A Second Sermon, preached at Paules Crosse, the 21. of May, 1598. vpon the 21. of Math. the 12. and 13. verses: Concluding a former Sermon Preached the 4. of De­cember 1597. vpon the same Text.

By IOHN HOVVSON, Student of Christes-Church in Ox­ford.

Imprinted at London by Arn. Hatfield for Thomas Adams, dwelling in Paules Churchyard, at the signe of the white Lion. 1598.

A Sermon preached at Paules Crosse, the 21. of May 1598. vpon the 21. of Mathew, the 12. and 13. verses, by Iohn Howson, Student of Christs-Church in Oxford.
The Text.

And said vnto them, it is written, Mine house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye haue made it a denne of theeues.

MATH. 21. verse 13.

OVR blessed Sauiour in the 12.Luc. 12.42. of S. Luke 42. noteth it to be the office & duty of a faithfull & wise Steward, of a Steward or dispensour of the my­steries of God,1. Cor. 4. as S. Paule calleth him, to giue vnto the houshold in due season their portion of meate, [...], the measure of wheate, which is due vnto them.

By the measure of wheate saith S. Greg. exprimitur mo­dus verbi; Greg. past. li. 3. cap. 5. the measure and proportion of the word of God is ment and expressed, which ought to be giuen to those of the houshold: which measure and proportion consisteth in these points, saith Erasmus,Erasm. epist. ad Iod. Ionam. Promere cum res postulat, cui (que) promere quod est accommodum, & promere quod satis est: In deliuering the meate or the word in due season, [Page 2] at a fit houre; in deliuering that which is good and whole­some; in deliuering that which is sufficient, not too little, nor too much: for in our corporall foode or dyet we ob­serue these three things, a fit time to eate in, the good qua­litie, and conuenient quantitie of our foode.

Iob. 32. Cant. 7. Iere. 4.I cannot say with Iob that I am full of matter, nor with the Spouse in the Cant. my belly is as an heape of wheate; so that I should be faine to cry with Ieremy, ventrem meum doleo, ventrem meum doleo: oh my belly, my belly, or with Iob, my belly is like the wine which hath no vent, and like new bottles which breake: 1. Sam. 6.13. but with the men of Bethshemeth, I haue reaped a little wheate in the valley, where though I haue not seene so much as the back parts of God, as Moy­ses did (for that was on a mountayne) yet with them of Bethshemeth I haue seene his Arke, that is his Gospell, which hath in it both Manna, a word of comfort, and Aarons rod, a word of reproofe: which how I haue dispen­sed vnto you here to fore, either in regard of the due season, or in respect of the qualitie of the wheate or sustenance, vos ipsi iudicate, 1. Cor. 11. you must be iudges. But least I should be offensiue in the quantitie of it, I made an end vbi finis non erat, Bernard. where there was no end, as S. Barn. did, and all other Stewards haue bin forced to do,Ioh. 16.12. being straightned as our Sauiour Christ was, when he said, Multa habeo dicere quae non potestis portare modo, I haue yet many things to say vnto you, but ye cannot bare them now; not by reason of the depth of any mysteries I had to deliuer, or in regard of the weak­nes of your vnderstanding (as he was straightned) but be­cause with somewhat long speaking, you were made, [...],Hebr. 5.11. Greg. past. li. 3. cap. 5. weake or weary with hearing: for as S. Greg. saith, dum auditoris animus plus quā valet tenditur, mentis chorda rumpitur, When the eares of our auditors are strained beyond their accustomed compasse, the strings of their attention will [Page 3] breake asunder. Wherefore seeing they which haue pow­er and authority to commaund, haue said vnto me as it is in the 17. of the Acts,Act. 17. Bern. de const. lib. 1. we will heare you againe vpon this text, recurrat stilus ad suam materiam, as S. Bern. said, I will returne to that part of my text where I left, without repea­ting that which is past, sauing only thus farre, that it may please you to remember, that I deuided this text in factum, & dictum; into a deede of our Sauiours, and into a speech of his; into an action of his, and the reason of it; the action was contained in the former verse, and was a reformation of certaine abuses in the temple, in which I obserued fiue circumstances, first, the author who, secondly, the time when, thirdly, the place where, fourthly, the matter what, fiftly, the manner how this reformation was performed.

It remaineth now that by your accustomed patience I should speake of his speech, which contained the reason of this action. The reason why he exercised this whip, this extraordinary and miraculous violence against them, was because they had abused the temple and prophaned it; which he proueth by two texts of scriptures, the former taken out of the 56. chap. of Esay, which sheweth the law­full vse of the temple, and the chiefe end of erecting it, My house shall be called the house of prayer: the latter is taken out of the 7. of Ieremy, and sheweth the abuse and pro­phanation of it; Ye haue made it a denne of theeues.

But before I intreate of these particulars somwhat in generalitie of this speech of our Sauiours; I deuided this parcell of scripture into factum, and dictum, an action, and a speech,Act. 1. as S. Luke did all our Sauiours life into facere and docere; and whether were more myraculous opera diuina, or celestis doctrina, his diuine actions, or his heauenly spee­ches, I will not dispute, but greater testimonie was not giuen to his actions then is recorded of the Euangelists to [Page 4] be giuen to his doctrine. For if he discoursed and prea­ched to the people either of the resurrection of the dead,Math. 22. Luk. 20. Ioh. 10. Math. 12. Math. 22. or of Messiah the Lord and sonne of Dauid, Luke 20. or of the sonne of God by nature Ioh. 10. or the sonnes of God by grace Math. 12. of the ceremonies of the lawe,Math. 15. or the works of charitie and mercy Math. 15. of the precepts of God,Math. 22. Math. 5.6.7. or the precepts of men Math. 22. of the first and greatest commandement, Math. 5.6.7. of the de­struction of the kingdome of this world, and the instituti­on of the kingdom of heauen Ioh. 3.Ioh. 3. Math. 12. Ioh. 7. of the passion Mat. 12. death and resurrection of the Messiah Ioh. 7. of the com­ming of the holy Ghost and the abundance of his graces: This was euer the issue & effect and the witnes which his auditors gaue vnto the speeches; Nunquam sic locutus est homo sicut hic homo, Ioh. 7. Mark. 6. Neuer man spake as this man speakes, Ioh. 7. and in the 6. of S. Marke, Audientes admirabantur in sermone eius, They that heard him were in admiration at his doctrine, that is, thought it miraculous; saying, frō whence hath he these things, and what wisedome is this which is giuen vnto him? Luk. 4. and in the 4. of S. Lukes Gospell, All gaue testi­monie vnto him, and [...], vvondered at the gratious vvords vvhich proceeded out of his mouth: Math. 7. and in the 7. of S. Math. vvhen Iesus had ended his vvords, [...], the multitude vvere astonied vpon his doctrine; for he taught them as one hauing povver, and not as the Scribes.

If he plaid the respondent in disputation, his answeres were admirable, and put the disputer to a non plus: When the Pharises and Herodians disputed about tribute to be giuen to Caesar,Luc. 20. they maruailed at his ansvvere, and held their peace; when the Saduces disputed against the resur­rection, the Scribes wondered at his answere, and one of the Scribes said,Ibid. Master, [...], thou hast said excellently vvell; and when the Lawyer disputed with him about the [Page 5] greatest commandement, after he had receiued his an­swere, he confessed and said,Mark. 12. vvell master thou hast said the truth, and no man after that durst aske him any question.

If he vndertooke the opposers part, and disputed with them, he vtterly confounded the wisest of them: When he demaunded of the high Priests and the Scribes, who were the most learned among the Iewes, vvhether the baptisme of Iohn vvere from heauen or from men; they an­swered plainely, they knevv not vvhence it vvas: and whē he proposed this question to the Pharises vvhose sonne Christ should be, and they answered him Dauids, Luc. 20. he so re­plied, that none could ansvvere him a vvord, [...].Math. 22. So that whether he shewed himselfe a Schooleman as we call them, or a Preacher; whether he opposed, or answe­red, or discoursed, his speeches were as full of admiration, as miraculous, as his actions were.

For whereas he was a carpenters sonne reputed, Matt. 13.Math. 13. and had no other education, and therfore was called a car­penter, Mark. 6. nay, ille faber, a man noted by that trade:Mark. 6. whereas the Scribes which by the law of Moyses were ap­pointed (as we tearme them) schoolemaisters to instruct others (S. Aust. calleth them grammaton isagogos, Aug. de ci. Dei lib. 18. ca. 39. Deut. ca. 29. & 31. the Sep­tuagint [...] Deut. cap. 29. & 31. so called, be­cause they taught the grammaticall & historicall sence of the scriptures) could testifie that he had not bin instructed by them: whereas the Pharises, who were the chiefe ex­pounders of the mysteries & secrets of the lawe, and ther­fore sate in Moyses chaire, could truly affirme that he was none of their auditor; and therefore the Iewes could say with admiration quomodo hic literas scit cum non didicerit? hovv knovves this man letters vvhen he is not learned? Ioh. 7. no scholler of the Scribes, no auditor of the Pharises: yet where the cōmon people of which he was one did speake [Page 6] the Syriack tongue,Euseb. de de­monstrat. euang. lib. 3. ca. 7. Luke. 4. as also his Apostles, and that only: Euseb. de demonstrat. euang. lib. 3. cap. 7. he could alledge a long text out of the 61. of Esay in the Hebrew tongue, wherewith onely the learned were acquainted (as now adayes) and expound it and the most hidden and secret mysteries of the holy scriptures farre beyond the expecta­tion, nay beyond the capacitie and vnderstanding of the Scribes & Pharises: and he that is well conuersant in the holy scriptures, may perceiue that all the speeches of our Sauiour Christ, haue either the perfect forme of a Cabala (as they call it) containing a most simple, most true, most deepe, most certaine exposition of mysticall things in the scriptures; or else an auouching of scriptures themselues; as in this place, where alledging a reason of his fact or action, he auoucheth the true vse, and condemneth their abuse by the scriptures themselues; not without astonish­ment to the auditors both Scribes and Pharises, who as it should seeme, could not reply, or durst not make answere.

Another note I obserue before I come to intreate of his speech in particular is this, that our Sauiour Christ per­forming this action not as a man, but myraculously as he was God (as I shewed you before) would neuerthelesse giue a reason of his action; whereas commonly with God Tota ratio facti est potentia facientis, Aug. ep. 3. and voluntas facientis: The reason of Gods actions are, sometimes his power, sometimes his vvill: and as humana consuetudo verbis, ita diuina poten­tia factis loquitur, As we vse vvords to expresse our mindes, so God by his actions shevveth his povver and his vvill also: and as new words or not ordinary phrases,Aug. 48. ca. 6. being with mo­deration and decency inserted to our speech, splendorem addunt, do make them more pleasing; so in Gods extraordi­nary and miraculous actions, which euer in congruitie are very significant, quodammodo luculentior est diuina eloquen­tia: [Page 7] God speakes vnto vs more eloquently and significantly then by other meanes; and the husbandman in the 20.Math. 20.14. of Math. who there representeth the person of God, being asked by his seruant why he gaue as much to him that wrought but one hower, as to them that laboured many howers, alledged his will onely for a reason, Volo huic no­uissimo dare sicut tibi: I vvill giue vnto this last as vnto thee, vers. 14. and againe vers. 15. Is it not lawfull for me to do what I will? and it is said of God the holy Ghost,1. Cor. 12. 1. Cor. 12. that one and the same spirit worketh the varietie of ope­rations which are mentioned in that chapter, deuiding to euery one [...], euen as he vvill; whereupon Caietan notes, voluntas spiritus sancti pro ratione redditur: Caiet. ibid. The will of the holy Ghost is alledged for a sufficient reason of his action; and in that his will is alledged for a reason of his action, it is apparent, saith he, and a sufficient argument that he is a true God.

Now what might be the cause why our Sauiour being God, and equal to the Father and the holy Ghost in deitie, would not haue his will only stand for a reason, and when the great Lords and mightie Potentates of the world say sic volo, sic facio, stet pro ratione voluntas, would render a reason of this his action? was it because he had to deale with men who were docile, and reasonable, and of good capacitie, and not with wilfull and stubborne men? For Theophilact hath this kinde of rule, Solere Deum, Theophil. in epist. ad Rom. cum agit cum hominibus non malignis, & querulis, factorum suorum reddere rationem, That it is the custome of God when he deales with men that are reasonable and tractable, to ren­der a reason of his actions why he doth them: Cum autem agit cum malignis, & querulis, suam solùm allegare volunta­tem: but when he hath to do with obstinate and malicious men, to alledge onely his will for a reason, because they [Page 8] are not worthy to haue other reason giuen them, of which his rule he alledgeth many examples.

I cannot define this to be the reason, but it is not alto­gether improbable; for to graunt that both the Scribes and Pharises and the Priests too were obstinate and ma­licious: yet (though they were very many of them) they were a small number being compared with them who were then present when this action was done; for it may be collected probably out of the Gospell, that our Sa­uiour had most commonly attending vpon him to heare his doctrine and see his miracles, eight or ten thousand people: for he had in the desart one time 5000. another time 4000.Orig. cont. Cel­sum lib. 2. Euseb. lib. 3. ca. 6. de de­monst. euang. besides women and children: and this num­ber is noted by Origen contra Celsum lib. 2. Euseb. lib. 3. ca. 6. de demonst. euang. For if he had so many in the desart places where they could haue no sustenance, what companies may be imagined did follow,Luc. 8. when he went [...], through so many cities and villages the most populous of all the world?Ioseph. de bel. Iud. li. 3. ca. 2. For Iosephus notes that in Galile there were 400. townes ( [...], as the Euangelist calles thē, oppida sine muris, as Euthinius notes in the first of Math) in euery of which townes there were at least 15000. inhabitāts, as the same Iosephus notes: and their cities were proportio­nable to their townes, for in the land of Genezareth, be­sides many other famous cities, there was one called Ta­richaea, Ioseph. de bel. Iud. li. 2. ca. 26. which whē occasion serued would send out 40000. fighting men, and another called Tiberias, in which there were 600. Aldermen or Senators, as the same Iosephus notes: by which proportions we may conceiue how po­pulous they were.

But this ordinary number of followers, of 4000. or 5000. or 10000. was nothing to the multitude of people which were gathered together at this feast of the Passeouer, from [Page 9] all the countries of Iudaea, and in likelyhood were present at this miracle. For Cestius Gallus the Presidēt of Syria,Ioseph. de bel. Iud. li. 7. ca. 17. ha­uing taken a view of them, and considered how many sa­crifices were offered, and how many men went together to the eating of their part in these sacrifices, informed Ne­ro the Emperour, that the number of men then present was 2700000. at the least, which all were counted holy and pure; for lepers and many other diseased were for­bidden by the lawe, and all those within the precinct of the temple: which number wil not seeme strange to them that consider the circuit of the temple and the courts a­bout it, and that all the Iewes from all parts of the world at that time assembled thither.

Now to admit that the Scribes & Pharises and Priests, &c. were stubborne and obstinate, and therefore accor­ding to Theophil. rule deserued not, that God should giue them a reason of his action: yet the number of the people assembled being almost infinite in comparison of them, who loued him so that in respect of them the Pharises fea­red to offer him vvrong, Math. 26.Math. 26. vvho hung vpon him to heare him, Luke. 19. pendebat velut inhians, Luc. 19. Caiet. finally reioysed, [...], in all the glorious things that were vvrought by him, Luke 13.Luc. 13. it is not absurd to imagin that in respect of them our Sauiour vouchsafed to alledge this reason. Or was it because, hauing shewed himselfe more then a man to this great assembly by this miraculous action, so he would confirme this opinion by a miraculous speech? For as igneum & sidereum quiddam radiabat in oculis, Ierome. some fierie and starrie brightnesse glistered in his eyes when he wrought this action: so it could not be, but that his di­uinitie should bewray it selfe in his speech; first, concer­ning the matter, because being not bred vp in learning to reade the scriptures, nor any accustomed auditor to the [Page 10] Scribes, for the grāmaticall sence, nor to the Pharises for the mistical sence of the scriptures, he could neuerthelesse properly, and to the present purpose alledge vnto them the sayings of the Prophets. Secondly, concerning the manner of his speech, which was extraordinary, [...],Luc. 4. his speech vvas vvith authoritie and povver, not like the speech of other men,Math. 7. of other learned men, the Scribes or the Pharises, Math. 7. whose kinde of teaching was frigida, Iausen. concord. cap. 17. & ad commouendum parum efficax: colde, and not effectual to moue; where as our Sauiours was full of force & efficacie, mouing the hearts of the auditors to faith and repentance: it is not improbable to be for this cause.

Or was it because, seeing the Scribes and Pharises did most especially assault him, and seeke to confound him with questions and interrogations vpon the chiefe feasts, when the people were assembled together,Ioh. 7. Ioh. 10. Ioh. 5. as in the feast of Tabernacles Ioh. 7. in the feast of the dedication of the Temple, Ioh. 10. in the feast of Pentecost, Ioh. 5. (for so S. Chrysostom, Cyrill, and Theophil. interpret it though it be not named) he would also in this great solemne feast and assembly at Easter, or the Passeouer, try how they could defend that abuse of the temple, which he proued out of the prophets to be against the end & the institution of it? Whereunto whē they made no answere, he replied no far­ther:Greg. Moral. 23.9. for Finis esse locutionis sapientium solet, vt eous (que) dicant quò aduersarijs silentium imponant: The end of a vvisemans speech is by good reason to put his aduersaries to silence, and then vrge them no farther. Non enim se ostendere, sed praua docentes compescere student: For they speake not to ostentation but to confute or confound them that teach or do amisse.

Or was it done for our instruction? as euery action of his is some instruction for vs,Thom. 12. q. 71. ar. 6. to teach vs to do nothing rashly, heddely, and without consideration, as great Lords [Page 11] and Tyrants do, the rule of whose actions is their wil, their froward and obstinate will: but to measure all our sayings and doings with humane reason, which is regula propinqua, & homogenea, as the Scholemen call it, a rule which is na­turall, bred within vs, neere vnto vs, in our mouthes, and in our harts,Deut. 30.14. or with the vvord of God which is regula re­mota & heterogenea, a rule hid from vs, farre off from vs, in heauen, in the bosome of God, quasi ratio Dei, but yet made knowen vnto vs by the holy Scriptures.

Which rule and instruction the holy Fathers and men of God haue euer obserued,Greg. Hom. 34. confirming their doctrine with reason and authoritie, Nos affirmare nolumus quod a­pertis testimonijs nō approbamus: vve vvill affirme nothing but vvhat vve can proue by reason and authoritie; and sub­mitting themselues and their iudgements to reason and authoritie: Arguant me ratione velauthoritate, Policra. prolog. lib. 8. & ego vel ad inimici vocem nō refugiē emendari: Let it be groūded on rea­son or authoritie, & I wil giue eare to the reproofe of an enemy.

And this patterne of our Sauiour not only priuat men, but the whole Church of Christ in their lawes and consti­tutions do redily imitate: Sancta ecclesia ex magisterio hu­militatis instituta, The holy Church bred vp in the schoole of humilitie, and following the steps of our maister Christ,Greg. moral. 8.Recta quae errant bus dicit, non quasi ex authoritate praecipit, sed ex ratione persuadet: Force not men to beleeue that which is true by authoritie, but perswade them by reason: because as it is wisely obserued, Plus mouere solet ratio inserta in mandato, Humbert. in regulam Aug. quàm ipsum mandatum, a reason inserted to a lawe or com­mandement, moues much more then a naked lawe: And therefore the Church saith with Iob, videte an mentiar, Examine whether I ly or no: Iob. 6. beleeue not that which I say because I speake it: sed an vera sint ex ratione pensate, but weigh with reason the truth of it: and if the Church do [Page 12] teach that (as oftentimes it doth) which cannot be com­prehended within the compasse of reason; yet for all that, rationabiliter suadet, Greg. ibid. it perswades you with reason, Ne de oc­cultis ratio humana quaeri debeat, That of some mysteries and secrets of Christianitie, you may not aske or seeke the reason.

Whereas on the other part it is the custome and order of stubborne men, of hereticks, & schismaticks, Non rati­ones afferre, sed placita: not to vrge reason, but their will, their pleasure,Aug. contra Faustum Man. lib. 14. ca. 9. their phantasie, or opinion: as Faustus the Manichee, when he had charged Moyses that he did diuina lacessere, offer violēce to the lawes of God; dixit, & abijt, saith S. Austine, nihil probare sategit, nihil curauit ostendere: he said, as Pilate said, quod scripsi, scripsi, quod dixi, dixi: when he had said it, he had done, he neuer made offer to proue it, or giue a reason of his speech: and though our doctrine be neuer so true, yet it is without the compasse of mode­stie and discretion for any man be he neuer so learned, to vse these kinds of assertiōs: Ego in hoc libro non contuli: sed asserui & assero, & penes nullum volo esse iudicium, sed omni­bus suadeo, vt praestent obsequium, I haue not vsed proofes, or authoritie in my writing; but I affirme that that I say, and submit my selfe to no mans iudgement, but require e­uery man to consent to me: scio me mea dogmata habere de caelo: I know that my speeches descend from heauen, are authenticall and canonicall; for it is a propertie peculiar to God only,Caiet. super 1. Cor. 12. facere prout vult, to do what he list, and say what he pleaseth: for other men must haue regulam vo­luntatis, a rule to direct their will, and some reason to di­rect their speach; otherwise while he takes vpon him a propertie or qualitie peculiar to God, he becomes fatuus confidens in stultitia sua, Prou. 17. a foole that is confident in his owne follie. And thus much by way of probabilitie, why our Sa­uiour would alledge a reason.

[Page 13]The Preface to this speech of his, is this, Scriptum est, it is written. I noted before vnto you, that we must vse some rule wherby to square out and measure our speeches and actions, and one was from within vs, homogenea re­gula, mans reason: another from without vs, regula hetero­genea, Gods word: he vseth this second rule as the surest rule, which cannot erre; the word of God; which rule, though it be heterogenea, supernaturall to vs, yet it is homo­genea, naturall to him, who was God himselfe, for the word of God may be said to be ratio Dei, which was homo­genea to him, as humane reason is to man. So that his speech is not a bare reason, which peraduenture might ad­mit cauils, and exceptions, and contradictions, but is ioy­ned with authoritie, as good authoritie as any Prophet spake with when he said, Haec dicit dominus thus sayth the Lord: And this S. Austine saith, is or do naturae, Aug. de mor. eccle. catho. ca. 2. the order of nature, that when we learne any thing, or teach any thing, especially touching faith and religion, Rationem praecedat authoritas, Reason should be grounded vpon some good autho­ritie: for saith he, Infirma ratio videri potest quae cum red­dita fuerit, authoritatem postea per quam firmetur assumat: For it may seeme to be a vveake reason, vvhich vvhen it is alledged requireth some other reason and authoritie to con­firme it. Now our Sauiours reason was grounded vpon good authoritie, vpon that which was regula prima, the chiefe rule with the Iewes, especially Scribes and Pharises and Priests, which is, the vvritten vvord of God, which being deliuered sincerely according to the true sence and meaning of it, as he did, admits no deniall; and therefore the Pharises do make no reply.

Now it is worth the obseruation to cōsider our Sauiours manner of reasoning with them; It is most certaine that with all sorts of mē that confesse there is a God, the word, [Page 14] and will of God, is regula prima, the first and the chiefest rule to direct them in all their actions: and therfore some heathen haue the speeches of oracles for their chiefe rule, fruitur (que) deorum colloquio: Virg. Aenei. 7. other the word of God, which is scriptum in cordibus, written in our hearts, naturall reason for their chiefe rule, as the Philosophers had: other the word of God written by the pen of man, but inspired by the holy Ghost, as the Iewes had the old Testament for their chiefe rule, and Christians both the old and the new: and whosoeuer disputed with any one of these sorts of men, out of these grounds which they receiued for their chiefe rule, disputed demonstratiuely, and otherwise not so: for a reason or authoritie from the scripture will not moue a Philosopher, nor a reason from the new Testamēt is no rule for a Iewe. Wherefore our Sauiour hauing to deale with the Scribes and Pharises and Priests, &c. who receiued the word of God written in bookes of the law and the Prophets for their chiefe rule, he disputed with them out of the law and the Prophets, and in this place drawes his reason from the prophet Esay and the prophet Ieremy: and in the next chapter disputing with the Saduces about the resurrection,Math. 22. which receiued only the fiue bookes of Moyses for the written word of God, and their chiefe rule, he alledgeth his reasons from the bookes of Moyses only. Which example the Apostles and holy Fathers haue fol­lowed in all their discourses: for S. Paule speaking to the Athenians before their conuersion, alledgeth no text of scripture, but reasons drawen from the light of nature, which was their chiefe rule, and the saying of their Philo­sopher,Act. 17. Act. 17. And preaching to the Corinthians after their conuersion, alledgeth the scripture as regula prima, or remota with Christians: and the reasons or sayings of Phi­losophers,1. Cor. 15. as regula propinqua, the rule of naturall and rea­sonable [Page 15] men; which course also is now obserued in our preaching.Aug. de mori­bus cul. catho. cap. 1. And S. Austine disputing with the Manichees which denyed the old Testament to be the word of God, brought his proofes and reasons from the new Testament only, because they allowed that for their onely rule: and therefore Lactantius taketh exception against that maner of disputation which S. Cyprian vsed with Demetrian, Lact. lib. 5. cap. 4. who vrged him too much with authorities of scripture, seeing Demetrian allowed not the scripture for his rule: Non enim Scripturae testimonijs, quā ille vanam, fictam, commentitiam putabat, sed argumentis & ratione fuerat refellendus: For he was to be reproued and conuinced with arguments and reason, not with the scripture, which he esteemed as false, fained, and counterfeite, saith Lactantius.

But our Sauiours manner of disputation scriptum est, it is written, in the lawe or in the prophets, is demonstra­tiue with Iewes or Christians, who accept the scripture for their chiefe rule: But for asmuch as not the letter of the scripture is the word of God, but the true sence, and meaning of it, you (beloued Christians) are especially to regard who it is that deliuereth or alledgeth this scripture to you; for although in veritate humana, in humane truth, (where reason only is a sufficient rule, and principle, which is true of necessitie, whether a poore man or a rich man, a learned man, or an ignorant man, a Christian or an Hea­then, Baalam or his Asse, deliuer it) we must rather consi­der quid dicatur, quam quis loquatur, what is said, then who saith it; yet in veritate diuina, in diuine truth, which is a­boue mans reason, and is beleeued because it is so deliue­red in the scripture, which we accept for the word of God, because we cannot euer iudge, quid dicatur what is said, we must especially consider quis loquatur, who saith it; whe­ther it be the diuell which saith scriptum est, it is written,Math. 4. [Page 16] as he did to our Sauiour,Math. 4. or some Atheist, or some Here­ticke, or some Schismaticke, &c. or whether it be our Sa­uiour Christ, or his true Church, or some found member of his Church.

Aug. de vtilit. Cred. cap. 11.For as S. Austin saith, Quod aliquid intelligimus rationi, quod credimus authoritati debemus, Though we owe all things, both knowledge, and beliefe vnto God primariò, yet as to his meanes and instruments we are indebted to reason, for that that we know, and to authoritie, for that we beleeue.Orig. Hom. 31. in Luc. And therefore S. Origen giues this obseruable rule, Si quando testimonia de scriptura audieris, vide ne sta­tim loquenti acquiescas, sed considera illum cuius sit, ac cuius sententiae, cuius sit voluntatis. When you heare one say scriptum est, it is written, beleeue him not therefore in that which he saith, but consider who it is that speaketh it, of what opinion he is, whether an hereticke or no, of what minde or affection he be, whether a schismaticke or no; for if he dissemble that which he is not, and being infected with the poison of heresie or schisme, a wolfe do lurke vn­der a sheepes skin; then the deuill in him saith scriptum est, the scriptures do nothing belong vnto him.

Aug. tract. 18. super Ioan.For as heresies haue their beginning by occasion of scripture not well vnderstoode, Quia scripturae bonae intel­liguntur non benè, as S. Austin saith, so the practise of here­ticks is per verba legis legem impugnare, by the words of scripture to ouerthrow the scripture,Ambros. super 3. ad Tit. Ambr. super 3. ad Ti­tum, & proprium sensum verbis astruere legis, to build their own opinions vpon the words or text of the law. And this verball alledging of the scripture is that sheepes skin wherewith wolues be clothed, saith Vincent. Lirin. Quid est vestitus ouium, Vincent. Lirin. cap. 36. nisi prophetarum & apostolorum proloquia? What is the sheepes clothing but the sayings of the Pro­phets and Apostles? and, Qui sunt lupi rapaces, nisi sensus [Page 17] haereticorum feri & rabidi, and what be these rauening wolues, but the wilde and vnnaturall interpretations of hereticks? And when our Sauiour charged the Saduces that they erred, not knowing the scriptures, it was not that they were ignorant of the letter of the scripture, at least of so much as they acknowledged for scripture, but because they knew not the sense, and meaning of it:Ioseph. Antiq. lib. 13. cap. 18. for Iosephus saith of them, that they read the scriptures, and the scrip­tures only, and reiected all manner Pharisaicall traditions.

Wherefore seeing many say, It is written, with our Sa­uiour, and yet neuerthelesse are deceiued themselues, and deceiue others, [...],Math. 22. not knowing the sense of them, as the Saduces were: and others [...], do mali­ciously wrest them,2. Pet. 3. as S. Peter saith some did S. Paules E­pistles, [...], to their owne destruction, and to the destruction of other their auditors and followers: though there be nothing so certaine and authenticall as the holy scriptures, if we be sure quid dicatur, what is the true sense and meaning of them, yet there is nothing so dangerous, if being not able to iudge our selues, we do not consider quis loquatur, who it is that doth alledge them. But now let vs consider what that is which our Sauiour saith is written in the scriptures.

My house shall be called the house of prayer, but you haue made it a denne of theeues. The words of Esay implie, whose house this Temple was, Gods house: and secondly, the end or vse, why it was built, to pray in. The words of Ieremy im­plie the abuse of it, that of Gods house, it was become an house for theeues: and where it was ordained to pray in, they had made it a denne to lurke in, and so safely to com­mit any robbery, or sacriledge.

It is most certaine, that God who is the Lord and crea­tor of all things, hath reserued to himselfe a part or por­tion [Page 18] in all things, not that he hath neede of them, but in recognitionem, that all things that are haue proceeded from him: and that he is the most high and absolute Lord ouer them all: and therefore though he be king of kings, and Lord of lords, and so by consequent of all people and nations in the world, yet he hath reserued an especiall por­tion of men to himself, which he calleth his people: though he be infinite, and comprehended in no place, yet he will haue some particular place whither this his people may resort to serue him, which he calleth his house, his place, his habitation:Dan. 7.10. though thousands of angels minister vnto him, and ten thousand thousand stand before him, yet he hath among men also appointed some to his proper ser­uice in this his house,Numb. 3.11. and those he calles his Priests, his Ministers: though he be a spirit, and hath no neede of these corporall things, yet he challengeth a part or por­tion in all things for the furnishing of this his house, and maintenance of these his seruants: which he calleth his part, his portion, his tithes, his offerings: though he be e­ternall, and before all times, yet he hath reserued some times & some dayes as proper to him, wherein his people should resort to his house to serue him, which he calleth his feasts, his Sabbothes. Heere mention is made of his house only, and therefore of that I will frame my speech, and some certaine circumstances belonging vnto it.

It is most manifest that God who is comprehended in no place, hath had notwithstanding some place alotted to him euer since the beginning of the world, and therefore some very learned men haue affirmed, that Adam euen in Paradise had a certaine place where to present himselfe before the Lord, that place where God walked and called him to him,Gen. 3.8. Gen. 4.3.4. Gen. 3.8. and certaine Hebrew interpreters conclude out of the 4. of Gen. ver. 3.4. that Caine and Abell [Page 19] did bring their sacrifices, adduxerunt sacrificia sua (for so the word imports) to their father Adam, who was then the Priest, that he might offer them in the place which the Lord appointed for that purpose. In that place where God appeared vnto Abraham, because that place was holy there he built an altar, Gen. 12. ver. 7.Gen. 12.7. And whē God com­maunded Abraham to offer his sonne Isaak, he appointed him the place where it should be done, on a mountaine; and there Abraham built an altar also, Gen. 22.Gen. 22. and this was the place where afterward the temple of Salomon was built, 2. Chro. 3. And whē Rebecka felt the children striue,2. Chro. 3. Gen. 25.22. she went to aske the Lord; no doubt to some place where he vsed to giue them answere; the interlineall glosse saith, to the place where Abraham built his altar. Iacob accor­ding to the diuers places he dwelt in, had diuers places to serue God in, and there erected diuers altars; and the oc­casion that God tooke to deliuer the children of Israell out of the Aegyptian bondage, was, that they might go to a certaine place to serue him, and offer sacrifice to him: we pray thee let them go three dayes iourney in the desert there to sacrifice vnto God, said Moyses and Aaron vnto Pharaoh, Exod. 5.Exod. 5. and the place which God appointed was mount Sinai, Exo. 19. In the desart there was a tabernacle, which Lira calleth tabernaculum paruum, the little tabernacle, Exod. 19. Lira super Exod. 16. Exod. 33. in comparison of the great tabernacle, Exod. 33. whither Aaron commaunded the people to come into the presence of the Lord,Exod. 16.9. Exo. 16.9. and whither Moyses brought Iethro to heare all the wonders which God had done for them, and to offer sacrifice vnto God,Exod. 18. Exod. 26. Exod. 18. In the 26. of Exod. charge was giuen to make that great tabernacle, a moueable tabernacle, which should continue for the house of God, till they had some setled habitation: finally when their estate was setled, God chose Ierusalem for the [Page 20] place, and in Ierusalem mount Moriah, to build this temple in, this house of God, which heere is mentioned.

All these places howsoeuer otherwise called, were yet domus dei, Gods houses, bicause there especially he affoorded his presence: And therefore when Caine stoode (as I may say) excommunicated, for murdering his brother, and might not come into the place appointed for the seruice of God, he was said to be fugatus à praesentia domini, cast out from the presence of the Lord,Gen. 4. Ionas. 1.3. Gen. 4. and when Ionas was said to haue fled frō the presence of the Lord, Aben Ezra saith that he fled frō that place, where the Prophets stoode, and offered themselues to be sent of God, when he should commaund them: and when it is said that Nadab and Abihu died before the Lord, it is meant that they died before the altar of the Lord, Numb. 3.4. and when any thing was said to be done before the Arke,Iosua. 24. 1. Sam. 21. as Iosua 24. or before the tabernacle 1. Sam. 21. or in the temple, it was said to be done coram domino, or ad dominum, before the Lord, or in the presence of the Lord.

Now as before the law and vnder the law God had e­uer his peculiar, and proper places to be worshipped in, which therefore were called by his name, Gods Temple, Gods tabernacle, Gods house: so after the law and vnder the Gospell, assoone as euer Kings and Queenes became nurses of Christianitie, and professors of religion, there were peculiar places consecrated to the seruice of God, which now also are called Gods houses, domus Dei, both because they are consecrated to him, and because there we performe holy and diuine ministeries to him, and be­cause that place being accepted of him for the place of his presence and habitation amongst men, plus perticipat ope­rationis & gratiae Dei. Damas. Orth. fid. lib. 1.Damas. orth. fid. lib. 1. cap. 16. cap. 16. and in them doth dispense vnto vs by his holy mysteries his mani­fold [Page 21] blessings. And as those houses, and especially that house we here speake of was renowmed aboue the palaces of the greatest Princes, for a double furniture; a liuing furniture, and a dead furniture; that is, with multitudes of people, and with rich, and sumptuous ornaments, great treasures and large reuenewes; and therfore found two sorts of enemies, one that would rob it of the people; another that would spoile it of the riches and reuennewes: so the house of God vnder Christianitie, hath excelled magnitudine & pulchritudine aedificiorum, Chrys. Hom. 66, ad pop. Ant. & quod maius est conuenientium studio: that is, hath those two kinde of fur­nitures and those two kindes of enemies, which do rob it of the one and the other.

That great schismaticke Ieroboam made a schisme or rente in the church of God,3. Reg. 12. that so he might continue the rent or schisme which he made in the kingdome; and the meanes which he vsed to make this rente, was to prohibite ten tribes of the twelue to goe vp, and doe sacrifice in the house of the Lord, 3. Reg. 12. which were bound by the law to shewe themselues certaine times in the yeere at this house of God which was at Ierusalem: and the speeche which he made to perswade them was this: Viri populares, Ioseph. Antiqu lib. 8. cap. 3. notum vobis existimo, quod nullus locus Deo est vacuus, & quod is nullo certo loco includitur, sed vbique vota exaudit, vbi­que cultores suos respicit, &c. My good people and friendes saith he, I doubt not but you know, that no place is with­out God, & that no place doth containe God, but where­soeuer we pray he can heare vs, and wheresoeuer we serue him he can see vs, &c. and by these and like speeches with­drew the people from the seruice of God in his house at Ierusalem, and builded altars which serued for idolatrie, and robbed the church of this first kinde of furniture.

Thus also many schismaticks and heretikes, and such [Page 22] politicians as Ieroboam was, since the comming of our Sa­uiour Christ hath endeuoured to rob his churches, of this speciall ornament of the multitude of people (for the mul­titude of the people is the glorie of the King Prouerbs 14.Prou. 14. (that is gloria Christi saith the interlineall glosse) either to make rents and rebellions in kingdomes or schismes and deuisions in the house of God. Of these politicians this lat­ter age hath too much experience:Damas. haeres. 80. Concil. Gan­grens. circa an­num 328. and Damascen telleth vs of Massilians which to other heresies did adde Tem­plorum contemptum, the contempt of Churches: and in Gangrensi Concilio there is mention made of one Eustathi­us, who said, Templa Dei nullius est vtilitatis, that there was no vse of Churches, and the Petrobrusiani laughed and scoffed at Churches: and others there were called Pseu­do-apostoli, who affirmed Ecclesiam non plus valere ad oran­dum, quam stabulum porcorum, that a church was of no more vse for prayer, then a stable or hogstie: As also many in these dayes who accompt of them but as of temples of Baal, and synagogues of Idolatrie: vsing the same reasons that Ieroboam did, and some texts of scriptures, misunder­stoode, or not well applied: and thus woulde robbe the Church of God, of the best kinde of furniture, to main­teyne and inlarge their owne priuate conuenticles.

For that other kind of furniture it is most certaine that as no Church or Temple was renowmed more for the li­uing furniture, for the multitudes of people that resorted thither; so no Church in the world was more renowmed for the ornaments, riches and reuenewes that belonged to it: for although God be a spirit, yet he will not be wor­shipped in spirit onely; but in bodie also, glorifie God in bodie & in spirit. 1. Cor. 6. 1. Cor. 6. and the reason that he alleadgeth is this onely, for they are his: Now if this be a good reason why we should honor God, who is a spirit, both with spi­rite [Page 23] and bodie because they be his, by the same reason we must honor God, with our time, with our richesse and sub­stance, for they also are his. And that reason which Saint Paule vseth vnder the Gospell why we should honor God with our body; the Prophet Dauid vnder the lawe vsed why he would honor him with his substance: and there­fore vseth this reason of his great gift toward the building and furnishing of the Temple: for all things come of thee, 1. Chro. 29.14 1. Chro. 29.14.

Now as there was neuer any nation that acknowledged a God, which did not honor him in their Temples, with some part of their best riches and substance: so espe­cially the people of God, assoone as they had a certaine place, though mooueable, as was the tabernacle; or a place certaine vnmooueable as was this Temple, they of­fered vp to him, as a signe that they held of him in capite, some good part of their best riches, and iewels, to adorne his house withall: to the making and furnishing of the ta­bernacle they brought gold, siluer, brasse, blew silk, purple, scarlet, fine linnen, goates haire, rich skins, Schittim wood, oyle, spices, Onyx stones, and stones for the Ephod.Exod. 25. & 35 And least you should thinke it to proceed from a kind of super­stition or superfluitie, you shall vnderstand that it was done by the commandement of God; for Moyses saith to the congregation that God cōmanded an offering to be taken from amongst you vnto the Lord, Exod. 35.4.Exod. 35.4. & yet least you should thinke it not done of deuotiō but of necessity, none might giue but he that was vltroneus, Exod. 25.Exod. 25. Exod. 35. volūtarius & prōpti animi, Exo. 35. he that was of a free & willing hart.

To the making and furnishing of the Temple, K. Dauid gaue of his owne, 3000. talents of gold,1. Chro. 29.4. and 7000. talents siluer, besides brasse, iron, wood, Onyx stones, & Carbun­cle stones of diuers colour, and all pretious stones, and [Page 24] marble, in great abundance: and perswaded them that were of abilitie to do thereafter; so that the Princes of the families besides all other necessaries gaue 5000. talents of gold, and 10000. talents of siluer, and 18000. talents of brasse,Ibid. & an hundred thousand talents of iron, &c. besides all that which Solomon prouided. And as the tabernacle was made by the commaundement by God, so was this Temple; for Dauid saith, that he had the frame of it, and the patterne sent to him by writing by the hand of the Lord. 1.1. Chro. 28.19. Chro. 28.19. and both Dauid and his people offered their gifts willingly and with a perfit hart and with reioycing Ibid. cap. 29. as did they that made the tabernacle.Ibid. cap. 29. The like might be said of the second temple if the time would serue.

Now that you may knowe how acceptable vnto God this kinde of seruice is, of building his houses and furni­shing them in most sumptuous manner; you shall obserue, (and it woorth the obseruing) that after Dauid had deter­mined with himselfe to build the Temple, and not before, God promised to establish the kingdome to his seed. 2. Sa­muel. 7.2. Sam. 7. Psal. 132. which Dauid seemeth also to note himselfe in the Psal. where after he had mētioned his loue to Gods house, he noteth the loue of God to his house, & his promise to set the fruit of his body vpō his throne: Secondly, although Da­uid had many sonnes,2. Reg. 3. 1. Chro. 3. which are named in the 2. Reg. 3. Amnon, Chileab, Absolon, Adoniah, Shephatiah, Ithream: yet to none of these was the kingdome promised after him, but to Solomon who was borne after his good intent of building Gods house. Thirdly, though God promised many blessings to Solomon when he craued wisedome, as richesse, glory, long life, &c. yet he neuer promised that his seede should raigne after him till such time as he had fini­shed the house of God.1. Reg. 9. 1. Reg. 9. but then he said, thou shalt not want a man vpon the throwen of Israel. Fourthly, when [Page 25] the Temple was reedified by Nehemiah and others in most sumptuous manner,Zach. 6. God commanded two crownes to be made Zach. 6. with the names of the chiefe benefactors engraued in them, and caused them to be placed in the Temple, for a perpetuall memory and most honorable te­stimony to all posterity of their zeale & liberalitie towards the house of God.

And this kinde of furniture was not proper to Gods house vnder the law onely, but likewise vnder the gospell; for as Esayas prophesie was fulfilled vnder christianity, Do­mus meae, domus orationis vocabitur cunctis gentibus; that Gods house should be the house of praier to all nations,Esay. 56. and the house of praier should be likewise Gods house: so it should seem that Dauids wish or prayer reached euen to vs that were after the law, who desired of God that he would keepe for euer this voluntarie bountie, and liberalitie in furnishing Gods house, in the purpose and the thoughts of the harts of his people. And therefore assoone as God gaue en­crease to his Church, oratories were built; and assoone as God raysed vp Kings and Princes which fauoured the Christian truth and religion,1. Chro. 29.18. no cost was spared to furnish the Churches, which also were builded with royall mag­nificence: Al which the ancient fathers of the Church the chiefe pillers and lights of the gospell after the Apostles, iudged as acceptable vnto God, as the making and furni­shing of the tabernacle, or Solomons Temple; and there­fore Eusebius noteth the great ioie which the Christians conceiued when Constantine builte those magnificent Churches and furnished them to be laetitia diuino munere infusa, a ioy whereof God was the author,Eus. eccle. hist. lib. 9. cap. 10. ex vers. ruff. Cyril. chare. 12. not proceeding from vanitie or superstition. Cyrillus Bishop of Ierusalem saieth that the Kings in his time did adorne the Churches with siluer and gold, &c. pietatis ergô, in holynes and deuo­tion. [Page 26] Tertullian calleth those voluntary donations deposi­ta pietatis, Tertul. apolo­get. pledges and testimonies of religion, pietie and deuotion.Orat. 1. contra Iulian. Greg. Nazian. saieth, that the cost which Gallus, Iulianus brother bestowed vpon the Church which he built, was acceptable to God, euen as Abels sacrifice. Saint August. saith,August. super Psal. 113. con. 2. that the vessels of golde and siluer which were vsed in the celebration of the sacraments, were Sanc­ta, holy, and consecrated to his honor, cui pro salute nostra inde seruitur: And thus you see, that this house of God, both by Gods appointment, and to his great good liking, hath euer beene adorned with this rich furniture.

But as there haue beene many sorts of theeues and rob­bers, hereticks, schismaticks, and politicians, which would rob God of that liuing furniture of the multitude of peo­ple; so are there and euer haue beene many Atheistes and irreligious Iulianists, which haue beene readie to rifle his house of this other furniture, to spoile the Church of the ornaments and all other riches, landes, and reuenewes which were giuen vnto God to maintaine his house, and his houshold withall: for it hath beene as true a rule in Gods house as in the dwellings of men, Difficilis magni custodia census, where riches are theeues will resort. Thus the first Temple builded by Salomon was destroyed by Na­bucodonozor, and the riches and furnitue carried to Baby­lon, and afterward fouly abused, and prophaned by Bal­tazar. The second Temple being also admirable for the fabricke and the riches of it, though inferiour to the for­mer, was assaulted by Antiochus, by Heliodorus, by Pompey, by Crassus, and some Roman Emperours: and of late yeeres in Christianitie what so common as sacriledge and robbing and spoyling of God in his house, and his house­hold? so that where heretofore they complayned thus,

Ecclesias Christi quas construxere parentes,
[Page 27]Sternere nituntur nati pietate carentes:

They haue now brought their desire to the issue, so that in countrey Villages Canescunt turpi templa relicta situ. Ouid. The Churches are almost become that, which those heretikes pseudoa postoli likened them vnto, little better then hog-styes; for the best preparation at any high feast is a little fresh straw vnder their feete, the ordinary allowance for swine in their stye, or at the best Domus opportuna volucrum, (that which God threatned as a plague to Babylon) a cage of vncleane and hatefull birds: Apoc. 18. and in cities and boroughes they are not like the Palaces of Princes as they were in the primitiue church, regijs aulis clariora, Chry. Hom. 66. ad pop. Ant. but like a coun­trey hall, faire whitelimed, or a citizens parlour, at the best well wainscotted; as though we were rather Platonists then Christians, who would neither haue gold nor siluer in their churches because it was Inuidiosa res, and gaue occasion to sacriledge; nor Iuorie that was taken from the bodie of a dead beast, because that was Oblatio minimè sancta, a prophane offering; nor iron nor brasse, because they were Instrumenta bellorum, instruments for warre: but Lapides & ligna dicato qui velit, publicis (que) templis offerto: but if any mā would dedicate wood or stones,Theodor. serm. dedijs & An­gelis. ex Pla. or such base stuffe, it was lawful to do it: Theod. alledgeth it out of Plato.

For the allowance which we make vnto God to main­taine his family, is thin and bare, in quantum sitis, Iuuen. sat. 14. at (que) fa­mes, & frigor a poscunt: after the rate of a cup of cold wa­ter, and a peece of bread, which shall be rewarded as our Sauiour saith at the day of iudgement, but to such as are able to giue no more: after the rate of a frize coat, or a flan­nell wastcote, which Dionysius thought warme enough for winter, and cold enough for sommer: after the rate of a Stoicks dinner, or Philosophers breakfast: after the rate of Elias diet in the desart, or Daniels in the Lions denne. [Page 28] And the allowance which we make God in his house in our Churches, is that which Constituta diualia permiserunt Iudaeis, that which the constitutions of the christian Em­perours allowed to the Iewes in their synagogues: that is, Tegumen parietibus imponere, Cassiod. lib. 2. epist. 27. bare walles, and a couer vpon it to keepe vs from rayne: Nec aliquid ornatus fas sit adijcere, neither is it lawfull to adde any ornament, as was said to the Iewes, except perchance a cushion and a waine­scot seate, for ones owne ease and credite. But where the first good christian Emperours said,Esay. 9.10. that of Esay 9. ver. 10. Lateres ceciderunt, lapide caeso extruemus, the oratories which were built in the poorer times of christianitie, are decayed, but we will make them basilica, goodly & stately Churches, beiond the pallaces of the greatest monarches: we that are the children, say with Iudas Iscarioth, that the magnificence of churches is but a vaine cost; we will take the hewen stone to build our houses, a house of bricke will serue for God; the Cedars are fit for princes pallaces, a roofe of wilde fig trees will serue for a church: neither considering with the good father Tertull. that pietas est pro pietate sumptus facere, Tertull. apol. 39. Godlinesse to be at cost with God; nor with Theodoricus, that it should be the purpose of a good christian, Noua construere, sed amplius vetusta seruare. Cassiod. lib. 3.Cassiod. lib. 3. epist. 9. epist. 9. to giue somewhat himselfe, but espe­cially to maintaine that which is giuen by others.

Let no man thinke that heares me this day, that this zeale for the house of God is any spice of superstition, but a very religious affectiō, inherent to nature, and true chri­stianitie, though now for the most part blotted out by ir­religion and auarice: for you haue heard that God hath had his proper place and proper house at all times among his people; you haue heard how his tabernacle was furni­shed by his speciall appointment; how the temple was [Page 29] adorned by the meanes of Dauid and Salomon his chosen seruants, and chosen also for that purpose; and againe re­edified and restored againe to his former beawtie, & mag­nificence as neere as could be, by Nehemiah and others: you haue heard that as soone as Emperours and Kings were Christians, they spent their time, and their substance in building & adorning the houses of God, without feare or regard that their actions might be accompted super­stition or Iudaisme.

You haue heard that it is not a ceremoniall obseruation of the old lawe, which were said to be in respect of them­selues sine ratione, without reason, & In quantum vel aliquid fi­gurabatur vel excludebatur. Tho. 12. q. 102. art. 1. habere rationē in or­dine ad aliud, and to depend only vpon somewhat else; but as it were a constitution in nature, holding one and the same reason, vnder the Law and vnder the Gospell. And there­fore the most learned fathers of those times reasoned thus, and no doubt substantially,De consecrat. dist. 1. Taber­naculum. Si Iudaei qui vmbris legis deser­uiebant, haec faciebant, multò magis nos, quibus veritas pate­facta est, & gratia per Iesum Christum data est, templa domi­no aedificare, & prout melius possumus ornare debemus, &c. If the Iewes vvho liued vnder the shadow of the lawe did these things; much more vve, to vvhome the truth is discouered, and saluation imparted by Iesus Christ, must build Churches to God, and richly adorne them to our habilitie, &c. And if this were good arguing, our is yet better, and may deliuer vs from all suspition of poperie: If the Iewes vnder the lawe did these things, and the best Christians in the primitiue Church did the like also, the antiquitie and vniuersalitie in the Church of God will defend vs, in restoring these ruines, from suspition of innouation or superstition.

Most true it is, that as the deuotion of the people of God towards the making of the Tabernacle and the furnishing of it did abound, nay so far exceede measure, that the wise [Page 30] men that wrought the worke were forced to cry vnto Moyses, Exod. 36. Plus offert populus quam necessarium est: the people bring too much, and more then enough for the vse of the worke: whereupon Moyses made this proclamation throughout the host, Nec vir nec mulier quicquam vltra offerat in opere sanctuarij: Let neither man nor woman giue any more to the worke of the Sanctuary. So in the time of Popery, the deuotion of the people and the Princes was such towards the building of Gods house, the furnishing of it, the main­tenance of his seruants both in goods and in lands, that it did rise and ascend vltra necessitatem (it is Lyraes note vpō that place) to more then vvas necessarie, Lira super 36 Exod. Imo contra vtilita­tem, nay to more then vvas profitable: For many abused the riches of the Church to worldly pompe and the enri­ching of their friends and kindred, to omit other abuses which may not be named; so that there wanted onely a Moyses to make a proclamation, Nec vir nec mulier quic­quam vltra offerat, let neither man nor vvomā offer any more, and to set a stint to the peoples deuotiō, especially in those places which had enough. But the horseleach had two daughters in the Clergie, inordinate desire of their owne greatnes, and inordinate affectiō to their friends and kindred, which still cryed Affer, Affer, bring, bring, giue giue: and if that would not serue, would take it by force or else by guile, which made S. Greg. intend a decree for a measure or rate,Hugo Card. super 36. Exod. Aug. super 36. Exod. in those kinde of offerings, as Hugo Card. notes vp­on the 36. of Exod.

S. Austine vpon that place of Exod. giues this note, that as those workemen were wise, that said vnto Moyses, Plus offert populus quàm necessarium est: the people offer more then ynough to the worke: so they were also Sancti moribus, holy and virtuous in their behauiour; for they might, saith he, haue suffered the people to giue more then enough, [Page 31] and thēselues haue secretly conuaied it away, sed modestia prohibuit, vel religio terruit, but modesty restrained them, or religion terrified them.

But where is now this modestie, this religion: where is this good nature; this religious feare? God required much of vs, the people brought more, Adeo vt oblata sufficerent, Exod. 36. & superabundarent, so that the gifts vvere sufficient, and too much for the worke, Exod. 36. the lawes of Mortmaine &c. prouided it should not be lawfull for a man to do what he would with his owne, & sic cessatum est a muneribus offe­rendis, and so the people were stayed from offring. Ib. But had it staid there it had bin well: had the superaboundance bin imployed to good holy vses, the intent of the Donors had not bin made frustrate, nor God had bin robbed of that which was his: but the horseleach had two other daugh­ters among the laietie, Auaritia, & luxuria, couetousnes, and riotousnes, which haue cryed so long Aufer, Aufer take a­way, take away, that they haue not only remoued the su­peraboundance from the storehouse or treasurie of God, but left neither bread nor meate in his house, Malac. 3.10.Mala. 3.10. and though our Moyses cry neuer so loude by proclamation & statute, Nec vir nec mulier vltrà auferat; let neither man nor woman purloine any more: yet non cessatum est a muneri­bus auferendis: neither man nor vvoman ceasse frō the spoile: scarse any abstaineth from that vvhich is Gods.

It is an old complaint, that the houses of Bishops and other seruāts of God were giuen Militibus, Sagittarijs, ba­listarijs contra ius & fas habitandas, To be inhabited of soul­diers and archers &c. against law and right: Epist. 221. it was S. Bern. complaint to Lewis the King of Fraunce. It is an old com­plaint that the house of God domus orationis, efficitur sta­bulum pecoris aut opilionis aut lanificij officina: should be a stable, a sheepecote, or a storehouse for wooll, &c. It was the [Page 32] complaint of Iohan. Saris. Policrat. lib. 7.Policrat. lib. 7. cap. 21. ca. 21. It is an olde complaint that churches should be robbed of their riches and plate; and that they should make to themselues Cami­sias & faemoralia, shirts, breeches, cushions, &c. of the richest robes and furniture there.Vict. Vticen. in hist. Vand. lib. 1. Vict. Vticen. in hist. Vandalor. li. 1. It is an old complaint that the children should plow vp their fathers sepulchers, and there sow their corne where their fathers were buried;Suydas. which Suydas calleth, [...], to remoue those things which should not be remo­ued: and Augustus in a meriment said to Vectius, that it was verè patris memorias colere, iesting vpon the ambigui­tie of the word Colere. It is an old complaint that the Church was giuē In direptionem, alijs clàm, alijs palam occu­pantibus eā, &c. to be spoiled of euery mā by might or by sleight, Policrat. lib. 7. ca. 17.Policrat. lib. 7. cap. 17. It is an old complaint that munus bene meriti, the reward of good seruice to the cōmon welth, should be dispendium innocētis, the Churches dommage, or vtter vn­doing, Cass. lib. 7. epist. 7. Cassi. lib. 7. epist. 17. It is an old complaint that Prin­ces treasures were rather augmented Sacerdotum damnis, quàm hostiū spolijs: With the harmes of the Priests, then with the spoile of the enemy, Symm. lib. 10. epist. 54. Symma. lib. 10. epist. 54. And it was Luthers complaint, that in his time the way to preferment, was to be witty and cunning in finding new sleights to impouerish the Clergie.Luth. tom. 3. pag. 133. Luth tom. 3. pag. 133. All these are old complaints, to complaine of them were now too late. We complaine now, that where in times past the goods of the Church were Gods goods, and therefore res nullius, no man had right or interest in them; now they be res nul­lius, and therefore occupantis, his that can catch them: or else we complaine, that whereas heretofore they were Gods goods, and therefore res nullius, now they are res nul­lae, nothing at all, as Rachel complained of her children, not that they were sick,Math. 2. but that they were not, and that was a [Page 33] pitiful complaint as the Euangelist noteth: And if we may say with the sober maide in Plautus to her father,Plaut. in Pers. res nostrae sunt pater pauperculae, somewhat vve haue, though very little; yet we complaine of this [...], as Luther calles it, this in­satiable hunger of that generation that the Wise man speakes of Prou. 30.Prou. 30. that will not be satisfied with the fat of so many Monasteries, Bishopricks, and impropriati­ons; but haue teeth like swords, and iawes like kniues, to deuoure that little which is left to God.

But beloued Christians, take heed of this sinne and this affection, for it is so odious and displeasing to God, that it is an old rule, voluntas sola quoad ecclesiam punitur, Dist. 19. Anastasius. a sacri­legious intent shall not escape without punishment: but for the action what storie so auncient, but it yeeldes vs an instance? what heathen in puris naturalibus but tooke no­tice of it?Carul. lib. 5. cap. 104. no man of reading and obseruation but he may say with Carolus Magnus. in Capitul. Carul. lib. 7. ca. 104. No­uimus multa regna & reges eorum propterea cecidisse, quia ec­clesias spoliauerunt resque earum vastauerunt, alienarunt, vel deripuerunt, &c. we haue knowne many Kings and king­domes vtterly destroyed, because they haue spoiled and wasted the houses of God, &c. Shall I tel you that the hea­then obserued it? Virgill notes that the Graecians offered violence to the Temple of Pallas; ‘Corripuere sacram effigiem,Virg. Aeneid. 2. manibusque cruentis’

Virgineas ausidiuae contingere vittas. Wherupon he in­fers this note in particular, which Carolus gaue more ge­nerally; ‘Ex illo fluere & retro sublapsa referri’

Spes Danaum. Aug. de ciu. Dei lib. 1. More of these matters you may find in Saint Austins booke de ciu. Dei. 1. Shall I tell you of the Temple of God built by Solomon? Ieroboam and the rest of the Kings of Israell after him, withheld the people from [Page 34] comming vp to the Temple and offring yeerly vnto God, and thereby withheld a great part of those tithes and ob­lations which were due vnto God. You shall finde if you obserue it, that whereas in the kingdome of Iudah the fa­mily of Dauid reigned successiuely: there were nine chan­ges, and nine sundrie families that reigned in Israell: and that the kingdome of Israell continued in no one familie, aboue fower generations: which terme seemeth to be the time limited by God, for the extirpation of the issue of wicked men. Nabuchodonozor according to the will of God for the sinnes of the people, carryed them captiue, and to­gither with them the riches of the Temple and the vessels thereof; and he escaped not punishment, as you all know; but he kept them so that they might haue beene vsed a­gaine, if occasion had serued. But when Balthasar abused them to prophane vses, then appeared the writing vpon the wall,Dan. 5. mene, tekel, Phares, and the kingdome was cut off from him, and his posterity for euer. Shall I tell you of the second Temple? Antiochus died miserablie, and at his death confessed his sinne of sacriledge, that he had taken vessels of gold and siluer from the Church of Ieru­salem.1. Mac. 6. 1. Mac. 6. Heliodorus was sent to rob the Temple of the riches thereof; and there appeared two men from heauen, which whipped him continually, so that he lay downe in the Temple destitute of all help, til at the request of the souldiers the Priest prayed for him.2. Mac. 3. 2. Mac. 3. Pom­pey noted by Tully and Liuy for one of the most fortunate men in the world, after he had abused the Temple of Ieru­salem,Iosephus. had continually vnhappy successe and died misera­bly. The like is obserued of Marcus Crassus for the same reason by the same author.

But perchance you imagine that God was the God of the Iewes, and not of the Christians, and was zelous ouer [Page 35] his house and his houshold vnder the law; but careles of his seruice and seruants vnder the gospel. First this is a rule which we learne of him pro mensura delicti, Deut. 25. erit plaga­rum modus, as the trespasse is, such is the punishment: and therefore both in the law of God and man, by the quan­titie of the punishment, we iudge of the qualitie of an of­fence. Now what sinne so seuerely punished euen in the Apostles time as this was. Before any Church was built vnto Christ, before any law commaunded to giue to the Church,Acts. 4. when Ananias and Saphira withheld secretly parte of that which voluntarily they had giuen vnto God for the vse of his seruants, they were punished seuerely with sudden death. Acts. 4. Presently after the Church was endowed and adorned with riches and pretious furni­ture, Iulian was wounded to death with an arrow from heauen when he had robbed the Churches, and scoffingly saide, Ecce quam pretiosis vasis ministratur Mariae filio. Theodor. hist. eccles. lib. 3. c. 11. Are these vesselles fitte for the sonne of Marie? Theo­dor. lib. 3. cap. 11. And when Thimelicus a dauncer, had bought by chaunce some holy vestement, and abused it publickly in the open theater;Theodor. hist. eccl. lib. 5. ca. 37. Theodoret affirmes him Subi­tò expirasse: in that very place to haue giuen vp the ghost. I passe ouer multitudes of exāples in the primitiue church; as also Frederick the second of latter times, and Philippe Maria, and leaue to your wise and religious consideration the successe of such men, as haue been vsed as instruments to ouerthrow the Church in these later times of fresher memory.

If they which carrie the like affection, and cease not to practise the like ill actions to their abilitie,Iob. 21. ducunt in bonis dies suos, spend their daies in wealth, and their seed seemeth to be established in their sight. Iob. 21.Iob. 12. if as the same Iob saith, The tabernacles of robbers do prosper, and they are [Page 36] in safetie that prouoke God? yet we say as Optatus said to the Donatists in the same case lib. 1.Opt. lib. 1. An quia cessat talis modo vindicta, ideo tibi cum tuis, vindicas innocentiam: be­cause God doth not now punish you, because you enioye peaceably those spoiles, are you therefore innocent? No, no,Gloss. ord. super 12. Iob. the ordinary glosse saith excellently, Aliud misericor­diter dat Deus, aliud habere sinit iratus: it is one thing for God in mercie to blesse vs, and another thing to suffer vs to be rich in his anger,Hesiod. lib. 1. oper. and heauie displeasure: And He­siodus could make a difference between riches [...] and [...]: riches which were taken by force and violence, and riches, which were giuen by the blessing of God: and [...]:’ it is good to be rich by gift, but ill to be rich by rapine: euen an occasion of death, of some ill death; death to fa­ther by couetous hourding; and death to the sonne by rio­tous spending: And as it is a rule in Simonie 500. yeares old Spiritualium venditores maiori semper egestate confundi: that the sellers of spirituall things are pinched at last with extreme penurie: so it is as olde a rule in sacriledge, Quae malignè contraxit pater, Pet. Ele. ep. 10. luxu peiori refundet haeres: that which the father hath wickedly scraped togither, the son shall more wickedly scatter abroad.

And it is woorth the obseruing now a daies, that of those goods and landes which are taken from God, ‘Perpetuus nulli datur vsus, & haeres’

Horat. lib. 2. ep. 2. Haeredem alterius, velut vnda superuenit vndam. Horat. lib. 2. ep. 2. No man possesseth them long, but they passe from man to man, from heire to heire, from family to fami­ly, like the Arcke of God which could finde no place to rest in among the Philistines, but was remooued from Asdod,1. Sam. 5. to Gath, from Gath, to Ekron, and troubled the [Page 37] people wheresoeuer it came, till they returnd it againe to his proper place. 1. Sam. 5.

Wherefore to conclude this point, Honorable, &c. as God in the former times of Christianity, when the church was persecuted,Aug. ep. 50. would haue that first part of the second Psalme fulfilled Astiterunt reges terrae; the Kings of the earth stood vp, and the Princes tooke counsaile against the Lord, and against his annointed; and then after would haue that other part perfourmed, Et nunc reges intelligite; be wise now ye Kings, be learned ye iudges of the earth, &c. in the time of good Constantine: So also seeing in these latter times the former is againe fulfilled, Astite­runt reges terrae; fulfill also this latter part once againe, Et nunc reges intelligite, and once againe vnderstand and know you that be magistrates and gouernours and gentle­men, &c. that God as the very law of nature teacheth, and all states and ages of the Church haue practised, challen­geth an interest in all our goods, our lands and possessions; that this is paide as a kinde of tribute, and acknowledg­ment of his soueraigne dominion ouer vs: That he accep­teth them not because he hath neede of them, but for an endlesse continuance of religion amongst vs; which by experience we finde to decay with them: That he hath disposed them partly for an ornament to his house, partly for the necessarie vse of his seruice, & partly for the main­tenance of his seruants and ministers: That we receiue the possession of them immediately from you, and but me­diately from him; but receiue the right of them, immedi­ately from him, and but mediately from you: who gaue them to God, and he vnto vs, Num. 18.Num. 18. That he hath bles­sed those Princes and their posterities, which haue thus honored him with part of their goods: and promised to open the windowes of heauen and powre downe immea­surable [Page 38] blessings, vpon the people that in this respect delt truely with him,Mal. 3. Mal. 3. that he hath reuenged himselfe on them that robbed him in themselues and their posteri­tie: & cursed with a curse whole nations that spoiled him, Mal. 3.Mal. 3. That the time hath been when there was scarcely one Christian to be found so wicked, that durst offer vio­lence to the house of God, or the furniture of it, and there­fore the Iewes were hired to spoile it,In vita Bern. lib. 2. cap. 1. in vita Bernard. That in these latter times it was not spoiled by Wolues & Lions such as proudly bid battel to God: but by Foxes, who by sleight, and by holy pretences, and by colour of friendship would strip him of all:Bern. Sen. 65. super Cant. Psal. 77. but as Saint Bern. saieth of such Foxes, posteriora eorum foetent. Ser. 65. consider their owne end or their posteritie, and you wil say with the Psal. 77. that our God percussit inimicos in posteriora: hath woun­ded his enimies on the hinder parts.

Wherefore nunc reges intelligite, you that be magi­strates, gouernors, &c. at length vnderstand and be wise, and learne to discerne betweene spirituall things and cor­porall things, inter [...] & [...], betweene that you take by force, and that which God giueth in mercie; inter [...] & [...] Pindarus: Pind. betweene purchase and rob­berie: betweene holy things and prophane things: be­tweene the goods of God which are perpetuall, and the substance of men, which are truely called mooueables, and subiect to sale and alienation: And when you craue, begge not that which is Gods; and when you giue, giue not that which is Gods; and when you buie, buie not that which is Gods; and when you sell, sell not that which is Gods: Let other mens harmes be instructions for you, and other mens punishments be cautious for you: let other mens vertues be your examples; and religious Princes your pat­terns and precedents. Holy Dauid, wise Solomon, religious [Page 39] Constantine, and our holy, wise and religious Princesse, of whom we may giue this testimonie to all succeeding ages, that Petrus Blesens. left to her most noble progenitor Hen. 2. Benedictus dominus qui regem Henricum a talibus hacte­nus conseruauit innoxium: Pet. Bles. ep. 10 Blessed be that God which hi­therto hath defended her Maiestie from all kinde of sacri­ledge, that hath not furnished her house with the spoile of the Church, nor increased her reuenew by the losse of Gods house; that hath not defiled her hands with Simo­nie, nor bestowed her preferments for personall fauour, or respect of reward: wherefore Magnificauit eam Dominus in conspectu regum; God hath magnified her in the sight of the Princes of the earth, and hath giuen her a treasure which will neuer be spent; euen an honorable name, and blessed memorie to all posteritie.

The second thing I obserued, was the end and vse of this house, and that was to pray in: My house shall be called the house of prayer. Churches as euery thing else receiue their chiefe perfection from the ende whereunto they serue. Now the end and vse of Churches is, the publike seruice and worship of God: which publike seruice in this place is comprehended vnder the name of prayer: because of all religious actions, prayer is reckoned the first and the chiefe:Thom. 22. q. 83. art. 3. for sicut mens humana praeeminet exterio­ribus & corporalibus membris, vel exterioribus rebus, quae ad Dei seruitium applicantur: ita etiam oratio praeeminet alijs actibus religionis: as the soule of a man excels his body, and all the parts thereof, and all other externall things, which are vsed to the seruice of God; so prayer excels all other religious actions. And that this was the chiefe end of Churches, of those houses which were built to God; both the name argues which God imposed, and as we say christened it with, domus mea domus orationis vocabitur; [Page 40] and the very words which Salomon vsed in the dedication of it 3. Reg. 8.29. and the practise which Ioel notes,3. Reg. 8.29. Ioel. 2.17. 2.17. that the Priests should weepe betweene the porch and the altar, and say, Spare thy people, O Lord, &c. And al­though other things were there practised, as offering of sacrifices, and oblations, burning of incense, &c. yet those also are comprehended vnder S. Paules distinction, pray­ers,1. Tim. 2. supplications, intercessions, or thanks-geuings, 1. Tim. 2. for all the sacrifices and offerings were gratiarum actio­nes, thanks-geuings vnto God.

And that our Churches now in Christianitie are both domus dei, and domus orationis, houses for God, and hou­ses for prayer, the names import which in the purest times were giuen to these places: for they were called in the primitiue Church [...], or dominica, Gods houses; and oratoria, places especially deuoted to prayer: Though in later times [...] are become [...] in some places, not for their statelines, as in the time of Constantine, but for the proprietie & possession of them; and oratoria are tur­ned into auditoria; oratories into auditories: and where the Apostles, who had in their commission Ite praedicate, goe, preach, put prayer in the first place before preaching Act. 6. Nos orationi & ministerio verbi instantes erimus: Acts. 6. We will be instant in prayer & preaching the word: now we say,Confess. Hel­uetica. Cedant potiores partes in coetibus sacris doctrinae e­uangelicae, caueatur (que) ne nimis prolixis precibus fatigetur in coetu populus: let the first and the chiefe place be giuen to preaching; and a prouiso is made, that the people be not ouerwearyed with too much praying. And though the Church of England hath no such constitution, yet the people entertaine the practise of it, many of them con­demning common prayer, but a greater part neglecting them, and holding it the only exercise of the seruice of [Page 41] God to heare a Sermon.

But beloued for your instruction, you shall vnderstand that this is an old error, not now first sprung vp, or proper and peculiar to this age only:Chry. Hom. 3. de incompre. dei naturae. for S. Chrysost. complaines that the multitude of people that came to his sermons, and heard him with great attention, was ingens & penè inaudita, great and almost incredible; that they were ear­nest to approch neere to heare him, that patiently they would expect the end of his sermon: but at the time of prayer and of ministration of the sacraments and chri­stian mysteries, then vacua deserta (que) ecclesia reddebatur, the church was emptie and forsaken of all. And that you may heare me with the better patience, you shall vnderstand that it is no new reproofe: S. Chrysost. cryed out, proh fidem hominum christianorum, quo pacto istaec veniam consequen­tur? he calleth the very faith and profession of christiani­tie to witnesse against it, and reckoned it a fault that would hardly be pardoned.

Was this a fault then? and is it a vertue now; was it then reproueable, and now commendable? if it be, shew me some practise in the people of God. Vnder the law of nature men were moued to the worship of God,Thom. 3. q. 6. art. 5. nulla lege exterius data, sed solo interiori instinctu, not by any exter­nall lawe or externall instruction, but only by a naturall and inward motion: wherefore then the house of God could not be the house of hearing, but of praying, sacrifi­cing, and deuine worship.Gen. 22.5. In the time of Abraham the whole seruice of God was comprehended vnder the name of inuocation, or adoration: When by the trāsgression of man the law of nature was so obscured, that it was neces­sary an externall lawe should be giuen, yet because it was more corrupted quoad appetitum boni, quàm quoad cognitio­nem veri, the place appointed for the seruice and worship [Page 42] of God, whether it were Tabernacle or Temple, was domus orationis, the house of prayer: hearing the law expounded, was but the way to knowledge, and knowledge the way to the worship of God,Tho. 1. q. 117. art. 1. via ad cultum: for scientia non est qua­litas actiua, sed principium quo aliquis dirigitur in operando, Knowledge is no actiue quality, but a meanes to direct vs to, and in the seruice of God. In the times of Christianitie the houses of God were oratoria, not auditoria: and be­fore they were built the Apostles in their times vsed this temple as the house of prayer:Act. 2. Peter and Iohn went vp to the temple to pray, Act. 2. and S. Paule presently after his conuersion went vp for to pray: And our Sauiour told the people parables to this end, that they ought alwayes to pray,Luc. 18.1. 1. Thes. 5.17. Luc. 18.1. and S. Paule in plaine termes without parable expresseth it, Indesinenter orate, pray continually. No such testimony giuen to hearing, which is not perfect in it selfe, but ordained to a farther end and purpose: and therefore when the parents were commaunded to teach their children the lawe, that was not the end of the com­maundement, but they must teach the lawe that they may learne how to feare the Lord,Deut. 4. or serue the Lord: And whē the Priests were commaunded to teach the people, the commaundement rested not there, but they must teach the lawes that the people might learne them, and take heede to obserue them: And therefore the protestation of the people vnto the Priest was this,Deut. 5. Declare thou to vs that which God saith, and we will heare it and do it. And therefore the blessing is not promised to hearing, but to doing,Rom. 2. non auditores verbi sed factores &c. God reckoneth not so much of auditors as factors, of those that heare his word,Luc. 11. as of those that keepe his word: And blessed is he that heares the word of God, but with this condition, so that he keepe it. Otherwise the hearing of the lawe or the [Page 43] Gospell to know onely, or to know more then another, S. Paule saith is the mother of pride, scientia inflat: 1. Cor. 8. The Fa­thers say it is Diabolica tentatio, the temptation wherewith the Deuill assaulted our first parents in Paradice: The Schoolemen say it is superfluitie at least, if not superstitiō: for this is a rule in diuinitie, that euery religious action which consisteth only in exterioribus, Thom. 22. q. 93. art. 2. and is not referred ad interiorem dei cultum, to the inward seruice of God, is either superfluous, or superstitious.

I hope no man that heares me this day will be so iniu­rious to me, or preiudiciall to his owne knowledge and vn­derstanding, as to conceiue that I speake against hearing or frequenting of Sermons: for I know, and would haue you all learne it, that principium rectè viuendi est rectè au­dire; the ordinarie meanes to liue well, is to heare well; and scire est via, causa & medium ad amare: to know God is the way, the cause and the meanes to loue God: and that bonum intellectum goodnes and vertue well vnderstoode, is the obiect of our will, which will is the subiect of charitie; and therefore the better you know God, the apter you are to loue him actually: And if I should denye it, yet nature would tell you quibus suffragijs exoptata pietas audiatur, Symm. lib. 1. epist. 7. with what applause an holy and deuoute sermon is enter­tained. But I complaine that you, who are admitted now long ago to the fellowship of christianitie, and bound and sworne to obserue the lawes and customes thereof, and are now no longer probationers catechumeni, hearers chate­chists, should now prefer hearing before praying; knowing before doing, wherein consists the seruice and worship of God; seeing the actuall seruice and worship of God is the end, and hearing but the meanes to that end: and the rule is Semper finis excellit id quod est ad finem. I complaine not that our Churches are auditories, but that they are not [Page 44] oratories: not that you come to Sermons, but that you re­fuse or neglect common prayer; not that you resort ad porticum Solomonis, to Paules crosse, but that your parish churches are naked and emptie. I complaine not that you haue ready and attentiue eares, but that you haue not pure hands, humble lookes, single eyes, cleane harts, soules and bodies vndefiled. I complaine that your hearing is com­monly a cloake to couer and conceale your want of deuo­tion, and a nurse to your slothfulnes, which cannot endure the true labour of praying. I complaine that you heare much and profit little, which the learned hold for a signe of reprobation,Heb. 6. and S. Paule saith little lesse, Heb. 6. The earth which hath drunke in the raine which comes oft vpon it, and yet brings forth thornes and bryers, is reproued, and nigh vnto cursing. I complaine that the end of your hea­ring is to censure the preacher, not gaudere super cohorta­tione, Act. 15.31. Act. 15.31. to reioyse or make benefit of that which is heard. In a word, I complaine, and I complaine not a­lone, that all the seruice of God is reduced only to hearing of Sermons; and our hearing applied to knowledge only.

But beloued Christians, the seruice of God was not wont to be referred to hearing; but hearing referred to the seruice of God: nor the scope of Christianitie was not to know; but the scope of knowledge was to be good Chri­stians: Christian religion was not onely to know without error; but also to liue without spot: and therefore though S. Paule saith Christus factus est nobis sapientia: 1. Cor. 1.30. Christ is made wisedome vnto vs, yet he staieth not there as though Christianitie consisted in knowledge only; but he addeth also factus est iustitia, & sanctificatio, & redemptio: he is made our righteousnes, sanctification, and redemption. 1. Cor. 1.30. Sapientia in intellectu, iustitia in voluntate, sanc­tificatio in opere, redemptio in statu: wisedome in our vnder­standing; [Page 45] righteousnes in our will; sanctification in our workes; and redemption to the whole man, Caiet. And therefore in the perfectest time of Christianitie, hearing was not inough to make one reputed a good Christian, no nor Baptisme added to it; for hearing was before Baptisme; nor beleefe ioyned to them both: what not hearing of sermons, not baptisme, not beleefe a suffici­ent argument of true Christianitie? why then what shall be thought of vs? no, that was not then inough. It is said in the 8. of the Acts. that Simon Magus beleeued,Act 8. and was baptised, and did cleaue fast to Philip, followed Philip and was a diligent auditor of his; and yet Simon Magus was neuer good Christian.

The issue of al that I intende to speake if the time serued is this. The house of God is called the house of prayer, either because all diuine seruice is comprehended vnder the name of prayer, or some Species of prayer; or els be­cause of all diuine duties prayer is the chiefe; or else be­cause in all actions of Christianitie and religion which are perfourmed in the house of God, prayer is euer one and an especiall part: As in baptisme, in the sacrament of the sup­per, in matrimonie, in churching of women, in burying the dead, in preaching the word; besides the ordinary action of common prayer it selfe which is as iuge sacrificium, the sacrifice which God requireth euerie day, not only priuat­ly in our chamber, but especially togither in the Church of God. Preaching also is a part diuini cultus of the seruice of God, and therefore hath a reward: but hearing onely; or hearing to know, without an intent to practise; is but the way to knowledge, and knowledge it selfe but via ad cultum, the way and the meanes to the seruice of God: and therfore if it stay there it hath no reward: for not the hea­rers onely, but the dooers are blessed of God. And [Page 46] therefore in the primitiue Church some were admitted to heare, which were not admitted to the publicke seruice of God, and were called Catechumeni hearers or catechists, a name of imperfection.

Thankes be to God for it, you are not as heathen to be taught of vs, Quid oporteat credere: what you must beleeue to be saued: nor as Catechists lately conuerted: Quid opor­teat facere, Acts. 9. what you must doe: as S. Paule cryed to God, Acts 9. you know what to beleeue, you know what to do: the ende of our preaching should be especially mouere, to mooue and exhort you to practise that which you know must be done: not because you haue plenitudinem cognitio­nis, fulnes of knowlegde (ah lasse we haue it not our selues) but because you haue a sufficiencie of knowledge. And if Marcus Agrippa who was no foole but vir ingentis ani­mi, Senec. ep. 94. a man both of courage and wit, was woont to say that he owed much to Salust for this one sentence, Concordia paruaeres crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur, by peace & concord small things growe great; by dissention and dis­cord great things decay; because by that sentence onely he was made optimus frater, & optimus amicus, a very good brother, and a very good friend: I doubt not but the most ignorant among you is indebted already to vs for so many sentences, as being well digested and practised would make you good parents, good children, good friendes, good brethren, good neighbours, good subiects, in a word, good Christians.

The second reason drawē from the abuse of the Temple, is borrowed of the prophet Ierem. cap. 7. where the same as­sertion is vsed, but by way of interrogation: Is this house be­come a den of theeues, whereupon my name is called before your eies? Behold, euen I see it, saith the Lord. As if he should say; yea certainely it is become a den of theeues. The sinnes [Page 47] which the prophet there reproues are, theft, murther, adul­tery; false swearing, Idolatrie: which being vsuall among the people, they would neuerthelesse come and stand before him in this house of his. And for theeues and murtherers and adulterers and false swearers and Idolaters, to come into the house of God, either to pray or to offer sacrifice, with­out a constant intent to amende their ill waies, is to make the house of God or the house of prayer, a den of theeues.

But it may seeme to some men, that this Scripture is not well alleaged by our Sauiour Christ: who applieth that to buyers and sellers, that the prophet Ieremie speaketh of theeues, murtherers, adulterers, false sweares, & Idolaters. May it please you therefore to vnderstand, that in the new Testament, the texts & prophesies of the old Testament, are alleaged somtimes properly & according to the litteral 1 sense, as in the 1. of Math. that prophesie of the 7. of Esay: Behold a virgin shall conceiue and beare a son. Sometime not properly & litterally, but to expresse some truth which was 2 signified or shadowed by them: as in the 1. to the Heb. that of the 2. Sam. 7. I wil be his father & he shal be my Son; which being properly spoken of Salomon, is applied by the Apo­stle to our Sauiour Christ, whose life & figure Salomon was: as also in the 19. of S. Iohns Gospell that of the 12. of Exo­dus, Os non cōminuetis ex eo, Not a bone of him shal be bro­ken: which being spoken litterally of the lambe, the Euan­gelist applies to our Sauiour, who was figured by the pas­chal 3 lambe. Sometime neither litterally, neither yet to ex­presse any thing signified by it, but rather to note some­what like vnto it, and of such nature, that the Scripture may seeme as trulie to be verified of the one as the other: as that which the prophet Esay saide of the Iewes in his time, populus hic labijs me honorat, Esay 29. &c. this people honour me with their lips, Christ applieth as if it had been spoken [Page 48] in the same case of the Iewes in his time, Hypocrites, E­say prophesied well of you, saying, &c. Math. 15. the like example you haue Math. 13.14. and Acts. 28.26.

According to this last rule that which the prophet Iere­mie vseth against theeues, murtherers, false swearers, &c. our Sauiour very well applieth against buyers and sellers, and money changers, and merchandizers; as though theft and forswearing and merchandizing were all one; which he seemeth to implie, seeing in this place casting out the buyers & sellers, &c. he tels them that they made the house of God a den of theeues: but in the second of Saint Iohn performing the like action vpon the same kinde of men, he telleth them, that they had made the house of God, a house of merchandice: so that with our Sauiour a denne of theeues, and an house of merchandice, seemeth to admit very small difference.

And peraduenture the applying of those two phrases, a den of theeues, and an house of merchandice, to one and the selfe same fault; moued S. Chrysost. or the author operis im­perfecti, Hom. 38. super Mattd. the rather to vse this assertion: Nullus Christianus debet esse mercator: aut si voluerit, proijciatur de ecclesia. No Christian man should be a merchandizer; but if he will needes be, let him be cast out of the Church: which rule though he restraine to those that buye their wares and sell them againe, integra & immutata, in the same kinde and nature wherein they bought them; excluding them that change the nature of their wares, and so sel againe non rem ipsam, sed artificium suum; not the selfe same, but their la­bour and skill & mysterie:Lib. 5. annot. 187. and Sixtus Senensis restraines it to Ingrossers and Monopolies, calling this only merchan­dizing & negotiation, according to Cassiodore super Psal. 70. quae vilius possint comparari, carius velle distrahere; by arte & cunning to raise the price of those cōmodities, which by [Page 49] course would be much cheaper. And some schoolemen re­straine it to those merchants that intend gaine and lucre,Tho. 22. q. 77. as the onely and last end of all their labours; and not the maintaynig of their familie, the reliefe of the poore, or the publicke vtilitie of the common wealth: yet seeing in these latter auaritious daies, for the most part, lucre onely, quod terminum nescit, sed in infinitum tendit, is the common and ordinarie end of merchandizing, of buying and selling; and he that is negotiator auidus, a couetous merchant, as S. Aust. notes, pro damno blasphemat, pro pretijs rerum menti­tur, & peierat: In his losses will blaspheme, and lye, sweare, and forsweare in the prices of wares: there is now also for the most part, no great difference betweene a denne of theeues and an house of Merchandice.

Now as our Sauiour applied that which Ieremie spake of theeues and forswearers, &c. to buyers and sellers and merchandizers; because there vseth to be some likenesse and affinitie betweene them; so the ancient fathers to this imitation, haue applyed this saying of our Sauiour Christ, to many other sorts of men: which buie and sell, rob and steale, in the house of God; or buie and sell, rob, and steale from the house of God. Saint Chrysost. saieth that they make the house of God a den of theeues which talke and discourse in the Church,Hom. 36. in 1. ad Cor. and driue their bargaines at di­uine seruice: and concludeth that the Church is not ton­strina, forum, caupona, a barbars shop, an exchang, or a ta­uerne, but locus angelorum, locus archangelorum, regia Dei, coelum ipsum: the place of angels, yea of archangels, the very pallace of God, and heauen itselfe.

The whole course of fathers and schoolemen applie it to buiers and sellers of ecclesiasticall orders; to buiers and sellers of the cures of soules, which is a speciall gift and or­dinance of the holy Ghost: of which I haue spoken some­what [Page 50] largely before.Epist. ad Ne­potian. Saint Hierom applies it, negotiatori clerico, to a cleargie man that vseth buying and selling and merchandizing, and saith that he is tanquam pestis fugi­endus, to be shunned as one infected with the plague, or a leprosie, as a theefe or a robber, lurking and shrowding himselfe in the house of God. The ordinarie glosse applies it to murther and bloodshed committed in the Church, which was grieuouslie punished in the Canon lawe, 24. 1. qui contra: and doth portend some great ill to the Church or common wealth;Eccles. hist. lib. 7. cap. 33. as is noted by Socrates, and I haue touched it before.

Ioannes Sarisbur, applies it to them, which alienate Churches, and Ecclesiasticall houses with the appurte­nances to lay men: The house of prayer, sayth he, is made an house of merchandize,De nugis curial. lib. 7. cap. 17. Domino prohibente, which is forbidden by God himselfe, and the temple which hath the foundation in lapide adiutorij, 1. Sam. 4.1. on the stone of help, is turned into a denne of theeues: and his reason is this, Siquidem ecclesia data est in direptionem, &c. for the house of God, and the appurtenances are layd wast, and made the possessions of mightie or subtile men.

But this last sorte of men in my opinion, may be said to make the house of God worse then a denne of theeues, (if worse may be) because whereas the other sorts rob, and spoyle in the houses of God; these rob and spoyle the houses of God, and alienate and alter the proprietie of them; and of the possessions and inheritance of God, make them the possessions and inheritance of theeues: For whereas all good Christians say with the Prophet Dauid, Vnam petij a domino, Psal. 27. &c. One thing I haue desired of the Lord, and that I vvill require, euen that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the dayes of my life: to what end? to be­hold the beawtie of the Lord, and to visite his temple; that is [Page 51] saith Lyra, ad adorandum ibidem frequenter, & offerendum, that he might dayly vvorship him there, and offer sacrifices to him: these men say Vnum petij a domino (de praeterito) I haue made one suite now a great vvhile, to my Lord or mai­ster, &c. Et hanc requiram (de futuro) I vvill vrge this suite till I haue obteined it: vt inhabitem in domo domini, &c. that I may dwell in some of Gods houses all the dayes of my life, and my children after me: to what ende? vt haereditate possi­deam sanctuarium domini, as the wicked men sayd Psal. 83. that some of Gods lands or some of Gods houses may be my inheritance for euer and euer. So that where they that abuse the house of God with sundry prophanations, and rob and steale and merchandise in it, make it speluncam la­tronum, a denne for a time to lurke in, and not be suspec­ted of such behauiour: they that rob and spoyle God of his houses, and alienate them to their prophane vses, do make of them tabernacula praedonum, Iob. 12. not only the dennes, but the very habitation and dwellings of theeues and robbers.

Now to conclude; I saye with S. Chrysostome vpon these words, But you haue made it a denne of theeues: Vti­nam de praeterito populo esset tantùm dictum, Hom. 13. super Marc. &c. I would to God it could haue beene sayd only of the Iewes, and not of the Christians; I would to God it could haue bene applyed to Christians heretofore, and not vnto vs; Plora­remus quidem illos, sed de nobis gauderemus, vve vvould la­ment ouer them, but reioyse for our selues: but now in many places, and in many respects, nay in all these respects, the house of God is made a house of merchandize, the house of prayer is made a denne of theeues. These things are so manifest, that they require neither exposition, nor application; I would to God they were more obscure, and hidden from vs, and that we did not maintaine these [Page 52] prophanations, by pretences, and long customes, as these Ievves did. Wherefore if we lament ouer them, we haue cause to weepe and howle for our selues, who haue ad­ded as great increase and strength to these sinnes, as time hath added yeares and increase to the world: so that these iniquities being now at the full ripenesse and perfect growth (which argue little true faith, and lesse true chari­tie, if lesse may be, vpon the face of the earth) we are to expect a perfect and finall reformation from Christ Iesus of these abuses; not by pestilence, famine, warres, wa­ters, or fires from heauen, &c. his ordinarie instruments, which do moue vs but little: but from his owne hands, not armed with a whip, or other temporall punishment, as at his first comming,Math. 3. but with his fanne, wherewith he will make cleane the floore of his Church, and gather the wheate into his garner, and burne vp the chaffe of all these inquities, with vnquenchable fire. To this Iesus, the most iealous patron of the house of his Father, and the most iust iudge of the quick & the dead, together with the Father, & the holy Ghost, three persons, and one almighty and euer-liuing God, be ascribed all honor, glorie, praise, and dominion, for euer and euer. Amen.


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