THE LINE of Liberalitie dulie directinge the wel besto­wing of benefites and reprehending the co­monly vsed vice of Ingratitude.

Anno. 1569

Imprinted at London in Fletestrete neare to S. Dunstones Church by Thomas Marshe.

To the right woorshipfull Sir Christopher Heydon knight his [...]ost courteouse Creditour of many his bounties and benefites.

IN requiting courtesies good turnes, and benefites recey­ued at others handes (ryght worshipful,) heedily ought we to folovv the fertile and frut [...]ful groūdes: which yeld in profit the manifold doubled gayne of the labour cost and traueile that their tyller and husbandly mā employed vpon thē, and charyly fle the sovver and naughty nature of barren soyle: whyche after many tillinges, great charge bestovved of payne and costes, in fine, aun­svvere scarsely or not at all the ovvne seed agayne. worthie to be resembled to insacia­ble svvalovving goulfes deuorīg stil, vvith­out shevv of any recept. And forsomuch as (according to thaduise of Cato,) it behoueth him that presumeth to geue precepts and to aduertise others, vvarily to take regard he [Page] deserue not reprehension himself for that he rebuketh others for, I thougt it more thē high tyme after so many benefits and cour­tesies, so muche traueyle and costes sondrye vvayes at diuers tymes abundantly receiued by me and had of your vvorshypps greate bountye ioyned vvith courtesie, to shevv novv at length some profe of the nature of the soyle vvhervpon so franckly you haue employed the same. Concerninge vvhiche point of gratitude and thankfull nature cō ­sisting in requiting benefits, courtesies, and plesours receyued at your vvorships hādes, although in habilitie manye doe, in good­vvill yet vvell meaning and thankfulnes, no one shall surmount ne passe me. For al­beit that blind Fortune through vvant of eysight povvring out or pinching in blindly her giftes vvithout regard, graunteth to some habilitie to surcharg by geuing: and againe pincheth others some by abridging their povver to be able to aunsvvere lyke for lyke receyued: yet sith that (as Tullye sayth) the best and principal part of requy­ting [Page] benefites and yeelding condigne than­kes for benefites and courtesyes receiued re­steth in the minde, vvhiche vvhen it hath vnfaynedly declared it self to be vvillinge to requite vvhat hath bene receiued, is to be thought to haue made recompēse aboū ­dantly: As one thorough eased herevvith of the heauy charge vvhervvith the huge bur­then of your bounties, and Fortunes pin­ching parcialitie oppressed me, amyd this narovv streyte of my disabilitie not fain­ting but triumphing ouer Fortunes blinde despyte, I present your goodnes (loe) vvith a mind vvelmeaning, and thankfull hart: supplyeng that defect vvith the certein ri­ches of the mind, vvhich the frayle and fl [...]t­ting vvelth of the body vvill not permit me to do. A simple present for your vvor­thie personage: and inferiour in valevv far to any of yours receiued: yet suche as shall suffyse to discharge me of Ingratitude. In vvi [...]he self same seking to requite your be­nefit passed, I must of force yeeld me your double dettour. Touching my self, [...]or your [Page] gentle a [...]ceptaunce of my pore goodvvill: touching this my pore presēt for your graū ted patronage, vvhiche simple gift of mine vvithout al regard had to your passed desertes (which on my part notvvithstādīg may in no vvyse be vvrapt vp in obliuion,) of very devv for titles sake may challenge to be dedicated to your vvorship. For vvhy to speke frely and yet voyd of all suspicion of flatterie, (the verity vvherof I referre to the report and iudgement of infinite vvellnigh and those credible,) vvho is he to vvhome the report of your vvorshippes name hath come, but vvith the same report hath lyke­vvyse heard your vvorthie renoume, and verteues vvelnigh of al sortes, suche as may challeng and claime your deserued crovvne of immortalitie. Amonge vvhiche vvhat shall I recompt your rare sobryetie, greate lenytie, paslyng familiaritie, commenda­ble policie, gentle grauitie, pregnant vvise­dome, deepe discrecion, large liberalitie, paynefulnes to plesour all honest perso­nes, [Page] ample hospitalitie, to the admiration and vvellnigh astonnyeng of all that see suche rare gyftes so plentifullye placed in your ovvne person: vvith an infinite nom­ber vvelnigh of vertues besides, in the lest of vvhiche resteth trevv vvoorshyppe. For vvhyche causes vvith one voyce (as if they had conspired together) all Norfolke soundeth eche vvhere your immortal prai­se. In nomber of vvhyche company, sim­plest I, yet depest bounden, acknovvledge amonge the rest my vovved devvtie vvith happy acclamacions and vvellvvyshyn­ges testifieng my conceyued perfitte ioyeng at your haypie estate, and desyrous vvhat in my sclender povver doth consyst (for vvitnes of my assured vvell meanynge mynde dedicated to your vvoorshyp alto­gether,) to record by my simple skil con­firmed vvith āple testimonie of vvellnigh infinite, your vvelldeserued prayse vnto posteritie. wherein for your vvonted goodnes, and beneuolēce accept in good part my [Page] well vvillinge hart, and seclude me not from your fauour passed. Thus I leaue troubling your vvorshippe vvhom to the great vvelthe and earnest contentacion of all your contrey vvith many others confy­ [...]es, God of his goodnes preserue and increase in prefit helthe vvith abundaunce and felicitie to his plesour.

Your vvorships depe dettour. Nicolas Havvard,

THE LINE OF Liberalitie. ☞ The first Booke.

Chapter. 1.

AMonge the nomber and those great vi­ces with raygne a­mong men that lyue discorderly & are not guyded with the rule of Honestie, I dare well saye there is no one that bréedeth so muche hurt as this: That we knowe not dewly how to be­stow vppon others, nor to receyue at o­thers handes, suche benefites and plesu­res as eyther we doo our selues, or els by others are done to vs. By meane wher­of, it foloweth that benefittes euilly be­stowed, are in lyke maner euilly repaied and of such ouer late we complain when we find thē not as we would wish them recompensed. For those benefits accōpt [Page] I as loste, whiche are so bestowed with­out dew regard. And certes it is no whit to be merueiled at, though amonge all the faultes of men which in déed are ex­cedinge great and welnigh innumera­ble, there is not to be founde any one ry­fer and more in vse then vnthankfulnes:Ingratitude the m [...]st cō ­mon vice & the cause why. whiche vndowtedly I sée doth happen through diuers causes. The first and chefest is, for that wee haue no respect on whom we bestow our benefites. But if we wer to lend money to any one, dout­les we would enquere diligently before hand, what maner of man he were, of what credyt & habilitie. Neyther is any plowmā so vnwise we se to sow his corn on ground which he knoweth to be bar­ren. But our benefites which far excell any other thynge that we can geue, we bestow héere and there without any con­sideracion before had, whether they are dewly employed, and vpon suche as de­serued thesame or not. And verely I can not say whether is more discortesie to be [Page 2] thought in him that is to be plesured if he refuse a benefit when it is profered, or in him that doth the pleasour to requier recompense for that which he hath done. But if we mynd to benefitte any man, we ought before hād to cōceiue this good opiniō of him, that with hys good wil we shall at his handes receiue asmuch com­modity again if we néede, as we present­ly doo vnto him. Whych hope conceiued though we hap to faile to find it satisfied yet is it a most dishonest and vyle part to make complaint therof. For why, in him that is to discharge suche credit concey­ued, it is not welthe ne substaunce that are to be required, but onely a mindful and thankfull hart. For he hath suffi­ciently requited the benefitte which he hath receiued at an others handes, who willingly doth acknowledge himself his debtour. But lyke as ther resteth a fault in those whyche shew themselues to be both in word and déed vnthankfull,Uery vnthankfulnes, in worde & dede and the cau­ses. for­getting vtterly and refusyng to requite [Page] the plesures that haue bene shewed thē, so riseth there oftentymes on our parts no small cause of this their Ingratitude. For as wée finde diuers that are of their owne natures vnthankfull, so doo wee our selues make many Ingrat whyche otherwise parhaps would not haue bene so. For sometime we cast in their tethe and vpbraid vnto them what wee haue done for them: and otherwhile we exact importunatly at theyr handes, recom­pense for suche benefites as wee before haue done vnto thē. Otherwhiles again we shew our selues to be so inconstant of minde that forthwith it repenteth vs of the plesure that we erst dyd. And thus complaininge our case and chaungyng our mindes in the torning of a hand, we doo not onely disgrace the pleasour wee before shewed, and loose the thankes which otherwyse should haue bene dew for the same, but also we agreue gretly the party to whom we dyd the same. For who is he almost that will shew himself [Page 3] easy to be entreated, or that woulde doo any plesour to speake of, with only ones beyng desired?The true descrip­sion of him that dothe no pleasour but by importunat re­quest. Who is [...]e that vnder­standyng that his Frind being in néede wold request any thing of him, but either he bended the browes at it, or turned his face asyde, or feigned to haue a thou­sande lettes and a thousande businesses otherwayes? Or who is he that by longe proces and manifest feigned excuse, hath not sought busyly to shift of the occasion of dealynge for hys frinde whereby he thought he should be troubled, or hathe not deuised a nomber of delayes to dis­patche himself of suche matters as haue bene vrged vpon hym? To be short, who is he that beyng very ernestly requested by his frinde to doo him a plesure, hath not long tracted the time before he wold assume it on him, or ells plainlye made de [...]yall to doo it. Or if haples hys pro­mys scaped him with muche a doo and after longe entreatye weryed, hath not yet done thesame with such doutes cas­ting [Page] and ceremonyes vsing that far bet­ter it wer to be quyte deuoid of his suche pleasour, then with such a doo to haue it? Nowe is there any man (iudge you) that hath cause to thincke himself beholdyng to such one at whose handes with hart-grutching he hath bene plesured, or that hath benefited him to this end only that he may brag therof, or for that he woulde be ridd from being any longar disturbed with suche importunat suet? If there be any that thinketh he shoulde account himself his dettour whom he hath delu­ded with delayes, annoyed with atten­dance and weryed with scornefull talke before he would plesour hym, he is much deceiued. For plesures ought to be re­quited with lyke minde and will as they are done [...] and for this cause, is it requi­site that they be not done negligently. For eche one ought to rendre both that whyche he receiued, and in suche order as he receiued it. Whereupon, who that hath shewed plesour after long entrea­ty, or by constraint (as it were) is worthy [Page 4] after the same sort to be rewarded. Wherfore the benefitte or plesour that is done, shold not be done slowly or with ouer great deliberacion. For as of eche thing that is done, the mind of him that doth it declareth the order how it is done so the benefitt that is done slowly and with muche requesting,Bene­fits ought not to be done slowly & vpō request. argueth that he who dyd it in suche sort, refused long to doo the same. Neyther ought plesures to be done iniuriousely and with reproche. For as by naturall reason those thinges persist longest and are of longest conti­nuaūce which ar engrauen déeper in respect of them which haue but a very light imprint, so likewise iniuries who na­turally haue a déepar séet then benefits, parsist also longar and rifar in mynde. What reward or guerdon may he iustly claym, that wold séeme to plesour a man, and yet in verie déed worketh him gre­uaunce and displesour? He doeth suffici­ently acknowledge the plesour and good that hath bene shewed him, who confes­seth [Page] the same. And albeit that the nom­ber of vnthankful people be in dede very great,The multitude of ingrate pleople shold not make vs y slower to doo good [...] ye [...] ought we not (this not with­standing) to become any whit the slower or lesse willing to doo good. For first as I haue saide, we augment and encrease thereby the nomber of thē. Moreouer w [...] leaue therby to shew our selues to be fo­lowers of the liuing God, who wil not chāge (we sée) his largesse & liberality for the hainouse offences & sacrileges of such as contemne and despise him, but e [...]ten­deth his goodnes stil indifferētly to those that are suche offendours aswel as to thē that offended not. For as his nature is to doo good to all men, (I should say to all thinges,) so with them y be good, socou­reth he also thē which shew themselues far vnworthy therof. Let vs therfore fol­lowe him as our guide, so farre as our fraile and weke nature will parmit. Let vs doo good & succour others, & that with­out desiring vsury therfore. He is wour­thy [Page 5] to faile of his purpose who doth a be­nefit for this cause onely, yt he may repe the like again. But som one perhaps wil say that I am much deceiued herein. To whom I aunswere thus. That albeit yt our wyues & childrē do often hap to frus­trat & decei [...]e thexpectaciō which we cō ­ceiued of thē, yet notwtstanding we may not cesse to foster & bring vp our childrē, nor seke therfore to be diuorced from our wiues. Againe if it be so y we arme our selues to endure the thorough tryall of worldly affaires, & that for no maner losse in battail, or wreck on sea, we faint to attempt thesame again,That we shold persist on in weldoīg. of more strōg rea­son thē is it fitting & fit for vs, to persist & cōtinew on in our weldoings. Frō whi­che if a man cesse ones for y he was not rewarded for ye lyke he hath done tofore­time, it is to be presupposed y that which he then did, he did it to no other end, but for that he hoped by doing therof, to reap the lyke again. Whereby right well he excuseth thunthākfull man, who for this [Page] cause only is accused, that he doth not re­quite the plesour that others haue she­wed him. Sée we not how many there are in the world vnworthy to behold the brightnes of the Sōne, and yet he casteth his beames aswell vppon them, as vpon the good menne. How many are there I praye you that exclaim againste nature, cursing her that euer she suffred them to be borne into the worlde, and yet geueth shée of [...]pring to this vnthankfull sort that wished erst not to haue bene, and for all their vnkindnes permitteth them to lyue. It is the propertie of a stowt and princely courage, and of a worthie man not to pursew and follow after the frute & reward which follow benefites & ple­sure shewed, but to regard the worthi­nes on [...]ly or the same good déedes them­selues, so that though he happen to light vppon some vnthankfull persons, yet he dismayeth nowhit thereat, but séeketh to bestow the residew of his benefites vppon suche as wil more thankfully ac­cept [Page 6] the same. For in all this world who is he that benefiteth a multitude, and among them all, findeth not some that will frustrate his expectacion? But vp­pon this point dependeth the force and efficacie of a benefitte,Wheri [...] cōsiste [...]h the force of a benefyt. when the geuer therof loketh not after any rewarde for the same. Of which benefit in suche sort bestowed, a noble hart hath therby alre­dy reapt sufficient recōpence. Undouted­ly it is so farre vnséemely that the want of findyng plesour for the lyke shewed should dismay vs from perseuering in so honest a thing, that out of question if I wer exempt from all hope that I should euer finde any one that would beare in mind and acknowledge the plesour whi­che I should doo to hym, I would yet ra­ther wishe to find no one of my plesures requited, then for anye ingratitude that I might haue shewed me, I woulde su [...]cesse frō doing good wherein I might. For who that will not applie himself to benefit others, is farre worse to be iud­ged [Page] of, then any vnthankful person. And to conclude, this is my opinion. He that neyther will acknowledge nor render the benefites whiche he hath receyued, is no more to be blamed then he that be­ing requested refuseth in dew time and season to plesour him that standeth in necessitie.

Chap. 2.

Beneficia in vulgus cū largiri institueris,
Perdēda sunt multa vt semel ponas bene.
Qui veult faire plaisir a plusieurs, pour vng coup
quil addressera bien, il perdra beaucoup.
Who that on a multitude pleasours bestowes
For one that he geues well, a nōber shall louse.

Immesurable ge­uinge is commēdable in no thynge. IN the first line immoderat and bestowing of plesours without dew regard before had vpon whō they are im­ploied, is reprehended. For indéed we shuld geue nothing after such a careles sort. But of our benefites espe­cialy, we should not be so lauash: for yf [Page 7] they happen at anye time to be geuen vnaduisedly, and without dew conside­racion, forthwith thereby they lose the name of benefites by dew right, & wolde rather be termed by some other name. The second line is straung, as that whi­che with the wel bestowing of one only benefit and good déed, recomforteth the grief which might haply grow by ye losse of a nomber. Marke wel I pray thée and tell me if it be not mete & agreable with the worthines of him that may doo good, that we exhort and moue him thorough­ly to perseuer in weldoing and plesou­ring of all men, notwithstanding that it be not his chaunce to employ any of his benefites so, that he may think them wel bestowed. For verely I suppose that that is not to be much acompted of whi­che is in thend of the secōd verse (to wit) That he shal lose a nomber of his bene­fites. For why no benefit is lost. For he who is to doo anye benefitte, muste be­forehand when he mindeth to bestowe [Page] any suche benefit, make this accomp [...], that he looketh not to receiue any thyng again for that whiche he is to doo. The reason whiche moueth men to plesour one an other is plaine and single. Grut­che not to bestow thie benefites. If he that doth receiue them yeld thée the like, take it for aduauntage. If th [...]u hap not to find the like, but contrarywise Ingra­titude for thie benefites, yet art thou nowhit dānified hereby. For thou must thus thinke with thyself. That whych I gaue, I dyd it as fully resolued and de­termined before hand to geue it, and to that end that I might accompt it geuen, without looking to receiue anye the lyke againe. None shoulde note in his booke of Remēbraunces the plesours and be­nefites which he doth to others.Benefi­t [...]s done shold not be remē ­br [...]d by him that dyd them For the niggish and gréedy vsurer wée sée dothe not alwayes obiect to his dettour the ve­ry hower when his det was dew. The honest frāckharted mā neuer taketh re­gard to the plesures which he hath done, [Page 8] when they are ones past, nor mindeth them any more, except he that receyued them by his acknowledging and than­kesge [...]ing reuiue the memorye of them. For if he shoulde otherwise doo, and re­quyer recompense (as I saide) for them, then might they not iustly be said to be geuen, but lent as it were for a season onely. And questionles there can be no­ne so foule and dishonest vsury of anye thing, as to loke for recompense for that plesour that ones hath passed thée. How­soeuer thou hast bene considered by them to whom thou hast heretofore done good, yet c [...]sse not thou to doo good still. And persuade thyself that those benefites are of all others best bestowed, that are done to vnthākful persons. For eyther shame, or the lyke néede, or feare shall at one time or other cause thē to acknowledge the benefits precedent, and shew them­selues thankefull at length. Ceasse not therfore to benefit still. Strayn thine a­bilitie: playe the part of a good manne. [Page] Helpe hym with thine own goodes. Ayd him with thy worde & credit. Assyst that other with thy fauour. Let him haue thine aduise. Geue him some of thy hol­some councell.

Chap. 3.

THere is not one amonge the very brute bestes that hath not perseuerance of suche good as is done vnto him [...] Brute bests ac­knowledge good done to them. Againe, there is not one of them so wild and sauluage of na­ture, and hard to be made tame, but dili­gēce and paines taking with them, cau­seth them to forget wholly their olde fe­ritie, and loue them that kéepe them. The Lyons keper may handle him with suche securitie, that without al perill he thrusteth his hand in his mouth. The Elephant of nature most hauty and cre­wel, to his Foster yet humbleth himsel [...] in most lowly wyse. Somuche preuayleth and of such efficacie are benefites, [Page 9] that the continuall doing and renewing of them, maketh the very brute bests de­uoyd of all Reason and vnderstandyng, kepe them rife in memorye. The lyke effect whereof they shall also woorke as­suredly in thunthankfull man. Who though perhaps he forgat one good torne done to him, he will not so neglect the second: or if he shew himselfe to haue sklenderly remembred those two, yet dowtles the third shall enforce hym too call to mind the former twayn which he had erst forgotten. He may well be sayd to haue loste the benefit whyche he dyd, that forthwith thinketh it lost so sone as he hath done it. But he that doth per­seuer still heaping afresh new benefites vpon them whiche he hath already done, shall enforce the receiuer to acknowled­ge the same at one time or an other, wer he neuer so hard harted or currish of na­ture For who that shalbe so ouerlayed w [...]th benefites shall not haue the hart to lyft vp his eyes agaynst thée, but he [Page] shal forthwith condemne himself of In [...]gratitude, if he haue not delt with thée accordyngly as he ought, which way soe­uer he woulde turne him, thy benefites shalbe so rife before his eyes, that by no meanes he shalbe able to shake them out of minde. By thy good desertes and hea­ping on of benefites, geue him cause to thinke that he is thoroughly bound vnto thée. Which benefites of what force and effect they are to make good nature in any man, I shall herafter declare, so sone as I haue shewed my fātasy in one point or two, somewhat different frō our mat­ter in hand. That is to wit, For what cause it is said that ther are thre Graces,Thre graces. wherfore thy are called sisters, why they go linked hād in hand, what is the cause why they are allwayes smylinge and of mery countenaunce, what is the Reason why they are euer yong. Finally wher­fore they are virgins, attired with their garmētes louse and vngyrt about them: and the same so thin that a man may sée [Page 10] through them. Of these thrée Ladyes, called Graces, thopinion of some is, that the first of them bestoweth benefites: the seconde receyueth the same, and then third confesseth the recept, and requiteth them. Others some there are that by these thrée Graces, would signifie thrée kind of benefytes. Namely the benefi­tes whych are geuen: the benefites whi­che are receiued, and the benefits which are receiued and repayed, togethers. But whether of these two opinions is worthiest to be allowed, it is not muche materiall to examin, and for that I will leue it at large vndiscust. Let vs then sée why these thrée Ladyes whom I called Graces, do still beholde thone the other, and make a ring as it wer eche holding other by the hand.Why ye .iii Graces holde one thother by ye hand Uerely it is for thys cause. The gyft that passeth from the geuer, yf it keepe dew order from the one to the other, it retorneth againe from hym that receiued it vnto the ge­uer by dew ordely course. Which order if [Page] it be broken or anye whit discontinued, forthwith thereby shoulde it lose all the worthy commendacion whiche the said benefit should requier: like as wee sée yf any of these Ladyes should louse hands, the facion of the King were broken, and streight shoulde lose that name. They are alwayes smyling and merye coun­tenaunced,Whi thei laughe. for that they should represent to vs thereby, that those that are of good natures ought when they bestow bene­fytes whyche maye sound to the furthe­raunce of others, no lesse to reioyce, and shew themselues wellapaid therat, then they should doo who are by them in such sort pleasured.Whi thei are yōg & Uirgins They are alwayes yong, for this that the remembraunce of bene­fites ought in no wyse to waxe olde or fade forth of fresh memorye. Uirgins they are, for this that benefites ought to be pure, incorrupted, not stayned, and to be done without constraint or enforce­ment. They were their garments louse, whyche are so clere and thin that a man [Page] may sée through,why thei are so aparelled. to declare that benefi­tes would be also séen and not hidden. With those Ladyes Mercury is also by some associated as companion: not for that eloquence is anye whyt requisyt to commend the benefyt that is done, or the order of doing thesame, but only for that it so lyked the paynter to deuise thesame Chrisippus to whom for his great subtilitie of wit diuers attribute no small prai­se for that he so exquisitely accustometh to sift out the truth of thinges, applieng al his whole talke to the matter he trea­teth of, and that with no longer proces of wordes then is requisite for ye thorough­vnderstandyng therof, hath yet stuffed his whole booke full of these and suche lyke table: so that he speketh hymsel [...]e verye litle or nothing at all touchinge themployeng, receiuing, and rendring of benefites. In whyche his booke, he doth not onely now and then vse these tales, but he doth so thoroughly store it with them, that it sauoreth almost of nothing [Page] elles but of suche trifles. For besides that whych he wryteth of Hecates, he re­porteth also that these thrée Graces wer Iupiters daughters begotten vpon Eu­rinome: in youth, comelines of counte­naunce, and beawty most excellent, and for this cause were they all thrée apoin­ted to haue the keping of Heauen gates, and to be attendant on the Lady Uenus. Moreouer. Chrisippus in his sayde booke noteth also that not without good cause their mother whome I shewed you of, was called Eurinome, whō for that thin­terpretacion of her name sheweth her to be riche & of great habilitie, he feigneth therfore to distribute benefits and frēdly plesures. As though the mother of force muste be named after the qualities and condicions of her daughters, or ells what name soeuer the Poetes plesed to attri­bute to any thyng, was the very name of the thyng indéed.

Chap. 4.

[Page 12] BUt least I myself offend in that whyche before I obiec­ted against Chrisippus, I will ouerpasse th [...]se thyn­ges, which as they vary frō our matter in hande, so concerne they it no whytt at all. For we haue taken in hande to spéeke of benefytes, and to ge­ue preceptes of that whyche aboue all other thynges knytteth and conioigneth the society of mankynd together. Wée are I saye to prescribe rules and pre­ceptes for menne to frame their lyues by, least that vnder collour of courtesye some fall into excessiue prodigalitie: and least that others some by ouernere scau­uing and héed takynge in bestowinge of benefites,The law of lyfe [...]s to showe the waye how to liue & to be conuersante a­monge o­thers. shoulde happen cleane to ex­tinct and lose the ryght waye of libera­litie. Whyche as indéed it ought not to excéed, so neyther should it be ouermuch skanted, but to obserue a iust, dew, and lawdable meane. Touching which mat­ter, these are thinstructiōs that we geue. [Page] That men accept thankfully such bene­fites as are done vnto them,The cōtē cion of honesty resteth in geuīg, takīg & rendrīg benefites and that gladlye in lykemaner they requite the same. We are moreouer to propose vnto them a great contencion which ought to be betwen the geuer and the receiuer of benefites. Whiche is, that we should not content our selues to render the lyke on­ly of that which we haue receiued at the handes of those that haue pleasured vs, but that we should stryue to excell them farre in well meaning and minde to ple­sour them againe. And impossible it is that any man can requite a good tourne, except before hand he haue found it. For which cause they that do any plesures or employ any benefites, are to be aduerti­sed that they make none account of their benefit after they haue ones bestowed it, and they that haue receiued thesame, to thinke themselues somuch the more en­detted to them for so doing. Of whyche honest and commendable cōtention this is the whole and thonly end:The right vse of this cōtēcion. to stryue [Page 13] ernestly to ouer matche and excell them at whose handes we haue founde plesu­res, by doinge gretter good to them theu we before receiued. To whiche conten­ding to matche or rather excel our bene­factours, Chrisippus in like maner exhorteth vs. Sayeng that forasmuch as these Ladyes Charites or Graces (of whom I told you before) are Iupiters dawghters, we ought to accompt it no small offence if we should cōmit any thing that might séeme repugnant to the natures of those fayer damoyselles. But here would I gladly O Chrisippus that thou hadst she­wed me the meane and waye howe I might haue become more liberal by she­wing fréendship and plesours, and more gratefull to them that for their goodnes and benefites haue well deserued at my handes. How the mindes of the plesu­rers and those that are plesured ought to contend. Again how they that haue be­nefited others shoulde tread the remem­braunce of those their benefytes vnder [Page] fote, without thīking on them any more, And those who haue receiued the sayde benefites, how they shoulde frame their memory to be allwayes thinking on thē without forgetting. But as for those fo­lish and fantastycall fables which Chri­sippus reporteth in his boke so common­ly, let vs leaue them to Poetes whose whole drift and meaning is geuen only to please and delight mens eares,Poetes common lyers and flaterers. and to deuise pleasaūt tales. But they that pur­pose to cure euill disposed mindes, and to conserue faithfulnes & honesty amonge men, and cause them to call to remem­brance without forgetting such benefits and plesours as are done vnto them, had néed to order their wordes with good ad­uisement, to talk ernes [...]ly, & chose to fra­me his tale with words of most weight and importaunce. Unlesse you think that light and foolish talke, and old wiues ta­les be able to redresse the cause and roote from whense so great hurt and mischefe is lyke to [...]nsew,What hurt ry­seth by Ingrati­ [...]ude. that may wel sound to [Page 14] the vtter ruine and decaye of the wh [...]le world. Namely that a man should make no more accompt of him that hath high­ly benefited him, then he would of suche one at whose hādes he neuer found any kind of plesour, or el [...]s that you suppose that this geuing of precepts touching ye welgeuing, receiuing & rending of bene­fites is but a newe found thinge and of late deuised.

Chap. 5.

NOw therfore likewise as I pas­sed ouer the thinges that were superfluouse, & concerned not our purpose, right so it is requisite & very necessary that I shew the way how wee shall learn to acknowledge the good and plesour that we haue receiued of others. For som one yt hath at time of his néede receiued money at an others hād thīketh that he oweth that or somuch money as he receiued. one other being p [...]eferred to ye dignitie of a Consull iudgeth he dothe owe ye enioyeng of his Cōsulship to him [Page] by whose meanes he was so preferd. Som other being rewarded with a spi­ritual promociō supposeth he is to rēdre the same. Other like wyse that by the procurement of some or other haue attayned the rule and gouernement of a Prouince, adscribe the same as dew to that person at whose handes he receiued his saide office. Indéed truthe it is that eche of these who hath receiued any such or lyke thing at an other bodyes hand, is to thinke himself of dewtye bounde, and endetted for the same to them at whose handes or by whose meane they had or receiued any suche benefits or plesours. Howbeit if we will néerely examine the nature of benefites, and lyst to sée what a benefit is, we shall then find that anye those thynges aboue named or anye the lyke of them are not to be called benefi­tes, but onely the signes and shewes of benefits.Wher is the very seate and pla [...]e of benefits. For no benefyt may be handled with the hand, but hath his seat and abi­ding place in the minde alone. And there [Page 15] is great diuersitie betwene the benefyt it self, and the matter or substaunce by which the benefit is represented. Wher­vpon we must know yt neither siluer, nor gold, nor lād, nor offices, nor fées, nor any thing ells what soeuer our dearest frin­des bestow vppon vs ought to haue the names of benefites, sith as I sayde they consist onely and wholly in the minde of the bestower of them. Neuertheles the rude and ignorant people suppose that thinge onely that is séene with the eyes, geuen with the hand, subiect to our sen­ses, and in our possession, to be the bene­fyt [...] And asfor the fréendly minde which indéed ought chefely to be had in pryce and regarded, that weigh they nothyng at all. Wherein howmuche they are de­ceyued, eche one may wel and easyly dis­cerne. For why, those thinges whyche we possesse, whiche we sée, and whi [...]he­we so gredely hunt after, are very vncertein and transitory. The mutabilitie of fortune, the daunger of the time, the vio­lence [Page] and force of enemyes may quickly bereft and depriue vs of all these things. But the trew benefit still persisteth, and decayeth not,Benefits neuer de­cay. no though all that perrish and be lost quite that was geuen vs. That onely shoulde be called a benefyt, which no violence, no force, no misfor­tune is able to vndoe, plucke from vs, or make frustrate. As by way of example. I reskewed a frind of mine from Pyra­tes and robbers on sea: and when I had deliuered him on this sort and was gone other enemyes toke him and caste him. In prison. In this case, they that so toke him depriued him not of the benefit whiche I did to him, but the vse therof only, Again. I deliuered a nomber of men frō drowning or burning. Of which cōpany sith that time, certain of thē dyed by sick­nes, certein of them by other mysfortu­nes ended their liues. I say yet notwithstandyng the benefit I did to them re­maineth stil and decaieth not, no though the parties be dead themselues to whom [Page 16] it was done. Then appereth it that all those things which falsly abuse thapel­lacion or name of benefites, ought rather to be called frēdly tournes, or such thin­ges by which the fréendly mind doth de­clare it self. The like wherof is to be ga­thered in other matters, wheras other­whiles a word is vsed only significatiue­ly to represēt as it wer ye truth of things, by significatiō or colour of sence, & other­whiles is vsurped for the thing it self. As you may sée here. The Chefetain of the bād rewardeth such as he hath approued valiāt after the feat wherin he hath ex­perimented his said valiauntnes sōtime with a Chain or collar of gold, otherwhiles with a garland properly appointed for suche as geue the onset at skalynge the walls at any séege,Corona muralis. & otherwhiles wt a garland assigned to him that saueth a Citisens life in warres. Whiche eyther Chain or garland if a wan will consider apart by it self,Corona Ciuita. and not hauynge anye relacion to anye farther thinge, what [Page] great excelēcie or preciousenes cōsisteth in them? What great magnificence or worshyp resteth there I praye you in the Senatours gowne trayling on ye groūd, purfled and embrowdred round about, if we consider it onely in that it is a gown or hath this or that facion? There is no one of these that is the honour it selfe, but the onely signes and shewes of ho­nour. In lyke maner none of those can be sayde a benefit that is discerned with the eye, but are onely mere tokens of benefites.

Chap [...] 6.

THen mayst thou well de­maunde of me what it is that I call a benefit. The trew descripsion whereof admit this to be.The di­scripsion of a benefyt. A benefyt is a courteouse and frendly deed whyche beyng done geueth cause of reioycing to others, and conceiueth plesure it self in doing the same thing, redy of it self without [Page 17] constraint to doo that whiche it doth: So that it appereth it maketh no matter what the thing is that is geuen or done: For that (as it is sayd.) The benefit con­sisteth not in the thyng that is geuen or done, but onely in the minde of the ge­uer. And that there is a great diuersitie betwene these twayne, thou mayst ease­ly know hereby. The benefyt allwayes is simply and of his owne nature good.The hart al one cō ­mendeth al things But the thing that is geuen or done, is of it self commonly neyther good nor euill. It is the minde that extolleth and commendeth thynges of small valour, and of no regard, and disgrateth & quyte debaseth other some thinges of estima­cion and great price. The thyngs which we séeke and pursew after so ernestlye, are of themselues neyther good nor euill. The diuersitie of their qualities ryseth onely vpon the mindes of them that haue the rule and disposynge of the same: by whyche disposing, they purchace eyther their commendacion or the contrarye. [Page] Then maye we thus conclude. That a benefit is not that thing whiche is geuē with the hand. Lyke as thinges offred vp in sacrifice be thesame neuer so fatte and fayre, or richely adourned with gold and ryche iewelles, yet the diuine ho­nour dothe not rest nor consiteth in anye of the same oblacions, but onely in the well meaninge and disposed myndes of the sacrificers. For the immolations and offringes of godly, deuout, and wel­disposed persons God accepteth wel and in good part be the gift neuer so simple. Yea though it were but a courtsye of Corne and that in an earthen vessell, whereas wycked men shall not escape the punyshement of their impiety and the reuenge thereof, no though they offer vp neuer so plentiful and the same riche sacrifices.

Chap. 7.

[Page 18] FOr yf it were so that benefites consisted in the thynges whyche are geuen,Symple thynges gyuen with a goodwi [...] more ac­ceptable then rich giftes with gru [...] chyng. and not in the mind of him who geueth the same, then should it also follow, that lok how much greatter in valewe the thynge is that is geuen, so muche gretter shoulde the benefit be to be accompted of. But that is vntrew. For somewhiles wée are more beholdyng, and to thinke our sel­ues depelyer bounde to hym that geueth vs thynges but of small valew, whose goodwill notwithstandynge ought to be more deere to vs and hygher in esti­macion then any the greate abundan­ce and ryches of Princes. For admitte that his gift was but simple, his hart yet was magnificent and liberall, in that he regarded not hys owne pouertie, he was so glad he had to serue my greate want presentlye. Wherein he declared [Page] himself not onely to meane well to me­warde, but also to haue an earnest zele and desier in himself to declare & accō ­plish the same In which his weldoing, he séemeth to take delight, bestowing those his benefits as one not loking or hoping after anye Recompence, more then if he had geuen me no whyt at all. But of his owne accord séeketh to find and take oc­casion to proffit and plesour me. On tho­ther syde (as I haue sayde before) these thinges are neyther plesant nor accepta­ble whiche though of themselues they séeme to be of great valew and pryce, yet they are not without great entreaty, and importunate seute and request obtained at the hands of the graūters, or els whi­che by chaunce and vnaduisedlye escape them. But farre more thankefully is the litle simple gift to be receiued, geuen with assured goodwill and franckly, then is plenty and affluēce geuen with grut­ching and repining. For why, in suche case thus may I saye. Truthe it is: that [Page 19] whiche this man hath geuen me is but a small thing, but wayeng his abilitie, he is muche to be commended, for he gaue it me with a very good wil: and besides, his welthe coulde not extend to geue me any thing of gretter valew. Againe, the present of that other. I confesse was ve­ry muche and of great pryce, but with what distrust did he it and longe delaye, and how muche did he repent him after that he had done it? He dyd it for vaine glory onely, and to thend he might triū ­phe ouer me, and reporte to others howe much he had plesoured me, and in what necessity I stode of his help. So that good cause I haue to perswade myself that he dyd it not for good will, and earnest loue, or affection he bare to me, but to blase abrode his own name and take occasion so to doo at my necessitie. Who that to this end bestoweth his benefytes, I saye he doth not onely deserue notes to be ac­compted liberall, but rather an euill na­tured niggard.

Chap. 8.

A nota­ble example of liberality of one ha­uing no­thing to geue ga­ue hī self. ANd for profe that smal gif­tes geuen franckely and of a méere good will deserue gretter commendacion far, then richer and costlier gif­tes whiche are bestowed with difficulty and euil will, this notable example may make profe abundantlye. Socrates that worthie and famous Philosopher being accustomed to réede publiquely and ge­ue preceptes of good gouernement, had repayring to his sayde Lectour a great and populouse audience. Among whom there were both ryche and poore. It for­tuned that his scollers with a common concent on a time concluded among thē ­selues that eche of them after their ha­bilitie in token of their goodwills towar­des their sayde maister, shoulde present him with litle or much, whych they did. Eschines one of the companye in welth farre vnequall to the residew as he that had vtterlye nothynge, and yet in good [Page 20] wil to gratifye his maister not inferiour to anye the best, when he sawe euerye one of hys companions to geue vnto Socrates their mayster presentes of great Price, came with a mery chere also to Socrates, and sayde. Syr in all thys woorlde haue I nothyng that I may present thee withall. Whereby I ac­knowledge easely my great pouertie. Howbeit in all this hard extremity, that onely one gift whiche I haue to geue, I make present with. Namely mine owne person. Which simple present I beseche thee accept in so good parte as I nowe wilingly offre thesame to thee, perswa­ding thyself that though my companiōs here haue indéed richely presented thee with giftes, yet hath eche of them left himself farre more in store then he hath here departed withall. Whereas I haue geuen thee all without reseruynge to myself anye whytte at all. To whome Socrates as thankefully aunswerynge sayd. And why? Thinkest thou not that [Page] thou haste also geuen to me a great pre­sent? Unlesse thou makest none accōp [...] of thyself being in state as thou now art, wherfore assure thyself that I will res­tore thée to thyself farre bettered then I now receiued thée. Loe by this gift all­moste of no vallew, did Eschines farre surmount the bountifull hart of Alcibia­des who was no lesse gentle and cour­teouse then welthye. And in Socrates iudgement passed the largesse and muni­ficence of all his yong companions.

Chap. 9.

HEreby may you well sée that a noble minde is able to find out matter whereby he may declare his liberalitie, euen in the extremitie and naro­west straytes of al his pouertie. In whi­ch case Aeschines (me semeth) might wel haue sayd thus. A hard and cruell For­tune. Yet hast thou gained nothing her­by that thou haste made me thus poore. [Page 21] For though I haue nothynge of thyne wherwith I may worthely or at all pre­sent my maister, I will not yet let to doo my dewty, but I will now doo it of mine own. And yet should noman thinke that he accompted nothing of himself for that he presented so himself (as is sayd,) For hereby the wytty yong man found occa­sion to bind Socrates to him after a sort. So that (to retourne againe to our pur­pose) it appereth that it is not the excel­lencie or valew of the gyft whyche is to be regarded, but the hart with whyche it is geuen and the order of the doing ther­of. The hawty and curious Courtiars who are in office, [...]he courtyar. and by meane thereof haue that séeke vnto them, will hardly and with muche a doo be spoken with of their sewters aboute anye matter of weight, and yet when they are spoken with, they fode fourth selly folkes with many fayer wordes and bare promesses, whiche in thend standeth them in verye small or no stead. And yet of a far worse [Page] nature iudge I him to be, that with op­probriouse and crewell woordes, with a churlish and frowninge countenaunce vttred after a dispytefull sorte, displa­yeth what he hath done for this man or that. For therehens commeth it that although we see the poore outwardely make a face and shewe of goodwill to­warde the Riche, yet inwardly they hat [...] them in theyr hartes to the death. And that altogether for their fortune. And yet diuers there are of them that hate one an other for doynge some thynges whyche they that reprehende them per­haps woulde doo, if they were in lyke power and authoritie. Few there are but emproue their Landes to thutter­most to maigntaine their owne auarice. They regard nothing but despice other­mennes pouertie, and séeke to the vtter­most all ye meanes they can how to shon­ne it themselues, fearryng nothyng ells but fallyng into penurye. For redresse and preuenting wherof, they cesse not to [Page 22] molest their vnderlings and inferiours, oppressynge theyr poore tenauntes, all­wayes vexing them that are not able to make resistaunce, and kepynge them downe still with might and mayn. And yet what can a man well saye agaynste some such pilling of prouinces and ma­kynge the vttermost of suche offyces as thou hast thyself payed derelye for, seyng that the Cōmon Law among men whi­che proce [...]eth and is grounded vpon na­turall reason permitteth thée to sell a­gaine the thing that thou bowghtest.

Chap. 10.

BUt loe the grief to see thin­ges somuch disordred hath caused me to straye father from my matter in hande thē I thought to haue done, for that sufficient matter to talke of, still offred it selfe. Wherefore for thys time I make here an end, for feare least I deduce the lyke cause of blame to these [Page] our dayes. Our auncestours and forefa­thers haue complained them of this her­tofore:Cause of cōplainte vppon naughti­nes hath not wan­ted in old time. we our selues at this present find vs agreued thereat, and I feare very much that our posteritie shall haue lyke cause to be wayle them [...] to sée that good condicions and honest maners amonge men are so corrupted, that naughtines hath altogether got their places: & that wordly affayres fall out eche daye worse and woorse with somuche euill that all­mose there can be no more. And now are these thinges rooted so, and settled as it were in this state, that lykely they are so to continew and hold on stil, onely now and then perhaps they may chaunce to be tossed to and fro a lytle, lyke the wa­ues of the sea: which when they haue for a season, bene still and quyet with in the shore, if there happen to ryse a sodaine flaw or a sharp pyrry of winde, streight way they woorke aloft and tosse vp and downe for the time. So may it chaūce to fare with these euill condicions of men. [Page 23] For as the times doo alter and channge, right so follow they. Somewhile shal ye sée Daliaunce and bodily plesure beare chefest sway: eftsones againe vnmeasu­rable festing, ryotous banqueting, and superfluous féeding shall playe his part. Sone after shall all they be exiled forth of place, & then none shal rule but sump­tuous apparelling and trimming the bo­die with costly arraye. And more then ef­feminat painting and prankyng the vi­sage, the most certaine argument of the fowlenes & deformity of the minde with wastful profusion and spending of large patrimonyes and ample enheritaunces. Again before a man would almost think it coulde be so, all these vices are quyte shut vp as if they had not bene, and Ti­ranny onely taketh place, then fall they to Ciuill warres, whereby all holy thin­ges are prophaned, Lawes and good or­der quite extinguished, goodnes and god lines wholly abolished. Dronkēnes for a time beareth the bel. And it shalbe dée­med [Page] a vertew in him that shall beare most drinke. So that a man may sée, that vices neyther continew allwayes in one staye: but as they are altogether deuoyd of stedfastnes, and at variaunce amonge themselues, so they force one to geue an other place. So that wée maye well pro­nounce of our selues to our g [...]eat shame and reproche, that wée haue bene euill, that wee are euill and that we are lyke (it greueth me muche to saye it) to be e­uill still. For why, there shall not fayle to be among vs from time to time, man­quellars, tyrantes, theues, adulterers, encrochers of other mens goodes, com­mitters of sacriledge, & traytours aswel hereafter, as heretofore, and at this pre­sent. And yet Ingratitude ought no lesse to be detested then any the vyces that I haue named before:Ingratitude the ro [...]e of al vyces. as that from whense and by which, all those others do proc [...]de and haue their rooting. Without whiche it is impossible that any euill could sprīg and take his encrease at full as it dothe. [Page 24] Wherfore, eche one shunne & flee it as ye horriblest vice that may happen to anye man. And yet if it be thy fortune to byt vpon any that sheweth the Ingratitude:Ingrati­tude the greattest vyce that may be done, and ye lightest that may be suffe­red. forgett and forgeue it stil, as the lightest fault that thou mayst finde among all o­thers. For the grettest losse that cā hap­pen to thée hereby, pardy is but the losse of thy benefit onely. And yet he to whom thou didest it, can not accuse thée that thou pleasouredst him not, which is the commendablest thing that maye be, and deserueth most prayse. For as we should diligently in plesouring of al men, espe­cially haue regard to doo it to them that we iudge will proue thankfull and ac­knowledge it wilinglye again, so ought we not to make restraint of benefitinge those whom alredy we knowe precisely they wil proue vnthankfull: and that by profe had of them in times past. As sup­pose tha [...] it laye in me to restore to anye manne his Children, whom (to doo it) I must reskew wt great peril & daunger: I [Page] ought no whytte to stycke at the doynge herof, vnlesse I were to susteine assured lye great harme and hindraunce therby myself. And asfor him that I know wor­thie to he plesoured by me, I may in no case refuse or lingar to do it, were it so that I should spend my bloude and ad­uenture my lyfe for him. And asfore him that I know assuredly vnworthy to whō I shoulde doo any plesour, yet if I saw him in daunger of théeues,The per­fit trial of a liberall hart. and that by my outcrye I might saue him & deliuer him from them, I may not stick to crye as lowed as possiblye I can for his suche safegarde.

Chap. 11.

The ma­ner how mē shold do their benefites NOw followeth it that wee shew what those benefites be that we should doo the one to the other, and howe we should doo thē. First of all the thinges which we ought to geue, should be suche as be necessary to him to [Page 25] whome we geue them. Secondly they should be profitable, Thirdly acceptable and suche chieflye as are of longest con­tinuaunce. It behoueth then that wee begine with those thinges that are ne­cessarye. Whiche are deuided into two sortes, vnder thone of which, are contei­ned those thinges whiche conserue mās lyfe. Under thother, are included those thinges whiche doo well gouerne the­same and cause it to be of long durance. For among men ye shall finde some that will wake but small accompt of the re­cept of suche benefits as are transitorye and of no continuaunce,One as euil as an ingrate person. and others some shall ye finde whiche disdaine to receiue any benefitte at an other bodyes hande: sayeng. It sufficeth me that I haue of min [...] owne: I am well enough conten­ted therwith, I will not trouble my self with anye more to endet or endaunger me withall. By whiche meanes he re­fuseth not onely to rendre the thankes & courtesy dew for ye offer of plesour made [Page] to hym, but with shamefull desdaigne reiecteth thesame.A diuisiō of benefi­tes. Farther it is to be vnderstode that emonge the necessarye plesours whyche men maye do the one to the other, there be certaine degrees, of whyche some are principall as those without whyche we can not liue: some next them and second as it wer, as those without whiche we can not lyue well: and other some thirde, as those without whiche we wil not liue. Of the first sort are these. To be deliuered from the han­des of our enemyes, frō the fierce cruel­tye of Tirantes, to be saued from exile, and sentence of losse of goodes and Lan­des,Causes why benefyts seme the gret­ter. and other such lyke daungers, whi­che as they are indeed verye great, so is our lyfe on eche syde assaulted with the­same. And these I saye are of that nature that how muche gretter and more peril­louse they séeme to be,Causes by which our benefites may s [...]me [...]e gretter. and thereby cau­sers of gretter feare, so muche the more shall they who are deliuered from them, thynke gentlenes in vs [...]y whose mea­nes [Page 26] thei are so dispatched from thesame. For why, the great feare whyche they were in, shall make the benefytte when they fynde it, séeme to them muche the gretter. In whyche behalfe, we may if the cause will conuenientlye beare it without damage or detriment to be su­steined by the partye so endaungered, some what delay the spéedy doing of the plesour to thend thapparant shew of the daunger, maye cause hym bothe to ac­compt better, and beare in mynde the longar, the benefyt when it is shewed. The benefits which occupie the second place and degrée, are those without whi­che we maye after a sort liue, but yet so, that we were better dead then lyuinge in suche maner. As to be barred of liber­ty, to be depriued of good name and fa­me, to lose a mans sences & wittes, and others suche lyke. In whiche degre may be nōbred also al such thyngs as by affi­nity of bloud, by vse or lōg custome do becom dere to vs, as our frīdes, our wiues, our [Page] Children and such lyke thynges to whi­che our minde is so tenderly affectionat, that it séemeth to vs lesse grief to los [...] our lyfe, then to depart with any the thī ­ges afore mencioned. Next after these, as it were in the third place succede tho­se things that are profitable. which part extendeth very large and includeth a ve­rye great multitude of thynges, as mo­ney not superfluous or excessif, but com­petent and reasonnable s [...]muche as may mainteigne vs in good state of lyfe. He­therto are also referd prefermentes of honour, or attainment of any higher de­grée. And among al the thinges that are accompted profitable, there is no one better then for a man to endeuour to ad­u [...]untage and profit hymself. Asfor all other thinges whyche are not so necessa­ry for mans lyfe as the aboue named thynges are, whe [...] they are had, they bréed but superfluitye and excesse, which bringeth men to a certeine wantonnes and hauty minde. But the things which [Page 27] we mean, and of whyche we now doo en­treat,we [...]u [...]ht to shew profita­ble ples­sours. rest in this point chéefelye, that for the commodiousenes of the time & place wh [...]che they serue, they may well séeme to be pleasaunt. And againe that they be suche as be not common to euerye man. For by diligent notyng of these circum­staūces, as time, place, person, and thing presented, we shall stande well assured that lightie wée shall neyther geue nor send to any man that thynge that shalbe eyther superfluous or not acceptable. As to sende bookes to a rusticall person and vnlearned, or nettes to a studious man and one altogether addicted to his boks, séeme both gyftes not fit, for that they are not agreable with the qualities and natures of them to whom they are sent. In like maner behoueth it that we send no suche presentes to any man that the present may smell to touche any vyce or infirmitye of his to whom we sende the same.Thinges to be no­ted in sending pre­sentes. As to sende wyne to one that we knowe will lightlye and commonly be [Page] dronke: and plaisters and salues to hym that is muche geuen to sicknes, or trou­bled with sores. For in so doing we shal quyte disgrace our present, and forne good will whyche we woulde séeme to séeke. Wholly into disliking, for that the partie maye (after a sort) séeme to be put in minde by our sayd present of the vic [...] which well enough he knoweth to be in hym.

Chap. 12.

WHerfore if we will doo any ple­sour or ells bestow any benefit vpon any man, aboue all other thyng we shall séeke to doo it by thinges of longest continuaunce, to this end that o [...]r said gift, and the memory therof may continew the longar. For there are very fewe that be of so good nature to beare still in minde the plesour that hath bene shewed them, if it be not stil tofore their eyes. But those that are verye forgetfull and vnthankfull,Unthākful & for­getful mē the present remaining [Page 28] of the benefyt before their syght whiche hathe bene bestowed vppon them, shall not permit them to be forgetfull,Gift [...]s ought to be o [...] lon­gest con­tin [...]aūce but of force shall cause them, by beholdyng the same forthwith to remēber who it was that dyd them that benefitte. Therefore in seekynge to doo plesour it behoueth vs to doo it by thynges of longest du­rance. To thys ende that by the conti­nuaunce of the thynge geuen, the me­morye of the geuer maye also remayne so ryfe, that wée shall not néede our sel­ues to vpbrayde them therewith again, to who [...] we haue done any suche bene­fites: For better it were that the gyft it selfe should reuiue the remembraunce thereof, when haplye it doith decay, then the geuer by reportynge it hymselfe, shoulde disgrace hys sayde gyft. And as­for me yf I were to geue goodes, rather woulde I chose to geue it Bullion or plate, then Coyne. Soner woulde I geue costely Images and Pictures of woode or stone, then a gowne or o­ther [Page] garment of smal continuaunce & lasting, whiche quickly fadeth with the time. For there are a nomber of people who remember the gyft of any thing no longar while, then the vse and occupa­cion of the same endureth. For whyche cause I would not if I might chose, geue suche a thynge that should passe ouer so lyghtly and come to nothyng, but would doo it by suche thynges as by the same still remayning before their eyes the re­membraunce of the plesour they founde by my meanes, they might continew fi­xed and rooted (as it were) in the hart of them to whom I dyd suche plesour. For as there is noman I gesse so voyd of vn­derstandyng, and depriued of his sences, that would geue light and thin sommer gownes in cold wynter, or thicke furred gownes for sommer, So doth it behoue in employeng of benefites and fréendly plesours to way diligētly both the time, the place, the nature and qualities of the person. For certaine it is that there are [Page 29] some times, yea and some minutes and instantes of time, in which some things are plesaunt and acceptable, which selfe same thynges at some other season, are asmuche displeasaunt and vncommen­dable. Who séeth not what great diuer­sitie there is betwene these twain. To geue the thing that no man ells hath at that time, and to geue that wherof then presentlye eche man hath abundauntly. Againe to geue that whiche a man hath long sought after and could not fynd,Thyngs rare most accepta­ble. Omne rarum cha­rum. and to geue that whiche in euery place with out traue [...]l one may haue pl [...]ntifully: It appereth then that it dothe not skill so­much how deare and valewable the gif­tes are, as it doth, how rare and e [...]cellēt they are, wherby they purchace no small thankes euen among the richest sort. As for example. A few sorye apples whiche are timely ripe before any elles in anye other place, wee sée what merueilouse great thankes the geuer getteth for the nouelty of them, when as within a short [Page] while after, a great multitude of them are not woorth godamercies, wheras be­fore they were taken in better stead then if they had bene thīges of double valew.

Chap. 13.

A nota­ble exāple of arrogā cy & pryd ALexander king of Macedo­nye who for hys innume­rable and those great con­questes was surnamed the great, as he retourned one time victorious from the east parts hom­wardes, was so pu [...]fed vp with pride and insolence, that contemnyng to be called any more a man, hauing deserued as he thought more then any man, gan to par­swade his army, and charge them to. To honour him as a God. Whiche his good and fortunat successe eche countrey frind & in legue with him seming to reioyce at sent some vnder the name of the whole, to méet him as he retourned, and to pre­sent him with one thing or other. Amōg others, thinhabitātes of the Citie of Co­rinth [Page 30] to declare their vnfained reioycing at his good fortune, sent embassadours also vnder the Cities name who in to­kē of their faithfullnes shoulde signifie to hym that the Corinthians were con­tented to assume him into the nomber of the Burgeses of that their Citie. When Alexander had heard the tenour of their message, and scorned their offer, as no­thing in respect of his magnificence, one of thembassadours mildly aunswered. What Ale [...]ander, whye makest thou so lyght of this our offer? Neuer was ye like made yet to any, sauing to Hercules and now to the. Which when Alexander vn­derstode, he accepted with great thanks the offer as honour, which ye Corinthiās made vnto hī, & gaue as courteous enter­tainemēt to thembassadors as possible he might. Howbeit he regarded not ye sim­plenes of thē yt did him ye honour, but in thassuming of the same so thākfully, res­pected onely ye worthines of hī yt he was partener made wtall, which was Hercu­les [Page] Thus maye you sée he was alltogether addicted to pursew honour whereof not­withstanding he knew neyther the trew waye nor meane to attaine there to, but followed thexample of Bacchus, whose minde was so houen vp with pride, that he was some way matcht with Hercu­les, that forthwith he thought he should reche the heauens and there ioyne with Hercules also, as he did at Corinth.Uery mā hod. But beholde howe vnfyt matches th [...]se twayn wer. For Hercules neuer deligh­t [...]d to spoile any place. He went through the woorld too. But not for any couetous­nes or desy [...]r that he had to get any part therof to himself, or any whit that he co­ueted that any part therof shold be sub­iect to him, but onely for the zeale he had to reuēge the iniures of them that with­out desert were afflicted, and to redresse the tirannye of naughty and cruell op­pressours. A defendour he was of them that were good, and a pacifier of trou­bles both on sea and lande. But Alexan­der [Page 31] euen frō his very youth trained him­self in shewing and doinge oppression: a decayer and vtter despoyler of all con­treyes where so he became. An vtter de­struction aswell to his Frindes as hys enemyes. Reposynge his onely felicitie in making himself to be dread of all mē.

Chap 14.

BUt lette vs now retourne again to our purpose. The good or plesour whiche is done to all men in cōmon and a lyke,plesour generall to al men is accepta­ble to no [...] in priuat deserueth sin­gular thankes of no man priuately. For why there is no cause why any manne should yéeld great thankes to any vint­ner or ordinarie tabler of gestes, for that he had wine of him, or dyned with hym. For he may well say in this case. What g [...]eat plesour hath anye of those (I na­med) shewed me for any the thing [...]s spe­cified? He hath done me herein no more [Page] plesour then he would do to his enemye or the most dishonest parsō of the world. For to what ende dyd he shewe me the frendlines whiche he dyd, but onely to serue his owne turne? That thing ther­fore whiche thou geuest, and wouldest haue takē in good part and well thought of, let it in no wise be such as thou doest commonlye and to many. And yet would I not that anye man shoulde thinke I spéeke these thynges as though I would make anye restraint of liberalitie. But yet must it be so done, that it may séeme to keepe the ryght waye, and that it pur­chace not reproche to the geuer. It is lawfull to geue euery where. And yet who that receyueth a benefitte in the o­pen face and presence of a multitude, ought not therefore to déeme lesse well of the gift as though the presens of the others were any whyt a disgracinge to it. Agayne, it doth behoue eche manne to haue a good perswasion with him­selfe, [Page 32] and to thinke that although others be benefited aswell as he, and that at hys handes who benefited hym, yet that he dyd it with a better will to hym then to the reste. As thus I confesse I haue receyued but the lyke benefytte or ple­sour that thys other hath done, howbeit it came to hys owne mocion that whiche he dyd to me and without anye request of myne. He shewed suche one the lyke plesour as he dyd to me, but yet he dyd it quickely to me and without delaye, whereas that other had it not with out desert, and that of longe time to. Manye bestow sondry thynges to seue­ral parsons, and yet not to eche man af­ter one sort Fort to some it is done vpon lyght request, and to [...] some vppon longe entreaty. To some vppon condicion that they shall doo the lyke agayne when they are required thereto. And to other­some for that olde age and wantte of children of theyr owne on whome they [Page] might bestow their plesours, easely per­swaded them to doo it there where they did. But who that would haue his bene­fites and the plesures whyche he is to doo to diuers, acceptable and wel accōp­ted of by eche of thē, must fynd the mea­nes how to deserue a lyke well of them all, and to cause that eche of them in his owne perswasion maye thynke himself preferd and estéemed aboue the residew. I would be loth to seme to hinder the be­nefites and plesures that anye man is minded to doo what soeuer they are. But this wote you wel that how much greatter and magnificent the benefites are, so muche the greatter honour and com­mendacion shall they purchace to them that doo thesame. And yet must a man vse discrecion in geuing. For benefites whych are done rashly and without con­sideracion,Regarde to be had in bene [...]iting. can by no meanes be eyther plesaunt or commendable. So that whē I councell that these thynges be vsed wisely, with moderacion, & dew regard, [Page 33] yf any one there be that for that thinketh that I prescribe boundes and limites to Liberalitie and restraine the same, & not to augment and, encrese it rather, vere­lye he dothe not vnderstande these my preceptes aryght. For what vertew I besech you should we haue in gretter price then this? Or to what vertew should we parswade people vnto, rather then vnto this, whiche continueth and lynketh to­gether the society of mankynde?

Chap. 15.

HOwbeit as ther is no honest vertew of the minde that is rooted and grounded aryght,what plesour is well em­ployed. vnles the same be ruled and gouerned by Reason, so is there no benefit rightly and dewly em­ploied, except the same be done with mo­deraciō and discreciō. Wherfore I wold not aduise ne counsell anye manne to be [...]uerlauash and prodigall in bestowyng [Page] his benefites, sekyng thereby to purcha­ce the name of liberalitie. For that bene­fit is well bestowed, and deserueth to be lyked of all men, when he that doth the­same, doth it with aduise and imployeth it vpon him that deserued the same. We our selues willingly woulde not accept benefites at eche mans hande, for feare least we should not be able to mak amē ­des thoroughly as wée woulde, for all suche benefites as happly myght be be­stowed vppon vs. Noman calleth that a benefitte wherof he is ashamed to con­fesse the Authour. Crispus Passiona was wont to saye that there were some to whom he woulde repayer for theyr iud­gement, good aduise, and councel, ra­ther then for their benef [...]tes. [...] wittye [...]yinge. And againe that there were othersome of whome he woulde rather accept theyr gyftes then theyr councell: and expressed theyr na­mes. I woulde rather (quod he) haue the good and sage aduise of Augustus then of Claudius.

[Page 34]And rather would I wyshe to fynde the munificence aud lyberalitie of Claudius then the same of Augustus. But in myne opinion a manne should not make anye greate accompte of the benefitte that suche one dothe to hym, whose iud­gement is but of small regarde. Why then maye you saye Shoulde not a manne accepte the benefitte that Clau­dius geueth? Yes verelye that shall he doo. But yet he shall waye of it as of a thynge commynge by chaunce one­lye, which a thou wottest well is lyght­lye variable frome good to euill. What meaneth it then that wée ioyne these thynges in suche order that the one of them maye not séeme to be parfit with­out that other? It is assuredlye for this cause. There canne not be any thynge ryghtlye sayde to bée a benefitte, that wanteth the better parte whyche yt shoulde haue. (That is to saye) iudge­gemente and discrecion.

[Page]And therof it foloweth that if anye man haue geuen thee a great somme of mo­ney and hath not done it with good will and as a benefyt should be done, it is no­more to be accounted for a benefit, then if by chaunce or good fortune of thine, thou shouldst happen to finde anye treasure. So that it appereth that we must yet re­ceiue some thynges when they are proffred vs, for whiche not withstanding we are not any whit to thinke our selues to rest endetted.

The seconde Booke of the Line of Liberalitie.

Chap. 1.

LEt vs then consyder that whiche followeth next vp­pon the firste parte of thys boke.Now we shold ple­sour o­thers. That is to say, after what sort we should do our benefits. For the parfitte knowledge whereof, (as me semeth) I can not shew an easier or more brief waye then to say That we shoulde benefit and plesour o­thers after the same maner and in suche sort as we woulde desyer our owne sel­ues to be pleasured at others handes. Whereby it followeth that we must doo it willinglye, quickly, and that without staye or tariaunce. For that benefit [...]e or plesour is not acceptable that hath lyn­gred long time in thandes of the geuer, which argueth that he dyd it with grut­chynge [Page] and euill will, and that it was by violence and perforce (as it were) gotten at his handes. In lyke maner he that in doynge of a pleasour, doubteth whether he were best to doo it or not, is nexte neyghtbour to hym that playnlye denieth to doo it, and deserueth at al nei­ther commendacion nor thankes there­fore. For lyke as in anye benefitte be­stowinge, there is not anye thynge that commendeth the benefitte so muche as the vnfayned good will of hym that ge­ueth the same, so muste we say that who that by hys delayes hath declared that he dyd it with euill will canne not be sayde to haue done it trewlye, and as it ought to be, but for that he coulde not longar withholde it. But those benefi­tes are ind [...]ed commendable whyche are sone redye,Whiche benefites are moste commen­dable. whiche are easely obtayned, and preuent the expectacion of hym on whome they are bestowed, and in whi­che there is vsed no maner of delaye. Whyche who that will doo aryght and [Page 36] as they ought too be, muste frame hym­self to examine and vnderstande the na­turall desyer and appetite of them whom he woulde plesour: and when he hath so learned it, streyght wayes bende hym­selfe to serue theyr sayde desyer. For farre better is it that wee preuent theyr néede by geuyng, then to staye geuinge vntill wée be asked. For that many ve­rye honest natures are bashefull. And so ashamed to aske that they woulde ra­ther want the pleasour that they néede, then they woulde demaunde it. Now he that with frée genynge of hys owne ac­cord, deliuereth any suche from that blu­shing bashfullnes, deserueth double thā ­kes and recompense for hys suche gift. But he that is driuen to aske and re­quest anye thynge before he canne haue it, though he than obtaine it,Nothing so dere bought [...]s that is bought [...] with en­treaty. yet canne he not be sayd to haue it freely and for nothynge, although he geue no mo­re for it. For as diuers oure aunce­stours and those wyse and sage menne [Page] men haue thought, there is nothinge de [...]elyer bought, then that which is obtai­ned by entreatie. Were it so that euery request that men shoulde make, were to be made openly & in the face of a multi­tude, dowtles peticions woulde not be­made so rifely as they are. For not so­muche as the prayers whiche we make to God, but so néere as we can we de [...]ier to make them in secrete.

Chap. 2.

A benefit done vpō requeste cometh to late. IT is a greuous and straunge woorde, and suche one as is not vttred without blushynge and skant daring to looke in the face of him to whome it is spoken, to saye I praye or beseche you. The néede or cause of vsing which worde shoulde not he ge­uen to any frind, or him whom through thy good desertes thou wouldest make thie frind. There is none but doth that plesour to late whiche he doth vpon re­quest, let him dispatch then neuer so spe­dilye. [Page 37] Wherfore we must so néere as we can, coniecture eche mans desyer and imagine their néede: and those knowen, of our owne accord deliuer thē from that vrgent extremitie of their néede without any their request.That benefitte most thā kefull yt is done without request. For that benefyt is ac­ceptable plesaunt, and longest will con­tinew in the mind of him to whom it is done, whych preuenteth his asking. And if it fortune that by no meanes we can preuēt but we shalbe request [...]d, yet must we cut of and abridge the abiding of ma­ny woordes at our frindes handes, and beyng longe entreated, that yet by that spéede makyng we may seme as though we had not stayed to haue bene desired. And so sone as we vnderstand ones the effecte of their mindes, we must yeld our selues with spéedye graunt to doo it. For by that hastie dispatche, we shal yet som­what geue them to vnderstande that we hadde a will to haue done them plesour euen before any their request made. For in lyke maner as meat geuē in dew sea­son [Page] is able to be dygested by hym that is verye sicke, and as water geuen in time conuenient oft serueth the tourne of costlier medicine,A pre [...]ye similitu­de. ryght so the bene­fitte be it neuer so symple, yea and com­mon withall, yet if it be redely done and willynglye, and in the verye nicke (as a manne woulde saye) it deserueth gret­ter thankes, and is farre more to be este­med, then is the benefitte of gretter va­lew lingr [...]d forth longe, and done with pawsyng and delaye: For dawtles who that dothe anye plesour with pawsynge, and longe deliberacion, is neuer to be sayde to doo the same with a free hart and willynglye. Agayne who that doith it gladlye, hys verye counte­naunce will declare how willing he is to do it.

Chap. 3.

[Page 38] THe slacknes of a nōber and sparing to speake,Want [...] of spekynge bredeth want of speeding and their vsing sometime of a super­fluous straungenes, is the cause why oftentimes they want sondry plesours which haplye for the speakyng they might finde at others handes. And againe the lowring & seuer countenaunces of some whē they do pro­mise plesures, cause many of thē to whō they doo so promise, to conceiue & thinke therein half a deniall. O howe far more commendable were it to ioyne plesaunt words with ye plesures which thou wilt doo, and to cōmend thy beneficence with courteous lāguage? As if thou met with one who eyther for simplicitie or want of audacitie would gladlye haue this or that plesour at thy handes, & yet his hart faileth him to preferre his owne cause to thee, and maketh his substitute and spo­kesman, thou mayest freendly and gent­ly pick this quarrel of vnkindnes to him. As to saye, well I am not well content [Page] that you woulde not by your selfe doo me to vnderstand of this or y pleasour yt you wold me to doo for you but make others your solicitours. And [...]et godamercies yt you would finde some way and take som occasion to make profe of my good will to you ward. Wherfore knowe you that from henseforth wherein I may stande you any wayes in stead, in anye reason you shal commaund me, and for this one time I pardon your bashfullnes. By thys meanes shalt thou make him whosoeuer he be, to estéeme more of thy frendlye gentlenes, then of all that, be it neuer so muche that he woulde request of thée. Then shall the vnfained beneuolence & the vndowted courtesie of the geuer be manifest and plainely appere, when he that came to make request, after his de­parture shall haue iuste cause to saye to himself, verely I thanke God, this daye haue I made a passynge good marte.Trewe acknow­ledgīg of good wil Assuredlye it reioyceth me no lesse, but doth me asmuche good that I found him [Page 39] so tractable. As the thing whiche I haue obtained would haue done, if it had bene farre more valewable and gotten with great a doo. Undowtedly I take thought how I shalbe euer able to rendre dewe thankes and sufficient for hys pssynge gentlenes.

Chap. 4.

BUt th [...]re [...]e a nomber of so frowarde and nawghtie natures,The woorst kinde of nature that doo good. yt through their sharpe and bytter woordes annexed to their beneficēce tourne the thankes which shoulde and woulde ensewe the benefites they haue done, into méere malice, hatred, despite, and disdaine. And by such their oultrage and ouer thwart wordes, cause thē that haue receyued the same plesures, to re­pent them of euer séeking to them, and muche to be sorye that it is their hap to haue found that benefit at their handes, and to wyshe rather to haue fayled of it, [Page] then by it to be layde at so, with suche crooked language. Againe, some others three be contented to make promyse of plesour shewyng: but when they haue promised, they staye very longe before they will performe it. And surely there is no one thyng that cutteth a ma [...] more to the gall, then to be forst still to entreat as it were ane [...], for that whereof longe before he had the gouernement and pro­mis at full. Diuers there are at whose handes with more difficulty and paine a man shal get the bare doing and dispatch of a matter, then he shall at some others obtain the gift or gou [...]rnemēt of a mat­ter or sewt it selfe,Better & easier leuyng to ye hed [...]hē to the fet. and that of weyght. This man must be entreated that he wil but put his maister in mind, and sollicite the matter. That other must be desyred that he wil dispatche & do that which his maister hath graunted, yea & commonlye these wil not spēd somuch as their speche a litle, without great Fées, wheras their maister, for the thing it self graunted re­quireth [Page 40] nothing, but doth it gratis. Thus when so many are to be entreated and sewed vnto, about thobtaininge of one self thing, eche one that cōmeth after the firste grauntour diminisheth parcell of the thāks which otherwyse shold wholly redound to th [...]lye firste grauntour. And when on plesour passeth through so ma­ny handes before it hath his perfectiō, it happeth oftentimes that the least part of plesonr is his that requested it as a ple­sour [...] wherfore if thou wouldest doo a ple­sour and wouldst haue it accōpted of as a frindly plesour, then in any wise sée it be not suche that shall come from hande to hande be tost from post to pillar, and passe the pickes (as the prouerbe is) but yt it comme wholly from thy self and that immediately, to thē to whō thou woldst show suche plesour. For there is none yt can get any thankes by the gyft whyche thou geuest, but of force it muste lessen somewhat of that which otherwise shold haue bene wholly dewe to thy self.

Chap. 5.

Long delaye bre­de [...]h we­rynes. THere is nothing that brée­deth so great gryef or is suche a corosif to a man, as to be lōg foded fourth with wanne hoppe, and in fine faile of his purpose also. For few there are but had rather be abbridged of their hoping with a flat denyall at ones, then to be lingred forth with fayer promises, and finde no déedes when all is done. But there are a multitude whiche of set purpose and for vaine glory they haue to be sewed to, wil readily make fayer and faithfull promises enow, fearing leaste their nomber of sewtours wold els per­haps decay,Folish pryde. and so the blasoning of their authoritye should faile, if there were not a nomber who with their painfull and harmeful to themselues dauncing of at­tendaunce might record and testifie it to them that sée it. Suche are manye offi­cers in Court, and diuers other placed in autho­rytie [Page 41] and rowme about Princes & other Lordes of honour. Who repose no small point of glorie to rest, in manifestinge & making their pryde to be apparant, per­swading themselues it were quite dasht, vnlesse the multitude of séely folowynge sewters shoulde shew their authoritie. Lyke glorious Pecockes boasting onely in their tayle. The iniuries and wrongs that suche lyst to off [...]r are redy enough: but the pleasures whiche they shew, so slacke and faint, that their féet are not able to beare them forward. They neuer will dispatche any one sue [...] at ones Re­membring nowhyt nor troubling theyr braynes with the sayenge of the Poete comicall.

Quid? tu non intelligis tantū te gratie demere, quantum more adiicis?
Comment? nentends tu pas que moin­dres sont les graces?
Du bien, dautant ques lo [...]g auant que tu le faces?
[Page]Who doth not vnderstāde, that tra [...] of tyme and space.
The bewty of the benefit doth tho­roughly disgrace?

ANd herof cōmeth it that some of very anguish and grief after long gaping and nothinge cat­ching. For dyre payne are forst to saye. Syr I besech you if it be so that ye mind to plesour me, and to doo for me in deed as you haue long borne me in hande you woulde, doo it then. Yf the matter be of no great daunger nor difficultie, why doo you thus lingar it? I had rather you woulde quite denye to plesour me then on this wise to delaye me. Whiche tari­aūce maketh me welnigh thorough we­rye, and to lothe the benefit, rather then I woulde thus long tarye and attend for it. And is any manne to be called hasty, churlysh or disdaignefull that hauynge iust cause shall thus saye iudge you? [Page 42] No neuer adeale. For as it is a greate péece of crueltie by tractyng the time to encrese and augment a mans death, and againe a péece of courtesye to hasten the spéedy dispatche of his deth that is con­demned & néedes must dy without pardō or raunsome, rather then by lingring the time to make him die a thousād deathes, Right so deserueth that plesour inume­rable thākes that is done without delay, in respect of ye whyche is tracted by long time and delayed. For painful is the lōg wayting euen for good thinges. And for­asmuch as by sondry benefits & plesours are holpen and redressed sondrye grefes and harmes, He that causeth any man to be long vexed and greued whom he may ease quicklye, or hindreth his attayning to a benefit whom it lyeth in him to far­ther, séemeth in that, to lay violent han­des on him and for that time to conspire his death (as it were) Take this for cer­teintie.Courtesy seketh quickly to plesour. Courtesie alwaye hasteth to doo that whiche it can doo: and it is the pro­perty [Page] of him that willingly doth any ple­sour, to doo it without delaye. Who so shewed plesour and stayed but one daye to do it, dowtles neuer did it willingly, if he might aswell haue done it afore. Whereby he lost two woorthie and pre­cious thinges. The time, and the showe of frindly good will.

Chap. 6.

IN euerye thynge that is to be done, chefest regard is to be had after what order & maner eue­ry suche thinge is to be done.Delay to doo plea­ [...]our hurtfull. For like as spedy dispatching doth much aduauntage, so doth long tariaunce not a litle annoye. For as in dartes the Iron is allwayes one, and a lyke able to hurt, but the oddes and diuersitie riseth whe­ther it be cast with a strong or weke ar­me, and as the sword of it self is apt and plyaunt eyther to hurte but lyghtlye, or woūd dedly, or not at al, as force is vsed [Page 43] to it, and the place of the blow lyghtyng chosen, So fareth it by benefites: For that whiche is geuen or done remaineth alwayes one, at a stay, and vncha [...]nged, But yet the mind wt which it is geuē, de­clareth great diuersitie to be therein. How plesant and acceptable is that be­nefit, for which he will not receiue thā ­kes that dyd it, but euen while he doeth it, endeuoureth to forget that he dyd any suche plesour? Again, to taunt and check and hit one in teth with the benefit thou didst, is an apparaunt signe of a naugh­ty nature and churlishe and vnfréendly stomacke of thyne, and disgraceth that quite, whyche otherwise thou deseruedst prayse for. Sée therfore that in no wyse thy benefites be enterlaced with sorow­fulnes, or cause of discōforte. And if ther be any other thyng whereof thou woul­dest aduertise and as a frinde admonish him of, whom thou hast benefited, chose a fit and conuenient time and place ther­to, and in no wyse doo it by commemo­racion [Page] of any thy said plesours paste and done.

Chap. 7.

FAbius verucosus was wont to lyken and compare, the be­nefit whiche any hard natu­red man with paine dyd, to grauely or gréety bread. Which notwithstandyng he yt is very hard pinched with hungar, féedeth wel on, & semeth to find sauour & swetnes therin, though it be [...]er so painfull in chewing. But what doth not necessity? As none wold fede on suche bread yt might chose, and could get other, so none would accept such roughe benefits & vnplesaunt plesours, [...]nple­sant ple­sours. yt might well spare them, & doo wellenough with­out. Tiberius Cesar being requested on a time by Marcus Aelius his nephew that had bene sometime Pretor of Rome, to discharge & paye certein his Creditours their det for which he was endaūgered, willed to geue him in wri [...]inge both th [...] [Page 44] names of his said Creditours, & the som­mes also. He did not now promise to dis­charge the detts, but demaūded to know his Creditours. when he had receyued a note of their names, he wrate backe by letre to Aelius not yt he had, or wold dis­charge them, but that he had geuē com­maundment they should be discharged, with diuers sharpe tauntes and nippes, whereby though by hys meanes Aeliu [...] stode acquited of his detts, he had yet but small cause to conceiue courtesie in hym He sawst his gentlenes so stronglye and made it so sharpe that it myght séeme clene to dull the tast of Aelius Howbeit I suppose yt Tiber [...]us had a farther mea­ning therein, then was expressed: name­lye, to preuent others from makyng the lyke request to hym as his Nephew did, and therfore séemed to deale the rough­liar with Aelius to feare others frō ma­king the lyke attempte. But who that mindeth to doo a benefite a right, muste deale therein far otherwise [...]

Chap. 8.

THerefore when thou min­dest to doo anye plesure to any man, thou must ende­uour thy self what in thee doth lye, to cause the same to be most acceptable to him to whome thow doist it. For otherwyse thou coul­dest not saye it was a benefit which thou gauest, but rather a good tourne ioyned with a check and rebuke. And to say frée­lye that whiche I thinke in this behalf, Doubtles it is no Royalti [...] for a Prince to geue any thynge, whiche to doo he is enforced by compulsion or for thauoy­ding of euill report. Neyther yet could [...] Tiberius for all the slye meanes he vsed in writing so sharply to his Neuew whē he besought him to discharge certen hys dettes, auoyde that whiche (as I sayd) I dyd iudge he thought to haue forebarred others of. For not lōg after, diuers there were who made the verye same peticion [Page 45] to him as his Neuew had made before. Whom he cōmanded openlye in the [...]ace of the Senate to declare the cause why they came end [...]tted so to suche and suche their Creditours.Odious [...] maner of benefites whiche when they had exponed, he willed th [...]re shoulde be ge­uen to them certaine sommes of money towarde the discharge therof. Was this woorthie to be called Liberalitie thynke you? No verely: but rather an ignominie to his person. It maye well be termed a helpe or subsedie graunted by a Prince towarde thalleuiating the payment of a more somme. A benefit is suche a thyng that when it is done, the doer may well abyde the hearīg it reported agai [...], with­out any whyt blushing at it. If I be sent to desyer any thyng at a Iudges hand. I can there but yeeld the cause of my de­maund, if I be therto requiered.

Chap. 9.

[Page] WHereuppon it is thaduise of all wise men that we shoulde be­stowe certaine of our benefites openly, & again certain of our benefites secretly & closely. Openly al such as re­nowme followeth the attainning of thē. Of which kynd are those rewardes that are geuen for feates acheued by Cheual­rye, & suche like dignities & promociōs, which are bewtified & more commended when a multitude knoweth of thē. And these thinges wherin consisteth neyther renowme nor estimacion, but be onelye easers of néede and pouertie, and sauers of honestie, those I say are to be geuē se­cretely, that they may be knowen onely to those to whom they are avayleable. And yet in some cases we should beguiel him whō we helpe, that though he haue that that doth serue hys néede, yet he should not know at whose bandes he re­ceiued the same at that present, nor yet from whens it came.

Chap. 10.

[Page 46] ARchesilaus on a time hauynge a deare Frinde of his fallen in to pouerty, and yet for bashful­nes woulde not discouer hys greate néede, and were it for thought, or for disease fallen sycke, Archesilaus seynge and pitieng hys case, thought it was then high time of hys owne accord to socour hym though his frynde by no meanes woulde make him priuie to his necessitie. Whereuppon, takyng with hym a bagge of money went with spéed to this sycke man makynge [...]ys errande to vysyt him: and beyng sette on his b [...]d besydes hym, finding and takynge occa­sion of Talke,A trew liberall act. preuilie conueyd the bagge of money vnder the pillow of the sickeman without anye woorde speking of it, and when he saw hys tyme, toke hys leue and departed.

Wysshynge that hys frende that was more bashefull then wysedome woulde, myght yet by chaunce fynde that that myghte serue hys wantte, rather the [...] [Page] then lacke still, or ells be haplye striken out of conceit with himself that any man should know his penurye. But here will some one perhaps say. What? should not he that receiued a benefit know of whō he had it?whether it be re­quisit that he that is plesoured know by whom he was ple­soured, I aunswere agai [...]e. That at the fi [...]st, though he know not, it maketh no matter: & yet doth that so bestowynge of benefites, include a great part of prin­cipall benefic [...]nce. But when I haue thus benefited him priuilie, I will not there cesse, I will doo him sondrie other plesures besides. I will doo manye moe thinges for him whereby he may gather that it was I that did him that other ple­sour also tofore. And yet though perhaps he neuer know that he had that benefit through me, I shall notwithstandyng be sewer myself that I gaue it. But thou mayst say perhaps. That is but a simple reward. Truthe it is if thou didest it to haue gaine therby, and to reape recom­pense. But if thou hast as thou shouldest haue, respect to this point onelye, that [Page 47] that which thou geuest may plesour him to whom thou geuest it, thou geue it frée lie without any suche regard takynge. Let it suffice thee, that thy self art preuy to the gift, for els thou shouldest not sée­me to take delight in weldoing, but that thy desier were to be seene to doo well. Thou art not yet satisfied perhaps, but wilt stil saye I will néedes haue hym know it. Then tell me this. Whether thou wouldest he should thinke himself beholding to thée or no? Still thou sayes [...] thou wil [...] haue him that receyueth ple­sour at thy hādes, know whense he hath it. What if it be more profitable, if it be more honest, if it be more acceptable for him that is pleasoured, not to haue it knowen? Wilt thou not then chaunge thie minde? But all this notwithstan­ding thou wilt say he shall néedes know that he had the pleasour at thy handes. I sée wel then thou wilt not suffer hym to continew in ignoraunce and darknes. In verye deed I graunt that so often as [Page] the matter shall permit, the geuer maye if he plese take plesour of the acknow­ledging receiuer. Howbeit if it lie hym vppon that we helpe him, and agayne that it will turue him to reproche if our plesouring him shold be knowen abrod, in this case I would not that that bene­fit should be Chronicled. Thou wilt yet perhaps say. And wherfore should I not doo him to vnderstand that it was I that plesoured him? What though thys be one of the most principal preceptes to be obserued in bestowing of benefites that I shoulde not vpbrayde the same and cast hym in the tethe with it to whome I dyd it, maye I not for that shewe hym that it was I that plesoured him? No suerlye. For betwene anye two this is the Lawe positife touchyng the doynge and takyng of benefites.the l [...]w of benefi [...]es. That he that gaue, for gette so sonne as he hath geuen that he gaue anye thynge. That he that receiued the same, be neuer vnmindfull that he receiued a benefit at his handes. [Page 48] There is nothynge that more vexeth or troubleth the mynde of anye man then the often repetyng and reciting the ple­sours whiche haue bene done to him.

Chap. 11.

WHo that shoulde often tell me what benefites and plesours h [...] had done for me I woulde aun­swere hym as dyd one that hadde sen­tence geuen agaynst him that he should go into exile and be banished his natiue Lande,An exā ­ple of thē that vp­brayd o­thers wt their benefites and yet by the speciall instaunce and entreatye of a deare frynde of Ce­sars was deliuered frome the sentence executyng He then who hadde thus sa­ued him, toke the saued person and cau­sing hym to be led rounde about the Ci­tie, folowed himselfe with a lowd voyce sayeng. This is he whome I haue sa­ [...]ed from beynge banyshed.

And whē without end he perseuered this still vauntynge and triumphyng ouer [Page] him, the sellie man not able long to en­dewer his clamour, in presence of al the people sayd. I beseche thée put me again [...] ye grace of desire. Let him deale with me after his plesour. How lōg wilt thou continew thus castinge in my tethe, I am he that hath saued thy lyfe? I did de­liuer thée from banishment? if this had bene acknowledged by me without thy telling, it had bene asmuche woorth as double my lyfe, but sith that by thee it is thus notified, it séemeth woorse to me then death. I haue litle cause to thynke courtesie in thée, or to thanke thee for, if thou sauedest me onely for this ende, that thou mightest boast ouer me. Whē wilt thou cesse carienge me aboute to shew? When wilt thou suffer me to for­get my miserie and state vnfortunat? It might haue sufficed thée, and ouer much had it bene, to haue led me about the Citie onely ones in a triumphe on thys wyse, to shew what thou hadst done for me. Hereby it appereth that we shoulde [Page 49] not make report of that we haue geuen.A benefi [...] ought no [...] to be recited by hī that dyd it to hī to whom he dyd it. For who that reciteth to him whom he hath plesoured what plesour he hath do­ne for him, in that self same act séemeth to demaunde his plesour againe. We ought not by any talke séeme to put him in minde of our passed benefits done but if perhaps we thinke that obliuion hath crope in his minde, let vs doo him an o­ther plesour. That by the recept therof, he may call to memorye the former al­so. But in anye wyse we must be ware that we make no report to others, of that that we haue done. He that doth any ple­sour to any other, let hīself kéepe scilēce, and referre it wholly to the reporting of him that receiued it. To him that repor­teth what he hath done for this man and that, it were well aunswered as it was to one that had neuer done with publis­shing the plesour whyche he had shewed here and there. Wherupon one demaū ­ded the cause whye he had not made an end of reportinge his benefites syth he [Page] had bene so sufficiently recompenced for the same. When he denyed that euer he had anye recompense for anye of them and demaunded the place where. Mary quod that other in euerye suche place where thou madest anye report of them by thine owne talke. So that you may sée a manne ought not to reporte hys owne good desertes and vsurpe the office of an other. Anye other with more ho­nestie may playe that part, whose report shall purchace thée commendaciō wher­as thiue owne mouthe shall procure thée sklaunder and rebuke. In hearyng re­port made what henefites thou haste be­stowed, thou must be so chary for incur­rynge the daunger of vaine glorie, that were it so that others shoulde recite to thée, what benefites thou hast bestowed, thou muste aunswere that he whome th [...]w haste so benefyted, in thye iudge­ment was woorthye of more ample be­nefites then thy power accordyng to thy will and his desertes would permit thée [Page 50] to matche. Neyther muste thys refusall of prayse be done colourablie, and after a dissemblynge sorte, as some doo who woulde séeme to refuse thankes when indéed they moste desier them. Moreouer those whome thou doist benefitte, thou must vse courteouselie, with vnfained fréendlines. The husbandemanne vn­dowtedly were in daunger to lose bothe his séede and labour if he shoulde geue ouer paines takyng so sone as he hathe made an ende of sowing. A great deale more diligence is requyred before it com to be ripe Corne after that the séede is cast into the grounde: So that if he hope to haue the frute of his traueile and la­bour, he must with equall diligent paine passe eche point from the firste vnto the last. Ryght so muste we deale with our benefits. Can there be any getter bene­fites think you thē those that ye parents can afforde to bestow vpō their Childrē? And yet shold they quit lose the thanks & [Page] prayse precedent, if streight way in their infancie they should neglect and forsake their sayd Children, and not nourish thē vp accordinglye. So is it with all other benefits. Whiche except thou persist to maintain and make perfit thou losest al. It is but a verye small matter to haue plesoured any one, except thou continew on still in that minde. If thou desier that they whom thou plesourest should think themselues bounde to thée, vse them so that they maye thynke thou louest them still. And especiallye beware vsing anye taunting or checkyng talk that may gre­ue them to here. To nippe a man for ne­glectyng the benefites he had receiued,Inconueniences that grow by repetyng our bene­fites. bredeth werines to heare therof: and to vpbraid the plesour ones done, engen­dreth hatred. In employeng of bene [...]ites there is no one thyng so muche to be a­uoyded as pryde and arrogancie. For to what end shoulde a man in that behalfe vse hauty lookes, or many woordes to set fourth his benefits, when the thing done [Page 51] deserueth of it self sufficientlye to haue commendacion? The matters themsel­ues shall declare our actes abundantly, yea though we say neuer a woorde: It is not only a thankles benefit, but to be ab­horred also, which is skornefully geuen.

Chap. 12.

CEsar on a time gaue Pōpée the Punicien his lyfe (if we maye saye he gaue lyfe that toke it not awaye) wherup­pon when Pompée bowed downe hymself hūblie to haue reueren­ced Cesar, For his lyfe pardoned, Cesar offred him forth his lyft fote to kisse. Whiche presumptuous fact of Cesars, they that séeme to excuse, saye that he did it not for pride or disdainfulnes of mind, but for that he would he shoulde sée the golden buskin he then wa [...]e on, richelye garnyshed with perle and stone. But when all is sayde and the best they can [Page] made of it, was it not shame enough iudge you that he that semd to be borne to no other end but to chaung ye Romain liberty into the thraldome of the Persi­ans, could not find any honester or more decent place of his bodye to offer to so graue a man as Pompée was, who had also bene Consul but make him kisse the buskin vpon his foot? He made but small accompt of this, that so noble and aunciēt a man hauing borne so high dignity and office in ye weale publique, debased him­self so much as to humble himself to him vpon the ground in the presence of suche an assemblie of so many great persona­ges and men of honor, in such sorte that vāquished enemies to get grace at their Conquerous handes could not doo more. What séemed he to doo hereby, but to tread as it were dispitefully ye weale pu­blique vnder his féet? But some will say that the kyssing of his left foot could auaile but litle to the vndoyng the state of the weale publique. Uery truth but he [Page 52] shrewdly shewed his welmening mind. Ouermuche had it bene reproche to him to haue delt with so worthye a man as Pompée was in geuing sentence in such sort as he did vpō him, though after such skornefull wise he had not forced him to kysse his foot.

Chap. 13.

O Folish wantonnes and pride of men that are ones clymen to honour. O passynge great follie and madnes that rayg­gneth in them. Howe happie is he that hath not to deale with such, nor néedeth to séeke for plesour at their hādes? How sone they can tourne benefites to iniu­ries, and plesours to paine? What plea­sauntnes & delight take they in excesse? How vnséemelie are all their doynges? And how muche the loftiar they séeke to clime, somuche the lower they fal down at last. Wherby they geue mē iust cause to thinke that they know not themselfs [Page] nor weigh their astates. What may it b [...] that puffeth them vp so with pride and insolencie? Geue they neuer so muche it is counted but loste. I woulde here de­maunde of Cesar as I would also of any man ells, what it is that they beare thē ­selues so loftie on? What it is that shold chaung into woorse nature both the coū ­tenaunce and beh [...]uiour of men? Those plesures, giftes, or benefites onelye are plesaunt,The no­bler the persona­ge is y court [...] ­ouslye d [...]th hys benefit, so muche more praise worthi that are geuen or done after a courteous maner and gentle sorte. As when one that is farre my better, geueth me any thing, and yet doth not triumphe ouer me for that his munificence, but with all gentlenes and debonairety ma­keth semblaunce as if he hadde nowhyt plesoured me in suche sort as he did, cho­sing by his owne accorde to doo it, and that quickly with expedicion to preuent the time, rather then to differre it vntill I had néede. Necessarie is it therefore that suche as are disposed to plesour o­thers, take good regard that they commit [Page 53] no follie wherby they shal lose the grace of the said benefit which thei haue done, and again that they déeme the plesours they haue shewed, to be nowhit the gretter for that they are manye in nomber,Uanglorie [...] full whiche argueth for all that, neuer the greatter bounty in them. And that in any wise they auoid the desyer of vaine glory for any their suche plesours done: which causeth their doinges to be hated, whych otherwyse would be loued, commended, and had in great prite.

Chap. 14.

ANd yet some thinges there are whiche of their owne natures are hurtefull to those that re­quest the same:Confide raciōs to be had in doing ou [...] benefites which it is more fréend­lines to denie then to graūte. Wherfore in passing our graunt, we are to weygh aswell the profitte as the sati [...]fienge the minde of the requesters. For many ti­mes we make earnest pursute after thinges [Page] that are harmeful to vs, and can not of our selues discerne howe pernicious they are for vs, for that our blind affectiō for the time, dimmeth the clerenes of our iudgement. But so sone as that heat beginneth to slake, when that burnynge desier whiche erst vanquished discrecion is some what quaild, we our selues then dislike and detest the counsailours and fortherers of those euilles. For as wée should not geue colde water to him that is in the fyt of a shakyng agewe, nor we: pon to hym that is besides his wittes, no more ought we to graunt the request of euerye one by and by that humblie, ernestly, with compassion and pytye de­sireth some thinges of vs? For Reason would that we shold take as good regard to thend as to the beginninges of suche plesours as we are to doo: and that wée should geue such thinges wherby a man may take plesour not onely when he re­ceiueth them, but afterwarde also. But some one will saye to himself perhapes, [Page 54] well. I know that that whiche suche one desireth of me shall not aduauntage nor plesour him, but hurte and hindar him & yet what should I doo? He requesteth it of me so earnestly that I maye not saye him nay. Let him sée to his owne safe­garde, he shall not haue cause to blame me. This opinion is verye fals, yes ma­rye shall he haue cause to blame thee, and that woorthelie. For when he shall be better aduised on the matter, and that the hoat fit of his shalbe qualified, whye shoulde he not hate hym that in his time of follye forthred him to catche his bane? To geue the assent to harme one, is crewell pytye. And as it is a verye cha­ritable acte to saue them that through follies rage woulde without naye mis­cheue and destroye and vndoe themsel­ues, so is it to graunt hurtful thyngs to eche manne for the askynge, as sygne apparaunt of pitiefull crueltie. Let vs endeuoure to geue suche thynges that the longar they are enioyed and kepte [Page] the more plesaunt and profitable they maye appere to be, and neuer fayle of their goodnes. My money will I not ge­ue to an adulterer, for that I woulde not séeme to be a fortherer of his wickednes. But if I know preciselye suche follye to haue place in him, I will what I maye disswade him from it. Neither woulde I geue it to a common quarreller nor one that hath no staye nor gouernement of himself, for feare that an other daye he saye Suche one by louing me ouermuch and to tenderlye vndid me.

Chap. 15.

IT chaunceth oftentimes that ther is but smal oddes betwene the frendly fréendshyp that som men shew, and the euil wishing of the enemy. For what harme the fooe wisheth may chaunce to a man, thesame his verie and déere frindes ouer timelye frindlines shewed, otherwhyles procu­reth and performeth. Then see what a [Page 55] miserable and piteous case this is, that there should be but one & the same effect. and sequele both of hatred, & Loue, euill wishing and well meanyng.Regarde to be had whom & howe we benefyt. But let vs so néere as we cā to shew our good wills, geue suche thinges as shall neuer turne to our reproche. And for that it is the che [...]est point of frindship to make our frinde equall with our self, it foloweth that for his well doing and safegard we prouyde as for our owne. I will geue my frinde that he néedeth: but yet so that I bée not thereby dryuen into necessytie my self. I will gladlye help him being in daunger to be lost, but yet in suche sort that I cas [...] not away myself. I will not geue anye man any suche thing that I can not get, but if I aske it myself with reproche and shame. If I haue done plesour, I will not sprede it abrode, and by talke boast small thinges to make them seme great. Neither will I accompt of benefites re­ceiued, lesse then they deserue. And as he that casteth him in the téeth whome he [Page] hath benefited with the plesours he hath done for him, loseth there by the cōmen­daciō and grace of his benefit, so he that [...]aūteth what he geueth getteth not prai­se therby, but reproche. Let eche man ha­ue an eye to hys owne habilitie, and that accordyng to that, he geue neyther more nor lesse. Let him again in geuing, haue a good respect to the person to whom he geueth. For as there are some thynges whiche for their smalnes of vallew are not to be geuen to men of estimacion, so are there again other some things more then méet to be geuen to meane or sim­ple persons. For which cause there is to be weighed aswel the qualitie, condiciō, and desert of the Receyuer, as of him that geueth, & coutrarywise. Wherfore suche thynges as thou geuest, note well whe­ther they be more then thow mayest wel geue, or accordinge [...]o thine abilitie and state. Againe, whether they be such that he to whom thou geuest the same, maye wel enough accept for the worthines, or [Page 56] refuse or at least make small accompte therof for their sclendernes.

Chap. 16.

ALexander on a time (as he was desirous to séeme magnificēt) taking no regard nor makyng any accompt of any thing except it were of very great valew, made offer to a sim­ple man that hadde plesoured him some way, to geue him a great lordshyp i [...] re­compense. He to whom this offer was made, weighing with himselfe his own meane astate, and fearing the enuye and disdaigne yt som others, (as he thought) myght conceyue agaynste hym that he shoulde be so farre aboue many of them rewarded, strayned muche courtesie to receiue it, alledgyng that he was but a simple man, & far vnfit to haue suche a reward. To whom Ale [...]ander aunswe­red. It is not thye fytnes to receyue, but my fytnes to geue, that I regarde. [Page] Dowtles this proceded of a stowt and bountifull hart, and yet though a kynge pronounced it, it was but folishly spokē. For hauing regard to himself onely and his owne woo [...]thin [...]s alone, he shoulde geue nothing. It is expedient in geuyng giftes,Circū ­stances to be no­ted in bestowyng ben [...]fites to note both the gyft, the persone, his qualities, the time, ye cause, the place, and all other circumstaunces, without whiche, dew order in geuyng can not be obserued. Note here the passinge great arrogancie and pryde of Alexander. If it were not méete for the poore man to ac­c [...]pt that offer, neither was it fit for hym to g [...]u [...] it to him. Dewe consideracion ought to be had bothe to the personag [...]s and their degrées. And seyng that the [...]hefest point of any vertew is to obserue a mesure and indifferencie, it is aswell to be adiudged a faulte what excedeth & is to muche, as that that is ouersparing and wanteth. Though fortune had delt so fauourablie with Alexander. That he thought a Citie as small a gyft as he [Page 57] with his honour might ge [...]e, was it not also thinke you a tokē of as noble a hart in the poore man that refused the accep­taunce of a towne when it was offred him? Yet verely. For though Alexander had suche an insaciable and gréedy appe­tite that he coulde deuoure and swallow vp a nomber of whole contreyes & Real­mes as [...]e did in his dayes, rasing them downe, wasting them and leuyng them desolate as if there had neuer bene anye suche thynges, and yet neuer surfet any whit vpon it, yet he shoulde weigh that there were in lyke maner some febler stomackes that were not able to digest one lordshyp.

Chap. 17.

DIogenes surnamed Cini­cus for his bestly and dog­like lyfe,An honorable a [...] ̄ ­swere of antigonꝰ desired king An­tigonus on a time that he would geue him a Talent [Page] of siluer. Antigonus aunswered that it was not fit for suche one as he was to demaunde so great a gift. Then Dioge­nes seyng that he was denyed ye request for the valew besought him to geue him a peny. That againe quod Antigonus is lesse then is fyt [...]ing for a king to geue [...] Suche shifting of men is verie dishonest For by this meanes he ridde hymselfe from geuing any thing at all. In the as­king of a penye he regarded the honour of his owne astate, in the demaundynge of a Talent he respected the simple con­dicion and degrée of Diogenes: though he myght wellenough for hys habilitie haue geuen both the peny as a méet gift agreable with the pouerty of Diogenes and the Talent also as a gyft age fit­tinge with the magnificence of a kynge to geue. And though that one sounded somewhat more in valew thē that Dio­genes symple astate myghte well de­maund, that other notwithstandyng that it was verie small yet was it séemelye [Page 58] enough in dew place, and time for hym to geue. If any one therebe now will say that indéed Diogenes ought not to de­maunde so great a somme, I wil also as­sent thereunto. For to saye the truthe it is not méete that any suche one shoulde request money whiche is himself an o­pen despiser of the same. And if he pro­fesse that he quite contemneth money, it shall behoue him altogether to declare hymself to perseuer in that minde, and to playe the part of Cinicus thoroughlye, and not to haue a desyer to be riche and yet to colour it vnder a cloke of volunta­rye pouertye. But retourne we to our present matter in hand. Who that is to geue any gyft, ought to take as good re­gard to his own person, as to his to whō he geueth it, and both alyke. [...] good similitude of Tenis playe. To the apt declaracion whereof me séemeth I can not vse a fytter similitude then that of Chrisippus whyche he vseth of tossynge the handeball. For sewerlye when the ball falleth to the grounde, it hap­peth [Page] so to doo through the defaulte of thone of the players. But then the bal kéepeth his corse trimliest, when with lyke indifferēcie of both Partes it is cast and tossed from that one [...]o that other, and is not suffred to fall to the grounde. In whyche behalf, the conninge player will take good regard not to cast it at all times a like, with the lyke strength, but will be sewer to moderate or encrease the same according to the nigh standing or farre of beyng of his companion. The whiche consideracion is to be had in be­stowing of benefites. For vnlesse they be fytlye applied to the persons both of the geuer & Receyuer, questionles they shal neyther depart from the geuer, nor come to him whom they are ment vnto, dewly and as they ought to doo. And yet far­ther respect is also to be had herein. For lyke as if we are to playe with one well practised at Tennys, howsoeuer we hap to strike allmost, yet he for hys execcise and practise, if any fault happen in our [Page 59] playe, with his quiuernes and redines can well hide it and saue it from beinge openly espied by them that stande by. But if we haue to deale therin with one that is mere vnskilful and voyd of knowledge, then behoueth it vs to be the more circumspect, and with our playe whyche must be vsed with great obseruaunce & moderacion, direct and gouerne his play, and (as it were) take on vs both the part of the stryker fourth and sender backe a­gaine. If he stand far of, to playe euen in his bosome, and if he strike short, to pain our selues to runne and méete it as it commeth. And so must we doo in bestow­ing of benefits. At first we must instruct and teache them how they must doo, and thinke it enough if we perceaue that thei will endeuour, applie, and declare them­selues willing to doo as we teache thē. But indéed to saie the truthe we our sel­ues for the most part that doo plesours,Ingratitude oft growth by vs. are the causers that there be so many in­grate and vnthankefull people as there [Page] are, and cause them so to continew. For when we haue ones done suche a plea­sour as is indéed of great valewe, and more a great deale then he to whom it is done is able to make recompence for, or to rendre the lyke, we should deale as do these crafty gamesters that gladly wold get and traine into playe some symple bodye to cosin him (as they say). Whych deuise of theirs that they may the ease­lier bring to passe, they affirme constāt­lie that they are as vnskillfull in playe as possible is for anye to be. And when they haue ones by litle and litle trayned him in, to make and as the prouerbe is, then to encourage him to playe franke­lie, they lette him at the first draw good handes on them to geue him a stomacke to holde on, whiche dowtles the simple manne coulde neuer doo if they shoulde playe their best, neyther woulde that sel­lye soule except he were verye singlie soulde, venter his money emong them were it not that they with their owne [Page 60] losses for the time tolle him forward vn­till he haue with exercise and through practise got him a bold stomacke. But there are a nomber nowe a dayes that when they haue ones done a plesour to a manne, they had rather lose altogether and cause him whome they haue bene­fited to become m [...]re vnthankefull, then they woulde séeme to admitte his than­kes geuing, and accept them in lieu and place of sufficient recompence of their former benefites. A prowd kinde of peo­ple, and suche as loose themselues the whole grace of their sayde desertes. How muche better and séemelier were it and more courtesie to be though in thē, to co [...]ceiue so good opinion of them whō they pleasured, as they woulde thother shoulde of them for beynge plesoured at theyr handes? To seeme still to owe lyke good will to them? To deeme cour­teously of meane thynges, and to accept and allow their rendryng thankes som­while in place of ful recompense of their [Page] gentlenes: In fine, to shewe themselues so well meaning to thē when they haue plesoured, that with al their hartes they will be content to discharge them, from so muche as thinkyng that they woulde loke they should owe any thyng to them for the plesour they receiued, or that thei lok [...]d to reape any plesour at their han­ [...]s agayne for the same?The vs [...] r [...]r. The cruell vsurer whye is he cry [...]d out vppon and detested of al men, but for that he taketh vnre [...]sonable interest, or for delayeinge of men and making by his such delayes, mens néede more vrgent to thende that they should geue him his owne askyng? But as a man in no wise should aske re­co [...]pence for his benefits and plesures done, so ought he easelye to admyt and accept in good part an [...]e thinge (were it neuer so small) that séemed to be rendred by waye of recompense for the same. Undowtedly he is worthie highlie to be commended in this behalf, that of hys owne accord, willīgly bestoweth his be­nefites, [Page 61] without euer requiring recom­pense: and yet if haplie he find courtesie to be shewed for them, he reioyc [...]th pas­singlie at it. And for all that he neuer thought vppon them longar then whyle he was doing of thē. Therfore if any re­compense be haplye aunswered him for the same, he accepteth it, not as dew for anye his desertes (hauinge clene forgot what he dyd) but as a good tourne done to him causeles.

Chap. 18.

ANd as there are some kind of men whyche with great pride and arrogancie geue their benefites and plesu­res,How we ought to r [...]ceiue benefits. so are ther other some whyche in lyke maner receyue amysse suche plesures as are done to them: whi­che in no wise shoulde be committed. Now for a time let vs leue her shewing how men ought to doo plesures, and let vs now declare after what order menne [Page] should receiue them at others handes. Euerye dewty that hath relacion and respect to two persons, requireth the like of thone as it doth of thother in eche de­grée. For who that lyst thoroughlye to examine and skanne what is required to be in a Father, or incident to that name, let him vnderstand that asmuch and no­whit lesse is to be required in hym that shal beare the name of a childe. Diuers thynges there are to be loked for at the hu [...]bandes hande to his wyfe, and no [...]ewer ne lesser are there to be required at the wyues hand toward her husband. And as it is impossible that thone of the­se coulde kéepe hys name but in respect of the other, as to witte to be a Father if he haue not a Childe, or a husbande if he haue not a wyfe, ryght so is there for their better conseruacion, a mutuall and lyke dewtye to be required for eche at others handes, whiche is verye hard. For as Hecaton sayth. Euery perfit ho­ [...]est thinge is full of difficultie. And by [Page 62] the same reason, so is euerye other thin [...] the néerer it approcheth to the absolute perfection, in respect of that that is not so nighe. All thynges of whiche order, it is not sufficient to doo, but it is requisit to doo them by Reason. Reason must be sturreswan and hold the helme. Reason muste guyde them and direct them the waye. Both matters of least weyght [...] and thynges of grettest importaunce must néedes be ordred by Reasons rule. And as she shall will and councell vs, ryght so must we dispose our selues and our doyngs. And as for her, wot you wel she will not aduise you to accept bene­ [...]ites and plesours at eche mans hande.Benefits ought not to be takē at eche mās hād. At whose handes then (it may hap) you will saye shall we receiue plesours? To whyche question to aunswere brieflye, know you that we shoulde chiefely wish to receiue them at their handes, to whō we to fore haue done the lyke. For with far more diligence ought we to séeke out him to whō we may owe a good turn thē [Page] one to whom we maye lend it. For to thend we may auoyd al discommodities and that none should ensew, wherof not­withstāding follow many diuers times, it can not but be a grief to becom bound to him to whom thy self would not. And againe it is a ioyful thing and right ple­saunt to receiue plesour at his handes whō thou nowe louest, although he ha­ue harmed thée sometime before. Again there is no one thing so displeasaunt or that greueth an honest nature somuche, as of force to be compelled to loue or owe dewtye to him whome by no mea­nes he can abyde. Howbeit I muste still put you in minde that I speake not these thinges ne geue these preceptes to sober wise men who delyght in nothyng but that whyche is reasonable,To whō these pre­cepts are geuen. and brydell their affections with the raynes of equi­tie prescribyng to themselues Lawes and good orders, and follow them when they haue so done, but I geue these pre­cept [...]s to ignoraunt and vnskillful men, [Page 63] who thoughe they haue a verie earnest zeale and desier to mesure their doinges and lyfe by Reasons lore, yet doo their fond affectiōs and folish fantasies beare suche sway in them, that néedfull it is to geue them often aduertisementes what is most e [...]pedient for them to doo. It ap­pereth then that we must vse discrecion in chosing out him of whom we will re­ceiue any benefit or desier to be plesou­red. And to be plaine with far more dili­gence and héed takyng should we séeke out him by whom we woulde be plesou­red, then we would do any one to borow money of. For to him tha [...] I borow mo­ney of, I am not boūd to yéeld any more, but so muche money againe as I recei­ued. Which whē I haue deliuered & paid I am for that discharged, and on clere bourd with him. But to him at whose handes I haue receiued a benefit, I can not be so excused. I owe to him far more then I receiued. For when I haue re­paied that or asmuche as he gaue to me, [Page] yet are we bound to be Frindes assured the one to the other, and so to continew. And when I haue rendred, to him as­muche as I haue receiued, then muste I streight waye begine afresh againe. To whiche coniunction the Lawe of trewe fréendship and amitie would not that we should admit any one that is vnworthie. Suche I saye and so strayt is the sacred Lawe of benefites, from whense, and by whose meanes procedeth loue betwene man and man, and is thereby establisht and confirmed. I may not yet allwayes (will some chaunce to saye) refuse a ple­sour that is offred. For somewhiles I maye be constrayned to accept it whe­ther I will or not. As admitte that a cre­we [...]l Tyraunt shoulde offer to doo me a plesour and would thynke I scorned his gyft if I should refuse it whereuppon he woulde with displesour take occasion to woorke me some great mischief, might I in this case take it or no? Againe put the case that some Pyrat or Théefe that [Page 64] stil perseuereth in his Piracie or robbery will offer to doo me any passynge great pleasure, what will you aduise me to doo in thys case? wel I knowe that none of all these is suche that I maye well thin­ke myself bounde to anye of them for anye plesour they shall happe to shewe me. What shall I therefore doo? I aun­swere thee that it resteth in thy choyce to whom thou wilt yelde thy sel [...]fboun­den. Howbeit so that thy sayde election be free and quite deuoyd frome all vio­lence and terour. But if anye of them happe to come in place, all free choyce muste of fine force stande abacke. If thou befree, and that it lyeth whol­lye in thy handes to take whyche thou lyst, then note well my woordes I haue sayd: But if thou be barred of that free choyce and libertie,A benef [...]te enforced not to bee repayd as of dewty then note wel thou doest not chose it, but hast it perforce for that thou canst not auoid it. Noman hath cause to thynke himself bounde for the hauynge of that whyche he could not be [Page] suffred to forgoe. Well then sith thou knowest what my minde is herein, shew me how I may doo to refuse it. Admytte that any suche as thou didest name hath pardoned thee thy lyfe. That maketh no matter. For it recketh not what ye thyng be that is geuen, except it be done by one that is minded to doo it, and that to him that is minded to receiue it. Though suche one hap to saue a mans lyfe, he de­serueth not therefore to be called a pre­seruer of lyfe. The strongest poyson that is somewhile serueth in better steade then the holesomest medicine that is, & yet is it not nombred amōg the holsome thinges that are commenly to be eaten. Wherby it appereth that diuers things there be that be good and profitable to be receiued at some time, and yet he that re­ceiueth them hath not to thinke himself any whyt bound for the recept therof.

Chap. 19.

[Page 65] THere was on a tyme one sent purposely to kil a Ti­rant. And beinge come in place where he was:Some receiue Ple­sours and ye [...] are to thīke thē selu [...]sbō [...] for [...]he [...]ame. with his naked sword strake him And supposing he hadde geuen him hys deathes wound fled incontinent for be­ing apprehended. Nowe it chaunced so that the blow did light vpō a great swelling whiche the sayd Tiraunt had vpon his bodye, whiche was growen so peril­louse that al the expertest Phisicians he had, durste not vndertake to cure it and warrant his lyfe. And yet by the chaunce that he was cut so in that place, the cor­ruption that there was longe gathered and festred purged so, that in short while he recouered his parfytte helthe of that place by meane of that blow, whom all hys most practysed Phisicians had be­fore geuen vp, as past al recure. And yet dyd not the Tirant yéeld him any than­kes for that by his cuttinge him he was restored to his helthe, neyther dyd he de­serue [Page] any. So you may perceiue hereby that a man may somtimes doo that acte to an other that maye be great proffet to him and turne to his great good, and yet not allwayes to be accompted of, as of a benefit. Except it doo procéed of a méere good will from the very first beginning, it is not to be called a benefit. For ple­sour that proueth so but by happe hazard and chaunce medely, is rather to be dée­med an iniurye well prouing, then a be­nefit well mente. There was on a time (as the vsage was oft in Rome) in the Theatre (a place apointed for people to stande vppon and beholde the spectacles and shewes,) diuers men that had sen­tence of death past on them put, and cer­t [...]ine crewell wild bestes let in vnto thē, there to fight those cōdemned men with the beastes in the presence of the Ro­mains, and there eyther acquite them­selues by slayeng the bestes or elles be slaine themselues there in presence of the people. Amonge the residew of the [Page 66] condemned men there was one brought who before time had the keping of a cer­teine great Lyon, whiche beast also as it fortuned was brought in place and put in among the other beastes vnto the cō ­demned men standing at their defence. And when the Lyon had a while romed him about the place in his stately pace vewing and notyng eche one that stode in his daunger, forthermore he remēbred him that sōmetime had bene his keper and maister: and therwithall soudainlye caste himself betwene him and thother crewell bestes and defended him against all their assaultes. And what thynke you of this helpyng? Was not this suppose you woorthy to be called a benefit? No verelye. For neyther of these that I haue tolde you of, dyd that whiche they dyd, for thys that they mynded at the fyrst beginninge it should proue so wel, or for that they ment it shoulde woorke anye plesour to them to whom they dyd it. So that in thys respect you may [...] [Page] very well matche the wild and saluage beast, and him that was sent [...]o slea the Tiraunt together. Both he and the Liō were causers of sauing of lyfe, and yet neyther that one nor that other could be sayd to doo any benefyt. A man is not to be sayd to receiue any thyng as a bene­fit whiche is so forced vpon him that he can not refuse it. Neyther is he to be said to owe plesour to him to whome wil­lingly he would not be beholdynge. If thou minde to plesour me, let me first be at frée libertye to chose whether I will accept or refuse thine offer at my plesure & then if I will accept it, doo thy plesour.

Chap. 20.

IT hath bene called in question her [...]tofore touchynge Marcus Brutus whether he wer worthy to haue his lyfe at Iulius Cesars handes or no sith that he ones gaue hys sentence of deth vpon Iulius. This iud­gement [Page 67] after what order it was hand­led, I will not here reporte. Trulye in myne opinion although he were in all other thynges a verye notable man and great praise worthie, yet in this point he ouershotte himselfe muche, and no whyt folowed the doctrine and precepts of the Stoiques iu that he séemed to dislyke & sought to destroy the name and a s [...]ate of a kyng, seyng that the best state of well gouerning any weale publique séemeth to be when any Realme is administred and gouerned by one iuste kyng:Monar­chy y best state of wele pu­blique. or for that he dowted there would ensew ouer­muche libertie in the Citie, when all should be at the commaundement of one man who by large rewardes myght as it were hyer men to obey him, or els for feare he had, lest the auncient vses rytes and customes of that common welthe beynge adnihilated, made frustrate and quite abrogated, ye Citie of Rome should be reduced to the former state when it was at the beginning thereof vnder the [Page] Tyrannye of kynges. And that all good Lawes edictes and ordinaunces about whiche he had knowen so many thousā ­des ready to cut one an others throte (not for that they contended to be frée and dis­charged from owing allegeaunce, but for that they knew not redely to whom they should doo it,) should now be cleane for­got. But sée how muche he forgat bothe the natural course of things, and the for­tune of his owne cōtrey also: persuading himself that if it were so that Cesar wer ones dispacht out of the waye, who gaue this firste attempt to reduce the weale publique of Rome to be a Monarche, the matter had bene safe enowgh for euer after any other assayeng it againe. And yet knewe he well enowgh that before time after that a nomber of the Romaine kynges had bene slaine some by sworde, some by thonder and lightninge downe from heauen, there succeded yet after them, Tarquinius one farre woorse then anye of them that were gone. But to [Page 68] come againe to our matter in hande. Whether Brutus was woorthie of his life or not. Uerely I iudge he was woorthy to haue his lyfe pardoned him at Cesars hande, but yet that Cesar had not to ac­compt of him ne to call him Father as the guyse was there to name the Sena­tours. For eche one that killeth not a man when he may, is not therfore to be said the sauer of his life, nor that he hath done him a be [...]efyt, but rather pardoned him for that time.

Cha. 21.

BUt this seemeth woorthye to be dowted of,A pleso [...]r shold not be recey­ued at a naughty persons hande. if a mer­veilous dishonest man and suche one as is quyte de­uoyde of regarde of God and all godlines, and that [...]abandoneth [...]ymself ouer whollye to all myschefe villanie and nawghtines hap to get me in that trippe that it is in hys handes [Page] to graunt me lyfe or slaye me, and of hys owne accord he promyseth my deliuerie francklie, what shall I doo in this case? Should I accept my deliueraūce at such a mans hand? And if I doo so, what thā ­kes shall I rendre to him for my suche deliuerie? shall I content myself to lyue with him, and frame my lyfe after hys filthie condicions? No seuerly: what shal I then doo? I shall tell thée. Yf I were taken prysoner and were to paye Raun­some for my deliuerie, and beynge with­out money myself, such one as thou hast named would offer to geue me francklye so muche as should dispatche the matter: well I would take it, but yet not as any benefyt, but as somuche money borowed to serue the néede I was in, makyng f [...]ll accompt to repaye it againe, as I would doo: and besides the repaiment of the mo­ney, if I shoulde hap to sée hym that dy [...] me that gentlenes for the time, in anye perill or daunger, I would what in me laye saue hym. Or if I sawe him stōble [Page 69] or redie to fall, I would staye hym vp. But as for ioyning any fréendshyp with him, (which can be but betwene thē that be of lyke disposition,) that woulde I ne­uer do [...] And that which is more, I would not accompt of him as of one that saued my life, but as one to whom I owed that whiche I receiued of him in time of my neede,we ought not to receiue plesour at our frī ­des hande if y doing of ye a [...]e may hurt him that off [...]th it whiche I would also paye him. A­gaine, there is some man whose owne proper woorthines and desertes woulde that I should accept his benefites offred: Howbeit, for that I know wel and stand assured that it shall turne to hys owne harme if he should doo them, I may not receyue the same. As if I were culpable of a fact so apparaunt that it could not be denyed, nor auoyded, and yet one my ve­rie frinde for the authoritie he beareth or otherwise offreth to dispatche me and saue me harmeles whyche I know well he is able to performe, howbeit if he should do it suche clamour woulde aryse thereby that it woulde purchace him he­uie [Page] displesour at ye Princes hand in this case I ought not to desyer hys benefitt, nor admit it if himself should offer it, but shoulde rather put my self to stande the iump and dawnger of the matter, then that my frind by my meanes, & to shewe me plesour shold be displesoured or har­med. But if you will haue a notable exā ­ple of one that refuced proffit & commo­ditie being offred which hitteth our pre­sent purpose fully,A notable exāple of refusing profit of­fred. marke thē the worthy exāples of Crecinus Iulius a notable man, whom Cesar slew for this onely that he was indéed a mā of more worthines thē méet to be about suche a Tyraunt. Ta­king vpon him at a time to set forth cer­teine spectacles & shewes which would grow to his great chargs, diuers his frē ­des for the ease of his burthen, wer con­tributary with their porcions. Amōg the residew one Fabius Persicus sent him an exceding great sōme, which Iulius by no meanes would receiue. Wherof his frē ­des hauing knowledge, & blaming hym [Page 70] much for it, Shal I quod he receiue a be­nefitte or plesour at his handes whom I would not pledge if he dranke to me? Not lo [...]ge after, one Rebellius a noble man for aucthority as of ye order of Con­sulls, but in qualities resembling Persi­cus, sent lykewise a passinge great deale of money to Iulius, & vrged merueilous ernestly the receipt therof vpō him. I be­seche thée pardon me quod Iulius, for not many dayes agoe, I refused the lyke of­fer also made to me by Persicus [...]

Chap. 22.

WEll then if we haue ones deli­berated and determined fullye to accept the plesour that is of­fred,That we ought ioyfully re­ceiue the plesours that are done too vs. let vs in any wyse receiue it ioyful­ly, and declare outwardly what inward mirthe and plesour we conceiue at it. That the geuer maye apparauntly sée wée do so, to thend he may streight way repe some cōmoditie & proffit by meane [Page] of his said benefit. For doutles it is a full cause of reioycing, to sée our frindes mery and reioyce. But it is a farre more iust cause of reioycing to vs if by our meanes they haue that cause of their suche re­ioycing and myrth. Therfore when we are plesoured let vs apparauntly declare our reioycing without fayning, and that not in the presence of hym onely who hath so plesoured vs, but ells where al­so. For who that after suche a thankfull maner hath accepted the plesour whyche was done vnto him, hath euen in that repayd and discharged the firste dewtie that was to be demaunded for the same.

Chap. 23.

A reprehē sion of thē that well r [...]ce [...]ue bene [...]ites in [...]net onelye. SOme there are y neuer wold receyue any benefit or plea­sour but pryuatele and in se­cret. Refusing to haue anye present that might recorde it. Whereby it appereth howe euill their minde and [Page 71] intent is. For how muche a benefitte or plesure done by any one doth more plese and content the fantasie of him to whom it is done, so muche the more ought he who receiueth the same, to publyshe and spred the respect therof abrode, to the cō ­mendacion of him at whose hādes he re­ceiued the same. If thou be ashamed to confesse it and acknowledge the recept therof, refuse also to take it. Some there are that be content to render thanks for the plesour that hath bene shewed them, by stelthe as it were, and in a corner pri­uely. But indéed that procedeth not of bashfulnes, but is rather to be iudged a flat denyall of that they haue receiued. He is well worthie to be déemed an vn­thankfull man that acknowledgeth the benefitte he hath receiued and rendreth thankes for the same then onely when no man is present. Some in no wise wil haue anye witnesses present when they are to be plesoured that myght testifye the geuing and recept therof, nor will [Page] geue any writing of their hand to record it. Whereby they declare their desier plainly to be, that the benefit or plesour that is done to them, may be kept as se­cret as may be. They would not haue it publisht openly, to thend they may vaūt that they got suche office, dignitie, pre­ferment, or welthe, rather by their owne wyt and pollicie, then by the meane and liberalitie of any other man. And com­monlye suche menne as these, shew thē ­selues most slacke and negligent of all others in acknowledging and requiting the dewty whiche of ryght maye be de­maunded well at their handes by them to whom they owe both that good a state of their life, and their attainement to ho­nour. And thus while they refuse to ac­knowledge that whiche they haue recei­ued, and render that dewtie which is in­cident thereto, they throwe themselues hedlong into a merueilous daūger. Na­melie to deserue the name of Ingrati­tude and vnthankfulnes.

Chap. 24.

AGain, other some there be of so [...]uill and vile natures that they doo not onely for­get and neglect to doo such dutie as they ought, to tho­se who haue benefyted th [...]m, but they report more [...]uer most villanye of those who haue done them moste good. So that it is as good to displease some kind of people as to plesour thē. Where­in they séeke after a dispitefull maner, matter to cleare them from owing anye dew [...]ie at all. Howe muche the more they wrastle agaynst, so muche the more it manifesteth their nawghtye and can kard natures, and purchaceth commen­dacion to the parties whome they séeke to deface, by bringing to lyght and dis­closyng their woorthie actes. Whereas ind [...]ed wee shoulde endeuour to thutter­most of our power to kep & retaigne fast in our memory suche plesours as haue [Page] bene done to vs: and still renew them by often calling them to our remembraūce. For impossible it is to requite them if we doo not remember them. And if anye benefit or plesour be offred vs, we shold not accept it ouer rashelye and rudelye, n [...]ither yet refuse it ouer bashfullye. For who that at the first offer made of a benefit,Diuers sortes of vnthāke­full men. taketh it as if he cared not much for it whether he had it or not, what iud­ge you he will esteme of it after a while when it waxeth stale? (sith that the che­fest reioycing for the hauing of a ben [...]fit, if there be any reioycing at all, is at the very first acceptaūce of it.) An other sort there are that take benefites when they are offred, after a lothesome maner. As who shoulde saye. In faith I néede not greatly this courtesie & frendlines why­che you offer me: Howbeit sith you will néedes force it vppon me, you shall com­maund me to take it, and vse me herein for this time at your plesour. Som other receiue a plesour offred so carelesly that [Page 73] he that gaue it maye in maner stande in doute whether he that receiued it hadde any perseueraunce that he was plesou­red or no. Some againe for anye benefit done vnto them will scantlie or but a litle moue their lyppes to ye geuer: whi­che is yet far worse and sauoreth muche more of Ingratitude, then if they had al­together held their peace and sayd neuer a worde. Whereas indéed a man shoulde accordyng to the quantitie or qualitie of the benefit that is done to him, commēd and extolle the same with wordes: which maye import his gratefull acceptaunce and vnfayned wellyking of it.Waies to shew our selues thākfull. As to say. Syr through the plesour you did me such a time, you haue wonne the hartes of moe then you are ware of. For there is no man but would that his well doynge shoulde be publyshed and knowen to a great many. Again thus. Syr you know not howmuche your benefits which you bestowed vppon me stode me in steade, howbeit I ne may ne will in any wyse [Page] cōceale it from you, but must let you tū ­derstand that I was much more plesou­red thereby then as then myself wened for. And who that vnfainedlie & without glosing doth on this sort charge himself, can not be iudged to cōceiue vnthankful lye of the plesour he founde. As thus to saye. In verie déed I graunt I am in no wise nor respect able to rendre you dew thākes according to your desertes & yet shall I not cesse ne fail at any time to ac­knowledge & cōfesse my said vnablenes.

Chap. 25.

THere was nothīg that pur­chaced Furnius somuch fa­uour & beneuolence at Au­gustus hādes, or y brought him to that passe that he might request & obtaine what he wolde, as dyd that his humble acknowledging with submissiō of the fauour, goodnes, & bownte whiche Augustus had shewed [Page 74] him, & his extolling the same without all flatterie. For being on a time driuen to be a peticioner for his Fathers lyfe to Augustus, & obtayning graunt of his re­quest,A nota­ble & thā [...] ful saieng of Furius to Augu­stus. he sayd. Truly there is nothing O Cesar that greueth me so muche, as that I shall now by thy meanes liue grate­full (as hauing shewed part of my dewty to my Father) and shall dye ingrate and vnthankfull, (as not able to requite thye goodnes.) Sée now what more euident or apparant argument can there be of a mindefull, carefull, and thankfull hart, then to graunt that by no meanes he can be perswaded euer to haue yelded than­kes enoughe and dow recompēse: and to confesse plainly to be quyte exempt from all hope of euer beynge able to attayne thereto? with these I saye or suche lyke woordes let vs declare and shewe what ernest inward good will we haue to our power to requite the benefites we haue receyued. Or if perhappes by woordes wee be not able to vtter it as we ought [Page] to doo, yet let vs in suche sort as we may declare our vnfained desier to make re­compense. In whiche behalfe assured lie our minde will not fayle by our face to shew how we are bent that waye. Who that receiueth a benefit thankfullie, in the verye time of receiuinge it studieth how he should make recompense for it. Chrisippus sayeth that lyke as he that is appointed to runne for a wager, muste watche diligentlie to get the start of hys fellowe, or he that is in prison wayteth when he maye finde best oportunitie to breke pryson and saue hymself, so beho­ueth it hym that hath bene plesoured, by all meanes he canne, to deuise and study howe he maye fynde conuenient tyme to requite the benefyt he hath re­ceyued: and if he happe to find that opor­tunitie to laye sure hol [...] on it, that it es­cape him not.

Chap. 26.

[Page 75] NOw we haue next to con­sider what it is that cau­seth menne to sh [...]w them­selues vnthankful. Which in mine opinion ryseth by some of these thinges. To wytte ouer­muche arrogancie,Causes of Ingr [...] ti [...]ude. self lykynge of hys owne doinges or substaunce, couetous­nes, or enuye. These take I to be the principal heds out from whense Ingra­titude floweth and taketh his beyng. And to thend we may examine thē thorough­lye, let vs beginne with the firste, and so descend from one to an other. There is no vnthankful man al most, but (I war­raunt you) he wil be thonly iudge of hys cause himself. And thens groweth it that what he hath receiued, he thynketh it nomore then he hath deserued, and so iudgeth it not worth the while to recō ­pense, as skant worth any suche labour of his. And to confirme his opinion and make his tale good, Thus will he saye. Truthe it is nor I will not denye but [Page] suche one dyd this or that for me. But how long was it I pray you ere I could obtaine it?The sayeng of thūthāk­full man. What labour susteined I a­bout it? Howmuche more might I haue benefited miself if I had bestowed ye ser­uice about suche one or suche one, or if I had not troubled miself at all, but lyued quietly wt mine owne? I wis I had well hoped I should haue bene far otherwise rewarded at his hādes. I had bene better to haue bene without his plesours, then to haue endured half these troubles as I haue done about the gettyng of them, & they in thend to be so worshipful as they are.

Chap. 27.

CNeus Lentulus (surnamed ye sothesaier) was in his time noted to be a mā of passing great welth, vntil such time y certein which had bene his bōdmē and wer by him enfraunchised, despoiled and robbed him.Lentulus great co­ [...]et [...]e and a [...]ryce. This Lentulus (as the report went) sawe of his own proper goods together [Page 76] at one time ten Millions of Crow­nes which at those dayes was coūted in­finite, as at these days it wer a good roūd sōme. And in that I sayd he sawe them I said very well. For indéed he dyd but sée thē. For that only excepted, he had no vse of them. Of a passing dull & doltish wyt he was in all other respectes, saue onely in muckering vp of money. And for all yt he was an exceding couetous miser, and suche a penie father as would part with nothing, yet with more ease might an o­ther get money from him thē he coulde himself bring forth any redy and plaine talk, so great an impedimēt he had in his speche. And wheras of dewty and ryght he should haue adscribed all his aduaun­cement and attainemēt to welth to Au­gustus, to whome at first he came bare enoughe, but what through the greate fauour of Augustus. What through mo­ney wherewith he made waye for hym­self, he was nowe become to be as it were a Prince in the Citie.

[Page]And yet for all that, neuer ceast he com­playning to Augustus howe for his sake he had geuē ouer his boke, and receyued in recompense nothing the lyke plesour nor gaine as he lost by leuing his studie. Wherevpon Augustus ouer and besides all that he hadde els done for him, dis­patcht him also from hauing anye more cause to cōplaine him in that sort. Thus maye you sée that couetousnes will not permit a man to shew himself thankful,Co [...]etousnes bur­neth thākfulnes. though he haue neuer so great and iuste cause so to doo. For to him that is alto­gether set on hauing, impossible it is to geue so muche, vntill he saye ho. Howe muche more we haue, somuche more we desier to haue. And loke how muche the more we grow to abundaunce, somuche the hotter waxeth the fier of our coue­tousnes within vs, as we sée the flame of the fyer to be somuche the more feruent, as thabundaunce of substaunce of woode ministreth occasion.Ambiciō bredeth Ingrati­ [...]de. Neyther wil Ambi­cion and inward disyer of honour permit [Page 77] a man to rest himself in that degrée and estate, whervnto some time before, him­self would neuer for shame haue desired to aspyre. For if haply he be chosen Tri­bune, he doth not adiudge that office thā ­kes worthye except he be prefer [...]ed to be a Pretor. And hauing attained therunto, yet he holdeth not himself cōtēt vntil he be made Cōsul Neither wil be rest ther, if there be a [...]y one office aboue that, ey­ther in estimacion or proffet. For Coue­tousenes allwayes goeth on forwarde, and séeketh still to haue, neuer wayeng a mans present good state, or casting the eye backe thyther where he began, but wholly addresseth the minde to attaine that it hunteth after. And yet is enuye more pestiferous and harmefull thē any these that I haue named.Enuy [...] causer of vnthāk­fulnes. As that which with her infinite and those odious com­parisons making, neuer suffreth vs to be at quiet with our selues. Thus saythe Enuye. Indéed suche one did me suche a benefitte, or shewed me suche a plesour, [Page] howbeit he did much more for such one, & that with farre more expedicion & spéed. Moreouer Enuye neuer examineth ey­th [...]r one mans matter or other. And in th [...]se that touche & concerne herself she is [...]ut of all measure parciall.

Cha. 28.

BUt how muche better and honester were it to extoll set forth and commend the benefitte and plesour that we haue receiued,After what [...]ort we shold perceyue of benefi­tes do [...] to vs. and to perswade our selues that none standeth so highly in the fauour or grace of him that hath plesoured vs as we our selues? As to saye: vndowtedly I had had a far gretter benefit at his handes then this, sauing that in verie déed he might not thē commodiously doo it, for he had more to plesour after the same maner besids me. Well this was the first and it is a good beginning. Let me take this in good part, it shall encourage him to doo the better [Page 78] by me an other time, when he seeth me take so simple a thinge so gratefullye. Thoughe it be but litle he dyd nowe, well he will doo it the ofterner. What though he pleasoured suche one before me, dyd he not preferre me also before a nomber of others? I graunt that ney­ther hee, nor he, were to be compared with me in no degree, and yet why shold not he vse his benefits as was his owne plesour? What though my parentage be better then anye of theirs that were preferd before me, yet muste I néedes graunt in that he shewed me any plea­sonr at al, he did more then he owed me. He extended hys liberalitie more large­lye vppon varlettes then he dyd vppon me, and what maketh that anye matter? you may sée how like herself vncerteinly and vnequallye fortune doth sometime deale. Doo you not se how naughty peo­ple are aduaūced to honors & wallow in welth, and far honester then they are do wāt? To trew it is, & yet not to be stuck at. [Page] Doo wée not also sée that goodmens corne is striken with blightes and blasting, & yet euill mens corne scapeth cléere? As eche man hath his seuerall hap and for­tune in other worldly matters, so hath he also in finding frendshyp. But to con­clude, there is no benefitte done so tho­roughlie nor effectuallie, but the naugh­tie and peruerse natures of men can quarell against it. And againe there is no plesure so small or simple, but an honest naturd receiuer therof, cā enlarge it and make it séeme great & ample. There shal neuer doutles want cause of complaint, so long as a man wil misconster the ma­ner of doing of benefites, and interprete them to the woorst.

Chap. 29.

HOwbeit it is but litle or no­thynge to be merueyled at, [...]hough among our selues we quarell on this sorte the one against thother, seyng not the ignorant [Page 79] and vnleaned people onely, but euē they also who professe Philosophie, and take on them to haue suche vnderstandynge that they woulde take great scorne to be trippt any whit in their doinges or iud­gemēt, exclaime in many things against godd himself: and that for matters of no importaunce, and such againe as nature neyther will assent vnto.Miscon­sterers of gods or­dinance. As for that mē are not framed in fayture and proportiō of body as huge as Elephants, as swift as Roes, as light as birdes, as strong as Bulles, their skine as thycke as any be­stes hyde, as comelie to behold as does, as thick with hear as a Beare, as soft as the Ownce, his smelling as fine as the dog, as sharp sighted as the Egle, as lōg lyued as the Crowe, and as fortunat in his natiuitie as anye brute best, that he might streight help himself. And though some of these qualities are not possible by course of nature to agrée in anye one bodye together, as consistyng in maner of contrarieties, yet blush not they to say [Page] that it is a great iniurye done to mans nature, that he being superiour to al thinges created, should want the exact perfe­ction of diuers suche qualities whereby his inferiours excel him. Affirming mo­reouer that manne was muche wronged that he had not in his birth and with his first being parfit helth, inuincible strēgth and fore knowledge of thinges to come graunted, Yea they haue caught the byt of Reason so fast betwene their tethe of follie, and waxe so hedstrong that they runne gadding so far, that vnneth they can be stayed from enuienge that their nature is suche as it is, and not equall with God himself. But if we weighed and considered thynges aright, howe muche more méete were it for vs and a­greable with our estate, to direct the sight of our mind to behold and dewlye consider the miraculous forme and or­der of those thynges? to rendre thankes for so many & sondrie benefits bestowed vpon vs, for that we haue our being here [Page 80] in this world in such sort as we haue it, and all other thinges vnder our subiec­tion to vse at our plesours? What soeuer hath bene denied vs by him whiche fyrst formed vs, we ought to iudge that he did it for that he knew it neyther méet, con­uenient, nor expedient for vs. Therfore Whosoeuer he be that iudgeth so wyde of mans moste perfect creacion, let hym consider with himself how strōg beastes we maister, how swift bestes and foules we catche. Finallie what thing there is in all the world but is at our plesour to saue or spill, and he shall (I think) easelye perceiue and confesse his great errour. Besides al this, what a nomber of excel­lent vertues are we far aboue all other creatur [...]s endewed wit all?the trew thought that chri­stian men ought to hau [...] of gods or­dinance. What knowledge, what sciences and artes, and what a wit and vnderstanding haue we, which so sonne as it deuiseth any thyng, forth­with it comprehendeth it, swifter farre then the starres themselues, as that whyche consydereth and knoweth howe [Page] their mouynge and course wilbe manye yeres before they runne that course? Againe what abundaunce of diuers kin­des of frutes, or riches, and to be short of all thynges that are to be had, haue wee heaped one vpon an other and all at our commaundement? And yet if all this can not suffice thy fantasie, traueile if thou list all the world ouer, examine diligēt­lie and marke the nature, qualities, and in eche point the cōdicion of euery thing that thou shalt there happen to see and finde, and yet dare I well auerre and for truthe iustifie that emong them all thou shalt not finde out any one, with which thou willinglie wouldst exchaūge thine owne astate that thou nowe enioyst, be the same neuer so simple or sklender, to assume in eche point that of his. Whych thinges so falling foorth, as vppon dewe profe they will assuredly doo, then caust thou not chose (I trow) but thinke & saye that nature, yea God hath aboue al other thinges delt most beneficiallie with thée [Page 81] as with his owne dere derling. For ve­rely truth it is that God who is immor­tall both hath done,A certein argument of goddes assured loue. and stil doth loue vs & that tenderly, for certein tokē now her­of, he hath made vs lyke himself ye most euident argument of his parfect loue. At whose handes we haue receiued so great benefits besides, that impossible it is to haue any gretter.

Chap. 30.

I Thought it both good and ne­cessarie to saye this that I haue done by the waye, and to take occasion to entreat of great and weightie benefits also, sith I had waded so farre in talke about the small ones,An argu­ment a fortiori, that they that sett ly [...]ht by goddes benefites no meruel though they ne­glect mēs. partlye for that fromhense this detesta­ble arrogancie and Ingratitude taketh rooting especially. For to whome I pray you doo you iudge he will render cour­tesie, what benefit thinke you he wil ac­compt great or woorthie to be repayed, [Page] that cōtemneth and neglecteth the grea­test benefits that may be of all? To whō will be adscribe his helth his soule dew, that denieth the receiuing of the same at gods hand, and yet desireth dayly of hym the continuaunce of the same? Whoso­euer he be therfore that teacheth men to be thankfull, pleadeth for God and man. To whom (although he hath no néede of them) yet we maye geue thankes welle­nough. For the not doing which dewtie, pouertie or want of habilitie can not be alledged by waye of excuse. As to saye what shall I doo? or howe can I shewe myself willing to rendre the lyke of that I haue receiued at his hāds that is Lord and geuer of all thynges? I saye thou maiest doo it with ease enough. For if thou be a niggard and loth too be at char­gée about it, thou mayst yet doo it with­out expense. If thou be slowthfull, yet mayst thou doo it without trauell or pai­nes takynge. As thus. In the very same instant that thou receiuest a benefit, and [Page 82] so forth on still render harty thankes for the same, whyche is neither great char­ges nor labour to doo.

Chap. 31.

VErilie in my fansie thys Paradoxe or opinionatif Sentence of the StoiquesA para­doxe of ye stoiques. shoulde not be counted so straunge as it is, and scant woorthye of credit. Namelye. That he hath requited the plesour whyche he re­ceiued, who hath ioyfullye accepted the­same. For syth that all thynges are to be referred to the mynd alone, I thynke that he hath done enowgh who hath de­clared hīself willing to requite it so nere as he could. And forasmuche as Pietie, faith, Iustice, and to be short eche vertew is parfect and absolute within and of it self, though a man vse no act of his hand to anye of them, euen so may anye man bée thankefull fullye and thoroughlye [Page] in will alone. For so oft as the intent taketh suche successe and effect as a man before de [...]ised with himself, so often also may he be said to reape the hoped frute of his desier and trauaile. Who that ge­ueth any benefit, what is his pretence at that time? Uerelie to benefit him to whō he geueth it, and that he should take ple­sure in it. Then if it be so that he hath done that whyche he would doo, and that I haue parfite intelligence of his minde what it was, and that we haue reioyced mutuallye by exchange (as it were) he hath then that which he desi [...]ed himself. He dyd it not for this that he loked to ha­ue the lyke againe at my handes: for thē it had not dese [...]ued the name of a benefit but rather were to be called an exchaun­ge of marchaundise. I say. That certein­lie he sailed wel and made a prosperouse v [...]age that chaunced safelie to fall into that hauen or port whyther at launching first forth he directed his course. That dart was sure cast with a skillfull hande [Page 83] that hyt the marke at which it was cast. Who that doth anye benefit, doth it to that end that it should be thankfully ac­cepted. Yf it be so receiued he hath that he would. But perhaps you will saye he loked to repe som other commoditie and gaine therby. Then certes might it not haue bene called a benefit.It is not to be said a benefit for whi­che ye doer therof lo­keth for profet or recōpense The proper­tie wherof is not to loke to receiue anye thing again. If I hapned to receiue that which was geuē me with the same mind that it was geuen, I haue repaid asmuch as I receiued. In recompensing benefi­tes and plesures receiued, I must regard mine owne fortune. Which if it be suche that I be not able to requite like for like it sufficeth that I owe a well meaninge mind, for that of his. How then? I will moreouer diligētlie obseru [...] [...]o get thad­uauntage both of the time and thynges: and shall asfar as I may, shew miself de­sirous to satisfie him at ful [...] at whose hā ­des I haue had any plesour. But truly in mine opinion they scant merite the denominacion [Page] of benefits whiche a man may not séeme to requite with bare goodwill without any more, if his power will ex­tend no Farther.

Cha. 32.

SOme wil perhap saye that whosoeuer receiueth a be­nefit,That it behoueth to requite a benefit that is done. though he receyue it neuer so thākfully, yet hath he not done somuch as is to be required at his handes, for that he is yet to make recompence for the same be­syde. For lyke as in tossing of the ball, it is somewhat prayse woorthie to receyue the ball skillfully and conningly when it is tost to him: but yet he is not to be called an expert and parfect player ex­cept he stryke the ball backe againe as fi­nely and redely. This example is some­what vnlike to our nowe proposed talke, although before it serued our propose fit­lye enowgh when we talked of benefits generallie but nowe we haue strayted that kynde of talkyng of that generalitie [Page 84] and are come néerer home, to consider how they doo consist in the minde. The commendacion of this plaie consisteth in the nimble and quicke mouing of the bo­dye and not at all in the mind. And there all muste néedes be exponed and layd to the vewe wher the eyes are to geue iud­gement, whyche can geue sentence no farther then they are led by seinge. And yet (to aunswere this obiected argumēt.) Nothynge letteth but that a man maye haue skill enowgh for owght wee sée as yet in his playe although he cast not the ball backe againe whych his fellow tost to hym before. For it may be that the fault is not in him whye he doth not so. Yet if he will obiect againe, that admit­ting he hath parfitte skill, and that as he receyued the ball conninglye, so he canne smyte it backe as Artificialiye, yet is not hys playe parfecte, so longe as he doyth but onely receyue. Whereas the perfection of it consysteth as well in that one poynt as in that [Page] other. I mean in obseruing and kepyng his tourne as duly to tosse backe to hys fellow, as to receiue the ball when it is to [...]t to him from his fellow. But I will staye no longar vpon refelling these ar­gumentes. Let vs admit it to be so that there is indéed some defect in the playe but no want of skill in the player. And so is it in the matter we talke of. There wanteth indéed somewhat to the perfec­tion of the thinge that is to be geuen a­gaine, but there is no want in the minde from whense the said gift should procéed.

Chap. 33.

SUche one hath done me a plesour wel: I receiue it as thāk­fully as he ment it to me frēdlye. In this very one thing he hath ye thing that he onely desired: that was that I should be thankfull. When he hath fownd this, yet resteth ther that he should vse me besides, and wherein I am able that I should do him the like [Page 85] plesour: which is the certeine signe of a thankfull hart. And yet ought not this to be called the other part of a dewtie yet vnparfyt, but rather the waye and mean to attaine to the perfection therof. As for example. Phydias the painter made a pic­ture.An example of a cōmynge painter. The fruit of his art is one, and the frute of his artificiallnes and connynge is an other, and eche far different frome other. The frute of his art was to make that whyche he would. The frute of his artificiallnes and conning, was to make it so that it might yéeld him some profit and gaine. He may haue the fruite of his art, and yet want it of his artificiallnes. For that he may haue finisht his worke, and yet not sold it, Again the fruit of his whole workmanship consisteth in thrée pointes. The firste is his owne fansie whiche is satisfied when he hath accom­plished his worke in dew order and de­centlie. The second is report and fame whiche others geue vnto him for his cō ­ningly handling it. The thirde is the [Page] proffit whiche he getteth eyther by sale of the sayd picture or otherwyse. Let vs appoint a benefit also to haue thrée lyke [...]ea [...]es.Thre maner profi­ [...] that growe by benefit [...]s. The first wherof let be in ye mind or fancie of the geuer: wherein he is sa­tisfied fullie, so sone as he séeth he hath benefited him whom he would, in suche wise as he would. The second is ye report and fame he getteth thereby. The thirde consisteth in such plesures as mutuallye the one may do to thother. Whervpon I conclude thus: that whē a benefit is thākfully receiued, he who gaue it, reaped al­readie thereby thankes at the handes of him to whom he gaue it, (whyche is the principal point to be regarded:) although he haue not yet receiued the like reward again. It appereth then that that which I owe for any benefit receiued is no part of the benefit it self, namelie the recom­pensinge of a benefit. And as for the ac­knowledging therof, I haue repayd that sufficiently in that I receiued it thank­fullye.

Chap. 34.

BUt howe can this stande with Reason will som ha­ply saye? It is impossible that any one may be sayde to requite ye plesour I haue done to him at whose handes I neuer syth receued sute or seruyce. I saye dout­les he hath done verye muche that hath receiued thy benefitte thankefullie. For first he hath therein declared to thée hys good hart. Secondlye he hath shewed himself willinglye to owe lyke good­will to thée as he founde at thye handes: whiche is an euident tooken of a fréend­ly and honest hart. Benefites & the thin­ges that are lent and borowed, are not lyke, nor a lyke to be recompensed and repaid. If thou ha [...]t benefited any man, looke not for any recompense by hande. For the requitall thereof resteth chefe­lye in the mind and hart of the man. It [Page] shall not proue in thend very straunge to thée that whyche I say, though it sée­me at the firste shew somewhat to im­pugne & contrarie thine opinion) if thou wilt geue me the hearing a litle, and vn­derstand by the way that there is more plenty of thinges in the world, then wée haue coppie and chaunge of woordes to terme eche of them seuerallie by seue­ral names. By mean wherof we are en­forced to shift aswell as we cā with such words as we haue, though they be some what improper & not full méete for that that they are applied vnto. As for profe, we call ye foot of our owne body, the foot of a bed, and the foot of a verse, by the na­me of a foot indifferentlye. Againe a dog hound, a dog fish, and a dog starre, by the name of a dogg alike. And this confusiō by equiuocacion doth happen bycause we are not able for want and penurie of seuerall woordes to terme eche of them diuersely: and therfore are we driuen to vse suche woordes as we haue to serue [Page 87] the [...]orne as it wilbe in this extremitie. Stowtnes we saye is a vertew that des­piseth and setteth light by daungers and perrils, without being moued or disquie­ted by them. Or ells it is a knowledge shewing vs how we should with stande endeuer, or auoyd all daungers. So doo wee call Fence players and desperate knaues whiche careles and without any regard put their liues in aduēture, stowt men. We doo in lyke maner define or describe Niggishnes to be a knowledge how to auoyd excessiue charges: or ells an vnderstanding how to spend our sub­staunce moderatelye and yet wee call a Misar, him that hungar drops out of his nose (as we say) one that is so néere him­self that he is not woorthie to beare the name of a man, him call we a nigga [...]d also. Thus wee sée and can discerne a great diuersitie to be betwene méesure and extremitie: And that these thynges differ muche in nature the one from the other. Howbeit the penurie of apt and [Page] proper woordes, causeth vs to call bothe the one and the other a Niggard. Again, him stowt that with Reason endewreth al daungers, & that other stowt also who though he cast himself hed long into thē yet suffreth he the same stowtlye, with­out séeming to be moued or anye whyt dismayed thereby. After the same ma­ner, we call by the name of a benefitte both the accion and doyng of the benefit, and the substaunce of the matter and thinge whyche is geuen or done, as mo­ney, houses, Landes, or apparell. One onely name is attributed to them bothe indifferently, and yet the force, nature & qualytie of them is farre diuerse.

Chap. 35.

GEue me leaue yet a lytle, and marke my woordes well. For hetherto haue I not sayd anye thinge that néede to be misliked muche withall, or can be well denied. And now retourne we to our propose againe. [Page 88] Touching somuche of any benefit as the acciō and doing therof doth accomplish,The poī ­tes wher vpō benefits cōsist if we receiue the doing therof thankful­lye, we haue so farre euen now requited the same. But as touching the substaūce of it, that is to saye the thing geuen, we haue not asyet thereby made recompen­se for that, but that is referred to our owne will. For that good will whyche hath relacion to the doing of the bene­fit, we haue aunswered with lyke good­will by thankfullye accepting of it. Not­withstanding we muste thinke we owe yet more: namely one benefitte for an o­ther, one materiall thing for an other. And although I say he hath rendred thā ­kes yt hath declared himself to haue ac­cepted a benefit thankfully, yet would I him to repaye some thing or other besi­des, lyke to y which he receiued, yt maye also deserue to haue ye name of a benefit as that did which he had. Some of these thynges that I saye séeme somewhat to varye frome the Common Phrase of [Page] spekyng some one waye: and yet some other way to agre wel enough therwith. We saye commonly that wyse men can by no meanes beare wrong. And yet if a wise man hap to haue a blow thynk you not that he hath wrong? So saye we in common speache, what should Fooles do with goodes? And for all that, if any man should steale any thing from a foole and were appeched & attached, thinke you he were not lyke to be condemned of theft? In talke we call suche and suche mad. And yet we sée the same whiche in some respect wee called mad men to haue the electing of Magistrates, the deputing of offices, the gouernement of prouinces, and rule of Cities. So though I say [...]hat he that hath receiued thankfully the ple­sour that is done to him, hath in hys so doing rendred the lyke, yet do I notwithstanding averre that he is yet still in the others det for all that, and that he muste make father recompēse though he haue alredy done some point of his dutie: not [Page 89] thoroughly acquiting him of all that he ought to doo. So that this saieng of mine weihged aryght, is an aduertisemēt and admonicion to men to requite suche be­nefits as they haue receiued, and no dis­charge therof. But in any case let vs be­ware that through the hugenes of the burthen we faint not, and dispairing by meane of our sklender abilitie we geue not ouer in the plaine.The say­eng of the thankfull man. As if we woulde consider and weigh (as Reason an [...] ho­nestie would we should) the whole mat­ter with our selues, and say. Certes such one hath done me merueilous great ple­sour, he saued and clered my good name whiche was half in daunger to be disfa­med. He deliuered me from great pouer­tie into which I was fallen, I had douht­les lost my life if he had not bene. By his only meane haue I my libertie whi­che I hold derer then my lyfe. And howe or when shall I be able to deserue his so great benefits? Whiche way is it possi­ble that my goodwill can by any meanes [Page] seme to requite the very least of al these? Uerely I say who that hath this kind of thought and minde with him hath euen thereby shewed sufficiently his thankful acknowledging of the good and plesour that he hath receiued. Therefore if thou haue a plesour shewed thée, receiue it, embrase it, be gladde therewith, and reioyce at it. Not for that thou recei­uedst it, but because thou hast therby oc­casion to doo the lyke againe, whiche of deuty thou must, and not fayle to doo it. And so shalt thou be well assured not to incurre the daunger to be called vnthāk­full. I will not here prescribe thée anye hard preceptes that thou shouldst obser­ue in requiting of benefits, to thend thou shouldst not dispayre, and that the diffi­cultie of them should not quaile thy cou­rage. Neuertheles if thou haue bene ple­sor [...]d by any body, I woulde not in anye wyse thou shouldest tract the tyme and lingar on, but with spéed seke to requite it, and rendre the lyke.

[Page 90]For questionles if thou be not presētly, doutles thou wilt neuer be thankefull.qui nō est hodie [...]ras minꝰ aptus erit Thou wilt nowe perhaps demaunde of me what thou shalt doo? Whether thou shalt venter thye life in the féeld for hym that hath plesoured thée? I say perhaps thou shalt. Againe whether thou shalte endaunger thie lyfe vppon the seas for his cause? Yes verly, and it may fortune it shalbe néedfull so to doo, when it shall blow merueilous fowle wether, and be hygh and rough seas, and yet mayest thou not staye though winde and tyde were bothe agaynste thée when thow shouldest launche forth.

But to conclude, desirest thou to rendre the benefitte thou haste receiued?Thākfull rec [...]iuing, the firste poīt of re-repay [...]ng a bene [...]it. in any wise then receiue it thankfullie. There­in haste thou payd some parte, but yet thynke not that thou art so discharged, but perswade thie self that thou mayste so muche the boldlier and with better assuraunce yéeld and confesse thyself [...]et­tour for the rest.

The third Booke.

Chap. 1.

IT is a fowle vice and of all men worthelye so accomp­ted not to acknowledge nor rendre thākes for benefites receiued and had.Ingrate­fulmen cō plain vpō Ingrate­full. And for-this cause vnthankfull persons themsel­ues take cause to complain them vppon suche as they finde to them vnthankfull. Wherin one of them espieth in an other and blameth that whiche in themselues is as worthie reprehension. Of whyche kinde of people the condicions of many of them are so crosse & ouerthwart, that they purchace disliking not only for their neglecting, or [...]orgetting what benefits and plesures haue bene done to thē, but also for not doing again suche benefites as they should do to vs. Which hapneth to som through naughtines and peruer­senes [Page 91] of their natures. And to others some for that they suffer time to eat out of memorie the plesours which we haue done to them. Which kind of men some woulde not iudge worthie to be called vnthankfull, but séeme to geue them (as they gesse) a more manerlye name, and terme them forgetfull.Forget­fulnes of a benefit, y ch [...]fest cause of Ingrati­tude. As who woulde saye that that could excuse Ingratitude, whiche (to say the truthe) is the principal and master [...]oot therof. For how is it pos­sible that that shoulde by anye meanes séeme to excuse a man from being coun­ted vnthankfull, that is founde in none els but in them that are vnthankfull. Howbeit there are sondry sortes of vn­thankfull men lyke as there are of the­ues or murtherers. Whose factes not­withstanding all agrée in one kinde: for eche theft is theft, eche murder murder, and eche vnthankfullnes is vnthanfull­nes. But some yet are more heynous then other some are, and differre in the quantitie or qualitie of the fact, or both. [Page] He is vnthankfull that denyeth the re­cept of the benefit whiche he had. He is again vnthankfull that dissembleth and will not voluntarilie confesse and ack­nowledge it. He is also vnthankfull that requiteth not the benefit whyche he re­ceiued. But he is most vnthankfull of all the rest, that forgetteth it quite. The re­sidew yet though they requite it not, yet they reste dettours for it, and there ap­pereth yet in them some signe and shew that benefites were by them receiued, though they be reposed and coucht in an euill conscience. And yet these persons vppon some one cause or other, maye happe to be moued at one time or other, to render thankes. Perhaps shame will woorke remembraunce of their duties, or the lyke néed at an other time thone of these otherwyle taketh place in verye naughty natures. But he that hath quite forgot that he had suche plesour shewed hym, séemeth to be past all hope that he euer will shewe himself to be thankfull. [Page 92] And to saye the truth if it shoulde be put to your owne iudgement, whych of these would you déeme most ingratefull?Who is to be sayd most In­grate. him that refuseth and neglecteth to rendre thankes for the plesour whiche was she­wed him, or ells that other that forget­teth it quite, and remembreth it nowhit at all? Indéed those are euill eyes that can not endewer the brightnes of the light, but they are plaine blind eyes that sée no whyt. Assuredlye it is a wicked part if any one should hate and not loue his parentes. But to refuse and denye, and not acknowledge them, is a mani­fest signe of madnes. Who is so vnthāk­full as he that hath clene reiected care­leslyke, that whyche he should haue all­w [...]yes in remembraunce, and that so set­teth it aside, that he forgotteth it quite? It maye be well thought that he neuer troubled his hed much with deuis [...]ng and studieng howe to requite the benefites whiche were done to him, if he haue suf­fred them to slide quite forth of memory.

Chap. 2.

That to requite a benefit at [...]ull what are requi­site. NOw who that will requite the benefits and plesours that haue ben shewed him by an other, hath néede of habilitie, time, & Fortune fauowrable: who that beareth in minde without forgetting, the plesour [...]e hath receiued, is thankfull without any Far­ther charge. And he that will not doo that that requireth neyther labour, riches nor great good Fortune, is worthie to haue but litle alledged for him by waye of excuse. Dowtles he neuer mente to shew himselfe thankfull that cast bene­fits done to him, so farre out of his sight that he did not somuche as thinke vppon them anye more. For as that whiche is daylie at hande to vs, and in continuall vse mouldeth not ne waxeth hoare, and again those thinges which are laid aside out of sight and forgotten gather soyle of their owne accord by onely lieng stil, [Page 93] So what is in the dayly exercise and oc­cupieng of the mind, is neuer forgotten: as that whiche loseth nothing, except it be that that is cast aside (as it were) ne­uer to be occupyed, or thought vpon anye more.

Chap. 3.

BEsydes this that I haue alledged, there are other causes allso whyche often times let vs from remem­bring such benefits as are done to vs.Exc [...]ss yf coue [...]yse causeth in gratitude The first and chefest of whi­che is. For that as we are altogether led with new desires, so we regard ne­uer what we alredye haue had, but con­sider whollye what we woulde haue, not casting any eye or regarding that whych is in possession, but respecting that one­lye whiche we make pursute after. The passing gréedie and couetous desier wee haue, causeth vs to set but light by anye thing that we haue alredy, and to weigh [Page] him but litle at whose handes we recei­ued it. But him we loue, to him we doo all maner of obseruaunce, we affirme that all the stay of our welldoing depen­deth on him, so long as we lyste to lyke of the thinges we receiue at his handes. But so sone as we begin to take a smat­che of other greter plesours, and that we féele any lyfe (as they say) in it, that it is coming & maye be got, (as the guise of men is nowadayes after they haue ob­tained great thynges to hunt still after greatter,) then farewell that we before had in so great price, & after the other wc might & mayne. Then weigh we no lō ­gar the things which erst haue preferred vs, but fixe our eyes wholly to consider how yt which we shote at hath aduaūced to fortime those yt had the same. And how can a man be both enuyous of an other mans state, and thankfull for his owne? It is impossible: For Enuye is allwayes accōpanied with sadnes & sorow: & thāk­fulnes is associated with glad [...]es & ioy­fulnes. [Page 94] Farthermore forasmuche as we regard nor weigh the passing time anye longar while, then that it is in passyng, seldom when we call to minde the thyn­ges that passed in that tyme. Whereup­pon it followeth, that Scolemasters we sée so vsually lost their benefites whiche they bestow vppon vs in our youth. For which notwithstanding that they deme­ryte in [...]éed worthely great thankes, yet for all that, they finde them not repayde, for that we to whom they were done, do neuer cal to mind, nor weigh duly what thynges hapned within that age. Ney­there of the time it self when it is ones past, no man maketh more accompt then as if it were lost. And as thynges done in that time, passe also with the tyme, doutfull it séemeth, lest when they are ones past, they be also past hope of remē ­braunce.

Chap. 4.

[Page] Th [...] Epicures cō ­playnt. BUt in this place me séemeth I may very wel agre wt the Epi­ [...]ure and fortyfie his Reason: who complaineth alwayes that we are so vnthankful & vnmindful of the plesour that is past. What commoditie soeuer we haue had, we call it not to re­membraunce nor accompt it any longar in the nomber of plesours: Whereas in­déed there is no one plesour so certein as that whiche is past, for that we are well assured can by no meanes be taken from vs. Asfor the present plesours sayth the Epicure, they stande not yet on sewer grounde:Multa c [...] dūt intercalicē su­prema (que) Labra. for by one misfortune or an other, a man may hap to lose them. Yea perhaps when he thinketh himself most assured of them. And as for those that are to come and not yet done, but stande in happe de pays, they hange suspiciouslye and vppon great vncertentye. But those that all readye are had and be past, they are ded sure. And who that wil diligent­lye b [...]hold the present benefits which he [Page 95] now enioyeth, and but call to mind how­muche those whiche he hath receiued in times past stode him in stead at the time of the Recept of the same, can not those (as I déeme) but shew himself thankful. But who so passeth on, still gaping for fr [...]she benefites, dowtles will take but small kéepe to the benefits that are ones past.

Chap. 5.

AS there are some thynges whereof it is sufficient to geue precepts for thattain­ment of them,A cōparison of certein sciences & be­nefites. and when they are ones had, they are not lyghtly forgotten, so are there some other again which be they neuer so per­fitelie and thorouglye learned, yet the knowledge of them sone fadeth againe, and is quite forgotten, except it be con­tinually and almost without intermissiō renewed. As the sciēce goe of metry, and the knowledge of naturall and superna­turall [Page] thynges and suche lyke, which for their subtilitie & perfit finenes sone be­gile ye memory. So fareth it with benefi­tes: of which, some for their weightines wil not be forgot. Again othersom there are lesse in valew but moe in nōber: yet in time they are gone out of minde quite. Which hapneth for this cause only, that as I said we do not ef [...]sones cal them to our remēbraunce, & thankfully acknow­ledge what we owe to eche mā seueraly. But mark what we cā say whē we aske any thing. There is none of vs then but we can affirme yt the memory of the ple­sours we haue founde or desier to haue, shal ne [...]er forth of our minde. None but that yeldeth himself wholly bounden for that time,Note. & if ther be any words of gret­ter humilitie & lowlines thē others, they are not th [...]n to s [...]eke, but we haue them perfitely I warrant you & at our fingars endes. But within a while after that we haue obt [...]ined our propose, & desyer, then farewel al our faier speach, it waxeth thē [Page 96] vnsauourye in our mouthes. And ye wor­des which no rather we thought not half good enough nor worthy the personages on whō we bestowed the same, we coūt to base now to proced forthe of our mou­thes. And so within a very litle while we come to y staye that the most & worst in­grateful men of al are a [...]: which is, to re­mēber nowhyt at al what plesour & benefits haue bene done vnto vs. And doutles he is to be accōpted asmuch vnthankful, & is no lesse to be argued of Ingratitude yt forgetteth a benefit ones done vnto hī, thē he is to be iudged thankfull, that still courteously & thankfully acknowledgeth the recept of the same.

Chap. 6.

IT hath bene demaūded of som, why this passing gret vice wor­thie to be detested & abhorred of all men that professe ye name of honesti [...], should be suffered still to scape without dew punishement limited for it, and why [Page] the same Lawe is not dewlye executed vpon thoffendours in that behalf in Cy­ties, whiche hath bene sometyme practi­sed in Scholes? Where it hath bene per­mitted to the party benefyting to seke & vse his remedy against him that he hath benefited if he shewe himself vnthanke­full. Whyche séemeth to some but iuste and resonable it so were. But our aun­cetours men of great noblesse were wōt to requier of their mortall enemyes mo­ney or suche like thinges as they hadde haply lent them in time of fréendshippe and amitie. As for the plesours or bene­fits they had bestowed vpon them what soeuer they were, lyke as with a franck hart th [...]y bestowed them at the fyrst, so did they no l [...]sse lib [...]ral [...]y let them passe quyte, without demaunding euer again. And except the Macedoniens onelye,The ma­cedoni [...]ns prouyded by order of Lawe agaynst vntha [...] ­ [...]ull men. I know no kinde of people that euer made any Lawe by whiche a man might sewe him that he found vnthankfull. And yet is this the strongest reson and argumēt [Page 97] wée can alledge to proue whye the vn­thankefull body with vs shoulde not be sewed. We haue say we, alwayes assen­ted and so vsually practised it to punishe sharply eche haynous offence that hath seemed to vs worthie of punishment, as manslaughter, witchcraft, murder, rob­brye, prophaning of sacred institutions and suche lyke. Against all these in some contrey one kinde of punishment, in som other an other kind is assigned. But eue­riewhere there is some paine appointed for the trespassours. But as for this vice whiche is so commōly practised and day­lie in vre, it is euerywhere reprehended, but no where punished. Neyther yet doo we clerely acquit and discharge it from desert of punishment but for that we can not agrée vppon it to determine punishe­ment certein for it, therfore we adiudge it onely worthie to be hated, and despy­ted, and refer it ouer wholly to the god­des for reuengement.

Chap. 7.

ANd to say the truthe I can allege a nomber and those very good and strong rea­sons to proue whi this vice of Iugratitude shoulde by no meanes haue bene prouided for by Lawe. [...] re [...]son [...] [...] In­g [...]a [...]tud [...] s [...]uld not n [...]t be re­medyd by Lawe. For first the chéefe and principal part, of the benefit were lost if a manne were to recouer it by plée or otherwyse [...] as one would doo money or anye suche lyke thyng that he taketh of lo [...]e, and is to aunswere againe, For this is the che­f [...]st thinge that is prayse worthy in be­stowing of benefi [...]s, to perswade our sel­ues to loose thē so sone as we haue ones parted with them, and to referre it who­lye to the co [...]scie [...]ce of them on whome we b [...]stowe them, whether we shall in deed finde them so or not. For if I should b [...]t o [...]es [...]ountenaunce to sew him that I h [...]ue plesour [...]d, or haue him before a Iudge for the recoueringe myne owne [Page 100] benefit or the lyke again, in that so dea­lyng, it resseth forth wt to deserne thap­pellacion of a benefit, and would be na­med a thing lent. Besides, as it is an ho­nest thing to rendre thanks for plesures receiued, so doth it put of the face of ho­nestie, and maye be ashamed to presume to chalenge that name when they are to to be requyted of necessitie and by enfor­cement. For wer it so that sewtes penal­ties & punishments were limited in this case, then would none cōmend ye grateful and thankfull man any more then hym that is bounde to repay a sōme of money by such a daye, who preuenting the daye payeth the money soner then he néeded to haue done. Farthermore if we should sewe for our benefites, we then shoulde lose two the most precious thinges in all the world Namely a thankful man & our benefit. For then what thinge woorthie anye greate thankes shoulde there bée thought to be in him, that did not doo, but lend his benefitte onely for the time, or [Page] in him that repayeth the same not for that he would of his owne accord, good nature, and frée will doo so, but for that he was enforced thereto to auoyde the daunger that might ensew? It shoulde merite no great cōmendacion to be thākfull, e [...]cept without perill and daunger a man might be vnthankfull if he so lis­ted. But this one thing were sufficient to discourage and disswade vs as I gesse from sewing for our benefites. What and if all the places in the whole worlde where Iustice is had and cognisaunce of plea holden shoulde proue not sufficient nor rowme enough for eche party agre­ued to come in place to make his plaint? Shoulde it come to that passe that we might sew for right in this case, who is he that shoulde not haue cause to playn, or who he that might not be impleaded?

Chap. 8.

[Page 99] FOr this cause this séemeth no méet matter to come in question of Lawe. And to say the truthe, it were a ve­rie hard matter and full of difficultie to finde a Iudge able to decide all suche controuersies and dowtes as haply woulde fall out vppon thorough scanning some one of these causes. So that you would wonder to thinke if you déepelye examine and consider the mat­ter, how much he should haue to do that should geue indifferent and vpright sen­tence vpon one impleaded for this fact. Admyt the case to be this. There was one that gaue his frinde standing in néed a very great some of money without as­kyng eyther interest for it or his owne money again. But he that gaue it was a very riche man,B [...]ne [...] of lyke quontity f [...]r diffe [...]rent in qualitie [...] and one of suche welthe that he might spare it wellenowgh with out susteyning any damage or detriment by it. There was agayne an other that hauing his frynde in great distresse for [Page] want of the lyke somme of moneye, and pitieng his Frinde asmuche as himself, deliuered him somuch money but it was not his owne of store lieng by him, but for the getting of it redye for his frinde he was fayne [...]o sel a peece of his liuelod and enheritaunce. See now the somme in these two Cases is all one. But the benefytte not so, if it be dewly weighed. Agayne this admitte to be the Case. One that had his frinde at suche a strayt that all his goodes were redye to be con­fiscated and made port sale of, beyng sto­red so well him self that he had so muche money of his owne spare and doyng him no plesour in his house, lette his Frinde haue it to saue his goodes. An other in lyke maner hauing his frinde at the like extremitie, and not hauyng of hys owne to socour him withall, and yet loth to se his frinde vndone, beyng better able to shift at that pinche then that other who for care and gryef wist not whyther to torne him, went to that manne vp­pon [Page 102] his credit, to that other vppon hys bondes and pledges, and in fine gotte to­gether so muche money as should serue his frindes necessitie. Howe saye yo [...], count you the one plesour and thother in this case lyke? There are some benefi­tes that are accounted great not in res­pect of the quantitie and valew of them­selues, but in respect of [...]he time whiche they serue so fytlye. A benefytte well and dulye bestowed is accompted as necessarye and as muche to bee este­med, as breadde geuen to hym that is all moste [...]ead for hungar. It is no more but a benefytte to geue aman a contrey throughe whyche runne suche commo­diouse Ryuers that he maye vse traffi­que of marchaundise by the same.

And it is a benefitte allso to doo nomo­re but to shewe hym th [...]t is passynge thyrsty and néere ded therewith, where [...]here is anye sprynge of fayer clere water. Nowe who is he that dare vn­dertake [Page] aptly to compare these thynges together? It goeth hard when not onely the matter it self, but the difficulties and hard quiddities (as they are termed a­mōg the old Logicians) are to be narow­ly sifted and skanned. As sondrye bene­fits are diuerselie ge [...]en, so doo they not depend all vppon one point. Suche one did me a plesour, but he dyd it not wil­linglye, but he reported to others what he had done for me, but he repented him syth of that he had done, and sence that time he hath geuen me more prowd and disdainfull lookes then euer he was vsed to doo. Again it was very long before he would doo that whiche he did, and vsed many delayes in doing of it, whereby I was more hindred, then if he had quyte denyed me when I requested it firste.

Nowe if anye of these benefites so done should come in question as I sayd, howe can any Iudge I praye you indiferently and as he should doo weigh these things, when as the benefit appereth to be done [Page 101] and yet the talke that paste with it, the countenaūce of the geuer, and the doub­tes & delayes whiche he made before he would doo it, doo quite destroye and lose the grace of the sayd benefit.

Chap. 9.

WHat thoughe there be some thī ­ges whiche for that they are so excedinghly desired and sought after, merite the names of benefites, yet are there other som thinges again, whi­che though they are not so commonlye coueted, they are for all that far greatter in valew then any those other,The qua­lit [...]e of the benefites bredeth their esti­macion. though to outwarde shewe they appere not so to bee. You count it a benefitte to be made Burgesse of anye riche, great and welthie Citie, and there to be preferred from office to office vntill you come to the highest. Againe you count it a bene­fit to saue his lyfe that is condemned to dye. And I beseche you what will you call it to geue counsel to one for his most [Page] proffit and auayle? to staye him that pre­tended to doo himself or some other some mischefe? to take a sword from him that was re [...]ie to kill himself? with good and holesome aduise to recōfort him that was nigh spent out with mourninge, and to reduce him to his pristinat state of helth? to watche with him that is verye sicke, and brought euen to dethes dore, & when his fit is ouer past, to recōfort him with good and holesome meates and litle and litle strengthen againe his fadyng spry­ [...]es? [...]o bring a Phisicion to one almoste redy to yéeld vp the gost despayring of li [...] or recouery, wherby yet he obtaineth his helth? Who is he that can say howmuch these benefites though they appere but small, are to be estemed? Againe who is he that would adiudge these that follow worthie to be made any comparison of? Such one gaue the a house. And I gaue thee warnyng that it would fall vppon thy hed as it had done if I had not tolde thée of it and thou preuented it. Suche [Page 102] one gaue thée large enheritaunce. And I when thou were in the sea and r [...]ady to drowne, threw thée a planke whyche saued they lyfe & brought thée to Land. Suche one fowght in thy quarell. And I endaungered my lyfe for thée, thou ney­ther ware of it, nor desiering me. Seyng that as benefites are diuers, so they are diuersely to be repayed, it were a verye hard thing to order the matter with such indifferencie that they coulde be iudged one to matche an other fullye.

Chap. 10.

FArthermore there is greate diuersitie be­twene the repayeng of benefits & money loned. For he y bo­roweth money, hath his day of repaymēt assigned him, but in benefites requiting, there is no day limited. So y he y recei­ueth a plesour [Page] may wellenowgh requite the same when he shall thynke good or when he shall finde occasion therto.A benefit may be repayed at any time. Tell me then will you say perhaps, within what time maye a man be well cald vnthankfull if he requite not the plesour he hath recei­ued. Uerely the grettest benefites that are, lye preuelye hid in the consciences and mindes of them that do and receiue the same. And this I saye for that wee should doo our benefites in suche sorte, that they maye be acceptable and well thought of without vsing auy witnesses or record berers. What penalty shal we then assigne for them that are vnthank­full? Assuredly I would assigne but one kinde of punishment to be dew to them all in generall. And for that all kinde of benefits are not of lyke quantitie nor va­lew, but some gretter som lesser, I wold the sayde penaltye should be also dimi­nished or increased accordyng to the quā ­titie and qualitie of the benefit so recei­ued and not requited. Well thē admitte [Page 103] that there are some kind of benefites of whyche we ought to make as good ac­compt as of our lyfe. And some againe whiche we haue cause to weigh déerer of, then of our life. If he that hath recei­ued these shew himself vnthankfull for the same, what paine shal we iudge him worthy of? Ought it to be any lesse then the benefit was whiche he receiued? It were against conscience it should, Shal it be then equall with it and lyke? Alas, what thing were there more miserable and crewel, then that the end of benefits whiche in eche thing ought to be ye best, shoulde be requited and payed with the death and bloud shedyng of those whom they should benefit.

Chap. 11.

BUt some will say that Pa­rentes yet ought to haue certeine priuiledges aboue others for suche benefites as they shall doo to their [Page] Childrē I say nay.Benefits of parētes For in receiuing be­nefites done by them to vs, we obserue neyther order nor degrée more then wée doo in benefites receyued at anye other bodies hande. Howbeit we ought to ob­serue and kéepe the reuerent respect o [...] dewtie that is and ought [...]o be betwene the parentes and their children sacred and vnstayned, for this that it is expe­dient they shoulde beget children. And to them in bestowynge of benefites, a manne can not well saye as he woulde doo to an other persone. Consider and marke well with thyself on whome thou bestowest thy benefites any more hence­forth. If thou haue shewed pleasour and hast not found the lyke aunswered, blame no manne but thye selfe who shouldest haue bene well aduised to ha­ue pleasoured s [...]che onelye as thou kne­west woor [...]hy of the same. But though the hauynge or not hauyng of Children resteth not at the pleasour and discreci [...]n of the parentes, but in the handes and [Page 104] pleasour of God, yet is it méete when they haue them that they shoulde haue power and authorytie ouer them, why­che maye some what recomfort them agayne in the pacient abydynge and willinglye suffryng suche chaunces and casualties as are incident to them that aduenture themselues to attempt that kynde of fortune.

Againe greate oddes is there betwene the parentes and others in bestowynge of benefites. For Parentes though they haue ones or oftener benefitted their Children, and haue hadde cause to think the same euill bestowed, yet maye not they cesse from benefiting them still, for all that. Moreouer the benefites of all Fathers are lyke, for what is required of anye one in that respect, that same is required of euerye one that beareth the denominacion of a Father, and not of one or other more or lesse.

But thée Nature of benefites whyche [Page] whiche are done frome one to an other where there is no respect of causes why, is far other. And as those benefites are different among themselues, so can they not be cōprehended vnder any one Rule.

Chap. 12.

Diuersi­tie of be­nefites & of the persons to whō they are done. DIuers thynges there are that are very costly & char­geable to the geuers, and other some thynges there are that are as thankfullie accepted, and yet not so painfull for char­ges to be geuen. Some thinges we geue to our Frindes and familiar acquainted, and some againe to straungers and per­sons not knowen. Though the giftes which thou geuest to seueral persons be to eche of them acceptable, yet is that most commendable that thou geuest to him whom thou knewest not before, but beginst by that to knowe, in respect of that thou gauest to hym whome thou [Page 105] knewest before. Some are able to graūt ayd in troubles. Others to confort with counsel in heauines. And others some to geue promocions and sondry prefermen­tes, whereby the hauers countenaunce is muche amended, and his astate bet­tered, and as al these diuers sortes of be­nefits differ one from an other, so shall you see diuers men diuersely desier the­same. Some one you shal finde that shal thinke nothynge so excellent as to haue one that in the depest extremitie of hys miserye, and when he is allmost despe­rate with sorow, can yet wisely recōfort him with good councell Some other is there that hath more regard far, to wor­ship and preferment attayning, then to liuing in safetie. Again some other ther [...] is that doth accompt himself more behol­ding to him that saueth him from perils and daungers, then to him that carefully prouideth for his honestie. So that wee se any of these thinges is so much more or lesse estéemed of, as the partye who is [Page] to geue his sentence vpon the same, doth more or lesse frame hys fansye to lyke thereof. In money matters I chose my Creditour whome I lyst my selfe. But benefits sometime I haue at his handes that willinglye I would not, and other­whiles I am vnwittingly bounden. And what will you doo in this case? will you call him vnthankfull that dothe not re­quite the benefit whych he receyued ey­ther vnwittingly or against his will.

Chap. 13.

ONe that hath done me a ple­sour heretofore, wc in a while after woorketh me a greate displesour. Tell me nowe Should I thynke myself bounde to en­dewer asmany wronges and iniuries as he would lay vpō me for that he plesou­red me one time, or ells shall I sette the wrong he dyd me against the plesour I founde before at his handes? (and as the [Page 106] prouerbe is) the hares hed againste the goose ieblets? If you were to be iudge in this case whether [...]yde woulde you thinke the heuyer? The benefit to char­ge the receiuer, or ells the iniurye to be a barre to the geuer? Time shoulde faile me if I woulde attempt to recyte all the matters of diffycultye that myght aryse in these cases, by whyche the Iud­ge (if it were so that thys matter shold come to pleadynge) woulde by so trou­bled, that hée coulde hardely saye what sentence to geue. But you will saye that hereof it groweth that menne are so vnwillynge to shewe pleasours as they are, partelye for that wée are soo slacke in requitynge the same, partelye for that they that are so slacke are still permitted to escape vnpunished. Not so neither. There are few or none that en­force bene [...]ites vppon anye man whe­ther he will or not, and againe who that doth benefitte any man beyng moued so [Page] to doo for the goodnes and honesty of the cause that geueth him encouragement therto, he doth that he doth gladlye, and forthwith dischargeth him whō he hath benefited, from somuch as thinking that he should be endetted therefore, he doth the same so franckly. Except it be so that the party benefited of hys owne volun­tarye will, will willingly acknowledge himself his detour, and séeke to requyte it. For if he should looke f [...]r recompense or demaunde it, all the whole glorie and commendacion of the fact were gone. And this I say was the cause that made men so charye from passing any Law for redresse of this vyce.

Chap. 14.

VErelye if it were possible that there might a Law be made for the punishement of this vice of ingratitude, we should haue lesse nom­ber [Page 107] of plesours done: but then they that were done would then be better done.That be­nefites should be bestow [...]d with cir­coūspect­nes and discrecion And assuredly they that heretofore wold neuer make Lawe against it, yet for all that, they themselues very aduisedly and with great héed and warines, did bestow such benefites and plesours as they she­wed to any, meanyng therby as it should séeme that their suche example of chari­nes, myght also direct vs, to take dewe regard and respect whom we admitted and allowed woorthie, on whome wee woulde dispose and bestowe our benefi­cence. In whiche behalf, if you stande fullie assured and perswaded before you bestow your benefites that he that is to receiue them is worthie to haue them, I dare then warraunt you from hauynge cause iustlye of desier to vse anye accion for the recoueryng it again. When thou art to bestow anye benef [...]ts, regard one­lye the honestie of the Receiuer. In soo doing, thye benefites are done as they shoulde be, and become famous. But if [Page] thou shouldest make pleadyng matters of them, thou shouldest digrace thē quite. It is I graunt a conscionable sayeng and most agreing with Lawe to saye Paye that thou owest.To p [...]ye that a mā oweth is a Lawe g [...]ounded on n [...]tu­ral reasō. And yet touchyng bene­fites, it is the fowlest and moste vn­séemely sayeng and fullest of discourte­sie to saye Paye. For what shoulde he paye? Sometime he oweth his lyfe, hys helthe hys welthe and sometime suche weighty thinges can not be paide them­selues, nor any things els that may coū ­teruayle the same. This is it that I saye. The worthines of so precious a thynge as a Benefit is, shalbe quite loste if wée make marchaundise of it. We should not enforce nor willingly apply our mindes to couetousnes sekyng of quarells and discension, it is to prone of it selfe to suche matters, if haplye any suche cause begin to grow, let vs cut it of, rather thē encrease it.

Chap. 15.

[Page 108] WHat will some say shall the In­grate and vnthankefull person escape quite & go vnpunished?What pena [...]t [...]es [...]rderly fol­lowe vn­ [...]hanfull People. Then pardon also the wicked man, the [...]awghtipacke the couetous niggard, the skornefull and disdainfull man and the Tyraunt. Whye? thynke you that those factes that are hated and despited maye be sayde to escape vnpunished? What more greuouse punishement can there be layde vppon anye manne, then to bee hated dedlye of all menne? He maye thynke it punyshment enough that he dare not desyer anye thynge of anye manne, for feare to bee noted, mar­ked, and pointed at of euerye manne, or at least to thynke that he is soo: and to knowe that he hathe loste the estima­cion of the beaste and chefest Iewelles of the woorl [...]e (to wytte,) hys honestie, credit, and estimacion. Doe you not count hym vnfortunate that hath loste the vse of hys eyes, or whose hearynge is quitte stopt vppe?who that hath no perceuerē ce of the pleasour that is done to hī is woorse then he that is depriued of his sēces

[Page]Then iudge him a verye wretched man that hath altogether lost the vnderstan­ding of suche plesours as haue bene she­wed vnto him. Suche one ought to think with himself that he allwayes standeth in the daunger and displesour of the goddes who are Recorde bearers and wil be Reuengers of his sayd Ingratitude. Be­sides, his owne gylty conscience cesseth not continually to molest & accuse him. And thinke you it not punishment suffi­cient the continual remembraunce of the losse of so many woorthie thinges as he therby doth lose? Loke who taketh plea­sour and delectacion aright at the recei­uing of a Benefyt,diuersitie be [...]wene the thāk­full & the ingrate persō and their two lyues. retayneth still and re­uiueth it and maketh a continuall plea­sour of it, by oft remembring the same [...] reioycing not alone in the thing why [...]he he hath, but also in the fréendly minde of him at whose handes he receiued the sa­me. But the vnthankfull man reioyceth but onely ones, (if he do that:) namely at that instant whē he receiueth the Be­nefit. [Page 109] There is moreouer great diuersi­tie betwene their two liues. For the one of them is allwayes sad and sorowefull: to wyt thunthankfull man, who honou­reth neyther his Parents, nor his scole­master, nor his bringars vp dewely as he shold do. And contrariwise the thank­full bodye is allwayes mery and plea­saunt, allwayes séekyng occasion to re­quite the benefits which he hath recey­ued, and is gretlye delighted if he find it: not sekyng howe he may fully digest it, but studieng after what sorte he maye fully and thoroughly aunswere the sa­me, and that not to his parentes alone, but to hys frinde allso and eche simple wyght that hath anye maner of wayes benefyted him. And if his bondman hap­pen to doo him a plesour, streight waye he weigheth not of whome, but what it was that he receyued.

Chap. 16.

[Page] HOwbeit some ther are (as Hecaton for one,) which dout whether a bondman or seruaunt may doo any thing that maye deserue ye name of a benefit to his ma­ster: & therefore they make this diuision,The d [...]uisiō of such ples [...]urs as may be done. that there are Benefites,Benefits deuties, or good endeuours, & seruices. Benefits they cal those plesours which any straungers doo to vs. A straūger they cal (in this respect) such one as may when him listeth cess [...] and desist from so benefityng vs. Good endeuours or deuties,Dewties or ende­uou [...]s. those plesours or frēdly tournes which ye Children doo to their parēts, wyues to their husbādes, or cōtrarywise, or any one of them to an o­ther, whom affinitie & allyaunce of bloud doth wil & cōmaund to help & socour eche other mutually. Seruices they call suche as the seruaunt doth to his master,Seruices whō fortune hath placed in suche degrée, that whatsoeuer he do in his maisters behalf, [Page 110] he moste thynke it all but his dutye. Whosoeuer for all that, doth denye that the seruaunt maye benefyt his mayster, declareth himself not to knowe what is ryght. For onely it is to be regarded of what mind he was that did the benefit, and not of what degrée. Uertew penneth her self vp from no body,The way to vertew opē to euery persō. she sheweth & offreth herself to euery bodye to be had. She admitteth all that wilbe sewters, And those that haply passe by her with­out regard, she calleth back of her owne accord. Fréeborn, frée made, bondslaues, banished men and Princes, & all a lyke. She choseth neyther the house nor the degrée. She contenteth herself aswell wt the naked man despoiled frō al giftes of fortune, as with him that hath thē all in most abundaunce. For though Fortune beare great sway in ye world, yet vertew triumpheth ouer her. If you will saye that a seruaunt can not doo a benefitte to hys mayster, then will I auerre that it is not possible for a Subiect too doo [Page] it to his king, or a Souldiour to his Ca­pitain. For though there are diuers res­pectes and sondrye tytles of the king, the Capitaine, and the mayster, yet in thys point they are al one touching ye dewty of them that are vnder them and at theyr commaundement. For as the kyng hath his subiectes, and the captaine his soul­diours, so hath the mayster his seruaun­tes at commaundement. If the basenes of his degrée be an impediment to the seruaunt that he may not attaine to the perfection of his desert, as to call the ple­sour he hath done, a benefit, the like shal it also worke to the subiect in respect of his Prince, and to the souldiour in re­gard of his capitaine. Though they va­rye in names, yet agrée they indifferētly concerning their dewtie. But manifest it is that subiects do benefit their Prin­ces, and souldiours their Capitaines, by the same reason then, why may not the seruaunt also benefit his maister?That a bound mā may bene­fitte his Maister. The seruaunt may be iust, strong, valyaunt, [Page 121] and one of noble courage. What then should ayle him but that he may also be­nefyt his maister, sith that is a vertewe aswell as ye residew? To proue it brief­lee this might suffice. There is no dout but that the seruaunt may benefit any [...] bodye. What then should ayle him why he could not benefyt his maister among the reste?

Chap. 17.

TO proue that the seruant can not benefit his maister thou wilt happlye alledge, that though he lende hys maister money, yet he can not properly be sayd his maisters Cre­ditour. That onely excepted, he doth that dayly that may cause his maister to thīk himself bound to him. For if he ryde or goe, he accompaneth him. If he fal sicke he tendeth him, and doth his diligence a­bout him. Whiche thinges if anye other bodye had done them, they had deserued [Page] the name of benefites: but sith hys ser­uaunt did them they must be called but seruices onely. A benefit say they is that frendly plesour whiche suche a one doth as may chose to doo it, and againe refuse to doo if him so lyketh at his plesour. But the seruaunt may not saye naye to what he is able to doo. Wherevppon he can not be sayde to doo a benefitte what soeuer he doith, for that he doth but ful­fill hys dewtie, whyche he can not cho­se but doo perforce. Admitte all these thynges to bee so: yet will I beare the bell awaye heere, and will sette the bondman in as good plight, (for of suche a seruaunt vnderstande that I spéeke) as if he were frée. Tell me by the waye if I bée able to shewe you a bounde ser­uaunt who without all respect of hys owne helthe and safegarde fought in defense of hys mayster stoutely and be­inge greuously wounded, and bléedyng, by whole streames, keept hys ennemyes [Page 112] still at baye whilest hys mayster myght escape and shift for hymself? Will you saye he hathe not benefitted hys mayster because he was his ser­uaunt? Agayne if I can shewe yo [...] a seruaunt that woulde not bée corru [...]ted with anye fayer promysses nor gy [...]tes of the Tyraunt, not feared with anye his thretnings, nor vanquysht with any his punyshementes to disclose thee se­cretes of hys mayster, but what in him laye cleared the suspicions, and aduen­tured hys lyfe for hym, will you saye that he hath not benefited hys mayster neither for that he was his seruaunt? Dowtles a benefitte done by a seruaunt too hys mayster ought not for the estate of thee doer too loose hys accounpt and parfytte name, but it ought too bée so­muche thée better iudged of in hym, for that thée base condicion of hys serui­tude and slauerye coulde not dashe hym frome doynge hys dewtye [...]horough­ly, [Page] effectually, and faithfully.

Chap. 18.

The mīd is always fre and is exēpt [...]rō slauish bō dage. HE is muche deceyued that thinketh ye seruitude hath do­mination and rule ouer eche parte of a man. The chefest part of him is clere from any bondage. For though the bodyes be bound and at commaundement of their maisters, yet is their minde at frée libertie, and so frée, that neyther that prisō of the body wher­in it is shut, can restrain it from sekinge to accomplyshe that that it is enclined vnto, and that tempting somewhiles of worthie enterprises. It is thonly bodye that Fortune hath made subiect, put in thraldome, and assigned to be at the mai­sters commaundement, plesour, and dis­posicion. That he byeth, that he selleth again as lyketh him best. And yet for all that we haue not to commaund our ser­uauntes in eche thing touching their bo­dies that they can do,The bōd­man maye refuse doing the cōmaūde­mēt of his maister in som thīgs as if our cōmaund­ment [Page 113] sounded to the dammage and pre­iudice of the weale publique, they maye chose to doo it, or to assist vs to commit any robbery, they may refuse it.

Chap. 19.

BUt there are some things whyche the Lawes ney­ther command nor inhibyt the seruaunt to do: and yet if he doo them, he maye well be sayde to haue done a benefitte. For when all dewtie and seruice is had of a seruaunt whiche is commonly to be required at suche mens handes, yet res­teth there in some of them that abilitie to doo farther plesour besides that may well deserue the name of a benefit.Wherein y boūdmā may benefit his master. As when he doth vs that plesour that stan­deth vs in great stead, this in no wyse would be called a seruice. There are in lyke maner (to requite the dewtie of the seruaunt towarde his mayster,) certene [Page] thynges wherein the mayster standeth bounde to hys most abiect seruaunt. As to fynde and allowe him sufficient and honest meant, drinke and cloth, and yet are not these to bee called benefittes though the seruaunt hath them dewlye and well.Wherin the mai­ster may b [...]nefyt his bo [...] ̄dman. But if he tender him more then as a seruaunt, bring him well vp, and cause him to be instructed in suche knowledge and artes as longe to Free menne, then maye he be well sayde too haue benefited him. In lyke maner fa­reth it with the seruaunt if he doo more then is incident to the name and dew­tis of a seruaunt whyche procedeth not by commaundement and coustraint but of mere frée will,The be­ [...]f [...]t of y seruaūt to his maister. it owght aswell to bee called a benefit beyng so done by hym, as if anye other had done it.

Chap. 20.

[Page 114] A Bondman sayeth Chrisip­pus is a continuall hired workeman.The discrip­sion of [...] boūdmā [...] And lyke as whē we haue hyred a wor­keman to doo suche or such worke, if he doo that, and more also that may aduauntage vs besides, we accept it thankefully and in good part: ryght so when the bondman passeth that whyche is cōmōly to be required or almost to be desired at ye hands of such one, & attemp­teth to doo yt whiche were great thankes worthy in any one far better born in thē he surmounting ye opinion and credit of his maister, this I say is worthy to be called a benefit. For as if our bondmā shold doo lesse thē his dewty you would not blame vs to be angry wt him, but wold adiudge him worthy of punishment, right so if he doo more thē dewtie, should we not seme to offer him wrong if he should not finde at our handes his thankes according? But wouldest thou know whē a thing is not to be called a benefit? Uerely then­when [Page] a man doth that whyche he coulde [...]ot chose but doo. But when he dothe anye thing whiche he might haue refu­sed to doo [...] and whiche was at his choyce the doyng of it, then loe, is his good will woorthy commendacion and thankes, and the plesour whiche he dothe merites the name of a parfit benefyt. These two are contraryes a benefyt and a wrong. And who that maye susteine wrong at hys maisters handes the same partye maye also doo a benefit to his mayster. And to proue that a bondman may be wronged at his maisters handes I néed not seeke any farther testimonie then that there are appointed magistrates and officers by publique consent to be vmpars be­twene them, to redresse the wronges of­fred by any suche maisters, to restraine their crueltye and oultrage in Punis­shing, and mesure their niggishenes in geuyng them necessaryes. So then it, appe [...]eth lykwyse that the maister may be sayde to receiue a benefit at his ser­uantes [Page 115] hand. Yea euen aswell as anye one may at an others. For the seruaunt doth what lyeth in him, he offred it to hys maister. Howbeit he can not force it vpon him except him list. And what man is he I praye you so loftie that at some one tyme or other may not haue néed of very meane personages? Well for profe of these thinges whiche I haue sayde, I will recite vnto you a nomber of benefi­tes done by suche men to their maisters. Some that deliuered their maisters frō being slaine: some that otherwise saued their liues. Some that saued their may­sters from being cast awaye and if that be not much, that for the sauing of them cast awaye themselues.

Chap. 21.

CLaudius Quadrigarius in hisA nota­ble histo­ry of two boūdmen xxii. booke of Chronicles maketh report that at what time the Citie of Drument [Page] was beséeged by the Romaines, and that they that warded within were quite de­uoid of hope of being able to defende it any longar against the force and sharpe assaults of their enemys, two bondmen seruauntes in one house priuelye stole forth of the City by some posterne gate, lowpe hole, or other pryuye place, and streight way fled to the campes of their enemyes, making a pitifull complaint of their more then crewell vsage whiche they founde at their maistres handes a sole womā within the Cytie: from who­se rigour they wer so escaped, beseching them of grace and socour: who as they were full of compassion easelye admit­ted and allowed their complaint to bee trew, receyued and entreated them verie well. Sone after, the Cytie was taken, then did the Conquerours busily applye themselues to take the spoyle. But these twaine as they were better acquainted with the Cytie then the Rest, so ran they a nerer waye with all spéede streyght [Page 116] home to their maistres house, to preuent the other enemies: and taking her forth, draue her tofore them along the Cytie through the myddest of ye enemyes, whi­che diuers of them seing, demaunded of them both who she was that thei entrea­ted so crewelly [...]o sée to, and what they ment to doo with her. This (qu [...]d they)? this is our deuelysh maistres who ma­nie time hath vsed vs sorye wretches to bad. But now is come the time that we shalbe reuenged on her wellenough shée shall knowe anone what punishement meanes, and whether it be easie to en­dure or no. Thus when by this mea­nes they hadde brought her cleane with out the Cytie and daunger of the ene­myes, and placed her in asmuche safe­tye as they coulde deuyse for the tyme, they retourned into the Cytie, and vn­der colour of takynge it for themselues, gotte and saued somuche as they coulde of her goodes safe and vnspoyled. Then when thée rage and furye of the [Page] of the enemyes was pacified, and the broyle ceast, the conquerours to declare that they were Romaines, restored of those that remayned eche to his owne againe. And they when they sawe all thinges in saftie brought their maistres also safe home againe. Whervpon, shée forthwith manumitted them both & was not ashamed to acknowledge and con­fesse that her lyfe was only preserued by them ouer whom she had authoritie both of life and deth. This was not credit me the fact of seruile hartes to assume vpon them the name of manquellars for the time to thēd they might saue their mai­stres lyfe.

[...]n other notable Historie Cluentius the Pretor of the Mersians was taken and led prisoner toward the Em­perour of Rome. By the way as he wēt, one of his seruauntes seynge his mai­ster was fallen into the hādes of his ene­mies and lyke to be vsed with great ry­gour and crueltie, sodainly stepping to one of them that led him, pluckt forthe [Page 117] his sworde, and ran his maister through therwith, rather then his enemies shold glory or triumphe ouer him. Hauing so done, now quod he that I haue deliuered my mayster, time is it that I prouide for myself also: and therwithall thrust him­self in with the same sworde.

Chap. 22.

CEsar after that he hadde layde sege longe time to the Citie of Corfewe at last wan it,an other worthye Hystorie of a boūdman. and toke Do­misius prisoner. But Do­misius takyng that dishonour of empri­sonment so greuouslie, charged a Phisi­cion he had with him that was his bond­man, to geue him the strongest poyson that he could deuise to ridde him quick­lie. Whiche the Phisicion lingred and would in no wise doo, for that he would not be the fortherer of his maisters deth nor yet denie the doing of it expressely, [Page] fearyng his displeasour whych Domitius perceiuing, in great angar sayde: why? dowtest thou to geue me deth and séest me réedye armed to withstande the as­saulth therof? Whervppon the Phisiciō to appease his furie gaue him a certeine confection which he wellenouge knewe that none of the ingredi entes were ey­ther dedly or hurtfull. Uppon the recept wherof, Domitius fell in a slepe, were it for the conceit he toke with himself that it had bene poyson, or ells for dolour and anguish to thinke of his miserie, whiche when the Phisicion sawe, although he assuredlye knew that that he gaue hym was not hurtfull, yet the tender harte, and faithful allegeaunce he owed to his maister not suffringe him to be so tho­roughlye perswaded, [...] par [...]yt trewe [...]art. with great spéede got him to Domitius hys maisters sonne, and besowght hym that he woulde com­mit hym to warde vntill suche time the truthe were knowen whether that whi­che he gaue hys Father were poyson or [Page 118] no. But Domitius liued and did well. And Cesar pardoned him his life but his seruaunt saued it afore.

Chap. 23.

IN a Ciuill warre that was at Rome proclamaciō was madde agaynste one that who that coulde lay holde on hym,a fam [...] [...]e act of a bound­man. myght lawfullye kill hym, whyche when it was publique­ly notified, a boundman of hys agaynste whome this sentence was paste, forthe with conueighed his maister asyde. A [...]d to staye them frome makynge pursute and serche after hym wherby they might haplye fynde hym out, put on hymselfe his maisters apparell and ringes on hys handes, whyche done he so resembled hys mayster that except it hadde bene o [...]e that hadde bene priuy to the deuise, none but woulde haue sayde it hadde bene hys maister indéed.

[Page]When he was thus attired, boldly with­out any dread h [...] went and met thē that came to seke after his maister, and sayd. My maisters loe I am héere come not to craue any fauour or pardon at your han­des, but put my self wholly in your gra­ce, vse me as you shall thinke good, and with that layd downe his hedde to them to be smytten of. O what a noble cou­rage was he of, that willinglye with­out constraint offred himself to dye to saue his maister: and that at suche time, when faithfulnes was almost quite exi­led forth of the Cytie? And was it not more straunge at that time to find suche Loyaltie in suche one, when nothinge reigned among the verye best but cruel­tie and treason? And what gretter pu­nishment could there be deuised against the rankest Traytour that euer was but death, with which he chose to be rewar­ded for his most trustines.

Chap. 24.

[Page 119] I Will not passe ouer with scilence what chaunced in Rome of later time.an other exāple of a pollitik bondmā. In the reigne of Tiberius Cesar, it was a commō practise and a disease that held w [...]llnyghe euery mā there, to exhibit and preferre billes of ac­cusacion one agaīst an other to Tiberius. Which deuise during the while that the warre Ciuile did last, had shrewdly sha­ken the nobles of Rome. There was presented what talke men had of him as they sat on their alebenche: and scantly could a man haue anye talke familiarlye with his Frinde, but it was blowen to Tiberius eare. There was no astate in safetie, nor any man all most trustye. The least cause that might be was mat­ter sufficient for him to shew his crewel­tye. If any haply were detected, it néeded not to listen what should become of him: for euen before the time of his attainder it was knowen welenowgh whether he should. The axe and the blocke sate in [Page] iudgement of him. It fortuned Paulus y Pretor at that time, to suppe abrode frō home, and ware vpon his fingar a King in whiche was engraued the picture of Tiberius. This Paulus after he had dronk hard, had lyst to make water, and chaun­ced to take the chamber pot in that hand wheron he ware that King, by Reason whereof the King touched the pot also. Whiche thing Maro one that was pre­sent in companie, a Sicophant and picke thanke noted full well reioycing mith­himself that he had suche matter to re­port to Tiberius thinking for his tidinges (as it might haue proued if he could ha­ue brought his deuise about,) to haue had the spoile of Paulus. [...]ut as he tor­ned him about to call witnesses to testi­fie the fact, the seruaunt of Paulus who stode by his maister and eyed Maro wel, mis [...]rusting that there was treason wor­king agaīst his maister, sodeinly pluckt the King frō of his maisters hand. So yt when Maro tourned him again about to [Page 129] haue shewed the others and charged thē to record how Paulus had vnreuerentlye and vnhonorably abused the Emperours picture with touchinge soo vnsemelye thinges with it, the seruaunt of Pau­lus (hys maister not able to saye for him­self for dronkennes,) denied it was so, and for profe, shewed the King whiche he had in his hande, affirming that his maister before he went about his neces­saries deliuered it him to kéepe for the time.

Chap. 25.

DUringe the Reigne of Augu­stus Cesar, men might yet wt muche more liberty,An histo­ry greate pr [...]yese woorthy of ye sober wyt and aduise of boūdmen and safe­tye talke their fancies then they myght vnder Tiberius, for that he was not replenished with suche furye and Tyrannye. In that tyme it chaun­ced that one Ruffus a manne of good honour, who had sometime bene Consul of Rome [...] as he sate at supper on a tyme [Page] and was ouer gone with drinke, suffred this vnwise wish folishly to escape hym. That Augustus myght not safelye re­tourne frō a viage whiche he was about to make, but that he might miscary in it, adding moreouer that the very oxen and calues about Rome had cause to wishe the same. There wanted not to be those that harkned and marked well his wor­des as they past him. On the morowe morning very early in ye dawning of the daye a seruaunt of his that stode by the night afore and herd al his talke recoun­ted orderly vnto him what he hadde vn­wisely amōg his cuppes suffred to scape him, and soberlye aduised him (to preuēt all mischéefes) with all spéede to get him to Augustus, there accuse himself, and put him in his grace [...] When after a litle deliberating with himself he was fullie perswaded that his seruaunt councelled him for the best, determined with him­self to follow it. Wherevppon makyng him readye with s [...]éed, got him on hys [Page 121] way to Augustus ward, and there atten­ded to méet him at his firste comming a­brode. And hauinge done firste his obe­dience, put himself wholly in his grace, and exponing to him all the discourse of the matter and his disloyaltie, with ear­nest repentaunce for his folly so sowlye ouer shot, wishing it might rather hap on himself and his, besought him hum­blie of his gracious pardon which. Au­gustus as he was bountifull and debo­nayre graunted immediately. But none quod Ruffus will credit that I stande in your fauour except it may appere to thē that you gaue me something, and there­vpon besought him that he would graūt him a resonable some of money as he then requested, whyche Augustus gaue charge should be deliuered him. And far­ther quod Cesar of my more ample gra­ce this I promise thée that on my parte there shalbe no cause geuen why wee twayne will euer hereafter fall out a­gain. Did not Cesar graciously so light­ly [Page] to remit the fact? but more worthie of commendacion was it in that he annexed to hys clemencie such liberalitie. Who that shall but heare this Historie repor­ted can not chose but highly commende Augustus, and yet can he not chose but praise this bondman before him. But would you not now loke that I shold tel you that he was manumitted and made Frée for his labour? I thinke you wold, and that woorthely also. He was so and Augustus himself paid the money for his redemption.

Chap. 26.

VPon thalledging of somanye examples, I suppose there is no man that will dout but that the mayster may well enough receiue a bene [...]it at his seruauntes hand. And to say the truth, what Reason is it that the parson of the man should more disgrace the thing y he doth, thē the thing that is done may cōmend the parson of him that [Page 122] doth it? Al men ingenerall haue but one and the self same ofspring if we iudge things aright and the causes of the same as they ought to be, then shall we con­fesse that he onely is most noble, that is of best & most vertuous nature and dis­posicion aboue others,Only one Originall of al men or more apt and geuen to good sciences then other. One onely péece of mould was the first parēt to vs al how soeuer we deriue our paren­tage from thense by base or noble race. The least cause of boastīg that is,No par­fyt glory [...] boaste of our aū cetours. riseth of our auncetours, who if they were no­ble & famouse for any their vertewes, in which only consisteth trew & parfect no­bility, if we dissēt & disarge frō their said vertuousnes, with our shame and re­proche enowgh may we record them, or make claime to them: from whom w [...] so farre degenerat, that vnneth saf sauinge line of bloude and lineall discent wee sauour nowhytte of them. Asfor their welthe, honours, dignities and pre [...]erre­mentes to whiche they were aduaunced [Page] for their noblenes namely their ver­t [...]wes, were but only signes and shews, and rewardes of noblenes. Which who that hath by succession of inheritaunce, enioyeth as in the Romaine weale pu­blique he that had saued a Citizens lyfe and had merited y reward therof a gar­lande called Corona ciuica, might leaue the same to his posteritie. Who myght glory therin not for their owne factes, but for the actes of an other who therby left to them an example of encourage­ment of attempting the lyke. Contemne noman be he neuer so base and vnnoble of fame,No man ought to be cōtemned. and simply preferd by fortunes giftes, whether they haue bene bond he­retofore, or now presentlye are bond, or people of farre and straunge contr [...]y [...]s of what estate or degre soeuer they be of, lette them fortifie themselues, and be of good cowrage. Attaine vertewes & shew them selues worthie,Uertew pr [...]ferred of [...]l per­sons. and thinke not but as perfit nobility attendeth them as any other. Why shoulde wee be so puffed vp [Page 123] with pryde, that we shoulde take scorne to accept benefits and acknowledge the recept of the same at our seruauntes hā ­des. Onely regarding their estate, and forgetting their desertes?

Chap. 27.

THis thought I good and ne­cessary to be sayde both for the repressing of the wan­ton pryde and folly of those men who alltogether hang on fortunes sléeue, and also for the mainteinyng the right acceptaunce and trewe vnderstandynge of suche plesour and be­nefites as seruauntes maye doo to their maisters, & defendinge the same shewed by Children to their parents. For it hath bene dowted by som, whether Children can doo to their parentes any gretter be­nefits then they haue receiued of them.Whether children are able to do gretter bene [...]ites to their pa­rents thē they receiued. Towching whiche matter this I know wilbe graunted, that possible it is that [Page] Children may attaine to gretter welth, & aspire to higher promocions then euer their parents did, & that which is more, to be better also, which being so, it maye be that they may also geue far better thī ­ges, for that their fortune is better, and perhaps their well meaning hart also. But some may happen to say. Well let the Child geue what he is able to his pa­rentes, it is yet lesse then dutie may duly demaund at his hands for that he oweth to them euen all that abilitie of geuyng, as which without them he could not ha­ue had. So that it is not possible for hym to be ouercome with an other mans be­nefit, wose precedent benefit was ye cau­ser of that that was subsequent. But see how greatly they are deceiued that are of this opinion. At the first you know well a nomber of thinges take their originall and beginning of other thinges whyche notwithstanding in processe of time out­growe their sayde beginninges farre.Many thin [...]es excel [...] their be­ginnings We sée that séedes are the ca [...]ses of ma­ny [Page 124] thinges, and yet are they the smallest of those thinges which by thē take their beginninges. Behold Rhine & Euphra­tes: what are they and all the other no­table and famouse Riuers that are ells where, if we regarde the heddes onely from whense they [...]irste breake out? if there be any cause whye they are regar­ded, they take it a great waye of from the head. The great churches and Cyties walles stande not without their foun­dacions, and yet that which is the groūd woorke and staye of all, lyeth hyd vnder the ground and is not séene. So fareth it in euerye other thynge. For the subsequent encrease and groweth sha­doweth quite and ouerwhelmeth as it were, oftentimes the beginninges of the same. I coulde not you saye haue had my being without which I had neuer attai­ned to these thinges if my Father had not begot me, nomore could I if after my Fathers begetting and time of my birth, my Nurse had not fostred me vp.

Chap. 28.

BUt let vs goe roundly too worke and proue yt though the sonne haue bene bene­fited by his Father verye muche, yet he may rendre asmuche againe, and more to. Admitte my Father as [...]e begatte me wherby he gaue me my beginning,The Father that is nou­risht of his some receiueth more the he gaue. so he fostred me vp whereby I tooke encrease also. If I render the lyke of the last part, I render more then I receiued. For in this case he shal haue to reioyce, not onely that he is nourished, but also that he is nowrished of his sōne, taking more comforth in my naturall minde, then delectacion or plea­sour in the thing it self whiche he recey­ueth. Again what and if any man should so vse himself, that eyther for his eloquē ­ce, his woorthie knowledge in Ciuill or Martial pollicie he becommeth famous, and by the noblenes of his said vertewes shaketh of the darkenes and obscuritye of [Page 125] his base parentage, and by meane of hys woorthines causeth the report of his fa­thers name to be crowned with perpe­tuall fame might not he worthely be said to haue done an inestimable bene [...]it to his parents?Immor­tall me­mory ge­uē by the childrē to their pa­rentes. Ariston and Grillus doutles long sith had bene raked vp in the duste and bene as if they had neuer bene with out all report, if Xenophon and Plato their worthie sonnes had not by their noble memory caused thē also to be still remembred. And wher had the famouse name of Sophroniscus bene now become if Socrates his sonne had not as it were made him liue a new? It were ouer te­dious and to long to goo about to recount here the names of al those whose names certeinlye hadde neuer continewed vnto these dayes, had it not bene that thexcel­lent vertewes of their sonnes made thē famouse to their posteritie, and as it wer immortalized them. An infinite nomber of them assuredly had bene shut vp in the depe dungeon of obliuion, if the famous [Page] memory of their sōnes had not deliuered thē frō that dime darkenes. And though perhapps eche benefit y the childrē may doo to their parents seuerally considered and apart by himself be not able to coū ­teruaile the desertes of their said paren­tes, yet a multitude of them conioyned may be able to matche them & passe them also.

Chap. 29.

IT was Scipioes chaūce to saue his Father in a great and sharp battel, [...]altāt­nes of [...]ōg Sci­pio to sa­ne his fa­thers life which to do, he was forst being asyet but a very child to put spurs to his horse, and abandone himself into ye thickest of his enemyes, before he coulde come to the place wher his Father was. And setting light by any neuer so peril­louse aduenture that might befal, stucke no whit to take to task any ye most beten and practised souldiours of his enemies far vnfit matches for his age, or experi­ence of dealing in wars, as who that ne­uer [Page 126] before that time hadde bene in war fare. The same Scipio also an other time pleaded his Fathers case, at what time he was accused, and by his well hande­ling of the matter discharged him from a great conspiracie of some that preten­ded his deth. He also procured his father to be chosen Consull thrise arowe, and aduaunced him to other honours. Besy­des all this,Pro [...]e by resonable arg [...]mēt that the son may rendre gretter benefits thē he recey­ued. he enriched his father pas­singly beynge otherwayes but a verye poore man.

Chap. 30.

BUt all this while haue I reci­ted for profe of my saiengs exā ­ples don by others. Now let me assay if those examples were not, how I were yet able by good and probable ar­gumentes to fortifie and maintaine that whiche I haue sayde. And that I can so doo, you shall lightlye sée by this.

Whosoeuer hath geuen suche a benefit as may be bettred, it maye also be sayde he maye be excell [...]d: but the Father [Page] geueth such a benefit as may be bettred, therfore it may also be sayde he maye be excelled. To proue he maye be excel­led I saye thus, who that receyueth a gretter benefit then he gaue, may welbe sayd to be excelled. I proue that againe thus. The often sauing of a mans life is a gretter benefit, then the only ones ge­uing of lyfe. But the father maye haue his lyfe often saued by his sonne, which is a gretter benefitte then he gaue ther­fore. &c. Or thus who of twaine recei­ueth the benefit he most néedeth of, re­ceyueth the gretter benefit. But the fa­ther who is now liuing receiuing lyfe, receiueth the benefit he most néedeth of in respect of the sonnes néede who is not yet liuing and so had lesse néed, therfore the father receiueth the gretter benefit. But some that will be sati [...]fied neyther with Reason nor owght ells, will still exclaime saieng. It is impossible that the benefites of the father maye be excelled by the giftes of the sōne. For except the [Page 127] father hadde begot him and made him a liuing creature, how coulde he haue got­ten any thing to geue? I praye you then what doth the father more herein or de­serue better then he in whose hande it lieth to saue the lyfe of the sonne or lette him dye, and yet doth saue his lyfe. Hath not any suche in respect of the life of the sonne merited asmuche as his father? Yet verely. For if any such had dispatcht him before he had attained any of those thinges whiche he gaue to his Father, what could the lyfe he had at his fathers handes aduantage him to the getting of such things? But the benefit of any that geueth me a seconde lyfe as it were by not berefting me the lyfe I now haue in vse alredye, may be by me well enowgh requited, and so maye that also of my fa­thers which was again more weke and vnperfecter thē yt, that ye other gaue me, as néeding a nomber of other necessarye concurrentes without which it could not be conserued.

Chap. 31.

HOwbeit I woulde not that any man should cōceiue that opinion that I speake these thinges to thend to diminish in any one point the dew reuerence and obedience that ought in all places and times to be acknowledged & done to our Parents. For vertew by nature counteth to seke and purchace praise by wel doīg,Uertewe allwayes counteth to excell. and contendeth in the pursute thereof to excel those chiefly that are most forward lye. Pietie which is properly the dewtie which eche man is most streightly boū ­den to owe of dutie to God first, and next to his parentes children kinsfolkes and contrey natiue) shoulde be the ioyfuller when it is with an ernest desier done, contending to passe and excell all others therein, whiche if it happen so to hytte, what gretter cause of reioycinge maye there be? What maner contention can yéeld a more commendable victorie, then [Page 128] that the parent maye haue iust cause to saye, that his sonne hath ouermatcht him farre in requiting his benefites? For if the parentes should shewe them­selues after such sort to accompt of their benefites as though they could neuer be sufficientlye requited by their Children, then certeinlye they shoulde make them so slacke, that they woulde neuer vn­dertake to geue thattempt to it, as per­swaded afore hand that if they should, it were but labour lost and not woorthe the whyle: where as they shoulde rather en­cowrage them forwarde themselues, and saye. Well come on my deare Chil­dren it is an honest emulacion and kynd of contencion that is proposed betwene the parentes and their children:The en­courage­mēt that ye parēts shold ge­ue to their childrē to apply thē selues to goodnes. name­lye to assaye without cessyng who should be able to vanquishe others in bestow­inge of benefittes.

I for my parte and you for yours assaye whyche of vs shall winne the best, and [Page] deserue most at others handes. To dis­pose and order this féeld there [...]éedes no skill of captains, nor sound of Drūme or other instrument to encourage men to marche on stowtly not dowting but they may get that victory whiche hath bene often hadde by the children against their parentes.

Chap. 32.

A famouse acte of the yong menne of Cicilye. THe yong men of Sicily pas­sed far the benefits of their parentes For when on a time Etna hill whiche all­way burneth ouer thaccu­stomed maner cast forth flames and in suche sort that the moste part of that I­land was sette on fyer thereby, the yong menne that were inhabiting those fyred Townes seyng the daunger was past all recouerie, and that there was no safe, garde of themselues but to make theyr waye amyd the burning flames whyche [Page 129] had altogether enuirōned them as with a pale, escape if they could, takyng vpon their backes their olde and impotent pa­rentes of whyche somme for wantte of sight, some for lacke of their limmes could not shift any way for themselues, chose rather so to hasard their liues, then standing still in their houses or streates to be burned so cowardly. Who when they wer thus armed with hardines and in sekinge their owne safetie neglected not the dewtie they owed to their paren­tes, the crewell and raginge flames (a straunge thing to tel) deuidyng themsel­ues as it were to reuerence the pyetie of the fact gaue thē free passage a midde them without any whit hurting them. Antigonus also was no whyt inferiour to his Father in requiting his benefits.Worthy fact of Antigo­nus. For when he had in a wouderfull great battell disconfited his enemy and wōne the kingdome of Ciprus, he gaue whol­ly both the spoyle of the battell and the kindome also vnto his father. [Page] A stout facte of Ma [...]lius where [...] he allso shewed his assu­red l [...]ue and deu [...]y acknow­ledged to his father Manlius in lyke maner who though he happed to haue to his Father a verye se­uere and hawtye stomackt man, yet in requiting his benefites shewed himself no whit inferiour to him. For when hys Father on a time for his rio [...]ous and vn­brideled youth hadde b [...]nished him from hys presence, sone after he that was then Tribune of the people in Rome, hadde pretended a conspiracie againste Manlius Father: and the daye appoin­ted when he shoulde be brought to hys aunswere. Whereof Manlius hauynge intelligence, came with spéed to the Tri­bune, desiring to knowe the daye when his Fathers araynement shoulde bée: makyng semblaunce of reioycing at it for that his father hadde delt so roughly with him. The Tribune beyng preuie howe rigourouslie he hadde bene vsed by hys Father, at firste moued hys case and accused greatly the discourtesie and vnnaturallnes of hys Father: and ho­pyng that for reuenge thereof Manlius [Page 130] woulde what in him laye be a forthere [...] of his deuised pretence, declared to him when the daye shoulde be.

Wherevppon Manlius so sone as he had gotte oportunitie, and that he hadde the Tribune alone, drew forthe a naked sworde whyche he had priuely hidde vn­der his gowne, and layeng holde vppon the Tribune thretned him sayeng. Assu­redly except thou presentlye sweare vn­to me that thou wilt neyther make nor meddle with my Father, but discharge him quite of this matter without ma­kyng anye farther a doo about it, I will here presently runne thee through with this swoorde. For well I stande assu [...]ed that it resteth wholly in thy hande, whe­ther my father shall haue anye accuser or not. The Tribune seynge himself at suche a strayte, sware he woulde doo as he required him, and ryght soo per­fourmed it,

Chap. 33.

A Uerye easie matter if is to recite one after an other an infinitie nōber almost of notable examples of such as haue delyuered their parentes from great and present daungers: whiche haue adu [...]unced them from base to high degree: and whereas they were neyther of name nor fame, but inglorious, they haue by their meanes made them to be remembred, and as it were, to lyue perpetuallye. By no effi­cacie of fytt and sufficient woordes, by no exactnes and exquisitenes of wit is it able to be sufficientlye expressed howe exc [...]llent a thinge it is and prayse wor­thie to make a mans fame to liue perpe­tu [...]llie. What a noble prayse and com­me [...]d [...]cion is it for the childe to be haue h [...]self [...] so, that indéed without trip he may iust [...]ly saye I haue shewed my self [Page 131] obedient to my parentes. I haue done af­ter their commaundements wer it right or wrong to my self that they required of me, I haue framed my self to serue their appetites. In this onely thyng haue I shewed myself disobedient to them, that I woulde not willingly geue place ne yeeld to them in bestowing benefites on thē and requyting theyr receyued. Eche child I wish to contend on this sort. No maner pesons I would should yéeld her­in to be vanquished, namely in rendring benefits whiche at any mans hand they haue receiued. And if it happen anye to waxe dull, herein, let them whet theyr edges agayne and begine afresh. Happy are they that shall get the victorie: and happy they that shalbe vanquished, if it be not a yéelded victorye. What more noble thinge is there then when a man may iustly saye I haue excelled my Fa­ther in doing him plesours, yea there is none at whose handes I euer receiued benefitte but I haue passed hym farre in [Page] requiting the same? Who is there that lyueth more fortunat then the olde pa­rentes that maye vppon good proofe re­porte that they haue suche a childe that hath with great encrease yeelded them the benefits whyche they bestowed vp­pon him? Generallye who can be cal­led more happy then he that reportyng the truthe may saye I neuer did plesour nor bestowed benefit that I had cause to repent or thinke lost, but had it as redily repaid and requited as I was wil­ling to do it, and that doubled many folde? And then hauyng brought eche partie to that passe that they may iustly so say and find what thing can there happen more happy and so happly to make an ende?

FINIS

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