[Page] THE HVNTING OF THE FOX OR, FLATTERY DISPLAYED. The Flatterers devise; A Water-man looking one way, and rowing another, with this Motto Mel in ore, fel in corde.

By H. H. Grayens.

LONDON, Printed by A. M. for Philemon Stephens and Christopher Meredith, at the signe of the Golden Lyon in Paules Churchyard, 1632.

TO THE RIGHT Worshipfull Sir CHRI­STOPHER HARFLETE, Knight of the Ile of Thanet.


THe Hunting of harmefull beasts is commended for recreation, and the Meta­phoricall hunting of wic­kednesse is commanded for reformation. It was part of my recreation (being som­times wearied with the study of the Law) to vn­kennell, to put vp and hunt the Fox, for so S. Bernard [Page] calls the Flatterer; which may bee called, My spare­houre-meditations: I know your VVorship to bee free from this vice, which made mee bold to flye to your Worship to shelter it vnder the wings of your Protecti­on, hoping for no excepti­on but your acceptation; wishing you with your vertuous Lady, all health and happines in this world, and all blessednesse in the world to come: Thus prayeth

Your Worships affectionate friend and Kinsman, HEN. HARFLETE.

To the Reader.

GEntle Reader, I have written nothing but the truth, but I know Truth brings forth a bad daugh­ter, Hatred, Veritas odium, but I wish that she might be an abor­tive; I hope none through ha­tred will give too hard a censure of mee for writing the truth: I have writ the truth in love and charity: I have covered naked truth with her sister Charity. I hope (gentle Reader) that Ha­tred, the daughter of Truth, will passe by her Mother, and not [Page] know her in that attire; the [...] judge favourably of mee, and quo animo legis, obserua, quo obser­vas, serua: Reade it that th [...] mayst remember it, and remem­bring, practise not flattery, but true amity; hoping for no lesse, and praying to God for this, I leave thee to God.

Thy friend, no flatterer, HEN. HARFLETE.

The Contents.

Of Flattery consider,

  • 1. THe Definition. page 4.
  • Which consists of the 1. Ge­nus: 2. Differences.
  • The Genus Vice. Flattery is a vice. 5
  • It is the worst of vices: Because it counterfeits all vertues. 6
  • Because it is hated of God. 7
  • Because it is hated of Man. 8
  • Because it is the nourisher and pre­seruer of vices. 11
  • It is an infectious vice. 12
  • It is an hurtfull vice. 14
  • It is a scoffing vice. 15
  • It is a fawning vice. 16
  • The Differences, in which obserue foure things.
  • [Page] First Flatteries neere affinity with friendship, 'Tis hardly discerned from friendship; from which, note that flattery is like friendship. 18
  • That a man can hardly know it from friendship. 21
  • That a flatterer is a secret enemy. 23
  • Secondly, the meanes whereby a flat­terer doth deceive (viz.) by soft and smooth speeches. 24
  • Thirdly his ends, which are taken from his 1. Policy. 2. Inten [...].
  • 1. Of his Policy, see the 1. Object. 2. Extent.
  • The Obiect is favour. To get favour▪ pag. 26
  • The Extent, For some worldly re­spect. 27
  • 2. Intent, To deceive. 29
  • Fourthly, his hypocrisie, pretending what he intends not. 31
  • II. Distributiō which demonstrats the Causes, Obiect, Signes of Flattery.
  • The Causes are foure: 1. Efficient. The Devill. 32
  • 2. Materiall, faire, and glozing words. pag. 34
  • [Page] Which are in regard of the [...] [...] ­lightfull. pag. [...]6
  • In regard of the Auditors [...] or triall, bitter; because they are Bird­lime. 31
  • Because they are sweet poyson. 37
  • Because they are wine but deadly. 38
  • Because they are swords. 38
  • Because they are netts. 38
  • In regard of the flatterers ayme de­ceitfull. 39
  • 3. Formall Dissimulation or hypo­crisie. 42
  • [...]. Finall. Deceit. 44
  • The Object is to be considered, 1. Ge­nerally, 2. Specially.
  • Generally that flatter for some out­ward good, such are found in Church, Court, Citie, Country.
  • In the Church. 48
  • The Minister flatters in his Instructi­on, when hee preaches for Favour, Profit, Credit. 50. 51
  • And that in regard of the Matter. 55
  • Intention 58. Manner of speaking. 58
  • In the Court you shall finde the flatte­rer Ambitious. 60
  • [Page] Selfe-conceited and politick. 63
  • Affecting popularity. 63
  • In the Citie there flattery is betweene the Citizen and his Wife. 64
  • Betweene the Citizen and Country­man. 65
  • Betweene the Cheater and Stranger. pag. 69
  • In the Country. 70
  • Specially who ayme at a mans Life. 73 Goods, 75. Good name. 76
  • The signes are to praise a man (though absent) beyond his deserts. 77
  • To praise a man to his face. 78
  • Vpon small distasts to slacke acquain­tance. 78
  • He is a tale-bearer. 78. 79


SAint Gregory compares the world to a rotten nut, which being opened with the knife of verity, you shall finde nothing with­in but rottennesse, and vanity; vanity indeed; so saith the wisest of Kings; vanitas vanitatum, & omnia vanitas: Eccl. 1. 1. Vanity of vanities, and all is vanity: There is nothing found in the Ma­crocosme or great world, but vanity; you shall finde the same in the Mi­crocosme or little world, Man. Homo vanitas, man himselfe is vanity, so saith the Psalmist: but man is most vaine Psal. 39. 6. respect [...] vitiorum; in respect of his [Page 2] vices, as Solomon in his booke of Ec­clesiastes witnesseth; wherein he hath hunted out the vanities, and sins which men most haunt: The wicked like Esau, are cunning hunters of goodnes, and good men; they hunt both

  • 1 vi &
  • 2 fraude.

By force, and fraud; by hand and head: Wicked hunt: 1. Vi, by force.

Micah 2. 2. They covet fields, and take them by violence. Here they hunt vvith hands, by force. Anaxagoras thought man the vvisest of all crea­tures, quia manuatus, because he hath hands, whereby to expresse all signes, but hee might better have concluded him the worst of all creatures; because he hath hands, whereby to oppresse his neighbour.

Mal. 7. 2. They hunt with a nett: Here they hunt with their crafty head, 2. Fraude, by craft. by fraud: As they are hunters, so they are cunning hunters. By their crafty head they have devised politique gins to catch good men: They seeke not the Golden Fleece by Iasons merit or [Page 3] honesty, but by Medeas subtilty; But as S. Augustine saith, Their trickes August. [...] vita & moribus Christi. may be approved of, in iure fori, but they shall be reproved for them in jure poli; Earth may connive at them, but heaven will never receive them.

I vvish that all vvicked hunters might bee hunted by good men that are in authority. The hunting of harm­full beasts is commended for recreation. The metaphoricall hunting of wicked­nesse, Metapho­ricall hun­ting. is commanded for reformation. There are many beasts that may bee hunted; for wicked men in the Scrip­ture are compared to divers sorts of beasts; some to wilde Boares, some to Horses, some to Mules, some to Dogges, some to the Fox; and to o­thers, and that respectu vitiorum; be­cause they are so deformed by their sinnes, and through them transformed into savage natures; I insist not vpon many particulars, but onely vpon one, and that is the Fox, whom [...] hunt, not with sword, but pen; Cant. 2. 15. Take vs the little Foxes; vpon this place, S. Bern. saith. Duo sunt vulpium genera. [Page 4] There are two kindes of Foxes, the Flatterer, and the Slanderer; of which my intent is to vnbourough only now the Fox-Flatterer.

Flattery is the subject of this ensu­ing discourse; which doth object two things to your eye, and consideration; The

  • 1 Definition
  • 2 Distribution

of Flattery.

1 The Definition.

Flattery is a vice hardly discerned from friendship, whereby a man with soft [...]. [...]d. [...]at flat­ [...] is. and smooth speeches seekes to get favour with a man for some worldly respect, thereby the more easily to deceive him, pretending what he intends not.

Give mee leave (gentle Reader) to open the definition of Flattery, that I may in part open and rip▪ vp the belly of the Fox-Flatterer.

The definition doth consist of two parts.


  • 1 Genus.
  • 2 Differences.

1. The Genus in this word. Viti­um, [...]ry is [...]. it is a vice.

1. It is a vice.

[Page 5]

  • 1 The worst of vices.
  • And se­condly,
    • 2 infectious
    • 3 hurtfull
    • 4 fawning
    • 5 scoffing

First. A Vice: or peccatum, a sinne, so Aquinas calls it; For (according to the judgement of Devines) it is a sinne against the ninth Commandement; A flatterer beares false witnesse against his neighbour: Now a man may beare false witnesse two wayes: either first privately, by himselfe, or secondly pub­liquely, before the Magistrate: Flatte­ry, and slandering, are two members of private bearing false vvitnesse, a slan­derer beares false witnesse to a man a­gainst others; a flatterer beares vvit­nesse to a man against himselfe. [...]his [...] ­a granted proposition, it needes no grea­ter amplification: so that it is as Ta­citus saith, Vetus in republica malum, It is an olde evill in the Common­wealth, and no vices like to old vices; and as it is vetus, so it is vitiosum, a vitious evill, for it is first vitiorum pessima.


[Page 6] 1. The worst of vices.

And that in 3. respects, propter

  • 1 Simulationem virtutū.
    1. It is the worst of vices. Worst of vices.
  • 2 Odium
    • a deo.
    • ab homine.
  • 3 Conservationē vitiorū.

First, it is the worst of vices, be­cause it counterfeits all vertues: Vice 1. Because i [...] coun­te [...]its all vices. is made vertues Ape in a flatterers pra­ctise; It is his intent Virtutem non co­lere, sed vitia colorare; as S. Bernard saith, Not to embrace vertue with a Bern. super Cant ser. [...]6. good intention, but to paint over vice vvith a faire complexion: For every vice takes his colours, or his instigati­ons from him, and his greatest ex­ploits are, either to further vice, or to smother it. He is like vnto the Came­lion, apt to all objects, capable of all colours, who clokes hate with holines, ambition with good government, and flattery with eloquence; yet whatso­ever he pretends is dishonesty; for as a Camelion hath all colours save white, so hath hee all points save honesty.

2. It is the worst of vices because it is hated both of

  • 1 God. &
    2. Because it is ha­ted.
  • 2 Man.

[Page 7] Man cannot abide him, because he doth a little professe amity to man, God cannot endure him, because hee doth no more but professe it.

Because hee weares Gods livery of true amity, the world daignes not to be his mother, and because his heart is fal­lacious and sinne-wedded, God meanes not to be his Father. A touch of these. And first he is

Hated of God. 1. Of God.

The Scripture tells vs the Lord hates evill, and the Psalmographer as­sures vs, that the flatterer harbours an evill heart. Psal. 41. 7. God then can­not chuse but hate him, for if flattery were not evill, it could not be the ob­ject of hatred, for nothing can bee ha­ted but evill, or that which is estee­med so at the least, according to the Moralist, Odium est, quo voluntas resilit ab objecto disconuenienti, vel vi discon­uenienti; Hatred is the turning of the concupis [...]ible appetite from that which is evill, or esteemed euill. Now God doth not hate flattery as an esteemed evill, but as an absolute evill in it selfe. [...]

[Page 8] The Schoole-men tell vs of a two-fold hatred in God.

There is a hatred

  • 1 Negative.
  • 2 Positive.

1. The negatiue hatred of God is two-fold:

  • 1 Negatio amoris.
  • 2 Displicentia rei.

The first is, when God doth denie his love, hee is said to hate; so hee ha­ted Esau before hee had done either good or evill.

The second is; when sinne doth dis­please him, causing him to turne away his wonted favour, he is said to hate.

2. The Positive hatred is d [...]retum puniendi; a decree in God to punish; for when God doth punish man any way for sinne, hee is said to hate the sinner; now if God doth hate the flat­terer, what can hee expect but Gods displeasure and judgements vpon him for his false heart; and whom God hates man cannot love, and therefore

2. He is hated of man. And why? 2. Of man.

Because a flatterer pretends amity, intends enmity. Hee salutes his friend in his mouth with Ave, or, God keepe [Page 9] you; when in his heart hee meanes, Cave, or, The devill take you, thus hee is amicus nomine & ore, inimicus re & corde; A friend in shew, an enemie in deed. Psal. 41. 5. and therefore wor­thy to bee hated of man, vvho thus turnes enemy to man: I may speake of the life of a flatterer, vvhat Tully Tully. speakes of the life of a Tyrant; Haec est vita Tyrannorum (saith he) adula­torum (say I) in qua nulla fides, nulla charitas, nulla stabilis benevolentiae po­test esse fiducia, omnia semper suspecta, nullus locus est amicitiae; In the life of a flatterer there can bee no faith, no charity, no sure benevolence; all things are alwayes suspected; there is no place of friendship. And therefore he is worthy of hatred. But me thinks I heare the flattering enemy, inducing vs to subjection to the God of the word, producing an obiection out of the word of God. Backing it both with precepts affirmation, and examples confirmation. And first by precept. Math. 5. 44. Wee must doe good to those that hate vs; and love our enemies. And 1 Ioh. 3. 15. and [Page 10] 1 Ioh. 2. ver. 9. and 11. He that hateth his brother is a man-slayer. And Leu. 19. 17. We ought not to hate our brother in our heart. Secondly, by example. Da­vid loved those that hated him, 2 Sam. 19. 6. And therefore wee ought not to hate the flatterer who is our bro­ther.

To these I answere.

First, there is a two­fold love. Amor

  • rei.
  • personae.
    Sol. 1.

The love of the

  • 1 thing or action.
  • 2 person.

We must love the person of our ene­mie that hath wronged vs; but wee must hate his [...]nfull actions, wee must pray against their sinnes, not persons. 2 Sam. 15. 31. Acts 4. 29.

Or secondly, There is a two-fold Sol. 2. hatred, say the Schoole-men.


  • 1 abominationis.
  • 2 inimicitiae.

The hatred of

  • 1 abomination.
  • 2 enmitie.

With the hatred of abomination, a man may hate or distast the evill or sinne done against God, which is hate­full [Page 11] to God, and hurtfull to his mem­bers, as flattery is.

Secondly, with the hatred of Enmi­tie, a man may hate the person; but how? onely as he doth will or permit the punishment of the person, because of the evill he hath committed; so a Magistrate may will a man to bee pu­nished, Vt improbus sed non vt homo; as a wicked man, but not as a man; so I may hate a flatterer Non vt homo, sed vt adulator: Not as a man, but as a Flatterer.

Thirdly, It is the worst of vices.

Quia vitiorum altrix & conser­vatrix.

Because it is a nourisher and preser­ver 3. Be [...] it pre­ser [...] vi ces. of vices.

Flatterers are Authores et fautores mali, They are Authors and favourers of evill; I neede apply no more to this, but what is applied to the Iesuite, may be implied in the flatterer.

Consulo, praecipt [...], consentio, prov [...], laudo;
Non retego culpam, non puni [...] non reprehend [...];
Participo, de [...]ēdo, men̄ in caput ista redundant.

Evill counsell lies lurking in his head, [Page 12] hee forbids good things to bee done with his tongue; hee can consent to euill in his heart; he can doe mischiefe with his hand: so that his tongue, head, heart, and hand, are nourishers, pre­servers, and practisers of vice: So that I may inferre, that slattery is but ano­ther sinnes Pander. Demosthenes doth likewise averre, that it is Vitiorum al­trix et vei itatis corruptrix; The nou­risher of vanity, and corrupter of verity. Thus it is the worst of vices. Second­ly, it is an

Infectious vice. 2 Infectious vice.

Adulatio insi [...]it illum, qui cam as­ficit, et interficit, quem inficit: It doth infect that man, who doth affect it, and it kills him, whom it doth infect: This sinne carries death at his tayle: and therefore saith a Heathen, It kills two at a blow; the flatterer, and the flattered. The flatterer carries death in his tongue, the flattered in his eare: The flatterer like the serpent in Para­dise, wrongs himselfe persuadendo, by inticing to sinne; the flattered kills himselfe consentiendo, by consenting to [Page 13] sinne: as Eve by beleeving the flat­tering devill.

The hurt that befalls the preserver of this vice, is manifest. And the dam­mage that betides the flattered, is ma­ms [...]ld; but yet this infection spreads no [...]r the [...] then to the flattered; there being a reciprocall relation betweene them both (happy vvould the nature of man bee, if all infectious diseases were of that nature) Quamvis adula­ [...] sit perniciosa, noc [...]re tamen nemini potest, nisi ei, qui eam recipit, aut qui ca delectatur; Although it bee perni­cious or infectious, yet it hurts none but those, vvhich doe receive it, or delight in that vice, saith Isocrates.

I would wish all men to beware of touching this pitch, lest they bee d [...] ­siled therewith; It leaves something behinde it where it comes, and there­fore it may not vnsitly bee compared vnto Swallowes, vvhich in the Sum­mer time creepe vnder every house, but in the Winter time leave nothing behinde them but dirt, or perhaps some infectious matter; for, Blan­ditiae [Page 14] sunt pessimum veri affectus vene­mon, Flattery is the worst poyson of true affection, saith Ta [...]us. It is vitium linguae, a vice of the tongue; I have read of many vnreasonable creatures that carry poyson in their tayles, but I never read of a reasonable creature, that carries poyson in his tongue, till I read of the flatterer, Vnder whose lips is the poyson of Aspes, saith the Psal­mist.

3. It is a hurtfull vice. 3. A hurt­full vice.

Bias being asked of all beasts which was the worst, and most hurtfull, an­swered; Inter feras tyrannus, inter ci­eures adulator; Among wild beasts the Tyrant, among tame the flatterer; yet surely if I might compare him to a [...]ame fowle, I would liken him to the tame Peacock for hurt; and therefore vvhat some have mockingly said of the Iesuite, I may truly say of the slat­terer, Pav [...] est; hee is a Peacock; for hee hath the colour of an Angell, the pace of a thiefe, and voyce of a devill; vvhat more hurtfull, and deceitfull, then a fine but false colour; then a [Page 15] comely, but theevish pace; then a plea­sing, but a devillish voyce. And there­fore it is the best course of every man to course from him this hurtfull beast; and if it vvere my lot to fall among beasts, I would accept of Antisthenes opinion, [...], I had rather fall among Ravens then among flatterers; for they would but peck mee being dead; but these vvill pick me being living.

4. It is a scoffing vice. 4. A scof­fing vice.

And therefore wee call him a fl [...]e­ring fellow, a fawning Sycophant, and a scoffing Parasite, Adulatores suorum dominorum tam arrisores quam arroso­res sunt; Flatterers are as well scoffers as biters, saith Seneea: They doe as vvell flowt at their prey, as deceive their prey; for the flattered is but the flatterers prey, and as long as the hope of obtaining some benefit sticks in his stomack, he is his servant to wayt vp­on him; but as soone as his benefit is obtained, no longer a servant, scarce a friend: and perhaps hee hath left his acquaintance with many a scoffe; for [Page 16] it is most certaine he hath shewed him some cheating trick, for his curtesies; his a [...]rision is a signe of delusion; hee hath de [...]ved him, and therefore hee áerides him; but a wise man, will ne­ver (like Solomon) beleeve the flatte­rer, nor yet with Diogenes care for his [...]; who when the people mockt him, was wont to say: Arrident me, attain [...]n non derideor; They deride me, Diogen. yet I am not decided.

5. [...]t is a fawning vice. 5. A faw­ning vice.

It is a fawning vice too; dog-like, who fawnes vpon his Master for crusts and bones. Loving smiles, and Apish gestures are his best impostures: Hee vses his mouth as the dogge waggs his tayle, the one to obtaine a boone from his friend, the other to gaine a bone from his Master. I wish now that missing their boone, they might bee censured to Adonibezeckes doome, that their hands and toes might bee cut off; their hards, Vt neminem assequantur; that they may lay hold of none; their toes, Vt neminem insequantur; that they may not follow any man to flatter [Page 17] him: and they should gather crums vn­der mens tables; they fawne like dogs, let them feede like dogs, saith one.

Thus for the Genus in the definiti­on, Flattery is a vice; now follow the


In the words following.

In which observe foure things.

  • 1. Flattery's neere affinitie with friendship. T'is hardly discer­ned from friendship.
  • 2. The meanes whereby the flat­terer doth deceive: and that is by soft, and smooth speeches.
  • 3. The flatterers end, and that is two-fold.taken from the flatterers
    • 1. Policie; to get favour for some worldly respect, where note the
      • 1. Object of this poli­cie, & that's favour to get favour.
      • 2. Extent of the Ob­ject; for some world­ly respect.
    • 2. Intent, to deceive.
  • 4. The flatterers hypocrisie; pre­tending what he intends not:

[Page 18] First, flatterie's neere affinity with friendship.

It is hardly discerned from friend­ship,]

From vvhich Note may bee noted these three notes.


  • 1. Flattery is like friendship.
  • 2. A man can hardly know it from friendship.
  • 3. Flattery is a secret enemy.

First, of the first.

1. That Flattery is like friendship.

Flattery is like friendship in shew, but not in fruit, saith Isocrates, Non est eadem, sed sient, o [...] fere; t'is like or almost friendship, Almost in Agrippa mari'd a good Christian, and the flatte­rers Almost covers a friend, and disco­vers a soe: They are mutually mingled together affectu; they differ effectu; or as the Moralist saith, In omni motis, & affectu animi, sed non in actionibus; They are ioyned together in every mo­tion and affect of the minde, but they are disioyned in their severall effects and actions; therefore wee grant the old rule true, Nullum simile est idem, If [Page 19] flattery be similis, it cannot be eadem, That which is like to a thing cannot be the same; flattery is but like friend­ship, and therefore nemo amicus idem et adulator, A flatterer cannot be both a flatterer and a friend.

Aquinas will have friendship to be a vertue, and flattery a vice: now vice may bee in some respects like vertue; and vice sometimes may been vertues Ape; but yet no vice can be a vertue, for they are meere contraries; would you know vvhat this friendship is vvhich opposes flattery; Then thus. Amicitia est specialis uirtus, secundum Aquin. 22. Friend­ship, what it is. [...] quaminter se homines bene disponuntur, simul conviventes; Or thus arcording to some, which runs both to one sense. It is a community of a perpetuall will, the end where of is fellowship of life; and it is framed by a perfect habit of a long continued love. Now brasse be­ing gilded over with silver, may to the outward appearance seeme to bee good silver; but time or the touch­stone, (time by long wearing, or the touchstone by present rubbing) dis­cernes [Page 20] it to be but brasse; Flattery be­ing covered over with amity, may ap­peare to be true friendship to the eye of the world; but either time (for true friendship is perpetuall flatterie temporary) or the touchstone of ad­versity or present necessity, will dis­cover true f [...]iendship from flattery, and therefore well said Plato, It is the pro­perty of true friends to live and love to­gether; but fained friends fly from a man in time of triall▪ for vvhere flat­tery dwells, friendship can have no chamber to lodge in: they cannot be lodged in the same subject, no more then God and Dagon vnder one roofe.

Nemo potest [...] pariter servire, deo (que)
S [...]c & adulator null [...] [...] erit

If God and Sathan may bee bedfel­lowes, no doubt but flattery and friend­ship may be chamber-fellowes; If one man can truly serve God and the De­vill, I would yeeld that one man might bee both a true friend, and a flatterer; Though friendship be like, yet it is con­trary to flattery, dislodging verity, [Page 21] without which the name of amity can­not subsist; and as flattery is Like, so i [...] is so like to friendship that (in the se­cond note.)

2. A man can hardly know it from friendship.

Flattery is an arrant thiefe, he hath robd friendship of his coate, and wea [...]es it himselfe. I hey both weare Gods livery, and of m [...]n they are both taken for Gods servants; one that is a wrong­full detainer of a great mans livery, is taken for to be one of his true retai­ [...]ers, and of a stranger t [...]ken for his true man; but the Master knowes hee is none of his servants, wherefore he punishes him for his presumption; so [...]lattery is hardly discerned from friendship; Difficile est eodem & adu­ [...]atore et amico vti: It is a hard thing [...]o p [...]t any confidence in that man that [...]eemes to be a friend, but indeed is a [...]iend; Solomon saith Caveat amicus, let [...]he flattered take heed; but I say ca­ [...]eat adulator, Let the flatterer take [...]eed; though man knowes not his [...]eart, yet God knowes it; and will [Page 22] one day pay him home for his dissi­mulation: The fl [...]tterer is cloathed like the Asse in the Lyons ski [...] in the fable; who, when he had gotten on the Ly­ons skinne, was taken of all beasts for the true Lyon: but his Master finding him, knew him by his long eares, which hee could not hide, disrobed him, and beat him wel for his knavery. The fable is but a fable, the moral [...] may be good; This Asse is the flat­terer; vvho hath got on the Lyo [...] skinne, friendship [...] coat, and of all sim­ple, silly and mistrustlesse people ta­ken for the true Lyon, true friend­ship; but the Master, that is God▪ vvho is Lord and Master over all knowes him well enough by his long eares, that is his heart, that is no [...] cloathed with friendship, and there­fore God vvill disrobe t [...]is dissem­bling Asse the flatterer, and make him appeare as hee is indeede, a righ [...] Gnatho, a Parasite; I wish that m [...] might know flattery theoretically, bu [...] not practica [...]y; that hee might kno [...] it to avoyd it, not to practise it; f [...] [Page 23] by practising he becomes mans enemy, for thirdly,

3. A flatterer is his friends secret enemy.

No enemy like to a secret enemy, and therefore Antigonus in his prayers was vvont to desire the g [...]ds to defend him from his Friends; for he said, he could easily beware of them, whi [...]h vvere his open enemies: David the beloved of God, found some secret and inward hatre [...] in those, of whom out­wardly hee seemed to be beloved, for so David himself confesses, [...]sal. 41. 7. The flatterer did secretly hate him, Pro. 26 24. and seeke his hurt; These flatterers are Lamiae, Witches, which kill those which suck their milke, Lamiae, is tran­slated Dragons: and Lam. 4. 3. These are the Dragons whi [...]h draw out their breasts: I h [...]se cannot chuse but be se­cret enemies, who vn [...]er a pretence to give the body nutriment, should be a cause of mischi [...]fes increment, and healthes decrement, I c [...]nnot chuse but count him my enem [...], that pretends health, but intends death, Prou. 26. that Pro. 26. 28. [Page 24] for to cure my grievous malady, would not care to prescribe a venomous re­medy: that vnder a healthfull potion would give me deaths portion. Haec adulatoris amicitia, blanditoris inimi­citia, The flatterers amity, in the end proves enmity: For whose sake was devised this device; A Waterman row­ing one way, and looking another; His motto, this; M [...]l in ore, fel in corde; Hony is in his mouth, but gall in his heart.

2. The meanes whereby the flatterer doth deceive, and that is, By soft and smooth speeches.]

Flattery according to the Hebrew tongue, (as those can best tell as have skill in that language) signifies blandus, or mollis, smooth, or soft, because the flatterer vses smooth and soft speeches; but hee is like vnto a Sodome Apple, faire and sound in the outward appea­rance, but rotten within; so is hee faire-tongued, but rotten-hearted; and therefore say some of the Hebrewes, the word (to flatter) signifies Divi­dere, to divide, because in the flatterer [Page 25] his tongue is devided from his hart: but those smooth speeches sooth vp man ad interitum to his owne de­struction; and therefore, well saith Diogenes, A flattering tongue is like Laer [...]. in vit [...] D [...] ­gen. [...]o a [...]lken halter; which is soft be­cause silken, but strangling, because a halter.

Smooth words, but all vanity, little verity in them; for a man had better give the words of an enemy some credit, then the words of a flatterer; for Illi verum saepe dicunt, hi Tul. in La­lio. [...]nquam, saith Laeliu [...]; they some­times speake truth, these never.

Receive then Solomons advise, le [...]t hee deceive you by his faire­tongued devises. Though hee speake (fairely or) favourably beleeve him not; so I leave his fine, and fained tongue, and come to his vaine


[Page 26]Which are two­fold, his

  • Policy, where is the
    • Obiect of his po­licy; and that is, favour to get favour.
    • Extent of the object, for som worldly respect.
  • Intent to deceive.

First, the obiect of his policie, and that is

To get favour,]

The flatterers policie is but a craf­tie, and worldly policy: It is most sure that he is the worlds friend, and Gods foe. For crafty, knavish, and worldly policy, and true, and religi­ous piety never shake hands toge­ther. Policie is derived from the Greeke word [...], which in our English tongue is termed civility; but I am sure the flatterers policy is but knavish civility: the confines of his policy reaches to a mans favour; and deceit sets a full period to his policy. To be in a mans favour is but to bee well esteemed of him, or to have the favourable aspect of his [Page 27] countenance, and respect of his heart; I thinke it is strange, that the tur­ [...]ing of a favourable countenance vp­o [...] a man, should make a man turne devill. To bee a devill in heart, a Saint in tongue: To insinuate is the devils practise, and the flatterer is but the devils Ape; These kinde of vvretches are a kinde of mercenary wretches, they prostrate themselues thereby to suck out private advan­tage, such a one vvas Iehonadab, 2 Sam. 13. who being destitute of all grace did prostitute his service to Ammon, to be a gracelesse approver, and shamelesse procurer of Ammons shamefull lust, that so being a favou­rer of Ammons incestuous minde, he might the better insinuate himselfe into Ammons favour. Thus for the object, now followes the

2. Extent. For some worldly respect.]

We read of a three-fold love. Amor:

  • 1. Purus.
  • 2. Lascivus.
  • 3. Quaerens vtile.

[Page 28] The first, is a pure love, the se­cond lascivious, the third worldly. The first is a stranger to the flatte­rer; with the second hee may, with the third hee alwayes doth enter­taine his friend, which shewes him to bee a temporiz [...]r. Hee loves his friend, as long as hee can live by his friend: he is a faire company-keeper, as long as he is a faire tongue-keeper; hoping by faire words to obtaine his worldly desire; if you can finde in your heart to give him presently, hee will finde in his heart to love you everlastingly; but yet

Aes in praesenti imperfectum format amorem.

His love is lame of one foote, which makes him goe halting; hee is like vnto a Hawke, who getting into the vvide vvorld vvith a full belly, gives his Master a kinde fare­well; but if once he finde neede and want, hee will againe stoope to the lure. The Greeke vvord for the world is [...], which signifies saire, which may shew vs thus much [Page 29] that a faire-tongued flatterer is a meere worldling: 'tis the property of a vvorldling to faine himselfe a friend, as long as he can gaine by his friend; I would have every good man to beware of this pocket-friend. Thus have I done with his policy his first end, I come to his second end, by which he intends

Deceit. To deceive.]

Hee doth invont many good words, thereby the more easily to circumvent his friend: he is like the horse-stealer that strokes the horse with a sweet Glove, whose end is to cheat him of his good cheare, for hee gets vpon his backe, and rides him out of his Pasture. Wee read in the Prou. 29. 5. That a man that flat­ [...]ereth his neighbour, spreads a net for his feete. The flatterer playes the fowler, the poore silly mistrustlesse friend is his bird; and his faire, cun­ning, and close words, the nett hee spreads to deceive him.

[Page 30] Fistula dulce canit, volucrem dum decipit auceps, saith the Poet.

Pindarus calls the deceitfull man a flatterer, Impossibile est (saith hee) vt cives dolosus, qui est adulator, forte aliquod & sincerum verbum proferat. It is impossible that a de­ceitfull Citizen, who is a flatterer, should speake a true word from his heart: and flattery is not onely deceitfull, but it is cruelties part­ner, Fallax & crudelis res est adu­latio, saith Saint Austin: and there­fore Felicem accipimus, qui falla­cem non recepit; Wee account him happy that shunnes the flatterers acquaintance; For hee that vvari­ly receives the deceiving flatte­rer, may easily perceive a cheating knave; but follow him not, lest hee leade you to hell, for roa­ring and drinking is the horse­way to hell, and whoring and cheating is the foote-way to that [Page 31] infernall pitt: and there I leave his deceit, and come to his

4. Hypocrisie. Pretending what he intends not.]

He seemes what hee is not, and that is player-like, Extremum inju­stitiae genus est, iustum haberi qui iustus non est, saith Plato; T'is the highest kinde of injustice for a man to be accounted just, true, and ho­nest, who indeed is not so. A man had better trust to an enemie that seemes as he is, then to a friend that seemes as he is not: For multo melius de quibusdam acerbi inimici meren­tur, quam illi amici qui dulces vi­dentur & acerbi vere sunt: The greatest enemie deserues better at a mans hand, then that friend which seemes to be his loving friend, but indeed is his greatest foe; and from such a friend

Libera me Domine.

[Page 32] Thus have I done with the Defi­nition of flattery, I come now to the


which demon­strates the

  • causes
  • object
  • signes

of flattery.

First for the Causes, which are foure.

The cause

  • Efficient.
  • Materiall.
  • Formall.
  • Finall.

First for the efficient cause of flat­tery, and that is, the


He makes a man a flatterer; for these two are great friends; and there is a kinde of a conjunction co­pulative that knits these two toge­ther; they are commonly in league soothing vp one another as mutuall flatterers, they never meet without shaking of hands, such mutuall fel­lowship is there betwixt them, as [Page 33] betweene prosperity and pride, vvhich are seldome perswaded to part company; but here is the dif­ference, the devill is the Master, and the flatterer is his Schaller; who being no good and skilfull Gramma­rian, teaches him to speake false La­tine; his Schoole is the flatterers heart, and quando adulatio linguâ re­sideat, diabolus corde insidet; When as flattery is resident in the tongue as porter, the devill keepes Court (and sits president) in the heart, as King and the chiefe Ruler; and whereso­ever you see a flatterer, you may say, Ibi diabolus.

He is the devils child too, and as like the father as hee can possibly looke, he is the father of lyes, Ioh. 8. 44. and there is no lyar like the de­ceitfull flatterer, wherefore lying and flattery are joyned together. Psal. 78. 36. The devill began to flatter our first parents in Paradise, and there hee first put out his flatte­ring hornes, and I thinke his children [Page 34] have them by succession; therefore it is good for the honest plaine­dealing man to take heede, lest hee be gored with the hornes of the flat­terer; for let him looke how hee can, yet fronti nulla fides; I will not trust his countenance.

It was Seneca's pride, and he boa­sted much Vbicun (que) ago, Demetrium circumfero, But the best thing the flatterer can boast of, is this Vbicun (que) ago Diabolum circumfero; where­soever he goes he carries the devill about him, to vvhom I leave him, and proceede to the

2. Materiall cause; of flattery.

It is composed of faire and glo­zing words.

A faire tongue is the flatterers Hawkes hood, whereby hee carries his mistrustlesse friend quietly into perdition, without ever bayting at the Inne of repentance.

His smooth tongue is but a lying tongue, they be words of seeming [Page 35] amity, but sildome words of any verity; for which hee is accounted the father of a monster, for hee is the common father of vntruthes, and vntruthes are vnnaturall mon­sters, for oratio is oris ratio; the soule is the mother, and the tongue should be the midwife of truth: now for the soule to conceive a truth, and the tongue to bring forth a lye is vvonderfully vnnaturall; such a monstrous tongue ownes our flat­terer: It seemes by his faire, sweet, and pleasing vvords, that hee is a sweet friend; but Non acerba, sea blanda verba timendasunt, saith Se­neca, for all his sweetnesse lies in ore non corde; in his lips not heart. The Bees goe forth and returne home (in Virgils phrase) crura thy­mo plena; their thighes full of ho­ny; but this sweet friend goes out and returnes home, Ora thymo plena, hony-tongued.

By this it seemes their mouthes drop hony combes. l 'tis true; but [Page 36] their end is as bitter as vvorme­wood; for sweet meate relishes best with sower sauce, saith our proverbe. Would you now know what his faire vvords are; Consider vvhat they are

in regard of the

  • 1 sound.
  • 2 sense or triall.
  • 3 his ayme.

They are in

  • 1 the sound, deligtfull.
  • 2 the sense, bitter.
  • 3 his ayme, deceitfull.

1. In regard of the sound; wee may speake of them as it is spoken of the Nightingales voyce; Voces sunt praeterea nihil; They seeme for the present sweet and delightfull in the eares of the Auditour: or else I may say of them as S. Ambrose lib. 2. [...]. 7. said of Calanus answer to Alex­ander; Praeclara verba, sed verba; eloquent words but no more.

2. Would you know what they are in the Auditors sense or triall;

[Page 37]T [...]y are,

  • 1. Viseus merus, birdlime.
  • 2. Venenum mellitum, poyson.
  • 3. Mulsum lethale, deadly wine.
  • 4. Melle litus gladius, a kil­ling sword.
  • 5. Laqueus, a net.

1. They are birdlime but entangling; according to Plautus, Viscus saith hee: Now it is the nature of bird­lime, after the poore bird hath tou­ched it, so to entangle her, and clog her, that it hinders her slight againe into the ayre; such are the words of the flatterer, which being alwayes dedited by the Auditour, will so clogge him, that at last hee shall not bee able to raise vp his flight to heaven.

2. They are poyson, but as sweet as honey, saith Pliny: who would be so mad for a little sweetnesse to kill himself, such is the nature of the flatterers vvords; they are to the [Page 38] Auditour sweet in the conception, but deadly in the operation; for

Impia sub dulci melle venena la­tent, saith Ovid; and saith Minus, Habet suum venenum blanda oratio. a sweet tongue but deadly.

3. They are wine, but death is in the cup; Mors in olla; he that be­leeves the words of the flatterer, is like him that is drunke with wine, bereft of his senses.

4. They are a sword, but it is melle litus; besmear'd with honey; thus are the flatterers words like this honyed-sword sweet in the appre­hension, deadly in the application; yea, it is more hurtfull then the sword. Plus nocet lingua adulato­ris, quam gladius persecu / da / toris; The tongue of a flatterer hurts more then the sword of a persecuter, saith a Father.

5. They are laqueus, a nett but [Page 39] entrapping. They entrap a man, saith Diogenes; Malus homo blande lo­quens cui (que) laqueus agnoscendus est; The tongue of a flatterer is a net to the hearer.

3. Would you know vvhat the flatterers vvords are in his owne ayme or end, they are deceitfull; they are like vnto a faire rotten staffe, vvhosoever trusts to them shall be sure to have a fall.

His smooth words are but oscula inimici, the kisses of an enemie, Prou. 27. 6. Better are the wounds of a friend, then kisses of an enemy.

We read in the Scripture of five kisses. Osculum

  • 1 amicitiae.
  • 2 lasciviae.
  • 3 amoris.
  • 4 proditionis.
  • 5 adulationis.

The first is of friendship, so Iona­than kissed David.

The second of lust. So the har­lot [Page 40] kissed the young man. Brou. 7. 13.

The third is of true love, betwixt Christ and his members.

The fourth of treachery, so Iudas kissed Christ.

The fifth of flattery, so Absolom kissed the people in the gates. Two of these are good; the other three naught, and bad, and are much vsed by the flatterer; they are the kisses of a false friend, whose kisses are o­dious; Amici vulnera, quam inimi­ci oscula sunt vtiliora, saith Saint Ambrose.

His words are kisses, and they be not verba, but verbera, not words, but wounds; and if a man doe but observe his words, hee shall finde that the composition of them is an opposition to his heart; and there­fore you shall finde them spoken with


  • humble
  • complementall


[Page 41] Hee hath a tongue of humility, and a tongue full of complements:

First, an humble tongue; a for­mall hypocriticall humility; you shall have him shew himselfe affa­ble, courteous, and officious even to admiration, lay his hands even vnder your feete, when his heart picks but matter of some worldly and by­good out of this his abasement. Vt vipera curvando, sic iste humiliando ingreditur; As the viper enters his cranny by bowing, so he enters your heart by crowching.

And secondly, hee hath likewise a complementall tongue; hee will tell you, that he will be your servants ser­vant to command, and be at your ser­vice to wayte vpon you; but what his tongue vtters, his heart meanes not: for demand of him the least kind­nesse, and he will be ready to forbeare your company, but command his best service, and he will vtterly forsweare your acquaintance. You know now the flatterers language, hee can, [Page 42] imitate Pertinax, of vvhom it is storied, that hee could speake ex­ceeding well, but doe exceeding ill; you see his tongue is full of faire words; but his heart is full of hypo­crisie; that is,

3. The formall cause; or forma­lity of flattery.

Hypocrisie, or dissimulation.

The Greekes say that [...], the Lingua. tongue is so called quasi [...], of [...], to know; signifying there­by, that the tongue should speake nothing but what the heart meanes; now vvhat greater dissimulation then to expresse that by the tongue which is not impressed in the heart and soule; for the soule (saith one) is the fountaine of knowledge, and the tongue a channell from that fountaine; Now a flatterer is a right dissembler, and hypocrite, for hee is like vnto Aristotles videtur quod non est; hee seemes to have a good, true, and sound heart, when [Page 43] as hee is rotten at the heart; hee is like a Sepulcher, Sepulchrum quasi semi-pulchrum, Extra nitidum, in­ [...] foetidum, saith one; hee is (as our Country proverbe is) like to D [...]me silver-pinne, faire without, and soule within. And a stately buil­ding where a flatterer inhabiteth, is but a gawdy coate to a Sodome­apple; I pray GOD keepe every good man from keeping their visi­tation in his house (or Chappell:) for there you shall finde a Gentle­man bearing in his armes a cloven or devided tongue, and a double heart; Of all letters in the Crosse­row a W is the worst, for it is a dissembling and flattering knaves Epitheton; Can any man thinke the dissembling hypocriticall flatterer to bee a true friend, no? nor yet a halfe friend, witnesse the Poet.

Qui lingua duplicem mentem sic gestat in vna;

Hostis, sed nunquam fidus amicus erit.

[Page 44] Cato further confirmes it.

Qui simulat verbis, [...]ec corde est fidus amicus.

Flattery and hypocrisie keepe their revells in that heart, vvhere the signe of a double tongue hangs at the doore of the mouth: The embleme of deceit, as well as hy­pocrisie is a double heart; and so I come to the fourth finall cause of flattery, and that is


Whatsoever the flatterer doth propose to be the end of his more then wonted friendship, yet sure­ly his purpose is to end his friend­ship with Deceit; No longer pipe, no longer dance, saith the proverbe; if once his friend can shew him no more booty, hee vvill shew his friend a light paire of heeles. Craft alwayes vshers deceit; if Craft be [Page 45] in the premisses, deceit will bee in the co [...]sion: for what the flat­terers Craft hath in invention, his fraud and Deceit doth put in exe­cution. Wee reade of the craftie Fox, that hee will faine himselfe dead, that thereby hee may the more easily get his prey; so the flatterer faines himselfe honest, that thereby hee may the more easily deceive his friend: he playes verth his friend as the Fox in the fable played with the Raven, who seeing a peece of Cheese in the mouth of the Raven sitting in a tree, devised this vvay to cosen her of her fare; hee praised her for the most fairest bird living, and that shee surpassed all other birds in her most pleasant voyce, which hee most desired to heare; vvhich praise the Raven hearing, opened her mouth to sing, by vvhich meanes the Cheese fell to the ground, the Fox caught it, and ranne away: The Fox is the Em­bleme [Page 46] of a Flatterer, hee gets in­to a mans favour, intending nothing but Deceit.

His vvords are like Hypomanes balls to deceive Atalanta.

Flattery cannot chuse but be the eldest borne of the devill, begotten vpon the body of deceit, delivered forth by the Midwife Craft.

There are two things that are naught to be practised by any man; the one is to flatter a friend, the o­ther is to neglect a friend; The first of these is, to play false in the game of friendship; the second is, to throw the Cardes in the fire: The first by flattery, blindes the eyes of his friend, the more easily to get some goods from his friend: The last by Pride, bindes his owne hands from doing good to his friend; these two are both to bee condemned, for this is Lyon-like, to forget his benefactours courtesie; the other is Fox-like, to circumvent his Neigh­bours simplicity.

[Page 47] What is spoken of the Youthes of our times, I may speake of flat­terers, They beare in their thoughts not [...] but [...], not Virgins but Curtezans; so the flatterer beares in his minde not the Virgin Truth, but the Courtezan, Deceit: Hee vses Covin in all his actions, now Covin in the law, is, when a man making shew of one thing, doth the cleane contrary; and if ever Covin is vsed by any man in personall actions, it is vsed by the Flatterer: and I vvish that vvee English could deale vvith these Foxes, as the Welch-men did with their Wolves, plucke off their skins, vntill they were extinct, and not one of them left in a whole Nation.

I have done with the causes, the object of flattery followes.

The Object is to be considered

  • 1. generally.
  • 2. specially.

[Page 48] 1. Generally Is for some outward good; or for some vvorldly respects; and for the flatterers owne private ends: This hath beene handled before, I will but runne it over now, or if you please but little for explication, somewhat for application of this point.

Such as flatter for their owne ends, (if you desire where to finde them) you shall finde them

both in

  • Church.
  • Court.
  • Citie.
  • Country.

1. In the Church.

I am sorry flattery should creepe so high to God; but it is carried thither by flattery's Porter, Cove­tousnesse; I know some vvill bee ready to say to mee in Terence, phrase, Bona verba quaeso; good words, I pray; My intent is not to give any ill words; but desire from [Page 49] my heart, that no ill flattering words should proceede out of the mouth of a Minister. Mistake mee not; I am no man to teach Paul; or to instruct that tribe vvhat to say, but doe honour it vvith my heart; but a vvord spoken in his place, is like apples of gold vvith pictures of silver. Preachers are Pro. 36. 11. called Fishers, but some there are that fish with a shining shell in their [...]t; and these are flattering fishers; These are they that may say at the sunne-set of their life, wee have fished all day and caught nothing; or if they have caught some fish, (for the vvord of God is power­full, proceeding out of the weakest and wickedest) yet themselves have perished in the waters; These are they I ayme at: vvho ayme not aright.

I vvould presume that there would be no flatterers found among the sonnes of Levi; If I might tru­ly speake of them what Nazianzen [Page 50] hath in his Epitaph on great S. Basill; [...]. That their words are thunder; their life lightning; But vvould you know, vvho is the flatterer? you shall know him by this if he flatters

either in his

  • 1. Instruction,
  • 2. Conversation,

Either in his words, or life; precepts, or example; If his words bee not thunder, and his life lightning, hee is a slatterer.

1. In Instruction.

He flatters in his preaching, when his chiefe ayme in teaching, is to please; if hee bee [...], one that makes Marchandise of the word; and this hee doth, when in teach­ing hee seemes to ayme at those three golden apples that men-pleasers vsually runne after; that is, when he

Preaches either for

  • 1. Favour.
  • 2. Profit.
  • 3. Credit.

Devine Paul sought for neither [Page 51] of these in his Doctrine; For first hee did not carry the word of God in his mouth, thereby to curry fa­vour vvith men, for 1 Thess. 2. 5. He vsed not flattering words.

Secondly, hee seeked not profit; His paines was not onely for gaines, hee was none of those silver fishers, that angle for the tributary fish, with twenty-pence in her mouth; he sought to get more soules to God, not more money to his purse; for Ver. 5. Hee vsed not a cloake of Co­vetousness; It is a badge of a false Prophet to seeke his owne profit, Ier. 6. 13.

Thirdly, he aymed not at Credit; hee did not distribute the vvord to man, thereby to purchase credit of man; hee did not speake to man, that man might speake to him as the people spake to Herod; Vo [...]Deinon hominis, The voyce of God not of man hee desired not at last to come off with a great Hem, and a Plau­dite; for vers. 6. He ought not glory [Page 52] of men, but a flatterer pleases both for favour, gaine, and credit. The Minister must not preach pleasing Ob. doctrine, lest hee turne flatterer; Then, pray what was Pauls [...], Hee became all things to all men, that by all meanes hee might gaine some? I answere. The flatte­ring Ans. teacher, and faithfull Preacher, may both please but in different re­spects; For first, the flatterer in his doctrine pleases in the matter, seek­ing placentia, but a faithfull teacher doth please for the manner, speak­ing truth, placenter faithfully, yet wisely to become with men: Se­condly, the one doth please in dis­pendiumveritatis, the other in com­pendium charitatis: Thirdly, one pleases propterse, and that is a car­nall pleasing; the other propter de­um, and that is a Christian pleasing: Fourthly, the one pleases men in their sinnes; the other seekes to please men by converting men from their sinnes: Lastly, the one doth [Page 53] please men for Gods sake, and that is not to please men but God; the other pleases men for the fleshes sake, and that is not to please God but men. Thus doth the flatterer sooth vp, humour, and please men in their sinnes; and therefore they sinne to please men. Would you have the Embleme of a flatterer? I have read of Trochylus the little Wren of Egypt, who doth picke the Croco­diles teeth, whereby he doth feede himselfe, this tickling and pleasing of the bird doth cause him to gape wide, which Ichneumon the Rat of Pharaoh perceiving, and taking her advantage by this meanes, shooteth suddainly into the bowells of the Crocodile, and eateth out his belly: Thus doth that Preacher, vvhich doth flatter men in their sinnes by pleasing and tickling Sermons, hee humours men sleeping securely in their sinnes, by which meanes hee makes open way for the devill, to [Page 54] enter into the hearts of men; hee is like to the Serpent in Paradise, vvho tickled Eve to death vvith pleasing vvords; Eris sicut Deus: and like to the Camelion, hee lives on the ayre of mens favours. Mi­nisters should preach in Love, when ayming neither at favour, nor re­ward, reprehend sinne in his best friend; but the flatterer doth other­wise; hee seemes to have small charity in his heart, when flattery sits in his mouth; for flattery is con­trary to Charity; but how can that bee, seeing all the vvhile hee Ob. pretends charity; and it is so taken? I answere: that flattery in a private Ans. man or publike Minister, may bee considered

three wayes, ratione

  • 1. materiae.
  • 2. intentionis.
  • 3. modi loquendi.

1. In regard of the matter; when a Minister or other man seemes to [Page 55] praise anothers sinne; this is flattery; but you will say; Ob.

Est procul à nobis populi laudatio [...]ulpa.

It is so? then what meanes those Ans. hyperboles at the last funeralls of a lost friend; when wee shall heare the dead raised and praised even ad astra, as though there were none left living to parallell them: when as their Actions in their life time gives him the lye; when they have beene knowne to have led as lewd a life as the lewdest vpon earth; of whom a man may speake (I am sure) with­out flattery, and (I suppose) with­out the gift of too hard a censure; as once it was spoken of a quondam Pope; Vt Leo vivebat, vt canis morie­batur; so these, they lived like Ly­ons, and died like dogs; then what is this but to praise not them, but their sinnes; but you vvill say; Charity requires a better judge­ment; and it is required that men [Page 56] judge favourably; I graunt this, Love indeede covers a multitude of sinnes, but it is no Love to praise anothers sinnes, (or to praise a man aboue his deserts, that's right flat­tery) for this contraries first the love of God, against whose justice a man speakes; and secondly, the love of a neighbour, whom he che­risheth in sinne, and calls evill good, to vvhom a woe is pronounced, Esay 5. For suppose a man have beene knowne by his neighbours to have beene a most wicked ill liver, yet at his suneralls hee shall have a large commendation beyond his deserts, what is this but to open a flood-gate to sinne, and to give the ignorant further liberty to sinne. I will illustrate this by one instance; Suppose a man hath beene a noto­rious Drunkard, but yet a plaine­dealing honest man; yet at his Fu­neralls, and death, hee shall bee praised for a very good liver; an [Page 57] excellent Christian; an example for imitation; and that for conclusi­on, No doubt but hee now rests in peace, &c. As Charity wills a man to judge, I confesse it. Now what will the ignorant bee apt both to thinke, and say? this is their vsuall saying, Hee was a good man, but yet hee was given to Drunkennesse, that was the worst fault in him; but yet the Preacher saith, hee is a happy man: then surely thinke they, Drunkennesse is not so great a sinne as wee take it for, but for all that a man shall get to heaven well enough. I hope you cannot but grant (these things being considered) that over­much praising of the dead, is but a flattering of the living: and in this case I hold it better for a man to spare every vvord, then to speake too many words: and vpon such an occasion (by which may a fault bee commited) it is better to conceale, then to reveale all the truth.

[Page 58] 2. Flattery is to bee conside­red

Ratione intentionis:

In regard of the intention of the flatterer, when a man flatters a man to this end, that hee may fraudu­lently hurt him either corporally or, spiritually; I hope this is farre from the Ministers intent; these are they that vvith the Priests in the sixth of Ier. 13. 14. crie out, Peace, peace, when there is no peace. This contraries charity too.

3. In regard of the manner of speaking; vvhen the praise of the speaker doth cause the hearer to sinne, prater adulatoris intentionem, beyond the intent of the spea­ker; this may not contrary charity, though a man may please to call it Flattery, and therefore take this note out of Aristotle; Si aliquis Lib. 4. Et [...]. cap. 6. velit ad delectationem alteri loqui & execdit modum delectandi; & si [Page 59] hoc faciat sola intentione delectan­di vocatur placidus, sed si faciat ho [...] intentione alicujus commodi externi consequendi, vocatur blanditor si [...]e adulator; If a man by speaking doth delight the hearer, and doth exceede in delighting, if hee doe this with an intent onely to delight, hee is called a man-pleaser: but if hee doe it, intending and hoping thereby to get some outward and by-good thereby, hee is called a Flatterer.

Secondly, as hee may flatter in Doctrine, so hee may flatter in Conversation, and life, vvhen hee doth nor leade his life according vnto his Doctrine; for if the Mi­nister bee given to any vice, the people will imitate it as a ve [...]tue; the Minister doth leade the people by the eyes, as Hercules did by the eares: let them then doe as they say, lest by their ill life they leade [Page 60] men to hell, Plus movent exempla quam praecepta, was Seneca's obser­vation; but both precept and ex­ample joyned together, is most commendable in a Minister. You see how they flatter, and that for some by-respect. Thus for Church­flattery; now followes


The arrowes that these flatte­rers shoote, flye to two markes one­ly, either pleasure, or profit; Pride vshers pleasure, and avarice is Gentleman-usher to profit: for what makes the flatterer flye to the Court for ease and pleasure, but pride; and what makes him flat­ter for gaine and profit, but Cove­tousnesse. Flattery is the Eare­wigge of the mighty, and the ve­ry bane of Courts; Magnates sunt magnetes, Great men are those loadstones, that draw flatterers to [Page 61] them, Divitum sunt asseclae, said Diogenes to Aristippus, they are attendants vpon rich men; for these horse-leaches are soonest found in great or rich mens waters; for the rich shall never want them.

Te bona dum splendet fortuna se­quuntur amici.

V [...] te dum lucet sol solet vmbra sequi:

Quam primum liquidus nebulis offenditur aer,

Ecce repentè tuum deserit vmbra latus, saith Owen in his Epigrams.

They will follow great men, as long as they obtaine great gaines by great men, but if once adversity should arrest that great man, they would fly as fast from him as Cro­to's Mouse did, vvhen his house was on fire: for there is no Para­site vvill lurke but vvhere hee can finde gaines, Patitur dum potitur, [Page 62] Hee will endure the hardest labour to obtaine the 'least favour, for prae­mium est solatium labor is, saith hee, labour is his consort till a reward bee his comfort, Adulor saith one, quasi adaulor, quod in aulis maxime fieri soleat, It is most vsed in Courts.

King Zerxes marching towards the Greekes vvith a great Army, called some of these Parasites vnto him, and asked them vvhat they thought of this vvarre; the one told him, that when the Greekes heard of his Army, they vvould quickly yeeld. Another told him, that the ayre had not roome enough for the arrowes they should shoote off; some spake one thing, some another: The King being puffed vp with pride called 'Damascerus the Philosopher to him, and asked him, what hee most doubted of in that warre, hee told him, that the thing hee most feared, was, that [Page 63] these flatterers would deceive him, and destroy him. Adulationis vn­ctio, domorum est emunctio, The flatterers instruction is but the Cre­ditours destruction: So that the flatterer is but like the trencher­flye, which waytes more for luere then for love. In the Court you shall finde the ambitious flatterer like Absolom, who may speake in Fortunes phrase with Nebuchado­nezer,

Regno, regnavi, regnabo, sum sine regno: but the ha [...]e of his head was his death.

Secondly, the self-concei [...]ed and politicle Flatterer like Achitophell: but marke his end, he went out and hung himselfe.

Thirdly, the flatterer affecting popularity with Herod, but hee was euen vp with wormes.

[Page 64] Fourthly, the vaine-glorious flat­terer like Nebuchadonozer; but hee was turned into a beast. Take heed (ye Courtiers and great men) of these flatterers, and say with an E­pigrammatist,

Tam gravis ille mihi, nigri quam flumina ditis,

Ore aliud qui fert aliud sub pectore celat, I hate the flatterer like the devill. Thus for Court-flatterie: you shall finde the flatterer like­wise in the


That is full of flatterers: there you finde a great deale of flattery,


  • 1. the Citizen and his wife.
  • 2. the Citizen and the Country-man.
  • 3. the Cheater and the Stranger.

[Page 65] 1. Betweene the Citizen and his vvife; you may call it female­flattery, mutuall friendship, alias flattery. It is a strange thing, that a vvoman should bee turned like Io into a beast, to be her husbands Spa­mell; and she carries two egregious flatterers about her; her backe, and her belly, or rather flatters for the outward good of them both; for sometimes you shall finde all a Ci­tizens wealth vpon his Wives backe, and her table; here pride is flatte­ries Iackey; shee like 'Dalilah flat­ters him to get away Sampsons strength, Sampsons lay in his locke, the Citizens vnder his locke and key, or in his purse: To get fine cloathes and Iewels on her backe, and dainties for her belly, is the end of her flattery. Thus shee turnes a Dalilah to her Husband: Dali­lah signifies poverty, and how ma­ny of them have brought their Hus­bands to poverty by backe and [Page 66] belly-flattery; for by their insti­gations, pride, and flattery, they doe (as wee vsually say) maintaine their Wives above their degree; their Children according to their degree, and themselues (very sel­dome now in these dayes seene) be­low their degree.

Secondly, flattery betweene the Citizen and Country-man; or the Citizen, flattering the Country-man; here is flattery crept into the Shop, for their sale commonly is not without flattery, to the end [...] deceive the buyer; Caveat emptor, let the buyer beware of this flatte­rer: The poore and simple Country man takes a great journey to Lon­don, to buy things for his vse at the easier rate, vvhere hee findes a great many of our, What lacke you Sirs, standing at every Shop; at last finding a Shop that may supply his wants; hee makes it his resolu­tion, [Page 67] there to give his purse a dis­charge of his burthen hee is enter­tained with Hat in hand, a bended knee, a supple tongue, with speeches sleep't in Oyle; with candied flat­tery, and ho [...]ed words, carrying in their mouthes the figure Hyperbole, praising their owne Wares, even ad astra, with a None-such, or the best in London, especially of that price, vvhen as the skilfull Mar­chant knowes, it is the worst (al­most) in London: thus at last ma­ny a faire forsoothes drawes the Chap-mans hand to his Pocket, to draw his Purse: thus to close vp the bargaine vvith a faire vvord; at the heele of Farewell commonly followes their common sayings, ei­ther, Pray tell no man what you payd, or else, in good faith (if it were as strong in their heart, as it is com­mon in their mouth, they vvould not say) I gaine nothing by this bar­gaine, but amrather a looser by it, [Page 68] but I doe it that I may take your mo­ney another time, and such like words, vvhen it is scarce vvorth halfe the money; and as soone as the Chapmans backe is turned, they can (with derision and joy) blesse themselues, and say, God send vs more such Chapmen as he is.

Thus hee vvas entertained with reverence, respect, and flattery in his face, hee goes away with an ill bargaine, bad vvare, excessive price, an empty purse, and scoffe at his backe; I know who they bee that can say, Expertis crede.

Oh the wickednesse of such flat­tering Shop-men, experienced by the silly Chap-men. The sale of these flatterers is put in the scole of Injustice, vvhose waight is deceit, vnjust vendition is their pride, and part of their ambition; they take Mimus vvords for their rule, as Saint Austin hath it (lib. 13. de Trin. cap. 3.) Optimum est vili emere, & [Page 69] caré vendere. They can by couso­nage and flattery put off bad Ware at a deare rate.

Let the buyer take heed of these flatterers, and shunne them (if hee ca [...]) as hee doth that house vvhere L [...]d have mercy upon us, is set vpon the do [...]e. So I leave him, and come to another flatterer, and that is the

Cheater; Who watches for the Stranger, as the Cat for the Mouse: his get­tings come in vvhen a Stranger comes to towne; hee hath a great deale of Pocket-friendship in him: hee laughes a man in his face, when as one hand is in his Pocket: these are such flatterers, as lye in every streete, a man can scarce get to his journeyes end, vvithout meeting, such acquaintance, especially to vn­loade his full purse at home, if hee have not Argus his eyes, and espe­cially [Page 70] one eye in his Pocket: This flatterer is so well knowne, I neede describe him no further; for hee is sibi natus, multis notus, omnibus no­cuus, mundi nothus, & diaboli filius: Hee is knowne to many, hurtfull to all, the worlds bastard, and the true­borne child of the devill, to whom I leave him, and come to seeke out siattery in the


I am sure that is not free from the devils water-men; that looke one way, goe another way; that doe one thing, and meane another; vvhether shall I travaile to finde them out, I neede not travaile farre to seeke them, for I am sure if I misse them all day, I shall finde them at night at my lodging. Iunes and Taphouses are not free from them; there you shall finde the Taphouse­haunter, a common guest, hee will [Page 71] presume to keepe you company, and professe great friendship, if you will bestow but a Pot vpon him; this is but pot-friendship, and drinking friendship is but drunken kindnesse: and likewise there finde you ano­ther flatterer the Gamester; that will be ready for you at any pastime to passe the time away; who will be sure to cheate you of your money, and then perhaps flye your compa­ny; you shall seldome finde true friendship among gamesters, where one word perhaps breakes off the game of friendship, and gives friend­ship Farewell, with a broken head: this you shall finde at games: Be­ware of these flatterers bearing in your minde that old verse,

Ludens taxillis bene quid sit in illis:

Take heede lest the game for conclusion trip vp thy heeles.

Or if these flatterers appeare not thy Host himselfe will come and act [Page 72] the part of a flatterer, who to rob thee of thy money, will entertaine thee kindly but if hee draw the drinke out of his barrell, hee will be sure to draw thy wit out of thy head, and thy money out of thy purse, and then turne thee out of dores: beware of this flatterer, for hee is a monster, if our common saying be true, that such a one must have, (for if his Wife bee a wanton shee will never want one;) a head like an Oxe, a backe like an Asse, to beare all taunts, a belly like a Hogge to drinke with all companies, and a tayle like a dogge to fawne vpon every commer. You shall finde ma­ny flatterers besides; if thou know­est them, shunne them; if not, bee wary what company thou keepest. Thus have I done with Country­flattery, and with the object of flat­tery in generall; next followes

The speciall object of Flattery,

[Page 73]which is three­fo [...]d, thy

  • life.
  • goods.
  • good name.

He that aymes at thy

  • 1. life
  • 2. goods
  • 3. good name

is a

  • 1. treache­rous
  • 2. covetous
  • 3. tale-bea­ring


The first aymes at thy life; here Envie is hid vnder seeming friend­ship, and cloaked vnder Flattery; these are they the Psalmist speakes of, Psal. 28. 3. That speake f [...]rieadly to their neighbours, but imagine mis­chiefe in their hearts:

Tuta frequens (que) via est per amici fall [...]re nomen,
Tuta frequens (que) licet sit via, cri­men habet.

To deceive by emity is but plaine knavery: It is an easie way to de­ceive by friendship, yet it is the de­vils [Page 74] policy, to deceive by friend­ship; thus was Caesar deceived by his friends Brutus and Cassius, who murthered him in the Senate-house! So Alexander was deceived by his kinsman, and deare friend (as hee thought) Antipater, who poyso­ned him in the midst of his tri­umphes at Babylon: Adulator Scor­pio est, qui palpando incedit, sed cau­da ferit, Super E­zek lib. 1. cap. 9. saith Saint Gregory; and if a man doe beleeve this Scorpion, the flatterer, he shall finde his tayle, that is, his end, intent, and purpose, to be death and confusion:

—Nam fronte politi, Astutam vapido servant sub pectore vulpem.

This flatterer deales with a man as the Fox doth vvith the birds, faines himselfe dead, that hee may the more easily catch them to de­voure them; and the flatterer faines himselfe harmelesse, honest, and re­ligious, that hee may the more ea­sily [Page 75] deceive the hearts of the simple. Thus Ioab dealt with Abner, 2. Sam. 3. And thus doth this flattering But­cher claw a man like an Oxe, that hee may the more easily knock him on the head: I can but vse this prayer either for them or against them; Aut convertantur, ne pereant, aut confundantur, ne noceant; Lord, convert them lest they perish, or of thy justice confound them, for ma­king others to perish.

The second ayme at a mans goods, and they are covetous flatterers.

Envie moves the first, covetous­nesse this. The goods of man is that good which hee aymes at; hee will most love that man, whose purse hee hath at command; and what is it that a man will not doe for gaine; Committitur cades lucri gratia, spo­liantur templa, violatur amicitia, fi­des negligitur, patria proditur, omnia mala patrantur; Money (wee say) makes the man, but money makes [Page 76] the flatterer marre the man: for to get a little gaine, murthers are com­mitted; friendship violated, and all evill by it committed This hath beene fully handled in the booke, I leave it and come to the last, who aymes at a mans good-name, and hee is a


And is a detractour likewise; who carries two tongues in his head, one to licke, another to bite; one to flat­ter a man to his face, another to slander him behinde his backe; hee is one that to please some, will back­bite and detract from others. The flatterer that gives his neighbour an ill name, is halse a hangman; who with the sharp razour of his tongue doth cut his throat, Cum actum est de nomine, actum est de homine: Hee that hath an ill name, is halfe-haa­ged; the tongue is a dangerous [Page 77] thing if ill vsed, though it cannot prevaile alwayes ad interitum homi­nis, yet it will ad interitum nominis; if it cannot murther, yet it will mur­mure; the head of Iohn was cut off with the foote of a vvoman; and a mans good name divers times is cut off by the tongue of a man: these flatterers are such as do famam ex in­famia comparare; climbe to merit praise by the stayres of others dis­grace. These are the fire-brands of the devill; if thou hearkens to them they will burne thee in thine eare; or if thou hearkenest to them, thou hast a devill in thine care as they in their tongues. I have done with the object of Flattery, I come at last to the

Signes of a Flatterer.

The first signe is, to praise a man (though absent) beyond his deserts; so saith Aquinas, Adulator supra debitum virtutis modum verbis homi­nem delectare studet. A flatterer [Page 78] doth seeke to delight a man by prai­sing others beyond their merits.

The second signe is, to praise a man to his face; for this is but to puffe a man vp with pride and selfe-conceit: for (saith one) it is an easie thing to make men beleeve they be better then they be; but you may flatter some vvomen beyond the knowledge of themselues. Wee ought not to be proud of the flatte­rers praise, for anothers dispraise can soone blemish it; but anothers opi­nion of thee concernes thee not so much as thine of thy selfe, in which thou shouldst not be partiall.

The third signe is, if, vpon small distasts slacks his acquaintance, then he was not a friend, but a flatterer; for a good Bow is not easily broken, vnlesse it be extreamly overdrawne, nor a well grounded affection ful­lied with the smallest distasts.

The fourth and last signe, hee is a tale-bearer, if he doth backbite ano­ther, [Page 79] and tell thee long tales to the disgrace of another, hee is a flatte­rer, for be sure hee spares not to doe the like of thee to another: this is confirmed, Pro. 18. 8. & 26. 22. Psal. 41. 6. Hee hath a devided tongue, of two humours like Ptolomies man, or as of two colours, white and blacke, white with a complementall courtesie to thy face, and blacke with a defaming iniury behind thy back; hee vses his tongue as Ioab did his hand, hee salutes and stabs the same man with the same tongue: beleeve him not, for he will deceive thee.

Thus have I ript open the flatte­ring-Fox, I hope you may now partly know him, and knowing him avoid him, for there is no truth but deceit in him.

And now (thou flatterer) I speake to thee, repent of thy sinnes, which by flatteries meanes doe accompany thee; lying, covetousnesse, deceit, malice, ambition, hypocrsie, and [Page 80] what not; Panaces the hearbe was good for all diseases: so this hearbe Repentance applied to thy heart, is good for these and all other thy foule and soule-diseases: repent that God may forgive thee; repent of all or else of none; for God will for­give thee all, or none.

Larga Dei pietas veniam non di­midiabit,
Aut nihil, aut totum te lachry­mante dabit.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.