amend, or com­mend them, but to note and tax, and all this to please our corrupt mindes, and to get an opinion of much holinesse in comparison of others. This disease breaketh forth into a peruerse holdnesse with a supercilious high looke pasting a finister iudgement of that, which might better be interpreted. A vice some men labour of, that are enulous, some that are hypocrites, and some that are louers of themselues, and not they onely, but the better sort of men to, as Peter the Apostle in eating foode offered him of the Lord, wherevpon it is noted That as we are testie, and ill minded, we more and more incline to the worser part. Against which a present helpe to settle and stay our iudgements, and to keepe a right measure, and order is, by iudging out of the word of God, bringing that iudgement (we thence make) to the rule of charitie, alway beginning at a mans owne selfe. Which it seemeth some men doe not, whose foongs are so flippant, what others know, and know not. For if they beganne with them­selues, they would learne to esteeme of others better then them­selues: In Gods graces that little, which is in others (though but little) they would price, and make more of, thē of their own, contrarie wise in sinne and infirmities, that much which is in o­thers, (much as it is) they would thinke nothing in comparison [Page 10]of their owne.2. Tim. 1.15. In euill, iudgeing worst of our selues, like Paul, when hee reckoneth himselfe chiefe of all sinners: In good, hold­ing it little to that, which others haue, and doe good with, more then wee, making this full account: Ours is a more gree­nous sinne, and what wee want in measure or waight, wee match at times for number. And so much is it the more hain­ous, as wee knowe more against our selues, then against an­other, and so much the more odious in the sight of God as I, or thou hast beene taught more,Spiritualiae pec cata sunt ma­ioris culpae, car­nalia maioris pana. and condemned it more then others. Spirituall sinnes (sayeth one) are of greater fault, car­nall of greater punishnment. Such oddes their is twixt per­son and person, though one of lesse blemish in the eye of the world, then some other is. A man that takes his beginning at himselfe can haue small time to let his thoughts range a­broade, as if hee were all eye to looke forth, and noe heart to consider, what measure he meateth, shalbee measured backe vppon him. Thus a censurer rightlie fitted in iudgeing others, must see into Gods word, and beholding the truth in generall, feare, least he bee ouer hastie, and too quicke in making a par­ticular applie of finall condemnation.Licebit interdū statuere sitne de ploratus qui ce­cidit &c. sed quia rarissime hoc accidit. &c Cal. in 1. Ioh. 5.16: Immensas gra­tia sua diustias commend ins, nos suo exemplo asse iubet. Luc. [...] non temere in quenquam seren dum est mortis aterna iudicisi, potius noschari­tas ad bene spe­randum flectat Ibid: Otherwhiles in deede wee may determin whether a man bee to bee doubted of, that is fallen, or whether any place bee for remedie: But because this hapneth very seldome, and God commending the infinite riches of his grace commaundeth vs to bee mercifull Luk. 6.36. iudgement of eternall death is not rashlie to bee past vpon anie: Rather let charitie binde vs to hope well. It is but sometimes, and seldome, and verie seldome: and sometimes or verie seldome, ouerthroweth not a generall order of prayer, which for the most part holdeth, as the communion booke expresseth. Beside God commendeth the infinite riches of his grace, not his grace onely, but the riches thereof, nor the riches but the infinite riches of his grace in commaunding vs to bee mercifull, as if either grace were wanting, or if present, it were in pouertie, and that pouertie infinite) to bee streight laced towarde our bre­thren that departe hence. Againe iudgement is a matter of iudgement and therefore not rashlie to bee pronounced, howe much lesse iudgement of eternall death: not vppon [Page 11]anie, in that bee sayeth anie, be tendereth everie particular. Lastly in steede of deeming the worst, Maister Caluin his counsell is, that loue should fake place to hope well, as if this did well become vs. And therefore in the large view a man takes of others, hee must borrowe helpe from rules of charitie beleeuing all thinges,Quod ait Apost. Heb 6, & 10 de his qui mali­tia sanguinem Christi pedi­bus proterunt illos sanguino faederis suisse sanctificatos re­ferendum est ad iudicium chari­tatis, qua om [...] ­nia credēs prox­imi fidem ex professione esti­mat, sed interin [...] non rar [...] falls tur. Piscat. cōt. And. Schaaf. Thes 68 & 70 2. Pet. 2.1. Heb: 10, & v. 6. Non est in oca cultadei tudici [...] nobis inquiren; dum, sed proba­biliter omnes ex professis Christianisinal natos ad vitam aternam electos merito praesup­ponimus Q. 9.19: Respom Iaco: Bethake Thes. 5. Ecclesiast. 9.2. and hopeing well of his neighbours es­tate to Godwarde by the profession the partie makes, speak­ing of him as of one whome the Lord hath bought with a price (for so Saint Peter doth in his 2. epistle: 2. Chap­ter and 1. verse) sanctified with the blood of the couenant, for so doth the Apostle. Heb. 6. and 10. Chapters, yet, notwithstanding such a one (thus charitablie thought of) may in the ende receiue his portion with the deuill and his Angels.

Gods worde Deut 29.29. Secret thinges belong to the Lord our God, but the thinges reue aled vnto vs, and our children for euer, that wee may doe all the wordes of this law.

Namely secrete thinges, which are not at all, nor in parte reuealed: True it is that a reprobate, and an elect childe of God may be found a like in yt manner of their last end: Wee can goe noe farder then the outwarde appearance. VVee are not to pry into the secret iudgementes of the Lorde, but that probablie all borne of such as professe the Christian faith, wee doe vppon good cause presuppose, are elected to eternall life. Not to bee inquired into, of vs, but probablie, and vpon good grounde wee doe pre­suppose it &c. Doth our church with vs anie more? Is it not to bee confest with teares, some die rauing, blaspheeming &c. Alacke at such times what should wee thinke, but as wee are taught in the preacher. All thinges fall out alike to him that feareth an oth, and to him that feareth it not. As for those extremities mentioned, they arise manie times from occasion of some hidden melancholies, and frenzies, which often fall out in the paroximse and burnig fit, at what time the choller shoote vp into the braine & so disturbing the spirits with [Page 12]their mobilitie make the head light, and giddie. Some are blacks as a chimnie stocke, yet noe argument of the wrath of God vppon the personne so disfigured. A reasonable cause may bee giuen for it, as proceeding from some bruze, or putre­faction of the liuer, or some impostume. All these and a thou­sande more depriue a man of health, of vse of his limes, of sence, memorie, vnderstanding, faith, consolation, yea life, and all, yet noe warrant for vs to hold such a man or woman damned. Rather keepe wee to our compasse of hope yea a sure and certayne hope, Facile est atque procliue malos odisse, quia ma­li sunt, rarum autem et pium eosdem ipsos diligere quia ho­mines sunt vt simul culpam im probes & natu­ram approbes. August: epist. 54. Si desperata quorundam ma litia & impie­tas nonsecus nobis apparet, acsi dominus cam digito monstraret non est quodcer temus. &c: Cal in Ioh 15, 16 a­pud Marlor. Sunt tales diui no iudicio relin quendi. Ibid. for hope maketh not ashamed. To hate an euill man because euill is noe hard matter (saith Saint Austin) but a rare thing, and vertuous to loue the same rarties, because they are men, that so it may appeare wee doe both at once reproue their fault, and approue their nature. But if the desperate mallice, and impieties of any bee so euident, as if God did point with his finger to it, then is it not for vs to wrestle with his iust iudge­ment, as desireing to bee thought more mercifull then hée. And what of such? They are to be left to the iudgement of God. Wherein wee may not (if wee would leaue ye forme pre­scribed in the communion booke,) manie a prouiso must bee thought vpon:

  • 1. It must bee wickednesse
  • 2. not anie wickednesse at all aduentures but malice (that is) a malig­nant cankred minde of set purpose against that, which is good, for so is malice:
  • 3. it must bee desperate past all hope; as who should say there is noe more time remayning. All little inough to make experience (if at anie time) so indefinite the time is and vncertaine, whither God will call to repen­tance, in the turning of a hand, in a trice,, in the twinckle­ing of an eye twixt the bridge and the water, the cuppe and the lippe. Therefore it becommeth vs to bee wise that wee giue not ouer our hope, as long as anie hope may po­siblie bee conceiued:
  • 4. This wickednesse, malice, des­perate wickednesse must bee euident, not surmised onely but apparant, certainely apparant, not by guesses but vp­pon sufficient warrant, for so it is, when God in his worde giueth expresse directiō: Al which if the minister make conscience are so dangerous pointes, and so nicelie set, as hee will not ea­silie [Page 13]bee wrought from a publicke course established.
    Si deus iniq [...] & scelestis par­cendo [...]isque vi­tam largiendo. &c. August. epist. 54 Vtrū faciant quod promittūt incerti sumus, &c. Ibid. Fratres nostri sunt permoti profunditate quastionis, sed regi debuerunt gubernaculo authoritatis. August de verb. Apost. serm. 14.

For if God in sparing wicked and vile persons giue them life, yea manie of them, whome hee well knoweth wil neuer repent, how much more should wee hee mercifull towardes them, that (peraduenture) promisse amendment, and whe­ther they make good their word or noe, wee cannot tell. In pointes of greater difficultie (then anie wee now handle) Saint Austin aduertiseth those of his time: Our brethren (sayeth hée) are verie much mooned with profoundnes of questions in this kinde, who shoulde, if they did regarde their duetie bee gouerned by them, that sit at the sterne of authorytie. But wee may se to what passe men are now come, our [...]ritickes and graund censurers meddle with noe small thinges, but the verie heigh of all, as children their estate at their entrance to the graue buried by baptisme, and elders at their going into the graue to bee laide vppe in the earth: one comming into the worlde, the other going out, asoording neither one nor other a good worde, noe not so much as the [...]ne of brethren deare brethren. A mariull it is that Deut. 29.29. Deut. 29, 29 For­bids vs to hope well, because election is the Lords secret, as if it did not condenme vs aswell for suspecting the worst. All the good commeth by such barbarous, rude, sanadge opinions, i [...], it spreadeth strange discipline [...]wens outward behauiour, that, as if they had forgotten all humanitie, scarce yeelde now adayes a kinde salutation of God speede, or God deen. Turkes and infidels doe not thus, whose manner, (as our merchants know) is, Alech salem, Illiric. clauis Scrip. verb. Pax. whereunto the murswere is valich sas lem To the peace and to the peale. The reason of this by course (among some with vs) ariseth from hence. For what knowe they, whither hee bee a brother or sister, what knowe they where about hee goeth, and whither hee will? For ought they can tell hée may goe kill, steale, breake vppon some house. So that by this blinde reason it may seeme should anie of this refined straternitie suffer in bondes, [...]. 1. Pet. 4, 15. and bée cast in­to prison as an euill doer, or a busie bodie, an other honest well meaning man heareing of it woulde in the bowels of his christian: tender affection pittie him much after this fashion. Sure lie such a one in prison, I holde him a verie godly man [Page 14]and one I dare say will change his opinion. And let others vpon what ground (I know not) be offended with him, I hold him the deare child of God, a brother in Christ, a deare brother, and in sure and certaine hope of his com­ming foorth, dare pawne all I am worth, and doe ingage my selfe with all thankfulnesse for inlarging his libertie. All this said. One should presently cast him this their position in Diuinitie for a chokepeare. It is more then you know, And speake no more then you know. A good Christian must proue his sayings and doings out of Gods word, you can­not iustifie this your hope in Scripture, it speakes to the contrary: Secret things belong vnto the Lord. This is not reuealed, For it is a contingent. It may be so, and it may not be so, De contingenti. bus nemo nisi Deut. In a point so doubtfull as another mans arbi­trarie will, dare you tell vs of asure and certaine hope you haue concerning him? You are farre wide, and your iudge­ment is too peremptorie. A strange reproofe a man may say this is, and yet as strange as it is, the premisses are theirs, that obiect against the Communion Booke: we put but minors to them, and in the applycation make the absurditie of their doctrine more manifestly appeare. Thus much by the way. In a word for a mans last end, he stands and falls to the Lord. As for vs (at his buriall) we come foorth as his brethren, not as his iudges, Remember we what S. Austin hath,Erogatorem me posuit deus non exactorem, ser. 164. The Lord appointeth me to lay out not to call in. And therefore our care must be to doe that, wherefore we come, namely in a decent manner to bu­ry the dead, and to iudge charitablie as in the Booke is ordained, rather then peremptorilie to crosse it, as some would. Kéepe we to our direction vnlesse we know the contrarie, and be we of a sure ground, that we know the contrary.

It nourisheth Origens error, that saith All shall be saued.

It doth in déede as much,Psalm: 77.9. as Psal. 77. where the Prophet de­maundeth. Hath God forgot to be mercifull? Hath he shut vp his tender mercies in displeasure?Rom. 11.32. or that Rom. 11. He hath shut vp all in vnbeliefe that he might haue mercie on all: or that, 1. Cor. 4. Judge nothing before the time,1, Cor, 4.5. &c. and then shall [Page 15]euery man haue praise of God. All which places, as they are not to be spunged out of Canonicall scripture, because Origen deriued his error thence, neither is their cause for this, though it so séeme in their corrupt vnderstanding, whose fault it is, wrest­ing it, as the vnlearned, and vnstable abused diuerse sentences in the writings of Saint Paul. 2, Pet, 3, 16,

This is, as it is in Esay, 5. to call good euill, and euill good.

Are all subiect to the woe there denounced by the Prophet,Vsis hoe venit omnibus cōmis [...] niter. Muscul. in Isay. c, 5, 20, that of ignorance and infirmitie speake what they thinke, though by mispersuasion seduced? Are all vnder a curse, that sometimes raise vp their voice like a trumpet bidding battell to sinne, and yet anone after sound a retreit, and call for a parlie, hauing chid, and chid roundly, change their note, and wrap vp their dose in a sugarswéete with some sentence as this? But we are perswaded better things of you, and such as accompany saluation, though we thus speake. Spake he of a reproofe, a curse, and burning, and yet makes vp his period with, But we are perswaded? Heb. 6.9. &c. When many times (God he knoweth) the teachers perswa­sion had néede be strong, for in experience else, they will soone find the contrarie. And shall any one twit them with this of the Prophet Isay, that they call good euill, &c. Because other whiles their perswasion is greater then their proofe? God forbid, Was it the Prophet his meaning, or is it theirs, that thus dispute to bold plea against God? whom it pleaseth of his vnspeakeable goodnesse, though we be euill, to call himselfe our heauenly Fa­ther, and they whose Father he is, are his children, and his chil­dren are those some which he nameth saying, A good man out of the treasure of his hart, &c.Luc. 6, 45, Well done good and faithfull ser­uant enter into thy master his ioy. Are all vnder a curse, that tal­king of a stubborue people, stifnecked, Mat: 25, 21, Act, 7, 2. & of vncircumcised harts and eares, whose Fathers resisted the holy Ghost, and their children heires of the same wickednes, a genera­tion of murderers, persecutors, traitors to God & Christ? Yet for all this euill knowen vpon them, and by them, cal­leth them notwithstanding brethren and Fathers in the one name afording reuerence, in the other loue, in both (because of both) prayeth for them, yea for all their crosse, obstinate [Page 16]courses in his presence that their harts burst for anger, gnash their teeth, fret, grin, shout, all to pault him with stones, when he in the greatnesse of hope against hope prayeth for them. Lord lay not this sinne to their charge. What can be said more against the forme of thankesgiuing inioyned in the booke, then may be (but fondly obiected) against Saint Stephen his practise? They resisted the holy Ghost, yet that hindred not his prayer: Murderers and Traitors he calleth in ciuilitie & good manners Fathers and Brethren They were enimies to God and him, yet that diminisheth not his loue: He set Christ before him for an example,Peccarunt ad mortem & in peccato suo mor tui sunt. &c. Mar. in 1. Ioh. 5, 16. Orationes non debito ordine factae, ad nullis nobis imputan­tur peccatum propter cha­vitatem qua oramus Ibid. Quinil potest sperare desperet nihil. who on the Crosse prayed for his enemies, though the Father forgaue not all of them: for some died, and perished in their sinnes, and are vnder condemnation. And as prayers at such times for men (peraduenture) out of order are not imputed for sinne, because they are made in loue and charitie, so when a man giueth thankes to God for one, he takes his deare brother, it is not charged vpon him for sinne, because of his loue and charitable hope. And little is his loue and lesse his hope, that will néeds despaire as denying him for a brother. All a man looseth is: He was deceiued in giuing thankes for one, with whom it sped not so well, and yet that it did not, he cannot absolutely say, nor positiuely determine which kinde of error beareth no action amongst men, but rather is a motiue to draw somewhat from men, who haue not béene so kinde (as we well hoped) how much more may it, and shall it from God, all in good time. For not meere naturall pollicie, but a fruite of the spirit it is,Satius est reum absoluere, quam condemnare innoceniem. of the two rather to saue a man that destructh to die, then to condemne an innocent: and a more gratious worke to call one brother tormented in hell (for so did Abraham) then set a negatiue in place of it, which must so be, if the contrarie preuaile. And though it be said that a man giuen to lodge strangers may intertaine he knoweth not whom, yet that Apostolicall adulse shall stand, as a principle of Chri­stian hospitalitie. Be not forgetfull to lodge Strangers for thereby some at vnawares haue receiued Angels into their house: So in like manner though it be said, that a Minister accustomed to bury the dead, in buriall giuing thanks to God, may giue thankes he knoweth not for whom, yet that Ecclesi­asticall [Page 17]direction may stand for a principle not disproued▪ Bee not forgetful: nay knowe it your duetie in th [...]se and these wordes. In sure and certaine hope &c. For thereby at vna­wars, yea purposely, thankes giuing shalbe made for manie, that are heires of the promise, and who is not so in particular, neither they, nor anie else can or dare holdely demonstrate. For such a one was in his life reputed a member of Gods church partaker of the holie word, and sacraments. And therefore this practise of ours is most consonant to christian religion speciallie setng the ground of this hope is in that forme of buriall plaine­lie expressed videlicet. Thorough our Lord Iesus Christ. Here now it were time to conclude this point but that wee must let thée to vnderstand (good reader) that these exceptions (we take) are not made so much against the wordes deliuered at the graue ouer the dead, as against this that we vse any words at al. Their cōmunion booke exhibited to ye parlament forbiddeth anie farder duetie to bee vsed, but onely the neighbours following the corps to the graue, [...]. and there with a dumb show turning it to the earth so leaue it without anie admonition and consolation to the li­uing, or cōfortable remembrance of ye dead. And this (forsooth) is done vnder a colour of remoouing superstition, so calling that holie custome which our church vseth in hir manifestation of ye christian hope which shee hath and then publisheth concerning the glorious resurrection of our bodies at the last day. But (God bee thanked) our practise is most commendable, imploying the time of buriall in godly prayers, holsome instructions necessarie consolation, and special meditations of our mortalitie with effec­tuall motives leading vnto mortification: Others that would vary from this order haue onely these pretences for their best rea­sons.

  • 1. The example of Geneua to warrantize them here­in, whose slender performance of this solenme duetie is noe suf­ficient rule to direct v [...]:
  • 2. because their purpose is to winde the minister out from attendance vpon this office, and they can noe better way (it seemeth) redeeme his libertie, but by vtter­ly disclaiming any such duetie as then to bee performed, whereas we would vnderstand, why the minister may not aswel burie, as ioyne in marriage, vnlesse this may goe for a reason? The mi­nister of Geneua doth the one and not the other: Hee marrieth, [Page 18]but butteth not. Well: Retaine wee our irreproueable disci­pline in this kinde, had we noe church to ioyne handes of fel­lowshippe with vs herein,
    [...]. Greg. Nazian. orat. in laudem Basil. pag. 516. Grae. 64.98. [...]. Id. orat. 2, in Iul. pag. 304. [...]. Pag. 305. [...] Chris. homil. 4, ad Heb. p. 124. Tertullia lib. de anima mortuos etiam oratione a proesbyteri, cō poni consueuisse Centur. 3. c. 6. pag. 138. Orig. in 3. lib. Iob Ibid Tota ad funus eius Palastimarum vrbjū turba conuenit: hebra [...], graco, latmo sermone psalmi in ordine personabant. Hieron, in epist ad E [...]stoch. Paucanos dice re temporiscogit angustia, quod nouit & charitas vestra aebere nos exequits fidelis corporis solemne objequium. August. con. 2, in Psal. 103. sub mitio.
    as yet wee knowe we haue exam­ples both of elder and present churches: Greg. Nazian. wri­ting of ye holy man Basil witnesseth, how lamentation for him were so great as the Psalmes then sung were quire borne downe with mourning and heauines. Againe in another place comparing the gouernment of Constantine with the ti­ranny of Iuliā the Apostate and of their death: He, (that is) Con­stantine was brought with solemne publick prayses, and orations to the graue, and withall such complements, as wee christians thinke to honour a Godlie translation, or death of godlie men. Anon after hee calleth the dueties then performed. A funerall recompence of Psalmes singing &c. S. Chrisostom of his time what are himnes (saith he)? Doe we not with them glorifie & thanke God, that at the last he hath crowned (our friend) gon hence now he is eased of his sore labours? Againe anon after. Consider what thou sing­est at such a time: Returne O my soule into thy rest, or that Psalme I will not feare what man doth vnto mee. For these were the Psalmes of Dauid it seemeth they sung in those dayes. As thus in the greeke church, so in the west churches the like manner was: for Tertullian sheweth that the deade were wont to be buried by the presbiters or ministers with prai­er: Origen vpon Iob, witnesseth that there was thanksgiuing to God for the dead that they dyed in the faith and euery one wished the like for himselfe that he might make the like godlie and peaceable ende. Saint Ierom noteth the like of the life and death of Paula, y whole cōpanies of ye citys of Palestin came forth to hir funeral, & there were sung in course Psalms in Heb, greek Latine, and Syriack, and in other places of his workes hée al­ledgeth asmuch of others. And Saint Austin also implyeth, that his second sermon vpon the 103. Psalme was at some fune­rall, wherefore he was driuen to abridge his speach. The short­nesse [Page 19]of the time forceth me to be briefe and the reason your loue knoweth,
    Qui diuine [...]o­catione ab hac vita recodunt cum Psalmis tantūmodo & Psallentium vo cibus debent ad sepulchrū defer­ri. concil. Tol. 3, can. 21. In sepulturis & exequiis morta lit atis admoni­tio diligens fiat & exeit ands in ter alia prasen­tes, vt recogitēt sib teodem modo hinc excedendīs esse. concil. Col. part. 7. c. 52. Antequam cor pustradatur se pultura quaedā recitantur a maioribus eorīa ad hoc conscrip ta, quibus diut­na iustitia com­mendatur & hominum peccata exaggerantur. &c. Maimoni. tractat de luctu c, 4, apud Trē. in mare. 4 8. Improbamus maxime Cyni coscorpora mor tuorum negligentes, aut quā negligentissime contemptissime que in terram abiscientes nun quam vel verbū bonum de defunctis facientes Helnet conf. posler. c. 26 Sect. 16. Iudicamus vti­le esse vt in funeribus ca è sacris literis recitentur & explicentur, qua ad corroborandam fidem in horrore mortis & ad cōfirmandam spem resurrectionis conducunt. Witteberg, confes. cap. 24. Ibid an har.
    because we are to performe a solemne duetie to the funerals of a faithfull bodie. In the councell.
  • 3. Of Toledo. can. 21. They who by God are called out of this life must bee brought to the graue with Psalmes onely, and the voyce of singers. As for a funerall song which was commonly sung for, or to the deade, we vtterlie forbid. In the councell of Colon. Par. 7. c. 52. In burials and funerals the people must care­fullie, be admonished of mortality, and they which are present must be rouzed vp to recount with themselues, that they must depart hence after the same manner. Among the Iewe, as [...]their owne Rabbins witnesse the fashion at buriall, hath beene and is this: Before the corps be [...]eliuered to the graue, certaine points are recited by their anncesters written to this purpose wherein the diuine iustice is commended, and mens shines exaggerated, whereby they deserued death, and God is intreated so to exercise his iustice, that withall hee forget not to be merciful. But these examples are (peraduenture) out of date, and some la­ter practise nearer home in our reformed churches will better content some. These therefore bee the confessions of other chur­ches at this day. We vtterly disallow al Cinicks, who neglecting the bodies of the dead, or els tumbling them into the earth in a most negligent & contemptuous sort neuer once mention a good word of their dead. Heluet. confess. Againe the church of Wit­tenberg. c. 24. Loue and charitie exacteth at our handes to wish the dead al tranquillitie and happinesse in Christ: Besides that wee must commende our dead to honest buriall so neare as we can in regarde of the time, and of mens places and all to wit­nesse the hope of the resurrection. Therefore iudge wee it expe­dient that in funerals those thinges be recited out of holy scrip­ture and then published, as doe make for strengthening of faith against the terrors of death, and to confirme our hope of the re­surrection. But leauing this argument sufficiently handled so farre forth as it concerneth other mens contradictions or our iust defence, wee proceede to the chap: following.

Chap. 2. We cannot Subscribe, Because we know not how it agreeth with Gods word to desire him to grant any thing, which our prayers dare not presume to aske.

WOrds ministring this doubt, are taken out of the Collect on the 1.2. Sunday after Trini­tie. Almighty and euerlasting God, which art alwaies more ready to heare then we to pray, and art wont to giue more then we desire or deserue, power downe vpon vs the abundance of thy mercy, forgiuing vs those things, whereof our conscience is afraid, & giuing vnto vs that, which our prayers dare not presume to aske, &c. Herein our find-faults, and their abettors make plaine what they mislike, but what cause they haue so to doe they mention not. It [...]alleth out very often that the minde of him who prayeth is otherwhiles much streightned, as thinking it doth not pray, when it doth, and forgetting how it dares while it complaineth that it dares not.

These words are contrary to another Collect read on the 23. Sunday after Trinitie. God our refuge and strength, which art the Author of all godlinesse, be ready to heare the deuou [...] prayers of the Church, and graunt that those thinges, which we aske faithfully, we may obtaine effectually. To aske faithfully, & to aske doubtfully, are contrarie one to the other.

These two are no such extremities but for a time one in [...]u­reth the other, as heat and cold, when either of them is indiffe­rently found in the same person, but with this difference that they are imputed to a seuerall beginning, the one of nature the other of grace, the one of flesh the other of the spirit. The flesh begetteth wauering, doubting, perplexed thoughts, and all from a law in the members rebelling against the law of the [Page 21]minde, where the [...]fe is like the [...]ight twixt the house of Saul and the house of Dauid, no day no houre but giuing or taking a soile. His expectation goeth away in a dreame,Quamuis vide autur hac du [...] pugnare nemb tamen est qui non idem in se experiatur. Marso in Marc, 9, 24. Quum [...]squō extet fides per­fect a sequitur ex parte nos esse incredulos. Ibid. Etiamsi in n [...] ­bis aliquam diffidentia (pe­ciom sentiamus non tamē propt [...] rea daspōdend [...] ̄ [...] esse animum quasi nullae fidu­ci [...] donat [...] su­mus a domino. Zanch. de relig. lib. 1, de diffiden. Orationes brea­uissimas & rap tim quodāmodo ci [...]culatas. Au, gust. ad Probā epist. 121. Act. 20, 10. Isay. 6, 13. [...]. 2 Cor 4.8. Pro charitate Christi nolis habere Christīs Hieron. ad Al­gas. 9.9. and perisheth like an abortiue that thinks he can haue abundance of the one, and no touch of the other. For our Faith being vnperfit as it is, the very best bele [...]u [...] not so fully as they ought: But though we feele some spice of distrust in our selues, yet must we not be quite out of hart, as if we had no confi­dence at all. To begin this point somewhat higher and speake more throughly to it, and of it. First, they that contrarie our Cōmunion Booke must know, that the Collects are certaine dartings & quicke elaculations, such as the earnestest deuotion is well acquainted with, fittest to expresse the spéedie thoughts of our Soule, when she is winged as a Doue in hir flight toward heauen. The motions are diuersly raised & they diuersly fall, some­times as in a full sea our thoughts beare aloft, sometimes they are at a low ebbe, all a-mort, dead and aliue in the twinckling of an eye: sometimes as the Crow out of the Arke houering twixt heauen and earth, and as in a sicknesse a good day and a bad day interchangeably haue their entercourse, euer and anone so these haue some swawin or other. Such are the spirituall apoplexies and traunces, whereinto the faithfull are cast, and yet like Eu­tychus they draw life though inwardly, for a holy substance is in them, as in an Elme or an Oke, when they haue shed their leaues and (vnlikely clusters as they seeme) Wine is found in them Destroy them not for their is a blessing. Subiect they may be, and are vnto doubtings, mammerings, and the like, but ouercome they are not. They stagger but sticke not. They may be, and are humbled in the sight of their owne sinne, but not destitute of all confidence in Gods mercies. Wherefore the cur­rant of their prayer in such a perpiexed stile speaketh better things, then it pleaseth some to thinke. And as Ierom of Moses for loue vnto Christ would not haue Christ, so our Church in a childlike boldnesse, while it presumeth not to aske, maketh bold to aske. Secondly, they that knit these knots, and cast a mist before the Sunne, should consider what is the course of these s [...]uerall Collects, how (commonly) they are a summary abridgement of some speciall matter handled in Epistle, or Go­spell, [Page 22]or both, as they know that busie themselues in a diligent obseruation of the particular contents in the Epistle appointed to be reade that day: Saint Paul speaking of their dignitie that labour in the word sheweth the insufficiencie of man, yea of the chiefest euen the Apostles, that they, though they haue trust to godward through Christ, and so both themselues & their pray­ers dare much, yet are not sufficient of themselues to pray, be­cause no prayer is without imployment of our thoughts wherein such weakenes they acknowledge, that whereas a man would take it for the easiest matter of a thousand to lend a spare thought vpon occasion, they renounce all possibilitie: How then should their prayer dare presume to aske? For if they be able to any thing the same commeth of God: all this the Epistle compriseth: no sufficiencie how then may they dare? not da­ring how can they presume? neither daring, nor presuming a truth it is their prayers dare not presume. In the Gospell read the same day, the like may be marked out vnto vs. For the historie taken out of the Euangelist, sheweth, how cercame of Decapolis brought vnto Christ a man that was deafe and stammered in his speech, and they all prayed our Sauiour, that he would lay his hands on him, not mentioning, what they would haue cured, nor how, nor in what manner: As for the partie himselfe he was so farre from speaking (for the string of his tounge was not vntied) and so farre from hearing for he was deafe, that if Christ had not beene more ready to heare, then he to speake, and to graunt more, then his or their prayers did presume to aske, he might haue liued and died in his infir­mitie. Whereupon our Church gathering briefe notes out of the Gospell (and the collection is warranted by the text) ob­serueth of Gods part it is meete to acknowledge, he is more ready to heare, then we to pray, and is wont to giue more then either wee desire or deserue, yea so gratious our God is, that he forgiueth vs, what our consciences may well be afraid of, namelie sinne, and giueth vs, what our prayers dare not to presume to aske (namely in temporall blessings) such, and such, in this or that manner, at this, or that time, which our praiers dare not presume to aske in such speciall sort: 3. they should 3 thinke as the candlelight is noe fit helpe to finde out the day, but [Page 23]it owne selfe must shew it selfe, el [...] we see it not: so a spirit, and that a holy one, and that in like measure may best giue iudgement of prayers thus in [...]ited Wherefore this considered; we returne them what our Sauiour said of his Disciples,Luk. 9.15. They know not of what spirit they are. Had they such brused, humblest, wounded consciences, as that seruant of God (who­soeuer in his meditation penned these Collects) they would soone skill, how the pulse of such a prayer beateth and keepeth tune very pleasingly in the eares of the Lord. For as a discord in Musicke giueth a grace, and commendation to the song, so these discords and iars in our petitions desirous to pray, and yet not daring to pray, comming, returning, and making a broken note, much pleaseth our Father, which is in heauen, though they seeme to displease vs:Palm 42 5. Why art thou cast downe O my Soule, why art thou disquieted within me, Hope in the Lord, for I will yet giue him thankes for the helpe of his presence. [...]gredere ani­ma mea quid times, egredere quid trepidas, 70. prope annis serui [...]sts Christ [...] & mortem ti­mes? Hieron. d [...] Hilari. Act. 27.41. The like dis­pute of and on Saint Ierom writeth Hilarion had. Goe foorth my Soule what fearest thou? goe foorth why tremblest thou? Almost 70. yeares hast thou serued Christ, and dost thou feare death [...] Such wauering affections like Pauls ship caught be­tweene two seas, when the forepart stucke, and the hinder part was broken, and yet the Pa [...]ingers [...]afe. These streights they fall into, that fall to prayer, and (what Saint Paul said of life and death) they are difficulties the faithfull are streightned with. The presence of his Maiestie to whom they pray, [...] Philip. 1.23. the guiltienesse of their sinne, the rigour of the law, the multitude of their wants, some bid thē pray for mercy, aboundance of mer­cie, as if a little would not serue but abundance must be pow­red downe, some againe (to their thinking) forbid them to pray, and demaund how they dare presume, and so both waies their speech sauoureth of confidence, and infirmitie. Such mixture is alwaies in our petitions, because such mixture is in our selues, flesh and not all spirite, some distrust, and not all fulnes of faith, sometime a feeling that we beleeue, sometime complaineing that we doe not beleeue the tongue of our ballance bearing so doubtfull, doubtfull it is, which scale will preuaile, & yet the bet­ter in the end preuaileth. For thorough stitch it goeth, commeth, ouercometh, and ouercomeing triumpheth, triumphing conclud­deth [Page 24]and the conclusion is through our Lord Iesus Christ, so as in the same sentence the fall of the leafe, and a spring againe, fire in the ashes and stirred vp againe: A little faith appeareth not with the soonest, but like scuit in the bud, whence his na­ture and substance is, so coucheth, and so is preserued. Thus it flu [...]t [...]reth twirt daring and not daring praying and not praying because it would haue aboundance of mercie, and yet findeth wants in the petition. This striuing in the womb of the same collect argueth the life of faith rather quickened then dying, springing then falling, so faultlesse it is, if all be well considered. For as Rebecca when she felt the twins in her womb (though it pained bit yet) thereby knew, she had conceiued, and that the childrē were aliue, so they who are brought vpon their knées, find­ing the maiestie of God infinite, his iustice strict, his knoweledge searching the reines, his holinesse such, as Angels are not pure in his sight, and what themselues are on the other side, their basenesse odious, their ignorance blockish, their sinnes abhomi­nable, their wants lamentable, (at what time notwithstanding they conceiue comfort, for els could they not pray) are fouly abasht and [...]eicted, as professing they dare not aske somethinges at the hand of the almightie. Which to like effect we finde: as if an honest good heart laying open his estate in more wordes would be thus vnderstood. Whereas our prayers, by which we craue that thou power downe the aboundance of thy mercies are thorough the want of a most holie faith ouerlaide with vn­speakable imperfections, such as tire them out in the way to hea­uen, therefore we pray thée O Lord with al other transgressions forgiue vs euen our prayers, whereof our conscience guiltie as it is (yt they are so stained as they are) presumeth not nor dareth presum: to aske, what otherwise it would, and at other times doth, when more comforted then now it is, thou well knowest O almighty God the petitions of them that aske in thy sons name, Collet. 23 sun. after Trinitie and after the Communion at dismissing of the Con­gregation. we beseech the mercifully to incline thine eares to vs, that haue made now our praiers and supplications vnto thee, and graunt that these things which we haue faithfully asked according to thy will, may effectually be obtained to the reliefe of our necessity & to the setting forth of thy glo­ry &c. Thus a faithfule soule in praier sōtime raised & anon [Page 25]deiected wrestling wt God as did Iacob in his conflict with y An­gel, diuersly tuneth the phrase of his troubled spirite & notwithstanding a supposed discord kéepeth measure & concord with faith and with the holy scripture.Genes. 32.24. But when men set their wits vpon the tenter to reach out their obiections, and to deale as if they had to deale with Beuis of Southhampton, thinking noe more reuerently of the humble, duetifull, bashfull, modest,Iob. 1.1. c 9.15 Altercando, dis­ceptando, glori­ando, nihilcorā de [...] obti [...]e [...]imu [...] La [...]ater. Ibid. Deo indicante▪ nemo i [...]sons est ipse melius qua [...] nos ipsinoust quales simus, [...] vsde [...] pectatum vbi nos nullu [...] animaduerti­mus. Ibid. 20. Nō ex toto ere­do me, velipsi cō scienti [...] mea, quippe cum [...] ipsa quidem queat me com­prehendere tot [...] neque iudicare potest de toto, qui totum non audit. Bernard. epist. 42. Audit deus in corde cog [...]tantis quod non audit velipse, qui co­gitat. Ibid. Licet integerri­mus essem tamā adeo sulgoro maiestatis eius consternarer, vt de me-ipso ni hi [...] scirem. La­uater an Iob. 9.21. low and lowly speethes proceding from a broken heart, thence it is, they make a doubt where no doubting is if the same minde were in them, as becometh censurers of the praiers of the church, those irreprouable collects would haue greater commendation, then be thought a stumbling block of offence, as they are. Take we example from Iob, Abraham, and Salomon. Holie Iob, of whome scripture giueth testimony, that he was an vpright iust man, one that feared God, and eschewed euill confesseth of him­selfe though he were iust he could not answer, but would make supplicatiōs to his iudge, holding it more fit to leaue wrangling, disputing, boasting, for these wil obtaine naught, but pray­ing zealously, behauing himselfe submisly he may find fauour at ye Lords hand, yea were he iust, his own mouth would condemne him, were he perfit the Lord could iudge him wicked, because none is innocēt, whē God iudgeth, & he it is, that knoweth vs better thē we our selues, & seeth such sins, as we neuer think for. Accordingly whereunto S. Bernard speaketh I doe not wholy belieue my selfe, nor my own conscience, for it cā ­not comprehend me all, neither can he iudge of the whole that heareth not the whole. Anon after, God heareth in the hart of him, that he thinketh, which a mans own selfe hear­eth not. yea were Iob righteous, yet should he be ashamed with ye brightnes of God his maiestie, that he should not know himselfe. We see how the look of a Prince dasheth his subiect out of coūte­nance & therefor much rather may the presence of ye Lord (who is a dreadful God clothed with vnspeakable maiesty, as with a gar­mēt, whose glory surpasseth ye brightnes of al the lights in heauē) astonish y brused conscience of Iob who knew, if he should wash himselfe with snow water & purge his hands most cleane, yet should God dip him in ye pit, & his owne cloths would make him vncleane. For God is not a man, yt he should answer him, if they [Page 26]should strine in iudgement.Iob. 9.30.31. All which sentences debasing him dis­couer the true estate of an humble soule, who vpon due examina­tion made, saieth in effect as a troubled conscience in this collect, that dareth not presume to aske, & yet would gladly haue what it standeth in néede of. The like may be obserued in Abraham the father of all the faithfull, who in his cōmunication with God & prayer to him for Sodome, ministreth to our edification these ex­cellent notes. First he confesseth he was dust and ashes, not for­getting he had a liuing soule, Now oblituse­ [...]as Abraham se se anima imor­tali praditum esse sedquod maximè contēp tibile est eligit qui scomni dig­ [...]itate exina­ [...]iat. Luth. in G [...]nes. 18.27. Quo propius ad deum acces­sit co melins sen tit, quam mise [...]s [...]t & abiect [...] hominum conditio. Solus est [...]nim deisulgor qui homines stulta & ebria sui fiducia exu­tos pudore con­fundit, & peni tus humiliat. Ibs Non debemus [...] ̄pudentes esse ad petendum quid­libet sed pudorē soruare ac vere cundiam. Muse. Ibid. Pro. 28.14. c. 14.16. but chusing the most contēp­tible things, & emptying himselfe of al other things whēce he might Glory: so yt faithful saying in their praiers they dare not presume, proueth not they want al confidence in God his fatherly loue, but choose rather to lay open their abiect and distressed conditiō. Secondly it is to be obserued in Abraham The nearer a man draweth vnto God, the more feeling he hath how miserable & wretched mans estate is. For the onely bright­nes of the Lord his glory it is, that putteth to shame & truly hūbleth men, so as they are stript of al foolish confidence in themselues, wherewith comonly they are besotted & starke drūk. Thirdly in these words: let not my Lord be angry yt I speak &c. And 32. Let not my Lord now be angry, & I wil speake but this once: He praieth to turne away ye Lord his wrath, & so mak­eth his pelitiō acceptable by his humble sute, teaching vs withal, how we must not be saucy nor impudēt to aske any thing at al aduēturs, but to preserue shamefastnes & bashful modesty when we pray to God. And what els doth y collect in these words forgiuing vs those things whereof our conscience is afraid, & gi­uing vnto vs, yt which our praiers dare not presume to ask, which forme of praier is very agreable to yt place. Pro. 28. Blessed is ye man yt feareth alway, meaning is wary, and of a tender cōscience loth to do or say, yea euen in praier ye least thing that may offend God, as ye other branch of ye verse, & the 16. of the 14. Chap. suf­ficiently proueth. This is certaine he yt neuer doubted of his sal­uatiō after he was called to y knowledge of God in christ, yt man neuer rightly beleued, for he which beleueth in yt truth (of a truth) féeleth many wants & doubts like a sound man after a recouery frō an ague féeleth many grudgings of that disease, which if he had no health, nor life he could not féele at al. Let men please them [Page 27]selues, y are disposed to thwart this truth,Affermant tibi, non sibi Cicer [...]. de d [...]inations what Tully spake of Metrodorus fitteth thē wel. They say so to others, but not to thēselues. Fourthly we are to mark in whose name these praiers are offred not for the minister himselfe onely, or some few, yt haue profited in the waies of godlines, & may be thoght to haue a greater measure of grace, but for the most, who cōmonly are the weakest, & but lately yeand in y sould of christ, tender lambs they must néeds tremble hearing, as they do the Lions, such as Abraham, & Iob behauing thēseluss in fearefull & bashful manner. Onely he that knoweth not what belongeth thereto, wil thinke all this a great deale more thē néeds.Pancissimos esse qui excellenti fi­de polleant, pa [...] cisesse mediocr [...] ̄ plurimos auiem mensura exigu [...] esse praditos. Marc. 9.24. But if we will obserue what is giuen euery one, it wil easily appeare the fewest haue an excellēt faith a very few an indifferēt faith, & the most are they, that haue the least measure of faith. Should a nurse be lisping to the babe on hir knée, another that stands by knoweth not the reason. It is sufficient that she doth. Our brethrē think we do in repeating this straine what beséemeth vs not, we answer. Let alone now. For it wel beséemeth vs to fulfil al humility, & if any be vile in his own eies vpon true repentance for sin,Tristitia & pudor sunt con­iuncta semper, vbi est vera pe [...] cati agnitie. Quod sicognos­cere velumus a [...] in penitenti [...] profecerimus, videamus an praoculis istos duos affectus habeamu; C [...]ls Luc. 18 13. he will thinke of himselfe more vildely thē all this commeth to, resoluing the more a man is a­shamed of himselfe, & hartily sorrowful, ye more he profiteth in ye course of repentance. Did we not know more sin of presumtion thē are guilty of faultles humility, & come to the Lord like hail fellow wel met, rather thē smitten with a holy feare, such clauses as these might otherwhiles be spared. But most of vs in our hearts know the contrarie. And were we (as some thinke) they may be bold and confident, it is for vs to haue a liuely touch for sin. No man but the lesse he prizeth himselfe in his own eies, the more he pleaseth the Lord, who giueth grace to the lowly. And though it may séem the speech of a dastardly conscience, yet vnto whō wil the Lord looke, but vnto him that is poore and of a contrite spirite, and trimbleth at his wordes? Say a sonne may bée bold, and wee wil not say otherwise, yet a father liketh his son neuer a whit the worse, if he make not alway so bould as the father would haue him.Isay. 66.1. That made Saint Paul vse this course. Sanctified he was from his mothers wombe, yet hee held himselfe chiefe of all sinners,Galat. 1.15. in regarde what hee once was, though it were forgiuen him.1. Tim. 1.15. And hee [Page 28]that praied for Corinth, Ephesus, & the like, beggeth praters at their hands like Lazarus, Eph. 6, 18.19. y begged crums at y rich mans table. Pray for all saints & for mee, As if he were no saint, or as if y stil ran in his mynd, how hee had beene a perse quutor of ye chruch of God. Wich kinde of thoughts hauing their course, & recourse in prayer are a damp, & if not (as they cannot quite) put out the light of our hope, yet they dim, & calm the heat of our cōfidence, that it be not more hardie then is expedient.

Forgiuing vs those things, whereof our conscience is afraid.

This clause may stand vncontrold. For is not forgiuenes the remission of sin, & hath not our conscience good cause to be afraid of sin, doing that which God seuerely forbiddeth, omitting that wt he strictly cōmandeth, negligently performing ye best duties, we should intend? Can it be other, but that our conscience may well feare, til it be released, when it calleth to mindether wherein, or against whō the offence is cōmitted? Wherein, namely in praier for so it is many times,Copiosa vanita­tis cateruas August confess. lib. 10. c. 35. Irruentibus nu­gatoriis cogita­tionibus &c. Ibid. Abductus turpi cogitatione etiā qua dictu eru­bescenda sunt gero. Heiron. dial. aduers. Luciseria. Quanta cū re­u [...]rentia, quāto timore quanta illuc humilitate accedere debet à palude sua procedens repēs ranuncula vi­lis, quam tre­meb undus, sup­plex & solicitus Bern. de 4 modes [...]rands. as diuerse of ye ancients witnesse. S. Austin with griefe confesseth seing our hart (saith he) is a little hold, or seat or conceit of such things (he spake of toying thoughts a lit­tle before) & carrieth after it whole troups of plenteous vani­ty, hence is it that our praiers are often interrupted, & troubled & that in thy presence O Lord, while with ye voice of our heart we apply our selues to thy eare, I know not how so great a seruice is cut off in yt very entrance by trifling thoughts rushing in vpon vs. S. Ierom witnesseth ye like, whē I am at my pray­ers (I should thus & thus lament my sins & intreat my saui­our) very often one while I am ether walking in our gallerys or casting vp my accounts, or caried away with filthy thoghts or doing those things, whic a man should blush to name. All wt strike the conscience with feare & shame, so do they ye more, whē we consider before whō, & vnto whom it is, our supplicatiōs are directed. In time of praier we must entreat, saith Barnard the court of heauē, euen that very court wherein the king of heauē sitteth on his thron, attended vpō with an vnspeakable armie of blessed spirits, & therefor with great reuerence, with great feare with great humility should a vile cotemptible little frog, crawling out of a marsh come before him, how [Page 29]fearfull how suppliant how humble, & carefull, wholy, hear­tily thoroughly intentiue on the maiestie of his glory in the presence of his Angels, Assistere pote­rit homuncio Ibid. in the counsell of the iust can such a habberdehoy dare to stand or shew his face.

Giuing vs those things which our prayers dare not presume to aske.

Neither dare they presume to aske. For why should they? and yet God giueth vs, what we néede,Sed & vitam aeternā fortas­sis aliqui non in humilitate quarunt, sed tantum in fidu­ciae meritorum Idem. Serms. 5. de Quadrag. Prasume non de operatione aut oratione tuae, sed de gras tia Christs. Aug. serm. 28. de veth dom. Constaeutinū imperatorem tantis terrenis impleuit [...] ­ribus, quantae optare nullus au­deret. August. de Cinis. des. lib 5. c. 25. Quandoquidē vix petere debe mus. &c. Iosia [...] Simler, in obi­tum. P. Mar­tyris. else we might perish both here, and hereafter. There are (saith Bernard) that thinke be­cause they pray, that God is indebted to them. Peraduen­ture also eternall life some seeke for not in humilitie, but in speciall trust, they haue of their owne merits. Upon like oc­casion it séemeth Saint Austin giueth like counsell: Presume not of thy owne worke or prayer, but of the fauour of Christ. Accordingly our Church speaketh here, and in the Collect after the offertorie, where it saith, for our vnworthinesse we dare not, &c. A phrase we dare aduenture vsed by auncient and sate writers. One of each for example. S. Austin of old and Iosias Simler of late time. Saint Austin writeth that God furnished Constantine the Emperor after his conuersion with so great earthly blessings, as no man else may dare to wish the like. A wish every man knoweth is fat lesse then a prayer. If sometimes God bestow somethings, as no man dare to wish for the like, what reason is there, but we may arknowledge, God giueth somewhat which our prayers dare not presume to aske? Iosias Simler in his Oration vpon Peter Martir his death toward his conclusion maketh this prayer. Graunt vnto vs O most gratious good Father, if not another Martir and such a one we ought hardly so much, as to pray for, yet at the least, &c. Where it appeareth how the excellencie of God his gifts so ra­uisheth the mind of an humble suiter, that in the fulnesse of ad­miration astonished with the Lord his singular mercie, and on the other side with his owne lothsome vslemsse, he plaine­ly confesseth his prayer dareth not aske what the Almighty notwithstanding giueth for his Sonne Christ. In which sense any equall Reader shall doe well to thinke our Booke vseth it, if he doe well bethinke him, how he must not speake against the light of his owne hart.

These are directly against the word and true faith, Heb. 10.19. By the blood of Iesus we may be bold to enter into the holy place. And verse 22. Let vs draw neare with a true hart in assurance of faith, &c. And Heb 4.16. Let vs goe boldly to the throne of the grace. These places are directly against doubting, and slauish feare: Ergō not to be Subscribed vnto.

Be they, and euer may they he places directly against doub­ting, and slauish feare. Such doubting as is a slauish feare we admit not, because the assurance of our faith doth not: yet our knowledge in Scripture teacheth thus much, that Faith is beholding vnto feare, both in h [...]r entrance, and afterwards in the growth. In the entrance, when she takes possession of our harts. For the iudgements of God and the terrors of the law in humbling vs, are a Schoole master vnto Christ, and after too, when we many times are likely to play the wan­tons, and thinke our estate like mount Sion that cannot be mo­ued, so as what is said of Faith and Charitie is a true saying of assurance and feare. Fides & chari­tasbené distin­guntor in libris sed malé in mo­ribus. They are better distinguished in our Bookes, then in our persons. Much there is in vs of the flesh, that is vnregenerate, though like a begger still mending his cloke, we make vp the breaches by dayly repentance. At the entrance how it worketh may appeare by a similitude taken from a Sempsters worke,Act 9.38. who whither Dorcas, or some other drawing her néedle in & out bringeth the silke after. The needle commeth and goeth, the silke stayeth and maketh a gar­ment of needle-worke, yea if maketh a samplar for many yeares, though the needle breake, or be lost, or the partie dead: So is it in feare. The worke begun, the point maketh an entrance, after which the mercies of God as soft as silke follow, and stay to make vp a garment to put on, where no needle is now, but once was, so no shew of feare to fore, but the effect of it may be seene in the euill not of punishment, but of sinne,Osculatur mise ricordi [...] pedem vt pedem indi­cis non attendat Ber [...]serm de S. Maria. which as certainely draweth on punishment, as Ahaz diall in a Sunne-shine day casts his shaddow. Farre wide he is (saith Bernard) that doth so kisse the foote of Gods mercie that he doth not heede the foote of his iustice, as [Page 31]if he were a father and not a Lord. If a Father where is his loue, if a Lord, where is his feare? Malach. 1.6.

By the blood of Iej [...] we may be bold to enter into the holy place.

Heb. 10.19. The Author sheweth all ceremonies haue an en [...]e in Christ,Popule aditus in visibile fact­arium prohib [...] ­batur. Marlor. Ibid. Non symbolicè tantum, sed re­ipsa ingressus in caelum. Ibid. and where in time of the law people might not enter into the Sanctuarie, but must, and did stand without: now we may enter into heauen it selfe whereof the Sanctuarie was a tipe. Such boldnesse we haue to Godward thorough Christ his blood.

Let vs goe boldly to the throne, &c. Heb. 4.16.

That is, Let vs not sticke, and be doubtfull in seeking af­ter other mediators, as if he alone were not sufficient.Christi sacerdo­tio adim [...] virt [...] tem quamdi [...] hasitamus. Mar [...]o. Heb. 4. Such wauering, and vncertaintie propending to inuocation of An­gels, or Saints (as if there were n [...]t a God in Israel) our Church is no lesse vehement in prosecuting for erronious do­ctrine, then any other Church pray [...]ed be God.Nisi quitrepid [...] ad solam cius misericordiam confugiunt. Cal. in Luc. 18.13: Dubitatio Infi [...] delitans Admi­rationis. Vox aptissim [...] paenitentis v [...] ̄ que c [...]tiné [...] sensum peccats. Mercer. in Iocl. 2.14. Ambig [...]m po­nitur, vt dum dub [...]ant homi­ [...] fortius agāt paenitentiam. Hierō. Ibid. A [...]opiae [...]. What doe these places Heb. 10. and the fourth Chapter more discredit the vse of this straine (whereof our consciences are afraid) then Master Caluin, who speeking of the Publican his vnfained him liation writeth, that God will not be intreated of any, but those who in a trembling manner, flye to his mercie? Where this fourth to the Hebrewes hath, Let vs goe boldly, this author writeth tremblingly, yet will not we fondly iniury him so much, as these doe wrong our Church with taunis, & re­proches saying, It is against the word, This against true faith, &c. A doubting which proceeds of infidelitie may be thought so, but not that doubting, which ariseth from admiration, like that in Ioel 2. who knoweth whether God will turne & leaue a blessing? Which wordes carry a doubt in sound, but in effect imply a sound affirmation, and are most apt for repen­tance to speake with, because they include a sence of sume, & yet withall some hope to spéed. Not amisse obserued by S. Ierome mens doubting other whiles maketh thē more earnestly peni­tent. And it may well so be. For if doubting be the mother of [Page 32] inquirie (as they say it is) because he that doubts not séeketh not, then also is fearefulnesse the mother, or milch-nurse of a kindly repentance.Potuerunt per­uenire, nisi pu­tarent se perue­niss. Seneca. Illud ingeniorū pracox genus nō temere vnquā peruenit ad fru gem Quintil. Institut. lib. 1. c. 3. Well had it béene with some long ere now, if they would haue skilled of this point, that as in learning some held themselues for great Scholers, who faile of it, because they thought, they had obtained, what they haue not: so in duties to godward some want true confidence, because they are not right­ly confident making ouerbold, where it is more wisedome to vse modestie; more courage to séele their own famines, more au­dacitie to acknowledge their owne feare, fearing as they ought to be afraid. Marke the trée whose branches are séene. A graine (for thence sometimes is the beginning) lieth in the earth,Arbor em at tendite, Petit imaprius vt sur sum excrescat, Figit radicem in humili, vt verticem tédas in caelum. Aug. de verbo dom. in Ioh serm. 38. Multos impe­dit a firmit ate presumptio fir­mitatis. Id. sinks low, but the branches shoot forth that birds may nestle in them. It first taketh downeward, then séene aboue, at the first low, afterwards aloft. Many are hindred (saith Austin) of their strength, while they presume on their strength. Men that finde such contrarietie twixt Heb. 4. and this Collect our conscien­ces are afraid, may by their wrangling principles cauill with ease at a thousand places else, yea, and set Scripture against it selfe. As where the Publican is said to stand a farre off, loth to come to the Altar, not daring to lift vp his eyes, that the Lord might lift vp the light of his countenance vpō him, &c. May not a faire glasse be set vpon it that he did amisse. For say they, where he stood a farre off he should haue gone neare. And was not Peter well chidden in saying,Luc. 5.8. Goe away from me a sinner? As if the neater the better, the worse the farder off. Againe, in that he would not lift vp his eyes to heauen, he was much to blame.Gen. 4.6. Such a looke Caut had, for is it not said He cast downe his countenance. Much of this making skill they, whose delight is to weaue, though it be but a spiders webbe, and men of their mettall are like inough to charge Mary Magdalen for a micher well she escapeth, if not reproued for want of faith, Let vs goe (say they) Why then stood she the still? Boldly. Why did she trouble hir selfe with Christ his feete,Luc. 7.3 [...]. when she was to to goe to the throne of grace? And what was he at whose feete she stood, but the author of grace? (weeping) a womanish condition: more courage would haue done well, and she began to wash, as not daring to goe on. The basest in man (his féete) [Page 33]why not his head? Too too much str [...]ngen [...]s. (With her teares) why? Water of the next brooke might haue serued. The more blame she that would not make bolder. Was her eys d [...]m, that she could not see eye-water was more precious, then to trickle at ones feete? (She did wipe them) Happily with a towell, No such matter. The tresses of hir haire she wiped them with. A great deale more then needed (as they thinke that di­spute thus) twixt friends and kinffolkes [...] the spirit. He no doubt our eldest brother would haue accepted of farre lesse, then all she did, for is he not our brother and more, if more neede, to all that doe beleeue? Another it was came behinde him. Both of them contrary to this exhortation. Goe with holdnesse she said.Math. 9.20.21. But who heard it? For she durst not aske it with her lips (she said within her selfe, If I may) What Ifs and Ands be these, Why did she not goe boldly? (Touch) why did she not imbrace? (But touch) was not be reproued that smote but three times,2. King. 13.18. whē he might haue smote a many more? (His garment) why not his person? Belike a little would serue the turne. Ouermuch squeamishnesse spoyleth all. Boldly she should haue gone, and prest forward and thrungd before him, not neare him, or to him, much lesse behinde him. A signe of a seruile and crauenlike seare. All this yet their argument maketh good that oppose. Heb. 4. to discountenance this truth (our consciences are a­fraid) Faith we acknowledge & reuerence in hir certaintie, and full assurance. She may, and is, and must be in the faithfull,Luct a fidei. Vrs sin. Catech. Quemlibet ti­morem non esse fidet contrarin [...] inde patet, quod si nihil metusmus, obrepit su­pina carnis secu ritas. It a la [...] guescitfides. Math. 8.26. Stupids magis sunt quam con­stantes. Ita ti­mor fidem solli­citat ibid. yet that no ground of dislike to our selues, or cause at all, why we should not in a godly iealousie suspect our owne waies. Nay by wrestling, and combates in this kind we learne what vigor, and life is in our faith. The Collect speaketh neither of slauish nor seruile feare, neither of the spirit of bondage, onely this is all (whereof our consciences are afraid.) Now all feare is not contrary to faith. Por if we feare not, a carelesse securitie of flesh creepeth vpon vs, so faith languisheth, the affection to prayer becommeth dull, and in the ende a due remembrance of God and his mercie is extinguished. Ouer and beside, they which are not touched with a sence of euils to be afraid of them, are ra­ther dullards, then constant. Thus feare stirreth vp and quick­neth faith. Little to the commendation of the Disciples, that our [Page 34]Sauiour said, Why are ye afraid, O ye of [...]le faith? A small faith, but faith notwithstanding. And a small faith in God his children is no small portion, which when it is the least though ourneast with terthre of [...], con [...]th hope, euen in her readest and dead­liest time, knowing the spirit of adoption kéepeth fire in the hart, and that in most apparant weaknesse hir power in Christ is per­fected, gaining by her losse, raised by her fall, and after the com­bat finished, returneth home a conqueror. In which opposition of faith and feare, that which féedeth one, nourisheth the other. the mercies of God are the support of our faith, so are they the roote of our feare, and forgiuenesse of sinne, a iust occasion mi­nistering sufficient matter for true humiliation (forgiuing vs those things, whereof our consciences are afraid) like those couples in the Lords prayer Forgiue vs our sinnes & presently in the next petition Lead vs not into tentation: Th [...] one im­mediatly following the other, as if we said more then euery one is aware of in saying (forgiuing vs those thinges) &c. either be­cause of sinne (the remembrance whereof is gréeuous,Ama dei ho­mit atem, tima seueritatem, vtrumque te superbum esse won sinit: Ama­do enim times ne amatum & amaurem pero­das. August. de sanct. virg. c. 37. Si non amasti­me ue perdas, si amas time no displiceas. Ibid. Rom. 8.1. Cor. 2. Philip. 2.12. Non te à praefi­dents elatione reuerberat, va mundo à scan­dalis: Non con­tremiscis? &c. Ibid. the burden intollerable) or else because of forgiuenes it selfe, as it when they are forgiuen, euen then in that very instant we are afraid. For that when we haue most securitie, we haue most cause to feare, as if the sentence of S. Paul went for a watch-wood. Be not high-minded but feare, or that of our Sauiour, Thou art made whole, sinne no more lest a worse thing happen vnto thee, as it will soone doe, where securitie bréedeth pride: S. Austin intreating how feare is in vse with Gods seruants, and how farre foorth out of vse, aduiseth in these words, Be not high-minded but feare. Loue the goodnesse of God, feare his seueritie. Both these will keepe thée from being proud, For in louing thou dost feare, least thou grieuously offend thy louing and beloued: It thou loue not, feare least thou perish, if thou loue, feare least thou displease. He that said you haue not receiued the spirit of hondage to feare any more, said that himselfe was among the Corinthians with feare and trembling: He that said be not high minded but feare gaue a generall aduertisement to all the members of Christ, worke out your saluation with feare and trembling. Anone after that blessed father addeth. Doth not that sentence beat thee of from presumptuous pride, woe vnto the world [Page 35]because of offences? Dost thou not stand in a we? lest thou be reckoned among those many, whose loue should ware cold and iniquitie abound? dost thou [...]h [...] strike thy blest when thou hearest this sentence. Let him that stands take héede lest be fall? As for the other clause (Giuing vs those things, which our praiers dare not presume to aske) is and may be referd to spirituall & temporall blessings, which in the generall we may assure our selues shall be graunted, and we must dare to aske, but in particular as in this, or that very manner, at this, or that very time, by such & such meanes, we haue no warrant to limit the ho­ly one of Israel, nor cōmandement to craue or promise our selue. Paul prayed that Satan might be remooued, and be prayed often, and earnestly, yet was he not then remooued. 2. Cor. 12.6. Some things we may pray for absolutely, and affirmatiuely, as that the kingdome of God doe come, his will he done, the forgiuenesse of sinne, & our owne saluation, but the meanes sometimes we may faile in, while this may or that way, after this fashion, or that fashion, we pray they may come to passe. S. Paul could not be ignorant of so easie a point, and therefore it was not the forme he stood vpon, as the end he proposed. The very like is to be thought in temporall blessings: Dauid prayed to God for his child, which he had by Bothsabe, throughly & fully perswaded of Gods mercies towards him, though touching the babe,2. Sam. 12, 121 his thoughts and spéech were not so resolute, but arguing rather his expectation, then assu­rance. For this be said, Who can tell whether God will haue mercy on me that the childe may liue? Thus it appeareth that euery par­ticular neither may we, nor dare we presume to determine. Leaue we that to the wisedome, and gratious good pleasure of the Lord. Beggers must not be choosers, nor caruers, their own caruers. Thus they will haue it, and thus; or else it fitteth not him, that commeth in prayer vnto God. He may assure himselfe in generall, but in euery particular he may not, he néede not, he must not. It may be victory; it may be an ouerthrowe, it may be peace, it may be persecution: He may haue a child, he may goe childlesse. He may pray now, but the issue of his prayer is like A­braham a great way of. Such is the course of the faithfull. They apprehend Christ Jesus in whom all the promises are yea, and Amen. Sure of this once. That if they haue what they dare not indent for at Gods hand, they will be thankfull, & if they haue it [Page 36]not, they will possesse their soules in patience, onely because, they will not be thought wiser then the Lord, they commend all to his blessed disposition. When Zaedok carried the Arke into the Tittle these words Dauid vttred. [...]. Sam, 15.25: If I shall s [...]de fauour in the eyes of the Lord, be will bring me againe, and shew me both it and the Tabernacle thereof. But if he thus say, I haue no delight in thee, Behold here I am, let him doe to me, as see­meth good in his eyes. Here is a doubtfull, & perplexed speech, yet not destitute of assurance, which a holy faith ministreth. For he was certaine of his saluation;Quoad aternā salutem certus erat, sed hic de rectitutio [...]e in regnum agitur At deus ei reg­num, &c. P. martyr. Ibid. 2. Sam. 16.22 yea and certaine of the tempo­rall kingdome which God had promised him: But here was all the doubt: He knew not, whether the promise was absolute, or vpon condition. The like followeth in the next Chapter, where the same Prophet maketh this vse of Shimes his railing and reuiling. It may be, that the Lord will looke vpon my affliction, and doe me good for his cursing this day. In that he saith (Peraduenture, or it may be) not doubting of his sal­uation, but of being restored to his former estate,Cur dicit fortè? Non qùod de aterna salute dubitaret, sed de restitutione. Id. in 2. Sa. 16. or else think­ing of the hainousnesse of sinne before committed, doubteth whether his afflictions should be asswaged so speedily. As who would say, Peremptorily I affirme it not: my sinnes haue deserued more then all this counneth to. This I take as a gentle remembrance to put me in minde of my duety, It may be: If not: I know what to trust to: Ile not attempt to teach the Lord: I neither doe nor dare presume to aske, that it may be thus, and no otherwise. The Prophet Amos hath the like It may be, Amos. 5.15. the Lord God of Israel will be mercifull to the rem­nant of Ioseph. He meaneth in preuenting their captiuitie: But whether deliuerance, or no, the reckoning is made, they forgot not all comfort, well perswading themselues, that if the mercy of God faile them one way, some other way it shall meete with them, and they with it, knowing of a truth that God is good vn­to Israel in not giuing vs many times what we would, Bonus dominus, qui non tribuit saepè, quod volu­mus, vt quod malimus attri­buat, August. Paul [...]epist. 34. that he may giue ouer, and aboue, that which we should rather. So as to winde vp all on a small bottome, and comprehend much in fewe words (our prayers dare not presume to aske) many things, which God giueth, because they dare not set the Lord a time, nor binde him to such, and such meanes, but resoluing of [Page 37]the general, & making faith of our duety therein, refer our selues wholy to the Lord, for all such changeable circumstances, know­ing that fall they out so, or not so, or contrariwise,Rom. 8. [...]8. they fall out for the best to them that feare the Lord

Cap. 3 Almighty God those things, which for our vnworthinesse we dare not, and for our blindnes we cānot aske, vouchsafe to giue vs &c. These words directly fight against gods word & true faith Iam. If any lacke let him aske in faith & wauer not &c. For such receiue not. And Rom. 14.25. Whatsoeuer is not of faith is sin.

THese words are in the collect after the offertory Almighty God the foūtaine of all wisdome which knowest our necessities before wee aske, & our ignorance in asking, we beseech the to haue compassiō vpon our infirmities, & those things, which for our vnworthinesse we dare not, & for our blindnesse we cannot aske, vouchsafe to giue vs for the worthines of thy sonne. &c. This, & the last chap. for their neighbourhood may cōmunicate each vnto other mutuall helpe. Much hath been said already, whereon we might be content to stay our selues without farder procéeding, but ye we are drawne on to a larger discourse, by reason of their so great importunity, that hold these words matter of fresh complaint: There is no doubting, nor Stammering, nor vncertaintie in saying these words (for our vnworthinesse we dare not, nor for our blindnesse we cannot aske) They are the words of so­briety & humility, not of feare nor despaire.Non desperati­o [...] dictum est sed sobria & pia humilitate, August. de verb dom. serm. 23. Iam 1.5.6. Rom. 14.23. For we are certainely perswaded as of an article of our faith, that we are both vnwor­thy, & blind. Yet some vrge scripture to the contrary. S. Iames, say they, bids vs aske in faith without wauering. Whereunto we answer. So doth a penitēt person aske that is fully assured he hath naught to cōmend him before the Lord. Againe they vrge Rom. 14. whatsoeuer is not of faith is sin) So thinke we the man sin­neth [Page 38]that continueth doubting of Gods mercy whē he cometh to God in praier. A conscience not resolued in such a point of doctrin shameth the worke in hand, be it neuer so specious. Happily these men (whose obiection this is) thinke that the faithful,Quando nihil prorsus sumus, et minus quam nihil, visenti­amus nostram [...] & abiecta ōni fiducia tam nostri quam to­tius mundi. Caluin. in Iere. 17. To tobsequiis defaenerati, quot defungs non pos­sumus, etiamsi omnes nostra cogitationes, om­niaque membra in legit officia verterentur. Marlo in Luc. 17.10. Mat. 9.20. Luc. 15.21. Ad filis affectū, qui omnia quae patris sunt sua esse nō ambigit aspirare nequa quam praesumit, sed mercenaris statumiam pro­seruitatis, mercede deside­rat, Bede. lib. 4. super Luc▪ m. c. 63. Non proponitur vt admiremur tantum sed etiā vt imitemur. Marlo in Mat. [...]. because of the full assurance of Gods mercies, therefore may not be cast down in sight of their sin. As if ye voice of a man vilifying himselfe before the Lord, were not the voice of a man that builds vpon ye Lord his comfortable promise. Then surely M. Caluin mistooke what he praied for, when vpon occasion of the words in the Pro­phet Ieremie 17. (The heart of man is deceitfull, & wicked aboue all things, who can know it) maketh this praier. Grant almighty God since we are plaine nothing, yea lesse then nothing, that feeling this naughtworth estate, & casting aside all confidence both of our selues, & of the whole world we may learne to flye in all humility vnto thee &c. But M. Caluin mistooke no more, then they that of our sauiour learned to hold themselues vn profitable seruants, not, ye they had done iust nothing, but when they had done all, and all (if possible) that was cōmanded. For we are seruants in so many offices indebted, as we cānot come out, though all our thoughts & all our parts, or members were turned into the dueties of the law. Wherfore if we hold our selues vnworthie, & such, as for our vnworthines dare not aske, what are we any whit the worse more-then the woman wt the bloudy issue, who was sufficiently perswaded of Christs pow­er, but hauing hir faith mixed with feare durst not craue with hir lips, what hir body stood in neede of. And the prodigall childe was throughly groūded, & established in his fathers kindly loue, yet because of his lewd pranks, so far debased himselfe yt he durst not aske the roome of a son, but thought it well, if he might bee reckoned among his fathers hired seruants: concerning whom venerable Bede speaketh thus. To a sonnes affection, that reckoneth all his owne, which his father hath, this vnthrift doth noe way presume to aspire, but desireth onely the state of a seruant &c. Some such vnworthinesse was that of ye Centuriō who had done much good to Christ, his countrimē, built thē a sinagog &c. yet professeth he was altogether vnworthie yt our sauiour should come vnder his roofe, or vouchsafe him somuch as talking with. Whose modest conceit of himselfe is not for vs [Page 39]to admire, but to follow, which we then doe, if we truely ac­knowledge, what we are of our own nature in the sight of God; and if anie be vile to thinke we are more vile then the basest: Abiectissi [...] is hominibus in feriores. Ibid: Nor is this humbling our selues, not dareing to presēt our per­sons in the Lords sight an argument, we want faith, more then this behauiour of the Centurion so highly commended for his faith both speedy, & well setled, vpon very small beginnings. In the confession, which Daniel maketh for Israel, and in that prayer while Israel thinkes and speakes of their owne vnworthinesse, Dan. 9.4.5. that vnto thē belongeth confusion of faces, that they haue sinned, & cōmitted iniquitie & done wickedly, yea rebelled & departed from Gods precepts and iudgements, largely amplyfying the inditement against their owne soules, they take hold of the mercies of God,Luk. 15.19.2 [...] Caeucamus de nobis dicere gloriosa, minimum de se sentire tam magnum quid [...] ̄ est, quaem max­imas res feciss [...]. Chrisost. homili 38 ad pop. An­tiocheum. Super Iudaeos factus est admi­rationis Ibid. Maenum, quam calceamento dixit esse indig­nam, hanc super caput Christus attraxit. Ibid. Absit vt iusti vt tam aternam expectent, sicut pauper elemosyā Tapper in explicat. artio. Io­uan. tom. 2. ar­tic. 9; and haue comfort in this that com­passion and forgiuenesse of sinne is the Lords. In the tipe of the lost childe spokē of before, reclaimed to God the point is much la­boured. I am not worthy to be called thy sonne &c, Yet, he that said so, and saide but a truth, was not ere the more withhelde from comming to his father. Let vs beware (saieth Chriso­stome) how we speake glorious thinges of ourselues. It is noe meane point to thinke meanly of our selues, noe small grace to disgrace our selues in the presence of the Lord. The words of the Centurion (saieth hee) were, I am not worthy and hee was in more admiration, then all the Iewes beside: So spake the A­postle I am not worthie, and he was the chiefe: The like did Iohn, I am not worthie, and he was a friend to the spouse, yea that hand, which he thought too base to touch the shoolachet of Christ did couer his head with baptisme. All these debasing them­selues were aduanced. And if because our faith excludeth carnall doubting any finall distrust of Gods sauing health, it must also spare confession of our vnworthinesse, then (belike) we shall doe well to giue way to those supposed arguments, that vpon like misprisō conclude possibility of merit, & impossibility of error. For if no such vnworthinesse, why may we not merit? & if noe such blindnes what feare is there of rūning into error. For ye first say we as ye deuines of Louain God fordid the iust should wait for life euerlasting, as a poore mā doth for an alms. It is far more glorious, that they as cōquerours & triūphers possesse it as a [Page 40]rewarde due to their sweat. and trauell. For the second say we as they likewise doe, because the faithfull are led by the spirite into all truth,Diseamut de nostra owinino industria, ma­gis autem de wostris diffidere meritis. Bern. in fest. Paul. serm 2. Obtusisumus, & indulgenter nimium senti­mus de nobis. Marl [...]. in 1. Cor. 4.4. 1. Cor. 8.2? Psalm. 19.12. Deus solus nouit quod nescire po­test etiam ipse qui fecit. Am­bros. in Psalm. 118. Plerunque in­ter vitia, virtu. tesque caliga mus. Greg. mor. lib. 9. c. 17. & 19. Genes. 18.15▪ 1. Ioh. 3.20. Iob. 37 19. Rerum inagna egnor antia, qua mentes nostra loborant &c. Mercer. Ibid. Caci sumus in regando deo &c. Marlo in Rom. 8.26. quàm vt rectè eligant, quid conueniat, vel expediat &c. Ibid. that they are therefore exempt from all blin denes to be seduced. But if we so say, wee deceiue our selues, and noe maruell then, if easily seduced. In remedie whereof let vs learne to distrust our owne selues, and altogether our owne industry but most of all our owne worth and worthines, as Bernard speaketh. The collect yeelding asmuch, to what ende serueth some mens reproofe? Is it to make vs thinke better of our selues, then there is cause, who can nether do nor thinke ought as of our selues who are dull and ouer partiall toward our selues, who if we know anie thing know not as we ought to knowe, whither of our sinne, or wants, or conscience, or what God hath done for our soules? Of our sinne, how manifold and grieuous for number and weight, insomuch as Dauid prayed Lord clense me from my secret sinnes: Secret yet knowne to God, when the party that commits them knew not, somuch. For how often haue our eyes twinckled and we taken vice for vertue, as Iacob took Lea, for Rabel? How often haue we hoodwincht our consciences that intreate vs like the Angell, when hee told Sara she laugh­ed, though she made shew to the contrarie? How often, when our conscience cleared vs to our thinking, God (that is greater then our conscience) hath, or might haue condemned vs? How of­ten haue we not prated, & should; & in praying haue béen to séeke what to pray for, as Elihu wel confessed, for we cannot (saith hée) dispose our matter because of darknesse, and that great igno­rance wherein we are? The regard of which truth led S. Paul to say asmuch, where he writeth we knowe not to pray as we ought. For blinde we are in calling vpon God, and though we feele our wants, or euils, yet our mindes are more intangled, & coufounded, then that readilie they can well choose what is good and conuenient? How often haue we called for a stone, when we thought we did call for bread? How often haue we praied a­misse, either in respect of our selues bleaklie, coldlie, perfunctorily, as if a north winde blew out of our mouthes; or in respect of the end, to abuse Gods gifts in pride, lust and sensualitie, turning the graces of God into wantonnesse like the serpents receit, that changeth all into poyson. Lastlie how often hath our ignorance [Page 41]beene more, then all this? And for all this shame we not with the Jewes to make a doubt, Are we also blinde? that speaking vnto God in prater take it offen [...]ue to confesse our vnworthines and our blindnesse? Among many things we beg of God,Inter alia, qua petimus cum be nè petimus, illud etiam esse debet vt petamus no­bit non dari▪ quod ignorante [...] non benè peti­mus. August. tract▪ 73 in I [...]a han. when we aske well, this must be a clause necessarilie remembered to aske, that those things may not be giuen, which we in our igno­rance did not well to pray for. Now the conclusion answereable to the collect, shalbe that of the Apostle, where setting forth the infinite power, & mercies of God, he emptieth himsel [...]e of words & somuch the rather to disable man, with whom he entreth com­parison: vnto him that is able to doe exceeding aboundantly aboue all that we aske, or thinke according to the power that worketh in vs, bee praise in the church through all ge­nerations, for euer Amen. Eph. 3.20.21. Thus far be the exceptions vnder one mans hand exhibited in one schedule or scroule, yea & all to in a second, which were intended with their [...]nswer in the first part, but that we were disappointed by the Printer.

Yea but in the second schedule were there no other?

Wée answer as he doth in ye Poet,Qui demum [...] lif? solus Sauni [...] soruat dome. whē Thraso mustred his for ces, what other do you meane? Onely a scof, or gird is remaining ye last & least worth. Bare repeating whereof is answer sufficient.

Chap. 4 Last of all, we desire to be resolued, whither all the Ru­bricks are not so to be vnderstood, & expounded as they may agree, & not be contrary to the word of God & of religion establisht by the law, and the analogie of faith now profest in the Realme.

THe answer is short & easie: It was neuer the minde of any our famous princes either past,Osten [...] [...] ­ris hunc tā [...]ū fata, necvltra esse sinunt. Aeneid, lib 6. or presēt to in­snare the consciences of their trusty and wel beloued subiects. That religious Prince Edward who in ye blooming or his age was translated into heauē, for in the prime of [Page 42]the Gospell restored he did shew, and but shew himselfe, esta­blishing the booke of common prayer, gaue way to noe such sur­mise of error, and false doctrine, as in this our vnthankefull gene­ratiō is finistrely conceiued. Nor did that gratious Ladie ourlate good Quéene Elizabeth. Far was it from hir innocent vertuous soule or any manner of authoritie designed by her sacred appoint­ment, to admit anie the least sillable of doctrine contrarie to Gods word, and true religion. The like (as we must acknowledge to the glorie of God) doth manifest it seise in that royall care of our dread soueraigne, wherein we may safely repose our selues knowing for our part, his maiesty, as he holdeth himselfe obliged both in conscience and wisdome,Proclamation at VVestmin­ster the 22. Fe. 1603. so hath, and will vse all good meanes to keepe his subiects from being infected with superstitious opi­nions in master of religiō, This special deuine care, his learned, orations, generall proclamations, finall determination at the last conference haue all solemnely witnessed to the world, in re­deeming the state of our church from all such scandals, as were iniuriously brought vpon hir, and vpon that truth, which we do [...] maintaine:Etsi non aliqua nocuisses, mortu­us esses. Virg. Eclog. So as it, is but a waspish doubt euen of purpose set in the last place, to leaue a sling behinde in steede of a farewell. Not but that a third, and fourth paper obiect more, as followeth to be considered.

Chap 5. Lord we beseech thee keep thy church, that it may be free frō al aduersitys: This is against the manifest word, & decre of God, & true faith Act 14▪22. we must through many afflictions enter into the kingdom of God. And 2. Timoth 3.12. all that will liue godly in christ Iesus shall suffer persecutions. And Ioh 16.33. In the world ye shal haue tribulation. God hath promised we shall not be swallowed vp with aduersitie: but noe promise that we shalbe free frō al. Ergo to pray for that wherof we haue no promise, is against faith, & so sin Ergo not to be sub­scribed vnto.

THis collect we finde the church vseth on the 22. sun­day after Trini. Lord we beseech thee keepe thy hous­hold the church in continual godlinesse, that through thy protection it may be free from all aduersities, and de­uoutly giuen to serue thee in good workes to the glory of thy name, &c. In which prayer the church supposeth not all immu­nity and freedome, that noe aduersitie shall come neere hir.Pro. 11.8. [...] c. 12.13. but knowing that it will, she beggeth of God to be deliuered from it. The righteous (saieth Salomon) is deliuered out of trouble, but so, that he may goe free. For otherwise the church cannot bee ignorant, nor is, that afflictions wait vpon hir, and compasse hir on euery side. Who knoweth not, that in our Letanie such a par­ticular sute is remembred vnto God that in all time of our tribulation he will deliuer vs, that in all our troubles, and ad­uersities whensoeuer they oppresse vs,15. Sund. after Trinit. 16. Sund. after Trinit. 3. Sund. after Epiph. Septuages & the second sun-in Lent. 8. and 15 after Tipit. those euils which the craft and subtlety of the diuil, or man worketh against vs be brought to naught &c. She confesseth hir frailty, ye with out the Lord she cannot but fall that she cannot continue without his suero [...], and therefore calleth vpon God, that he wil mercifully looke, vpon hir infirmittes, & in all dangers, and necessities stretch forth his right hand to helpe, and defend, putting away all hurtfull things, and giuing things profitable to hir saluation, that so being gouerned and preserued euermore both in body & soule by the stedfastnes, of faith, she may be defended from all aduersities. In all which pla­ces ye honest godly vertuous meaning of our church wel appear­eth praying to be frée from all aduersities, not but that she must feele thē, but that she may not fall by thē, not, but that like surges they may come ouer hir, but in assurance of hir God, she may ouercome them, Therefor is it she beseecheth God, the course of this world may be so peaceably ordred by his gouernance that she may ioyfully serue him in al godly quietnesse, crauing by this free dome such readinesse both in body, and soule, as a free heart that would accomplish those things, which the Lord would haue done All which petitions concurring in this clause minister diuerse good notes. First, ye weight of griefe, ye in anguish of soule casteth a cloud twixtioy & our vnderstāding,2. King. 4.27. at which time it may be said as Elisha of ye Iuo [...]nō. Lethir alone, hir spirit is vexed within hir. Atro bled praier ou [...] easily be pard [...]ed, if not so aduisedly other whiles [Page 44]indited, as others peraduenture may thinke, that are not fli like distresse.In tribulations bus, qua possunt & prodesse & nocere. &c: August: epist: 121 ad Probam vid. c. 14. Vninersals volū tate vt nobis bac auferantur oramus. &c. Ibid. Pia patientia malorum bona speremus ample ora &c. Ibid Secondly, it would be thought vpon what natural­ly our desire. presseth after, not what should be, but what it would haue. In tribulations wee may both hurt and profit, we know not what to pray, as we ought, and yet because things are tough, and hard, because they are troublesome. because they are against the sence of our infirmity, by a generall, or vnsuersal will we pray that these things may be taken frō vs. But this point of deuotion we are indebted to god for, that if he take not such thinges away from vs, wee should not therefore thinke we are neglected, but rather by our godly enduring these euils hope for larger good things. For so vertue is perfited in infirmity. Thirdly Gods decrée may crosse yt effect, but it is not against the natural affection, nay the Lord would be offended, if that affection were not: make it a childes case, whose kinde father is sore sicke euen to yt death, & his life draweth to the graue. The Lord purposeth by this visitation to call him hence, therefore it is that his childe mourneth. Here haue yourthe will of the childe one way (he would haue his father liue) & the wil of God another way intēdeth death. Is the child faulty herein, or rather is he not faul tie, if all childlike affectiō die with his fathers death? Doth he not offēd, if nature & dutie vtterly forgottē he should wish otherwise? So that the matter of our obedience is not séene alwaies in our willing, what God decreeth, or not willing, what be forbiddeth, but sometimes in deliuering contrary to that, which thee Lord purposeth shal come to passe. S. Paul the Apostle wel knew yt sicknesse cōmeth of the Lord, & that whē [...] Epaphroditus fell sick it was ye Lord his doing;Philip, 2, 25, Yet that was no reasō, but Paul both might, & cid sorrow for him. Fourthly, we are cōmaunded to aske what we stand in néed of, & we néed deliuerance from all aduer­sities.Propria infirmi tatis nobis con scit dei prasidso defendi nos cup [...] mus, vt inexpug Dabiles stemus ad [...]ersus quaes­libet Satana machinas. Cal in Math, 6.13. Fiftly, such praiers are testimonies of our professed weak­nes, prouing vnto our selues & others, what conceit we haue of yt Dangers of this life. Not the least aduersit, but we haue cause to stand in feare of, & therefore pray wée; that wer may stand in ex­pugnable against all the Engins of Sathan. Sixtlie at these times that wee intreate God in this manner, there is a liuelie euidence of our faith in his power and of a full resolu­tion in making our refuge to him, as constantlie be [...]eueing [Page 45]hée can, and will helpe vs, else would we not séeke thus vnto him, as then we doe. Seuenthly, it may be conceiued, that the extent of our petition is bound with a necessary supposall of the Lords will, though not alway so expresty mentioned.Quod necessa­riò intelligitur non deest. Act. 18.21.1. Cor. 4.10. For that which is necessarily vnderstood is neuer thought wanting. Act. 18. I will returne againe vnto you, and 1. Corinth. 4. I will come vnto you if God will. In the one place implied, in the other exprest. So here to be interpreted, A freedome from all aduersities but no farder, nor otherwise then as the Lord will, though this clause be not word for word set downe in the Collect. Lastly, the eye of our thought looketh two waies, one to Gods prouidence, the other to our selues, and our extremitie either present, or pos­sible. An example hereof our Sauiour gaue vs,Huiusmodi exē ­plum prabuit no [...]sille mediator qui cum dixisset Paeter si fiers po test transeat a me calix, huma nam in se volūa tatem ex homi­nis sosceptione transformans continuò subita cit. August. ad Probam. episte 121. cap. 14. when he had said these words, Father if it be possible let this Cuppe passe from me, transforming the will of man vpon himselfe by taking our nature he presently addeth this withall, Yet not as I will but as thou wilt O Father. So the Prophets weepe for Ierusalem to thinke, how she should lye in the dust, yet againe to Godward as they raise vp their eye, they stand contented. Iniury there­fore is it to the Saints in that whereof they haue our Sauiour Christ for an example; iniury to those affections, which God bath fashioned in vs for his seruice; iniurie to all the reasons be­fore alleaged if prayer (to be free from all aduersities) must be arraigned as a slaunderer of the truth of God: yet so it pleaseth some to giue foorth.

This is against the manifest word and decree of God. Act. 14.22.

A man may will a diuerse thing from that, which God wil­leth, and yet without sinne.Act. 16 7. Paul desired to preach the word in Asia, and Bethinia but he was hindred by the spirit, yet no con­trarietie twixt Paul and the spirit of God, but (for all that shew of discord) great consent. For that which Paul willeth well, the spirit of God willeth not, but yet by a better will, though the reason hereof be secret;Gloria celesti superindui abs­que mortis in­teruentu. Pis [...]. in 2. Cor. 5. and the reason of Pauls will be ma­nifest. The same Apostle desireth for himselfe, and other the Saints that they might be clothed vpon with heauenly glo­ry without death comming betweene. For we (saith he) that [Page 46]are in this tabernacle figh and are burdened because we would not be vnclothed but clothed vpon,2. Cor. 5.4. that mortalitie might be swallowed of life, which yet we know God had otherwise de­termined. And Saint Peter was tould aforehand that be must die some violent death, for so our Sauiour prophecied, yet that Apostle in some sort did will otherwise then God his manifest will was.Ioh. 21.18. [...] Psal. 55.6. For Iohn 21.18. another shall gird thee and lead thee whither thou wouldest not. The Prophet Dauid in Psalme 55. wisheth that he had the wings of a Doue, then would be file, &c. No manifest word or decrec of God knowne to auouch this wish and earnest prayer.Electio tantum fertur in possi­balia, voluntas interdum pro­ponit ea qua nō possunt fieri: Arist. Eth. lib. 3 But the note which the Philosopher in his wisedome of gentile learning giueth is not amisse; Election is carried onely vnto things possible, but the will sometimes proposeth those things which cannot be, and yet no fault at all in so doing. As for example, the Mini­ster in charitie reputing the whole congregation to be Elect in an holy manner. seekes and willeth the saluation of euery one which neuerthelesse the Lord in his eternall counsell willeth not, twixt which two wils, a difference without contrarietie. For one good thing as it is good may differ from another, but cannot be contrary vnto it. We are not alwaies to will (saith Saint Austin) that done which God will haue done, or hath decreed in the will of his secret pleasure. For God may wish one thing,Et tamen donae volūtati dei pi­etas illius potius consonat, quam huius idem vo­dentis impitas [...] August, enchir. ad Lauren. cap. 101. and man another, and sometimes it falleth out that he wisheth better, though crosse to Gods Decres then he that wisheth happily what God intendeth. The wic­ked Iewes would haue Christ put to death, Ioseph of Arimathea would not consent to his death. Luke 23. which God had decreed, yet he did well, they did ill: That we must through many afflicti­ons enter into the kingdom of heauen, that all who will liue god­ly in Christ Iesus shall suffer tribulation, that in the world we shall haue it, as they are the manifest words of God, so is it ma­nifest they are much wronged in being vrged against this clause (freedome from all aduersitie.) Math. 26.25. 1. Cor. 11.19. Math. 18 7. For as it was true that the treason of Iudas must be, so is it true that heresies and offences must be. As much necessitie of one as of the other, and the same words are deliuered of them all. They must be, shall be, must needs be, &c. Now, though offences must be, wherein the decree of [Page 47]God appeareth, yet who is he that with the Apostle prayeth not for himselfe, and for others, that they neither giue, nor take offence but that in their course of a Christian life,1. Cor. 8.13. 1. Cor. 10.32. Philip. 1.10. they may carry themselues wth an euen foote in all things possibly inde­nouring to please all men, and yet such a necessitie of offences our Sauiour mentioneth as that it cannot be otherwise,Luc. 17.1. [...]. nor can they be auoyded. Iudas must betray his Master, and that his Lord & Master well knew, yet no preiudice to the prayet made that the Cup might passe which our Sauiour would neuer haue so done if he might not haue so prayed: (Heresies must be) that no hinderance wherfore we should not teach, instruct, pray, and vse all good meanes to roote them vp. For as a Gardiner well knoweth that wéedes will grow, and the husbandman find­eth that the enuious man soweth tares, & therefore so much the more imployeth himselfe painfully, in all which he offendeth not, but well pleaseth the Lord, so beséemeth it the mother with her children to pray, exhort, informe, & doe all diligence for succouring her selfe and hers in the times of all aduersitie, & to striue with God in all humblenesse, and true repentance, that they may be preuented (if the Lord will,) or lessened, or withall patience meekely indured. Saint Austin saith well, What is he that can finde in his hart to suffer troubles and difficulties? Quis velit mo [...] lestias & diffi­cultates pati? Tolerare iubet illas, nō amare. Nemo quod to­lerat amat. Quamuis enim gaudeat tolera­re ma [...]ult ta­men non esse quod toleret. August. lib. 10. confes [...]e 28. God commaundeth vs to tolerate them not to loue them. No man loueth, that which he must tolerate: For although he reioyce to tolerate them, yet had he rather there were none for him to tolerate.

For the Church to be free from all aduersitie is against the manifest word of God.

It is not against the manifest word of God that the Church sometimes haue rest & breathing after a sore trauell: many exam­ples thereof are, before, & since yt daies of Solamon, Iosias, In whose raigne Israel had great peace, & plenty, & such prosperity the Lord promised by the mouth of his Prophet, as old men & old women should dwell in yt stréets of Ierusalem, Zachar. 8.4. & euery man with his staffe in his hand for very age, & the stréets of ye citty shalbe full of boies [Page 48]and girles,Qui victurisūt securè, & sine aliqua molestia (externa dico) Nā scimus hoc non posse accide re, vt multi senes aliquo in loco cernantur quasi ferè exa­nimes atar ita vt baculo se se sustineant, nisi vndique pax, et quies sit ab bostibus. Cal. Ibid. Vniuersum Rō. orbem tenuit in gerendis bellis victoriosissi­mus per omnia prospe [...]atus est. filios [...]per [...]tes reliqu [...]. Aug. de Ciuit, dei lib. 5. c. 25. Proclamation for Authori­sing an vnifor­mitie of the booke of Cō ­mon prayer. Giuen at Westminster the 5. of March. 1. an. Reg. Iacobi Psalm, 1.3. Genes. 39.2. 2. Chro. 32.30 2. Chro. 20.20. Nunquam benè esse hominibus, nisiquatenus benignum se dominus illi [...]exhi­bet Caluin. in Genes. 39.2. who shall liue securely and without trouble at all (I meane outward) For we know, it cannot come to passe that many olde men be seene in any place spent for very age: that they must be faine to beare themselues vp with a staffe, vnlesse there be peace and rest on all sides from the enemie. Which gratious fauour hath stretched out to the daies of the Gospell both in the raigne of Constantine, Theodosi­us, Honorius, and other good Emperors. Of Constantine, whose gouernment was so happy that be b [...]d the whole Ro­maine world in subiection vnder him, most victorious in his wars, euery where throughout prosperous in subduing of tyrants, of a very great age ere he died, and blest with sonnes, whom he left Emperors after him. But what speake we of times past. Haue we not examples in our owne age? The kingdome wherein we liue vnder that forme of Religion, which by law was established in the daies of our late Queen of famous memorie, blessed with a peace and prosperitie both extraordinary, and of many yeares continuance (a strong euidence that God was therewith well pleased.) Which mercie in this kinde long may we pray for, and he grant to the ioy of our King, Quéene, and their royall progenie, and the comfort of vs all his loyall Subiects. They who with it not (as holding it vnlawfull) shew themselues vnthankfull to God, vnnaturall to their Countrey, yea and contrary to the manifest Scripture: which promiseth what euer a righteous man ta­keth in hand shall prosper: verified in Ioseph, who was a man that prospered; in Ezechia that prospered in all his works, and in the resolution that Ichosuphat made the people, beléeue the Prophets and yée shall prosper. If any reply these thrée sen­tences last quoted meane by prosperitie, the fauour & mer­cies of God, as that then onely it is well with a man, when God sheweth himselfe gratious. We confesse their exposition is a truth, and our Church in her prayer desireth so to be vnder­stood. For that which the wicked name aduersitie she calleth not so, nor what they hold for prosperitie doth she alwaies ac­count so, hauing well learned by comparing the Scriptures that there is no prosperitie to the mercies of God, and when that wanteth, the mercies of God are wanting. He that hideth his [Page 49]sinnes shall not prosper, but he that confesseth & forsaketh them,Prot [...] 131 shall haue mercy, [...] repentance had a reward, and that re­ward were prosperitie, and the mercies of God were that pro­speritie: yet so far forth as the righteous & prophane necessarily communicate in the meaning of the same language, freedome from infirmitie, sicknesse, persecution, troubles, bondage, ex [...]e, deration, & a thousand the like is to be desired in our pray­ers, or else it would goe ill with vs, that any aduersitie should befall vs, and we not haue recourse vnto prayer against it.

It is contrarie to Gods decres.

It is not contrarie to Gods Decree, that some particular Church at some one time, or other for some space may be free from all aduersitie, in comparison of that which it selfe either hath felt, or may feele, or in respect of what some other Churches doe indure. And in as much, as there is reason to pray for free­dome against one affliction, as another, and so in effect by consequent against all (for a ship may sinke by a leake, as by a wracke) not lying in our power to distinguish, which we can be safe in, and in which we cannot, our Church wisely prouideth by prayer, vniuersally against all aduersities, not binding the Lord ere the more, then standeth with the good pleasure of his blessed will, but making knowne what our duetie is to doe, and what our necessitie inforceth vs to doe. For as God hath de­creed to chastice his people, & his people must as well looke for it, so hath he decreed, that euen therefore they should call vpon him, and prepare to meete him in the humblenesse of their soule. That God, which purposed to send a famine in Chanaan, put into the hart of Ioseph wisely to prouide for a deare yeare, and made Iacob to send downe into Egypt for corne.1. Sam. 23.12.13. The same God that raised the men of Keilah against Dauid, directed the thoughts of the Prophet vnto prayer, and made him resolute to flye from Keilah. It was of the Lord in iudgement, that Saul cast his iauelin at Dauid, where he was, but in mercie the Lord so dis­posed it, that Dauid should, and did escape it. And it because the Lord hath decreed his Church shall haue aduersitie, therefore it may not vse prayer against it, neither then may we pray that [Page 50]all men be saued,Nesciētes, quis pertineat ad pradestinato­rum numerum, quis non per­tineat, sic affici debemus chari­tatis affectu, vt omnes velimus saluos fieri. August. de Correp. & gra. cap. 15. 1. Tim. 2.2. Psal. 119 39. because God hath decreed otherwise. But a better Diuine resolues vs better: Not knowing saith Austin, who belong, and who doe not belong to the number of the prede­stinate, it is our duetie to be so affected toward all with a chari­table affection, that we should wish all might be saued. And if because the Lord hath decreed his Church shall haue ad­uersitie, therefore it may not vse prayer against it, neither then may we pray to lead a godly and peaceable life, which yet the Apostle doth, neither may we frame our prayers a­gainst reproch and shame, which yet the Prophet doth, Lord (saith he) turne from me shame and contempt. For who know­eth not that in Scripture persecution, reproch, &c. are the ordinarie portion commonly allotted those, that professe the Gospell in truth and sinceritie? And if because the Lord hath decreed his Church shall haue aduersitie, therefore it may not vse prayer against it, then may it not vse any meanes at all by way of preuention. Which errour spposed for a truth openeth a wide gappe for presumption, despaire, and all neg­lect of all godly meanes:Orig lib. 2. con­tra Celsum. What reason had the Sophister in Origen to disswade a sicke person from sending for a Physi­tion but this: If God haue decreed thy health it shall be whether thou vse the Physition, or vse him not; And if God haue decreed thy death, thou maist spend thy money, he loose his paines, and thou neuer a whit the better. And as good neuer a whit as neuer the better. The Sophister being to marry, was confuted by an argument of the like making, and this he had returned vpon him. To what ende is it thou take a wife, if God haue purposed you children you must needes haue them, and if he haue purposed you none, doe all you can, you shall haue none. One pin driuen out with another, both of them a sufficient proofe that our actions and counsels must not depend vpon vncertainties this way or that way, but by a stayed sure line are to be ruled and ordred. And though it be one way true a man sometimes marrieth and hath no chil­dren, yet on the otherside being vtterly impossible in the course of nature for a man to haue children without companie of some woman, we are to doe in this case, what godly reason counselleth, not what the Sophister concluded. So likewise [Page 51]what euer aduersitie the Church feareth, and God hath de­creed to exercise her patience withall, she must binde the sa­crifice of her prayers with cords to the hornes of the Altar; and in forecast of all imminent daungers call vppon God that mercie may step in twixt her transgression, and his iudgement.

Impossible it is to be free from all aduersities, and there­fore it is not a petition, but a vaine babling.

What is simply absolutely and fully impossible, which we know shall neuer be graunted at all to one or other in any measure, that we are not to craue. But fréedome from all ad­uersitie in some measure for some particular Church is possible,Math. 26.39 Non obstat, qùod rē impossi­bilem sibi conce­di poscit, quia non semper fi­delium preces continue teno­re ad finem vs­que flu [...], non semper [...]quabi­le temperamē ­tum seruant, non semper dis­tinctoordine sūt composita, quin potius implici­ta & perplexa vel confligunt secum, vel in mediocursu sub sistunt. Cal. apud marlor in Math. 26. v. 39. Siomisso diui [...] consilis intuit [...] desyderium su [...] ̄ quo astuabat inpatris smum depos [...]rit. Ibid begun here, and hereafter more fully graunted, so that our pray­ers may well intreate for it. And as eternall life we craue here, yea and in some small measure doe inioy euen now, while flesh is vpon vs, so fréedome from all aduersities we shall haue in the life to come but the beginnings thereof, and a certaine swéete tast we haue now and pray we may haue more and more abundant, the consummation whereof also we desire now, though presently now we obtaine it not. Easie it is to know the difference of these seuerall petitions. To obtaine a thing, and to desire a thing. We aske not the consummation here, but here we aske the consummation. The beginning, middle, and increase we may hope for, pray for, and here obtaine, but fully after this life an ende of all aduersitie. Vppon those words of our Sauiour his prayer. Father if it be possible let this Cuppe passe from me, &c. Matth. 26. Our learned god­ly writers note thus. No hinderance it is, that our Sauiour craueth an impossible thing to be graunted. For the prayers of the faithfull doe not alway flow one with a continuall te­nour to the ende, they doe not alway keepe an euen temper, they are not alway composed in a distinct order, but rather implicat and perplexed either at variance with themselues, or stop in the midst of the way, &c. And anone after followeth this obseruation. It is no absurditie if Christ by a common recei­ued [Page 52]manner among the faithfull (the view in of Gods counsell being omitted) laid downe in his Fathers besome that desire of his,In fundēdis pre cibus non sēper ad speculanda cēscendunt &c. vel tanquam in otio expendunt quid factu sit possibile. &c. Ibid. Sed votorum fernore interdū celeres ferūtur Ibid. wherewith he did boile. For the faith [...]ull in powring foorth their prayers, doe not alway clamber vp to pry into Gods se­crets, nor are alway at lessure to weigh what is possible, but are sometimes speedily carried with the feruencie of their prayers to the thing which they begge.

No promise that we shall be free from all: Ergo to pray for that, whereof we haue no promise is against faith, and so not to be Subscribed vnto.

Both these propositions must be warily vnderstood. For if their meaning be, that we are not to pray for any thing, but what is expresly promised in Gods word, as concerning eue­ry particular that wee stand in neede of, we shall deny our selues in many thinges the comfortable vse of prayer. Where­as it may fall out that the Lord is so farre Trom promising, as he vtterly denieth vs what wee aske, yea▪ hee maketh knowne vnto vs by his some he will not graunt our petiti­on, but putteth it of and by name puts vs of.Math. 15.22.24. [...]5. Thus it plea­sed our Sauiour to intreate the Woman of Chanaan, whose daughter was miserably vexed with a Deuill. He answered bix not a word, and after much adde, when hee spake, he spake nothing to her comfort, for he said. He was not sent, but to the lost sheepe of the bouse of Israell. And then afterwards notwithstanding her importunitie, he tould her it was not for a dogge to haue the childrens bread. In all which answeres, as that also of the Disciples motion to haue her thrust away, because she cryed after them no expresse pro­misse did the Lord make vnto her for that which she craued at his handes: No doubt inwardly the spirit of God wrought in her heart: and the more she indured an open repulse the more she was extraordinarily incouraged to waite in expectation and giue attendance vpon the Lord for what she craued. Besides doe we instance in that example of our Sauiour before alleaged. What expresse promise had Christ to be deliuered from the Cup, [Page 53]who well knew that therefore be came into the world,Quamuis sit vera rectitude for mare n [...]str [...]s [...]mmes affectus ad des arbitriū, esse tamen quā dam obliqua dissensio [...]is spe­cum qua culpa caret, & in p [...] catum non im­putatur Cal­a [...]ud Marls. in Math. 26.39. Si quis trāquil lum & florent [...] ̄ ecclesia statum expetat &c. Ibid. Si cupiat arum [...]is liber atosessa dei filios, subla­tat è medio om­nes superstisio­nes, repressam. &c. Ibid. H [...] quam per­se recta sint rità possunt à fidels­bus expeti &c. Ibid. Proprium est fidelis [...]is nolla pati ali­quid doloris. Orig homil. 35. in Math. and that the prophe [...]es, [...]acritices, tipes, and sacrausents of the law did foretell what death he should die. From both which parti­cular allegations we gather this comfortable instruction. Al­though it be a true rightnesse, or rectitude to frame all our affec­tions to the will of God, yet there is a certaine shew of a slope or obliq [...] diff [...]ntion and disagrament, which is without blame and is not imputed vnto sinne: as for example, if a man wish for a quiet and flourishing estate of the church, if he desire the sons of God be freed from sorrowes, and that all superstitions be vtterlie taken away and that the lustful licentiousnes of the wick­ed be repressed, least it doe hurt. These thinges for asmuch as they are right in themselues they may rightly be praied for by the faithfull, although it please God otherwise to haue his some raigne among his enimies, his children exercised vnder the crosse &c. For as Origin hath vpon like occasion. It is the proper­tie of euerie faithfull man not to be willing to suffer anie griefe &c. Wherefore be it, there is noe expresse promise, nay were we the persons, whome God by name had dented. Yet so long as we craue in assurance of grace (with the church of God, well perfwaded she is in fauour,) so long as all we beg is with refe­rence to his blessed will, and in faith that hee heareth, certainely beleeuing in generali he will giue, though not this nor that for qualitie or quotient, yet so much as is expedient that we may the better goe for warde in the dueties of our calling: there is noe likelihood to the contrarie but we may pray and praying shall ef­fectually obtaine to the reliefe of our necessity and the setting forth of his glorie. But scripture is full of promises made to the faithfull for freedome from all aduersities except we thinke they were onely currant with the Jewes and noe way concerne the Israel of God. Exod. 23. Yee shall serue the Lord your God, He shall blesse thy bread, and thy water, and will take all sicknesse away from thee. And Deut. 7. The Lord will take away all in­firmities,Exod. 23.25. Deut. 7.15. c. &c. and will put none of the euill diseases &c. Cap 28. The Lord is rich in mercie and vouchsafeth large promises of all manner of blessings to his people that barken to the law and o­bey the same, whither at home, or abroad in the fielde, in the house in his children, cattell going forth, conuning home &c. As [Page 54]may be scene by the specialties there expressed crossing the parti­cular crosses and [...]ses threa [...]ed to be cast vpon the shineched and disobedient.In nous Testa­mento prater [...]er [...]nd possessio [...], qua pro­mittitur sanctis [...]uins possesio­nis qua tran­situra est, mul­tiplicatio non substrabitur, & tante fit vberior quan to contemptius pos [...]idetur, Aug. contra Adimâ. c. 1 [...]. Psalm. 91.20. Abomni pericu le quod tibi cre­abitur. Iunins. Ibid. defendet te ab emniperi culo. Ibid. Post aliquod malorum speci­ficationem sum matim & in [...]enere dicit, Non occurret tibi malū di cti one mali omni [...] generis afflict­ones miserias & arumnas complectens. Marlo. Ibid. [...]aollerus totidē p [...]nè verbis. Psalm. 122.6. Pacis nomen g [...] neraliter pro la to & felsci sta t [...] posuit Marlo in Psalm. 121.2 [...]riuatam, publicam, intus & foris, Iunius. Ibid. Psalm. 128.5. Againe cap, 30. The Lord thy God will make thee plenteous in euery work of thy hand, in yt fruit of thy bodie, of thy cattell, and of thy land for thy wealth. Vpon which wordes in that 28. chap, the former of these two quotations Saint Austin writeth in this fort. In the new testament be­side the eternall possession, which is promised to the Saints the multiplication of a transitory possession is not substracted, but somuch the more plentiful it becōmeth, as the more contempted­ly it is possessed. But to proceede in other scriptures. What is it els but a grations promise to be defended frō al aduersities, where in the first Psalme it is auouched in general termes. Whatsouer thou takest in hand, shall prosper. The like is Psal. 91. there shal no euil come vnto thee v. 10, & a little before v. 3 The Lord will deliuer thee from the snare &c that is saieth M. Iunius the Lord will deliner thee from all danger, and v. 4. Where the prophet saieth, he will couer theé vnter his winges &c. that is hee will defend thee from all euil. All danger and aleuil is no more then answereable vnto this collect All aduersities. Of which indge­ment is Marlorat and Mollerus. After a specialty of some euils he saieth humanity and in generall. Noe euill shall come vnto yt vnder the word (euill) comprehending afflictions, miseries, and sorrowes of all forts. Beside these authorities and commen­taries Psalme. 121. Witnesseth asmuch. The Lord out of Sion shall preserue thee from all euill, and he shall preferue thy going out and thy comming in, that is all the actions and occa­sions of our life, for so going out and comming in is taken 1. Reg. 37. Num. 27.17. As Maister Iunius proueth in that place. Far der Psal. 122.6. the prophet sheweth it is the duety of the faith­full to pray for the peace of Jeruslem, that peace may be with­in hir wales & prosperitie within hir pallaces. Which name of peace is put generally for the pleasant and happie estate, and all things prosperous as Marlorat hath, or as Maister Iunius diui­deth it for al peace whither priuate or publicke, whither within or without. Againe Psal. 128. The Lord out of slon shal blesse ye & thou shalt see ye wealth & prospecous estate of Jerusalem al the days of thy life, to like effect is yt promise by Esay yt prophet whē thou passest thorough the waters I will be with the, and [Page 55]through the floods that they do not euer flow thée,Isay. 43. [...]. Per [...]gn [...] & aquam intelli­gi [...], omne genu [...] miser [...]arum quibus in hae vita ob [...]xij s [...] mus. Calain. Ibid. Visi [...]in or as. domin Ioh. 16.23. whē thou wal­kest thorough the very fire thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the flame kindle vpon thee &c. Where Maister Calain teacheth that the Lord by fire and water doth vnderstand all kind of me­series: If al these quotations suffice not, the words of our sauiour note asmuch in the praier deliuer vs from cuil that is (faieth Vr­sinus whom we haue quoted els where) all euels both of sin & pu­nishment whither present or to come. Nor doth this clause onely warrantize thus much but also those words Ioh. 16. whatsoeuer ye aske the father in my name he shall giue it you: If whatsoeuer a man can aske, he shall haue, what cause is there that ye church praying for freedome from all aduersities, any son or daughter of hirs should doubt that the Lord will grant it, or rather denie yt the Lord wil grant it, being amply confirmed by manie scripturs in the old and new testament. In a word to put an end (if not to al aduersities till our liues end, yet) is our aduersaries & the trouble which this obiection hath occasioned, cuery word here arrested puts in baile for more securitie. The church may be free by ye protectiō of ye Almighty frō al aduersity.Rom. 6.201 [...]. 22. [...]. First ye church particular not vniuersal: secōdly may be argueth it is not. 3. free but freed as ye Apostle speaketh of our estate in christ freed from sin because borne naturally the vassals of sin, and our freedome not natu­rall but purchased, not actiue but passiue. 4. (From) not vtter­ly without all, but in aduersitie, and then afterwardes freed, For though this worde from in most languages bee sometimes taken exclusiuè for without in what manner young schollers proue their argument by a proposstion drawne from Aristotle where it neuer was, meaning it is not in Aristotle at all,Ex Aristotele. and so is out but quite out, yet no such error is here bred in these wordes (may be free from) because (free from) in Scrip­ture signifieth to haue beene first in it:1. Cor. 1.10. Ibid. c. 10.13. & thē afterwards deliue­red: So Paul receiuing ye sentēce of death was deliuered frō it but he was first subiect vnto it:Math. 17.43. So God deliuereth from euill but a man is first in the tentation & then the Lord makes way out So. Mat 27. of Christ scoffingly they spake, he trusted in God let him deliuer him, if he wil haue him. So Luke 1.74 deliuered frō ye handes of our enimies may serue him without feare al ye daies of our life. And that before in the Psalme. 121. The Lord [Page 56]shal preserue shée from euill,Rom. 7.24.1 [...].31. 2. Thes. 3.2. 2. Tim. 3.11. Deut. 29.20. Non possunt quidem omnia maledicta e [...]e­nire vni ho­mini: Non e [...]im toties mor [...] po­test quot gene­ra mortis hic dicta sunt, sed omnia dixit pro quibuslibet. August super Deut lib. 5. c. 49. Rom. 1.8. Inomnibus ec­cles [...]is totius mundi Synechdo che est generis hyperbolica, nā intelligit eccle­sias plurinias. Piscat. Rom. 1 8. Optimè compre henduntur ōnia mala culpa & p [...]na &c. Vrsin. in orat. dominic. In dei custodiā ac fidem suscepti ac protectione [...]ius s [...]curi supra peccatū, mortem, infero­rum portas & totum Diabols regnum inuicts duremus. Cal. in Math. 6.13. he shall preserue thy going out and thy comming in from this time forth. And many the like In all which places danger is still presupposed imminent and pos­sible. Fifthlie (All) that is all manner not euery particular but in generall, or rather indefinite termes, because all at once doe not vsuallie fall vpon the church in one onely age. But as S. Austin well noteth vpon Deut, 29.20, 27. The Lord his Ielousie shall smoke against that man and euery curse that is written in this booke shall light vpon him. All (saieth that good father,) cannot come to one man for he cannot die so often, so many seuerall kindes of death, as are set downe in that booke But (all) he said for anie. Or els this word (all) may be taken for most as Rom 1. Because your faith is published through­out the whole world (that is) in all churches of the whole world. An hiperbolicall, or excessiue speech. For the Apostle thereby meaneth most churches, or verie many churches. So in this petition here all aduersities that is most aduersities. Sixtly (Aduersitie) may be taken here for what euer is aduerse and contrarie to soules health whither sinne, or the punishment for sinne: Sutable whereunto is that petition, which our sauiour taught his disciples Deliuer vs from euil, which Vrsinus inter­preteth in these wordes vnder the name of euill some vnderstand the diuill, some vnderstand sinne, others vnderstand death: But vnder this name are comprehended all euils of sinne and punish­ment whither they be present or to come: So as in asking that God deliuer vs from euils we craue that he do send vs no euill but deliuer vs from all euils present, & to come both of sin and punishment &c. Read the place in Vrsinus his Carechisme. Se­uenthly (through thy protectiō) may be free from al aduersi­ties (that is) being taken into the trust and custodie of God, and by his protection secure ouer sinne, death, the gates of hell, and the whole kingdome of Sathan we may continue vncon­quered. Implying All it is free from, is by his protection, as he that is saide to teach All the schollers in a town, not that (All) in the towne are taught, but that (all) which are taught are of his teaching: so not that the church is free from all, but that all she may be free from, may be by his protection as S. Austin interpreth that in 2. Tim 2.4. (All men are saued,) not that [Page 37]all are saued, but that all which are saued, are saued by him.Non quod nullus sit hominū quem saluu [...] fiers velit, sed quod nullus fiat, nisi quem velit. Aug. ad Lauren c. 103. Lastlie in the communion booke which themselues perued and offered to the parliament in a prayer that followeth after their prayer for the whole church, are the like wordes. Asswage and stay thy corrections, and so at length by deliuering them from all their troubles. Wee in our leiturgie say All aduersities which they call corrections and all troubles. Graunt it good in theirs after their meaning, then cannot it bee misconstrued in ours being to the same sense, and purpose. Now when so euident a truth in the manifold explanation sheweth it selfe, they who haue had a hand in wounding the credit of our church about this prayer, will in the end receiue condigne reproch, and well worthie are they for their fond defamations raised against that, which so manie waies cleareth it selfe in the vpright iudge­ment of the Godlie well aduised

Cap. 6. Of the name Priest. The worde Priest is often giuen to the minister of the worde and sacraments as the name of his office, which is neuer found in the new testament giuen to any minister, but to Christ.

And good reason it [...] giuen the minister of the word, as the name of his office in such sense as our church intendeth. For so is it generally found in the new testament.

In the whole bible there is mentioned onely 2. sorts of Priests the one of Aron, the other after Melchisedecke.

TWo sorts of Priests offering to God some visible, ex­ternall present, as sacrificeing vnto him, wee read in the bible. But if our word (Priest) being lished for that in the originall hebrue wee must knowe there are more thē onely two sorts of Priests. For the original word in [Page 38]in Hebrue signifieth a principall honourable officer of chiefe no [...] whither in ecclesiasticall or eiuill occasions.Cohen In which sence P [...] ­phar. because of his enmient place about Pharao hath the name,Genes. 41.45. whose daughter Ioseph maried. So the sonnes of Dauid, who might not burne incense are called 2. Sam. 8. So Iarah a chiefe prince about Dauid 2. Sam 20.26. [...]. 1. Ch [...]o. 18.17 2. Sam. 8. 2. Sam. 20.26. And because Aaron & his sons were to be of greater account then the Lenite, this name of pre­heminence they distinctlie had from the rest. In the Greek of the new testament there are two words both translated by this same word Priest, signifying a sacerdotall office in sacrificing, or els taken for an auncient and elder, in which sence commonly it is the name of a minister of the gospell, and so the word from Pres­byteros and presbyter contracted and made short Priest. [...]. Presbyter. Priest. The occasion intended may charge our language with penurie and want of words, in that she is inforced to make one english word interpreter to them al, and did we speak latine, the plea we put in would be of more force, but in our mother tongue, which we vse, it is not against vs, nor our letturgie.

Aarons priesthood with the name, together with all therest of the Ceremomes had their end by Christ, which to renue were to deni [...] Christ.

Yet they so haue not their end by Christ, but the ministers of the gospell succeede Aaron in teaching, and praying for the peo­ple, which dueties belonged to Aaron, and die not with him. The priest his lips should preserue knoweledge,Malac. 2.7: and of him should the people aske counsell, which verie course continueth in the mi­nisters of the worde and sacraments.

So if ministers must bee Priests by their office, it must needes be of the Popish sacrificing order, which I hope, none dare affirme.

So must ministers of the word be Priests by their office, & yet no néed they be of the Popish sacrificing order. For they are Priests, as the word is giuen them in the new testament that is auncients, and elders; And reason it is, they should be so thought, because of yt originall, whence our english word is deriued. For it [Page 39]is not home borne but a stranger, first a greek; then latine, & now english. And yt very word, which the holy ghost calleth vs by in yt new testament, is the grand-sire to this name priest: Wherein our language (if anie complaine of hir pouertie that shée is not copious as yt griek is) yet may reioyce in this hir dexteritie, that she giueth the name in yt very same characts the other doth.

To affirme a Priest and Priesthood doth derogate from Christ Iesus who hath put an end to Priest, and Priesthood.

True it doth; to meane a sacrificer of a carnall, reall, external, propitiatorie sacrifice of the very body, and blood of Christ vnder the formes of breade, & wine vpon a materiall altar for the quick and dead:Isay. 61.6. 1. Pet 2.5. Apoc. 5.10. Els in a borrowed speech by way of allusion to the le­gall rites, it doth no way derogate. For the holie ghost witnes­seth accordingly, as was prophesied by Esay, we are a roial priesthood vnto God to offer vp spirituall sacrifices.

So is euerie godlie man and woman a Priest, but this is nothing to the minister.

True also it is, Euerie godlie man and woman is a Priest in the common receiued sence as the prophet speakes Isay 61. yee shalbe named the Priests of the Lord yet from among them he will take out some more speciallie to bee Priests and Leuites, Isay. that is such, as in the ministerie of the Gospell should be distin­guished both from the people, and from themselues, as were the Priest and Luites. For though the people offer vp the calues of their lips, and their bodies a liuing, reasonable sacrifice, yet in two respects els for distinction sake the minister may haue that name, rather then the people. First because, they offer vp for themselues distinctly a part, but he in publicke by vertue of his of­fice both for himselfe, and for them in the name of the congrega­tion, standing vp before the Lord, and offering their prayers in that onely attonement, Christ Iesus, they in the meane while accompanying him with sighs and grones, sealing vp euery peti­tion with a still, silent, but effectuall Amen: Secondly he mini­streth in holie things the word and sacraments, which ministra­tion Saint Paul calleth by the name of one imploied in a sacred [Page 40]businesse, [...]. Rom. 15.16. Pastores quo sensu sacerdotes dicantur Feg­uernek. Crisost. [...]. Episcopi & prasbyters pro­priè appellātur sacerdotes Aug de ciuit dei lib. 20 cap 10 vetustissima cō suetudo fuit in ecclesia christi­ana, vt mini­str [...] vocarēsur sacerdotes Neque egomul­tum moror no­mina modo de rebus conueniat Zanch. deredēp. lib. 1 c. 19. [...] Kirck Church. for the word is a sacrificing knife in the hand of his mi­nister, by which our flesh is killed, and offered vp a [...]ring sacrifice vnto God: Where Peguer nekinus in his promtuarie vpō Mar­lorat, saieth in the title of the pastor. (In which sense Pastors are called sacrificers, or ministring in holie things) And it may be thought S. Chrisost. so meant intituling six books by yt name (Hierosune) & S. Austin writing that Bishops and Priests are now properlie called sacerdotall Priests. Zanchius saieth in the 4. commaundement: It was a most auncient custome in the church of christ, that the ministers of the word & sacramēts should be called sacerdotall Priests, because ministers of sa­cred things Nor doe I much contend about names, so we did agrece in the thinges themselues.

To giue this new name to the ministers of the Gospel is to crosse, & reiect the wisdome of God who hath giuē so many fit names to his in his word.

It is no new name but the old, and the verie same which the worde of God giueth them: For it is Priest, whose name is presbuteros, and so translated into our tongue, as other words Bible, Euangilest, Baptisme, Church, and the like, which retaine the foot-print of their originall. And could wee redeeme the wrong it hath receiued, in being put to interpret the office of a popish sacrificer, our labour should be imployed herein, but we are not to cōmaund words. As for other naturall english El­der, aunciēt sen [...]or, whereof some are no more english thē this, the reason, why we vse them not, is because they are made triuial and common in other trifling pelting, and prophane occasions: So as what in regarde thereof, as also for [...] riuation whence this worde is taken, and the allusion it hath by way of simi­litude to them in the law (as we generallie among vs receiue it in our church, not to be misliked, nor so contentiously to be imrupned, more then yt word (Sunday) among the beathē, which name we retaine, vnderstanding not yt Sun in the firmamēt (though Pagans do) but our Lord the sun of righteousnesse to whose honour wee obserue it.Linguā teneat mentem corri­gat August. And therefore as S. Austin in another case about the worde (free will) Let him retainethe worde, and correct his minde. If any be popishlie affected it is not the worde, but their iudgement that needeth reformation.

Chap. 7. Almightie God which hast giuen vs thine onely be­gotten Sonne and this day to be borne of a pure Virgin: And by a rubricke, The Minister must. [...]e these words seuen daies following, affirming that in euery of these seuen daies Christ was borne. This is against the plaine manifest truth of the Scripture. For Christ had his naturall birth in one onely day.

THis Collect read [...]. Christn [...] day is here onely named, but through the [...]des thereof, another in the time of the Com­mu [...]ion appointed for the same purpose, a third for Innocents say, a faineth for Whitsunday, all wounded at [...] [...]ith the flourish of a pen, so as how euer [...]a­rily some make shew to mislike but this one, they doe what lyeth in them condemne the vse of the rest. For they all aime a [...] one marke: on Christmas day, and the Sunday sorts wing there are two Collects [...]ther of them so one purpose. Among the Epistles and Gospels this. Almighty God which hast giuen vs thy onely begotten Sonne to take our nature vpon him, and this day to be borne of a pure Virgin, graunt that we being regenerabe and made thy Children by adoption may dayly be [...]ued by thy holy spi­rit, &c. Againe, at the Communion, proper prefaces vpon Christmas day, and scuen daies after. Because thou didst giue Iesus Christ thy only Son to be born as this day for vs, who by the operation of the holy Ghost was made very man of the substance of the Virgin, &c. On Innocents day thus. Al­mightie God whose praise this day the young Innocents thy witnesses, &c, On the Purification of the Virgin. Al­mightie, &c. As thy onely begotten Sonne was this day pre­sented in the Temple in the substance of our flesh: On Whit­sunday [Page 42]and seuen daies after the Collects are two: One thus. God (which as vpon this day) bast taught the harts of thy faithfull, &c. Againe, in the preface through Iesus Christ our Lord according to whose most true promise the holy Ghost came downe this day from headen with a sudden great sound, &c. Where that on Whitsunday interpreteth what is meant, not precisely determining the very day whereon Christ was borne, solemnized by the Innocents, presented in the Temple sent forth his holy spirits for that neither the Church proposeth, nor if she did, can she so well determine, but about some such time of the yeare, and therefore in one of the Prefaces it is, God which (as vpon this day) And that in common English is much about that time: Now that a thing done one day, many [...]ayes and [...]ea [...], after [...] may beare some speciall note of choice remembrance, and that for many daies together, as if but now done, is a matter not vnknowne to Scripture, Fathers, and the language of other countries. Scripture as in the olde and now Testament.Genes. 40.20. The olde Gen. 40. And so the third day [...] was Phara [...] his birth day, &c. At which time Phara [...] was in yeares, and Ioseph in trust vnder him. yet then so fane of, and after (as it was) Pharaohs birth day, was the name. Exod. 12. when foure himbred and thirtie yeares were erpired ouen the self same day departed all the [...]tes of the Lord,Exod. 12.41 51 [...] Psalm. 118.24 Non loquitur de die allo praeci se, sed de caus [...] propter quam diesesse Panegy ricus mereba­tur. Muscul. Ibid. [...]. Math. 13.1. [...]. Marc. 4.1. [...] Luc. 8.1. &c. And [...]s [...]. [...]1. the selfe sallie day, &c. Did the Lord bring the chil­dren of Israel, &c. Where in the Originall the words are. In the very nicke or ioynt of that very selfe same day, which in so many hundred yēeres could not be, but by reuolution onely, as it was a day re [...]ued. Bsal. [...]18. This is the day which the Lord hath made, speaking of the happy day wherein Dauid was by Samuel appointed under king, yet not precisely of that very day but of the cause and occasion, wherefore it might well be thought to be panegyricall, and triumphant-like. In the new Testament. S. Math. cap. 13. hath the same day went Ie­sus out of the house, which same day Saint Marke calleth a­gaine cap. 4. and he began againe to teach, but Saint Luke rendreth it afterwards. Both these S. Math. interpreteth the same day whereupon some of the learned note. It is not neces­sary to be taken for the same day, since it may be taken after [Page 43]the manner of the Scripture for time a [...] large. In all which pla [...]es euiden [...]ly appeareth a thing done [...] day, many dai [...], and yeares [...] (as if but the first day) so [...]. So Christ his birth) 1600. yeares agoe yet now this day to be made fa­mous arguing the memory thereof should be as fresh as the day that breakes, & as the words sound in the Collect (to be borne this day) Come w [...] to the Fathers, and [...] how this spéech may plead prescription: So Cypri [...], or one of that time speaking of Christ his birth day 200. yeares after Christ, accounteth him as then newly to be borne. A [...]e [...]t christi multùm deside r [...]itu, & expe­ctat [...] na [...]iu [...]t as, adesi solēnit as inclyta &c. Ciprian de na­ti [...]. dom. Nunquia [...] 2. pascha factur [...] su­ [...]? non sod ly­sum [...]iplic [...] ­ter: s [...]entenim semper solex [...] ­ritur &c Christ. hon [...]t to regres. S. Ioan de Asi [...]. Paseba propin­quaente dicim [...]-crastioam vel perendinam esse domini passionem, cum ille tam multos an­not passus sit nec omnino nisi semelilla passi [...] facta sit Aug. epist. 23. ips [...] die domini co dicimus bo­die dominus re­surrexit, cū ex qu [...] resurrexeri [...] for [...]ui trāssierunt. Cur nemoram [...]egius est, vt no [...]s a loquētes arg [...]at esse mentitus, nisiqu [...]d [...] [...] dids secundum u [...]erum, q [...]i [...]us hac g [...]a [...] dime [...] nu [...]cup [...] ­mus, vs dicatur dies [...] qu [...] [...]onest t [...]se, sedr [...]o [...]t [...] should [...] Ibid. The birth of Christ is come so long desired and much looked for that famous solemnitie is very now, and in the presence of the Sauiour the holy Church [...] ­dreth thanks, and praises throughout the whole world into God that hath visited on high: Saint Chrysostom [...], and Saint Austin some 200. yeares after this, one of them writeth of a solemne feast by way of an Interrogatiue. What doe we make two Easte [...]s, No, but one, and the some in a manifold manner. For [...] the Sunne ariseth alway, and we doe not [...] many Sunnes, but one Sunne dayly ariseth, so the Pasch o [...] Easter is alway consummated, and séeing it is alway celebrated it is one for the matter of our solemnitie. Saint Austin vpon another occasi [...] exemplyfieth his answer [...] by the speech here questioned, and then in vse. When Easter is at hand we say to morrow or the next day after to be the Passion of the Lord, where it is a many yeeres agoe since, that he, suffered, neither could that Passion of his be more then once. Againe, on the Lord day we say this day the Lord rose againe, whereas many yeares are gone and past since he rose. Why is none so foolish (saith this graue Father) to tell vs in speaking so we lye, but that we call those daies after this fashion, for the like is now done that was done heretofore. So then it is called this very day and that very day, not that it is the very selfe same day, but in reuolu­tion of time like vnto it. Where that Reue [...]nd Father sayeth None were so foolish, men of this generation are become so wise, that the veriest punie of our rath-ripe age can partly [Page 44]controull him for this man [...]er of spéech, which he vsed not once, but often as those Sermons vnder his name. De tempote [...] confir [...].Istum celebra▪ mus diem, quo nasci est digna­tus ex virgine. August▪ de temp ser. 25. ser. 21. Iste quo huma­na carni copula tut tanquam sponsus processit de thalamo suo, nunc hod [...]ernus, cras fit hester­nus verunt am [...] hodiernus natū ex virgine com­mendat aternū quia aternus natui ex virgi­ne consecrauit [...]diernum. Ibid. Hodiè nasc [...]dig [...] est &c. serm. 22. Celebremus cū gaudio diem quo peperit Maria Christum Ibid, We celebrate this day, wherein Christ vouch­safed to be borne of a Virgin. Againe, This day (wherein Christ coupled to mans flesh came foorth as a Bridegroome out of his bed-chamber) is now called this day, to morrow it is made yesterday, yet notwithstanding this day commendeth him borne of a Virgine eternall, because eternall borne of a Virgin hath consecrated this day. Again, in another Sermon following Christ vouchsafed to be borne this day by whom all things were made. Anone after are these words as an exposition of the former. Let vs celebrat with ioy the day, wherein Maria brought foorth Christ: In which last word [...] expresly it is said. The day wherein Mary brought foorth, shewing that the day is past, as it is in déede, yet in other places before deliuered in termes, as if it were iust now to be done, and that Christ on this very day were to be borne. Which spéeches compared to­ge [...]h [...] [...] each [...]ers [...]erpreter, one alluding to the word [...] of the Prophet Esay, and the Angell Thou shalt conceaue, and bring foorth a Sonne, the other not strictly vsing the same words, but in stéed of that which they foretould Christ to be borne this mentioneth in the time past namely that he is borne. A practise of the auncient which our Church (it sé [...]es) followeth. For that which is in one Collect (this day to be borne) another rendreth (as this day) by the operation of the holy. Ghost was made very Man of the substance of the Virgin which plainly distinguisheth the [...], and unlesse a man will be too abs [...]d iudging against all equitie, y [...] [...] his owne vn­derstanding, it intreateth from the Reader a warrantable con­struction. But suppose a man could not satisfie his owne hart for reconciling thus, which he imagineth such an intolerable s [...]uple, then might he with but danger oue [...]hip the worde, a [...]way proui­ded, that he be a man of approued behauiour, not giuen to con­tention about words, nor in other matters opposite to publike order. For except we will shamefully wrong the Saints in hea­uen, we cannot thinke that those holy men (whose labours were vsed in penning our Communion Booke) did propose vnto vs matters of absurditie for a forme of publi [...]e prayer. But [Page 45]restlesse and vnquiet disputants will not giue it ouer so. Thus they obiect.

To say that on Christmas day and the Sabbaoth following Christ to be borne this day is against the plaine manifest truth of Scrip­ture. For Christ had his naturall birth in one onely day.

Christ had his naturall birth in one onely day, [...]ut not his solemnized birth in one onely day, which is the meaning of the words in the Collect. And if that which hath béen already spoken suffice not, this we adde for a more plenary and ful answere. As a day in computation varieth, naturall, artificiall, supernaturall. Naturall comprising day & night; artificiall, as that which our Sauiour mentioneth of 12. houres, are there not 12. houres in the day: supernaturall as that in Iosua his time, & in the raigne of King Ezechias, so is there a day Politicall, & Ecclesiasticall; Politicall as that of our Kings, who are crowned one day, yet their tilts, iusts, and triumphs last thrée, seuen, or 13. daies after. Ecclesiasticall and that is thréefold Historicall, Euangelicall, Festiuall▪ Historicall the time of our Sauiours being here in the world: Euangelicall the day of mercie, and forberance. O if thou hadst knowne in this thy day. Festiuall a time of solem­nitie, which differeth more, or lesse. Lesse as the strict account of 12. houres from morning to euening, which commonly is the li­mited obseruation of euery Saints day. More, as that of Christ his Natiuitie, Passeouer, and the comming of the holy Ghost, at which times the Church ordaineth not onely for the anniuer­saries, when it commeth, but also a diurnall for some daies more, or lesse continued, as the example of the Iewes in their Passeouer,Exod. 12.15. Ioh. 18.39. Luc. 23.17. whereof the first, and the seuenth was a calling forth of the people to serue God, yea, sixe daies before it was called by the name of a Passeouer, as appeareth in the historie of Barrabas. So the first and the seuenth, yea sometimes sooner, whereon Christ was borne; arose: as this day, the holy Ghost came downe: notwithstanding it was but once done, yet twice, or more in that seuen night more solemnly▪ and publikely the memoriall is pre­serued. For as a day in the nature of the first relation strictly sig­nifieth the day wherein Christ was borne, and that could be but [Page 46]once, so in the nature of a history, ye reporteth a report or festiual, that sosemnizeth, it signifieth the daies after, yea, euen so many as the memorie of that speciall action representatiuely by pub­like prayer,Memoriā Pas­cha & Pente­costes veteres Ecclesiastici scriptores vocāt Pascha et Pen­tecosten Confes: Wittenberg de sacra Cana sect. 14. pag. 147. and thanksgiuing is duely sanctified. So the auncient (saith the confession of Wittenberg) call the memoriall of Easter, and Whitsuntide by the name of Easter and Whit­suntide it selfe. Which in effect is like this receaued manner of our Church. We call the momoriall of Christ his birth day, by the name of ye very natural day, wherin he was once to be borne. In a word little he obserueth in Scripture, Philosophie or other learning, who obserueth not, that these words Now, this day, yesterday, &c. signifie more then a bare stint either of moment, 12. houres,Math. 24 [...] pro [...]. Pascat: Heb. 2.16: 24, [...]. &c. For they reach sometimes to 3. 4. 6. daies yea a great while after vpon occasion. Lastly, considering Aduent sunday before presenting Christ to come, though come before, as also the phrase, Herod asked, where Christ should be borne, who was borne already, & that Heb. 2. He takes not Angels but the seede of Abraham, as if this day to be done which was so long agoe, and could be but once: yet a truth by a grace of spéech put­ting that in the present or future tence, which should be in the pre­terperfect tence, all prooue that this clause in the Collect thus car­ped at, is sufficiently defended.

Chap. 8. That this day we fall into no sinne: There is no war­rant in God his word to pray so. Therefore we may not subscribe vnto it.

THese wordes are set downe in the third Collect for morning prayer, thus O Lord, &c. which hast safely brought vs to the beginning of this day, defend vs in the same by thy mighty power, & graunt that this day, we fall into no sinne, nor runne into any kinde of danger, but that all our doings may be ordred by thy go­uernance [Page 47]to do alwaies, that is righteous in thy sight, &c. Where the meaning of these words (that we fall into no sinne) is ex­pounded by the clause following, namely that all our dooings may be ordred by thy gouernance, &c. A course very familiar to them, that are acquainted with their owne prayers, and the prayers of other of Gods children, and is found in the stile of our Sauiours prayer, which he taught his Disciples, (Lead vs not into tentation, but deliuer vs from euill) where the aduersa­tiue parcell (but) coupleth both members together, as M. Cal­uin after S. Austin wisely obserued, so as it may be thus resol­ued, Least we be led into tentation, deliuer vs from euill. Aduersatiu [...] particula quae media ponitur 2. mēbra inter se simul colliga [...] quod etiam pr [...] denter expēdis Augustinus. Sic [...]gitur resol­ui debet [...]ratione in tentatio­nem feramu [...], not a malo redi me Cal. in Math 6.13. So least we fall into any sinne, we pray that all our doings may be ordred by thy gouernance. But were not this exception raised naturally from the place it selfe, seeing in the holy Scriptures (which are of all sufficiencie, and worth) we make recourse in a doubt from one Text to another, & salue the wound that schisme, or heresie giueth: much faulty they are, that wil not do the like in scanning those sentences, which are framed by ye Church of God. Now in the third Collect after Easter it is, Almighty God, &c Grant vnto all them, that be admitted into the fellowship of Christs Religion, that they may eschew all those things that be contrary to their profession & follow all such things as are agreeable to the same. Which words interpret what the other prayer mentioneth (To fall into no sin.) 3. Because our eye much respecteth the writings of strangers more, then of our own countrimen. Take a view of the morning prayers published by M. Caluin where it is thus, Grant O Lord, I may spend this whole day in the seruice and worship of thy holie power. Fac. vt diem hunc totum in sanctissimi nu­minis tu [...] cult [...] & veneration [...] consumam. Ni­hilomnino, aut cogitem au [...] d [...] ­cam, aut faciā quod cònon ten dat. Cal prece [...] matut: inter opuscula. And that nothing in the world I may thinke, say, or do, that may not tend to this purpose to obey thee. Which aimeth to the same scope which this doth here (that we fal into no sin) forasmuch as all sin is either in thought, word, or deed. 4. Euery word here mentioned in this Collect speaketh the language of Scripture, Fall into no sin. Fall he saith not slip, trip, or stumble. But fall; nor simply fall but with addition fall into, That we fall the Booke acknowledgeth, as appeareth in the Letanie wherin the praier of the congregation is to strengthen thē that stand & to raise vp thē that fall which is the condition of a righteous man [Page 48]seuen times a day (a certaine number put for an vncertaine) that is many times,Pro: 24.6. Corruit in pec­catum impius. but the wicked runne, or rush into sinne: so as this prayer fall into implyeth our godly desire that we cast not our selues headlong: the compound aggrauating the single, na­ked, bare signification of the simple word supposing not a frée­dome from falling, but from falling into, which is a sore bruze or downefall: [...] 5. This word (No) may be thought compara­tiuely spoken as in Ioh. 9.3. neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents, & v. 41. If ye were blind, yée should haue no sin: not absolutely denying all sinne, but implying no sinne so grieuous, as now. So fall into no sin not so grieuous, and hainous, as otherwise, but for our prayers (apprehending the swéete mer­cies of God) we might readily fall into.1. Ioh. 3.6. 6. Sinne beareth a construction as, whosoeuer abideth in him sinneth not, who­soeuer sinneth hath not knowne him, and vers. 8, he that com­mitteth sinne is of the deuill, and vers. 9. whosoeuer is borne of God sinneth not, neither can he, because he is borne of God. Where sinne is taken,Hoc istud est nō peccare, quum labuntur fideles infirmitate carnis sed sub onere peccati ge munt sibi displi cent, deum time re non de sinunt. Cal. in. 1. Ioh. 3, not for euery the least breach of Gods commaundement, for he that taketh it in that sense deceiueth himselfe, as the Apostle sheweth. It we say we haue no sinne, we deceiue our selues, &c. But not to sinne is in this place, when the faithfull slip through infirmities of the flesh, but yet vnder the burden of sinne they grone, they displease them­selues, they cease not to feare God. The prayer of the Church therefore is not to fall into sinne, that is, as the holy Ghost meaneth in other places, that she neither sinne, nor may sin. Besides, we would aske this question? What sin it is we néede not pray against,Quotidie e [...]eha ristia cōmunio­nē percipere nec laudo, nec repre hendo, omnibus ramen domini cis diebus com­municandum suadeo, & hor­ror, sitamen mens sine affe­ctu peccands. Aug. de eccles. dog. cap. 53. or what reason haue we to be at peace with any? In as much as we are to feare one, and ano­ther, and euery one, the conclusion is summarilie none can be excepted from, within the compasse of our holy deprecation. 7. What S. Austin, or one among his works writeth in ano­ther case fitteth well here. I neither praise, nor dispraise (saith he) dayly cōmunicating at the Lords table, yet euery Lords day I aduise, and exhort that men would communicate; Prouided alway that their minde be without any liking to sin. A dislike to sin, we must alway haue, & in praying we fall into no sin, we euidently protest a feare we haue to sin, and our [Page 49]dislike to all, because our hearts desire to godward is to fall into no sinne. 8. wherein is this prayer more offensiue, then that of our sauiour or of S. Paul, or of S. Iude? Duobus modit &c. Aug. de nat. et grat. 67, caueamus dicē ­do, ne nos infe­ras &c. vt quicquid humana fragilitas vitare non prae­ualet, hoc ille propitius nobis conferre digne­tur serm. 135. de temp. Eum a [...] omni scelere purū & imu unē serua­bit. Cal. 2. Tim. 4 18. Eripiet me ab omnid [...] licto Theophi lact. Ibid. [...], 2. Corin. 13.7. Ne deum offen­datis vel vt ni­hil vnquam de­linquatis The­op [...]ilact Ibid. Oramus domi­num ne quid fa­ciatis mali vn­de satis appa­ret quod ad non peccādum &c. Aug. epist. 95. Esse sine offēsa est in culpatū esse, tam in do­ctrina quā mo­ribus sarcer. in Philip 1.10. Our sauiour taught his disciples to pray lead vs not into tentation &c. not pray­ing that sinne might bee forgiuen, for that was mentioned be­fore, but that it might bee preuented. Two waies (saieth Saint Austin) the euill of a disease is shunned in the bodie, either that it happen not at all, or hapning be quicklie healed. That it happen not at al, let vs take heede, by saying lead vs not into tentation &c. that it quickly be healed, by praying forgiue vs our trespasses. And as the author in his Sermons hath. Pray we that whatsoeuer mans frailtie preuaileth not to shunne, and auoid, the Lord of his great mercie vouch­safe to bestow. Thus much we may hope for in this prayer (that we fall into no sinne) namely preuenting that, which otherwise we shall gladlie fall into. Saint Paul hath some such petition for himselfe, for the Corinthians, Philippians, and Thessa­lonians. For himselfe. The Lord will deliuer mee from euery euill worke, not onely in others to doe me wrong, but in my selfe to offer wrong, or to doe any euill thing. For so the fence best fitteth in Maister Caluins iudgement. There is the like for the Corinthians, where the Apostle deliuereth his minde in these ve­hement earnest tearmes. I pray God that yee doe no euill at all: Which some interprete, that yee doe in no case offend the Lord. For two negatiues in the originall are verie forceable to expresse a deniall: We pray (saieth S. Austin) the Lord, that yee doe no euill at all. VVhence it sufficientlie appeareth that the prayer is that they do not sin Now then to fal into no s [...]n and to do no euill at all be armes of onebody, & extend themselues to one signification, so as if prayer against one be preiudiciall to truth, so is the other, and if Saint Paul, as he doth by his example iustifie the one, then giueth he approbation to the other. Which zealous affection he beareth the Philippians, when he prayeth God, that they may be found pure, and with­out offence vntill the day of Christ. To be without offence, is to be blamelesse both in doctrine, and manners. The integritie of both which, answereth in effect to ye petition of our church. That wee fal into no sin. So the Apostle beggeth for the Thessalonians [Page 50]that the verie God of peace sanctifie them throughout, Tune purus est, & integer ho­mo, sin [...]hil men te cogitat, nihil corde appetit, nihil de corpore exequitur nisi quod probatur deo. Cal. 1, Thes. 5.23. [...]. Iud, 24, and that their whole spirite, and soule, and body may be kept blamelesse. Then is one a pure and intire man, if he thinke nothing in his minde; desire nothing in his heart, execute nothing in the bodie, but what is allowed of God. All this Saint Paul prayeth for which is asmuch, as if he had prayed they might fall into no sinne. Finally Saint Iude in his epistle commendeth the Saintes vnto God, who is able to kéepe them from falling whereof to little purpose he should put them in minde, but that therein he comprehendeth the Lord his louing sauour that as he is able, so he doth it also. A truth verified both in head, and mem­bers. For he hath giuen his Angels charge to carrie them in their hands, that they dash not their foot against a stone. Where fore gathering al these scattered branches to their roote,Deus nonuult nobis in hac vi­ta praestare liberationem à peccatis per­fectam & ta­men vult nos cam optare nosque singulis momentis pete­re vt omnino a peccatis libere utur. Vrsin. Ca­tec, part, 3, pag, 864. warrant in scripture we find sufficient for renuing the vse of this prayer. That we fall into no sin whither we looke to the place, whence it is taken; or to other collects in the booke, that expound the meaning; or to the godlie practise of learned men in other coun­tries; or to the grace of speach it selfe; or to our sauiours example or to apostolicall presidents, as before at large hath beene shewed. The conclusion therefore we make in the verie wordes which Vrsinus vseth God will not in this life giue vs perfit deliuerance from al sinnes, yet will he haue vs to pray for it, and beg of God euerie moment to be throughlie, and fullie deliuered from all sinnes.

Chap 9. Of kneeling at the Sacrament of the Lords supper. The people are commaunded to receiue the sacrament kneeling, and the minister so to minister it vnto them, yet is himselfe cōmaūded to stand. This is dangerous,

THe words in the rubricke are these. Then shall the minister receiue the cōmunion in both kinds, himselfe, and next deliuer it to other ministers (if anie be there present) that they may helpe the [Page 51]chiefe minister, & after to the people in their hands, knee­ling. And when he deliuereth the bread he shall saie &c. Wherevpon note [...], that minister, & people both in their place, and order are to receiue the sacramēt open their knees, or knee­ling, so is the minister to receiue it himselfe, and the people at his hands. As for the obiection.

Himselfe is commaunded to s [...]and.

How can any man thinke the minister should deliuer it other­wise, being as he is to passe from one to another?

To receiue the sacramēt kneeling is dangerous for minister, & peo­ple, in respect of law, in respect of God, religion, and conscience. Of law for the minister is charged by a statute Elizab. 13. to subscribe to the articles of religion &c. vpon paine of depriuatiō. But the 28. ar­ticle commaundes that the sacrament must not be worship. Ergo to minister to the people kneeling is to be in danger of the law.

Law is pretended, but disobedience intended. Rather then selfe-will can brooke a controull, church, and common wealth shall be made enimies each to other, as if the same persons, that haue au­thoritie in both did commaund things contrarie, & were not well aduised, what they do exact. But a truth it is, men are not aduised nor care they, against what it is that they do except. The 28. ar­ticle speaks not by way of cōmaund, but onely in these words, The sacrament of the Lords supper was not by Christs or­dinance reserued, carried about, lifted vp, or worshipped whereunto as an article of truth the statute Elizabeth 13. re­quireth our subscription, and if anie shall teach otherwise, it pas­seth vpon him sentence of depriuation. Proue they that anie a­mong vs doth reserue, carrie about, lift vp or worship the sacrament of the Lords supper, and good leaue haue they to sue all ex­tremities. A deuise onely found out to gull a simple honest well affected minde. For let men talke of law, as much as they list and bleare mens eyes, which they dare not doe thus, nor thus, and al for feare of law, truth wil detect a bad mind, & easily proue, that they respect not law nor lawful procéedings more, then fits their own humor: 1. Elizabeth a law it is, if any persons, any manner [Page 52]of way shall depraue the booke of common prayer, so, and so his punishment is set downe, and the penaltie quicke for euery such trespasse, yet how manifest, and daylie breaches are made, such writings, and preaching in this kind doe publish to the worlde. And therefore what tell they vs of law that are themselues law­lesse, and carelesse? But did they well smart for this breach of good order, offences would be fewer, and obedience more vsuall.

kneeling is worshipping For Mark 5.22. and Luk 8.41. Iairus is said to fall, or kneele downe at Christs feete. And Math 9.18. relating the same storie saieth, that Hee did worshippe.

Kneeling is not in that place put for diuine worshipping.Christ [...] diuinū bonorem non exhibuit Iairus, sed coluit vt dei prophetam. Genuautē flexio quàm vulgaris fuerit apud or [...] entales satit notum. Marlor in Mare. Gen Iai­rus gaue not Christ anie diuine honor, but reuerenced him as a prophet of God. For bending the knee, how common it was among the easterne men is well knowne, and the manner of the countrie in the debter to his creditor Mathew 18. & in Iacob his obe [...]sance to Esau in Abraham, before the people of H [...]th, Gen, 23.7. So that mere kneeling that is, bowing of the knee, is not worshiping in a diuine manner. Children do it to their pa­rents, subiects to their king, and no hard point is it to be per­swaded, that some, who obiect thus, haue asmuch done them by the fruite of their loines when their children aske blessing, or els both children, and parents fault is the greater.

This kneeling to the sacrament was brought into the sacrament by Antichrist, the man of sinne, Pope Honorius the third an. 1220. teaching the people thereby to worshippe the bread, and all to be-god it.

The question is not of kneeling to the sacrament, Totius terrae prostrationem, terrae deosculais onē, alta suspi­ri [...], pectoris per­cus [...]iones Ber. d [...]n dom. ad­uers lodoc. Har. montensis dog­mata pag. 144. but kneeling at the sacrament. The one we allow, the other we mis­like, and condemne. Receiuing on our knees is not forbid, but ducking, prostrating falling on all foure, kissing the earth, bouncing the brest, and popish crouching, al to begodding the sacrament, this we like not of, nor doth the booke, whence the obiection would inforce an argument. The name of the book is a treatise of custome, and truth inserted in the book of Martyrs [Page 53]in King Edward the 6. his daies, where it speaketh of the practise of the primitiue church. VVhen the sacrament was dealt, none of them all crouched down and tooke it for his God, forgetting him, that sat there present before their eies, pag. 1264. Apostols non l [...] ­guntur prostra­ti in terrā ado­rasse sacramen­tum. Cal. Instit. 4.17. & 35.36. but tooke, and eat it, knowing it was a sacrament, and a re­membrance of Christ his bodie. Now all to be-goding it. Honorius appointed and thus the question is handled by Mais­ter Caluin. The Apostles are not read prostrated or laid a­long on the earth to haue worshipped the sacrament. Againe speaking of Rome at this day and the practise of hir followers They prostrate themselues before the bread to adore it. Of our writers, the author of the view of poperie sets it down thus.Coram pane s [...] ­se homines pro­sternunt vt pa­nem adorent. Ibid. Honorius the third did first cōmaund the people at eleuatrō time to incline and bow themselues, and when the hoast was carri­ed about in procession. This superstitious abuse, neither the 28. article, nor wee iustifie, onely what is decent wee labour to re­store. For wee know these misticall signes must be reuerentlie handled which the east, [...] and westerne churches did expresse with humbling, and bowing of their bodie, to shew that they presented themselues with bashfulnes and a reuerent feare.

The papist [...] would not kneele, if there Idols were not there, no more would men kneele, if the bread, and sacraments were not there.

If the bread, and sacraments were not there: What these wordes may imply wee coniecture, but as here they are set downe we cannot, following their example, but needes must dis­like. Som error sure it is; for they afterward (as it appeareth) challendge our booke of common prayer, wherein the title of the communion the Eucharist hath the name of Sacraments. But we wil take their meaning. (No more would men kneele if the sacrament were not there) which is a false proposition. For wee kneele alway in prayer, as well, when that blessed sa­crament is not, as when it is administred. Secondly if we may not kneele for feare of superstition, neither may we bee vnco­uered and bare head: The papist adoreth it calleth vpon it, confesseth vnto it &c. all which bee the partes of adoration. [Page 54]Wée then call not vpon it, nor confesse vnto it but because at time of diuine prayer, receiuing it we vse such submisse religious ges­tures, as well beseeme that singular work.Cum sa [...]cti se­riò [...]rant solent flectere genua. Oleuian. in Ephes. 3 14. For when the saints pray earnestlie (saieth Oleuian) they vse to kneele, vnder which verie name Saint Paul, comprehendeth prayer, when he saieth Ephesians 3. For this cause I bow my knees &c. that is I pray. Which bahauiour springing from an honest, and vnfain­ed heart cannot but be, (as it is) acceptable vnto God, other­wise in deedes,Math. 27.29. if the heart goe not withall, of asmuch acceptance with the Lord, as that kneeling of the Iewes, when they plat­ted a crowne of thornes on the heade of our sauiour.

This kneeling crosseth the practise of our sauiour, when euening was come he sat downe with the twelue.

As if the argument were in method and order concluded thus. VVhatsoeuer crosseth the practise of our sauiour must not be allowed of. But kneeling crosseth the practise of our sauiour. For hee kneeled not but sat. Whereunto our an­swer is. Wee denie both the maior and the minor: The maior For if whatsoeuer crosseth the practise of our sauiour must not bee allowed of, then the church order of Geneua (where the ministers of the worde distribute vnto the people the bread, and the elders (their gouernours for discipline) reach the cup) may not bee approued. For one part of the sacrament is no way inferior to the other, our sauiour brake the bread, and then tooke the cup, and gaue it to his disciples. The same hand that did one, did both. Againe for the maior, if that bee true,Christi actio nostra imitatio then the meaning is. Christ his action must bee our imitation, as if he did it, wee must doe it to; Which princi­ple is the foundation, that beareth the weight, and peize of all this argument, and is in great request with the Anabaptists. Christ was baptized at 30. yeares, and wee trow (say they) hee knew well the right vse of the sacrament, therefore nei­ther must wee bee baptised sooner. Which proposition if it goe vncontrouled, then must wee bee first circumcised, and after­wardes baptised, then must baptisme bee administred in Jordan or some such running water. As for the other sacrament of the [Page 55]Lords supper, wee must then receiue it, not in the church, but in an vpper chamber, not in the morning, but at euening, not be­fore dinner, but after supper, nor after his resurrection, but be­fore he suffered, which is in effect not at all. For we cannot so receiue it. And by that reason call vs to wash one anothers féete for so he did Where the reason is added wee should doe so to.Ioh. 13.34. You must also wash one anothers feete. Here is our sauiours prac­tise, what hee did, and his expresse commaundement,Ablutio pedum ad essentiam sacraments coenae non pertinet Zanch. de cult [...] dei exter. lib. 1. argument. 1. pag. 450. Horat. 1. carm: ode. 27. & lib. 2. ode. 3. Plutar Plato. [...]. Lucian. Amos. 2 8. Ester. 7.8, Pet. Ciaccon. de triclinio. [...]. Ioh. 13.23. Hoe refertur ad antiquorum discubitum, in quo fiebat pluri bus discumbena tibus, vt proxi­mus quasitu priores recumbe res pedibus exterius repositis. Bez. Ibid. Posset hodiè id vtdert parum decorum, sed ta liserat tum discumbendi ratio what hee did inioine. Yet this we do not. For satisfying of which doubt, least any man be offended at the omitting hereof, the answer which Maister Zanchius giueth, is the answer generally, which the rest of our diuines returne: washing of the feete pertaineth not to the essence of the sacrament, as for that his commaun­dement it is not properly, and strictly so to bee vnderstood as if one should wash anothers feeet, but onely a lesson of humilitie, that euery one so carrie himselfe, vpon occasion, as charitie re­quireth to serue his brother. &c. arguing hereby, that we are ne­cessarilie to learne the generall instruction of humilitie, and not precisely to imitate that particular fact of our sauiours. But pro­ceede we on: Is it true? must our conformitie be in sitting after the example of our sauiour? then wee aske, whither our shooes must of, and we lie a long, the second leaning in the bosome of his fellowes, his féete drawn out vpon a bed, with a pillow vn­der his armes. For this was the auncient manner of the East, and west countries, Romaines, Grecians, and the Iewes both in the time of the law, and in the dayes of our sauiour. For the Romaines and Grecians wee referre our selues to Horace, Plutarch, Plato, and Lucian: For the Jewes in the time of the law to Amos 2.8. and Ester 7.8. and in the dayes of our sauiour because that more nearely concerneth this argumēt, we cōmend the reader to Petrus Ciaccon de triclinio. but more specially to M. Beza, & M. Caluin. M. Beza vpon this verse there was one of his disciples, which leaned on Iesus bosome This is to bee referd (saieth hee) to the sitting downe of the auncient, that many being sat, the last did (as it were) leane back vpon the former, his feete laid out from him. M. Caluin deliue­reth his minde in these wordes: It might seeme at this daie little seemelie, but such was their manner of sitting then; for they did not sitte, as wee doe now at thee table, but their [Page 56]shooes of,Neque enim se debant, vt nos ad mensam sed calcess exuto & puluinis innixi in lectulis semi­supini iacebant Cal. lid. leaning on cushions, laid all along vpon little beds with their bodies halfe way boult vpright. Now being so, it were good that men resolued vpon this point, how they would haue vs sit, before we change the receiued custome of a most humble, and re­uerent gesture, which our church vseth.

This kneeling crosseth the practise of our sauiour &c.

When we said before this argument was in great request with the Anabaptist, we might also haue added, that it is so with the papist.Neque enim dubitars potest quin illud sit melius, & faci­endum quod Christus secit. Bel. de Euchar. lib. 4. c. 7. Dico nauū esse duplicem in us ecclesiss quaeazy [...]o potius quā fermentato pa­ne vtuntur. Hoc enim & Iudaismum sa­pit, & minus est quotidiani c [...]s analogiae accommodatum. Beza. Qq. & Respon. pag. 139. Nempe qu [...]niā eo tempore cae­nam hanc. &c Ibid. Si Christus ad coenam hanc eo qus tum vsita­tuserat pane vsus est &c. Ibid. Kneeling cros­seth not Christ his practise. For in the question whither leauened or vnleauened bread is to be vsed in the sacrament, Bellarmin reasoneth thus. Christ at his last supper vsed vnleauend bread, therefore we must also. For it cannot be doubted but that is farre better and rather to be done which Christ himselfe did. Where­unto Maister Beza answering (not Bellarmin, for he writ long before Bellarmin his workes came forth but to this argument) maketh this reply. Although I will not greatly contend, yet to tel you my minde freely, I say there is a double fault or blemish in those churches, which vse rather vnleauened, then leauened bread. First because it sauoureth of Iudaisme, 2. because it is lesse fitted to the analogie and proportion of our ordinarie bread. True it is Christ blessed vnleauened bread, because at that time he ordained his supper, when in deede the Iewes might vse no other. So as we may retort ye argument: If Christ in this supper vsed such bread, as they then vsed, we must do so to; But he vsed cōmon ordinarie bread thē, & therefore we must vse ordinary bread. Now our ordinary & vsual bread is leauened therefore also is it that we vse such. As if he implied thus much. Be it Christs action is our imitation; We denie not, but euen in our bread we imitate Christ, not in that very particular, be­cause ours is leauened, but in the generall because ours is such, as is ordinary, for so was christs. The sum, & substance of wt answer may iustify our denial of ye minor which is here vrged, namely ye our kneeling crosseth the practise of our sauiour. For christs actiō & gesture is followed, if in the general drift we do, as he did, though not in that special strict māner as he did. Which interpre­tatiō rightly conceiued pleadeth our case thus far. Christ & his A postls did that, which the custome both of those times & of their coūtry made vsual, we do now that, which the custome [Page 57]of our church of a long time hath made vsuall. It was their wonted guise to sit at meate so, and so as before, it is our ordinary fashiō to knéel in praier, because though a bāquet we assemble at, yet heauenly, diuine, spiritual it is, not a méere corporal banquet, as if eating were all we came for, but strengthning of our faith, sealing vp in our harts forgiuenesse of sins, and the like spirituall graces we come for at that time, and therefore we pray, kneele, confesse our sumes, and sing Psalmes, and all little inough, no way crossing the practise of our Sauiour more in this, then in the vse of leauened bread in time of the Sacrament, but here in following our Sauiour, because he did what the vse of his times and Countrie made fit, and decent, we what decencie, and custome of our times, and Countrie hath now made vsuall, and conuenient.

This is a shamelesse, and impudent reproching of Christ and his A­postles, that vsed not this gesture. As if Christ, or they wanted humilitie, and reuerence.

How chollericke these disputants are, and in their pelting chafe all to berattle vs for our Church custome, and vsuall prac­tise. But though they reuile vs, we will not reuile againe. For what were that else, but to proue vs both slaunderers? Quid aliud quam duo ma­ledici essemus? August. cont. liter. Petilian. lib. 3. c. 1. as S. Austin well noteth in his answere to Petilian. This shall be onely our defence at this present. It is neither shamelesse, nor impudent reproching of Christ, and his Apostles. For no com­mendable gesture sutable to the seuerall times can be thought contrary, one to the other. When our Sauiour instituted this Sacrament, he was not yet rose from Supper, where he sat with his Disciples. The place, the time, the person all plead that his action was lawfull, and good, neither doth any man say con­trarie hereunto: So farre of are we from reproouing what he did. For it was in a Chamber, and after they had supped, being not then risen from the bord, and our Sauiour himselfe was greater then any constitution of our Church since. At which time no doubt himselfe, and his presence might dispence with the Apostles for their gesture of sitting: which being but a circum­stance might be afterwards, as wel altered, as other circūstances [Page 58]of time, and place, and number of persons, or the like. For not long after, these were all altered, as we sée them at this day. Our Sauiour might doe that well, which we cannot so well. Any in­different gesture might beséeme his person, because without sin, yet chose he to frame himselfe to the rites of his countrey for that action at that time. He commended his demeanour, and not his demeanour commended him. With vs it is farre otherwise. We are sinners, we come to confesse our sinnes, and to craue pardon for the same, in token whereof is our humiliation, by knéeling, &c. None of all which needed Christ to doe. Such ods there is in regard of our selues, who are not, as Christ was to giue, but to receiue, and doe differ as much as the Master, & the Disciple, a mercifull Sauiour, and a polluted sinner, a Law giuer as then he was, and a Law receiuer, for so we are. Were a Scripture as ready at their hands for to proue ceremony of sitting, which some vrge, as there is in time of fasting to annoint our head, and wash our face,Math. 6.17. Praecipit vngi non vt hoc om­nino facianius sed vt semper omns cum dili­gentia bonum hunc thesaurū studeamut oc­cultare. Chri­sost. super Mat. homil. 21. Hubenda est in istis componen dis ratio tempo rum, quibus Christus est lo­quutus, & spec­tandus est loquē tis scopus Bez. in Math. Vnguentorum vsu nunc vix quisquam sinc luxus suspicione iusta vtatur. Ibid. what bitter words would they spare to lode vs withall, who vpon so small occasion here giuen, charge vs for shamelesse, and impudent reproching of Christ and his Apostles? Our Sauiour commaundeth saying, When thou fastest, an­noint thy head, and wash thy face. A Commaundement is more then a practise, for the true sence of which place the in­terpretation both of auncient and late Diuines well agreeth, and among them by name Saint Chrisostom, and M. Beza. Chrisostom thus: The Lord commaunded vs to be annointed, not that we should absolutely doe it, but that alwaies withall di­ligence we should study to hide this good treasure of fasting in priuate. Master Beza his obseruation is, that the manner of annointing was the fashion of those times, and the drift of the speaker we are to regard more, then the practise inioyned. For now if a man should vse that ceremonie of anointing his head, &c. He can hardly vse it without iust suspition of wast, and rioting. Whence we may obserue, if notwithstanding Christ his owne practise, yea his expresse commaundement, the Church vseth her libertie in refusall of this custome, then much rather may she in that ceremonie of sitting, where onely is Christ his example, but no commanundement at all, specially when we retaine the scope, and drift of reuerence, and humilitie as we doe. For in such cases, [Page 59]we are not so much to respect, what was done, as what Christ intended we should learne to be done. For many things he did, which we neither may, nor need, nor can doe,Actiones Chri­sti miraculosae, piaculares, mo­rales, Heming. dominic. Quad. Sieadem tent [...] mus prapostera erit a [...]nulatio. Cal. 1. Pct. 2.21. Rom. 4.25. Math. 11.29. Colos. 3.13. Ephes. 5.2. & therefore it is fit to distinguish Christ his actions, & know how far forth they re­quire our imitation. Some were miraculous as his walking vpon the water, Math. 14. Clensing the Lepars, restoring sight to the blinde, fasting fortie daies and fortie nights, if we assay to doe the like, our emulation is preposterous, some were expia­torie by way of attonement, as when deliuered to death for our sinnes he rose againe for our instification; some were arbitrary, as washing the Disciples feete, sitting at the Table, anointing his head, some morall for our imitation as his humilitie, for he is meeke, his kindnesse in our forbearing one another, and forgi­uing one another, euen as Christ forgaue vs, walking in loue, euen as Christ hath loued vs, meaning for qualitie not equa­lity; for comparison, not proportion; not in the same degree and perfection, but for the truth, and sinceritie. Lastly, in a word his constancie, who suffred for vs leauing an example,Luc. 9.23. Christi pana [...]. Afflictiones no strain [...]. Non dicit iciu­nium suum esse imitandū &c. Chrisost. in. Math. homil. 47 Non dicit disci te a m [...] mundū fabricare aus morious suscita re August. de 5. virginita. c. 35 that we should follow his steps in denying our selues, and taking vp his Crosse, not that we can satisfie for others as he did for vs, but in triall of our faith, & in witnesse of the truth, as also in iusti­fying God, when he checketh man for sinne. These many waies aboue mentioned are Christ his actiōs sorted, & euery one is a les­son for our instruction but not a sampler for imitation. Christ faith not his fast is to be imitated, nor learne of me to make the world, or raise the dead, but learne of me for I am humble, and méeke of hart. Such difference there is of those thinges which Christ did & suffred: And in the things which he did, because that concerneth the point, let vs distinguish what is the argument of our obedience, & make him our president, but otherwise we may not. Which distinction easily succoureth that doubt, of Christ what he did, & of vs what we must follow. His sitting therefore being arbitrarie, and none of those morall actions, which ne­cessarily require our obedience, we are in this to relie on the iudgement of our Church, in whose power it is to supply it with some other decent and reuerent behauiour. I deny not (saith Bishop Iewell) certaine circumstances, as fasting, sitting, Iuel. cont. Har­ding artic. 1. sect. 8. standing, kneeling, & other like ceremonies obserued in celebrating the holy mysteries are to be moderated and [Page 60]appointed at the iudgemēt of the Church, which resolution though to be acknowledged as a truth, for a truth it is, yet be­cause some will not be idle, but incumber themselues and others with vaine iangling to the contrary, read we, M. Caluin touch­ing this action, who in his institutions moouing the question whither (kneeling) at time of solemne prayer be a humaine tra­dition,Dico sic esse bu manam, vt si­mul sit diuina: Dei est quate­nuspars est de­coris illiu [...], cuius cura & obser­uatio per Apos­tolum commen d [...]tur, hominū autem quate­nus specialiter designat, quod in genere sue­rat indicatum Cal. Instit. lib. 4. c. 10. et. 30 Quoad genus di vina quoad spe­ciem humana. Ibic. [...]. Iustin. martyr. apol 2. ad Auto nium imperato rem. Aliud stans als udsedens. that one may refuse, or neglect, answereth thus. I say it is so a humaine tradition that withall it is diuine: Gods it is so farre foorth as it is a part of that beautie, whose care and obser­uation is commended vs by the Apostle: it is mans, or of men, so farre foorth, as it specially designeth what was shewed in the generall. The briefe of all which answere is, that in the gene­rall it is diuine, in the speciall it is humaine. Being there­fore at the solemne time of prayer, for the Minister prayeth ouer the Communicant. The body of our Lord Iesus Christ that was giuen for thy body preserue it to eternall life, &c. And of thankesgiuing for therefore it is called the Eucharist, we must take this action as a diuine ordinance, though appointed by men, and from men, yet not barely men as opposit vnto God, but such as are sanctified, and guided by the spirit of the Lord, for so may we assure our selues, and it is our reioycing, that our Church is so to be accounted at this present.

This kneeling was neuer vsed in any other Sacrament of the olde, or new Testament, Circumcision, Passouer, or Baptisme.

Where they vrge in Circumcision it was not so, nor in Bap­tisme, how doe they proone it? A Catholike affirmatiue hath either néede be, or giue a Catholike proofe. Because the Paschall Lamb was eate standing, meane they this must be so to, and if standing how then kneeling. To be of one minde standing, of another minde sitting argueth inconstancie. By that reason of theirs, the conclusion may inforce staues in our hands, for so the Hebrewes eate the Passeouer. Such post hast men make to be deliuered of an vntimely argument. But they, whose it is, reply in our defence that we, who kneele before the Sacrament detest Idolatrie: Which spéech of theirs we doubt not, but is vttred vpon their knowledge. For in another place [Page 61]before alleadged they tell vs,Part. 1 pag. 18 30. that the Minister must not affirme more then he knoweth. Since therefore they know so much we haue done, yet they that so speake, prosecute it thus farre against vs.

It is graunted: They that kneele before the Sacrament detest Ido­latrie: yet their outward bowing to, or before a creature in the matter of Gods worship, is a breach of the second Commaunde­ment. Thou shalt not how downe, nor worship.

A strange definition of Idolatrie. For then by that recko­ning if a man kneele, his Bible lying before him, he is an Ido­later, then Peter at the raising vp of Tabitha must be so charged, for he kneeled on his knées and turning himselfe to the dead bu­dy said Tabitha arise: yea then may we not kneele at any time. For how can we knéele but it is before some creature in heauen, or in earth, either Angles themselues, or our bréethren, & sisters where we are and liue, or the roofe, and wals, and whole edifice where we pray, valesse peraduenture these are not to be thought creatures, but must be stiled by some other name. Againe, where it is obiected that bowing before a creature in the matter of Gods worship is a breach of the second Commandement, it is very materiall to know, what they meane by these words (in a matter of Gods worship.) If they meane the time, or place of diuine seruice, sure we are, that kneeling is expedient to pro­fesse our humilitie in the houre of solemne prayer, which then is performed by the Communicants. If they meane bowing to, or before a creature it selfe in a matter of Gods worship (that is) exhibiting diuine worship vnto the creature, which is due vnto God, they knowing that we detest Idolatrie, know also that we detest that doctrine. But if in the time of the words of holy insti­tution then pronounced, they call the Elements of Bread and Wine Popish Images. or Idols, and estéeme our howing to be no other, but Idolatrous at such time, as that blessed Sacra­ment is administred: of the two we had rather be held (though falsly) superstitious, then (truely) prophane for so speaking, and yet to the glory of God we may, and doe proclaime our vtter de­testation of all superstition, & prophanenesse. As for the meaning [Page 62]of the second Commaundement, hitherto alwaies we vnder­stood this clause (Thou shalt not bow downe to them nor worship them,) to forbid vs worshiping or bowing downe is them, which God there mentioneth, such as we make vnto our selues either grauen, or the likenesse of some such in heauen or in earth Now we demand whither those sacred Elements are of our making, or doe we make them to our selues, or be they grauen, or doe we bow downe to them? If so: hold vs Idola­ters, and pertake not with bs in that sinne. But being not so, estéeme of vs as the Ministers of Christ, and faithfull disposers of those holy mysteries. The summe of all is, Our bowing at that time is an outward reuerenec (we thinke) méete should be perfourmed, because of that holy action, which is then in hand, namely a religious communicating of that blessed Sa­crament of the very body and blood of our Lord Jesus, partly to stirre vp in others a more religious estimation of those diuine seales;Seiungimus nos ab Epicureis cō temptoribus [...]ysteriorum, excitamus alios adveram reue­rentiam ne oc­casio detur sim­plisioribus &c. partly to remooue all prophane thoughts of Epicures and like contemners; partly to put a difference hereby euen externally from other Bread,Vulgares concoe [...]ationes. and Wine, which at home, or in our Gossiping and publike feasts we receiue, as the good creatures of God with thankes giuing, but standing, or sitting, neuer kneeling as we vse to doe in receiuing this Sacrament, and therefore we giue it the more reuerence because it is more, then ordinarie Bread, and Wine. And if for feare of Idola­trie it be dangerous to kneele, so is it to stand: for a man may commit Idolatrie standing. 2. If for feare of Idolatrie it be dangerous to kneele, so is it to vncouer our heads, for this ceremonie also we vse in the matter of Gods worship: Now how seemely that is let the indifferentest giue iudgement? 3. If so necessarie to kneele because our Sauiour did it at other times, then are we not alone to be reprooued, but other Churches also that receiue it standing, walking, &c. A ceremo­nie wherein we iudge not them, neither should they, or any else condemne vs. But to be reproched for well doing we ac­count our Crosse, and we will beare it.

For this same reason the Popish Wafer-cake was remooued, as in the Rubricke of the Booke of Common prayer.

For feare of Idolatrie was the Wafer cake remooued, yet not kneeling forbid, because the reason is not alike. For the Wafer cake did many waies offend.

  • 1. For the substance, because it was not vsuall, as that which our Sauiour had.
  • 2. In the qualitte, for the thinnesse did not so fully represent the forme of ordinary Bread.
  • 3. The fashion was round.
  • 4. The stampe vpon it was, we thinke, the Image of Christ crucified.
  • 5. The grosse opinion then had of it, as that it was really, cor­porally, and carnally transubstantiated Christ himselfe, and only in outward shew a Wafer cake.

All which opinions being now confuted, & we by the preaching of the Gospell better instructed, the commendable practise of knéeling may be retained safely, where before it could not well be, at what time men held tran­substantiation for a doctrine of faith; Neither is it a good ar­gument, when we dispute of the action, to argue of the Element, as if because a Wafer cake is to be mist [...]ked, therefore knéeling also must indure a checke. But we will produce a fewe wit­nesses for proofe of this point, and so conclude. True it is, that where Master Beza liueth, the Communicants receaue standing, but that no more impeacheth our kneeling, then that of theirs who receaue in Wafer cakes, and we in ordinarie Bread: Now as our Countriementie not thēselues to the one, for the forme of Element, no more need they binde themselues to the other, for the maner of the action.Si qui infirmi­tate suorum ce­activel alias ob causas aliquid aliud ex vetu­stis ritibus sib [...] retinendum pu tarit, sua cut. que maneat lia bertas. Beza. 0664 0 de can. do [...]. ad­ners. lar. li. pag. 146. For Geneua is no more a Lawgiuer vnto vs, thē we are to it. This folly aduanced Rome to that height of prid, whereunto she aspired, inforcing all other Churches to her rites, & ceremouies. In regard whereof it may be that M. Beza speaking of this gesture, vseth these words. If any (saith he) compelled by the infirmitie of their owne brethren or for some other causes shall thinke good to re­taine any of the auncient rites let euery one haue their ac­customed libertie herein Peter Martyr thus determineth this question for vs, & others. I aduise in adoring when, we receiue the Eucharist, that we stay not in the elemēts, but worship in [Page 64]spirit, Quoadisti doce rentur P. mar­tyr Com. Loc. clas. 4. c. 10. & 50. Adoratio inter­na potest abs­que periculo ex biberi, neque externa sua na tura esset mala Multi eni [...] piè genu fle [...]tūt &c Nisi requen [...] esset de his re­bus in conci [...]ns bus nic [...]tio. Ibid and truth, Christ sitting in the heauens. Which thing because the simpler sort vnderstand not, we thinke, not amisse, if we restraine them from outward adoration, namely prostra­ting, and knéeling till such times, as they haue beene taught. Inward adoration may be giuen, without any danger, and the outward of it own nature cannot be euill. For many do in a god­ly manner bend the knée, & adore at the hearing of those words of the Gospell (and the word was made flesh) yet those words are not to be said to be adored, but the things themselues signified thereby. And what should hinder the very same thing to be done here, so that the Elements themselues be not worshipped, but that which is signified by them? Yet at this time for the cause be­fore mentioned (pera duenture) outward adoration is not so fit and conuenient, vnlesse often mention were made of those [...]ings in Sermons. In which large discourse these notes may be gathe­red.

  • 1. The outward worship of it owne nature is not euill.
  • 2. If the words of the Gospell may be outwardly reuerenced in a godly manner, at what time they are read, then may these Ele­ments haue the like.
  • 3. Yet not they, but Christ signified by them:
  • 4. He would haue externall reuerence by kneeling spared onely for a time:
  • 5. But inward adoration alway ex­hibited, because without danger: Now inward worship is more then outward, for this is but a signe of the other, and if no danger in the inward, much lesse in the outward.
  • 6. He deliuereth his iudgement in very easie termes, as peraduenture it may be a while forborne: Like a indicious wise man that speakes vnder correction of better aduertisement,
    H [...]c sacramen­tum sine adora­tione, sinc (que) illo (vni deo debit [...]) [...]ltis, cū debita tamē religione & reuerentia percipi ad [...]nis trariq [...]e debet, atque ca inpri [...]is, quae ōnium est maximè fide scilicet, & sui ips [...]s explorati [...]ne Sect. 14. pag. 120.
    not peremptorily as some a­mong vs that are euery way inferior to him both for modestie and learning.

Lastly, he takes this kneeling or prostrating not to be so fit, vnlesse often preaching be ioyned by way of instructi­on. So as if the people be taught, then no such feare, but it may still be vsed: which is our very case at this day. Beside the iudge­ment of this great diuine, we haue the consent of the Churches of Bohemia, who far from superstitious adoring the Elements, how their knées at receiuing of the Sacrament, as appeareth in the harmonie of the Confess. This Sacrament without adoration, and that worship which is due to God only, yet with due religion, & reuerence must be receiued, & admini­stred, and that specially, which is the greatest of all, namely [Page 65]faith, and examining euery ones owne selfe. Sacramentum religiosè cum [...] nipietate distri bustur. Populus autem fide [...]ium vsitatissimè in genua procum bens hoc accipit cum gratiarū actione. &c. Anon after it is added This sacrament is religiously distributed withfull godlines, and deuotion: The congregation of the faith all most vsually kneeling on their knees receiue it with thankes giuing, ioyfulnesse, singing of himnes and holie Psalmes &c. The spirit of God directing them, and our churches in the vnitie of one externall holie behauiour doing the like, may be a motiue to perswade others contrarilie minded, to thinke that the Lord hath not left vs destitute of that small portion of knoweledge, which may determin a circumstance of this nature, and so we intreat them to resolue.

Cap. 10. Priuate communion. The booke giueth allowance to minister to one alone, cleane contrarie to the word of God, and Christ his institutiō. Whatsoeuer will not stand with the word of institution (Eat yee) that is forbidden without ex­ception: But to minister the sacrament to one alone will not stand with (Eat yee): Therefore to minister to one alone is without exception forbidden.

THis chapter is here as it seemeth intituled. A priuate communion. Vpon what ground we knowe it, but with what a sinister minde, and to how wrong a conclusion any one may con­iecture, and mame doe feare. If they take our communion for the masse then haue they reason for the name. Bishop Iewell prouing that a priuate masse, for 600. yeares after Christ was neuer heard of, calleth that a priuate masse, where the masse-priest alone did eat, and drinke although in publicke, and that happilie 2. or 3. or more such as [Page 66]himselfe all apart were mumbling, one in this corner, another in that ende, a third in a third place, and all by themselues at the same time in seuerall places of the church, where the people pre­sent did neither eat, nor drinke, but onely euery masse priest him­selfe by himselfe. Can these men (who like the name of commu­nion we giue to the sacrament) proue in this sence we maintaine a priuate Communion. These termes were neuer knowne to fit our church doctrine, till those first moniters and the heires of their scruples had the vse of the feruler more fit themseles to be vnder a ferular. The gentle admonition that was the first bate for this idle debate, then rawely entred, since ouer hotlie follow­ed (but vainelie, and vnfruitfullie God hee knoweth, and wée deplore) maketh this an occasion of their lamentable separati­on. Yee should first proue (say they) that the priuate communion is agreable to the worde of God. And is it not reason they should first proue that we inioyne a priuate com­munion, before they inioyne vs to proue what they now re­proue? Looke ouer the booke of common prayer from the first worde to the last lease, it were an aduenture warrantable (should the maine cause lie on it) to iustifie all by this one, and not to spare a solemne protestation that wee will loose the whole cause if they can make good but this one single, singular accusation, and take them at their bare worde priuate communion. Shew they, or anie for them, where wee vse these termes. Name the leafe, page, sentence, line, anie sillable that beareth to any such purpose. Meane they it in these wordes of the Rubricke. There shalbee no celebration of the Lords supper, except there bee a good number to communicate &c. or in these following. If there be not aboue 20. persons in the parish of discretion to receiue the communion, yet shall there be no communion except 4. or 3. at the least communicate. Where a good number is to communicate, where at least, [...]. or 3. are to communicate no iust suspicion of ministring to one alone. Peraduenture ye words they mislike, are not in the stile & title of ye cōmunion but in some other place. What thē. Turne we to yee cō ­muniō of ye ūcke, where the Rubricke is thus. For asmuch as al mortall men be subiect to manie sudden perils, diseases, & sickenesses, and euer vncertaine at what time they shall de­part out of this life, therefore to the intent they may be al­waies [Page 67]in a readines to die, whensoeuer it shal please almigty God to call thē, the curats shal diligently frō time to time, but specially in the plague time exhort their parishioners to the oft receiuing in the church of the holy cōmunion of the body, and blood of our sauiour, which if they do, they shall haue no cause in their sodaine visitation to be vnquiet for lacke of the same. But if the sicke person be not able to come to the church and yet is desirous to receiue the com­munion in his house, then he must giue knowledge ouer night, or else earely in the morning to the curate, signify­ing also how many be appointed with him, & hauing a conuenient place in the sicke mans house, where the curate may reuerently minister, and a good number to receiue the communion with the sicke person &c. A quicke eye may soon ouerhip these words (in the church) which considered satisfie to the full, and shew it must be in publick. Other words there are in an other place following, at the time of the distribution of the holy sacrament, the priest shall first receiue the communion himselfe, & after minister vnto thē, that be appointed to communicate with the sicke. Here stil in these places are more then one to ioyne with the minister, and therefore is not the communion ministred to one alone. Where then is it they haue so­much as the least them for pretence of dislike. It may be these words insuing. But if a man either by reason of extremitie of sickenesse, or for want of warning in due time to the curate or for lack of company to receiue with hm, or by any other iust impediment do not receiue the sacrament of Christ his body, & blood, then the curate shal instruct him, that if he do truely repent him of his sins, & stedfastly beleeue that Iesus Christ hath suffred death vpō the crosse for him, & shed his blood for his redemption, earnestly remēbring the be­n [...]fits he hath thereby, & giuing him hearty thanks before he doth eat. & drinke the body & blood of our sauiour pro­fitablely to his soules health, although he do not receiue the sacramēt with his mouth. In which briefe, many causes are alledged for not ministring ye cōmunion

  • 1. extremity of sick­nesse.
  • 2. want of due warning
  • 3. lack of cōpanie
  • 4. some other iust impedimēt.

In supply whereof, least ye sick party may find him selfe a grieued he is to learn [...]; if he haue learned, he is to remēber [Page 68]that earnest, and true repentance of sinnes, and a stedfast faith in the merits of Christ his death with a but meditation of all the benefits, that come thereby, and heartie thanksgiuing to God for the same, are an effectuall powerfull, true communicating to his soules health, though the visible elements be not for that time receiued. Nitherto then somuch inquirie (as as hath beens made) yeeldeth no sufficient proose for their querelous allegati­on: Some other place belike there is, or els they are ill bested, that without all shew in the world make shew of complaint. Were it not for one onely sentence violently wrested, they had no colour at all. The wordes are vpon a closing point of direc­tion for the communion of the sick. In the time of the plague, sweat, are such other like contagious times of sicknesses, or diseases, when none of the parish, or nei [...]hbours can be got ten to commnnicate with the sicke in their houses for feare of the infection. Vpon especiall request of the diseased, the minister may: lonely communicate with him. Where the caucat greatly sets forth the wisdome of God in raising vp the thoughts of his church, by kindely prouideing for occurrences, whither of health, sicknesse or anie contagious disease. Suf­ficient affliction wee may thinke it, when the Lord humbleth a man vpon his bed debarreth him accesse vnto the publicke con­gregation. For no doubt in the stirring of the seas one waue o­uertaketh not another more busilie then surges of griefe accom­pany one another in a mans deepe meditation, to thinke with himselfe, what he is depriued of. And the more delight and com­fort any one hath tooke in the seale of his assureance, the more his soule longeth after it, and all little inough he thinkes (& herein not decetued) to strengthen his faith, to inlarge his hope, and giue him thorough contentment for his present estate. Then com­meth to his minde, what a glad man sometimes the Lord made him, when he went with other leading, or following them in­to the house of God, and there accompanying them with the voice of singing, and praysing, as doth a multitude that keepes a feast. (O Lord of hosts how amiable are thy owellings) when he sendeth long wishes after the courts of his God: The flight of a sparrow, yt sluttering of a swallow occasion multiplyed thoughts The little ones scarce peeping forth of their shell, more happie [Page 69]then he. For they can [...], and [...] the alters of the Lord of [...]offs. A steaking sigh often falleth from him, and that sigh not speechlesse. O that he had the wings of a doue thē would his souls finde comfort in the tabernades of the most high, and because he cannot come abroade, might hee receiue [...]is letter missiue to him, whither by hand, or month of the minister (so wee vnderstand the worde of God, and the holie sacrament kis­sing each other, and coupling themselues [...]th in one a [...]all to cheare him, pooze prisoner as he is) no question then would they bee as seasonablie welcome, as the raine vpon the me w [...] grasse, and the shewers, that water the earth. It hath [...] the case of many God his children. Hiperius and others [...]ge­ [...]ously fallen [...]ke vpon some heaue,In vita Hipea rit. and [...]uous brunt they in­dured by tentations outward, ins [...] or both, to desire com­fort vpon comfort, and all little inough, as they thought, and knowing what great thinges are spoken of the sacrament, and how it hath ministred much ioy vnto them heretofore, with earnest destres they haue crau [...]d the like helpes for their lan­gaishing conscient [...] before they giue their last [...] will is a de­cayed nature: We that are at health, [...] brought to the dozes of death may thinke it more then absolutely n [...]deth, and (happilie) so it is, because though a man hee dep [...]ed of the sacra­ment, yet he is not dep [...] and of eternall [...]. But manie in their distresse thus pers waded, yet [...] the [...] thereof, [...] they reckon, (and they reckon not a misse) that th [...] last and may thereby be made vnto them the more comfortable. Where­fore as Elisha said to Ge [...]zie of the woman that did [...] (as he thought) then needed. Let hir [...], for hir [...] is vexed with in hir, and the Lord hath [...] it [...]. Let them alone good souled: their sp [...]ite in that [...]guish is much troubled, and panting like the hart, that brayeth for the water brookes will not take comfort to arile purpose, till it be had in­to the wine celler, and dr [...]nks his fill, at the well spring of that spirituall consolation, which is commited vnto the church,Viaticum illis qui de hoc sacu­lo recedunt. Canon. Arausi­can. and is the soules hea [...]nlis viand, while shee is yet a solo inner vpon the earth. It is a doctrine of our church anouched in the Rubrici [...]e cited before, that in case the minister can perswade, hee doe his hest in de [...]ou [...]. But say he neither doth, [...] can, [Page 70]and the [...]ke bodie well assured of the truth of our doctrine, yet for all this coueteth to haue the [...]gnes visi [...] aforded him for better imprinting in his memorie the death, and passion of his, and our [...] it (for unquestion but somewhat they adde, and that somewhat is much comfort when they may be had) what can our church doc lesse, but so far yecide to the earnest, and in deebe possibly his last request then made vpon speciall,Nemo illud vel quarit vel accipit quodiam habet, ergo in vsu [...]ucharistia, nec quaritur nec ac cipitur remissio peccatorum. Andrad con Chemnit & passim Anabap Illum pater proponit fide appre hendendum, & accipiendum ad remiss [...]nem peccatorum, & in verbo & in sacramontis. Chemnit. de in stitut. sacram. cana pag. 77. B In hac carnis noctra depranatione inter tam varias Diaboli insidias &c. Ibid. Cum promiss [...]e loquatur in ge­nere, an etiam ego qui credo, habeam remiss, onem peccatorū an verè, & cer to & firmiter cam [...]abeam. Ibid. and weigh­tie occasions. No than but instructed in the words acknowledg­eth that hee, which repents and beleeues the Gospell receiueth forgi [...]enesse of soute▪ which as it is a true foundation, so an ill frame is raised vpon it, that therefore there is no neede of the sacrament. For to what ende seeke we remission of sins when wee haue obtained it alreadie? But such conclusions are in force with those, who looke vpon the truth with popish spa [...]tacles, or Anabaptises—eyes: Their wrong imaginati­on springes from ignorance of the doctrine, and sauing vse of this sacrament. For Christ the mediator with his obedience, and merits is the onely foundation of reconciliation with God, and remission of our [...]. But God the father proposeth him to be apprehended by faith, and to be receiued for forgiuenesse of sinne both in the worde, and sacraments: Now they are much deceiued that thinke our reconciliation with God, and forgiuenesse of sinne are like colors laid in ayle away alike fresh, the beauty neuer fading, so as one had, we haue no [...]e [...]de to thinke [...] more of it. But the perpetuallaction of saith, and day [...]e exercise in this life is to apprehend Christ more, and more firmly, to abide, and persener in him, not that hee can be vtterlie, and quite lost, but because els the liue [...]e feeling, & pre­sent comforts there by had may weaken and fa [...]. Nay there is not anie moment of time in this corrupt estate of ours, what with the deuils snares, the worlds suggestions, and our own deceuable heartes. But the more wée examin our selues, the more we confesse this for a truth, that we are to seeke, imbrace, & apprehend the fauour of God, a forgiuenesse of sin. Beside that in tentations the minde is chiefly greeued in such a question as this. VVheras the promisse speaks in generall termes, how may it appeare to me who do beléeue whither I haue remissiō of sin, or how may I assure my selfe certainly hereof? To this end [Page 71]therefore God, who is rich in mercie which he hath powred out in ab [...]dance vpon thē, that [...]o bele [...]e, beside the word, Frater verbum▪ instituit etians vsum sacram [...] tertum. Ibid. Iustin martyr, apol. 2. versus sid ne Dionysi. Alex and Pabia. in epist. hath ordained the vse of the fro [...]meded▪ Shall we looks to the times auncient, or present, the equitie of this truth [...] soo [...] shew it selfe? The auncient christians reckoning the communi­on performed in publicke to be their act, that were absent, as theirs, who were present, did communicate [...]rist vnto the absent in token of their lone, [...] mutuall [...]ship. Such ab­sent, as were either necessarilith n [...]red▪ [...] ineuitable occasi­ons, or els were sore sicke drawing to their long home, or other­wise standing excommunicate, desired to make their peace with God▪ and his church, and so (in token of bear [...] re [...]ation on all sides) were made pertakers of the holi [...]misteries,Supa [...] re­caps poster v [...] rum nems alls attender at. E [...] (eb. lib. &c. 44. Mo [...] as [...] ­tan [...] v [...]. mages mèst etian awls teasuppli [...] petier [...]e an [...] mitridebare, ve spe bo [...] [...] Ibid. [...] dunt ex [...]por [...] [...] gi [...] g [...]la [...] tu [...] v [...] fifo [...] [...] rio vita. [...] [...]ō defraudetur v [...] atico. Concil. Nicen. can. 12. grac. 13. Quoties aliqua infirmitas su­peruenerit, cor pus & sanguis nem ille qui agrotat accipiat August. sirm. detempore. though at home an their deathbed This witnesseth Iustin Martyr, who was in the first age after the Apostles: And in the second age a [...] ­ample may be taken from Dionys. of Alexandria in his Epis­tle vnto Fabius as it is quotet by Eus [...]b. writing the bistorie of Serapion, how falling through pe [...]se [...] uutiō, offerin [...] to I [...]ols he was out off from the church, to the terror & affrighting of o­thers: Good old man hee often desired to be receiued in to the bosome of the church: It would not hee. No may a [...]eded the request. His [...]cknesse out en [...] belay [...] blasse f [...] th [...] whole dayes depriued of the vse of [...]nces the [...] to himselfe againe, at what time, seing how it was with him, he grew more instant, then euer before to receiue the sacrant out, the pledge of his peace made with God & the church which no soner obtained but withal most com ortably be finished his life [...] thing vsual in those times for such [...]lay a dying, if they made request special earnest suppliant, humble request, they were allowed yt fauour of the cōmnuion, that supported with a good hope they might depart hence in peace. In the next one the same course was held by the coūcel of Nice where the fathers & gan [...]in charge according to the auncient rule, that the holy▪ cōmnuion should be denied none toward the time of their death. This coūcel so aunciēt as it was nigh 1300 yeares ago, euen thē cou­sessed that this order (the church tooke [...] retaine was before those times much auncioniar▪ Sa [...]i [...] [...] long after, as wee may obserue in those sermones of time, that goe vnder [Page 72]Saint Austin his name. As often as any sickenesse, or infir­mitie shall happen, let him that it sicke [...]i [...]e the body & blood of the Lord. Quoties aliqua infirmit [...]s su­peruenerit, cor­pus & sangus­nem ille qui agrotat accipi­at, August. ser. de tempore. Aegrotis dare oportet fateor sed etiam corā agroti [...] p [...]ssent perage myste­ria, I [...] martyr. Aegrotis quipe tebant cunam dominicam non negabat [...]u Suta Oecolom-Bue [...]r censis. Cal. epist. Museut. tis. de can. dom. Sine superstitia ou [...], & effendi­cule & ut a fla [...] gitat agrotor [...] ̄ infirmitas n [...] ­limus sanè ob­ [...]qusam ecclesia [...] s [...]ind [...]re, Beca. In these latter times Peeter Marty [...] an­swering this obiection that the [...]derament must be ministred to the sicke. It must I confesse (saith hee) be ministred to the sicke. But then mightie bee in the presence of the sicke. In the life of Oe [...]compadius it is written of him. The sicke that desire the Lords supper he denied it not them. Bucor in his censure allo [...]eth &c. to doth M. Caluin in his epistles, if the sicke folkes desire it. The like doth Muscului and Hipe­rius. If this wee speake of (faith M. Beza) may be done with­out superstition, and offence, and that the weakenesse of the sicke partie doe require it, wee would not truely that a­nie one for such a cause should rent the church by schisme; and contention. And certainely it seemeth the generall opini­on hath been from time to time, that if men in their health neede this sacrament, much more when they are weakened and spent with sicknesse. For it fitteth best, when wee are most humble, and penitent, which commonise in the elect of God is by degrees more, or lesse, but in a heauy visitation many times our humili­ation is wrought most effectually, when the conscience almost squeze [...] with a serious consociation offi [...]a [...], the body, and soule are humbled vnder the mighty hand of God. Which may be the case of manie in these times, whither excommunicate, or suspend­ed from the Lords table, or hauing wasted themselues in law­lesse states, or conceiuing amuse of our sacraments ministery, doctrine &c. afterwar [...]es touches in heart seing the grossones of their error vs recover themselues, the Lord mightning their eies, that they beg with great earnestnes to haue a part in that sacra­ment visibly, whose fellowship poore seduced soules they did ei­ther detest, or neglect, or except against before. What ioyes the Lord ministr [...]th his children at such times, as in faith, and true repentance they receiue these infallible tokens of his gra­tious loue, they onelie knowe whome the Lord hath prepa­red for that heauenly banquet, and what can they tell (good heartes) yet once againe ere they giue vppe the ghost, howe the Lord may yeelde them like comfortes, and that with more [Page 73]chéerefulnesse then hitherto he hath done? And may it not be ho­ped that a faithfull Communicant in the very instant twixt life and death, séeth in this loue-token the very ioyes of heauen pre­sented vnto him, as an effectuall motiue to hasten him hence, and to strengthen him in his iourney to his long home?

The Communion Booke giueth allowance to the Minister, to minister to one alone.

Nothing contrary to Gods word, and Christ his institution to minister to one alone at a time, for how can it be otherwise. But if they meane one alone, and alonely, as if none else did communicate, but the sicke partie bedridden, they speake an vn­truth. For more are required at the Minister his discretion. And a very poore body, he or she is, like a Sparrow on the house top, that hath neither wife, nor seruant, nor friend, nor chairewo­man, nor kéeper to tend, and tender him in his sicknesse, yea euen in the Plague-time God disfurnisheth not a man of all company, but one, or other good neighbour he hath (beside the Minister) whom (vnlesse the congregation be prouided of another suffici­ently able, that may supply his absence) the laws of our. Church, and his owne conscience spare from communicating when the infection is: And great reason, because if a particular grieued, be to be caredfor, so are many much rather both of his familie and of the whole parrish, least through his vndauisednesse he drawe them into the like contagion.Zanch. in Phi­lip. 2.27.30. Master Zanchius sheweth this at large speaking of Epaphroditus and his earnest care for the Saints at Philippi, so doe other writers, whose names we spare in this argument, yea so doth the Rubricke in the Booke of common prayer,Can. Eccles. 67. and the Canons Ecclesiasticall in case the disease be knowne or probably suspected to be infectious. But admitting there were not another to communicate with the sicke person, is the Minister no body, doth not be,Etiamsi mini­mo numero. B [...] ­cer. in Math. 18.19. and that sicke partie make a number, though the least of all num­bers? If but two, or thrée agrée vpon earth sayeth our Sa­uiour, &c.

To minister the Sacrament to one alone doth not stand with eat yee.

To minister the sacrament to one alone at a time standeth with the words of Christ his institution, because Tertullian his rule is true:Subiectum est generali specia­cle, in ipso significatur quia in ipso continetur. Tertul. de velā. virg. cap. 5. Particularities are signified vnder that which is generall. And therefore in saying (eate yée) necessarily is im­plied eate thou, vnlesse we shall thinke that when our Sauiour said Baptise ye, therefore one alone may not Baptise, or praying (Pray yée thus) therefore one may not pray alone.

It is faultie that we doe not vse in a generalitie, once for all to say to the Communicants. Take yee, eate yee, drinke yee. But vn­to euery particular person, Eate thou, Drinke thou, which is ac­cording to the Popish manner, and not answerable to the forme, that our Sauiour did vse.

One false principle bréedeth many errors.Arist, Physic. lib. 1. c. 2. For see their argu­ment how it is concluded. That which will not stand with the words of institution (eate yee) that is forbidden: But to say take thou, eate thou, drinke thou, stands not with the words of in­stitution, eate yee, drinke yee, &c. Therefore to minister it in such words, is without exception forbidden. But a weake eye may see the weakenesse of this reason. Must we tye our selues vnto euery syllable. And if Christ speake in the plurall number of more may not we speake in the singular number of one, and one apart by themselues, which howsoeuer singled, are more then one being reckoned together? For so is this Eate thou, Drinke thou, Being but of two, how much rather. Which in effect is, as Christ commanded, Eate ye, Drinke ye, &c. So doe they: But say: must we needs tye our selues to yt very syllables, which Christ spake, & in that expresse forme which he vsed, then leaue we our naturall language, and speake we Siriack or some such like, because he so deliuered the wordes of institution? And must we vse these words (Eate yee) once for all and no other? Why then is not a complaint taken vp against other Churches beyond the Seas, where one Minister commeth, and saith vpon [Page 75]deliuery of one part of the Sacrament.Minister ecclesia vnicuique ad canam accedenti partem de pane domini defractam por­rigent dicate, panis quem fran­gimus &c. mi. Formula ad nist. Catech. pag. 296. The Bread which we breake is the Communion of the body of Christ. Then ano­ther Minister of the Church reaching the Cuppe sayeth: The Cuppe of blessing which we blesse is the Communion of the blood of Christ.

In Sermons we doe not distinctly speake to one man apart from ano­ther, therefore neither is it conuenient to speake these words, Eate thou, drinke thou, seuerally to man after man.

This is no reason at all. For first we know how in Sermons many (whose massie bouldnesse ouerballanceth godly wisdome,) furiously conuent the consciences of men. Not amisse to speake to mens harts out of Gods word plainely, and truely; but sple­netickly to gall mens persons as if men would call them distinctly by their proper names, growing into particulars by a finger-pointing description, culling a man out thus? Thus attired, thus sitting, in such a pew, &c. We hould not fit. The fault is not better knowne, then they are, that make the fault.Scio me offens [...] rum esse quam plurimos qui generalem d [...] viti is disputationē in suam ref [...]rūt cōtumelians, & dum mihi iras­cuntur suam indicant conscientiam multo pe­ins de se quam de me iudicant. Ego enim nen inem nominabo, nec veteris co­m [...]dia licentia certas personas eligam atque perstringam. Hieron ad R [...]st epist de viuin­ds forma. A gene­rall discourse will reach home. I know (saith Saint Ierom) that I shall offend very many, who referre a generall disputa­tion concerning vice to their owne shame, and while they are angry with me, they shew their owne conscience, and doe iudge farre worse of themselues then of me. For I will name no man, nor after the licentious manner of the olde comedie, will I choose out certaine persons to perstringe them. Here we learne, how it is not safe to speake vnto men personally in our Sermons, and that they, who doe so, are rather satyricall, then other. But come we to the second branch of their comparison, which is rather a disparison, if it be rightly called. For the Sacra­ment is not so to be ministred, as Sermons, which are publi­shed in generall termes, but more particularly, and by perso­nall application. Because,

  • first though Christ said, Eate yee, Drinke yee, collectiuely all at once, yet that distributiuely he did not, they must proue before we reuerse that forme we haue recei­ued.
  • 2. In ministring cōforts we may distinctly speake to euery one in his own persō, because it is a part of the glad tidings of the [Page 76]Gospell, but in denouncing of Gods iudgements so warranta­bly we cannot doe.
  • 3. Our voice comineth vnto all at once, but distributing the Sacrament is to man after man.
  • 4. These pet­tie controuerst Diuines, that are so hard to please, allow in Baptisme, that the Minister say, I Baptise, though our Saui­our spake in the plurall goe yee, and Baptise: And if in one Sacrament the application must be made, why not in another? séeing that Sacraments are applicatorie seales of yt righteousnes of faith.

To iustifie their opposition they might alleadge against vs the manner of the Gréeke Church which saith not as we doe I Baptise thee, Baptizetur N. seruus Christi in nomine &c. but let, N. the seruant of Christ be Baptized in the name, &c. But will we know, why this is not misliked, and in the Sacrament of the Eucharist the other is, our Anta­gonists want neither stomacke, nor will, but the onely reason why they doe not, is, some forraine Church beyond the Sea re­taineth the forme, which we doe vse. In briefe to fit both their scruples, whether Eate yee, or in particular, Eate thou, the an­swere,Non praescripsit suis ministris Christus qui­but, vel quot vo cibus essent vsu ri &c. sed actū ipsum definist. Bez. Qq. & Respon. pag. 85. Formula in la­tinis ecclesiis ob seruata mihs videtur admā ­datum domins propius accede­re, & confirmā dae baptizandi fidei accōmada tior. Ibid. which Master Beza maketh in the words of Baptisme may sutably be vsed in the words of the Eucharist: Christ hath not inioyned his Ministers what, and how many syllables they must vse in the function of their calling, but he hath limi­ted the Act, when he commaunds them to Baptise. And whe­ther they say (I Baptise thee) or let this seruant of Christ be baptized, the matter is not great, so the forme of the very Act be obserued. And (yet saith he) to speake as it is the forme in the Lattin Churches (me thinks) commeth nearer to the comman­dement of the Lord, and is farre more fit to confirme the faith of the partie baptized. Because the Minister speaking of himselfe in the first person I baptize, and putting to the pronoune (thee) maketh the minde of the partie baptized, both to obserue the acti­on more diligently, as if God himselfe were then present, doing by himselfe, what the Minister by word of mouth testifieth, as also to apply the promise to himselfe properly and peculiarly. No hard matter to fit this to the present occasion, why in the Euchatist we vse these words Eate thou. Tum ad pro­misstonem pro­priò, ac peculia riter sibi appli­candam Ibid. First, because often repeated better remembred, 2. Because of the speciall denomi­nation, and applycation then made: As for the other point, our Church is not alone in ministring to the sicke, for beside those [Page 77]testimonies afore produced we may vnderstand. That to the right & due action of the Eucharist are required two at the least, namely the Minister blessing the Eucharist, and he to whom the Sacrament of the Eucharist is dispensed,Hac est pia vuctio qua spiri tus sanctus effi­cax. Ibid. sect. 15. pag. 197. Priuat a & extrema agro [...] tantium comu­nio &c. Musc. tit. de coena d [...] mini. so speakes the Church of Wittenberg, naming it that godly ointment (in S. Iohn his Epistle) whereby the holy Ghost is effectuall in those that doe beleeue. In diuers other Churches this maner of ministring the Communion in a priuate manner is to be retained as Mus­culus witnesseth for this end, that the partie thereby may bee strengthned in faith, māde stronger against tentations of Sathan, and better armed to beare the paines of death. As for the place (though priuate because some chamber, or the like) yet we must not thinke it frustrateth the power of the sacrament and the vertue of the administration. For that is one, and the same in it own nature, how euer circumstances of time, and place doe alter extraordinarilie. What els was the roome but an vp­per chamber, where our sauiour kept his supper with his disci­ples? Where was it but at home the paschall lambe was eaten? and where for manie yeares after Christ the whole seruice and sacraments celebrated, but in hidden places, priuate and secret, [...] at what time persequtiō, & sickenes were in force? yt former of which two ceaseth, namely persequution; for God hath raised vppe one, whose iust title Defēder of the true auncient faith streng­thē & eue [...] long may it our good hope of the peace of the Gospel but impotencie thorough sickenesse to come abroad, as also the weake conscience needing speciall choice comforts are euen now verie vrgent occasions to haue the communion sometymes som­what priuate, not any way herein cōtrarie to our sauiour christ his institution. But for ought we can see complaine wee may of want hereof, not vsing it at all, rather then of the abuse in vsing it ill. For what with the venom of some doctrine, as that sacra­ments neede not, what with the prophainnesse of men, that they care not, what with the slacknesse of some minister, what with forgetfulnesse in the sick, what with friuolous obiecti­ones in misliking it, what with yt danger of contagion by some diseases, a verie auncient praiseworthie commendatione is dis­continued. Satan much aduantaged and the sick soule, that néedes the spirit of corroboration agaynst the terrors of death [Page 78]and hartned in a ioyfull expectation of deliuerance in good time, is then left destitute, when is most vse of all such possible helps. What thinke we of this? Shall Scribes and Pharisées vse falsely supposed remedies, for so they doe, and we neglect true, sea­sonable, conuenient succour? as if the readiest way to reach home were best to shoot short, and inough were held done to prooue a good Christian (alway prouided) we doe not so much as Pa­pists. Because they pray, fast, giue almes, &c. We shall do well to doe none of all,Seuen. Sulpit, epist. histor. eccles. these like one Ithacius, who so farre detested Priscillians doctrine of abstinence, and euery spare diet was sus­pected of that heresie, and with him the loosest demeanour made the sincerest profession. But in vtter lothing of all such grosse follie this we may learne as a sufficient resolution. What if the shield of Poperie beare not out Paper shot, and their priuate Masses stand the sicke in no fleed? yet know we so many, as fix not the grace of the Lord on the outward Element, but bring their thoughts in obedience to his commaundement, distressed soules crauing comfort at home, when they cannot come abroad shall (no doubt) finde the Lord to seale vp in their consciences by the ministerie of the word and Sacrament, as effectually in that houre of their necessitie, as in times of greater assemblies and more publike meetings? Alway remembred that some neighbours ioyne in fellowship for that holy businesse, they pre­pared aforehand, as it becommeth, and the sicknesse b [...] (though desperate yet) not infectious, or if none can be got (and that were very strange) yet because others default may not abringe a sicke mans comfort, resolue that the Minister communicating, the sicke partie cannot be thought to receaue alone, as some are disposed to argue.

Chap. 11. Of Confirmation. These words are in the Rubrick before the Catechisme: Confirmation is ministred to them, that be baptized, that by imposition of hands, and prayer they may re­ceaue strength, and defence against all tentations to sinne and assaults of the world, and the deuill, &c. These words we cannot Subscribe vnto.

IMposition of hands ioyned with holy prayer is a graue auncient custome, whose originall we read of in Scripture, as of Isaack blessing his Sonne Iacob, Genes. 27.24. when he would offer,Exemplum ha­bemus in Isaac qui manus &c Calu. apud Marlo. in Math 19.13. and consecrate him vnto God, that he might be the promised heire. Iacob likewise blessing Ephraim and Manasses Ioseph his Sonnes imposed his hands on them, and prayed. Which selfe same cere­mony was vsed in sacrifices: for Aaron, and his Sonnes laid their hands on them. And in ordination,Genes. 48.14. as when Iosua was chosen. Num. 27. Exod. 29 10. In bodily cures I thought (saith Naaman) the man will,Leuit. 1.4. &c. Call vpon the name of the Lord, and put his hand on the place to the end he may heale the leprousie:Numb. 27.18. And Christ our Sauiour vsed it,2. King. 5.11. when he intreated to lay his hand vpon his daughter,Math. 9.18. as also in curing a blind mā:Marc. 8.22. as also in admitting little infants to blesse them, he put his hands vpon thē, & prayed. Af­ter whose departure to the Father,Math. 19.13. the beléeuers for a time vsed it in common.Marc. 16.17 For so our Sauiour promised They shal lay their hands on the sick, &c. But then (& alway after) the Apostles, and after the Apostles in succéeding ages, (Bishops in regard of their prelacie (as S. Ierom witnesseth) did accustome themselues to this ceremony, & withall God did vouchsafe miraculous gifts, which haue their Sunne setting, and know their going downe, [Page 80]yet other graces of corroboration, and perseuerance are of conti­nuance hould on still, and stand in supplie. A time there is that Barzillai may goe to the brooke, and can goe no farder, but Da­uid, and the spirit of Dauid hath farder to goe. The date is at an ende for those extraordinarie giftes, which came by necessi­tie of those times, and made entrance for the Gospell, nowe these of strength, knowledge, comfort, and daylie increase in them, for which the Bishoppe prayeth ouer the childe with im­position of handes are for longer time, namelie to the worldes ende. As for this speach where the wordes in the Rubricke by imposition of handes and prayer the baptised receiue strength. &c. as (if like the children of the prophets crying Death in the pot, when somewhat was shred in, scarcely plea­sing their tast), so these meane, there is death in this sentence, not fitting their knoweledge, that haue tasted of the heauenlie grace reuealed in the worde; wee answere this phraise by imposition of handes &c. is agreeable to scripture,Act 8.18. [...]. 2. Tim. 1.6. and the auncient truth recorded since that time in the monuments, and writinges of the fathers. To scripture, where this expresse forme is men­tioned when Simon Magus, saw that by laying on of handes the holie spirite was giuen &c. So to stirre vppe the gist of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my handes, which latter place though it speake of this ceremonie in ordination yet the former of these quotations intreats of confirmation after bap­tisme as doth also Asts 19.6. But (whither first, or last of those scriptures cited in the margent) the grace of speach is the same namely by imposition of handes &c. The like wee finde in the writinges of the fathers. Tertul [...]ian thus, the flesh is shadowed with imposition of handes, that the soule may bee illightned by the spirite. Againe in another place. After bap­tisme administred then handes are laide on by benediction, and blessing,Caro manus impositione ad­umbratur, vt anima spiritu illuminetur. Tertull. de " imponitur per benedictionem aduocans & inuitaus spiriturn sanctum, Id de baptis. aduocating and inuiting the holie Ghost. This aun­cient manner Saint Ciprian iustifying out of Asts 8. by the ex­ample of Iohn, and Peter, maketh this obseruation. The faithfull in Samaria (saieth he) had alreadie obtained baptisme, onely that [Page 81]which was wanting Peter, and Iohn, Nunquid quo­que apud nos ge ritur, vt qui in ecclesia bapti­zantur per pra latos ecclesia offerantur, & per nostram orationem & manus impositi onem spiritum sanctum conse­quantur. Cyp. epist. 73. ad Iu­batan Post fontem se­quitur, vt per­fectio fiat, quan do ad inuocati­onem sacerdotis spiritus sanctus infunditur. Ambros. lib 3. de sacrament. c. 2. Exigis vbiscrip tum sit? In acti bus Apost. sed etiamsi scrip turae authori­tas non subesset totius orbis in hanc partem cōsensus instar praecepts obtine­ret. Hieron. aduer. Luciseri. Si superuenerit ad episcopum cumperducat vt per manus impositionem perfics possit. Concil. Eliber can. 38. Eos episcopus per benedictionem perficere debebit. can. 77. thid. Manus ab episcopo imponi vt accipiant spiritum sanctum. Arelat. can. 17. Vt mundi, donū sp [...]tus sanct­valeant accipire. Aurelian. Deus largitur gratiam per impositionem manuum. Chemuit de sacra ment ordints. pag 245. Donum comfirmatum in eo fuit & auctum per impositionem manuum Zanch pracep. in c. 4.19. pag. 715. supplied by prayer and imposition of hands to the end the holie ghost might be pow­red vpon them, which also is now done among our selues, that they which are baptised in the church, are offered vp to God by the prelates of the church, and by our prayers, and imposition of handes obtaine the holie ghost. This phraise continued to the daies of Saint Ambrose who speaking of confirmation writ­eth. After the fountaine, it followeth that more be done (or word for wordes) that there be perfection, when at the prayer of the priest the holie Ghost is infused, and powred downe. Saint Ie­rom against the Luciferians writing that the Bishop did giue the holy Gost vnto the baptised by imposition of hands addeth you are earnest to knowe where it is written: I answere (saieth hee) in the Acts of the Apostles. But although there were no au­thoritie of scripture, the consent of the whole world in this be­halfe should be as a commaundement. Out of diuerse auncient councels, of Eliberis, Arls, Orleance ye like may be proued. Eliberis: If the baptised shall happen to liue, bring him to the Eishoppe that by imposition of handes he may bee perfited, and after ward can. 77. Those which the Deacon hath baptised, the bishoppe must perfit by prayer or benediction. The coun­cell of Arls. handes are laid on by the bishoppe, that they may receiue the holy Ghost. That of Orleance. After com­ming to confirmation they be warned to make their confession that being clensed they may receiue the holy Ghost. But con­tenting our selues with these testimonys of antiquity, among our late writers not to name many: Chemnitius & Zanchius wit­nes yt vse of this phrase: Chemnit: God giueth grace by impositiō of handes. And Zanch. the gist was confirmed & augmented in him by imposition of handes. True it is that our writers speake of the cerimonie vsed in ordination, but yet of the ceremo­nie it is, that they so write, which argueth the phrase not onelie tolerable but lawfull. How much rather are we to iudge thus, both scripture and antiquitie auouching asmuch. And therefore [Page 82]what reason haue we for some few vnaduised mens pleasure to renounce a truth so throughlie approued, namely that by imposi­tiō of hands & prayer children may receiue strength and defence.

Confirmation hath that ascribed vnto it, which is proper to the sacra­ments, in these wordes; That by imposition of hands, and prayer they may receiue strength, and defence against all temptations to sinne, and the assaults of the worlde, and the deuill.

Proofe for some mens iust dislike in this, hence appeareth, be­cause it is proper to the sacraments, as if thus in forme of argu­ment it were concluded what is proper to the sacramēts must not bee attributed to any thing els: to giue strength, and defence against all tentations of sinne is proper to the sa­craments, therefore not to be attributed to any thing els: and if not to anie thing els, then not to imposition of hāds, and prayer. In making answer whereunto, wee must know, that it is not proper to the sacraments to giue strength and de­fence, against all tentations. For proper that is called which is onely, alway, and vnto all proper. But to giue strength against all temptations is not proper to the sacraments: It is a thing common to other, as to the sacraments, but not proper onely vnto them. For the spirit properlie is the spirit of strength, and corroboration and none els. As meanes indeede, or helpes so the sacramentes are, but so are they not alone. For the worde of grace is able to build farder, and exhortations, and faith, and prayer, and daylie experience of Gods mercies heretofore, and conference with learned men, and diuerse other good blessings from Goddoe strengthen a man against all tentations &c. Wherefore in a worde wee returne them for answer, it is mani­festlie vntrue, that confirmation hath that ascribed vnto it, which is proper to the sacraments.

Confirmation hath that ascribed vnto it, which is proper to the sacra­ments in these wordes: wee pray thee to certifie them, on whome we haue laid our handes by this signe of thy fauour, and gracious goodnesse towardes them.

No good argument to conclude from a signe to a sacrament; as if because wee hold imposition of handes a significant action therefore we ascribe that vnto it, which is proper to the sacra­ments. All churches, that take this ceremonie to vse, vnderstand that it is a signe of commending to God that same par­tie, on whome handes are laid and if so, what difference is herein, from that practise, which our church retaineth. May it bee a signe of commending vnto God without derogation to the sacraments, and shall it not be as lawfull to certifie of Gods fa­uour? Hitherto we haue alwaies thought, that they who are commended vnto God by prayer (as at this time they are) haue a sure euidence, that they are the Lords. The verie order of the wordes whence it pleaseth some to take this their exception doth sufficiently cleare both, what our church coth, and what her purpose is herein. It is not the bare imposition of hands, as if yt had power of it selfe to giue such a certificate. Solemne prayers are made be the Bishop ouer the childe, yea praiers are doubled, trebled, then this ceremonie annexed withall for a visible signe and not a sacramentall signe, which consisteth of some outward earthlie element as breade, and wine &c. but signe in this pray­er is signe of what the Bishoppe doth and the partie baptised vn­derstandeth is done, which is to such a one a plaine certificate, that he hath had Gods singular fauour reuealed vnto him, in that of an infant of a day olde, hee is brought to some competent measure of knowledge of God his grace, and wil, as also in that he is vpon examination confirmed, and certified by his reue­rent father in God, who is able to iudge, and accordinglie so doth, how, and how far forth hee is grounded in the necessarie e­lements of true religion.

Imposition of handes and prayer are both lincked together with a coniunction copulatiue (And) implying that they both ioynt­lie concur to obtayne this strength, and neither of them seuer allie.

If this copulatiue (And) were in the same kinde of cause, as it is couched in the course of the same sentence, Reason were to iudge equallie of them both, But in as­much, as the one is externallie to vs, the other internallie [Page 84]internallie to God, both effectuallie, but in a diuerse manner the practise of such disputants may be more iustly suspected, then their argument neede greatly be feared. This worde (and) here, is a copulatiue in vse but a disiunctiue in power: the weakest being put first in the rancke, but with respect to him that followeth. Imposition of hands were of little worth, but for prayer. The method and ordring of which wordes is like that Math 17. By fasting and prayer diuils are cast out:Math. 17.21. None but knoweth fas­ting is no part of the spirituall seruice, and worship of God, nor anie cause of it selfe able to dispossesse a diuill, yet ioyned with earnest and heartie yrayer vnto God, wee read what is spo­ken thereof.

If it be prayer alone, that obtaineth strength, why is imposition of handes vsed?

Prayer alone may obtaine strength, but not altogether in this action because though a weaker coupled with it,Doctor Fulk: Act. Cum tincti essēt homines in in­fantia nec fidei professionem ediderunt, dea cretum est, vt cum venirent ad maturiorem aetatem, vocaren tur ad ep [...]sco­pum, vt publicè fidem suā profi­cerentnr Tune episcopus manus imponebat its, hoc est orabat pro iis, vt in ve rafide persiste­rent. P. Martyr. Com. loc. clas. 3. c 8.14. Inutilis est confirmatio, nisi primo modo ser uetur. Ibid. as a candle that is tinned in the sunne, yet somewhat it is, though how much or how little, we cannot discerne. But that prayer it is, which strikes the stroke wee are led to thinke with auncient & late wri­ters. Auncient as Saint Austin and after him Doctor Fulk, and Peter Martyr. Imposition of handes by Doctor Fulke after Saint Austin, is prayer ouer a man. Maister Peter Martyr in his common places, When infants were baptised not able to giue an account of their faith, it was decreed that when they came to riper yeares, they should be called to the Bishop to make publicke profession of their faith. Then the Bishop did lay his handes vpon them, that is he prayed for them, that they might continue in that true faith, which they publickelie professed. And afterwardes touching the grosse a­buse thereof he addeth these wordes. Confirmation is vnprofi­table, vnlesse it be kept after the first manner. That manner hee meaneth which before is here mentioned. Now then albeit prayer be the verie principall, yet that externall ceremonie name­ly imposition of handes was also vsed for diuerse reasons; partlie in regarde of the baptised, partlie of the ceremonie it selfe. Of the baptised, because by this meanes such an one knowing hee [Page 85]should bee examined, did looke the better to the learning of those principles, which were required and after the episcopal benedicti­on was much comforted and strengthened as his own comforta­ble experience herein could best witnesse. 2. in respect of the ce­remonie it selfe vsed grauely and solemnely by the Bishop after and with prayer, which if altogether needelesse, and of no vse, Pe­ter and Iohn needed not to haue tooke such paines as to come frō Ierusalem to Samaria to haue laid hands vpon them, whom Phi­lip the Deacon did baptise. For they might haue praied in Ieru­salem for them, but to shew that the other ceremonial action might haue due place, therefore is it, they did both accordinglie e­uer since the church of God hath vsed both praier and imposition of hands for distinction sake to distinguish the baptised after ex­amination from others that are praied for, Because though prai­ers be made for others, and so the comparison is alike, yet are they not with imposition of handes after catechizing a young graft, as then the manner is.

If the signes that Christ hath instituted in the Gospell bee sufficient to represent, and seale vp vnto vs Gods fauour, as in Baptisme the washing of water, in the Lord his supper the representations which the breade and wine doe offer to our mindes, then to bring in, or to approue by subscription the bringing in of other signes at the admi­nistration of these sacraments, to represent, or seale vppe vnto vs Gods fauour as speciall graces, which the said sacramentes were instituted to represent, is to detract from the sufficiencie of Christ his institution, and is an impious addition. The like may be said of the signes of imposition of handes in confirmation, and in other like thinges not commended vnto vs by Christs institution.

So far forth as this obiection concerneth the signe of the crosse in baptisme, because we would not trouble our selues,Part. 1. c. 26. pag. 139. 140. &c. or the rea­der againe, wee intreat him to looke our first part cap. 26. As for that where it is added. The like may be said of imposition of hands in confirmation, we inuert their words. The like may not be said. For impositiō of hands is not a signe brought in at ye administratiō of ye sacrament either baptisme, or ye Eucharist but long after baptisme & sometime before ye Euchrist: therfore (sup­posing it were true that is fasly surmised) the like may not be [Page 86]saide of imposition of hantes in comfirmation. For the argument it selfe here vsed (to ripe vppe the very bowels thereof) is verie weake and ruinous. The sequell of the Maior proposition wee vtterly dente (that is) It doth not follow that wee detract from the sufficiencie of Christ his institution, if wee approue of the bringing in this ceremonie of imposition of handes. For might this be a matter of consequence it would inforce by way of rea­soning to the like purpose in the dayes of the law. If the signes that God hath ordained in the law were sufficient to represēt and seale vppe vnto the Iewes God his fauour as in circumcisiō the cutting of the flesh, in the passeouer the representatiōs, which the Paschall Lamb did offer to their minds, thē to bring in other signes as imposition of hands &c. is to detract from the sufficien­cy of Gods ordinance and is an impious addition. All which draught faileth in the handling, because that notwithstanding the sufficiencie of both sacraments in time of the law, yet this cere­monie of impositiō of hands and praier for confirming & strength­ning was thē vsed. Where hence followeth. If so that impositi­on of hands did not impeach those sacraments at that time no more may it be thought to hinder the sufficiēcy of these, & if then no cause but it might be vsed though those sacra­ments were ordained, much lesse now is there cause, for the reason is all alike both in the sacraments of the law and of the Gospell. This might suffice to shew the inconsequence of this reason. But wee will examine the wordes yet more throughly.

If the signes that Christ hath instituted be sufficient &c (See before)

The sufficiencie of a thing, whither sacrament, signe, yea of ye word it selfe is not impeached be addition of that which is explica­torie and of good vse. Sufficient is the holy scripture it selfe, nei­ther may a man adde, or detract from it, a curse there is vpon those that so doe, yet none of all their persons are in danger thereof, whose reuerend, ancient, painful godly labours haue béen imploi­ed in cōmentaries, expositions, sermons, catechisme, paraphrase, or the like, nor doe their commendable trauils detract from the sufficiencie of the scripture. Sufficient is a worde of [Page 87]truth deliuered by one honest man to another, yet an oth some­times is annexed, and neuer thought derogatorie to the truth be­ing so tendred, as it should bee. Sufficient is an oth to binde a mā,Simin [...]r [...]ai [...] re [...] discerit. yet more inuiolable, and barder vpon anie plea to be recalled, when a corporall ceremonie of lifting vppe the hand, or laying it on ye holy gospelis ioyned thereunto. Sufficient is a vow made in baptisme. For therein wee promise vnto God all things that are for his glory, our neighbours benefit, and our owne duety, yet if a man doe promise anie thing afresh, bending himselfe to, or from this or that, being the furderance of the glorie of God, & his own good, it is no way derogatorie from the former which he made, and therefore these termes of (impious addition) might haue well beene spared.

The like may be saide of other like thinges, not commended vnto vs by Christs institution.

As if other thinges added to, or after the sacraments, not commended vnto vs by Christ were impious additions for this coherence we note in the wordes by their necessarie dependance from the former. But wee haue cleared imposition of handes which was not by Christ his institution in ye sense as this obiecti­on intendeth, yet was alway practised by Christ & his Apostles & afterwards by apostolical men. And that other things, which our church approueth,Audiuiiam ex te confessio­nem sides tuae quodcredas in deum patrem, silium, et spiri­tum sanctums in hanc igitur confessionem in tingo te in aquam, vi hoc signaculo certus sisle esse inser­tum Christo. vade in pace Brentius in ca­techis. de bapt. Sponsores Tert. debaptismo. not mētioned by institutiō or impious addition, wee hold a speach that proceedeth from more spleene then truth. The manner of saying I baptise, is no forme of wordes, which our sauiour instituted, yet no impious addition to the sacrament, That it is not the expresse forme, which we can exactly inforce vpon Christs institution may appeare before, as also by M. Brentius, who in his catechisme approueth of the minister that shall say thus to a new conuert comming to bap­tisme. I haue now heard of thee a confessiō of thy faith that thou beleeuest in God the father, God the son, God the ho­ly Ghost, & therfore into this confession I baptise thee into the water that by this seale thou maiest be sure that thou art grafted into Christ. Goe in peace. The hauing of God­fathers and Godmothers in baptisme is a thing not com­mended vnto vs by Christs institution, yet no impious [Page 88]addition: The ceremonie of dipping once or forice in baptisme is that,Tertull. de coro milit. & ad­uers Praream. Chrisost. homil. 24. in loba. which the church hath vsed diuersly sometimes one way sometimes another: thrice at a time in, and before the daies of Tertullian, and Chrisostome, sometimes once, as now, because of the Arians and other hereticks, which did abuse that triple ac­tiō to signifie thrée natures of the 3. persons, where before it was intended by the church to signifie 3. persons in the Trinitie,Greg. lib 1 epist 41. ad [...]eand. concil. Toleta. 4. c. 5. Euseb. Lister. [...]c cles. lib 7 cap. 20. and Christ his 3. daies abode in the graue. The giuing of a name (as wee tearme it a christian name) to the childe in baptisme is not commended vnto vs by Christ his institution yet wee hold it (as our church vseth herein) no impious addition. The cere­monies of diuing the whole bodie into the water, pausing vn­ter the water and rising vppe againe from thence seemeth to bee an auncient rite,P [...]scator. Rom. 6.3. Beza. Ibid. whereunto the Apostle Romans 6. is thought to allude in the death of the old man, his buriall, and resurrection to newnesse of life. A signe added vnto baptisme (notwithstand­ing baptisme it selfe doth signifie so much) and neuer then called an impious addition, nor detracting from the sufficiencie of that holie sacrament, which hereby appeareth not essentiall, but changeable, because not in vse no we with vs in our church by reason of the coldnesse of the countrie, as also the tender­nesse of our infants, with whom charitie and necessitie doe both well to dispence. Perk. armil. aurea. c. 3 [...]. These signes, actions, additions all signifi­cant vsed in the administration of baptisme, yet neuer to this houre (except wee onely this obiection) ministred iust cause of dislike, as being thought impious, or derogatorie from bap­tisme and the sufficiencie thereof. The like wee are to exempli­fie in the sacrament of the Lord his supper, which is (that wee may returne men their owne english) a signe, that Christ in­stituted in the Gospell to represent, and seale vppe vnto men Gods fauour, as also the friend shippe and loue. which should bee amongst vs, whereof it is a symbol and pledge. For 1. Cor. 10. we that are many are one bread & one body because we are al persakers of one bread, yet ye, which this signe instituted by christ doth represent and scale vnto vs,1. Cor. 10.17. Iustin. martyr. apolog. 2. the verie same representation was offered to the mindes of the faithfull by a kisse when they [Page 89]saluted one another at the same time. For it was a symbol and significant signe of linking their affections and giuing like honor one to another,Non solum ami citiae sed [...]. Bez. 1. Cor. 16 20. & 2. Cor. 13. and so by consequent a note of Gods loue vnto them. Not of Christs institution, yet not therefore detracting from the sufficiencie of the Sacrament, nor an impious addi­tion. Many other instances we might adde, but this shall serue only for this time. Mutuall consent twixt couples maketh mari­age, specially solemnized in publicke and witnessed by the con­gregation, & sanctified by the Minister his holy benediction, yet the ceremonie of the Ring is added hereunto by the Church, which is so farre from being impious as that Master Bucer, and Master Viret (a man ignorant of our controuersies now on foote) doth allow the vse thereof.

This ceremonie is added but not in the administration of Baptisme, or the Lords Supper, which are the Sacraments we speake of.

So likewise imposition of hands is not in the administra­tion of either Sacrament, and therefore the instance, which we bring is pertinent inough to the purpose wherfore alleadged, and sutable to the obiection before vrged, where these words are. The like may be said (namely that they are impious additions, what are not commended by Christ his institution. But to conclude our answere to this straine, and to returne a necessarie obserua­tion vpon this point. The termes in the former obiection preten­ding to open the nature of both Sacraments in full sufficiencie, are themselues vnsufficient and defectiue. For to call the Ele­ments (instituted by Christ) of water in Baptisme, and of bread and wine in the Eucharist representations, which offer to our minds, &c. Or such as represent speciall graces, as if their seale were to represent, and make some faire shew, we hold no defi­nition, nor sound explanation of a Sacrament. For séeing they doe exhibit and offer grace, seeing they are very true substan­ces, not qualities, and therefore not representations, seeing they are effectuall instruments of sauing grace vnto Gods children, yea more then all this, surely more would haue beene added, and not thus rawly ralling them representations, & doubling that one word, as if therein lay the strength, dignitie, and excellencie [Page 90]of a Sacrament. Againe, this clause is doubtfull where it is said (to bring in, or to approue by subscription the bringing in of other signes, &c.) (other signes) if they meane, such as thrust foorth those, which Christ hath instituted, and will needs supply their place, or (other signes) if they meane of like neces­sitie vse or validitie, equaling them to the Sacraments which Christ hath instituted, we confesse to bring in such signes were to detract from Christ his institution, but otherwise as tokens from man to man, yea some of them through prayer in the spirit as certificates of Gods grace and fauour, we how no way dero­gatorie at, or after administration of the Sacraments.

In the prayer the Bishop saith After the example of the Apostles we haue laid on our hands. This is no true imitation.

It is, and therefore a true spéech, For they and the apo­stolicall Churches did it, alway ioyning prayer with it. A cere­monie it was vsed after Baptisme vpon diuerse considerations, but alway for sarder strengthning the partie, whether Baptized, or to be ordained. And if comparisons were needefull. There is reason to iudge of the two, yoong children (anone after they haue beene entred in the principles of our holy faith) haue more neede of this after-helpe to put them in minde of the power of Bap­tisme, and to worke a remembrance thereof more effectuall in their harts and memories.

They had warrant, the Bishops haue none.

In this point, Apostolicall practise is Episcopall warrant. What expresse word in Scripture for all Churches both Pri­mitiue and since, the same is for our Churches (at this day) with whom the ceremonie is vsed, then to translate it from the sacri­fices of the Law now to deriue it ouer from those times to vs. This fashion of imposition of hands the Church (saith Austin speaking of the custome continued vnto his daies) re­taineth in her Prelats. Hunc morem impositionis manu um in su­is praepositi [...] [...]iam nunc ser­uat. August. And the reason is manyfold, why they rather, then other Ministers that Baptised the children.

  • 1. Because Philip that baptized did not impose hands but Iohn [Page 91]and Peter did.
  • 2. Because all ages since Christ held a Bishop superior to an ordinarie Minister in his Diocesse,
    Heb. 7.7.
    for without all contradiction the lesse is blessed of the greater.
  • 3. They ra­ther then others in honour to their prelacie and place as Ierom witnesseth.
  • 4. Because the parochiall Minister should not be thought a partiall Minister ouer those whom he baptized.
  • 5. For greater grace, and reuerence to the procéedings countenanced by one whose grauitie, yeares, and authoritie much preua [...]leth in such occasions.
  • 6. For anoyding of heresie, schisme, and the like.

Lastly, for that the Bishop might be an arbiter twixt the Pa­rishioners and their Minister in praising, or dispraising, accor­dingly as vpon examination he found the youth and their friends had taken care for watring those buds with vertuons educati­on, & nurtured them vp in the knowledge of the articles of faith, and all such necessarie points as well beséeme a good Christian to his soules health. These and the like in histories seeme to be the cause why Bishops laid on their hands, and prayed ouer children baptized, that could giue account of the hope that was in them. A point duely to be remembred, because some take ex­ception against the Papist herein, yet against our Church iust­ly they cannot. For we preferre it not before Baptisme, but Baptisme before it: We make not alike necessitie of the one as of the other. For that may be deferd without any detriment to the childe, till he come to more yeares, Baptisme we hould not arbitrarie, nor (hauing conuenient meanes and time) doe we thinke meete it should be long deferd. Euery lawfull Mini­ster fitteth for Baptisme, but not euery one so fit for imposi­tion of hands: that a holy Sacrament of Christ his owne institution, and by him commanded: this a reuerent ceremony, and signe onely, though not expresly commanded in Gods word, yet laudably practised by Christ, by his Apostles, and apo­stolicall men which we doe euen for this cause imbrace, as com­mendable and expedient, alway professing the necessitie, dignity, and excellencie of Baptisme aboue it, because euery approo­ned Minister is vsed in that, and not in this, which argueth the worthinesse of the Sacrament, be the Minister of superior or inferior note. Whereas in this other ceremonie it is not so. For though Philip did Baptize, yet Iohn and Peter did lay [Page 92]on hands,Ipsique adhibi­ta impositione manuum in ella sis n [...] confirman di quanquam ipsam manuū impositionem putamus liberae obseruationis esse, vt cutus exemplum qui­dem Apostolicū extet, non autē preceptum Christs Riscat. in Heb. 6.2. Ad precationē pro illespueris sine superstitione adhihers posset impositio manu um. Nec inanis esset ea preca­tio. Nititur enim promissi­onibus de dono perseuerantiae & gratia con­firmationit. Chemnit. de con firm. p. 69. De exhortatio­ne etiam ad per seuerantiam & de confirmatione per verbū in semel suscep­ta doctrina & fide extant Apostolicae eccle sia exempla. Act. 14.15. & 18. Ibid. not derogating from what Philip did, nor extolling their confirmation aboue his Baptisme, notwithstanding that they were superiour to him in place and preheminence. Can our Church then be thought to doe without warrant, when it doth but as it hath the first and following Churches for an example? So Piscator obserueth, that when children haue been taught the doctrine of repentance and faith, they are to make pro­fession thereof, and then to be confirmed by imposition of hands. Although we thinke the very laying on of hands, to be a point of free obseruation, as hauing the Apostles ex­ample for a president, though not any expresse commaun­dement from Christ. Then the Apostles fact being an example. & this done after it, no such vntruth is maintained as some thinke in saying. After the example of the Apostles we haue laid on our hands, &c. Chemnitius writeth thus vnto prayer ouer the child to be confirmed, imposition of hands may be vsed without superstition. And that prayer cannot be in vaine. For it relieth on promises, concerning the gift of perseuerance, and the grace of confirmation. This rite (saith he) would bring much profit to the edefying of youth, and of the whole Church, and were also agreeing to Scripture and purer antiquitie. For in the Apostolicall laying on of hands was a triall of doctrine and profession of faith. Act. 19. and of exhortation to perseuerance, and of confirmation by the word in the doctrine and faith. Exam­ples of the Apostolicall Church are extant, Act. 14.15. & 18. Which being so, witnesseth in their iudgement whom we cannot thinke partiall in this behalfe, that the phrase, which our Booke vseth (after the example of the Apostles, &c.) is a phrase irreprouable.

The Apostles laid on hands and gaue gifts.

Sainct Austin writing of Simon Magus seeing the holy Ghost was giuen by laying on of hands, noteth, that the A­postles did not themselues giue it, but it was giuen, they praying and calling vpon God. For they did pray that it might come vpon them, on whom they laide hands, but themselues did not giue it. Non quia ipsi dabant, sed quia ipsis orantibus datusest. August. in Ioh. euangitract. 6. Orabant, quippè vt veniret in eos, &c. Idem de Trinitate, lib. 15. cap. 26.

The Bishop layeth on hands, but giueth no gifts.

Signa crant tē ­pori opportuna, oportebat enim ita significari Ibid. Significatum est & transut numquid modè quibus imponi­tur mannus vt accipiant spiri­tum sanctum hoc expectatur vt linguis lo­quantur? Ibid. Ita peruerse cor de aliquis ves­trum fuit vt diceret, non ac­ceperunt? &c. Interroget cor suum &c. 0752 0 Id. tract. 6. in epist Iohan. Sed inuisibiliter & latentur in­telligitur per vinculum pacis eorum cordibus diuina charitas inspirari. Id. lib 3. de bapt. c. 16. Those gifts were signes fitting the time. For so must sig­nification be giuen by the holy Ghost in all languages, because the Gospell of God was to run through the whole world in al languages, so much was signified, but is past and gone. Is it now expected that so many speake with toongs, as haue hands laid on them to receiue the holy Ghost? or when we haue laid hands on children, doth euery one at­tend, whether they speake with toonges, and when he hath seene they speake not with toonges, hath any of you beene so frowardly bent to say, they receaued not the holy Ghost? &c. Since therefore by such kinde of miracles there is not now that witnesse of the presence of the holy Ghost, whence it is, and how a man may know whether he loue his brother, Let him see and try himselfe in the sight of God, let him sée, if there be in him the loue of peace and vnities, the loue of the Church, &c. Which whole discourse verbatim, word for word rendred by that Father is more plainly to like purpose laid open, else where writing of Baptisme against the Donatist. The holy Ghost is not now giuen in temporall, and sensible mi­racles by laying on of hands as heretofore, &c. But inui­sibly and secretly, loue is knowne to be inspired in their hearts through the bond of peace. The substance of which answere so often handled by that Father implieth Imposition of handes with prayer, was vsed not onely for miraculous gifts, but also for confirmation and strengthning of their faith, which very same marke our Church aimeth at in those, on whom hands are laid, though former extraordinary graces long since discontinued. So in effect answereth Doctor Fulke in his defence of our translation against the Rhemists, namely,Doct. Fulk. Act. that how euer impo­sition of hands, by which Simon Magus saw the holy Ghost was giuen, indured no longer, then the miraculous gifts, as vnction with oyle named by Saint Iames: yet another kind of imposition of hands, mentioned Heb. 6. is, and may be in perpetuall vse, &c. And where the Rhemists charge vs to make no more of it, or the Apostles fact, but as of a doctrine, institu­tion, [Page 94]or exhortation to continue in the faith receiued. Doctor Fulke answereth it is false. For we acknowledge (saith he) Im­position of handes with prayer, that they which were so taught, instructed, and exhorted might receiue strength of Gods spirit so to continue. And where those accusers lay to our charge that there are among vs, which put the baptized comming to yeares of discretion to their owne choice, whether they will continue Christians or no, he utterly denieth that im­putation, adding hereunto in our Churches name, that they are required to make confession from their owne mouth of the same articles,In primitiua ecclesia, qui ex paganismo in Christianismū &c Innocent. Gentilit. in exā concil. Trid. lib. 2. sess. 7.6.4. pag. 83. Illis manus im­ponebantur ab episcopo deum orante, &c. Ibid. Hoc denique sed seriùs sacramē tum appellatū est, sed a primi­tiua ecclesia cō firmatio simpli­citer dicebatur. Ibid. and performe by themselues, what others promised for them. Then afterwards with these words he shuts vp his sen­tence: finally that which the Scripture telleth vs of prayers, imposition of hands, of the holy Ghost, of grace, and vertue from aboue we acknowledge, as well as instruction. Gentile­tus in his examination of the councell of Trent handleth the ar­gument thus. In Baptisme this ceremonte was retained in ad­mitting two sorts of persons, one borne of vnbeleeuing, the other of beleeuing parents. Those of vnbeléeuing first Cate­chized in the word, conuerts from Paganisme, able to yéeld good reason for maintenance of the true Faith, were by Baptisme ad­mitted into the fellowship of Christ his visible Church, the other borne of beléeuing parents (and so in the couenant) were first baptized, and then after growing vp to yeares of maturitie, were confirmed by the Bishop with prayer, &c. In the ende this was called a Sacrament, but by the Primitiue Church plain­ly and simply Confirmation.

There is no commandement in Gods word for this imposition of hands.

Sci [...] quidem nō extare praceptū hac de re, Inie­rim exempla Apostolorum & veteris eccle sia vellem pluris astimari, imo deberent nobis esse instar diuina legis. Zanch. in 4. pracep. c. 19 pag. 716. Sciamus enim huius carimonia originem fluxisse ab Apostolis & ab illis authoribus institutam suisse vt esset so­lennis precands ritus, &c. Marlorat. in Heb. 6.3.We answere hereunto as Master Zanchius doth of this ce­remonie in ordination. I know it well (saith he) yet in the meane 0752 0 while I could wish the examples of the Apostles, and the an­cient Church to be of more account & indeede they should be a diuine rule vnto vs. Would they so were as he well aduer­tiseth they should be. For we may, or must know that the [Page 95]originall of this ceremonie came from the Apostles and was ordained by them the Authors, to be a solemne rite of prayer. Quorsum enim cadem doctrina &c nisiquia infantes, &c. Vt non aliud restaret quàm illis manum imponere, &c. For to what end should the same doctrine be called in some the doctrine of Baptisme, in other some a doctrine of imposition of hands, but because infants ha­uing receiued baptisme were instructed in the faith, so as nothing remayned but to lay hands vpon them? This in­struction in the faith was point after point a graue declaration how, why, into what, the little one was baptized, what ye blessed Trinitie gaue and sealed vp, how a couenant of grace was made, and a renouncing of Satan with promise of obedience.

  • 2.
    Secundum fora mulam Cated chismi quam tune habebant cortam & cō ­munem. Cal institut. 4. c. 19.4 Magistri Canteches.
    The childe being presented by the parents or friends did openly make confession of his faith according to a set Catechisme in those times. For there were Masters, as Chemnitius obserueth, whose part it was, to sée, that infants were taught, as soone as they became capable of godly information.
  • 3. If in any thing any one of them doubted, or had béene corruptly taught (for there were heretickes sometimes Nouatians and Arrians, &c. that did seduce) he was better informed, and there publikely did dis­claime all such false doctrines and heresies.
  • 4. If he did answere right, then followed an open protestation solemnely vndertaken to perseuere, & maintaine that doctrine which he protest.
  • 5. This promise and vow being made the Bishop offered vp prayers to God in his behalfe, that he might continue in that faith, and in­crease in all other graces of God his spirit.
    Consecrare de [...] & illius gratia Zanch. in 4. pra cep. c. 19. Tradere illis ius vt inter re­liquos reciperē [...] tur Ibid. Bonum auctū & confirmatē per impositionū manuum Ibid. Quo (episcopa­lis) actio, qua alioqui grauis sanctaque merito esse debebat, plus reuerentia baberet ac dignitatis carimonia adhibebatur manuum impositionis. Cal. instir. lib. 4. c. 19.4.
    Vnto which prayer then made, imposition of hands was ioyned, whose vse was part­ly to consecrate to God and to his grace, so did the Hebrewes their beasts in the law when they laid hands vpon their sacrifice,
    • 2. To giue thē right to be receiued among yt rest of the children; so Iacob laid his hands on Ephraim and Manasses.
    • 3. For confir­ming the graces of Gods spirit in thē, namely that the good &c. might be augmented and confirmed by imposition of hands.
    • 4. Tonote that the Lord tooke thē into his protection, to win reuerēce (as M. Caluin noteth) to that graue holy actiō of the Bishops, imposition of hands was vsed, that it might haue the more reuerence and dignitie.

For more testimonies [Page 96]we might heape vp, of Hessusius, Melanction, Herbrand, Bucer, Caluin, &c. But we will content our selues with the two last. Master Bucer, vpon the 4. to the Ephesians. The signe of imposition of handes Bishops onely did giue, and that not without reason. For whether the conenant of the Lord is to be confirmed to those that are Baptized, or whether they are to be reconciled, that haue grieuously offended, or whether the Mini­sters of the Church are to be ordained, all these ministeries doe best become those, to whom the chiefe care is committed. Ma­ster Caluin in his institutions and other treatises doth greatly commend it,Talem laudo. Ibid. Eiusmodiritum vbique institu­tum merito op­taremus Id vera eccl. reform pag. 459. inter opus. and wisheth the restoring of the same. What impregnable necessities commanded it forth of some Churches we know not, but the wisedome of our Church yet retaineth it, and we may rather be condemned for neglect of it, then blamed for the vse.

All reformed Churches speake against confirmation.

Denied it is not, but euery one of these whose names we haue cited, speake against confirmation, as doth also the Church of Wittenberg calling it a vaine, Popish, superstitious ceremony, and well may they so doe, nor let out Church finde any fauor, doe we maintaine confirmation to be a Sacrament:

  • 2. Or de­tract we from Baptisme to giue vnto it?
  • 3. Or make we vncti­on a part thereof?
  • 4. Or giue we it prehemiuence aboue Bap­tisme?
    Consigne te fig no crucis & co­firme te chrys­mate salutis &c.
  • 5. Or make we the essentiall forme to be the holy Chrisme, (as some call it) of saluation?
  • 6. Or teach we that it doth confer grace?
  • 7. Or doe we vse balme? &c.
  • 8. Or pussing ouer a cruze salute it with all hasle holy Chrisme?
  • 9. Or put we the child to kisse the Pax?
  • 10. Or, in stéed of laying on of hands giue it a pat with the thumb, and then a blow on the chéeke?
  • 11. Or tye a rag about the forehead?
  • 12. Or pretend to confirme it being a child but seuen daies old?

If these, or any of these, we be guiltie of, we hartily giue them thanks that reproue But the world knoweth, so far as our name is heard of, euen therefore are we traduced by our open enemy abroad, because we omit all these things. What then shall we forgoe all patience? Our hope is, when our Countriemen know the sinceritie of our defence, and how farre approoued of by other Churches, they will flake their itching heate against vs in this argument.

Chap. 12. In the Rubricke of the Communion at the entrance of the people to the Lords boord, the title of the confes­sion hath this. Then shall this generall confession be made in the name of all those, that are minded to re­ceiue the holy communion, either be one of them, or els by one of the ministers, or by the priest him­selfe, all kneeling humblie vpon their knees. These wordes were excepted against by worde of mouth, and this reason giuen for dislike. The worde of God, alloweth not a woman or any other person beside the minister to speake in the church 1. Cor. 14.34. This Rubricke admitteth any one of the communicants to make the confession, therefore not to be allowed nor subscribed vnto.

REply by personall and reall argument.Quoad hominē & quoad re [...]. personall for the day before, at what time this conference was had, a minister be­ing conuented did confesse at the mariage of his daughter, hee re­quired hir to take the communi­on booke, which shee did accor­dingly and without anie spiritual guide to informe hir (contrarie to our church order set downe) hold­ing the booke in hir hand, did publicklie and audiblie read the wordes, wherein hir consent is required. Which noueltie pleased the father so well, as he would needes aske his parishi­oners, whither that were not far better, then the other fashion of pronouncing them after the minister, hee reading the wordes, and directing the couples by them. So as if the obiection here [Page 98]made haue strength, it mightily ouermatcheth this practise of some one, who hath fellowshippe in other points of opposition a­gainst our ecclesiasticall canons and order. The reall answer to purpose was, and is thus. First none could giue instance that any other did it but the minister, the rest of the congregation pronoū ­cing that generall confession, word for word after him. But if so it were (as the booke to their vnderstanding pretends a libertie, yet no offence at all for any one of the congregation publickely to read an inditement drawne against his owne soule. For so that confession is, wherein the people are deepely ingaged. Where it handling the kay of opening the kingdome of God by the mini­strie of his word, that the Rubricke should say This sentence of absolution be pronounced by man or woman, or anie one of the Communicants, then were iust cause to be taken against it. But the truth is, the booke wisely prouideth that the priest or Bishop being present shall vpon confession first made, turn­ing himselfe to the people say &c. Well knowne it is that in the vniuersities, our colledges, & schooles of learning appoint in time of diuine seruice, certaine choristers or scholers to reade chap. say praiers, sing the letanie, and such like. All which so done by such, is performed all that while by other then profess ministers, that haue taken orders. As for the inforced conclusion (That we per­mit weomen to speake openlie) proueth no such thing: second­ly did it; No such aduantage. For weomen are to speake iointlie with the whole congregation whereof they are a part, or els how shall they sing Psalmes, and seueral alone by themselues, as oc­casion may bee offred, whither at the lauer of regeneration when they became sureties and Godmothers for little ones then to be baptised, or to make answer at the solemnization of mariage, when as their husbands for their part promise to take them to wiues, and they againe in like words say asmuch on their owne behalfe audibly, and aloud, that the rest of the congregation may witnesse the publicke vow each of them make to one another. Wherefore it cannot bee thought scandalous if neede so require, that a confession bee made in the name of all those that receiue the holy communion, either by one of them (as this obiection wil needes haue it thought) man or woman, or else by any of the mi­nisters. For as it appeareth in storie the manner was, that [Page 99]weomen hauing publickely offended, the church required publick proofe of their vntained repentance, both by word and deed. This Irenaeus witnesseth Certaine weomen seduced,Mulieres quae­dam à Marco haeretico seducta & corrupta cū conuartebantur in manifest of a ciebant [...] plāgentes & lamentantes corruptelam. Irena. lib. 1. c. 9 Chemnit. exam 2. part. titul. de confes. Euseb. lib. 6. c. 43 Nouel constitut 3. vt d [...]terme­natus sit nume [...] rus Clericorum. & corrupted by one Marke an heriticke, and afterwards conuerted did manifest­ly publish their confession weeping and bewailing their error, that they were so abused. The like course was kept with diuerse others who (not withstanding priuate persons) made a publicke confession of their sins in their owne name and behalfe. And whereas any one of the ministers is named (beside the priest) wée must know that many particular congregations had, as some churches yet haue in supply 2.3. yea more that did attend their publicke function till such time as they were called forth to reside in some speciall charge. Therefore person, vicar, curate, yea ma­ny more then al these in greater churches Cathedral, and the like as in the citie of Rome vnder one Bishop, 46. presbiters, 7. dea­cons, beside many other inferior helpers for many seueral duetys so at Constantinople 60. priests, 100. Deacons &c. to reade, sing, expound, and to make supplie in the offices of prayer, confes­sion, &c, which is the very cause here challenged in this place: now in regard of these occasions before specified, that men and weo­men did, as also for that ample supplie was and is in some chur­ches, the booke offeceth it in these termes. This generall con­fession shalbe made either by any one of them that com­municate, or by one of the ministers. 1. Cor. 14.34: As for the scripture (that suffreth not weomen to speake) must bee thought not to exlude them from all manner of speaking, namelie singing of Psalmes, praying with the congregatiō, or publickly confessing their sins, but debarreth them onely the ecclesiasticall function of preaching, which yet is not vtterly forbidden.Talis necessitas potest accidere quae mulieris vo cem requirat. Cal. Ibid. For some such necessitie may fall out (saieth Maister Caluin) though not ordi­narily, which may require a womans voice & vtterance. And diuerse examples might be alledged for the equitie of such their humble, penitent, submssiue publicke, leuerall confessions. But we content our selues with this for this time.

Chap. 13. In the last Rubricke of the communion. Note that euery practitioner shall communicate at the least 3. times in the yeare, of which easter to be one, and shall also receiue the sacraments and other rites according to the order in this booke appointed.

THat is, Hee shall communicate to and with the Saints (for communicating is twofold in scripture) to them by way of releefe, with them in prayer thanksgi­uing & other bolie duties so often as oc­casion is ministred. And for feare hée will slip his necke out of this yoke, or may by some vrgent occasions be drawn away, he is to note that at the least 3. times in the yeare, of which Easter to be one, when also he shall receiue the sacra­ments and other rites,The ministra­tion of Baptis. whither for himselfe or his little ones. For baptisme was of old administred at Easter and Whitson­tide, as the booke sheweth in another Rubricke in the page fol­lowing.

The Rubricke speaketh in the plurall number. Shall also receiue the sacraments.

It doth, but either it taketh the word (sacraments) properly, or at large. [...] Math. 12.1. For so the word sacrament may be taken. Properly there are but two, and in that construction it beareth this sense. He shall also receiue the sacraments that is he shall also re­ceiue one of the sacraments. [...] Luc. 6.1. Like vnto that speach of the'uan­gelist Math. 12. Iesus went on the sabboths, through the corne which S. Luke rendreth in the singular number on the sab­both the second after the first, [...]. Ioh 6.45. so this, the sacraments, namely yt second after the first or like vnto that Ioh, 6.45. a sentence writtē in the prophets that is one of the prophets namely Esay. Synecdoche in­tegri P. scator indofinitè loqui solet vulgus. Beza. For the vulgar people vse thus to speake indefinitlie. After which manner Maister Zanchius writting of the Eucharist receiued by a man of vnderstanding able to distinguish [Page 101]twixt the signe and the thing signified, which cannot be done by children. Sacraments (saieth hee) are misteries whereunto none are admitted, Sacramēta sunt mysteria, ad qua non admit­tuntur, nisi qui fide praediti re­lationes possint intelligere dis­cernereque sig­num a resigna­ta Zanch. de cultu dei exter, pag 3 [...]9. colū. 1. but such as indued with faith can vn­derstand and discerne the signe from the thing signified. Where this word sacraments vnderstood of the Lords supper, for of that hee intreateth, must needes be taken for one of the sacraments. Secondly this worde sacraments is taken at large for rites, as the terme accompanying doth well imply: He shall also receiue the sacraments and rites, as appeareth in another Rubricke, where it is saide by the holie sacraments of his bodie and blood, that is the consecrated bread and wine. As for the wrong conclusion (which men doe wrest vpon those wordes) followeth not at all, but rather the contrarie, as may appeare by these two arguments.

  • 1. The sacraments and rites, which the Communion booke appointeth, and no other a pa­rishioner is to receiue: But more then two sacraments the communion booke appointeth not, and therefore a parishio­ner is not inioined to receiue more.
  • 2. the placing of the words necessarilie inforce asmuch. Not that euery parishioner shal com­municate and also receiue the sacraments and other rites.

For had the booke meant other sacraments as of pennance, con­firmation &c. Hee would haue set them in this order. Not that euerie parishioner shall receiue the sacraments, and other rites, and shall also communicate. Because in a popish sense, parishoners are first brought to eareshrift and then after haue­ing done pennance &c. They are suffred to communicate But the contrarie order is here set downe, and therefore must needs, and doth, intreat a contrarie interpretation.

In the second exhortation to the Communion which sometimes is to be saide at the discretion of the Curat there are these wordes. Our sauiour Christ not onely to dye for vs, but also to bee our spirituall food and sustenance as it is declared vnto vs aswell by Gods word, as by the holy sacraments of his blessed bodie and blood. Here the booke stileth it by the name of sacraments, where it should not so bee, but rather by the holy sacrament of his body and blood &c.

This obiection may wel serue for an argument, that the book [Page 102]meaneth by the word sacraments, Baptism itum tum intersorts quo Christus nos spiritu sācto baptizat, & igne, tum exte­rioris, &c. lun. parallel lib. 3. c 6. in Heb. Baptismos plurals numero no ininat solennes ritus & statos baptizandi di­es. Cal. Heb. 6.2 Baptisma tum meminit plurali numero, non quod iteratus vnquam sed sed quod plures Catechumini so lerēt ad baptis. conu [...]nire. Beza. Ibid. [...] Vnanobis et illis fides, vnus Deus, idem Christus, eadē spes, eadem la­uacra sacramē ­ta. Tertull. de velan. virg. c. 2. Apostolica traditio est qua in toto mundo praedicatur vt baptismi sacramenta. Hieron in 2. Thes. 2. Sensus est Apo­stolicam tradi­tionem nihil a­liud esse, quam doctrinam Apostolorum toti ecclesia traditam et sacras res ex ponentem quibus per baptismum initiati sunt. Iunius contra Belarm. de Ro. Pontis. lib. 4. c. 4: 2. parts, which make but one yet are two parts, namely the body and blood answereable to the outward elements, which are like 2. eyes though but one sight. One signe alone is called a sacrament how much more being more may they bee called sacraments. If so: why not then the rather at what time the thing signified is implyed therein? being as the other was bread and wine, so this in a sacramentall relation the body and blood of our Lord Iesus. An argument to proue so much may be this, by way of more then probable conse­quēt. If the holy Ghost speaking of baptisme (which is but one) calleth it baptismes as more, either because outward & inward, so M. Iunius interpreteth it, that is the element & the thing signi­fied which numbred seuerallie are two, or because of the solemne set dayes ordained in the primitiue church for baptisme, as M. Caluin renders it, or because many striplings nouices in the faith did meet together at one time as M. Beza thinketh, then may this also though but one yet bee multiplyed for number in the same sense, because as then many were baptised at one time, and therefore baptismes so one cōmunicating many times it may bee called sacraments. A speech somewhat vnusuall, yet not vn­true. Baptisme is but one saieth S. Paul, yet in the language of aunciēt fathers as Tertullian and S. Ierom, and others it is not strange to say the sacraments of baptisme. Tertullian saieth, we & they haue one faith, one God, ye same Christ, the same hope, the same sacraments of the lauer of baptisme. S. Ierom thus. An A­postolicall traditiō it is, which is published in ye whole world, as ye sacraments of baptisme. The meaning of which word (saieth M. Iunius) is that an Apostolicall tradition is nothing els, but ye doctrine of the Apostles deliuered to the whole church, and expoū ­ding the holie things, whereby in baptisme wee are entred into ye church. Which spéech of Ieroms M. Iunius condemneth not, but niterpreteth The sacramēts of baptisme for holy things & rites as our communion booke there interprets it. Wherefore con­tracting these before mentioned into one briefe, as some doe by way of question who demaund thus.

Whither according to the word of God a man hauing been once bap­tised and communicating 3. times a yeare there be any other sacra­ments to be receiued?

Wee answer:1. Cor. 15.5. Act. 1.26. This question (as commonly all such interrogatiues) made thus cunningly, is but a snare set to intangle a reply. For examples sake: Wée read in 1. Corinth. 15. that Christ was seene of the 12. Where as in the first of the Acts there were but eleuen, for Iudas had hung himselfe. Whereupon with a frame of words after the forme of the demaund here prefixed, wée may stile our question thus. Whither according to the word of God Iudas hauing hung himselfe, & therefor but 11. it may be said there were anie other to be reckoned then at that time for a 12. No diffe­rence at all in the scruple occasioned. For in what termes that is proposed, so may wee tender this, but not without danger and therefore such questions must be cast in a new mould, & be made in some other forme and fashion then this is here. Els wee shall not onely indanger the booke of common prayer, but euen by the like choplogick (at vnawares peraduenture) make worke for Atheists & their reprobate contradictions. Hoping therefore that men desire to be satisfied, and not wrangling at any hand multiplyed, our conclusion is thus. Wee answer. A man hauing beene once baptised and communicating 3. times in a yeare, hath no other sacraments to receiue but the Lord his supper, which is called sacraments because it is one of the sacraments, as also because a man communicateth often, as also because there are many cōmunicants wt receiue with him, as also because of the se­uerall elements bread and wine, as also because of the seuerall partes signified by them, as also the sacramentall rites annexed to them. For all which respects though but vnum totale, one intire thing, yet as hath beene saide in the language of 1400. yeares agoe and now since in the communion booke called sacra­ments in these wordes: He shall also receiue the sacraments, and other rites. And againe. The sacraments of the bodie, blood &c.

By other rites is thought to insinuate ashes, holie water, the kissing of the pax, and such other like rites vsed in poperie.

Not so, but other rites according to the order in the book pre­scribed, for so the expresse words are of the Rubricke, and therefore [Page 104]seing both by law and practise the contrarie is required, what rea­son haue men to wrong out church thus? (Other rites a man must receiue according to the order in the booke prescri­bed) namely bread and not a water cake, leauened not vnleaue­ned, onely wine alone for the other element, and not wine ming­led with water, in the morning and not after supper, kneeling and so forth, for this order our church followeth. But thus much he spoken of both these Rubricks.

Chap 14. The Catechisme of the booke. What is required in persons to be baptised? (Answer) Faith and repentance. These are the wordes of the Catechisme, as it is inlarged in the cōmunion booke since it hath been reuiewed. But this is more then God in his word requireth. For children can haue no faith Rom. 10. Faith cometh by hearing, and hear­ing by preaching.

IN deede:part. 1. c. 30. p. 173. Ipsa baptismi actio est sidei professio. Aug. de precat. merit & remiss. cap. 27. Idem epist. 57. ad Dardanum. Nem [...] mibi di­cat, quod non habet fidem, cui mater impertis suam inuoluens [...]llam sacramēto quousque ido­ [...]eus fia [...] proprio asse [...]s [...] euolutā purāque recipe­re. Ber [...]a. ferm. 66. in Cantica. if children can haue no faith as the words in the obiection plainely say, then is it true that faith & repentance are not to be required. But wherefore haue they baptisme if faith and repentance may not be said to be required. Is not baptisme the sacrament of faith and repentance? Children (as hath beene shewd) haue no actuall faith but yet (as S. Austin well saieth) the verie action of baptisme is in some sort a pro­fession of faith. Againe in another place. God dwelling in children though they know him not, when he dwelleth not in elder folkes, that know him. And S. Bernard stirred at such speches as now are on foote. Let none tel mee that a child hath no faith, to whom the mother imparteth her own, ap­plying it and inrowling it in the sacrament, till such time as by it own kind assent, it become fit to receiue it open and plaine. But more of this in the words following.

Why are children baptized not being able to performe these that is, faith and repentance (Answ.) In the Catechisme. They doe per­forme it by their Sureties. This is most absurd, and against the word, that one man shall beleeue for another, and one repent for another. The iust shall liue by his owne faith, and euery sinner must repent for his owne sinne.

Neither absurd, nor against the word. But when proofe wanteth, or draweth low, then let euery arrow of the quiuer flie: Absurd, most absurd, and can more be added to aggrauate their accusation? These may be degrees of comparison in bad English, but neither one, nor other of them that good degree, which Saint Pauls Minister should get vnto him. The places in Abacuk and Rom. 1.17. speake of actuall faith, by which the iust liue, but not of that which the Catechisme intendeth, namely the spirit of faith, the Sacrament of faith, and that which is in steed and supply of faith working by loue: the latter quo­tation of Scripture speaketh of such as are come to yeares and can distinguish twixt the right hand and the left, which children neither doo nor through imperfection of age can they. Let such Texts be vrged against them whom it may concerne, against vs it needeth not. For as it is euery ones owne life a man lives, so we confesse it is euery ones proper faith which iustifleth. But that is no hinderance to a child, that liueth by his mother while it is in the wombe, nor any let to a babe, with whom the Church tra­uaileth in birth.Heming postil. in Math. 9. in Dommic. 19, post Trinitat. Act. 27.24 Anothers faith benefiteth euen an Infidell and that very much, we say not immediately to his iustification, re­mission of sinne, and saluation, but yet to his preseruation from danger, as it did those whom God gaue Paul in his voyage. Yea it helpeth much to obtaine faith, that howsoeuer not now, yet hereafter the partie, we pray for, may beleeue. Which faith obtained at the humble request which we make (like that of the Palsie man his friends) may so farre iustifie,Si S. Stephanu [...] sic non or asset, ecclesia Paulu [...] non baberet. August. serm. de Stephan. as remission of sinnes and eternall life will certainely follow. Thus Saint Austin and other of the Fathers, take that Paul was conuer­ted at the prayer of Stephen For if holy Stephen had not thus prayed, the Church should not haue had Paul a conuert. [Page 106]And it is manifest (saith that good Father) that God giueth men in their prayer things to be giuen as the beginnings & entrance of faith and that he prepareth for others (not vn­lesse they pray) perseuerance and constancie to the ende. Cōst at deum dare alia da [...]da non or antibus sicut mitium fidei, alsa non nisi or antibus praeparasse, sicut vsque in finem perseuerantiā Id de bono per seueran. lib. 2. c. 16. Thus farre Saint Austin. We all must and doe confesse no man is wise by another man his wisedome, yet another man his wis­dome helps to put one into the way of knowledge and vnder­standing. So thinke we of another mans faith whether for chil­dren newly baptized, or olde folkes that are not conuerted, if so they belong vnto God. They whose leysure is more then the running band of a ready writer permits, may haue recourse in this wise to the auncient and late Diuines. Ambrose vpon Saint Luke. If thou art somewhat doubtfull of pardon, for thine owne sinnes, Sigrauium pec catorum diffi­dis veniam, adhibe precatorē, adhibe ecclesiā quapro te prece tur Ambros▪ lib 5. in Luc. c. 5. Intelligitur si­mul referri & ad portantes et ad eū quiporta batur. Chrisost. vide quantum vale at apud Deum fides pro­pria, apud quē sic valuit alie­ma vt intus & exera curaret homi [...]e [...] Glos. ordin▪ Hoc verè dixe­rim interuenic ente piorū parē tum fide fieri vt nati vel nascituri infātes sancti sint idest in f [...]dere censcantur ac proinds seruētur. Bez. Que­stionū & respons. part. 2. pag. 68. Non negamus, quin baptismus fidem requirat sednon quali [...] requiritur in c [...]na. Fidesenim relationem semper ad dei promissionem habet. Ero. etc. Bez. re­fut. errerum Micha, Seruet. pag. 829. take others to beg for thee. Saint Chri­sostome vpon these words Christ seeing their faith, Math. 9.2. referreth it not onely to those that bare the sicke man, bu [...] vnto him also that was borne. The ordinarie glosse. See how much ones owne faith auaileth with God, that anothers so much preuaileth, that both inwardly and outwardly a man is healed. Our late writers as Hemingius in the place quoted afore, and Caluin vpon the ninth of Mathew giue the like note. This may I truely say (the words are Master Be­zaes) The faith of the Godly parents entring betweene, it cometh to passe that infants borne or to be borne are holy (that is) reckoned in the couenant & therfore saued. Which answere of his vpon some occasion of dispute twixt him, and one Michael Seruetus (who was afterwards burnt at Geneua) is more fully inlarged. We deny not (saith he) but baptisme requi­reth faith; but not such as is required in the Supper of the Lord. For faith hath alwaies relation to the promise of God. I will be thy God and the God of thy seede. The same Author answering this Anabaptist, that we may see how one egge is like another, when Seruetus had said as much, as some else, [Page 107]thus he replyeth If thy word (Seruetius) must be an oracle vnto vs, Si v [...]xtua (Ser nete) pro [...]rac [...] l [...] nobis ost, cre [...] dimus figment [...] ̄ ess [...] papistic [...] ̄, quod in alterius fide alter bapti­zetur, sedqui [...] prohibet des in­stitutto, [...]e tibi credam securè contemu [...], quod pronuntiat Ibid 834. we must belleue it is a Popish deuice to say that one is Baptized into anothers faith, but because Gods holy institution forbids me, I safely contemne, what thou dost boldly pronounce. So then if no Popish deuise to say that one may be baptized into anothers faith, vnderstanding it as hath beene shewen, if their word be no oracle that say the contrarie, if Gods institution will haue vs so speake, if Bap­tisme require faith, though not such as is in the other Sacra­ment required of striplings and men of yeares, if no more be said by our opponents. then was by Michael Seruetus, if sure­ties may promise, what children (God inabling them) in time will themselues actually performe, we may doe well not to héed, what others haue done ill vnaduisedly to vtter.

Chap. 15. There are two Sacraments as generally necessary to sal­uation. This word generall importeth other & more Sacraments in particular implying the Popish Sacra­ments and so cleane contrary to the 15. article of Re­ligion, whereas it is said. There are two Sacraments onely.

IN the addition to the Catechisme these words raise vp some mens quicke appe­tite; and a maruill it is that their queasie stomack all this while takes not a surfeit with ouercloynig it selfe. But it séemeth they are sharpe set,Ne musea qui­dem. and as if Domiti­ans delight were much to their liking, a flye shall not escape them. A méere ca­uill it is in falsely combining this word (generall) vnto Sa­craments, implying some else particular. Whereas it is to be [Page 108]vnderstood generally necessary to saluatiō, noteth it to be eue­ry mans duety in submitting vnto them, because euery one is ei­ther an infant or of more yeares. And if both, both generally ne­cessarie to saluation for both. Beside one might thinke the word (as) should tell them a partition wall is betwixt the Sacraments & generall, giuing thē a reason why two Sacraments receiued & no more. For so this coniunction (as) signifieth both in Scrip­ture and in this place. In Scripture these witnesses shall serue though more might be produced. I beseech yee as strangers and pilgrims abstaine from fleshly lusts, &c. Where the Apostle drawing an argument from the thing wherof he intreateth vseth a course dehortatorie and exhortatorie. Dehortatorie abstaine from fleshly lusts, exhortatorie and haue your conuersation, &c. From the person (As strangers and pilgrims) that is,Math. 6.12. Luc. 11.4. Ve aliquid sit sacramentum ecclesia, requi­ritur (vt sic lo­quar) vniuersa litas mādats & promissionis at­uina complectēs ōnesministros & omnesfideles omnium tempo­rum in noue te­stamento. Chemnit. de cō ­firmat. p. 62. Cerimonias in ordinatione mi nistrorum eccle siae, modo ritè et cum edificatio­ne obseruatas laudamus, vt quae vntuersalē vsum non obti­nent. Nec enim ownes, &c. Goulart. in epist. 63. ad Ca cilian. because strangers and pilgrims. So Math. 6. Forgiue vs our trespasses as we forgiue which in Luke c. 11. is forgiue, for we forgiue, Little as we are wretches as we are, we doe forgiue: be intrea­ted therfore O Lord to forgiue vs. For we (glory be to thy name) that we can so doe, euen we forgiue, where (as) signifieth (be­cause) one put for the other. Thus likewise, There are two Sacraments because generally necessarie to saluation: and if they were not so generally they were not Sacraments. So that an argument might well be taken hence for refusing the other, rather then inferring hereupon more then two. Chemni­tius his rule is this. To a Sacrament of the Church there is required that I may so speake the generalitie of the com­maundement, & of the diuine promise comprising all Mi­nisters, and all the faithfull of all times in the newe Testa­ment. An vniuersalitie he saith of the commaundement for time and persons, both Ministers by whom, and the faithfull on whom it is conferred. One Simon Goulartius, whom we haue al­leadged in his notes vpon Cyprian writeth thus. The ceremo­nies in ordaining of Ministers of the Church we commend so they be rightly and with edification obserued. But Sa­craments we deny them to be as which (that is) because they obtaine not a vniuersall vse. For neither are all to be ordained, but all are to be baptized and being baptized, when they are in yeares they must come to the Table of the Lord. Doe men ap­proue [Page 109]this reasō giuen by others, and will they not take reason at our handes. What is this but like wantons that will haue no bread at any ones hande, but such a one, or such a one they fancy; though it be deliuered them as kindelie, cut from the same loafe that others giue. But because children make orts, and are sicke of the wantons, they haue a rod otherwhiles and the bread taken from thē and all little inough to bring downe their stout stomack glad afterwards to leape at a crust & to prize husks & hogs wash as the vnthrift did, when he was in a strange country: We néed not apply it, they are of vnderstanding, whome wee make an­swere vnto: God giue them as inward and inlie a feeling of that we know they well vnderstand. This third interpretation wee adde from their mouth, whose presence neare his highnesse person may giue assurance of a truth. The word necessarie hath a twofold signification. One more large, the other more strict. Large as that which is necessarie vpon supposition if it may wel bee, strict without supposition as that if must needes bee what ere come of it. The first wee call generallie necessarie, the second strictly, absolutely, simply necessary. There are two sacramēts as generally necessary in yt significatiō takē at large meaning no more, because naming no more but two & thesetwo not simply and absolutly necessary as if a christian were damned without them, but as generally necessarie, that is when they may be had according to Christs holy institution. The wordes as generall, as generall might bee, and that of ourpose to giue full content­ment, but the deuil enuieth the peace of the church and crosseth otherwhiles our best thoughts and purposes, when wee most in­tend them for other mens satisfaction.

Chap. 16. The Catechisme saieth That the bodie and blood of Christ are verilie and indeed taken and receiued of the faithfull. Not plaine of transubstantiation, yet it fauoureth too much. And the article of religiō 28. sai­eth: they are taken and eaten onelie after a heauenly and spirituall manner by faith.

DId the Catechisme deliuer these words. The bread and wine are verilie and in­deede the bodie and blood of the Lord, not onely changed in their vse and qualitie, but in their naturall substance, so as mens senses are deceiued that take the co­lour, tast, and quantitie of one, and other to be the colour, tast and quantitie of those elements (For they are all vanished, and the verie bodie and blood is hid in the shapes, and shronded vnder those formes, and bee the partie faithfull or vnfaithfull, he eateth that verie naturall bodie and blood of Christ vnder, and in those shewes inclosed) did the catechisme say thus? Surely then had it beene transubstantiation and sauoured too much. But being neither so, nor in part so, neither too much nor at all, our brethren haue not done the part of the ministers and seruants of Iesus Christ to slaunder the doctrine of our church, generallie in all our bookes contrarily professed, and in this place particularly expounded. For is not here in this sentence set downe a difference from Ana­baptist and Papist. The Anabaptist making them bare and na­ked signes: the papist teaching as before: briefly one clause dis­tinguishing both dangerous opinions (the bodie and blood of Christ verilie and indeede) So then not onely bare and naked signes (are taken and receiued) so then not (are onely) as if there a stop and breath (but are taken and receiued) to shew they are not if out of vse, and out of vse if not taken and recei­ued (Of the faithful) as if no faith then verily and indeede no­bodie [Page 111]nor blood of Christ: Of the faithful, to distinguish from that falshood which teacheth the bodie and blood of Christ are veri­ly and indeede (vsed or not vsed, bee the party faithful or not faith­ful) For al this that our booke speaketh so expreslie, yet men that are disposed to bee thwarting will slily beare the simple in hand as if what became not Eleazar did beseeme vs to dissemble, whereby many young persons, that take all vpon credit,2. Machab. 6.24. might thinke that our church so long continuing the Gospell publikelie profest, were now gone to another religion. But what should wee looke for, from them, whose heart is not vpright to the presēt truth. Verilie and indeede the words they stick at, fauour as much of transubstantiation, as these words of M. Caluin, where speaking of the elements in the Eucharist he saieth. They are not bare signes, but ioyned to their truth and substance, Non sunt signa nuda, sed veri­tati & substan tiae suae coniun­cta nec sacra­menta domini vllo mode a sub stantis, et ve­ritate suasep a­rari oportet Cal institut. lib 4. c 17. & 15. Libéter accipie, quicquid adex­primendà ve­ram substanti­alemque corpo­rit & sangui­nis domini com­municationem Ibid. De modo siquis me interroget, fateri non pude bit, sublimtus esse arcanum quam vt vel meoingenio comprehendi, vel enarrari verbisqueat: atque vt apertius dicam: ex­pertor magisquam intelligam. 32. Fios verècorpus & sanguinem domini percipere. P. martyr epest. D. Bullingipag. 1139. & alibi. Non igitur tantum panis & vinum nectātum deitas chri sti &c. Thes. Aman. Pola. Basil. Ipsum corpuset ipse sanguis Christi reuera adsūt in sacra caena. nei­ther must the sacraments by anie meanes be seprated from their truth, and substance. Anon after is added by him. I willingly ad­mit, whatsoeuer may make for expressing the very substantiall communicating of the body and blood of the Lord. Againe of the manner thus he writeth. If any one aske mee: I will not be ashamed to confesse, that it is a higher secret, then can be compre­hended by my wit, or declared in word, and to speak it more plain­ly I findit more in experiēce, & in a comfortable féeling thē I can wel vnderstand. M. Peter Martyr in diuerse epistles shewing his iudgement, confesseth that the godly cōmunicating in the holy supper doe verily receiue the body and blood of the Lord. In the dis­putation kept at Basill vnder Amandus Polanus Doctor of the chaire, one Iohan: Hosmā being respondēt, the bodie of Christ is absent from vs in place but most present with vs by our vni­on with him, through the holie spirit dweling in him, and he in vs. Therefore not onely bread and wine, nor onely the Godhead of Christ, nor onely the vertue and efficacie of Christ is present in yt supper, but also ye very body and the very blood of Christ arpresent indeed in the holie supper. Present they are not inclosed inuisiblie in, with, or vnder the breade and wine, be [Page 112]in the first supper they were not so:Adsunt non in­clusa inuisib [...]li­ter in cum vel sub pane et vi­no quia in pri­ma coena non suerunt. Ibid. Ephes, 3, 17, Non delapsa [...]o coelo in terrena elementa. Act. 3.21. Eam prasenti­am non efficit fides sed spi­ritus, Ibid. but present they are of­fred and exhibited: Not the bread and wine (for the promise is made to the beleuer not to the bread and wine) Present they are by the holy Ghost and by faith. Present they are, not slipping out of heauen vpon the earthlie elements, because the heauens must containe him till the restoring of all thinges: Present with ye minde, carried vp into heauen by the holy Ghost. Now in these places before, where it is written that the very bodie and blood of Christ are indeede receiued, and the verie substantiall com­municating of Christ his bodie and blood, one should haue twit­ted these learned diuines: O this sauoureth too much of transub­stantiation, and crosseth the 28. article: As if eaten onelie after a heauenlie, and spirituall manner by faith, it were not eaten verilie and indeede. Verilie and indeede such opponents shew want of loue, and truth, and what maruell, if they euer learne, and neuer bee learned? Carnall men take nothing for verilie and indeede, that is heauenly and spirituall: For did they, then must they thinke this to be a truth, which more then seemeth, that verilie and indeede they doe not.

Chap. 17. Of matrimonie. O God which hast consecrated the state of matrimo­nie to such an excellent misterie, that in it is signifi­ed and represented the spirituall marriage and vnitie of Christ his church. This is directlie contrarie to the word of God Ephes. 5. which teacheth the vniting of Christ to the church, his loue to it, and the chur­ches obedience to him, teaching how the man should loue his wife, and the wife obey hir husband & this is repeated 4. times, and still the similitude drawne from Christ, and his church.

FIrst the place in ye Communion book quoteth not any text, either in the Ephe. or els where: Secondlie since truth in anie kind is not directlie contrarie to truth, neither can this bee, nor is it to the worde of God: And that it is not appeareth here in, because as face an­swereth [Page 113]face in a glasse, so [...]ofe similitude ex [...]resseth [...]ther, and therefore as it is true that: Christs mariage representeth the mariage of man and wife, so the mariage of man & wife doth re­present Christs mariage. 3. Ephes 5.23.31 [...]8. The place in the Ephesians speaketh of Christ and his Church, so doth it of Adam and Eue vers. 31. so doth it generally of all vers. 28. and therefore an in [...]urie to streighthen it more then that quotation doth. 4. No heresie is it, nor any whit contrary to Gods word, to say, that in maried couples is represēted vnto vs che mariage of Christ to his spouse. For it is the properlie of things that are alike to set out one ano­ther. And if it be true, that in the ioyning of Christ to his Church the vnitie of man and wife is expressed, then also on the other side in the fellowship of wedlocke twixt man and wife, is the me­morie of Christ his loue to his Church renued. In this case, for confirmation of that sentence,August de bono coniug. c. 18. & alibi Annon audis Paulum dicen­tem, quod [...]up­tiae sunt sacra­meta, & imago dilection [...]s Christs, quam erga ecclesiam declarauit Chri so. homil. 56. in Gene [...]. 29. Matrimoniū est similitudo, quam Christs atque ecclesiae coniunctio signi ficat. Whit. con. Duraeum. de pa radox. p. 656. Matrimonium typus & imago fuit verè diuini & spiritualss coniugii, quod futurum erat inter Christum & ecclesiam Bucan. institut theol. loc 12 O De­us quiper hoc vinculum matrimonis excellens et arcanum vinculum [...]uae inessabilis et patern [...]a charitatis, significare volussti, quando officio coniugals vouitate fide nostras animas tibi vero sponso copulare placuit de ritibus et inflitutis Tigurme ecclesia. Matrimdnium dulcissima est imago inter Christum et ecclesiam Lauat, narratio. de Nabale. aske the iudgement of Diuines elder and later not ingaged in the question: Elder Saint Austin and Saint Chrisostome. Austin in many places of his works, Chrisostome more briefly: Hearest thou not Paul saying, that marriage is a mysterie, and the image of the loue of Christ, which he hath declared to his Church? Of our later writers Doctor Whitakers against Dur, Matrimonie is a similitude wherein is signified the ceniunction of Christ, and his Church, Bucan in his institution. Mariage (saith he) is a tipe and figure of the truly diuine and spirituall mariage, which was afterward to be betwixt Christ and his Church: To this purpose the same writer quoteth Paul. Ephes. 5.23. The Church of Tigurin vseth the like in the celebration of Matrimonie as we do, where these words are set downe: O God, which by the bond of Matrimonie an excellent and secret bond of thy vnspeak­able and fatherly loue wouldst signifie, when by a mariage duetie it pleased thee in truth, & faith to couple our soules vnto thee the true spouse. Lauater in his storie of Nabals life & death saith, that Mariage is a mysterie of the couenant twixt Christ & his Church. Chen [...]nitius handling the title of Mariage [Page 114]speaketh as our Communion Booke dath.Coniugium d [...]! cissima est ima­go Christi & ecclesia, sicut ex plicatimem il lam tradit Pau lus ephes. 5. Chē nit in exam cō ­cil. Triden. Mariage (saith he) is a most sweete image of Christ and the Church, as Paul maketh the exposition. For whereas Eue is framed of the side of Adam fallen a sléepe, that she is bone of his bones, this the auncient make a godly interpretation of, that it did signifie and foreshew how the Sonne of God leauing his Father, &c. Againe, A most sweete Image of mans redemption is pro­posed in Wedlocke, and what can any more louely picture set out vnto vs, Dulcis sima ì­mago redēpti­onis ext in ipso coniugio propo­sita, & quasua [...]icr picturaetc. Ibid. Non dubium est ceniugrum inec clesia semper fuisse mysteriū co [...]iunction is christi & eccle sie Ibid. pag. 256. calum. 2. as when couples in Mariage kindly loue one another. Anone after. Out of doubt Marriage in the Church hath alway beene the misterie of the coniunction of Christ and his Church. Thus farre Chemnitius, and others [...] agréeable to our Communion Booke, and our Commu­nion Booke to them, and they, and it conformable to the truth. Wherefore we returne these our opponents their own language. It is neither contrarie, nor directly contrarie to the word of God, but agréeable, yea very agréeable to Scripture, as the obiection reciteth the words, namely, that God hath consecrated the state of Matrimonie to an excellent mysterie that is he hath ap­plyed Matrimonie to represent, signifie, and shadow out vn­to man the mysticall vnion twixt Christ and his Church. But thus much be spoken of this exception.

Chap. 18. Of the Letanie. From fornication, and all other deadly sins. This main­taineth that Popish distinction of deadly, and veniall sinnes. Whereas all sinnes are deadly.

SEe men afraide of their owne shadow: What one syllable inforceth this interpretation? Doth it not rather implie fornication to ve a deadly sinne being included with the copulatiue, and the vniuersall note of all. And all other deadly [Page 115]sinner. Might such [...]ris spirits, as these haue had a King at Saint Iames, how would they haue told him his owne, for rec­koning fornication with things of indifferent nature,Acts. 15.20. as blood strangled, and the like, that so busilie except against this, being as it is mentioned here amongst hainous and grieuous sinnes. As for the word mortall, and veniall our prayers intertaine not the vse of them, and if they did, no Church misliketh them right­ly vnderstood, because all sinnes are pardonable to the Elect,Consess. Bo [...]ē et Saxon sect. 9 and to the reprobate no sinne euen the least but is damnable: Not but that al in their own nature deserue death, which we affirme, and the Papist denieth. So as could we restore the word to it wonted and safe signification, it might be vsed, as well as remis­sible and irremissible. For both tend to the same effect in our Churches construction, and therefore this wrangling about words might haue béene spared, but then could not such fond obiections haue béene so fréely vented.

Chap. 19. Of suddaine death. The Letanie teacheth the people to pray against sud­daine death. This clause would be reformed, for we are not to pray against it.

IT is not iustly offensiue to pray against suddaine death. The argument to prooue so much may be this, which fol­loweth. That which is simply euill in it selfe, and respectiuely in regard of our selues and others may well be prayed against. But so is suddaine death, therefore suddaine death may be prayed against. The maior is euidently true, and need­eth no proofe. All the doubt is in the minor, which was this: but suddaine death is euill simply in it selfe, and respe­ctiuely inregard of our selues and others. The proofe whereof is thus. Euill in it selfe because an enemy to life, which man & beast [Page 116]flye from. All [...] desire their being and God neuer created death. It came pa [...]ly through the [...] of the diuell, who lyed vnto man, saying yee shall not die, partly through the transgres­sion of Adam, and partly through the wrath of God, rendring it as a due recompence vp [...]n mans head for sinne. This Saint Paul nameth an enemie, [...]. 1. Cor. 15.26. Galath 3.13. 1. Cor. 15. The last enemie that shall be subdued is death. Againe, a second proofe may be thus. That which is (Galath. 3.) of it selfe a part of the curse, and malediction of the law, is euill simply in it selfe: But death is a part of the curse, and malediction of the law: therefore death is of it selfe simply euill. It must be notes for feare of mistaking: All this while we doe not question what death is by a [...]ident in respect of Jesus Christ,Ex accidenti [...] by whom it is a wicket, or entrance into glory, for that is no thanke to death: neither doe we question, what it is in respect of Gods children who die.Rom. 8.28. For to them all things fall out for the best. So persecution, famine, the sword in Gods children are blessed, yet no man but praieth against them, because we take a view of them, and of death, as in it selfe it is pre­sented. Secondly, death is euill respectiuely in regard of our selues, and others first of our selues that indure it, thus farre it may be thought an euill, because this good commeth by a lay u­rable and treatable dissolution, our selues are better able to set all things in order towards God and the world: towardes God there is time to bethinke our selues in better earnest, then we did before of his power, iustice, mercie, &c. toward the world, fin­ding the deceaueablenesse thereof in all her flitting pleasures, which vpon our experience we see then come to an ende. At that time others present that suruiue vs are more touched, and haue a more tender feeling of things, then said or done, For the words of a dying man are better fastned in the remembrance of them that stand by, when the riches of Gods mercy are seene in a ho­ly, mortified meditation, when appeareth, how ready a man is to die, how willing, and with what patience fitted, contentedly induring the griefes of this mortall life, till his changing shall come. All which obseruations beneficial to others (beside a ma­ny more) are drowned and swallowed-vp in a mans suddaine death. Moreouer heathen men, and such as haue beene giuen to a reprobate sense are content to be gone in all hast, not caring, [Page 117]so they be rid of a present pain [...]. This made tyrants strangely expertenced in deuising exquisite tormet [...] to singer a man [...] death, and all to multiply his paines. Now therefore became it so na­turasly answereth our owne desire, we haue the more cause to suspect it, and feare, running as it doth [...] the channell of our cor­tupt sense, and sensual [...] affections. A farder argument to prooue what the Letanie vseth in this point may be the generall opini­on which men haue of it? yea the best men are amased, when it hapnesh to any friend of theirs. And howsoeuer we must stand all content if it come, yet no man but his harts wish is, he might not fall vnder voubtfull construction, which all are subiect vn­to, that on a suddaine are taken hence. In the Books of Ge­nesis we reade, that when Iacob made an ende of giuing charge to his Sunnes, he plucked vp his seete into the bed,Gen. 49.33. Non est prater rationem, quod ist a Moses tam diligenter velu ti ob oculos visē ­da proponit Muscul. Ibid. Fulcherrimū est et vehemen­ter optandum hoc genus mor­tes &c. Sic ex hac vita decedūt, quibus a deo datur, vt quasimortē in suapotestate ha beant, vt eam vbi voluerint, admittant Ibid [...] Iob. 34.20. and gaue vp the Ghost, and was gathered vnto his Fathers: vpon which words Mufculus well noteth, that it is not for naught Moses doth a [...] it were propose those things before our eye, par­cell after parcell. So easie, so quiet, so comely, and honest kind of death is most beautifull and to be wished for, yea earnestly to be wished for. It so as he well obserueth, then is that to be wished for, yea and that earnessly, which is contrary to a sud­daine death. For in the Patriarks kinde of death; men (saith he) to whom God grannieth so, to depart dot of this life, haue death as it were in their own powet to ad [...]t it, when they will, which course assuredly we must confesse is not so in suddaine death. For Elihis speaking of the iudgements that be fast the wicked, recko­neth suddaine death for one. They die suddainely as did Ab­solon, Cora, Dathan, and Abiram, and the [...]st horn [...] of Egypt, and Ananias, and Saphira, with infinite others.

Yet the Apostle saith in the first of Corinth. 15.21. we shall not all sleepe, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twickling of an eye, at the last trump.

True in deede it is, that some shall be reserued till that time, & suddainly changed, yet that no exception, because suddaine death shal be to some persons, yt therefore none shal pray against it. For it needs must be, that heresies shall come, yet that no hinderance [Page 118]why we should not doe all diligence by prayer, studie, rea­ding the word of God, or any other good holy meanes to stop them. And if the Lord shall dispase of any of vs, (other wise, then in the point we intreate of) calling vs on the suddaine, as he hath done many good men, yet to pray against it, is no disobeying the Lords will, which is his owne secret, and vnknowne to vs. For if a man may wish contrarie to that which he knoweth will fall out, so man he be otherwhiles extraordinarily affected, and yet in a holy manner, as did Saint Paul desiring himselfe to be cut off,Rom. 9. so his kinsmen in the flesh all Israel might be saued, yea if a man in the earnestnesse of his loue, may wish contrary to that, which he seeth already come to passe, as appeareth in S. Paul, when he would he were with the Galathia [...]s, whereas he then was absent, and in that very instant could not at once be pre­sent; we see not,Galath. 4.20. but a man praying against suddaine death, may be farre from iust reproofe, specially, when a man knoweth not ought to the contrary, touching himselfe, and if he did know, or notwithstanding this particular clause should die suddainely, yet his, prayer made in what manner the Church giueth direction, is not so much distributiuely in his owne person, as collectiuely in the name of the whole congregation. For the soote of the auswere is not deliuer me good Lord, but deliuer vs. The effect of which petition howsoeuer some one person may misse of in the particular of suddaine death, yet the greater part doth not. And although he that dieth suddainely, may haue his prayer trustrated in that one point, yet some other way it taketh place, namely that he be neuer vnprepared for death. So as in a word to cut off all controuersies, & meete withall exceptions, this may giue full contentment to a peaceable, honest hart, that when we pray against suddaine death we pray against vnprepared death. And howsoeuer it may preuent a kindly opportunitie for mini­string of comfortable instructions to our selues, and others, which we might yeelde vpon respite giuen by sicknesse, yet the substance of that clause is, that suddaine death may in no case preuent vs of the glorious inheritance prepared of God for the Saints.

Chap. 20. Also the often repetition of good Lord deliuer vs, and that saying, we beseech thee to heare vs, is against the Commandement of our Sauiour. Math. 6.7.

FOrasmuch as the Letanie is the a [...], whereupon these obiections are thus hammered one after another, it shall not be amisse to make knowne out defence in this behalfe. The Letanie a greeke word (the same which Rogations, is in latine, solemne, set supplications, in english) to our vnderstanding is well sampled to y body of praiers, supplicatiōs, intercessions, & thanks­giuing mentioned by the Apostle [...]. Tim. 2.1. Phi. 4.6. & inter­preted by the Fathers, Hilaric, Amb. Austin, Cassian, 2. Tim. 2 1. Philip. 4, 6. Hilar. in expli­cat. Psal. 140. Ambros. de sa­crament. lib. 6. c. 5. Aug epist. 59. ad Paulium &c. Bern. & Theophilact. For all those foure sweete companions namely praiers, supplicatiōs, &c. interchangeably sort together. Prayer in the entrance, appealing to the glorious persons in the blessed Tri­nitie. Supplications for feare of enils to come, wherein the soule humbly deprecateth and prayeth against them, and no other cry for the time is heard, but this: Good Lord deliuer vs: Inter­cession, as that by thy holy incarnation, by thy holy Natiuitie, and circumcision, &c. All which deliuering the articles of our faith in the forme of a prayer, is like to the heigh of deuotion, when our communicants treb [...]le their try, O Lord God lamb of God, Sonne of the Father, thou that takest away the sins of the world, &c. Lastly, Thanksgiuing is in that Letanie also mentioned, but because of our humiliation, the requests we make are much intermingled: yet intermingled as they are, they may easily be discerned: Some that trauaile no such way, as directeth from the hart to the throne of grace, thinke it here­by and oft inough said, though but once said, Good Lord deli­uer vs. But others of more experience (and beléeue their ex­perience) hold it not sufficient to send one but another, and after [Page 120]him a third, and the more the more companie, and all with one note, Good Lord deliuer vs. And the note is an eight, so often the same message is done for feare, it should not be throughly well done. And if all be eight as some haue thought, when a man hath faid all he can, [...]. he can say but all, and eight times he remembreth to fall with his petition, but raising his hopes, good Lord deliuer vs, long, and euer, and onely may this contrarie fancie, be theirs to mislike such zealous repetitions, who can soone satissie themselues; with a luke warme, perfunctorie bleak, cold duetie in so chill manner persormed, as if a North-winde blew out of their months.Haec dixi, vt nō putetis repetiti onem in verbis sanctae lingua lo quacitatis esse appetitum sape­ [...]bi repetitio ha­bet vim. Para­tum cor meum alio loco dicit sustine dominū viriliter age &c. Psal 74. Innumerabilia talia sunt &c. Quod obseruetis in omnibus si­milibus. Ibid. Hoc puto non iustuen est, illud male, rectius istud Persius. Isa. 24.16. This I haue said that you should not thinke all repetitions in words were an appetite to babble much. For repetitions haue their force, my hart is prepared O God my hart is prepared. Againe, waite on the Lord, quite thee like a man, let thy hart be comforted & waite on the Lord: In­numerable such like through all the Scripture, but in these, saith Austin, It is sufficient to commend this kinde of speech, which you may obserue in many the like. Let others in a con­trary course pare as much as they will vnder a pretence of that common folly (This is not, as it should be, that is amisse, and I would haue it thus.) They can skill to pull downe (so can euery foole) could they as well restore, or preserue, and busld vy with the fewest and wisest onely can doe well. Be repetitions and oft repetitions so harsh in their quaint eares, whose eyes are acquainted with that which they read, Isa. 24. my leannesse, my leannesse, wo is me, the transgressors haue transgressed, yea the transgressors haue transgressed a sore transgression. Be these repet [...]ions so offensiue with them, whose hands haue handled the historie of the King, when he cryed, O Absolon, O my Sonne Absolon, O Absolon my Sonne, my Sonne? The reason of which doubled, and multiplied exclamations in the same words, or in others to the same effect, argue our thoughts are not idle, but proue rather, that our affections double, & multiply in vs, yea so long as they hold out, they shew what a delight we take to be heard in that which he prayed for. As if toong and hart had made a vow not to giue ouer, but once, and once, and once, and againe, and more, and more, and more they did striue with God, in the earnestnes of our soule, that he would be pleased to deliuer [Page 121]vs troin that which we stand in feare of: yea the reason of these doubled, and multiplied exclamations proceedeth from such a minde as (for the time) was in Peter. It is good dwelling here: Let vs build 3. tabernacles, and if they be not inough, let vs make other 3. more, yea and if two more may outhid them, two more put wee to. So well wee like to say it, because wee know the Lord as well likes to heare it, good Lord deliuer vs. The matter is sometimes important, and serious as Pharao his dreame, which, that it might not slippe away in a dreame, was doubled vpon him. And is not the blessing of deliuerance, a mat­ter of worth, and therefore well worth our petitious and repeti­tions. But ill best owed are their praiers, that labour to mislike them, whither they be in the same words, as these instances made, doe witnesse, or in other wordes to the same effect,Gen. 41.32. [...]. Aul. Gell, lib. 13 c. 23. [...]. Duplex cadem compellatio ad­monitionem facit intentiorem Phauorinus. Pro. 31. Philip. 3. Pro. 4.14. Ier. 22.39. for so are they sometimes: As that of one, when he said I come and am comming. The grace of which speach is more plaine in the originall as they know, that vnderstand the margent. Not much vnlike a dissuasine to a couple, that they should not war, nor fight. Where one well noteth that the verse did not so much require it, as their owne violence (Who because they continued fighting) the speach the rather continueth dissuading. But whither repetitions this or that, one, or other some would reprehend, such they are, which as men vse to themselues like that of esay cap. 24 before mentioned, so are there which men vse to others as those wordes of Lemuels mother what my sonne, what the sonne of my wombe, and what a sonne of my desires, or that of Saint Paul when sweetning the eare of the Philippians hee writ the same thing, which it grieued him not, and was a safe thing for them, that he should so doe. For much seede otherwhiles miscar­rieth, and hee that heareth not at the first knocke, or heareing is loth to rise, yet through importunitie openeth at the last. And as there are repetitions by men to men, so are there from God to men, and from men to God. From God to men though in des­kant, yet the verie plaine song of that, whereto it keepeth des­kant: enter not into the way of the wicked, walke not in it, goe not by it, turne from it, and passe by. Some times in the same words, as that in Ieremie: Earth, earth, earth he are the word of the Lord. Of man to God in varietie, but [Page 122]to th [...] same purpose, as al those preambles of Abraham praying for e Sodom, Gen. 18.27. which are little other in substance, then this good Lord deliuer the. Behold (saieth he) I haue spoken to the Lord, and am but dust and aslies what is this but this, good Lord deliuer them. 29. And let not my Lord bee angrie and I wil speake againe, as if againe it were ye same in another suste, good Lord de­liuer the. And once more I haue begun to speake, as it that once more ye inmost powers of his soule were shaken, & he desired to remoue ye iudgemēt wt was in substāce like our cry good Lord deliuer vs. 30. And once more, let not my Lord be offended, as if stil it were ye voyce of ye church but yt he was one, & we are mainie; And whither one or many al is one: we beséech thee to heare vs good Lord & good Lord deliuer vs. Repetitiōs of this kind, whither of God to man, or of mā to God neither are in vaine: Not in him for they checke ye dulnes of our vnderstanding, ye slackenes of our me­mory, & withal are a iust reproof to our drowzy attentiō: Nor in vs to him in vaine,O quam dare valt qu [...] se in­quietari taliter taliter patitur suscitari: O quā necessitatis quod suae pote­statis est. Petrus Chrysolo. serm. 36. O quam non ad [...]anuam [...]an tum dominus sed ipse ianua for God taketh a delight to be importuned, & it is his pleasure to try if we wil giue ouer at ye first, secōd, or third re­pulse. O how glad, and faine is hee to graunt that is so willing to be disquieted, and suffreth himselfe to be raised our of his bed? O how it seemeth, be maketh it a matter of necessitie, which is in his owne power? O how desireous was he to méete thée, as thou knowest that hath placed his bed close to the dore? O how vn wil­ling was hee to denie, who made, as if it were wrung from him against his will? O how the Lord was not at the dore onely, but himselfe the dore: I am, saieth he, the dore, who, when all the rest were in bed a sléep, both onely, and principallie heard the necessitie of him, that did knocke. In briefe to giue a full an­swer to what either is, or may bee saide against repetitions vsed in the letany if new prayers, and requests may haue A­men, stil renued vpon them, els how doe wee giue our assent, then surely this cannot bee misliked,Psal. 72.19. which in effect is as­much as a continuall Amen, and soundeth like that in thee Psalme. So bee it, so bee it, which was the voice of Be­naia, and the Lord God of our king ratifie it: Onelie this good Lord deliuer vs, and wee beseech thee to heare vs good Lord is deliuered by way of varietie in other wordes, because our eare is like a queasie stomacke, that must haue diuerse [Page 123]meates presented vnto it, or the same diuersly handled, because one is manie times ouer fulsome, and cloyeth. Deut. 27. from the 15. to the 26. verse fresh imprecations,Deu. 27.15.26. and still fresh ac­clamations, but in one and the same tenour. Amen euen 12. times, here but eight times good Lorde deliuer vs: And Psalme 136.26. times for his mercie indureth for euer: here but 20. times, we beseech thee to heare vs &c. no offence to scrip­ture in those and is it in these?

It is against the commaundement of our sauiour Math. 6.7. when yee pray vse no vaine repetitions as the heathen for they thinke to be heard for their much babling.

Doe such doubt makers rightly vnderstand the place in Saint Mathew 6.7. where auncient and late writers all con­cur in this, with the wordes of the scripture that our sauiour condemneth the manner of the heathen, who as without faith, because they were heathen men, so two other errors they were subiect vnto; the first was, they thought, that if they prated much, and tolde God a faire taile, that they should bee heard for that much talke; the second was, they had a conceit, [...] that they instructed God, as if he knew not what they needed: Yes saieth our sauiour your father knoweth whereof ye haue needs before ye aske of him:Math. 7.8. Now in repeating these wordes good Lord deliuer, and wee beseech thee to heare vs good Lord, let it appeare that our Church prayeth without faith, or that shee thinketh to bee heard for much babling, or that shee hold­eth that God is ignorant till shee informe him, and then wee will confesse our error in vsing this clause before mentioned. But herein wee may see how men to aduance their owne credit care not what account they make of their brethren,Syrtace. as if they iudged no better of vs then of heathen men, infidels and the like. For that which they should attribute to the feruencie of spirit vttered in the publicke assemblies with an audible voice in giuing assēt to, what is praied for they cal by no better name the idle babling, or battologie: Whereas that fault of battology is an idle trifling with God, holding off and on, playing fast & loose [Page 124]as if we would or could deceiue God.— Sub illis montbus (in quit) erāt, er āt submontibus illis —& me mihs perf [...]de pro dis me mihi pro dis ait Ouid. Metam. lib. 2. [...] vel [...] quod significat idem quod [...] exiuit, et signi­ficat eos qui de­lectantur mul toisermones proferre, et quo rum ore multa prodeunt verba gallice babil­lards. Tremel in Math. 6.7. Absit ab crati­one multa lo­quutio sed non desit multa pre catio, si feruens perseuerat tu­tētio. Aug. epist. 121. ad probà. Multum preca­ri est ad eum quem preca­mur diuturna & pia cordis excitatione pul­sare Ibid. multiloquium adhibers, non cum di [...] preca­mur sed cum ci trafidem et spi­ritum verba multiplicamus persuasin [...]s propter numerū verborum audiri posse. P. martyr in 1. Sa [...]t. v. 12. [...]. Luc. 6.12. Math. 26. [...]4. [...]. Luck. 18 32. For so did one Battus whence this name is. Who being demaunded for one, which way he went, nothing could be got of him more then this, he was vnder those nils, so he was, that he was, whom Mercurie ta­king tardie, reproueth in the like accent: Thou perfidious false fellow doest thou betray to my selfe? to myselfe doest thou be­tray mee. In which speech of both sides, there is iugling, and in­uerting of wordes, as if the parties were in dalliance to and [...]o, playing wilie beguile one with another. A thing not vntrue of the heathen men, and of their parly with their Idols, and of their Idols with them, but vntruelie, and vnaptlie conceiued of the faithfull and their praiers to God, or bis gratious answer to their vnfained supplications. The siriack translating this word calleth them such as delight to be gabling and babling. No such heathnish delight is in Gods children, whose holy affecti­on inliueth their words, which els like an abortiue would soone die in their birth. For their practise answereth agreablie to that counsell, which Saint Austin giueth. Let prating (saieth hee) bee absent from mens orizons, but let not much prayer be wanting so there be a feruent earnestnes with perseuerance of mind. For to patter much is whē we vse superfluous words but to pray much is, when wee are set on with a long and godlie stirring vppe of the heart. And much speaking or babling is not, when wee pray long, but when wee multi­ply wordes without faith and spirit, persuaded (as Peter Martyr writeth) that for the verie number of wordes we may be heard. Otherwise Christ prayed long euen a whole night he continued in prayer. And where exception is taken of repetitions of one thing oft, it is wellknown Math. 26. that he repeated one prayer in the same words three times. Which a blinde man did also Luke 18. crying Lord Iesu thou sonne of Dauid haue mercie on mee which seemed a fault in the eares of the people, but his necessitie and earliestnes would not to be an­swered. For he cried the more. O thou sonne of Dauid haue mercy on mee. Wordes repeated so far from reproofe that they [Page 125]make accesse to our sauiour, & haue successe in their petition. So that a short conclusion may serue for all. Neither reciting the same wordes vpon vrgent occasion with earnest deuotion, nor long prayers doe deserue this rough hewed censure, but pattring with the lips, and the heart a far off, thinking belike to be heard for their talkatiue prating. Admit wee not this interpretation which yet is the meaning of the scripture, and Saint Augustin, Battologia, est nugacitatet lo­quacitas ea qua non vtilia pos­cimussed tem­poralia vt [...]oa nores diuitias &c. Theophi­lact. in Math. 6.7. after it, stand wee to the iudgement of Chrisostom and Theophilact, no aduantage haue: any for confirming thēselues in their wrong opinion. For these Gréek writers (as may appeare by him selfe & by Chrisost. in that ordinarily hee is an abridgement of Chrisost. call it babling or battologie, when we ouer earnestly busie our selues in praying speciallie for things not profitable, but trifles, as riches, honors, and the like. Now (vnlesse spirituall graces such as accompanie saluation, and temporall blessings in their commendable furderance to sanctification goe for trifles) an humble, and penitent heart cannot denie their assent to this mul­tiplyed petition in the letanie. Wherefore such must take heede that they grieue not the holy Ghost, and lesse it is not, to wrest of purpose the holie scriptures from that natural sense, wherein they are penned. Be it in weaknesse of knowledge, that some thus ea­gerlie reproch the burden and fall of our praiers, when thus bur­dened and humbled wee doe multiply the same request, yet wee intreat the Christian reader so oft, as his eye lighteth vpon these errors of theirs that euer and anon as hee commeth to a new straine, that his heart in silence will let fall some such request to Godward, as this, Lord forgiue them their ignorance, and though they for whom such prayer is, thinke it an idle affirmati­on, yet our request is, that whosoeuer shall read these criticall de­murie, his loue will not be sparing to say it, and to say it for them Lord forgiue them, they know not what they accuse.

Chap. 21. The booke hath three orders of ministers of the worde & sacraments against the worde, which hath but one.

WHat one sillable in Gods worde for this one order, or how can it bee an order if but one? When allegation shalbe forced to appeare in scriptures, more particular answer shal­be then made. Plaine it is in the new testa­ment whence the names wee vse are taken: euident also it is in the after histories: Ter­tullian thus?Quum ipsi au­thores idest ip­sidiaconi, praes biters, et episco pi fugiunt, quo­modo laicus etc? Tertull. in fuga Quatuor gene­ra capitūsūt in ecclesia episcopo rum praesbytero rum, diaconorū fidelium. Optat lib. 2. Quam mul [...]os episcoposopti­mos viros, san­ctsssimosque cognoui, quam multos praesbyteros, quam mul­tos diaconos & huiusmodi mi­nistros diuino­rum sacramen­torum. Aug. de moribus eccles. lib. 1. cap. 32. [...]. Socrat lib. 1. c. 2 Varios in ecclesia esse ordines ministrorum aliosesse diaconos, aliot praesbyteros a [...]ios episcopot quibus institutio populi Confes Anglic. artic. 5. when the principles themselues namely the Dea­cons, Presbiters, and Bishops flye, how shall a lay man for­beare flying? When the leaders runne away, which of the soul­diers stand. Optatus writeth distinctlie of them by name (as our church doth) but of manie places wee will alledge this one. There are 4. sorts of persons in the church Bishops, Presbiters, Deacons, and the faithfull: Augustin more expreslie. How ma­ny Bishops most excellent, and holie men haue I knowen, how manie Presbiters, how manie Deacons, and of this sort ministers, of the worde and diuine sacraments? So­crates speaking of the times, wherein Paphnutius liued, and withall intreating of those, whome wee now mention Conse­crated persons, I meane (saieth he) those that are Bishops, Presbiters, and Deacons. The apologie of our owne church (as it is set downe in the harmonie of Confession towardes the latter end by way of supply of such thinges, as thorough forget­fulnes might seeme to bee omitted) mentioneth diuerse orders of ministers in the church. Some are Deacons, others Pastors, some are Bishoppes to whome the institution and care is com­mitted. In the articles whereunto by act of Parliament euerie minister at his ordination doth subscribe hee doth ac­cept of thee 32. and 35. Which in effect require as much. [Page 127]Compare the obiection, and anie of the authorities now cited whither of the anncient fathers or of our Church, at these times, and what argument is there thinke you? They say diuerse, this admits but one. If diuerse, then not one onely, and if onely one, then not diuerse. But their ioynt consent one with another and the iudgement of our church must bee of more prize with vs then any straglers obstinate contradition.

Booke of Consecration. Chap. 22. The Bishop saieth to the new made minister receiue the holie Ghost. It is great presumption &c.

PResumption it is, yea great presump­tion to doe, what episcopall dignitie ad­mitteth, but resisting of authoritie and re, fusall of obedience to wholsome lawes is no presumption in the world, no not a little much lesse any great presumptiō for a prickeard saucines is no presump­tion, more then the reprobate Angels sinne was noe aposticie. It is presumption for our spirituall fathers in God to take what the Lord afordeth them, but no presumption for these venturously to challendge, what vpon good warrant is commendablie performed.

It is great presumption that the Bishop will offer to giue that, which is not in his owne power, yea that which God alone can doe. This is against God and his worde.

Presumptiō great or smal, more or lesse, if they cal this, their speach is fearefullie pitched in dangerous places and may soone tilt vnlesse a helping hand support with the soonest. For in the extent of these wordes (as they sound at their first hearing) what [Page 128]is there in mans power to giue, or what is it he hath not re­ceiued? if he haue receiued why then are these wordes as im­plying ought in his power. This iealous interpreting of words well deliuered is a copie they set vs. Shall Moses doe ought in thinges pertaining to his office, and will not 3. brethren in e­uill Corah Dathan, & Abiram say he doth that which is not in his power, or it is more then he can doe and he taketh too much vpon him. Why then? this captiousnesse is a stale slaunder, and a wonder it is (that being readie to dote thorough time,) it hath so much as a snag, or stump to fasten vpon episco­pall authoritie. To receiue the holie Ghost is to giue that, which is not in anie mans power: Bee it as they say he giu­eth that, which is not in his power: so euerie embassador consi­dered as himselfe a priuate person Iohn, or Thomas, when he draweth articles of peace twixt nation and nation, doth a thing not being in his own power but by vertue of his embassie from that great monarch from whome he is sent. The power to ordaine a minister, and to lay hands on him with solemne prai­ers vpon serious and due preexamination is no priuate acti­on, but an authoritie giuen from aboue. To remit sinnes the scribes were not so blinde, but they could see, and say it is blas­phemie for none can forgiue sinne, but God onelie: The peace of God was not at the 70. disciples becke, yet their peace it is called.Math. 9.6. Little are the Prophets in comparison of Iohn Baptist, Luk. 10.6. little Iohn Babtist, & all the faithfull ministers of ye gospel in respect of Christ, yet all are called light to shine amongst a crooked generation, & giue light to the world: Iohn Baptist a burning, and a shining lamp, and the prophets in their time, some such whose labours the Lord vsed to giue light to them that sat in darkenesse. May Ismaell lift vppe his hand against all, and none returne him like for like? May all his wordes goe for truth and this among the rest vncontrolde. None can offer that, which is not in their owne power. Then may none offer to plucke vppe, roote, destroie, builde, plant, saue a soule from death,Nemo dat quod non habet. hinde vppe the broken, Baptise, beget in the Gospell and the like for none of all these are in a mans owne power. The foundation of which argument is [Page 129]both in Philosophie, and Diuinitie very weake.Nihildat quod nō habet eléch. I. In Philosophie both Morall, and naturall. Morall for a seruant who many times hath not a halfepenny of his owne doth many times deli­uer from his Master many crownes at a time to some other man at his Masters appointment. In naturall Phylosophie our dis­putants know this proposition is much wronged. For what forme of a chaire hath an Axe, Chrisill, or Saw, yet these are in­struments to some such purpose? and in arguing of the Sunnes influence, of the elements, and the compounds thence, this pro­position is made ouermuch pliable: so in the question of the Sa­craments for their dependance from the Minister, what violence hath beene offered by the like, euery young Student of reasona­ble paines is sufficiently instructed, or may be, if he make recourse to Austin in his Bookes of baptisme against the Donatists. Nor their onely ground it was, but the Nouatians also, buil­ding vpon this principle denied the Ministers power to forgiue. Because as they said they gaue the Lord reuerence, in whom they held it was a case of reseruation,Aiuntse domia no referre reue­rentiam cuiso­li remittendorū criminum pote­statem deferūt. Ambros. lib. 1. de poeniten c. 6. and none else could giue that, which was not in his power. For God had power onely to forgiue shine. Many like inferences haue béene writhed in vp­on supposall of this premise None can giue that, which is not in his owne power. Which simply proposed may be acknow­ledged for truth, but all the error is in application. Iniuriously therefore doe they by whom the vse of these words Receiue the holy Ghost is hailed into obloquie, to the reproch of our Church and as we iudge to no small preiudice vnto others. For in the manner of imposition of hands ordinarily obserued in the Chur­ches of Fraunce it is decreed that these very words of Saint Iohn. La maniere de imposition. Receiue the holy Ghost should be at that time in the ele­ction of their Ministers repeated, and stood vpon, as also those other following, whosoeuer sinnes ye remit, &c. Then after fol­loweth a prayer, which vsually compriseth the contents of their Sermon, beséeching God for successe in that worke in hand of ordaining Ministers. Thus farre the words in vse with them, not only recitatiuè rehearsing that historie, nor precatiuè with prayers accordingly, but ordinatiuè in ordination, wh they vse their authoritie and power to ordaine or designe Ministers as our Sauiour did his Apostles.

Our Sauiour might giue what the Bishop cannot.

True if Christ had not sent them as the Father sent him: True if in ordination men did take vpon them to giue,Ioh. 20, 2 [...] as im­mediately from themselues in their owne persons, as Christ did in his: True if they prayed not that God would giue what they thinke necessarie to speake of: True if the Bishop did meane the person of the holy Ghost: True, if that God did neuer take of the spirit of his seruant, and giue of it vnto another, as in Moses when the Lord tooke of the spirit which was vpon him, and gaue vnto the 70. Num. 11.17. yea sometimes doubling it vpon one from another,Num. 11.17. as 2. King. 2.9. that of Elia vpon Elizeus. 2 King, 2.9. Sure­ly, surely were a caueller but modestly affected in handling this point, he would no more repine at these words. Receiue the holy Ghost, then at those, which euery Minister vseth the Lord be with you, Chrisost. homil. 33. in cap 9 Math. [...]. or at that which the people returne as in S. Chry­sostome his time the manner was, and yet is (and with thy spi­rit). Besides at such times what imply these words but autho­ritie in him that consecrateth? And they that are consecrated are giuen to vnderstand they haue power being thus ordained to intermeddle in spirituall, Ghostly, and holy occasions, so as they are in the words remembred warranted by their publike functi­on, that they are rightly and lawfully called, and are no intru­ders, hereby giuing vs and others to vnderstand, what reue­rence is to be yeelded them for their sacred function, which they now discharge. So as retaine they sinnes, or remit sinnes, ex­communicate, or pronounce absolution, Preach, pray, admonish, exhort, counsell, reproue, baptize, or administer the holy Supper of the Lord, in all these they are to be estéemed as the disposers of the mysteries of God, and their words sentence, iudgements, cen­sures, acts, or déedes are not hence foorth theirs, as of a priuate man, or of man at all, but the words, counsels, and déedes of the holy Ghost, and men disobeying or resisting disobey not, nor resist them,1. Sam 8.7. for who are they in the view of a carnall eye, but they disobey and resist the holy Ghost,N [...]m. 16.11. in whose name their commission hath so great power, as that it is not from earth [Page 131]earthly, but from heauen heauenly. For when it is (thus saith the Lord) it must be thought that the Prophets also did then speake. So little reason had any to trouble himselfe, or the Church with these occurrences, which are no sooner mooued, but assoone answere for themselues.

Another Paper maketh exception thus. We cannot subscribe to the Booke of ordination as is required, be­cause the Bishop is appointed in ordaining of Priests and Bishops to vse the very words receaue the holy Ghost, which Christ our Sauiour vsed at the sending foorth of his Apostles, which he did because he being God was able and did extraordinarily giue that which he willed them to receiue.

Though sufficient haue beene already answered concerning this point, yet because some renue their complaint we also re­turne them, if possiblie a more ample and full answere. In the ordination of Priests according to the forme established by law in our Church after sundrie exhortations, instructions, admo­nitions, prayers, protestations, and promises to, for, and by the partie to be made Priest, the Bishop with the rest of the Priests that are present laying his handes vpon his head vseth these words Receiue the holy Ghost, whose sinnes thou doest forgiue they shall be forgiuen, and whose sinnes thou doest re­taine they shall be retained, and be thou a faithfull dispenser of the word of God and his holy Sacraments, In the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the holy Ghost, A­men. At the ordination of Bishops and Priests in the Apo­stels times the holy Ghost was giuen to such as were ordained by imposition of hands as in that Epistle to Timothie, I put thée in remembrance that thou stir vp the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands, 2. Tim. 1.6. Séeing then the Apostle knew that Christ in the ordination of ministery did bestowe the holy Ghost vpon such as they laid hands on, what other forme of words can any man probably coniecture, they should vse, when [Page 132]for the ceremonis of insufflation they laid hands on shē, but those which Christ himselfe by his owne example hath taught namely Receiue the holy Ghost, whose sinnes ye remit they are re­mitted, &c. If any man can tell vs, what words they vsed, he shall doe well to declare them, or if he cannot, it is our duetie to thinke they followed Christ his example.

How then commeth it to passe that the Bishop doth not first blow vpon them before he saith, Receaue the holy Ghost?

Alexander Alesius borne in Scotland in 1501. a Prea­ther,Professor theologus celebris & excellens &c. Admonis. Christi. de authori Lutheri p. 234. Est sūma mi­nisterii laus quod in eo verè donetur spiri­tus sāctus: nam hae verba insufflauit et dixit Accipite sp. sā ­ctū accommodā da sunt ad ordinationem, vel collationem ministerii. Alex. Ales. in Iohan. in qua confer­tur potestas do­cendi & admi­nistrandi sacramenta &c. Ac optandum esset, vt ad im­positionē ma­nuum hee simul accederet. &c. id quod dus obseruatum fuit in ecclesia & bodie adhuc obseruatur apud episcopos, sic enim et po pulus doceretur per ceremoniam de dignitate ministerii cum quo donatur sp. sanctus, & maiori oum reuerentia accederent. ld. and a famous excellent professor in Diuinitie (as appeareth in his answere to the defence, of the Louain articles set out by Ruardus Tapper) and buing at Basil, when the authoritie of Bishops was tumultuarily supprest, and withall, this forme (we speake of) in ordaining Ministers quite abrogated, writeth on these words. Receaue the holy Ghost after this manner. The highest commendation of the ministerie is herein, that the holy Ghost is truely and verely giuen in it. For these words he brea­thed and said Receiue the holy Ghost, are to be applyed vnto the ordination or collation of the ministerie: And we must know that it is a calling to the ministerie, or ordination, wherein is conferd a power to teach and administer Sacraments but with­all, with this ceremonie the holy Ghost is bestowed vpon them, that come worthily to ordination. And it were to be wished that to imposition of hands were appointed also to breath and say Re­ceaue the holy Ghost, which is a thing hath a long time been obserued in the Church, and to this day is yet obserued among Bishops. For so the people might be taught by this ceremonie of the worthinesse of the ministerie, wherewith the holy Ghost is giuen, and men would come vnto it with greater reuerence. This was his iudgement. But the former part of this action exprest by our Sauiour, our Church hath not thought good to retaine, because the Apostles, when they would vse some [Page 133] [...] to [...]he not this of insufflation [...],Cum vellent ad hibere aliquem ritum inordination [...] non sump seru [...]nt symbelū insufflationis &c. Chemni [...]t exam co [...]etl. de sacrament. or­dinis pag. 240. sed sump­seru [...]nt alium [...]s tum indifferē ­tem imposit. etc. Christus vt. oftē deret a se proce­dere spiritum sa [...]um sicut & a patre in­suffla [...]s in dis­cip [...]los suos ac­cipite spiritum sanctum. Aug. de Trinit. & vnitate des. c. l. [...]ast it should be thought that Christ gaue com­mandement to vse it, but they tooke another indifferent one, of imposition of handes (no doubt by Christ his warrant) and vsed it in ordination, but not the other of breathing: because the signification hereof did not fit any mortall man. For Christ (as the Author vnder Saint Austin his name witnesseth) to shew that the holy Ghost did proceede from himselfe, as also from the Father, breathed vpon his Disciples and said. Receaue the holy Ghost. Sufficient it may be our Church retaineth the latter clause which is no more blasphemous for the Bishop to say, then to say. They baptise, they absolue. This is my body. I haue begotten thee in the Gospell. For in execution of these particular offices he is but the minister of God, who doth him­selfe, in or by his ministrie beget vs, feede vs, absolue vs, bap­tise vs, and giueth the hohy Ghost to such as are ordained.

But there is no commandement giuen by Christ for Bishops in ordina­tion of Priest [...] to vse these words, Receiue the holy Ghost, as there is for baptizing, absoluing, and the like.

The examples of Christ and his Apostles are in many tales sufficient rules to be followed without any precept, and if so why not in this? Secondly, many things may be lawfully done accor­ding to the analogie of Scriptures, for which is neither expresse commandement, nor example of Christ as amongst others, in that the Church receiueth [...]omen to the holy Commu [...]ition. 3. Why may we not affirme Christ his example in saying Re­ceiue the holy Ghost, should be as well continued in ordaining Ministers without any far [...]er expresse commandement, as or­dination it selfe, which is not there by name prescribed. 4. These words This is my body, and this is the blo [...]d of the new Te­stament, which Christ vsed at his last Supper are generally held to be the words of the holy institution, and yet there is no commandement, that the Minister should vse [...]ein in celebra­ting that action, but because the action if selfe is commanded the words of the institution are therein withall implied. So [Page 134]stands the case with ordination of Priests, Receiue the holy Ghost, are the words of their consecration, which although it be not in expresse termes prescribed to be continued, yet the or­dination being deduced frō Christ his example, the same forme of ordination is thereby included, which he meant should con­tinue as a perpetuall succession in the ministerie. For in the words mentioned one is no plainer then the other. By these very words (faith Master Caluin on this 20. of Saint Iohn) Christ after a sort doth inaugurat his Apostles vnto an of­fice,His Verbis A­postolos swos que dammodo inau gurat Christus in officium cui cis pri [...]t destina [...]erat. Calum. Ioh. 20. Ne (que) profan a fuit in angera tis ritus ille &c. Id, in 2. Tim. 1. whereunto he before had destinate and appointed them. And vpon 3. Timoth. 1. This rite and ceremonie was not any prophane inauguration inuented onely to get authoritie in the eyes of men, but a lawfull consecration before God, which is not perfited, but by the power of the holy Ghost, whence we may thus reason. That which Christ giueth by imposition of the Bishops hands to the partie, that thereby is ordained Priest, the Bishop in Christ his name may will him to receiue. But Christ giueth the holy Ghost by imposition of the Bishops hands to the partie that is ordained Minister or Priest. There­fore the Bishop in Christ his name may say vnto him, Receiue the holy Ghost.

In vaine and idlie are these words vsed, Receiue the holy Ghost in ordination of Ministers, because vnlearned asses being made Ministers by theirs, returne no more learned from the Bishops, then when they went first vnto them.

This obiection might haue preindiff the Apostles,Mira fuit ille­rum r [...]ditas, quod tam abso­lute, tantaque curae per trien­tum edocti nō minorem insci­riam produnt. Cal. in Act. 1. Totidem in hae [...]uterrogations sunt errores quos verba Ibid who not­withstanding their ordination were no better learned then to aske, when Christ would restore the kingdome of Israel, &c. Where Master Caluin noteth maruelous great was their rudenesse and ignorance that being so exquisitely taught, and with so great diligence for three yeares they shew no lesse want of knowledge, then as if they neuer had heard word. So many errors are therefore in this their interrogatiue. Secondly, Saint Paul giuing rules vnto Timothie and Titus doth describe what manner of persons, and how qualified they must be afore they [Page 135] [...] [...]o ordination namely, bl [...]lesse, pr [...]t, [...]ha [...], [...], [...]oly, [...] is te [...]th and [...], vpon [...]asion of which note [...]ha [...]geth them they should [...]ay h [...]s o [...]r none (as neere as they could) that were not first in [...]ued with these vertues and gift [...], which had not béene so necessarie a precept, if the said vertues, or gifts, or any of them were then first to haue béene giuen by unpos [...]tion of ha [...]s in the ordination of Bishops and Priests. So as neither gift of learning, g [...]dlinesse, [...]ome, or any aboue last mentioned were either bestowed vpō the Apostles when Christ said vnto them, Receaue the holy Ghost, nor vpon Timothis, nor any other that was [...]is three ordained.

Many lewd and vnsufficient men there are ouer whom these words are pronounced, and yet not gifted or graced by the Spirit for ought we can see.

This obiection striketh at two sorts of men, one for want of knowledge, the other for want of a vertuous life, but while is so doth, it shameth the persons, it cannot aimihslate their calling. For Sacraments are the same administred by them and no [...]ng defectiue, though themselues be. As for want of knowledge. We are to vnderstand it either comparatiuely or absolutely: Abso­lutely, that there is no knowledge at all to be found in a man or­dained, and called to that function were strange, and indéede vn­like: comparatiuely, want of knowledge in respect of others, may be the best mans case compared with a better then himselfe at one time or another, in one place or another, yea it may so fall out, and doth in our dayly experience that men growing in years are much inferior to themselues of that,Sitanto est m [...] ­lius quod acci­pitur, quanto est melior per quē traditur, tanto est in accipienti bus baptismorī [...] [...]farietas, quan­ [...]o in ministris di­ [...]ersit as merito­rum. Aug. Come­tra Cresco [...]. lib. 3. cap. 6. which they were in middle age, when memorie, voice, and inuention serued them better then now it doth, and yet they cease not to be Ministers, at what time they are so disabled. If the Sacrament (faith S. Austin̄) be so much the better to him that taketh, adhe [...] is the better by whom it is deliuered, there is by so much, a varietie of Baptismes in the receiuers, as there is diuer­sitie of worth in Ministers. Such [...]re must he had (and we hope is s [...] as Paul requireth in Timothie) not to [...]ay [...] [Page 136]rashly on any. Which very [...]at arg [...]eth that if the Bishop shall ordaine any ouerhastily, the calling is lawfull, [...] may be done by such a man in his place. For it is ordination by imposition of bands that maketh a Minister, without which let his sufficiencie in toongs and other learning be admirable, yea incredible, we may and doe hold him learned, but we doe not account him a Minister, whose duetie stands in this, that being ordained, he is, to baptise.

  • 2. To Catechize.
  • 3. To in­struct publikely, and as occasion shall serue priuately.
  • 4. To offer vp the prayers of the people.
  • 5. To remit the sinnes of the penitent, and to binde and to retaine the offences of the ob­stinate.
  • 6. To consecrate and distribute the blessed Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ.
  • 7. To visite the sicke and to comfort them.
  • 8. To blesse those who are ioyned in Matri­monie.
  • 9. To praise God for deliuerance of women after child­birth, and lastly, to burie the dead in a godly manner as the or­der of our Church requireth.

Among all which preaching hath a speciall vse, whether memoriter by hart at times vpon iust occasion,Si prasbyter als quis infirmita­te prohibente per scipsum non poterit pra­dicare, sanctorū patrum homilia recitentur. &c Concil. vasense. can. [...]. as God shall inable a man, or else (a man being not so well prouided by reason of sicknesse or some other law­full hinderance) reading some homilie warranted by authority of our Church. For so it is required, and of auncient time hath beene practised as appeareth in the daies of Theodosius the younger. If a Presbiter or Minister (through sicknesse hindring) cannot preach of himselfe, let certaine homilies of the holy Fathers be recited.

Lewd and licentions men are not gifted and graced by Gods spirit.

We confesse with teares that a wicked Minister though his toong be plausible, if his life be not agreable, the insamie of his losell demeanor blemisheth the glory of his best doctrine, such is the weakenes of the people in taking offence, though they should not so doe. We acknowledge such may be compared to Noahs workemen that made the Ark to saue others & thēselues perished [Page 137]in the [...] But this [...] answer; who say. In the eye of the church it is not a mans learning, nor [...] of life (for these are qualities in common with other men) but ordina­nation with imposition of hand [...] which maketh a minister. Ambrose vpon Timothie. Imposition of handes are misticall wordes, Manus impositi ones verba sū [...] mystica, quibus confirmatur ad hoc opus electus, accipient autho vitatem testa conscientia sua vt andeat vice domius sacrifici um deo offerr [...] Ambros. in. 1 Timoth. 4. Baptizaut quantum atti­ [...]et ad visibile ministerium bo­ni & mali, inuisebiliter autem per cos count est & visibile bap­tisme, & inui­sibilis gratia. Aug contra Crescon. lib. 2. cap 21. Naziā. [...]r [...]t. de baptis. An solis [...] [...]per [...] diff [...] [...] contra [...] Aug [...] temperies & [...] contra Cescon. lib. 3. c. 8. by which he that is elected is confirmed vnto the worke receiuing authoritie his conscience bearing witnesse that in stood of the Lord he [...] d [...]eth [...] offer to sacrifice vnto God. Upon his perill be it that will attempt to deceive God or man. If he liue well thou hast what to follow, if he liue pro­phanely, doe what he teacheth but not what he doth. As con­cerning the outward and visible ministrie both good and bad do baptise, but inuisiblie he doth baptise by them, whose i [...] i [...] both visible baptisme, and invisible grace. Iud [...] did baptise, yet not he but Iesus Christ baptised with the holy Ghost. Neither hi [...] cal­ling nor message deserue dreproch, though the man did. A seale of wood may giue the stampe of Cesars image, as well as a [...]ed of gould. The light of the some is not stained, though his be [...] reach to Baals draughthouse. It is Saint Austins similitude against the Donatists. A pardon is worth accepting of their parts who neede it, though a sorrie fellow were the [...]ellenger of such glad tidings. When man [...]het is vpon the tai [...] man [...]ue [...] ­oneth whither the husbandman where he sowes the seed [...], [...] a leprous hand like Na [...]an, it contenteth so the séede be good, the ground battle, the time seasonable, the heauens kindely with their first and latter raine.

What remission of sins is to be hoped for, where the minister himselfe is wretched and impenitent?

Such men are to be lamented,Si [...] plain intustot and Actione [...] subsannans &c [...] dub [...]te [...] & calicemillius manuporresta, ver a [...] esses orporit &. sanguinis Christi pigwor [...]. Caluin. antiders Concil. Triden sos. 7. [...]an 11. yea more they deserue to be de­priued and thrust out, yet be the minister an epl [...]e inwardly to himselfe, deuiding the holie action of the sacrament. I cannot doubt (saieth M. Caluin) that the breade and cup reached vnto [Page 138]me by h [...] [...], are vnto not the true pledges of the [...]odis and blood of Christ.

If not to be able to preach make a man a dumb dog, the doubt is bo [...] that ordinatiō may be good, which setteth apart such ones to the work of the ministrie.

This frame of words fée [...]eth to take many things for gra [...] ­ted, as that a man not able to preach is a dumb dog, and that such a one his ordination is not good. The first of which propo­sitions needeth explication, the second requireth farder proof, thē onelie a bare affection. In the first wee doubt what is meant by preaching, secondlie who are these domb dogs. By preaching meane they, making a sermon vpon a text, expounding of the wordes for their depentance and fence, raising of the doctrin with their seueral vses, ane due application to time, person, and place, by instruction, reproofe, confutation, and the like, and al this done without books, co [...]d by heart, and vttered with an audible voyce in the eares of the congregation, we easily confesse an inestimable benefit commeth to Gods Church thereby, and men thus suffici­ently able are worthie of speciall in [...]enragements for mainte­nance of learning [...] religion, but then are they a verie few, that must beheld forable minister [...], and (belike) because others not thus able to preach must be reputed no ministers, which is vndoubtedlie a very dangerous, and false consequent. That some are so qualified, able thus to preach, is a singular blessing of God vpon both our famous vniuersities, and his rich mercy which he hath vouchsafed vnto our church, but that other are not therefor lawfull ministers,Qui bene pronū tiare possunt, quid autem pro [...]untiēt excogi­tare non poss [...]t Quod si ah a lies sumant elo quen ter sapienter que cōscriptum, nemo riaque cōmēdent at que ad populū profer ant sieam personam gerūt, nō improbe facions. Sic enim (quod vtile est) [...]ult [...] pradicatores [...] mu [...]t [...] mag [...]tr [...]st [...] verimagestri id ips [...]um die an [...] [...]ia, et nē sunt in iis schismata, Aug. de doct. Christia. lib. 4. c. 28. nor their ordination good who cannot doe so­much, wee dare not so iudge. For some there are as S. Austin well obserued in his time, that can pronounce well (or as wee english it) are good churchmen, but cannot so well in­uent, neither for matter, nor wordes, but if they take of others, what is well penned (as homilies or sermons) & pronounce thē to the people, if they sustaine that person [Page 139]they do not amisse. For so (which is a profitable thing) there are many preachers, but not manie maisters, if so be they speake all thinges of that one true maister Christ, and that there be no schismes among them. Where wee may note 1. the way to haue many preachers, secondlie that they who take other mens labours to vse do a profitable worke, 3. that they are not reckoned dumb dogs or vnpreaching ministers, but preachers and publishers of the truth. But let vs proceede on as wée be­gan. Some there are whose inuention serueth welinough, & vpon due meditation haue apt words at will, and can accordingly fore their places, & quotations for euery necessary proofe, which they do alledge & yet their memory is weake, & for their hearts they cannot deliuer without book what they haue penned in writing. These also must be put out of the number of ministers, as not a­ble to deliuer their message, and threefore being not able to preach, their ordination is not to be held for good. But by these mens patience who so dispute, we prefer other mens iudgements before such ouerhastie censures. For Zepperus & Bernard Textor (though otherwise known disciplinarians) giue their verdict otherwise.Tyr [...]nibus ali­quid sub imitie conceds potest et indulgeri, vt vel adverbēl ma moriterediscāt, veles chartale gant &c. Zep­pen Art. habend. concion. lib. [...]. Breus, memori­a subsidnum in charta, not at [...] & in libre re­positum se [...]fin­um Bernar. Texter. Pandect sacra. [...]om [...]to [...]. En [...]angelizare enim perpance [...] rum est bapti­zare antem cu­inslibet [...]de sacerdotie figatur Chrisest. in 1. Corinth. 1. Nune quidem prasbyteris qui in habilteres some hoc momustradimus Ibid. To young diuines at the first somewhat may be fanourablie yeelded, that either they con without booke, or els to read their sermons out of their paper. B [...] ­nand Textor distinguisheth of preachers, some are of a bad me­mory, some of a good. They of a bad memory may haue help from their notes in their paper booke, as it lieth before them. 3. others a gaine there are that can, neither inuent, nor dispose, nor remember, and therefore not able to preach in the sense here deliuered of preaching, and yet were rec­koned for ministers in the dayes of the Apostles. For so auncient and late writers vnderstand that place in 1 Corinthi­ans where Paul saieth he was sent not to baptise but to preach For (saith Chrifostome) preach a very few can, but bap­tize euery one may that is a Priest or minister. And then af­ter recording how the custome of the Church in his dayes diffe­red not from the Apostles times. Now truely (saith he,) wee [Page 140]giue this office to presbiters that are more [...]nable. Maiusest [...]n an gelizare quam baptizare. Non emnisqui baps tizat idoneut est euāgelizare. Ambros. in 1. Corinth. 1. Perfecte bapti­zare etiam mi nus decti possūt perfecte autem euangelizare multo difficili [...] ris & rarioris est operis. Ideo doctor gentium pl [...]rimis excel­lentior enangele zaremissusestuō baptizare, quo. niam hoc per mul [...]or fiers pot [...] rat, illud per pa [...]cos, inter quireminebat. August [...]ōrra ti­ter. Petils, lib. 3 c 56. Cū pa [...]corū esset docare, pluri but autem baptizare datū foret. &c. Calum in 1. Corinth. 1.17. Baptismune fere aliis ma [...]d [...] runt q [...]i ad pra­dication [...] for tassis [...]i [...]s ido [...]ei erant Gual­ter. Ibid. M [...]s tingends cuiuis in ecclesia cōmitti potest, nō itē munus euangelizā di. P. martir. Ibid. Ag [...]scimus quor [...]dā inecclesiaveteri pastorū [...]implicitatem innocuam plus aliquand [...] profecisse eccle (in, qua [...] quor [...] ­dam er [...]dition [...] variam exquisitam, delicatam (que) sed paul [...] post fastu osiorem v [...]de we bodieè quidē re [...]ici [...]ds [...]imphcit [...]te [...] quorandā pribā nee tumē [...] imperitā, Con [...]es. [...]. Vpon the same place Saint Ambrose hath these wordes It is a greater thing to preach then to baptise. Not euerie one that bap­tiseth is fit to preach. Some such note Saint Austin maketh. men of lesse learning may perfectly or sufficiently well bap­tise, but to preach wel, or perfectlie is a worke more rare and difficult, and therefore the doctor of the Gentiles be­ing more excellent then manie, was sent to preach the Gos­pell not to baptise, because that might be done by many, this could be done but by a few, among whome Paul, was eminent and chiefe. Maister Caluin noteth vpon that 1. Co­rinthi [...]s in this manner. The Apostle entreth not this com­parison to detract aniething from baptisme. But because verie few were able to teach, but to baptise was giuen to manie &c. Maister Gualter to the like purpose. Other A­postles that were imployed in continuall teaching follow­ed this course of Saint Paul, they commended baptisme to manie others, who perhaps were lesse fit [...]ed to preach. Pe­ter Martyr hath some such obseruation vpon the same text. The office of baptising may be committed to anie man in the church, but so may not the office of preaching. Wee speake not of Hemingius, and others, whose indgement agreeth here­unto Onely we wil content our selues with the confession of Heluetia. we acknowledge (saieth it) that harmles simplicity of pastors in the anncient church did profit the church a great deale more, then some mens various exquisite, & de­licat learning, but a little to proud & disdainfull: wherefore we reiect not at this day the honest simplicity of some ministers so it be not too vnlearned. 4. to conclude if by preaching they meane the spending of an hower idlie, to no [...] [...]urpose, or schis­matically or out of order, or like bold baiard, thē we graūt such as can exhort, say seruice, [...]e [...]ebrat ye facr aments, read at times some [Page 141]s [...]odlie sermons which themselues haue penned, or some others for them, to be no ministers, because they cannot preach in that scandalous manner of preaching.

Dumb dogges.

As touching this appellation.Vocans mutos canes obiteit illis ignauiā & socordiam Cal. in Esa. 56.10. The Prophet calleth not those dumb dogs who are vtterlie vnable to doe their duty, for of them he spake in the wordes going before, but those he so nameth which are negligent and sluggish being able and not doing it 2. hee calleth not them dumb dogs that did read the law, admini­ster the sacraments, and those legall ceremonies with other such duties as became the priests though they all could not make far­der proo [...]e of their memories inuentiō, audacity, vtterance, learn­ing & in a most paineful manner spending their spirits aforehand to be prouided, and after meditation to deliuer it by heart fitlie and agreable to the holsome doctrines handled and the persons in presence: for such able Priests were alwaies verie rare, but those they are, whome he calleth dumb dogs, that did nothing at all, appertaining to their office but onely bearing a name were altogether idle and slothfull 3. neither doth the Prophet reproue onely those to whome the function of teaching was com­mitted, but (as Maister Caluin noteth) he vnderstandeth iudges gouernors, and kinges, Sedetiam indices praefectors, acreges, qui ritè omnia admi­nistrare debue­rant. Ibid. who ought to haue administred all thinges orderly. Now then as in ciuill policies; ignorance, and some defects make not a iudge, magistrate, or king his office void nor frustrateth the election (for that graunted will drawe on ma­nie absurd, rebellious, anabaptisticall conclusions) so neither doth want of some more speciall commendable perfection make a nullitie of the minister his calling or canonicall ordination.

Yes but it doth, For it is required he be able to conuince the gaine­saier.

Surely it is to be wished that all our ministers could per­forme their office in the best and most excellent sort, but we must doe as we may, when wee cannot as wee would. He that car­rieth a hod on his shoulder, and beareth bricke or morter is ma­nie [Page 142]times a good maison though not so expert, as the architect, and chiefe builder: hee that handleth a spade to cast vp the mould, is other whiles a good gardiner, though not so cunning as he that draweth the knot. He may be a good minister that wanteth as wée read a fore memory, vtterance, audacity to instruct by the pen or by reading his owne labours, and the approued labors of other holy men, though he be not of dexteritie to conceiue or con­fute as some other of his brethrenican. And certaine it is, manie there are, who because they will shunne the reprochfull name of dumb dogs are readiest to fling a stone at the head of others more sufficient then themselues. For of these vntimely, rathripe, vnlettered, vnpreaching preachers, some haue beene found so able to conuince the cōmon aduersary, that they haue not blushed to disclame the knowledge of the latin tongue (as forsooth and great reasō the marke of the beast) nor ashamed to thanke God they de­file not their studies with those antichristiā controuersies, and as for writing of the fathers they haue wished them all on a light fire, not any thing better affected to the studie of the arts and phi­losiphie, accounting them all vaine and curious, and our vniuersi­ty learning but pedagogicall, nor our sermons other then meta­physicall schoole preaching. Such ability it is these men haue to conuince the aduersary that in steed of confuting him, they dis­tract our owne forces, & when they should strike at his head they are nibbling at our beeles, and where they should fight for vs, it is either with vs or gainst vs.

The Apostle 1. Tim. 3. & in Titus 1. expressing the dueties of a Bishop or a minister doth write they must be apt to teach &c. not left arbi­trarie, but a matter of necessity. For he must be so, and so.

The word must is a word of conuenience not simplie ab­solute, [...]. meaning that Bishoppes, as neare as they can, ought to make choice of such men as are so qualified. For els by the like reason, no man may be a Bishoppe, or minister vnlesse he be a father of children. For the worde must there vsed includeth that particular. But the holy Ghost neither thinketh, writeth, or commandeth anie thing, which is not simplie and in euerie respect absolute and perfect, onely proposing the idea or patterne [Page 143]of a perfect minister not that alway there can be such a one. S. Ierom against Iouinian asketh a questiō not amisse to our pre­sent purpose.Nunquid, quia tuenercitu ferti sun us quisque eligendus est, [...]d circo non assu­mentur, &c. Hieron lib. 1. aduers. Iouini­an. Sic in descriptione episcopi, & in corum expo­sitione quaescrip ta sunt, &c. Hieron ad Oce­anum epist. 83. Quod dixit ir­reprehensibilis: aut nullus, aut rarus. Idem. ad­uers. Blags [...]nes lib. 1. c. 8 [...] Illud certè [...] qui possit cum cateris virtuti­bus difficulter inuenies. Ibid. Maximèque illud vt potens sit aduersariis resistere & per uersas opprime­re at que superare doctrinas. Ibid. Ita fit quodin alio primum aut totum est, in also in parte versetur, & tamen non sit in crimine, qui nō haebet omnia nec condemnetur ex eo, quòd non habet, sed iustificetur in co quod possidet Ib. Non suscip [...]unt magis & minus. Topic. lib. 6. What (saieth hee) because in an armie the vali­antest must be chosen, shall not therefore weaker persons be ac­cepted of, since all cannot be alike strong? And againe, writing to Oceanus. As Orators and Philosophers (saieth he) when they describe what kinde of orator, or philosopher they would wish to haue, doe no iniurie to Demosthenes, or Plato, but de­scribe the thinges without persons, so in the description of a Bi­shoppe, and in the exposition of those thinges, which are written, there is set before a mirror of the priesthood. And the same fa­ther against Pelagius writeth vpon these wordes of the Apostle In that he saith. He must be irreprouable, such a one is not at al or very rare, and that other which followeth apt to teach with the rest of the virtues you shall hardlie finde. Anon after. That he be accused of none, be well reported of them that are abrode, and free from euill speaches of the aduersaries, I thinke it be harde to finde such a one, specially so mightie as that he can re­sist the aduersaries, and oppresse or ouercome peruerse doctrines. Againe He is either none, or rare, that hath all which a Bishoppe should haue. A little before so it commeth to passe that, that which is excellent, or perfect in some, is in others, but in part, and yet he that hath not all, is not in fault, neither condemned for that he hath not, but approued for that which he hath. So that the best sufficiencie is a grace, but it is not the essentiall forme that giueth life and name to a minister. Now we speake of the office it selfe, not of the execution thereof which wee hold must with all diligence and faithfulnesse be performed. Let him bee as learned, graue, discreete, vertuous as the times shall yeelde and the place may require. For wee doe not thinke that all places require men of like gifts and graces, but those which are of smaller note, circuit, and rewarde may stand content with men of inferior note. Which verie truth ma­nifestly proueth that abilitie to preach is not the definition of a minister for definitions doe not rise and fall, like a bow that [Page 144]is strong and weake, but mens sufficiencie to preach after what exact manner they take preaching,Mixtum ad pō ­dus aquale. Aristot. de gene­rat. & corrup. [...]. whose temperature is not gould weight, as if a grane could not turne the scale of euery mans sufficiencie, but if it be in a meaner degree of fitnesse, as our health commonly is, it may serue the turne.

If the Bishoppe could as well fit them for the calling as admit thē into the calling, there were no doubt but he might vse the words Re­ceiue the holy Ghost.

Wee doe not say It is the Bishoppe that doth fit him to the ministrie,Spiritus sanctus in ecclesia praepo sito vel ministro soc inest, vt si fictus nonest, operetur per cū spiritus sanctus & adeius mer­cedem in salutē sempiternam et ad eorum rege­nerationem & adificationem, quiper cum &c. August. contra epist. Parm. lib. 2. cap 11. Nonest aqua profana & adultera super quam nomen Dei innocatur, etiamsià profanis & adulterisinuocemur &c. August de bapt contra Donet. lib. 3. c. 10. but God in and with the ordination giuen him by the Bishoppe, in which partie so ordained the holy Ghost worketh (saieth S. Austin) that if the party admitted be not a counterseit the holy Ghost worketh by him both to his owne reward for e­ternall saluation, and the regeneration of others to whom hee is sent. And if a counterfeit it is his owne losse, but yet the holie Ghost forsaketh not his ministrie, because by him he worketh the saluation of others. For as he witnesseth in another place bee the minister an adulterer or homicide &c. the water is not pro­phaine, nor adultered vpon which the name of God is called. The function is sacred and holie assisted by Gods spirit to the good of others, if not to his, that is thus ordained.

To be ordained a minister by menis no [...] or grace at all.

The ministrie or office whereunto wee are by men ordained, is a grace or gft. First because freely giuen without respect of a­ny merit before God in the party ordained 2. a gift of the holy Ghost, that thereby it might bee vnderstood to be an authority proceeding from God himselfe, though externallie collated by man 3. to distinguish it from other callings in the world 4. because such a singular and diuine gift hath euer annexed vnto it in the true execution of duties thereunto belonging, a powerfull pre­sence, assistance, & operation of the holy Ghost. In respect whereof [Page 145]it may not only be said, that when Bishops or Priests doe those things which they are commaundéd according to Christs in­stitution, it is not they, but Christ himselfe that doth them, but also in such an office so assisted with the holy Ghost, as that it is therefore called the ministerie of the spirit they doe therewith in like manner, specially if they feare God, receiue sundrie graces of his spirit, whereby there labours are made profitable vnto others. The Author of the questions out of the new Testament much auncienter then Saint Austin witnesseth that where it is read,Illud &c. accipi te spiritū sanctū ecclesiastica po­testas collata in telligituresse August, tom. 4. Qq ex nouo te­stamento c. 93. Quia omnia in traditione domi nicaper spiritū sanctum agun­tur. Ibid. Idcirco cum re­gula tis & for ma traditur buius discipli­na dicitur tis accipite spiritū sanctum Ibid. Non dixit acce­pistis sed accipi­te spiritū sanctū &c Chrisost in Ioh. c 20. ho­mil. 85: Potestatein quandam & pratiam spirita lem cos accepisse Ibid: Sed vt peccata dimitterent dof ferentes enim sunt gratia spi­ritos, quare ad­didit. Quorum remiseritis peccata. &c. ostendens quod genus virtutis largiat [...]r Ibid. Theophilact Ibid. that the Lord breathed vpon his Disciples, and said re­ceiue the holy Ghost, he implyeth the Ecclestasticall power that is giuen and collated, and that for these reasons Christ in be­stowing this power did vse these words,

  • 1. To teach vs that all things, which are to be ministerially done in the name of Christ are really performed by the holy Ghost, because in the Lords ordinance all things are wrought by the holy spirit.
  • 2. That hereby he might leaue an example to his Apo­stles and Ministers.

Therefore the rule and forme of this discipline being deliuered to them, it is also said vnto them Receaue the holy Ghost. S. Chrisostome noteth that our Sauiour said not, Ye haue receiued the holy Ghost but re­ceaue the holy ghost, because they receiued a certain power, and spirituall grace not to raise the dead and shew miracles, or vertues but to loose sinnes. For they are differing graces of the spirit wherefore he added whose sins ye remit, they are re­mitted, & whose sins ye retaine they are retained shewing what kinde of power it is be giueth. The like sense and construction is made by Cyrill, or the Author vnder his name who interpre­teth this, Receiue the holy Ghost, for, Take yee the power to forgiue sinnes, and to retaine whosoeuer sinnes ye remit, &c. To the like effect hath. Theophilact and that almost in the very same words with Chrisostome. Wherefore these words, Re­ceiue the holy Ghost, is in effect as much as Receiue the gift of God bestowed vpon thée by imposition of hands, whether to remit sinnes, or retaine sinnes. And thus much be spoken for clearing of doubts, that arise by occasion of this sentence.

Chap. 23. Homilies against the word. In the first tome of homilies. Of swearing: By like ho­ly promise the Sacrament of Matrimony knitteth man and wife in perpetuall loue.

THe Booke from whence this grieuance springeth is taken out, is the Booke of homilies set out in the daies of King Edward the sixt, of which times and Booke Doctor Ridley Bishop of Lon­don, who afterwards suffered for the Gospell, giueth this iudgement. The Church of England then had holy and wholesome Homilies in commendation of the principal ver­tues,Maister Fore pag. 1940. which are commanded in Scripture, and likewise other homilies against the most pernicious and capitall vices, that vse (alas) to raigne in the Church of England. How the times are altered. Then that good Martir saw nothing in them dangerous to holy and wholesome instructions, now euery smattrer in Diuinitie can finde intolerable vntruths. But to be briefe. The Author of the Homilies taketh the word Sacrament for mysterie,Sacramentum militia Cicero. Lib. 1. de officiis Credimus ne b [...] manum sacra­mentū diuino. superinducili­cere & in aliū dominum post Christū respōde [...]e. Tertul de co­rona militis. as Saint Austin and Ambrose doe with other of the Fathers. Secondly, in this place somewhat more particularly for the faith plighted twixt couples, which was the auncient signi­fication of the word in forraine writers Tully, &c. who call the oth giuen by the Captaine to the souldiers, the oth and Sacra­ment of warfare. In which sense Tertullian vseth the word we thinke (saith he) a question may be made, whether warfare be fit for Christians, and whether we beléeue a humane Sacra­ment may be added ouer and aboue the Diuine Sacrament. The Churches of Heluetia in their former confession so take it spea­king [Page 147]of, what is due to the Magistrate.Huie not etiāst libers simus &c vera cum fide subiiciendos esse fidelitatem [...]o sacramētū pra­state scimus Heluet. confes. 1: artic. 26. Idest [...]usiura [...] dum quosuis magistr at thus obstringuntur obseruat. 2. Ibid. To him we know we are to perfou [...]e fidelitie, and the Sacrament vpon which place we reade this obseruation Fide litie and the Sacrament (that is) the oth, whereby subiects are tied to their Magistrates. Now the meaning of the homilie to be some such thing appeareth both by the title (of swearing) as also by the words following in this place of holy promises, vowes, and couenants made, and there­upon presently is inferred this scruple here.

By like holy promise the Sacrament of Matrimonie knitteth man and wife in perpetuall loue that they disire not to be separated for any displeasure or aduersitie that shall happen.

An euident place to shew what they intended who pend that Homily, taking the word Sacrament either particularly for a solemne promise vowed, or generally for a holy state ordained of God, as Doctor Whitakers noteth Saint Austin tooke the word, who honested Mariage by the name of a Sacrament, Sacramenti no mine matrimo­nium. Aug. coh [...] nestauit quan­do cius dignitae tem contra que rundam crimi­nationes defen­dit quod in illo li [...]ro [...]octissimè acsanctissimè fecit What. cōtra Duraū. p. 6 [...]6. St hoc inquam à pontificits a­geretur facilè posset de apella­ti one conuentre Chemnit. de Matrim. p. 256. Quia coniugtum est sanctum vita genus divinitus institutum & commend atum libenter et tri busmus nomen sacramenti, Confes. Wittenberg. when against certaine mens false criminations he defended the dignitie thereof, as he did in that Booke most learnedly and holily. That which was done learnedly & holily in Austin his booke, we liue to the times to heare it censured, & condemned as done corruptly in the booke of homilies. Chemnitius could be content Mariage were called a Sacrament so it might be an aduertisement of she whole doctrine thereof against the doctrine of the diuels, and of the heathen, if this were intended we might easilie yéeld to the name. The confession of VVittenberg saith. Because Mari­age is a holy kinde of life ordained of God and commanded by him we willingly giue it the name of a Sacrament. Take we first or last of these interpretations, we shall easily frée these words in the Homily of that waight, with which some delight to burden it withall.

It is directly contrarie to the 25. article of Religion, which saith there are but two. The other fiue falsly so called.

The article hath no such words (fiue falsely so called) but thus commonly so called after which manner so they are, because the [Page 148]word Sacrament is more generally vsed but to speake strictlie [...] what manner Baptisme & the Lord his supper are called Sacra­ments, the booke doth not so take marriage. For in the 2. tome of homilies speaking of matrimony there is not somuch as a sillable that soundeth to this purpose, where was both time and place to giue it the name of a sacrament if there had been any such mean­ing. But their opposing the book of homilies to the 25. article is as if a man would by their example knowing they allow but 2. sacraments make them contrarie to themselues who call imposi­tion of hands as it were a sacrament or set M. Caluin against himselfe because in his institutions he alloweth but two sacra­ments baptisme and the Lord his supper as we doe,Manuum signū hoc & quasi sacramentū vsur­parunt eccles. discip fol. 25. Quantum ad verum presbyte ri [...] 0536 0 munus liben ter eoloco habeo Institut. lib. 4. c. 19 sect. 28. Quod 3. in nu­mero non posui, eo factum est quod non ordi­narium nec cō ­mune, sed ad cer tam fūctionem specialis ritus Ibid. and yet willingly accepteth of the sunction of the ministry to haue that name, yet reckoneth it not as a third with baptisme & the Lords supper, bicause it is neither ordinary nor common with the faith­full, but a special rite for a certaine function. To take aduantage against that learned writer were very iniurious, and can it be ho­nest and godlie dealing to intreat our church thus, since in both we know their minde alike. For though beside two sacraments M. Caluin mentioneth the office of the ministrie, and our homilie maketh matrimony one, taking the word at large, yet as generally necessary to all the faithfull there are two sacraments onelie. which are expresse words, which our Catechisme vseth, as before (cap. 15) hath alreadie beene handled.

Chap. 24. Plurality of wiues maintained in the fathers. In the second tome of homiles 1. sermon of diuerse places of scripture. It was permitted to this godlie fa­thers to haue more wiues then one, by a speciall pri­uiledge or prerogatiue. This is directly against the worde.

WHereunto the answere we make is two fold, one in generall concerning the se­cond Booke of Homilies, the second is in particular as touching the very place here stumbled at. In generall it plaine­ly appeareth that these men Subscribe not to the Booke of articles as they should by a Statute, Elizabeth 13. Where among the rest, the 35. ar­ticle is thus: The second Booke of Homilies, (the seuerall titles whereof we haue ioyned vnder this article) doth containe a godly wholsome doctrine, necessary for these times as doth the former booke of Homilies. In particular to the place this an­swere we giue, wherein this course we obserue.

  • First, we set downe the words in question what they are, that it may appeare to such as haue not the book at hand.
  • 2. We will shew what rea­sons there are to approoue these words of the homilie.
  • 3. The iudgement of our old and newe writers shall be alleadged.

For the first: these words the Booke hath. The pluralitie of wiues was by a speciall prerogatiue suffered to the Fathers of the olde Testament, not for satisfying their carnall and fleshly lusts, but to haue many children, because euery one of them hoped and begged of God oftentimes in their praiers that, that blessed seede, which God had promised, should come into the world to breake the Serpents head might come, [Page 150]and be borne of his stocke and kindred. Where is to be noted that the question is not of the times of the Gospell, nor of the Law, nor of the first institution of Mariage, when man and woman were created but of the time, before the law was written in Tables and giuen by Moses. Now that it was no sinne vnto them, as they vsed it, of whom the homily there spea­keth may appeare by diuerse reasons, which the godly learned did giue. First, a brother was to raise vp seede to his brother that died without issue: Secondly, children borne of both wiues at once were legitimate, which could not be if poligamse (that is) pluralitie of wiues at once had beene the sin of adulterie. Thirdly, the Iewes had answered little,Ioh. whē being accused to be an adul­terous generation they replyed they had Abraham to their Fa­ther, not onely in a spirituall but a naturall propagation. For Abraham had more wiues at once.Gen. 31.51, 1, Ioh. 3.9, Fourthly, Iacob had La­bans two daughters, and Laban charged him he shall take no more. Fiftly, in asmuch as these words are the words of truth, that a man borne of God sinneth not (that is) continueth in sin, a very offensiue spéech it is to say that the Patriarks, Abraham, Iacob, &c. did continue in a sinne, successiuely, continually with­out repentance,Non licuisse patribus simul plures vxores habere, nisi ad delineandum mysterium Instin. mart. in Tryph. Deum illis pri­mis temporibus polygamian: ex­egisse. Clem. Alexan. lib. 4. Strom. Permissum fuit cum duabus etc Chrisost. homil. 56. in Gen. Vt humanum genus propagaretur & pietatis incrementū caperet. Ibid. Eo tempore nondum adulteriū lege prohibitū, & amore posteritatis non ardoris libidine id factum, & de consens [...] vxoris ad aliquid significandū quod futurum erat, vt in Agar. 3. Sara. Ambros de Abra. et. lib. 1. c. 4. and therefore it may well be thought, that the Lord of his speciall mercy, did beare with them, and what is that but a rule, which we may not make generall. If so, then surely a speciall priuiledge that it was permitted. Countenance to this sentence giue the ages aforetime, and since. Aforetime Iustin Martir, Clem. Alexandrinus, Chrisostom, Ambrose, Ie­rom, Austin, &c. Iustin Martir. The fathers might not haue many wiues at once, but to shadow out some mysterie. Clem. Alexandrinus. God did in those former times exact poligamie. Chrisost. Because then were the beginnings it was permitted to be coupled with two or more wiues at once, that mankinde might be inlarged, & receiue increase of godlinesse and vertue. Ambrose. At that time adultery was not forbid by law, and what they did, was for loue of [Page 151]posteritie, not through heat of lust, and with consent of the wife, and to signifie somewhat was to come as in Agar and Sara. Ierom thus.Seiebat Aposto­lus lege concessū & exemplo Patriarcharum, ac Moses fami­liare populo no­uerat in multis vxoribusliberos spargere. Hierō in epist. ad Oceā Sufficienda prolis causa erat vxorum pluri­um simul vni viro habenda­rum inculpabi­lis consuetudo Aug. de doctri­na Christiana lib. 3. c. 12. Ibid. cap. 18. St naturam cō ­sulas non lasci­utends causa v­tebatur, si merē &c contra Faust: Manch, lib. 22. c. 47. Nulli vnquam licitum fuit si [...] ne diuina dispē satione plures simul vxores habere. Innoc. 3, c Gaudemus, de Diuortiis. Polygamiam Deus inter Isra elitas probauit, Melanct. epitom Ethicor. Specialis casus fuit patrum polygamia quae peculiarem rationem habuit. Heming. de diuort. pag. 36. Polygamia vsurpata patribuscitra culpam, nobis nullam legem cōstituit. Bullin. de­cad 2, serus, 10. Deum illis legē suam remisisse quia cos non videmus vspiam ea de causa re­prehendi, Pet. Mart. 1, Sam, 25. The Apostle knew it was graunted by law, and by the example of the Patriarks, and Moses also was not ignorant, that it was familiar with the Iewes to haue children by many wiues. Saint Austin in diuerse pla­ces, with more then these at this time we will not trouble our selues nor our Reader. An vnblameable custome it was for one man to haue diuerse wiues. And then one might with a more chall mind haue had more, then now some one can haue but one. Speaking in defence of Iacob the Patriarke against one Fāustus an Hereticke. Sinnes some are against nature, some against custome, some against the Comman­dement. If you consult nature, not for wantonnesse, but for generation sake he did vse more wiues, if you respect cu­stome at that time and in those places it was the fashion, if you aske what Commaundement, it was by no law for­bidden. Innocent. He saith, It was neuer lawfull for any to haue more wiues together at one time, without some Di­uine dispensation, or priuiledge. Of later times, All the best approoued writers speake in behalfe of it, some more some lesse, and how euer with some difference, yet all in fauour there­of. Philip Melancthon, Hemingius, Bullinger, Peter Mar­tyr, Beza, Perkins, and Bucan professor of Diuinitie in Lau­sanna. The first of these that are named saith, God approued among the Isralites the hauing of many wiues at one time. Hemingius. The case of the Fathers was speciall in hauing many wiues at once, and there was reason for it. For God did winke hereat in the people of Israel, that by this means he might make way for his faith he had giuen them, that an innumerable multitude should spring vp from a very few. Bullinger writeth, Mariage of many wiues in the Fathers without fault in them, is no law for vs. Peter Martyr in di­uerse of his Bookes. It is manifest vnto vs, that God did re­mit and slacken his law to them, because we nowhere find [Page 152]they are reprooued by any of the Prophets, &c. Againe in the same place.Nolim co [...] ni­mium aggra­nare. Ibid. Viti [...] ne vertas fuit enim tem­pore illo huius­mod [...] res libera & adiophora Idem. in Gens. c. 29.27. Deus tollerauit in populo su [...] polygamian. Bez. de polyg. et diuor. Potest tamē ex cusari quia ad propagationem humans generis velsalte [...] ad propagationem [...]cclesi [...] pertine bat. Perk. Ar [...] milla. [...]urea. p. 78. Arm [...]tto [...] 600000. è Iacobi familia duccutum annorum spatio. Id. prolegam, Chronol. Polygamia qua quis Vuo tempore plures habuit Vxores patrobus indulta suit, non casciuienda sed gignenda pie sobolis gratia, tum quia iam erant tum temporis mores politici, tum vt esse [...] aditus quidam, quo Deus promissions suade innumerab [...]i sobol [...] expauets oritura locum daret Bucan. Institut. loc. 12 There is no doubt but the Fathers had faults inough, yet when they may be safely defended, I could not lay on load. And writing of Iacob hauing two sisters his wines at one time. Reprooue him not. For then such a matter was free and indifferent. Master Beza, his sentence is, God tolerated Poligamie in his people. Master Perkins our countreyman. The Marlage of the Patriarches with many wiues, though it cannot be so well defended, yet may it be excused, because it did rather pertaine to the increasing of mankinde, or at the least to the increase of Gods Church. And in his preface to his Chronologies he obserueth the increase by Polygamie such, as 600000. fighting men were sprung vp of Iacobs familie within the space of 200 yeeres. Bucanus writeth of those times of many wiues to one man: Polygamie (saith he) Wherein a man had many wiues at one time, was of speciall fauour graunted to the Fathers, not for wanton­nesse, but for increase of a godly issue, as also because of the pollicie of that time was such, and another cause that God might make way for his promise in raising vp an innume­rable multitude of so small a company.

That can be no reason neither the one nor the other. Not the first, as that it was the propagation of mankinde for then it should haue begun with Adam. Because his times had most neede in that respect when there was no more but 'hee. The other is no reason that it was for increse of Gods Church. For then should it bee per­mitted now, because the true professors of the Gospell are but few to speake of, inrespect of Atheiests, Papists and other enimies of Christ his Church.

This reply is made by some great friends to this accusatiō vn­dertake against the Communion booke, but how weakly an in­different Reader may soone iudge. For first in the daies of Adam it might haue seemed most needfull to haue giuen this liberty if so [Page 153]the Lord had created more then one woman, which bee did not: As for the other that came after by propagation they were his daughters or nieces, and therefore herein appeareth a let: Se­condly God the lawgiuer, from whom kings and princes take direction for their best laws knew well, a law is best kept, when it is first made. Now to dash it in the prime by a contrarie prac­tise at the first, and to stifle it in the birth had beene with the soon­est. These as others also best known to the Lord might be the causes, why at the first that was not approued which was after borne withall. For the other clause of their obiection where they infer. If for spreading and increasing Gods Church, then it should be now in vse. That sequel is no good consequēt Because the worshippe of God is not within the place of Jewrie now, as it was then. But the sound of it is gon throughout the whole world, and euery place fitteth for the Lord his seruice in respect of what it did then. Now (saith Saint Austin) of all sorts of men, and all nations the members may be gathered to the peo­ple of God, and the cittie of the kingdome of heauen. Ex omni homi­num g [...]n [...]r [...], at­qu [...] omnibus g [...] ̄ tibus, adpopul [...] ̄ Dei et ciuit atē regni calorum [...]embra colligi possunt. August. de virgm. cap 9 Be­sides these thers are others giuen by the fathers why the Lord did be are with his people. They whose leisure it is to view what hath beene cited for testimony herein, may bee intreated to lay these reasons together which our fathers and brethren graue, as also the manner of speach they grace this question withall: Exacted, required, approued, tolerated, dispensed withall, wincked at, permitted, graunted. For all these they shall finde as these also: vsuall, lawfull, misticall, a custome no way culpable, without blame, free, indifferent, a speciall case, and say the most against it. Such a one it is, as may be excused and a rea­son giuen for it. All which speaches diligently perused, let men say whither the booke of homilies might not well deliuer that sentence as it doth.

It is directly against the word of God and his first institution of marri­age Gen. 2.24. Malac. 2.15. Rom. 7.10.1. Cor. 16.6.1. Cor. 7.2.

The place in Gen. wée wil answer anon. The other of Malachy & the Apostle are against s [...]eshly and carnal lust in their time, why are they thē vrged against these patriarks y were long before, & beside were not guilty of ye carnal sin condēned by those scriptures [Page 154]Saint Paul inff [...]icteth the Rom. and Corinthians in their dueties and liberty in marriage. What is this to the Patriarks and their fact. But by one of this dumb shew brought forth, take a taste of the other. Let Peter Martyr bee heard in his notes vpon 16. or cap. 7. which is the place the obiector vr geth.Verba hae ali­qui putant face re aduersus polygamiā, quod mihi non displi­cet, modo hinc non inferatur. Patres qu [...] in veteri lege habue runt vxores, nō vsos fuisse tusto matrimonio, sed potius adulteros indicandos. Nam cum ea de causa insa­cris literis non damnentur, om nino putandum est tis tum tem poris licuisse. Martyr in Cor. 7. Leuit. 18.18. These wordes (saith hee) some men thinke make against pluralitie of wiues, which thinges mislikes mee not, so it bee not hereupon inforced, that the fathers, who in the old law had many wiues, did not vse law­full matrimony, but were rather to be iudged adulterers. For since they are no where condemned in holy scripture, wee must thinke it lawfull for them at that time to haue so many. Ju which sentence these two parts would bee noted 1. that the wordes in this 1. Cor. 7. (and the reason is all alike for the other epistle) maketh not against poligamie of the fathers; secoudlie nor doth any other scripture alledged, and therefore this their heaping vp of scripture, when it proueth no such thing is a ma­nifest breach of the commaundement, wherein he straightlie for­biddeth false witnesse bearing against the truth. A sinne the more grieuous, as the most innocent truth (for so are the scriptures) is forred to dispose for that, whereof they haue nothing to gaine say. Great vse there may be of them for the times of the Gospell, or of Malachie and after that the law was written in tables, where­unto Leuiticus, 18.18. as Tremellius translates may, haue re­ference; and wee haue deliuered our iudgement in writing vnto my Lords grace of Canterbury; but the instances remembred in the homilie are most of them taken out of the booke of Gen. where is added in the close an example of Dauid and Salomon, but with a Caue at in these termes for our vse and vnderstanding which thinges wee see plainely to be forbidden vs by the law of God and are now repugnant to all publike honesly. To treat with ye libidinous humor of carnal men, who either chal­lendge the examples of the patriarks that they may doe the like, or condemne them for doing it, or protect ignorance of the scrip­tures, because such examples (say they) are scandalous.

I, but this is directly against the worde of God and his first institution of marriage.

I, but (saieth Ludouicus Lauater) God who made that law; hath also power to release it Besides it is a cortine peculiar, Sedenim qui l [...] gem sanxit De u [...] cande relax ands potest arē habet Pecuitare quid damest, quod [...]e mo temerè in ex plum, quo prod [...] ­giosam (uam lea bodinem excu­set, traxerit. Lauatur. in Easter. homil. 11. c. 2. pag. 22. Certis de causis largitus est plu rescodem tem­pore Vxores habere. Id homil. 10. pag. 20. Tam abest vt hac ceniugia culpauerie Deus. vt etiam fortunaucrit. Id de vita & obit. Nabal. hemil. 10. pag. 12. Duas sim [...]l vxores habera simpliciter lege Mosis vetitum nō fuit. Drus [...]n Ruth. 4.5. which no mā may rashly draw in to example to excuse his own prodigal lust by. And alittle before in yt 10. homilie God (saieth he) for certaine causes graunted it as a larges and faucur to the Isralites to haue more wiues at once. Againe in his treatise of the life and death of Naball God (saieth hee) was so far from blameing them that he gaue them great successe. Their pe­culiar and a Larges speciall to them and their great good suc­cesse hereupon, what other sonse beareth it, then that common euglish which our homilie by some vniustly tared safely deliuer­eth, specially much more being added by others, as appeareth in the seuerall quotations afore, and this among the rest of Iohn Drusius. Simplie forbidden (saieth hee) it was not by the law of Moses to haue 2. wiues at once.

I but what warrant for this more then these authorities

Arguments strengthened in this sort no discrete godly wife­man but doth and will reuerence, for we receiue and so must the witnesse of men. But yet to thinke that some priui­ledge those patriarkes had, though not so expresly set downe this may be the reason. For dispensations and priuiledges are as lawes yea priuiledges are not held necessary to be written where lawes bee.1. Ioh. 5.9. Qualis lex, ta­li [...] despensatio Priutlegium dicitur guodema nat contra ius commane in fu [...] ro [...]m aliquam personarum Glos lib. 6. de Rescript. c: vers in Printlegium quasi prin [...]ta lox. As at this day wee obserue in Acts of Parlia­ment such fauours as concerne some few stand vnprinted, Be­cause lawes belong to all, priuiledges to some few. For a priuiledge is some personall or particular law, which either dieth with the person, or must not be made common; If so as wee know this to be true. How much lesse may we expect any record thereof before Moses and the law written. For those more specially the booke of homilies speakes of. Wherefore as a law they had in their mindes and consciences for [...]īngle mar­riage by speciall inspiration, so by a speciall inspiration, a tole­ration and fauour was inough.

An aduertisement to the Reader.

Presently after this treatise finished, there was sent vs from an honourable personage these notes follow­ing, as it seemeth an abridgement methodicallie drawne together by some of Deuon. and Cornwall. With their preface, and reasons, greatly accoun­ted of among the ignorant, which we haue thought good to set downe returning euery of them a briefe answer with reference to those places, wherein they are handled more at large.

Wee protest before the almightie God, that wee acknowledge the churchs of England, as they be established by publike authority) to be true visible churches of Christ: That we desire the continuance of our ministrie in them aboue all earthlie things, as that without which our whole life would be wearisome and bitter vnto vs. That wee dislike not a set frō of prayer to be vsed in our church: Finally Whatsoeuer followeth is not set downe of an euill minde to depraue the booke of Common prayer ordination or homilies, but onely to shew some reasons, why we cannot subscribe vnto all thinges con­tained in the same booke.

THat man his pretestation is in vaine, Protestatio [...]ū contrario act [...] [...] releuat: Vel no [...] Valet protestatio vbi protestās per cō ­trarium factū directè obuiat sua protestatiōi Glos. in Caluin­de constitut. verb. sine praindicie, conferen. pag. 26. whose deede agreeth not with his protestation. And a decree of a very auncient counsel prouides that no man should be admitted to speake against that whereunto he had formerly sub scribed, as is alledged in the conserence before the king pag. 26. But leaue wee this their faire glosing, and ex­amin their reasons.

To the booke of [...] prain [...] subscribe because there [...] is something [...] of which [...] make [...]ie reasonable sense.

Neither sense, nor reason are fit auditors of a businesse of this Argument. For if they were, what sense is there to put on loue, or where reason is there to put on the bowels of compassion? Is that which we know more inward then the inside of the gowne, for it is the life of she body so we esteeme of the bowels, and is the life of the bowels, body, person and al (for so is loue wrought by a holy saith and compassion proceeding from both) as a garment that a man puts of and puts on, or is the Lord Iesus any such manner of attire, which is the cause of all to be likened to apparell, if so what reason, and if no reason what sense is there so to argue? A naturall man (and we thinke such a one hath sense and reason) perceiueth not the thinges of God neither in­deede can bee, no maruell then if he stumble at such places as these following.

The first reason therefore is, that it containes thinges without sense. As 1. whatsoeuer is manifest, the same is light Ephesians 5.13. in the epistle readon the 3. Sunday in Lent.

Whatsoeuer is manifest the same is light. Not without sense, neither in it owne words, vnlesse the greeke and original may be thought so, nor in the proposition it selfe (for viuinitie and Philosiphy acknowledg it for a truth) nor in erperience, for what euer is manifest, ye same is so by reasō of the light (either in it or vpon it) nor in the coherence of the place (for ye Apostle she weth how al points of darknes, whither in iudgement or practise mani festly are disconered by ye light) nor is it without sense in the vnd­erstanding of godly interpreters. The Greek scholiast render­eth it so, & M. Beza cōmendeth him for it.Scholiasles [...] passiuè inter­pretatur vt sit sēsus. Quicqu [...]d manifestum fit lucem (s) essel [...] cidum fiers cō [...]e nit. 11. Beza. M [...]h [...]tamen simpliciùs videtur vt expositionem quam posui retineamus. Muscul. in Eph. 5.13. Some of our brethrē (saieth Musculus) take this word [...], not onely passiuely is manifest, but actiuely to, doth manifest. They haue truely their thoughts not vntrue, But in my conceit it is more simple and plaine that we keepe the exposition I follow, namely, That which is manifest is light: We must know a translater his office is whē he commeth to a place somewhat indifferent in [Page 158]the originall (as this word [...] of the meane to see, [...] vocis media part­ly actiue partly passiue) to commend either interpretation to the godlie wisdome of the learned teacher, who at more leasure vpon better opportunitie may farder expound it in handling his set lecture.Lux actiuè, pas­siuè so is [...] actiuè passiuè It is light actiuely giuing it, or it is light passiuely re­ceiuing it. Both waies since it is, both waies may the worde be, actiuely doth manifest, or passiuely is mani­fest. Either waie true, neither way dangerous, hereticall, nor senselesse.

2. It is without sense to say. In the power of the diuine maiestie to worshippe the Vnitie.

These words in the Collect for Trinity Sunday are not with out sense. For we worshippe the vnitie in the power of the diuine maiestie (that is) one in power, deitie, and maiestie. Three epithets, or wordes of attendance, because 3. persons, and yet all but one, and one essence; for as saith Fulgentius or Austin (the book is diuersly quoted) vnitie hath relation to the nature namely that one,Vnitas refertur ad naturam. Fulgent. de fide ad Petam. c. 1. who is God blessed for euermore. All which is answerable to those auncient verses good for memory, sound in diuinitie. Like maiestie of persons, Like power of the same, but the deitie common to all. So hath Victorious, and before him Saint Basil in his bexameron the tenth homilie.Far maiestas personarum. Par potest asest earum. & communis deitas. Victorious. Id vnitatem cōcernit potentiae, vt vna [...] in diuinis reimeat gloriam & maiestatem. Basil. bexamero [...]s. homil. 10. Concerning the vnitie of power to retaine one glory & maiestie in the diuine persons &c. Glory maiestie and power in these diuine persons, yet but one God to be worshipped.

3. It is without sense. Euery parishoner must communicate thrice a yeare and also receiue the sacraments and other rites.

Answer hereunto read this second part cap. 13.

God is sade to be the father of all that is called father in heauen Ephesians 3.15.

Our translation speaking of originally one greater then ano­ther,Read on the 17. sun. after Trinitie. and of God aboue all, chooseth to speake of the primitiue namely the father rather then of the diriuatiue, and those that descend of him. For if God bee their father, then also must he needes bee the father of their families. Secondly where others call this worde Parentela, Paternitas, cognatio, tribus, [...] interpretatur [...] quatenus de he minibus dicitur qui pregenite­res appellantur [...]. fa­milia, and the Greeke scholiast progenitors, and so differ. but the translation in the communion booke giuing the name Father reconcileth all these diuersities. 3. as the Apostle vseth an allusion or holy destant in the Greek, so the translator seemeth to keepe it in our English by a grace of speech, translating the name father, thereby vnderstanding fatherhood, and imply­ing there is no father in heauen or earth whither Adam, Abraham, &c. but God is a father of them, and because of them, therefore also of their kindred, generations, and families that come after.

5. It is without sense. This is the sixth moneth, which was called barren.

In the Epistle read on the annunciation to Mary, those wordes are taken out of Luke 1.36. The lesser Bibles render it thus. This is hir sixth moneth, which was called barren. Hir put in, which is no more in the Greeke, then in the English, as for the worde following both translate it alike (which) for (shee) not meaning the moneth, but the wo­man Elizabeth, which was called barren. actus actiueril sunt in patien­te praedisposito. This ambiguitie is shunned no more in one then in another. The sense is plaine howsoeuer, and if without sense, surely then onely to those who vnderstand not, and that willinglie.

6. It is without sense. Or euer your pots be made hote with thornes, so let ind ignation vex him, euen as a thing that is now. Psalme 58.8.

The difficulty in this place commeth hence, Quia vox he­braa & ollas et spinas significat subobscurus est hic locus, &c. Marlor. Vulg. Marlo. Tremel. Ste­phan et alii. because one and the same word signifieth a pot, and a thorne. Be­fore the thorues shoot vppe, or as a thing that is raw suddainelie tooke out of the pot, ere the thornes crackle vnder, both which in­terpretations (giuen by learned men) giue aime to one and the same marke, shewing the speedinesse of Gods iudgement by two similitudes in one verse; herein our vulgar english translation is to be thought no more senselesse, then that which Marlorat and Auias Montanus follow; vnlesse men, whose exceptions these are, intend to disgrace the originall, who is in this an example to our communion booke, and either both are free, or both accessary to this senselesse imputation.

7. It is without sense. When the company of speere-men and multi­tudes of the mighty are scattered abroad among the beasts of the people, so that they humblie bring peeces of siluer, and when hee hath scattered the people that delight in war Psal. 68.30.

words no more voide of sense then are other translations This here deliuered by way of prophesie, the other haue it by way of praier. This onely in a third person, that other in a second, and a third. As for the sense it is plaine to anie mans reading, that the verse speaketh of subdueing the enemie, not the multitudes onely, and basersort, doing homage in bringing peeces of siluer, but their Captaines to, and all those, whose delight is in warxe.

Ratio secunda. That forasmuch as wee are able to discerne, that there is contradiction

1. To the booke of Articles, which denieth that con­firmation hath any visible signe: Where as the last prayer in confir­mation, maketh imposition of handes to certifie the children of Gods fauour, and gratious goodnes towards them.

Nor hath confirmation any visible signe, as the word visible signe is taken for a visible element, which euery sacrament hath: namely in baptisme there is water, in the Lords supper bread and [Page 161]wine but Confirmation hath no such thing. For imposition of hands is a cirrumstance of action, not a matter of substance, as in a Sacrament euery visible signe is. To this sense speakes the 25. article. Confirmation hath not like nature of a Sacra­ment with Baptisme and the Lords Supper, for that it hath not any visible signe or ceremonie, (that is any visible Ele­ment for signe or ceremonie) ordained of God. In which words it meaneth by signe a Sacramentall signe consisting of an outward, earthly Element and substance, so confirmation hath no visible signe. As for that other of imposition of hands it is a signe of Episcopall action, namely to certifie children (con­firmed vpon the prayer of the Bishop) how God hath beene fa­uorable and good vnto them, in that they are borne of beléeuing parents, baptized into Christ, brought vnto the knowledge of his grace & will as is found by examining them in the principles of their holy faith, &c. Wherefore the Bishop praieth ouer them for increase of grace, and vseth withall imposition of hands to certifie them by this signe of Gods fauour and goodnes towards them. By which ceremonie (saith Master Iunius) the holy A­postles, and Orthodox Fathers of sound iudgement would haue signified that a Christian man indued with repentance,Qua cerimōia sancti Apostoli & orthodoxi patres significatū voluerunt Christianū hominc̄ resipiscentia, et fide praditum, atque ecclesia insitum vbilegi time probatus esset, mancipari domino, & consecrari ad voca tionem suam sancte & relli­giose obeundam &c. Iun. Paral lib. 3. c. 6. Libers Christi­ancrum statim post partum vt membra ecclesie baptizabātur, & post quam no [...]nihil adeleuissent institueban tur, & impositione mannum confirmabantur, ac dimittebantur ex coetu Catechumenorum; ita vt liceret illis deinde adcaena [...] accedere. Vrsin. Proleg. Catechis. pag 3. and faith, and ingrafted into the Church after he hath been law­fully approoued of, is giuen in seruice to the Lord, and consecra­ted to goe thorough his calling (whether generally as a Chri­stian, or particular this and that) in a holy and religious man­ner. Answerably vnto this vse of the Fathers, and receiued by our Church. Master Vrsinus speaking of persons to be Bap­tized hath these words. The children of Christian parents (presently after they were borne) as mēbers of the Church were baptized, & after that they were pretily shot vp, they were instructed, and by imposition of hands confirmed, & were dismissed out of the company of the Catechized, so as they might after wards lawfully approch to the Lords Ta­ble. This holy auncient custome to fore commendably vsed, our Church at this day continueth. But see more of this in this se­cond part. Cap. 11.

2. Contradictory to it selfe, by affirming in the Catechisme that there are but two Sacraments, and yet ascribing to Confirmation all things that are required to the being of a Sacrament either in that Booke, or in the Booke of Articles.

It the Catechisme affirme there are but two Sacraments, how are these exceptions at variance with themselues that men knowing and acknowledging so much, yet both before in this Booke, as also in the fourth reason here following in the fourth instance, séeme to inforce by their sophistications, that the Cate­chisme implieth there are more then two. Againe it is false, where it is said, the Booke of Articles ascribes to Confirmation all things that are required to the being of a Sacrament, as may appeare in the point before handled, and the 25.27.28. Acti­cles expresly shew to the contrarie.

Ratio. 3. That in our best vnderstanding it con­taineth in it some vntruths.

The third maine reason is to purpose, if it can as well proue as it is ill alleadged. But let vs examine the allegations as they are brought in order.

1. Innocents are said to be Gods witnesses, and to haue confessed and shewed his praise not in speaking but in dying.

This sentence here charged for an vntruth the Church of God hath taught heretofore,Fro Christo trucidatos infā tes inter marty res coronart. Bern serm. 1. de Innocent. Si quaris eorū apud Deum merita, vt coro narentur, qua re & apu [...] He­rodem crimina vt trucidarentur. An fortè minor Christi pietas quam Herodis impietas. vt ille quidem potuerit innoxios neci dare, Christus non potuit propter (e occises coronare ibid. Audi quod ini [...] ria non affectisint sed doronas m [...]ruerunt. Theophi. in Math, cap. 2. Quod pueri prodommo oceisi sunt, significat per humilisatis merstum ad c [...] ­ron āmartyrit esse ve [...]iondū. Haimo part, hyem desanct. Innocen. Iudaet martyrū sanguine redū ­dante. Hilar. Can. 1. in Mat. Hercdis furor, & infantum mors populi Iu­dates in Christi anos sausentis est forma, &c. Beatorum mar tyrum caede pos [...] se &c. In aternitatis profectum per martyrii glori­am efferchan­tur, Ibid. Pro Christo po­tuerunt pati quum nondum poterant confi­ters. August. [...]m Epipha. [...]erm. 6. inserm. 23. de tempore. Non habebates atatem qua in passurum Chrustum crederet [...] sed habebatis carnem, in qua pro Christo passuro passionem sustineretis. Ib. Non [...]rustra infantes illos, qui (cum [...]o­minus Iesus necandus quareretur) occisilunt in honorem martyrum receptos commend it eccle­sia Id. de lib. arbit. lib. 3. c. 23. & epist. [...]. Hier. Homil, de sanctis & lib. 2. de symb ad Ca­techu. c. 5. as the auncient Fathers witnesse. Bernard who was some 5. hundred years since hath these words. Can any doubt that the infants which were slaine in Christ his stéede, are crowned among the Martyrs? And méeting with an obiection that might be made. If you aske (saith he) what they deserued at Gods hands that they were crowned, aske also what fault they had done that they were murdred, vnlesse perad­uenture Christ his pietie were lesse then Herods impietie, that the [Page 163]tyrant coul [...] put harmelesse infants to death, and Christ could not crowne them, who were killed for his sake. Theophilact who was some 900. yeares after Christ writeth thus. That Herod his malice may be shewen, must iniurie be néeds done the little ones? Heare therefore, they were not iniuried but iustly ob­tained crownes. Haimo some 800. yeares after Christ writes in his Postilly vpon this feast day of the Innocents. In that the children were slaine for the Lord Christ, it implieth that by the accepted worke of humilitie the way is to the crowne of Martyrdome, &c. Hilarie who was some 400. yéeres and vpward after Christ in his exposition vpon Saint Mathew, speaking of these babes, & their death saith, Iewrie did abound in the blood of Martyrs. And presently after thus. Herod his fury and the death of the infants is a forme or patterne of the people of the Iewes raging against the Christians, and thinking that with the slaughter of blessed Martyrs, they can extinguish the name of Christ. And speaking of those words in the Prophet: Rahel would not be comforted because they were not, &c. They were caried vp into the aduance­ment of eternitie by the glory of Martyrdome. Saint Austin (who was somewhat before Saint Hilarie) The in­fants (saith he) could suffer for Christ, though they could not as yet confesse him. Againe in another place, yee were not of age to beleeue in Christ, who was to suffer, but yet ye had flesh of your owne wherein yee could indure the Passion for Christ who was to suffer. And in his third Booke of free will. The Church doth not in vaine commend the infants receiued into the honor of mar­tyrs, which were slaine by Herod &c. Which very selfe same sen­tence he remembreth verbatim in his Epistle to Saint Ie­rom. Copious in this argument are his Homilies of the Saints in foure senerall Sermons, calling the Innocentes Martyrs and their death Martyrdome, and in his second Booke de symbolo ad Catechumenos the fifth Chap. &c. Before him Saint [Page 164] Origen homil. 3. maketh mention of them after this manner.Horum memo­ria semper, vt dignum est, in ecclesits celebratur: secundum integrum ordi­nem sactorum vt primorum martyrum &c Origen: homil, 3. in diuersos. Benè & secundum voluntatē Dei corum me­moriam sancti patres celebrari mādauerunt sē piternam in ec­clesus, velut pro domino morien tium. Ibid. Ecle paruuli esti, quos hostis natura, crude­litatis monstrū Herodes occidit subito fiūt mar tyres, & dum vice Christi & pro Christo. Cypriā. de stella & Magis. Testimon [...]igrave;um, quod non pote­rāt sermone, per hibent passione Ilid. Spangenberg. Postil. Ista tam tristi tragaedia cruen tam ecclesiae Christs imagi­nem delintauit Centur. 1: lib, 1, cap, 3. Vt Abel prim [...]s veteris testamenti [...]artyr fuit, cuius sanguis ad Deū clamauit it a isti primi in nouo test amento propter Iesum Christum recisi sint & gloriosa mar tyris corona redimiti, vitam hanc mortalem cum immortali commutauerunt, & cum ill [...] nunc in coelis viuunt. Gualter. homil. 18. in Math. 2. The memory of these infants alwaies is celebrated in our Churches as it is meete, according to the intire order of the saints, that Bethlehem it selfe where the Sauiour was borne, may seeme to offer vnto the Lord the first fruits of the Martyrs. Anone after. VVell therefore and according to the will of God, the holy Fathers haue giuen in charge that there be celebrated a perpetuall memorie of them as dying for the Lord. No new deuise in his time but long before as it appeareth by his writing. Saint Cyprian or the Author vnder his name. Behold these little ones, (whom Herode the enemy of nature and and monster of crueltie did kill) are suddainly become Martyrs, and whilest in steede of Christ, and for Christ pulled from their mothers breast and slaine they beare witnesse by suffering, what they could not by their speech. All which testimonies as they are nothing, if Scripture were against them, so the Scripture no where gainsaying, we shall doe ill to gainsay the testimonie of so many ages succéeding one another, and that for many hundred yeares confirming what (but lately) is denied without sufficient proofe to the contrary. And yet though lately denied by some few among vs (not to speake of our own Church here at home) other our brethren in the same faith learned writers of these times ap­prooue the order we do. Spangenbergius as may be seene in his postill they of Merdenburg in their Centures note that God by this heauie Tragedie hath shaddowed out the bloody image of Christs Church. Which historie of theirs would not fit to such a purpose, if their were no comparison twixt them and the Church of Christ. Master Gualter in his 18. Homily vp­on Saint Mathew writes thus. As Abel was the first Martyr of the olde Testament, whose blood cried vnto God, so these infants were the first, which were slaine in the newe Testament for Iesus Christ and crowned with a glorious crowne of Martyrdome, haue changed this mortall life for an immortall, and now liue with him in the heauens. Be­side all these auncient and late authorities this argument may [Page 165]iustifie what our Church doth. They in whom Christ is perse­cuted and put to death may be held for Martyrs: But in those in­nocent children Christ was persecuted and put to death. (For such was the tyrants purpose, and so Christ accounteth what is done to little ones for his sake as done vnto him.) Therefore may they be thought blessed Martyrs not in speaking, for they were in­fants, but in dying,Non pro fide Christs, nec pro iustitia occub [...] rūt sed pro fide Christo (id est) loco Christs. Ludol. not properly Martyrs such as are volunta­rie professors of the faith, but yet so to be esteemed because for Christ, that is, Christ was among them sought to be slaine. Thirdly, the scripture it selfe thus farre confirmeth the point, in that the Prophet Ieremie is alleadged cap. 31. Rahel weeping for hir children, Shaddowing thereby the Church of God mour­ning as a desolate widdow for those that she bare vnto God. For so the verse following doth minister comfort. Thus saith the Lord. Refraine thy voice from weeping, and thine eyes from teares, for thy worke shall be rewarded saith the Lord. As for that our Church calleth them Martyrs (which seemeth to be some mens grieuance) because Herods sonne was then slaine, is no deniall of the name of Martyrs to the others the children of the faithfull in Bethlehem. For if any were, it was sufficient,Voluntate & actu vt S. Ste­phan volunta­te non actu. Io­hannes. Actu nō voluntate, vt in nocentes Ber­nar, serm, de Inno, Cutus vice sup­pleuit quod de­erat voluntatis Ibid. and that some were, the allegations before proue sufficiently So needlesse are some mens peremptories they send foorth to wound this truth like Herod his executioners to kill those little ones, that so he might be sure to put Christ to death. To conclude this point. That difference of Martyrs our Church alloweth of, Some are Martyrs in will and act, that is, both suffer and are willing to it, so Saint Stephen was, some in will ready co dye, though happily they dye not, so Iohn the Euangelist: Some in act, not in will that is, they can but suffer and doe, though they haue no will, nor vnderstanding to know what they doe, so did these infants, in whom what was wanting to their will Christ gratiously supplied.

2. It affirmeth that Faith and Repentance are required of in­fants that are to be Baptized. And that they performe the same by their Suerties.

Two branches in this exception.In paruulis qui baptizantur, sunt qui negāt omnem actionē et operationem spiritus sancti. Chem. de bapt. Hic dico quod omnes dicunt aliena fide eorū qui offerūs eos paruulis succurri, &c. Luther. de captiv. Babylon. Sicut verbum Dei potens est, dum sonat etiā impis cor im­mutare, quod non minus est surdum & in­capax quam vllus paruulus. Ibid. The first of these against such as thinke God worketh not at all by his holy spirit in children baptized. The Catechisme not meaning that they haue au actuall faith, namely a féeling that they doe then beléeue, for so they doe not, that they liue, yet they doe liue. But they beléeue (that is) they haue the spirit of faith and repentance. As for the second branch namely that they performe faith and re­pentance by their sureties, is to be vnderstood of that present pro­fession and promise then made, whereby the God-children are bound, as effectually in baptisme, as if themselues were then pre­sently able, and did actually beléeue: Luther disputing of this point. Here I say as all else doe that children are succoured by the faith of others, that offer them to Baptisme, &c. Againe afterwards. As the word of God is mightie, when it soundeth, able to change euen the hart of a wicked man, which is no lesse deafe and vncapable then any childe, so by the prayer of the Church offring the childe in baptisme, the little one is clen­fed, changed, and renued by faith infused into it. But for answere to the doubts herein looke the first part, cap. 30. pag. 173. &c.

3. That children Baptised haue all things necessarie vnto salua­tion, and that they are vndoubtedly saued.

No more vntruth then that of the Homilie, That infants be­ing baptized, and dying in their infancie, are by his sacri­fice washed from their sinnes, brought to Gods fauour and made his children, Homil. saluation of makind. Perkins on the Creed. pag 25. and inheritors of his kingdome of hea­uen homily of the saluation of mankind only by Christ &c. No more vntruth, then that, which Master Perkins writeth. That infants dying in their infancie, and therefore wanting actuall faith, which none can haue without knowledge of Gods will are no doubt saued by some other speciall work­ing of the spirit vnknowne to vs. But an argument to prooue this Rubricke true may be thus briefly framed. To whom the promise is made,Act. 2.39. how God will be their God they are vn­doubtedly saued: But to our children baptised the promise is made. Therefore our children baptised are vndoubtedly saued. But hereof sée at large part. 1. cap. 25. pag. 165. 166.

4. Vntruth. That we haue a sure and certaine hope of euery one to be buried that he shall rise againe to euerlasting life.

We are not required by the booke of common praier to haue a sure and certaine hope of euery one to be buried, because not of euery notorious impenitent malefactor cut off by law, or a murtherer of himselse, or dying excommunicate, all which are buried, but of euery one liuing & dying in the fellowship of Christ his Church, professing the same faith, pertaking the same Sacraments, of whom we hope the best, but no farder, nor otherwise then thorough Iesus Christ, for in the buriall we pro­fesse that to be the bond of our hope. If any minister be sure to the contrarie, discretion may be vsed, which we hold safest when it is with direction from the Bishop, as in such cases of doubt the Booke well prescribeth. Sée more, part. 2. cap. 1.

5. Vntruth. That nothing is ordained by it to be reade in Gods ser­uice, but the very pure word of God, the holy Scriptures, or that which is vndoubtedly grounded vpon the same.

No vntruth. Because there are left out as the preface of the Booke sheweth many things, whereof some be vntrue, some vaine and superstitious, in consideration whereof this sentence prefixed there followeth. Nothing is ordained to be reade but, &c. And for any instance is giuen to the contrarie it is, but their idle surmise.

6. That in the course of reading appointed so much as possibly may be, the reading of the holy Scripture is so set forth, that all things shall be done in order without breaking of one peece from another.

It is no breaking of one peece from another to read chap­ter after Chapter, as time shall serue, & the Minister or Church doth see good, that so the whole Bible, or the greatest part thereof may be read ouer once in the yeare. But the preface calleth that breaking one peece from another, when vncertaine [Page 168]stories, legends, Responds, verses, vaine repetitions, comme­morations, and smodales come betweene, so that commonly in the beginning of a booke to be read, three or foure chapters were read and no more at all. And therefore no vntruth in those words prefixed, but in them, that doe purposely misconstrue.

Ratio quarta. That it containeth in it doubtfull matters.

1. Doubt 1. It affirmeth that there are Archangels, and that Michaell is a created Angell.

A Sadducie might father this exception. For this deniall that there are Angels ouerthroweth at once both these bran­ches of Archangels, and of Michaell, and faith in effect as­much: though a Sadducie flatly deny, and this Author doubt­fully deliuer it: which manner of writing many times diffe­reth no more then heresie in the shell, and when afterwards it is fledged. It this name Archangell be such a stone of of­fence. as because where it is, that Booke may not be subscri­bed to,After the pro­per Preface. Homil. obedi­ence to Rulers & Magistrats. 1. Thes. 4.16. Saint. Iud. v. 9. (for so some reason against the Coma union Booke and the Homilies where it is in both,) then may we not subscribe to the whole Scripture because of these places, 1. Thessal. 4.16. and Saint Iude v. 9. for there it is in them both, and in the latter of these two Michaell is called an Archangell, and therefore may well be thought a created Angell. For this word Archangell doth no more deny him whose name it is to be an Angell, then a word of like com­position Archbuilder doth deny one to be a builder,1. Cor. 3.10. but rather inforceth by way of necessary consequent because a chiefe or spe­ciall one, therefore a builder: so because a chiefe Angell there­fore an Angell. Apocal. 12.7. And although in the twelfth of the Apocalips some are of opinion, that Michaell signifieth Christ, yet diuers­are of another iudgement taking Michaell and his Angels in their proper signification, for administring spirits to helpe those, which are inheritors of eternall saluation, Heb. 1. Other obiecti­ons they make, as first that Michaell signifieth Christ, because it signifieth who is equall to God. [...]ut ye is no more argument, [Page 169]why Michaell may not be a created Angel, then to reason from the name Gabriell, who signifieth the strong God or strength of God & yet is a peculiar name giuen to a created Angel. Luke. 1. Luc. 1.26. or the worde Daniel, which signifieth the iudgement of God, and yet was it the name of Abigails sonne,1. Chron. 3.1. as also the names of that excellent prophet whose prophesie wee haue. Rather it well followeth this name Michaell is as Gabriell the name of a created Angel, 2. Pet. 2.11. in this sense,Composita hu­tusmods nomi­na habent An­gels vt intellig [...] museos non ha­bere potectatē separatam à Deo, sed princia patum sub no­mine Dei gere re vt totum Deo tribuatur. Marlo in Luc. [...]. 19. arguing that Angels though mighty in power, and none among the creatures like vnto them, yet euen they carrie these names as a remembrance to the sonnes of men, that their power is borrowed of the Lord, and their heutenancie, or principalitie is vnder him. For whoels is the mighty God, and who is equall vnto him? The second argument (some vse that Michael signifieth Christ, and therefore is no created Angel) is of no consequence at all. For Isaacke, Sampson, Dauid, Salomon, did signifie Christ too, yet were they men, distinct persons from him. Their third reason is because Michaell is called one of the chiefe Princes. In say­ing this wee keepe to the wordes of scripture.Dan. 10.13. Aliud est specta re caput secun dum ordinatio­nem nature cu insque in suo ge nere, aliud secū dum ordinati­onem gratia. Iun. Contro. 3. lib. 1. c. 9. One thing wee know it is to speake of creatures as creatures, whither men, or Angels in their frame of creation, another thing to speake of them, as they are the elect confirmed in grace. Of men, as men, Adam may be their chiefe, & of the Angels in their nature some one or other continuallie, or by course, and at times their chiefe as the Lord will, yet that no let, as they are the elect Church of God but Christ may be and is their onely chiefe and head. That there are Angels, and among them Archangels, such as are chiefe, wee neede not doubt,Angelorum quà Angelicaput aut princeps esse potest, Verū quà electa eccle sia sunt, capus vnicum est Christus Ibid. 11. because there is order (not confusion) euen in hell the place of confusion much more in heauen, which is the beautie of all and the glorie of our God. The diuerse names of throns, dominions powers, principalities, shew diuerse degrees, for they are not idle names. One Angell brings glad tidings to the shepheardes, the residue anon after accompa­nig him called an armie of heauenly soldiers singing prayses vn­to God, shew there are some first, and others after.Colos, 1.16. As for the quotient that there are 9. and iust 9 orders,Luc. 2.9.13. or rancks we in­quire not, much lesse doe wee determin. Sure wee are of this,Exercitus (id ect) varies as or dinū. that the Angels are an armie where are diuerse ranks, and [Page 170] Michael wee finde a chiefe one in the Lords hoast. Thus farre proceeding wee offend not, yea this wee would knowe, what iniurie is it vnto Christ, to say there are degrees of compa­rison among the Angels, so long as wee take not vpon vs boldlie to marshall them, but contenting our selues, (with that wee are taught) giue the soueraigntie of all vnto Christ? Were there not among the Lord his worthies that did fight his battles,1. Chro. 12.14 some able to resist a hundred, some a thousand, all Captaines in the hoast, yet a greater then they all, that did slaie his ten thousand; in respect of whome, they were but sol­diers and yet Captaines they are compared with the rest of the armie.1 Sam. 18.7. Starres there are in the firmament but not all of one magnitude;1. Cor. 15▪41. one starre differeth from another in glorie. God hath giuen the rule of the day to the Sunne, of the night to the Moone, his owne power in the meane while no­thing diminished, for hee ruleth day and night Sunne, and Moone, and all else. The priesthood of the law was a look­ing glasse,Heb. [...].3. or as the author to the Hebrues speaketh made af­ter the patterne of heauenly thinges. If so, as it is most cer­taine, then looke, how in the priesthood some were common, and ordinarie Priests, others of more eminencie, and chiefe a­boue the rest, for there were Leuites & Priestes and a high priest, so may wee vndoubtedlie conclude of that other in heauen and those celestiall Angelicall spirites, that some are common and ordinarie, others chiefe and more speciall as the worde Arch­angel doth import. But will wee knowe, why it pleaseth some to doubt there are Archangels, their reason is because where Archangell is named, Christ (say they) is to be vnderstood. which opinion if it bee priuatlie theirs, and spred no farder the lesse dangerous is it but yet dangerous. For the places of Saint Iude and 1. Saint Iude. v. 9 Thessalonians 4. proue the contrarte.1. Thes. 4.16. And though they shuffle off that in Saint Iude, yet can they not that in the Thessalonians. Nor in deede can they that in Saint Iude. For being an historie, and histories Saint Iude relateth plainelie in their letter as the fall of the Angels v. 6. Sodom and Gomorrah v. 7. wee must iudge the like of it, which literall plaine sense while men haue left, they haue [Page 171]digged them pits that hold noe water, and haue made strange interpretations more intricate then the text, some vnderstand­ing the bodie of Moses for the law, some for the Gospell, o­thers for the people of the Iewes, others taking Moses put for Iosua, all which cast a mist before the Sunne, and no mar­uell then, if wee easilie mistake.Non hoc dico quod praedecesso res meos morde am aut quic­quam de his ar bitrer detrahen dum. Hieron. Sophronio. This wee speake not to bite our predicessors, or that wee would detract ought from them. The letter of the historie is plaine that Michael a chiefe Angel in the Lords hoast appointed by God (as sometimes one is for one businesse, sometimes another for another) re­sisted the deuill about the bodie of Moses, when Sathan would haue made it a stumbling blocke for Israel to commit Idola­trie, (as they were forwarde inough) so highlie they esteem­ed of him, and no maruill. For not a like Prophet was there in Israel, whome the Lord knew face to face.Deut. 34.10. A historie (this is) not found in other scriptures,2. Tim. 3.8. no more is the name of Iannes and Iambres, Iud. 14. nor is that of Enoch prophecying in those wordes Iude 14. nor manie such like which the Iewes might haue by tradition from their fathers by worde of mouth, or by some other bookes which recorded diuerse other mat­ters of truth not mentioned in Scripture. For wee doubt not that the fathers told their children manie things of fact, such as were true and done in the generations aforetime, not set downe in Gods booke, yet this no warrant to conclude insufficiencie of Scripture, as if there wanted anie thing ne­cessarie to saluation, nor giueth it countenaunce vnto popish traditions, that doe contrarie to the Scriptures. As for the other place in the Thessalonians it distinguisheth expressie the Archangel from Christ. 1. Thes. 4.16. The Lorde himselfe Christ shall come from heauen with a shoote, and with the voyce of the Archangell, and with thee trumpet of God &c.Archangelū no minat quasi d [...] cem exercitus Archangelus praeconis ossicio fūgetur. Quan quā enim, &c. Tamen vt in ordinihus fieri solet primariū ftatuis vnum, qui al [...]is pracinat, Marlorat. in 1. Thes. 4.16. Where the Apostle nameth the Archangell, Captaine as it were of the hoast. The Archangell shall performe the of­fice of a cryer. For although it bee common to all the Angels Mathew 13. and 14. yet as in orders the Lord sets down one chiefe to e gouernour vnto the rest, & to blow before thē [Page 172]Beside all this we haue spoken, more we might adde out of the fathers, councels, scholasticall writers. But wee haue beene alreadie long inough in this point and therefore this shall suffice.

2. Doubt. It affirmeth baptisme in an house merelie priuate, & seem­eth hereby to nourish the superstitious opinion of the necessitie thereof.

Looke the aunswer before part. 1. cap. 32. pag. 191.

3. Doubt. It alloweth the minister to vse conditionall baptisme in the publike congregation after the child hath beene priualie bap­tized in this forme in the name &c.

The booke saieth not that the childe after it hath beene pri­uately baptised shalbe baptised publikly, but contrariwise in these expresse termes. If thou bee not baptised already. N. I baptise &c. And why this order is misliked wee knowe not, neither doth the authors giue a reason. For if it bee meete to speake of thinges as they are, then of doubtful things wee may speake doubtfuly. And yet this practtise here mentioned being seldome or neuer for ought we heare, it is rather set downe by way of preuention, then that wee knowe any such thing is done, and as it is a suppositi­on so vpon supposition onely proceedeth.

4. Doubt. It saieth there be two sacraments onelie as generall necessa­rie vnto saluation, wherein it is dangerouslie implied that there are more then two.

In the second reason and the second instance thereof it is con­fessed that in the Catechisme there are but [...]. which is a truth. And how suddainly men are changed to denie so much, or capti­ously to inforce the contrarie. But see before part 2. Chapter 14.

5. Doubt. It alloweth priuate Communion betweene the minister and the sicke people.

Read hereof before part 2. Chapter 10.

6. Doubt. It affirmeth that our ceremonies tend to edification, and are apt to stir vp the dull minde of man to the remembrance of his duetie to God by some speciall, not able signification, whereby he may be edified.

Not amisse so to affirme. For our speech, gesture, behauiour, attire and the like (ordinarie as they are) put vs in minde of our selues, how much more may those rites, cereinonies, apparrell and the like, which the church of God doth ordaine for time of di­uine seruice? But see more hereafter.

7. It calleth ministers Priests, a thing auoided by the holie Ghost in the new testament as belonging to sacrifices.

The holie Ghost giuing the name [...]. to our mini­ster, which is the originall (whence Priest is deriued) giueth no other name, but what the communion booke calleth them by; Sée before part 2. Chapter 6.

8. It appointeth the minister to say to the sicke person: I by Christ his authoritie committed vnto mee do absolue thee from all thy sinnes.

Well may it. For the order prescribed is thus. In visitation of the sicke the minister beginneth with prayer in generall for the whole Church and then more particularly doubleth, trebleth, and multiplieth his prayer in behalfe of the person thus visited, ex­horts him to a godlie patience in bearing his sicknesse, to an vn­fained repentance for his sinnes, a solemne promisse of amend­ment of life, to a setled confidence in the mercies of God thorough Christ, to an earnest begging of God the forgiuenesse of sinne, to an humble thanksgiuing for the Lords fatherly chasticement, as for all other blessings vouchsafed, with a full bequest wholy com­mending him selfe to his blessed will whither in remouall, or con­tinuing, increasing or deminishing his paine, whither health or [Page 174]otherwise life or death, what euer may come. Afterwarde sh [...] minister proceedeth to a more particular examination of the sicke man his faith, how he stands resolued against the terrors of death &c. satisfying him in such doubts as shall then be ministred; And if the partie haue made a generall profession of his faith and sorrow for sinne, then is hee moued to a more speciall confes­sion, opening his griefe more particularlie if he feele his consci­ence burdened therewith. And satisfaction being giuen this way, the temptation subdued, the wound cured, the terrors of death vanquished by spirituall and wholsome doctrines of the Gospell,Videmus mini­stros ipsos vt de remissione pec­catorum certi­ [...]res reddant cō scientias, testes ac sponsores. Cal. Institut. lib. 3. c. 4.12. Nec minor is efficati [...], aut fructus est pri­uata absolutio, vbi ab tis peti­tur, qui singula ri remedso ad infirmitatem suam subleuan­dam opus habēt Ibid. 14. Secretum ani­mi valnus aperuerit, at (que) illam Euange­lii vocem pecu liariter ad se directam audi­ [...]rit Tibi, &c. Ibid. Animum confir mabit ad se [...]i­ritatem, illaque qua prius astuabat trepidatione liberabitur. Ibid. Priuata absolutio in eccl [...] si [...]s retinenda est, quanquam in confessione non sit necessaria omnium delectorum confessio. Aug. confes. artic. 11. De confess. priuata facienda pastoribus, affirmam [...]s ritum priuata absolutionis in ecclesia retinēdum, & constanter retinemus propter multas gra [...]ts causas. Confess. Saxon: 1. the minister, who is in Gods steede a pledge and sure­tie for furder securing a troubled soule, shall apply these wordes. Our Lord Iesus Christ who hath left power to his Church to absolue all sinners which truelie repent, and beleeue in him, of his great mercie forgiue thee all thy sinnes in the name of the father &c. Priuate absolution is of no lesse power, and efficacie then the publike, when it is sought for by them, who haue neede of this singular reme­die for easing their infirmitie. For when the partie shall haue laid open his sore, and shall heare from the mouth of the Lords minister the wordes of the Gospell directed pe­culiarlie vnto him. Thy sinnes are forgiuen thee. Bee of good comfort, it will establish his minde in securitie so as hee shalbee deliuered from that torment of feare, where­with with before he was miserablie vexed, and disquieted. This Godlie and comfortable practise of our Church of verie great vse (if it were in more vse) Maister Caluin much commendeth, as the marginal quotations may proue, and so doe other Churches, as appeareth in their confessions. Priuate absolution is to be retained, although in confession a particular recitall of all and euerie particular sinne bee not necessarie. Againe the Churches of Saxonie thus. Concerning priuate confession to bee made vnto the pastors, wee affirme the rite and manner of priuate absolution to be retained in the Church and wee doe constantlie retaine it for manie weightie causes. [Page 175]Afterwarde it followeth. As Dauid was confirmed heare [...]g of this absolution. The Lord hath taken away thy sinne 2. Reg. 12. so thou mayest know that the voice of the Gospell preacheth vn­to thee forgiuenesse of sinne, which in absolution is by name expounded vnto thee. Qua in absolu­tione tibi nomi natim expont­tur. Ibid. In specie homi­ni peccatori in nomine Sanct. Trinit dicitur [...] Tibi remissa sunt peccata ō ­nia: Priuatam absolutionem recitanit Chri­stus paralytico. Luc. Osian. In­stitut c. 8. Prituata abso­lutione absol­uit Christus. Ibid. Priuata confes­sionis vsut apud nos seruatur, &c. Chem [...]it. de Confess. pag. 216. Remittuntur peccata per Dei verbum, cuius Leuites [...]nter pres quidam & exequutor [...]st. Amb. de Cain. & Abel. lib. 2. c. 4. Per spiritum sanctum peccata donantur, homines autom in remissionem peccatorum ministerium suum exhibent, non iusalicuius potesta. tis exercent. Neque enim in sua nomine sed, &c. Illi rogant, sed diusnitas dona [...]: humanum enim obsequium sed munificentia superna est potestatis. Amb. de spiritu sancto. lib. 3. cap. 19. Lucas Osiander in his institution sayeth Priuate absolution bringes verie exceeding great comfort to afflicted consciences, when in speciall it is said to a sinner in the name of the holie Trinitie, All thy sinnes are for­giuen thee. Christ recited priuate absolution to the man sicke of the palsie. When he saide bee of good courage thy sinnes are forgiuen thee. And in priuate absolution Christ absolued the woman a sinner, saying thy sinnes are forgiuen thee. Chem­nitius confesseth the like in these wordes. The vse of priuate con­fession is preserued with vs &c. Infinite other allegations might wee produce to witnesse this truth. But the conclusion wee make with 2. places in Saint Ambrose. the first is in his second booke of Cain and Abel. sinnes are forgiuen by the worde of God whose Leuite is a certaine interpreter and exequu­tor thereof. The other place is in his third booke of the holie Ghost cap. 19. Sins are forgiuen by the holie Ghost, but men do proffer their ministrie in forgiuenesse of sin, not that they exercise a right of any power, for sins are forgiuē not in their own name but in the name of the father, son &c. They aske, the godhead gi­ueth; It is mans seruice, but ye munificence is frō a higher power So as the sum of all is answerable to the beginning mentioned in the Rubrick. The minister doth absolue but not in any abso­lute power as of his own, for to God doth, but in that power which is commited vnto him, namely ministeriall; for so as the minister of God, and interpreter of his will hee may well doe.

Ratio quinta. That the holie scriptures are disgraced by it.

We cannot, nor dare commend, much lesse may wée subscribe to such a book which disgraceth the holie scriptures, and therefore [Page 176]wee shall doe well to see into this accusation, that if it be true, wee may doe so more, if false it may returne to the disgrace of the penman whither one, or mo that thus complaine. The proofs follow in order, which are thus particularized.

1. The name of the holie scriptures are giuen vnto the Apocrypha, which are named parts of the old testament.

No more disgrace intended, or done the Canonicall scriptures by our reverend fathers, which drew the forme of the Commu­nion booke, then was either done or intended by those auncients, who many hundred yeares agoe did giue that name to the book, we call Apocriphall. And sure we are neither of them haue dis­graced the scriptures of the Hebrue Canon, by this appellati­on as they and wee vnderstand it. The reason wherefore they did call these Apocripha holie scriptures is threefold,Tribus de cau­sis maximè, oc­casione, argumè to, vsu. Iun. Contro. lib. 1.5.4. Quòd cum Iu­dei in duotordines diuisi essent Ibid. [...]. qui alibi agen­tes vbiuis loco­rum, &c. Ibid. Ecclesia Christs an a prisca di­uersum can [...]nē a ludais acce­pit, &c. Ibid. Gr [...]acam scripturam ab eccle sits Iudaeorum hellenist arum auctam si rese­cuissit, &c. Publicū autem offendere reli­gio erat, &c. Ibid. Quamobrē isti libri vt traditi fuerant permanserunt. Ibid. Horum librorū argumentum de rebus sacris ac non profanis, &c. Ibid. that is to say namely because of the occasion 2. the argument 3. the vse. The occasion was this, because, when the Iewes were diui­ded into 2. orders, some vsing their hebrue tongue and abiding in Iewrie kept the hebrue text of the scripture pure without anie addition at all, others of them speaking Greeke and liuing in other places abroad and not in Iewrie, vsed the Greeke scripture, and translation, hence was it that the auncient christian Church had from the Ie wes a diuerse canon one hebrue and another Greeke, which canon the Christian Church made not, but receiued it made, as the Iewes deliuered it, which in the Greeke tongue so inlarged with the rest of the Bible, if the auncient Christian should haue cut out, they had done two iniuries at once to the Iewes, from whome they re­ceiued them, and to the Christians to whome they were deli­uered, and they made conscience to offend thus publiklie, hereupon these bookes remained as they were deliuered. The second rea­son is their argument, because they intreat not of thinges pro­faine, but sacred and holie. The third reason because of their vse and place. They were still bound next after the scriptures in hebrue and stand as a partition wall or merestone twixt the old and new testament. So as they haue the name of [Page 177]sacred and holy Scriptures, partly because alway in the Gréek Canon, partly because they teach vs to liue soberly, godly, and righteously in this present world, which is the direct purpose of the scripture, partly because they should distingiush from the pro­phane, partly because read in ye Church publike to preferre them before other ecclesiasticall writings of the Fathers, alway pro­uiding they know their place not before, but after the other Ca­nonicall Scripture of the olde Testament, which their veris name Apocripha puts them in minde that they so doe. Our bre­thren (knowing this to be the iudgement and interpretation of our Church) might haue eased themselues of this toiling obiectiō & indured the name of holy Scriptures giuen to those Bookes be­ing (as it is) giuen [...], humanitus, humano iudicio, graeco canone for these speeches Ma­ster Iunius vseth of, taking holy Scripture in a signification at large for the reasons before mentioned, and among those rea­sons this we are not to hold the least of them, because these books as it appeareth haue béene thought to fore (though not Canoni­call) yet so farre foorth as they agrée with the Canonicall, as a kindely issue, & liuely branches or stemmes of the other. Now as the Apostle saith in another case we shall not vnfitly applie here. If the roote be holy the branches are holy, Rom. 11.16. euer re­membring this withall that the roote beareth them, Rom. 11.18. and not they the roote. Wherefore without offence be it vnderstood in this construction, if anywhere they be (as the information here pretends) named parts of the olde Testament, the meaning is in no other sense,Hi omnes hodiè ad vetus testa­mentū spectát. Drusius. epist. 107. Qq per epistolam. then as they are called holy Scripture & as Dru­sius a very learned, painfull, and diligent Reader of antiquities deliuereth in other terms to the like effect. viz, That they all at this day belong to the olde Testament. But hi­therto of this point Reade more part. 1. cap. 10.11.21. pag. 97.125. &c.

2. Disgracefull. Because they are reade rather then holy Scrip­ture when any holyday falleth on a Sunday.

This phrase rather then holy Scripture as if in no sense they might be so called is a speech very disgracefull & preiudiciall. [Page 178]As for reading them on a holy day, when it falleth on a Sun­day is no matter of ineuitable necessitie, but left to the discre­tion of the godly, peaceable, discrete Minister as appeareth part. 1. cap. 20. pag. 124.

3. Disgracefull. Because certaine whole Bookes of holy scripture are left vnread by appointment, as the Booke of Canticles, both the Bookes of Chronicles, and Apocalyps.

Hereof read afore. part. 1. cap. 22. pag. 125.126.127.

4. Disgracefull. Because sundry Chapters of the Apocryphall are reade twice in the yeere, and none of the Canonicall Scrip­ture is reade so often.

The Psalmes are reade once through euery moneth, diuerse Chapters, Epistles, and Gospels, euery Sunday and holy day, beside other Scriptures at other times, as in Baptisme, at the Lords Supper, at the solemnization of Mariage, at the ordina­tion of Ministers, at Churching of women, at buriall and the like. Wherefore this vntruth returneth home to the shame of the Author.

5. Disgracefull. Because likewise the Genealogies of our Saui­our Christ both in Mathew and Luke are forbidden to be reads in the Congregation.

True what Optatus well faith, The choller once vp, an easie matter it is for angry persons to cast forth reprochfull speeches. Liuore interus niente facile act tratis iacta re conuitium Optat. lib. 6. The genealogie of our Sauiour Christ is com­maunded to be read on the Sunday after Christmas day, and is then read. How then dare men thus audaciously write, it is for­bidden to be read in the Congregation? But reade more. part. 1. cap. 22. pag. 125.126.

6. Disgracefull. Because certaine Chapters appointed to be read out of the Apocrypha containe manifest vntruths. Tobi. 12.4.15. Iudith. 42.10.13.

The places here set downe are falfly quoted. But because they seeme to be those, which others haue alleaged we referre the Reader. part. 1. cap. 13.14. pag. 104.110.

Ratio. 6, Because it containeth some praiers whereof the latter part depends not vpon the former.

Were this true, that some prayers the latter depends not vp­on the former, yet that is no iust exception against the Commu­nion Booke. For it is no strange thing in all discourses histori­call, thetoricall, poeticall, sacred or prophane, sometimes to in­terrupt the maine purpose principally intended, like a ship that is bound a great way off, yet turnes in here, and there by the way, though out of the way in regard of the last end wherevnto it fal­leth. And this artificiall handling of a treatise the learned call, [...]. as the margent may tell you holding it the very secret of their method. Now if thus in a narration, Epistle, or the like where the Authors thoughts are staied, and may treatably deliberat, how much more may such a spirituall, holy, inward secret be lodged sometimes in prayer, where a broken heart yeelds broken thoughts, and abrupt sentences, which another not so déeply affected cannot tell what to make of, but accounts them as ropes of sand, or prayers where the latter part depends not vpon the former. But that be their ignorance whose exception it is. Let vs examine their instances here following.

1. The Collects vpon Innocents day, The third Sunday after Easter, the Epiphanie. The first Sunday in Lent, The Sun­day before the Easter, Trinitie Sunday, The fiftenth Sunday after Trinitie, and other prayers that are not warrantable. No depen­dance.

Though a many dislikes are here shuffled together, yet we will take them one after one. The Collect vpon Innocents day is thus. Almightie God, whose praise this day, &c. Where the dependance is excellent by way of relation, that as the babes did die a violent death, Christ being sought for in them, [Page 180]who were witnesses of his name not in speaking but in dying (so the prayer runneth) mortifie and kill, &c. That we also may dye (not a naturall death but) the death to sinne mortifying and killing all vices in vs, that in our conuersation our life may expresse his faith, which with our toongs we confesse, &c. Which coherence what man among vs can iustly mislike, but onely such as discipline better fitteth then disputation, and a sharp reproofe rather then any larger instruction.

The Collect on the third Sunday after Easter is, Almighty God, which shewest to all men that be in error the light of thy truth to the intent, that they may returne into the way of righ­teousnesse, grant vnto all them that be admitted into the fel­lowship of Christs religion, that they may eschew those things, that be contrary to their profession, and follow all such things, as be agreeable to the same, &c. When we say that the Lord sheweth to all men the light of his truth,Ioh. 1.9. &c. It is as that Iohn 1.9. 1. Tim. 2.4. The true light that lightneth euery man that commeth into the world. And 1. Timoth. 2.4. Who will that all men be saued and come vnto the acknowledgement of the truth. As for the dependance it easily cleareth it selfe. For since none can come to the light of the truth but by the Lord, and that light is to conduct in the way of righteousnesse, the prayer of the Church is for all them, to whom the light hath appeared, that their course may be the course of godlinesse and sanctification eschewing things contrarie, &c.

The Collect on Epiphanie sheweth the Dependance of the prayer in proposing for the argumēt thereof Gods mercy vouch­safed the wise men by the leading of a Starre, Res quibus fru endum est. Pater filius & spiritus sanctus Aug. de doctri­na Christiana. lib. 1 c. 5. to the finding of Christ Jesus his bodily presence, that we also who haue the Starre-light of faith may after this life enioy his glorious Godhead which inioying is well called fruition, because we shall then sée him as he is, when he shall be God all in all vnto vs,Res quibus fru endum est bea­tos nos faciunt istis, quibus vtē dum est tēden tes ad beatitu­dinem adinua. mur. Ibid. c 4. 1. Cor. 15.28. And that whereas other things in their vse doe but now tend vnto him, then we may possesse imme­diately himselfe who is true happinesse and blisse filling vs with grace and glory for euermore. For now though he be all in all euen in this life, yet is he not immediatly but by outward means and in a small measure.

The Collect on the first Sunday in Lent is, O Lord, which for our sakes didst fast fortie daies and fortie nights giue vs grace to vse such abstinence, that our flesh being subdued to the spirit, we may euer obay thy godly motions in righteousnesse, and true bolynesse to thy honor and glory. Who can iustly charge this as hauing no dependance, but they whose vnder­standing (as it seemeth) hath no dependance vpon the truth?

The Collect on Trinitie Sunday is a little before ranged in the number of those particulars, which they can make no sense of, there it is charged to haue no dependance, because speaking of a true saith in the Trinitis and Unitie it conclu­deth thus, We beseech thee that through the stedfastnesse of this faith we may euermore be defended from all diuer­sitie. Where the dependance of this prayer sufficiently ap­peareth to all those whose faith dependeth vpon this article that there are thrée persons, but one God, the very substance and summe of all Christian Religion, as Master Perkins well noteth in these words,Master Per­kins on the L. praier. pag. 31.32. Whereas we are taught to come to God as to a Father, & therefore in the name of his Sonne our Sa­uiour Christ, we learne to lay the first ground of all our prayers in the holding and maintaining of the Union and distinction of the three persons in Trinitie. This being the lowest and the first foundation of prayer, it is requisite that all, which would pray aright should haue this knowledge rightly to beleeue of the Trinitie, and to know how the thrée persons agree and how they are distinguished, and the order of them, how the Fa­ther is the first, the Sonne the second, the holy Ghost the third, and therefore how the Father is to be called vpon, in the name of the Sonne, by the holy Ghost.Vbi quaritur v­nitas Trinita­tis pater filius, spiritus sactus, nec alicubi pe­riculosiùs erra­tur, neclabor [...]o­sius aliquid qua ritur, nèc fru [...] ­ctuosius aliqui & inuenitur. Aug de Trinit. lib. 1. c. 3. Hence it is manifest that ignorant and silly people, which doe not so much as dreame of the Union, distinction, and order of the persons in Trinitie, make but cold and stender kind of praying. And long before him Saint Austin resolueth thus, that as in no article the error is more dangerous, so neither is the truth more laborious to be sought out, nor more commodious when it is found out. Now if faith be our defence, yea more our victorie, whereby we ouercome the world, then surely grounded vpon a principall stay, as this point is, néedes must it be a truth of great coherence as [Page 182]before is deliuered namely, we beséech thée that through the sted­fastnesse of this faith we may euer be defended, &c.

The Collect on the Sunday before Easter is thus: Almigh­tie and euerlasting God, which of thy tender loue towards man hast sent our Sauiour to take vpon him our flesh, and to suffer death vpon the Crosse, that all mankinde should follow the ex­ample of his great humilitie, mercifully graunt, that we both follow the example of his patience, and be made partakers of his resurrection through the same Iesus Christ. The dependance of one part and of the other in this petition may appeare,1. Pet. 2.21.

  • 1. Pet.
  • 2. where the Apostle exhorting to suffer wrong, and to take it patiently followeth it thus, Hereunto yee are called.

For Christ also suffered for you leauing an example that yée should follow his steps. And he was the onely president of humilitie. For he humbled himselfe to the death of the Crosse. Many such applications are made in other places. So little cause haue men to mislike the dependance of this prayer.

The Collect on the 15. Sunday after Trinitie néedeth no defence. It sufficiently speakes for it selfe. Kéepe we beseech thée O Lord thy Church with thy perpetuall mercie, and because the frailtie of man cannot but fall, keepe vs euer by thy helpe, and leade vs to all things profitable to our saluation through Christ our Lord. As for exceptions taken at other prayers, that they are not warrantable they also in their place follow now to be examined.

2. We desire something that our prayers dare not presume to aske, whereas it is no presumption to aske any lawfull thing in Christ his name.

No presumption (happily) to aske any lawfull thing in Christ his name, if men doe alway know what is lawfull in generall, in speciall, in particular, which since the fewest know, yea noue al­way know, the most for whose sake this prayer is penned, may well pray thus without any danger at all.Grenchams le­ctures on the Psalm 119. pag. 612. I know (saith Master Grencham) there be many, who thinke it a precisenesse to be much afraid of our owne weakenesse, and to be watchfull, and warie of our owne affections, yea and oftentimes in those things [Page 183]which to iudgement are lawfull, yet absteu [...]eth in life & practise. But blessed be that feare and happy is that precisenesse, which is so carefull ouer our owne infirmities, and somuch suspecteth our owne wants and weaknesse. But say it be no presumption to aske any lawfull thing in Christs name, which is not euery peti­tioners case to know, yet as in our actions of indifferencie many things yea all things (saith the Apostle) are lawfull, yet not all things expedient; so in our prayers we may safely resolue the like, namely that howeuer all lawfull things may be craued of God in Christ his name, yet we had neede also wisely to aduise our consciences, that the things which we sue for be expedient. And what if a man walke neuer so innocently in his waies,Meliora sunt inuenta peccan ta cum humi­litate quam in nocentia cum superbia. Optat lib. 20. Contra mille­formes damo­num incursut quis innocentia sua fidit Au­gust. de civit. Dei. lib. 22. c. 2 [...]. and (as Saint Paul saith) he know nothing against himselfe, yet herein is he not instified. Rather of the two (saith Optatus) it is better to sinne with humilitie, then be proud of a mans innocencie. And yet considering the manifold shape, which Satan taketh to incounter vs withall, who is he that puts confidence in his owne innocencie? But in a word to ende this point: Graunt it be no presumption to aske any lawfull thing in Christ his name, yet because no man knoweth as he ought to know, and therefore praieth not as he ought to pray for our praier must be according to knowledge, hence it is we stile our prayers not [...]aring to aske, &c. See more of this point. part. 2. cap. 3.

3. We pray for that we dare not pray for, which is a contradiction.

Nomore contradiction then that of S. Paul, Philip. 3.20. 2. Tim. 4.13. Putasne Apo­stolum eo tem [...] ­pore quo hac scribebat (Po­rulam affer) de calestibus mysteriis & nō de us, qua vsus communis vua necessaria supt cogitasse. Hie­ren. lib. 3. aduers. Pelag. 1. Cor. 6.15.9. Phi. 3.21. Por, 26, 4.5. Maro. 9.24. how his con­uersation was in heauen: yet remembers his cloke he left at Troas with Carpus. Thinke you (saith Saint Ierom vpon this point) the Apostle at what time he writ this. Bring my cloke, &c. that he thought of heauenly mysteries, and not of those things, which are necessarie for the vse of our com­mon life. Here a wrangler might pretend contradiction: But no more then that our bodies are the mēbers of Christ. 1. Cor. 6.15. & the temples of the holy Ghost, v. 19 yet Philip. 3. they are cal­led the bodies of basenesse or vilenesse. No more contradiction then that Prov. 26. Answere a foole according to his foolishnesse, [Page 184] answere not a foole,Ioh. 4.1. &c. or that Marke 9. I beleeue Lord helpe my vnbeleefe, Rom. 4.18. or that Iohn 4. Jesus baptised, Iesus baptised not, Act. 11.18. or that Abraham hoped against hope or that, Act. 11.18. They held their peace, 1. Cor. 10.13. and glorified God saying: or that God suf­freth vs not to be tempted aboue all that we are able.2. Cor. 1.8. 1. Cor. 10. 13. yet Paul was pressed out of measure passing strength, 2. Cor. 1.8. And a many the like. But see before at large. Part. 2. cap. 3.

4. Because it inioyneth Ceremonies which we are perswaded are vnlawfull (viz.) the Surplice, &c. being humaine traditions, & inuentions, without any warrant from God his word, of mysticall signification, defiled with superstition, scandalous, of no necessarie vse, appropriated to Gods seruice which ought to be according vn­to the truth without ceremonies.

Sans ceremonie belike as the French Prouerbe is. Surely no Church but euer had some ceremonies more or lesse. As for multiplyed complaints against ours,Humaine in­uentions. till men aforde more then bare words or affirmatiue hath strength comparable, yea far be­yond their negatiue. In the meane while because this exception breakes the ranke for his fellowes, like Iudas, who was a guide to them that tooke Christ, pardon vs if we stay a little vpon this straine. This therefore it is that we answere hereunto. Be it graunted that they are humaine inuentions, yet that no suf­ficient reason to condemne them, vnlesse an argument may be thus framed, but ill framed then it is. All humaine inuentions are to be condemned. For some such generall must be the sup­port of this vnsupportable conclusion. But see we first what are humaine inuentions, and so with more ease wee shall the better speed this present businesse. Humaine inuentions, are the inuentions of man whether naturall, morall, or a Christian man. For euery of these waies some Inuentions there are by the light of nature, by experience, or in such & such a religion true or false. By natures dim light some things are espied, which are corrupt & afterward may be helpt, some things againe not corrupt but are sufficiently well at the first. Saint [Page 177] Austin vpon the 102. Psalme man a sinner: Homo, peccator duo nomina nō sunt s [...]per flua, &c. August. [...] Psal. 102. Aliud est homo aliud est pecca­ter. Ibid. Gratia nō tollit naturam sed perficit, nec na­tura gratiam repellit, sed sus­cipit. two names not superfluous. Two names, one is man, another is sinner. Somewhat he inuenteth as man, somewhat as an ill man. As a man naturallie to eate, to drinke with conuenient meanes how, as a wicked man badlie thus, and thus. The first may bee re­tained, the second must bee reformed, and so both may be vsed. Grace taketh not nature away, but perfiteth hir, nature re­pelleth not grace, but imbraceth hir. somewhat is good in a corrupt nature notwithstanding the auncient corruption hath sowred the whole lump. And though discouered by the blinde eie of nature, yet nature was not blinde in that discouerie. Some­what againe there is, which an ill man findeth not as man but as euill, that may bee corrected by art, which wee call before by the name of vsuall experience: Which experience is not idle for want of imployment, but willie contrineth many thinges, which a mere naturall man cannot ordinarilie attaine vnto. 3. many thinges are found out in religion yea euen in a false religi­on, which true religion is not to abolish, but may well make a good vse of. For howeuer a false religion, and so called, yet in that particular shee is not false nor deceiued. All this wee need not wonder at all, doe wee conceiue what wee must needes. That no religion, no not a false, but hath some truth in it, which must not be reiected, because it is blended with falshood, but wisely to be distinguished from a heape of falsehood. Now to turne backe vpon that, which wee haue spoken, and resume the first head of this argument: As there is nature and experience, so is there a religion true and false, and as experience receiueth some thinges from nature well, and other some which are not well, she doth well to reforme: so a naturall religion (for so we call superstition that commeth nearest to our naturall sense) doth and hath inuented some good thing which yet by the true religi­on must be allowed of, so farre forth as it is well, and may bee well vsed: None dare affirme that nature is quite lost, but that shee is mightilie decaide all men confesse, and though the print of hir knowledge bee almost worne [...]ut, or as the scraches in the face, that hinder the beautie, yet a print there is, and a face there is, and some sparkles remaine, though they bee as the sparkes of a broken diamond. And howeuer now in hir decay, [Page 186]yet that at some such time (as shee was much better then now) that nothing hath beene found out by hir mother wit, plainely nothing at all were much to hir shame, and indeede to speake plainely a plaine vntruth. Witnesse most of the Gentile learning whereof wee make dayly vse, where is found the remainder of that first light dimmed in Adam, yet a light, much of it helped as a lamp with fresh oyle by the information of Noe, to Iaphet, and those of Iaphets posteritie, much againe succoured by trafficke with the Iewes, and by bookes which the Gentiles might, and did reade otherwhiles, and therefore inuentions thence taken are good, and wholsome, whither the inuentions of Poets, & of their poeticall braine. Let Aratus, Menander, Epimenides, bée as they are. They may bée & are known to be poets, and their sayings not worth repetition by any, far inferior to Paul, much lesse by Paul himselfe, if they were not truth nor agreable to truth. If ye gentile learning of the Egyptian were void of all vse, & all their inuentions to be condemned, what doth scripture cōmend Moses for a man that was learned in al their wisdome Act. 7.22. If na­tures schoole yeeld no instruction?Act. 7.22. why doth Paul ask the Cor. as touching their behauiour in publik praier? Doth not nature teach you 1 Cor. 11. if a man haue long haire &c. If an humain inuen­tion bée a matter of such offence,1. Cor. 11.14. what is the inflectiō of a nowne with such and such articles, the coniugating of a verb in such and such a manner, the Grāmer rules, in hebrue, greek, & latine, and ye construction according to these rules, ar not al these the inuētions of mē, some Iews, enimies to Christ, others Pagans, othersome popish, as also their dictionaries in this & that method, without al which neither scriptures could haue been translated, nor our com­mon people so edified by vnderstanding thē read, as they now are in their own language. If sufficient it be to dash a thing out of vse because heathē, or humaine, what think wee of our moneths, & daies, & their seuerall names Ianuary, February, March, April &c. and munday twesday &c. If wee may borrow no helps frō hu­maine inuentions for the policy of God his people, & their better ordring, why did Moses take aduertisment from Iethro? Consider the persons and it might haue been said. Moses the man of God faithfull in all that he hath to doe shall staine himselfe and his re­putation, which may otherwise grow vnto him, if he make him­selfe [Page 187]beholding to Iethro. Wee all know this Iethro what he is and that his counsell is but a humaine inuention. But it may bee obiected by humain inuentions they meane. Inuentions of the Bishops of Rome, of freers & of mē popishly & heretically minded. Nor is this true not ye first. For the vse of godfathers & godmothers was inuented by Higinus which yet Peter Mar­tyr approueth in baptisme for a profitable institution. Vtile sanè infli tutum. Peter. martyr. I. oc. com de padobap c. 8.5. Dion [...]sius com­pla, caemiteria & parochias diuisit. Polyd. Virgil. de inuet. rer. lib. 4. c. 9. Non sine num [...] ne factum put a bimus quòd no­ [...]issime hoc mū di senescentis sac [...]lo ar [...] typograph [...]ca [...] repererunt vir [...] industrit qua & amissi done inguarū iactu­ram maxima ex parte sarcit, &c. Gualter in Abac. c. 2. The de­u [...]ding of parishes, churches, churchyards an inuention of a Bi­shop of Rome, whose name and time we know. About the yeare of the Lord 268. Dionysius deusded the bounds & limits of chur­ches, churchyards, & parishes. 2. nor is the inuention of Freers to be condemned. For the art of printing, whose inuention was it? but as some think a freers, or as other think a knights one Iohn Cuthen berg (who euer) a popish inuention it was, if we stile our speech as the obiection is framed. Inuention humaine, or popish, or what you will, this commendatiō it hath be &. Gualter wee must not think (saith hée) it was done without the power of God, that in these last times of this aged world industri­ous mē haue foūd out the art of printing, which maketh vp very much the losse of the gift of tongues, & in spight of the enemies, spreadeth abroad the doctrine of truth with admirable successe to the people which are most remote & farte of 3. nor is ye inuentiō of mē popishly affected to be condēned; for ye inhibitiō to disturb a mā in his sermō was a law made by act of parlamēt in ye days of K. Philip & Q. Mary, whose religiō what it was, no mā but knoweth, yet who cā mislike this order of theirs but they who are en [...]mies to al good order.Abac. c. 2. 4. nor if soūd out by an here ticke is it to be condēned. The papist we take it thinks no better of vs, thē wee do of thē, here ticks at the least wée call one ano­ther: yet in an exposition of scripture which is more then yt vse of a garment they can bée content to borrow light frō our commenta­ries, as Ferus out of Pellican Gen. 26.1.2. verbatim Penar dē ­tius out of M. Caluin v [...]d Ionat cap. 1. v. 9. verbatim so in the 10. v. Pag. 142 [...]in 18. & v. 11. out of M. Gualrer: likewise vpon E­sther he taketh whole sentences out of Ludouicus lauater, so Bel­larm. out of M. Beza & Iansenius his harmony is framed out of M. Caluin, share many other their writings, & it may be graūted ye same of vs otherwhiles are beholding to them for obsetuations [Page 188]one or other, if wee bee not, men compareable to vs haue re­ceiued directions from [...]reticks. So did Saint. Austin from Ticonius the Donatist choosing his interpretation rather then Cyprians a man of sounder iudgement.Aug. Retract. lib. 2. cap. 18. An easie matter to haue saide vnto that great diuine. A humaine deuise, an hereticall inuention. Away with it, wee cannot indure it. But should anie haue stained that good father for he was likely inough to haue answered as in an other place he doth.In arūdine ste­rili atque ari­da vel alligata jolet vua pendere. Aug. de bap con. Don. lib. 6. cap. 1. Vpon an vnlikelie stalke fruitlesse, and whithered so, metimes a grape is found And a truth is a truth wheresoeuer wee see it. Let the deuil say (as he did) that Iesus is that Messias that some of God, in an ouer flowing of out gall, wee must not say the contrarie. He saide it to a shiffter end, and with an euill minde. Let vs say it with a better and to fitter purpose, but yet let vs make bold to say it notwithstanding. The aduise which Saint Jerom gaue Pammachius well sorteth with this occasion, where hee coun­selleth.Si adamaueris captiuam muli erem id est sapi entiam sacula­rem, &c. Hae­ron. ad. Pam­machium su per obitu Pau­linae. Multos tibi foetus captiua dabit, ac de Moabitic de essicietur Is raelitis. Ibid. Adquam studi osus & fidelis Thamar decli­nauit, indeque genuit Phares & Zaram qui in Euangelio memorantur. Clem. Alexan. lib. 1. Stromat. If Pammachius bee in loue with mens inuentions, and secular wisdome to doe as the Isralite did with his captiue woman taken in warre, shaue hir head, pare hir nailes, strip off hir gaudie attire, and then new apparreled tooke hir to wife: So must the wisedome of arts and humaine learning bee intreat­ed: whatsoeuer it hath, deade, idolatrous, erroneous or the like shaue and pare it off. Then taken captiue and thus hand­led shee may bring forth manie children vnto God, and of a Moabitish become as one of the daughters of Israel yea as Clem. Alexan. maketh the comparison: Bee shee Thamar, and what Thamar was wee read of, yet Iudas (that is) the faith­full, godlie, studious may turne in vnto hir, and beget Phares and Zara spoken of in the Gospell. Such vse there may be of nature, and naturall inuentions, that though as a neglected stocke may heare some graft comparable with the best. First that which is naturall, then that which is spirituall. In some such order grace and nature are partners other while, that na­ture being hir inuentions, art shapeth, grace sanctifieth. Then are they not barely plaine dunstable humaine iuentions, but Mara must be called Naomi because now made seruiceable to holie vses. And therefore if any please to call them humaine yet not merelie humaine, which happilie is their meaning, that [Page 189]make this obiectiō hereby intending as (man) in scripture is other whiles set against God, like that our of Sauiour. Take heede of men, or that of Saint Paul: If I please men, I were not the seruant of Christ. But so wee vnderstand it not, nor must they Humaine, if they will, yet thus farre diuine withall, as ten­ding to the preseruatiō of Ecclesiastical order and such as accō ­panie other dueties then publikelie to bee performed. This, would men did as readilie confesse, as they sufficiently well knowe, that they haue no warrantable presidēt to cal the institutions of Gods Church a mere humaine inuention as wicked or carnall which are opposit to God and godlinesse: Prophane men that hold both the power and forme of Godlinesse in a scorne may imply some such contemptible signification,Miletia fuerūt sapientes sed se cerunt qualia insipientes. but others, that are sincerelie minded (vnlesse they bee like the Milesians who had wisdome but did vnwisely) are to speake in all reuerence of those commendable orders which the Church inioineth speci­ally in these licentious daies, wherin Atheisme debaseth the due estimation of Gods Church and sacred policie.

They are without warrant of Gods word.

1 Expresse warrant for euery particular we neede not looke for:Iter Sabathi à lege prascriptū non erat, Mar. Math. 28.20. Tremel, in Act 1, 12. Syria, Iuni. Ibid. Aras bicè. Hieron: ad Al­gasiam. Ioh. 10.22. A Sabboth daies iourney was not prescribed by Gods law, but either appointed, (as Master Caluin thinks) by a councell of Priests, or (as Tremell and Iunius thinke) by a tradition of the fathers, whome Saint Ierom takes were Rabbins, and nameth them Atriba and Simon Hely yet the obseruation of this point was at no time taxed by Christ, or his Euange­lists, notwithstanding opportunitie offred to doe so. Likewise there was no warrant expressed in the law for celebrating the feast of the dedication of the temple, which our Sauiour after­wardes present, solenmized. No word in Gods law for the cery­mony of odors vsed about the bodies of the dead, yet our Sauiour was content his body should be so imbalmed. 2. P. Martyr. Ho [...] per [...]. Bucer. Iohn à Laseo. Again we answer in things indifferent, whose nature is to be vsed, or not vsed, as they are no where commaunded so are they no where forbidden:Bucer. Iohn à Laseo. 3. we may know it easily quieteth euery good conscience, what the Apostle writeth. To the pure al things are pure, and euery crea­ture is good with thanksgiuing &c.

They are made to bee of mysticall signification.

Some what (Mysticall) it is, what these obiectors meane by Misticall signification. Ritus qui vene­rationem rebus sacris concilient &c. Talibus admini culis ad pietatē excitemur. Cal. institut. lib. 4. cap 10.28. Ad sacrorum misteriorum reuerentiam apiū 29. Vt sit idone­um ad pieta­tem exercitium Ibid. Non sine fructu Ibid. Vt fideles admo neat quanta mo destia, religio­ne, &c. Ibid. Non licet prina re ecclesiam ea libertate vt nō possit suis actio nibus ac ritibus aliquid signifi­care, P Martyr Hoopero. Ea libertate vsus est Apostolus cum docet, &c. Vt illes signis admoneantur sui officti. Ibid. Re­rum significationes reuotal nobis in mentem quidnos deceat. Ibid. Ministri magis memores simi offictisui & in maicre Veneratione. Ibid. If hereby they vnderstand a decent and reuerent intimation, or admonition. First we hold euery godly ceremonie to haue some such profitable vse as may moue and procure reuerence to holy things &c. that by such helpes we may be stirred vp to godlinesse &c. Fit for reuerence of holy misteries, and a meete exercise vnto godlines, or at the least that which shall beautifie and adorne agreeablie to the actiō in hand, yet so as not without fruit but that it may admonish the faithfull with how great modestie, religion, obseruancie they ought to handle sacred and holy thinges. Which selfe same iudge­ment Peter Martyr giueth of the surplisse, adding withall how it were wrong imprisonment to restraine or depriue the Church of her liberties, that in such rites, and ceremonies shee must signifie iust nothing. 3. whereas all our actiōs euen they that are ciuill signifie somewhat, how much rather, such as are ecclesiasticall in the publike seruice of God to his glo­rie 4. The Apostle vseth this libertie when hee taught the Corinth. in time of prayer, the men to bee vncouered, the women couered in remembrance of their duetie: fifthly the significations of these thinges bring to our minde, what becom­eth vs that are ministers, and others (which are not) to think more reuerently of our calling &c. And where it pleaseth some far­der to vrge.

Our ceremonies haue beene defiled with superstition.

In this case wee answere with the learned: It is a bard taske and a point not easily proued. That the impietie of Poperie is such that whatsoeuer it toucheth is so vtterly polluted, Tantam Papa­tus impietatem vt quicquid at­ting it prorsus reddat contaminatum que bonis & piis sancto vsui concedi non possit. Ibid. as the godly & the Saints may in no case vse it to holy purposes [Page 191]For then neither may we vse glasse windowes nor Church, Pew Cup, Challice, Patien, Cushion, Gran [...]st one,Aliquid esse no­tā antichrists. in nulla re inest In hoc enim mul lares condita sūt a deo, sed pē [...] det totū à cōsen su in Antichri­stianism [...] & eius professionē Quo consensis quaque professi­one commuta­tis in cōsensum. &c. Bucer Iohn a Lasco. Nihil potest in rebus ipsis harere nota Antichristianismi Ibid. Distributionem panis & vint sacrificulis damonibus celebrarunt Ibid. Preceptum est vt decorum seruetur. Ibid. nor ground either in Church, or Churchyeard. To be a note of Antichristianism is in no manner of thing (saith one) for to this end nothing is created of God, but wholie dependeth vpon our consent to Antichristianisme, and the profession thereof: VVhich consent and profession being changed into a consent and profession of true christian religion, there connot anie note of Antichristianisme cleaue vnto the thinges themselues. The bread and wine which Pagans offred to Diuels (as Iustin Martyr and Tertullian remember) were no hinderance why we should not vse the like ceremonie. For which as the commaundement is expresse, so is it thus far in generall, that al thinges be done for comelinesse, preseruation of order, &c. Where it is farder obiected.

They are scandalous.

They mistake that call that scandalous, which grieueth some one or other. For then wee shall neuer haue done. Marke wee, who and how manie are offended, and vpon what ground & who hath taught them so: If the minister bee the partie that taught them, and then afterwardes he complaine that such and such in his parish will take offence, he must thanke himselfe and he shall do well to vnteach them it, but a great deale better if hee had neuer so taught them. Againe, a man thus weakelie disposed though otherwise well giuen, must hold other mens iudgement comparable to his own, they being as well affected to the gospel as himselfe, and those manie, who take offence as deeply on the o­ther side, and let him thinke it more conuenient, for so it is in al reason, that a few should yeeld to a greater part, as namely one to a thousand, rather then a thousand to one, specially where the thing commaunded hath authoritie for it, and is not simplie euill in it owne nature, but indifferent as the Surplice, &c. For in thinges indifferent, none denie but authoritie may commaund where the word soundly taught, remoueth all other doubtes and scruples that may arise.

Of necessarie vse.

If they meane vnto saluation we easily graunt what they say, but els necessarie wee hold them for order and preseruation of peace in token of our godlie obedience, and of great vse as the times now are, to meete with two sorts of men. The one such as their pouertie permits them not to haue fit, and decent attire, so bare and low they are driuen, how we enquire not, but God knoweth and the world may lee with griefe. The other are some fantastically who (as they bring in fashions, or take them from the vanitie of an vnsetled humor) are as changeable in co­lours, cuts, iags and the like as other fondlings, so that if they might haue their owne will they sticke not to bring into the house of God new tangied attire at times of diuine seruice, and the publike administration of holy dueties. A sinne wee are not the first haue felt, but aske our fathers, and they may tell vs, how some offended herein, as Sisinius the Nouatian and Eustathius of Sebastia in Armenia, which examples if we had not to learne wisdome by,Socrat. lib. 6. c 22. ld. lib. 2. c 42. yet God hath not so disfurnished vs of vnderstanding, but that our Church doth, and may due­lie prouide, against all these inconueniences, not onely refor­ming disorders in this kinde, but also prescribing a conformi­tie of vniforme attire (for coulour, forme and vse) verie meete and decent.

Appropriated to Gods seruice.

This with some is a matter of grieuance. But no otherwise appropriated to Gods seruice, then aforetime in those dayes, when they were vsed onely for distinction of the minister from the people, and for grace and reuerence to the diuine seruice then in hand. Wee well knowe how our aduersaries haue exceeded that way, so as wee cannot see fruite for leaues, but yet this wee must confesse, in asmuch as they did not rise to this excesse all on the suddaine, but step after steppe yea many ages helping thereunto, wee take it wee may safely haue an eye to those times wherein as they were fardest, so they were freest from su­perstition. Therefore not to speak of the last 300. yeres, wherein Bonauenture & Innocentius much busie themselues for iustify­ing the multitude of their superstitious garmēts, nor of a hundred [Page 193]yeares before when Rupertus wrote his book of diuine duties,Rupert. de diui n offici [...] liber est qui sine b [...] nore & titul [...] iacuit annis s [...] ­rè 400. Bellar. de Euchar. lib. 3. cap. 11. Concil Braga­ren. 1. can. 27. Concil. Toles. 4. can. 39. Concil. Cartha. 4. can: 41. Quae sunt rogo inimicitia con­tra Deum, si in nicam habuero mundiorem? Si episcopus, presbyter, & di aconus, & reli­quus ordo eccle­siaflicus in ada ministratione 07 sacramentorum candida vest [...] pracesserint. Hieron. lib. 1. ad uers. Pelag. c. 9. Religio 0725 diuina alterum habet habitum in mi­nisterio, alterū in vsu, vetaque communi. Idem. in Ezech. c. 44 Apprehēsa auū culs manu hanc inquit tunicam qua vtebar in ministerio Christi, mitte dilectissim [...] mi­hi at ate patri, fratri collegi [...], Hieron ad He­lioder. knowing Bellar. his censure of it, that howeuer thought written so long agoe, yet but late found out, and as a booke of no great account hath lyen almost 400. yeares without honour or title giuen it nor purpose we to stay vpon 300. yeares auncienter, when it seemeth Rabanus Maurus writ vpon this argument. These last 1000. yeares wee will cut off and looke to the times before. Which if we doe, it appeareth when they were much more sparing, they yet had some one garment or other distinct from others, which they vsed onely in publike offices of the Church. Witnesse the councell of Brage, and before it the coun­cell of Toledo, and before them both the councell of Carthage in the daies of Saint Austin. Of which time Saint Hierom (for he was not much elder then that reuerend Austin) writeth, that some garmēts were distinctly appropriated to Ecclesiasti­cal and publike vse: Which may be seene in his first book against Pelag. who cauilled at such attire as contrarie to Gods word. What offence (saith that good Father) is it if a Bishop, Pres­byter and Deacon, and the rest of that Ecclesiasticall order goe before in a white garment at the administration of the Sacraments. Which if any shall thinke, that other Christians (not Clergiemen) did weare, his wordes vpon Ezech cap. 44. manifest the contrarie. Diuine Religion hath another atttire in the ministerie, and another in a common vse and life This himselfe proued in his owne practise. For one Nepotian a Presbiter dying left him a garment, which hee vsed as hee saieth the ministrie of Christ. The historie is this, Nepotian taking his Vnckle by the hand; this coate or garment (quoth hee) which I did vse in the ministrie of Christ, send to my wel beloued, my Father, for age, &c. meaning Ierom by that appellation. Where it seemeth no vsuall and ordinary attire, but some choise and speciall one: for hee intends it as a pledge of his last loue and kindenesse, which hee did bequeath vnto him: se­condly, we may note, it was such a one, as he did not continually weare, but at times in publike duties of his calling, for hee was a Presbiter and in the ministrie of Christ he did vse it. But proceede wee on forwarde; much about this time in the Greeke Church some-vniforme attire was also receiued among the [Page 194]Clergie, as Chrisosotome remembreth in diuers places. In his homilies to the people of Antioch, Hac vestra dig nitas est, hac ou [...] nis corona, non vt albam & splendentem tu nicam circum­eatis amicti. Chrisost. homil. 60. ad populum Anticchen. Haec est digni­tas vestra, haec stabilitas, haec corona, nō quia tunicam induts cādidissimā per ecclesiam ambu latis ld. homil. 83. in. Math. Trecenti circi­ter anni, &c. Auctor quaestiō. vet. & nous Testam. c. 44. Quod mulier non sit creata ad imaginem Dei. Qq. 21. quod Melchise­dech foerit spiri tus s [...]nctus Q. 1091, quod Ada non habuerit spirituns sactū Quast. 123. Idolatria ad misit per quod peccauerat in Deum, &c. Q. 8 [...]. His in vrbe Roma. Q. 115. Quasi non b [...]diè Diacons Dal [...] a [...]icis induantur sucut Episceps Id. cap: 46. Vtea cir [...]amictus ministerium sacri baptismatis adimpleret. Tri part [...]. histor. lib. 5. cap. 35. and in his homilies vpon S. 0725 Mat. For blaming the priests or Ministers for their negligence, not caring who receiued or how, but admitted all to the Lord his Table without difference. This is your dignity & crowne, &c. and not to goe about in your goodly white shining gar­ments, &c. Againe, in his Homilies vpon Saint Mathew to the like purpose in words not much differing. This is your dig­nitie, this your constancie, this your crowne, and not be­cause you walke vp and downe in the Chruch in your white coate or garment. About some 300. yeares after Christ (for it séemeth to be no more by the Author of the questions vpon the olde and new Testament, cap. 44. for after the birth of Christ, about some 300. yeares were runne out) then is witnessed that a distinction of ecclesiasticall garments (from others) in the publike seruice was in vse. That authour we call him and not Saint Austin, both because of the times wherein he liued was somewhat auncienter, as appeareth before (because but 300. yeares after Christ) as also because of diuers opinions not sound­ly deliuered as quest. 21. that the woman was not created after the image of God, that Adam sinned the sinne of Idolatrie, quest. 83. that Melchisedech was the holy Ghost, quest. 1091. and that Adam had not the holy spirit, quest. 123. &c. yet notwithstanding these dangerous pointes handled contrary to Scripture and Saint Austin, Beside another prose there is, because the Author of this booke quest. 115. liued at Rome, so did not Saint Austine, yet we say notwithstanding all this, (he may be credited in a matter of fact as to say what was donne, for therefore we alleadge him namelie that Bishops and Deacons in his time did weare Dalmatish garmentes, that is, a kinde of ecclesiasticall attire before this time. In these hundred yeares wherein the Church had breathing after her sore long wasting persecution we haue farder proofe in the daies of Constantine, who (good Emperor) gaue a distinct holie garment to Macarius to weare in administring Baptisme, and Theodoret recording the same, reports an example of a [Page 195]Stage-player, who for bringing this baptizing garment vppon a Stage to daunce in it, fell sodainly downe and dyed.Qua indutus (quidam canta torscenicus) in­ter saltandum collapsus inte­rist, &c. Theo­dor. lib. 2. cap. 27. Eusebius in his Ecclesiasticall storie the tenth booke and fourth Chapter, chronicling the great ioy which was among Christians in good Constantin his raigne pauseth his stile in the gratulatorie tri­umphes which were made at the solemnizing the dedication of a Church built in Tyre of Phoenicia, where a man of good ac­count prepared a graue, godly exhortation in the presence of Paulinus (that holy and reuerend Bishoppe) with a many other Ecclesiasticall persons then assembled in their ornamentes and sacred attire reaching downe to their feete. [...]. Euseb. lib. 10. cap. 4. [...]. It may bee no such store of proofes can be yeelded for the times within the 300. yeeres after Christ. And no meruasle good Christians they had no open Churches, but secret places to serue God in, well con­tent if they might haue then but foode and raiment with the small libertie of the Gospell, which they inioyed no otherwise then as a man that eates stolne bread. Yet so farre as the Re­cords of that time may deserue credit, so wee finde that 60. yeeres before the dayes of Constantin a peculiar vestiment was ap­pointed for celebrating the oCmmunion.Singulari vesti tu (que [...] sacra tum dixerunt) indui licuit sa cerdotibus in Eucharistia. Centur. 3. cap. 6. pag. 146. This decree the Pro­testants of Meidenburg in their Centuries referre to the times of Stephen Bishop of Rome, who afterwardes, as did many else his Predecessors and Successors, for it was in those best times, layed downe his life for the testimony of the Lord Iesus. Higher then 200. yeeres after Christ we cannot well expect many wit­nesses in this argument. For by reason, of the persecution ma­ny monuments are lost, and men had small ioy or leisure to apply their thoughts for the Pen, or both thoughts and Pen to writing, [...]. Euseb lib. 3. cap. 21. Hieron. de scrip turis ecclesiast. verb. Polycrat. Phylosophicum habitum. Enseb. lib. 6. cap. 20. yet one and that on shall supply in steed of many others. Eusebius in his third booke quoting Polycrates his Epistle to Victor writeth that Saint Iohn was wonte to beare a plate on his forehead, such as the high Priest did vse. This selfe same history is remembred by Saint Ierom in his Ca­talogue of Ecclesiasticall writers. To bee briefe for answere to this exception of theirs. Why not some ornament as well appropriated to Gods seruice at times, as to the Minister some garment approptiat fitting him at all times for ordinarie attire distinct from others. As that of Heraclas of Alexan­dria whose garment though it bee not set downe what it was [Page 196]yet scholasticall it was, of some such fashion as the learned then did were. As that also of Cyprian, who being to be beheaded stripped himselfe of one of his garments,Expoliaeit se birrho, & trade dit caruificibus Dalmaticam vero tradidet Diaconibus Pō tius Diacon, in passion Cyprian So quis propter continentiam, &c. quasiper hoc habere se iustitiam cre­deus, & despi­cit eos qui cum reuerentia bir his & aluscō. munibus & so­litis vtuntura. nathema sit. Concil. Gang. can. 12. and gaue it to the exe­cutioner, but his Dalmatish vesture he deliuered to the Deacons Both which were such attire as did belong to his Ecclesiasticall calling: The first of these his birrhus, the attire so called is mentioned in the Councell of Gangres, where the Canon esta­blishing the vse of it decreeth against all newfanglednesse to the contrarie. The second of these the Dalmatish garment remem­bred in the Councels and other allegations before. And if Chri­stians newly conuerted from Paganisme did weare a kinde of short cloke, not for anie holinesse in the garment, but onely in token of their Christian profession to distinguish them from Gentiles, and this they did by a priuate consent among them­selues without warrant of Gods word (for Gods word no where gaue them expresse commaundement so to doe) wee see not but the like cause may preuaile with vs, (where Gods worde saieth no more for it nor against it then it did, or doth for that conuerts attire) speciallie being agreed vpon not by a priuate consent of one or two, and so drawne on by example, but ioyntly by au­thoritie of the Church and for such reasons as may well lead her thereunto. If any shall say Conuerts did it to distinguish them from Gentiles, our answere is, so doe wee, though not from the Gentile, yet from among our sulues because of order to audide confusion of degrees. For if there be reason to differ in ge­nerall from others, because of a generall difference in the calling of a Christian, so may there be, and is reason to differ in speciall among our selues in the particular, as we are of such and such a particular calling, as a Citizen from a husbandman, a Mer­chant from an Artificer, which are ciuill distinctions, so a teacher from a scholler, a minister from the rest of the people, which difference as he is a subiect may be called ciuill, but as he is an Ecclesiasticall person in respect of his office may beare the name of an Ecclesiasticall difference. If anie shall say, Ye haue no warrant out of Gods word: no more had those new conuerts to differ in attire from the Gentiles. Nay more the word of God is so far from commannding so to doe, that if themselues had pleased changing their opinions, they might haue kept their [Page 197]Pag [...]n attire. This is Saint Austin his iudgement.Nibil s [...] ad [...] am pertions ci [...]itatte [...], q [...] habita vel mo­re vi [...]oudi, si nō est contra diuis no pracepta, &c. Vnde spsos phy­lolophos, quādo Christiane sūt, non habitum vol cōsmendi­nem victus qua nithil impedit religio no [...], sed falsa dogmata muta re compellis, August, de ci­ustate Dei. 19. cap. [...]9. [...]. Hiero [...], ad Fu­riam, B. Rhinan. in Tuttu [...] pras. de pallio. Dicterio locu [...] apud Carthagi nenses. A toga ad pallium. Tert de pallio. Insignia gereu­tium publica munera confe­runt aliquid ad retimendam, augendamque authoritatē, sicatera nō de­sint, quibus ve­ra reuerentia his per so subsi­stis. Bucer [...] a Laseo. Tru [...]y it nothing appertaineth to this Citty of God, in what attire, or manner of life any man follow the faith whereby we come to God, so it be not against God his Comandemets. Hence it is she comyelleth not the Philosophers themselues (when they become Christians) to change their habit or manner of diet (which doth not hinder Religion) but their false opinions. But to goe forward in examining that course of those punie Christians, and the comparison of our practise with them. If any shall say (as it hath béene oft said) Yee are neuer a whit the holier nor any whit better now you weare any such raiment, then when ye did not, or then others, that doe not. A briefe reply is sufficient: no more were those Conuerts any thing the holier after they changed their ap­parell. If it be told vs (which some vse for an obiection now a daies) yee shall be deuided in so doing. Our answere is: that must be no let to vs more then it was to them. For what more common by word at a Christian for being so attired then this. An olde imposter, because be imposed or put vpon himselfe such a garment, slily insinuating withall that such a one was but an imposter or meere coosiner. And among the Cartha­ginians when they mette with a lately professed Christian, who in token of his Christian profession was attired, as other Christians, they had a flout at him for his cloke (for such a kind of apparell it was) which a new Conuert did weare. But he did not respect, no more should we such thredbare and ouer­worne flouts. We haue as sufficient meanes to comfort vs in our vniforme vestiment as any those times aforded young no­nices for their habit, which they altered? But drawing to a conclusion this we may know. In all our common or more spe­ciall vse of any garment, which Ministers put on, there is none so appropriated to Gods seruice, as made a cause of holinesse, or part of Gods worship, though some gull their weakelings and make them temporize with this forced & forged imputation. It was well said by Master Bucer in his Epistle. The ensignes of men in publike office doe aduantage much & in­trease the authoritie of their lawfull power, other things want not, which of themselues deserue due reacrence. Signes, are [Page 198]signes, and not the things themselues, yet how much they auaile to adinonish,Signa quidē sū signa, non res Quantum val­ant ad mor [...] dum, ac etiam mouendum ani mot. ibid. Nibil Antichri stianitatis illa­rum vestium vsu esse renouae tum. 2. magistratibus obeds endum, &c. Buc. Crāmero. Licere ritibus pie vti, quibus alii impre abusi sunt. Ibid. Suspictonem su isse visandam nos irreligs­osa-leuitate & malitta commo tos coscuncta &c. Id. Quod aliquid significet & alicutus admo­niat. yea and to mooue the minde, God vouchsa­fing the increase, he will marualle that shall obserue it. Now because those aduertisements which the learued giue in this case are necessarie for people & Minister, they both must be intreated to accept them, as worthy their best obseruation. The people thus.

  • 1. That no Antichristianitie is renued by the vse of these garments.
  • 2. That Magistrates are to be obeyed.
  • 3. That the peace of the Church must not by them be di­sturbed.
  • 4. That euery creature is good:
  • 5. That those rites may be vsed in a godly sort, which other haue impiously abused:
  • 6. That our high Court of Parliament had no purpose to nourish, nor doth nourish superstiti­on.
  • 7. That such garments were in vse before Poperie.
  • 8. That we are bound to cleare our selues of that odious imputation, namely. That of an irreligious lightnesse and malice we reiect all things yea euen such as haue a good vse.
  • 9. That by such attire good thoughts are iustly oc­casioned for heauenly matters.
  • 10. In as much as Mi­nisters must weare one garment or other they should weare that rather, which signifieth somewhat, and to such ende may well admonish them.

As a people must be thus instru­cted, so the Ministers must also doe this. First, not contemne these arguments, nor preach against them. Secondly, they must commute, and change the Popish abuse into a Chri­stian vse to the glory of God, and the honor of that power, which vnder God in this case may, and doth royally com­mand. Thirdly, they must shew by their practise, that to the holy and [...]ure all thinges are pure. 4. That neither Deuils, nor any else can so staine or pollute any creature of God, but that good men may well vse it to Gods glo­tie, Ad gloriâ Dei etiam ad vsum significationis Iaem. Artificium Sa­tane vt peccata faciamus qua non sunt, & qua sunt peccata reuera in nobis min [...]s obser­nemus. Id. yea and that for signification. Lastly, both Minister and people must remember this. That Satan by his artifici­all sleights causeth men to purrle themselues in making [Page 199]those, which are no sinnes to be grienous, and others the whilest, which are sinnes in deede, to escape vnespied. But hoping this caneat as also the other answere may giue much contentment. Procéede we to the rest.

5. Because we Subscribe to the reading of we cannot tell what videlicet, All Homilies that hereafter shall be set foorth by common authoritis (others make their complaint thus.) Because we subscribe as it were vnto a blancke, wherein afterward may be written, whatsoeuer shall be pleasing vnto the vrgers of subscription.

The Homilie after the third part of the sermon against Contention deliuereth these words. Hereafter shall follow Sermons of fasting, praying, almes deeds, &c. naming a many more, and then closeth thus: with many other mar­ters as well fruitfull, as necessarie to the edifying of Chri­stian people & the increase of godly liuing. Hereunto the second tome of Homilies hauing reference intitleth the begin­ning thus. Of such matters, as were promised and intitled in the former part of Homilies. And the Booke of Arti­cles that we may know what it is, both not onely name the particulars seuerally in distinct order, but she weth also the quo­tient of them iust 21. and no more, whereunto Subscription is required and no otherwise. But graunt that more Homi­lies either are alreadie or shall be hereafter set out, yet the vrgers of Subscription can neither make new Articles of Re­ligion, nor doth the law intend that they can. For it lyeth not in the power of any Bishop within his Diocesie, as of himselfe without warrant of a more plenarie and full autho­ritie to publish or set foorth any Sermon or Homilies to be inioyned any his ministers for publike vse in our Church, but with correspondence to the doctrine alreadie agreed vpon, profitable to edification and proportionable to the analogie of faith. And of a truth who in his right minde would once [Page 200]imagine that those godly men (who permed that clause) being as they were speciall instruments of Gods glorie, and ene­mies to superstition, meant euer to make way by such a Ru­bricke to bring in, whatsoeuer some one man at his pleasure would deuise? Whereas it did onely prouide for a time, and at that time to giue men contentment, who happily at the first setting out of those other homilies did looke for more, but be­cause they could not then be all vpon the suddaine, their ex­pectation was intreated on to a farder time. Notwithstand­ing the equitie of this knowne truth, see (we pray thee good Reader but be waile what thou seest) how vncharitablie some indgements are imployed.

6. Because the Collectes, Epistles, and Gospels on the first Sun­day in lent sauour of superstition by making them Religious fasts in regard of the time in which they are appointed.

As much sauour of superstition in the vse of Collect, Epistle, and Gospell, as there is store of great loue toward vs in them who make this accusation. An euill minde distasts all things be they neuer so good, or commendadle. If Scripture sauour of superstition because of Religious fasts at that time, what are many of these mens Sermons, Scripture, and prayers which are commonly in vse at such times in Lent, when they call their meetings at a market towne by the name of a fast, though before and after Sermon, they haue well fed, and few of them abstaine from any thing, more then what they cannot haue to eate. But for feare that superstition may surprise vs at vnawares, they that thus complaine, would they did shew vs why that Collect, Epistle, and Gospell on the first Sun­day in Lent are called in the plurall number Collects, Epistles, and Gospels when there is but one of each, or may they be in­treated to giue a reason why they thinke that Collect, E­pistle, and Gospell read on the first Sunday in Lent sauou­reth of superstition more then that of the first Wednesday in Lent, or let them informe vs what smacke of superstition is in the 2. Corinth. 6. from the first verse to the tenth and [Page 201]Saint Mathew. 4. from the first to the 11. both being scriptures appointed for that first sunday, more then is in [...]oel 2. from the 12. to the 17. and Mathew 6. from the 16 to the 21. If it bee said as here is pretended that they sauour of superstition be make­ing them religious fasts in regard of the time, by that reason they may condemne all the scriptures as sauouring of superstiti­on which for 5. or six weekes euery sabboth are so applyed: Their supposed argument vrged against this, may as rightly be vrged against the others. But to satisfie doubts here occastoned, this briefe following wee desire may be well noted. Men that ob­serue any thing now adayes of what is done abroad in the mat­ter of fasting, wil easilie confesse with vs these few thinges.

  • First that a great nūber (of our christians so called) spend much of their time in gluttonie and bellie-cheare, neuer once knowing somuch as what the name of a true fast meaneth, vnlesse it bee to eat fast and drinke fast.
  • 2. our experience sheweth that a great cause of this euill proceedeth hence, for that men are left to their owne choice, and hold it (they say) free for them, as if they needed not vnlesse themselues please
  • 3. if anie doe taske himselfe we may note it is but his priuate denotion, others beare the worlde in hand they se no cause, or take it for no cause, & so a good worke is negligently omitted
  • 4. if wee thinke, that onely a time to fast, when God visiteth a land with plague, pestilence, famin, or sword, a man sometimes may liue many yeares together, and see no such cause.
  • 5. or seeing it but seldome, will in his godlie zeale humble himselfe more oft, euen for feare of some iudge­ment though no such bee either present or imminent:
  • 6. and there­fore in respect of the times as on such daies of the weeke in such a season of the yeare commaund himselfe or be commaun [...]ed by sacred authoritie to deuote his soule, and bodie though at all times, yet then speciallie in more solemne and (if possible) more earnest humble manner.
  • 7. and as commaunding himselfe because a law to himselfe, yet he doth it freely, so if commaunded by others, yet his freedome and libertie is no way hindred.

For our obedience to God and our King what is it, but commaunded. Yet wee hope being chearefullie performed may hee thought, and so is free and voluntarie. Now for the obseruation of Lent it is [...]onew inuention, but a godlie ordinance commaunded at the [Page 202]entrance of the spring and [...]lly continued in an intire course for 1500. yeares, (the superstition onely excepted which was but of a later time) & now intended (though not principally) for a sparing vse of the creature in some kinde, in other some denying the vse of anie at all for a time (without speciall cause) not for conscience simplie of the meate, as if it were damnation to eat, touch, or fast, but for conscience sake to a good order well esta­blished for increase of cattle, maintenance of nanigation, which vnder God are the riches and blessing of our land, as also for our farder instruction to know that God is rich in mercy not from the earth onely, but frō ye great diep, furnishing vs with aboūdance from the sea, that we may bee truely thankful vnto him. This di­uine godlie course thus wisely intended, what honest, good heart but will commend? holding it his duetie to thinke, as the ma­gistrate requireth a politicke vse in the fast, so himselfe intends a religious vse thereof in sanctifying this restraint from some kinde, and moderately vsing other creatures with prayse and thanksgiuing, spending the fundaies and other houres in the wéek in holie exercises of prayer, priuate, and publike reading and hea­ring the worde preached, liberallie ministring vnto the Saints all which though he doe at other times, yet then (so farre as in him lieth) raysing his decayed thoughts to a farder humiliation preparing himselfe euery day somewhat against that great and memorable day, which our fathers called the holie time of Cas­ter: For it cannot bee denied, but as our bodies haue their seuerall seasons, so our soules may therein haue their seuerall solemne instructions. For why should it bee saide of vs, what was saide of the Jewes. the Storke in the ayre knoweth hir ap­pointed times,Ierem. 8.7. the Crane, Turtle and Swallow all obserue the time of their comming &c. Yes let men knowe that in the spring time as our blood riseth and multiplyeth: so it hath neede of subduing, and that as the flesh begins to pamper it selfe (for so it will doe naturallie at some times of the yeare) so a fit time and verie expedient it is, to check it with some holie counter-buffe, chastning, mortifying, bearing, and beating it downe, least where it should bee the temple of the holie Ghost it be­come a vile instrument of much wickednesse. Thus wee are to bestow our time in Lent. And their moderation of iudge­ment to bee commended herein, who thus aduisedlie doe qualifie [Page 203]the question. Which Maister Zanchius and some others doe,Est tempui 40. dierum vsque ad sanctune pas cha ex pia vete [...] ris ecclesia ordi­natione consi [...]a­tutum, in quo fi deles diligétius quam vllo tem­pore alio tum ie tun [...]is tum pre­cibus t [...] auditione verbi. Zanch, in 4. precep. pag. 634. Eoque ad canā domini in pas­chate dignius sumendam pr [...] ­parantur. Ibid Si sic definias quis eam queat meritò improb [...] re. Ibid. calling it a time of 40. dayes immediately before Easter conti­nued by a godlie ordinance of the pi [...]nitiue Church, at which season the faithfull more diligentlie then at anie time els, both by fasting, prayers, hearing the worde and other godlie exercises are stirred vppe to repentance, and so prepared to receiue at Easter the supper of the Lord more worthilie. And at the end of it thus concludeth. If you thus define it, who hath cause instlie to mislike it? By the doctrine of our Church all su­perstitions are abolished, as that there is holinesse in meats, or any liberty for excesse in the vse of other creatures, fish, wine, oyle &c. or that fasting is meritorious, &c. p [...]lgrimages, in­uocation of Saints, praying in an vnknowne tongue, all which accompanie the popish fast and are r [...]ghtlie called superstition wee vtterlie condemne. If notwithstanding all this, any su­perstition bee thought to remaine because wee haue some set prayer, and epistle, and Gospell, at that time, who knoweth not scriptures are then fitlie ordered, when the argument is a­greable to the season? But some misterie there is in it, that men do mislike scriptures of fasting applyed to a time of fast­ing, and shew not a worde of dislike to scriptures of ioy applyed to a time of reioycing. And with as faire a glose they may chal­lendge all the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels from Easter to Whitsuntide, with is a time of 50. dayes as these or any of these from after Qinquagesima to Easter: Unlesse peraduenture they can be content to heare of fasting and triumph, but not of fasting and humiliation. Wel howeuer this adoe men make a­bout little, for wee see few ye fast as they should, know that other churches of our age (as Hemingius, Spangen bergius, and Chi­traeus witnesse) apply themselues to the like publike practise sor­ting out scriptures for epistles, & gospels as we do.Perkins. refor. Cathol p. 221. The conclu­sion wee make of this point in this argument. A religious fast is when the duties of religion, as the exercises of praier & humiliati­on are practised in fasting. A ciuil is, when vpon some particular & politike considerations mē abstaine frō certaine meats. But our time of Lent is so intended & purposed; therefore a ciuill & a religi­ous fast, not a superstitious vnles religiō [...]he superstiti [...]ō And if any shal say either opēly in ye hearing of others or secretly in his own hart, but a very few yt so kéep it: we answer no falt in y intēt of the [Page 204]godlie institution but if ante fault this way, it is all long of such gainsaying as here is vsed. And thus much be spoken to this point.

7. So also doth the Custome of open pennance in the beginning of Lent the practise whereof is approued, and yet the restitution of an other wished in the Commination.

Strange times that Collects, Epistle, Gospel, Prayers, Scripture, open confessions of sinne to our owne shame and of Gods vengance to his glorie, that all these sauour of superstition; Were proofes as neare at hand as slaunders, men would proue more and slaunder leffe. The restitution of another is wished in the Commination, but not rep [...]grant to this, nor this con­trarie to Gods worde. A goosle discipline the booke speak­eth of, which what it was in the primitiue Church, and how farre foorth necessarte for these times would aske a larger dis­course then that which followeth will permit. Some such their was and in steede thereof this (which they speake of) is in vse, which is the generall, though not so speriall as the booke wish­eth and may indeede rather bee wished then easitie accomplished. Whither sinceritie in this case speake or beare a truth, the truth wee speake and would haue heard is this: No one sentence in that whole argument, but they may subscribe to, vnlesse they meane because wee come not so neare as is wished, therefore wee must not come so neare, as wee may, and as our Church boldeth expedient.

8. Because it permits anie of the Communicants to make the publike confession of sinnes, which also containes apraier in the name of the rest, which onelie belongeth to the minister, as his speciall office he being the mouth of the people, and in that case a pub­like person.

Read the answer afore part 2. cap. 12.

9. Because it containeth diuerse corrupt translations of holie scrip­tures by leauing out some wordes.

This 9. proofe is bounded vnder the generall head disgrace­full as inforcing that our communion booke because it contain­eth diuerse corrupt translations of holie scriptures by leauing out some wordes. So that their argument is to this effect. That which containeth diuerse corrupt translations of holie scripture is disgracefull to scripture: But our communion booke contain­eth diuerse corrupt translations ergo it is disgracefull. This they sceme to confirme in this manner. That which leaueth out diuerse wordes containeth diuerse corrupt translations of ho­lie scripture. But the Communion booke leaueth out diuerse wordes, ergo the communion Booke centaineth diuerse corrupt translations and so by consequent is disgracefull to bo­lie scriptures. How farre forth the booke doth leaue out a [...]e thing is our next worke vpon instance to be giuen. But the question is now of this first proposition the falsehood whereof is plaine in this because many translations, Chaldee, Syriacke Arabick, yea the Greeke it selfe of the old testament which the Apostles receiued in their time, all these in diuerse places leaue out some wordes, as to particularise would clogge the margent, yet neuer reade wee that either the Apostles, or Mauter Iunius and Tremellius accounted these translations disgracefull to holie scripture, neither would these two latter haue imployed so much time in translating the Chaldee, Syriacke, & Ara­bick, if they had so thought. But proceede wee to the In­stances.

1,. These wordes are left out Higaion, Selah, and all the titles of the Psalmes.

Higaion, Selah, in the 9. Psalme verse 17. the Psalter in the Communion booke mentioneth not, because not translated. For they are hebrue wordes originallie. And as good omitted as not vnderstood. The most learned and auncientest that know their own hebrue tongue, know not what to say herein, and therefore no shame for our countrimen to confesse their igno­rance. 2. other Churches did follow this course at what time the Psalmes were first translated 3. they that doe render the words doe not render all, nor doe they make any necessarie certaine [Page 206]construction 4.Doctissimiviri obseruant titu lis Psalmorum nonesse temerè fidendum. Hie­ron. Guadal in Osean. praefat. pag. 8. Dum in anbi­guo adbuc resest properandum videtur ad certa. Felin. praefat. in Psam. the papist himselfe is not so blind but be seeth, and seing ingenuously confesseth that verie learned men doe ob­serue that wee may not ouer hastilie trust the titles of the Psalmes. Wherefore not hacking nor sticking vpon doubtfull and disputable titles not of the substance of the Psaimes them­selues, they heldit (as Felinuts saieth) wisdome to hasten pre­sently to the Psalmes themselues, where all things were and are plentifull and certaine. But more of this Par. 1. chap. 24. Pag 133.

2. Because it leaueth out the conclusion after the 72. Psalme, and these wordes prayse yee the Lord at least 17. times.

The conclusion of the 22. Psalme is, Let all the earth be filled with his glorie so be it, so be it, or as our Communion book hath Let all the earth be filled with his maiestie A men A men. And therfeore false where they say it is left out. After the Psal, fullie fi­nished there is in a smaller letter put to in other bookes. Here end the praiers of Daniá the son of I shai, which because other Psalmes follow as the 101.108.109. &c. all carrying the titles of the Psalmes of Dauid, made our translators to forbeare (as it seen eth) in respect of the weake, least hereby they should mistake being no part of Dauids Psalme as in deed it is not, but added by some other (as the learned acknowledge) whither Salomon or some els that put the Psalmes together into one whole volume. Of the words Prayse ye the Lord read before part 1. cap. 24. Pag. 134

3. The conclusion of the Lordes praier is left out euery where thos rough the seruice after the popish manner.

It was left out by she fathers of the westerne Church before poperie was hatcht. And the reason here of wee haue touched in the 1. part cap. 25. Whereunto this may bee added The latin Church vsed it not in the forme of prayer, because it is not a peti­tion,Doctor Fulk. prefac. to the Reader. 38. but acknowledgeing of the power and glory of God, to whom the petitions are directed, as also because it was a thing commonly known and dayly rehearsed of euery man. But here of see part. 1. cap. 25. Pag. 135.

4. In the reading of the commaundewent these wordes are left out I brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

Wee are wisely to consider the drift of a place, where, or when a sentence is cited or left out, and accordingly wee must tudge.Math. 19.17. Wil [...]on our Sausour teacheth the young man the com­maundements he pauseth on the ducles of the second table not mentioning the first, so the Apostle Rom. 13. Rom. 13.9. not corrupting or disgracing the scriptures thereby, but teaching vs by their example to stay vpon that, which we hold most needfull and omit some other as not so pertinent at that tyme. The like is done in this place here alledged I brought thee out of the land of Egypt &c. They are the wordes onely of a preface not of the commaundement, and their purpose is, that penned that part of the communion Booke, to propose vnto the people not the whole chapter of Exodus, but onely somuch, as are the parti­cular commaundements. And therefore intending that princi­pally, as also to helpe young memories, are to be thought fa [...]re from doing ought, which may argue a corrupt translation, or anie way bee disgracefull to the scriptures.

5. In the epistle on the fifth sunday after the Epiphanie these wordes are left out Holie and beloued. Colloss. 3.12. others call the leauing out of these wordes. A gelding of the Scriptures.

This dealing with our communion book is no better thē that of the Cardinal Doctor Eureux with the Lord Plessis. Iuciting places out of the auncient fathers, the Lord Plessie desirous to be liuer that, wherefore he quotes the authoritie, sometimes leaues out halfe a sentence more or lesse, not that he would corrupt the sense, which he then avoucheth it for, nor but that there may be vse of it in due place, but at that time & for that purpose somuch, & no more was then needfull. The like may be said for the last & this particular here alledged. For neither the whole 20. cap. of Exod. nor ye third to the Colloss. are appointed to be read quite out but onely somuch by derectiō, as ye māner is. In the first ye author God spake these words, & then the cōmandements, which because [Page 208]the Church speciallie intended therefore omitteth that other. And so it may bee saide for this appellation holie and beloued, which more significantlie are in other places of scripture expres­sed, and the wordes here vsed (As the elect of God) the translator held inough to intreate them by. All which the minister may do because his principall aime is (videlicet) to exhorte, to put on tender mercic and forgiuing one another, and so sparing those communia as Erasmus calleth them, driues vnto points which are more necessarie for the Church of God to learne. Beside it is not vnknowne, that diuerse translations follow diuerse copies, whence ariseth diuersitie, or some such small difference. But to bee short whither read, or not reade, no corruption either way. For the worde elect necessarilie implyeth the other, because if elect then holie and beloued. And therefor no meaning was there to geld the scriptures, though some please so to speake intermes neither fitting the dignitie of their persons who write thus, nor the maiestie of the sacred argument whereof they intreat, nor the truth of the cause which they vndertake to defend. For the vigor and strength of the Apostles currant is not in the titles which come in by the way, but wholie in the maine exhortation which he earnestlie presseth.

The holie scriptures are disgraced by putting to of wordes.

So they bee indeede, if such wordes as the analogie of faith and of the place will not beare. Otherwise many translations Chaldee Syriack, Arabick, haue their commendations and it is but their due as might bee seene by many allegations, but that we feare to be troublesome. It falleth out very often that supply must be had, when the originall can beare the want but the translation will not. But doe wee a while ex amin the particulars.

1. Three whole verses are put in Psalme 14.

Our Church doth, so reade the 14. Psalme with those ad­ditions because so alledged by Saint Paul and placed together in the third to the Romans: Read more Part 1. cap. 9. Pag 95.

2. A whole verse in the end of Psal. 15.

There is no such thing.

3. This word (O) added corupteth the text by applying that to Iacob as spoken of him, which belongeth to God Psal. 24.6.

The Hebrew is word for word thus verbatim and no other. This is the generation of (them that seeke him) of them that séeke thy face Iacob. Where the figure Apostrophe makes this (O) be put in because the speech turneth from the third person to the se­cond. But whether this (O) be exprefied, or omitted, the true sense is nothing hindred and the translation answerable to the Hebrew is (thy face Iacob) which some fill vp for more plaine­nesse with these particles O Iacob or in Iacob or this is Iacob, Musculus. Geneua. Tremel. or the generation Iacob all expletiuely making vp the sentence with some one word or other; wherein because he that aduen­tureth least, may be thought to doe best being vpon an aduen­ture to adde any thing for explication, the translators taking nei­ther fiue sillables (Generation,) nor a sillable (In,) but as little as they could, euen a letter, since euery one put in somewhat, they attempted this little without danger at all. So then the In­terpreters of this verse vnderstand by Iacob either his God, or his children after the promisse. For his God and so it is rendred thus, This is the generation of them that seeke him, of them that seeke thy face Iacob that is the God of Iacob: For his gene­ration after him, taking the word Iacob nominatiuely, vocatiue­ly, or epiphonematically: Nominatiuely by way of explicati­on. This is the generation of them, &c. this is Iacob: vocatiuely by appellation calling to Iacob, or epiphonematically by way of a shout or cry with an acclamatorie demonstration. O, This is Iacob, the generation of them that seeke him, of them that seeke thy face. Now though the first and last of these intend the same sense, yet our translators in this ambiguitie thought it sa­fest not to venture too much, and therefore put in with the least, as we may obserue in this comparison which so little as it is, stands sufficient to preserue the truth of this interpretation and [Page 210]in nothing deserueth to be challenged but they rather that doe thus complaine. But should we graunt, that spoken of Iacob which belongeth vnto God,Euāgelicta au­sus est Propheta verba ad De [...] transferre personam, H [...]e­ron, ad Pam­mach. yet no corruption is it of the Text, For it is vsuall to put one person for another, and to apply that to God which was first intended of some other as lerom noteth those words, Zachar. 13.7. Smite the sheaperd, which words of the Prophet▪ the Euangelist is bold to translate to the person of God. And shall we call this a corruption?

4. And said Damoisell arise. Math. 9.25. Here is a corrupt translation of Scriptures by putting to these words.

These words are read the 24. Sunday after Trinitie. But frée from corruption, vnlesse the harmonie of the Gospell be charged herewith, for it saith asmuch, vnlesse also the scriptures in S. Luke c. 8.54. and S. Marke in Syriack Talitha Cumi cap. 5.41. for relating the same historie he found guiltie of this sinne, yea vnlesse also they that vrge these things against the testimo­nie of S. Marke and S. Luke be able to tell vs vpon their cre­dit, that not onely now no auncient Gréeke and Latin copies haue it, but also heretofore none euer had it, which we assure our selues they will neuer dare. For it séemeth the Latine follow­eth some auncient copies that had it, though (peraduenture) since these copies are now perished. But leauing probabilities, what false doctrine is it to reade for Gospell what S. Luke and Saint Marke haue in supply of the historie mentioned in S. Mathew?

5. With wisedome. Ierem. 23.5.

These words are reade the 25. Sunday after Trinitie pro­phe [...]ying of Christ. He shall [...]aigne or beare rule, and shall prosper with wisedome. This (with wisedome) is neither too much for Christ, [...] Vtrunque sig­nificat. Caluin Prudenter vel prosperè aget, Ibid, as if it were more then true to say so of the Messias, nor is it more then the word signifieth. For (Shacal) in this place signifieth both: and therefore Master Caluin ex­presseth both in his Text wisely and prosperouslie he shall doe.

6. Thou wouldest take heede, Luke 19.42.

All writes note this spéech of our Sauiour ouer Ierusalem to be abrupt and very passionate, as offering some what to be vnderstood. Which he doth not expresse, which Euthimius sup­plyeth thus, thou wouldst not perish, Austin, Non perires. Euthym. Forsit an perm [...] ­neres. Aug. epist. 79. Hieron. & The ophil. O quam fesix esses. P [...]scas. r. Fleres alas. apud Erasamū. peraduenture thou shouldst yet continue. Hierom and Theophilact, I could haue wisht thou hadst knowne. Piscator, O thou hadst beene happy, others as Erasmus obserueth, Thou wouldst haue wept, or as in the Communion booke thou wouldst take heede, which also is the exposition of the aunci­ent 0695 0 (Curares) thou wouldst haue seene to it. And are all these supplies corruptions? What then shall we iudge of most mens labours in this kinde, who in translating are forced to make supply with words not found expresly in the letter of the originall, but yet are couched in the grace of a passionate tune, and sought out by that spirit whereby they were first con­ceiued, wherein for so much as we no otherwise iudge of this place here thus translated, it is but a sorie amends some make those translators (who euer they were) to call the helps they aford vs by no more gracious a name then plaine Corrup­tions.

7. It is I: feare not. Luke 24.36.

These words are read on Twesday in Easter weeke, and were such as our Sauiour vsed after his resurrection, [...]isdem verbis eo [...] alloquutus est post resurre ctionem. Marle. in Math. 14.27. Apparet huc transcriptum ex Euangelio Iohannis. Erasmus in in Luc. 24. for so it is noted in Marlorat vpon Math. 14. With which no more reason haue any to be effended for being vsed in this place of Luke 24 then with that in verse 38. (why are yee troubled,) which if we goe by thinking (Erasmus saith) is taken out the Gospell of Saint Iohn, and put here. Our blessed Sa­mour said the one as much as the other and (by Erasmus his iudgement) Saint Luke hath one asmuch as the other, Both belike corruptions. But to what ende is this captious quarrelling, at wordes, since we cannot deny but this forme [Page 212]of speech was very much in vse with Christ: And the Syriack, and Latin beside the auncient Fathers Saint Ambrose and others doe read these words, It is I, feare not, Luk. 24.36.

8. Be sober, 2. Timoth. 4.5.

Words put in, which other Bibles (peraduenture) haue not. But yet no offence to be taken hereat.

  • 1. Considering this may come from diuerse copies, some hauing the words, some omit­ting them.
  • 2. As also from the word here (Nephe) which in Scripture sometimes is interpreted he sober, somtimes watch.
  • 3. Neither is it misbesceming the Apostle Paul to teach, nor his scholler Timothie to learne so much.

And therefore all this remembred might intreat of vs a more fauourable construction then to staine the ceedit of this, and those other places with the reproch of Corruption.

By peruerting the meaning of the holy Ghost.

Grieuous if true, but odious because false. Saint Peter no­teth them for vnlearned and vnstable that peruert Scripture and they doe it saith he to their owne destruction.2. Pet. [...].16. Surely vnlearned, and vnstable our translators were not, but setled in the truth, of great knowledge in the toongs, men reuerend in their times, whē they implored those fruitfull paines to publish the scriptures, nor shall the malice or Satan now preuaile to their disgrace, as it seemeth this bitter inuectiue doth forciblie intend. But draw we to the instances.

1. Because of mens works done against the words of my lips &c. for Concerning the works of men by the words of thy lips. Psal. 17.4.

The difference is twofold.Solens Hebrai causarum om­ne genus inter­dum exprimere praefixa litera

  • 1. Against the words, &c. insteed of, By the words.
  • 2. Of my lips, &c. For thy lips. Of the first: this we are to know that the letter in seruice here is
    Beza [...] Luc. [...].1.
    which the Hebrewes manner is to imploy in the front of a word to ex­presse all sorts of causes.

And the learned in that toong well know that it sometimes doth signifie against as Exod. 14. he [Page 213]shall fight for you against the Egyptians the Hebrew is this letter in the Egyptians. Exod. 14 25. [...] Sometimes it signifieth (by) as here some render it. And whether way (in a diuerse relation to the person) no dangerous interpretation. In the first person of Da­uid, so it hath coherence with the third verse In the person of God, so it hath coherence with the words following. Now in other trāslations besides our English, take the Arabick, the Si­riack the Chaldee, the Greeke, and ye may note the like diffe­rence, yet not any of them for ought we obserue, is charged to peruert the meaning of the holy Ghost. As for the exception ta­ken at the Communion Booke, which translateth in the first person my lippes what others reade in the second person thy lips, the reason may be thus, First, because the transla­tors read * not, [...] or else tooke the termination to be Paragogi­cum. Secondly, Because the two xerses both this where these words are, and that going before, deliuer the rest in the first per­son; for a little afore in the third verse the Prophet spake in his owne person, I am vtterly purposed that my mouth should not of­fend, as also in this 4. he followeth it in his owne person, I haue kept me from the paths of the destroyer. These and some such like motiues led on our predecessors thus to English it. Good men, we say but well to say and thinke so, for he that praiseth A­thanasius prayseth God, or as the Apostle speaks they glo­rified God in me, Galath 2.23. God was glorified in them, good men there­fore we shall and doe call them, and their memory be blessed good men they little thought, or did, (though now falsely ac­cused) peruert the meaning of the holy Ghost.

2. With the froward thou shalt learne frowardnesse, &c. For with the froward thou wilt shew thy selfe froward. Spoken of God. Psal. 18.26.

Nay spoken indefinitely, not determining whether God or man, videlicet with the froward any one shall learne froward­nesse, meaning with the froward it is the next way for one to be as froward as he.

God cannot be said to learne frowardnesse.

No more can he be circumuented, for he knoweth our harts and purposes a farre off:Ose. 11.12. Psalm. 78.36. Infantilia. Aug de Trinitate. lib. 1. cap. [...] [...]. Hac c̄nia Deus habet per esse­ctum non per naturam. Ber. serm. 4. in Càu­tic. Luc. 19.22. Leuit. 26.23. yet Ose 11. Ephraim circumuenteth or compasseth me about with lies, and Psal. 78. The Israelites dis­sembled with the Lord with their mouth. By which words vttred in a lisping manner, as nurses to their children, we are taught to conceaue that such speeches are deliuered of God which are found in the creature but not in God. For God hath none of these by nature, though many such effects are found in him and from him. For as when a Master hearing his schollers stam­mer, stut, or the like, doth the like after them, that in the Master, the schollers may see to amend: at which often pronoūcing, or say­ing after his petties he may seeme to learne after them, when yet in all this he doth plainely reproue thē, so the Lord when he takes the words out of the mouth of his seruants, and iudgeth them by them,24.27 &c. Ioel. 3.4. Pro. 1.24.28. Deut. 32, 21. Isa. 49.25. Pro. 3.34. Obadia. 15. Luc. 6.38. Non iniquita tis ad intquita tem sed paenae ad culpam. so when they walke stubbornely he will walke stub­bornly against them, and if they recompence him, he will re­compence them, and if he call, and they will not heare, they shall call, and he will not heare. If they Deut. 32. mooue him to ielousie, he will prouoke them to anger. If they con­tend with him, he will contend with them, and Prouerbes 3. with the skornfull he skorneth, and as they haue done, so it shall be done vnto them. In all which places the measure which God afordeth giuing like for like, is not of iniquitie for iniquitie, but of punishment of sinne, which yet in regard of the iniquities as frowardnesse, anger, reuenge, & the like, the word in this place of the Psalme expresseth by a terme of art, to shew it is not naturall in God, [...] but forced in a fort vpon him, or learned by him. [...] For the word vsed here, and in 2. Sam. 22. is all one except onely the displacing of a letter, but both to the same pur­pose.Translata 2. radicali in loc [...] primae [...] posito an­ [...]e [...] Coniugatio Hythpael nen semper veram sed aliquando fictam actionem denotat Elias in [...]ram, Heb. orat. [...]. [...].13. sect. 2. For the verbe here is in such a coniugation as doth not intend a very naturall action, but by imitation after once coun­terfeiting [Page 215]to doe it, making a shew, as if he were to learne. All which points ioyntly concurre in this point of doctrine for our vses, that as when we read; God mocketh or laugheth man to skorne, a man is taught to read such a Scripture with teares, so in this or the like that God learneth frowardnesse of the fro­ward, or is froward with the froward, for both driue to one ende we are taught to be patient, and meeke, and gentle, that so making our selues a glasse for the Lord his actions, he man returne the like vpon vs. As if all were sununed vp in this.2. Chro: [...] 15. The Lordis with you if yee be with him, and if yee forsake him, he will forsake you. And to conclude as we began. If yee be froward ye take the readiest way to teach the Lord to be as fro­ward as your selues are: Which is in effect according to the vulgar English: with the froward he shall learne froward­nesse. Wherefore so many as haue had a finger in reproouing this translation may be intreated to vnderstand what they did reprooue.

3. He maketh them to be of one minde in an house, &c. For he makes the solitarie to dwell with families. Psal. 68.26.

Among all those which haue the vulgar latin translation in chase none wee finde so sharpe set against Bellarmin to charge this sentence as a text that peruerteth the meaning of the holy Ghost, how much lesse should our brethren thus hotly intreat ours, which is much better then the latin. No doubt when this place heretofore was had in examination, our auncients (whose labours many of vs vntbankfully accept of) did next after the originall looke into other translations, Greek, Latin, and the Commentaries of the Fathers vpon them, [...]. Apollina. inter­pret. psalm. Vnius mor [...]. where finding in the Greeke [...] and in an auncient pa­raphrast vpon the Psalter Apollinarius, who was about 380. yeares after Christ a man very skilfull in the Hebrew & Greeke the same very word retained, & the like in the vulgar latin (of one fashion) and all this with a ioynt consent did not (it seemeth) willingly forgoe on the suddaine what was so cōmonly approued. [Page 216] Icchidim the Hebrew word signifieth Single, [...]. and a single word it is, not expressing whether persons or affections. Hereupon diuerse haue diuersely thought. But howsoeuer we take it: No such difference that we, who are challenged herein, should be challenged for no lesse then peruerting the meaning of the holy Ghost. Whereas [...] vnire. signifying to make one may intend it ether of persons or of affections, the first of these, these opponents will bane it, the second of these our Communion booke hath and either of both one or other no way preiudiceth the truth of that sentence.

4. They were not obedient, &c For they were not disobedient. Psal. 105.28.

Read before the answere. Part. 1. cap. 1. pag. 78. 83.

5. Phineas prayed, &c. For Phineas executed iudgement. Psal. 106.30.

Suppose it graunted that the word in Hebrew signifieth to execute iudgement and not to pray, whereas we haue shewed the contrarie, what difference is there more in these two actions (which may be and are copartners in godly men) then in that of the Prouerbs cap. 3. God skorneth with the skornefull which Saint Iames and Saint Peter following the Gréeke,Pro. 3.34. render, God resisteth the proud. To skorne and to resist are as much contrarie for so they will néeds call it, as to pray and to exe­cute iudgement. But they are not contrarie, neither is this a peruerting of the meaning of the holy Ghost. These spéeches procéede of ouermuch eagernesse of stomacke against discipline, doctrine, and translations which our Church proposeth, as if there were cause inough to dislike eo nomine because she liketh and approueth it. But for a more ample answere to this their obiection, we referre the good Reader to the first part. cap. 2. pag. 84. 86.

6. Though he suffered them to be euill intreated of Tyrants, &c. For he powreth contempt vpon Princes. Psal. 107.40.

They are deceiued, that thinke these wordes in the communi­on book are a peruerting of the meaning of the holie Ghost (for that is stil ye heade of the race, whereunto these allegations make recourse, Brentius and some others before and after him propose it in the same sense as the cōmunion book doth.Dominus suo [...], &c. & multae acerba patian­tura crudeli­bus tyra [...]nis, quieos premūt seruitute, & paucs fiant. Bre [...]. The Lord (saieth Brentius) vouchsafeth outwarde peace to his children, yet so as they bee afterwardes aflicted, and indure many bitter thinges at the handes of cruell tyrants, who oppresse them with bondage, that they become few. &c. As for the other wordes. Hee powereth contempt vpon Princes though they are not expresly mentioned, yet may well bee vnderstood by cohe­rence of the rest.

7. The rod of the vngodlie commeth not into the l [...]t of the righteous &c. for the rod of the vngodlie shall not rest on the lot of the right teous Psalme 125.3.

Cometh not; for Resleth not (that is) commeth not to rest. No great difference, but agreeable to the hebrue, whose manner of speech is to the like effect. And it more then seem­eth that the translators followed some copie which had [...] for reading Beth for,Iabo pro Ianoas [...] pro [...] omissan Nun omitting the last letter But cheth which way soeuer the sense is agreeable to scripture and to this place: For the rod of the vngodlie is in iudgement; so commeth it not vpon the righteous; the rod of the vngodlie is from God in iudge­ment so commeth it not vpon the righteous: to harden and ob­durate so commeth it not vpon the righteous: for a farder con­demnation so commeth it not vpon the righteous: as a fertun­ner and tast of euerlasting torments so commeth it not vpon the righteous. And therefore all this considered the translation may bee well indured,

8. Yea I will pray against their wickednesse &c. for within a while I will pray for their miseries Psalme 141.6.

This translation hardly appeareth, but to their discredit who haue serued it with a writ at this time. For before it come to aunswer it may take exception at the lesser bibles, which in [Page 218]this case are not to be iudges against it, but to bee tried by the original as it selfe is. The worde in this verie is rightly here wic­kednesse not miserio, and so the smaller bibles though not here, yet in Ierom. 44. translate it.Ierem. 44 9. Haue ye forgotten the wickednesse of your fathers,Quaecūque ma la feram ab us non exacerba­bunt animum meum Tremel, in Psalm. 141.2 p [...]ter, 2.7. and the wickednesse, &c. 5. times together in this english, Secondlie Tremel rendereth it in their euils not of miserie which themselues indure, but of wickednesse which they com­mit vexing his righteous soule as S. Peter speaketh Now let any man but of competent knowledge giue sentence whether this be to peruert the meaning of the holy Ghost, seeing that hee who praies for euill mens mileries, because they are in miserie, well knoweth hee must pray against their wickednesse which is the cause of miseries, yea euen a miserie it selfe.

9. Israeli remembred, &c. for he (that is God) remembred. Isa. 63. Read on munday before Easter.

Here vpon supposall of a true information that Israell is put for God, yet the aduenture wee thinke ouer bould to say it is a per uerting of the holy ghost. For if is not hard to note as great a dif­ference as this commeth to Ose. 11. Ose. 11.12. Iuda is faithfull with the saints, so our lesser Bibles and Tremellius reades, but others of another iudgement read Iuda is faithful with the holy one, ta­king him for God not for his saints thus doth Quinquius Aben Ezra, among the hebrues, so doth Oecolompad. & some others of our late interpreters. Shall they herevpō that incline this way or that way condemne each other (after the example here giuen) as peruerters of the meaning of the holy ghost, because some attribute it to God othere to the Saints vpon earth: yet by as­much reason may they as in this course which they vndertake? Nay with farre more probabilitie. Strange therefore wee may iustly deeme it, & so do wee that men wil dare thus bouldly staine these words (so translated) as wresting the right purpose of the holy Ghost. Is it true indeede: must it not bee Israel, but God for Israel. The person in that place after the manner of the Hebrues the third put indefinitely for some one. Now whither God or Is­rael hereon depends the question. Oecolompadius proposeth it both of God that hee brought the dayes of old to their remem­brance, [Page 219]& of the people,Vterque sensus verus eit. Oeco­lompadius. namely that Israel calleth to mind the wonders of old to their great shame, and thereupon concludeth either way interpreted neither way erroneus. How then commeth this peremtorie conclusion? If wee say Israel remembred it is a peruerting of the meaning of the holie Ghost. Would wee deale as strictly, as wee haue these men for an ensample, wee might vse our termes flat negatiue,Recorda [...]us est Israel quod [...] intelligendum est. S [...]epfius. in Isatam. Quod nonnull [...] ad Deum refe­runt &c. vide­tur esse asper [...] ­usac nimis [...]e­nootum. Cal. and say it must not be God but Israell. Theodoricus Snepfius in his cōmentaries doth not onely so translate as our communion Booke in the place named hath but writeth this withall. This word, Israell is to be vnderstood in common not onely of the mercie but of the power of God. Maister Caluin vpon the same place approueth not onely ours, as it is, but also vtterly mislikes them that wil needes haue God put for Israel, holding it to be very harsh, and wide. If our home borne Criticks repine hereat let vs intreat that Maister Caluin and Snepfius his iudgement may ouerbal­lance their preiudice, if neither shall, let a third no friend to the cause nor our religion,Subauditur po­pulus Israeliti­cus verbasū [...] E saiaedicētissuo tē pore recordatū suisse populum Iudaicum illius antiquae faelici­tatis, &c. Pint [...]s in Esai. 6 [...].7. Pintus vpon Esay be heard whose wordes are. Hee remembred the old time of Moses and his peo­ple. This (hee) is to bee vnderstood for the people of Israel. They are (saieth hee) the wordes of Esay saying that in his time the people of the Iewes remembred that auncient felicitie, when God by wonderfull signes deliuered Moses with his people from the bondage of the Egyptians. &c. So that by the iudgement of these men our translation deserueth not to be challenged in this place.

10. Whom they bought of the Children of Israel. &c. for, Whom the children of Israel valewed Mathew 27.9.

Read on the sunday before Easter for part of the Gospel. And omitting diuerse points in this clause worthy our sarder inquirie as [...] which the Syriack followed be the fitter worde for this place. 2. in this [...] or [...] or some such expletiue be vnderstoode to come betweene 3. whither [...] be to be referred to this [...] or so [...]? 4. whither [...] and [...] be the third person plural, as it is commonly thought, or the first person singular according to the He­brue and Syriack? all which doubts might bee cleared with good [Page 220]aduantage to the reader, omitting wee say all these, and taking the place, as it is here proposed without more adoe, wee may resolue that neither of the interpretations peruerteth the mean­ing of the holie Ghost. Both come to one passe. For if Christ were bought, then was he valewed at a price. Sith to buy and to valew are such as imply one the other, and in the hebrue phrase of matches or pares, Posito vno ver­bo intelligitur consequens He bra [...]s. by one wee vnderstand both Like that in Psalme 68.19. thou receiuedst gifts for men which in the E­phesians 4.8. is of the same person he gaue gifts to men. One tert sa [...]eth he receiued, another citing the place rendreth it he gaue; Both true because he receiued to giue &c. So little cause was here to produce this quotation.

11. Haile full of grace. &c. for freelie beleued Luke. 1.28.

The lesser bibles are not to bee vnipire in this point, but the originall greeke, which if translated thus (freely beloued) M. Marlorat censureth with this marginal note that it is ouerfree­ly, Quidam libe­rius. Marlorat. or somewhat too bouldly attempted to interpret it so: And had not some wrong conclusions been drawn from abusing the word full of grace, many hereupon taking the blessed virgin for the fountaine of grace, praying to hir, calling vpon hir &c. (as if what shee had, shee had not receiued) the worde had neuer been altered in Latin nor English. For gratious or full of grace here implye no more which very selfe same worde full of grace the Syriack retaineth. And that place Ephesians 1.6. he hath accep­ted vs, [...]. gratiosos effecit nos Ephes. 1.6. Pisca. Piscator translates he hath made vs gratious, and there­fore in this Luke 1. hee rendereth it graced or gratious, which hee doth, and in deede the rather is to bee done, because the An­gel stands vpon the word with a grace in two reasons: for the Lord is with thee 2. thou hast found grace verse 30. shewing whence and how shee is to bee thus graced, or in grace or gra­tious, or full of grace. Which last wiselie vnderstood (as in preaching, now God bee thanked it is) indangereth no more then that of other the Saints.Act. cap. 11.24: Stephen and the rest Act. 6.3. full of the holie Ghost and wisedome, full of faith and the spirit verse 5. full of the holy Ghost Act. 7.55. chapter 11.24. &c. no whit con­firming ere the more any such opinions formerly maintained of [Page 221]the blessed Virgins ow [...] merits, and freedome from orginall sinne, or directing prayer vnto hir more then vnto Saint Stephen or other of the Saintes, of whome wordes in the places quoted afore are deliuerd at the full as fulnesse of the holy Ghost, of faith wisdome &c. To say therefore and translate as the Syriack &c. as the auncient Latin fathers do in that sense which our Church receiueth, and the worde it selfe well vnderstood beareth, is no peruerting the meaning of the holy Ghost.

The lowlines of his handmaide &c. For the poore degree Luc. 1.48.

This worde humilitie or basenesse as it signifieth an hum­ble estate, whereinto one is cast, so yet doeth it signifie a content­ment in that estate with patience bearing it willinglie, not mur­muring, nor repining. For so was it our Sauiours case Act. 8. [...]. Act. 8.33. who was debased, and in his humilitie his indgement was exal­ted, where humilitie signifieth not onelie his poore abiect de­gree but withall a lowlie, submisse, and modest cariadge, which if vnderstood of the virgin Maries modesty, as peraduenture the english word lowlinesse implieth, it is no aduantage for auou­ching workes of merit and desert,psalm. 34.15. more then any other like spee­ches, wherein wee learne That the eyes of the Lord are vppon the righteous. Psalm. 34. Genes. 4.4. or that God hath respect vnto the prayers of the Saints, or where it is said Genes. 4. that the Lord had res­pect vnto Abel and his offring. In all which places we cōfesse that the prayers of Gods children, their actions, works, and sacrifices come vp before the Lord; yea and the Lord looketh downe from Heauen vpon them, not that they doe demerit Gods fauour, but that he is well pleased with them; as no doubt he was with the holy Virgin, whose lowe estate as he pitied so her lowly acceptāce of that estate and patient abiding he did highlie respect.2, Thes. 1.6.7. For it is a righteous thing with God to recompence rest vnto them that are troubled;Heb. 6.10. and God is not vniust to forget the works of his children, not that hée or shée, the Virgin or anie other begins vnto God, but he begins and perfects the worke in them vntill the day of Christ. And this maner of spéech, Hee regarded the lowlines of his handmaid, yéelds no other matter for suspiciō of any Pelagianisme [Page 222]or popish semipelagianisme then that, which is in sound of words and substance for sense Psalme: [...]. psalm. 138.6 138. The Lord iron high yet beholdeth the lowlie, but the proud hee knoweth a farre off. Where in al our english bidles, little or great, Geneua, or any o­ther haue no worde els but lowly, and therefore may wel be here the lowlinesse of his handmaid. So as vnder correction of bet­ter aduertisement they are fowly deceiued that call this transla­tion a peruerting of the meaning of the holy Ghost. But might none of all these proofes bee alledged as wee see they are vpon better ground in our defence, then of the contrary part by them that take offence, this we will say for farder satisfaction. Be it that our church intend not Lowlinesse and humilitie in this place for the vertue which the Grecians call modestie, but abiect­nesse or basenesse of condition according to that which is sung in the Psalmes so base estate of his handmaide▪ why may not we suffer the worde lowlinesse stand and distinguish it as Chit [...]eus doth humilitie rather then vpon so small cause to wound the cre­dit of the translation and our reuerend aged translators?

13. Should be cast away &c. for should be reproued 2 Cor. 9.27. Head on septuages. sunday.

In deed the lesser bibles so so translate as these [...]orrectors of the cōmunion book giue direction. But what reason, that they here­in should bee a squire for this, then this for their translation Or what is it contrarie to the meaning of the holie Ghost, if we kéep it as it is, [...]. Rom. 1.28. 2. Cor. 2. Tim. 3.8. Titus. 1.16. Ipse reprobui fi­am. Piscator. Ne Deum pec­e. tris suis ossen­deret, at que it a causam damnā di sui praeberet. Ibid. Suro wee are worde, there in question ( [...]) beareth so Rom. 1. hee gaue them [...]ppe into a reprobate mind [...] 0779 0 2. Cor. 13. cap. 6.7. except yee bee reprobates; wee are no [...] reprobates, wee bee as reprobates; Reprobates 2. Timothie 3.8. concerning the faith. Titus r.' to euery good work reprobate. In all which places [...]te render it, no other then the lesser Bibles doe, nor then it selfe signifieth; so as they should rather keepe then change this translation. Piscator writing vpon this place giueth it, least I bee a reprobate, and in his notes thus what then did hee feare least hee should bee damned? No but this bee feared least by his sinnes hee should offend God, and so bee condemned. Thus farre Piscator with vs, and for vs

14. Agar in Arabia bordreth against Ierusalem G [...]lat 4.25 &c. for answereth vnto Ierusalem that now is.

Read for part of the epistle the 4. Sunday in Lent. Looke before part 1. cap. 8. pag 94.95.

15. Christ was found in apparrel like a man &c. for In shape like a man Philippians 2.7.

These wordes are reade for the epistle on the sunday next be­fore Easter. All this while obserue wee that no other is brought to check our communion book, but the lesser bibles, which must it selfe be content to be iudged, as well as the translation here chal­lenged. The Apostle had a little before vsed both these words Shape and likenesse, and therefore the text varying, the traslator thought good also to varie. Now wee would for out better instruction gladlie learne, what peruerting of the meaning of the holie Ghost this is, to say Christ was found in apparrel like a man? The fathers compare his manhood to a garment: Ignatius saieth of Christ that hee was clothed with a bodie sub­iect to affections as weare; Cyprian hath the like phrase; [...]. Ignat. ad Tral. epist. 2. Carnem indui­tur. Cyprian. de idolo. vanit. [...]. deitatis Athan serm. [...]on. Arris an. Cum induit ho­minem. Am­bros. Athana­sius calleth the body, which Christ did take vnto him a cloke (such as a mā casts about him) of the godhead; Ambrose hath thus when he put on man he did not change the substance. the reason why they so speake:

  • 1. because apparell neither ads to nor detracts from the body, so neither is ought added to, or de­tracted from the godhead
  • 2. as apparel hath honour for the body, so the manhood of Christ for the godhead
  • 3. as a man is known by apparel so the godhead by the humanity,
  • 4. as yt garmēt changeth for yt body so the humanity & not the godhead. Vnto which allusi­on of the fathers the authors of this present translation might re­spect.

For they were learned, & did much eye what language was in vse afore their time, that if (safely) they might retaine it, they would as it seemeth here they did. [...]. 1. Cor. 7.31. [...]. For the word habit (which in latin interpreteth the greek word) sigufieth an habit or attire or kind of raiment 2; when it is said, yt fashiō or figure of this world passeth away,Psal. 102.26. what is it but an attire or garment which wear­eth euery day, for so the prophet calieth it Psalme 102. and the [Page 224]author to the Hebrewes cap. 1.12. as a vesture shalt thou change them. [...]. Heb. 1.12. Thridlie shape, likenesse, &c. were words vsed imme­diatlie before, and therefore this word comming next to remem­brance, vpon these considerations was accepted of without pre­iudice to the meaning of the holie Ghost, for Christ his humanity was a garment, and his aparell a garment, and in them both he truly man 4. Though ye word be not [...] which properly is apparell,Q. 83. q. 73. Author sub Ce­ril. in Ioh. lib. [...]1 Haimo. &c. Indumentum. or a garment: Yet saint Austine and the author vpō saint John vnder Cyrils name, Haimo, Aquinas, & some of our owne writers by habit vnderstand apparell: Which to say of Christ is no vntruth, for hee wore apparell like a man as his vnseamed coat sheweth, and where the word habit signifieth manie waies. S. Austin aforenamed rendereth it apparrell, as our Communion booke both. By which name wee are to vnderstand that the word is not changed by taking the manhod,Quo nomine [...] ­portet intelligi non mutatum esse verbum susceptione homi­nis sicuti nec menbra veste induta mutan­tur. Aug. Q. 83 Q. 73. Humana fragilitass assūptor. Illa susceptio. no more thē the parts of our body by the raiment which wee put on. And a little after. So far forth as mens words may befitted for ineffa­ble thinges, least God the taker of mans frailtie bee thought changed, it was chosen that this susception, or taking should be called in greek [...] and in latine habit. Lastlie supposing none of all these answers might bee made, let men presse what they will to their vttermost, this testimonie of theirs fitteth not for that purpose, wherefore it is produced, namelie a peruerting of the meaning of the holy Ghost.

16. The high priest entred the holy place with strong bloud, &c. for o­ther bloud which is not his own. Heb. 9.25. Read on wednesday before Easter.

At the first view of this quotation halfe an eye might see it was an escape in the print strong put for strange. Wherfore recourse made to the late communion book, [...] and finding it strange blood and not strong as the accusation pretendeth; wee examined the former impressiōs, in the daies of our late renowned soueraign, & in neither greater nor lesse so manie as we light vpon, can wee find any such thing as strong put for strāge. Now that the word signifieth strange though wee might appeale to the greek dictio­naries for proofe hereof, yet wee will keepe vs within the limits of scripture and take one place in stead of manie. In the seuenth [Page 225]of the Acts it is said Abraham his féet should be so [...]ourners in a strange land. Being therefore no error in the print, [...]. Act 7.6. nor in the signification of the word, this exception here taken may returne backe with a shame inough to the other, who hath inforced it to appeare.

17. When the long suffering of God was looked for, &c. for the long suffering of God waited. 1. Pet. 3.20.

This we read for part of the Epistle on Easter euen; Reasons why we should so continue the reading, and not vary.

  • 1. The verbe is put intransitiuely without an accusatiue case,
    [...].1. Pet. 3.20. m [...] dia vocis. Exemp. Constā.
  • 2. The word is actiue and passiue, did expect or was expected.
  • 3. O­ther latin copies as that of Constance, and that of Erasmus translate it passiuely as our Communion booke hath it, and we trust they knew the force of so much Gréeke as this verbe.
  • 4. They that translate actiuely did expect must make a sup­ply of some thing else, and tell vs what it did waite or expect or looke for:
  • 5. Grant it actiuely translated did waite, or make an abode, what aduantage is herein more thē in the other, or how is the meaning of the holy Ghost furdered in this and peruerted in the other of the Communion booke.

For to this purpose it is alleadged, but to this purpose can prooue nothing.

Because it misapplieth many matters to the countenancing of errors and doubtfull matters.

1. To those children whom Herod caused to be murdred, whom the Collect there calleth Gods witnesses. Reuel. 14.1.

That which Scripture proposeth in common to all Saints, and so intendeth may he vnderstood with some allusion to others and at other times. In triumph for the coronation of our gra­tious King, that Psalme or the like which concernes Dauid, Salomon his or their times, and God his speciall mercies vpon them, our Church and the Diuines thereof by application draw [Page 226]homeward to personall vse, sitting their owne thoughts and their auditors to the same day. The like may be thought in de­fence of our practise for reading the 14. of Reuelation which be­cause we finde it commeth nearest in respect of some allusion, though it were not the maine scope (perhaps) of the Euangelist, we vse as this day to read it publikely in solemnizing the memo­rie of those harmelesse innocents. For diuerse points in those fewe verses read at that time sort with those children.

  • 1. Vir­gins for so little ones as those may be called being two yeare olde and vnder, though we deny not more is meant in that name Virgins.
  • 2. In their mouth was found no guile.
  • 3. They are called first fruits vnto God, and the lamb, because immediatly vpon the daies of our Sauiours birth these poore infants were first put to death.
  • 4. Origen, or one in his name among his workes a very auncient writer calleth them the first fruites of the Martyrs.
    Primitiae mar­tyrum. Origen. homil. 3. in di­uers [...]s.

To conclude, if it may not be allowed to read such Chapters in way of some correspondence though not altogether in the exactest manner, this course must be condem­ned (not in our Church alone but) in others also who in times of famine, pestilence, triumphes, funerals and the like haue not a Scripture expresly for euery occasion, but come as neare as they can. As for example, in that memorable publike thankesgiuing vnto God throughout all our Churches for his mercifull discouery of the odious and execrable treason in­tended the fift of Nouember,Prayers and thankesgiuing for the happie deliuerance of his maiestie, &c. Nouemb. 5. in 1605. (against the Kings highnesse our dread soueraigne, as also his dearely beloued both his other selfe the Queenes most excellent maiestie, and those louely branches of his royall body, the yoong Prince and the rest of that regall issue, with the Lords of his Maiesties most hono­rable Councell, and the choisest of our estate Ecclesiasticall, and Politicall) what other Psalmes haue we read by way of application, but the Psalme 35.68.69. for Chapter 1. Sam. 22. and part of Saint Mathew 27. for Epistle Ro­mames 13.1.2. and Gospell Actes 23? And our trust is that none will be offended, who haue cause to thanke God as deepely as our selues, for so they haue, that by Gods directi­on we make choice of such Scriptures, as may be thought [Page 227]fittest for that holy businesse. As for the clause annexed that our Collect calleth those innocents Gods Martyrs. Looke afore in this appendix.

2. The time that Christ, &c. For the time that Christ abode in the graue. 1. Pet. 3.17.

What our hot burning reprehenders would say, we can­not coniecture. For their sentence is vnperfit as you see. But this we doe the Reader to vnderstand that this Scripture is read for the Epistle on Easter euen. And wherein, or how misapplyed because read as that day we know not, specially being as it is a day of memoriall of the Passion and suffe­rings of Christ, who in that Chapter is set downe by the Apostle for an example of a holy patience and godly conten­tation.

3. To Michaell at a created Angell. Reuel. 12.7.

Looke the answere afore in the appendix.

We cannot Subscribe to the Booke of ordination as is required for those reasons. First, because it containeth in it some ma­nifest vntruths. For it affirmeth that it is euident vnto all men diligently reading holy Scriptures, or auncient Authors, that from the Apostles times, there haue beene these orders of the Ministers in the Church that is Bishops, Priests, and Deacons.

They are set downe all thrée in the newe Testament, and by consent of the ages following they haue beene from time to time distinguished orders of Ministers in the Church as we haue shewed afore, and might farder inlarge by more ample testimonie.

It saith that God did inspire his holy Apostles to choose Saint Ste­phen to the order of the Deacon set downe in that booke, and that Deacons then to be ordred are called to the like office, and admi­nistration.

That God did inspire his holy Apostles to choose Saint Ste­phen; Meminisse Di­acons debent qu [...]nt [...]m Apo­stolos (id est) Episcopos & praepositos Dominus eligit Diaconos aeutem post ascensum domini Aposto­lisibi constitue runt episcopa [...]ussus & ecclesia ministros. Cyprian. lib. 3. epistola. 9. to the order of Deacon set downe in that booke is a truth warranted by Scripture, and afterwards by the Fathers as Saint Cyprian among the rest. Deacons must remember that the Lord hath chosen Apostles (that is) Bishops and Pre­lates: But the Apostles after the ascention of the Lord ap­pointed Deacons Ministers of his Bishopricke & Church. And that they are called to the like office, and administration may appeare in this, because as they preached and baptised so like­wise doe ours. Secondly, As they ministred vpon tables for reliefe of the poore, so herein thus sarre ours are seruiceable to such purposes, namely at times if neede require and other order be not taken to giue notice of such sicke and impotent, as reliefe may be more conueniently prouided for them.

Act. 6.2. The Apostles thought it too great a burden for them to giue attendance to the office of teaching, and to mannage the businesse of distribution to the poore. So that if Stephen and the rest chosen with him, were chosen to such an office, by which they were tied to both, it argueth that they were of better sufficiencie, then the Apostles, or that the Apostles would lay a burden vpon others, which they found to be too heauie for themselues.

In the Act. 6. there is no such word as that the Apostles thought it too great a burden. But this there is, that they thought it not meete or pleasing, [...]. Act 6.2. Act. 12.3. or that they tooke it not to their liking for so Act. 12. the word doth signifie. As it is not liking to an Emperor to take particular knowledge of some in­ferior grieuances among his subiects to redresse them in his own person, though he haue so done, but translateth that care ouer to others, yet that no argument of his insufficiencie, as if he were vnable, but of inconueniencie that he thinks it not meete [Page 229]at some times. For it is well knowne that he hath done it here­tofore and since. Right so fareth it in this high function of the Apostles. It was not meete they intend both, but yet they were able; for they had done it before & did it againe after that the Dea­cons were appointed as appeareth, Act. 11. Where reliefe was carried by the hands of Paul and Barnabas, Act. 11.30. and not of the Deacons. So as it argueth not that the Deacons were of more sufficiencie then the Apostles. For though the Deacons did preach and minister to the poore, yet their preaching was not comparable to that burden of the Apostolicall calling. And therefore it is plaine that the Apostles did not lay a burden vp­on others, which themselues found too heauie for themselues. Beside the Deacons were not strictly tied to both offices at once, but as the times sorted they did apply their seuerall in­deuours.

That Stephen disputed with the Libertines, and made an Apologie for himselfe it doth appeare, but that he preached it doth no way appeare.

It doth not appeare de facto that Saint Stephen did distri­bute, yet that he did de iure we may and doe graunt: So were it not expressed that de facto he did preach, yet de iure of right he well might, for being ordained with imposition of hands, fur­nished with gists of knowledge and vtterance, full of the holy Ghost and wisedome, he was no priuate person, nor so inabled but for a greater worke then onely ministring at tables. But the truth is he did preach, vnlesse because a man stands vpon the defence of Gods truth, mightily conuincing his aduersaries by Scripture, therefore it shall be saide he did not preach. Whereas euen in Sermons a man disputeth, by very forcible arguments conuinceth the gainsaier. And Saint Peter Act. 2. his apologie there made call we it an oration,Act. 2.14. or what else, we cannot deny it was a Sermon. Vpon this sixth of the Asts now questioned, Master Gualter writeth thus.Quamuis de public [...]s concio­nibus. Gualter. in Act. 6. Although nothing be spoken of his publike Sermons, yet notwith­standing it is euident by the contents of the history that he had these both often, and effectuall, and very serious. [Page 230]wherefore we may see that the Deacons of the primitiue Church were not all together estranged from the mini­strie of the worde but although they were chiefly occupi­ed about the dispensation of the churches goods, neuer­thelesse they imployed their labour so farre as they might in the other ministeries of the Church, that by this meanes ac­cording to the sentence of Saint Paul, they might get vnto them­selues a good degree 1. Tim. 3.

As for that of Philips preaching and baptising at Samaria it was not the Deacon but the Apostle there named.

It was Philip the Deacon that did preach and baptise and those may be two arguments to proue so much: First, Philip the Apostle was among the Apostles at Ierusalem who were not dispersed; Aretius in Act. 7.5. but this Philip was among the disper­sed, and therefor not Philip the Apostle. Secondly, this Philip could not giue the holy Ghost, and therefore Iohn and Peter are sent to the Samaritans. Hereupon Aretius concludeth it was Philip the Deacon. Gualter in Act 8. Master Gualter wri­teth thus, It was that Philip, not he that was the Apostle but he before, that was reckoned vp among the Dea­cons, &c. For although it was the Deacons part to beare the care of the common goods of the Church and of the poore notwithstanding it was withall permitted vnto them to vndertake the preaching of the Gospell, if at any time necessitie so required. And perhaps there was not so great vse of Deacons at Ierusalem, when the Church was dis­persed with the tempest of persecution, and therefore they, which dispensed the publike goods of the Church gaue themselues wholie to the Ministrie of the word. Docuerunt ecclesiam de singulis doctrinae christianae capitsbus purè & synce­re Ibid, Communia A postolorum & Prophetarum, Euangelistarum, pastorum, doctorum, Praesbyterorum, Diacon­rum haec fuerunt opera Ibid. De ratione ac for [...]a gubernationis. pag. 510. The Centuries witnesse asmuch, that they taught the Church purely and sincerely, interpreted holy Scriptures, deuided the word aright. For these were the works common to the Apostles and Prophets, Euangelists, Pastors, teachers, Presbiters, and [Page 231]Deacons. And the Apostle

  • 1. Tim. 3.9. requireth so much where it is their duetie to haue the mysterie of faith in a good conscience.
  • 2. In that verse 13. it is the meanes to a farder degrée.
  • 3. And getteth them great libertie in the faith.

All which are not so necessarie, if the Deacons office be onely to carry the bagge and to distribute. For thereunto so much lear­ning is not required, but faithfulnesse that he rob not the poore, but giue as there shall be occasion.

Though they did preach, it proues not that they did it by ordinarie office.

Whether by ordinarie office, or not ordinarie: doe men grant that the Deacons did preach they graunt the point in question, and what of a long time they haue heretofore denied. Ordina­rie it was to waite at the Tables while the goods of the faithfull were sold, and all held in common, but that cause ceasing, and the Christians euery one retaining the proprietie of their goods, lands, and houses, and the ciuill Magistrate prouiding other and more conuenient reliefe, we must not thinke that these men called to the offices, of Deaconship were vtterly disabled, as if there were not any vse for them in the Church.Ministrare mē sa Hi [...]rosolymis, dum ibi cōmu­nio erat bonar [...]. Act. Centur. The Dea­cons office was (say the Centuries) to minister at tables. Act. 6. as if during that time and that occasion, but not else. So that, as long, as they had to minister vnto the poore, they did forbeare that other part of their office, but when that cea­sed, then did they intend this other of preaching, and so still found themselues imployed. And therefore it may be con­cluded for a good argument, that Deacons did not onely minister vpon tables in the times of the Apostles, because there were Deacons at Philippus, at Ephesus, epist. to Timothie, Philip. 1. & in Crete as it appeareth by the Epistle to Titus. In all which places the Christians did not liue in common as they did at Ie­rusalem, that they should néed any ministration after this sort. Beside see we into the practise of the Church immediately af­ter those times whereof Scripture speaketh: Ignatius who was in the daies of the Apostles, and might know their [Page 232]mind (whose Epistles are much cite [...] by Eusebius, A thanasius, Ierom, Verum etiam & aliis expo was vt Des athl [...]ta. Ignati us ad Herone. diaconum suū. Eos qui sunt in Tarsone ne neg ligas, sed assi­auè visua con firmans eos in E [...]angelio. Id. Nihil sine Epis copis aga [...] sacer dotes enim sunt tu vero mini­ster sacerd [...]tū. Ill [...] taptizant, sacrs faciunt, ordinant, maz nu [...] imponunt, tu vero its mi­nistras. vt Hie r [...]s [...]lymis Sact. Stephan. lacobo & prasbyteris. Idem: Iustin martyr. ap [...]l. 2. Batizandi quidem tus ba­bet summus sa cerdos, qui est Episcopus; dein­de Prasbyters & Diaconi, nō tamen sine Epis co [...]t authoritaz te propter eccle sia honorem, Tertul. lib. de baptis. Apud Diaco­num exomelogesin facere delicti sai. Cy [...]. lib. 3. epislola 17. Solennibus adimpletis calice [...] Diaconus offerre praseatibus e [...]pit, &c. Id serm. 5. de lapsis, Si non fuerit inprasenti 01 vel Episc [...] pus ve [...] Praesbyter tune ipsi proferant & edant. Con. Nicen. can. 14. Quo [...] ad pradic ati [...]nis [...]ffictum e [...]em [...]synarumque studium vacare congruebat. Greb., lib. 4, epist, 88. and Theodoret) writing to Heron the Deacon be­side his care of widdowes, orphans, and poore, commands him to attend reading, that he may not onely vnderstand it him­selfe but also expound it to others as the champion of God. And in another place. Those which are in Tarsus doe not thou neglect, but visite them dayly confirming them in the Go­spell; Againe, Doe thou nothing without the Bishops: For they are Priests, but thou art the Minister of the priests. They baptize, doe the sacred and holy things, ordaine, lay on hands, but thou dost minister vnto them, as at Ierusa­lem Saint Stephen did to Iames and to the Presbyters. Thus farre Ignatius. Within a hundred yéeres after Christ, Iustin Martyr witnesseth that Deacons in his time did deliuer the bread and wine to the people. Tertullian some 200. yeares after. The chiefe or highest Priest which is the Bishop hath the right to baptize, next the Presbiters and Deacons, yet not without the Bishops authority for honor of the church. Cyprian who suffered some 259. yeares after Christ, writeth that the people did make confession of their fault before the Deacon. And in his fift Sermon concerning such as fell in time of persecution, it appeareth that the Deacon did offer the Cup to such, as came to communicate. Which the councell of Nice also witnesseth. If the Bishop or presbiter be not present, then let the Deacons bring forth the bread and eate, &c. Some 600 yeares after Christ, Greg. the great findeth fault in his tune with some who were Deacons that they being appointed in their Deaconship did intend the tuning of their voice, where it was meete they should in­tend the office of preaching and the care of distributing the Almes. Thus we may see by the practise of the Churches in seuerall ages that Deacons did teach and preach, yea also that in the absence of the Bishops they did some other dueties before mentioned. All witnesses according in this, that they did more then barely attend vpon tables as practised in preaching [Page 233]the w [...]ide that then afterward being well and thoroughli [...] tramed therein, and hauing giuen good pr [...]ofe might come for­ward to the degree of a pres [...]iter and minister, as Bullinger, Gualter, and Heming. vpon 1. Tim. 3. ingenuously do confesse. In the discipline of Fraunce wee finde, till of late yeares, their Deacons were allowed to catechise publikely in their reformed congregations.Discip. du Frā ­c [...]. Ex perpetuo ec­clesia vsu. Beza confess [...]c, 5. aph [...] ris. 25. Quamuis (apè Diaconi in his rebus suppleue­rint past [...]ris vi­ces Ibid. Doctor Fulk in Act. 6.1. Maister Beza doth acknowledge in times past ex perpetuo ecclesiae vsu Deascons by a cōtinual or perpetual vse of the Church did in times past preach and pray, vnder which duties hee comprehends the administration of the sacra­ment and the blessings of the mariages, although oftentimes in these thing es they supplyed the parts of the pastor. Maister Do­ewr Fulke in the answer to the Rhemis [...]s testament dremeth not but that the Deacons ministrie was vsed to other purpo­ses as teaching, baptizing, and assisting the Apostles and other principall pastors in their spirituall charge and mi­nistrie. Anon after It is certaine by Iustinus that Deacons were vsed for the distribution of the Lords supper. And to close this point Whereas our eye is strangely affected with that which other Churches doe rather then our owne, compare what is done by others contrarilie minded, and our practise for Deacons, then will it easily appeare which of vs commeth near­est the first and primitiue times of the Apostles and Apostolicall men: ours teach, preach, and baptise so may not theirs, ours may remember the minister of releefe for the poore, and doe those other duties, theirs onely collect for the poore,Corporale offi­cium non spari­tuale ministe [...] ­um. ours is part­lie spirituall, theirs intirely a corporall office, ours are trained vp in learning applying themselues to the studie of diuinitie, and are commonly schollers, Bachilers, and maisters of art, able to dispute, and handle an argument schollerlike, theirs are lay­men, handicraftsmen tradesmen: the calling with vs is an en­trance to the other degree of the presbiters, theirs is merely oe­conomicall or ciuill, and the persons vnlettred: Our Deacons take the cup of the Bishop and the minister but giue it them not, theirs reach the cuppe to the minister which is flat against Can 14. of the Nicen councell. Lastly theirs is annuall and yearely and so in end they become lay men againe, which is like the complaint Optatus makes of the Donatists. Yee haue [Page 234]found Deacons, presbiters, and Bishoppes, yee haue made them Laymen. Inuenistis Di [...] aconos, Prasby­teros & Episco po [...]. fecistis Lai e [...]s. Optat. lib. 2. And therefore of the two, theirs or ours, good cause is ministred to approue rather then reproue those wordes that our Deacons are called to the like office and admini­stration vnlesse because of some changeable circumstance wee may not so write. And if so then must they bee but 7. for number: secondly they must be men immediately illumined by the holy spi­rit and no lesse measure then fulnesse of wisdome and the holy Ghost may be required of them:

  • 3. the election of them must be by the whole multitude.
  • 4. to make a correspontence through­out they must bee chosen after mens goods are sold, and that the proprietie of them is lost that the Deacons may take the charge.

All which whole practise neither they, nor wee follw­ing neither haue wee nor they Deacons after the example of the Apostles. Otherwise if they hold these and some other pointes changeable as in deede they are, it will appeare that our Dea­cons are likeliest to the times of the Apostles and Apostolicall men as hath beene shewed. But let vs proceede.

2. Because the Booke of ordination containeth some thing that is against the order that God hathor­dained in his Church. For.

1. It seemeth to make the Lordes supper greater then baptisme, and confirmation greater then either, by permitting baptisme vnto the Deacons, the Lords supper vnto the Priests, and confirmation to the Bishop onely.

It seemeth, and onely so seemeth. For rather the contra­rie may bee hereupon inferred, namely that the dignitie of the sa­crament depends not on the dignitie of the person: For a Dea­con may baptise though inferior to the other. And with asmuch probabilitie it may bee argued a linnen coife is better then a veluet night [...]cap, because a seruient at law weareth the one, and euery ordinarie cittizen (almost) weareth the other. Or thus in the Presbiteries, the minister distributeth the bread, the elders deliuer the cup, ergo they make one part of the sacrament grea­ter then another. But of this read afore.

2. Is preferreth priuate prayer before publike prayer and action.

It is false: This reproofe is sufficient, where the accusation is brought without proofe.

It permits the Bishoppe to order Deacons alon [...], requiring no other to ioyne with him in laying on of handes, which is not permitted in the ordring of the Priests.

The difference of their office alloweth a difference in the man­ner of ordination, and therefore the Bishop is alone in the first, in the other hee may take other ministers or Priests vnto him; There is no prescript commandement in scripture to the con­trarie, and therefore no such aduantage is giuen this accusation as some doe imagin.

3. Because in it some places of holie scripture are misapplied to the countenancing of errors, for.

1. Act. 6.17. is misapplyed to warrant ordination for our Deacons.

Wee answer first there are not so many verses in that cap. but 17. is put for 7. Againe, where they say that chap. in that part beginning at that verse is misapplyed, wee haue their nega­tiue without proofe. More in that point wee see not as yet to answer.

2. The Bishoppe is appointed in ordring of anie Priests or Bishoppes to vse the verie wordes Receiue the holie Ghost, which Christ our sauiour vsed at the sending ferth of his Apostles.

They are thought the firtest words [...]i the ordination of mini­sters, because of the spiritual calling & office whereunto they are disigned by the Bishop, after whose words then vsed with im­position of handes as Saint Ierom witnesseth,Ordinatio [...]ou s [...]lum adimpre cationem v [...]cis, s [...]deriam ad impositi [...]nem imple [...]ur [...]. Hin [...] in cap. 5 [...]. Isai [...]. the ordination [Page 236] is complet and finished not that the Bishoppe giueth the holy Ghost or conferreth grace for (as Saint Ambrose writeth) so is it the iudgement of our Church,Homo manum imponit, & Deus largitur gratiam. Am­bros. de dignita tate sacerd [...]t. cap. 5. man layeth on his handes, but God giueth grace. But for a more ample and full answer in this point looke before. cap. 22.

Wee cannot subscribe vnto the booke of homilies for these reasons; Be­cause it containeth sundrie erronius and doubtfull matters.

1. The Apocrypha are ordinarilie in it called holie scriptures. And the place of Tobie the 4. containing dangerous doctrine being al­ledged it is said That the holie Ghost teacheth in scripture.

This exception standeth vpon two branches. The first is handled in this appendix already before, [...] & communi o­pinione. Iun. de verbo Des. lib. 1. cap. 7. Rom. 6 6. [...]. Metaphora na ta ex opinione rudiorum qui quicquid per se subsestis corpore um imaginan­tur Fisca. Ibid. Lequitur in scripturis spiri­tus sanctus Cyp de Elemos. Iun. com. Bel, 1.11. and in the first part cap. 10. Pag 97. The Apocryphall are called holie scripture ac­cording to the common opinion and the receiued speech, not, but that our Church puts a manifest difference by nameing it Apocryphall. And with as great shew of argument a man might except where the Apostle calleth the power of sinne or rather sinne it selfe by name of a body Romans 6.6. taking the phrase from the opinion of the rude and simple, who imagin what soeuer hath a being that the same is a bodie or bodily sub­stance: The second branch here calleth a sentence in the 4. of To­bie a doctrine which the holy Ghost teacheth in scripture. Which manner of phrase the booke borroweth out of Saint Cy­prian. For he alledging the same quotation graceth it with this attendance: The holy Ghost speaketh in scripture. Which phrase and sentence Maister Iunius in his answer to Bellarus cap. 11. is farre from deeming to be dangerous, that hee doth not once so much as dislike, much lesse tax it, howeuer now it please some to traduce it. As for the interpretation of the sen­tence, looke before part. 1 cap. 12. Pag 100. 103.

2. It is said that though manslaughter was committed before, yet was not the world destroied for that, but for whoredome, all the world (a few onelie excepted) was ouerflowne with water and perished.

These wordes are (in the homilie against adulterie the third part of the sermon) deliuered by way of a parenthesis shewing that the displeasure of the Lord, though kindled before, because of murder &c. yet did not smoke out, nor breake forth, till the iniquitie was brim-ful, then the viols of the Lord his heauy wrath were powered downe. For the scope there is of that homilie: in amplifying the hainousnes of adulterie, and the heauinesse of the punishment, intending thereby that a latter sinne added to a former brings on iudgement, though God doe not, as he might punish, alway with the soonest. So as these wordes (the world was not destroyed for manslaughter but for whoredome) imply (not for manslaughter onely, as the alone and sole cause of that vniuersall deludge vpon the earth)

3. It exhorteth (homilie 2. of fast) after Ahabs example to turne vnfainedly to God.

Had the homilie intended what the instance affirmeth, they who penned it, did looke to the mercie of God which followed vpon Ahabs external humiliatiō and thereby intended to shame vs if wee would not turne vnto God,Video & Ahab regem maritū Iezabel, reum idololatria, & sanguinis Na­bothae veniam meruisse poeni­tentia nomine. Tertul, adners. Marciou. lib, 4. and to incourage vs if wee did, because Ahab found faueur at the Lords hand as appeareth in the historie, and as Tertullian noteth it I see that Ahab the King Iezabels husband guilty of idolatrie & the blood of Naboth, by the name of repentance obteined pardon. But the homilie though it propose this example, and their is great vse to be made of it, yet concludeth with the Niniuits and after their example, (for so it speaketh) not his example, exhorteth the people to turne vufainedly vnto God.

4. In it the fact of Ambrose in excommunicating the Emperour is iustified.

[This historie is in the title of the right vse of the Church, where it is no farder iustified then all our writers to against the common aduersarie. Looke the Bishoppe of winchester his [Page 238]most learned answer to the Iesuits apologie &c. Iunins against Bellarmin,B. Bilson p. 3. pag. 373. Iun. contro. 3 lib. 5. artie. 3. Danaeusad 3. cō tro. c. 7. pag. 547. Lubber. de pap Rom. lib 9. c. 6. D. Sutcliu, ac pō tif, lib, 4, c, 11, pag. 393 Sitales haberemus episcopos quales Ambres, In vita D, Ambros, Erasmi, Theodores, lib, 5.7 Sozomen lib. 7, c, 24,Danęus cap. 7. Lubbert. Doctor Sutcliff and sun­drie others who all commend the good Bishoppe that hee did not suddainely admit the Emperor to the Lords table after so great an outrage was committed. Erasmus commends them both say­ing if there were more such Bishoppes of sincerity and courage, there would be more Emperors and Kinges such as. Theodo­sius. Looke the historie more at large in Theodoret his fift booke chap. 17. and Sozomen Lib. 7. cap. 24.

5. In is Iudith is said to haue a dispensation from God to vse vanitie of apparrell to ouercome the vaine eies of Gods enimies.

In the homilie against excesse in apparel. These are the words By what meanes was Holofernes deceiued, but by the glit­tering shew of apperell which that holie woman did put on hir, not as delighting in them, but shee ware it of pure ne­cessity by Gods dispensation vsing this vanity to ouercome &c. Apparrell simplie of it selfe is not euill vnlesse the manner of it,Iudithse, vt a­dultero place­ret ornauit quae tamen quia hoc religione non a more faciebat nemo eam adul teram iudica uit. Ambros [...]d virgin. Iudith. 10.4.2, Reg. 10.18, 25.26. Dispensatione Des pio delo trucidantur ō ­nes. P [...]llica. ibid. Instinctu diuino viam tuadendi centauit, Pellic. or the ende of it bee euill. For if naturall beautie bee no fault, how much lesse when it is graced with commendable at­tire fitting the person and hir estate. Iudith, (saith Ambrose) trimd her selfe to please an adulterer, yet hir selfe no adul­teresse, because shee did it for religion and not for lust. Yet vanitie of apparrell it is called for that shee vsually wore no such, nor took delight therein. That shee now vsed it to ouercome Gods eni­nne was no more vnlawfull in her then in Iehu, who with a sleight tooke all Baals Priests and put them to the sword, of which fact Conradus Pellican witnesseth thus much by a dis­pensation from God with a zealous craft they are all slaine. In the first of Samuel. Dauid before Achish dribbles vpon his beard scrabbled vpon ye wal, disfigureth himselfe as herein cōtrari­wise Iudith. did grace hir selfe. Which fact of his P. Martyr though he make it no example to imitate, but peculiar to him so he ra­ther defends it then otherwise. And Pellican vpon the same place By a diuine instinct hee attempted a way for to escape. Po­meranus [Page 239]writeth thus. The Saints when there is neede fall in to these counsels they seeke them not, nor hold them to be followed. Nor must we make lawes hereupon. Sancts inci [...]ūt vbi opus est in ista consilia nō quarunt, nec po stea ducūt imi­tanda, &c. Pomeran. Quia omnis cō trouersia non parum [...]. pendet. Pet. martyr in Iu­dic. 4. This be­fell Dauid, some other way it shal befal thee by Gods ap­pointment, if hee see it good. &c. In the 4. of the Iudges the historie of Iahel what she did to Sisera compared with the circum stances of Iudith what shee did to Holofernes; will satisfie the ex­ception here taken. For whereas all such controuersies do not a little depend vpon the circumstance of persons considering that shee was a holie, vertuous woman, deuout in praier strengh­thened by the hand of the Lord to preserue his truth and people, we haue no reason to the contrarie but we may safely iudge that God himselfe did direct hir heart to this politick stratagem: And if we make no doubt, but she might take Holofernes head from his shoulders he being the enimie of God as he was,Quadam mala male fiunt. Quadam mala bene fiunt. Optat. lib. 3. and she ina­bled by his spirit thereunto, neither need we suspect these wordes that by Gods dispensation she put on such apparrel as was to ye oppressors wantē eie, like the wedge of gold to Achans couetous eye. For any default els herein, or in any other circumstance it might be, as some things that are good bee ill don, so againe (saith Optatus) some thinges that are ill may be well done. But well or ill lawfull or vnlawful, in generall or particular: this we may resolutely determin, if any man shall hold it vnlawful and that in hir at that time, yet no fault to say that God who was rich in mercie to grace and adorne hir with so many gifts of his holie spirit did gratiously dispence with some point of circumstance: which is no common rule to bee practised by anie at all aduentures. Thus much and no more is intended by the words in the homily.

6. It affirmeth that pluralitie of wiues was by especial prerogatiue suffred to the fathers of the old testament, that they might haue manie children, because euerie of them hoped and begged often­times of God in heir prayers that the blessed seede might come and bee borne of his stoke and kindred.

A special prerogatiue &c. that is howsoeuer then done, yet noe warrant for our times (though some haue so thought) [Page 240]to doe the like, and to this purpose the homilie addeth which thinges wee see plainely to bee forbidden, vs by the law of God, and are now repugnant to all publike honestie. These and such like in Gods booke (good people) are not written that wee should, or may doe the like following their exam­ples, or that wee ought to thinke that God did allow eue­ry of these thinges in those men. In all which coherence of this argument not a worde that deserueth other censures then all the religious learned of former times haue thought iustifiable whose iudgement in this question wee referre the reader to, at large before cap. 24. Pag. 73.74 &c.

7. It there affirmeth that Euery concubin is a lawfull wife.

Those wordes are in that booke (as in this place) deliuered by way of obiection from such, as are offended at some places of scripture. And thus farre it may bee graunted for a true speech as it meaneth not now shee is or was in the first institution of mariage, but a lawfull wife in that construction which the scrip­ture maketh of that age when diuerse holie men had more then one wife at a time. So as this worde (is) must bee vnderstood not for this present age as if now, but is spoken historicallie what sometimes it once was by a figure that puts a present tence for the time past. A very vsuall thing in a matter of relation, speci­allie being in forme of an obiection as this here mentioned, and the answere in that Homilie doth at large expresse.

8. It affirmeth that Aconcubin is an honest name.

True after the phrase of scripture, for so it is added withall, in relation to those times whereof mention is there made. For it vnderstandeth by that name such a one as was coupled to a man without scrip or scroul,An cilla vnita viro absque sers ptura, (id est contractis) et sponsalibus, ve­ra tamen vxcrim sacris literis vt palam est de Celura qua dicitur vxor, Gen. 25.1. Pagnin. in Thesau Pet, mar. Iude, 8. & a. Sam. 5. that is to say without contract or bridall, yet a verie wife in scripture, as it is mantsest of Cetura who is [Page 241]called a wife, Gen 25.1. and 1. Chron. 1.32. a Concubine not implying hereby that shamefull name of harlot, strumpet, &c. which are names of dishonestie and disgrace, but noting onely a difference in right of possession or inheritance. Otherwise in the case of legitimation no difference at all. After all these orderly, disorderly, howsoeuer handled as we may sée a few Psalmes and Collects more following are put to by others, as if men would neuer make an end of wrangling.

Psal. 28.8. He is the wholesome defence of his annointed, &c. For he is the strength of the deliuerances of his annointed.

The lesser Bibles follow the Hebrew phrase: our Commu­nion booke respects our owne language, and whether of them we take vnto, the sense is all one. For what is the strength of the deliuerances, but as our English hath a wholesome de­fence, yea the strength of saluations which Tremellius calleth salutare robur a wholesome strength. But these points are not so fit for a vulgar vnderstanding, neither doe they concerne eue­ry meane capacitie. Sufficient it is for the people, if they rightly apprehend the true sense which either transtation sufficiently de­liuereth.

Psal. 37.38. As for the transgressors they shall perish together, and the end of the vngodly is, they shall be rooted out at the last, &c. For transgressors shall be destroyed, and the end of the wicked shall be cut off.

His spéech that said He could not away with men too di­ligent may well be vsed at this time.Odi nimium di­ligentes. For it séemeth some haue too much laisure, that can bestow paines thus idlie in reproouing where is no iust cause at all. For if one translation be true, how is not the other?Defectores pers di pariter finē improborum excindi. Trem, Transgressores delebuntur, su [...]l finis impiorum excindetur, id est, impii tandem excinden­tur. Moller. We intreate thée good Reader marke them both well, and then speake thy minde.

Psal. 68.16. Why hoppe yee so yee high lids, &c. For why cast yee your seluss downe.

It is hard to iudge of the proprietie of this word here vsed, Nusquam nisi hoc in loco scrip tura vsurpat [...] ideò diffusie est tudicare de pro prietate husus verbs. Moller. In re obscura se quor communē doctiorum in­terpretum sen­tentiam qui verbo subsilien­di aut exilien­di reddiderunt. Ibid. Quasi diceret. Quid superbitis aut effertis vos vestracelsitudine? Nibil omnia illa ornamenta vestra si ad Sion comparentur. Ibid. because it is onely in this place, and no where else. The Gréeke hath what thinke yee? Saint Ierom takes the word [...] to contend. R. Moses & Salomon Hadarian, to lyē in waite. Others coniecture otherwise but our translators doe herein as Mollerus writeth he did. In an obscure point I follow the common sentence of the learneder interpre­ters, who render it by the word to Leap, Skip, or hop. But busie must haue a hand, or else they will neuer let a thing alone when it is well. The Prophet vnder the name of Basan &c. implieth the brauerie of the wicked, as if he would say. Why are yee proud, or why lift yee vp your selues so high? All your trim ornaments, and glorie, when they are at the best are nothing to Sion which is Gods hill.

Ibid. Vers. 27. Giue thanks O Israell vnto God the Lord in the congregations from the ground of the hart, &c. For praise yee God in the assemblies and the Lord; yee that are of the fountaine of Israell.

In deede the lesser Bibles haue it thus: wherein as they follow some learned men, so the Communion booke hath di­uerse, whom it followeth.Hoc de corde ex ponunt, quia 07 scimus fictas laudes quae tan tum in labits personant corā Deo maledictas esse. Caluin. There are (saith Master Caluin) that expound this of the heart, because we know that fained thanks, which sound onely in (or) from the lips are accursed. Of which doctrine he maketh this profitable vse, namely, that our thanksgiuing must be from the hart, hartie and vnfained, else they are an abhomination to the Lord. 2. The word it selfe signifying a Well or deepe ground (which we vse to dig vp) may haue reference to the heart which is a fountaine or deepe Well whence good or euill springeth: here in this place good because thanksgiuing from the ground of the hart. If [Page 244]any shall say the word heart is more then is in the originall, so is the supply which the lesser Bibles make, when they adde (yee that are.) For in the originall these words are not. But vsuall it is, neither can we otherwise choose in translating, but make supply for better explication of that, which else we could not make tolerable English: And the construction in this place so made ministreth not any doctrine, but what is holsome and good in the iudgement of godly well aduised.

Psal. 75.3. When I receaue the congregation I shall iudge accor­ding vnto right, &c. For when I shall take a conuenient time.

Whether of these interpretations we follow no danger at all.Vterque sensus non male qua­drat vocabulū [...]. interpretari possumus vel cu tum ipsum vel tempus constis tutum. Caluin. Moller. Post quam po [...] pulus Israeliti­cus coeperis me agnoscere suum regem seque mihi adiungere. Nam quamuis à Sam. vngeretur tamen man­sit id Hebron donec omnes tribuise contungerent. &c. Moller. The word beareth both significations namely a congre­gation and a conuenient time. When I receiue the congre­gation (that is) when the people of Israell shall ioyne them­selues vnto me and follow my directions. For though he were annointed of Samuel yet he stayed in Hebron seuen yeares till all the Tribes did resort and ioyne themselues vnto him. And therefore the word bearing it, the sense also agreeable, what meane our brethren to be offended thereat? But an euill minde hath an euill meaning.

Psalme 76.5. The proud are robbed, they haue slept, and all the men whose handes were mighty haue found nothing &c. for The stout harted are spoiled, they haue slepte their sleepe, and all the men of strength haue not found their handes

Both these driue to one end,Nohilo magis ad pugnandum idones, quam si mutila & trū [...] catae fuissent ip sorum manus. Moller. implying the enimies were no more fit to battle, then if-their handes had beene lame or cut off. The Psalter in the Communion booke taketh helpe from the Gréeke which is not amisse sometimes, for the Apostles haue so done otherwhiles, citing thence as they finde the translation rather then the originall it selfe.

Psal. 93.1. The Lord is King, and hath put on glorious apparell, the Lord hath put on his apparell, and girded himselfe with strength, &c. For the Lord raigneth, and is clothed with Ma­iestie. The Lord is clothed and girded with power.

No difference but onely in the words and number of sylla­bles. The Communion booke saith, The Lord is King. The Heb. saith. the Lord raigneth. Are not both these twins of one signification? The Communion booke saith, He hath put on glorious apparell. The Hebrew. He is clothed with maiestie? What odds?Habere in c [...]r­pore sanguiné & non crubes­cere. August. Introducit cū tanquam indutum regio & splendido vestitu. Moller. Are they not both to one and the same purpose? Surely we may maruell, as Saint Austin said of the Donatists that men haue blood in their body and blush not. In both translations (as the true meaning of the place is) the Prophet bringeth in God as clothed with roiall and glorious apparell. And therefore exception being taken here without any shew at all no farder answere néedeth at this time.

Psal. 119.21. Thou hast reb [...]ked the proud, &c. For thou hast de­stroied the proud.

The word in many places of Scripture signifieth both, and though happily as Master Caluin thinks the word destroy be a fitter word yet in effect & substance the matter (he saith) is not great. Aptius perden­di verbum quā quam ad sum­mam rei parū refert Caluin, Quid hoc nisi minutias con­sectari. Dan. cō. Bellarmin. It is little materiall whether we take. And yet so little materiall, as it is very materiall we hold it that men obserue with vs whether Danaeus his words of Bellarmin vp­on like occasion proue not true. What is this but to make hue and cry after euery trifle.

Psal. 119.122. Make thy seruant to delight in that which is good, &c. For answere for thy seruant.

This branch interpreters expound diuersly.Hoc membrum variè reddunt interpretes, Moster. The Gréeke is, Accept of thy seruant: Others as our lesser Bibles haue Answer for, &c. Iustinianus tenders it. Let it be sweete vnto thy ser­uant. [Page 245]Musculus, Delight or make thy seruant to delight: Muscu [...]. (Acti­uè) oblecttaser­num tuu [...]. Fac ut [...]ou [...] ob­lectetur. Paganim. Du ce fac [...]eru [...] Munst. Pagnin. Make thy seruant to delight. The reason here of may be as Mollerus giueth because they read [...] for [...], and the Chaldee as Munster interpreteth Make that, which is good become sweete, which is the same in sense, with this place make thy seruant to delight. And in diuerse other places the word yeeldeth the like signification: needelesse therefore we may well reckon their paines that will prooue this translation contrarie to truth.

In a praier before Baptisme it is said. That by Baptisme of his wel­beloued Sonne, He did sanctifie the flood Iordan and all other waters to the mysticall washing away of sinne. This is to be re­prooued because not found in the word of God.

Not expresly found in so many syllables, yet the same in effect, namely, that God in submitting his Sonne to be Bap­tized in Iordan by Iohn Baptist hath manifestly made knowne that the Element of water, whether in Iordan, or in any other fountaine, or riuer may at the appointment of a lawfull Mi­nister be set apart from his common vse to be a visible signe or Sacrament of Baptisme to represent and seale vp the inward, spirituall, and misticall washing away of sinnes by the blood of Christ. So any riuer or water is sanctified, &c. As the Eunuch said to Philip. See here is water what doth let me to be baptized? Act. 8.36. Caro Christi mūditias aquis tradidit. Tert. de pudicitia c. 6 De sancte san­ctificata natura aquarum. Id. de baptis. Nulla distincti [...] est mari, qui [...] an stague, flu­mine an fonte, lacu, an alueo diluators Nee quicquā resert inter tes quos loh [...]es in Iordan [...], & quos Betrus in Tyberi ti [...]xit, Ibod, Nou ille necessitatem habuit abluendi, sed per illum in aquis abluttonis nostra erat sanstefi [...]da porgati [...], Hilar, in Math. Can. 2. Hereunto the Fathers agree in their seuerall writings. Ter­tullian The flesh of Christ gaue cleannesse to the waters. Againe, the nature of the waters was sanctified by the ho­ly one. Anone after more plainly. No difference now whether one be baptized in the Sea, or in a poole, in a riuer or in a fountaine, in a lake, or in a brooke, nor it skilleth not, twixt those whom Iohn baptized in Iordan and those whom Peter baptized in Tybris. Hilarie vpon Saint Mathew: Christ had no neede to be baptized, but by him in the wa­ters of our baptisme was the purgation to be sanctified. [...] [Page 254]drous works of God, which is the case of euery good Christian both to doe and craue of the Lord that they may doe with all thankfulnesse. Thus whither way soeuer wee take it, and one of these it must needs be this praier cannot be thought scandalous.

On the 19. Sunday after Trinitie the Epistle Ephesians 4. 19. Because of the blindnesse of their hearts, which being past repentance &c. for being past feeling.

[...] the word is. Where (feeling) is the same that re­pentance is, and both translations standing, the one in the lesser Bibles, the other in the communion book may minister a helping hand each to other. For no doubt a man that hath done forrowing, or gréeuing for his sin committed,Non indolentes, sed dedolentes. [...]. Aliud est peccare cum sensu ac dolere conscien­ [...]ia et abud peccare sine vlloco setentia morsu. Muscul. Conscientia stupida & insensata. Ibid. AEgrè sperari potest poenitenti am aliquando locum in eius [...] modi peccatore inuenturam. Ibid. that man hath done repenting. The Apostle saieth not [...] men without feeling, but [...] (or as some copies had, which the vulgar latin and ye Syriack follow) [...], out of hope, for euer repenting and sorrowing truly for their sinnes because of the hardnesse of heart, which is impenitencie or as Saint Paul hath a heart that cannot repent, where he coupleth hardnesse of heart withall, as if past repentance, then past feeling, and if past feeling then pastre­pentance. And Musculus vpon this 4. to the Ephes. It is one thing to sinne with feeling and griefe of conscience, another thing to sinne without remorse and griefe or feeling, where is a feeling, and sorrow for sin there is some place for repentance, but where the conscience is become stupid, dull and blockish, that albeit sinne bee committed, there is no compunction nor pricking in the heart, there it can hardly bee euer hoped that repentance will finde place in such a sinner. This there­fore past repentance here signifieth not, as if sometimes such a sinner did euer truely and vnfeinedlie before repent, more thou that hee had anie true feeling, and sorrowe of heart for sinne, but this it implyeth, that such a one yeeldeth small hope of euer comming to a true feeling, and repentance of his life past because his heart is hardned, and cannot repent, or as the Apostle in another place termeth it, hee hath a cauterized and seared conscience.

On the 25. sunday after Trinitie stir vp wee beseech the O Lord the will of thy faithfull people, that they plenteously bringing forth the fruites of good works may of thee be plenteouslie rewarded through lesus Christ our Lord. Here a rewarde is asked in recompence of good workes.

A reward is promised and therefore may be craued not of me­rit but of mercy.Pro. 19.17. Retributionem dates. 2. Cor. 9.6. Quisquis semen tem facit hac spe facere com­probatur, vt pl [...] ­ra acciptat, quā sulcis commen­dat, Marlor. Ibid. Neque enim tantum in Caelo remuner atur Deus beneficen­tiam fidelium sed ettam in h [...] [...]do. Ibid. Qu [...] nullius in­digens est Deut in seassumit be na [...] operationes nostras, ad boc vt prastet nobis retrib utionem bonorumsuorum operum. Ire [...]. lib. 4. c. 34. Deus coronat dona sua in nobis August. Debitcrem se fecis non accipioud [...] sed promittendo. Nō es dic redde quod accepicti, sed redde quod promisitt [...]. Aug For hee that hath mercy vpon the poore lendeth vnto the Lord, and the Lord will recompence him that which he hath giuen Prouerbes 19, Accordingly hereunto is that 2. Corinth. 9. hee that soweth sparingly, shall reape sparingly, and hee that soweth liberallie shall reape liberally. It is euery mans case Sar­cerius noteth in Marlorat that whosoeuer soweth seede, he doth it in this hope to receiue more then hee commendeth vnto the furrowes. Anon after. This haruest must bee expounded of the spirituall rewarde of eternall life as well as of earthly blessings. For God doth not onely in heauen rewarde the liberalitie of the faithfull but also in this worlde. For godlinesse hath the promises of this life and of the life to come. So as being the Lord his will that they which sow plentifullie should reape plenteously, wee may well pray, that the Lord will make good this gratious promise. And therefore no matter of iust dislike. God who wanteth nothing of ours (saieth Ireneus) takes vpon him our good working and al to make good vnto vs the retribution of his owne workes. And God (saieth Austin) hath made himselfe a debter, not in taking but in promising: Say not to God. Giue what thou hast receiued, but returne what thou hast promised.

Farder wee are not to wade at this present. All wee find wee haue set downe truely, as the copies were sent vnto vs. Now in lieu of their methodicall exceptions to be seene before, wée present vnto thee (good Reader) a briefe drawne out of their commu­nion booke, which they would obtrude vpon our Church, and in their owne teemes propose it after their example.

Wee cannot subscribe vnto their booke of Common prayer, not onely he­cause it is not authorized, nor hath giuen vs anie good proofe, what acceptance it may deserue, but (were it in place authorized) e­uen for these causes wee cannot subscribe viz. because there are in it mauie thinges doubtfull, disgraceful, vntruths, misappli­ing, leauing out, putting in &c. Of all which onelie a tast for wee desire to bee short.


First their interpretation they make of Christs descending in­to hel, namely to be his suffrings in his bodie hel torments vpon the crosse. This wee doubt whither be the proper and true mea­ning of the words in the Creed.

2. Obedience to the Magistrate. For in the same confession they say, we must render to yt ciuil Magistrate, honor & obedience in all thinges which are agreable to the word of god, Soe as if any be disposed to wrangle and say, This or that I am required to do, is not agreable to the word of God, there shall followe no obedience. Whereas learned, godly, wise Diuines, would stile it thus (In all things not repugnant to the word of God) Be­sides they would adde this wholsome instruction, in such things as are repugnant, the magistrate must be so honoured and obeied, as that wée submit our selues in all dutifulnesse to the penaltie inioyned.

3 These platformers imagin their owne deuises to bee the onely ordinance of Christ, and all other formes of gouernment of the Church to be the wisdoine of man, couertly seeme to exclude all els (that are otherwise affected) from the kingdome of heauen, where they say in the end of their confession. Then wee, which haue forsaken all mens wisdome to cleaue vnto Christ, shall heare that ioyfull saying Come yee blessed of my father &c.

4 These men doe mislike in vs to say Haue mercy on all men, yet in their prayer for the whole estate they pray not onely for the faithfull alreadie, but also for such as haue beene helde captiue in darknesse and ignorance. Nowe faithfull and not faith­ful are contradictorie, & conse quently we doubt whither they haue such cause to reprehend our praiers, as they see me to pretend.

5. In their order of Baptisme they haue these words. The Sacraments are not or dained of God to be vsed, but in places of the publike congregation & necessarily annexed to the preaching of the word as seales of the same. Where occasion of doubt is giuen vs, that they meane no preaching is effectuall, where Sacraments are not so administred, and in effect argue. No Baptisme nor Supper without a Sermon.

6. In their administration of the Lord his supper they say: Our Lord requireth none other worthinesse on our part, but that vnfainedly we acknowledge our wickednesse, and imperfection. If this were in our Communion booke, we doubt, we should be thought to exclude faith, charitie, purpose of amendment of life, and wholesome instruction concerning that holy mysterie and Sacrament.

2. Disgracefull to the Kings Maiestie, In his title, and in his Authoritie.

In his title. No part of the stile mentioned, but Quéene Eli­zabeth in their Communion booke. And no other ceremonie, nor order being to be vsed (as they craue in their bill exhibited) in­forceth that no man must vse any other forme at all in his prayer,Part. 1. pag. [...]8. but onely the bare name of King Iames without mentioning all the other parts of his iust title accordingly as in our Uni­uersities is required, and in other godly faithfull prayers is duely administred.

In his Authoritie. For speaking in that booke of the ciuill Magistrate, they attribute not any direction or gouernment for Ecclesiasticall either orders or persons, but onely reformation at the first planing. 2. In their Rubrick before Baptism, Autho­ritie is giuen the Minister by consent of the Presbyterie to ap­point a publike méeting,L A. Nullo. C. de fer [...]ss. which we call a holy day, & which hath béene a prerogatiue which Kings and Emper ors alway had.

3. Vntruths.

As when they call it publishing the contract. For asking the hanes is too olde, and may. (perhaps) be accused of superstition, [Page 258]yea what if the parties be not contracted, nor minde to be, till so­lemnization, as it often falleth out by consent of both parties, shall the Minister neuerthelesse peremptorily affirme that they haue contracted matrimonie. Againe, in distribution of the bread they say of the people, who shall distribute, and de­uide it among themselues, that all may communicate. This ceremonie it séemeth they vrge of necessitie. For they say (who shall) yet no such thing to be gathered out of Scripture, but the contrarie when it is said; He brake it and gaue it, not that they did breake and giue it one vnto another. As also appeareth by the Rituall of the Jewes, their Calmud, and their very custome at this day. For the Maister of the family in the feast of sweete bread (which is celebrated after the Paschall Lamb is eaten) doth take a péece of sweete bread and giuing thanks (per con­cepta verba) there set downe, doth dip it in the sauce prouided to eate the sower herbs,So aliger. de e­mendat. temp. lib. 6. which he doth eate and then breake so many péeces as there be persons sitting there, and giueth to euery one a piece to be eaten saying. This is the bread of tribulation which our Fathers did eate in Egypt, &c. Many other such points we might note, which if they were in our Communion booke should beare reproofe. But goe we on a little farder.

Misapplying Scripture as that in the Commaundement. Six daies shalt thou labour. Therefore no holy day to come toge­ther in publike but only on the Sabboth. And yet herein seemeth a contradiction,Contradiction because with consent of the presbitery (as may be seene afore) yt Minister may appoint a publike solemn meeting. &c.

Misinterpreting. For they translate that in Genes. It is not good for man to be alone, thus, It is not good for man to liue alone, implying it sinne to liue vnmaried. This license they take for translating, not induring any the smallest libertie vnto others to doe the like.

As where hauing spoken onely of the persons, the Father, and the Sonne they conclude.Leauing out. To whom be all praise. In our Communion booke such words would haue borne exception for leauing out the holy Ghost.

As in the Action of the Lords Supper. Take eate, This bread is the body of Christ. Putting in. Had it beene in our Communion booke [Page 259]we should haue beene challenged for adding these words. (This bread) more then is in the Euangelists, or in the Apostle Saint Paul. In all which alleadged (beside many else we might adde hereunto) as men vse to beat a cur-dogge in presence of a Lyon that the beast for all his greatnesse of stomacke, may the rather be tamed, so haue we thought good at this time in mentioning these doubts, disgraces, contradictions, misapplications, &c. to bring downe their curst hart, who wilfully misconstrue, what they otherwise know was, and is the right godly mea­ning of our Church, that they who are so ready to finde fault, may themselues see their owne writings are not free from their owne intended exceptions. And not to multiply farder in­stances for that would be infinite. Generally in all their booke this may be worth our obseruation, that albeit themselues can­not deny, but many points are singularly set downe in our leiturgie, yet their spite is such vnto it, and themselues so wed­ded vnto innouation and selfe loue, that (excepting the exhorta­tion before the Communion they haue not transserd any thing from thence into their booke.


By this time we hope it sufficiently appeareth what defence our Church maketh, notwithstanding oppositions intended against it. How farre forth it preualleth we know not, but that graue religious aduertisement which Saint Ierom giueth shall be our conclusion for this present.Quaeso lector ve recorder [...]tribis nalis Dommi, & de iudicio tuo te intelliga [...] iudicandum, not m [...]hi nee aduer sario faueas, sed causā iudices Hieron. aduers­erro. Ioh. Hier [...] ­sol. We pray thee good Reader (as thou art vpon a closing point) vnderstand what our de­fence is & remember the tribunal of the Lord, how we must all come before the iudgement seate of God. Doe not thou fauour one or other more then truth, but truth more then all. For what will it aduantage a man to winne the whole world, & loose his owne seule, or what can he giue to redeeme it. Preiudice not thy vnderstanding, determine this. For this is the substance of all, If all things here obiected be contrary to the word of God, as some make shew for, in steede of our yea, write nay, and for our nay write yea: Then indge whether such a course [Page 260]be not the ouerthrow of thy faith, a peruerting of thy [...]ge­ment, and the hazard of thy soules saluation. God forbid it should so be, and we pray the Lord & thy selfe that thou apply thy hart to wisedome, least thou be deceiued. And deceiued thou art, if thou so thinke or write. But let thy censure be, as God shall di­rect thy hart: in iudgement feare it is, if thou continue obstinate, in mercie know it is, if thou incline to this counsell giuen. And that thou so doe, the Lord graunt thée his spirit of wisedome and humilitie, that (as Saint Iames speakes) thou receaue our exhortation in méekenesse of wisedome: More expect not at our hands. For we cannot possiblie wish thée more, but grace in this life, and glorie in the life to come. Our pen may be tired, and our wish at an end, but no end we wish of thy good. For the good we wish, is thy endlesse saluation.


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