THE DESCENT OF AVTHORITIE: OR, THE MAGISTRATES PATENT FROM HEAVEN. Manifested in a Sermon preached at Lincolnes Assizes, March 13. 1636.

By THOMAS HVRSTE Dr. of Divinity, and one of his Majesties Chaplains.

Rom. 13.1.

There is no power but of God.

LONDON, Printed for Iohn Clark, and are to bee sold at his Shop under Saint Peters Church in Cornhill. 1637.



BEing perswaded to make this Sermon le­gible, I presently re­solved to use your name for the Dedica­tion. As it is a favour from you, I make bold to borrow it: and as it is a testimony of due respect from me, you deserve it. Go on still in mani­festing your unfained love to God [Page]and his Church, your Prince and Country. And that you may long continue to be (as you are) an or­nament to your Family, and a sup­port to your friends, shall be the prayer of him that is

Yours in all hearty affection,
and due observance


Perlegi Concionem hanc, cui titulus est (The De­scent of Authority &c.) nec in eâ quicquam reperio quò minùs cum utilitate publicâ imprimatur.

Sa: Baker.


Gen. 9.6.

Whoso sheddeth mans blood, by man shall his blood bee shed.

A Divine may speake of such Texts of Scripture, that it may bee said as it was to hin that spake of Hercules his prai­ses, Quis eum vituperat? Plutar. Apoph. [...]ac. as if that were to light a candle in the Sun-shine. So when we Preachers speake of death, mortality, Gods mercy, mans pronenesse to sinne, &c. Some may say or thinke, Who doubts of this?

But for this Discourse that I am to speake of, the just power of one man over another, it may seeme to be Apocryphall, or an Exchecker-chamber case. [Page 2]Some (especially inferiours) thinke that one should bee as good as another: that as wee were at our births, and shall be at our deaths; so in our lives we should bee equall. Being Christian brethren in Di­vinity, and partaking of the same Sacraments: so (Anabap [...]istically) we should bee in Politicks; and the pearching of one man above another is but hu­mane invention and commanding policy. Where­upon some inferiours are willing to obey principal­ly for feare of punishment, little for conscience sake.

To satisfie us all then, that the superiority of one man over another is no humane usurpation, but a divine institution; not upheld only by the shores, or underlaid with the bolsters of mans device, but hath the foundation of Gods appointment: take notice how that God who hath made in Heaven Angels and Archangels, in the Firmament the King the Sun, the Queene the Moone, and the common people the Starres; in the Aire the Eagle and the Flie; in the Sea the Whale and the Herring; upon Earth the Lyon and the Grassehopper, hils and val­lie, leas and furrowes: the same God hath appoin­ted amongst men, some like the Centurion, to com­mand; Matth. 8.9. and others as the Centurions servant, dili­gently to obey: as in stature some higher like the Anakims, and some lower as Zacheus. Thus God hath ordered, that Whoso sheds mans blood, must not be reprieved till the day of Judgement, or bee pu­nished miraculously, Acts 12.23. Isa. 37 36. as Herod was, by an Angel sent from Heaven; or as in Sennacheribs Host, where an Angel came and slew the Host, but by man, and not [Page 3]by Angels shall a malefactors blood bee shed.

Here then is Magna Charta, or High Commission under the great Seale of Heaven directed to Magi­strates. Here is DEVS REGI: for so he acknow­ledgeth, DIEV ET MON DROIT. And then (give me leave to say a piece of your Commission before you goe to the Hall) from hence it followeth, CAROLVS (but DEI GRATIA) DILECTO ET FIDELI.

So then, if any shall enquire in point of consci­ence, as they did, Luk. 20.2. By what authority you doe these things (I meane divine:) Why you, my Lords, examine and give sentence, the Justices here­in concurre, the Jurers finde guilty, the Jaylors keepe sure, the Plaintifs prosecute, and the Executi­oners put to death: here is prima lex societatis, & nervus Imperiorum, Carions Chron. the divine Patent or grant, Whoso sheds, &c.

In which words we have Authoritatis prosapiam, the progeny or pedegree, the race or linage, or, if you will, the Descent of Authority set out by Moses, the ancient King of Heralds, who hath informed us in all the ancient genealogies. A discourse not un­usefull to us all, that Superiors may know how their tenure is but in capite, God by a Licence of aliena­tion hath assigned them, and that inferiours may know why they owe suit service and homage to their superiors: because their power stands not onely upon the crutches or stilts of humane power, but upon the firme basis of divine institution that some should ride on horse-backe, while others walke on foote.

For the evidencing hereof, observe the Commis­sion. The first and more generall part of it is laid down, Gen. 1.26. and 28. and likewise in the se­cond verse of this ninth chapter: Sciatis quòd as­signavimus vos & quemlibet vestrum conjunctim & divisim to rule over fowles, beasts, fishes. Thus far all mankind hath power. And now in this verse read, we have Assignavimus etiam vos: we see who are of the Quorum, even the Magistrates, who have power over men. The like we may read, Wisdom the ninth, from the beginning to the seventh verse. As the Emperour of Germany is stiled Rex Regum: so is a Magistrate over men, who are petty Princes over the other creatures. All mankinde are like Se­natours, all Kings, but the Magistrate is perpetuus Dictator.

But it will be whispered by the Temporall power, Trouble not your selfe for our Patent further than from our gracious King: we have Jaylers and fet­ters, halters and gibbets, axes and scaffolds, fire and faggots; we will either finde, or force obedience.

Abundans cautela non nocet. The more tyes, the stronger. Mens Lawes may bee snapped asunder more easily. Secular lawes and power are but the materials, the hemp or haire: Religion is that which entwines and makes it strong. Men may hope that mans lawes may balke Agag, and the fat­test of the people: but Gods Lawes say Quicun­que, they punish universally. True, the lawes of men are strong, but behold a greater force, a twofold cable. Gods word prevailes more strongly. Where there is either religious devotion, or any melancho­ly [Page 5]jealous fearfulnesse or suspicion by nature, there is a more serious apprehension of Gods displeasure than mans. Saint Paul (a wise Teacher) knew what he did, when hee used the double two-edged argument, Rom. 13.5. We must needs obey, not only for feare of punishment, but also for conscience sake. Observe among the Romists: if they can but untie the double knot of conscience, they care the lesse for the single tie of corporall punishment. Assure but Ravaillac that it is lawfull to lay his bloudy hands upon the Lords Anoynted, and then he will feare but little hot burning pincers, or the pulling in pieces with wilde horses. When those moles, the the Gunpowder pioners (following their blinde guides) were conceited that it was not unlawfull to fire that house wherein (said they) bloody lawes were made against them, they then cared neither for Tyburn nor beheading. And that bloody Assa­sine, who not many yeares since slew a great Peere, no doubt but that his bloody mis-led mind thought it lawfull. If Divines do but once file off the fet­ters of divine lawes, men will as fast snap asunder mens lawes, as Samson did his coards. Iames Clement, whom the Leaguers hired to kill Henry the third; and Iohn Chastell, who intended to kill Henry the fourth, were both taught by the Jesuites that the King was not to be obeyed, if not allowed by the Pope. Goodwins An­nales, page 23 Insurrection or rebellion never proves loud or dangerous till it pretend Religion. The first noyse is for the libertie or priviledges of the peo­ple, that is but like the outworkes: but when the soule is pretended, that is like the maine fort. They [Page 6]begin thus, The free-born Communaltie is oppres­sed with a small number: though the calamities of this present life may with a constant patience bee endured, yet the soule is to be redeemed even with a thousand deaths: new formes of Religion are ob­truded (the constant pretence of all discontented giddy people.)

Thus we see that the cause of Religion, or the tie of conscience doth move the wheeles of all acti­ons most forcibly. Though it ill becomes them, it is usually in the mouth of all seditious rebels, and then in nomine Domini they are most violent. The holy league, and holy pilgrimes, and the brethren are usually the nicknames of rebels.

Let it not then bee tedious for them who have their Patents sealed at Westminster, to heare that they are also sealed with a teste meipso in Heaven. The tye of conscience looking at Gods ordinance doth helpe to guard Authoritie, as well as the She­riffe with the posse Comitatûs.

Seeing then you please to usher, Preface and auspicate your waightie affaires with prayers and prayses here in this sacred House, after the exam­ple of all good Christians, holy men in the old Te­stament; Yea and the devout Heathen also, who did usually begin à Deo Optimo Maximo: So you come hither to do him service, to acknowledge your dependance upon him; As a labourer or work­man comes to know his pleasure that sets him on worke, so you here to be directed by Gods Word. We of our Tribe can do no lesse but give you your due, namely, that your power stands not onely up­on [Page 7]the supporters of mans policy, but the strength of the divine Graunt.

Therefore, as it is Psalme 45.4. Good lucke have you with your honour: ride on with the word of truth and righteousnesse. Your Commission is both from God and the King. It is appointed that Who so sheds mans blood, by man, &c. as may appeare by the meaning of the words, which come now to bee opened unto us.

Herein is layd down the just power and authori­tie of the sword: not excluding Ecclesiasticall or Oeconomicall, that of parents or masters; but the publique temporall power is here more principally intended, because it speaks of bloud-shed.

This verse is set like Bifrons Ianus, or like Noah, who had reference to both Worlds: so this verse is a reason both of the former and latter verses.

1. God is carefull to prevent the eating of blood, verse the 4. that man should have no taste thereof, and by that abstinence so much the more abhorre murther and crueltie. The reason, whoso sheds, &c.

2. It is a reason of the 7. verse. Men may bee encouraged to bring forth fruit and multiply, be­cause God hath taken such a course for our safety and preservation, by pinioning and swadling the hands of murtherers. A man may plant, set, and sow in a garden with hope and chearefulnesse, when it is well fenced, hedged, walled, or empa­led. The fortification must bee answerable to the danger. Murther began betimes, even with Cain. God bids bee fruitfull, for hee hath taken a course [Page 8]with murtherers, be they high or low, rich or poore: for it is said Quicunque, generall and indefinite, as Peter said Acts 10.34. I perceive there is no respect of persons with God: as hee sends his raine to fall, and his Sunne to shine; so hee would have justice administerd impartially. Musculus observes allego­rically (but it is som-what farfetched) Of every Beast, ordinary inferiour men that are kept under: or of man, that is, bee hee noble, learned, wise, or any wayes excellent.

Sheddeth mans blood, that is, mortally and wil­fully. And here observe 3. things.

1. That any kinde of death is here forbidden as well as the effusion of blood, bee it by poisoning, strangling, or otherwise. A man may shed blood and not kill, as Chirurgions: and a man may kill and not shed blood, as poysoners and stranglers.

2. Phlebotomy is not here forbidden, the ope­ning or cutting of a veine which is not mortall: but the taking away of life is here ment which lies in the blood, as it is in the fourth verse. The heart-blood is the shop or seat of life. Hence it is said, that though the braine be of greater dignity, yet the heart is of greater necessity, because it is the fountaine of life.

No shedding of blood (though mortally) is here meant, if it be done by the Magistrate agreeably to the lawes of God and men, no more than the plain­tifs, Iurers, Executioners are guilty: for it is said, Rom. 13.4. The Magistrate beareth not the sword in vaine. But private men upon private quarrells are here restrained.

3. Observe, that blood-shed is here put for it selfe [Page 9]and other sinnes: for this power of the Magistrate is not restrained onely to murther and other cau­ses capitall, yea and to criminall, but to civill also. Else, there would be no use of any Bench, but that which is for life and death. Here then other causes are to bee understood, although denominatio fit à principaliori parte. This maine offence is branded by name, as being inconsistent with society. So that this is a principall, not the onely sinne, for Magi­strates to punish: as usually the oath at large is gi­ven to the fore-man, and all the rest are implied. Although God be a patient God, Rom. 15.5. yea the God of pati­ence; and when wee make bold to expresse him by borrowed speeches, we say he hath leaden feet, hee came sostly, and convented Adam deliberately: yet he will not suffer the murtherer to stay till the great Assizes at Doomes-day, but hee must be punished here by his Lieutenant, man. This hatefull sinne is is named here (we see) for all the rest. When Saint Paul had a Viper upon his hand, Acts 28.4. the Barbarians cri­ed, No doubt this man is a murtherer. They thought murder to be the non-such of sinnes. As Moses here sets downe the pedegree of Authority: so our Sa­viour sets downe the descent of murther, Iohn 8.44. He goes higher than Caine, Yea are of your Father the Devill: he was homicida, a manslayer from the begin­ning. Let those then who are as prodigall of their owne and others blood as doggs and cockes, consi­der how murther is here branded by name: and so it may well be, for it is injurious to five.

1. To God, whose institution is violated, and his image cancelled and defaced.

[Page 10] 2. To the Magistrate, whose sword is taken out of his hand, and hee made like the signe of Saint George. If a man be injured, are there not Courts of justice, both for our profit & for our honour? What nonsense then is it, for a man in rage or passion, which is a short madnesse, when hee is not his owne man, that hee should wrest the sword out of the hands of the sober, just, deliberate Magistrate, and revenge his quarrell himselfe?

3. A murcherer is injurious incomparably to that man whom he slayes, so as he cannot give him satis­faction If he take away his goods, he might restore: if his good name, hee might recant: but who can fetchbacke a departed soule? he onely can give life that first infused it.

4. A murtherer is injurious to himselfe. 1. To his body, making it liable to a violent death: or his life afterwards (if his conscience be not asleepe) is a continuall Purgatorie, as wee may observe in some who have beene heires to Cain's murther, they have been likewise inheritors of his despicable wofull wandring. 2 For his soule, he cannot say at his death with our Saviour, Epist. 154. ad Publicol. Consummatum est: for without bitter repentance hee leapes out of the pan into the fire. Saint Augustine doth so dislike man­slaughter, that he saith non sibiprobari illud consilium, ut quispiam alium interficiat, nè ab illo occidatur.

5. A blood-shedder mortally and wilfully is inju­rious to his wife and children, by forfaiting his estate, and depriving them of that which should be for their comfortable livelihood and maintenance. Thomas Aquinas of every beast expounds it of beastly men, in­timating [Page 11]that murtherers are metaphorically like beasts, rash, violent, furious, inconsiderate, cruell, unreasonable, and unprovident as they.

Seeing then that Gods Spirit by Moses hath stig­matized this hatefull vice, let not rash anger be­ginne, malice and revenge prosecute, and a vaine conceit of honour occasion the committing of this desperate sinne, which God will not have stay till the day of Doom, but bee punished by his Deputy, Man: which word now followes.

By man. Wee must not straiten these words as confined to Noah and his immediate successours; but as the priviledges and jurisdiction in gene­rall of mankinde over other creatures, so like­wise the power of man one over another doth still continue.

Againe, wee must not thinke that by man, Providet nè in­terficiant iussu non expectato publico. Aug. in Exod. the Magistrate is to be so understood, as if they were to be the Executioners, & so condemne under-officers; for they are the Magistrates hands.

These words, by man, are rarely left out, usually put in, alwayes understood.

By man, the Magistrate; so the Chaldee Para­phrase, per sententiam Iudicum, and so Cornelius à Lapide upon these words quotes it, and expounds it.

Calvin acknowledgeth the Magistrates autho­ritie to bee hence derived, sed verba plus complecti dicit. By man, the Magistrate disjunctively, or some other way by man. For it is said, Psalme 55.23. Blood­thirsty men shall not live out halfe their dayes. So that if the murtherer escape by flight, or that the Magi­strate be too remisse or indulgent, yet either in war [Page 12]or quarrell, duell or other casualtie the murtherers life is taken away.

Thus Iunius expounds these words by man in his Analysis of this chapter. Hee saith there are lawes, 1. naturall, of the creatures subjection, verse the se­cond 2. ceremoniall, verse the fourth, forbidding blood-eating 3. civill and politicall, verse the sixth, quum Deus manum sui Magistratûs instruit ad ulcis­cendum.

Musculus gives an unanswerable reason, why by man we are to understand the Magistrate. If a private man kill the murtherer, and another private man him, and so in infinitum, what will become of the species of mankinde? God therefore deputes the Magistrate to doe it, and there's an end. Neither (saith the same Author) is this a fault in the Magi­strate, to use a sword either defensive or offensive to malefactors. It is not said Quicunque effuderit sanguinem homicidae, latronis, venefici, &c. for these putrified members must either be taken away, or they endanger the whole.

Mercer saith, not by private men, nè nisi maturè & causâ diligenter excussâ occidatur. If it were left to private men, in their choler they would put to death without just cause, as in chance-medly or mis­adventure, which the Magistrate doth not punish with death.

Peter Martyr here understands the Magistrate, and makes the later words a comment or reason. Quia illum fecit (scilicet Magistratum) ad imaginem Dei; & non HOMINES, sed ELOHIM appellantur. God borrowes the word King, stiling himselfe King of [Page 13]Kings, and for an abundant requitall lends Kings the title of Gods. Though all men are created after Gods image: yet those that are in authoritie have a more speciall resemblance of the Deity. All men of un­derstanding, learning, wealth, and other abilities, are as bullion: but the Magistrate hath the very currant stamp of Gods power.

Piscator also herein concurres, QVI EFFVN­DIT, nempe privato affectu, ex odio aut ira: PER HOMINEM, idest, Magistratum.

I have endevoured (you heare) to lay the foun­dation strong, because we are to build much here­upon, Gods Patent to his Deputies, or the De­scent of Authority.

It followes, shal his blood be shed. God proportions his punishments. Blood for blood, as it is Exod. 21.23. or, Life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, &c.

Thus We see the divine justice paying murther­ers in their owne coyn: Occidit & occidatur. Ole­after saith upon these words, A principio Mundi oc­cisio occisione vindicatur. This retaliation of blood for blood Christ told Saint Peter of, Matth. 26.52. Whose killeth with the sword, shall perish by the sword. The same words are used Revel. 13.10. here is Lex talionis. They that account the life of another cheap, do make the market and price for their own.

From these words, thus opened, these divine truths present themselves to our consideration.

1. Whosoever, that God is impartiall.

2. Sheds mans blood, The hainousnesse of mur­ther here named.

3. By man, The Descent of Authority.

[Page 14] 4. Shall his blood be shed, The proportioning of Gods punishments to mans sinnes.

But as I made choice of these words for this time and place: so I will insist onely in the third and most usefull to us, the terminus à quo of Au­thority, or the Descent of it.

Master Harding, to set the Crowne the faster upon the Popes head, is content that it should stand but totteringly upon the heads of temporall Prin­ces, as if no hand could set it on fast, but that of the Bishop of Rome. And therefore he saith most in­juriously, that they can have no more power than the people had over whom they exercise their ju­risdiction: as if they had no other right, but by com­position from their subjects; forgetting these places, Prov. 8.15, 16. By mee Kings raigne. And againe re­peating it twice, By mee Princes rule. And Dan. 2.21. He removes and sets up Kings, without the Pope his intervening. His usurpation was not heard of till many yeares after. To the like effect spake our Savi­our to Pilate, Iohn 19.11. Thou couldst have no power at al, except it were given thee from above Thus S. Paul Rom. 13.1. There is no power but of God. Which made him recant, as it were, Acts 23.5. I wist not that it was the high Priest: For it is written, (namely Exod. 22.28.) Thou shalt not revile the Gods, (for so it is rendred in the last Translation) this phrase being given to Magistrates: and perhaps from hence the Heathen worshipped mortall Gods. Cyrus is said to be Gods anoynted, Isaiah 4 5.1. In the first part of the Homily against wilfull rebellion it is said, since Lucifer the Arch-rebel, and our first parents in Paradise broke [Page 15]the bonds of duty, God hath established authority, first in families, then in Cities, Townes, and King­domes. Even subordinate Authority is from God, though like cosen-germane it be once removed from God and the King. Yea Magistrates in little Corpo­rations and Iurisdictions, they are the younger bro­thers of Authority: there is the same blood, though not the same splendour or revenue. The varnish or gilt of power is the same, though the walls or ma­terialls bee finer or courser. Caesars image, or the Kings stampe makes silver as currant as gold.

And this Descent may appeare or be vouched,

1. From the excellency, use, and benefit of it, as it is said, Iames 1.17. Every good and perfect gift comes downe from above. Now this is the very sine qua non of society and outward blessings; not onely for the bene esse, but for the very esse of a Common-Wealth: without this people are like a riotous rout in warre without leaders in order, as sheepe without a Shep­herd, or a body without an head.

2. This Descent appeares by Gods admirable up­holding & continuing it, maugre mans reluctations; God preserves still the ceremony and the substance. First, those additions of ceremony, which makes it have the more due valuation from the people, as Crownes, Thrones, Scepters, Attenders, great Of­ficers, for the supreme; and Gownes, Tippets, Hoods, Maces, Swords, White staves, caps of main­tenance, for the subordinate Magistrates.

And as the ceremony, so the substance of it is up­held: and this God doth 4. wayes.

1. By his Word, as you have heard out of S. Paul, [Page 16]the Prophet Daniel, & other testimonies of Scripture.

2. By his Spirit to Godly men, and by the instinct and dictate of nature to Heathen and ungodly men; not to hurt Authority though they have opportunitie. 1 Sam. 24. observe Davids excel­lent speech, and more excellent carriage to Saul, when he was in the cave in his power, although Saul did prosecute him causelesly, implacably, and infinitly. And although some men quarrell some­times at Magistatum the person; yet not at Magi­stratum, the government: their desires are not to dull or breake the sword, but onely to change the hand, as usually restlesse giddy people do, like them in Israel, 1. Sam. 8.19. Nay, but wee will have a King to reigne over us, as they would exchange their Iudges for Kings. Ketts and Flammocks, with such other viperous rebels, their projects are not to extinguish government, but to exchange Governours, putting themselves or their leaders in place. And still our mutterers and rash discontented people, their quar­rell is not so much against Authority it selfe: but if they bee inferiors, it is because they have none themselves, they will give no applause to the actors, because they beare no part themselves. And if they bee of an higher straine, it is because they may not rule their Rulers. So that as a coy dame or amo­rous woer, they must have clothes, but no taylour can fitt them: either the garment of Authori­ty is too long or short, too straight or wide. As a sick man must drinke, yet all is insipid; no cham­ber nor bed gives him content: yet the fault is not in the things themselves, but in his indisposition. [Page 17]Vsually they that are discontented at Governours, it is because themselves or some of their friends are not in higher place. As all mankind acknowledge a Deity, yet goe severall wayes in their devotions: So all by nature and the Spirit of God are taught the admirable use of Authority, although they be affect­ed divers waies for Governours and government, according as their owne ends leade them.

3. God upholds & preserves Authority by his wife, faithfull, godly Ministers. Even our poore Tribe helpeth to carry the Canopy over Authority: else, what need our Declarations sometimes at S. Pauls Crosse, or other solemn places, to justifie the procee­dings of State in matters of conscience? Thus you shal find wise S. Paul to Titus Bishop of the Cretians, Tit. 3.1.Put them in minde to be subject to Principalities and Pon­ers, to obey Magistrates. And thus our prudent Bi­shops and their Commissioners doe inquire in the Articles at their Visitations; Doth your Minister exhort the people to obedience to his Majestie, and all Magistrates in authority under him? Dr. Boys in his [...], pag 458. Even statizing worldlings that account but slightly of us, yet think that we serve as posts at least upon which the Injun­ctions & Mandates of the Magistrates are to be fixed.

4. God preserves Authority by his admirable dis­covery and prevention of wicked plots against Go­vernors and Government. As Murthers have been strangely revealed by Birds, & Dogs; so even wicked intendments against Magistrates have beene wonderfully disclosed, not onely miraculously pu­nished, as it is set downe, Num. 16.29, 30. If these men die a common death, &c. But if the Lord make [Page 18]a new thing, yee shall understand that these men have provoked the Lord; Intimating, that God will mira­culously punish rebellion. The very patient Earth, the hackney of all injurious trampling, will open her mouth and swallow them up.

As God miraculously punisheth, so he also disclo­seth rebellions and treacheries. Ecclesiastes 10.20. Curse not the King, no not in thy thought: for the birds of the Aire will reveale it. Thus carefull is God to preserve his of-spring, both the person and the pow­er. Now as Gamaliel said, Acts 5.39. If it be of God, it will continue: if not, it will come to nought. If Au­thority were onely humane pride, or invention, it would long before now have had a fall. It is worth our remembrance, Theatre of Gods judge­ments. that by conspiracies Magistrates are seldome hurt, and as seldome the conspiratours escape: as is observed in Corah and his company, Num. 16. of Absalom, 2 Sam. 16. and many others. In the time of that wise King who conjoyned the Ro­ses, insurrection was (if not a quotidian) an anniver­sary feaver: yet as he was ever molested, so hee was ever aloft and prevailed. The like was in the time of our late gracious Queene, and peaceable King, by the powder-plotters and others.

And when it pleaseth God rarely to let the Ma­gistrates suffer for the punishment of the people, yet those rebels are so hatefull to God and all good men, as makes the like courses abhorred for the fu­ture, and so Authority to be preserved and continu­ed. Augustus Caesar used to say, Proditionem amo, proditores non item. Charles the fourth, Emperour of Germany, prevailed with three or foure of his [Page 19]enemies Captaines to be perfidious to their Master, upon hopes of great summes of money: and when he sped, he paid them with counterfait coyne, affir­ming it to be good enough for counterfait service.

When the city of Rhodes was besieged by the Turke, a Noble man, upon hopes to have one of So­lymans daughters, did many secret services for the Turke perfidiously against his owne City: which when Solyman wonne, hee caused the treacherous man to be flayed alive, saying it was not lawfull for a Christian to marry a Turke, except hee put off his old skin. And that Banister, who treacherously be­trayed his Lord and Master; when he expected his thousand pounds, King Richard gave him not a far­thing, saying, that hee who would bee untrue to so good a Master, must needs be false to all others. In our Law crimen laesae Majestatis is accounted so grie­vous an offence, to conspire against the breath of him who is the breath of our nostrills, as that it is no plea for him that is non compos mentis, although it be for ordinary homicide. And in the state oeconomi­call, murther committed by one that is in subjection, is accounted petty treason: so hatefull by the lawes of God and man is disobedience.

Quest. 1. Why doth the omnipotent God depute fraile men to be his Lieutenants? why not an An­gel, or a legion of his powerfull heavenly attendants or pages?

Answ. That the excellency of the successe may be ascribed to God, where it is due, and not to men, as Saint Paul saith, 2 Cor. 4.7. Wee have this treasure in earthen vessels. When we daily see strong sinnes pul­led [Page 20]downe by the preaching of weake men, we just­ly conclude, that it is the power of God accompa­nying his ordinance. And when wee observe that men Magistrates, and not Angels, do sway the world, quelling and captivating daring vices, wee acknow­ledge it to be Gods power. If Magistrates were like Angels, of miraculous power; like Argus, one of them to have an hundred eyes, or, as Briareus, an hundred hands; which they have indeed virtually, not formally; if every one of them were as rich and wise as Salomon, or strong as Sampson, or that they could destroy mankinde, as the Angel did se­ventie thousand amongst the Israelites, wee might thinke it was their own power. But now we see it is a secret vertue in the divine ordinance. An horse hath strength enough to cast his rider, and runne away from him, but doth not usually. And as strong oxen are guided by little children, in regard of the image of God in mankinde: thus are a multitude of strong and violent people ruled by Magistracy; not onely for feare of punishment, but even for consci­ence sake.

This reason is given by God himselfe, Iudges 7.2. The people are too many: lest Israel vaunt, saying, mine owne hand hath saved me. So if Angels ruled, it would bee judged to be by their owne power. But God for his owne glory hath appointed men of the same mold, of the same stuffe by nature, borne and dye alike, usually better qualified with experience, learning, wisedome, and integrity: yet they are but men, and in the judgement of rash self-conceited by-standers, not better qualified than others; for in [Page 21]their simple judgement they thinke they see more than the gamesters. God, I say, for his owne glory doth hang great plummets upon weake lines, as in the Ministery, so in the Magistracy, that God wor­king such strong effects by weake causes, we may say, as it is Psalme 115.1. Not unto us, O Lord, but unto thy name, &c.

2. God deputes mankinde, not Angels, ex gratia, it being a great favour, first, to the party injured. Secondly, to the party injuring. Thirdly, to the Ma­gistrate, the party punishing.

First, to the party injured, for the propinquity. As the Scripture saith, yee need not go to Heaven, Deut 30.18.nor to the deepe, but the word is neare thee: So may wee say of government, (especially in these itinerary cir­cuits) Iustice is administred even at our doores.

Secondly, to the party to be punished, as the peo­ple said to Moses, Exod. 20.19. Speake thou with us, but let not God speake, lest we die. If God should pu­nish by extraordinary judgements, as the Egyptians; or with miraculous plagues, as he did to Corah and the like, it would be most terrible to malefactors: whereas now being by men, they may parly for their lives, they must be cast or acquitted by their Peeres or equals.

Thirdly, to the Magistrate. As he hath made him his Deputy, so he puts valuation upon him by im­ploying him. And thereby he doth quicken in men industry, paines, and care, that they may come to be Magistrates, that is, sublimated manhood. God as the Sun, doth irradiate Magistracy as the Moone, with his brightnesse. As Christ was himselfe bapti­zed, [Page 22]but never baptized any, and gave the Eucharist but once, to put a valuation upon his ordinance in the hands of the Ministers. So in the Magistracy he graces his Deputy, Man, putting the honour and im­ployment upon him. It is said, Matth. 9.8. The mul­titudes saw it, and glorified God which had given such power unto men. As there for miracles, so here for authority. If David did breake out so pathetically, O Lord, Psal. 8.4.what is man! Thou hast made him Lord, &c. How much more may wee say, Lord, what is a Ma­gistrate, that thou dost thus advance him, even over men!

Quest. 2. Doth not God challenge authority to be his Domaine? which he will not let out, but keep in his own hands, saying, as it is, Deuter. 32.35. which is quoted by Saint Paul, Rom 12.9. Vengeance is mine, I will repay. Whereupon Saint Paul makes his ap­peale, 2 Tim. 4.14. Alexander did me much evill, the Lord reward him, &c.

Answ. By these places it is meant that private men must not usurpe: for else, what God doth by his Deputies, he doth it as it were by himselfe. As the Lord Keeper writes teste meipso; and the Iudges of other Courts, and the Iustices may write Carolus Dei, &c. noting in whose right and power they doe it. Saint Paul disclaimes it onely as being a private man. God will hereafter avenge, Nisi priùs Iustiti­arii venerint, &c. and in the meane time he doth it by them as his Substitutes.

Quest. 3. But is not this old Grant out of date? Are not Christian Magistrates put out of Commissi­on by Christs comming.

Answ. Thus thinke the Anabaptists, whose obje­ctions Zanchius well answers, urging Christs subje­ction to Pilate, Saint Pauls appealing to Caesar, and the other Apostles clearing themselves, but yet sub­mitting to the Magistrates, acknowledging the pow­er to be of God.

This Descent of Authority may teach us:

First, To take notice of that Jesuiticall doctrine and practice to lay violent hands upon Gods De­puties upon a pretence of Religion. Murther, as you have heard, is a most wicked sinne, and disobedience is as the sin of witchcraft. Now treason is the com­mitting or putting together both these sinnes. The old warrantable doctrine and practice of the Church in the primitive times was, prayers unto, and suppli­cations for the Governours. This was the Churches force, both defensive and offensive: and still with all godly learned Christians it is concluded, Vide Epise. Daven. De­termin. that Renuente Principe populus non debet moliri Reforma­tionem.

Like unto these, but not so ill, are those that of­fer violence with their tongues, though not with their hands: such as are disrespective to them that are in authority, not speaking of them, or to them, publickly or privately, as to Gods Vicegerents, but with quips and girds, to please themselves, and to stroke the people. This is rather like unto Satyricall Poets, than answerable to Saint Pauls advice, 1 Tim. 5.1. Rebuke not an Elder, but intreat him as a father. And like his doctrine was his practice to Agrippa and Festus: and thus was the Prophet Daniels to the Assyrian and Persian Kings.

Contrary to these holy men are those monsters in a Kingdome, who endeavour by all meanes pos­sible to enervate and weaken Authority, thereby to make it contemptible. God casts his divine lustre upon them, as Moses was when he had beene talking with God: Epiphanius of Hereticks. And these; as Moles, are alwaies vexing and disturbing firme ground, blinde without know­ledge, and despicable when their plots are disco­vered.

Let none then in Pulpits or Parlours deprave Governours and government: if they doe, those words, Num. 16.7. may bee truly applied to them, Ye take too much upon you. Authority is Gods ordi­nance, and must not bee made unsavory by finding and creating faults in Governours. It is strange, that they who would be accounted the children of God, doe not digest the Deputies of God: for they have beene, are, and (it is to be feared) ever will bee op­site and Antipodes to all Governours, both Eccle­siasticall and Civill.

They will say, Objection. Our quarrell is not against govern­ment, but the faults of Governours: and they thinke with Absalom, Oh if they were in place, &c.

This is the common hackney pretence or colour. Answer. But let these mote-finders consider, that Magistrates in a Common-wealth are like parents in an house, politicall fathers. Is it fit for a sonne to bee like Cham? Though the father bee guilty, shall a sonne talke of nothing but his fathers faults, discovering his fathers nakednesse, especially when this sonne himselfe is idle and disobedient? Will some men, like children, nothing but eat, drinke, sleepe, play, [Page 25](indeed there is little else expected of them) and yet like fell, ill conditioned children, will they cry, ex­claime, and disturbe others? Let these sonnes of Belial, who cannot beare the yoke of Governours, bee examined in their private vocations, how lazy, how oppressing, and how unprofitable to the Chri­stian World. These people are like Chorus upon the Stage: being private men, and their wings too big for their nests, and their feet for their shooes, they desire still to roule and enlarge themselves as snow-balls, and like the Babel-builders, will make themselves a turret or pillar by popularity Tell me, vaine disturber, how wouldst thou like a servant thus qualified, to say, my master is unfit for his place: he is silly, ignorant, negligent, or the like: he doth not as a master should doe. True indeed, hee doth not, if hee suffer without punishment such a saucy servant.

2. This Descent of Authority may teach us how neare of Kindred Magistrates and Ministers are: the one is Dei gratiâ, & the other is providentiâ divinâ: sometimes they are inherent in the same person. Our blessed Saviour was both a King and a Priest, Moses and David were both victorious Magistrates and di­vine Prophets. And if they bee not joyntly in one person, yet wee see they are brethren, as Abraham said to Lot, proceeding from the same spring-head: celestiall, God; terrestriall, the King. And this the later end of an Act of Parliament intimates for the uniformity of Common prayer: If the Ordinary have punished, then not the temporall power: and if not that, then the Ordinary. If either punish, it is suf­ficient, [Page 26]because both come from the same fountaine.

For us in our Pulpits, to slight this high ordinance, were as great indiscretion, as for the Magistrates up­on their Benches to disparage our Profession. With­out doubt Magistrates may bee capable of the just reproofe of the Clergie, and the Clergy of the just censure of the Magistracy. But all must take heed, so­much as they can, that neither of their excellent Callings suffer by it. The people will neglect both, if they doe not protect us from injuries: and wee teach the people conscionably to obey them.

Magistrates are Gods Deputies, and Ministers his Ambassadors, 2. Cor. 5.20. As it is said in another case, Ruth 4.11. these two like Rachel and Leah do build up the house of Israel, Panermitan. Sir John Do­deridge.conjunctim better than divisim. Theologia & Ius must fraternizare. They both looke at the same end, namely rectifying of the manners. Both Moses his hands must be held up, that vicious Amaleck may be pulled downe. If the sinews of government bee slackned by inconsiderate Tea­chers, and that they doe not uphold one another, as the Elme the Vine, sinne and vice will more easi­ly thrust in.

But when Magistrates, Christs Substitutes in his Kingly Office; and the Ministers, Christs Substitutes in his Priestly Office; stay one another, as buttresses below or spars above: then the temporall sword cuts deepe in the outward man, and the spirituall in the conscience.

Wee are all Ministers of God, both Magistrates and Priests. So Saint Paul intimates, Rom. 13.4. [...], speaking of the Magistrate: which [Page 27]word [...] is commonly used for our Tribe, as Philp. 1.1. With the Bishops and Deaecons: and 1 Tim. 3.12. Deacons must be the husbands of one wife. This is a part of the Epistle when Deacons are ad­mitted into Orders.

If the word [...] then be used for them both, because they are imployed to doe service for one Master, let them not counter-worke one against an­other: but as the walls uphold the roofe, and the roofe keepes drie the walls; so should these ordi­nances assist one another; that the temporall power may regulate the outward man, words and actions; & the spiritual sword the inuer man, thoughts & con­science. Those that would occasion any civill warre or breach betwixt these two, endeavour to disable those shores that beare them up. It is great rashnesse for some unadvised Teachers, and discontented peo­ple, like themselves, who love to dance after their ill tuned pipes, to be alwaies throwing dirt into the faces of Governours and government: being private men they hate and envie all those that have power.

An eminent Prelate of our Church said in his Sermon to the Parliament, The Church cannot dwell but in the State, nor the Common-wealth flourish with­out the Church. When the Church, the house of grace, is a welcome inmate to the State, which is a wise fabrick of policy, not onely humane, but a divine ordinance. In a word, let these ordinances, like husband & wife, live with harmony and love together. The soule cannot act (quoad nos) but by the body, nor the body live without the soule: so these ordinances.

Lastly, and in briefe, lest I bee injurious to your [Page 28]imployments whilest I plead for them, this may be usefull both to Superiours and inferiours.

First, to Magistrates and Superiours. My Lords and others, give me leave onely to put you in minde of the pedegree or Descent of your Authority. It is from above, from God, of the blood Royall, both from another, and for another. As a Nobleman doth or should endeavour to imitate the vertues of him that raised his house: so let Magistrates carriage not be bitter or insipid, but sweet, pure, cleane, like the fountaine from whence it came. They must not be like old courtiers or rich citizens, forgetting from whence they had their beginning. A man in authori­ty is not genus generalissimum, quo nihil superius: as he is genus hujus, so he is species illius, like the Moon, borrowing light from the Sun; they must not, as butchers or graziers, then, judge by the feeling only, but all their proceedings must resemble that image and superscription which it hath from the great Cae­sar, the Lord chiefe Justice of Heaven and Earth. They must like rivers returne tribute and homage to that Ocean whence their power commeth. They must doe better than private men for example sake, more good and lesse evill, considering their high descent and Ancestours, whom they must labour to resemble so farre as humane infirmitie will permit, by endeavouring to be holy, just, mercifull, imparti­all, wise, deliberate, as he is from whom they derive their power. I might easily be large in shewing that God is so, and that his Deputies should be so.

Yea further, Let all, even inferiour Officers, and Jurors, and whosoever beare any part in the puni­shing [Page 29]of sinne; let them labour to bee just and free from any sharking or oppression. We finde that Au­thority is of an excellent race, nobly descended; and therefore it should be generous, not making the vigour and power of Authority to be onely a modus acquirendi, like the Publicans. It was lawfull to pay tribute to Caesar: our Saviour did not gainsay it, but bid Render unto Caesar. And he told Saint Peter, Matth 22.21 Matth. 17.27.Lest we should give offence, though the children be free, yet take twentie pence for thee and me. But then the Pub­licans made that bitter or harsh, which would other­wise have been better digested: because they did not onely take for their masters, like tame hawkes, but like wilde hawkes snatched also for themselves Such were the toll-gatherers or receivers of the publike revenue for the Romanes amongst the Jews: who, because they gathered publike payments, were termed Publicans. Although their calling was good, Matth. 9.10. Luke 18.10. and some of their persons good (witnesse our Savi­ours conversing with them, and the Publican pray­ing with the Pharisee, and Zacheus who was Princip [...] Publicanorum:Luke 19.2. Matth. 9.9.Matthew the Publicane was after­wards an Apostle) yet their imployment was not very acceptable. People were then slow in paying publike money: and [...]hen the gatherers oppressions, and private exactions over and above their masters dues, made them more hard of digestion. Suetonius reports of one Sabinus, that had a monument for him with this inscription, [...], for a faich­full Publicane: as if that were a great commendati­on, considering that occasiones faciunt latrones. But let men in authority, from the highest to the lowest [Page 30]prove the descent of their power by its justice and generosity.

2. Let people learne from hence to acknowledg this Descent of Authority, and that therefore they must neither usurp it, nor slight it, nor disobey it.

First, not usurp it. They must stay for a lawfull calling: private men and women must onely act in their owne spheres and circuits, as Masters over ser­vants, and parents over children. Saint Pauls spirit was troubled in him at the idolatrie of the Atheni­ans; [...]cts 17.16. but being a private man he onely exhorted, but did nothing.

Secondly, People must not slight it, because it is so nobly borne, as appeares by this Heraldry booke of Moses, where we finde, as it is Act. 19.35. that this goddesse Magistracy is that image of power which is come downe from Heaven. Being so highly de­scended, it is scandalum Magnatum to speake slightly of it. And it is highly imployed also: for either of these wayes may this fault be committed. Magistracy hath the priviledges both waies; being highly born, as Nobles; and highly imployed, as great Officers.

Thirdly, We must obey and submit to this ordi­nance, even for conscience sake. Take Saint Peters advice, 1 Pet. 2.13, 14 which is a part of the Epistle appointed to bee read the twentie seventh day of this moneth, the day of our gracious King his entry to the Kingdome, Submit your selves to every ordi­nance of man for the Lords sake: whether it bee to the King, as supreme; or unto Governours, as unto them that are sent by him. For the Lords sake, the Founder of it; and for its owne sake, being so incomparably [Page 31]beneficiall for people. Not to esteeme of these and obey them, as Gods Deputies, is a kind of civill A­theisme. For we may say justly as the people to He­rod unjustly, The ordinance of God and not of man.

And that wee may the better submit, Acts 12.22. take these helpes following.

1. Make it not our imployment to finde and make faults in Governours. For then out of envie we shall thinke them faulty without cause. Moses said, Numb. 16.15. I have beene no waies injurious to them. Indeed hee had meekely, justly, and miracu­lously brought them out of the land of Egypt: yet observe in the third verse Corah and his company quarrelled, Why lift ye your selves above the congrega­tion of the Lord? And though the patient Earth mi­raculously punished them, yet in the 41. verse all the multitude murmured, saying, Ye have killed, &c. And then God slew more of them. Magistrates and Ministers are like cities upon hils, all eyes are fixed & observing them. They cannot possibly avoyd this dilemma, fork, or crotch from peevish, censorious by-standers. If they be quick and active, then they are busie and cruell: if mercifull and gentle, then they are dull, lazy, and remisse in their places. Iohn Baptist came neither eating nor drinking, Mat. 11.18, 19.and they said he had a Devill. The Sonne of man came ea­ting and drinking, and they said, Behold a glutton and a wine-bibber. If a Governour bee like Solomon taking care for the building of a Temple, the fruits of peace and devotion: yet the people will say, 2. Sam. 16.7. as it is 2. Chron. 10 4. The yoke is grievous. And David being an active man, conquering the Jebusites, hee [Page 32]is accounted Vir sanguinum. For as the Sea, though of it selfe indifferently quiet, yet there are ever and anon some whistling winds to make it troublesome: So there are alwaies some like Ieroboam, who stroke the people with cavils against Governours, thereby to sowre and leaven them. From which censorious conceits proceed daring speeches; M [...] Lord Ve­r [...]lam in Hen. 7. And liberty of speech, it is the female of Sedition, and in time the Grand-mother of treason. Take heed of the be­witching arguments; Romists on the one side; and the miscalled Sions Plea, and the like, on the other: by which under a cloake of Religion they labour to make the people disaffected to their Governours and government.

2. Remember whence Magistrates come. Looke upon them, not personally, but relatively. When an Ambassadour comes, wee doe not presently in­quire or prie how learned, rich, wise, or nobly borne hee is, but from what a great Master hee comes and doth represent. Alexander would be ac­counted the sonne of a God, thereby to keepe his people in obedience.

3. Doe as ye would be done by. How would ye have your children and servants carry themselves in your private families? Not usurpe, nor sleight, nor disobey you. And if ye come to any publike imploy­ment, would ye have them that are under you ob­serve nothing but your warpings and failings, yea worse, creating jealousies and suspicions without cause? Lycurgus being asked why the government was not popular, answered, Tu prius in domo tua efficito principatum popularem.

[Page 33] 4. Consider that the worst kind of Governours or Government is better than an Anarchy: And therefore that Magistracy is a great blessing, being the very life of society. No marvell then that Saint Iude reckoneth speaking ill of dignities among great faults.

5. Forget not Gods command, Honour thy fa­ther, &c. not onely Naturall, but Politicall; thy father in the kingdome, as well as in the family: that thy dayes may be long; being peaceable subjects here, and glorious citizens hereafter: the Magi­strate is parens patriae.

6. Pray to God, who doth dispose the hearts of Rulers and people; that the one may governe, and the other obey conscionably, using these and the like prayers, with which I will conclude.

Almighty God, whose Kingdome is everlasting, and power infinite, have mercy upon the whole congregation, and so rule the heart of thy chosen servant Charles, our King and Governour, and the hearts of all that are in authority under him, that they knowing whose Mini­sters they are, may above all things seeke thy honour and glory: and that we duely considering whose authority they have (as wee have beene taught) may faithfully serve, honour, and humbly obey them, in thee and for thee, according to thy blessed Word and Ordinance through Christ our Lord. Amen.


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