Printed at London by Ʋ.S. for Iames Shawe. 1603.

To the Right Ho­norable, William Earle of Pembrooke, Lord Herbert, Cardiffe, Marmion, and Saint Quin­tin, Knight of the most Noble Order of the Gar­ter.

Noble Lord,

I humblie present vnto your Lord­ship, the Ambassador, [Page]which the learned Au­thor Hotman first fra­med, and a Gentleman of qualitie, translated, for the vse of their priuat friendes: which comming to my hands, and being a subiect meete for the exercise of Noble spi­rits, and for these times: I haue thought good to present to publike viewe, and publish vnder your [Page]Honourable name: for that herein you may beholde, the Idea of those vertues, which heauen and nature haue planted in you, fit for the managing of these, and the like high serui­ces, for your prince and country, whose eyes and expectations therein are fixed on you. And re­sting in the assurance of [Page]your Lordshippes hono­rable fauour, I hum­blie remaine (*⁎*)

Your Honors humbly deuoted, I. S.

To the Reader.

GEntle Reader,

the learned Au­thor of this Treatise, account­ing it a subiect fitte onely for the view of high spirites, and such as already were, or in time might be called to the great affaires of the common wealth: suffered no other copies to be extant then those which he dispersed to his priuate friends, as himselfe affirmeth. A Gentleman hauing recouered one of them, did at the re­quest of some particular friends, turne it into English, supposing that the scribled copie, which, through haste, and want of leasure, was taken as hee read it out of the originall, might satisfie his iudicious & learned frinds. By reason whereof, the Printer following the same, hath committed some errors, through want of the Authors worke, and other vsuall assistance; which he neuerthelesse hopeth wil be excused with the great desire hee had to please the worthy learned & noble Readers, to whom as he accounteth the Treatise pro­perly to belong: so he hopeth that his readi­nesse therein will be vnto them most accep­table.


  • Behauiour,
  • Charge,
  • Priuileges,
  • Familie.


I Knowe not any of the old Writers that haue purposedlie handled this Argument. Polibius in­deede hath left some collections de Legationibus, but not de Legato. The reason in mine opinion is, that none were called ordi­narily to this charge but men of great [Page]honour, virtue and experience, attai­ned, by hauing passed through the goodliest and greatest charges of the Common wealth, as I will after shew.

For, as in olde time there was no punishment ordained for Parricides, forasmuch as in those ages of innocen­cie it could not be thought, that a wic­kednesse so monstrous could enter in­to the heart of any man: euen so the learned Politicians of times past, be­leeued not that Princes and Estates would be so indiscreet, as to honor with an Ambassage (which commonly im­porteth the whole estate) a person which were not most capable thereof: or that he which were not worthy of it, should be so ill aduised as to vnder­take it. To the former, punishments were afterwards ordained: and the o­ther, haue neede of good instructions; til when, I wil giue them in this Trea­tise, this word of aduise.

And, to beginne, I will not stay vp­on [Page]searching out, either the name Am­bassador, which is strange and vn­knowne to vs, or the antiquitie and origine of this charge, the which it is most likely had his beginning with the establishment of societie amongest men, and the assembling of people and estates the one with the other. When Princes would not, and Common­wealths could not meete together for to treate thereof. Neither will I spend time in telling that the name Ambassa­dor is not so general as the Latine word Legatus: and is not vnderstood pro­perly, but of those who vnder the assu­rance of the publike faith, authorized by the law of nations, are employed to negociate with forraine Princes or Commonwealths the affaires of their Masters, and with dignitie to represent their persons and greatnesse during their Ambassage.

They are of two sortes: The one which are not but for a little time, and [Page]for one affaire onely, as, for renewing some aliance, to sweare and ratifie a treatie, to congratulate, condole, or to doe like office in the behalfe of their Masters. Those that goe to present obedience to the Pope, in the behalfe of Christian Princes, are of this num­ber, or which goe vpon other affaires not ordinary. For which cause they may be named extraordinary Ambassa­dors, who returne assoone as that af­faire is dispatched. The Romanes and other nations in former ages vsed them in no other maner. The other are or­dinary & Ligiers, without hauing any time limited, but at the pleasure of the Prince which sendeth them. And this is that sorte which is now most in use, and which antiquity knew not, fearing lest the long residēce of an Ambassador might discouer the secrets of the E­state. The Pope hath retained the name of Legate and Nuncio, of which it is not my purpose to speake in particu­lar.

As touching Agents, to whom, at times, is giuen the Title of Ligiers: they are in like maner publike persons and being once receiued and admitted, they enjoy the law of nations, but nei­ther haue place, nor oftentimes power so ample as Ambassadors haue. Such are most commonly employed about Princes which will not yeeld to that dignitie which those by whom they are sent pretend to haue: as those that haue beene about the Emperour of late yeeres for the King, and hee that at this present is with the Archduke and the Infanta, which is Monsieur de la Bo­derie, who much deserueth the Title of Ambassador, sithence he performeth the charge thereof so worthily. Those also are named Agents which manage the affaires of Princes, not soueraigne, and such as are much inferiour to Mo­narchs and great Common-wealths, for as for those which are sent by the Prince into his owne Dominions, and [Page]towards his subjects, they are called Commissioners: like as they are named Deputies, whom subjects send vnto their Soueraigne: who yet doe not enjoy this law of nations and priuiled­ges of an Ambassador. Ius externo non ciui quaesitum est, saith Titus Liuius. But indeede Heralds doe, whose persons are vnuiolable, euen in the middest of Armies, as well as those of Ambassa­dors, although that properly and most commonly they are but Messagers, ca­rying barely some word of mouth or letter, without authoritie to treate of a­ny matter: as also Drummes, Trum­pets, and such like persons in time of warre, who neuerthelesse deserue not this title and dignitie of Ambassador.

The Romans had also an other forme of Ambassage, contrary to the ancient law, Ne quis suaerei ergo legatus siet, the which was called Libera lega­tio, which was to grace persons of qua­litie going towards forraine countries, [Page]or into some Prouinces of the Empire for their owne affaires and particular businesses, to be thereby the more re­spected, and vnder the fauour of the law of nations: as likewise those were to whom they would not doe the vt­termost disgrace of an Exile: and this was called Honesta legatio, which Taci­tus saith, that Tiberius vsed towardes the miserable Agrippa for to ridde him farre off from the Court.

It seemeth also that there may be set in the number of Agents and Ambas­sadors, the Consuls which ouersee the affaires of Merchants, Townes, and Corporations in Argier, Tunis, Tripo­li, and other places of Barbarie and Turkie. Forasmuch as the Prince al­loweth of their nomination, authori­seth and recommendeth them by his letters; & for that for want of Ambas­sadors they giue aduises, and some­times supplie their charges, as some haue done with very good successe, as [Page]hath beene seene in our time in some places. The Venetians haue their consulls in Cario, at Aleppo, Rosetta, Alexandria, and other townes and ha­uens of importance: Which is a great commoditie vnto them, for besides the intelligence which they haue from time to time of the prices of all sortes of merchandize, they receiue also by the same meanes newes from all parts of the world. Wherein they exceede all other Estates and Common­wealths.

His Behauiour.

TO come then vnto our Ambassa­dor, and principally to that whom we haue called Ordinary and Ligier: albeit that the principall most generall and ordinary subiect of his Ambas­sage be for entertainment of alliances [Page]and amitie with the Prince or the E­state to whom he is sent: yet there are many other occasions of his sending which is needelesle here to articulate, the same being infinite, according to the diuersitie of treaties and affaires which are betweene Princes and Commonwealths. In some countries they speake onely of money and leuy­ing of forces: in others, of sea matters, trafficke and commerce, in others of breaches of treaties, of inrodes and ri­ottes on frontiers. Furthermore, in some Estates there are Monarkes o­thers are gouerned by Lords, the last by the people, so that, according to the qualitie of these gouernementes, and nature of the affaires, it is requisite to make choise of Ambassadors that may be fitting to the place and Prince to whom they are appointed. And not onely because of this diuersitie of Estates and negotiations, but also by reason of the difference of humours, [Page]conditions, and religion of Princes and people, towards whom they are em­ployed: it being very certaine, that one that is a Protestant should not be so fit to be about the Pope nor the King of Spaine: but contrariewise, one of that profession (if the Kings seruice so require) should be more acceptable in England, Scotland, Denmarke, and with the protestant Princes of Germanie, whereof the Queene of England willed me to carry word to the King, during the siege of Paris, by occasion of a Gentleman of qualitie which had bin sent to the protestant Princes of Ger­many, and was not welcome vnto them. Likewise must they shunne the like ieast that was made of a Bishop sent to the Grand Signior, and of a Gentle­man held for a great good Christian, who was appointed Ambassador to the Pope, for it was said that the one would conuert the Turke, and the o­ther should be conuertedby the Pope. [Page]In some Estates they consider much the qualitie of the Ambassador, and make the lesse account of him, if he be not a gentleman of nobilitie, or at least wel qualified, liberall and honorable.

Some other Princes and Estates had rather haue one that profesleth the Lawes: as at Venice (none hath of long time bin there so acceptable as Mon­sieur de Maisse Hurault one of the chiefe Counsellors of this Estate. I doubt not but that the Pope would be content to haue rather a Biship or some other Church-man neere him: Neuerthelesse I vnderstand that the Spaniardes haue perceiued that it was more necessarie for the seruice of their Maister, that the Ambassador were of some other qualitie, bicause Ecclesi­asticall persons make a very strict oath vnto the Pope and the Church, which derogateth from the naturall fidelitie which all subiects owe vnto their So­ueraigne.

Howsoeuer it be, the Romans sent none for Ambassadors that had not passed through the greatest parte of the degrees of honour and magi­stracie: and sometimes they were the Consulls themselues: not so much for the honour of the Prince to whome they were sent, as for the greatnes and maiestie of the commonwealth. Phi­lip de Comines complaineth, that his Maister King Lewes the eleuenth em­ployed therein ordinarily his Barber. Other Princes make no difficultie to send the Groomes of the Chambers, Cloake-bearers, and others of baser sort vnto the greatest Princes of Chri­stendome. And God knoweth how they handle many times the affaires of their Maisters. He therefore that ap­poynteth an Ambassador, ought to looke well heerevnto, and especially to the sexe, to the age, and to the dis­position of him to whome hee is sent. For hee that would giue commission [Page]to an olde and melancholie man to treate of a marriage with a yoong Princesse, and make loue vnto her in the behalfe of his Maister (a thing which most commonly amongst the Great is done by an Atturney) it is ve­ry certain, that naturally she would not so willingly see or heare him as one that were more youthfull and gallant. I haue sometime seene the experience thereof. This choyce being of greater importance than one woulde belecue, and wherein notwithstanding there is oftnest failing. A neighbour Prince sent a while sithence, a man of an ill grace to a great Lady of France for this purpose: who eflected nothing of consequence therein. Such a one must bee a man acceptable, for the better managing the disposition of him with whom he hath to deale.

But much more in extraordinarie Ambassadors, and those which go not but for one affaire, as if it be a matter [Page]concerning warre, it is fitter to com­mit it to a Marshall of France, or some other Generall of the field, and practi­zed in points of armes. To Generall Counsailes it were ridiculous to send others than Ecclesiasticall persons, di­uines, and men seene in the Lawes. And where question should be of the right of succession, of marches, repri­salls, of other difficulties of right, there are men meet for the same, and which would better serue their Maister ther­in then eyther a Churchman or a mar­tiall man. But if it be for the renuing of an aliance, conducting of som prin­cesse, or any other solemn action con­sisting most in ceremony and magni­ficence, it is meetest to commit the charge and honor thereof to a Prince or Lord of quailitie and meanes.

Moreouer, there are many other things to be considered in the person of an Ambassador, of which I will note some (not to make a perfect I­dea [Page]of an Ambassador, as Tasso, Magio, Gentilis and some others haue labored to do.) For as once one said of Pla­toes Common-wealth, that the Idea thereof was in heauen: so the perfect image of an Ambassador, such as they haue figured vnto vs, was neuer a­mongst men, for they would haue him to be a Divine, Astrologer, Logician, an excellent Orator, as learned as Ari­stotle, and as wise as Salomon.

But for me, I require no more of him than hee may attaine vnto by vse and nature. True it is, that I wish he were seene in all, by reason of the di­uersitie of affaires which are handled in his charge. The which hee cannot be, if he haue not seene and trauelled a­broade, if hee haue not some experi­ence, and especially the knowledge of Histories, which I finde to bee more necessary for him than any other stu­dy: and that formerly he haue beene employed in some other charges or [Page]affaires of estate, if it were but onely to haue more assurednesse when hee commeth to speake in publike: for as it shall appeare by the processe of the discourse, an ambassage is as it were an abridgement of the principalest char­ges and offices that are exercised in the common-wealth: So also would I haue him rich, not only in the goods of the minde, but also in the goods of fortune, at least, in some indifferent sort. For, besides that a great pouertie is alwaies suspected, he being so, it is very hard for him to holde that digni­tie which he ought to represent; their Masters being not alwayes very care­full to make them due prouision; and the Romans many times refused such persons in the exercise of the chiefest charges of their Common-wealth.

To speake of Sciences more parti­cularly, I know that many haue mana­ged the like and greater charges with­out any learning, and that vnto diuers [Page]men it hath sorted well. But I main­tain that mē of lerning are much more capable thereof, know how to speake better, and answer euery man, to iudge of the iustnes of a warre, of the equitie of all pretences, and demaunds, to be­ware of being deceued in treaties and negotiations of peace, alliance or ma­riage, whereabouts such men are most commonly emplored,) to weigh their reasons best, to resolue any subtile con­clusions sophistications, and to dis­course of all things, either graue or fa­miliar: and to speake in a worde, hee is more to bee blamed that commeth vnto it without this qualitie, than hee were to be praised, if hee brought vnto it, all these necessarie qualities with him. At least I will counsell him, du­ring the time of his Ambassage, to fur­nish himself with as much thereof, as his leisure will permit him: although (to say true) it is very late to dig a well, when one is thirsty, or to make armor, [Page]when it is time to fight: Aboue all, let him not make shew that hee despi­seth men of learning, but still accoun­ting of men of knowledge and experi­ence, which in all well policied estates are cherished.

I find then that among the parts of Philosophie, he ought to haue know­ledge of the Morall and Politike: and if before he haue had any taste of the Ro­man Ciuill Law, the same would giue him more insight and facilitie to the negotiation of treatie and clearing ma­ny matters that fall out in diuerse pla­ces: as for example, of the right of the succession of Princes, of the difference of the borders, of taking booties of Prisoners, Reprisals, and of Sea mat­ters, whereof most commonly que­stion ariseth in England, Denmarke, Holland, and other partes standing on the Sea, or of some obscuritie, ambi­guitie, and difficultie of clauses and ar­ticles of a treatie. Aboue all, he ought [Page]not to be ignorant of the Lawes, cu­stoms & maners of his owne country, specially in things concerning the E­state, the rights, titles, and pretences of his Maisters Crowne, and the vsurpations that other Princes haue made vpon his estate. Whervnto the know­ledge of histories wil greatly help him; which besides the pleasure of it, will bring him also this commoditie, that it will encrease in him, wisedome and iudgement in the affairs of his charge. Will enable him against all chances. Will bring him to the knowledge of the origine, continuance and ruine of kingdomes, countries, and townes, which haue no remainder of their glo­rie, but the name onely. Will make him that he bee not astonished at any thing that hee heareth read or spoken, considering that histories will furnish him with many examples of like acci­dents. It being a shamefull thing to a man of his sorte to wonder at all that [Page]is spoken. For wondring is the daugh­ter of ignorance, and they are alwayes children which know not that which was done before their time.

Lastly, Eloquence is of such force, and so important in such a charge, that if he be endewed therewith, either by art or nature, he will make himselfe ve­ry gratious, be it that he speak vnto the Prince, to the Counsaile, or in publike (as the vse is in popular estates) or that he entertaine his frends in priuat. And in many places Ambassadors are cal­led Orators. But to speake wel, in good frame, and good termes, it shal be ex­pedient that hee first write and polish that which hee hath to say in publike. (Parato quid vnquam defecit?) Yet without seruile tying himself, to learne by heart his owne speech, lest it be­fall him, as many times it dooth vnto schoole boies. If he know the language of the Countrie where he is, it will be a great furtherance vnto him, to the [Page]more perfect vnderstanding of the hi­stories and affaires of that estate. Cicero saith (Sumus surdi omnes in linguis quas non intelligimus.) It is alone to be deaf, and not to vnderstand what is saide.) Neuerthelesse many without this qua­litie haue not failed to performe their charge well and worthily. And al­though he knew the language, I had rather that he should faine, not to vn­derstand it: for so hath he the more aduantage to speake and negotiate in his owne language: or at least in Latine which is common vnto all, as they do in Germany, Polonia, and other coun­tries. His speech must be graue, briefe, and significant, without employing many alegations, as a Maister of Arte would doe, or of woordes borrowed, and out of vse, whereby I haue seene many falter through affectation: And he must, as much as may be, accommodate himself to the fashion of the prince and people to whom he speaketh: for [Page]he that would mignionize and painte out his speeches in Suisserland or Hol­land, should do that which were ridi­culous and superfluous. Princes, and al­most all Great men and military men loue not great speakers, nor long dis­courses; and an olde writer hath verie well obserued in the disposition of the Frenchman, that hee giueth himselfe chiefly to the profession of armes, and to a briefe & subtile form of speaking, Duas res, saith hee, accuratè norunt, rem militarem, & argutè loqui. Euen so the King that now is, being tyred with the long discourse of a Lorde lately come out of Italy, saide vnto him, I know very well that you come out of the Countrie of faire wordes. In a woord, if an Ambassador haue not this guift of speaking well, and that hee stop or stutter in his deliuerie, besides that happily he shall do no great good in his Ambassage, he shalbe oftentimes the iest of Courtiers. And if his spee­ches [Page]be too long; he may haue such an answere as those of Lacedemon made to the Samnites. That they had for­gotten the beginning, vnderstood not the middle, and disliked the Conclusi­on.

These are very neerely the sciences which I iudge the most requisite, and which are, in mine opinion, the easiest, and the which, or the greater parte of them, hee may learne in the places of his charge, if he be resident there for some yeares, all the other will not bee vnprofitable for him. But hee must haue besides these, other vertues and qualities, as wel gotten by practise, as borne with him, for better performing his Ambassage: and which are so much the more necessarie for him, in that hee representeth the greatnes of his prince in a forraine Countrie, and in the view of the worlde, and for that the faultes which he committeth are many times cause of the contempt of his Maister, [Page]or of some worser consequence. For first al men agree in this, that he ought to be endewed with a good naturall vnderstanding, ioyned with a long ex­perience of the affaires of the worlde, which makes that a yong man is not so capable of this charge, as one of old or middle age. For which cause, Philip de Comines said, it was very hard for a man to be wise that had not bin decei­ued. (Neuerthelesse sometimes a good spirit disgraceth the age & experience of many others, witnesse Monsieur de Beaumont Harlay, who doth the King so good seruice in this charge of Am­bassador in England.) Neuertheles an olde man is ordinarily melancholie and diseased, and a young man, too hu­morous, light, and indiscreete. As one that was sent to certaine Alies of this Crowne, who walked abroade in the euening and part of the night through the streetes, with others of his owne age, and in his doublet and hose, play­ing [Page]on a Bandore: although other­wise he was a man of a good spirit.

Touching the wisedome of our Ambassador, it wil be discerned, first of all, if he bring with him these requi­site qualities whereof I haue spoken, and such things as are necessary for the occasions of his charge: vnlesse that the Prince haue made him to vn­dertake it on a so daine, and by expresse commandement, without giuing him leasure to aduise himself, as many times it falleth out. For, if hee haue not the goods of fortune, or hath not other­wise prouided to cause a good allow­ance to be made him: hee will be ac­counted indiscreete to haue embarked himselfe in a charge of so great ex­pence. And for the gifts of nature, if he be bleare-eyed, crookebackt, lame, or otherwise mishaped, it is certaine, that he will not be so acceptable. One of the old writers saith, that in those ill proportioned and vitious bodies, the [Page]soule is ill lodged. And the Romanes hauing on a time sent two Ambassa­dors to one of their Prouinces, of which one had vpon his head the skars of many wounds, and the other was lame of his feete, it was said in a moc­kery. Mittit populus R. legationem quae nec caput nec pedes habet. An Am­bassage that hath neither head nor feete. Likewise if it be possible let him not be much inferiour in meanes or qualitie to him whom he succeedeth, lest he finde at his doore. O antique do­mus. Alas poore house that hast made a change of maisters, as it hapned (to my knowledge) vnto one that succee­ded in the house and place of an Am­bassador that had beene very liberall and bountifull: for there was nothing so cold as his Kitchin, nor so bare as his stable. Farther, that he knew how to make good choise of his traine and houshold seruants: wherevnto hee ought especially to take heede, that he [Page]fall not into the inconuenience that some haue done, who hauing sorted themselues with indiscreete and vnciuil seruants, haue themselues payed for their folly. An aduice which Monsieur de Bellieure (who hauing bin oft times honoured with this charge, in which he made his first practize among the Grisons, hath at length attained by the steppes of honour and desert, to the dignitie of Chancellor of France) gi­ueth vnto Ambassadors going vppon their charges, according to that which Cicero said vnto his brother then Go­uernour of Asia in like case, Horum non modo facta sed dicta etiam omnia tibi prae­standa sunt. Thou must be the war­rant both of their actions, yea and of the very words also. And a little after, Si innocentes existimari volumus non sclum nos abstinentes verumeriam nostris comites praestare debemus. To make our vprightnesse appeare, it is not e­nough that we be discreete, but euen [Page]our followers must be so also. And to say trueth, for that which is in the choyce of a man, hee can not impute it to any other, but must lay the blame on himselfe, if he haue not done it wel. It fell out ill in this poynt with the Lord of Camcy sent, on the behalfe of the King to the Duke of Burgundie, in the yeare 1417. through too much confidence in his Secretary, who ei­ther of indiscretion, or corruption, had made manie copies of his masters in­structions, to be seene abroad, and dis­couered the secrets of his commission: for which cause the master was blamed by the Kings counsaile, and sent to take vp his lodging in the Bastile.

Amongest the Officers of his house, the most necessary, and in choyce of whom hee ought to be most carefull, are, the Secretaries, and the Steward of the house. The one for to assist and ease him in the businesses of his charge, to dispatch causes that concerne the [Page]same, and to hold a good register ther­of, to keepe faithfully the scroles, cy­phers, and other papers of importance, (which neuerthelesse would be better vnder the maisters locke) the other for the expenses of the house, which ought to be well ordered, and neuerthelesse honorable in euery part therof, chiefly at the table and kitchin, whereuppon strangers and especially those of the Northerne countries looke more then vpon all other expences besides. In Spaine and Italie the table is more fru­gale: But there it must appeare in horses, coaches, apparrell, and traine of followers. And I will say this by the way, sithence that the most proper, and most essentiall vertue of a Prince is to be liberall, hee that representeth his greatnesse amongst strangers, dooth him iniury, and getteth himselfe an e­uill name, if hee be sparing and wret­ched: it seeming incredible to most men, that a great King, or other Soue­raigne [Page]would appoint him to that place without allowing him meanes suffici­ent, and are mooued to thinke, that he keepeth vp, and turneth to his owne vses, the monies of his allowance. There haue beene some in our time, who by their sparing and basenesse, seemed rather to goe to profite them­selues, and make a gaine; whereas this charge consisteth wholy on honour, and was in times past giuen, to honor those which had done good seruice to the Commonwealth: so that it ought not to be purchased by bribes, nor too much sought after, whereby to auoyde the suspition of couetousnesse. Neuer­thelesse, in this his liberall expence he must vse his discretion in not excee­ding too farre his ordinary exhibition, and especially that thereby he belie not falsly the occasion of his Ambassage. For I haue seene those which haue fai­led in both, and it hath bin told them, that they named themselues the Am­bassadors [Page]of misery (for they came to craue succours of men and mony) and yet were in their expences as if their ma­ster had possessed the Indies. And here it is that an argument from the lesse to the great may be made: how shall he performe a charge of importance, that knoweth not howe to guide his house and order his expence?

Furthermore, he shall manifest his wisedome in this, if when hee hath re­ceiued order to departe, he take instru­ctions sufficiently ratified for whatso­euer he hath to say or negotiate, that he may not be disallowed for any thing that he shall haue said, treated, or con­cluded, as it hath befalne vnto some that haue after repented it, whereof I will speake a word hereafter. He must also instruct himselfe by the mouth of him that was next before him in this charge: vnlesse that his predecessor do install him himselfe, and at his indu­ction doe communicate vnto him all [Page]such treaties, remembrances, and pa­pers as are necessary, and do sufficient­ly enforme him of all. And because Secretaries of Estate giue not so often intelligences to the Ambassador, nor alwayes send him aduice of that which passeth at Court and in the Estate, so often as he gladly would: and that it should many times be expedient to haue aduertizement thereof, because of the false rumors which are ordina­rily spread by the enemies of an Estate, especially in time of warre: and that it is a shame to an Ambassadour, that strangers should know the newes of his countrie before him, hee shall doe very well to haue some friend in court which may aduertize him often of that which is done, yea, euen to the least particularities, by which many times, he may iudge of matters of im­portance.

The griefe wherein I haue seene Monsieur de Sillary Brulart in Swisser­land, [Page]and in England, Monsieur de Beau­noir la Nocle, and many others else­where: (Indeed it was in the hottest of the troubles) maketh mee to giue this aduice to those that goe on Am­bassage, and that they ought not to spare two or three hundred crownes a yeere this way, if neede require.

Furthermore that man is vndis­creet, that through rashnesse throweth himselfe into the danger of his enemy. Neither will I counsaile any to goe on ambassage towards that Prince whom he hath offended in word or deede: for Princes doe seldome forget an in­iury, and are patient to awaite a fit time to reuenge themselues. At the least, it is very likely, that hee shall neuer per­forme his Maisters businesses so well with such a one. Besides, it is not meete to commit this charge to him that hath beene spotted with any crime or pub­like reproach: Nor vnto him that is the subiect of that Prince to whom he [Page]is sent: for in this behalfe it be fell out ill with the Esquire Merueilles as Mil­lan, of whom Guicciardine and du Bel­lay make mention: at least Duke Sfor­za gaue his excuse in paiment as I will shew anon. It being both more com­modious and more conuenient for the greatnesse of the master, that he which is sent, bee his naturall subiect, not a stranger, considering that naturally he will vse therein more care and more fi­delitie: and it is a shame to make our want to bee knowne in this behalfe, of men able & capable of such a charge: Not but that sometimes it hath well sorted when strangers haue beene em­ployed. Aboue all, it is a thing odious and vnsauory to send vnto a neighbor Prince a subiect of his for Ambassa­dor, to whom he will euer doe honor discontentedly, remembring what power and authoritie a Prince hath o­uer his subiects. True it is, that out of this rule prisoners of warre may be ex­cepted [Page]either to negociate the deliue­rance of themselues and their compa­nions, or to treat of some good meanes for a peace, truce, or other good occa­sion; as hath beene seene in the warres betweene the Romans and the Car­thaginians, and in those of France and England.

An other poynt of wisedome is, to arriue in season, and to take occa­sion commodiously, which I obserue, because there are some, who through the hardnesse of the season, or for the difficultie and dangers of the wayes, or for some other light hinderance do de­ferre the departure, or stay by the way: so that at their arriuall they finde mat­ters altered, and come as a Phisitian when one is dead. And to this pur­pose Suetonius recounteth how those of Troy sent the Deputies to Tiberius to condole the death of his sonnes, se­uen or eight moneths after that it hap­pened. And I, saide he, am very sory [Page]for the losse which sometime you had of fstanders by to laugh: for countriman Hector, and so made all the standers by to laugh: for Hector died many hun­dred yeeres before. He must also pre­sent himselfe in due time and place, that there be no suspicion conceiued vpon the cause of his comming: as Titus Liuius declareth of the Mirian Ambassadors. Who kept themselues secret a while at Rome, waiting perad­uenture, for some newe instructions from their Maister: which was a cause to make them to bee stayed as spies: Whereof they had somewhat to doe to purge themselues: mentitur legatio­nem qui nomen legationis non praefert suo tempore: as a Lawyer saith, and an Ambassage is held suspected which is not done in due time and place. Ser­uius saith, that in olde time amongst the Romans this order was kept in re­ceiuing strange Ambassadors. Legati si quando incogniti venire nunciarentur; [Page]primo quid vellent ab exploratoribus re­quirebatur, postea ad eos egrediebantur maiestratus minores & tunc demum Se­natus: & si ita visum fuisset, admitte­bantur. But concerning this point of departing in time, in former times the Deputies of the Rhodians were accu­sed for not departing at the prefixed day towards Athens about a matter of importance, whereof grewe some inconuenience. They defended and excused themselues throgh the Trea­surers default who had not giuen them the money appoynted vnto them for their voyage, but their replie and re­proach was, that for a matter of such importance they ought themselues to haue disbursed the mony, rather than to loose an occasion which might pre­iudice the Estate; at least, that in due time they ought to haue made their diligence appeare, and to haue prote­sted against the Treasurer.

It is not enough to ariue time. [Page]He must, as before I said, present himselfe and deliuer his Ambassage, if it be of any importance, for the lingering of some, hath giuen opportunitie to Spies to discouer their secrets, and the occasion of well effecting it, is so lost.

Alcibiades vsed like subtilitie to the Ambassadors of Lacedemon, who were made a iest of thereby: and many like examples haue, to my knowledge, chanced: vnlesse that there be a law­full cause why audience should not be demanded, as if hee found the Court in mourning, warre proclaimed, or some other accident of importance falne out in the meane time which was not before thought of.

Tacitus saith, Vt initia sunt, spem in ex­tera fore. It is the principall point to begin well, a thing is halfe done that is well begunne. For which cause our Ambassador from his first arriuall is to giue of himselfe so good an expectati­on, as that by his grauitie, curtesie af­fabilitie, [Page]requisite expences, first audi­ence, and establishment in his charge he make al men hope of good to come by his Ambassage. In like sort is it in warre and other affaires of the world, that men iudge of the end by the be­ginning, & he is held wise that can discreetely raise a good opinion of him­selfe from the first entrance into his charge. The which hee shall doe not onely in respect of those of the Coun­try, but also towardes his Maister by his first letters of aduice of the stile whereof we will speake a word heere-after. And he shall doe most wisely in establishing foorthwith his intelli­gences from all partes following the order of his predecessor, adding there­vnto, the correspondencie which hee can haue with his friends, euen to the remotest countries: there being no charge whatsoeuer in the Estate which hath more neede to know the occurrents of the worlde, as I haue [Page]heard the most sufficient Ambassa­dors to holde: Considering that this is done with little charge, and often­times with much fruite.

He will make himselfe held a fitte man, if he can make choice of some one to assist & secōd him in his charge if it be such that he haue need therof, as indeed it is hard to be without one, especially in a Country and a charge, wherein he had not bin before as great and able a man as Scipio was, yet tooke he with him the learned Panaetius (o­thers says Laelius.) True it is, hee ought to take good heede to whom he trusts himself, for some from Companions will become Maisters and Corriualls, and hauing gotten knowledge in the businesses and secrets of the charge, do not often handle the same discreet­ly. And so bring him more hurt than good, and more discontentment than comfort. But it is much more grie­uous vnto him, whenas for to helpe [Page]his insufficiencie, or to haue an eye o­uer his doing, there is an assistant ioy­ned with him: for in this case he loo­seth the whole grace, and often times the fruite of his Ambassage. The which, as I haue saide, hath no other end than Honour.

He ought likewise to take heed that he receiue not into his family, and a­mongst his houshold seruants, those of the country where he is resident, it be­ing very certaine, that they are so many spies, except those, of whose fidelitie he hath had good proofe, whereof some such are found (but very sel­dome.) Cicero in the same Epistle gi­ueth this selfe same aduice, saying that no man ought to communicate him­selfe much vnto them, nor discouer the affaires of his charge vnto them, whatsoeuer apparance of affection they vse: for there hath befallen ther­by very great inconueniences: the Ambassador being otherwise suffici­ently [Page]lookt into, & his demenor sifted; likewise is he in a place so eminent, that his actions cannot be hidden what in­dusty soeuer hee vse therein. Much lesse ought his house to serue for a re­traite vnto the offenders of that estate wherein he is, or to person that are suspected and odious. I haue seene some that haue bin maligned and ill intreated for this occasion, and it is a very ticklish poynt especially if they be subiects of that estate where hee bear­eth his charge: considering that in making intercession for them, he put­teth himselfe in hazard of receiuing a deniall, from whence a greater mis­chiefe may arise. I speake not this without cause, and the example there­of is fresh.

And to return to those of his house, our Ambassador not being alwayes a­ble to haue an eye ouer them, as wel by reason of his dignitie, as for the affaires of his charge. It shalbe the best way, if [Page]he can, to bring his wife with him, whose eie wil stoppe infinite abuses a­mongst his people, and disorders in his house, vnlesse hee can trust there­with some one of his owne followers, that may carry an eye and charge ouer the rest. But if himselfe be not tempe­rate and stayed, hee presently openeth (by his example) a doore vnto the dis­orders of his familie, who will sooner doe euill by seeing him to do euill, then they will doe well by immitating of him: besides that, hee hath his mouth stopt, if hee would reprehend or pu­nish them, Nimium est negotij continere eos quibus praesis, nisi te ipse contineas. It is a hard labour to make those that are vnder thee to be wise, if thou be not so thy selfe, saieth the same author in the same place. And Tacitus in the life of Agricola saith, Domum suam coercere plaeris (que) hand minus arduum est, quam prouinciam regere. And concerning this poynt of temperancie, it is requi­site [Page]that a man placed in such a charge doe moderate himselfe in his pleasures, not only in respect of women, but also for his mouth, and for play, whereby there hath growen many times, both scandale and reproch. There was one such, who being met by night, by the watch of the Citie, receiued the shame to be ledde away prisoner: and when hee alleadged his qualitie, it was tolde him very stowtly, by one that fained he knew him not: The Ambassador of France is too wise to go so by night, without company or torch-light. A while after, a forraine Ambassador be­ing then at Paris, going by night to vi­site a woman, attended onely with a lackey, was stayed, and put vnder safe-keeping, till the morning that the king (that last died) was aduertised thereof, who sent for him, and turned all the matter into a ieast.

Aboue all, he ought not to touch the honour of women of good name, [Page]for husbands and fathers are impatient of such attempts, for which euen kings haue beene driuen from their estates, or slaine by their owne subiects.

Concerning Drunkennesse, which Seneca caleth a voluntary foly, I main­taine, that in Germanie, Swisserland, Po­lonia, Denmarke, and other Countries of the North, he must, in some sorte, accommodate himselfe to drinke with them, it being very certaine, that one is more acceptable vnto them therby: But yet he must withal remember the Emperour Bonosus, who ordinarily made forraine Ambassadors drunken for to learne their secrets. Others haue beene slaine amongest wine and ban­queting. Herodotus and Iosephus recite the stories thereof. And in truth, wine and secrecie, are incompatible thinges, and this fault is ill befitting the dignity of him that representes such a maiesty, Legatus enim ipsam reipub. faciem suam attulisse videtur: As a certaine Author [Page]hath learnedly saide vppon this Argu­ment.

As for play, I haue seene an other that was so earnest vnto it, that there­by hee forgate the businesses of his charge, making many times his Mai­sters messengers to giue attendaunce, fifteene or twentie dayes for his plea­sure. He shall therefore so accommo­date himselfe vnto the manners of the country, where he is, that hee neither force his naturall disposition, neither be perceiued to doe it purposedly: for the one is ridiculous, and the other sus­pected and odious.

An other effect of his temperance shalbe, not to receiue any gifts and pre­sents, neither of the Prince to whome hee is sent, nor of any of his, for any cause whatsoeuer, vnlesse at such time, as hauing taken his leaue, he is ready to take horse and departe. The Ambas­sadour of England sir Amias Pawlet, would not receiue the chaine of golde, [Page]which the king sent vnto him, accord­ing to the custome, vntill he was halfe a league out of Paris: Giftes doe ob­lige, and those that receiue them, be­come slaues to those that giue them: much more if they take a pension, or other benefite, in which case there wil be either a staine of auarice, or suspiti­on of treason, and that is capitall in many places.

But there is nothing more hurtfull to his reputation then vndiscreete speaking, for there are some seene who at the table and at euery word, meddle not onely with particular persons, but with the Princes also to whom they are sent: finde fault with the forme of a popular gouernment: laugh open­ly at the manners of the nation where they are. This indiscretion cannot be endured from a priuate man: but it is altogether intolerable from the mouth of an Ambassador, who in doing ther­of, doeth not any longer remember [Page]wherefore he is in that charge: since that the principall and most apparant end thereof is to confirme, as I haue said, and to entertaine the amitie of the Prince or people to whom he is sent: and I should neede a resme of paper, to reckon vp the inconueniences that haue befalne throgh such indiscretion, & the danger that those haue incurred which could not commaund their tongues. I will onely say with an ancient Writer: He that knoweth how to speake well, knoweth also when hee must hold his peace. Whereas besides the te­diousnesse of much speaking, the same hindereth him from hearing of others, and gathering, by that meanes, the truth of such matters as hoe ought to know in his charge. The Lord Cecill high Treasurer of England had this dex­teritie, that he left not one at his table, whom he did not reason with, and heare speake at their turnes. And con­cerning those which speake not the [Page]language, the same may and ought to be doone by an interpreter, who is present for that effect: especially in popular Estates, where the least will be respected as well as the greatest. Nei­ther can I forbeare to speake of those who spare not euen their maister, and their owne nation: these defaults wher­of they discouer by their talke, and by the same meanes confirme that opini­on which strangers haue thereof. Our country is our mother, we ought not to reueale the shame thereof, and we ought to be as iealous thereof as of our owne honour: for it is ill befitting to a seruant to touch the honour of his maister, to publish the secrets of his Court, to controle his pleasures, and blame his actions; especially hee must take heede, that he speake not in pub­like what hee iudgeth touching the right of his pretences towards any E­state: for either hee must maintaine them to be iust, or must altogether [Page]hold his peace, and discreetly turne his talke to other matter. These are Arcana imperij, whereof Tacitus spea­keth.

Courage also and resolution are ve­ry necessary for him, by reason of the hazards, intricate affaires, oppositi­ons and vexations, which are euer­more ordinary with those that serue Princes and Commonwealths: And euen so the Romanes wel considering the perill which accompanieth Am­bassages, honoured the memory of those that died in that charge with a statue: for which cause an Ambassa­dor of Athens answered so freely King Philip of Macedon, who threatned him, that he would cause his head to be cut off: If thou takest this head from me, my Country will giue mee another that shall be immortall: Statuam pro capite, pro morte immortalitatem. Ne­uerthelesse euery one would not like of such a change, and some would ra­ther [Page]keepe their owne: and if the Am­bassadors escaped the danger, and had well serued the Commonwealth, there were recompenses answerable to the desertes appointed vnto them.

The English Ambassador, Sir Ed­ward Stafford, on the day, or the next day after the Barricadoes of Paris, when a Lorde of the faction of the Duke of Guise, that dead is, woulde haue him take a pas-port or safe-gard from the said duke, made him answer: I am vnder the safegard of the law of na­tions, and in the protection of the King, to whom you are but subiects and seruantes. This proceeded from a generous reso­lution, euen in the furies of a popular commotion, when the most mutinous could do all, and good men feared all. The Lord of Mortfontaine, that dead is, going Ambassadour into Swisser­land, about fiue yeeres past, and being to passe through the County of Bur­gundie, which, at that time, was full of [Page]Spanish and Italian Souldiers going into Flaunders, spake very freely vnto those of the parliament of Dole, which would haue put him in feare, to the end, that hee might not arriue in due time at the assembly of Baden, wherein they had some practise against the Kings seruice. That he was vnder the assurance of the Law of nations, and of the Newtrality, and in the protecti­on of the Lords of the Cantons, and that they should readily determine to make his passage safe, and this furthe­red him: albeit that which he aledged of the Law of nations was very dispu­table: as I told him as soone as wee were out of danger. I will speake a worde agayne theereof in his due place.

Furthermore, these are too common and childish precepts, to admonish him to be patient, and staied, if he see any to breake out through impatience (as they doe most commonly) who [Page]thinke they haue right and reason on their sides. Especially, the Swissers and Germans, who are cholerike. The sence being distempered, choketh rea­son: and choller is an enimy to coun­saile, breeding hatred and contempt, and is ill-befitting to euery man much more to a man that manageth the chiefe affaires of an Estate, which many times hee hurteth through his hastinesse, coller and impatience. The Frenchman who hath his bloud hote, and his spirit more stirring, hath con­sequently certaine quicke disposi­tions, which other Nations doe not allow of; at least, they woulde bee more tolerable in martiall men, yea, in any other man, than in an Ambas­sador, and Counsellor of Estate. I wish neuerthelesse that he would moderate his grauitie so, as it be not hautie, as that of the Spaniards oftentimes is, in their speach, countenance, traine and gate: One that hath beene Ambassa­dor [Page]in England since in France, for the last King of Spaine was wont to say: Dios es poderoso en el ciel, y, el Rey d'Espagna en la tierra. He had his hor­ses and coach garnished with litle bels, and hauing but three steppes from his lodging to the Church, neverthe­lesse, both he and his traine woulde mount on horsebacke in their litter or coach. The letters of occurrents re­porte, that an other, departing from Rome to follow the Pope went forth with seauen litters, six coaches, drawne euery one with sixe horses, two hun­dred seruants, sixty wagons loaden with baggage, and the first day hee passed not the first gate. This fashion is held for good amongest them.

Let vs returne into our way againe, for to adde vnto our Ambassador one of the worthiest qualities which hee can purchase vnto himselfe. That is, to be, and to seeme, a most discreete [Page]man. The which he cannot better do, then by these two vertues, to be Cha­ritable and Veritable. For the for­mer, there are some which repine at that which is giuen to the poore, and neuerthelesse, are otherwise at great expences, as if the one and the other were incompatible things. Our fore­fathers did say, that Wisdome and Ho­nesty make a discreet man. Then what may a man expect of the honesty of such a one as refuseth the guift of a halfepenny to a begger, or of his wis­dome, if he would be accounted libe­rall, and neuerthelesse spareth halfe a dozen of Crownes in almes euery yeare? This is matter for Preachers, and Ecclesiastes saith, Fili, ne auertas o­culos tuos ab egeno. And if one must not turne away his eyes from seeing the miserable, much lesse is it lawfull to reproach and reuile them, and to adde an iniury to a refusall.

The other marke of discretion, is, to [Page]be veritable sparing in promising & religious in obseruing that once he hath promised: for naturally one is lesse of­fended at a refusal then at an vnfaithfulnes: nothing wil so much preserue his reputation, especially amongst mer­chants and mony-men: There ha­uing bene such an Ambassador seene, as by his credit alone hath borowed so notable a summe, and by the same done so worthy seruice to his Master, that at the last, he hath both deserued, and receiued a great reward: But the reward which is most pleasing to a good man, is the honour it selfe which ariseth vnto him by his vertue. The Germans and other Nations of that Climate make more account of a pro­mise made, then wee doe, who most commonly serue our turnes therewith to ridde our handes of such as are im­portunate. I haue alwaies seene Mon­sieur de Sillary (who hath beene neere about eight yeeres Ambassador in [Page] Swisserland, and hath there serued the King very profitably, during the des­perate estate of our affaires) be verie sparing in making any promise to the Swissers. For those people, for the most part, do note downe, the place, day and houre, that they were spoken with, yea euery word of an Ambassa­dor, still seeking to engage him in his promise: and do carefully keepe the letters which hee writeth vnto them: and take hold of the very hopes that are giuen vnto them: and would make the same to stand insteed of a bill or obligation: how much more a pro­mise written, or his word giuen? Let our Ambassador, therefore remem­ber the saying of an aundent Writer: Thinke an houre before you speake, and a day before you promise.

And further, one hath time among them to bethinke himselfe and delibe­rate of that which is to be answered vnto them, and they themselues vse [Page]the same maner. But much more spa­ring ought he to be to oblige his Ma­ster: and although he haue ful autho­ritie to doe it, neuerthelesse he shall do well, if the seruice of his Maister per­mit it, to giue him aduice therof, before the conclusion and contract be pas­sed, for besides that the wils of Princes are subiect to changes, that which hee shall do, shalbe so much the more au­thorized, and himselfe be without re­proach. I will adde this word by the way vpon this point of contracts and treaties, that they ought to be couch­ed in termes plaine, not ambiguous, nor captious, and to follow as much as may be, the termes and clauses of pre­sidents. The Ambassador makes the Prince to speake therein, for whom it is vnseemely to vse ambiguities and subtilties, for feare lest it be told him as it was to the Emperour Charles the fist, by Duke Mauritius, vpon the e­quiuocation of these two words: Enig [Page]and Enig: Sir, these subtilties are meet for an Aduocate, but not for an Em­perour.

True it is, that there is not almost any publike charge, wherein there is more lying, and sometimes by the Ma­sters commaundement, and for the good of his seruice, as I will shew by and by. I haue seene some of them, who through an habitude of lying, haue of men of fidelity, become at last very sound liers. Ecclesiasticus also saith, that the vse thereof is euill. Noli velle mentiri omne mendacium: assiduitas enim illius non est bona. Others ther are, who that they may not lie so aparant­ly, helpe themselues with ambiguous tearmes, couched so artificially, that the subtilest heads knowe not where to find an Yea or a Nay. In these ther is least harme: and they escape best when they are sommoned and do lesse wrong to their Masters, and to his re­putation: neuerthelesse this shift is [Page]soone smelled out and descried: and the lier g [...]neth thus much thereby, that he is not belieued, euen when hee telleth truth. Let him be therefore true in his words, mindefull of that which he hath promised, correspondent to himslefe, holding alwayes agreeable conclusions in his discourses: to the end that the contrary be not imputed to him for follie and vnstayednesse.

Here ariseth a question, to wit, If a man, to liue ciuillie, ought to be more enclined to refuse, than to grant: for­asmuch as some make all demaunds and requests that are made vnto them so difficult, that they seeme to doe it of purpose to excuse themselues from them. Others neuer refuse any thing, for not discontenting any man for the present time Guicciardine seemeth to leane to this opinion, that one ought not to refuse any thing absolutely: be­cause, saith he, if the request be for a thing hereafter to come, or for a mat­ter [Page]that dependeth on the will of ano­ther: there happen many occasions by which thou maist be discharged of thy promise, whereas by a flat deniall, or in making the matter difficult, thou offendest thy friend. I beleeue that there is a meane betweene these two extreamities: for the wise Ambassa­dor, by giuing other counsel and dire­ction, or testifying a good wil by other gratious effects and honest speeches, may mollifie the deniall which many times he is inforced to vse to demands that are made out of time, and without reason. A lesson in particular, for the Ambassadors of Swisserland, and the Grisons, whose affaires are full of such importunities, I meane for those that shall come after Monsieur de Vicque, who hauing gotten so much reputati­on in the other charges which he hath managed heretofore, doth in this one surmount himselfe.

And to returne to our matter, the [Page]same Guicciardine saieth, that when a Prince would deceiue his companion, he first deceiueth his Ambassador, to the intent that his reasons may be the more effectuall, and his perswasions may carry weight: for there is lesse affection vsed in that which is dissem­bled.

But whether must he lie vppon his owne knowledge for his Masters ser­uice, as I said before? Some excuse it vpon the Maisters commandement, saying, that he is sufficiētly discharged, in hauing done or said that which was enioyned him: no more, nor no lesse then the subiect which beareth armes for his Prince, and asketh not whether the warre be just or no. But indeede this seemeth hard vnto a good man, that doeth not willingly wound his conscience, to get the Title of a suf­ficient man: this is also hard vnto a man of a generous and open spirite, who in lying doth violence to his na­turall [Page]disposition: for lying & dissimu­lation are assured marks of an ignoble hart, and of a man basely borne. So the Satire would no longer conuerse with the man, after he had seene him blowe hot and cold out of one mouth. Con­sidering also, that a good man ought alwayes to set before his eyes, Honour and Conscience, although there were profit in doing euill.

His charge in Generall.

LEt vs now speake of the matter of his charge, but generally, foras­much as the diuersitie of Estates and affaires require also a diuersitie of in­structions, for otherwise is he to beare himselfe in a popular estate then with a Soueraigne Prince. Solemne spee­ches and declamations are yet in some vse amongst popular Estates and com­mon-wealths: and these they must af­ter deliuer vnto them in writing, be­cause [Page]they will not be mistooken, and will haue time to make answer. There are more formalities, and comple­ments obserued in one place than in a­nother. In Swisserland there must be more mony than arte, more good cheere than faire words. For which cause, some of them prayed me to tell the King, that they had more need of a Treasurer with mony, than of an Ambassador with wordes. In some o­ther Estates Honour swayeth most, together with Complements, and streames of Rhetorike. The very re­spect of Religion hath had more force with some Princes than monie: here­of in our time, wee haue hadde expe­rience. Some instructions are limited, and some at the discretion of him that is sent, as in affairs of secrecie, and such, as whereof no certainty or knowledge can be had, but in the place if selfe be­ing then represented to the sight.

Some also are for a time, and for [Page]one matter: othersome for a long time, and diuers businesses, and by reason to the difference of affaires, the same is infinite, as I haue before saide. Yet a man may giue it this one generall rule; That as much as possibly hee can, hee employ the words, termes, reasons and conclusions that are comprehended in his instructions to be alwaies aiming the will of his Maister. Demosthenes saide: Wee giue them not forces or shippes of warre to manage, but words, daies, houres, and moments, and they also are to giue an account e­uen to sillables and minutes, if they doe any thing to the preiudice of the Common-wealth. Plato in his Com­monwealth, would, that those that had done or saide one thing for another, should be punished with death. Man­datum i [...]sdem verbis, quoad eius fieri po­tuit, perfici debet, as the Lawe sayeth: Yea, and an Ambassador ought to de­sire that his commission be giuen him [Page]in writing, when the affaire wherea­bout he goieth to treat, is of great con­sequence, or that the effect thereof is odious. And in this case hee shall be rightly counsailed to giue vp his speech in writing, as those did whom the Senate sent to Anthonie, for feare of displeasing him: And as of late an Ambassador of Paris did to a neigh­bour Princesse, to whome he caried a message, with threatning hir, if she did not forbeare to giue succours vnto her confederates, and he did well: for it was resolued to detaine him, if he had not shewed his instructions sufficient­ly ratified. Yea, and although the af­faires for the which hee was sent, hath not sorted to good effect, yet shall hee be excused for hauing followed his in­structions. And withall, in a limited authoritie, one is not alwayes admitted to say: I haue done better than it was en­ioyned me, for that is to seeme to be wiser than his Maister and his coun­sell. [Page]An example whereof in a case of warre in Posthumius, Manlius and other Romanes, which caused their owne sons to be put to death, for ha­uing fought with the ennemy without leaue, although with prosperous suc­cesse. An example also in him who hauing receiued cōmandemēt to cause a great mast of a ship, to be brought, Did chuse one somwhat lesser, which he said was fitter for the purpose: and said truth, neuerthelesse was blamed for it. And in our fathers time, The Mareschall de Thermes being General in Scotland of the Kings army, gaue a rewarde to a Souldier that had first mounted vpon the bulwarke of a fort which he besieged, wherupon insued the gaining of the fort: and an howre after caused him to be hanged for ha­uing beene so hardy, as to goe thither without commaundement. But (not to depart from our present argument) Metrodorus being sent in the behalfe [Page]of his maister Mithridates to King Tigranes, to request him to ioyne his forces with him in the warre which he entended against the Romans, was punished for hauing made this double answere to Tigranes, who asked his aduice therein: As being an Ambas­sador I counsell you vnto it: but as being Metrodorus, I am not of that opinion: and he said well, for his Ma­ster would gladly haue beene ridde of so dangerous an enterprise.

It is therefore better, to faile in o­beying, than to incurre the hazard of being disallowed in well doing: espe­cially in these limited authorities. But Princes sometimes are ill warrants for such things as they haue commanded, how much more for those things that they haue not commaunded? The A­thenians caused the Ambassadors which they sent into Arcadia to bee put to death, for hauing tooken an o­ther way than was commanded them. [Page]And it is not very long since that a Se­cretarie of Estate wrote vnto an Am­bassador, the which had, of his owne head, and yet not without good cause, hazarded, certain monies of the kings, through a dangerous way; His Ma­iestie thinks well of it, since that the mat­ter hath falne out well. And it doth not often happen, that the Ambassador hath so little time, that he cannot both giue and aske aduice of his master concerning the same. Which is al­wayes the meetest and surest way, to make apparant vnto him, both his re­spectiuenesse, and diligence.

Another point is, de libero mandato, and of instructions not signed nor li­mited: or else of those, to which the Athenians added, Legati praeterea quic­quid boni possunt agunto. In this case they had full libertie to threate, doe, and conclude that which they iudged to be profitable for the seruice of their Soueraigne. There are also some af­faires [Page]so secret, so important, so vrgent, so desperate, that it is expedient to committe all to the wisedome of the Ambassador, as Tacitus saith, speaking of Drusus, who was sent in the behalfe of his father Tiberius toward the muti­nous Legions: Nullis certis mandatis ex re consulturum mittit: and as in for­mer times when the Commonwealth was in danger, all was committed to the power and will of the Dictator. Neuerthelesse men placed in great charge are so exposed vnto enuie and slaunder, that our Ambassador shall doe very discreetely, not to conclude any thing without his Masters com­mandement, as I haue said, out of his due place. Vnlesse, when the matter cannot admit any delay, to communi­cate it with two or three of the most experienced seruants that his Master hath in the Country where hee is, for the matter happening to fall out ill, hee shall auoide the reproach of hauing [Page]done it alone, and without aduice. The which I say also, and chiefly for him that shall haue his remembrances in expresse words, and signed: to whom neuerthelesse some newe accident might befall, which was neither fore­seene, nor comprehended within his commission, for oftentimes the A­gents and Ministers of Princes doe finde at their arriuall, matters other-therwise disposed then was before i­magined; especially in time of warre, and in a country farre distant. And there needeth to a new businesse a new aduice: as namely, if he had bin commanded to vse gentle and grati­ous tearmes, it may be peraduenture more needefull that he spake roughly and in threatning maner, or to change and omit something enioyned by his instructions. Hee shall likewise haue this aduice of me, that through too much diligence and earnestnesse, hee giue not or augment the suspition [Page]which might be had of the cause of his comming, and that he doe not disco­uer it, through too much arte and tal­king. The great preparation of him that feareth to be surprised, maketh his feare to increase: and his feare aug­menteth his enemies courage: it be­ing otherwise very certaine, that all things which are affected, disguised, or augmented, are naturally suspected.

Yet another aduice, which is, that there are some, who at their comming make the affaires of their Maister or Commonwealth, to be so feeble, and so desperate, as nothing more, think­ing to stirre vp compassion, and to be the sooner succoured; but many Prin­ces contemne those that are in necessi­tie, and do no good but to those whom they feare, or from whom they expect profite. Yea, there are some that re­iect the distressed, accompting that they are abandoned of God and For­tune, all at once: as if God had no o­ther [Page]ther blessing than that of the goods of fortune: but a holy Father of the Church hath holily saide, Multa de­us negat propicius, quae concedit iratus. God is not alwayes angrie when hee denieth vs any thing. God is not al­wayes pleased when he granteth vs a­ny thing. He must therefore remem­ber, that oftentimes the countenance carrieth away the game, and that com­passion is not lodged, but in a truely humane, and christian heart, and sel­dome indeede in the hearts of the Mightie, and of their Counselors.

We saide then, that many things ought to be left to the discretion of a wise Ambassador, without binding his tongue and hands. Mitte sapientem & nihildicito. But when he hath car­ried himselfe therein like an honest man, it is wickedly done to reward him with a dissalowance, and such Princes deserue not to be serued of honest men, especially when they haue [Page]done well. Industrie and Diligence are of our selues but a happy successe is from heauen. Neuerthelesse there are some things subiect to dissallow­ance, as are the haughtie and insolent words which an Ambassador hath v­sed, or else the secret plottes and pra­ctises, which he worketh in the Estate where he is resident, if it be without commandement, and euen populare estates haue made a prouiso for the same, without expecting a dissallow­ance.

Amongst others, there is an ex­presse law amongst the Grisons, made in the month of February, MDLXXX by which, all Agentes, Ministers, and Factors of forraine Princes, are prohibited to make any secret or open complotts, or else to spreade any new thing among the people, without ad­uertizing the generall assembly of their three Cantons, vpon paine of being held prisoners. This lawe is [Page]closely in all other Estates, if it be not expressed in words: whereof we will anone speake in his place. As for words, it is certaine that how absolute soeuer the Prince, or great the Com­monwealth is which he representeth, the respect and the ciuilitie which hee looketh for, is reciprocall on his part. The more or the lesse is referred to his discretion the which he ought to haue for guide and mistres in all his actions. The kezar or great duke of Muscouie causd an Ambassadors hat to be naild to his head, for not hauing done him honour enough. Such a one would rather haue cast his hat vnder his feet.

The Doctor B. speaking vnto the Counsaile of the late King, in the be­halfe of his Maister, vsed so vnciuill wordes, that hee offended euery man: and it was not beleeued that his com­mission warranted such language, ne­uerthelesse they would not aggrauate matters then. Anthonie caused the [Page]Ambassadour of Augustus to bee whipt, for hauing spoken to Cleopatra with too little respect: and the Gree­kish Emperor Emanuel caused, for the like occasion, the Venetian Ambassa­dors eyes to be plucked out, for some­times Ambassadours bearing them­selues bold on the greatnesse of their Masters, do forget themselues, and e­specially those that are brought vp in popular Estates, and which are accu­stomed to a liberty of speaking, as the Romans in former times. It is a sto­ry worthy to be noted of one of the two Ambassadours which those of Thebes sent vnto king Artaxerxes, who seeing the honour which was gi­uen vnto him, to be great, and verie neere vnto adoration, that hee might not bee reprehended for doing too much or too little therein, fained in sa­luting him, to take vp his ring, which he had of purpose let fall vppon the ground. Contrariwise Timagoras be­ing [Page]sent in the behalfe of those of A­thens to the same King was reprehen­ded for hauing done honor vnto him, not as a Citizen of Athens, but as a subiect of Persia. In like maner, there are great submissions to be done to the grand Signor by al the Ambassadors, to whom, or the greater part of them, he giueth entertainement by mouth, and there is danger in omitting them. For perhappes it would not happen so well with al men, as it did once to an Ambassador of France, that was so ie­lous of the dignitie of his Master, that hee handsomely shifted himselfe out of the handes of two Baschaes, that conducted him according to the cu­stome, and on a sodaine presented himselfe to the Grand Signor, with­out doing him any other honour than that which is giuen vnto the Princes of Christendome. His freedome and plainenesse serued him for an excuse: but his successor in that charge, which [Page]was his Nephew, would not vse the like: he ought therefore to holde his degree and the dignitie of his Maister prouided, that it be without contempt of the Prince to whom he is sent, and so Monsieur de la Noue speaketh ther­of in this iudicious obseruations vpon Guicciardine.

See yet another aduice which is not to be neglected, which is, that he ac­cept no charge or commission from a­ny other than his Maister. An Am­bassage and a Comedie are different things; A man cannot therein play di­uerse partes vnder diuers garments, for feare lest it befall him as it did to an Ambassador sent to the Emperor, who being requested by a Cardinall to doe in his name, faith, homage, and submis­sion, for certaine lands held held of the Em­peror, was admitted to doe it, but not without the mockery of those which had seene him the day before in his dignitie of an Ambassador, the which [Page]hee destained by this submission, doe­ing wrong to his owne reputation and to the greatnesse of his ma [...]ster, both at once. Neyther at his returne from his charge, ought he to bring credence or message from him to whom hee had beene sent, besides the busines which he went to treate of: for that is suspi­cious and ill befitting, if it be not be­tweene Princes that are neere of blood and very good friendes, and for a mat­ter common betweene them, and not odious.

But to returne to the matter of his charge, if he haue not lessons giuen him by writing, it is no danger to tell him in generall, that hee shall do well to learne, what is the forme of gouern­ment of the Countrie wherein hee is, the limites, greatnesse and largenesse thereof, the maners of the people, the number of places of strength, hauens and vessels, the store-houses of muni­tion, the forces of warre for sea and [Page]land, what may be drawne out of the Country without vnfurnishing the frontiers and places of importance; the entrances into the Countrie, the or­dinarie and extraordinarie reuenewe; the Treasure and meane in ready mo­ny; the alliances offensiue and defen­siue with other Princes and Estates neare or far off; the traffike, commerse, plentie and fertilitie thereof: and if it be a Prince, to know the humour and inclination of him, and of those that rule most about him to know the dis­contentment the people hath of his behauiour, the iealousies and practises of the Great-ones, the factions and particularities in the estate, and whe­ther it be for the state, or for religion, or for any other occasion, his yearely expences, both for his house, as for his frontiers and garrisons. Aboue all, let him always haue an eye abroad into the country, to discouer, if there be any stirring against the seruice of his Mai­ster, [Page]or against his confederates. The which he shall much better learne, if hee be dayly attendant at the Court, vnlesse at such times as the king with­draweth himselfe for his recreation: (for, in such a case hee should make himselfe to be held suspected and im­portunate) in popular Estates to be al­wayes present at their diets, meetings, and assemblies, or to haue some one of his owne company there, to the end that there be no euill resolution taken to the preiudice of his master.

He ought also to visite the prince­pall Councellors, the Secretaries of E­state, and amongest others, him that Hath the charge of forraine affaires, to entertaine them at times with magni­ficence and affability; but yet seldome. He shal also visit the Ambassadors of other Princes and Common wealths, that are resident in the same Court, but yet sparingly, that he may not gine them a shadow of himselfe. A for­raine [Page]Ambassador that was of late in our Court, saw no man, nor suffered himselfe to be seene but once in three moneths. And God knoweth if his aduices were slender and barren. Cy­neas being Ambassador for Pyrrhus vnto the Romans did much better. He knew al the Senators and saluted them euery one by his name. Which made him the more acceptable and fauour­ed. I haue seene some Ambassadors of Ʋenice to performe this poynt with much dexteritie: & for the most part they haue no neede but of this instru­ction, for the relations which at their returne they are accustomed to present to the Signeurie maketh those which succeed them to be sufficiently instru­cted in that which they ought to know in an Estate.

Yet must our Ambassador, in this, aswell as in all the other prates of his charge, vse great discretion, for that all Princes are naturally iealous of the [Page]secrecies of their Estates. There is an expresse law of Honorius and Theodo­sius de alieni regni arcanis non scrutandis. I remember that the late Monsieur B. who followed Monsieur the late Duke of Aniow into England, was there ma­ligned for his vndiscreete curiositie, al­though that otherwise hee was estee­med for his learning. Being at dinner with an English Lord, he beganne to speake of the succession (a matter then amongst them odious and capitall) and affirmed, that a certaine Princesse was the presumptiue inheritrix thereunto: notwithstanding a certaine law which seemed to exclude those that were borne out of the land: and yet, saide he, I know not where this law is for all the diligence which I haue vsed to finde it out. It was sodainely replied vnto him by this Lord: You shall finde it on the backe side of the Sa­licque law, a indicious and biting re­bound, which instantly stopt the curi­ositie [Page]of this man, which indeede was in all respects out of season: for at that time there was a treaty of marriage be­tweene his Master and the Queene of England. Neither doth Plutarch place this discourse of Bodin amongst talke fit for the table. And in truth it was taken in ill part, that this man had written and published some matter of England, vpon report of some particu­lar men, without other verification. Therefore in searching out these mat­ters he ought to be wonderfully dis­creete and considerate. In France all things are exposed to the curiositie of strangers, partly through our naturall libertie in speaking of all things, partly by reason of the fashions in the estate, and the diuisions in religion, which for the space of fortie yeares haue shaken France: but principally, through the greatnesse and largeness of this Estate, wherein it is more difficult to remedy this mischiefe, then in alesser Realme, [Page]or small Commonwealth, where it is easier to stoppe priuate mens mouths.

Amongst the meanes howe to be enformed of the affaires of a Country, besides mony which maketh the clo­sest Cabinets of Princes to flie open, there is one more open, and lesse sus­pected. Which is, entertainement at the table, which obligeth many peo­ple, and especially those, who to haue a free recourse thereunto, or to drawe from the Ambassador some dosen of crownes, smell out all the newes and report them vnto him, at his table, or in priuate. True it is that they are not always of a true stample, and it be hooueth a wise man to weigh them well, and learne the truth thereof, be­fore he make vse of it, and that, if pos­sibly he can, he await the proceeding and issue of the matter, and the effect of a deliberation that is taken, before he giue aduise thereof: for that all things in the worlde are subiect to [Page]change. A Gentleman (that was o­therwise excellently qualified) being at the beginning of these last troubles sent vnto the Court, to learne what was in working against his Maister, and those of his party, suffered him­selfe to be led on with the faire words of the Court, hauing forgotten the first secret of his charge. To take heed rather to that which is done, then to that which is spoken. I haue seene o­thers to haue failed in the like, who for a desire which they had to giue fresh intellignences, wrote all things indiffe­rently, were it false or true, and often­times at the first answere which they receiued from the Court, were rewar­ded for their dilligence with some piece of mockery. Others fall into this extreamitie of writing, euen to the least occurrences of a countrie, the quarrells of particular men, the loue of Ladies in Court, the executions of iustice, the orders for receiuing the [Page]treasure, and of the gouernement: or other friuolous matters which no way concerne the Estate, much like those aduises and occurants of Italie, which are fit for nothing but to make worke for idle heads. It is true, that there are some Princes and Ladies woulde knowe all: for contenting of whose curiositie, I woulde make a priuate letter, which not medling with the af­faires of his charge, should not neede to be carried or read vnto the Coun­sell.

Here ariseth a question, if an Am­bassador ought to giue aduise vnto his Master, of all that which is spoken amisse of him: because that aduise ther­of may come vnto him by other meanes then from himselfe, who in such cases ought to take good heede that he be not preuented. I remem­ber me, to this effect, of the Agent of a neighbour Princesse, who seeing the wrong that such reportes would bring [Page]vnto the seruice and common cause of the one and the other, did rather chuse to conceale the vndiscreete spee­ches which he had heard. I commen­ded and admired his discretion, ex­horting him, in the like occasions, to yeeld vnto the publike good, the par­ticular offence of some particular druncken or witlesse fellow. Euen so Philip de Comines complaineth that by the report made of a few words, there hath many times a good alliance beene broken, or a good and profitable ef­fect hindered. It is an other thing, if in full counsell of the Prince, or in the Pulpit by the Preachers, or on the Theater by stage players, or by wri­ting or Lybels, he see the honour of his Maister defamed. For hee ought forthwith to aduertise him of it, and withall to craue Iustice, and amends for the same, of those that ought to grant it vnto him: Yet neuerthelesse moderating himselfe, for not making [Page]the mischief to be greater than it is; for so it befalleth them as with Women, who many times through too much defending of their Honesty, make it more doubtfull and suspected, especi­ally, when they adde thereto much af­fection and feruencie, as Tacitus saith, Cōnicia si irascare, agnita videntur, spre­ta exolescunt. But what if himselfe re­ceiue any iniury for his owne particu­lar or any of his followers? It must be distinguished, whether the iniury be done vnto him in publike, of t he Prince or Commonwealth, in which he is resident. As that Ambassadour of Rome, on whom in full assembly Thelitizeus of Tarentum threw durt and pisse. I haue saith he, more then I demanded, but one day you shall wash my cloathes with your bloud; and his prophesie fell true, and hee ought forthwith to aduertise his Ma­ster thereof, that he may doe therein as he shall iudge to be for the best. Or [Page]else, whether that the indignitie were offered vnto him by some particular person: In this case the way of com­plaint is open vnto him, to haue right by the ordinary course of Iustice, which shall vnfainedly be granted vn­to him, if be not intended to breake off with his Maister. For it is not de­nied vnto strangers by the same law of Nations, Plato saith, that God hath a particular rate of strangers, & the fur­ther off that a stranger is from the suc­cor of his kindred & friends, the more he is in the protection of God. Om­nia in Perigrinos quam in ciues peccata grauiora sunt & magis vltori Deo curae. And withall, the person of the Prince seemeth to be violated in the person of the Ambassador, who hauing put himselfe into the protection, and vnder the assurance of a publike faith, hath receiued a wrong or an indignitie, and is bound to cause true Instice and full amends to be made vnto him.

Let vs speake a word of his aduises, because most commonly it is not knowne what an Ambassador doeth in his charge, but by that which him­selfe writeth. It was once forgotten that there was an Ambassador in Den­marke, if the late Sieur de Douse a wor­thy Gentleman, and who hath beene there aboue thirtie yeares, had not at length remembred it himselfe. For that in so farre a Countrie, and where the affaires were not very great, an Ambassador hath seldome sufficient occasion to make his vertue knowne, and for that things are worth no more then the value that is made of them, hee shall doe well to make himselfe knowne by his aduises which are loo­ked on and considered by the Secre­tarries of Estate, read vnto the Coun­sell, and represented vnto the Prince, according vnto the worth of the sub­iect. They must therefore be graue, briefe, well compact, containing much [Page]in few words, couched in tearmes, ra­ther ordinary then borrowed, interla­ced sometimes with sententious clau­ses, and points, yet very seldome; and that they may be the better vnder­stood, it shall be good to articulate e­uery affaire apart: as commonly those of Monsieur de Vileroy (chiefe and most worthy Secretary of the Commande­ments) are, and as the vse is in the most parte of the Chaunceries in Germanie. For my part, I cannot allow the ma­ner of writing of such as tie themselues to a continnuate running on, and hea­ping together of their letters, notwith­standing the difference of affaires which they containe, and it seemeth, as it were a course couering or other like worke made of diuerse pieces ioyned together. And if his Maisters seeruice can admitt it, I would rather giue no new aduise, vntill I had answere vnto the former. Order and Methoode in all things easeth the minde, and aug­menteth [Page]the memory. Likewise if it fall out that he must write many let­ters of the same subiect, for the same place, as it ordinarily happeneth, hee shall doe well to vse as much diffe­rence as he can in the tearmes & stile, that they may not be like to a Noto­ries president.

I must now speake concerning Pre­sidencie, whereof there are a thousand good poynts to be spoken, which are for a seuerall discourse. I wil only say, that if an Ambassador will reape ho­nour of his charge, it is meete that he doe honour vnto the same, and that he be iealous of the degree and place which is due vnto his Maister, with­out yeelding any iote thereof vnto an other. Princes and soueraigne estates doe hold many times more deare, the conseruation of their degree and dig­nitie than of their lands and possessi­ons. So Arcases, did put his Ambas­sador to death: for hauing surren­dered [Page]his place vnto Sylla, (as Plutarke saith.

It is true, that alwayes such questi­ons doe not arise, because almost eue­ry one throughout all places knoweth the degree and place, that is due vnto him. In the Court of Rome for these 50. or 60. yeares, the Ambassador of Spaine hath made question of prece­dencie with those of France. There was a great alteration therein at the Councell of Trent. At Ʋenice it hath beene adiudged to him of France. The late Aduocate Pithou affirmeth, that in all the prouincials of all the Cathe­drall Churches of Christendome that haue beene imprinted at Rome euen to this present, the King of France is put the first of all other Kings, being se­conded by the King of England, and then by him of Spaine. Bodin sayeth, that in the ceremonie, of the Order of England, the place of the King of France, is at the right hand of the [Page]chiefe of the Order, and so it was de­creed at a Chapter helde on the eue of Saint George patron of that Order, in the yeare 1555 by the knights of the Garter, albeit that the King of Spaine had maried Mary the elder sister of the late Queene of England, I beleeue that there would be no lesse honour done vnto him in Scotland, Denmarke, & of many princes and potentates of Germany and Italy. But the Emperor being neere kins-man, of the same name and armes, that the King of Spaine is, giueth the precedencie to his Ambassador; and the last Empe­ror was content that it should goe by turnes, (as anciently that of the Ro­man Consulls was, and at present that of the Burghemaisters, and Auoyers in some Cantons of Swisserland is) to the end not to displease th'one nor the other. Neuerthelesse the King sent word vnto Monsieur de la Forrest his Ambassador, that he should not alter [Page]any thing in this matter, without his expresse commandement. The Se­nate of Polonia, to a like question or­dayned, tha the first come should be the first heard. At an other time, at the Councell of Constance the Am­bassador of England, debated it with him of France, whose strongest argu­ment was the title which his Maister then tooke of, King of England and France. And he possessed Aquitania and pretended vnto Normandie. I haue heard reported that an Ambassadour of the Kings in Swisserland being in company with the Ambassador of Spaine at the assembly of Baden, and seeing that the spaniard alwaies stroue for the way, made as if hee would buy something at a Marchantes shoppe where both of them staying together the French stepped out first and took the aduantage. The best is in such occasions, neuer to meet together, vn­lesse that the seruice of his maister doe [Page]require it. At least he can excuse him­selfe for publike places and ceremo­nies as hath bin practised at Rome for these certaine yeares. And if so be our Ambassador chance to be present at such like altercation of other Am­bassadors, he must take heed, not to inuest himselfe in the one side or the other, or any way to interpose himselfe therein without his masters comman­dement. It is not so for al other diffe­rences that many fal out in the countrie where he is, especially if hee perceiue his Maister to haue any interest there­in: as when there hapneth any discord amongst the Swissers, or the Grisons, all which haue almost as many com­mon-wealthes as they haue Citties and Corporations. And it is very hard that in that great body so diuersly com­pounded with difference of customes, languages, and religion, (in one only Canton of the Grisons, there are three different languages spoken) there [Page]growe not amongest them (as wise as they all are) some occasion of disputa­tion, wherein the wise Ambassadour may make the dexteritie of his spirit to preuaile, by setting them at accord, im­ploying the affection of his Maister towardes the one side and the other to oblige them both vnto him. The which thing the Sieur de Liuer­dis last Ambassador for the King a­mongst the Grisons knewe how to handle both wisely and profitably, when he sawe they were on termes of disagreeing and I can speak for a cer­tainty, that his memory is yet helde deare amongest them. The Interest of the King in these two estates is, that during their diuisions hee can leuie no forces, nor be succoured with their people to any purpose, if hee shoulde stand in neede of them. About the yeere 1602. the Sieur de Dase by his wise Meditation accorded to twoo Kings of Denmarke & Swethen being [Page]ready to enter into warre, and both of them made choice of him for Arbitra­tor of their differences.

His Priuiledges.

IT followeth now to speake of the priuileges & immunities of an Am­bassador, not only for the respect of his owne person, but also of those of his family, & of all that appertaineth vnto him: for concerning his person, euery man knoweth, that by the lawes of God & man, euen amongst barbarous nations, and in the middest of the armes and armies of enemies, the per­son of an Ambassador hath in all ages beene adudged holy, sacred, and inuio­lable: for if besides the perill and in­conueniences of a long voyage, to which they expose themselues, they should not be in safetie in the place whereunto they goe, there would ne­uer be any which would vndertake the [Page]hazard thereof, and consequently there would neuer any longer be made any truce, peace, or establishment of commerce: finally, we should fall a­gaine into that first Chaos, and con­fusion of all things. And likewise the punishments of those that haue done violence vnto them, haue in all times beene very rigorous: this lawe being growne into a prouerbe: Legatus neque coeditur neque violatur. And when men haue not taken punishment for the same, it hath beene obserued from age to age, that God hath not suffiered this offence vnpunished: wit­nesse the subuersion of Carthage, of Sirus, of Thebes, and of so many other Citties, yea Prouinces, and whole Kingdomes. Dauid fought against, discomfited and brought into bon­dage the Ammonites for this cause. The histories both sacred and pro­phane doe afforde vs enough and too many examples hereof, King Frances [Page]the first denounced warre against the Emperour Charles for the murther of Amion and Fregose his Ambassadours. Yea, euen a rough and haughtie word, a scorne or contempt done vnto some Ambassadors hath beene oftentimes cause of the beginning of warre, as that of Dalmatia, whereof Nasica was Ge­nerall, and a long time after that of Si­mon King of Bulgarie, against Alexan­der Emperour of Constantinople. By a much stronger reason therefore if they haue beene outraged n their persons. Contrariwise this very name of Am­bassador hath beene in so great reue­rence with all good men, that some haue not so much as touched the per­sons of those that had beene surprised in working some practises at Rome with the rebells: The great Africanus sent home those of Carthage, although that their Masters had violated the lawe of nations in the persons of the Romane Ambassadors, and the Di­ctator [Page]Posthumius suffered certain spies to departe, who falsely termed themselues Ambassadors, and did no other harme vnto them. It is not long since that there was great courtesie shewed to an Ambassador of a neigh­bour Prince, which was discouered to haue complotted with the rebells of the Estate, for without more adoe he had feare to departe. Yet I aduouch that other haue dealt herein other­wise. And the three former examples are of meere curtesie and effects of the Roman generositie. King Frances the first hauing vnderstood that the Em­peror had put vnder custodie the Bi­shop of Tarbis his Ambassador, did the like vnto Granuelle, lodging him in the Chastelet without dooing him other hurt. And very seldome indeed hath that respect bin violated, which the law of Nations (I had thought to haue said of Nature) hath imprinted in the mindes of men, since the begin­ning [Page]of the world, if it were not perad­uenture by a Clement the VI. a Iulius the II. or some such other enemie of the name of France, or rather enemie of nature. The one reuiled and im­prisoned the Ambassadors of Germany and France, which went in their Mai­sters behalfe to offer him some good meanes of reconciliation. The other committed to prison and tortured a Bishop being an Ambassador of Sa­voy, that offered in the behalfe of his Master to enterpose himselfe in mak­ing peace betweene him and the King of France. In ancient times the Ro­manes contented themselues to carry vpon them certaine herbs which they called Sagmina, whereof they were cal­led Sancti, and the Greekes their [...], as the Heraldes their Caducei. This onely marke in those dayes held them inuiolable, and respected euen amongst the very Barbarous nations.

It is true that this respect, freedome [Page]and assurance which they haue for their Maisters sakes, giueth them no libertie to doe euill. In hoc datumius gentium, non vt laedant alios, sed ne ipsi laedantur: as saith a Writer of our time. For hee that hath falsified the publike faith, doth not deserue that it shoulde be kept vnto him; and a co­lourable Ambassage is so much the more to be punished, because often­times it concerneth the ruine of an E­state. And all lawes ordaine, that hee which abuseth his priuiledge, maketh himselfe vnworthy therof, and looseth it. For if hee worketh any plottes or practises, either by attempts on the person of the Prince to whom hee is sent, or any enterprise vppon his E­state, as Mendoza did in that of Eng­land, some sixteene or eighteene years past: At other times there was a di­stinction made, if there were but a counsell simply giuen, or a conspiracy made without execution, or else if the [Page]effect followed thereuppon. After­wards they would know if hee were a­betted in it by his Maister or not. The which the Romanes and others did many times put in practise, and those which were found to be disalowed by them, were deliuered and giuen ouer vnto him whom they had offended, or vnto his Maister. Dedebantur ex iure gentium. In the matter of Mendoza, the Queene of England laide no hand on him, but gaue him a Congee to de­parte out of her Realme. This was not done without consultation taken, whether there were lawe to stay him and haue him punished; saying, that in vaine, hee putteth himselfe vnder the sauegard of nations which violateth the lawe of nations: and there were many examples thereof, or at least if he should be held in safe keeping vntil aduise had beene giuen, and right re­quired of his Maister. They hauing done me the honour to aske my opini­on [Page]on herein, I told them that the most requisite and ordinary meanes, and sa­fest for the Estate, was to aduertise his Maister therof, & to expect his allow­ance or disallowance; but the Gentle­man whom they sent thither, was nei­ther seene nor heard by the King of Spaine, who made himselfe to be excu­sed by his weakenes of body, that he might auoide answering thereof: For­asmuch as his attēpts of long time plotted ted against England were to manifest, he would neuer he nor forsake him whom he had set on work. They were also aduised that the offence was only plotted, no executed, coeptum non con­summatum, as the Lawyers say. But in this last point I would not haue bin his warrant no more then of al others that make the like attempts, who falling in­to the hands of Princes or Common­weales that are more patient to beare a wrong & lesse stayed, should not es­cape so good cheape. For if it be gran­ted [Page]by both ciuill and naturall lawes to resist force with force, if Lex Talionis proceede from the law of nature: Yea, if such an enterprise had not beene left vnpunished in the very person of his Maister, if hee had beene present as it hath beene seene many times: I leaue it to be iudged of, if there were not good reason to detaine him, that I may say no worse. Considering that rule of the Common law. Vbi quis de­liquit iurisdictionem eius subijsse intelligi­gitur cuius in ditione deliquit. He is sub­iect vnto the laws of the Estate where the offence is commited, and there is no qualitie nor priuiledge that excu­seth him. Which I affirme although he had shewed his maisters commissi­on for the same. And indeede euery man vseth not in such a matter the pa­tience and prudence of a Romane Se­nate. For the truth is, that the Am­bassadour which vnder the title of a­mitie commeth towards a Prince, [Page]that is his Maisters alie: to serue him an ill turne, maketh himselfe culpable and without excuse: Bis peccat qui praetexta pietatis peccat: There being no priuiledge of the law of nations that can warrant him from the ordina­ry punishment of all such as trouble the quiet of any Estate. Which I affirm by so much the stronger reason, since that Procopius in his historie of the Gothes bringeth in Theodeadus saying vnto the Ambassador of Iustinian, that an attempt against the honour of a woman, or an indignitie done vnto a King by an Ambassador, deserueth punishment. Eatenus hac praerogati­ua possunt vti, quoad ab officio non rece­dunt. Nam legatum licet oceidere si in Regem fuit contumeliosus, aut si pudiciti­am alienae vxoris contrectauit. The ea­siest punishment is to expell him, and send him home vnto his Maister, or to demand Iustice to be done after that the crime shall be sufficiently auerred [Page]by letters or witnesses, or that the Am­bassador standeth conuict, by hauing entered into the execution and enter­prise. Thus many haue dealt as I haue said before, to shew themselues more religious in the preseruation of a pub­like and priuiledged person, or chari­table to render good for euill, as the Great Africanus did. Of whom when it was demanded in the open Senate, what should be done vnto the Am­bassadors of Carthage; are answered, Nihil tale quod Carthaginienses. Let vs not committe that fault which wee blame in them.

Therefore a wise Ambassador will not thrust himselfe into these perils, Neuerthelesse if he haue a Comman­dement from his Maister to doe it as we spake before, concerning deceipt and lies, Shal he be admitted to excuse himselfe thereby to iudge of the iust­nesse of his Maisters intentions and of the equitie of his commandements? [Page]Is it for him to diue into the secrets or to control the pleasure of his Prince? Heare a good man doth againe finde himselfe in great doubts what to doe, for if an Ambassadour ought to set be­fore his eyes, the honour, greatnesse, profite, and seruice of his Lorde, and that by these practises', some speciall seruice may be effected for him: I see­meth that it is not lawful for him to re­fuse his commaundement. This que­stion, me thinks, may be resolued by the solution of such as are made by Philosophers, Lawyers, and Diuines, concerning the obedience that the childe is bound to render to his father, the seruant vnto his Maister, the Sub­iect vnto his Prince, and the Vassal to his liege Lord. For all are of accord that this obediēce extendeth not vnto that which is against God, Nature, and Reason. But to lie, deceiue, betray, to attempt the life of a Soueraine prince, to make his subiects to reuolt from [Page]him, to weaken and trouble his Estate, especially in time of peace, and vn­der colour of amitie & alliance is di­rectly against the Commaundement of God, against the Lawes of Nature, and of Nations; It is a violating of the publike faith, without which, humane societie, and finally the frame of the world would be dissolued. And the Ambassador which serueth his Mai­ster in such an affaire, committeth a double offence, both for that he ser­ueth him in the enterprise and execu­tion of so ill an action; and for that hee dooth not giue him better counsell which he is bound to doe by the dutie of his charge, which charge compre­hendeth the qualitie of a Counsellour of Estate for time of his Ambas­sage, although he had not the honour to be accounted so before. The Hi­story of France mentioneth that the Sieur de Flauij Gouernor of Compisque for King Charles the seauenth, seeing [Page]that his Maister suffred himselfe to be abused by the Duke of Burgundy, cau­sed the Inhabitantes to enterpose themselues, and by humble demon­strations refused to giue ouer the place vnto the Duke, notwithstanding a second Commaundement from this King, and inhonestly refusing that vnto his master which was preiudicial vnto him, he discharged the duty of a faithfull seruant. Surely it is a good ser­uice to deny ones Maister when hee commaundeth to his hurt: as the one that would aske a sword to hil himself, Non dare, sed eripere telum irato, pi­um est.) But let vs speake the truth, the most part of the practises that are made vpon adioining estates, take such beginning as the Ambassadors & A­gents themselues doe giue thereof vnto their Maister, they themselues laving open the means thereunto, and offering themselues voluntarily to put them in execution. I haue obserued it [Page]tenne times in my life, neither are they to complaine when they fall into this laborinth.

Thus much for the publike: but, what if the Ambassadour himselfe hath offered violence to any particular person? I know not whether there be any thing determined or specified by the Lawes therein: Yet if extremitie be vsed, he cannot escape the rigor of the Lawes of the Countrie where hee committed the fault. His master him­selfe, according to the rule aforegoe­ing, should in like case be ordered by iustice. For there is a difference to be made between the dignitie of a Prince and his Authoritie. Within the do­minions of another Soueraigne, he re­taineth but his dignitie: And what ho­nor soeuer is done vnto his Person, yet there is no authoritie giuen him, to make grauntes, to pronounce decrees, to establish Lawes, to stampe monie of his owne coine, and such like things [Page]which carry the marke of Soueraine­tie. A neighbour King being fledde for refuge into France, did, or suffered to be done, some violence to a Serge­ant, which went to doe an exploite in his lodging. Had it not beene in re­spect of his dignitie, and other reasons of Estate, hee had possibly beene o­therwise spoken withall then hee was. The like, and so much the stronger reason is, for an Ambassadour, who is but the Minister, and subiect of his Prince. But the safest and fittest course is, before you require reason of him, to demaund it of his Maister, who in such a case will not denie it so soone as in a matter of estate.

Here falleth out place for a questi­on which some men make, to witte, If by the Law of Nations an Ambas­sador hath iurisdiction ouer those of his house and familie. For which I see no likelihood, for the reason which I here giue, That the authoritie of a [Page]Prince, and all markes of souerainetie, do cease in an others dominions. But punishment by death is the Soueraine marke of Soueraintie; and to come from the great to the lesser, the Am­bassador hath not more right than his Prince or other Soueraine. An Am­bassador (I neuer name any that I may not wrong his reputation) did runne a hazard in a neere Country. One of his houshold seruants had forced his Daughter, being of the age of fiue or sixe yeares, he himselfe caused punish­ment to be done, causing the seruant to be strangled. In France the iust cause of giefe might possibly haue ex­cused a man of qualitie, for not hauing addressed himselfe to the ordinarie course of iustice, according to the sence of the Law, Iulia de adulterys in the behalfe of fathers and husbandes that found the adulterers in this act: at least, a pardon or a remission had yeel­ded reason for the same. But these peo­ple [Page]made much worke about it, saying that no man of what qualitie soeuer could exercise iustice, but he to whom the Soueraine committeth it, and they said true: for no Prince, Lord, or gen­tleman, exerciseth supreame iustice in that Countrie: and the stood vppon it, that processe ought to be made a­gainst the Ambassador for hauing da­red to cause a man to be put to death, of his owne priuate authoritie. Neuer­thelesse, the foule offence committed by the seruant which was a frenchman and the considerations of estate, but much more the authority of the prince did stoppe their mouthes. The King of Denmarkes Ambassador vsed alto­gether an other course in England: for he demaunded Iustice of the Queene, for a Murder committed in his house, by one of his owne seruants vppon an other of them. She of fauour would not meddle therewith, but permitted him to carry him backe into Denmarke [Page]to haue him there ordered by Iustice. Neyther can I allow of the doing of a Spanish Ambassador at Ʋenice, who caused a seruant of his, to be hanged at his Chamber windowe for some great offence, as it was said, although the Seigneurie made no shew nor pursuite therein: to whom he could and ought to haue addressed himselfe

That auncient rule therefore ought to take place, Nulla manus ferrum tra­ctat, nisi quae sceptram, vnlesse that both the Princes had so agreede betweene themseluesas the same might & ought to be done in Estates that are far one from the other. For otherwise the pu­nishment of a crime shoulde often­times be deferred, and consequently be neglected, through such a distance of place. No otherwise than as Captains vpon the Sea, haue ordinarily authori­tie from their Soueraines to punish the crimes that are committed abord their shippes, as other commaunders of the [Page]field, have authoritie to punish offen­ders in their Armies, although they be in the dominions of other Soueraines. And I haue since obserued, that this is the opinion of Monsieur Paschall, a most learned Counsellor of Estate, in his booke de Legato.

And if so be an Ambassador hath no iurisdiction ouer those of his owne housholde, he hath lesse ouer the o­ther subiects of his Master: The kings Ambassador in Swisserland at the be­ginning of the last troubles being ad­uertized of the practizes which were intended against the seruice of the king would cause one of the debters therein to be stayed, who was passing to So­leure, and pretended the law of Nati­ons, and the freedome of the passage. But who doubteth that within his house he had not sufficient authoritie to seaze on him, and out of his house, to vse the authoritie of the Magistrate vnto the same effect? I say simply, to [Page]seaze on him, & not to proceed in Iu­stice against him, but to send him to his Maister, or to hold him vntill hee vn­derstand his pleasure.

Wee haue before spoken of Spies that come vnder the name of Ambas­sadors, or of Ambassadors which vn­der colour of negotiating some affaire, or entertainement of amitie, doe spie out the secrets of the estate to an ill in­tent, but with those it fareth other­wise than with common spies, and of such as come without allowance. For being once accepted for Ambassadors they are infallibly within the sanctua­rie of the Lawe of Nations, and the consequence would be most dange­rous, if a doore were opened vnto such neere inquirets, and fewe men, and medlers in forraine affaires, would be assured in their charges, the most part of them being in effect employed therin, but to learne that which is done amongst others. And some call them [Page]also honourable Spies alleadging that saying of Chabrias, Hee is an excellent commander for the warre that know­eth all that is done amongest his ene­mies. And in truth hee cannot be ac­counted for a true friend which is mis­trusted, and whose secrets & designes a man is constrained to espie. And to this effect the History of England, say­eth that Henry the seauenth, (a wise and discreete Prince, and Grand-father to the late Queene) was about to haue dismissed all resident and ledger Am­bassadors, and to haue kept none with any other, but death preuented him. We haue also saide before, that Anti­quitie knew them not, and the Histo­ry of France noteth that Lewis the ele­uenth did neur send the same Am­bassador twise vnto him whome hee would intertaine with wordes, to the end, that if the former had by chaunce treated of any matter, where of the ef­fect did not follow, the latter should [Page]not know what to answere thereunto, and that the ignorance of the matter, might serue him for an excuse where­by to gaine time. But we are gon from our matter, wee must therefore distin­guish if they be deputies in the behalf of some Prouinces that are in subiecti­on to a greater Empire, or vnder the protection of an other as those quae po­puli Romani Maiestatem colere dice­bantur. Or else, if they be sent from a soueraine Prince to his equal forme of the first case they should stand more at the mercie of him whom they haue of­fended. Nec à subditis, nec subditos rectè mittuntur legati. Those are not pro­perly Ambassadors whome the Sub­iects send vnto their prince, or hee to them, whereof I spake before. I will onely adde a good note that is in Plu­tarke of one of Sparta sent to the Ge­nerall of their enemies armie, who be­ing asked in what qualitie he presented himselfe. If, saith hee, I obtaine that [Page]which I demaund I come as an Am­bassador, If not as one priuate, and without charge: I could not forget this wise speech, although it be not to our matter.

Let vs now see whether the Am­bassador which passeth thorough the Country of a Prince to whom hee is not sent, may aledge the lawe of Nati­ons. I haue before spoken of the Sieur de Mortefontaine Hotman, and of his passage through the Country of Bur­gundie, there was then open warre be­tweene France and Spaine, those of the Countrie subiectes of the Spaniard, therefore there was no assurance for him by that taking course; Yea, a third man is not bound to receiue and acknowledge him for an Ambassador that passeth thorough his Country, to execute his charge in an other place, and if he doth it, it is but of cur­tesie and humanitie, which is vsed in the behalfe of passengers, to whome [Page]in time of peace all wayes are open. One thing helpeth him, to wit, Neu­tralitie, which notwithstanding all the warres of former times hath beene en­tertained and renewed betweene the King and those of the said Country, in fauor and at the request of the Lords of the Cantons, who terme themselues mediators and protectors of the saide Neutralitie, whosoeuer therefore is to passe thorough the Country of ano­ther, ought to enquire whether the Prince be his Maisters friend or ene­mie, if the Country be in peace or in warre, and howsoeuer it be, yet to craue passage, and to procure a good pas­porte sufficiently ratified for the same, or else a good and safe conduct. But if notwithstanding the prohibition that hath beene made him to enter into the Country where hee goeth to execute his charge, he would passe on further. We aske if he can shield himselfe with the lawe of nations, whereunto wee [Page]answere, that seeing by the same lawe of Nations, and of Nature, euery Col­liar is maister in his owne house, as the saying is, and euery Soueraigne in his owne estate. Surely he hath full pow­er and libertie to forbid the entrance into his Country to such as hee dislik­eth, and holdeth for suspected. Neuer­thelesse if he come towards the same as a suppliant, as the Romane Ladies came vnto Coriolanus: Plato saith, Omnium tum in ciues tum in peregrinos maximum est peccatum cum peccaturus supplices, Deus enim afflicti supplicis cu­stos eximius. This humanitie ought in like maner to take place in the behalfe of rebellious and seditious subiects, at such times as they ordain any amongst them to make submission and craue pardon for them, or to worke some way of reconciliation, following the clause and condition of the Romane Senate to those of Ascolie: Sifactorum poentteat, liciturum ipsis mittere legatos, [Page]sui mimes, minime. But if the number be great, as that in France lately was, and that the Estate be deuided into two Factions, and each side falne into an open warre. Seeing that by martiall lawes euen amongst strange and bar­barous nations.

Heraulds and Ambassadors are in saftie, surely this law ought to preuaile aswell for deuided subiects, as for strangers that are enemies vnto the E­state. I dare affirm the like for such as are fugitiues, outlawes, or pirats, when they make a head and ioine themselues together, as sometimes those vnder the conduct of Spartacus, Sertorius Viria­tus, Tacfarinas, and such like: for the assurance that is granted vnto such persons as they ordaine to treate for them, is not for their sakes, but in con­sideration of the Common good, and to reduce them to their obedience, to the end that the troubles of the Estate may refuse. Quod est necesse, turpe non [Page]est. Necessitie hath neither law nor shame And here it is that that notable and ancient Maxime of estate ought to take place. Salus populi suprema lex. The good of the Estate goeth aboue all lawes, and all respects: true it is that they shall doe well, not to present themselues, but with a sufficiēt pasport from the Generall of the Armie, with whom they haue to handle. And in this case to goe about to attach their persons, or to doe them other displea­sure, were to violate the faith that hath beene giuen them, whatsoeuer Alber. Gent. in his treatise de Legationibus saith thereof, contrary to the opinion of my late father in his booke of Notable questions.

There is also a doubt made concer­ning those, that are sent by Here­tiques, Schismatiques, and excom­municated persons. This false prin­cipall, that faith ought not to be kept with heretiques, which was hatched in [Page]the Counsell of Constance, and practi­sed against some particular persons that were caused to come thither vn­der the publique faith, hath giuen oc­casion to this question. For which cause it is, that neuer since none would trust the faith of Popes nor of Coun­cels: the onely or principall reason of schisme which continueth in the Church since almost an hundred yeares. But this doubt may be cleered as the former, by the consideration of the weale publike: for that it is impos­sible that we can abide without those things which are in other Countries and Lands, and much lesse with that which is amongst our neighbours, of what religion and beliefe soeuer they be. Christian Princes and Estates make no difficultie to hold their A­gents and Factors with the Turkes when they haue occasion, and the king keepeth an ordinary & resident with him. The grand Signior hath his with [Page]the Persian, and so reciprocally: neuer­thelesse the Turke and the Persian, hold each other for heretikes. In for­mer times, and very often, the Latine church sent vnto the Greek, which ne­uerthelesse it accounted for schisma­tike. At an other time, the Church, being assembled in a Counsel of Af­frica sent the Deputies vnto the dona­tists. The Catholikes haue them with the Protestants, and the Pope would once haue sent some into England, and yet would vnto other Protestant E­states, if he thought they should be re­ceued and be suffred to manage his af­faires among them. And if they were admitted, they shuld be without doubt vnder the safeguard of Nations: as wel as these which should be sent vnto him in their behalfe.

Concerning these that are subiects of the Prince or Estate to whom they goe in Ambassage, it is another mat­ter: for although they haue put them­selues [Page]vnder another Master, or haue gotten tho freedome of Denisons in other places, yet are they thereby no­thing lesse the subiects of their naturall Lord, nor any thing lesse to be ordred by iustice by him, if haply they haue gone out of his dominions without his leaue, or for some offence or rebellion. King Perceus sent vnto Gentius King of Illyria, one that was naturall borne subiect of Illyria. A Lieutenant of the Popes, in some part of the iuris­diction of the Church, held prisoner the Duke of Ʋrbins Ambassador; be­cause, said he, the Ambassador was the Popes subiect. And in our Fathers dayes, Frances Sforza Duke of Millan caused the Esquier Merueilles, a subiect of Millan, who hauing retired himselfe into France, was sent Ambassador to the Duke, by King Frances, to be be­headed, as before I noted. It was in­discretion in these three Princes, to employ such men in that charge, and [Page]folly in the men to accept the same, for to all three it fell out ill. Neuerthelesse the King had reason to complaine, and to require right to be done him there­in: for Sforza hauing once admitted and receiued Merucilies for Ambassa­dor of France, as the King sufficiently verified it by a letter of the said Sfor­zas, it was no longer lawfull for him to handle him as his subiect, and did ther­in against the law of Nations. In like manner was it with two others, vnder Charles the sixt, the Constable Clisson subiect to the duke of Britaine, trusting thereunto, went vnto him in an ill sea­son, and thought to haue lost both life and libertie together: the Duke ha­uing afterwards set him at liberty, pur­ged and rustified himselfe vppon the qualitie of the said Clisson, which he af­firmed was a Britton by birth, and his naturall subiect. And besides he would that the King should owe him a like requitall, for the respect which he had [Page]of one of his officers seeing that other­wise hee pretended to haue had good reason to put him to death. But Phi­lip the Faire sent backe those whom the Earle Guy of Flanders had sent vn­to him, to offer him choice of peace or warre: although that their Maister and themselues were his subiects, as the said King did not forget to tell them.

I will speake nothing heere of the grand Signior, who not long since of­fered himself to put to death the Am­bassador of a Christian Prince, for to doe that Prince a pleasure, as hee said: because the said Ambassadour had done his Maister some ill offices, and had correspondency with his eni­mies. Neyther was the offer accept­ed because it might haue brought much preiudice by the consequence thereof.

His Familie.

AND because wee haue compre­hended his seruantes vnder his priuileges, we wil speake a word ther­of. In former times the number of those that accompanied him in his ambassage was certaine and prefixed, and their names registred vppon his provision, or set on a list for to haue recourse thereunto. These ought to enioy their masters priuiledge as those that in time of warre are comprehend­ed within one passeport or safe con­duct. But it being now left to the dis­cretion of the Ambassador, to take as many as he will, it is demanded, if al ought to participate thereof; I make no doubt of it, forasmuch as concern­eth the assurance of their persons, Quod ad legatos comitésue attinet, si quis corum, quem pulsisse, siue iniuriam fe­cisse [Page]arguitur, lege Iulia, de vi publica tenetur, as saith a Law of the digests, the which extendeth the punishment vnto those that haue outraged the ser­uants of the Ambassador, as if they had done it to his own person. And in truth the priuiledge of an Ambassadour were very slender, if it did not com­prehend the persons of those of his fa­mily. I say of his familie. For there are some that passe many times vnder the fauor and passe porte of the Am­bassador, which would not be in any great assurance, if they were discoue­red, although they were advouched by him, especially if they be of another Nation than himselfe, or the subiects of that Prince vnto whome hee go­eth.

Besides it ought not to be doubted that the house of an Ambassadour is a sanctuarie and place of retraite to his seruants and followers, against all in­iuries and violences: prouided that [Page]they doe nothing against the lawes of the Country where they are, and a­gainst publike honestie. For that which is not permitted to the Maister, much lesse is vnto his seruants. And yet neuertheles I think not that with­out the permission of the Ambassador it is lawfull for a Sergeant or other of­ficer of iustice, to lay hands on, ceaze vpon, or to vse any other course of iustice vpon any of those of his house, vnlesse that they be tooken in the very act and out of his house. For which cause the Ambassador of Spaine had reason to complaine of the officers of Tunis, which were come to carry away by force a seruant of his being accused of Sodomitry, alleadging that they had no iurisdiction vpon him or any of his: and added, that that crime was not capitall in all countries, for if the Tunisians had taken his seruant they would haue proceeded against him and caused him to be burned [Page]quicke, according to the lawes of their Country.

And concerning taxes, impositi­ons, and other charges and contributi­ons: I doubt not but they are exemp­ted from them aswell as their Maister in the Country where he is resident, and as long as they are his seruants; I meane, in respect of their horses, ap­parrell, and baggage, Preuided, they doe not abuse this priuiledge to make Merchandise, or to make other mens goods to passe vnder the colour of their priuiledge, as Guicciardin saith, was done by certaine Deputies of Flo­rence, sent to the Emperor Charles the fift; being thē at Bologne with the pope who receued therfore both shame and punishment all at once. And the law of the Digests willeth that for that which they bring out of their country besides their mouables, they shuld pay the im­post thereof. Neuertheles in this whole priuiledge they must order themselues [Page]according to the particular vse and cu­stome of the places. For if it were said that none should be exempted, of what condition or qualitie soeuer he were, certainly neither hee nor his ser­uants, should be more priuiledged than others: it being besides suffici­ently knowen that Ambassadors and other forraigne personages are more fauourably in treated in one place than in an other.

Thus much for the country, wher­in their Maister is resident, and onely during the time of his Ambassage, and which is generally of the Law of Na­tions, and common vnto all Ambas­sadours, and their seruants. But con­cerning the exemptions, immunities, priuiledges, & prerogatiues which an Ambassadour enioyeth in his owne Country, by the consent of his Prince or of the chiefe Magistrate: the same commeth from the Lawe Ciuill and that of the place it selfe: and it is not of [Page]one sorte in all places, and stretcheth not so sarre as vnto seruants. For I think it not reason to grant vnto them, letters of Estate (as they are termed) and of respite against their Creditors, and to cause any actions or processe that hath beene commenced against them, since their departure, and in re­spect of their absence, to cease, or be adiourned as vnto their Maister him­selfe: neither is there like considerati­on for it. No otherwise than the ser­uant of an officer, or one of the Kings house, or of the chiefe Prince of the blood who hath his causes committed vnto the masters of the Requests hath no part in the priuiledge of his Mai­ster. The like I affirme concerning all other exemptions, as taxes and such like charges, which are priuileges granted vnto the persion of the Ambassa­dor, and not to his seruants and follow­ers, who are, or ought to be paide and rewarded with their Maisters purse, [Page]and whome hee may either leaue or change at his pleasure.

Neuerthelesse reason requireth that I take out of this number, those that are adioyned vnto him by the Prince, or such other persons of qualitie whom himselfe hath chosen for to accompa­ny him, and serue him in the affaires of his Ambassage, and without whom hee cannot sufficiently performe the same. Vnto them I also adde the Se­cretary and the Interpreter, which are necessary Instruments vnto him, and which serue rather the Ambassage then the Ambassador, as amongst the Swisers and Grisons, where the saide Secretaries and Interpreters are en­rowled in the accompt of the pensions of that Nation, and receiue the ordi­nary wages of a crowne by the day. But yet to giue assurance of their actu­all seruice, they shall doe well to take a certificate or attestation of the Am­bassador, signed with his hand, that it [Page]may stand them in steade when time and place shall require.

All this is founded on naturall rea­son, and on the rule of that common equity, which euen children know by hart: That absence ought not to pre­iudice him which is imployed out of his Country for the seruice of his Prince or Commonwealth. Absens reip: causa praesens esse censetur.

And by the same equitie, and to the end also, that the Ambassadour might not be withdrawne from his charge, and constrained to returne into his Country about his suites of law, no man can commence any new action, either Reall or Personall against him, and a cessation was granted vnlesse the cause had bin before declared a­gainst him, in which case he appoin­ted an Aduocate to pleade for him.

Concerning his Horses, Moouea­bles, and vtensels: they are, by the same rule, comprehended vnder this priui­ledge, [Page]and I doe not belieue that it is lawfull, by reason of any debt or obli­gation to enter into the Ambassadors house, and to make an attachment or sale of his Mooueables and Horses, since that I haue before shewed that e­uen in criminall causes there ought to be vsed herein both respect and discre­tion. The accident which lately befell in Spaine, in the French Ambassadors house, giueth vs a proofe therof, which in a more doubtful time had beene the occasion of a greater trouble. And for Ciuil respects, it behooueth those which bargaine with them to take good heede thereunto, forasmuch as most commonly they are constrained to attend vntill the Ambassage be ex­pired; & it hapneth vnto them, as vnto at others that haue bargained with one that is in his none-age, or with some priuiledged person, of whose estate & condition, they ought not to be igno­rant. It is true that the Ciuil law distin­guisheth [Page]betweene contracts made be­fore, or during the time of their Am­bassage, & that which he had promised to pay in the place of his residence, and at the time of his continuance there, which they called Constituta pecunia. I speake of Contracts for money and payments; for it doth not often happen that an Ambassador maketh any pur­chase of house, lands, and possessions, in the Country where he is, or that he there contracteth himselfe in Marri­age: Euen as it was not permitted vn­to those whom the Romanes sent for gouernours into their Prouinces, to make purchases there, or to marry themselues. For thereby they might be suspected of the one and the other. A French Gentleman that would haue maried the Queene of Walachia, did put him selfe into great danger, for he went about it without acquainting his Maister, and without leaue of the grand Signior, who was much offen­ded [Page]therewith. And to returne to the matter of debts and obligations, the Creditors must onely addresse them­selues by petition vnto the Prince or Soeraine Magistrate, without whose permission, in such causes nothing can be effected. Manus regia ius facit in omni legatorum negotio. For if the Am­bassadors or his followers might not be ordered by law, no man would e­uer lend vnto them, neither woulde any man haue any longer to doe with them: the Maister himselfe would finde the hurt thereof when his seruice should be left vndone for this occasi­on. And farther, it is without reason that they should make their profite of an other mans harme. Which would so be if they were not bound to render and to make payment. Therefore in bargaining they ought to be subiect to the iurisdiction of the place where they are, which I haue before saide, taketh place in the crimes and offences which [Page]an Ambassador or his seruants doe commit.

I haue obserued two other antient priuileges: the one, that the chaines of gold and other gifts and prcesents that had bin giuen vnto them in regarde of their Ambassage should remaine vnto themselues, and I beleeue that no man would now make any question thereof, prouided that it be without suspition, and in such sort as I haue be­fore shewed. For the inciuilitie & bar­barousnesse of the Duke of Moscouie is not to be approoued, who taketh a­way, not onely the habites and orna­ments which hee giueth them at their departure, but also the giftes and pre­sents which haue beene bestowed vp­on them in their Ambassage, which he converteth to his owne profit. It is true that the Muscouites are not sim­ply subiects, (as those which were in England in the behalfe of their Prince about 18. yeares past did shewe vnto [Page]me) but slaues vnto their Prince. The other antient aduantage of Ambassa­dours is that it was permitted vnto them to repose themselues after their returne without being constrained to be charged with any businesse or of­fice of the Commonwealth. For as for the charge of wardship, and such like, A man is discharged of it vpon a lesse occasion.

Finally, he begins to inioy his priui­leges, not only from the day of his ari­ual, but euen from the day of his nomi nation to the charge, as also his returne was not coūted at the prefixed instant but after he had made his reporte & cum laxamento temporis, as they vse to say: because that as odious matters are restrained, euen so fauourable matters are fauourably extended, and for that also it is for the good of the Estate to be fully informed of the negotiation of an Ambassador. And this his re­turne doth no longer depend vppon [Page]his will, but on the reuocation, a Com­maundement of his Maister, if hee would not be accounted one that for­saketh his place, as a souldier that de­parteth from the sentinell without be­ing relieued or that leaueth his colours without his Captaines permission. And such Ambassadours in ancient times, were depriued of their wages, priuiledges and allowances: and with all, hazarded their liues. Nor knowe I any sufficient excuse for him that leau­eth his charge without hauing had com mandement therefore, if he happen to stand in danger of his life thereby, as it many times falleth out: vnlesse he were driuen away by force, or by the authority of him, about whom he exe­cuted his charge: or that there chan­ced such and so sodaine trouble or alte­ration in the Estate that hee could no longer remaine; or that the Prince, with whom he was resident should on a sodaine denounce open warre a­gainst [Page]his Maister, in which case the law forbids them to receiue any giftes or presents. Yet I would haue him, if possibly he could, to make stay on the frontires, whereby to take time to ad­uertise his Maister thereof that he may not so dainly surprize him, or giue him an vnexpected alarum of his returne, which is a rash attempt, that all Prin­ces take not in sporte. In a popular Estate or vnder a seuere and sharpe Prince, they are in danger of punish­ment for the same. But as soone as he is reuoked, his authoritie is at an end. For which cause Monsieur de Gran­uelle refused to reade the letter of defi­ance which King Francis the first had vnderwritten, to be sent to his Maister the Emperour Charles, alleadging for excuse that he was no longer Ambas­sadour, for that he had receiued com­maundement to take leaue and to de­part.


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