THE PREA­cher, or Methode of preaching, vvrytten in Latine by Nicholas Hemminge, and translated into En­glishe by I. H. Very necessary for al those that by the true preaching of the word of God, labour to pull downe the Sinagoge of Sathan, and buylde vp the Temple of GOD.

1. Corinth. 1.18.

The preaching of the Crosse, is to thē that perishe foolishnesse: but vnto vs vvhich are saued, it is the povver of God.

Seene and alowed according to the Queenes Maiesties Iniunction.

Imprinted at London by Thomas Marshe.

Anno. 1574.

Cum Priuilegio.

To the right Honourable Dougles Lady Sheffeld, late wyfe of Lord Iohn Sheffeld disceased: Iohn Horsfall, her most humble and faith­full seruaunt wisheth all health and godlines long to continue vvith increase of vertue and zeale in Religion. (⁂)

AFter that I had by the good aduise and earnest persuation of certaine of my brethren Ministers of this citty of London trāslate out of latine into our vulgar tongue [...]s litle booke intituled The preacher or Methode of preaching &c. necessary for all those yt by the true & sincere preaching of the worde, labour to pull downe the sinagogue of Satan and to build vp the temple of God, I thought [Page] it my bounden duty (right Honoura­ble and my singuler good Lady) to de­dicate ye same vnto your honour, and that for diuers and sondrye causes. VVherof the first and chiefest is that zeale and godlines in the true religiō & fayth of our sauiour Christ, which I by experience haue noted and foūd to be such in you, that you do not onely your selfe dailye serue God by prayer, but do also straightly commaunde all your family and see them do the same. Imitating herein the example of the faythfull father of all the Sonnes of God Abrahā, who did not onely him­selfe but also appointed his whole fa­mily which was greate to serue God daily. The second cause is ye correctiō of sinne, by displacinge and puttinge cleane out of your house al such which [Page] by their vngodlines might either brīg vppon themselues the iuste plague of Almighty God, or els be an euill exā ­ple vnto others to cōmit the like. The third is your honours gret meekenes, patience and modestye towardes all mē and in all your affayres. The last cause is for yt it pleased your honour of your goodnes & mere liberality to accepte and take me to be your house­hold Chaplaine, & as it were a guide and helper of that godly zeale of cal­ling vpon the name of God, & recei­uing of his Sacraments. These causes therefore diligentlye considered, I thought it my duty to dedicate ye first fruits of this my labour vnto your ho­nour, partly to declare vnto you mine obedient thanckfulnes of minde, and partlye that both honourable and all [Page] others in this lande, beholdinge your honours vertuous and Godlye lyfe, might not onelye imitate and followe the same, but also glorifie God the fa­ther of our Lord Iesus Christe. To whom I commende your honour, har­tely beseechinge him to encrease in you daily more and more al maner of vertue and godlines, to blesse and enriche you with all maner of prospe­rity, and to graunt that for our good ensample and to the settinge forth of Gods honour and glorie, you maye liue longe many quiet and happy yea­res amongest vs, and after this lyfe, to liue with Christ for euer. Amen,

To his brethren and fel­lowe Ministers of the Churche of Christe in Englād, the interpretour wisheth peace, & true knowledge, to the honour & glory of God, and to the edification of the sayde Churche, by true vnderstan­ding and since preaching of the woorde of GOD.

THis little booke intituled Ecclesiastes, and first writ­ten in Latyne by Hem­minge, was thought mee­te, and very profitable to be translated, and turned into Englishe, not onely by mee, but also by the iudgement of diuers others of my bre­thren, godly and zealous Ministers of this citi of London, who cōsidering ye great pro­fite that hereby might come, firste vnto the Churche of Christe, and nexte vnto them selues, and to all their other brethren and fellowe Ministers throughout this little realme of Englande, according to their cal­ling, whiche do or ought to thriste and hun­ger, after the increase and aduauncement of [Page] Christe his kingdome, to the ouerthrowe & vtter distruction of blindnes, error, Popery, superstition, and of all the tyrannie of Anti-christe, haue perswaded me to accomplyshe their great and earnest desire, and to trans­late into our vulgare tongue, this little and necessary treatise of Himmenge, called Ec­clesiastes, wherein what paynes I haue ta­ken, I had rather a great deale the learned in reading should iudge, then that I would speake any one worde of my selfe. This only (as I trust) without offence of any, I maye truely saye, that it would haue bene a great deale easier for me, to haue medled rather with some one whole and continuall com­mētarie, thē with this little treatise, which in my iudgement may not vnfitly be termed Christiana Rhetorica, that is to say, an arte out of the whiche the true and faithfull Mi­nisters of Christe, may learne playnely, and orderly, to breake and distribute the worde of God vnto the people, and flocke commit­ted to their charge. Nowe it is not vnkno­wen howe harde a thing it is to translate a­ny arte written, either in the Latyne, or in the Greeke tongue, especially into our En­glyshe and vulgare tongue, in the which we [Page] haue wordes, neither sufficient, nor yet apte enough to declare & expresse the same: that is to saye, the termes and proper names of arte: as Genus, differentia, species, adiun­cta, exordium, enarratio, genus didascali­cum, paraeneticum. &c. not withstanding this great difficultie whiche might altoge­ther seeme to haue bene sufficient to disswa­de, hinder, and discourage mee, to haue ta­ken this little harde, and profitable woorke in hande: yet the examples of other wyse & learned men (who before me haue brought into our tongue the artes of Grammer, Lo­gike, Rhetoricke, Arithmeticke, Astrono­mie, Geographie. &c. did not a little encou­rage and bolden mee hereunto: so that I thought if other graue, wyse, and learned men, before me, both Romaynes, Italians, Germaines, Frenchemen, and Englishmē, haue thought good for the aduauncement of Philosophie, and humaine knowledge, to bring into their mother tongue those and o­ther like artes firste written in the Greeke tongue, though they could not always finde out proper wordes euery one in their owne tongue to declare ye proper termes of arte. I with muche more bouldnes might take in [Page] hand to interprete this little arte of Chri­stian Rhetoricke, especially seing that the same doth so farre passe the arte of Rheto­ricke, as ye holy worde of God doth exceede the knowledge of all manner of humaine philosophie. For that arte doth teache thee, cunningly to handle, & eloquently to speake of worldly thinges, and of mens matters: & that either in prayse, or disprayse, either in defending and prouing, or els in reprouing, impugning, discōmending, and disalowing, wherof we haue examples in Demosthenes, and Cresiphon, among the Greecians: in M. T. Cicero, and Mar. Antonius among the Romaines, and in diuers other Ora­tours, who florished in their time. But this doth instructe and teache thee, the true deui­sion of the scriptures, home they haue bene diuersly of diuers godlye wryters diuided: What the vse and profite thereof is: what tongues are necessary for thee to learne and vnderstande the scriptures: what the vse of them are. Howe thou must studie diligently and aboue all other writers the holy scrip­tures. Howe thou must, for thy better vnderstanding, conferre them together, not lea­uing altogether, either to thyne owne or yet [Page] to other mens opinions: And to conclude, how thou mayst orderly and with profite of thy hearers preache, & expounde the worde of God, whether mē are to be lifted vp, and comforted with the swete promises of God, or els to be beaten, and cast downe, with his dreadfull minaces, and threatninges: whe­ther wickednes be to be defaced and troden vnderfoote, or vertue to be praysed, and ex­horted vnto: But all these and many suche others, thou shalte more at large better learne out of the treatise it selfe, and there­fore I referre thee vnto the diligēt reading thereof, and do exhorte thee, so to reade, that thou maiest not only hereby learne to know a ready and easy Methode, or waye of prea­ching out of the worde of God vnto others, orderly for the helpe both of thine own me­morie, and also of thy hearears: but also, and that especially that with the studye of this arte and Methode, thou alwayes make thy prayers vnto almighty God, for ye assistance and helpe of his holy spirite, whiche maye teache thee, the true ende, and right vse of ye same. For as arte helpeth nature, & nature arte, so that arte can doe nothing without nature, so must we alwayes remember that [Page] the Methode or arte of preaching, shall lit­tell, or nothing at all profite vs, vnlesse the the spirite of God bee ioyned thereunto, whiche is, as it were the true nature vnto it, and without the which the arte it selfe is able to doe nothing: for this holy spirite of God, doth not onely make vs apte, and able to learne this arte, or Methode, but doth al­so teache vs that the true ende, and right vse hereof, is not onely to preache learnedly, or­derly or cunningly the woorde of God vnto others, but also and that especially vnto ourselues, that our audiēce seing our wise & ho­ly sayinges to agre together, with our good and godly dedes may by our example frame also their life, and conuersation according to our preaching out of the worde of God, & so together with vs both in word and deede glorifie God the father of our Lorde Iesus Christe, to whom bee prayse and glory for euer and euer. Amen.

I haue to desire thee (Christian Reader) to beare with some faultes escaped in the Printing, yt which are these as followeth.

Fol. 4. pag. 2. lin. 12. for therfore, reade there are. Fol. 7. pag, 1. lin. 3. Cathechists, read Cathechesis. Fol. 39. pa. 1. lin. 27. for fractificat, reade [...]ructificat.

The contentes of this booke.

  • THe deuision of the holye Scripture. Fol. 1.
  • The first deuision Fol. 1.
  • The subdiuision 1.
  • The second deuision 3.
  • The third deuision 4
  • The fourth deuision 6
  • The formes and kinds of Narrations. 7.
  • The aydes or helpes of an interpretour. 7
  • The causes of interpretation 10
  • The kindes of interpretation 11
  • The Grammarian his kinde of interpreta­tion 11
  • The Logitian his kinde of interpretinge 12.
  • The first Canon. 12
  • The second Canon. 12.
  • The thirde Canon. 13.
  • The fourth Canon. 13
  • The Oratour hys kinde of interpretinge 14.
  • The mixt kinde of interpreting. 14.
  • The vse of commentaries. 14.
  • The way to frame or make holy Sermons. 15.
  • [Page]The kindes of Sermons 15.
  • The kinde of teaching. 18.
  • Of the simple kind of teaching which be­longeth vnto persons. 19.
  • Of that treatise of persons vvhich belonge to examples. 19.
  • Of that kinde of treatise of persons which belongeth to demonstration. 22.
  • Of that simple teaching which belongeth vnto thinges 24.
  • Of the simple kind of teaching of thinges by a figure called Diçresis, that is to say, diuision. 24
  • Of definition. 25
  • Of diuision and partition 30.
  • Of causes. 31.
  • Of the effect. 32.
  • Of the vse and abuse. 32.
  • Of Contraries. 33.
  • Of the simple kind of teaching called Sin­theticall. 33.
  • Of the simple kinde of teaching called A­naliticall. 33.
  • Of the compound kinde of teaching. 35.
  • Of the inuentiō or findinge out of cōmon places. 37.
  • The first Rule. 37
  • [Page]The second Rule. 38.
  • The third Rule 38.
  • The fourth rule to make abstractes. 39.
  • The fift Rule. 39.
  • The sixt Rule. 40.
  • The seuenth Rule. 41.
  • The eight Rule. 42.
  • Of the maner of handling of places inuē ­ted, both plentifully and profitably. 43.
  • Of the diduction of questions. 44.
  • Of plentious confirmation 45.
  • Of the kindes of proofe 46.
  • Of the heaping of arguments. 47
  • Of the expolition or dilating of argumēts 48.
  • Of the confutation. 50.
  • Of Digression. 51.
  • Of Artificiall conclusion. 52.
  • Of that kinde of Sermon which consisteth in exhortation called Pareneticall. 53.
  • Of the perswasible Sermon. 53.
  • The exāple of the perswasible Sermō. 54.
  • Of the Consolatorie Sermon, or which cō ­sisteth in comforting. 58
  • The Methode of geeuing of comfort. 59.
  • Of the chidinge Sermon. 64.
  • Of Memorie. 65.

The end of the Contentes.

❧ The deuision of the Holy Scriptures.

THe holy Scriptures is not after one sorte but diuersly of diuers writers deuided, which thinge ought not to seme straūg, or vnseemelye vnto anye man, for sometines euen of one and the selfe same thinges, there are manye differences according to the diuersity whereof, the di­uersityes of deuision may be taken, and au­thors haue beene accustomed, to appointe such kindes of deuisions, which do seeme to serue best for theyr purpose. Wherefore seinge that the Scripture is diuersly deui­ded, I will recite in order the chiefe and principall deuisions of the same and wil al­so declare the vse of them, to the ende that the profite of this varietye and difference may appeare vnto all men.

¶ The first deuision.

THe most common deuision of the Scrip­ture is this, whereas it is deuided into the old and newe Testamente, which being ioyned together, are in the Greeke tongue [Page] by a certaine figure called Antonomasia) named the Bible, which also is therefore sometimes called an Instrumente, because that by it, as by an Instrument, or readye meane, the holy will and woorde of God is broughte and declared vnto vs. Nowe the Epithetes, or names of old and newe, are taken from the crycumstāces of tymes. For it is called the old Testament, because in respecte of the tyme it was the first. A­gaine it is called the newe, for that accor­ding to the time, it was the last. But if a­ny man should thincke this difference to be taken from the diuersitye of couenauntes, it were no great matter: yet the first reason is crewer and fitter for this place. Not­wythstanding they which call the olde and the newe Testamente, by the name of bookes, do vse the word Testament contra­ry to the common vse.

¶ The subdiuision.

THE olde Testamente is called of the Iewes, [Esrim veorba] and that of his number of Bookes. For they doe receyue xxiiii. Bookes of vndoubted aucthority, [Page 2] which they deuide into foure partes, or or­ders. The first is called of theym Thora, that is to saye, the Lawe or doctrine, and it doth contayne fiue Bookes, to witte Gene­sis, Exodus, Leuiticus, Numeri and Deu­teronomium, which the Grecians call also [...], that is to say, A volume con­tayning fiue bookes. The second parte is called of them Rhesconim Nebiim, that is to saye, the former Prophetes, and this part hath foure bookes, to witte, the booke of Iosua, the booke of Iudges, the booke of Samuell and the bookes of the kinges.

The thirde parte is, Acharonim Nebijm, that is to saye, of the latter Prophetes, and it doth comprehende foure bookes, Esaye, Ieremye, Ezechiell, and the booke of the twelue Prophetes, which they call the les­ser, as are Osee, Ioell, Amos, Abdias, Io­nas, Micheas, Nahum, Baruch, Sopho­mas, Haggeus, Zacharie, and Malachie. The fourthe parte is Chetubim, that is to saye, of the holye writers, and it doth con­tayne eleuen bookes, Paralippominon, the Psalter, the Prouerbes of Salomon, Iob, Ruthe, Ecclesiastes, the Lamen­tation of Ieremye, the Songe of Songes, [Page] Haster, Daniell, Esoras, and Nehemiah, which two latter, are taken for one booke. So that wee haue 24. bookes of the olde Testamente of vndoubted auctority, deui­ded into 4. partes, or orders. Notwyth­stāding besides these bookes they haue cer­taine, also which they do call Apocrypha, that is to saye, secrete or hidden Scriptu­res, therefore so called, because they were not brought forth into the light, to confirme any opinion or doctrine. Of this sorte are Iesus the sonne of Syrach, Iudeth, Tobi­as, the bookes of Machabees, the wisedome of Salomon, Baruch, ye scribe of Ieremie, and this is the deuision of the olde Testa­ment, after the maner of the Hebrewes and the Greatians.

The new Testamente is deuided into 4. partes. The first contayneth the foure E­uangelistes. The second the actes of the A­postles. The third, the 21. Epistles of the Apostles, that is to saye, 14. of Paule, 3. of Iohn, 2 of Peter, one of Iames, and one of Iudas. The fourth part contayneth the A­pocalips of S. Iohn. Moreouer all the bookes of the newe Testament, are founde in the Cannon, excepte the seconde Epistle [Page 3] of S. Peter, the seconde and thirde Epistle of Iohn, and the Epistles of Iames, and Iude, with the Apocalipse. Some also do put the Epistle to the Hebrewes out of the Cannon.

Now somwhat seemeth to be added, cō ­cerning the vse and profite of this distinctiō rehearsed: for it little auayleth dilligently to distinguishe, vnlesse thou perceyue also what profite proceedeth thereof. First of all therefore the distinction profitely much to iudge truly of the auctoritie of Holye bookes: for all the bookes of the olde and new Testament, are of an vndoubted fayth, and are of great force to cōfirme opinions: except those which I sayde before were cal­led Apocrypha, which truly may be reade wyth profite. But in disputations of opini­ous they are not to be alleaged. For those bookes only are of an vndoubted auctority, which are truly attributed to Moses, to the Prophetes, to the Euangelistes, and to the Apostles. Wherefore since that the Pri­matiue and pure Church, hath doubted of the auctors of the secrete Scriptures, cal­led Apocrypha, they are of right reiected, when as they are alleaged by the aduersa­rye [Page] against the wrytinges of the Prophets and the Apostles. There is also another commoditie of this distinction, for it is com­modious to haue a certain order of bookes, that. Students may distribute the reading of the Bible into certayne times, as it shal seeme to be profitable for theym, to learne the holy bookes. The third commoditye is that a certaine waye or meanes maye be had (whether thou preach or interprete the sacred Scriptures in the scholes) of recy­ting or alledging ye Tastimonyes of Scrip­tures, that the place of the testimonye, may be shewed as it were wyth the finger, when as the aucthour of the wrytinge, and the Chapter of the Booke is named and re­hearsed.

¶ The second deuision.

THe deuines in the scholes, do deuide the bookes both of the old and newe Testa­ment, into Legall, Historicall, Sapientiall, and Propheticall bookes. As of the olde Testamente, the fiue bookes of Moses are Legall: the bookes called Historicall are Iosua, the booke of Iudges, Ruth, the 4. [Page 4] bookes of the Kings, Iob, the two bookes of the Machabees. The Psalter, ye Pro­uerbes, Ecclesiastes, ye Song of Songes, the booke of Wisedome, Ecclesiasticus, are Sapiential. And the xvii. Prophetes be­fore rehearsed are Propheticall: In like manner also, to the ende theyr ignoraunce might the more euidently appeare, they de­uide the bookes of the newe Testamente, so that the bookes of the Euangelistes maye be Legall: the Actes of the Apostles Histo­ricall: the xxi. Epistles of the Apostles Sa­piential: and the Apocalipse of S. Iohn to be Propheticall. This by no colour maye bee excused: for it is altogether absurde in as much as it is of them applyed to bookes. But if they woulde applye this theyr sub­tile deuision to the thinges (as I thincke) auncient wryters haue done, it mighte per­aduenture be borne wythall: but because it is manifestlye false, as it is applyed to boo­kes, I wil not in so euident a matter, make anye longer confutation. Furthermore the vse of this deuision as it is applyed to thinges, perhappes maye be heare in, that learners in readinge maye wyselye put [Page] a difference betweene histories and lawes, the Prophetes, and the sayinges of wyse men, that is to say, Gnomas, worthy and ap­proued Sentences.

¶ The third deuision.

THe whole Scripture, if thou consider ye thinges subiecte, are fitlie deuided into History and Doctrine, which two the dilli­gente reader will search oute studiously in reading of holy bookes. Nowe therefore two kinds of Histories, ye old and the newe, the old contayneth all Histories, euen from the beginning of the creation of the world, vntil the conception of our Lord, or the be­ginning of the Euangelicall historie. This Historye taketh his originall (as I haue said) from the first condition of things, and so continueth vntill the Monarchie of Cy­rus. The weekes of Daniel follow after, vntill Christe crucifyed Moreouer I haue made a computatiō of yeares for memories sake, in these Verses which I will putte downe in Latine.

M.D.C.L.V.I. post Adam mundus inundat.
Post vndas ad Abram, ducent nonaginta duo (que).
[Page 5]Exodus hunc sequitur, quingentos quin (que) ꝑ Annos.
Exodus ad Babylon, nongent, decem (que) recenset.
Post Babel ad Christū, D. & L. tribus, X. datur vnus.

Englished thus.

The world a thousand sixe hundreth fifty sixe yea­res is found,
After Adam our father by Noes floud drownd.
And from Noes floud to Abram againe,
Wee find two hundred yeares ninety and twaine.
Exodus doth follow him, v. hundred yeres & fiue,
Exodus to Babilon ix. hūdreth and x. cōtriue.
And to our Sauiour Christ from Babilon,
Are fiue hundreth foure score yeares and one.

If thou ioyne these yeares together, thou shalte haue 3944. yeares from the first be­ginning of thinges, vntil Christes his com­minge, the which nomber I am wonte to comprehende in these Verses.

Ter mille, & nōgent, quater, X. duo bis numeratur,
Christus adest nobis, gloria vita salus.

In Englishe thus:

After three thousand nine hundreth 44. yeares,
Christ our glory, life and health to vs appeares.

Furthermore the new history, is discribed [Page] of the Euangelistes, which intreateth of the Conception, Natiuitye Cyrcumcision, Offering, Banishmēt, Disputation, Bap­tisme, Fastinge, Temptation, Doctrine, Myracles, Death, Resurrection, and As­cention of Christe into Heauen. Also it in­treateth of the geuinge of the holy Ghoste in the daye of Penticost, and of the Prima­tiue Church, and his persecutions: for vn­to these Chapters and poinctes, the newe historie shalbe reduced. And thus much cō ­cerning the Historye.

The doctrine is dispersed throughout al the bookes of the olde and newe Testamēt, and is deuided into doctrine of things, and of signes. The doctrine of thinges is af­terwards deuided into the Lawe and the Gospell. The doctrine of signes doth con­tayne the Ceremonyes and Sacramentes, whereof wee haue heare no time to intreat at large, notwithstandinge the vse of this distinction is not simple, and of one sorte.

For the holy historye ought to be the glasse of a Christian lyfe. For it doth contayne many examples of true godlynesse, of con­fession, of Fayth, of Patience, of calling &c. [Page 6] It recyteth the rewardes and punishmen­tes, both of obedience and disobedience to­wardes GOD, and comprehendeth ma­nye testimonyes and witnesses of GOD. The difference of doctrine verelye, dothe cause vs not to confounde rashlye wyth the Papistes the Lawe and the Gospell, who dreame the Gospell to be the newe Lawe, but they are deceyued: For neyther the Prophetes, nor the Apostles, teache anye other thinge then Moses doth, althoughe in their manner of teachinge there is great difference. For Moyses committeth to wrytinge the doctrine delyuered, as it were by hande from GOD, and the fa­thers: whiche doth contayne the perfecte worshippinge of GOD, but hee is more obscure and darke then the Prophetes.

The Prophetes are the interpretours of Moses, for that which Moses doth note, as it were wyth certayne Aphorismes, that is to saye, briefely and summarilye, the Pro­phetes doe expounde in whole Sermons. But because that thing which the Prophe­tes did foretell, the Apostles sawe before their eyes, therefore are the Apostles made plainer interpreters of Moses, and of the [Page] Prophetes. Who so obserueth this diffe­rence, shall reade with greater profite, the wrytinges of Moses, of the Prophetes and of the Apostles. But in what estimation the scholers of the Apostles and other holy interpretours of the Scriptures are to bee had, I will declare hereafter, where I shal intreat of the maner of Interpretacion.

¶ The fourth deuision.

THere is yet another deuision deliuered or giuen vs by the Gretians, which wee maye not ouerpasse: For the worde of God bringinge saluation vnto mā, is deuided in­to Protrepticō, that is to say, appertayning to exhortacion: Gnosticon, that is to saye, appertayning to knowledge, Practicon, yt is to saye, appertayninge vnto that whiche they call practise. And vnto that which is called Protrepticon, doe appertaine exhor­tatiōs, cōsolations, threatnings, chydings, which all are certaine prouocatiōs, or ster­rers vppe, to heare the word of God, to em­brace and to obey it. Gnosticon, is a part of knowledge which doth cōtayne the wor­shipping of God, ye knowledge of the Law, [Page 7] of the Gospell, and of the Sacraments, the Epitome and briefe summe whereof is Ca­thechisis, that is to say Instruction. The last appertayneth vnto practise, for it is cō ­uenient that the obedience of the harte, and innocencie of life should follow knowledge: For fayth as S. Paule witnesseth, oughte to be vnfayned, and effectual through loue.

This deuision serueth to this ende, that thou maist know the vse of the holy Scrip­tures, that is to say, that thou mayest obeye the exhorter, beleeue the teacher, and doe according as thou beleeuest. For he is wor­thy (sayth Agapetus) of God who doth no­thing vnworthy of God, but thinketh those thinges which are of God, and speaketh the things which he thincketh, & doth the thing which he speaketh.

¶ Of the formes and kindes of Narrations.

IN speakinge of the formes of a Narration, I will declare foure thinges in order. First with what helpes he ought to be instructed, that will become a profitable interpretour. Secondly which are the causes of Narra­tions. [Page] Thirdly what be the kindes of inter­preting, and last of all what is the vse of cō ­mentaryes, or expositions.

¶ The aydes or helpes of an interpretour.

THat a profitable interpretour oughte to be instructed with liberal doctrine, and especiallye wyth the knowledge of Rheto­ricke and Logicke, there is no man which will doubt thereof. Wherefore I will come to certaine other helpes by which heede is taken, that the interpretour go not astraye from Godlines. Therefore in intreating of holye misteryes, foure kindes of care e­specially do belong vnto him, who desireth reth to be free from erroure, and safe from the deceites of hereticks: Let the first care be to seeke God and his will in the Scrip­tures, wyth feare and humilitie, that hee may knowe him truly in oure Lord Iesus Christe: Let the second care be to haue the sacred worde of God for a rule. This care ioyned wyth the former shall cause thee to be conuersaunt in the Scriptures without arrogancy or contention, and that thou bee [Page 8] not puffed vppe wyth foolishe rashnes, but rather craue his helpe with humility, whō in the Scriptures thou seekest faythfully: ye seconde care causeth thee also, that thou be not carefull of those thinges which are not founde written in the woorde of the Lorde. For thou oughtest to be content wyth that lighte, which the Lord hath shewed thee to be followed. Let the third care be diligent­lye to conferte the Scriptures, to thende that the consente of Moses, of the Prophe­tes, of Christe, and of the Apostles, maye e­uidentlye appeare, and that suche sentences as seeme to disagree, throughe conference maye be reconcyled, the cyrcumstaunces of the places beinge dilligentlye obserued.

This care causeth thee not rashlye to take houlde of anye one sentence of the Scriptu­res to assaulte or repugne another there­wyth, from whence no doubt all the sectes of heresye haue spronge vppe, which thing that it maye the more euidentlye appeare, wee shall openlye declare by examples.

Arrius doothe heare the Sonne sayinge: The Father is greater thenne I. This Sentence hee snatcheth, and there­wyth, [Page] is girded, and armed to vanquish and ouercome the deuinitie of Christe: Cōtra­riwyse, Manichaeus to the ende hee mighte take away ye humanity of Christ, snatcheth the sayinge of S. Paule in his first Epistle to the Corinthians, the 15. Chapter, where Christ is called the second Adam from hea­uen heauenlye. Againe there are some which acknowledge the deuinitie, and con­fesse the humanity, but they make two per­sons in Christe, the worde, and the sonne of the Virgin. Osiander, because it is writ­ten yt Lord is our righteousnes: doth ascribe iustification to the deuine nature alone, as thoughe the humanity were of no force at all, to the benefite of saluation. Stancha­rus on the contrary syde (because the worde of promise, is of the seede of a woman, and Paule calleth Iesus Christe, beinge man a mediatour) wyth draweth the benefite of redemption from the deuinitie, and doth at­tribute the same to the onelye humanitye. Here if there had beene ye feare of our Lord, and true humilitie, and if the desire of con­tention and pride had beene absente, they might easly haue iudged of these misteries, by conference of the Scriptures. Let the [Page 9] first care be to referre euery interpretation to the proportion of fayth, from the which if the interpretation doe disagree, it shal be accompted false. But contrarywise, if it do agree with it althoughe sometimes it er­reth from the marke, and minde of the auc­thore, yet oughte ye to knowe, that this is done without the daūger of saluation. But what is it to call an interpretation to the proportion of fayth: it is so to ordaine it, yt it maye be corespondente to the first princi­ples of fayth, and that it maye seeme to be as it were builded vppon them. For those thinges are sayde to be done accordinge to the proportion which are made by compa­rison to another thinge, or els when other thinges are framed by the comparison of others. Wherevppon when Paule doth commaunde that Prophecye, that is to say, the interpretation of the Scriptures, ought to be proportionable to fayth, hee wylleth that the interpretour shoulde haue respecte to the firste principles of Religion, which are plaine and manifest, as conserninge the lawe and the promises of the Gospell, with the which euery interpretation oughte to a­gree. Wherefore the Papistes in the ex­position [Page] of this saying: (If thou wilt enter into life keepe the commaundementes) Do departe from the proportion of fayth, when they do conclude of this sayinge, That men may obtaine saluation by their owne proper workes, for this interpretation doth striue with cleare and manifest principles: As are these, The seede of the woman shall breake the Serpentes heade, also, The Lambe of God, that taketh awaye the sinnes of the worlde: and againe, If righteousnes be of the law Christe dyed in vaine.

And alwayes after this maner the mind of the interpretour ought to be bent, to the firste principles of our Religion, from the which hee shall not suffer hymselfe to be drawne awaye by any Sophisticall reason: For hee that countemneth this proportion of Fayth, commended of S. Paule to the interpretour, and els where doth seeke an interpretation contrary to the rule of faith, let him be assured that hee shalbe plagued of GOD. For like as in tymes paste vnder the olde Testamente, fyer oughte al­wayes to be taken from the fier of the Aul­ter, wherewith their Sacrifice shoulde be burned: so euery interpretation of ye Scrip­tures, [Page 19] should depend vppon the euerlasting word of God. And euen as Nadab and A­bihu, for putting straunge fier in theyr Cen­sors, which they were commaunded to doe, were punished of the Lorde: so heretickes bringing in the deuision of reason, and the deceites of Philosophie, in steede of true re­ligion, are to be iudged worthye of punish­mente. And thus muche concerninge the helpes of an interpretour: nowe will I de­clare that which in ye second place was pro­pounded.

¶ The causes of interpretation.

IN ye preface of Philip Melancthons pla­ces, foure causes of interpretatiōs are re­hearsed, whereof this is the first, yt the kind of speache may be vnderstode: for hearers or readers do not in euery place vnderstand the phrases of a straunge tongue, yea some­times men of singuler learning take greate paines in this thinge: for oftentimes it hap­peneth that a sentence being expoūded w [...] the word of a straung tongue, which tho [...] ghe they aunswering truly in significat [...] yet notwithstandinge they keepe not [...] same sence in both tongues, and th [...] [...] [Page] the difference of the phrase, or manner of speache. Therefore leaste here vnwares wee may be deceyued, oftentimes a learned interpretour is needeful. The second cause, is the iudgement of ye order of thinges: For he yt perceyueth not the maner of the hand­ling, shal certainly very oftē times be decei­ued: as they are which recyte out of Paule, this saying against ye Iustification of faith: Not the hearers of the Law but the doers shalbe iustifyed. Here if they had considered the maner of the handling they might haue seene Paule in that place, not to haue prea­ched of the iustification of works, yt is to say, ye men shoulde be coūted iustifyed throughe woorkes before God, when as Paule there laboureth to confute this opinion against ye doctrine of fayth. Therefore an interpre­tour is needeful, which may shew cunning­lye an order, and the partes thereof: the pro­fite of which thing is greater then that it cā be declared in few wordes. The third cause ought to be the witnes of a true interpreta­tion, for when the hearers perceiue the in­terpretations to be brought frō the word of God, & do see the agreement of the word of God, and of the pure Church with ye inter­pretation: [Page 11] they loue the doctrine more ear­nestly, and do learne it more greedely. The fourth cause, is the confutation of false opi­niōs, least learners should be infected with the poysons of heretickes These causes are sufficiently greate enough for yt which God wyll haue the mynisterye of his woorde both in scholes, and in Churches to be pre­serued.

¶ The kinds of inter­pretinge.

ALthough by those things, which I haue sayd alreadye, concerning the causes of interpretations, the kindes of interpreting may after a sorte be vnderstode, yet because it is needeful to haue them seperated, I wil intreate of them as plainly as I can, accor­dinge as before I haue promised: where­fore I haue noted foure kindes of expoun­ding holy thinges in reading the commen­taryes of diuers aucthours.

¶ The Grammarian his kind of interpreting.

SOme nothinge carefull of the Methode of a treatise, do onely expounde the wor­des [Page] and ye phrases after a familiar & plaine manner, which kinde of interpretation, be­cause it consisteth of a certaine exposition of Grammer, it shalbe called Grammaticall: This kinde did Athanasius, Theophilacte, Ambrose, and many others followe: trulye this is prayse worthie, that suche excellente men which were able both aboundantly, & eloquently to make long disputations, and orations of euery matter: that notwithstā ­ding hath submitted themselues, to ye Grā ­mariās. For they knew wel that frō thence a true sentence shoulde be taken. Further­more this kinde of an interpretour, oughte to be instructed with liberall learning. For first he ought to haue the knowledge of that tongue, which ye authore of the wryting v­seth: vnlesse he desire to see rather wyth o­ther mens eyes thē wt his owne. Althoughe a perfect knowledge is not here requyred, yet there ought to be so much skill yt hee be able to cōferre together these thre tōgues, the Hebrewe, Greeke and Latin. For a de­uine interpretour hath neede of these three tongues, the conference whereof, he that is studious shall perceyue to yeld more profite then the tedious commētaries of great mē. [Page 12] Againe to thende hee maye interprete that thing aptly, which he vnderstandeth truly, Logicke is necessary, which oftētimes to a Grammarian interpretour, doth put to her willing hand. He shal also be not a litle hol­pen with the commentaries of variety, frō whence he may learne diuers formes of va­rying one and the selfe same sentence.

¶ The Logician his kinde of interpreting.

OThers when they see, that order obtay­neth the chiefest partes in all thinges, they seeke oute and declare the Methode & order of a treatise, & do put forth questiōs, argumentes, collations, and do briefely re­duce the argumēts to certaine chapters, or common places, as thoughe they were con­sultations. This is a most especiall care to this kinde of interpretour, yt all things may be expounded openly, and declared distinct­lye. But because this kinde is most profita­ble in the scholes, I will briefely shewe the way, which ye interpretour in this kind may safely follow, which thing yt it may be done more plainly, I wil cōprehend al the whole matter in foure Canons, or general rules.

¶ The first Cannon.

IN the beginning of ye reading of any ho­ly Scripture, he ought first of all things to speake of the kinde of doctrine, and yt (as it seemeth to mee) maye fitlye be done after this maner. First, he oughte to expounde what kind of doctrine it is, from whence he may fall into the cōmendation therof. Se­cōdly, he should shew auctority. Thirdly, he should signifye of what certainty it is, & frō whence it should be taken. Fourthly, what is the necessity. Fiftlye, he shoulde declare what profite and cōmodity should proceede from thence to the hearers. These fiue pointes in the beginning of any holye booke (in my iudgemente) are verye profitable to be handled. Neither do I disalowe it, if ei­ther hee adde some thinges to these, or take othersome awaye, so that he deceiue not the hearers, who when they learne, doe also greedelye seeke for the Methode of immi­tation.

¶ The second Cannon.

WHeras according to this first Cannon, we haue generally spoken of the kinde of doctrine, wee may profitablie discende to [Page 13] Hypothesis, that is to say, to the particuler wrytinge, which is layed before vs to be ex­pounded, in which place, these thinges are needefull to bee spoken off, by him which followeth the Logicians kinde of interpre­ting. First, who and what maner of mā, the aucthour of the wrytinge is, and from whence the aucthoritye of the wrytinge doth depende. Secondly, what was his occasion of wryting, the obseruation wher­of helpeth to vnderstande the order of the treatise. Thirdly, what is the state of the matter or principall question, whether one or many from whene, Iudgement may be giuen of the kinde of the cause, and the en­deuour of the whole writing, that is to say, the ende and verye laste scope, maye be per­ceiued and knowne. Fourthly what is the Methode of this present wryting, or (which is all one) what is the order of the treatise, whiche excepte it bee obserued, the laboure of the teacher shalbe little or nothinge pro­fitable.

¶The thirde Cannon.

WE must diligently obserue this, in al ye writinges of the Prophets and ye Apo­stles, [Page] that whilst they teach, they oftētimes fall into admonitions, reprehensions, pray­ses, threatnings, comforts, &c. wherewith they applye their doctrine to the hearers, & do pricke them forwardes, to receiue their doctrine. They that consider not this, can neither obserue the order of ye treatise them­selues, nor yet shewe the way well to any o­thers. But I will speake more of this Ca­non hereafter, wheras I shal intreat of the large and ample treatise of cōmon places.

¶ The fourth Canon.

AN expositiō of euery chapter may very fitly be made after this maner, in ye first place the whole chapter muste be gathered into a certaine briefe collection or summe, which none may cōueniētly do, vnles he be skilful in Logicke. For those things which are spoken specially & by parts, he shall re­duce to generalities & to the whole, and cut of those thinges which are accessaries & of lesse value, neither shal he adde to al maner arguments of things, but shalbe contēt on­ly with a sume of things: and all other mat­ters which are added for amplification, or deduction of thinges must be remoued.

[Page 14]In the second place hee shall declare the or­der of the chapter, in shewing how it agre­eth with that which wente before, (if anye thinge wente before) and shall declare the chiefe partes, and giue admonitiō how they follow. In the thirde place the exposition of the texte shall ensue, the common places shalbe noted, that all things may be conuerted to profite. But the waye of the inuen­tion of places, shalbe taughte hereafter, where wee shall intreate of the places that belonge to a preacher: at this time it suffi­seth briefely to haue shewed what is neede­full to be done.

¶ The oratour his kind of interpreting.

THere is also a kind of interpretatiō per­tayning to Oratours, most profitable in Churches & scholes, wherein the greateste wits haue exercised themselues: as Basile, Gregory Naziāzene, Chrisostome, Augu­stine, & many other Greekes & Latins, for these do exposio euery question more at larg after the maner of Rhethoritians, of which thinge wee muste speake againe when wee come to the treatise of common places.

¶ The mixt kinde of interpreting.

THe mixt kinde of interpreting is, when ye interpretour either mingleth all thin­ges aboue rehearsed, or els ioyneth certaine of them together, which thing not a few in our time, are wont to do with great profite, in whose nomber Philip Melancthon, wt ­out doubte is the chiefe, whom manye wor­thie men: as Bucer, Caluine, Brentius, Be­za, & diuers others, do immitate & follow.

¶ The vse of Commentaries.

MAny do abuse Commentaries, whilest they labour continually in them, litle or nothing esteeming the text of the Bible, who do like vnto him that trauayling some whither, determineth to abide alwayes in his iourneye. For Commentaries are like to the Image of Mercurie. For like as they are set vp of purpose to shew the right way to trauelers, least they should goe out of the waye, so commentaries do leade, as it were by the hande, the vnexercised reader: which he shoulde not alwayes vse, but so as ye tra­uaylour doth vse the Images of Mercurie. For the trauaylour loketh not vpon them, [Page 15] when by often times goinge that waye, hee knoweth the way perfectly. Here first of all ye interpretour is admonished of his du­tie, that is to say, that he thincke he oughte to shew a way, and that a most ready waye to the hearers, and not to hinder suche as make hast to go forward. Moreouer euen heare it is euidence in what estimation the disciples of the Apostles, and their succes­sours being interpretours of the Scriptu­res are to be had. For all these are to be followed in so much as they haue the scrip­tures of the Prophetes and of the Apostles going before them, but if somtimes they do erre from this, let vs acknowledge our cō ­mon facility and readines in falling, & pray to God earnestly, that he suffer vs not to fal into daungerous errours.

¶The waye to frame or make holy Sermons.

THe Methode or making of Sermons, is a sure way and meanes shewing a reasō of making sacred Sermons. And because those thinges which are needefull to be de­clared in the Church, are not of one kinde, nor can be handled after one sorte: It were [Page] verye profitable first to shewe the kindes of Sermons, afterwards the meanes where­by euery thinge maye be intreated of wyth profite, to thend there may be a certaine pre­script & compendious way of making Ser­mons. For such as shalbe ministers of the most holye ministery of the worde (then the which nothing can be more holy) which be­inge confirmed with vse and exercise, they may encrease with preceptes of Logicke, & Rhetoricke. I do not forge new precepts, but do applie the common rules of Logiti­ans and Rhetoritians, to a certaine matter, and doe ioyne together with preceptes the practise of learned men, whō I haue heard preache, that the immitation mighte be the more easye, which truly would be but very weake: vnlesse it were holpen wyth pre­ceptes, as I haue said before in the preface.

¶ The kinds of Sermons.

BEfore I come to the kinds of Sermons I will briefely touche the partes, which may very well be counted foure in nomber, the Exordium or beginninge, the Treatise, the Digression end the Conclusion. The [Page 16] Exordium in this place, is the beginning of the sermon, after inuocation and prayer is made, and the holye lesson, or text read and recited, which wee purpose to handle and to intreate of. This may very aptly somtimes be taken vppon the occasion, or oportunity, somtimes from other cyrcumstaunces. And it should be so handled that it might be, as it were a certaine way, to that thing which we minde to intreate of. It must be modest, briefe and graue to thende it maye obtaine the good will of the hearers, maye styrre them vppe by easines of teaching, and maye keepe theym attentiue. The treatise or manner of handlinge, doth alter throughe diuersity of theames, wherby it happeneth that sometimes it is contente with a deuisi­on, and an exposition: and that when it is a simple theame. Diuision is a sentence by the which we briefely declare what things wee will speake of, this is commended for the breuitye, the perfectnes and fewnes of words, for the which aske counsaile & helpe of the precepts of Oratours. Exposition is a sentēce, wherin the parts of a diuision are declared, and it is three fould. Synthetical, Dicretical, and Analyticall, of which here­after [Page] wee shall intreate more at large.

This exposition is sometimes simple, when as no argumentes are added: sometimes mixte, when the reasons of the partes of an exposition are intermingled: sometimes wyth deuision. Ye may seeke out the confir­mation of the partes of deuision, and the cō ­futation of the opinions of others stryuing with ours, and that so often as the theame is compounded. The Wysedome of the preacher shal easlye iudge, when the confutation should go before the confirmation, & when it should follow: it must go before of necessitye when the mindes of the hearers are before hande possessed and holden wyth errour: for they cannot receiue the truth be­fore they are deliuered from the errour and falsehode. Digression is a sentēce, wherby the doctrine is applyed to ye hearers, by cōforting, chiding, fearing & admonishing. In this ye beginning, the end, & the place are specially to be cōsidered: the beginning is yt it may seeme of his owne accord to flow out of ye doctrine. The end yt it may go together and agree with the doctrine following, if a­nye doctrine be expounded: The place yt it maye be put to thende of euery member of [Page 17] a diuision or partition, lest the iudgement of learners, should be troubled with interrup­tion of doctrine, more shalbe spoken of di­gression hereafter. Peroration, is the con­clusion of the treatise. This doth both brief­ly rehearse the summe of the thinges which are handled, and doth also fiere vp the min­des of the hearers with the commendation of the doctrine expounded, and by shewyng the vse thereof. Now let vs come to speake of the kindes of a sermon. There are gene­rally tw [...]o kyndes of preachinges, the one appertayneth to teaching: the other to ex­hortation. That whiche appertayneth to teaching, is of simple places, and those as well of persones as of thinges, and of pla­ces compounded, of generall sentences, and particuler argumentes. The other whiche appertayneth to exhortation, is diuided into three partes, for either it persuadeth, or re­buketh, or comforteth. This difference or di­stinction of sermons may be proued. First of the diuersitie of hearers, to whome the sermon shalbe applied. For either they are altogether rude, and must bee taughte, to whome the first kinde dothe appertayne, or els they are not rude, but rather feble and [Page] faint harted, and must be lifted vp with con­solations: or els slowe, and they must bee pricked forwarde: or els contemners, and are to be chastened with threatninges. To these foure kindes of hearers al the sermōs of Christe are to be derected, for sometyme hee teacheth the ignoraunt whiche are desi­rous to learne, and sometime it comforteth, and styrreth vp the faint harted: nowe hee exhorteth the slower sorte, and nowe with threatninges, he terrifieth suche as are pro­phane, and vngodly. Hereof we may euery­where easelye finde exāples in the historie of the Gospell. Agayne, the same is proued by the vse and custome of the holy Scripture: For Paule wryteth thus in his seconde epi­pistle to Timothe, and the thyrde chapter. All scripture geuen by inspiration of God, is profitable to improue, to amende, and to instructe in righteousnes that the name of God may be perfecte and prepared vnto all good workes. Here the foure folde vse of the scripture is declared, and that with foure woordes whiche are in the Greeke tongue named Didascalia, Elenchos, Epanorthosis, and Paidia. Didascalia, is to be handled in the first kinde, that is to say, in that whiche [Page 18] appertaineth to teaching. Elenchos, hath chiding. Epanorthosis is when the fal is lifted vp, and made stedfast, whiche manifestly ap­peareth to bee done with consolations and comfortes. Paidia, is the teaching of chil­dren, whose chiefest office is, to perswade to goodnes, and honestie, and to dissuade from wicked and filthie thynges. Our distinction therefore agreeth with the varietie of the hearers, with the ensample of Christe, and with the tradition of Paule. But because the hearers are mixed in publicke assem­blies it cōmeth to passe, that the prophetes, Christ, thapostles, & all the godly ministers of the worde doe oftentimes builde & frame out of doctrine, consolations, perswasions, and chidings, all which the force of doctrine hathe as it were ioyned with it: euen as I haue sayde before, is done in the wrytinges of the Prophetes and Apostles: whose ex­amples it becommeth godlye ministers to folowe in makyng of Sermones. Neyther is our distinction to bee disallowed whiche doth appertayne to the nature of teachynge of thynges, and doth shewe what order and waye is to be obserued in makyng of Ser­mones, although sometymes those thynges [Page] whiche I haue named as accessaries, and impertinent, are applied by the figure of di­gression, which thing who so euer doth not obserue, can neyther make their owne ser­mons well, neyther iudge of other mens, nor yet beare them awaye in mynde. Wher­fore the kyndes of sermons must first be di­stinguished, and then those thinges whiche are added, maye verye well bee formed and framed.

¶ The kynde of teaching.

THat part of sermon which appertaineth to teaching, is that whose ende is, to tea­che the ignoraunte hearers. In this kynde of sermon the godly preacher shall imploye his whole strengthe first that he himselfe do perfectly vnderstande the thing that is to be taught: Next that hee frame with him selfe a full and perfecte order of the same in wryting. Thirdly, that hee expounde the sa­me in a plaine and common speache, not ha­uing any respecte to his owne commenda­tion for his eloquence, but rather to ad­uaunce the glory of God, and helpe the ca­pacitie of the present hearers, whiche if hee doe, he may hope that the hearer shall not [Page 19] wauer in opinions any more, but consent to the true and cleare doctrine. And because there are two kyndes as before in diuision I haue declared, that sermon which apper­taineth vnto teaching, to wytte, Simple or of simple places: and compounde or of com­pounde places: The order of teaching requireth that in the first place, wee speake of the simple manner of teaching, but because in the simple kind of teaching, sometimes the persons, some times the thinges are intrea­ted of, it seemeth best first to speake of the treatise of persons.

¶ Of the simple kinde of teaching which belongeth vnto persones.

THere are twoo kindes of the treatise of persones, the one belōgeth to examples the other vnto demonstration. For if anye deede of the persone is layde before vs, it is an example: but if the whole persone be di­scribed it is [...], that is to say, demon­stration of the persone.

Of that treatise of persons whiche belong to examples.

[Page]VVhen any persone therfore is set before vs out of the holy histories, whose whole life is not described, but some deede of ye per­sone is brought forth, & that for the cause ei­ther of the doctrine, or of ye immitatiō, or els of the admonition, it shalbe a treatise Para­digmatical, yt is to say, belonging vnto exā ­ples. After this māner Paule doth set forth Abraham to the Romaines, & to the Gala­thians, after this manner the epistle to the Hebrewes, chap. xi. reciteth a great scroule, & number of prophets & of kings. By Abrahā his deede, the doctrine & nature of faithe is taught, the immitation cōmended, yt exerci­ses of vocation, & the fruites and workes of true godlines are cōfirmed. The repētaūce of Manasses doth teache vs yt such as do fal, are receiued againe, & therfore is profitably set before vs for immitatiōs sake: it putteth vs in minde of ye mercy of God, which of his mere goodnes, receiueth into fauour so cru­ell a persecutour of his churche, & so vile an Idolater. But here we must speake against those men, who oftentimes do abuse the exā ­ples of sainctes For there ar some who had rather immitate ye wicked deedes of saincts then their vertues: & do defend thē selues wt the exāples of sainctes. There are some also [Page 20] which out of the personal deedes of sainctes and extraordinary cōmaundements, do il fauoredly frame a forme of an act, & do cōmēd the same as a generall lawe: they are not worthy of any answer. These ar to be called againe into the right way by an abmonitiō. For it behoueth vs to kepe a difference be­twene ye cōmon & personal cōmaundemēts, or precepts of godlines, which only do touch one people, or one mā. The Hebrewes were cōmaunded to robbe the Egiptiās. Abrahā by Gods cōmaundement maketh him-selfe ready to slaye his sonne, for a sacrifice in the moūte Moria. These personal actes are not to be applied particularly, but onely gene­rally: For out of both these exāples we must learne obedience vnto God in those thinges which he requireth of vs in his worde. Also in this treatise of thexāples of persons, it is manifest, yt the papistes, & especially ye mōkes haue daūgerously erred: who & their sermōs haue laide before vs I know not what coun­terfait petie sainctes, & haue fained them to haue liued al their life long so blameles, yt they neuer offēded, no not in the least thing. Such a fained descriptiō of persōs, maketh rather to disperatiō thē to ye edifieng of ye cō ­science, wrastling wt the greatnes of sinne, & of the wrath of God.

[Page]Therfore let vs take vnto vs true examples, and let vs leaue fayned examples for the Poetes, whiche are not to be handled of thē whiche are called by saint Paule the Ste­wardes of the misteries of God. The sacred scripture and the true historie doth minister examples sufficiently: as of Abraham, Iob, of Ioseph, of Manasses, of Mary Magda­lene, of the theefe which was cōuerted, & of such like: for out of such as these ar, we may not onely reache the hearers true godlines, but also ye forme of liuing according to their kynde of calling. Therfore the godly prea­cher must remember to shewe forthe exam­ples profitable vnto godlines, and not those whiche seeme to cause disperation. Nowe it is time that we declare those thinges wher­of wee haue spoken with a playne example. And because none can be more famouse thē the example of Abraham, I wil lay that be­fore you to be examined. Paule sayth, Abra­ham beleued God, and it was imputed to him for righteousnes. In this place Paule bringeth forth the example of Abraham, e­specially for doctrines sake, and from thēce draweth foorth not only the firme and sure doctrine of righteousnes, but also ye nature [Page 21] of saith: and frō thence doth shewe of what holines of life the beleuing man oughte to be. After this manner let vs learne, by the immitatiō of Paule to obserue two thinges in examples to witte, the facte in it selfe, and then the circumstances of the persone, and of the facte. The facte in it selfe doth teache that true righteousnes doth consist of faith, in the promises of God. The circumstances of the persone, and of the facte, doe put vs in minde of many thinges. First that Cir­cumcision of necessitie is not required to iu­stification: For Abraham was iustified be­fore Circumcision, but afterwards circum­cision was added, as a seale of righteousnes whiche is of faith. Secondly, the profession of Abraham, his life before iustificatiō, wit­nesseth yt he was receiued of God, not for his owne proper merites, or workes going be­fore, but by the onely goodnes of God.

Thirdly, in this example of Abraham is de­clared that iustification of faith, pertaineth equally to all. For Abraham was iustified before men were discerned by any outward workes. Out of this circumstance the Pro­phets without doubt haue drawen and fra­med their sermons, of the callinge of the [Page] Gentiles. Fourthly, that the ceremonies of Moyses are not required of them that are to be iustified: for euen as Abraham was iustified without them, so they that shalbe iustified after his example, must not require them to the accomplishement of their iusti­ficatiō. Fiftly, that righteousnes doth come without the morall lawe, and the workes commaūded in the decaloge or two tables, for if we be iustified according to Abraham his example, & he was iustified many yeares that is to say, 430. yeares before the lawe: truly it can not bee that righteousnes is of the lawe. But if any mā should obiecte that the morall lawe was from the beginning, & that Abraham did not wante it, the answer is easye: for no rewarde is due to workes without the couenaunt of God. For workes are not meritorious of their owne worthy­nes, but by the acceptation of God and by reason of the couenaunt: Therefore the cō ­clusion of Paule abideth firme and stedfast: Abraham is iustified by the fayth of promise before the couenaunt of woorkes was pu­blished: to wytte, the man that dothe them shall liue in them. Wherefore he is iustified by fayth & not by workes. Sixtly, that the [Page 22] true and iustifieng fayth, is a certayne full assuraunce, whiche is not subdued by argu­mētes of reason, but stedfastly beleueth that he whiche promyseth cannot lie, how soeuer the whole nature of thynges may seeme to gayne saye it. And that fayth hath good workes, and obedience towardes God ioy­ned with it, and that nothing ought to bee estemed dearer to a Christian man, then to be obedient to the will of God. And so the Prophetes, godly kynges, Apostles, and in like manner all godly men after Abraham, first by example haue learned the true waye of iustification, and afterwardes by the cir­cumstaunces of the persone, and the facte, haue bene admonished of moste weyghtye things. By this meanes the godly preacher by the example of Paule, may applye other examples, both in them selues and also in the varietie of circumstaunces, and all ways in his application, he must remēber to haue a regarde to the proportion of fayth.

¶ Of that kynde of treatise of per­sones whiche belongeth to de­monstration.

[Page]THat kynde of treatise of persons whiche belongeth vnto demonstratiō doth han­dle the whole life, and also euery parte of ye life of any persone, and that in the same or­der, as the places of persones are rehearsed in the questions of Philip Melancton. For that order is not only naturall but also pro­fitable to the speaker and to the hearer. But first of al this is to be obserued in this kinde of treatise of persones, that those members especially are to bee adourned, and beaute­fied, from whome these three aboue rehear­sed, doctrine, immitation, & admonitiō may be taken. For Paule in the .xv. chapter to the Romaines, doth admonishe vs of this of application, when he sayth: what soeuer thinges are written, are writtē for our lear­ning. &c. Therefore suche members ought to be applied to the whole body of ye church whiche thing is done when wee transferre aright the particuler to the generall sen­tences: as if the life of Iohn Baptiste, were to be handled after the manner of demon­stration: to obserue the naturall order, wee should intreate of his parentes, of his con­ception, of his natiuitie, of his education, of his vocation, of his office, of the testimonie [Page 23] of Christe, of his death and of those thinges that happened both about & after his death. In the member of his parētes, these things are contained, that the continual prayers of all godly are heard at the length, that the afflicted whiche beleue do obtayne comforte at the laste, and that God dothe allowe the marriage of priestes. In the member of his conception first the office of Aungels is to be considered, that they are the Embassa­dours of God, & the ministers of ye churche. Secondly, that God is myndefull of his promises. Thirdly, that the power or worke of God is not hindred by naturall impedi­ment, that is to saye, through barrennesse & wante of nature. Last of all, because Iohn as yet in his mothers wombe did acknowe­ledge Christe, it teacheth vs, that children are receyued of God, and that God wyll be acknowledged & honoured of children. In the member of his natiuitie, thankefulnes towardes God, for his benefites receiued is commended, the mutuall office of the godly is shewed, that they ought to reioyce with them, on whom God poureth his blessing: & to conclude, that the godly ought to bringe and offer their children vnto God. Againe [Page] his straightnes of life doth commende vnto vs, not a monkishe or solitary lyfe, but so­brietie and obedience vnto God. After all these things in his office, & in the circūstaū ­ces of his persone, and office, not onely his doctrine, but also his consolation, his constā cie in his office, his confession, his crosse, and loue of the truth, with other innumerable vertues are set forth vnto the godly His cō ­fort or consolation, is in that he did shewe, or point out wt his finger our sauiour Christes his constancie in that cōtemning the threat­ninges of Herode and of the Phariseis: hee caught the Gospell without any feare: his confession, in that he confessed him self to be the voyce of a crier in the wyldernes. His crosse, in that according to his vocation, hee did not onely wander abroade without any certayne mansion place: but also doubted not to suffer death. All these thinges which are so drawen forth of the circumstaunces of the persone and of his office, are first layd before godly ministers of the worde, for the cause of doctrine, of immitation, and of ad­monitiō, and afterwardes generally to the whole vniuersall churche, so farre forth as it belongeth to the common duties of god­lines. [Page 25] simple teaching, and also of other Logiciās diligently declared: yet I thinke it profita­ble in this place, to prescribe a waye of in­treating, whiche shalbe commodious to newe beginning preachers. First therefore I will set downe the chiefe chapters, and next declare the Methode of the of the trea­tise. The chapters or chiefe pointes ar these.

  • 1 Definition.
  • 2 Diuision or partition.
  • 3 Causes.
  • 4 Effectes.
  • 5 The vse and the abuse.
  • 6 Contrarieties.

¶ Of definition.

OF definition some are ours, and some ar our aduersaries. Those which ar ours, we must expounde as true, we must proue, confirme, and gather together: The others we must confute as false. In bothe kindes there is a peculier Methode, but first we wil speake of the former. The definitiō therfore wich the godlye preacher shall declare as true and immouable, must haue foure parts in the treatise, Exposition, Reason, Confir­mation [Page] & conclusion. Exposition is a sentēce wherby we expounde our own diffinition of any thing with manifest & playne woordes. And there is two kindes of definitiōs, per­taining to a deuine, the one short & briefe, ye other copiouse & large, that is content with the kinde & with the difference. This doth applie to the kinde, & to the differēce, causes, things adioyning, or annexed proprieties, & sometimes circumstaunces.

The reason is the proofe of the definition. Confirmatiō, is that wherby we confirme & declare the reason, either by examples, or by any other manner of declaration.

Conclusion is a briefe comprehension of ye exposition of the reason, & of the confirma­tion. Furthermore, I would haue yt whiche is spoken of the reason, & of the confirmatiō to be so vnderstanded, not that a simple rea­son, or a simple confirmation onely, but that also both many reasons, & cōfirmatiōs, may bee added, as shall seeme proffitable to the hearers, & to the thing yt is to be intreated of. Furthermore, this is to be obserued, that a large definition which is to be cōfirmed, & proued, must first bee resolued into proposi­tions, somtimes also into bosides or termes, [Page 26] then afterwardes by litle & little, ye partes must be ioyned together by cōposition, & the necessitie of the definition must be shewed: & all these are to be added to the māner & way of definitiō. Now by one or two exāples, let vs make our preceptes manifest, & let vs ta­ke Matrimonie in hande, for to be first of all defined. Matrimonie is a lawful cōiunction of a man & womā (this is the expositiō of the definitiō ye reason followeth) for it is writte, wherfore let ye man forsake father & mother and cleaue vnto his wife (the cōfirmation fo­loweth) if these wordes were truly exami­ned, we should finde in them, yt which we did put in the definition. For first they testifie that there ought to be a coniunctiō which is lawful, when it is done according to ye word and will of God. Furthermore where as he saith: they shalbe two in one flesh, he would haue the copulatiō of one man & one womā, not of one husband & many wiues, neither of one wife & many husbandes, euen as the first wedlocke of Adam and Eue doth wit­nes & declare vnto vs. (Complexion folow­eth.) Therfore since God hath cōmaūded by his own law yt two persōs should be lawful­ly coupled together, & yt there should bee no mo persons in matrimonie thē two. It folo­weth [Page] that Matrimonie is a lawfull cōiunc­tion of man & wife: By this exāple the trea­tise of a simple definition may after a sort be vnderstanded, whiche if thou wilt applie to the lawes & rules of Logicke, the first parte is called the question: the second, the reason, the thirde the confirmation of the reason, or the shewynge of the cause of the reason: the fourth is the conclusion, wherin by a parti­cular forme the reason is repeated with the question. Notwithstāding the names of the members whiche I haue aboue rehearsed, do serue rather the popular & vulgar trea­tise, & are more easy to be vnderstanded Let vs also adde an other example, of a large de­finitiō, which we wil declare more at large. And let vs take the Gospell to bee defined. The Gospell is a doctrine reuealed from God, wherin deliueraunce frō sinne, & from the curse of the lawe, & the wrath of God is preached & remission of sinnes, saluation, & life euerlasting is proclamed, to al beleuers in the sonne of God for his sacrifice, that the goodnes and mercie of God towardes men might be preached, and that being deliuered by ye sonne, they might declare forth fruites worthy of the Gospell. Thus farre goeth [Page 27] the exposition of the definition, whiche is to be resolued by resolution into these proposi­tions, whereof the first is yt the Gospell is a doctrine reuealed frō God. The second, that the Gospell doth declare deliuerance from sinne, frō the curse of the lawe & the wrath of God. &c. The third, that it proclaimeth remissiō of sinnes, saluation, & life euerlasting. The fourth, that those benefites happen to them that beleue in Christ. The fift that the force of the Gospell doth rest in the sacrifice of Christe. The sixt, that out of the Gospell God is to be preached. The seuenth, that man oughte to shewe his thankefulnes to God, in godly liuing. These propositions must be in order cōfirmed. The reason ther­fore of the first proposition doth follow, that the Gospell is a doctrine reuealed frō God. Paule doth reache manifestlye calling the Gospell a secret misterie, frō the beginning of the world. (The confirmation) by whiche wordes he teacheth openly, that the Gospel dependeth not of mans reason. For if rea­son by any meanes were able to knowe this doctrine of his own strēgth, it had not bene called a secrete misterie from the beginning of the worlde. (The reason of the seconde [Page] proposition (furthermore that deliueraunce from sinne, from the curse of the lawe, and the wrath of God is declared in the Gospell many testimonies of the Prophetes and of the Apostles do teach vs. Daniel saith plain­ly that Christ shal take away sinnes. Paule teacheth that the curse of the lawe is aboli­shed by Christ his cōming. The father crieth from heauen that he is pleased by his sonne, (the confirmation) that this is true al godly men haue experience, hauing the testimonie of the holy ghost, by whome they crie Abba father, whiche certainly they would not do, vnlesse they did stedfastly beleue that sinne is taken away, the curse of the lawe abolished, the wrath of God pacified, (the reason of ye third proposition) furthermore yt the remis­sion of sinnes, saluatiō, & life euerlasting, is proclaimed in the Gospel, these testimonies beare witnes. The lorde himself saith, it is thus written, that repentaunce & remissiō of sinnes ought to be preached in his name, the same preaching beginning at Hierusalē. In the last of saint Marke saluatiō is promised to all beleuers. Likewyse in the x. chap. to the Romains: Furthermore the lorde him self doth promise euerlasting life to al them [Page 28] that beleue in him. what nedeth many wor­des. The vniuersall scripture doth promise remission of sinnes, saluation & euerlasting life, to al people embracing the Gospel. (the confirmatiō.) For it cannot be chosen, but yt the wrath of God, the curse of ye law, & sinne being taken away: saluatiō, righteousnes, & life must needes bee obtained. But because these things happē not to al men. For Caine Iudas, Saule & many others haue perished, & at this day a great part of the world (a grief to heare) do fal into euerlasting destruction. In the definitiō fourthly is added yt these be­nefites do happen to them yt beleue (the rea­son) for the lord saith plainly, he yt beleueth in me, shal not perishe, but haue euerlasting life. (The confirmation) and lest any man should thinke that this doth depend vpō the condition of workes, Paule wryteth that a man is iustified by faith without workes, & with lōg disputatiōs cōfirmeth the same in his epistle both to ye Romains, & to ye Gala­thians. Moreouer in the fift place is added, that the force of the Gospel doth consiste in the sacrifice of Christe, (the reason) for so Paule sayth: by the redemption whiche is in Christe Iesus (The comprobatiō) for the [Page] worde which Paule vseth here is Apolytrosis, that is to saye, redemptiō which is done when by death the price is payd. For Lytrō properly is the price of redemption. Such a price Christe payd for vs whē he was made sinne for vs, that we may be made the righ­teousnes of God. In the sixt place, is added that God should be preached for his good­nes & mercy, (the reason) whiche thing the multitude of Angels do sufficiently proue, & conuince, singing this himne to God, at our Lordes birthe, Glorie be to God on high, & peace on the earth, & vnto men good will. (The confirmation) for we ought to thinke that this thing done therfore yt al mē which do acknowledge this Christ, may learne by the exāple of the Angels, to preache ye good­nes & mercy of God, especially when nature it selfe doth crye out & teache vs, ye thankes ought to be geuē for benefites, or good tur­nes. In ye last place, is added ye fruites which they ought to shew, who are deliuered by ye Gospel (ye reason) which thing is confirmed by the testimonie of Paule, saying wee are created in Christe Iesus to good woorkes, in the whiche the Lorde woulde haue vs to walke (the Confirmatiō) for how may these [Page 29] two agre that we are deliuered from sinne, and yet fulfill the desires of sinne, when Paule affirmeth that the healthfull grace of God appeared to all men, that we deny­ing vngodlines and worldly lustes, shoulde liue godlye, soberlye and righteously. &c. Seinge therefore that wee haue shewed by stronge reasons, that sinne, the curse of the Law, and the wrath of God is taken away by the Gospell, and that in theyr place doe succede Righteousnes, Saluation and life thorow Christe, which whilst wee beleue in him, and that God would that wee shoulde preach his goodnes for this his benefits, & in all our life time be thanckfull: that follo­weth which before we propounded that the Gospell is a doctrine reuealed from God, wherein is shewed. &c. Now when our de­finition is after this maner handled, if there be any of a contrary opinion, they are to be confuted with the Methode of confutation, which consisteth of proposition, sublation, the opposite, contrarye, or proposition, and the solution. The proposition in this place is the promise of the sublation, sublation is the proposition of our aduersaries. The op­posite proposition, is the promise of the solu­tion. [Page] The solution is the confirmation op­posite proposition. But the matter shalbe made manifest, by a briefe exāple. Neither am I ignoraunt that oure aduersaryes the Papistes, do bable (this is the proposition of the confutation, sublation foloweth) that the Gospel is the new law of not reuēging, of casting awaye of ryches of not swearinge &c. The opposite proposition foloweth, but how vaine a thing that is, may easely be de­clared (the solution followeth:) For that which they affirme is directlye against the sacrifice of Christe, yea and against ye whole Scripture, which plainly sheweth that we obtaine the benefits of the Gospel by fayth. What? are not Paule his woordes mani­fest? If righteousnes be by the law, Christ dyed in vaine: this confirmation of the op­posite proposition is to be taken oute of the places of confirmation, that is to say, out of the places of Logicke, of which thing I wil speake in the compoūd Methode of places. But what generally both in confirmatiōs, and confutations is to be obserued, heare those yt are studious are to be admonished. First therefore after that wyth manifest & plaine arguments, thou hast confirmed the [Page 30] cōtrary proposition in order, the argumēts of our aduersaryes are to be refelled, and if the matter suffer it so to be, firste of all the first kind is to be taken, and afterwards we must come to the speciall arguments: as in this presente cause. First wee must confute this that the Gospell is a Law. Secondlye that it is not a law of forbidding of reueng, of castīg away of riches, of not swearing &c. Furthermore this also both in the cōfirma­tion of our owne opinion, & in the confuta­tion of the contrary part is diligently to be noted and marked, that thou preuent those thinges which eyther the wisedome of the fleshe or els the contrary part may obiecte against those things which thou sayest and confute them. This seemeth to be oftenti­mes vsed of Paule in his wrytinges, as in this confutation layed before vs of ye opiniō of ye Papistes, yt the Gospell is ye new Law: the flesh vnthanckful to God, frō thence ta­keth weapons vnto himselfe against the do­ctrine of works, & inferreth or cōcludeth af­ter this maner: If the Gospel doth deliuer vs wtout our workes, wherefore should wee worke well? This obiection is to be taken away by preuention. And after this maner [Page] the faythfull preacher must haue a respecte what maye be sayd on the contrary part. But the preceptes of a large confutation, & confirmatiō, are to be handled afterwards.

¶Of Diuision and partition.

THis member of the Methode may be hā ­dled verye profitablie after this maner. First if thou expounde thine owne diuision, or partition. Secondlye if thou proue it. Thirdly if thou cōfirme it. Fourthly if thou gather it againe together. Let this be ye ex­ample of diuision: wee haue heard what the Law is, it remayneth now that wee declare into how many parts it is deuided (for such a forme of transition is to be vsed, when we go from one thing to another.) The Lawe of God therefore is three folde, Morall, Ce­remoniall and Iudiciall. This was the ex­position (The reason) For all the Lawes of God eyther teacheth manners, or commen­deth Ceremonies, or practiseth iudgemēts. (The confirmation) for by these mans life is very well conserued and gouerned. For in a ciuill life there is neede of iudgements, in the publicke assemble of the Church Ce­rimonies [Page 31] are necessary, and that religion of the minde towardes God, and godlines to­wardes men (in the spirituall kingdome of God) do consist in the preceptes of maners It is most euident (the collection) There­fore that is most sure which we haue sayd, that the Lawe of God is threefold, Moral, Ceremoniall, and Iudiciall. Especiallye since the true gouernment of lyfe consisteth of these three, whether thou consider the common life, or the Church or the spiritual kingdome of God. If these members of diuision be darcke and obscure, they are to be expounded by definitions, and subdiuisi­ons, & are to be made manifesse by reasons and examples. But if the aduersary do ob­trude or bringe in any other diuision that is false, it is to be ouerthrowne by ye Methode of cōfutation. There needeth no ensamples in a manifest thing. Moreouer partition, is to be framed after the same sorte. As the parts of repentaunce are, contrition, faith, and a desyre to leade a godly life: (the reasō) for it becōmeth vs to be sory for our sinnes, and because the contrition is of no force vn­lesse there be also fayth in Christe, this is of necessity requyred. And because neither of [Page] these is true, vnlesse the desire to liue a good and godly life doth follow, a good purpose of necessitye is ioyned with the former (the comprobation) for wee see both the Scrip­tures and the examples do ioyne these three together: Dauid being fallen was sorye yt he had sinned, he fled by fayth to mercy, and the rest of his life withall the endeuour hee might he kept innocente. These members of partition if they be ioyned wyth definiti­ons, deuisions and their reasons, a greate, profitable, and plentiful Oration wil ensue and arise thereof.

¶ Of causes.

NOw we must ad ye causes of a thing al­together after a naturall order, & must seclude or set a part those thīgs which seme to be the causes of a thinge, and yet are not. To euerye kinde of cause their reasons are to be added out of the word of the Lorde.

Compounded causes do runne together in their actions, and doe stande with mutuall helpes, and euerye one hath a certaine pro­prietye in actions. Wherefore the orders of causes are diligentlye to bee considered, least there shoulde be a confusion of causes, [Page 32] from whence afterwardes great darcknes might aryse. Furthermore this is also to be obserued, when any thing is commaunded or forbidden, al coordinate causes are com­maunded and forbidden. As whē the sanc­tification of the name of God is commaun­ded, which cannot be withoute Fayth, ney­ther without the knowledge of God, which knowledge of God cannot be withoute the preachinge of the worde of God. Therefore when wee are commaunded to praye for the sanctification of the name of God, wee aske and praye for these thinges in order, for the preaching of the word, for the knowledge of God, for Fayth, and for the sanctification it selfe of the name of God. Nowe I will brieflye shew an example hereof. The cau­ses of repentaunce are not the free will of man (this is the seperation) but firste the worde of God, next the holy Ghost, who in­wardlye reproueth sinne, & stirreth vp a ha­tred of sinne in the harte of man, and last of all a will not resistinge the deuine motion, and the worde. The endes are the glorye of God, and the saluation of the penitente personne. These are compounde causes, and doe stande wyth mutuall helpes in [Page] theyr actions, and it easelye appeareth that euerye of them hath a certaine propriety in theyr order to the effect. Moreouer, how these are to be declared by definitions, and confirmed by testimonies, maye by the for­mer preceptes be vnderstanded.

¶ Of the effect.

THe effects are to be expounded, proued, confirmed and gathered to gether, and they which are attributed to a thing falsly, are to be ouerthrowne by the Methode of confutation. As if a man shoulde affirme ye contrition deserueth remission of sinnes, he is to be confuted after the same manner, as before I haue declared.

¶ Of the vse and abuse.

IF the thing haue bene abused, first the ab­use muste be confuted by the Methode of confutation. Secondlye the true and righte vse, muste be expounded proued and confir­med.

¶ Of contarries.

[Page 33]COntraryes haue no certaine place, nei­ther in this Methode, nor in others, but are to be dispersed heare and there, for il­lustration and amplifications sake. For Rhetoritians do thincke that nothing ma­keth a thing so plaine and easye, as the con­ferring of thinges which are contrary.

¶ Of the simple kinde of teaching called Sintheticall.

THe Sintheticall exposition is, when we begin with those thinges that go before the matter, and by little and little, by cer­taine steppes and degrees do put them together, and lay them on a heape, vntil al those thinges do seeme to be gathered, which are sufficient to discusse the nature of the thing: As if we should intreat of that peace which we haue in God by fayth, these things may be expoūded by the figure called Synthesis, that is to say, composition. First we must declare what the offence is. Secondlye the partes of the offence. Thirdly the media­tour. Fourthlye the recompence and satis­faction of the iniurye and hurt. Fiftly the reconsiliation. Sixtlye the couenaunt of re­conciliation. [Page] Seuenthly the declaration, or publishing of peace. Eightly the fruites of peace. If these were proued one after ano­ther, cōfirmed and examplifyed by testimo­nyes and examples, there would spring and arise a large and plentifull Oration. On this wise Synthesis doth followe the order of nature, and findeth out, expoundeth, pro­ueth and confirmeth all those questions, yt naturally go before, and doth by cōtraries, examples, similitudes, and dissimilitudes, examplifye them. Furthermore this also is to be obserued that large and plentifull de­finitions by this Methode are made and fra­med as before ye may see in the definition of the Gospell.

¶ Of the simple kinde of teaching called Analyticall.

THe Analyticall exposition is when wee begin from the whole, or from the ende, and afterwards finde out the partes, & those thinges which are required to the ende by an order, cleane contrary to the former, as if we shoulde intreate of prayer in this Me­thode, wee must expounde what inuocation [Page 33] is (for a definition contayneth the reason of the whole) and what is the ende thereof: After that we must number and coūt those thinges which appertaine to prayer, as though they were necessary members ther­of, as are the affections of the minde, the causes, wherefore wee praye, who is to be prayed vnto, by whom, and what wee must praye for. Which for memoryes sake, I am wont to comprehende in this litle Verse: ‘Affectus causae, quis per quem quid (que), petendum.’

That is to saye: In prayer these thinges are chiefely to be obserued. ‘Affections, causes, who, by whom, and what is to be asked.’ Last of al indifferent circumstances may be added: as the indifferent circumstaunces of prayer, are place, time, and gesture. If these trulye were proued and made manifeste by the Scriptures, and by examples, a greate and profitable copie of Oratiō would grow thereof. Moreouer, what so euer wee haue hyther to spoken of the simple treatise of thinges, or places, ought so to be vnder­stāded, yt they ought al to be done according to the artificial maner of diuers Methodes, of simple questions. But because varietye [Page] delighteth them that are exercised, some times learned Preachers do not follow the lawes of this Methode exactlye, but do call the hearers as it were to counsell, and to chuse those thinges of greate pleney, which they thinke most profitable for to be known of the presente hearers. And this reason of intreating of thinges, some do call the Me­thode of Prudence, which considereth the weight of thinges and the cyrcumstaunces of the present hearers. As if a man woulde intreate of the Lawe of God. Heare first he should behould the hearers, and then consi­der the waighte of the thinges, and then he should more easely reduce the treatise vnto a fewe Chapters, easye to be vnderstoode & borne awaye. And firste perchaunce hee should expound what the Law is: Second­lye whether any man may fulfil the Law of God: Thirdly what is the vse thereof whē no man fulfilleth it: Fourthly what maner of abrogation of the Lawe is to be vnder­standed. The like maye bee done in other simple questions. And althoughe these thinges he so, yet shall the Methode of this art which I haue expoūded, profite the new preachers which are not as yet practised, & [Page 35] that both to strengthen their memorie, and also beinge longe time and muche practised therein, that they may afterwards luckely folow both kindes. Philip Melancthon of most holye memorye, applyinge himselfe to the common capacitye of men in the ex­plication of any simple matter, iudgeth that these foure are to be propounded, declared, and amplifyed. The definition of the thing, the causes, the partes, and the duties.

The definition being drawne out of the cō ­ference of manye sayinges, and noble exam­ples, dothe gather the whole matter as it were in one bundle, and propoūdeth briefly the summe of the matter: the explication of causes doth fortifye the definitiō, the reher­sal of partes doth more distinctly set the na­ture of the thinge before our eyes. In the worde offices, the vse, the effectes, and the fi­nall causes of the thinge are comprehended

Moreouer this is also to be admonished yt in handling of places, whether they be sim­ple or compounde, if there be many places, wee muste diligentlye take heede that that place which naturally goeth before, do also go before in the treatise: And if we should make an Oration of sinnne and grace, first [Page] wee should speake of sinne before grace, but if the places be vtterly seperated, it skilleth not in what order thou do expounde them, vnlesse perhappes in confirmation, the one do mynister helpe to the other, for then that is to be expounded in the first place, which being done the other must be holpen.

¶ Of the compound kinde of teachinge.

THe Sermon which cōsisteth of the com­pound kind of teaching, or of compound places, is when certaine compound places, that is to say propositions, and general and particuler sentences are handled, which thing althoughe it be properly done by the Methode of confirmation, and of confutati­on: yet most commonly it chaunceth that a mixt Methode is added, for if the partes of a proposition be obscure, and darke, resolu­tion shall vnfoulde them, and set downe the partes eche part by him selfe. Deuision shal expound the partes set downe. Compositiō afterwards shall compounde them: and the Methode of confirmation & confutatiō shal proue the compound, and shall confute that which stryueth with it. As if the first peti­tiō should be propounded to be intreated of [Page 35] (halowed be thy name) here of necessity, first resolution must be added, which might vn­fould this simple propositiō into two parts, into the name of God, & the word halowing. Secōdly deuision would expresse both par­tes, one after another, with definitions & deuisions. Thirdly composition would com­pound the parts againe. Now frō hence cō ­firmation & confutation mighte be added in their due time. And this precept is alwayes to be folowed, when the parts of a proposi­tion haue neede of an explication, otherwise not at al. Furthermore in parables, resolu­tiō is to be added ye first thou maist put down the parts vnfoulded, & thē apply ye same by the cōparison of ye thing, to the which the parable doth appertaine, & afterwards frame the lessons and exhortacions, as in the parable which is in ye Gospell of the seede: there be fiue partes of that parable. The sower, ye seede, the sowinge, the earth, and the fruite. To ye sower, God: to the seede, the word: to ye sowing, the preacher of ye word: to ye earth, the hearers of the word: & to the fruit of the seede, the fruite of ye word may be cōpared. These beīg once declared thou maist frame lessons & exhortations as the lessons of this [Page] present parable are. The first ye great care of Almighty God in procuring oure salua­tion. For heare the Lorde is compared to the diligent husband man. The seconde the dignity of the word. The third, the worthi­nes of the mynisterye. The fourth, that if ye word bring not fourth good fruit, it shalbe imputed to vs and the deuil. Furthermore exhortations are to be drawen oute of the end of the parable, for the endes of this pre­sente parable are: That the Lorde mighte storre vp ye bearers to the loue of the word: That he mighte reproue the negligent, and might comforte the obedient. But in this kinde of preachinge there is yet a greater force and wisedome of ye Preacher to be re­quyred. Wherrfore to thende that in this part (which otherwyse is harde enoughe) I maye somewhat ayde and helpe the newe Preachers. I wyl intreate of two thinges in order. First I will shewe the Methode of finding out of places, & then I will declare a waye to handle them eloquently and pro­fitablie, in which two chapters this whole facultye seemeth to consist.

¶ Of the inuention or findinge out of common places.

[Page 37]LEst any man shoulde take that for a com­mon place which is spoken at all aduē ­tures, euen as they are wont to do, who al­most out of euery worde do hunte out some thinge, little regardinge whether the same appertaine to the purpose or no, for that they only seeke this that they may seeme to be greate deuisors and no lesse skilfull craf­tes men of common places: Rules are ne­cessarye, within the limittes whereof, the minde of the Inquisitour maye be compre­hended. And although the matter be grea­ter then that it may be accomplished in few preceptes, yet is it profitable for yonge be­ginners to keepe certaine common Rules, which they may safely folow to theyr bene­fite whō they shal instruct. First of al there­fore when any text is read, & vnderstanded, the occasion, the briefe summe, & compre­hensiō, and the ende, and the vse of ye texte must be sought out, which thinge, how and in what order it oughte to be done, in the Logitiā his kinde of interpreting before is declared. Secondlye the partes, or the pro­positiōs of the text must be sought out. And last of al out of these according to the rules following, cōmon places must be drawne, [Page] which seeme to conduce to the ende of that matter which we haue compounded.

¶ The first Rule.

IF the subiecte of the proposition be a sin­guler bonde, or ende, in steede thereof put by degree and in order his superiours, that is to saye, the forme in the first place. Se­condly ye kind next. Thirdly if you so thincke good, the superiour and higher kinde. And let these be compounded in order with the predicate of the proposition. Psal. 122. in the beginning this is the proposition: I re­ioyce (sayth Dauid) when it is sayd to mee, let vs goe into the house of the Lord. First make a permutatiō of the person, after this maner: Dauid reioyseth when it is sayde vnto him, Let vs goe into the house of the Lord. Here according to the rule, first put the name of a kinge. Secondlye of a magi­strate. Lastlye of a man. This beinge done, ioyne these in order with the predicate after this maner: It is the dutie of kinges to re­ioyce in that they haue subiectes which a­gree with them in Religion: It ought to be a comforte to all men to agree in the wor­shipping [Page 37] of God. Behold how many gene­rall sentences, this first and childishe rule doth minister vnto vs, whereof the laste is most common, and may be spread into many particuler arguments: of ye certainty wher­of we must iudge oute of ye rule followinge. The example being confirmed in ye subiect, the thing is confirmed in the kinde. There­fore when this facte is approued in Dauid, the thing in the kinde ought not to be disa­lowed. And on the contrarye syde: the ex­ample in the subiect being reproued, in mat­ter is reproued in the kinde. As for exam­ple: Ozias the king of Iuda taking an other mās office vpon him displeased God. Ther­fore kinges, yea all men which meddle with other mens matters do displease God: for it was ye office of the priestes, not of kinges, to offer the insence of a sweete perfewme.

¶ The second Rule.

IF in steede of the predicate, superi­ours bee by degree and in order substitu­ted, as ye next formes: & afterwards other, & other kindes, a plētiful inuentiō or finding out of places will ensue thereof. This rule certeinly most oftē is to be folowed in other [Page] thinges, but alwayes in the Historyes of Christe. As for example: Christe healeth ye Samaritan Leper calling vpon him. Be­cause this Samaritane is an Ethnicke and a man afflicted. Gather thou from hence ye Christe will helpe the afflicted Ethnickes, and all men which cal vppon him. And be­cause out of the particuler actes of Christ, his office generally is gathered, it is lawful to frame a place after this maner. That it is the office of Christ, or of Messias, to helpe the miserable and afflicted callinge vppon him.

¶ The thirde Rule.

IF in steede of the subiecte and predicate, thou substitute by order formes & kinds: plenty of common propositions will growe therof. As for example: Dauid committing adulterie was banished ought of his king­dome, Therefore kinges greeuouslye offen­ding and generally all men which liue wic­kedlye, shall some times or other suffer due punishmente. The filthines of wicked men was drowned in an vniuersall floud, Ther­fore wicked men at one time or other shalbe punished.

¶ The fourth rule to make abstractes.

SOmetimes it is profitable oute of the cō ­cretes, as the beleeuing woman of a Ca­nanite (Mat. 15.) in her necessitye came to Christe, called vppon him, woulde suffer no repulse, but was more earnest, euen as also the ruler of the Synagoge who beleeuing, did also conuert his whole family vnto the Lord. From hence gather thou the proprie­ties of Fayth, that is to saye, that fayth in­forceth a mā, in necessity to come to Christ, to call vppon him for succour, and maketh him earnest to thende he maye obtaine it: & then he proueth the encrease and receyueth it, and at length bringeth forth most accep­table fruictes vnto God. This rule hath his force oute of that place which is called Comugata, that is to say, things ioyned to­gether. But because those things, which I haue rehearsed concerninge Fayth, are the principall partes of fayth, I haue encluded them in two Verses after this maner.

Vera fides Christū petit, & rogat, instat, ab ipso,
Impetrat, & crescit, fractificat (que) simul.

[Page]In Englishe thus.

True fayth doth seeke for Christ, doth aske and maketh earnest sute:
Obtaynes of him, and doth encrease and also bringes forth fruite.

An other example this is. The man is bles­sed that feareth the Lorde. The common place is. True felicity cōsisteth in the feare of the Lord: the vse of this rule is greate, not onely in inuenting of places, but also in defining of Concretes. For as Aristotle & Rodulphe do teache oute of the discription of Concretes, ye definitions of Abstracts are gathered. As for example: if thou wouldest define what godlines is, take first the Con­crete in a notable example: As, godly Abraham did feare the Lord, and did worshippe him in true fayth and obedience: Therefore godlines is the feare of the Lord, fayth and obedience towardes him. By this waye Aristotle founde out the differences of ma­ny vertues, which they that are studeous in diuinitye, shal easely perceyue, not to be vn­profitable for them.

¶ The fift Rule.

THose thinges are dilligently to be consi­dered which goe before the matter pro­pounded, [Page 39] which are ioyned also wt the same, and which of necessitye do followe the same, and are to be included into common places, As Psal 2. Blessed are al they that put their trust in him. First here it followeth oute of the antecedents, yt without Christ none are blessed. For if they be then blessed whē they put theyr trust in Christ, without this con­fidence al men are miserable. This place al­so, by a contrary sence is cōcluded after this maner: all yt put their confidence in Christ are blessed. Therefore all that put not their confidēce in him are not blessed. If they are not blessed, certainly they are myserable.

Heare thou seest how this place doth myni­ster occasiō to reason of the wretchednes of mankind. The second place is of things ad­ioyning, which is framed according to ye .4. rule to wit, ye true felicity & blessednes consisteth in ye cōfidēce which we haue in Christ. The third place that the benefite is vniuer­sal. For a general proposition is not restrai­ned to any nation or man, but the benefit is offered vnto al which refuse not to put their trust in him. The fourth place, that fayth in Christ is a meane, whereby men are made the partakers of the benefites of Christe.

[Page]The fift place of the diuinity of Christ, doth follow out of this place: For if fayth is on­ly to be reposed in God, & bee is pronounced blessed that putteth his cōfidence in Christ, it followeth of necessitye that Christe is true God.

¶ The sixt Rule.

THe necessary consequence of causes and of effectes, is not to be neglected. For if the cause be set downe, ye effecte is supposed to be concluded: as in our Creede, whē we acknowledge God to be omnipotent, Faith from thence draweth forth a double effecte, the one is that God doth bestowe his bene­fits vppon whom he wil, the other that hee hath power to defend them whom he hath taken into his custodye. But let vs adde a more famous exāple. In the Lords Sup­per, as oute of a consequence of causes & ef­fects, particuler sentences are to be gathe­red oute of a true meditation of the Sacra­ment: Therfore seing that the Lords Sup­per is a Sacramente of our redemption by the death of Christ. First the celebration of the Supper, both by little and little put into oure mindes the thoughte of sinne: [Page 51] For the Lorde died for sinne. Secondlye, it admonished vs of the sacrifice accomplyshed for the redemption of mankynde from the lawe of sinne. Thirdly, the dignitie and ex­cellencie of this sacrifice, doth minister vnto godly myndes, the thought, not onely of the greatnes of the wrath of God in striking his sonne for our sinnes, and of the vnspeakea­ble mercie of God, receyuinge vs vnto his grace, for the sacrifice of his sonne: but also, of the loue of his sonne, making his interces­sion for vs, and takyng or deryuing his fa­thers wrath and displeasure vppon hym­selfe. Fourthly, contrition springeth out of the thought of synne, and of the wrathe of God. Faythe verely is styrred vp by the vn­speakeable mercie of God, and the loue of his sonne, payinge the pryce of redemption for vs. Fiftlye, this fayth is confirmed and encreased by the vse of the Sacramente so great a thing. Sixtly, faith being confirmed and augmented, doth shewe it selfe accepta­ble to God, and doth beginne a godlye, ho­nest, and iust lyfe, and loueth his neighbour, with whome hee hath the price of redemp­tion common. Beholde what doctrine and lessons, what plentie, howe godly a medita­tion [Page] of the holy supper, the consequence of causes and effectes doth minister vnto vs an other example. Christe remitteth sinnes of his owne authoritie. Here the effecte doth declare the diuinitie of Christe. The theefe rebuketh his fellowe who was a blasphe­mer, and calleth vpon Christe, out of which effectes, the contrition, the faith & the newe life of the thefe is to be gathered.

¶ The seuenth Rule.

LEt the repugnauncie of a sayinge, or worde, and the repugnancie of a conse­quent bee sought out: from whence twoo kyndes of places doe arise. Let the saying be, he that doth teache any other Gospell, is accursed. The repugnancie of this saying is this: hee that teacheth the same Gospell, is not accursed, the consequence of the saying is, that the Pope is accursed, because he tea­cheth an other Gospell. The repugnancie of this saying is ouerthrowen. As the Pope is not the head of the churche, and we must not obey the Pope.

¶ The eight Rule.

[Page 42]IT is good sometimes by the contrary sen­se, to frame a place when the termes or boundes be equall, as for example. The iust man liueth by fayth, ergo, hee that is not iuste liueth not by faythe. Whereof it fol­loweth that neither righteousnes nor life, is of woorkes. For so Paule dothe gather it. Gal. 3. That no man is iustified by the lawe in the sight of God it is euidēt, because it is written the iust man liueth by faith. In like manner a forme by conterpositiō doth some times minister places, as, euery one that is of God doth heare Gods worde. Here the place by conterposition doth gather, that he whiche heareth not Gods woorde, is not of God. These be the principal rules of inuen­tion of places, whose fountaines are places of Logike, & rules of consequences, & there may be more added to them, but I thinke yt these are sufficient to newe beginning prea­chers, which if they wil vouchsafe to folow, they may both haue a ready way to seke out these cōmon places, & also they may iudge well of those places which are obserued by others. Furthermore, hereby they may also iudge what is ye cause, why diuers autors do not alwayes shew forth yt selfe same places. [Page] The reason of the difference is as well the diuersitie of inuention, as also that other places, do more contente, or please our auc­thours. After that the godly preacher hath founde out places, he must enter into a multitude or swarme of places. To this he shall applie a threefolde instrument. For first hee shall diligently consider, whether the place founde out, may expressely, worde for word, be seene in anye place of the Scripture.

Secondarely, the place must bee examined by demonstration to an impossible thing, if it be not expressed in the woorde of God.

Thirdly, the place must be concluded with some sillogisme, and by a sillogisticall con­uersion, it must bee tried as it were with a touchestone. Let this be an example of a de­monstration, to an impossible thing. The place to be proued is, that Christians may possesse that whiche is their owne, take the opposite of this place. No Christians may possesse that whiche is their owne. Nowe seke out the proposition whiche is manifest­ly true, whiche with the opposite sayinge, may be one of the premisses in the sillogisme as for example: all that doe geue Almes, ought to possesse their owne, of which twoo premis­ses [Page 53] a moste false conclusion doth follow, to witte, that no Christian man shall giue almes. By the manifest falsenes of this the other of the premisses is to be ouerthrowne, wherfore since ye Maior is manifestly true, it followeth that the Minor is false: front hence nowe is inferred the truthe of the place, propounded by the lawe of contradi­tions. Nowe let vs gather together that whiche we haue sayde. All that should geue almes, ought to possesse their owne. No Christians may possesse their owne: Ergo, no Christian shall geue almes. But the cō ­clusion is false, ergo, one of the premisses: not the Maior, ergo the Minor, which saith that: No Christians maye possesse their owne. Let this be the example of a sillogisti­call conuersion. The place, some hearing Gods worde are not godly. The sillogisme. None that walke after the fleshe are godly, some hearing Gods worde walke after the fleshe: Ergo, some hearing Gods worde are not godly. conuerte it after this man­ner. If none that walke after the fleshe are godly, and some that here the worde, walke after the fleshe: ergo, some that heare the worde are not godly. For al they that heare [Page] the worde are not godly. For all they that heare the worde are godly, or els none that walke after the fleshe are godly. None that heare the worde shall walke after the flesh, or els some men that heare the woorde, walke after the fleshe: certaynely some that walke after the fleshe shalbe godlye. but none that do walke after the fleshe are god­lye, and some whiche heare the woorde walke after the fleshe. The conclusion therefore remayneth firme and sure, that some whiche heare the woorde are not godlie.

¶ Of the manner of handling of places inuented, both plenti­fully and profitably.

TO the plentifull and profitable hand­ling of places, foure thynges are chiefly requyred, whereof the firste is, the diduc­tions of questions, that is to saye, of the places inuented. (The seconde a plentiful confirmation. The thirde, the digression to an other matter. (The laste is the arti­ficiall conclusion. I wyll intreate of these [Page 44] foure after that order as they are set downe before your eyes declaryng euerye one of them playnelye with preceptes and exam­ples.

¶ Of the diduction of que­stions.

HEre wee must speake not of the inuen­tions of Common places, whereof now we haue intreated, but of ye diduction of cō ­mon places inuented, that is to say, of mul­tiplying them into manye questions or pla­ces. Therefore the place inuented is diduc­ted, either into simple places, or into com­pounde places: as for example. If the fifte commaundement were sayde before vs, to be expounded. First here, thou shalt seeke the common place according to the precept of the firste rule after this manner. Fa­thers are to be honoured, parentes are su­periours, ergo superiours are to be honou­red. This common place in the handling of the fifth cōmaundement, is the principall, & chiefly to be touched. But yet yt it may plen­tifully be intreated of, it shalbe expedient to diduct or reduce it into other places, eyther [Page] simple, which the very wordes them selues do geue: or compounde, which either do cō ­siste of them which are necessarely included in the wordes them selues, as the formes or particular sentences, are included in their kyndes: or generall sentences, and what thinges soeuer are necessarely ioyned with the matter: or els are taken out of them, which are annexed and ioyned to the condi­cion and state of the matter, as in this exam­ple layde before vs, are included two simple places, one of honour, the other of superi­ours. These are to be handled a sunder, by the simple kinde of teaching of thinges, af­ter the same sorte, as I haue hādled before. Secondly, out of the diuision of this gene­rall sentence: superiours are to bee honou­red, many particular sentences do arise, ac­cording to the contrary diuision, of the sub­iecte and predicate. The subiect may be de­uided into these formes that of superiours, some are priuate, which are either natural, as parentes: or els not naturall as schole­maisters, patrones, and housholders: some are publike, as the ciuill and ecclesiasticall magistrate, with their differences. Further more the predicate (to be honoured) may be [Page 55] deuided into partes of honour, for he which honoureth an other, doth reuerence him, o­bey him, and is thankefull vnto him. So there are three partes, or differences of the predicate. From hence as out of a groue, we may gather particular sentences. As we must reuerence our parentes, we must obey our parentes, we must bee thankefull to our parentes, wee must reuerence oure maisters, wee must obey our maisters, wee must bee thankefull to oure maisters, wee must reuerence patrones, wee must obaye patrones, wee must bee thankefull to pa­trones. After the same manner particu­lar sentences are to bee framed, out of the rest whiche I haue declared, from whence may ensue a moste great plentie of needeful questions. Ouer and besides this, places oftentymes, are proffitably taken out of thē whiche consist of the state and condition, as: if parentes, scholemaisters, patrones, are frowarde, or ouerthwarte, harde, or cruell, whether then wee should shewe them any reuerence, obedience, or kyndnes? and to what ende? and so out of other conditiōs, questions, are multiplied. But this laste kynde of questions, whiche doth growe out [Page] of the cōdition may be handled very fitly by a figure called occupation. Beholde if thou wilt vnfolde these particular sentences, by resolution and wilt handle them by diuisiō, and confirme, and garnishe them with the methode of confirmation: not one sermone, but soe manye as there are particular sen­tences, may be made, and framed. I confesse that all common places, doe not shewe so great plentie of particular sentences, not withstanding there is none so barraine, but at the least, it may minister some sentences, which ye may frame out of a commō place, by the same reasō which is declared, which thinge that thou maiest doe cunninglye, it woulde muche profite thee if thou haddest sailfull knowledge in the doctrine of predi­cables, predicamentes, and propositions.

¶ Of a plentious confir­mation.

A Plentious confirmation consisteth in the kindes of proofes, in heapinge and in dilating of arguments, and in confutati­on of the contrary opinion of which we wil speake in order.

¶Of the kindes of Proofe.

THere is a three fould kinde of proofes in Diuinity. The first and most safest kind, is when proofe is brought out of the euidēt and cleare propositions of the Scripture. As for example, Parentes are to be honou­red, because the 5. Comaundemēt, euident­lye and plainly commaundeth: Honour thy father and thy mother. In like c [...], Righ­teousnes is of fayth & not of works, because the word of the Lord doth so pronoūce. We hould that a man is iustifyed by fayth wtout workes. The second kind is reasoning as oftentimes as it is not pronoūced by plaine woordes, but is gathered by a stronge and vnmouable consequence. And this kinde is double, streight and indirect. The streight is when that which is to bee proued, is ga­thered plainly in the first conclusion, which kinde is borowed from ye place of inuentiō, of the kinde, of the forme, of the definition, of ye causes, of ye destinates, & of things, ad­ioyning. As if this questiō were asked, whether scholemasters are to be honoured? out of ye kinde, or general, thou maiest conclude well that all superiours are to be honored, ergo scholemasters also, but ye indirect kind [Page] concludeth not simplie, that whiche is set downe to be proued: but doth gather an in­conuenience out of the opposite or contrary, wherwith he ouerthroweth the Antecedent which being ouerthrowen the truthe of the opposite immediatly floweth: as if superi­ours are not to be honoured, neither parēts are to be honoured, but this is false, ergo, ye also. Therefore it followeth superiours are to be honoured. The third kinde is, of lesse reputation, when we laboure in the testimonies, & examples of thē, which seme to haue florished in ye church, which kinde is dispro­ued, if it be depriued of the former proofes. Let vs propounde an other exāple. And let the question bee whether Christe bee God. This is first proued by a saying, or by ye first kind of proofe. For thus is it spokē of Christ in the first of Iohn, chap. 5. he is true God & life euerlasting. Secondlye by reasoning, Christe hath done the workes pertaining to God of his own proper power, & the honour of God is attributed to Christe, ergo, he is God by the indirect waye: If Christe were only a creature, euery one only were accur­sed, that would put their confidence in him: but nowe Gods woorde pronounceth them [Page 57] blessed which put their trust in him, ergo, he is no creature, but true God. Thirdly, ye te­stimonie of the church, as the crede of Athanasius, and the voyce of all the people, in ge­uing their consent, do testifie Christe to bee God. Furthermore this our distinction of proofes wāteth neither reason, nor exāple. The reason is this, whatsoeuer is proued, or disproued in sacred thinges, it is needefull yt the same be done, either by testimony of the scripture, or of the churche. If it be done by the scripture, it shalbe either by the expresse woordes from whence the firste kinde doth growe, or els intricatly, or obscurely, & that either in ye generall, or in the particular sen­tence, from whence the second kind of proofe is taken. But if any thing be proued by the testimonie of the churche, it shalbe the third kind of proofe. Hereof truly we haue an ex­ample of Paule, who in his wryting as it is wel knowē, hath vsed this threefolde kinde of proofe. That righteousnes is of faith: by saying or wordes he proueth it when as hee saith: The iust man liueth by faith, by reaso­ning thus. If righteousnes be of woorkes, Christe died in vayne. From hence now that followeth whiche he propounded, that righ­teousnes [Page] is of fayth. By example: Abra­ham beleeued God, and it was imputed to him for righteousnes. Also wee beleeue in Christe, that wee may be iustifyed by fayth. If these kindes be delated or spoken of at large, there wil aryse great plenty of proo­fes, but yet a meane is to be kept, lest plenty come out of season, & so breede lothsomnes.

¶ Of the heaping of arguments.

COngeries, or Heape in this place is when in prouing the proposition or cō ­mon place the Chapters of principal argu­mentes are added, and as it were gathered together into one bundell, as if this propo­sition were to be handled. No man is able of his owne strength to fulfil Gods Lawes, the Chapters which followe of the Argu­mentes, may by heape, be added after this maner: For the experience of all men doth proue this manifestlye. This our wounded nature groning doth acknowledge this, the vniuersall Scripture cryeth oute of this. To conclude the Sacrifyce of the sonne of God, torne after a most horrible maner vp­pon the gibbet of the Crosse, doth proue vn­to [Page 48] vs. After this maner, Cicero ioyneth to the proposition, a heape of Arguments, whom in disposinge of Argumentes all the best learned men are wont to immitate and follow. Notwithstanding although Cice­ro sometimes beginneth frō the last Chap­ter, a dilatinge of Argumentes put in the Heape, wherunto he ioyneth first, and after goeth forwarde vnto the laste, which is the last in the treatise. Yet for the Deuine and the Preacher, it is the surest way to follow an order in the Heape put in the Expoli­tion.

¶ Of the Expolition or dilating of Argumentes.

EXpolition or dilatinge, is by the which an Argument propounded is confirmed and beutifyed. But a copious Expolition consisteth of a proposition, of a reason, of a shewing, the cause of the reason of Exorna­tion, and of Conclusion. The Proposi­tion is that, which setteth before oure eyes some Chapter of an Argument, as though it were the proposition of a confirmation. [Page] The reason alloweth the proposition, and it ought to be such a one, as maye be the mi­nor of a sillogisme. Aetiologia, doth shew the cause of the reason, and it is meete, that it be such a one as maye eyther be the maior of a sillogisme, or els the proufe therof: So that a whole sillogisme is made of a propo­sition, of a reason, and of the cause of the Reason. After the cause of the reason, Ex­ornation shall followe, which is to be boro­wed of sentences, comparates, contraryes, similitudes, examples. The laste shalbe the conclusion, which gathereth together the summe of the former, and concludeth the principall proposition. These are the pre­ceptes of an expolition, neyther doth that which I haue sayd, striue against the opini­on or iudgemente of them which haue nom­bred seuen parts of an expolicion. For there is not onelye one kinde of expolition, but I haue chosen ye onely which I thought to be most meete for preachers, that are but new beginners. But to the ende the preceptes of an expolition may be vnderstanded. I wil put downe one example. I haue before propounded this common place: No man of his owne power or strengthe is able to [Page 49] fulfill the lawes of God. Furthermore to this place I haue added foure Chapters of proofe, by a heaping of arguments. Wher­of the first was, that the experience of al mē did proue that to be true. Let this Chapter be the proposition of an expolition after this maner. The experience of all men con­uinceth this, that no man is able to fulfill the Lawe of God. (the reason) For all men doe easelye perceiue in themselues, howe farre they are from the perfecte and perpe­tuall obedience of the Lawe of God. (The reason of the cause) For they see that the Lawe of God is holye, and a rule of per­fect life: and that they themselues are alto­gether wicked by nature, and also feeble, and weake (the exornation from ye sentēce.) So that is true whereof the Prophet spea­keth, that all oure righteousnes is as the cloth of a menstruous woman: which sen­tence how cold it consist, if the experience of any wise man had proued the cōtrary. (the exornation from the cōparisons) For euen as a tree whose roote is rotten, and infected with a poysoned sappe cā neuer bring forth but poysoned fruite: so man whose harte is infected with the poyson of sinne, cannot [Page] shewe a pure and perfecte obedience to the law of God. (The exornation from the ex­amples what: did not holye Abell confesse this in his Sacrifice: trulye it is euen so: For God had neuer allowed the Sacrifice of Abell, vnlesse that holy man had knowē Christ to be him which was promised, that should iustifye all beleeuers, & vnderstoode his owne sinne: whereby hee knew himselfe to be hindred, that he coulde not fulfill the lawe of God. For if hee had thoughte him­selfe able to fulfill the lawe, he could neuer haue sacrificed a right, that is to saye haue declared in his sacrifice, that the promised seede, shoulde be the fulfiller of the Lawe. Hereunto Dauid also as a moste sufficiente witnes may be added, who crying vnto the Lorde, confesseth openly, that no man is iu­stifyed in ye sight of God. For hee complay­neth yt all haue erred, and are made vnpro­fitable, &c. The conclusion) Since therfore wee haue Dauid as a witnes: since wee ac­knowledge the poyson of sinne, since we be­hould the purity of the Law, and our owne vncleannes, who I praye you, (vnlesse hee weare a mad man woulde denye this: that [Page 50] hee telleth his owne weakenes, and imbe­cillitye in rendringe obedience to the Lawe of GOD. In this example after a sorte yee maye see the vse of expolition: whiche if I had determined to haue handled at large, euerye parte beinge dilated and mul­tiplyed, a whole Oration euen oute of the first Chapter of the proofe, woulde plenti­fullye haue proceeded. After the same order the other three Chapters, which con­siste in the heape of Argumentes, must bee handled. From hence studious yonge men maye easelye iudge, that greate profyte commeth of this Expolition. Wherfore they shall take a moste profitable woorke in hande, if they will busilye practise them­selues in the handlinge of an Expolition. For from hence they shall obtaine suche a facultye and facilitye, that hereafter when they shall haue occasion, eyther to speake of weightye matters, or to preache the woorde of GOD, these preceptes of an Expolition shall come into theyr min­des, euen as it were vppon a sodaine.

¶ Of the confutation.

THe Methode of confutation, which con­sisteth of proposition, of sublacion, of an opposite proposition, and of the solution, is before declared and made manifest by ex­amples: Wherefore in this place I will onely shew the bea [...]ers the place of a confu­tation. The proper place for a confutation is assigned immediatly after the confirma­tion, which place notwithstanding he hath not alwayes. For so often as any other opi­nion besydes oure owne dothe occupye the mindes of the hearers, the Exordium or beginninge maye be taken from the confu­tation: which rule not onely Aristotle and Cicero, but also S. Paule followeth in his Epistle to the Romaynes, for there labou­ringe to confirme this proposition: that righteousnes is of Fayth. First hee confu­teth the preiudices or fore iudgementes of the Gentiles, and of the Iewes: Of the Gentiles whiche thoughte that they wen iustifyed by the lawe of Nature. And of the Iewes who boasted that they were iu­stifyed by the Lawe giuen vnto theym by [Page 51] God. Oute of this confutation of preiu­dices S Paule falleth into a proposition, which hee firste repeateth, and after ioy­neth to it a iust confirmation. My iudge­ment is that this example of S. Paule is to be folowed, so oftentimes as the hearers mindes are occupied with any other opini­ons then with their owne.

¶ Of digression.

THe preceptes of digression maye be re­duced to fiue pointes, which are, Place, meane, matter, time, and the retourne frō the digression. As cōcerning the place, this is to be obserued that digression oughte to be added vnto anye proposition that is pro­ued. For that is a digression oute of sea­son which is made when the matter is not as yet confirmed. Suche a meane is to bee added, which may not interrupt the memo­rye of learners, wyth troublesome tedi­ousnes: For they teache vnluckelye, whoe neglectinge the doctrine, and beinge vexed with some small iniurye, doe declaime, and spende whole houres againste some one or other, whom they thincke haue offended [Page] theym. The matter of digression apper­tayneth to exhortations, consolations, chi­dinges, but not to euerye sorte. For such oughte the matter of Digression to bee, that of his owne accorde, it maye seeme to flowe oute of the Doctrine, and not to bee fetched anye where els. For excepte the force, and nature of Learninge, do offer the matter of digression, it can make nothinge to edification at all. This precepte is therefore more dilligentlye to be obserued, because often tymes they that are vn­exercised offende againste it, not withoute great iniurye of the woord of GOD, and hurte of the hearers. In the fourth place I haue put downe Tyme, which of necessi­tye requireth a Digression, for when the hearers doe eyther abhorie the Doctrine, eyther are somewhat more slouthfull, or els be faint harted, then are they to be chid­den, prouoked, and comforted. The retourne from the Digression, oughte not to be violente, but the ende thereof oughte to bee applyed, that it maye bee ioyned with that parte of the Sentence, from whence the Digression was made, whiche canne be scarcelye broughte to passe, vn­lesse [Page 52] the force of the doctrine haue shewed the matter of the Digressiō: or some figure beinge added, it maye haue recourse to the doctrine.

As sone as blessed LVTHER began to defende the doctrine of the Gospell a­gainste the tyrannye of the Pope, there was neede of more sharper prickes, and therefore hee was more oftner occupied in Digressions, as maye appeare by his wri­tinges. But now (the doctrine is fortifyed and establyshed, and a more peaceable e­state restored to oure Churches) wee muste vse these sharper prickes more sparinglye. Furthermore because neyther the vocation is a like, neither the aucthoritye of all men equall, newe Preachers wyll thincke it to be a parte of modestye, seldome to wander beyonde the marke. Notwithstandinge if any shal require examples of the Digres­sion of these preceptes, let him reade the Epistle to the Hebrewes, for that onelye wyll mynister a greate nomber of exam­ples.

¶ Of Artificiall con­clusion.

[Page]I Haue toulde you before, what manner of conclusion, oughte to be added in the ex­polition of euerye argumente. In this place wee muste speake of the conclusion of any place or whole Sermon, where in these thinges are to be obserued. First the place explicated, is to be repeated in one propo­sition. Secondlye a short reconinge of Ar­gumentes is to be ordayned, and especial­lye of the chiefeste Chapters. Thirdlye the illation, or inference maye followe in the which three thinges maye bee ioyned which are to be finished in three propositi­ons: what the presente place teacheth, what it confuteth, and what it admonisheth vs of. Fourthlye, al thinges are so to be disposed, that the passage maye be more ea­sye into the place followinge, if manye are to be expounded: as for example, the place which I proponed aboue beinge declared: That no man of his owne power is able to fulfil the Lawe of God, this cōclusion were not vnprofitable (the repetition of the place) whoe nowe after this will thincke himselfe to be able of his owne power to fulfill the lawe of God (the enumeration [Page 53] of argumentes) when as not onelye expe­rience and nature do deny it, the scripture in euery corner by manifest testimonies doth confute it: but also the sacrifice of the same doth teache a farre contrary thing (the Il­lation) wherefore this place teacheth vs all to acknowledge our weakenes and synne, confuteth the Iusticiaries, whiche do boaste of the righteousnes of the lawe, and admo­nisheth vs all, that confessing our sinnes & weakenes, wee shoulde flie vnto Christe, (the transition) whome the Gospell offe­reth vnto vs, whereof wee must speake pre­sentlye.

¶ Of that kynde of Sermon whiche consisteth in exhortation called Parainetical kinde.

THe first kinde of preaching being exposi­ded after a sorte (whiche because it con­sisteth in teaching, I haue named, [...]. Now followeth the other the pare­neticall kinde whiche therefore I will more briefly handle, for that very seldome it is had alone, and by it selfe, for moste commonly it [Page] is wonte to be myngled with the doctrinall kynde. The parenetical kynde is that wher­by we perswade or disswade, wee comforte or rebuke the hearers. From hence sprin­geth a three foulde pareneticall Sermone, to witte perswasible, comfortable, and re­bukeable, of the whiche these thinges in or­der are to bee declared. First the difini­tion, next the inuention, and afterwardes the treatise, to whome I wyll ioyne moste briefe examples, to the intente the pre­ceptes more easelye maye bee vnderstan­ded.

¶ Of the perswasible Ser­mon.

THe perswasible Sermone is, whereby wee perswade the hearers, either to doe, to suffer, or to forsake some thinge. The pla­ces of inuention in this kinde are these espe­cially: the necessitie of the cause, of the com­maundement, of the vocation, the priuate and publique commoditie, the dignitie of the persone and the thing. Examples olde, newe, Christian, Ethnicke: Also parables, and sentences, the profes, confirmations, and exornations, of all these maye be sprin­cled [Page 54] here, and there, and as I haue sayde before in the Logicke Methode, the exhor­tations, consolations, and rebukes, must be myngled with the figure of digression So here with the Methode of Confirmation, the pareneticall places oughte to bee con­firmed. Moreouer, in this treatyse, fower thynges mete together, the occasion, the proposition, the confirmation, and the conclusion: The occasion reciteth the cause of the exhortation. The proposition must bee amplified, and multiplied, and often­times with other wordes, and figures must be iterated. The cōfirmation is to be sought for, out of the places nowe rehearsed, in whiche confirmation moreouer, there are twoo thynges, to be considered, the degree or steere, and the figure. The degree ma­keth vs by little and little, to ascende from lighter, and lesser matters to weyghtier thynges, and of more importaunce, and so to moste weyghtie and greate matters. Otherwyse exhortation is of no estima­tion, or pryce. The figure dothe not onelye serue the affections, but also (yf I may so tearme yt, maketh the oration more sharpe and wyttye, to the ende it may [Page] altogether pearce into the myndes of the hearers, and so possesse the whole harte it selfe. Hereunto interrogation, subiection, exclamation, admiration, dubitation, hypo­typosis, dialogisme, A [...]topo [...]a, and others of the like sorte, whiche are named and ex­pounded of Rhethoricians ought to be re­ferred. The conclusion, which I haue made the fourth part of the treatise, hath no neede of newe preceptes, but is to be confirmed by the same meanes, whiche is aboue declared, notwithstanding to the ende that the vse of the preceptes, may be seene, I wil set down one example onely.

The example of the persuasible sermon.

THe occasion, because I see many slacke & slowe to heare the worde of God (propo­sition) I haue determined brieflye to stirre you vp to the loue of the heauenlye woorde, whereby ye are compelled to the more dilli­gent hearinge and kepinge of the doctrine brought vnto vs from heauen. (the passion of the mynde) although it is to be lamented that mortall men be so vnmindefull of their [Page 55] saluation, that they haue nede of prickes, to the ende they may make spede thether, whe­ther they ought to be caried with al violēce. (The necessitie of the cause) for therfore such a slothfull heauines is rooted in our mindes because we do not consider, as wee ought to do, what is the necessitie of the heauenlye worde: can any man vnderstande the will of God without his worde? verely if the wisdō of the worlde as Paule truely affirmeth) is but foolishnes before God, it can not come to passe that wee should knowe the wylll of God, vntil we haue vnderstoode, the foolish­nes of the fleashe. (The necessitie of the com­maundement) truely the commaundement of God the father, doth seme to slippe out of our myndes, whose wordes do sounde from heauen: This is my welbeloued sonne heare him. The sonne him selfe doth desire, that his woorde may be heard of them that are his: My sheepe here my voyce: whereof it followeth: that those whiche do contempne the voyce of Christe, whiche he soundeth by his ministers, are not his sheape. The holy ghoste, by the voyce of the Prophetes, and of the Apostles, dothe inuite and call vs to the lawe, and the testimonie. Therfore who [Page] arte thou whiche despisest the commaunde­ment of the eternall father? Who art thou that despisest the sonne whiche suffered for thee, calling thee to the hearing of his word? Who art thou that refusest the dominion & rule of the holy ghost? (the necessitie of the vocation) we are so forgetfull from whence, and wherto we are called: are we not by the worde brought out of the darkenes of Sa­than into ye marueylous light of God? This worde hath called vs, this worde hath made vs Christians, but wee in the meane season being vnmindefull of so glorious a name, haue contemned the misterie of saluation. (the profit) but and if this royall and noble vocation moueth vs not truely, the reason of our proper cōmoditie ought to moue vs: where withall we perceiue that euen ye very brute beastes are touched. But who is able by any reason of man or of Aungels, to reci­te at the least but certen porcions of this cō ­moditie, specially when Paule after Esaye sayth, the eye of man hath not seene, neither the eare hath hearde, neyther hath it ascen­ded into the harte of man what thynges God hath prepared for them whiche loue hym. Neyther yet is there any cause, why [Page 56] anye man shoulde dreame that hee loueth God, whiche doth not heare his woorde nor meditate it, neither compareth it together, that the misserie which lieth hidde therein, may by little and little be of him the better vnderstanded, for Christe the euerlastinge worde of God, sayth: He that loueth me wil kepe my sayinges, and my father will loue him. To this loue of ye father, & of the sonne there are annexed greater good thinges, then whiche by mans capacitie maye bee perceiued. Although Paule hath compre­hended, the summe of them in these wordes: The Gospell is the power of God vnto sal­uation to all beleuers. O foolishe man, O stony harte, that despyleth, reiecteth and treadeth vnderfoote so great a saluation of­fered. That wee may prouide for the belly. What do we not? do we not learne artes? do wee not sayle vpon the Seas? wee flye no froste, wee refuse no heate, we slomber at no tyme, to the ende wee maye prouide for our miserable bellye. When these thynges are readye to peryshe, wee are moued, and in the meane season wee leaue our saluation. So great is our madnes, so greate is our peruersnes, & wickednes, we poore misera­ble [Page] wretches are so muche infected, with the poyson of sathan, that we would with more willing mindes dye in our wickednes, then take holde of the stretched out arme of God and so to be saued. But when wee haue no­thing els to do, then wee heare the worde of the Lorde, and that with lesse reuerence tru­ly, thē those three halfpeny seruaūtes which in times past did heare Esope reciting of his fables. Would to God this our negligence were not an euident signe of the punishmēt of our ingratitude. (The dignitie of the per­sone & of ye thing) who would haue thought at any time that men are so obliuious, that they should be vnmindefull of their promise made in baptisme, for there they are conse­crated to the bodie of Christe, and are made his members, that they may be fellowe cō ­paignions with him of heauenlye thinges: neither can we by any other meanes abyde in the body of Christe, then by faythe which commeth by hearing: here, not without a good cause a mā may doubte, whether this may be ascribed to our madnes, or dulnes, that wee oftentymes, moste vngratefullye do reiecte, so greate a dignitie whiche wee haue in the body of Christe, and so greate a [Page 57] treasure of heauenly goodes, which we pos­sesse by Christ. (examples.) It is maruell that we are not made more wary by other mennes harmes. It is a wonderfull thinge that it sinketh not into our myndes, howe all the worlde perished in the floode, for the contempte of Godswoorde. Wee are not moued by the examples of the holye patri­arches, Abell, Seth, Enoch, Noe, Abraham, and of a greate sorte, who nowe enioye the moste ioyfull presence of God in heauen. I reioyce saythe Dauid when it is sayde to mee, let vs goe into the house of the Lorde. But we on the contrarie side reioyce, whē the worlde dothe inuite vs to pleasures, wherewith not withstandyng wee are bay­ted tyll at the lengthe we hange, snared and taken vppon the hooke. Blessed is hee sayth the same Dauid, whiche dothe medi­tate in the Lawe of God daye and nyghte. But wee (O griefe to tell) do not other­wyse flye from the meditation of the hea­uenly worde, then if all these thinges which are set before vs in the worde were but fear­full thynges to feare chyldren withall. The Tomuri priestes of Dodonae, neuer depar­ted out of the temple whiche notwithstan­ding [Page] did embrace deuelishe superstition, in stede of the worde of God: wee neuer, or sel­dome, do enter into the churches, who are not withstanding enstructed by the worde, & by manifoulde testimonies, in our religion, but woulde to God wee weare instructed, woulde to God wee woulde thynke, that in our hartes, whiche wee professe with oure mouthe and tongue: whiche if wee woulde do, wee would not so obstinatly cōtemne the ministrie of the worde. What aunswere I praye thee, wilt thou make to the sonne of God, when he in ye last day shal shew to thee his woundes? when hee shall accuse and condemne thee, for his bloude cruellye tro­den vnder thy foote, then shall that verelye happen vnto thee, whiche the Lorde hath fore spoken shall comme to passe: that for shame and the iust iudgement of God, with the wicked companie of the damned, thou shalt say to the mountaynes fall vpon vs, & that for this cause, leaste thou shouldest be­holde the face of the sonne of God, whome here thou haste despysed, whose worde thou haste here reiected, whose bloude thou hast cruelly trodden vnder foote, whome stret­ching out his armes, wette and bespotted [Page 58] with bloude, and desyrous to delyuer thee out of the mydle of death, and the Iawes of Hell, thou wretche haste despysed: A wretche in deede, and suche a one, as the iust iudge, (vnlesse thou repent) wyll cast into euerlasting darkenesse, and pryson. (The conclusion.) Let vs praye vnto God there­fore, that hee woulde conuerte vs, by whom beinge conuerted, wee mighte bee moued with the sweetenes of the woorde of God, that hee woulde styre vs vp with his spi­rite, to heare the worde of saluation, by the whiche wee maye learne, the wyll and true worshipping of God, by the whiche so many cōmodities, come to vs, by yt which so many Patriarches, Prophetes, Apostles, Sainc­tes, Martyres, and manye other godlye men, haue obtayned saluation, by the which the righte waye is shewed to vs, by Iesus Christe our Lord: to whom with the father and the holy ghoste, be prayse honour & glo­ry, worlde without ende. Amen.

This example of a treatise, after a sorte, doth shewe the vse of the places of inuen­tion: I haue myngled a fewe figures, I haue some what more often touched the pro­position, neyther am I ignoraunte, that [Page] this my treatise of example, is farre inferi­our vnto the dignitie of the matter. Where fore, I councell them that are studious that whyle they maye, they often exercise them selues, in declayming in wryting that here­after they may come the more furnished to the function, of the moste sacred ministerie, the whiche to defile with longe pattering, and vnlearned bablinge, is a thing moste wicked.

¶ Of the consolatorie Sermone or whiche consisteth in com­forting.

THe Consolatorie or comfortable sermon is, wherein the preacher, doth lift vp the man afflicted, and striuing vnder the crosse, leaste being ouercome with impatience, he should be subdued, and ouercomme with so­rowe. These are especiallye the com­mune comfortable places. The firste is the wyll of the heauenly father. The seconde, the condicion. The thirde, the promise of de­liueraunce. The fourth, the nececessitie of the conformitie of Christe, and his mēbers. The fifth, the commoditie whiche is mani­fould. [Page 59] For by the crosse the presumption of a mans owne power, is ouerthrowen, hipo­crisie is disclosed, confidence in the fleshe is shaken of, obedience is confirmed, pacience is proued, contempte of the worlde follow­eth, humilitie ensueth, erroure paste is cor­rected, euill to come is taken hede of before hande, faythe is exercised, hope is taughte to be reposed in oure God. Reade more con­cerning this matter in the places of Philip Melancthon. The treatise consisteth of oc­casion, proposition, confirmation, and con­clusion, euen as in the perswasible kynde, to whiche it is lyke, moreouer because it is profitable to knowe a certayne waye of ap­plying of comfortes, I wyll brifly declare the Methode of comforting.

The Methode of geuinge of comforte.

BVt leaste consolation shoulde be applyed out of season, or vnsaylfully, wee wyll di­stinguishe. Firste, betweene pryuate, and publique comfortes, and afterwarde descri­be the iuste forme of them both. I call that a priuate consolation, whiche happeneth to [Page] one alone oppressed with some griefe or crosse. I call that commune whiche in the tyme, either of persecution or of any plagne sent from God, falleth vpon the whole con­gregation: But firste, wee wyll entreate of the priuate, in whiche threateninges are generallye to bee obserued. Firste, who it is that is to be lifted vp with consolations. Secondlye, what it is that doth grieue him. Thyrdlye, a fitte application of the medi­cine to the present griefe. Hee that feeleth payne or griefe, eyther is godlye or vngod­lye: If hee bee godlye, streightwaye the cō ­mon inheritaunce of the sonnes of God be­ing shewed, bee is to be lifted vp, to be com­forted, and cherished with consolations, and that by the places aboue rehersed, and here with muche profite the eight chapter to the Romaines, may be alledged. But if hee be vngodly, it is nedefull as in a greeuous di­sease, that a greater care bee applyed, for suche a one is not to bee lyfted vp streyght­waye, but is so muche the more to bee caste downe, with the thundryng of the Lawe of God, and to bee beate downe with threate­ninges, vntyll hee acknoweledge his owne vngodlynes without hipocrisie, vntyll hee [Page 60] vnderstande the wrath of God to bee styr­red vp agaynst hym, vntyll hee crye wyth Manasses, that hee is gyltie manye wayes. For hee that applyeth comforte by and by, to a wycked man, eyther sycke, or other­wyse oppressed with anye calamitie dothe applye a moste daungerous an vnseasona­ble, and a deadlye poyson. And doth much lyke to that Phisicion whiche healeth the wounde outwardlye, the matter of putri­faction remayning within, from whence af­terwarde a greater wicked and deadly mis­chief bursteth out. Wherfore as the skilfull Phisition, the tent being put in often, draw­eth out the corrupt matter, whiche beiynge drawen foorth, couereth the wounde ouer with a mollifying playster: So the godlye preacher, should firste touche the byle of the wycked man, by the threatening of the law, that his disease beynge knowen, maye the more easelye bee cured, for it is truelye sayde, that the firste steppe to healthe, is to knowe the disease. The seconde thynge, which in consolations I haue sayde, should be considered, is the thyng whiche causeth the grief, or ye thing which doth greue him, whiche I thinke needefull to bee examined, [Page] for the righte application of the medicine, for hee is otherwyse to be lifted vp, whiche by his owne faulte hath brought a mischiefe vpon hym selfe. And he also otherwyse to whome by an other mans faulte, euill hap­peneth. For if any man by his owne faulte hath brought a crosse vpon him selfe, as in­famine, pouertie, sickenes, death, &c. The medicine or comforte is not to bee applied forthwith vnles thou see the guiltie person earnestlye touched with the feeling of his synnes, for then this feeling of synnes, is to be confirmed with the worde of God, and to be augmented, if neede shall require. Then wee muste descende to consolations: but if hee bee either an hipocrite, or otherwyse wycked, so longe the curse of the Lawe, and the wrath of God are to bee set before his eyes, vntyll hee knowe the greuousnes of his synnes, and confesse the same to hym selfe oute of the gryefe of hys mynde.

But if hee cannot bee broughte thereunto by the Lawe of God, and threatenynges, a precious stone is not to bee caste before Swyne. On the contrary parte: If the guyltie persone, shall bee broughte to the knoweledge of hym selfe, and bee touched [Page 61] with the true feeling of griefe, for his sinne committed: then at length the arte of Phi­sicke is to be applyed, and these three in or­der are to be expounded. First his fall, next the punishment, and lastly the ende of both. The fall is to be taughte first to proceede of this, in that he did caste from him the feare of the Lorde: and that may be confirmed fit­lye and plentifully out of the first Chapter of S. Paule to the Romaynes. Secondlye that nowe the deceites of the deuill, the fil­thines of the fleshe, and the wantonnes of the worlde, mighte more easelye preuaile a­gainst him, being as it were vnarmed. The fall beinge declared, and confirmed wyth these causes. In the seconde place, wee must declare, that the punishment, is in no wise equal with the offence committed, but is a testimonye of two most contrarye thin­ges that is to saye of the wrathe of GOD and also of his fatherlye good will and cle­mencye: of the wrathe of God, if the guiltye person will not repence, and not suffer him­selfe to be corrected, with the scourge of God: Of his fatherlye good will and cle­mencye, if hee being corrected, be made bet­ter by the punishmente, and will flye to the [Page] hauen of repentaunce. After this in the thirde place, the ende both of the fall, and al­so of the punishment, is to be declared. Of the fall to thend afterward he may be more circumspecte and warier. Of the punish­mente in that by the singuler councell and purpose of God (when in the meane tyme hee spareth manye wicked and mischeuous men) hee is chastened, not to the ende hee should perishe, but that he may haue a rea­dy testimonye of his fatherly good will to­wardes him. But because this will verye hardly perswade him that laboureth vnder the Crosse, witnesses and examples are to be broughte forth oute of Gods worde, such testimonies verelie as these are: Paule the 1. Epistle to the Corinthiās ye 11. Chap­ter saith, that we are chastened with aduer­sity of the Lord: least we should be damned with the world. See, the end of the Crosse is, least we should be damned, if to witte be­ing admonished by the Crosse we repent a­gaine.Pro. 16. My sonne (sayth Salomon) do not refuse the correction of the Lord, neither be thou weary whē thou art reproued of him, for whom God loueth hee chasteneth, & yet embraceth him as ye father doth his sonne. [Page 62] The aucthour of ye Epistle to the Hebrues the 12. Chapter sayth that we are bastards and not sonnes, if wee be without discipline and correction, suche like places are moste fitte, wherewith the minde of the guiltye person now beinge penitent, maye be lifted vp, that nowe he woulde suffer any kinde of punishmente as one readye to obeye Gode let the examples be Manasses, Dauid, the sister of Moses, Kinge Vsias, the people ledde into Captiuitye, and manye others, whiche were punished for certaine sinnes, and after throughe repentaunce, haue re­tourned home againe. The example of the theefe in comparison of others is fa­mous, who hath set foorth a notable exam­ple of patience and fayth. Hee did not ther­fore compte himselfe an abiecte because hee suffered soe shamefull a death for his wic­kednesse, but pacientlye sustayned the de­serued punishmente, by Faythe reposed in CHRISTE. After suche like testimo­nies & examples, wherwith the iudgemēts of God are to be made knowne, in cōparing the manners of men in oure age, with the maners of the people in the olde time: For God is alwayes like to himselfe: (whether [Page] thou hast respect to punishment or mercy) the common places before mencioned maye be added. But if that which greeueth him doe come through an others mans faulte, that order in applyinge of comforte is to be folowed, which in a common comfort I am aboute to declare, whereto we must speake at this time. That common comfort there­fore maye be rightlye framed, three thinges are to be obserued. First from whence cō ­mon calamitie procedeth. Secondly which be causes thereof. Thirdly the applyinge of the Comforte according to the difference of the calamity and of the causes. The cala­mity is eyther sent frō God, or els brought in by the ennemyes of our Common weale. If the calamitye be of God, as the plague, wante of foode and vittaile, droughte and tempestes, the causes are not to be soughte for without vs, but in our owne houses, and within our selues, for the sinnes of perticu­ler men are the causes of common calami­ties, and oftentimes for one mans fault the whole common wealth is plagued: where­of Acham, Dauid, Oedipus, and manye o­thers are witnesses, who by their owne wic­kednes haue brought in a common calami­tye. [Page 63] Here it is no harde matter to applye a comfort, if wee will followe the examples of the holy Prophetes: for the examples of them do teache vs, what is to be done: for they are wont openly to rebuke wickednes, and that after three sortes or kindes of wic­kednes, to witte: The forsaking of God, hy­pocrisye, iniurye done to the neighboure and such like, as most chiefelye seeme to a­bounde amonge the people. Examples are extant heare and there in the wrytinges of the Prophetes. Againe they are wonte to call publickly together al the congrega­tion to repentaunce, fastinge and prayer, Certaine notable examples of these two thinges are of late yeares set forthe, at the commaundement of our most noble King, by the mynisters of oure Churches, not withoute greate profite and mittigation, of deserued punishmentes. Last of al the Pro­phetes were wont to admonishe them, whō they perceyued to bee defiled with wicked­nes, more then others, leauing an example to oure mynisters of the worde, that they should admonishe, rebuke and correct them priuatelye) whom they perceiue, by theyr idolatry, vsurie, adulterye, tirannye, decei­tes, [Page] couetousnes &c. to bring in a plague to ye whole cōmon wealth. Tyresias, although he were an Ethenicke priest did call Oedi­pus the tyraunte, (for whose mischeuous deede, the Theban cōmon wealth was pu­nished with the pestilence,) to painefull pe­naunce. And after this maner Esaye and Ieremye haue corrected and reprehended the kinges of their time, and haue ascribed common calamities vnto theym. And the ministers of the word ought to knowe that this is not the least part of their function & duty, which if they neglect eyther for feare or sluggishnes, they shall suffer greeuous punishments of God, as in the threatnings of Ezechiell is declared, and els where.

But if either priuate or publicke calamitye doe come from men, it is either for Iustice or not. If for Iustice, wee muste then take the comforte from the common condition of the sonnes of God in this worlde, & declare of how great honour God reputeth vs wor­thie, yt hee hath marked vs with a peculier proper marke of his warfare and exercise. Wherefore the Apostles being scourged do reioyce for that they are counted worthye to suffer reproche for the name of Christe: [Page 64] For this kinde of crosse is most proper vnto the faithfull, wherewith Christe wilbe glo­rifyed in vs, euen as S. Peter teacheth in the fourth Chapter of his first Epistle.

But if not for Iustice the common calami­ty be broupht vs from men, then the causes are to be soughte oute in our selues, and as before I haue said wheras I haue spoken of the Crosse or affliction sent from God: the comforte is to be applied. Out of these I thincke it is manifest by what waye & mea­nes both priuate and publicke comforts are to be applyed.

¶ Of the chidinge Sermon.

THe Chidinge Sermon is that in the which the preacher chydeth eyther the loytring or the offendinge, or the stubburne and disobediente hearer. The ende of this oughte to be the correction and the amend­ment of him which is rebuked. Here these places are chiefely to be considered. The first, the filthines of the thinge committed. The seconde, thinges adioyninge or apper­tayning: as are an euill, conscience, the peril [Page] of reiection, or to be a caste a waye, and the feare of God, his iudgement hanging ouer our head, and of the present and euerlasting paynes. The third a conference together of the dignity of the person and of the filthi­nes of the thing. The fourth, examples. The fifthe the knitting or ioyning together of the person, as Christe our head and king, the Church which is the spiritual country, our body which is dedicated to God, that it may be ye tēple of God, hereunto the cōmon weale the house the familye &c. maye be re­ferred. When I recken these places, I doe not thincke that all are to be applyed in euery chiding, but now these, sometimes the other, euen as the wise Preacher shall see to be expedient. Let the example be taken out of the first Epistle to the Corinthians & the 6 Chapter, where S. Paule rebuketh fornicatours. The Methode of a treatise is not vnlike to the treatise of an exhortation. Wherfore I thincke it not needeful to adde any example: especially, whē the places are so plaine, and it is knowen that all thinges are to be proued, allowed, and garnished by the Methode of confirmation. But here I thoughte it needefull to adde twō thinges. [Page 65] The first that the minde of him which is to be chidden, must bee mollifyed to heare chi­dinges paciently, which thing may very fit­lye be done, if the mynister declare his du­tye towardes the giltye person, and shewe the common necessity layed vpon him to do the same, least the chiding shoulde seeme to proceede of some noughtye affection: So S. Paule did before hand mollify the min­des of the Corinthians, before hee vsed so­wer and bitter chidings. The second that conditions of repentaunce may be mingled, least any being discouraged, with somwhat more rougher chidinges, shoulde fall into desperation or wilfullye kill himselfe.

These are the things good audience which I haue thoughte needefull to be declared, to newe Preachers, and I truste (vnlesse my opinion do foulye beguile mee) that yonge men shal not be a little holpen by declaring this Methode. For all the preceptes which are recited by mee are taken oute of the fountaines of Logitians and Rethoriciās, and are applied to the vse of the Preacher profitable both to the exposition of the holy writers, and also to the makinge of sacred Sermons, wyth the which if yonge men [Page] will suffer themselues to be ruled, I doubts not to promise them an easier proceeding in deuine studies, and makinge of Sermons. But because it is not sufficiente to haue in­uented fitly, or to haue ordered and disposed those things which we are about to speake of wiselye, vnlesse blessed Memorie be also present. I will adde a few thinges of Me­merie in steede of a conclusion to this Me­thode: and that not after the maner of the olde fathers [...] did inuente Images and signes, which [...]re as certaine notes and helpes of Memorie, (for this subtiltye of witte, I willinglye leaue to theym) but I will gather those thinges onelye, where­with they yt are desirous to learne to make Sermons, shall perceiue themselues to be much holpen.

¶ Of Memorie.

LEt vs appointe two maner of wayes of helpinge the memorie, whereof the for­mer is more artificiall, ye latter more rude, and rusticall: that which is more artificiall doth consist of two thinges, that is to witte, of order and nomber, for by these it is mani­fest [Page 66] that artes are both taught and learned. For as order placeth euerye thinge in his proper place, & considereth the beginnings, proceedinges, and markes or ends: so doth nomber measure thinges together, & their partes and porcions. Because therefore the Methode which I haue taught, doth shewe an order of things and as it were nombreth the partes, the best way of learning by hart is diligently to consider the same order in ye minde, for it cannot bee, that he which hath conningly framed an order of thinges, and hath obserued the least pointes of thinges & as it were nombered them, but that he may easelye kepe the same in minde, and require the same againe of it, when and as often as he shall haue occasion to speake: whereby it maye seeme a foolishe thinge to prescribe a­ny other way of learning by hart, especiall to those men which are taughte and exerci­sed in the art of eloquent speakinge. Not­withstanding although these thinges in ve­ry deede be thus, yet are they not forthwith perceiued of all men. Wherefore that these may be vnderstode more orderly, and maye be applied more nearer to the vse of ye prea­cher, I will deuide this whole reason of [Page] learning by hart which I haue said, to con­siste of order and nomber, into foure mem­bers or preceptes. The first is that he vn­derstand the matter perfectly, and minding to preach, do kepe in minde a certaine briefe comprehension of the whole matter. The second member is, that he haue the places, that is to saye [...] as the Greekes do terme it) by nomber. The third mem­ber is, that he make deuisions of the places, that are to be handled, which is needefull to be comprehended in a certaine nomber, which if it may be done by any Verse, fit for the same, it shall not be vnprofitable: as if the vse of the lawe weare to be expounded. First hee mighte not vnfitly make a thirde deuision, which hee mighte comprehende in this Verse.

Instruit, & damnat sontes, docet atque re­natos.

In English thus.

It doth instruct, and eke condemne,
all such as godly are:
And to enforme the newe borne men,
it hath as equall eare.

And because the first part of this diuisiō, [Page 67] hath many parcelles, and causes, he might, comprehende them also in this verse: ‘Man datum, poenae, pax publica, dux ad Iesum.’ The paynes and the commaundement, and also publike peace:

The guide and leader vnto Christe.

The trewe meditation of the Law (Doc­tor Peter Palladius, oure moste watchfull Bishop, very muche deseruing of the chur­ches of the Danes, of Noruegia, and Iselan­dia) hath comprehended in this verse: ‘Lex quid eram, quid sum, quid ero, per quem manifestat.’

In Englishe thus:

The Lawe doth make apparant what I
was, and what I am:
What I shalbe it doth declare,
and eke by whome it came.

The fourth mēber is, that in certaine pla­ces digressions into threateninges, consola­tions, and exhortations be placed, leaste in making digression to an other matter, the memory be hindered, and the preacher with drawen from the matter propoūded, which commōly is wonte to happen, to thē which do not obserue this precept. Nowe when as according to these fower preceptes, hee that [Page] will preache hath disposed his Oration, and as it were reconed it. Hee must settle him selfe to learne it accordinge to the order of his disposition. And firste of all, hee must commit to memorie the briefe, and summa­rie comprehension, for that is first to be re­cited. Secondly, he must learne the places, or the chapters a sonder. And thirdlye the treatise or handlindling of the places with their diuisions and the parcels of them. I doubte not but this waye of learninge by harte, is the best of all, whiche all learned men without doubt do followe. Further­more, the latter reason whiche I sayde is more rude and rustical, is profitable to men vnlearned, which haue not tasted of the arte of Rhethoricke. And this whether it be fra­med with notes of nūbers, or with letters, it is all one, and it may be done in this mā ­ner. First, those thinges whiche a preacher ignoraunt of artes will learne by harte, hee shall deuide with notes of number, or with euery letter. Afterwarde in repeting, hee shall see what he hath sette downe at euery note or letter. Last of all, he shall learne by harte according to the distinctions whiche he hath made, and shall demaunde agayne [Page 68] of euery note or letter, as a thing commit­ted to their custody that whiche before hee had cōmitted vnto them. It will not a litle profite him if firste hee wryte out his Ser­mone, and afterwarde according to the pre­script rules do diuide, and learne it by harte. For the minde doth more easelye retayne and kepe that whiche the hande before hathe noted.


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