The Gouernement of all estates, wherein is con­tayned the perfect way to an honest life, gathered out of many learned Authors, a boke right profitable for all estates, but es­peciallie for the trayning & bringing vp of the yonger sort: written in Latin by that excellent lear­ned man Andreus Hesse, Translated into Englishe.

IMPRINTED at London by Henry Denham, for Thomas Hacket, and are to be solde at his Shop in Lumbart streate.

N. B. In prayse of this booke

WHose steps do traine to tast the sweet
& pleasant water spring:
Incumbent at the Muses féete,
to winne Minerues ring.
Approch the fountain top and Well,
the pleasant flouds to gaine:
Of Hellycō wher Nymphes do dwel,
and wisedome hath the raigne.
Imbrace with ioy hir darlings all
that yéeldes to thée a crowne:
With hand in hād through Pallas hall
to foote it vp and downe.
Here vertue shines, here siluer strea­mes,
here sacred life hath place.
Here Phoebus wt his glistring beames
appeares with golden face.
Here helth with welth, here quiet ease
here ioy and frendship growes.
Here medicines torned life to pease,
here truth and honour flowes.
Therefore as once before, come nie
Sicilides doth call:
And willing of thy companie,
bids welcome to them all.

To the Reader.

NOthing is more profitable in this world (gentle Reader) than ho­nest precepts, good counsels, worthie and godly perswa­sions, how to flée vice, and follow ver­tue, which is the best and chiefest part of all Philosophie, for by this meanes cōmon wealthes are maintained, the true limmit or direction of life frequē ­ted, and all good & godly families go­uerned. This meane the auncient Se­natours, or cōscribed fathers of Rome with others in tymes past haue fol­lowed, yea the Heathē Poets & Philo­sophers, also hauing tasted of the same. The scope of their whole workes doth tende to no other end, but to ye gouern­ment of man, howe he should vse him selfe in modestie, counselling him selfe in temperance, by practise, fortitude, [Page] and imitate iustice. Also ye holy Scrip­ture, whiche is the touchstone of all truth, that excellent Iewell of our sal­uation, and the bright Lantern of sin­ceritie, hath also taught vs the way to all perfection of life, righteousnesse, ho­linesse, and sāctification. The principal meane aboue all others, whereby thou mayst learne what mā is at such time as he liueth in the feare of God, & wal­keth vprightly in his calling. So all e­ruditiō being agréeable vnto ye Scrip­tures, may and ought to be enthraced as a guide or Rector of mans life vnto vertue, as this booke which is named the Gouernmēt of all estates, bicause it treateth of the trayning & bringing vppe of man from his childhoode, or as Terence wryteth ex Ephoebis tāquam till his olde age, wherin ye may learne to attaine to the perfection of a probe or honest life. First written in the La­tine tongue by ye excellent man Her­mannus Hessus, wherevnto is added the institution of a Christian man by Adrianus Barlandus, and now tran­slated [Page] into English, by those who doe wish thy furtherance. Gentle Reader take this in good part, and in so doing thou shalt cause them to thinke their labours wel bestowed, and encourage them to do greater things to thy god­ly furtherance and profite: If that as mindfull of Demosthenes thou accept their labour and momentarie practise: Hauing this consideration, that as the Philosopher requesting of an old wo­man the steppes of his passage, and she by the assigning of hir finger declared the same, surrendred with a bēded knée thanks for hir demerits, then they (not yet requesting so much curtesie) shal be the willinger, moued by this their industrie, to race or ingresse in­to a sequence enterprise. Thus cōmitting thée to the tuitiō of God, I bid thée fare well.

Vale in Christo.

❧ To Babes and Sucklings.

COme forth ye babes, learn now to trade
your liues in liuing pure:
Beholde the path of blissefull state,
good chaunce doth you assure.
This little booke full tender yeares
doth manifest and show:
How for to breake those braunches yll
that on such grafts do grow.
It doth declare the thing the which
The Philosophers olde,
In wrytings graue to iudge for best,
by reasons law were bolde.
What thing doth passe a mean, ye same
is counted worst of all:
What thing is best within a meane,
the same doth neuer fall.
Thus haue the wysest counted it,
and we the same suppose:
This doth our filthie brutish life,
to all mennes eyes disclose.
For none within a meane can kepe,
it is a state to base:
We loue it well, but that it doth
our euill life deface.
It chaunced once Diogenes,
in Market place to bée:
Where as of men a great frequent
he chaunced for to sée.
To whom aloude he cryed out,
ye men come vnto me:
The people then, what that he would,
do runne straight way to sée.
Supposing that he had some thing
vnto them for to say:
The which they him desire forthwith,
to them for to display.
He answered straight I calde not you,
but I for men did call:
And sure I am that not one man,
there is among you all.
And after that, beholding well
a stripling yong to giue:
Him selfe vnto Philosofie,
thereby to learne to liue.
Well done (ꝙ he) thou callest those,
to puritie of minde:
Whom carnall beautie wt hir sleights
indeuoured hath to blinde.
Thus mayst thou sée what aunciēt me
accompted haue for best:
And what in goodnesse of this lyfe,
surmounteth all the rest.
And as he hath deserued, so
rewarde him for his paine:
Iudge right, first read, follow likewise
hereby then shalt thou gaine.

What an honest lyfe is, whereof it consisteth, and what profite ary­seth thereof.

¶ The first Chapter.

SEing therefore man was cre­ated into thys world, after all thynges were made, as lord & ruler of thē all,Gene. 1. & appointed as Gods husband­man here in earth, he ought so to direct the course of his life, yt he may please his Caesar God, that by death being called into the Heauenly Pallace & Court of his Caesar (as kings and prin­ces were wonte to be called, of the humaine & mortall Caesars) may giue his accōpt of his good [Page] husbandrie and gouernement. And least he should not be able to do this, he ought at al times to liue a noble, probable, and a Princely or honest life. And to leade an honest life is nothing else, than in conditions to differ from a bruite beaste, and as much as by nature a man may to lyue moste lyke vnto God, which consisteth in nothing els but in vertue, is to flie vice and follow honestie: for that is the office and ende of vertue. And that the honestie and the lyfe wherwith God is most pleased, doth consist by Vertue, Saint Augustine testifieth, sayng: Vir­tutem esse artem bene viuendi, that is, Vertue to be the art of well lyuing,Mantua­nus. and also Baptista Mantua­nꝰ doth expresse with these wor­des what vertue is, and howe [Page] great commodities it bringeth to man.

Virtutis querimonium.

I am dame fortunes Maistresse,
of vice the scourging rod:
My onely care and study is,
to bring man safe to God.
He that my doctrines learne will,
they shall persuade him so:
To God and his Emperiall seate,
the right way for to go.
I am a signe directing straight,
the middle way to go:
Wherin our auncient fathers steps,
are yet now for to show.
By which they haue ascended right,
the heauenly gates of God:
Where in most pleasant smelling fiel­des,
the milky floods haue flowde.

Plutarch, Plutarch. also expresseth more plainly, what vertue doth teach vs, describing hir in his booke [Page] of the education of children, vn­der the name and title of Phi­losophie, saying, that by hir it is to be descerned what is ho­nest, what is vnhonest, what is iust, and what is vniust, what ought to be imbraced, & what ought vtterly to be eschewed, how & after what sort we ought and shoulde behaue our selues towardes our Parents, our el­ders, straungers and pilgrims, our gouernors & Magistrates, our frendes, our wyues, chil­dren and families, and that we should worship GOD, honour our parents, reuerence our el­ders, obey our Princes lawes, giue place and submit our sel­ues to our Superiours, and with all oure heartes to loue oure friendes as oure selues. Women to brydle the snaffle [Page] of ill concupisence, euer to haue care and respecte to their chil­drens education, not to be in bondage, or consent with their seruaunt, & that which is chiefe of all, neither to reioyce to much in prosperitie, neyther to be to contrist and sad in aduersitie, neyther to haue any voluptu­ous appetyte or desyre at all. And so to represse coler and ire, that we become not like brutish beastes, whose nature and dis­position is alwaye to be fearce and vngentle, but as men dis­crete, whose nature is to be meeke, lowly and gentle.

Secondarilie,Tullie. Tullie in hys first boke of Offices sayth, that there be foure Wel springs and originall fountaines of vertue, from whiche all other discende, and oute of which all honestie [Page] procedeth, which be these, Pru­dence, Iustice, Temperaunce, and fortitude, which foure haue foure seuerall and dyuers dis­positions and nature as Ma­crob. testifieth in his boke de som­nio Scipionis, Macrob. de somnio Scipionis. who expresseth their qualities in this wyse, saying: it belongeth to a prudent man, to knowe and forecast howe to compasse eche matter and case, neyther to doe nor desire ought else, but iustice and equitie, to contriue his humaine and worldly affayres, with a godly and diuine minde, to prouide and puruey against damages and daungerous haps, whiche by casualties might chaunce or happen.

The point and ende of For­titude is, not to feare losse and detriments, to feare onely wic­ked [Page] and vngodly thinges, con­stantly and with pacient suffe­rance, to forsake prosperity and aduersity. Fortitude is of more price thā magnanimitie, faith, constancie, fecuritie, magnifi­sence, pacience, and stablenesse.

The qualitie of Temperance is not to say after ye dede done, had I wist, in al affayres to vse wit and discretion, and vnder the rule of reason to brydle ill cōcupiscence of the flesh, whose handemaydes are modestie, re­uerence, abstinence, chastitie, honestie, moderation, frugality, sobrietie, and shamefastnesse.

The poynt and propertie of Iustice, is to restore to euerye man his right & duetie, of whō cōdiscend innocencie, friēdship, concord, pietie, religion, neigh­borly affection, and humanitie, [Page] Cicero in officiis sayth,Cicero in officiis. that no mā should hurte his neighbour, vn­lesse he had sustayned wrong before. Secondly, to vse cōmon as common, and his owne as his owne. The true foundation and roote wherof is fayth, that is, constancie and truth in wor­des and dedes.Lactan. lib. 6. Lactantius in his sixt booke sayth, that there are two offices and dueties of ver­tue, wherof the first participate with God by Religion, the se­conde with man by compassion and gentle behauiour.

MacrobiꝰBy these vertues sayth Ma­crobius, a good man ruleth hym selfe and his housholde, and cō ­sequently, the publike weale, vprightlye maintayning hys worldely affayres.

¶ The reward of vertuous and honest life.

IF any man be inquisitiue of the office and reward of Vertue and honest cō ­uersation, he must knowne that there belōgeth two properties to it. First, to inryche man with the transitorie riches of thys worlde, and after death to re­ward him with euerlasting sal­uation which neuer shall haue ende.Virgilius. Whervpon Virgill wryteth well, saying: there are but few whome vpright Iupiter with a feruēt zeale fauoured, or whom Vertue extolleth to the highe heauēs, or else according to Lac­tantius in his sixt booke:Lactan. lib. 6. It is the propertie of Vertue to refraine anger, to asswage gredy appe­tites, and to brydle carnall de­sires. [Page] Secondly, Vertue ma­keth hir scholer and Client, the true rychest man aboue all o­ther, in so muche that he shall want nothing, but shall haue aboundance of euery thing. As Plato in Amph. writeth thus,Plato in Amph. that Vertue leadeth the waye, and sheweth the pathe to all things perfectly. And libertie, health, life, substance, parents, & kins­folkes defende and garde hir.

Vertue possesseth all things within hir selfe, the vertuous man lacketh nothing, but he hath all things at will, who ru­leth by Vertue.

For vertue is not desirous of common prayse, neyther of that which euery man alloweth, nei­ther requireth she honor, or glo­rye,Sillius. as the Poet Silius sayth. Ipsa quidē virtus sibimet pulcherrima mer­ces. [Page] Vertue is a beautifull re­warde to it selfe.Claudius. Vnto whome the Poet Claudius agreeth in these verses.

Ipsa quidem virtus precium sibi, sola (que), latè
Fortunae secura nitet: nec fascibus vllis
Erigitur plansuue petit clarescere vulgi
Nil opis externae cupiens, nil indiga laudis,
Diuitijs animosa suis, immota (que), cunctis
Casibus, ex alta mortalia despicit arce.
Virtutis repulsae nescia sordidae
Intaminatis fulget honoribus.
Vertue is great in euery wyght,
where she doth beare the sway:
Not obfuscat, by dimmend light,
but fayrer than the day.
An honour bright, a Castle strong,
and tower of defence:
To tende and preace thy foes among,
to winne a recompence.
Therefore indeuour vertuously
this vertue for to holde:
A sparke of such royaltie,
as passeth yellow golde.

Neither doth the Lady Ver­tue desire ryches or worldlye goodes for any reward: for she farre excelleth them all, and is much more noble and precious than they, as Horace testifieth by this verse.Horatius. Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum. Syluer is courser mettell than golde, and golde courser than Vertue.

Macrob. de somnio Scipionis.Wherevpon Macrobius in his booke de Somnio Scipionis saith, yt a wyse man attributeth ye fruite and reward of his vertue to his wisdom: for he is no right per­fect wise man, which onely ga­peth for ambition and glorye. And in the same place he wyl­leth, that who so desireth to be a perfect vertuous man, he cō ­tent his gredy appetite with rewarde of his knowledge, that is, that he be content that he [Page] knoweth Vertue, & not to seeke the vaine glory thereof.

¶ How to lead an honest and vertuous lyfe.
¶ The second Chapter.

WHosoeuer desyreth to lyue an honest & vertuous lyfe, he muste obserue two necessary poyntes. First, that he prepare his mind, whereby he may become wor­thy of vertue and honestie. Se­condlye, that (his minde thus prepared) he seeke and searche out, howe and by what meanes he maye attayne vnto Vertue. The preparation of the minde, must be cōpassed by thre things that is, by a willing & prompt desyre, that his desire be to will [Page] that he profite in vertue, for it is a great help to honesty, to haue a desire to become honest: for there is nothing so difficulte, which may not be comprised by a willing minde, so is there no­thing harder, than to make an vnwilling persō willing, wher­vpō ryseth this Prouerbe, Stul­tum est, canes inuitos ducere venatum, It is a fond thing, to make vn­willing houndes hunt, that is, to compell a nilling man to a­ny kinde of labour is in vaine, wherefore Cornicus sayth no­thing is so easye but maye be made vneasie, if thou do it with an vnlustie minde. Lactantius in his firste booke de instit. christia­norum, Lactan. lib. 1. de instit. Christi. sayeth, that Vertue it selfe oughte to be adored, and not the Image of Vertue. And it ought not be worshipped [Page] with any sacrifyce, oblations, frankincense, or solemne suppli­cation, but wholly with a volū ­tarye and determined minde. And the minde thus desirous and stirred to seke vertue, must moreouer be suffulced and pro­tected with two other precepts whiche are patience and absti­nence, that it sustaine, suffer, & abide much paine and trauaile, and withdrawe affection from all thinges, and especially from things voluptuous.

Who so doth feruentlye de­syre vertue, must be very patiēt and much suffering, that he a­bide and beare the burthen of aduersitie, and the payne of his labour quietly, that he suffer aduersitie.Virgilius. Aened. 6. And as Virgil sayth in his sixt booke of Eneidos. Non cedat malis, Giue not place, nor [Page] be moued with any missehap or chaunce: but boldely, manly, & stoutly, withstande and resiste the same. For as Valerius in hys sixt booke sayth:Valerius. lib. 6. Euernos animos virtus odisse solet. Vertue doth cō ­temne & adnihilate the weake and feble minds: that is to say, Vertue doth hate & enuie those greatly, whiche be of fearefull mindes, which dare not enter­prise any thing, and which also vse no cōstancy in their doings. Moreouer, to proue patience and abstinence guides & tea­chers to seeke vertue, Horace de­clareth playnely in these verses following.

Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam,
Multa tulit, fecit (que), puer, sudauit & alsit,
Abstinuit venere & Baccho.
Who so hath inclinde him selfe,
to hit the wished marke:
His childish yeres haue suffered much
and eke compiled much worke.
In burning heate, in pinching colde,
his time he hath consumde:
From Venus sports & Bacchus chéere
him selfe he hath amoude.

Prudentius also that Christian Poet,Pruden­tuis. doth declare in these ver­ses following, howe that paci­ence muste nedes be the way and guide to him that seketh to Vertue.

Omnibus vna comes virtutibus associatur:
Auxilium (que) suum fortis patientia miscet.
Nulla anceps luctamē init, virtute sine ista:
virtus nā vidua est, quā nō patientia firmat.
Desine grande loqui, frāgit deus ōne superbū,
Magna cadūt, inflata crepāt, tumefacta pro­mūtur.
Disce supciliū deponere, disce cauere
Ante pedes foueā, quisquis sublime minaris.
Peruulgati viget nostri sententia Cbristi
Scādere celsa humilis et ad ima reddere vora­ces.
If trauail thine do race and tende
the vertuous steps to gaine.
To pacience lore thy study bende,
associate thou hir traine.
Permit a tyme, forbeare for ease,
proude mindes to ruine fall:
Let humblenesse thy fury pease,
the voyce of Christ doth call.

¶ Of Abstinence.

ANd many skilful Clarks haue approued also Ab­stinence frō petulācious desires & voluptuous affectiōs to be very nedeful to ye seker of Vertue,Cicero nouae rhe­tor. lib. 4. as Cicero lib. 4 nouae Re­thoricae, saith. Qui nihil in vita habet iucundius vita voluptuaria, cū virtute vitam colere non potest. He that in hys lyfe estemeth nor regar­deth nothing more than hys volupiuous and wanton lyfe, can not inhabit with Vertue. And also Valerius Maximꝰ in his fourth boke saith:Valerius. Maximus lib. 4. That Citie whose Inhabitants are most [Page] giuē to pleasāt delights, loseth hir Empire and dominion, nei­ther can that Citye kepe or de­fende hir owne liberty and fre­dome, but contrarywise, that Citie whose Inhabitours doe wholly incline them selues to labour, doth rule and is able to giue libertie and fredom to others.Lactan. lib. 6. Lactantius also in hys sixt booke wryteth, that there be three kindes of Vertues. Wherof the first is to refraine euill factes & nefarious wor­kes: the seconde is to tye thy tongue frō sclaundering, back­byting and obserious talking, the thirde is, to expell all euill, wicked, and malicious cogita­tions, thoughtes and preme­ditations from out thy minde. He that followeth the first, is a vertuous man. He that follow­eth [Page] the second, is a perfect ver­tuous man, if so be that he of­fende neither by worde nor by deede. And he that followeth the thirde, followeth the like­nesse: for it is aboue humaine nature to passe the cogitation therof, which should neither be nequitious to be done, or vici­ous to be spoken. Therfore he that seketh vertue, must nedes vse the helpe of pacience and abstinence. By whose helpe & ayde he may beare and abide aduerse, fortune and greate labour quietly, abhorre ydle­nesse, and imbrace sweate and labour.Hesiodus. For Hesiodus the Poet sayth, that the Gods haue pla­ced Vertue in the highe, and alte places, yt he which woulde winne hir, should seke hir with much sweat, and grieuous tra­uell. [Page] For which consideration many Philosophers haue spēt much more Oyle than Wyne, haue suffred muche sweate, and haue but little or nothing at all giuē them selues to idle­nesse, for idlenesse debilitateth and weakeneth vertue, and cō ­trariwyse, labour vpholdeth & sufficeth hir. And abstenence is also very necessarye, to ab­stayne from vicious liuing. For Vertue, as Horace sayth,Horatius. is nothing else but a secluder of vice.

And when as thou hast thus instructed and prepared thy minde, that is with a volunta­rie will, with pacience and ab­stinence, then must thou seeke & inquire of the learned bokes and monumentes of ye famous Clearkes, which is the way to [Page] afcende vnto Vertue and ho­nestie, for they teach and pro­vulgat, and especially Laertius in his booke de vitis Philosophorū, Laertius de vitis Philoso. that eche doctrine requireth thre things, which are, nature, instruction, and vse, that is to say, wit, learning, and exercise.

¶ These thrée are nedefull to Vertue.

FIrst a sharpe wit whet­ted and not blunt as ye Beotians, Plato. for Plato sayth, that none can be perfect wyse, that is to say perfect vertuous, vnlesse he excell in witte and knowledge, and be imbewed, and adorned with the comely partes of prudence. As many Philosophers as we read ther were in olde tyme, they did all excell in the capacitie of witte. [Page] Herevpon Lactantius in his firste booke sayth,Lactan. lib. 1. that there are two kindes of wisdome: whereof the first is to discerne which be false, the secōd to know which be true. For all vnderstanding and knowledge consisteth of a polyshed, that is to say a quick and sharpe witte:Lactantiꝰ lib. 2. Also Lactan­tius in his seconde booke sayth, that they doe expell and carye away wisdome from them sel­ues, which without any iudge­ments before had, allowe the inuentions of their elders, and are led and cōduced of others, as brute beastes, wherfore wit is nedefull and very necessary, both to search vertue, and also to iudge other mens workes. Cicero in his Tusculans questi­ons sayth:Cicero Questi. Tuscul. Ingenio nostro innata sunt semina quaedem virtutū. &c. By [Page] our witte, there be certaine se­des of vertue sprong vp, which if they might be suffered to in­crease, nature hir selfe woulde bring & conduct vs to a blessed life. If therefore certaine sedes of vertue are sprong vp by our wit, certaine it is, that the ver­tues them selues haue their o­riginall of wit, as from a trea­sury or storehouse therof. And euen by witte euery man doth either seke vertues, or else doth conceyue and learne them the better of his teacher. In consi­deration wherof, the auncient & graue Philosophers woulde neuer at any time receyue any as their scholers, before they had scrupulouslye sought oute his witte and ingene, and if he were dull and not fine witted, they woulde deny to instructe [Page] him. For Quintilian sayth.Quintili­anus. Pre­cepts profite the dul wittes no more, than tillage the sterill & barren field, which be it neuer so well tilled, will neuer in­crease or edure any fruite at al. Yet ought he not to dispaire whome God hath not sente so pregnāt a wit, but endeuer by continuall labour and paines, to slip away at length all that hardenesse and infertilitie of his witte,Quintil. lib. 1. ca. 1. as Quintilian sayth in his first booke and first Chap­ter. One man excelleth an o­ther in witte, but so that he can do either more or lesse. Neuer­thelesse there is none, but that by his labour & industrie, may at length become ingenious. And though that ech man can not excell, yet must he not ther­fore leue to proue, for as Horace [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [Page] sayth:Horatius. Est quoddā prodire tenus, si nō datur vltra. It is somewhat to go as farre as thou can, if thou may goe no further, that is to say: he is worthy prayse which maketh but a small iourney, if that the rudenesse of his wytte let him from going forwards. Yet betwixt the witty and vn­witty there is a double diffe­rence. Firste, the witty of his owne accord and with a swift course, consecuteth and follow­eth vertue, euen as a prouoked horse to rūne his course, which must be retired with bridle a­gayne. And the dull witted is like a horse which can not be dryuen to runne, without ofte spurring: so that ye obtuse wit is to be whetted sharpe wyth paynefull labours.Quintil. And Quinti­lian sheweth here, how Isocrates [Page] had two scholers, Ephorus, and Theopopus, the one wittie, who sayth he lacked a brydle to re­tyre him, the other dul, who he sayth lacked spurres to kicke him forwardes. The seconde difference is, how that the no­ble and pregnant witte conti­nueth not noble for a long space, or else by obliuion forget­teth that it hath learned be­fore. As the soone rype Apples are alwayes soone rotten, but the harde Winter Apples doe molifie and rype more leysure­lye, and therefore they endure and continue the longer: so ye hard and obtuse wit, with con­tinuance of time and exercise, is made worthye and fitte for vertue. For Erasmus sayth,Erasmus. that by daylye practise wittes doe molifie.

¶ Of discipline, science, or instruction.

AND when as thus thou hast made sharpe & whet­ted thy wit, thē hast thou nede of science or instruction, for neyther doeth nature nor witte suffise onely, vnlesse they be associate with instruction. bycause that it maketh that perfect, which else by nature is vnperfect.Cicero nouae rhe­tor. lib. 3. Therefore Cicero in his thirde booke intituled no­u [...] Rethorica, sayth: that science doth confirme, stablishe and augment the commodities of nature, and in the fourth boke of the same Rethoricke Cicero sayth.Ibid. lib. 4 Vt equus indomitus, quāuis bene natura compositus sit, idoneus nō potest esse ad eas vtilitates et artes, quae desiderantur ab equo, ita neque homo [Page] indoctus, quamuis ingeniosus, ad vir­tutem potest peruenire, quoniam non potest virtus sine doctrina comparari. Euen as an vntamed horse, al­though his proporcion be ne­uer so well shapen and cōpact by the art nature, can not be made fitte and apt for the com­modities and feates which are desired in a horse: no more cā an vnlerned man, be he neuer so wittie, ascende vnto Vertue, bycause that vertue can not be adopted or obtayned without learning. Vpon this, the lear­ned Gentiles erected common scholes, first at Athens a Citie of the Grecians most excellent & famous, and at that tyme in many other places, that in thē, youth might be educated and instructed in knoweledge, and in comelye, decent and honest [Page] maners, which two are but sic­kerly gotten without instruc­tion. Therefore Aristippus the Philosopher did compare the vnlearned, rude, & vntaught, to a hard stone, of whom a cer­taine olde father inquired at a certaine tyme, what profite or commoditie he shoulde doe to his sonne, if he shoulde bring him vp in learning, he answe­red. Si nihil aliud, saltem in theatro non sedebit lapis super lapidem, non erit apud doctos tanquam lapis. If it profiteth him nothing, yet at least whē he sitteth beholding any theatre and worthy thing one stone sitteth not on an o­ther, neyther shall he be as a stone dumbe without speache, when as he cōmeth in the company of the learned. The Eth­nickes did knowe that Vertue [Page] was to be gotten by instructiō. In consideration wherof, they kepte scholemasters or instruc­ters at home, vnder whose rule and gouernement their chyl­dren learned Artes and Ver­tues. And that was so religi­ous amongst the Atheniās, that they ordeyned a law, that their children should not be cōstray­ned nor coerced to nourishe their aged fathers, vnles their fathers in their youth had cō ­mitted them to maysters to be instructed and brought vp in the knowledge of Vertue. And instruction to attayne Vertue by, is two fold: the one is mute and dombe, the other quicke & liuelye. The mute and dombe is, to be learned by the bookes and monumentes of the lear­ned wryters, by the reading of [Page] which, we are taught without any worde speaking. The o­ther quicke and liuely instruc­tion, is to be lerned at ye schole­masters, who from their liuely mouth, doe sende and infunde into the eares of yong mē, the precepts of Vertue. Notwith­standing, the liuely instruction excelleth ye mute. For we reade yt therfore many Philosophers trauailed many coūtreys, ney­ther left they any vnseene, as Pyhatgoras, Empedocles, Democritus, and Plato occupied & vsed naui­gatiō very oft, to obtaine ther­by that moste amiable Ladye Vertue, and with their peri­grinatiōs and long iourneys, they sought hir out curiously: for they could not be contēted nor satisfyed with ye shadowed, & candle dropped study, which [Page] they might haue had betwixte two walles, but cōferred them­selues thether where any wor­thy thing was to bee learned, not bookes, but perfite and skil­full Philosophers or instruc­tours. There are foure kinde of bookes of Authours princi­cipally to be reade, which be the workes of Poets wryting honestly, the painefull labours of Historiographers, the wyse, discrete and sage sayings of Philosophers, and the deuine sense of sacred scripture. Ho­nest Poetes doe so much con­duct and lead to an honest life, that the most famous and ler­ned Cities of the Greekes in tyme paste, did bring vp and e­ducate their children, firste in Poetes, affirming Poetes on­ly to be wyse, sage and seuere. [Page] In Poets, children are taught Vertue, as Horace sayth in his Epistles most truly.Horatius.

Os purum tenerum, balbum (que), Poeta figurat:
Mox etiam pectus preceptis format amicis,
Instruit exemplis, inopem solatur, & egrum.
The tender stutting childishe mouth,
the Poet shapes aright:
And then with frendly precepts doth,
the heart and breast adight.
With good examples doth he then
instruct the childishe boy:
He comfortes eke the nedy men.
whom sicknesse doth anoy.

Secondly, the worthy Histo­riographers which declare vn­to vs the famous gestes, ciuill maners, and happy fortunes of noble and worthy men, by whose laudable lyfe we may se the way of well lyuing, and by whose temeritie or vnlucky de­stinie, we maye foresee to lyue [Page] more circumspectly, which is a goodlye thing, to vse others rashnesse to our temperance, as Diodorus sayth:Diodorus It is a faire thing by other mens faults to amende our owne maculous lyfe, and by the example of o­thers to knowe what is to be desired, and what is to be es­chewed. An Historie, sayth Be­roaldus, doth greatly profyte,Beroaldus af­ter that that is honest, detes­ting and adnihilating the vi­cious, extolling the sincere and godly, suppressing the peruers and wretched. Thirdely, the bookes of the milde Philoso­phers, which declare and en­forme vs of the documentes and precepts of Vertue, as the ten bookes of Aristotle intituled his Ethicke, Ciceros thrée boo­kes of Offices, Lactantius works [Page] de deuina institut. Erasmus of the institutiō of a Christiā Prince, & manie mo, which haue liuely, vertuously & frendly depainted and sette forth the trade of an honest lyfe. Fourthly and last of all, the bookes of holy scrip­ture, which declare and teach, howe we shoulde knowe God, whom to know a creator of all thinges, and he to be but one onely, is the dere, true and per­fecte wisdome of man,Lactantiꝰ lib. 2. as Lac­tantius wryteth in his seconde booke.

¶ Pouertie ought not to be repug­nant to Vertue.

IT is not to be esteemed that manye accuse and condēne pouertie, wher­by they can lesse apply the stu­dy of Vertue. For as Apuleius [Page] sayth, pouertie was in old time house seruant to the Philoso­phers, neither was any know­en to ascende to any dignitie, whome pouertie had not enu­tried and brought vp, euen frō their infācy. Pouertie in aun­cient tyme was conditrix and edificatrix of all Cities, the go­uernour and guide of al artes, cleare of all faultes, the liberal rewarder of all prayse, whome all nations haue extolled and magnificenced with all prayse and glory. Therefore Apuleius sayth thus, if any man be op­pressed with pouertie, let him imitate Cleantes, a Philosopher, who constrained through po­uertie labored by night, draw­ing water, to the intente that he mighte prouide for to buye his victuall fode in the day, by [Page] which meanes, he mighte the more commodiously apply hys study: let him therfore labour while time is, that he may con­ciliat whereby to liue and ob­tayne Vertue, which commeth vnto the paynefull labourers hande.Seneca. Whervpon Seneca sayth thus. Virtutē in Templo inuenies, in Foro, in Curia, per muros stantē, pul­uerulentam, coloratā, callosas habentē, manꝰ, qui nihil aliud videtur ostēdere, quam quod etiam laboriosos homines virtus adiuuat & amplectitur. Thou shalt finde vertue in the Tem­ple, in the Market place, in the Court, standing before the walles all dustie, al to be pain­ted with durte, hauing harde handes, wherby it is to be per­ceyued, that Vertue doth also loue and imbrace laborious men.

¶ Whether Vertue can be adopted without learning.

IN case aduēture some would say, there be ma­ny vnlerned men which neuer at any tyme adhibited their mindes to study, and yet are reputed and estemed men of an honest lyfe and conuersa­tion. It is to be aunswered: e­uen as some ascend vnto Ver­tue by their singuler wit with­out learning,Cicero de oration. as Cicero in his booke of Orations testifieth, saying: I haue knowen many notable wittie men, vertuous, wtout learning, who haue bene by nature modest and graue. And this also doe I often as­cribe vnto Vertue: nature to be of muche more excellencye without learning, than lear­ning [Page] without nature. And a­gaine, euen the same I cōtend, whē as, eloquence & the groūd of learning is ioyned with an excellēt and noble nature, then do I not know what shall con­tinue egregious & notorious. This spake Cicero verye pru­dently.

¶ Of excercise and practise.

YEt beside witte and sci­ence, thirdely he must vse the helpe of exercyse, o­therwise he studieth friuolous­ly to seeke Vertue.Cicero nouae rhe­tor. lib. 3. As Cicero testifieth in his thirde booke of newe Rethoricke. In omni disci­plina infirma est artis praeceptio sine summa assiduitate excitationis, tū ve­ro in memoriis minimum valet doc­trina nisi industria & labore, & diligē ­tia comprebetur. In euery disci­pline [Page] the precept of Art is feble and of no force, vnlesse it be se­dulously exercised. And also doctrine preuayleth nothing in memorie, except with great industrie, labour and diligence it be proued.Lactan. lib. 3. And Lactantius in his thirde boke sayth, that Ar­tes are therefore learned, not that they shuld be only knowē, but also exercised, & that they shoulde be vsed eyther for the helpe of mans lyfe, or for plea­sure, or else for glory and wor­thy fame.Cicero in officiis. Cicero in his booke of Offices sayth, yt al the prayse of vertue cōsisteth not in ye know­ledge of Vertue, but in the function thereof, that is, it a­vaileth but litle to know what Vertue is, what is honest, and what is vicious, but to vse and exercisce vertue it selfe.

¶ How that this exercise of the science which thou knowest or hast, had, is the way to get vertue.

WHo so desireth the fruit and commodity of true Vertue and sincere ho­nestie, out of those .iiij. bokes, yt is to say, of Poetrie, Historio­graphie, Philosophie, and holy Scripture, it is necessarie he learne the accustomed maner of Bees in the collectiō of their honie. The Bees are accusto­med when as they gather ho­ny, to flie about diuers floures, to tast many floures, and of the iuyce thereof to excerpe & sucke somewhat, and then to carye some of the moysture thereof in to their Hyues, which they lay downe and fardel vp together, to compound hony therof: thus [Page] frequenting and doyng this often, they conserue and cōglo­merate muche hony on heapes in length of tyme, which is a sweete fruite of their labours: euen so muste the desirous to be vertuous, which also wis­sheth to come to the state of a man, vse a quadruple exercise.

The first exercise is, that he excerpate & annote in a voide booke, as the keper of memory, whatsoeuer he shal reade or be taught, which mai be a furthe­rance to eloquence and Ver­tue. For an egregious man must haue the vse of them both as Cicero testifieth in his fyrste booke of his olde Rhetoricke, affirming that wisdome with­out eloquence helpeth little to the gouernment of Cities, and eloquence withoute wisdome [Page] doth hinder more than profite. Let euery Student therefore, make him two voyde bookes, in which he shall wryte both what he hath heard, and also what he hath read: in the one to annote fine sugred senten­ces, in other vertuous pre­cepts, like a couetous man, who heapeth vp treasures, for which he hath dyuers chestes, specially where he putteth his siluer, & where he putteth his golde, alone. This exercise did Plinie the cōpositor of ye na­turall History, vse and imitate, of whom Plinie his seconde vn­cle wryteth, that he neuer read any thing worthy to be noted, but he comitted it to writing. The second exercise is, to con­ceale such annotations in the retentiue memorie, and that [Page] he thinke to vse them often as Macrobius wryteth in his sixte booke, saying:Macrobiꝰ lib. 6. the best & moste profitable way of reading and hearing, is to immitate those which seeme moste probable, & to conuert the sayings of other to some vse of thine, whiche thou thinkest most graue, and most to be admyred, which ac­customed maner the pleasant Latines as also ye noble Gre­tians were wont to vse, which is not onely to heare any Au­thour, to learne his wordes, or to vnderstande his oration or phrase of speaking, but of his learning and doctrine, to col­lect the mellifluous eloquence and right way of liuing, euen as meate receiued onely in the mouth nothing nourisheth the body except it discende into the [Page] stomacke, and there conco­qued and sodden, in the ende conuerte to fleshe and bloude, so neyther the lesson that is hearde or read, profiteth any whit the student, vnlesse it be conferred to some vse of tal­king and more wisdome. The third exercise is this, to drawe euery day a lyne by example of ye Painter Appelles, who would dayly, were he neuer so sore oc­cupyed about other affayres, depaynt or drawe one lyne at the least. And so doth the coue­tous man put dayly one piece of siluer into his treasury, for many littles make a great, as Hesiodus the Poet sayth:Hesiodus. Paruu­la si tentas super adiecisse pusillis, id­que frequenter peragas, magnus cu­mulatur aceruꝰ. Which is: If thou adde or put little to little, & vse [Page] it eftsones, therof riseth a great heape. And in this exercise it is not to be laboured howe much we learne dayly, but how wel. Therfore Appelles answered an vnskilful Painter who gloried that he had drawē an Image sodenly: I doe not maruell at this, sayth he, for thou mayest drawe many moe such foolishe pictures quickly. Wherfore we ought to follow that witty sen­tence of Cato, Sat cito si stat bene. Cato: Inoughe well done is done quickely inough. Wherevpon Augustus Caesar vsed this adage,Augustus Caesar. Matura lente. Haste not to much in thy worke, but do it wiselye wtout muche temerity or rash­nesse. For the soft circumspect space profiteth more, than the swifte hedlong course without all wit and reason. The fourth [Page] and laste exercise, is to reporte and reuolue at night whatso­euer was learned the day be­fore, whiche vse Cato vsed as Philel. wryteth in his booke de e­duca. puero. And Apuleius writeth of a certaine people in India, which are called Gymnosophistae, which knowe neither to inha­bit their lande, nor the vse of tillage, neither to bridle horses neither to tame bulles, neither to shere sheepe, yet they adored wisdome greatly. Both aunci­ent maysters, as also yong ry­ping scholers, haue nothing in more contempt than the slug­gish slouthfulnesse of ye minde. For when as their table was spred redy for dinner, and be­fore meate was set thereon, all the yong men from diuers pla­ces and offices came to Dine. [Page] Then woulde the mayster in­quire of eche of thē what good he had done that day from the rysing of the sunne. Then one would remember howe he had set two at vnitie and concord. An other woulde say he had o­beyed his parents commaun­dementes: another would say he had founde something by practise: and an other woulde say he had learned somewhat. And he which coulde shew no­thing, was thrust dinnerlesse out of the dores to worke. And so ought euery studēt at night to practise with him selfe the propertie of sheepe, whose na­ture is, that when towardes night they be driuen from out the medowes vnto the fieldes, they do eate and chaw againe their meate that they haue ga­thered [Page] of al the day before, and therefore they surrender milke into their pastors. In likewise ought the enamored with ver­tue to repeate at nighte both what he hath read, & also what he hath hearde, both which be groūded on eloquence, and al­so which be godly and vertu­ous in doctrines. And second­ly, that he turne into milk, that is that he vse to seeme profita­ble and honest of liuing, that others may se wherin he hath profited, euen as the sheepe shewe their pasture by their milke, to haue eaten grasse, & not to haue spent the day idle­lie. And also it shall be verie profitable to examine with an­other, whether he hath profi­ted more in eloquēce or in ver­tue. For wheras he conferreth [Page] with others eyther of thē pro­ueth what he knoweth, & what he doth not know. Whervpon Sueto in his boke of the institu­tions of Grammarians, sayth:Sueto. that in the olde time in scholes of learning, it was the accusto­med maner, that the scholers shoulde in the fore noone con­tend the one with the other in disputations, and in the after noone recite those disputatiōs and arguments by roote.

¶ What comelinesse, vertue and ho­nestie eche man ought to kéepe in all ages.

THe lyfe of Vertue or ho­nestie, consisteth in two thinges. Firste, in the comely or nature of it self. And secondly, in the decent and ho­nest behauiour toward others, [Page] as Macrobius testifieth, saying: that by Vertue a good man is made gouernour and ruler o­uer him selfe, and consequent­ly ouer the cōmon weale. First, it is nedefull that euery man rule him selfe before he instruct others, whervpō Thales Milesius a Philosopher, being demaun­ded who were an vpryghte Prince, he made answere: he that ruleth him selfe so, yt it can not be obiected in his teeth.

And how it becommeth eche man to rule and gouerne him selfe by Vertue, must be conse­cuted by diligent labor, which shall be declared hereafter.

¶ Who so wit guide and rule him self honestly, must kepe six precepts.

OF which the first is, that he learne to holde hys peace, that he loue silēce [Page] better than iangling talke, for taciturnitie and little talke be­tokeneth a wyse and prudent man. And contrarywise, ouer muche pratling betokeneth a foole, who knoweth not to holde his peace, Macrobiꝰ sayth: by silence a Plilosopher doth no lesse deuine than by spea­king, that is to say, it is no lesse signe of wisedome to keepe si­lence, than to speake. Whereof Pythagoras (as wryteth Apulei­us) called first by te name of a Philosopher, taught his scho­lers at the firste, onely to kepe silence. And the first instructiō to make a wyse scholer, was to coerce and brydle his tongue, and to represse and kepe backe the wordes within the wall of his teeth. Socrates also being demaūded of a certaine man by [Page] what meanes euery mā might attaine vnto wisdome: he pre­scribed him two wayes, ye firste was, that he keepe close more than he speake, and the other was, that he learne to speake, which was singularly spoken of him, for it is manifestlye knowen by three signes, that silence ought more to be vsed than loquacitie. First, by na­ture man hath but one mouth, and two eares, that he shoulde not speake all that he heard. The seconde signe is, by the custome of the auncient Ro­maynes, for the Romaynes were wont to depict the Lady Angerona, Goddesse of silence, hauing hir mouth closed vppe with wax. And the Egyptians depainted Harpocrates, God of silēce, shutting his mouth with [Page] two fingers. Thirdlye, by the olde aunciente Philosophers doctrine & learning, who did damnifie nothing in a man more than much iangling, say­ing yt nature gaue man teeth and lippes before his tongue, for that consideration, that he might suppresse and brydle it, least he should become a great chatterer.Xenocrat. And Xenocrates a Phi­losopher being inquired of, as touching his silence, he made answere againe, that he neuer repented for not speaking, but that it oftē tymes grieued him that he spake. The second pre­cepte is, that he learne to de­clare and speake that that is decent and comelye to speake, not to tell lying tales, but in al things to tell the truth: For he that dare tell that whiche is [Page] fayned, & hath not bene seene, then is he a lyer and a deceyt­full person,Horatius. as Horace testifieth, neyther oughte any man (as Plinie sayth) speake that which may be hurtfull to the speaker,Plinius. neyther to vtter backebiting wordes which might diminish an other mannes honour, nei­ther to goe whispering, or as one would say, to speake with­in his sleeue, but onely to pro­nounce that which is honest, chast, profitable and true. And the righte vertuous man doth kepe in secret all other, wherv­pō Ouid wryteth two trim ver­ses saying: Eximia est virtus prae­stare silentia rebus. Et contra, grauis est culpa tacenda loqui. Whiche is in our mother tong: Silence is an excellēt vertue, farre pas­sing and exceding all thinges. [Page] And contrarywise it is an in­tollerable offence to vtter those things which ought to be kept in secret. Therfore in speaking we ought to kepe this order & lawe, that when we woulde speake, we first forese, whether it becommeth the place, ye time, and also the persons which be there present. Secondly, that we speake then whē as other­wise with our silēce we might hinder our selues or our frien­des. Thirdly, that he take hede least he doe to muche, that is, that in all things he obserue a meane and measure, and that he committe not to often that which is naught, neither that to little which is good.Terentius in Andria As Te­rence sayth in his Comedy no­minated Andria, the first sceane. Nam id arbitror adprime in vita vtile [Page] esse, vt ne quid nimis. For I thinke it very necessarie to the lyfe of man, in all thinges to kepe a meane. For which cause the learned men describe Vertue to sitte in the midst. Est modus in rebus. Sunt certi denique fines, quos vltra citraque nequit consistere rectè. There is a mean in al things, and eche thing hath certaine limitts beyonde whiche, or on this syde whiche, Vertue con­sisteth not. For Vertue con­sisteth in a meane, and in all excesse and superfluitie, vice taketh vp hir dwelling place. Wherfore, in all things a mean is commendable, and excesse alway vituperable.Hesiodus. Herevpon the Poet Hesiodus hath a prety saying. Demidiū plus toto. That is to saye: A meane is more laudable thā superfluitie. And [Page] it is a common prouerbe. Omne nimium vtitur in vitium. Euery to much is starke naught.Cleobolꝰ Lindus. And Cleobolus Lyndus one of the sea­uen wise men of Greece, saith: The best in euery thing, is a meane or measure.

The fourth precept is, that euery man eschew and slye in him selfe, that whiche he seeth filthy & vncomely in an other, remembring the Philosopher Diogines his sentēce, who saith.Diogenes. Si vis bonus & virtute praeditus effici, expelle a te quod in alio despicis. If thou desire to be an honest and vertuous man, seclude that vice from thy selfe, which thou espiest filthy in an other. And Cicero sayth, he muste be a per­fect vertuous man,Cicero. that wyll tell his neighbour of his vyce, for we can easely and quicklye [Page] espy other mennes faultes, but our owne we will not knowe. If any descend into his owne bowels, and search his owne conscience, and doe way and consider with him selfe what he is, then will he cease byting his neighbor with his vitious minde, and first, he will go and purge him selfe from all his vices and sinfull lyfe, and ad­orne & trimme him selfe wyth vertue. Therefore our Saui­our Iesus Christ in hys Gos­pell, persuading vs to Vertue, doth commaund vs, first to cast the great beame of sinne from oute our owne eyes, and after the little mote in oure neigh­bours, that we should first cure and heale our selues, and con­sequently other.

The fift precept is, to abide [Page] hys estate what so euer it be, whether it be prosperous or aduerse, not to ioy ouer much ouer his fortunate lyfe, least she sodenly turning hir whele, double his sorrow and pensyf­nesse: and that he be not too heauy & sorrowfull for his vn­fortunate lyfe, but to learne of Socrates, Socrates. in both hys estates to kepe one countenance, and one minde.Plato. Whervpon Plato being asked at a certain time wherby a wise man might be knowen, he aunswered: A wyse man though he be contemned, will not be moued, neyther shal his prayse or greate name make him arrogant or proude. For Vertue hath none acquain­tance with pride, bycause it is a vice, neyther doth it admitte the familiaritie of desperatnes [Page] and wrath, bycause they be al­so vyces. Wherfore it is a com­mon prouerbe, Qui homo in ad­uersis rebus pusilli est animi, ille nauti est. Which is thus much to say: That man which in aduersity is fainte hearted, is not to be esteemed. Therefore a man ought to do both in prosperitie and in aduersitie, as a certaine Philosopher did, who in pro­speritie, would be sad, & saying that after mirth commeth sor­row, and likewyse in aduersity he would be mirry, saying: that after sorrowe came mirth, for fortune is euer mutable & in­constant, therfore ought we in prosperitie to looke for aduer­sitie ensuing. As Plaut. in Amph. sayth,Plaut. in Amphit. Ita diis visum est, voluptati vt meror comes subsequatur. For so it is the Gods pleasure, that sor­row [Page] shuld be mirthes waiting mayd. And therfore also ought we to thinke thus in aduersity how that God shall ende thys misery at his will and leysure, or as Virgill sayth.Virgilius. It shall be sufficient to haue thought on those euilles, and not alwayes and continually to muse and thinke thereon.

The sixt and laste precepte shall be, that he indeuour him selfe to please euery honest and wyse man, for thereof descen­deth great prayse and vertue: for consequently it followeth, that who so pleaseth them, is also eyther honest, or else by frequenting their companye learneth honesty: for good mē loue none but good, and the naughty person none but euil. Therfore expedient it is, that [Page] he who wil obtaine vertue, do applye his industrie to please vertuous men, as Seneca sayth: we must choose some vertuous man whome we must alwaye followe, yt we liue so, as though he alwayes sawe vs, & what so euer we doe, to doe it so, as though he were present at the doing therof: for he may ease­lye liue an honest and vertu­ous lyfe, who lyueth after the will and rule of vertuous men, and doeth all his thinges as though they were done before them, euen as women decking and trimming them before a glasse, & when they haue ador­ned them selues finely and neatly, they wander in­to the market, there to be viewed and seene.

¶ Concerning the maners and vertues of all ages.

ALthoughe that Vertue and honestie do deck and adourne a man, yet not­withstanding, euery age hath his condition of honestie, for it is a prouerbe. Alia vita, alia die­ta, alios mores postulant.

For all conditons are not comely for euery age, for some become children, some youth, some yong men, some men, and other some aged men, for with the age the nature chaungeth, therfore must they also chaūge their maners. For there are v. ages of men, which be these: infancie, childehoode, youth, mans age, and olde age, which haue their conditions particu­larly them selues.

¶ As concerning infancie.

INfancie is the firste age of man after his natiui­tie, and it is so called, by­cause it can not speake, and therfore he can learne no good maners or vertue, bycause he is not yet reasonable, nor hath not the vse and practise of the tongue, neyther hath he any perseuerance at all. Therefore must he onely liue after the wil and pleasure of the Nursse or Mother.

De Pueritia.

PVeritia is the second age, when as the infants do begin to speake, hauing not as yet the full vse of reasō. It may so be, that they be cal­led children of the Latin word Bua, that is a Childes drinke, [Page] which they call Bua, vttering their wordes first vnperfectly, without wisedome, reason, or vnderstanding. And these the Parents ought to teache, to bring them vp in honest ma­ners and conuersation. Firste with these maners: that they worshippe and pray vnto God with a willing heart, that they be obedient to their Parents, that they reuerēce their elders, that they flye and auoyde all playe and euill company, least they be defiled with vyces be­fore they attaine vnto reason, which is ye moste odious thing on earth.Apuleius. As Apuleiꝰ sayth who woulde not hate and desdaine that boye whome he seeth as though he were a certaine mō ­ster, stout, bolde and very vici­ous, being as yet vnder age, [Page] soner to be vnhappy and ne­quitions, than strong of body, being but of tender yeres, and yet of stubbern malice and ha­tred? Yet notwithstāding you can not require perfect wise­dome in a childe, whilst as yet his childishnesse and imbicili­tie of witte hath dominion and power ouer him, therefore he playeth with tryfles and ge­gawes. And for all this, yet must you not fauour him ouer muche, least he incline him to vyces, and so remaine alway filthy & vncleanly. For what­soeuer he learneth once in hys youth, that will he vse for euer. Wherfore they ought diligent­ly to be instructed and nusseled vp in these precepts.Phill. li. 8. de educat. liberorū. As Phille. wryteth in his eyght booke of the bringing vp of childrē, that [Page] is, that they worship God, that they be gentle, obedient and seruiceable in wordes, condi­tions and body: And to vse a comely cleanly & decent forme of apparell, not to be tale cary­ars, nor lyars, nor beastes of fylthy and wicked conditions, not leane of body as Asses, nei­ther yet filthy as Hogs in the myre, neyther slouenlyke in their apparell, as beggars or fleshely and lecherous goates, neyther dul witted like a stone or Asse. And as sone as they be once seauen yeres olde, to com­mit them in custodie to schole­masters, for so were the gen­tiles wont to do,Phil. lib. 2. de educat. liberorū. as Phille. wryteth in his second booke of the bring­ing vppe of children.

De Iuuentute.

IVuentus is the nexte age to Pueritia, Perottus. although that Perottus sayth that ye wise counsellers do numbers it after Adolescentia, yet it is before Ado­lescentia by dayly vse, which age commeth in, when as the chil­dren can new vtter their wor­des perfectly and plainly, & are committed to Scholemasters to be instructed, or else be redy to be giuē to their charge. And as Perottus sayth,Perottus. it is called Iu­uentus, youth, of this word Iuuā ­do, to helpe, bycause it waxeth able and potent to helpe hys parēts, for it cā dispatch quick­ly his fathers will and com­maundement, and can put his helpe to many labours, or at least do his will therto. And as [Page] Quintilian wryteth in his firste booke and thirde Chapter.Quintili­anus. lib. 1. capit. 3. In this age, parents must beware that they do not to much pam­per vp their children, to kepe them so tender, that no colde winde may blowe ouer them, for that soft kinde of bringing vp doth corrupt and debilitate the strength and force, both of the body, and also of the witte. And what shall this youth do, whiche is thus lasciuiouslye brought vp? Verely they that be wantōly, petelātiously and delicatly kept in this age, will looke for the same delicacie all their lyfe after: And when as they can keepe this no longer, eyther for their sumptuous ex­pences, or else for lacke of Pa­trimony, then do they labor by al meanes, by right or by wrōg [Page] to tast their sweete lickorouse and dilicate mouth, then doe they fall into such idlenesse, play, pastimes, and thefts, and consequently into all kinde of wickednesse. In this age the children of Rome were wont to hang their golden ornaments vp with a roope vpō the Tēple which they ware aboute their neckes from their infancie, as thoughe they did renounce all childishenesse: And then did they put on a fyne white gown garded with Purple, in token to leaue all childish conditiōs, and in exāple of a better, more pure and honest lyfe, that whē they shoulde see the whitenesse of their gownes, they shoulde flye vice, which maketh a man loke blacke, and hated of other, and beholding the brightnesse [Page] of the purple colour, they shuld endeuour them selues yt their godly & vertuous lyuing shuld so shine, whereby it might con­ciliat prayse of all men.

¶ These were the dueties of children.

FIrste to worshippe al­mighty God, with hū ­ble prayers, and a low­ly syncere & an obedient heart, to honour and obey their Pa­rents, to loue and feare their Masters, to giue diligent eare to these thre: to flye what they forbid, to execute and do what they cōmaund, that thei learne the commaundements of God, heare them taught, seeke them out where as they be, & fayth­fully to followe them. And it may easely be perceyued how [Page] that a yong man muste obey these three, for of these thre cō ­sisteth our whole lyfe. Of God we receyue our soules, of oure parents our humaine subtāce, and of our masters the instruc­tion of our soule, by which our lyfe differs from brute beastes. Therefore expedient it is, that we obey them, least we seeme vngratefull and thanklesse.

De Adolescentia.

ADolescentia is the fourth age, whiche beginneth from the fourtenth yeare of our lyfe, and it is called Ado­lescentia of this worde Adolesco, which signifieth to encrease, to growe vpwarde, for then man doeth encrease in bodye, in strength, in reason, in vice, and in Vertue: yet are they more [Page] prone and flexible to vice than to Vertue. And then is euery mans nature and disposition first knowen, vnto what he is most inclined: for before yt age it can not be knowen through the childishenesse and foolish­nesse of age. But be they once sprōg vp this age, they giue their minde to some kinde of exercise,Terentiꝰ in Andria as Terence in his Co­medie called Andria saith, either to ryde horses, or to kepe dogs for hunting, or else to worship, and learne of some notable ler­ned man. As Horace wryteth also in his boke intituled de arte Poetica.

Imberbis Iuuenis tandem custode remoto
Gaudet equis, Canibꝰ, & aprici gramine cāpi.
Caercus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper
Vtilium tardus prouisor, prodigus aeris,
Sublimis, cupidus (que) & amata relīquere pnix.
When as the beardlesse man,
is past his Masters charge:
To brydle horse is his delight,
to sée Dogs runne at large.
To hunt the Fox or Hare,
to make a merry sporte:
In lusty youth is care,
to liue in such a sorte.

This age is double, the first beginning from .xiiij. to .xviij. and it is called youth bearde­lesse, bycause at those yeares yong men be without beards. As Phoebus, Phoebus otherwyse called A­pollo stoode in auncient time in the Temples of the Gentiles without a beard. As Vale. Max. wryteth in his firste booke de Neglecta religione, Valerius Maximus lib. 1. de neg. relig. cōcerning the story of Dionisius Tyrannus Syracu­sanus. Then from .xviij. yeares their Bearde doth begynne to grow, and then they be called [Page] yong men with beards, grow­ing to mannes estate. And this age doeth precipitate & thrust downe hedlong a yong man into al kind of vice, in idlenesse, pastimes, disobediēce, glotony, luxuriousnesse, whore hūting, pride, prodigalitie, and vnto al kinde of sensualitie, consuming & wasting their patrimonie fri­uolouslye, nothing weighing their hore haires to come, as al Comedies do plainly declare, which intreate nothing of yōg men, but howe they slashe out thier goodes on voluptuous pleasures and delicate bākets.

¶ How Parents and Masters ought to traine vp yong men to ver­tue and honestie.

SEing therfore this age is more ready to vyce, than all other ages be, [Page] and doeth dayly more & more giue it selfe hedlong to youth­full lustes and concupiscences, euen as a yong Colte whome youth tickeleth, therfore ought yong men of this age to be rai­ned eyther of their parents, or else of their Masters, euen as the wilde starting horse is ta­med and brydeled of the horse courser, with pricking spurres. In which thing parēts or ma­sters must vse foure things, if so be that they will bring them to any good passe, that is to say with instruction, wt monition, with large promesse, & laste of al, with prayse & threatnings.

¶ Instruction consisteth of sixe Precepts.

WHereof the first is, as I sayde before, that they be taught chiefely and [Page] before all things to worshippe and pray vnto God, who hath giuen essence and being to all, hath fed and preserued al, lea­uing no haynous crime vnpu­nished, no vertuous dede vnre­warded, giuing an euerlasting reward to the good, and a per­petual punishment to the euil, and that without his lawfull fauour and grace our mortali­tie is able to comprehende no­thing, & without his especiall grace, we are not able to lyue a moment: And therefore to be carefull, least with our wicked lyfe we offende.

Secondly, not to truste in worldly goodes, and specially in the beauty of the body, for the pulcritude thereof is a very frayle and mutale good,Virgilius. Eglog. 2. as Virgil sayth in his second Eglog.

O formose puer nimiùm ne crede colori,
Alba ligustra cadūt, vaccinia nigra legūtur.
O fayre sweéete boy
Do thou not ioy,
of thy swéet pleasant face:
Trust not to much
That thou art such,
beware in any case.
For Pepper is blacke
And hath a good smacke,
and euery man will it bye:
Snowe is white
And lyeth in the dyke,
and most men let it lye.

Neyther let it grieue them, if nature haue not compoūded their limmes as well as shee hath done others, but let them labour ye they be farre bewtiful and splendent in minde.Francisc. Petrar. li. de aduers. fortuna. For as Franciscus Petrar. sayth in hys booke de aduersa fortuna. Pulchrius est pulchrū fieri. The fairest bew­tie is, a man to make him selfe [Page] bewtifull, that is: knoweledge and Vertue, which is a farre fairer thing, than to be borne faire and comely of personage. And this cōmaundement was Socrates wont to teach his scho­lers, that they should often cō ­template and behold them sel­ues in a glasse: and seing thē ­selues faire of body and face, they should also endeuour too make thēselues faire of mind. For the body cōtayning with­in it a defiled minde, is a gaye and a goodly Sepulchre, con­cluding within it a rotten and a putrified body. Wherfore our Sauiour Iesus Christ in hys holy Gospell, called the Phari­sies, painted Sepulchres, for that they outwardly appeared religious and honest, and were inwardely rauening Wolues. [Page] And Socrates commaūded them also, that seing thē selues not well shaped, they shoulde also seeke the bewty of the minde, with knowledge and vertue, whiche is more noble and of longer continuance than the shape of the body.

Thirdly, that they put no cō ­fidence nor trust in their riches and goodes, neyther in their great aboundance of money, but yt they trust onely to their science and vertue, hoping in tyme to become riche and hap­py men, for the wyse and lear­ned is the true riche man: and worldly ryches are but transi­torie and quickly lost. For we reade of many exceeding riche men, who haue in a moment bene most infortunate, as was Croesus the most riche Prince of [Page] the earth, king of the Lydians. Neyther are ryches to be este­med as precious Iewels,Cecero. li. 4. nouae reth. for Cicero sayth in his fourth booke nouae Rethor. Si voles diuitias compa­rare cum virtute, vix satis idoneae erūt, vt sint virtutis predissequae siue famu­lae. If thou wilt compare riches with vertue, they are scarce fyt for to be hir waiting maids or seruants: therefore ought yong men in their flourishing witte and ripe age, to prepare a wai­faring man or guide to leade them ye way to olde age, which wayfaring man, is vertue and knowledge. For by them, and through them, the aged man hath honour, prayse, health, & nourishment:Thales Milesius. Whervpon Tha­les Milesius a Philosopher, being demaunded in time past what yong men shoulde learne, he [Page] made answere: let them learne those thinges by whiche they may liue in their old age, that is to say, vertue & knowledge.

The fourth document and precept is, that thei teach them to auoyde that which they see hurtfull to another, or yt which they see contaminate or defile another, & that by other mens damages & misfortunes they learne wisedome, and that by them they amende and correct their own wicked life to a bet­ter. The vyces which corrupt and rust men, are disobediēce, lying, tangling talke, vnfayth­fulnesse, dishonestie, carding & dycing, and all such filthie ga­mes, whorehunting, dronken­nesse, prodigalitie, ydlenesse, and the cōpany of vicious per­sonnes.

The fift precept is, that they put before their eies the exam­ple both of good men, and also of vicious and wicked mē, that they may see the life and death of them: how the wicked haue bene rewarded wyth punish­ment, and the good men wyth prayse. In cōsideration wher­of, the old auncient Romaynes did vestite and aray their yong men, in ye prime of their youth, with gownes decent for men, yt by little and litle, they might at the last creepe to an honest lyfe. After that they were ledde to the open Market place, that they might knowe and see the life of mē to be double, the one vitious, the other vertuous, the vitious & peruerse life to haue an euill ende and cōfusion, but the way to the vertuous lyfe, [Page] to be straight and ful of bram­bles and briers, but yet at the last to be rewarded with a per­petual beneficial good reward Therfore Hercules being at the state of a yong man, choose ra­ther to serue vertue throughe labour and paynes, knowing that after labour their cōmeth a rewarde, than to be in bon­dage to vyce by idlenesse.Cicero. li. 1. Officiorū. As Cicero wryteth of him in hys first booke of Offices.

Sixtly, that they be still oc­cupied with labour and wea­rinesse, and neuer suffered to gyue them selues to idlenesse, least they fall into all disorde­red lusts: For as Ouid sayth, la­bour taketh away all the de­sires of the flesh:Ouidius. Otia si tollas, pe­riere Cupidinisarcus. If thou driue away idlenesse, loue shall haue [Page] no force on thee.

Therefore the olde Romay­nes dyd dayly exercyse their children in wrastling, fighting & swimming: therefore ought yong men to be exercised with dayly labor, euē as horse cour­sers vse to breake yong horses, ryding them dayly frō streate to streate, or in the fieldes, to vse them to ryding to ye spurre and the brydle, who being let styll runne at large, would be past mannes might to rule.

¶ Of Monition.

SEcondly, Parents and Masters must not one­ly instruct yong men, but warne them also of theyr faults. If they cōmit any crime, they ought to be taught to doe better and more vertuouslye. [Page] And ofte tymes to commen in the presēce of them of honestie, and honest men, that at the length by dayly admonition & warning, they may become ye more honest, for wordes doe moue the minde, & that which a man heareth oftē, it imprin­ted and inclosed in his hearte. And that they exhorted & ad­monished to imitate the foote­steppes of their Godly and re­uerende Parents, of their ho­nest Kinsfolks & Neuewes, as Aeneas in the .xij. boke of Aeneidos doth perswade and admonish his sonne Ascanius, yt of him his father he should learne vertue: saying.

Disce puer virtutem ex me, verum (que) laborem,
Fortunam ex alijs, nùnc te mea dextera bello.
Defensū dabit, & magna inter praemia ducet,
Tu facito, mox cum matura adoleucrit aetas,
Sis memor.
O Childe learne vertue here of me,
the roote of labour true:
Which shall thée leade to dignitie,
that neuer thou shalt rue.
But scape to shore, and swim to lande
when other ryches fleete:
A perfect guide by thée to stande,
a Lanterne to thy féete.

¶ Of large and liberall promise.

THirdely, that they pro­mise them to get great rewardes of euery man in euery place, and alwayes if in case they seke after Vertue, as Horace sayth in his Epistles.Horatius. in epistolis. I bone, quo virtus tua te ducit, I pede fausto, Grandia laturus meritorū prae­mia. Go happely vertuous man whether so euer thy Vertue shal conduct and leade thee, in hope to bring home great re­wards [Page] for thy deserts. Go for­wardes O ye yong men, whe­ther vertue shall leade you, for great is your rewarde, for he hath al things plentiously, and to him that seketh vertue there wanteth nothing.Plautus. As Plaut. tes­tifieth in Amph. Comaedi.

¶ Of prayse and threatnings.

FOurthly and last of all, ascribe prayse to yong men, if they continue & prosper in vertue. For prayse is a great helpe, and ayde to fi­nish and ende their course that they haue determined.Ouid. lib. 5 de tristibus As Ouid sheweth in the fifth booke, de tristibus.

Deni (que) nòn paruas animo dat gloria vires,
Et foecunda facit pectora laudis amor.

Finally, glory doth encou­rage and strengthē the minde, [Page] and the loue & desyre of fame doth make men fruitfull. For al men as Cicero saith, are tray­ned and inflamed with the fer­uēt desire and hote loue of ho­nour and prayse.Quintilan Quint. also al­loweth the prayse of yong mē, if they profit in vertue: And also he cōmēdeth threatnings for thē, if that they be sluggish and vnwilling to attaine vnto vertue and honestie, and not threatnings onely, but grie­uous and smarting strypes:Cicero lib. 4. nouae rethoricae. As Cicero testifieth in his .iiij. boke nouae Rhetor. saying: Qui Adoles­centum peccatis ignoscendum putant oportere, falluntur: propteria quod ae­tas illa nō est impedimento bonis stu­diis. Apti sunt ad bona discenda, non minus quā mala. At hii sapienter fa­ciunt, qui Adolescentes maxime casti­gant, vt quibus virtutibus omnem vitā [Page] possint tueri, eas in aetate maturissima sibi comparent. They that thinke it good to remitte yong men their faultes, are deceyued: for so much that age is a furthe­rance to good & vertuous stu­dies: for they are apt & prompt no lesse to learn goodnesse thā vyce. But they are most wyse, who do chastē yong men, that in their rypest age they may gette suche vertues, by which they may defende all their life after.

¶ Of the offices and duetie of yong men.

YOng men haue dyuers offices. First they must choose, prepose and de­termine the trade of their ly­uing which they will vse du­ring their life: as we read that [Page] Hercules did. And as the Ro­maynes were accustomed to bring their yong men into the common Market place, appa­relled with gownes as men, and there should they flyng a­brode nuttes, with which they had played a greate whyle. They should reiect their for­mer ages youthfulnesse, and should endeuour to liue an ho­nest mans life. For he that wil liue amongst men, must not excede the honest meane of ly­uing.

Secondly,Cicero, lib. 1. offi­ciorum. as Cicero testifi­eth in his first boke of Offices. A yong man ought to reuerēce his elders, and by the good fa­therly admonitions and syn­cere honesty of the best & most godly of them, to institute and prepose his kinde of liuing, to [Page] brydle him selfe from lustes, & from all foolish appetites, and that he exercise with labour, & with pacience and sufferance, both of the body & of the mind, that he may be apte and fitte both for the warres & for Ciuil affayres. And when as he is disposed to recreate and quic­ken his sprites and giue him selfe to some pastime, that he beware of intemperance, but alway vse reuerence & shame­fastnesse, not to be too prodigal and lasciuious, but reuerent, and specially in those thinges at which he would haue his el­ders and seniors present. Fur­thermore, that both in place & in tyme they thinke them sel­ues men, and not beastes, and for that cause their maners to exceede the maners and condi­tions [Page] of beastes, and that they thinke them selues yong men, and not children or babes, to play as children: neyther that they thinke them selues men or fathers, that of them selues they should be wyse inoughe, but that they lacke as yet in­structions and godly lessons.

¶ Of mans age.

THe fifth age is called mannes age, when as a man is growen to his full rype age, and that his bo­dy is past growth, & his beard buddeth from out his chinne. And this age is most apt and fitte to receyue vertue and ho­nestie. For it is of force both by reason and of the body to embrace vertue. For of the Latin word (whiche is attrybuted to thys [Page] age) that is to say Vir, ye name of Vertue is deryued: for ad­ding ye sillable, tus, to this word Vir, it is made Virtus. For Ver­tue was firste nominated of this Latin worde Vir for a mā, bicause that man onely is able to receyue and learne vertue.

¶ Of the honest life of man.

MAnnes lyfe ought to be altogether honest and vertuous. For he ly­ueth not a perfect honest life, who vseth not all Vertues, though he offende but in some. Therefore a man ought to be prudent, iust, chast, and strong. He must be prudent, that he may do eche thing prudently, wisely, and warely, he must re­mēber both what he hath spo­ken, and what he hath done, to [Page] order those thinges that he hath presently to do ryghtly, to forcast and prouide for time to come, whatsoeuer he doth, to do it wysely, and alway to for­see the ende: for it is a filthie thing, as Cicero sayth,Cicero in ye ende to say had I wist. And Terence also in Adelphos sayth:Terentiꝰ in Adelp. Istud est sapere, nō quod ante oculos est solum videre, sed que futura sunt prospicere. It is a wyse thing not onely to vse the time presēt, but to forse the things to come. He must be also iust, hurting or dānifying none, but frendly to all men, to set vnity and concord betwene all men. Moreouer he must be godly & gentle in al his words and dedes, faythfull, trusty and constant. For fayth, as Cicero sayth, is the foundation of ius­tice: he must be also temperate [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [Page] in al things, vsing a meane be­tweene two extremities: mo­dest, chast, moderate, sparing, sober and shamefast.

He must be strong withall, not in the force of the body, but in the operation of the minde: not fearefull and weake min­ded in the tyme of trouble, not to be dasht out of countenance with euery mishap or euill for­tune, but boldely to go against it. Let him not be sodenly mo­ued & feared, but be of a strong courage howe soeuer the mat­ter chaunce or happen. Yet let him brydle hys gredy desire and wrathful anger aboue all thinges, neyther desire foo­lishe gawdes as children, ney­ther let him moued with anger do any thing. Therefore Plato, being asked what maner of [Page] men was strōgest: he answe­red, he which can refraine his owne anger.

Finally, a vertuous man oughte to obserue these two precepts. First, that he be such a one as he woulde haue him selfe counted to be. As Cicero sayth in his second boke of Of­fices, that Socrates sayd,Cicero. li. 2. offi. the way vnto glory is short & easy to be adopted, if euery man study to be as he would he shoulde be esteemed. The second precept is, that he take héede least he lose the name of an honest mā, by this precept of Ouid.

Omnia si perdas, famam seruare memento,
Qua semel amissa, postea nullus eris.

Which is in English. If thou leese all thinges, remember to kepe thy name & honest fame, which, whē thou hast lost, thou [Page] shalt be regarded as no body. And that euery man may kepe it, let him learne and followe this precept of Horace, Horatius. written in his Epistles.

Inter cuncta leges & percontabere doctos,
Qua ratione queas traducere lenitèr aeuum.

Amongst all thinges, reade & demaūd the learned clarkes, howe and by what meanes thou mayst lead thy life peace­ably.

¶ Of olde age.

THe sixt last age, is olde age, to the which age, wisdome and pru­dencie are propriate, which old men haue gotten and adopted, either by the lōg course of their lyfe, either by knowledge or ex­perience. Wherfore their office and duetie is, as Cicero sayth, [Page] in his first booke of Offices,Cicero li. 1. offi. to adiuuate and helpe yong men, their frendes, and the publike weale, with good councell and wisedome. In consideration whereof, Romulus the first buil­der of the Citie of Rome, elected and chose an hundreth aged persons, as Lyuius writeth, who for their counsell & wisedome, should haue the gouernement of the Citie. And therefore of this worde, Senibus, for aged mē the Senat was called, Senatus, which is as muche to say, as a collection or companie of olde aged mē, yt the old men should he Rectors and Guydes of Ci­ties, & an example of honestie to yong men. In which respect honour & dignitie is attribu­ted and giuen vnto them as to the Image & portiture of wise­dom, [Page] the doctors and teachers of honestie and vertue. Fur­thermore, it is the office & dutie of olde men, to flye auarice and couetousnesse, which raigneth in them plentifully: and also that they eschew al slouth and lasciuiousnesse, weighing with thēselues, what ye grey haires in their heade and the croked body postulateth & requireth. Truly that they vse graue and vertuous maners and condi­tions, and remember that they do dayly draw nearer & nearer death, and that their graue is at hand. Their body is bowed downe towardes the ground, whereby they may know, that by death they shall immediate­ly enter into earth. Wherefore they ought to set a syde all the pleasures and delightes of the [Page] worlde, and giue them selues wholy to loke for death, and a­byde his comming. Wherefore it were good that they knewe this verficle of Horace.

Lusisti satìs, edisti satìs, at (que) bibisti,
Tempus abire tibi est, ne potum largius aequo
Rideat, & pulset lasciua decentius aetas.
Quae erga alios, deū et hoīes deceat honestas.
Now youthfull age hath run his race,
an hoarie heade we sée:
From trifling toyes & Bacchus fare
auerted looke thou bée.
For earth doth chalenge all hir right,
and death doth watch hir pray:
With stealing steps, euen as by night
the théefe doth vs assay.
Whilst time permits for mercy craue
in vertue tende thy race:
Do good for yll, so shalt thou haue,
in heauen a dwelling place.
Hodiè mihi, cràs tibi.
Cito pede labitur aetas.
Dum vires anni (que), sinunt, tollerate laborem,
Iam venict tacito curua senecta pede.

¶ The thirde Chapter.

IT auaileth but a little to haue the knowledge of ver­tue and honestie, vnlesse it be practi­sed and had in vre.Cicero. For Cicero in Offic. sayth: Quod omnis laus virtu­tis, non in cognitione, sed in actione, consistet. The prayse of vertue consisteth not in knoweledge thereof, but in the vsing & fun­ction therof. And in his boke de Amicitia, Lib. de Amicitia. he sayeth: Tum virtutis praemium & fructus maxime capitur, quum in proximum quenque confer­tur. The greatest fruit & pro­fite of vertue, is when it is em­ployed to the commoditie of all thy neyghbours. The vse of [Page] Vertue must be referred, both towards God, & also towards man, for we were borne in the obedience, both of God & man: Notwithstāding, we owe one duety towards God, and ano­ther to man.

¶ What our duety is to God wardes.

HOnestie to God wardes, consisteth in the adoring and worshipping of god.Lactantiꝰ lib. 3. As Lactant. wryteth in his third boke: Seruiendum est religioni. We must doe reuerence to religion, the which, who so doeth not imitate, prostrateth him selfe towards the ground, he folow­eth the lyfe of beastes, and vt­terly secludeth all humanitie, & curtesie: for in the knoweled­ging and worshipping of God, [Page] all wisedome and sapience cō ­sisteth onely.

Wherefore, if any man wyll question with him who studi­eth perfect wisdome, for what cause he was borne into thys worlde: he will answere him by and by, that he was borne to worship, honour, and obey the omnipotent and eternall God, who created vs for that cause, that we should serue him as our Lorde and creator.

¶Of our duety towards men.

IMmediately and nexte after God, we owe a due­tie and a reuerence to­wards men:Lactantiꝰ For as Lactantius writeth in his booke: It is the first office and duetie of iustice to be ioyned with God, second­ly with man. And Christ in his [Page] sacred gospell sayth: Loue thy Lorde God, and thy neighbor as thy selfe. Man ought to be as a God to men, in mercy, in lenitie, & pietie, aiding the fa­tigated & laborious, helping the poore and nedy with foode and lyuing, defending the fa­therlesse and poore widdowes cause. Secondly, what we owe to euery man, I shall declare hereafter.

¶ Of our duety towardes our Countrey.

THe first and hyest place among men, our natiue Countrey possesseth: to whome the olde auncient Phi­losophers (as Phille. wryteth in his fourth booke de educat libero­rum) gaue the preeminence a­boue parents,Phil. li. 4. de educat. liberorū. in consideration [Page] that we were more bound to our contrey thā to our parēts: for which cause,Plato. Plato said: yt our Countrey claimeth part of our birth, for we were born to pro­fite oure Countrey: for wee may profite our countrey fiue wayes, or with fiue kinde of people: first, with labour, for the honour and prayse of our Countrey, to study and ende­uour vs to be such, and so to re­maine, as in time to come, we may be an honour to our coū ­trey, and that it, by the meanes of vs, may aggregate & heape vp glory to it selfe for euer.

Secondly, if she be foolish and vnlearned, to instruct hir with prudencie and counsell. For it is our duetie to teach the igno­rant. Thirdly that we prouide and prepare our commoditie [Page] and profite, that euen in the same we may be thankfull to ye land which hath borne, nouri­shed & brought vs vp. Fourth­ly, that we defende hir eyther with prudence, or with strēgth and force, howsoeuer the time & necessitie shall require. Fifth­ly, if nede require, and that she can not otherwise be redemed ans deliuered, that we prepare our selues, euen to dy in hir de­fence and quarrel, which death is esteemed and reputed most honest. Herevpon Horace sayd:Horat. Dulce, & decorum est, pro patria mori. which thing many men haue ventured, as you may reade more plainly in Liuius workes.

¶ Our duety towards our parents.

NExt after God and our Countrey, we ought to reuerence and obey our [Page] parents, as we are commaun­ded, both by the sacred & pro­phane scriptures, and them we must also worship, both wyth vertue and honestie. We ought to shew fiue poynts of honestie towards our parents. First, in fulfilling their will and plea­sure in honest things. Secōd­ly in seruing them to the vt­termost of our power. Third­ly, in honouring them, both in wordes and dedes, not to mut­ter or murmure against them. In deede and iesture, to reue­rence them, bare headed & ben­ded knees. Fourthly, in ador­ning vs, that is to say, by our profite in vertue & knowledge, that they may at some times get prayse and honour of vs in the presence of other, not to de­generate from them in honest [Page] condicion & vertuous lyuing. Fifthly, in nourishing them, if that they be ouerladē with po­uertie or age, whiche thinges beastes doe vse, and especially the Curlewes who feede their parents in their olde age.Cicero, de Orat. And Cicero in his booke de, Orat. hath this saying: Pietas, nihil aliud est, quàm humanitas erga parētes, Piety, is nothing else thā gentlenesse to our parents.Franciscꝰ Phile. de educat. liberorū. Franciscus Philel. de educat. liberorū, wryteth in his thirde Chapter of ye same boke concerning the dutie of chyl­dren to their parents, that al­beit they bee not able during their life, to render sufficient grateful thāks, yet they ought to do to the vttermost of their power, what they may, vsing them most gently, most curte­ously, attending on them dili­gently, [Page] fauoring their benigne perswasiōs, obeying their easy commaundements, to proue & allow their willes, pleasures & deliberations, eyther to goe or to tarry, eyther to spouse at their determinatiōs, as though they were diuine and celestiall wordes and cōmaundements, not to rebell or mutter when as they shal be stirred with the instigation of coller, paciently to abide their mines & threat­nings. But when as they shall bid or commaund that which is vnhonest or vnlawful to re­fuse, but gentlely & reuerently without cursing or euill spea­king.

¶ What chaunce hath befallen them, which haue not giuen eare to their parents teachings.

THey which haue beene wicked and froward to their parents, haue ne­uer prospered, as olde wryters do recorde. Orestes a Gretian, bycause he slewe his mother Clytemnestra, was trāsformed in­to one of the furyes of hell. And Naero a Romain Prince, bicause he was a parricide ouer his mother, was euer after coūted for the most tyraunt on earth. In the auncient time within the Citie of Rome, the parents slayers were yerked and puni­shed with a most vile death, for they were included within a sack of leather, with the cōpa­nie of dogs, serpents, and cockes, and so dimitted headlong into the deapth of the Sea.

¶ Of the duetie towardes our Scholemasters.

COnsequently after our pa­rents, we owe reuerence to scholemasters and in­structors, for they are other pa­rents: for which consideratiō, the Gētiles would haue schol­masters in the place & rowme of parents.Iuuenal. As Iuuenall writeth in his Satires. For Schole­masters are parents of minds, for they giue the lyfe of ye mind, that is to say, knowledge and vertue, where as parents giue but onely the life of ye body. In respect whereof, scholemasters are to be regarded nexte after parents, and are worthy of no lesse reuerence.Phille. li. 4 Cap. 7. For as Phill. wryteth in his fourth booke & seauenth Chapter, it is dayly [Page] seene how they flourish in lear­ning, which haue obeyed their Scholemasters documentes. Amongst whom Traianus ye Em­perour triumphed, & Caesar cō ­mended and praysed of al men in his time for his excellent & singuler vertue. And this mā reuerenced & adored his ma­ster Plutarch, most willingly and worthily. M. Antonius a Ro­maine, the holyest & most syn­cere Prince, did erect golden Images in his house in ye ho­nour of his Scholemasters. Ci­cero also ye Prince of eloquence, for that he was esteemed the fynest Latinist in earth, he ce­lebrated his masters seuerally, and by name in his egregious workes. And as many as haue at any tyme exceeded in lear­ning and honestie, haue wor­shipped [Page] feruently, loued & wor­thyly magnified and extolled their instructor by whom they receyued those former vertues.

¶ Of those who haue dishonoured and defamed their instructors and Masters.

SVch as haue contem­ned & vituperated their teachers, haue in ye end proued most dulheaded dolts, and most vile and filthy in cō ­ditions. As amongst which, Nae­ro that cruel tyrant was chiefe, whom all wryters condemne and accuse giltie of ouer much wickednesse: for he slewe hys Scholmaster Seneca most cruel­ly and most villanously. For in remunerating his stripes that he had suffered of his mayster in his youth, instigated incon­tinently [Page] with the furious rage of coller, & for the currish mal­lice he bare vnto vertue, & ver­tuous men, sent vnto hym by a Centurion to electe & choose his death, with diobolicall fu­rie when as he perceyued, de­sired to be sette in a vessell of hote water, and to haue hys vaynes opened, and so to dye, which malecious crime and cō ­tempt of his master, declared the blunt fyled witte of Nuro. Futhermore, Beroal. in orat, pro­uerb, Beroaldus in orat. prouerb. sayth, that who so seeketh fame by the malidictiō & back­byting of his Master, shall be­come slaunderous him selfe, & shall be expulsed the company of honest men as a reprobate, he shalll be feared as a Viper, and he shal be a common hate, as though he had slaundered [Page] his parents, for the Master is the parent and the shape of the mind, whom vnlesse we honor in euery place and among all men, we haue condignely de­serued to be called flagitious and malepert.

¶ Offices towardes our Masters.

WHerefore, we ought to shew foure kinde of du­ties towards our Ma­sters. First, to loue them as en­tirely as our parents. Second­ly, in all honestie to obey their commaundementes. Thirdly, to be gratefull and thankefull vnto them, during this life.

Fourthly, that we labour with vigilāt studie to become as ex­pert in knoweledge as them­selues, or rather more. This is [Page] a lawfull and and a decent cō ­tention for scholers to cōtend, either to be equal with his ma­ster in knowledge and science, eyther else to exceede him. And so, many haue growen more perite and skilfull than their Masters: As Beroaldus gloryed that he had had many Ma­sters, & in the ende reade lector to them all.

¶ Towards our Kinsfolkes and Affinitie.

WHat our dewtie is to­wardes our Kinsfolkes & Affinitie, which are ioyned vnto vs in bloude, ey­ther by father or mother syde, our owne reasō shal perswade vs sufficiently, that we be vnto thē as vnto our selues, to loue them as our selues, for they [Page] are nothing else but euen as o­ther we. They are parts & mē ­bers of our bloude, of our stock, and of our progenie, wherfore we take them for none other, than the proper mēbers of our owne body, that whatsoeuer we would not haue done vnto vs, that same we should depell from them, no lesse to profite them, than our selues, other­wyse we shoulde be worthely called ingrate. Euen as he is iustly termed a foole which fa­uoureth one parte of his body more than an other, so he shall merrite the name of a thāklesse person, which wil not be ready to helpe his cosin of his owne bloude, both with ayde, and al­so with counsell, for the lawe of nature biddeth vs so to doe.

And in the Gospell of our Sa­uiour [Page] Iesus Christ, we are cō ­maūded to loue our neighbors as our selfe. And they are but right neighbours, who be of our affinitie and kinred.

¶ Towards Frends.

FIfthly, we ought to re­uerence our Frendes, which reuerēce we are taught sufficiently of the most famous Clearks, and especial­ly of Cicero, in his booke, de amici. For there are sixe duties to be done to our Frendes. First, de­maund of our frends nothing which is indecore or dishonest, neither to do ought for thy frē ­des pleasure, but that which shall be decent & lawfull. The second, is to reioyce no lesse at thy frendes prosperitie than at thine owne. In aduersitie to [Page] lament his case and fortune, and to reuiue, consolate, and cōfort him agine, eyther with counsell or otherwise, to the vt­termoste of thy power, not to forsake them, playing the part as Swallowes,Cicero. li. 4 Reth. who (as Cicero wryteth in his fourth booke of Rhetoricke) will be with you during the Sommer, but as sone as they perceyue Winter comming, they flye altogether away into the hotter coūtries. The thirde law, is to will and nill the selfe same thing wyth our frendes, our studies and delectations to be all one with theirs. For contrary studies & dyuers conditions, interrupt and burst the boundes and li­mittes of frendship: As Cicero writeth in the same boke.Cicero. The fourth, is to doe nothing more [Page] to our frends than we would be done vnto. For Cicero sayth:Cicero. Amicus est quasi alter idem. Thy frende is as an other thou, & be one heart in two bodies, there­fore we ought to loue them, as our selues, yt we labor with loue to ouercome thē, and not to be ouercommend of them, which is the most filthie thing on earth. Fifthly, frendshippe is to be weighed, (as Cicero sayth) not for the hope of gaine or lucre, as the common sort vse nowe a dayes, that ceassing the pro­fite, they will also forget fami­liaritie: but frendship is to be loked in ye only loue of the hart, and then it shall continue lon­gest: and then we shal be more redier to giue our frend a gift, thā to receyue one of him. The sixt and last is, often tymes to [Page] obey our frends. For as Terence sayth:Terentius Obsequum amicos parat. Di­ligēce getteth frends. Further­more, not to cast in his teeth to whom thou hast giuē thy gift. For as Cicero sayth, it is an o­dious kinde of people vpbray­ding their duties, which ought to haue remembred to whom he did them, and not who did them.Cicero. li. 2. vet. reth. And in his second booke veteris Rethor. he saith: Imprudens est ille qui pro beneficio non gratiam sed mercedem postulat. He is a foole, who for his benefite loo­kes not for thankes, but for a rewarde. But in case we shall at any tyme receyue a profyte at our frends hand, we are cō ­maunded by the same Cicero to imitate the fertile fields, who surrender more vnto the sower than they receyued. In like [Page] maner ought we in frenship, if we be able, to render more than we receyued, eyther else to say we are not of abilitie to recompence them wyth lyke measure, yet if fortune laughe at any tyme more amiably, I hope to be grate and thankfull.

¶ Towards Felowes.

THat familiaritie of men which we do nuncupate societie, is in all pointes like amitie. For societie is no­thing else than a frendly fami­liaritie, coniunct and ioyned within them selues. And in choosing thy companions and felowes, thou must first labour to choose them that be honest and of a good name, by whom thou mayest learne to amende [Page] thy faultes. And when as we haue gotten such honest and alowable Mates, we must so behaue our selues toward thē, as we may kepe these sixe pre­cepts. First, that we be to them as to our frendes. Secondly, that we obserue these .v. things of whiche Terence speaketh in his Comedy of Andria, Terentius in Andr. that is, that we learne and frame our selues to abide and suffer the maners, rytes, ieastures of our fellowes, not to be moued to anger at euery worde spoken, but to beare all things pacient­ly & with a merry countenance, and also that we apply our sel­ues wholy to the honest becke­nings & signes of our fellowes. Thirdly, to practise their medi­tations, to do as they doe, if at the least it be honest, wherfore, [Page] it is a cōmon prouerbe: Viuen­dum est moribus praesentium, vel siue (quod aiunt) capitis nō esse morosum. We must liue after the fashiōs of others, and not after the fā ­cie of our owne heade. Fourth­ly, yt we be aduersary to none, but to flye & auoyde stryfe, dis­corde, and brawlings. In no case to sowe discorde. Fifthly, that we preferre our selues be­fore none, and that we esteme not our selues better than the rest, but equall. Wherevpon it is a cōmon saying, among fel­lowes there ought to be no order but one equal with ye other, and no extolling of one aboue the other. And to these little Precepts we may well adde two more, of which the first is, not to byte nor slaunder thy fe­lowes behind their backe. The [Page] second is, to reproue thy felow, if he offende (but that gently & in a secrete place) not before ye rest, for that is to contempne and despise thy fellow, and not frendly to tel his fault: for frē ­des reproue the faultie secrete­ly, and flatterers opēnly before the multitude.

¶ Towardes aged men.

THe old grey headed mā whom olde age hath a­rested, ought also to be reuerēced, for he deserueth ho­nour for his long lyfe, in which (what with experience, vse and knoweledge) he hath learned much prudencie. In conside­ration whereof, he ought to be honoured as the mansiō house of knowledge, as in whom all wisedome is lodged. And there be three thinges wherewith [Page] aged mē are to be reuerenced. First,Cicero. as Cicero sayth in his Of­fices, that their labors may be diminished for lack of strength of the body, which by age is ab­repted. Secondly, they are to be reuerenced with gētle, chast and modest wordes, to be no­minate by the frendly name of Father or Mother, not to op­presse them with opprobryes, as nequitie us knaues, but to say or do nothing before them, but that which shall be both ciuill and allowable. Wherev­pō Ouid in his fifth de Fast. hath these pretie verses.

Magna fuit quondam capitis veuerentia tam
In (que) suo praecio ruga senilis erat.
Verba quis auderet coram sene digna rubore
Dicere? censur am longa senecta dabit.
Haue some regarde & beare in minde,
thine elders to salute.
Acknowledge them as thou dost stud,
thy betters constitute.
As sage and graue, in honestie
the perfect Lanterne light:
Which thou oughtest of a certaintie
to follow with thy might.

Thirdly, we must follow thē, both in deedes and ieastures, that descende from honestie, to reuerēce them hūbly with ma­king curtesie modestly, which thing the old auncient Roma­nes did diligētly kepe and ob­serue, ordeyning this law, if a­ny passed by an aged man, not vncouering his head, he should suffer the punishement of the heade.

¶ Towards Women.

WE owe also a reuerence to honest & vertuous womē, for two causes. [Page] First, bycause they are our mo­thers, and our Nursses, & take more payne in bringing vppe children, than the father doth. Secondly, bicause that wyth shamefastnesse they worshippe vertue, which vertue is much esteemed, as we reade of many Matrones amongst the Histo­riographers. Therefore they ought to be reuerenced with a triple kinde of honestie. First, to temper thy tongue, whē as thou commest among them frō lasciuious & wanton talke. For when as they be shamefast, there ought nothing to be spo­ken before them, but what shal be honest and decent. Second­ly, to refrayne from vncomely ieasture or behauiour, which make the man vicious. All things must be done modestly, [Page] for it becommeth vs to vse such ieasture and maners as the companie is. Therefore when as women are taken for wor­shippers of shamefastnesse, it becōmeth vs also to be shame­fast and chast whē as we hap­pen among them. Thirdly, to auoyde all brawling, & figh­ting amongst them, for they be weake & vnable to resist them which do them wrong, and it shall be but small prayse to o­uercome a woman, eyther else to strike hir as the saying is.

¶ Towarde straungers and peregrines.

THere be also foure offi­ces or dueties of vertue to bee done towardes straungers and peregrines. First, we ought to receyue and [Page] vse them, with a Godly and a gētle language, that they may knowe they come to men, and not to cruel & rigorous beasts. They are not to be scoffed and mocked at,Plautus: wherevpon Plautus wryteth in hys Comedy na­med Penulus: Seruum hercle te esse oportet & nequam & malum homi­nem, peregrinum atque aduenam qui irrideas. Thou must nedes be a slaue, & an euill and naughtie man, which deridest a straun­ger. Secondly, shewing them that which they knowe not in our coūtrey, not to deceyue thē, for yt they are ignorant of ma­ny things vsed with vs, for yt bringeth rather dispraise than prayse of our countrey, for it is an easy thing to beguile the ig­norant.Erasmus de instr. Prin. Chr. Erasmus wryteth in his boke de instruc. Prin. Christianorū, [Page] that Plato should somtyme haue sayd, that they ought diligenly to respect that straungers take no more wrong than Citizēs, for that they wanting frendes should suffer more wrong. And therfore the Gentiles thought that Iupiter was the reuenger of straūgers wronges, and na­med Iupiter for yt cause Xontnon.

Thirdly, to shewe them the way, when as they shall de­maund it, or be ignorant, not to shewe them to take the lefte hande, when as they shoulde take the right, for yt is a moste wicked fact to bring a straun­ger out of his way, without our profite, for it is the propertie of a theefe & a prayseeker to shew a straunger willingly a wrong way, whereby he may trappe him in his snare, and so mur­ther [Page] him. Fourthly, to harbour them and suffer them to dwell with vs. For which cause the Gentiles worshipped hospita­litie as a holy & sacred thing, and named Iupiter the God of Hospitalitie, bycause it was a godly and a religious thing to host straungers: And ther­fore Dido Queene of Carthage as Virgilius wryteth in his first boke of Eneidos, Virgilil. li. 1. Aenei. when she recei­ued Eneas with ye other Troia­nes into hospitalitie, she inuo­cated Iupiter in a banquet, as the giuer of meate to geastes. And the auncient Romaynes receyued and toke many straū ­gers into their Citie, which in length of tyme were made mo­derators and rulers of the Ci­tie.Li. de vrb. Liuius. As Liuius wryteth in his booke de vrbe condita. And Beroal. [Page] sayth, that in olde tyme pere­grines and straungers were more diligent & obedient than Citizens. And that at Rome straungers were made great Magistrates, counsellers, and Pretors. As in the dayes of Numa and Tarquinius many pe­regrines were Counsellers, & they had also a straunger Pre­tore which expounded ye lawes to the straungers.

¶ Towards our aduersaries and enimies.

WE ought also to be ver­tuous towardes our e­nemies, & to kepe foure precepts.Cicero, li. officio. First, as Cicero bid­deth vs in his boke of Offices. Etiā et fides praestita, seruanda est hos­tibus, vt nūo Euquitum lex & cousue­tudo est. Promised fayth ought [Page] also to be obserued with thy e­nimie, as the law and custome of Knightes requireth. Who so euer be takē of any and let go, he being called backe againe of the same, oughte to come a­gaine, otherwise he shall be ex­pulsed the booke of the noble victorious and stout knights. Secondly, if thy aduersarie or enimy prouoke thee, or wrong thee vniustly, or threaten to fighte with thee, thou ought not by and by reuēge and bite againe, for that is the proper­tie and nature of brute beasts. But first, indeuour to pacifie ye matter gently, with frendely frendes, as Terence wryteth in Eunuchus. Omnia prius verbis, Terentiꝰ quam armis experiri sapientem decet, nihil­que excisa faciendum improuidè. A wise mā ought to try al things [Page] first with gentle words, before he fight, neyther ought he to do any thing rashely and vn­aduisedly in the heate of his fu­rie. Thirdly, if thou be wrōged, it is better to forgiue and re­mitte that wrong, than to in­ferre wrong againe, for ye most worthie kinde of reuenging, is to forgiue, & not render like for like.Erasmus de insti. Prin. Chr. Erasmus in his booke, de institut. Princ. christ. sayth: that it denoteth a weake and faynte hearted man to reuenge hys wrong. Iuuen. in his .xij. Sa­tire, sayth: that none desireth more to reuenge than a womā. and therefore she shall be vn­worthy of a husband. Fourth­ly, if yt by no meanes we may depell & shake off the wrongs of our enimy, vnlesse we do the like to him againe, then ought [Page] we to immitate that saying of Virgil in his .xij. boke of Eneid. Virg. li. 12. Aeneidos. Quo deus & quo dura fortuna sequa­mur. Let vs try it as it pleaseth God, and as hard fortune shal leade vs. Fortune and vertue are knitte both in one, let vs hardely and boldely resist with weapons as Liuius wryteth of the Romane natiōs: we ought for no other cause to fight, thā to liue afterwardes in peace, & not to seeke reuenge of our e­nimies.

¶ Towards our Lordes and Masters whom we serue.

WE owe a quadruple re­uerence towarde our Masters whose breade we eate, and whom we serue. First, we ought to be prompt & redy in all things, to obey their [Page] precepts and cōmaundemēts, not to goe about our businesse creaping like a Snayle, to vse no sluggishnesse, take no grefe nor slacke our Masters com­maundement. Secondly, we ought to be faithful and trusty to them, without deceite, fraud, or guile, not to flatter them be­fore their face, and to speake e­uill of them behind their backe. Thirdly, we ought to aduaū ­tage and profite them, in fore­seeing and auoyding their dis­commoditie, more to regarde and seeke their cōmoditie and benefite than our owne, soner to dispatch our Masters busi­nesse than our owne. And if we shall see our master sustaine a­ny losse or hinderāce we ought to auoide ye same. Fourthly, we must be mute at two tymes. [Page] First, we must not chatte again whē our master speaketh, yea & though we sometimes are bet­ter, neyther must we also be al­together dombe: wherevpon Plaut. in his comedy of the glo­rious souldier, sayth:Plautus. Oportet ser­uum plus scire quam loqui: It be­houeth a seruāt to know more than he speaketh. Secondly, he ought to keepe close his Ma­sters secretes from other men, and not gaggle them abrode. For taciturnitie greatly com­mendeth a seruant.

¶ Towards a Magistrate.

WE owe moreouer a tri­ple duetie to magistra­tes & hye Rulers. First, we ought obediently to obey their lawes and ordinances: not to be interrupters of the [Page] lawe, but fulfillers of the sme, for lawes be nothing more thā precepts & documents of well and righteous liuing: neither to repugne nor make insur­rection against them is a hap­py thing, for the flye getteth nothing by biting ye Elephant, neither doth it aduantage the Scarbet to seeke the Eagle. Secondly, we ought not to slaunder thē, neyther by word, nor by deede: for he speaketh not safely nor yet wryteth not surely, which speaketh or wry­teth against those which haue power and authoritie to binde and condemne him. Neyther is it a decent thing, to sting or hurt them whose study and la­bour is night and day to pre­serue, defend, and vertuously to moderate the cōmon weale. [Page] Thirdly, if they shall require a­ny trybute, ye ought gently to giue them, for by that meanes Regions & Cities are defēded, maintayned, and vpholded, o­therwise the flourishing floure would sone fade away and wi­ther.Liuius. lib. 2. For as Liuius wryteth in his second booke: De Vrbe con­dita. Si coetera corporis membra sto­macho cibum nō suppeditarent, simul cum ipso fame perirēt. If the other members and parts of the bo­dy should not help the stomack with meate, they should toge­ther perishe with the stomacke for hunger. So likewise vn­lesse Citizens & Inhabitants of the Citie helpe the Princes and Magistrates of the same with faculties and mony, they shal together be ouercome and slaine with their Prince.

¶ What is decent at all tymes and places.
The fourth Chapter.

IN the vsage of honestie, and none otherwise of vertue place and time are much to be regar­ded: of the which two respects except reason in the prehemi­nence of Principalitie, beare sway, nothing, (or at the least) very little, shall the knowledge of vertue, or practising of the same profite at all. For the sa­cred Theologians, interpre­ters of the diuine Scriptures, make mentiō that sinnes and hainous offences are by place and time, aggrauate; and also eased by the same. To the li­mits of these two, or as it were [Page] borders adioyning honestie or vertue, specially be adiected. For in dyuers places, dyuers and straunge things are to be frequented, as decent, fitte, and lawfull. Which if they be not to any knowen, or very few immi­tate, although they haue bene students in the schole of Ver­tue, yet as vicious persōs shall they be imputed, if by ignorāce howe, in tyme, and place, to behaue themselues doe bleare their drousie eyes. Therefore Macrobius. lib. 7. Saturn. sayth: No­thing is more nigh vnto wise­dome, than to fitte our cōmu­nication in conuenient place or tyme. Also Pytacus Mytil. com­maunded tyme to be acknow­ledged, that whatsoeuer we did practise to finish, first, we should see the oportunitie of tyme, for [Page] he estemed or supposed that to be the best in any matter. And herevpon Terence sayd.Terentius I came in season which is the chiefest poynt of all. But howe a man may according to the prouerb, be Omnium horarum homo, these wordes following will openly manifest and declare.

¶ What maner of the honestie at ban­ketting is required.

PLaces and tymes are dyuers wherin men cō ­uent, assemble or talke, but especially ye place or time of banketting, if so be that at the least any geast appointed be there present. For it is no lesse hurte than damage to all men, to pamper the belly, or to liue immoderately, as a man might say at ye feast of dronken [Page] Bacchus, as one of hys typpled Prelates.

¶ Sixe honest or vertuous precepts, worthy at Meales to be imita­ted and obserued.

THe first obseruation as Macrobiꝰ sayth lib. 7. Macrobius. Satur­nalium) is to esteme, pon­der, or thinke by the geastes as they be, meaning of what sub­stance, what dignitie or autho­ritie. The second (as the same Macrobius relateth,) is for euery man, to see when place is fitte, or conuenient, not to talke or commen of Philosophie, at ty­mes prepared, with sustinance to refresh the body. Therefore Socrates at a certaine tyme,Socrates. be­ing demaunded at a banket, that he would manifest some­thing by communication, an­swered: [Page] I knowe not those things which present time and place requireth, and the same which I am not ignorant in, are not decent as nowe to be vttered, supposing that those graue questions whereof the Philosophers reasō in ye schole, be not fitte at bankets, as ban­ketting dishes to be serued.

Thirdely, they are called for strife or contention rather, yea, it soner aryseth, by quaffing or canuassing, of the pots, than a­ny otherwyse at all. Fourthly, let there be a meane obserued in eating or drinking, accor­ding to these two precepts, yt is to say: let thy meate be ta­ken without gluttonie, and thy drinke without ebrietle. Fifth­ly,Plautus these seuen precepts of Plau­tus comoed. Militis gloriosi. Euery [Page] man must imitate. Let him be, no cauiller, a profitable geast, no tatler, obstinent from all discomoditie, a speaker at due tyme, a keper of quiet, till ano­ther declare his fātasie, a small interrupter of mennes talke, no busie demaunder of questi­ons. Sixtly, let him not be an opener or blaser abroade of things, spoken, hearde, seene, or done. Therefore Horace in hys sixt Epistle, calling a greast Foro­natum, promiseth that he would take charge, that there should be none at the banket, yt would declare any thing without the Threshald of the dore. And Be­roaldus, declareth, that it was ye custome of certaine Gentiles, their appointed geast entring their house, to shewe to them their Threshald, saying: with­out [Page] this is there nothing, mea­ning, take heede how you vtter those things abrode, which you heare at the table: wherfore al­so in our time this is ye fashion, to haue Roses painted aboue or ouer the table, yt vnder them our communications at repast, might be kept, and not scatte­red any other where.

¶ How to behaue our selues in ho­nest sober company.

IT is no small cunning, nay rather a great and egregious wisedome, to knowe howe profitably to be­haue our selues among men, yt by our familiaritie we may please others, & so to retaine our mutuall friends. Which thinges to bring to passe we had nede of .vij. especial docu­ments [Page] First, let vs acustom our selues to beare & suffer the ma­ners, words, & deedes of men, & not by & by to sound the dogs letter. R. as though we would byte (if to vs any damage they inferre) but as witting no­thing of the same, let vs seeme to winke. For to be snapping & snarring, or at the least, an­gry at a small offence, is the pointe or manyfest token of a weake man, not able to brydle his owne nature. Secondly, let vs subscribe to their arby­trement & sentence, yt our wil­ling and nilling might be vnto vs with them, that is to say, to consent to that which they doe require, & eschew those things which are not good, but rather lurke as mischieuous baytes, to entāgle the vnwary. Third­ly, [Page] to be obedient to their ad­uice, works and indeuouring, as diligent Students of that discipline or learning, which they imitate. For where the pestiferous discention of wor­kes hath a resting place, there in a shorte moment, the shrill conuict is song. Fourthly, let vs not hate vnworthily any man, in proferring of strife or iniury, either by mocking wor­des, or wicked communicatiō. Fifthly, let vs presume before no man, thoughe we be their betters, of more abilitie in sub­stance or treasure. Let vs not hinder them, for asmuch consi­dering we would not take it in good part, to be hindered our selues. Sixtly, we must be ease­ly intreated, and readily gyr­ded, that where soeuer tyme or [Page] place require, we may shew gē ­tlenesse to other. For,Terentiꝰ Obsequiū parit amicos, intermissū inimicos pe­perit semper. The other maners and rytes, dayly vse and expe­rience which is the mistresse of things doth teach.

¶ In mutuall or frendly communi­cation, praeceptiunculae.

IN the frendely talke or communication of men, there are eight precepts or rules of vertue, as necessary to be imitated. Not to trouble other mennes communicatiō, but to refrayne thy tong from speach, and haue a regarde to the conclusion of their words. And herevpon arose the com­mon prouerbe. Two may sing but not be vnderstand: for the talke of the one hindreth the [Page] speach of the other, that it can not be fully percieued. To take away no mans honour, either absent or present: for there is no thefte greater, no robberie worser, than the taking away of a mannes fame. Nothing hath he to vse after life & death but fame, which once being fleted,Ouid. as Ouid sayth, afterward he is nothing (yt is) of no esti­mation or effect. We ought to haue a regard what we speake of any man, least some being present at our talke, receyue dammage thereby, especially oure frendes or familliar ac­quaintance. We may vtter no­thing, whether it be a fond tale or wyse talke, hauing before our eyes, yt it may as well hin­der as profite. Let euery man therfore take hede how to rea­son [Page] of any new matters, or tri­fles, least he be coūted (as you may tearme him) the loder of long tongue Mill. For he that as a newe vpstart medleth in euery mans case, is iudged a trifling marchāt, fighting vn­der the ensigne of the lying ar­my. Make not inquisition vp­pon other mennes secretes, for two causes. The first is, by­cause it standeth yll with those oftentymes whose secretes are knowē. The second, insomuch that the demaūders or questiō askers, be iudged betrayers or (secrets once knowen) bewrai­ers of the same, wherby ye fore­sayd might sustaine a maruey­lous detrimēt. Whether a man be sober or dronken, as witnes­seth Horatius, Horatius. let him keepe hys owne counsell, for vttering his [Page] inward thoughtes, he is iud­ged worser than a theefe. For secretes oft tymes performe a confessiō of those things which be proloyned by latrones or euill disposed personnes, none will speake thinges but eyther vnderstode or knowen, except he be a backbyter, or some false tatling Sycophant.

¶ Whilst we be in talking with an honest name, how to behaue our selues.

ERasmus in his booke in­tituled Colloquia sayth. As often as any man speaketh vnto thee, to whome thou owest honour or reuerēce, frame thy self to the right state of thy body, with cap in hande, thy countenace indifferent, neither sadly nor fleringly, but [Page] keping the meane of modestie, thine eies chast, alwayes fixed vpon him to whom thou spea­kest, thy feete close together, thy handes not busie, but al­wayes quiet, not wauering wt tattering feete, nor trifling with thy fingers, neyther by­ting thy lippes, scratching thy heade, or picking thyne eares. Also let thy garmentes comely adorne thy body, that thy reue­rence, thy countinance, thy be­hauiour & apparelling of thy body might declare a notable modestie and chast disposition of thy minde.

¶ In walking abrode with others: a certaine note or onseruation.

IF it happen, or chaunce that we walke abrode or soiourne with any man, [Page] it is necessary and conuenient that we be decked as it were with nine maners. First, cle­ment in communication, gētle or easy to be spoken with: for Plautus saith, that a pleasant cō ­paniō, by the way is as it were a Chariot, easing the weary­nesse of our iourney. If we be in dignitie inferior, we must go on the lefte syde, or else be­hinde, & not cheeke by cheeke, except that good leaue or ly­cence be permitted. Likewise we must not vse an ouer swift pase, but a decent and tempe­rate festination,Cicero in Officiis. as Cicero in Of­ficiis willeth vs. In going of a iourney, or from place to place, let vs not commacu­late oure wayfaring compa­nion, but lette vs so moderate our feete and foote steps, that [Page] we sprinkle not ye other with mudde or dirty baggage. Let vs speake with a lowe voyce, & not with a bosting tong. Let vs honour whom we meete by the way, in giuing thē the vp­per hande, and by other mea­nes wherby reuerence is exhi­bited, saluting obuied persōs, for it is a gētle, a laudable and Godly point.Cato. Therefore Cato once said: Saluta libenter. Salute euery man willingly. For salu­tatiō is none other thing, than to wish health, or good successe to any man. Also let vs put off our Cappes, and vncouer oure heades, whiche is a manifest signe of humbling our selues, and acknoweledging that we be inferiours to the foresayde, which Christ commaunded vs, to appeare, I meane humble [Page] and not lusty in mynd & heart.

¶ How to behaue our selues in a pros­perous strate or tyme.

TIme also requireth his comelinesse or good v­sage, for eyther by time we offend more or lesse. Tyme is double, eyther that is to say, merry or prosperous, else hea­uy, sorrowfull, or infortunate. Time, if it be lucky, or blessed, a quadruple comlynesse is to be obserued. First of all not to boast to highe, & reioyce whilst fortune laugheth at oure suc­cesse, which was wonte to be done among the cōmon people as Iuuenal alleageth. Nescia mens hominum rebus modum seruare se­cundis. exhorting that the igno­rant minde of men not know­ing what would happen here­after, [Page] should obserue a merry meane in their prosperitie.

Secondly, not to mocke & de­spise him before vs, as though we were happier than he who fortune frowneth against. For this boasting and glorying in minde, is that which is most o­dious in ye sight of God. Third­ly, to feare & alwayes be care­full, least fortune lowringly should be mutable or changed with vs. For she is more vncō ­stant than the winde, and is sayde to stande on a turning wheele, so that she can not per­sist in one state. Therefore in tymes past a certaine Philoso­pher waxed very sorrowfull in his richest state, knowing yt af­ter prosperitie, aduersitie shuld aryse. In this miserable estate he reioyced, surely perswading [Page] him selfe, that after showers, fayre weather should ensue, & after his pensiuenesse greate ioy and mirth should followe. Fourthly, giuing thanks vnto God for his great beneuolence bestowed on vs, that we may not be vnthankefull, but by our humilitie stirre him vp to in­crease vs the more: Let vs not forget God, for the felicitie of fortune, as rich mē were wont. and dayly I feare me doe, but let vs remember him, pray vn­to him with thankefull minds, that he might multiplie and more prosper the frendly coun­tenance of fortune, which he hath bestowed vpon vs, or else ende the same by any indiffe­rent meane.

¶ In the tyme of aduersitie.

BVt if that tyme be ouer­cast wyth cloudes and sorrowfull, let vs be ar­med or munited with sixe pre­ceptes. First of all, let vs ne­uer discomfort our minde, as though hereafter we might not be more fortunate or happie, but let vs hope with a valiant minde for better chaunce, and comforte our selues with thys saying of Virgil, Virgil. Dabit Deus his quoque finem. God will finishe these our troubles and calami­ties. Secondly, let vs seke coū ­sell to remedie this infelicitie, eyther by our owne witte, or else by the prudent aduise of o­thers. Thirdly, let vs be mind­full, of God, humbly makyng our Orison vnto him, and not [Page] curssing his deitie for the mise­rie which we suffer, but that he would vouchsafe that trouble not long to continue, and be­stow his grace vpon vs, to our saluation, that we may take in good part any crosse which he shall lay vpon vs. Fourthly, we ought to reioyce, rather than to be sory, that the same aduer­sitie hath light vpon vs, by the which at the hands of god, we may deserue, to haue rewarde & be deliuered from our sinnes. Fifthly, we must vphold, or as it were vnderproppe our mind with a good hope, as if we suf­fred iustly punishment for our offences, saying with the Poet Ouid.

Quae venit ex merito, poena ferenda venit.
Quae venit indigne spoena dolonda venit.
That punishment that iustly cōmeth,
is not to repented:
But that vnworthily doth happe,
is much to be lamented.

Sixtly we must consider our selues to be mē, fighting vnder ye ensigne of fortitude, & there­fore a great shame to be feared with euery shadowe of aduer­sitie.

¶ In seruing and obeying others.

IN performing obeysāce, it behoueth vs to be wise and sage, that our ser­uice might be acceptable vnto those, on whom it is bestowed, least our diligence and trauail be laughed to scorne: for there are sixe notes to be obserued. We must prouide, that our ser­uice be profitable, vnto whom it is offered. For he that giueth hurtfull obeysance exhibiteth [Page] no frendship but rather destru­ction, let it be done in due sea­son or time:Erasmus. for as Erasmus testi­fieth, benefites out of seasō are the lesse to be regarded. And likewyse herevnto is ye cōmon prouerbe replied. Charè cōstat prae­cibus quod emitur. That benefite is deare, which is bought with the penny. Deferre not to fy­nish therefore good turnes re­quested, and especially already promised. For tardinesse or de­lation of tyme, maketh frend­ship vnthankfull. Therefore, willingly, if thou haue busy­nesse in hand speedily to plea­sure, whō thou coūtest a frend, finish the same with all celeri­tie, least thou be cōstrained, as in tymes past the Asse was, to drinke vnwillingly: or accor­ding to the prouerbe, trifle, ga­sing [Page] at the man in the Moone to no effect at all. The busy­nesse of our friende ought to be done, as faithfully as our own, for herein the bright beames of friendship is declared. For Offices are esteemed lyke as the will of the performer, and the thankes of a former bene­fite perisheth, except it be renu­ed with an other.

¶ The office or duetie of a Magistrate.

IF we beare the prehemi­nence of a Magistrate, & dominate ouer others, as rulers and gouernours of them; it is necessarie that espe­cially we abounde in foure se­uerall points of wisedome. Let vs behaue our selues, as we would euery man should be­holde [Page] vs: let vs be wyser than the rest ouer whome we beare sway. For it is a filthie thing to be a superiour in honour, & not in wisedome. By the excel­lencie of the Magistrates au­thoritie, let vs not with presūp­tuous mindes despise other, playing Millitem illū Terentianū. But let vs followe this saying of Cicero, Cicero. the higher we be, the lower to submit our selues, lo­king to ye commoditie of others more than to our owne: for a Magistrate is a cōmon persō, not a priuate. Let vs not hurt the innocent nor fauour the of­fender, but in punishment let there be a meane, according to the fault,Cicero. as Cicero sayth. Let the rulers be like vnto ye lawes which proceede with equitie & iustice, to punish the mal [...]fac­tors. [Page] Let vs haue a regarde to punish these ten vyces from our common weales, perfidia, pe­culatus, auaritia, inuidia, ambitio, ob­trectatio, periuriū, indiligētia, iniuria, & scelus, Plautus. as Plautus cōmaundeth in Per. Comoe. Let vs thinke that many other things do become vs, than those ouer whom we beare sway, & that our faults be soner spyed thā the faults of our subiects, as learned Poets in tymes past haue song.

Ouidius in Conso. ad Liuiam.

Non eadem vulgus (que) decent & lumina rerū,
Est quod praecipuum debeas ista domus.☜
Ad cocilos aures (que) trabis, tua facta notamꝰ
Ned vamissa potest, Principis ere tegi.


Hoc te praeterea crebro sermone monebo,
Vt te totius medio telluris is in orbe,
Viuere cognoscas, cunctis tua, gentibus esse
Facta palam, nec posse dari, regalibus vsquam
Secretum vitijs, nam lux altissima fati,
Occultum nil esse sinit, latebras (que) per omneis
Intrat, & abstrusos explorat fama recessus.
The chairie charge of Consulship
eche wight doth well beholde:
Like as the Caruers workmanship,
adornd with fulgent golde.
And therefore had the Magistrate
néede for to rule his land:
The fectiue braunch to dissecate,
with equall sworde in hand.
The subiectes eyes on him do blase
they listen in his talke:
In this respect he néede alwayes
vprightly for to walke.
For openly his fastes are knowen
no lurking place they finde:
His geffes through vapored ayres are blowē
the Commons be not blind.

¶ How vertue or honestie being ad­opted ought to be vsed, that it ne­uer might fléete againe.
The fifth Chapter.

THat vertue and honestie once be­ing knowē and ob­tayned, might not depart, & we there­by led astray, thre precepts fol­lowing are to be grauē in our breast, or insculped in our min­des, that as a key or anker, thei might retaine to vs vertue, sta­blish honestie, and ratifie good maners. First of all, we must take heede of all things, which oppresse or kepe downe probi­tie, we must flee all the intice­ments of vyces, all pleasures & wicked diliciousnesse, as ryot & ydlenesse. Herevpon Hermo Bar. [Page] sayd: He that will imitate ver­tue, must flye the belly God & the Harlot Venus. Secondly, we must thinke vpon nothing, neyther do any thing but that which is honest or nighe vnto vertue, onely let honest things be exercised and put in prac­tise. In a good matter or thing let all our worke be, all our labour, & all our thought. So at the last shall it come to passe, that we may be accusto­med with vertue, no lesse than if it were graffed in vs, hating vice as a Dogge or a pestilent Serpent.Virgil. Herevpō Virgil spake saying: it is a great thing to be from our infancie accusto­med with vertue. Nothing is of more effect, than dayly vse. Thirdly, peraduenture a man would say, who can indeuour [Page] to meditate honest causes con­tinually, but somtyme he must play Dormiter Homerus, conside­ring that no man is wyse at e­uery season. Therefore this thirde precept is to be embra­ced with hand and foote, with tooth and nayle, that is to say, to banquet, or communicate with honest men, not sepera­ting by seduction our selues from their companie, as Cicero wryteth that he neuer depar­ted from Mutius Scoeuola an olde man. For it is a maruellous thing to be spoken howe much the domesticall or quotidian familiaritie of men auayle in manets, that almost it chaun­geth and inuerteth, nay, alto­gether varieth the nature of man: Therefore the Psalmist Dauid wryteth:Dauid Cū bono bonus [Page] eris, & cum malo peruerteris. With the good thou shalt wax good, and with the wicked thou shalt learne wickednesse. Therefore we shall be honest and so con­tinue, as long as we be cō ­uersant with good persons, and liue in such a Godly order.


¶ Howe a man may at­taine to the chiefe pointes of Christianitie, or deduction of a Christian life.

¶ Of what maner the institution of the first age ought to be.

THe part of a Father, is to bring his child into the schole, (the time of in­fancie beeing past, & growen to the full perfection of seauen yeares) to procede and go for­warde in learning, if he couet to haue him good, being flesh of his owne bodie, and not a wanton, as the common pa­rents do nowe a dayes nossell their children vp. Therefore in tyme teach him modestie, pam­per him not vppe with trifling [Page] toyes, but keepe hym vnder with the rod of correction, that he may frame his lyfe accor­ding to the prescribed rule of the syncere veritie or worde of God. Let him be punished if he offend: let him be praysed, if he behaue him selfe well and ho­nestly: with threatning & stry­pes, let him be feared from vy­ces: by exhortations, let him be progged to vertue: yea, and let the patrone haue a greater regarde, to the maners of edu­cation of his childe than the re­spect of his own bodily health: Let him cōmit him to teachers, graue, sage & wittie, learned, quiet and vertuous, where he might tast of the pleasant fruit of learning, & sweete lyquours of the Latine speach: Let him bestowe his tyme on those stu­deis, [Page] which instruct the minde with precepts and documēts. Among the which is Philoso­phie. This Nursse alone ma­keth a better nature of a good, a chast nature of a wicked, and easier to be intreated. Let a Christian accustome him selfe, and learne that God must first be honoured as the wel spring from whome all good things haue their issue: let him learne to obey reason, and follow hir in all the conuersation of hys lyfe, as his chiefe capitaine and gouernour in worde and dede. Let him couet or doe nothing, but that which is honest and right. Let him also brydle his cogitations, the secretes whereof god the iudge of all heartes wyll peruse.

¶ God to be gratified of good men, and to punish the wicked.

DOest thou thinke that righteousnes is accep­table in ye sight of God, and doest thou worship him as the Lord and maker of heauē and earth, doest thou prayse his name day and night: that thereby thou mightest deme­rite the sight of him, by good & iust workes? Doubt nothing, but as he is able, so he can, and will gratifie thee. For what is so agreable vnto him, as bene­ficence? and againe, what is more alienate or straunge, thā vnthankfulnesse? Therefore least any should accuse him as vnthankefull, which liue god­ly, he bestoweth his grace on them, as he letteth his anger [Page] droppe vpon wicked persons, adulterers, whooremongers, robbers & manslaughterers. And when he seeth that there is no ende of sinning, he ary­seth at the last, to take punish­ment of the rebellious people, and blotteth out the wicked or hurtfull.

¶ Certaine anger righteous, pro­fitable and necessarie.

IF the seruants, children, or disciples, learners I meane, whome we haue vnder gouernment, offend, we are angrie reforme them, we cry vpon them to amende, we brydle them wyth correction, to make them good. This an­ger is no sinne: for that which is wicked, doth much displease a good man, and whom leud­nesse [Page] doeth grieue, he is much moued, if he see any offende. Therefore the father ryseth vp to auenge. The mayster com­maundeth rods to be in a redi­nesse, not that he mindeth to hurte, but that he might prac­tise discipline, correct euiil ma­ners, and suppresse to much ly­centiousnes. God vseth this iust displeasure to subdue men and sinners, rewarding their wicked estate.

¶ The refraining of anger on sinnes, to be vicious.

THey are greatly to bee reprehended which de­lay their displeasure frō the wickednes of their vnder­lings, and oftener than nedes pardon their faults. By such like whether they be fathers, [Page] whether they be rulers or ma­sters, the lyfe of the offender is lost, by whose lenitie out of sea­son, or tyme, vnbrydled youth­full age is nourished, and they thēselues which haue so small a regarde, minister a great bi­ued heape of griefe. Here ther­fore we must not refrain from anger, but also if it be throwen downe, we haue occasion to stirre it vp againe.

¶ That we must giue an accompt of our tyme spent.

LEt euery man make an accompt of those things which he hath receyued, which he hath expēced, bicause many an ydle worde hath e­scaped hym. Whatsoeuer we heare of others, we ought to let it flye as it were by the gates [Page] of our eares. For there be cer­taine precepts or rules of the tongue to be marked, so that the words which we vtter, first come into the entrie of ye mind, before the mouth devulgate the same. Our stomacke must after suche a rate be pacified, that no opprobrious or wicked thing shoote out therof. And if any thing be inwardly sprong vp, by and by it is our part, by earnest study, and serious toile to plucke vppe the same by the rootes.

¶ Certain necessaries to be prepared in the trauailing towarde the life to come.

AS they which trauail in­to a farre coūtrey, a little before they goe thither, prepare or scracth together cō ­uenient [Page] thinges for their iour­ney, least they should perishe through hunger by the way, so ought we to prouide in the pe­regrinatiō of this lyfe, we must lay vppe the treasure of good workes, of righteousnesse, of humilitie, of continencie, and of all other vertues, ye at what tyme, day or houre, God shall call vs, to trauayle to the hea­uenly Paradice our Countrey, we might be found ready.

¶ In this life we must wash away the filthinesse of our sinnes.

MY Christian brother, washe away thy sinne by confession. For he that refuseth in thys tyme to pourge him selfe from hys ini­quitie, afterward he shall not finde consolation at the hande [Page] of God. For after death who shall confesse the Lorde? Here we must make a bickerment, here we must stryue, least in ye paying day of the labourers hyre, we be counted as vnpro­fitable seruantes, and so seclu­ded the face of the Lorde.

¶ We must flée.

IF thou exercise or prac­tise vertue, other men se­ing the same, they wyll not onely prayse thee, but glo­rifie God which is in heauen. When they shall do so, thē thy store shall increase, and God shal graūt vnto thee thy harts desire, bicause that by thy good workes, he is praysed of them. Therfore studie alwayes, that thou be not an occasion of of­fending to any person. Paule [Page] sayde. Si cibus offenderit fratrem meum, nunquam in aeternum carnem comedam. If meate should of­fende my brother, I would ne­uer eate any.

¶ The workes of learning, or tea­ching must be ioyned with déedes.

NO man ought to be con­tented in him selfe. For God will also, that we edifie others, not by teaching onely, but in lyfe, in maners and conuersation. Men couet rather examples than words, they doe not so greatly marke the things that we speake, as the things we doe. Good say­ings or instructiōs in ye scholes doe not so profite, as those things hurte, which wickedly we do. He yt affirmeth wordes [...] [Page] nay blessed are we, swimming only in that port, free from tri­bulation, voide of care & posses­sing an euerlasting rest, which Christ him selfe foreshewed to come, saying: A me discite, quia mitis sū & humilis corde, & inuenietis requiem animabus vestris. Learne of me bicause I am gentle and humble in heart, and you shall finde rest to your soules.

¶ Howe they should do, that are not able to fast.

CAnst thou not fast? Deale more liberally to ye poore, be feruenter in prayers to god, shew thy selfe more readie to heare the diuine mysteries & holy sermons or exhortations. Hast thou an enemie? doe thy diligence to be reconciled. See yt thou remoue frō thy mind all [Page] hatred or gredy desire of auēg­ment, imbracing gentlenesse or lenitie. To this ende fasting is appointed, that the lasciuious­nesse of the fleshe being refray­ned, we might speedily runne as it were to fulfyll the com­maundement of Christ.

¶ What mischiefe Gluttonie causeth.

COuetest thou to haue thy health? it behoueth thee then to flee sumptuous ta­bles, & to much gluttonie. For hereof aryseth the Goute, the headeache, and the superfluitie of pestilent humors. Intempe­rance, and to much swilling of wine, breadeth innumerable kindes of diseases

¶ The goodnesse that aryseth of confession.

HAst thou desfloured a vir­gin? hast thou commit­ted adulterie or any such like? Hasten to the confession of thy sinne. Go to the Phisi­tion, that he may looke vpō thy soule, and heale thy grieuous diseases. Here receyue reme­dies: speake to thy selfe alone. Say, why hast thou offended? For the cōfessiō of those things wherewith we haue grieuous­ly offended God, abolisheth our offences. Attend vnto the Pro­phet, saying. Dic tu prior iniquita­tes tuas, vt iustificeris. Shew thou first thine iniquities, that thou mayst be iustified.

¶ The regard of the soule, not to haue so much tending to, as the body.

THe charge of the soule is light and easy, for we spende nothing that it [Page] might haue hir health. On the contrarie parte, if the body be sicke, what cost do we bestow? now vpon Phisitians, now v­pon other things, which we cō ­sume or waste more thā neede requireth. The soule hath none of these, vnto the which, ye rea­ding of the Scriptures, is as meate, clothing, succour, or al­mes. For the ornamēts wher­with we decke our bodyes, be not dayly prayers, confession of sinnes with teares, but pom­pous excesse in clothing, & such like vanitie of the world. Early in the morning we apparel vs, we washe oure face, least any specke should cleaue on ye same. If all this be done for the pre­seruatiō of the body, with how great a regard, ought the soule to be washed, that we might of­fer [Page] it louing, and beautiful vn­to the Lorde.

¶ Who is worthie to be called a man.

NOt he which sheweth a faire countenance, hys nosetrilles, his eye lids, and the other members of his body, that is giuen vnto vertue, flying vyces, and obey­ing the commaundements of the Lorde, him mayst thou call a man. The worde of God de­priueth a sinner, by ye name of man, than the which offender nothing is more miserable.

¶ Giuing of thankes to be much pro­fitable to our lyfe.

NOthing can be more ac­ceptable vnto god, than dayly giuing of thākes, [Page] for so many benefites, which his gentlenesse hath bestowed on mankind. The voyce of the Apostle is: be thankfull, be not those benefites commō to thee which he hath bestowed vpon all men? Therfore gratifie his name. For the remembrance of ye benefites of Christ, is a good scholemistres to shew vs howe we ought to frame our life. For she doth not suffer vs to fall in­to sluggishnesse, and imitate ye wicked-mans practise. By this reason man differeth from the brute beast, yt is, to prayse, cele­brate, and glorifie the Lord, the onely maker, creator and fa­shioner of al things. Great are ye gifts which he hath bestow­ed vpon vs. He hath giuen vs body and soule, sheepe & oxen, with all the Cattell of the field. [Page] Prophets hath he sent which might instruct vs, and correct mannes wickednesse. Finally, euerie kind of mortall creature waxing worsse & worsse, wic­kednesse being spred abrode, & that which is most odious, the worshipping of Idolles, he tooke compassion vpon man­kinde, & sent his onely begot­ten sonne into ye earth, to take vpon him mannes nature, and appeare to the iustification of sinners. Let vs therfore think day and night vpon the great benefites of God, bestowed on vs, yelding perpetuall thankes vnto him for the same.

¶ Ebrietie is wicked.

DRonkennesse blyndeth mans senses and vn­derstanding, drowneth his mind, and forceth the fore­sayde [Page] creature to lye deade, as a trunck or blocke, vnto whom God hath made al things sub­iect. In the meane season he is mocked of all men, as well his wife, his childrē, as the rest of his housholde. His friendes supposing thys a dissehonour, drawe themselues asyde. They that be wicked persons, or hys enimies reioyce, laugh him to scorne, and cursse him, tearme him hog or swine, or such lyke beastly name, disdayning him, and working him all the iniu­rie they may.

¶ A sempeternall name is not gotten in great buildings.

WYth how great a desire nowe a dayes, doe our Senators, Magistra­tes, Gouernours of the Citie. Lordes, Bishops, and such like, [Page] builde gorgious houses, lyke vnto the Pallaces of Kinges. If thou aske them, why they bestowe so great coste, why they lay out such aboundance of treasure? this is their an­swere. That they might leaue behinde thē to their successors, some memoriall signe or tokē, that the passers by might say, This house he builded. Thys cunning, or workemanshippe was made of his cost. O folish­nesse, O cares of men, howe great vanitie is there in sub­stance? By this coūsell, by this iudgement, they building after such sort, purchase themselues no prayse, as they suppose, but rather a great dishonour. For these wordes are bruted of thē, being yet aliue, as after their disceasse. To builde this house, [Page] these Gates, that couetous mā, that rauener, that deuourer or spoyler of the comfortlesse wy­dowes, hath taken charge. Do they get a name by this mea­nes? or do they wrappe them­selues in eternall reproche? Iudge ye. If this be their one­ly care, I will shewe them an other way howe to possesse the same. They must study to be­stow vpon the poore that trea­sure or substance which was prepared to ye building of vaste places. By this benignitie, by this compassion, they shall get vnto them a sēpiternal prayse, & being deliuered frō the grie­uous burthen of their sinnes, possesse with God, in the glory of his kingdome, a crowne of pure gold, neuer fading or trā ­sitorie, but for euer perpetuall.

¶ Ambition is a daungerous thing.

THou whiche followest Christ, and takest him for thy master, couet not the highest place, but be mind­full of the saying of S. Paule, Honore alius alium praecedentes, date operam, vt in omnibus humiliemini. One of you excelling an other in honour, take heede that you be humble in all poyntes. For the worde of God sayth. Qui se­ipsum humiliat, exaltabitur. He that humbleth himselfe shall be ex­alted. I wil neuer call him hū ­ble, that exhibiteth honour to his elders by birth, or equall at the least with him selfe. That is a true humilitie or perfecte modesty, in giuing place to thē which be our inferiours. He is [Page] true wyse, that thinketh him­selfe least and last of all. For good workes which we haue done by this way onely shall bring vnto vs profite, or com­moditie.

¶ How much harme ensueth of Ryottousnesse.

WIlte thou doe thinges worthy of heauē? haue no respect vnto mun­daine affaires, haue no regard vnto the trāsitorious glorie of this lyfe. Seest thou other oc­cupied in excesse of apparell? haue thou a regarde vnto thy soule, howe to decke and sette it forth with vertues. Laugh ryottousnesse to scorne: Flee gluttonie and superfluousnesse in banketting. As the singer chaunteth his notes, so must [Page] not thou cry for delicious din­ners, but imitate frugalitie. For of superfluitie, what profite or commoditie aryseth? Per­aduenture, thou iudgest it cō ­modious, to deuour much, to swill in wyne till thy belly doe stretch, but to a good person to much drink is hurtfull. It can not be spoken howe much mis­chiefe hereby happeneth, both to the body and soule, as dis­eases, adulterie, whordō, theft, robbery, & murther. Hath the Lord indued thee with aboun­dance of treasure? distribute it to ye poore. Goest thou abrode apparelled with sylke?Iuuencus. Nemo potest domi­nis aeque seruire duobus. Hast thou thy fingers circundited with golde? In the heauens it can not be, that a mā should take charge of the soule, regar­ding the pleasure and appa­relling [Page] of the body so much.

¶ The agréement of the man and the wife, to be very commodious.

THere riches, there great gaine, redoundeth or doeth multiplie, where the agreement is of the man and his wyfe, yea, such be the blessedst of all other, thoughe their substance be but smal, for they receyue the true pleasure and liue in the greatest tran­quillitie of the mind. Therfore by thys fygure Zelotypia, the fru­tes of concorde being taken a­way by other wickednesse, al­though they possessed ye ryches of Croesus, they were ye most mi­serable of all other creatures. There should aryse dayly new tumults, brawlings, suspitiōs, domesticall & internall wars, [Page] much bitternesse, no pleasure. For this cōsideration I would that they which be ioyned in the bond of Matrimonie, and as it were chained in the same, should thinke yt nothing ought to be preferred before concord, being ye roote of all goodnesse, and so to doe all thinges, that peace and tranquillitie might be in one house, remayning vn­der one roufe, and taking rest in one bedde. This goodnesse shall follow that peace, that in Matrimonie good children, & followers of Vertue shall be borne. Also the seruants and vniuersall familie, shall studie to imitate religion, godlynesse, and modestie. It shall come so to passe, that by concord of two, the prosperitie of manie things foloweth on euery side.

¶ Imitation to hospitalitie.

IF a certaine abiect sim­ple. or poore creature, come vnto thee and aske lodging, receyue him, & if thou haue wherwith to refresh him, set meate before him. This hospitalitie or intertainment of thy poore brother, shall van­tage thee a double gaine. If thou be not so welthie yt thou art able, or at the least wilte not, dryue him not away as a hard harted Sarasin, desiring ought at thy hands, cōsidering he doth not constraine thee by violēce, but prayeth, besecheth, & obtesteth ye same. Hast thou whereby thou mayst succor the innocent, and assistest not him, neyther giuest ought? Howe wilt thou answere, before the [Page] face of the heauēly Iudge? by what meanes wilte thou de­fende thy selfe? Thou feedest daintily, thou consumest more dayly than nede doth require, what damage proferest thou hir? how much gaine sufferest thou to slyde away, & fall from thy handes? Golde being hur­ded vp in Towers, wasteth a­way with the rust, and is cary­ed away with theeues, when in the meane seasons thy next neighbour perisheth for hun­ger. Dost thou abound in ry­ches, and vsest them alone, neyther communicatest to the nedy, and yet thinkest to escape the daunger of dampnation? Easier shall it be for a Cam­mell, to creepe through the eye of a needle, than a rich man to enter into ye tabernacle of the [Page] Lorde. Thy nighe and deare brother walketh abrode, sha­ded with the cloake of miserie, and thou sittest at home wyth thy banketting dishes, not ha­uing anie regarde to his ex­treeme necessitie, or if he desire but a small almes, thou canst not spare him a crust of breade to ease his hunger. He sitteth naked in the colde, being pin­ched with many a sharp storm, when thou art clothed wyth rich aray, and passest by him without all pittie or cōpassion.

¶ Can any man associated with wic­ked persons be good?

Loth alone walked the right way,Gene. 19. dwelling a­mongst the wicked mul­titude of ye Sodomites. Ther­fore yet their sentence is not [Page] true which say, that it can not come to passe that they should be good, which liue in townes, and among the companie or often assemble of men, but such as liue in the wildernesse and solitarie places. Neyther doe we speake this to the ende we would condemne solitarie ly­uing, for it is euident or plaine, that many lyued holily in the wildernesse, but we declare to suche as be willing to spende their tyme honestly, that the common custome of men can hinder nothing at all. To a slowe and negligent person, what auayleth liuing by hym selfe: for neyther place, but the mind and maners do good. I would that as Loth was, so you should exceede one another in vertue, yt as glistering sparcks, [Page] in the middest of a Citie shi­ning, you might drawe the rest vnto you.

¶ The vertues of those which dyed long since, to be profitable to vs of this present state.

LEt this alwayes be the desire of a Christiā mā, let all his endeuouring tende herevnto, that in liuing well, he might leaue a perpetu­all memorie of his prayse, and no vain glorie (as ye Poets did in the art of versifying) behind him, but that he passing from hence, his successors may haue his diligent conuersation of life, as a monument & looking glasse, dayly to beholde. A good righteous and chast man, hath not onely a respect, seeing the body which he carieth about, [Page] is brickle and mortall, to liue in this world, but study how to profite by examples of vertue, those after his discease, that be willing to liue in ye same rate. That euery mā therfore might know and vnderstande, howe much ye good workes of others and like examples might kin­dle vs to do well, if we be wil­ling to follow continencie and chastitie, we will bring to your minde a notable exāple of Io­seph the Israelite, which bee­ing a yong man of an excellēt shape or making, as euer na­ture framed, had a maruellous constancie of chaste lyuing be­fore his eyes, who in this slip­perie time of brickle age, would not maruell to see the like: Io­seph being made Prefect ouer Putiphar his masters housholde, [Page] being a proper yong man, hys Mistres burnt vehemently in lust after hym, and when shee spyed hir tyme, caught hym by the cloake as he passed by, ex­horting him to this horrible fact, and wickednesse with hir, but he leauing his cloake be­hinde him, fledde from hir pre­sence. &c. O notable spectacle to all the whole world. The sim­ple Lambe fel into the handes of the gredie and reuenous Li­on, yet escaping without hurt.

¶By the great loue we beare to god, charitie to arise towarde our neighbour.

IAcob serued for Rachell seauen yeares, counting them for a fewe dayes, bycause he loued hir. Heare this O yu ignorant Christian, [Page] and most vnthankeful toward God. This righteous man that he might obtaine this vir­gin, disdayned not to suffer all the bitter troubles of a shepe­herdes lyfe, to lie on ye ground, to feede with miserie, despising raine, winde, colde and snowe. How wilt thou then excuse thy selfe, which louest not God the giuer of all good giftes, with a like feruent zeale? which re­quireth none other thing of thee, than that thou loue hym with al thy heart. Which thing if thou doe, being mindefull of the word of our lord, thou wilt neuer despise thy brother.Math. 23. He that bestoweth any thing on the least of these, bestoweth it on mee. Thus bestowing thy almes with a liberall minde vpon the poore, and as it were [Page] laying it in ye hand of the Lord, he wil restore it vnto thee with a double aduantage.

¶ That almes to be bell, wherevnto other vertues he adioyned.

WIlte thou profite thy selfe? gyue of thy sub­stāce to the nedy. Sup­presse all the affections of the fleshe, roote out of thy minde, the inticemēts of cōcupiscence, as euill cogitation, anger, ha­tred, in whose stede lette ver­tues succede.

¶ Many offende by anger and lust, bi­cause they know not the ends of good and euill

AS God hath gyuen dy­uers senses to mannes body, to the vse of lyfe ve­rie necessarie: so likewise are [Page] there attributed various effec­tions to ye soule. Of the which reason or way of mannes con­uersation doth depend, contai­ning also a certaine lust pre­scribed by the worde of God, to beget children. The affection of anger is giuen to brydle of­fences. But what a griefe is it to see howe many being igno­rant of the fines of good and e­uil, vsed the wicked lust of their flesh to punish virgins at wic­ked metings or assēblies. Thei vse their anger, to hurte those whom they hate. Herevpō day­ly it aryseth, that we runne to great wickednesse, and there­by likewyse ensueth strife be­twene men, fight & cōtention.

¶ The manners and conuersation of many to be chaunged in tyme.

WE se many, daily in age to repent, that of sin­ners, they bee made righteous, of wicked, good, of dishonest, honest. I haue seene many extorcioners in youth, Dycers (I will not say worsse) which afterward were worthie of prayse.

¶ God is pacified in no other thing, so much as in the amending of our manners.

THe amendement of our behauiour, appeaseth ye heauenly power being displeased with our wicked­nesse, and not Frankincense, not sacrifices, not precious or costly giftes, which we see sub­iect to corruption. Wilte thou make the anger of God transi­torie, not lōg induring? Ceasse [Page] from doyng yll. Therefore God doth punish those things which we do in this presēt life, so that we might haue leysure to repent.

¶ God is to be loued and feared.

LEt vs loue God as a fa­ther, let vs worship him as a Lorde, let vs giue honor to him as a benefactor, and let vs feare him as reple­nished with seueritie. We can not be Godly, if we do not loue God, the nourisher or tender father of our soule. Neyther cā he be despised without daūger, vnto whom the Creator of all things, and Lord ouer al men, true & eternall power remay­neth. He is a father as ye which hath ministred a birth or be­ginning [Page] to vs, to see the light which we enioy. He is God, whose gentlenesse aydeth the vsage of mankinde. He alone nourisheth vs, he alone feedeth vs. And therfore this to be his house in which we dwell, and we to be his familie, we cannot once denie.

¶ Fayth is nothing without good workes. Ex Chrisostomo.

THou art learned, thou despisest life. What pro­fiteth life? Againe, thou carest for lyfe. For life thou bo­stest in fayth, neyther truely canst thou so be saued. He that heareth and doth the same, him we liken to a wyse man.

¶ We must haue a regard to our brethren.

IT is the duetie of euery man, to leade as it were by the hand vnto vertue our brother, wādring through the pronenesse of sinne. God him selfe for this cause taking vpon him our flesh, entred in­to the world. He suffered & did many things being a child. To conclude, he tooke death vpon his shoulders, that he might re­deme mankind from sinne, be­ing giltie of damnation. By the which exāple we must remēber to further our neighbor or bro­ther, considering he is a mēber of vs. I pray you is not our brother delyuered out of the chaps of the Diuell, which by any mannes sounde doctrine, is reduced into the path of ver­tue, & doth that which is right, & being riche, bestoweth much [Page] vpō the poore? Great, great is hys reward, yt by continual ad­monition and teaching, brin­geth the slouthfull apte vnto vice, into the right way.

¶ What maner of Wyfe is to be sought.

WHat tyme as the vn­quenchable thirst, and greadie desire of coue­tousnes, was but of smal force, if a yong honest man coueted a wyfe, ther was no questioning of muche substance, no reaso­ning of ryches, small demaun­ding of lande, and scarce anie question propoūded of ye beau­tifulnesse of hir persō, but how honest shee was & ciuill, which shuld marrie the foresaid yong man. But nowe a dayes, we demaund how rich is she, what [Page] heritage doeth she loke for, ac­cording to the saying of Horace. Horat. We seeke euen to the very ap­parell of hir backe, as for hir maners that is no matter, that is last. A proude Damasell, a wicked Mayd, if she be riches if she haue coyne, or if she be lan­ded, makes vp our mouth.

¶ Why god should the day of death to be vncertaine vnto vs.

FOr this cause god wold that man should be ig­nor at of the tyme of his fate, that he might by a conti­nuall studie of vertues, he pre­pared to watch. He sayth: Vigi­late, quia nescitis diem neqúe horam. Watch, bycause ye knowe not the tyme and houre. &c. But men do quite contrarie. He cō ­maunded them to watch, and [Page] they sleepe downe righte, not practising any goodnesse at al. Therfore they slumber in ver­tue, and watch in vice. What kind of men is this? How ma­ny do we see dayly to bolde in wickednesse, and slowe or tar­die in goodnesse. They die, thei fade away, as well the yong Lambes skin as the olde shee­pes. Death is indifferēt, death spareth none: yet notwithstā ­ding are we led by this vnto vertue, neyther doe we so pre­pare our selues to despise thys present estate, and couet the estate to come.

¶ We must haue a regard to our children.

YOu Parents, teach your children cōtinencie. For the custome of doing euil [Page] after that it hath once taken roote, and is of any force, by ye the trauace of tyme, it can not be wonne by any admonition. Then youth being ledde as it were into captiuitie, rusheth whyther so euer the wicked spirite calleth it, and followeth the same, willing nothing but pernitious destruction, or obey­eth it, onely hauing respect of present pleasure, vnmindfull of the torments to come, accor­ding to the prouerbe. Sweete meate must haue sower sause. Therefore yoke your children in tyme, least they be punished for their sinnes. It is best to resist euilles alwayes assaying vs. The medicine is to late pre­pared, when the wounde is to much festured. You that haue children, take heede, that they [Page] be vertuously brought vp. You Masters also & others, which nourter youth, be it to your charge, and thinke it a great profite or vtilitie, to instructe them to liue godly. Teach thē to flee sinne, exhort thē to ver­tuous exercise.

¶ To hourd vp treasure is a daun­gerous thing.

THou couetous rich man, to leaue much behinde thee, thou hourdest vp dayly, thou byest ground, thou buildest, thou pluckest downe, thou choppest and chaungest foure cornerd stones for roūd. And that thou mayst finish all this thy gredie desire, thou pil­lest and pullest from other, thou defraudest other, and makest ye workeman labour in vaine. If [Page] any aske thee, why thou doest thus, streight wayes thou ma­kest an answere, for thy chil­drens behouf. O blindnesse, O madnesse, doest thou not see these ryches to be left as an oc­casion for thy children to lyue wickedly? If this age be prone by it selfe vnto lust, to riottous­nesse & other vices, howe much the more then by aboundance of welth doth it runne hedlong vnto the Diuell? Hast thou ne­uer sene fire, as sone as it hath found out a breach, to issue out with strōger flames? So also youth is kindled or stirred vp to sinne, by riches the prouoca­tion of all euils.

¶ Who be poore & who be rich to God.

IF thou neuer stirrest, or stryuest to attaine righ­teousnesse, thou art pore, [Page] although a thousande of thy barnes were filled with grain. He is onely rich vnto God, that is indued with vertue. Wilte thou be acceptable vnto him? Perform goodnesse and inno­cencie. Wilt thou be excellent? Sowe the seede of merciful­nesse. Wilte thou be perfecte? Fulfill all the degrees of ver­tue, that is, abstaine from wic­ked workes, euill wordes, & the cogitation of pestilent things.

¶ What man is healthfull truly.

IF thine eyes, thy heade, thy feete, thy syde, & thy other members, be in good taking, the common peo­ple iudge thee in health. But the Philosopher sayth nothing lesse. If thou be angrie, if thou [Page] be puffed vp with pryde, if thou be subiecte vnto lust, if thou burne in concupiscence, or if thou be couetous. He will say that thou art sounde, if thou bende not thine eyes vpon o­ther mennes goodes. For an enuious person waxeth leane or repyneth at an other mans prosperitie. If thou gase not vpon riches, if thou lust not af­ter an other mans wife, if thou desire or couet nothing at all, then is there Mens sana in corpore sano. But thou must also be hū ­ble, pityfull, beneficious, gen­tle, and hauing a perpetuall peace in thy minde. He that leadeth his life in this race ac­cording to the saying of the Philosopher, he is healthfull, and in euery member perfect.

¶ The workes of mercy.

THat man is mercifull in deede, which redeemeth the captiues from their enimies, that visiteth ye poore, that cherisheth the nedie, and suffereth them not to lie vnbu­ried, which die in the streates: A pitifull person taketh away by violence those that be op­pressed of the mighty, opening his doore to them that want lodging, & defendeth the cause of the widdowes & fatherlesse: He that doth these workes, of­fereth vnto God a true and ac­ceptable sacrifice.

¶ The comfort of Repentance.

REpe thy house immacu­late, cleare thy breast frō euery spotte, that it may [Page] be the Temple of the Lorde, which is not decked with the comelinesse of gold or Iuorie, but with ye brightnesse of fayth & chastitie. I heare what thou sayest verie well. But I say it is a harde thing for a man to liue without spotte or blemish. Therefore, I counsell thee to flee vnto Repentance, whiche possesseth not the least place a­mong vertues. For this is hir correction, that if by chaunce thou offend in worde or deede, by and by repent, confesse thou hast offēded, and desire of God pardō for thy sinnes, which he will not denie for his vnspeak­able mercie, except thou perse­uer still in thine offence, and returne as the Dogge doth a­gaine to his vomit. Great is the comfort of Repentance. It [Page] healeth our woundes, and our sinnes, this hope, this porte of saluation haue we.

¶ Where, and what Godly­nesse is.

BOdlynesse dwelleth in his breast which know­eth not dissentiō, which agreeth with his neighbour, which is a frend vnto enimies, whiche loueth all men as his owne brethrē, which knoweth how to brydle his anger, and appease all ye furie of his mind, by a quiet meane.

¶ All wickednesses which are done, spring of these thrée affections, anger, desire, and lust.

ANger is to be cohibited, desire to be kept vnder, & lust to be subdued, so shalt [Page] thou flee vice. For al things al­most which we vniustly and wickedly committe, flowe and proceede from these three af­fections. All the strife of men shall be drowned, if the vyolēce of anger be suppressed. Thou shalt see no man tangled in deceites or readie to mischiefe. If we keepe vnder gredinesse or desire, no man neede be a­frayde by land or by Sea to be robbed or spoyled of hys sub­stance. If euery man endeuour to cohibit lust, both yong and olde, men and women, shall for euer possesse holynesse.

¶ Sepulture not to be greatly regarded.

WHo would not greatly disalow those that pro­digaly wast their Pa­trimonies, [Page] about superfluous things, building for themsel­ues Sepulchres of Marble stone? It semeth vnto me true­ly, that they burie their goodes in the earth. Neyther do such workes bring any memoriall signe or eternity of their name which peraduēture is sought. For eyther one Earthquake may scatter it abrode, eyther fyre by chaunce consume it, or hostile vyolence ouerwhelme the same. But if none of these chaunce, verily continuance of tyme shall bring it to naught. Deseruedly therefore a man may reprehēd those that haue so fond a care or regarde. Call not him a wretch that depar­teth in a straunge lande in the wildernes, in an obscure place or corner, yea what if I sayde [Page] not in his bedde, but that died in his sinnes. Is he a laugh­ing stocke, that dyed farre from his kinne, neither at his depar­ture was any friende present? Not so, though he lacked the honour of buriall. For by the same he suffered no damage. The sepulchres of many Pro­phets & Apostles be not knowē of in the world. Be sorrowfull, lament and weepe, if thy friend die, not yet wyped from his in­iquitie. For the death of sin­ners is the worst. Reioyce if he left the worlde being pure and cleane from all his offences. For precious in the sight of ye lord is the death of his saints. For they passe into a better life, where they shall re­ceyue the rewards of their labours.

¶ Modestie, that faire vertue, to be acceptable vnto God.

WIlte thou imitate the modestie of the Aun­cient fathers? Looke thou be not presumptuous, nor high minded: but with mode­stie giue place vnto other, and couet to be counted an inferi­our, neyther vse thy selfe as an aduersarie vnto those whiche proffer thee iniurie. Thou be­ing afflicted by reproch, seeme not cruel, although he be more spightfull that haue slaunde­red thee. Let gentlenesse and lenitie appease thy wrath. By these vertues thou attay­nest, being deliuered frō all bitternesse, plea­sant quiet rest.

¶ Such as our talke is, such our sports and bankets ought to be.

IN al things which thou sayest or doest, it beho­ueth thee to haue thy minde free from all thoughts, neyther muste yu be moued by any lust or feare least a sparcke of gredinesse flouthfulnesse or ignominie appeare in your cō ­munication. Likewise, so vse thy pastime and pleasure, that all petulancie and filthie talke be farre off. We must obey the precepts, by the which we are commaunded, that we should neyther reioyce at fonde or ry­bauld communication. All the actes of Venerie are condem­ned without wedlocke.

¶ An exhortation to mercifulnesse, mixed with chyding.

MAny of vs haue money at home, superfluous and ydle, lying by vs. No Euangelicall reading, not Hieremie, not Augustine, no lucubrations of so many holy Fathers wryting of the con­tempt of such things, can bring vs to this point, to destribute some small part of the same to our neighbour, labouring with hunger, & waxing stiffe wyth colde. O hard, O stonie hearts, wyth what eyes shall we be­holde ye presence of the almigh­tie Iudge, whose commaunde­ment we haue neglected? God doeth not commaund that we should caste away our ryches, but vse the same. And when [Page] we haue satisfied our vse, then to haue a respect vnto ye poore. The mercifull God hath not bestowed ryches vpō vs, yt they might be kept in our Chestes, and Coffers, nay rather there moulde, but that by our abun­dance the needinesse of other might be eased, and throughly refreshed. This man wasteth much ryches vpon dyuers and daintie bankettes: this man lassheth oute substaunce on gorgious apparell, and thys man wasteth his treasure at the Table of gluttons, when in the meane season one sicke brother standeth knocking at the gate, & can not be heard, requiring none of all this su­perfluitie, but wherewith to sustaine his feble nature, wher­by he might liue, & not through [Page] want of foode, suffer detriment or perish. Howe shall we, that be not moued with the prayers and teares of our fraternal ca­lamitie, looke to be excused at the handes of God.

¶ The glorie of men is not purchased, onely of good workes.

WIlte thou attayne to good works? Se thou doe not anie thing for the fauour of men, but that the same eye might prayse thee which neuer sleepeth. For if thou couet to be praysed of mē, thou makest thy selfe vnwor­thie to be extolled of the Lord. Both hurteth, both are perni­cious in good worke, if anie man haue a respect to humain glorie, and thinketh loftily of him selfe. What other I pray [Page] thee shalt thou be called then a miserable Miser. This one­ly pernitious affection made ye Publican worsse than ye Pha­risie. What so euer therefore good workes thou doest, al­wayes haue ye saying of Christ to his Disciples in thy minde. When you haue done all that euer you can, say we are vn­profitable seruants.

¶ The couetous man is chidden.

WHether doest thou rage (O couetous man) in hounding vp or gathe­ring of treasure. What greedi­nesse leadeth thee forwarde, that thou art neuer satisfied but art coūted none other than a dronken person. For as the more Wyne they drinke, the [Page] more they gulge in, & the more dryer they be: so thou being subiect to the tyrannie of aua­rice, neuer hast any stint at all. Cressit amor nummi, quantum ipsa pecunia cressit: sayeth the Poet. The couetous desyre of mony, increaseth as much as the mo­ney it selfe. The more ryches we haue, the gredier we be. I aske thee but this one questiō. What vtility gettest thou here­by, if thou mightest obtaine ye whole world, being sure to suf­fer the detriment of the soule, which couetousnesse blindeth, and dayly filleth with all kind of mischiefe?

¶ What God requireth in repentance.

GOD asketh nothing of vs sinners, but that we be quiet from sinne. He [Page] calleth for no accompt of that whiche is paste, if he see anie spark of Repētance. For this is he which dayly cryeth: I will not the death of a sinner, but that he turne from his wicked­nesse & liue. This is he which sayeth, in the middest of thy talke will I saye: Beholde I am present. (O mercifull God) see we be not so greedie of our owne saluation, as he would ye we shuld be saued. One thing he requireth, to cōfesse our sin­nes, and being confessed, to abstaine from the same.

¶ What maners are to be obserued in the Church.

WE muste remember in the temple of the Lord, to restraine from blas­phemous words, vnprofitable [Page] trifles, gigling and daliance, especially, when the Minister practiseth his deuine office. They which abstain not from these things, offend more grie­uous thā those which the lord scourged out of ye Temple. For they sinne grieuously whiche are occupied in the house of the Lorde, none other way, than in a place conuenient to sporte or play. I wyll not speake what wickednesse the leud­nesse of men dare committe in most sacred places.

¶ The prayer of the sinner conti­nuing in his offences to be vnfruitfull.

OUr owne synnes are the occasion that we be not heard praying vn­to God. Bicause we do wicked­ly, [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [Page] and dayly prouoke the lord vnto anger, he will not be in­treated. For we pray in vaine, if we doe not depart from our sinnes: We ceasse not to bee righteous, or doe any other thing which is contrarie to the worde of God. We make our supplications vnto him, and yet we swell wyth hatred a­gainst oure neighbour. We would be loued of God, and yet we disdaine that man which he hath made to his owne si­militude or likenesse, & which he hath redemed with his pre­cious bloude. Euery offence shall be remitted, if we loue him that hateth vs. Then may we preseht oure giftes before the Altar. God will not heare vs, except he sée that charitie grafted which ought to be in [Page] euerie man. That prayer is al­so abiect from him, which ten­deth not onely to please ye lord, whether we desire the health of the body or any other neces­sarie things, alwayes we must aske to this ende, that we may speedely hauing obtayned fa­uour, serue our onely sauiour.

¶ Sluggishnesse is naught.

LEtte your sleepe be no longer than nature re­quireth: For by conti­nuall sluggishnesse, the tyme of doing wel is lost, and we are made more apter vnto vyce: Therefore it was well spoken of Cato.

Plus vigila semper, somno deditus esto
Nā diuturna quies, vitijs alimēta ministrat.
Séeke not more sluggish for to bée
than nature doth require:
For sleeping much as we do sée,
to vices doth aspire.

None will iudge, those wor­thie of ye name of a man which spende their tyme in sleeping exercise, and being at last awa­ked, with their handes vnwa­shed, call for their breakefast, & then their dinner, when they haue scarce sleeped out the last meales sustenance. Therfore, we must watch, pray, study and labour with tooth and nayle, least we enter into temptatiō, from the which, Lorde be our defender.

¶ What manner of man he ought to be, that preacheth Iesus to the people.

YOu that cry vnto the people in the Church of god, take diligent heede, that [Page] your workes be agreeable to your doctrine. For he that doth as he saith, shal be called great in the Kingdome of Heauen. Wilt thou reproue other mens offences, so that other may not finde the like in thee: Teachest thou humilitie? be gentle thy self. Dost thou exhort vnto pa­tience? let no anger remaine in thee. Hatest thou whordom and adulterie? kepe chastitie. Teachest thou righteousnesse? Inueighest yu againste vices? see thou doe no wickednesse, couet not a worldely prayse, boast not of thy wytte, but giue God the prayse, in whome, and by whome we haue pur­chast so great a wisedome.

¶ Detraction or backebyting is to be eschewed.

WHen any be absēt, thou must eyther holde thy peace or speake frend­ly behinde their backe. For by the intēperance of the tongue, it is euident that most parte of contentions arise. If a good name be better than great ry­ches, he sinneth greuously that detracteth vndeseruedly the same. A backebyter of men is an abhomination. Dauid ha­teth them when he sayeth: I persecuted hym that slaunde­red his neighbour. If thou happē on such a mannes com­panie, bowe not thine eare to his talke, but turne away thy face, that thou mayest learne good, and become a true labo­rer [Page] in the Vineyarde of the Lorde, vnto the which God for hys Sonnes sake Iesus, that pure & vnspotted Lambe, the Redemer of al man­kinde, now and euer vouchsafe to lead vs. Amen.

FINIS. N. Boorman.

Imprinted at London by Henrie Denham, for Thomas Hacket, and are to be solde at hys shop in Lumbart streate.

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