DESCRIBING THE CLIMAT, Scituation, fertilitie, prouisions and commodities of that Country, containing seuen Prouinces, and other Signiories within that Territory: Together, with the manners, customes, behauiors, and dispositions of the people.

Performed by ROBERT HARCOVRT, of Stanton Harcourt Esquire.

The Pattent for the Plantation of which Country, his Maiestie hath granted to the said ROBERT HARCOVRT vnder the Great Seale.

NOMB. 14. 7, 8.
The Land which we walked thorow to search it, is a very good Land.
If the Lord loue vs, he will bring vs into this land, and wil giue it vs.

AT LONDON Printed by IOHN BEALE, for W. WELBY, and are to be sold at his shop in Pauls Church yard at the signe of the Swan. 1613.

❧To the high and Mighty Prince, CHARLES, Prince of GREAT BRITAINE:

HAuing had tryall (most worthy Prince) of your most renowned Brother Prince Hē ­rie his many fauours towardes mee, and princely furtherance of my humble sute vnto his Maiestie your royall Father, and our dread Soueraigne, for obtayning for mee his gracious Letters Pattents for the planting and inhabiting of all that tract of Land, and part of Guiana, betweene the riuers of Amazones, & Dessequebe, sci­tuate [Page] in America, vnder the Equinoctiall Line: Whereof I haue taken possession to his Maiesties vse, and discouered the ma­ritime parts. I was greatly thereby incou­raged to proceed in the enterprise, and had (vnder his Maiesties fauour) deuoted my selfe vnto his seruice. But now seeing (by Gods permission) your excellent Brother his princely Honour, by right of succession is fallen vpon your Highnesse, and verily hoping, that you will not onely equall, but also exceed him in vertuous exercises, and aduancing all honorable actiōs, and worthy enterprises; I haue in like maner religiou­sly vowed the best fruits and effects of my indeauors vnto your Highnesse seruice. And for as much as that part of the world which wee now call America, was hereto­fore in the yeere of our Lord 1170. disco­uered,Gutyn Owen. conquered, and possessed by Madoc, one of the sons of Owen Gwyneth prince of north-Wales: I therfore (in all humble [Page] reuerence) present the prosecution of this high Action vnto your gracious Patronage, principally belonging of right vnto you, be­ing the honourable, true, and worthy Suc­cessor to the Principality of VVales. If my trauell & seruice therein shall perform ought, woorthy of your Princely regard, I shall much glory thereat, and account it my happiest fortune, and greatest honour: And shall heartily pray vnto the King of Kings, to continue in your Highnesse a pi­ous, and inuincible heart; and to giue you a conquering and victorious hand; and the dominion of many rich and mighty King­domes in this world, and in the worlde to come, a Crowne of Glorie, in his eternall Kingdome.

Your Highnesse most humble deuoted seruant, ROBERT HARCOVRT.

❧To the Readers, ADVENTVRERS, FAVORERS, and wel-willers to the Plantation in GVIANA.

IT is the part of valiant and noble spirites to apply their indeuours to honourable and woorthie atchiuements: but chiefely to frame their actions therein by the rule of vertue, and accomplish the end for which they were created, which is in their vocati­ons to serue and glorifie GOD, and to doe good vnto o­thers: For the better performance of their dueties in that be­halfe, let them examine their inclinations and dispositions in the course of their life, and what they finde themselues most inclined vnto, to that let them seriously bend their for­ces; either to cherish or suppresse it; to follow or forsake it, according as it tendeth to vertue or vice; to honour or disgrace.

As touching the courses of life, inclining to the better part, some men are naturally giuen to bee schollers, either in Diuinity, Philosophy, or other learning; some are more inclined to be Statists; some to be Souldiers, and trauellers; some desire to bee Citizens, and Merchants; and some like best to leade Coun [...]trey life, and follow husbandry; and othersome are [Page] wholly inclined to the Mechannicall trades, and handy crafts. In all which professions, as men are naturally addicted more, or lesse, they attaine to perfection, and may thereby accomplish the end for which they were created. But to vndertake any pro­fession contrary to a mans naturall inclination, is a losse of time, a worke that yeldeth no profit, but breedeth many inconueni­ences, and destroyeth nature: For the meere Scholler will ne­uer bee good Statist, Souldier, Merchant, nor Mechanicall tradesman, (yet learning is a singular helpe in all these profe­ssions) neither will the professed Souldier euer attaine to exqui­site perfection in learning, or in the other professions; so lik­wise of the rest. The naturall inclination of man, may bee som­what restrained, corrected, and reformed, but is rarely and hardly altered.

Naturam expellas furca licèt, vsque recurret

In these and all other professions whatsoeuer, men may so proceede in their particular societies, that each seuerall com­pany in his proper vocation, may bee a help, comfort, and sup­port vnto the rest: and they are firmely bound both by the law of God, and Nature, to exercise and follow their professi­ons for the benefit of others: not coueteously seeking their owne gaine only thereby; but charitably, respecting first the glory of God, and then the honour of their Prince, and profit of their Countrey, which is the end for which they were created

To the end therefore that our Countreymen of all professions in this Kingdome may bee worthily induced to performe their duties in that kinde not only at home in their owne Countrey, but also abroade in foraigne parts, wheresoeuer any of our Nation shall be imployed, eyther by discouery or conquest, for the reducing of vnknowne and barbarous people (void of all knowledge of God, and ciuill gouernement) to Christianity and the subiection and obedience of of our Soueraigne, and that such others as want imployment, or competent meanes to fol­low [Page] their professions, and are slipt aside from vertuous exerci­ses, and honourable enterprises, to idle wantonnesse, effeminate disorders, and other extrauagant courses of life, may bee recal­led, reformed, and encouraged (by better endeuours) to per­forme their duties to God, their Prince, and their Countrey. I thought it conuenient to propound vnto them a worthy and memorable enterprise: (for the prosecution and accomplishing whereof, it hath gratiously pleased his Maiesty to grant mee priuiledge by Pattent) namely, the discouery and plantation of a part of the great, rich, & mighty Empire of Guiana: where­in they shall finde variety of imployments to spend their times worthily in their seuerall vocations; plentifull meanes to sup­ply all wants and necessities; and many worthy aduentures to obtaine immortall renowne and perpetuall fame.

And for as much as all mens actions are subiect to miscen­sure, and some (perhaps) may thinke the labour lost, which is bestowed in this enterprise, foreiudgeing the Countrey being rude, barbarous and heathen, to bee vnprofitable; I will there­fore here particularly shew wherein our Countreymen of the se­uerall professions before mentioned, may profitably labour in this worke, and performe thereby to God a seruice most accep­table, and register their fame to all posteritie.

First, the Scholler in diuine learning may worthily labour the conuersion of infinite numbers of vnbeleeuing people, who may be reduced to a quiet, sober, and ciuill life: the scoller in Philosophy, and other Learning, may doe much good by trai­ning vp of the youth in the knowledge of the litterall arts, and by the practise of his skill in Phisicke and Chirurgery: the Sta­tist may highly aduance his Princes seruice, and his Countries good, by giuing ayd vnto this action, and his discreet and prouident furtherance in managing the businesse thereof: The Souldier and Traueller, by bearing armes in the execution of this noble enterprise, and by memorable discoueries of strange [Page] and vnknowne Countries and Nations, may open the way to increase and inlarge the Dominion of our Soueraigne: the Merchant by assisting the plantation there, and by erecting conuenient factories for that purpose, may highly increase the trade of merchandise, by returning thence the riches and commodities there found and gathered. The Countrey-man that professeth busbandry and tillage of the earth, may also be sufficiently imploied for the increase of corne and catell, and in planting, gathering, and getting as many rare and necessa­ry fruits and prouisions, as shall be needefull for the life of man. And lastly, the Mechannicall tradesman, and such as exercise the handy crafts, (in which company I include all sorts of la­bourers) may by this action of Guiana, highly aduance their trades and occupations, to their owne vnspeakable profit, and benefit of others, by their diuers and sundry workes for seue­rall vses, and for persons of all quallity whatsoeuer; and may teach the people of that Countrey (being once conuerted to chri­stianity, and brought to the knowledge of ciuill gouernement) such seuerall trades, as our experience shall finde necessarie for them, and conuenient for vs.

Hauing heere particularly shewed wherein our Countrey-men of diuers professions may worthily follow their vocations, and imploy their endeuours in this action: I leaue the matter whereon they are to worke, to be more fully expressed in the following discourse.

And because they may the better be encouraged in this enter­prise, by examples of the like nature: let vs looke into the dis­coueries and conquests, performed by the Spaniards, in the East and West Indies; but chiefely in the West: where with a small number, and as it were with a handfull of men, Her­nando Cortez a Spaniard, in the yeere of our Lord 1519. discouered and conquered that great, mighty, and rich King­dome of New Spaine, and the Citie of Mexico.

[Page] And in the yeere of our Lord 1531. Don Francisco Pizar­ro attempted the conquest of the great Kingdome of Peru; he vanquished Atibalipa, the King of that Countrey, conquered and subdued many spacious and rich Prouinces; and in the end after infinite perils and dangers by practise of the Indians and much variety of fortune, by ciuill warres with his owne Nation, he atchiued his enterprise. The particulars of these discoueries and conquests, are more at large recounted by Pe­ter Martyr in his Decades, by Benzo, and diuers other Au­thors, to which for breuities sake I referre you. The honour these Spaniards gained by these discoueries and conquests, was doubtlesse great: but the benefit that ensued to the Crowne of Spaine, and all the Spanish Nation thereby, was infinite be­yond expectation, as amply may appeare in the Authors late mentioned, and in the Naturall and Morrall history of the East and West Indies, written by Iosephus Acosta.

Let vs also note the wonderfull workes of God in those Coun­tries, and his great mercy thereby shewed to the Indians, who by their continuall conuersation with Christians, are redu­ced from their abhominable life and cruell manners, to the knowledge of God and their former infidelity, and to the frui­tion of the holy Ghost in Baptisme; for in all those great Pro­uinces, conquered in New Spaine, the people are generaly con­uerted to Christianity: for about the yeere of our Lord 1524. there went diuers learned men into those parts, who by lear­ning the Indians languages, and their painefull diligence in teaching and instructing youth, did so effectually proceed in that laborious worke, that within the limits of many hundred leagues, there are few or none vnchristened. The beginning of that Worke was very difficult, by reason of the vnaptnesse of the Indians, so long imbrued in cruell sacrifices of humane blood, and abhominable Idolatry, and by the continuall malice of the diuell, rebelling against God, and striuing to maintaine [Page] his owne kingdome: but in the end their constant and paine­full indeuours so farre preuailed, that Christian religion increased amongst them, to the establishing of many Bishopricks in New Spaine, besides diuers Schooles of learning. So like­wise in Peru, and diuers other Countries, conquered by the Spaniards, the conuersions of the people haue proceeded to no lesse admirable effects.

As touching the state of common wealth, they haue all sorts of Gouernours, and magistrates in great honour and re­putation; houses of Nobility and Gentry flourish, and increase amongst them; Souldiers, and trauellers are regarded highly, and worthily rewarded; Merchants, and tradesmen pros­per, and gather wealth in extraordinary measure; what shall I say more, there bee few or no professions or trades amongst vs, in these parts of Christendome, but the same are vsed, follow­ed, and practised in great perfection, both in New Spaine, Peru, and other parts of the Indies, where the Spaniards haue preuailed by their Conquests.

By these memorable examples may our Nation (being in valour inferiour to none other vnder Heauen) bee moued and stirred vp to the vndertaking of this noble action of Guiana; which in respect of the climate, firtility of the soile, and tracta­ble disposition of the people (whereof in the following discourse I haue spoken more at large) doth assure vs that (with Gods fa­uour and assistance) as great effects may bee wrought in the conuersion of these Nations, and as great benefit, and commoditie may arise to the Realme and Crowne of England, both in generall, and particular, as euer was performed or ob­tained by the Spanish Nation, since the first beginning of their trauels and discoueries.

For if they in New Spaine, and Peru, haue Cuchenille, Anir, and Cotton wooll; wee in Guiana haue also Cotton wooll Tobacco, Suger-Canes, diuers good commodities for [Page] Dyers, and likewise in all likelihood Cuchenille; and sundry sorts of excellent wood for ioyners worke, and other vses. If they haue variety of Apothecary drugges, and Balsome for Phisicke, and Chirurgery; so also haue wee, and those that are of admirable vertue. If they haue gold, siluer, and other mettalls; Pearles, and pretious stonnes; so doublesse wee in time may haue the like, hauing had good testimony thereof already; as plainely shall appeare hereafter, when time better serueth.

Moreouer, in singular aduantage wee haue before them to further, and aduance our enterprise, by the peculiar loue and affection of the people in those parts, towards our Nation be­fore all others. For whereas the Spaniards were constrained by great labour, bloudy battailes, and much cruelty (for which they lost their hearts) to subdue the Indians; wee contrari­wise are well entertained, and friendly receiued by them, being willing to hold commerce with vs; whereby wee haue a more secure and ready meane, to establish a peaceable and assured Commonwealth amongst them, for the imployment of all the seuerall professions of men mentioned before.

Finally, for your better inducement to the worthy vnder­taking of this high action; let vs call to remembrance one ex­cellent and materiall obseruation; that is the discouery of this Countrey of Guiana, was heretofore attempted by Sr. Walter Raleigh, who made an honourable entry thereinto by the riuer of Orenoque; what hee then, and there discouered, and how great and assured his hopes were, of gaining to our Countrey inestimable riches, and subduing to the Crowne of England a potent Empire, was effectually, and faithfully published to the world by his owne penne; which excellent discourse I wish you to peruse, preceeding from so wise and iudiciall an Author; who if some knowne fortunes had not crossed his first intendiments, for the prosecuting of that enterprise) had [Page] (in all likelihood) long before this time increased the honour of our Nation, by the reputation of the most famous and rich discouery and conquest that the world could afford.

Let vs herewithal obserue, that before his time it was often attempted by the Spaniards, but to small effect; for eyther by misfortune of shipwrack, discention amongst the most eminent persons in their Troopes, mutiny of the souldiers, mistaking of the Commanders, or violent fury of the Indians (who beare an inueterate and mortall hatred against them) they haue e­uer failed of their purpose: whereof the said discourse of Sr. Walter Raleigh maketh particular mention more at large.

The continuall losse, and great misfortunes that haue fol­lowed the Spaniards from time to time, in all their attempts of this discouery and conquest, for the space almost of an hundred yeeres; and the fortunate successe that most happily fauoured the other in his first attempt thereof, may bee a great presumti­on, and may giue vs an assured hope, that the powerfull hand of God doth worke for vs in this behalfe; and hath reserued the execution of this action for honour of our Nation.

Which forcible considerations, gaue me great encouragement to repaire the decay of so worthy an enterprise, not with intent to rob him of his honour, who first of all our Nation (nobly with great iudgement and valour) gaue the onset; but ra­ther to doe him more honour, by working vpon his foundati­on, and prosecuting this proiect, according to his first designes, which doubtlesse aimed at the glory of God, his Soueraignes seruice, and his Countries good.

Hereupon I made triall of my fortune in the attempt, and haue found the successe so prosperous and hopefull, (although it hath been chargeable vnto mee) and my acceptance so free and friendly amongst the Indians, that it hath giuen not only to my selfe, but also to the rest of my associats, (who with the loue and good liking of the people, haue liued and remained in [Page] Guiana for the space of three yeares) good assurance of repay­ing the charge past with trebble recompence; and a resolued courage to proceed in the enterprise, to the prosecution where­of, we haue deuoted both our substance and our selues.

And because the life of this Action consisteth in the timely progresse thereof, and requireth the assistance of many Aduen­turers; I thought it very needful to lay before you these former examples, and materiall considerations: and therewithall doe recommend vnto your view this following Discourse (wherein I haue compiled the hopefull fruites of my painefull trauels) thereby to moue you to wipe away from your eyes, the cloudie incredulous blindnesse that possessed our forefathers in the dayes of Henry the seuenth, when they reiected the offer made by Batholomew Columbus, in the behalfe of his brother Christopher Columbus, and therby lost the fruition of those inestimable riches in the West Indies, which now we see posses­sed by the Spanish Nation: And also doe inuite and summon my Country-men in generall, to rouze vp their valour, to quic­ken and spurre on their endevours, to be coadi [...]utors with vs in this action, both of honour and profit.

And because it may be obiected to the discouragement of such as may haue otherwise a desire to inhabit Guiana, that the Spaniards inhabiting about Cumana, Margarita, and Trinidado, may disturbour Plantation, and indanger the liues of those that shall make the first settlement there; I thought good to resolue all such as haue affection to make themselues Conquerors of that goodly Countrey, that from the King of Spaines Indies nothing can offend them; for Guiana being seated in the head of the Brises, and to the wind-ward of al the Spanish Indies, the current also of the Sea setting to the West, maketh it impossible for any Shipping to turne it vp from the forenamed places towards vs. The Spaniard therefore can no way offend vs but by a preparation out of Spaine it selfe. And [Page] whensoeuer he shall finde himselfe at so great leisure, as to send a Fleet out of Spaine to seeke vs out vpon the shallow coast of Guiana, eyther we shall frustrate that attempt by raising a Fort defensible for two or three moneths (for they must famish if they stay longer) or else by setting our selues aboue two or three of the ouerfalles of the Riuers, where one hundred men will defend themselues against fiue thousand. But I am per­swaded that the Spaniards will take great deliberation, and be well aduised of all insuing accidents, before they giue any at­tempt vpon vs: for we doe not finde that they haue yet attemp­ted any thing vpon Virginia, which lieth in their way home­ward from the West Indies, albeit there haue passed many years since the first Plantation there. And surely, if Virginia had not a sharpe Winter, which Guiana hath not (which Countrey of Guiana is blest with a perpetuall Summer, and a perpetuall Spring) and that it had that store of victuals which Guiana hath, it would in a short time grow to be a most profitable place. But thus much I can auow truely, that from Guiana, without any great labour, there may be returned within the yeare, good store of Cotton Wooll, very rich Dyes, diuers sorts of Gummes, many sorts of Fethers, all kindes of rich Woods, Balsamums, Iasper, and Porpherie stone, Waxe, Honey, and Tobacco, and so euery yeare may we pay the Transportation, vntill we encrease in people to make Sugars, and discouer Mines.

If the paines past bestowed in my first attempt, may taste of your gratefull acceptance, and that I may obtaine your willing furtherance in the future, I shall then thinke my paines well imployed, and delight my selfe in labouring for your profit; and we all shall gaine honour and reputation, by vndergoing the burden of so worthy a worke; whereby our Nation shall bee greatly enriched, the Dominion of our Soueraigne much en­larged, and Gods seruice in those Countries highly aduanced.

R. H.

A RELATION OF A VOYAGE TO Guiana performed by Robert Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt in the Countie of OXFORD Esquire.

IN the yeare of our Lord 1608. and the three and twentieth of March,23, of March 1608. when I had furnished my selfe with one ship of fourescore Tunnes called the Rose; a Pinnesse of sixe and thir­tie Tunnes called the Pa­tience; and a Shallop of nine Tunnes called the Lilly, which I built at Dart­mouth; and had finished my other businesse there, and prepared all things in readinesse to begin my voyage, the winde reasonably seruing, I then imbarked my companie, as followeth.

In the Rose,The Rose. I was accompanied with captaine Ed­ward Fisher, captaine Edward Haruey, master Edward Gifford, and my cosen Thomas Harcourt: And besides them, I had of Gentlemen and others one and thirtie [Page 2] land men, two Indians, and three and twentie Mari­ners and Saylers.

In the Patience, The Pati­ence. my brother captain Michael Harcort had with him of gentlemen and others twentie land-men, and eleuen Mariners and Saylers.

In the Lilly, The Lilly. Iesper Lilly the Master, had one landman, and two Saylers: so that my iust number (too great for so few ships of no greater burden) was in all foure­score &Land men 60. seuenteen, wherof threescore were land-men.

Being thus imbarked, wee set saile from the Rainge at Dartmouth the said three and twentieth of March; but the winde altering vpon a sudden,They set saile the 23. of March. put vs back a­gaine that euening; and about two of the clock the next morning (it comming better for vs) we weighed anchor, and put to Sea: the euening following we lost sight of the Lyzart, and steered away for the Canaries.

Vpon Saturday the first of Aprill 1609.The first of April 1609. towards the euening the winde increased and grew so violent,The Shallop in danger to be lost. that my Shallop (which we towed in a Cablet by rea­son of the foule weather) was that night seperated from vs; for by the rage and fury of the winde and Sea, the Cablet brake in sunder, and the little Barke was in great danger to be cast away, but it pleased God to preserue her, for the next morning we discryed her to Leeward of vs, contrary to our expectation, ha­uing giuen her lost.

Then holding on our course, the seuenth day wee fell with Alegranza and Lancerote, two Islands of the Canaries: wee stoode in with Alegranza and came to anchor on the South-west side thereof;They ariue at Alegranza. that euening and the next day I landed my company to exercise their limbs on shoare: in this Island we found no in­habitants, [Page 3] nor fresh-water, neither fruitfull tree, plant, herbe, grasse, nor any thing growing that was good, onely an abundance of vnwholsome Sea-foule, which after one meale were vnsauory & distasteful, & a few wilde Captitos, or wilde Goats, which the craggy rocks defended frō our hands, and hungry mouthes.

The eighth of Aprill we departed from Alegranza, and directed our course for Tenerife, Tenerife. another of the I­slands. The eleuenth day I sent the Pinnesse, and the Shalloppe to water at the calmes, and there to attend my comming; but with my Shippe I held my course for Orotauo, a towne on the other side of the Island, in hope to get some wine amongst the Merchants there; but not being able (by reason of a contrary winde) to double Punta de Nega, wee altered our course from wine to water. And the twelfth day wee Passed by Santa Cruz, and watered that euening at the Calmes.

This watering place is very conuenient for all such as passe by those Islands,An excellent watering place. and is thus to bee found; there is a wooden crosse neere vnto it, the high Pike of Tenerife beareth due North from it. There is also a ledge of rockes to the Eastward of the landing place, which is a short Sandy bay. When you are landed, you shall finde▪ the place about fourty or fifty yardes from the Sea side.

The next day we met againe with the Pinnesse and the Shalloppe, who missing of the right place, had not yet watered, wherefore wee stood backe againe to guide them to it; but the winde preuenting vs, enfor­ced them to seeke for water elsewhere, which with some dificulty they obtained vpon the fifteenth day in the morning.

[Page 4] Then wee stood on our course for the riuer of Wia­poco in Guiana, hauing aprosperous winde, faire wea­ther, and a smooth Sea. The ninth day of May, wee fell into the current of the great and famous riuer of Amazones, The riuer of Amazones. which putteth out into the Sea such a violent and mighty streame of fresh water,Fresh water in the Sea 30 leagues from land. that being thirty leagues from land, wee drunke thereof, and found it as fresh and good as in a spring or poole.

This riuer for the great and wonderfull breadth, (contayning at the mouth neere Sixty leagues) is rightly termed by Iosephus Acosta the Empresse and Queene of all flouds:Iosepth Acosta. and by Hieronimus Giraua Tarra­conensis: Hieron. Giraua Tarraconensis. it is said to bee the greatest not only of all In­dia, but also of the whole world; and for the greatues is called of many the sweete Sea: It riseth and floweth from the Mountaines of Peru, and draweth out her streams in many windings & turnings vnder the Equi­noctiall, for the space of one thousand & fiue hundred leagues and more: although from her fountaines and springs vnto the Sea it is but six hundred. When wee entred into the aforesaid current, wee sounded, and had fouerty fouer fadome water, sandy sounding. The tenth day the colour of the water changed, & be­came muddy, whitish, and thicke; then wee sounded againe at twelue of the clocke at noone, and had thir­teene fadome; and seauenteene at fower in the after noone.The 11 of May they made land in Guiana. The eleauenth day at eight of the clocke in the morning we made land, the vttermost point there­of bearing West from vs, and came to anchor in fiue fadome water.

At night the Patience putting in to neare the shoare came to anchor in 2½ fadome water vpon the floud, [Page 5] which fell from her vpon the ebbe,The Patience in danger of wracke. and left her dry vpon the Oaze, and the next floud comming in, did so shake and beate her against the ground, that be­fore shee could get off, her rudder was beaten away, and her ribbes so rent and crased, that if Almighty God had not preserued her, she had been wrackt: but (God bee thanked) with much adoe shee came off into deeper water, and mended her rudder, as well as the time and place would afford meanes. Then wee followed on our course, coasting along to the North-north-west, the land so trending. It is very shoale all along this coast, the ground soft oaze, but no danger to bee feared, keeping our ship in fiue fadome wa­ter.

When wee came to the latitude of two degrees and a halfe,Islands called Carripapoory. wee anchored in a goodly bay, by certaine Islands, called Carripapoory I did at that time forbeare to make particular discouery of this coast, intending (if God spare me life) to make a perfect discouery of the famous riuer of Amazones, and of her seuerall bran­ches, and countries bordering vppon it, and of all this tract of land from the Amazones, vnto the riuer of Wia­poco, which containeth many goodly Prouinces, and Signiories, which are in this discourse, but briefely mentioned: For at this time I purpose onely to prose­cute my first proiect, which hastened mee vnto ano­ther place.

From hence I stood along the coast,The Bay of Wiapoco. and the sea­uenteenth of May, I came to anchor in the Bay of Wi­apoco: where the Indiands came off vnto vs in two or three * Canoes,Indian boats. as well to learne of what Nation wee were, as also to trade with vs, who vnerstanding [Page 6] that wee were English men boldly came aboard vs one of them could speake our language well, and was knowne to some of my company to bee an Indian, that sometime had been in England, and serued Sr. Iohn Gilbert many yeeres: they brought with them such dainties as their country yeeldeth; as hennes, fish, pinas, platanaes, potatoes, bread of Cassaui, and such like cates, which were heartily welcome to my hungry company: In recompence whereof, I gaue them kniues, beades, Iewes trumpes, and such toies, which well contented them. But when I had awhile enter­tained them, and made knowne vnto them the re­turne of the Indian Martyn their country man, whom I brought with mee out of England, they seemed ex­ceeding ioyfull, supposing that hee had been dead, being aboue foure yeares since hee departed from them.

The Indian before mentioned to haue serued Sr. Iohn Gilbert (whose name was Iohn) whilest hee liued (for he is now dead, and died a Christian) was a great helpe vnto vs, because hee spake our language much better then either of those that I brought with mee, and was euer firme & faithful to vs, vntill his death. By him I vnderstood that their town was scituate vpō the east side of the hil in the mouth of Wiapoco, & was called Caripo: that the Indian Martin was Lord therof, and that in his absence his brother was chiefe. Moreouer hee certified me that the principall Indian of that ri­uer was called Carasana, (who by good fortune) was then at Caripo, A village cal­led Caripo. and so hauing spent sometime in other conference and friendly entertainement, they tooke their leaue, and departed for that time. I sent one of [Page 7] my company with them to giue notice to Carasana, & the rest of the Indians of Caripo, A messenger sent to the In­dians. that I had brought home their Countrymand Martin, whom they all thought to be dead, and another of their Nation also, who had kindred and friends amongst them: to desire him to come aboord my ship, and to bring with him the principall Indians of Caripo, that I might declare vnto them the cause of my comming into their Coun­try, and conferre with them of other matters inten­ded for their good. The next day I came into the ri­uer of Wiapoco, and Anchored ouer against the Sandy Bay.

The day following the Indians came aboord as I had desired and brought vs good store of their Coun­try prouision:The Indians came aboord. Carasana, and one or two more of them were attired in old clothes, which they had gotten of certaine Englishmen, who (by the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh) had traded there the yeere before; the rest were all naked both men and women; and this I obserued amongst them,The chiefe men of the Nation of the Yaios couer their priui­ties. that although the better sort of men (especially the Yaios) doe couer their priuities, by wearing ouer them a little peece of Cotton cloth pretily wouen after their manner; yet did I neuer see any of their women couered in any part,The women generally goe all naked. either aboue or beneath the waste, albeit they daily conuersed a­mongst vs, but were all (as the plaine prouerbe is) euen starke belly naked.

At their comming aboord my ship; first Carasana as the principall amongst them, and after him the rest, saluted and welcōmed vs after their rude maner. I vsed them with all curtesie, and entertained them as wel as the straight roome would giue me leaue, giuing [Page 8] them good store of Aquauitae, which they loue excee­dingly: I presented to their view their two country­men, Martyn the Lord of their towne, and Anthony Canabre, who was a christian, and had liued in England fourteen yeers, both which I had brought home vnto them: when they beheld them, and after salutations, and some conference knew to bee the same persons, whom they supposed had been long since dead, they expressed much ioy and contentment: aud vnderst­anding (from their owne mouthes) how well I had vsed them, they seemed to bee better pleased with our comming: and when their rude salutations to their new come countrymen were ended, I tooke them a­part, and thus declared the cause of my comming.

First,Their confe­rence with the Indians. I brought to their remembrance the exploits performed by Sr. Walter Raleigh in their country, in the raigne of our late Soueraigne Queene Elizabeth, when (to free them from seruitude) hee most worthily vanquished the Spaniards at Trinidado: burned their towne: tooke their Gouernour Don Anthonio de Ber­reo prisoner; deliuered fiue of the Indian Kings im­prisoned, and bound by the necke with collers of I­ron; and with great labour and perill discouered the riuer of Orenoque, and the countryes adioyning, as far as the Prouince of Aromaya, the countrey of Topiawa­ry, and the riuer of Caroly beyond it. And that their countreymen called the Orenoqueponi, The Orenoque­poni rendred themselues subiects to Queene Eli­zabeth. (who are the borderers of the Orenoque) did then most willingly submit and render themselues vnder the subiection of the late Queene; all which they well remembred, and said, that Sr. Walter Raleigh promised to haue retur­ned againe vnto them long since.

[Page 9] Then I excused his not returning according to his promise, by reason of other imployments of great im­portance imposed vpon him by the late Queene: shewing them moreouer, that when he could not (for that cause) returne himselfe, hee sent Captaine Keymis to visite them, and to bring him true intelligence of their estate, (supposing that he had left no Spaniards behind him at Trinidado of power to molest them) to the end that releef & aid might be prepared for them, according to their necessities, and oppression of their enemies. Then I told them of the death of the late Queene, whereby that businesse of theirs was againe hindered.

Moreouer I declared vnto them, that our gracious Soueraigne Lord King IAMES, who now raigneth ouer v3, (being the onely right and lawfull heire, and Successor, to the Crowne and dignity of the Realme of England, after the death of the late Queene) was throughout the whole land proclaimed King of Eng­land; and so comming to raigne ouer vs, hath been euer since busied in ordering the State and affaires of the Kingdome, which being (by his great wisdome) setled in tranquillity and peace, like a good, gracious, and worthy King, doth now permit his subiects to trauell abroad into forraigne Countryes, and Nati­ons to aid and assist all such as are vniustly molested by their enemies. Whereupon I, and the rest of these worthy Gentlemen my associats and friends,Possession of the Countrey taken at Wia­poco, by Cap­taine Lee to his Meie­stics vse. hauing intelligence by some that had been followers of Cap­taine Charles Lee, (who was a man well knowne a­mongst them, and heretofore had taken possession of their Countrey to his Maiesties vse, and was planted [Page 10] diuers yeares in Wiapoco, where he lyeth buried) of the great variance and discord depending betweene them the allyed nations, the Yaios, Arwaccas, Sappaios, & Para­go [...]tos; and their enemies the Charibes; (all inhabiting betweene the riuers of Amazones, and Dessequebe) haue made a long and dangerous voyage into those parts, to appease their discentions, and defend them against the Charibes, or other enemies that shall mo­lest or oppresse them: and now being there arriued, do intend to make search in those Countries for con­uenient places, where such of our Nation as shall hereafter come to defend them, may bee fitly seated to dwell amongst them; that if any of those Nations shall attempt at any time to disturb the quiet liuing of their neighboures, they may haue store of English friends at hand and amongst them, that will not spare their paines to appease their discords, nor their liues to defend them from harme.

When I had thus declared vnto them the cause of my comming, they made this answere; that with our comming they were well pleased; but our number of men they thought too great, that they wanted meanes to prouide vs bread sufficient for them all, ha­uing but a small Towne, few gardens, and slender pro­uision for their owne companies, because since Cap­taine Lee his death, and his mens departure from them, they neuer made prouision for any strangers.

I replied, that albeit their towne was small, and their gardens few, (for the grounds wherein they plant their Cassaui, whereof they make their bread, they call their gardens) yet their Countrey was full of inhabitants, and had store of gardens to supplie [Page 11] our wants of bread, and was plentifully stored with other prouisions sufficient for a greater number, which I desired might be weekely brought vnto vs, as need required, for that I meant not to take it without recompence, but would giue them for it such com­modities as should well please them, which they wanted: as axes, hatchets, kniues, beades, looking­glasses, Iewes trumps, and such like things wherein they most delight.

Then they desired to consult amongst themselues,The Indians goe to coun­cel. which I permitted, and expected their answere aboue two howres, which time they spēt in debating the mat­ter after their maner, & drinking Aquauitae, and in the end desired my presence, and made me this answere.

That they were contented and well pleased wee should liue amongst them;Their answer. that they would furnish vs with houses to lodge in, and prouide all necessa­ries for vs in the best manner they could. But where­as I said our King would permit his people to liue & abide amongst them, and defend them against their enemies; they answered, it was a thing they greatly desired, and had expected long, and now they made much doubt thereof, and said they were but words, hauing heretofore beenBy Sr. Walt. Raleigh, and Capt. Lee. promised the like, but no­thing performed. To resolue that doubt, and make good my speeches, I told them that what I had spo­ken should certainely bee performed, and to that end would leaue my brother in their countrey, and some of my company with him, to dwell amongst them, vntill a greater supplie might bee sent from England for their better defence. Then they seemed to giue credit to my words: And so after much talke, and [Page 12] many complements to please the naked people, I gaue to Carasana a sword, and to the rest some other things, which pleased them well: and then after their manner taking their leaue, they departed. The next day the Indian Martyn went ashoare,The Indian Martyn goeth ashoare. and seemed ioyfull that hee had againe recouered his owne home.

The day following I tooke land, with my com­panies in armes and colours displayed, and went vp vnto the towne,The English take land. where I found all the women and children standing at their doores to behold vs. The principall Indians came out vnto me, and inuited me into the Captaines house, which vntill the returne of Martyn belonged vnto his brother,The English feasted by the Indians. as chiefe Lord in his absence: I went vp with them, and was friendly feasted with many kinds of their Country cates; when I had well eaten and refreshed my selfe,The gratefull offer of Mar­tyn. Martyn tooke mee by the hand and said, that hee had not any thing wherewith to require my kindnesse towards him, in such manner as hee desired; neither had hee such de­licate fare, and good lodging for vs, as in England heretofore wee had been vsed vnto: but humbly in­treated mee to accept of his house in good part for my selfe, and the Gentlemen of my company; and the rest should bee lodged in other Indian houses ad­ioyning: and that such prouisions as the Country yeelded, should bee prouided for vs. His speech was approued by the rest of the Indians present, who tooke mee by the hand one after another, and after their manner bade mee welcome. I gaue them many thanks, & some rewards for their kind entertainment; and thē disposed my company in conueniēt lodgings: [Page 13] but yet I kept a continual guard, as in time of warre.

When I had thus setled my company at this vil­lage,The English setled at Cari­po in Wiapoco. I went out to view the scituation of the place,The strength of the place. and the aduantages for defence thereof. It is a great rockie Mountaine, not accessable by reason of fast woods, and steepe rockes, but only in certaine places, which are narrow foote-paths, very steepe and easie to bee de­fended: whereby wee were lodged as in a Fort, and most conueniently in respect the harbour was so neer, for our shippes did ride at anchor vnderneath vs, ouer against the foote of the hill.

Being thus ariued vpon the Coast, I found the time of the yeare so vnseasonable for our purpose, that (by reason of continuall raines) wee were constrained to lie still and doe nothing for the space of three weekes, or a moneth; in which idle time I conferred with the Indians, so metime with one, sometime with another; and by helpe of my Indian Anthony Canahre, and the Indian Iohn aboue mentioned (whom I vsed for my interpreters) I gathered from them as well as I could, the State of their Country; the manner of their go­uernement and liuing; how they stood with their neighbours in tearmes of peace, and warre; and of what power and strength they were. I inquired also of the seasons of the yeare in those parts: of their di­uision, and account of times, and numbers; of the prouisions of their Country for victuals, and other necessaries; and made a diligent inquiry of all the commodities their Country yeeldeth, & what things were of most estimation amongst them; all which I haue briefely declared vnto your Highnesse in this following discourse.

[Page 14] This goodly Country, and spacious Empire, is on the North part bounded with the Sea,The bounds and limits of Guiana. and the great Riuer of Orenoque, wherein Sr. Walter Raleigh perfor­med his worthy and memorable discouery: on the East and South parts, with the famous Riuer of Ama­zones; and on the West part with the Mountaines of Peru.

The westermost branch of the Riuer of Amazones that falleth into the Sea;Arrapoco a branch of Amazones. is called Arrapoco; vpō which riuer are seated many goodly Signiories wel deseruing a particular discouery, which shall (by Gods permi­ssion) bee performed hereafter. To the North of Ar­rapoco is the riuer of Arrawary, Arrawary. which is a goodly riuer, discouering a gallant Country. From Arrawary vnto the riuer of Cassipurogh extendeth the Prouince of Ar­ricary; containing the Signiories of Arrawary, Mai­cary, Maicary. and Cooshebery; Anaky-v-ry chiefe of the Yaios. of which Anakyury is principall, who by Nation is a Yaio, and fled from the borders of Orenoque for feare of the Spaniards, to whom hee is a mortall enemy. Hee hath seated himselfe in the Pro­uince of Arricary, Morooga. and now dwelleth at Morooga in the Signiory of Maicari. To the N. Norwest of which, there falleth into the Sea a riuer called Conawini, Conowini. wherevpon the Signiory of Cooshebery bordereth;Cooshebery. whereof an In­dian named Leonard Ragapo is Chiefe,Leonard Rapa­go Lord of Cooshebery. vnder the subie­ction of Anaki-v-ry. This Indian is christened, and hath been heretofore in England with Sr. Walter Raleigh, to whom hee beareth great affection; hee can a little vnderstand and speake our language, and loueth our Nation with all his heart. During my aboad at Wia­poco, hauing intelligence of him, and of his Country, and that certaine stones were found therein, suppo­sed [Page 15] to bee Diamonds: I sent my Cozen Captaine Fisher to discouer the same, and to fetch some of those stones, to bee resolued of the truth.

At his comming thither, Leonard entertained him with all kindnesse, not after the ordinary rude man­ner of the Indians, but in more ciuill fashion, and with much respect and loue, hee furnished him with guides to conduct him through the Country to the place where the Stones were found, being fifty miles Southward vp into the Land: beyond which place there is an high Mountaine appearing in sight, called Cowob, and on the top thereof (as the Indians report) a great Lake or Poole,A Mountaine called Cowob. full of excellent fish of diuers kindes. The Country was as pleasant and delight­full, as euer any man beheld; but the Stones not Di­amonds: yet they were Topases, which being well cut, and set in Gold by a cunning workman,Topases in Coo­shebery. doe make as faire a shew, and giue as good a lustre as any Diamond whatsoeuer: which yeeld good hopes of better to be found hereafter: For where the Topas is found on the Mountaines of Tenaseren, in the East Indies, the grea­test store of Diamonds are also found.

When my kinsman returned, Captaine Leonard came with him to Wiapoco, (being aboue an hundred miles from his owne Country) only to visite mee and my company; for the great loue hee did beare to Sr. Walter Raleigh, and our Nation. I much maruelled to see him, for assuredly hee is the brauest Indian of all those parts.

After hee had been with mee a day or two, hee ear­nestly requested mee to send some of my company into his Countrey, which hee greatly commended for [Page 16] the wholsome ayre, and plenty of victuals, alleaging that the place where then wee liued (by his owne ex­perience) was very vnhealthfull; that our men would there bee subiect to sicknesse, and die: and for an in­stance hee named Captaine Lee, and his company, who formerly were planted there, and almost all dy­ed by sicknesse in the same place: But hee assured me that his owne Country Cooshebery was of a good ayre, pleasant, and healthfull; that there they might haue roome sufficient to build English houses in, (for those were the words hee vsed) that thither they should be welcome and should want nothing. Much hee per­swaded to draw mee to his desire, which by his im­portunity I granted, and accordingly performed it; finding his Country answerable to his report; being for the most part champian ground,The quality of the Pro­uince of Coo­shebery. naturally in­termixt of plaine fields, fruitfull meadowes, and good­lywoods, in such admirable order, as if they had been planted artificially by handy labour. The fields ap­pearing aboue the meadowes in pleasant and delight­full manner, presenting here and there vnto the eye, from stately Mounts, most beautifull and liuely pro­spects: the meadowes bordering on euery side be­tweene the fields and woods, the woods growing in the lowest valleyes betwixt the meadowes, and com­monly are watered with sweete and pleasant fresh stremes running through them: which strange & rare mixture of Mounts, valleies, meadowes, fields, and woods, afford as excellent and healthfull habitations as can bee wished or desired, but is not greatly peo­pled.

From the riuer of Cassipurogh N. Westward to the [Page 17] riuer of Arracow, and vp further into the land to­wards the West, and Southwest, as farre as the riuer of Arwy, (which falleth into Wiapoco aboue the ouerfalles) extend the Prouinces of Arracoory, Arracoory & Morrownia and Morownia, which also to the landward (by the relation of my Brother Captaine Michael Harcourt, and Captaine Haruey, who haue trauelled and discouered those parts) are pleasant and delightfull plaine Countries, like vnto Cooshebery. The Arracoory Countrey is well peopled, and their chiefe Captaine is called Ipero. Be­twixt the Wiapocoories and Arracoories there is no hear­ty loue and friendship, yet in outward shew they hold good quarter. In Morrownia, there is also store of people, which are friendly Indians. In that Prouince there is a very high Hill called Callipuny, An excee­ding high Hill called Callipuny. fashioned like a Sugerloafe, or a Pyramides, which ouervieweth and discouereth all the Territories adioyning aboue an hundred miles.

Beyond the Country of Morrownia to the South­ward bordering the riuer of Arwy, is the Prouince of Norrak; Norrak. the people thereof are Charibes, and ene­mies both to the Morrowinnes the inhabitants of Mor­rownia, and to the Wiapocoories; who are also vnder the subiection of Anaky-v-ry, Anaki-v-ry. the Principall and grea­test Lord, or Cassique of all the Yaios in those Prouin­ces, bordering vpon the Sea betwixt the Amazones, South-eastward, and Dessequcbe North-westward.

From the riuer of Amazones to the Bay of Wiapoco; there fall into the Sea these riuers following:Riuers falling into the Sea betweene A­mazones and Wiapoco. Arrapo­co (a branch of Amazones) Arrawary, Micary, Conawi­ni, and Cassipurogh: In the Bay of Wiapoco to the East of the said riuer, there falleth into the Sea the riuer of [Page 18] Arracow; and into Arracow falleth the riuer of Watts. To the North of Wiapoco there is a smal creeke called Wianary, Wianary a creeke. which letteth in the Sea a daies iorney West­ward vp into the land: some take this creeke to bee a riuer, but they doe erre in that opinion, it hauing nei­ther spring nor fountaine from whence it falleth. To the North, and N. west of the said creeke, there is a ridge of high Mountains running towards the riuer of Apurwaca, the soile whereof is excellent & fertile for Tobacco, and beareth the best of all those parts; so are the Sugar-canes there growing the best and fairest that are found vpon the Coast: and all the tract of Land betwixt the riuers of Wiapoco, and Apurwaca, is accounted the Prouince of Wiapocoory, The Prouince of Wiapocoory. containing the Signiories of Wiapoco, and Wianary. Beneath the o­uerfalles in Wiapoco, (which are forty miles distant from the Sea) there is much people, both of Yaios, and Arwaccas: Carasana. of the Yaios in this riuer Carasana is chiefe. Of the Arwaccas, Arriquona. Arriquona is Principall. In Wianary there are few Indians,Casurino. and Casurino is their chiefe­taine.

To the N. west of the Bay of Wiapoco, there fall in­to the Sea the riuers of Apurwaca, Cowo, Wio, and Cai­ane. Riuers faling into the Sea, to the N. West of Wi­apoco. Apurwaca is a goodly riuer, and well inhabited; Cowo is void of inhabitants; Wio is a faire riuer and leadeth many daies iourney into the high land, and discouereth a firtile and hopefull Countrey. At Cai­ane there is an excellent harbour for shipping of any burden, which heretofore by Captaine Lawrence Key­mis was called Port Howard: On the Starboord side as you enter this harbour there is an Iland of low land called Muccumbro, Muccumbro an Island. scituate betwixt the riuers of Cai­ane [Page 19] and Meccoria, containing in circuit about six­teene leagues. In this Island there are two Hils, the one called Muccumbro, whereof the Island taketh the name; the other called Cillicedemo: from these Hils the greatest part of the Island may bee ouerviewed, which containeth many goodly pastures, and meadowes in­termixt with some woods, and is full of Deere, both red and fallow.

On the Larboord side, as you enter Caiane there is another Island of high Land, called Mattoory in quantity much like vnto the first;Mattoory an Island. this Island for the commodious scituation, is of great effect for the de­fence of the harbour, affording naturally two such notable conuenient places for the planting of Ordi­nance for that purpose, as no industry of art could de­uise better, or more auailable.

The inhabitants of this Prouince of Caiane, are Cha­ribes, Arrawicary chiefe Cap­taine of the Caiane. their principall commander is called Arrawica­ry, who dwelleth at Cillicedemo before mentioned: we haue found him trusty and faithfull to our Nation; but to our friend Leoanard of Cooshebery, Foure or fiue men pla­ced at Caiane. hee is a mor­tall enemie. At this mans house I left foure or fiue of my company, thereby to hold amity and friend­shippe with the Charibes, to learne their language, and to keepe peace betweene them and the Yaios, Ar­waccas, and other nations their allies.

To the South-westward of these Prouinces aboue mentioned towards the high land, there bee many o­thers which hereafter shall bee more exactly discribed by a second discouery.

These Prouinces and Signiories to the Landward are not plentifully inhabited; the greatest numbers of [Page 20] people, are seated neere vnto the riuers, and trauell from place to place in Canoes. The manner of their go­uernement. There is no setled go­uernement amongst them, onely they acknowledge a superiority, which they will obay as far as they please. In euery Prouince or Signiory there is a Chiefe Cas­sique, or Captaine, commanding all: So likewise in eue­rie Towne and Village,Murder and Adultery pu­nished by death. they commonly chastice mur­der and adultery by death, which onely are the offen­ces punished amongst them, and certaine persons are appointed by them to execute those punishments. The Indians take wiues ouer whom they are extream­ly iealous,The Indians by nature iea­lous ouer their wiues. and expect great continencie in them; for if they take them in adultery, they presently cause their braines to be beaten out. The better sort of persons haue euery one of them two or three wiues,The Indians haue manie wiues. or more, the rest but one; accounting him that hath most wiues, the greatest man. Their wiues (especially the elder sort) are as seruants vnto them, for they make their bread and drinke, dresse their meate, serue them at meales, and doe all the other businesse about the house.

These Prouinces are peopled with diuers Nations of seuerall languages,Diuers lan­guages in Guiana. namely, Yaios, Arwaccas, Sappaios, Paragotos, and Charibes. The Charibes most ancient vpon the sea coast. The Charibes are the ancient inhabitants, and the other Nations are such as haue beene chased away from Trinidado, and the borders of Orenoque. And forasmuch as they haue vnited them­selues in those parts, the Charibes haue held them in continuall warres, but the Yaios and the other Nations their Allyes, are growne so strong, that they haue con­strained the Charibes of the Sea cost to contract a peace with them, yet beare no hearty loue the one Nation to the other: But with the Charibes inhabiting the in-land [Page 21] parts vpon the Mountaines, they haue as yet no peace at all; for they doe often times come downe vpon them in great numbers,The Indians make warre for their weo­men. spoile and burne their houses, kill their men, and carry away their weomen, which is the greatest cause of warre and hatred amongst them: whereof our men haue seene experience in Cooshebery; where happened an accident worth the obseruing, which I will here declare vnto your Highnesse. The Indian Leonard Ragapo, before mentioned, is a Yaio, who finding the Country of Cooshebery slenderly inha­bited, hath seazed vpon it for his owne Siguiorie; and at his earnest request, I sent foure Gentlemen of my company to remaine there with him. The naturall inhabitants that dwell vpon the vttermost bounds thereof, towards the South, and West, are Charibes, and enemies to him, and to his Nation: for while our men (vnknowne to the Charibes) staied at Cooshebery, The Charibes warre vpon Leonard. they assembled themselues together to the number of 200. or more, and came downe into his Signiorie, burned and spoiled houses, roasted one woman, tooke many prisoners, & intended to assault him also: which to pre­uent he armed about 50. of his Indians,The vsuall weapons of the Indians. with their vsu­all weapons; which are Bowes and Arrowes, long staues sharpened at the point, and with fire hardened: wooden Swords and Targets very artificially made of wood,Leonard desi­reth and of the English. and painted with Beasts, and Birds; He reque­sted also our men to aide and assist him with their mus­kets, which I commanded them to doe, vpon all such occasions offered: And so being all in readinesse, Leo­nard (as their captaine) led them on to intercept his enemies; and as I haue heard by Mr. Henry Baldwin, (who then was present, and (to obserue the manner [Page 22] of their warres) gaue him leaue to command all) hee brauely performed that exploit, in good order after their manner, and with great iudgement and resoluti­on. For in the Front, he first placed our foure English­men,The manner of ordering their men in the warres. by two in a rancke; next to them, two Indians armed with woodden Swords and Targets; then two archers; and after them two men with sharpned staues, insteed of pikes: and in like manner ordered, and ranked all his Company. Being thus prepared, he marched against the Charibs, who (neer at hand) were comming in the same order towards him; but when they approched, & (vnexpected) perceued our English men amongst the Yaios, they were much amazed, and made a sudden stand:The Charibes amazed at the sight of the English. which Leonard perceiuing, guessed rightly at the cause, and instantly did make good vse of that aduantage. Hee commanded his owne company to keepe their Station, himselfe with a sword in his hand (which I had giuen him) and a Target of his owne fashion, went boldly towards them to parley with their Captaines. And hauing called them out,Leonard spea­keth to the Charibes. hee reproued them for comming (as enemies) into his Signiory, for burning and spoi­ling his houses, and his people; hee demaunded sa­tisfaction for the hurt done, and restitution of the pri­soners taken; and warned them forthwith to depart out of his Signiory, and desist from warre: which if they refused to fulfill, hee was there ready with his friends the Englishmen to fight with them, and reuenge his wrongs: and said further, that if in the conflict any of the English men were slaine, or hurt; hee would then fetch all the rest from Wiapoco, and re­turne to burne their houses, and cut them all in pee­ces. [Page 23] Thus he boldly spake, with such a courage, shew­ing also our men vnto them,The Charibes agree to peace for feare of the English. (who had their match in cocke ready to discharge) that he strooke such a feare into them all, by reason of our mens presence, that they presently agreed to peace, performed what con­ditions he required, and then departed home with all their company. Here may your Highnesse note, the factions among the Indian Nations; the discipline and order they hold in war, the feare the Charibes concei­ued at the sight of our Englishmen, and the policy of the Indian Leonard to take aduantage by their feare, and make our men his Guard, and chiefe protection against them. These things in time will much auaile vs, being well obserued, and rightly applied according to occasion. But to our former discourse.

The power and strength of these Countries (be­ing so thinly peopled,) is not very great to withstand the might of forraine enemies; the vsuall weapons of the Indians, are before described, sauing that their ar­rowes are oft-times poisoned. But since our trade and commerce with them, they haue gotten a few good swords, muskets, caliuers, and some small quantity of shot and powder; and haue learned to handle their peeces very orderly, and some of them are good shot.

The seasons of the yeere vpon this coast,The season of the yeere in Guiana. and in this climate are diuers, for in the East parts of Guiana to­wards the Amazones, the dry weather, which we call their Summer,Teh summer beginneth in August. beginneth in August; and the violent raines and tempestuous winds, which we count their winter, doe begin in February: But in the Westerne parts,The winter be­ginneth in Fe­bruary. towards Orenoque, the dry season beginneth in [Page 24] October, and the raines and windes in Aprill. There is little difference of heate and cold in this diuersity of seasons beeing so neere the Equinoctiall, where the day and night are alwaies equall, the sunne euer rising and seting at six of the clocke or neere thereabout: which climat by the ancient Philosophers (in respect of the neerenes of the Sunne, which causeth excessiue drowth and heate) was accounted the vnhabitable and burning Zone: The burning Zone. but our dayly experience doth assure vs of their certaine mistaking in that point: for in those parts wee finde, that when the Sunne decli­neth furthest from them towards the Tropicke of Ca­pricorne, the ayre is then cleerest, and the season of the yeare most dry; as in the Easterne parts of Guiana in August, September, October, Nouember and De­cember: and when the Sunne returneth towards the Tropicke of Cancer, then doe the raines begin, increase, and decrease, from February to Iuly: but some­times they begin to fall, and the riuers to rise, swell, and ouerflow sooner or later by a moneth; and the yeare is sometimes more or lesse windie and wet, according to the disposition of the heauens, and of the Planets: and as the Sunne approcheth, or decli­neth little, or much, euen so the earth wanteth or a­boundeth with water and moisture.

The reasons of these strange diuersities from other regions without the Tropickes, are very excellently declared by Ioseph Acosta in the second book of his na­tural & morall history of the Indies,Ioseph Acosta. to which Author I refer you for your better satisfaction therein: but withall I must aduertise you, that when you reade his first and second bookes, you haue regard to the [Page 25] place where they were writtē, which was in Peru, repu­ted by vs to be beyond the Equinoctiall, towards the South, or Pole Antarticke, lest you erre by mista­king his meaning: for in those two bookes, when hee mentioneth any place beyond the Equinoctiall, hee meaneth towards the North, or Pole Articke. And also you must note that this generall rule for the hea­uens temprature, is only limited to the Region of the burning Zone, within the Tropickes.

They haue no diuision or account of times or numbers;Their ac­count of times and numbers. they onely reckon by the Moones, as one, two, three, foure, or fiue Moones: or by daies in like manner. Their numbers they reckon thus, one, two, three, and so to tenne: then they say tenne and one, ten and two, tenne and three, &c. And to shew their meaning more certainely, they will hold vp one, two, three, or more of their fingers, expressing the numbers, still making signes as they speake, the bet­ter to declare their meaning: when they will reckon twenty, they will hold downe both their hands to their feete, shewing all their fingers and toes, and as the number is greater, so will they double the signe. When they appoint or promise any thing to bee done by a time limited, they will deliuer a little bundle of sticks equall to the number of daies, or Moones, that they appoint, and will themselues keepe another bun­dle of the like number: and to obserue their appoin­ted time, they will euery day, or Moone take away a sticke, and when they haue taken away all, then they know that the time of their appointment is come, and will accordingly performe their promise.

As touching Religion, they haue none amongst [Page 26] them,They vse no sacrifice, nor religious wor­ship to ani­thing. that I could perceiue, more then a certaine obseruance of the Sunne and Moone, supposing them to bee aliue, but vse no religious worshippe towards them, nor offer sacrifice to any thing: vnlesse they vse a superstition in their drinking feasts, by sacrificing Iarres of drinke: for at the death of any of their Cas­siques, Captaines,The manner of their drin­king feast at the death of their Cap­taines. or great friends whom they esteeme, they will make a solemne feast, (their chiefest prouisi­on being of their best and strongest drinke, which they call Parranow) which feast shall continue three or foure daies, or as long as their liquor lasteth, spending their time in dancing, singing, and drinking excessiue­ly: in which vice they exceede all other nations what­soeuer, accounting him that will bee drunke first, the brauest fellow; during this solemnity of their drin­king, some woman being neerest of kin vnto the party dead, doth stand by and cry extreamely; thus their manner is vntill their drinke bee spent, and then the feast is ended. Whether they vse any superstition in this custome I know not; time will reueale, and also reforme it.Their Peeaios or Priests haue confe­rence with the diuel. It is most certaine that their Peeaios, (as they call them) Priests, or Southsayers, at some spe­ciall times haue conference with the diuell, (the com­mon deceiuer of mankinde) whom they call Wattipa, and are by him deluded; yet notwithstanding their often conference with him, they feare, and hate him much, and say that hee is nought: and not with­out great reason, for hee will often times (to their great terror) beate them blacke and blew.Their opini­on of the dead. They be­leeue that the good Indians when they die, goe vp, and will point towards the heauens, which they call Caupo; and that the bad Indians goe downe, poin­ting [Page 27] to the earth,At the death of a Cassique, they kill an Indian to serue him in the other world. which they call Soy. when any Cas­sique, Captaine, or chiefe man dieth amongst them, if hee haue a slaue or prisoner taken from their ene­mies, they will kill him; and if he haue none such, then wil they kill one of his other seruants, that hee may haue one to attend him in the other world.The quality of the Land.

The quallity of the land in those Countries, is of diuers kindes, by the Sea side the land is low, where the heate would bee most vehement, if it were not quallified and tempered by a fresh Easterly winde or Brieze, most forcibly blowing in the heate of the day: in many places this low land is very vn­healthfull, and little inhabited, by reason of the ouer­flowing of the waters: but for the most part it hath goodly nauigable riuers, a fertile soile, much people, and is a healthfull habitation. Vpon the Mountaines there is a high land, where the ayre is coldest, in some places it is fruitfull, in others not: but generally is full of Mineralls, and mines of mettals, and yeel­deth as many as any part eyther of the East, or West Indies, both of the best, and of the basest whereof we shall (by Gods permission) giue good testimony, to the benefit of our Countrey, and honour of our Nation in time conuenient: and in most places vpon the Mountaines there is sound and healthfull dwel­ling. There is also a middle sort of land, which is of a meane height, and is most temperate, healthfull, firtile, and most inhabited of all other; it aboundeth in mea­dowes, pastures, and pleasant streames of fresh water, in goodly woods, and most delightfull plaines, for profit, pleasure, sport, and recreation: and also is not void of Minerals.

[Page 28] The prouisions of this countrey for victuals,The prouisi­ons for victu­als. are many; First of the roote of a tree called Cassaui, they make their bread,The roote of Cassaui ma­keth their bread and drinke. in manner following; they grate the roote vpon a stone, and presse out the iuice there­of, which being rawe is poyson, but boyled with Gui­nea pepper, whereof they haue abundance, it maketh an excellent and wholsome sawce, then they drie the grated roote, and bake it vpon a stone, as wee bake our Oaten cakes in England. This bread is very excellent, much like, but far better then our great Oaten cakes, a finger thicke, which are vsed in the Moorlands, and the [...]eake in Staffordshire and Darbyshire.

There is a kinde of great wheat called Maix, Maix, or Gui­nea wheat. of some it is called Guinea wheat, which graine is a sin­gular prouision in those Countries, and yeeldeth ad­mirable increase, euen a thousand or fifteene hun­dred for one, and many times much more: It maketh excellent meale, or flower for bread; and very good malte for beere or ale, and serueth well for sundry o­ther necessary vses for the reliefe of man.Their diuers kindes of drinke. Of the a­foresaid Cassaui bread, and this wheat the Indians make drink, which they call Passiaw: it will not keep long, but must bee spent within foure or fiue daies: they make another kinde of drinke of Cassaui, An excellent drinke made of Cassaui. called Parranow, very good and strong, much like vnto our best March beere in England, and that kinde of drinke will keepe ten daies; many sorts they haue which I haue tasted, some strong, some small, some thicke, some thinne, but all good, being well made, as commonly they were amongst the Yaios, and Arwaccas, which are the cleanliest people of all those Nations.

There is great store of hony in the Country,Store of hony and al­though [Page 29] it bee wilde (being taken out of trees, and bu­ries in the earth) yet is it as good as any in the world; of which may be made an excellent drinke much vsed in Wales, called meath. The hony and the waxe, are also good commodities for marchandise.

There be no Vines in that country,The soile ex­cellent for Vines. but the Soyle being rich and ferlile, and the climate hot, if they were planted there, they would prosper excce­dingly, and yeeld good Sackes, and Canary wines, which in those parts we finde to be very wholesome.

Many other necessary prouisions sufficient for the sustenance of man,Sundry kinds of beasts in Guiana. do there abound in plenty: Name­ly, Deere of all sorts, wilde Swine in great numbers, whereof there are two kinds, the one small, by the In­dians called Pockiero, Swine which haue the na­uile in the backe. which hath the nauile in the backe; the other is called Paingo, and is as faire and large as any we haue in England. There be store of Hares, and Conies, but of a kinde farre differing from ours: There be Tigers, Leopards, Ounces, Armadils, Maipuries which are in taste like beefe, and will take salt: Baremoes or Ant-Beares, which taste like Mutton, and other small beasts of the same taste, coloured like a fawne, Elks, Monkies, and Marmosites of diuers sorts, both great and small: of these beasts there be in­numerable, and by experience wee haue found them all good meate. Many other kinds of beasts there are of sundrie and strange shapes, which heereafter shall bee figured in their true proportion according to the life with their names annexed.

Of Fowles there be diuers kinds;Great varie­ty of Fowles namely, Wild­ducks, Widgins, Teates, Wild-geese, Herons of di­uers colours, Cranes, Storks, Pheasants, Partriges, [Page 30] Doues, Stock-doues, Black-birds, Curlewes, God-wits, Wood-cockes, Snits, Parrats of sundry sorts, many other kinds of great and small birds of rare co­lours; besides great rauenous fowles; and Hawkes of euery kinde.

Of Fish the variety is great,Diuers kinds of fish. first of Sea-fish, there is Sea-breame, Mullet, Soale, Scate, Thorneback, the Sword-fish, Sturgion, Seale, a fish like vnto a Salmon, but as the Salmon is red, this is yellow; Shrimps, Lobstars,Oysters hang vpon trees. and Oysters which hang vpon the branches of trees: There is a rare fish called Cassoorwa, which hath in each eye two sights,A fish hauing 4. eyes, and the ribs, and backe like a man. and as it swimmeth it beareth the lower sights within the water, and the o­ther aboue: the ribbes and backe of this fish resem­ble those parts of a man, hauing the ribbes round and the backe flat, with a dent therein, as a man hath; it is somewhat bigger then a Smelt, but farre exceeding it for dainty meate; and many other sorts there be most excellent. Of fresh-water fish many kinds vnknowen in these parts, but all exceeding good and dainty: And I dare be bold to say, that this Country may compare with any other of the world, for the great variety of excellent fish both of the Sea, and fresh waters. There is also a Sea-fish which vsually commeth into the fresh waters, especially in the winter and wet season; it is of great esteem amongst vs, and we account it halfe flesh, for the bloud of it is warme; it commeth vp into the shallow waters in the drowned lands, and feedeth vp­on grasse and weeds:The Sea-cow like beefe. the Indians name it Coiumero, and the Spaniards Manati, but we call it the Sea­cow; in taste it is like beefe, will take salt, and serue to victuall ships, as in our knowledge hath beene proued [Page 31] by our Countrimen: Of this fish may be made an ex­cellent oyle for many purposes; the fat of it is good to frie either fish or flesh; the hide (as I haue heard) will make good buffe: and being dried in the Sunne, and kept from wet, will serue for Targets and Ar­mours against the Indian arrowes: In the wet sea­son the store of them are infinite; some of these hides were heretofore brought into England, by Sr. Walter Rawleigh.

The seuerall kindes of fruits are many,Sundry kinds of fruits. the Pina, Platana, Potato, Medler, Plummes of diuers sorts, [...] Nuts of strange kindes. The excellency of the Pina I cannot expresse,Pina. for I dare boldly affirme that the world affordeth not a more delicate fruit: In taste it is like Strawberries, Claret wine and Suger. The Platana is also a very good fruite,Platana. and tasteth like an old Pippin.Potato. The Potato is well knowen. The Med­ler exceedeth in greatnesse.Medler. The Plummes I cannot commend,Plummes. for to eate much of them doth cause Flux­es, which in those Countries are daungerous. The Nuts are good being moderately eaten. Hauing thus (most excellent Prince) declared the seuerall sorts of prouisions for victuals and necessary foods,Nuts. it remai­neth that I now make mention of the variety of com­modities found in the Country for the trade of Mar­chandise, which in few yeeres, by our paines and in­dustry, may be brought to perfection, and so setled in those parts, that not only the vndertakers may receiue reward for their indeuours, but our country also may grow rich, by trading for the fruits of our labours.

The first and principall commodity of estimation, are the Suger-canes,The variety of Commodi­ties. whereof in those parts there is [Page 32] great plenty;Suger canes. the soile is as firtile for them as in any other part of the world: They doe there grow to great bignesse in a short time; by orderly and fit plan­ting of them, and by erecting conuenient workes for the boyling and making of Sugers, (which at the first will require som charge & expence) may be yeerely re­turned great benefit and wealth: the long experience of the Portugals, and Spaniards, in Brasill, and the Island of the Canaries; and of the Moores in Barbary, may giue vs certaine assurance, and full satisfaction thereof.

The Cotton wooll is a generall commodity, benefi­ciall to our Marchants,Cotton woll. and profitable to our Coun­trey, by making of sustians, and seruing for bumbast, and other vses: for making of Hamaccas, which are the Indian beds most necessary in those parts, and also of a fine cotten cloath for cloathing of the people. There is a naturall Hemp or Flaxe of great vse,Natural hemp or flaxe. almost as fine as silke as it may bee vsed; wee haue now found out the best vse of it; and for making of linnen cloath it is most excellent.

There bee many rare and singular commodities for Diers,Diuers com­modities for Diers. of which sort there is a red Berry called Annoto, which being rightly prepared by the Indians, dyeth a perfect and sure Orange tawny in silke;Annoto. it hath been sold in Holland for twelue shillings starling the pound, and is yet of a good price. There is another berry that dyeth blew. There is also a gumme of a tree,A gumme which dyeth a yellow in graine. whereof I haue seene experience, that in cloath dyeth a sure and perfect yellow in graine. There bee leaues of certaine trees, which beeing rightly pre­pared, doe dye a deepe red. There is also a wood [Page 33] which dieth apurple, and is of a good price; and another that dieth yellow. There is yet another wood which dieth a purple when the liquor is hot, and a crimson when the liquor is cold. Many other notable things there are (no doubt) not yet knowne vnto vs, which by our diligent labour and obseruati­on in time will be discouered and found.

The sweet gummes of inestimable value & strange operation in Phisick & Chirurgery,Sweete Gummes. are innumerable; there is yellow Amber, Gumma, Lemnia, Colliman, or Carriman, Barratta, and many more which I o­mit. The Colliman hath been proued by Mr. Walter Cary of Wickham in Buckingham-shire, (a Gentleman of great iudgement and practise in Phisicke) to bee of speciall regard for many purposes:The vertues of Colliman or Carriman. this gumme is black and brittle, much like in shew to common pitch; if you put a little of it vpon burning coles, it filleth all the roome with a most sweete and pleasant sauour. He further reporteth of it, that certainely if you hold your head ouer the fume thereof three, or foure times a day, it cureth the giddinesse of the head, and is also a most excellent comfort and remedy for a cold, moist, and rheumaticke braine: it is olso good a­gainst the resolution (or as the common sort call it) the dead Palsie, whereof the giddines of the head is often a messenger, and the fore-teller of that most perniti­ous griefe. It is also of great vse for the paine that many woomen haue in the lower part of their backes: which is very common to such as haue had children: for remedy whereof, it is to bee melted in a pewter vessell with a gentle fire, then with a knife it must bee spread lightly vpon a peece of leather, and laid warme [Page 34] to the place grieued, vntill it come of it selfe. This Plaister is also very good for aches, and doth greatly comfort and strengthen the sinewes. Thus much hath Mr. Cary written and reported of it, and hath proued by his owne experience.The Colli­man helpeth the gout. This Gumme is al­so approued to bee an excellent remedy against the Goute; and of singular vertue in the cure of wounds.

The Barratta is a most soueraigne Balsamum farre excelling all others yet knowen:Barratta a rare Balsa­mum. which by the same Gentlemans experience is of admirable operation in the cure of greene wounds: and being burned vpon coales, is of a sweete and odoriferous sauour.

There be many other sweet Gummes of great vse for Perfumes;A perfume like sweet Margerome. whereof one doth make a very rare perfume, much like vnto the sent of sweet Marge­rome, very pleasant and delectable.

For phisick there be also many excellent Druggs;Druggs and simples for phisicke. namely, Spiknard, Cassia, Fistula, Sene; and the earth yeeldeth Bole-Armoniacke, and Terra-Lem­nia, all which are knowen vnto vs. There bee other Druggs and simples also of strange and rare vertue, in these parts vnknowen; of which sort there is a little greene Apple,An apple which prouo­keth sleepe to death. by the Indians called in their language the sleeping Apple; which in operation is so violent, that one little bit thereof doth cause a man to sleep to death: the least drop of the iuice of it, will purge in vehement and excessiue manner, as dangerously was proued by my Cosen Vnton Fisher, who first found it: for biting a little of it for a taste, and finding it to burne his mouth in some extremity, did sodainely spit it out againe, but some small quantity of the iuice (against his will) went downe into his stomack, which [Page 35] for two or three daies space did prouoke in him an ex­traordinary sleepinesse, and purged him with 60. seates. This Apple, for the purging vertue in so small a quantity, is like to be of good price, and great esti­mation in the Practise of Physicke; for the learned Physicions do well know how to correct the sleeping quality thereof wherein the danger resteth. There is a Berry in those parts very excellent against the bloo­dy-fluxe,A berry cu­ring the bloo­dy Fluxe. by the Indians it is called Kellette. The iuice of the leafe called vppee, A leafe cu­ring the wounds of the poisoned arrowes. cureth the wounds of the poisoned arrowes. The iuice of the leafe called Icari, is good against the head-ache. Many other Druggs and simples are there found of singular pro­perties both in Physicke and Chirurgery,A leafe cu­ring the head­ache. which if they should be seuerally described according to their valew and vvorthinesse, would containe a large vo­lume.

Moreouer the Tree wherewith they take their fish,A wood that maketh fish drunke. is not a little to be esteemed, but chiefely the great goodnesse of God therein is highly to be praised and admired, who amongst so many admirable things by him created, and planted in those parts, hath vouch­safed to bestow vpon those barbarous people so great a benefit, and naturall helpe, for the present getting of their foode and sustenance. These Trees are com­monly growing neere vnto the places of their habita­tion for their present vse: for when, at any time, they goe to fish, they take three or fowre little sticks of this tree, and bruise them vpon a stone, and then go into certaine small creekes by the Sea shore, which at a high water are vsually full of very good fish of diuers kinds, which come in with the tide; and there they [Page 36] wade vp and downe the water, and betweene their hands rub those smal bruised sticks therein, which are of such vertue, that they will cause the fish to turne vp their bellies, and lie still aboue the water for a certaine time: In which space they presently take as many as they please, and lade them into their Canoes, and so with little labour returne home sufficiently prouided.

There is also a red speckled wood in that Coun­try, called Pira timinere, which is worth 30 or 40. pounds a tunne: It is excellent for Ioyners worke; as Chaires, Stooles, Bed-steds, Presses, Cupboords, and for Wainscot. There are diuers kinds of Stone of great vse, and good price, as Iasper, Purphery, and the Spleene-stone.

There is yet another profitable commodity to be reaped in Guiana, Tobacco. and that is by Tobacco, which albe­it some dislike, yet the generality of men in this king­dome doth with great affection entertaine it. It is not only in request in this our Country of England but also in Ireland, the Neatherlands, in all the Easter­ly Countries, and Germany; and most of all amongst the Turks, and in Barbary. The price it holdeth is great, the benefit our Merchants gaine thereby is in­finite, and the Kings rent for the custome thereof is not a little. The Tobacco that was brought into this kingdome in the yeare of our Lord 1610. was at the least worth 60. thousand pounds: And since that time the store that yeerly hath come in, was little lesse. It is planted, gathered, seasoned, and made vp fit for the Merchant in short time, and with easie labour. But when we first arriued in those parts, wee altogether wanted the true skill and knowledge how to order it, [Page 37] which now of late wee happily haue learned of the Spaniards themselues, whereby I dare presume to say, and hope to proue, within few moneths, (as o­thers also of sound iudgement, and great experience doe hold opinion) that onely this commodity To­bacco, (so much sought after, and desired) will bring as great a benefit and profit to the vndertakers, as euer the Spaniards gained by the best and richest Siluer myne in all their Indies, considering the charge of both.

The things which the Indians desire from vs by way of trade in exchange for the aboue named com­modities,The commo­dities most esteemed by the Indians. (whereby we hold society and commerce with them) are Axes, Hatchets, Bil-hookes kniues, all kinde of Edge tooles, Nailes, great Fishhookes, Har­ping-irons, Iewes-Trumps, looking-glasses, blew, and white Beades, Christall Beades, Hats, Pinnes, Needles, Salt, Shirts, Bands, linnen and wollen Cloathes, Swords, Muskets, Calliuers, Powder, and Shot: but of these last mentioned, wee are very sparing, and part not with many, vnlesse vpon great occasion, by way of guift to speciall persons.

For these toies, and such like trifeling things the In­dians will sell vnto you any of the aboue mentioned commodities that can be gotten or prepared by them; or any thing they haue, or that their Countrey yeel­deth; and will performe any reasonable labour for them. Thus haue I deliuered vnto your Highnesse, the particulars of the seuerall commodities, which hi­therto we haue discouered, and found likely to bee profitable in Guiana; (whereof examples are remayning to bee seene in the hands of Mr. Henry Houenaer a [Page 38] Dutch-man, who in the yeere of our Lord 1610. per­formed a voiage to Guiana, to the places where our Company was seated, and now abideth in Thames-streete, neere vnto Cole-harbour: and I make no doubt, that by continuance of time, our painefull tra­uels, and diligent obseruations, wee shall discouer and get knowledge of an infinite number of others, as rich, necessary, and beneficiall as these already spoken of, or any other whatsoeuer: if it please Almighty God to fauour and blesse our proceedings.

When the raines ceased, which was in Iuly, I began to trauaell abroad in search of those Golden Moun­taines, promised vnto vs before the beginning of our voiage, (by one that vndertooke to guide vs to them) which filled my company so full of vaine expectati­on, and golden hopes, that their insatiable and coue­tous mindes (being wholy set thereon) could not bee satisfied with any thing but oenly Gold. Our guide that vainely made those great promises, being come vnto the wished place to make performance, was then possessed with a shamelesse spirit of ignorance, for hee knew little, and could performe nothing. What o­ther intelligences (of Mines already fouud) I had from other men in England, and from the Mr. of my ship, who had bin heretofore in those parts, I foūd them by experience false, and nothing true concerning Mines, that was in England reported vnto me.

Our greedy desire of Gold being thus made fru­strate, diuers vnconstant persons of my vnruly com­pany began to murmure,Disorders by mutiny. to bee discontented, to kin­dle discords and discensions, and to stirre vp mutiny, euen almost to the confusion and ruine of vs all: and [Page 39] were vpon the point to shake off all obedience to their commanders; to abandon patience, peace, & vnity, and wilfully to breake out into all mischeefe & wretched disorder, onely because they were deceiued of their golden hopes & expectations: but with good words, and comfortable perswasions, I pacified them for the time, and made them acquainted with my better hopes conceiued of the commodities aboue mentio­ned. I perswaded them in generall from idlenesse, to trauell abroade, to search and seeke out amongst the Indians what other nouelties they could (though gold were wanting) whereby wee might hereafter benefit our selues; and still I imployed them some one way, and some another, to occupie their mindes by doing something, the better to preuent discention, which commonly is bred of idlenesse, the slouthfull mother of all filthy vices.

As I daily conuersed amongst the Indians, it chan­ced one day, that one of them presented mee with a halfe Moone of mettall, which held somwhat more then a third part Gold, the rest Copper: another al­so gaue mee a little Image of the same mettall; and of an other I bought a plate of the same (which hee called a spread Eagle) for an Axe. All which things they assured mee were made in the high Countrey of Guiana, The high Countrey of Guiana a­boundeth with Images of Gold. which they said did abound with Images of Gold, by them called Carrecoory. These things I shew­ed to my company to settle their troubled mindes, which gaue much contentment to the greater part of them, and satisfied vs all that there was Gold in Guia­na. Shortly after that my Indian Anthony Canabre, brought mee a peec of a rocke, of white Sparre, [Page 40] whereof the high Countrey is full: And if the white Sparres of this kinde,The rocks of the purest white Sparre are Mines of gold or siluer. which are the purest white of all others, (for euery sort of Mine hath a sparre, and for the most part white) bee in a maine rocke, they are certainely Mines of Gold, or Siluer, or of both I made triall of a peece of Sparre, which the same Indi­an discouered vnto me, and I found that it held both Gold, and Siluer, which (although it was in small quantity) gaue mee satisfaction that there bee richer Mines in the Countrey to bee found: but the best lie deeper in the earth, and wee had not time nor power to make search for them.

Being thus informed, and sufficiently resolued of the commodities of the Countrey, & well satisfied of the Minerals; I bent all my endeauours to finde out the fittest places, and most conuenient for our first plantations: at the last I found out many, and some of speciall note, which are (for many respects) of great importance; and when time serueth, our forces and number of men being answerable, I will lay them o­pen to the knowledge of the world: and for wealth I hope they shall fully answere all mens expectations.

I trauelled vp the riuer of Wiapoco, to view the ouer­falles, but the waters being high and strong, I could not passe them. In August when they are fallen, with some labour they may bee passed.Many ouer­falles in Wia­poco. This riuer hath very many ouerfalles, lying one a good distance be­yond another, euen to the head thereof. Aboue some of the first falles there dwelleth an Indian, called Co­marian, who is an old man of a free disposition; by him I learned that a certaine distance aboue the first falles, the riuer Arwy falleth into Wiapoco; moreouer [Page 41] that certaine daies iourney beyond him towards the high land, vpon the borders of Wiapoco, there is a Na­tiō of Charibes hauing great eares of an extraordina­ry bignes,People ha­uing great eares, who worship an I­doll of stone. hard to bee beleeued, whom hee called Ma­rashewaccas: amongst these people (as Comarian re­porteth) there is an Idole of stone, which they wor­ship as their God; they haue placed it in a house made of purpose for the greater honour of it, which they keepe very cleane and hansome.

This Idole is fashioned like a man sitting vpon his heeles,The propor­tion of the I­dole. holding open his knees, and resting his el­bowes vpon them, holding vp his hands with the palmes forwards, looking vpwards, and gaping with his mouth wide open. The meaning of this pro­portion he could not declare, although he hath been many times amongst them, and hath often seene it. What other Nations were beyond these he did not know, hauing neuer trauailed so farre, but hee sayth they be Charibes, and also enemies vnto them. It see­meth there bee many Nations of those great eared people: for in the Riuer of Marrawini I heard also of the like, who dwell farre vp towards the high land, as hereafter you shall heare and I suppose, by the tren­ding of the Riuers of Wiapoco, and Marrawini, are all one people.

Vpon the 14. day of August I went vnto a Moun­taine, called Gomeribo, being the vttermost point of land to the Northward in the bay of Wiapoco; I found the soile of it most excellēt for Tobacco, Maix, Cot­ton trees, Annoto trees, Vines, & for any other thing that should be planted there. When I had taken good view of the place, and found it commodious for ma­ny [Page 42] purposes;Possession ta­ken for the king at Go­meribo, then in the presence of Capt. Fisher, di­uers Gentlemen, and others of my company, and of the Indians also, I tooke possession of the land, by turfe and twig, in the behalf of our Soueraigne Lord King IAMES: I tooke the said posession of a part, in name of the whole continent of Guiana, lying be­twixt the riuers of Amazones and Orenoque, not being actually possessed, and inhabited by any other Chri­stian Prince or State; wherewith the Indians seemed to be well content and pleased.

In like manner my Brother Capt. Michael Hare­court, and Capt. Haruey, (whom I left as his associate, and hee esteemed as an inward friend,) in a notable iourney, which (to their great honour) they perfor­med, to discouer the Riuer of Arrawary, and the Country bordering vpon it, (neere adioining to the riuer of Amazones) did take the like possession of the land there,The like pos­session taken at Arrawary. to his Maiesties vse.

The dangers and great difficulties which they in that attempt incountred, were memorabe, and such, as hardly any of our Nation in such small Canoes (be­ing onely some-what longer, but not so broad as our Thames wherries, and flat bottomed,) euer ouercame the like. First the number of their owne attendants besides themselues, was onely one man, and a boy: Their troope of Indians 60. persons. Their iourney by Sea vnto the Riuer of Arrawary was neere 100. Leagues: wherein (by the way) they met with many dreadful plunges, by reason of a high going sea, which breaketh vpon the flats and shoales; especially, at the next great cape to the North of Arraway, which, in respect of the danger they passed there, they named [Page 43] Point Perilous. Point Perillus. Then their discouery vp the riuer, was 50. leagues more: where they found a Nation of Indians, which neuer had seene white men, or Chri­stians before, and could not be drawne to any fami­liar commerce, or conuersation, no not so much as with our Indians, because they were strangers to them, and of another Nation. The discouery of this riuer is of great importance, and speciall note, affor­ding an entrance more behouefull for the▪ searching and discouery of the inland parts of Guiana, then any other riuer yet knowne vpon the Coast; for tren­ding Westward vp into the land, it discouereth all the Countries and Nations to the Southward of Arrica­ry, Cooshebery, Morrownia, and Norrack, which I haue mentioned before.

Many weekes they spent in this aduenture, still taking vp their lodgings in the woods at night. Pro­uision of meate they wanted not,A great argu­ment of plen­ty in the Countrey. for Fish were euer plenty, and at hand: and the woods yeelded eyther Deere, Tigers, or Foule: their greatest want was of bread and drinke, which onely defect did hinder (at that time) the accomplishment of that discouery. For when the Indians perceiued their bread to bee neere spent, and their drinke to bee corrupted, they could not bee perswaded to proceede, hauing no meanes to supply their wants amongst the Arrawaries, the Indi­ans of that riuer, who would not freely trade with them vpon this first acquaintance, but alwaies stood vpon their guard, on the other side of the riuer, where they inhabited: yet they desiring to obtaine some of our English commodities, and make triall of our In­dians friendshippe, afforded some small trade for their [Page 44] present releefe during their aboade in that riuer: So that of force they were constrained to breake off their discouery, and hasten homeward.

But here their dangers ended not, for as they retur­ned, arriuing at certaine Islands called Carripoory, and passing betweene them & the main land, much against the wils of all the Indians, who knowing the danger of the place, and more respecting their safety, then their owne, (being themselues all expert swimmers) would haue disswaded them from that hazard: but they being ignorant of the perill, would needs passe onne, and at the last met with such a Boore (as the Sea-men terme it) and violent encounter of two tydes comming in,A dangrous Boore at Car­ripoory. which like two furious inraged Rammes, or Bulles, rushed togeather, and oft retired back, to re­turne againe with greater violence, vntill the one (by force had ouerborne the other: that if next vnder God) the diligent care and paines of the Indians had not preserued thē, they had been there destroyed, and swallowed vp by that mercilesse Boore or breach of waters; which (God be thanked) they escaped, and returned home in safety.

Here may your Highnesse fitly note and obserue two things,Two speciall things to bee obserued. the one, the assured loue and fidelity of the Indians to our Nation; who hauing in their pow­er for six weekes space, foure only of our company, and two of those the chiefest of the rest; and if they had been false & trecherously minded towards them,The fidelity of the Indians might easily haue drowned, starued, or slaine them; yet did not only forbeare to practise harme against them, but did also safely rowe their boats; night by night prepare their lodgings in the woods, & daily vse [Page 45] their care and best endeauours to discouer and pre­uent all dangers that might happen to them, and to guide them, serue them, and prouide them meate. Such trust and faithfulnesse is rarely found amongst such barbarous infidels, and yet wee haue had three yeeres experience thereof. The other thing to bee obserued heere,The plenty of victuals. is the store and plenty of victuals in Guiana; where sixty foure persons togeather in one company, without any prouision of victuals (bread and drinke excepted) before hand made, could tra­uell abroade for six weekes space, most commonly lodging in the woods, seldome in any towne or vil­lage, and yet in all places wheresoeuer they came, could readily get meate sufficient for them all: which blessing God hath giuen to Guiana; for the comfort of all such as shall bee willing to bee planters there.

This, and much more could my Brother haue true­ly auouched, if hee had liued; but (since his returne into England) it hath pleased God, who gaue him life, and preserued him from many dangers, to take him to his mercy. But the other, Captaine Haruey, suruiueth, whose life hath euer suted with a generous and worthy spirit, professing Armes, and following the warres: who also is generally well knowne, to be a Gentleman, both honest, and of spotlesse reputati­on; hee will auerre and iustifie for truth, what heere is mentioned. But I will now returne from whence I haue digressed.

When I had (as before) taken possession at Gome­ribo, Gomeribo de­liuered to an Indian as the Kings tenant. in presēce of the said parties, I deliuered the posse­ssiō of that Mountain to my Indiā Anthony Canabre, To haue, hold, possesse, and enioy the same, to him, and to [Page 46] his heires for euer, of our Soueraigne Lord King Iames, his Heires and Successors, as his subiect; Yeelding and paying yeerely the tenth part of all Tobacco, Cotton wooll, Annoto, and other commodities whatsoeuer, which should hereafter bee either planted or growing within the said Mountaine, if it were demanded. The Indian most gladly receiued the possession vpon these conditions, and for himselfe, and his posterity, did promise to bee true subiects vnto the Kings Maiestie: his heires, and successors: And to pay the duties im­posed vpon them: and so that busines being finished, I returned againe to Wiapoco.

Now (most worthy Prince) there came vnto my knowledge, an inconuenience happened by the care­lesse negligence of the Master of my ship, who had the charge of prouiding and laying in the prouisions and victuals for the voyage,The only cause of losse by the Voy­age. which was the cause that I gained no present profit by it, but left off all my dis­coueries in the first beginning. I had a purpose at that time to performe a businesse, which might haue pro­ued profitable, and honourable vnto vs, if I had been able to haue staied the time, but it was not my chance to bee so fortunate: for the Master, his Mates, and the Steward of my Shippe, came vnto mee, and told me plainly, that if I made any longer aboad in that Coun­trey, I would neuer in those Shippes returne into England: or if I did aduenture it, my selfe, and all my company would starue at Sea for want of Beere, Sy­der, and water, for all my Caske was spoiled, because it was not Iron-bound; the woodden hoopes flew off, by reason of the heate of the Clymate; and our Beere, and Syder, (whereof wee had good store) did [Page 47] leake about the shippe, that wee could hardly saue sufficient to releeue vs, if wee made a longer stay vpon the Coast; which was the Masters fault, hauing had a speciall charge to bee carefull of that onely poynt. By this default, I was constrained to make a vertue of ne­cessity, and prepare my selfe for England, and leaue my former purposes to bee accomplished hereafter, which shall bee done (God aiding mee) in time con­uenient.

Then disposing of my company,Capt. Michael Harcourt left commander of the compa­ny. I appointed my Brother Captaine Michael Harcourt to remaine in the Countrey, as chiefe Commander in my absence, and to continue the possession on the Kings behalfe; I gaue him directions to trauell abroad, as (occasion serued) to discouer the Countrey, to spend sometime at Cooshebery, and sometime also in other places; but to make his chiefest residence at Wiapoco, (the onely Rendeuous for shippes that trade vpon that Coaste) and there to plant good store of Maix, for our reliefe of bread and drinke, which is the chiefest thing to be respected in those parts; for other victuals we need not take much care being alwaies easily prouided. He per­formed his charge with great reputation, discouered many goodly Prouinces, and spacious Countries; and worthily continued the possession full three yeeres compleat. I left with him for his assistance, Captaine Haruey, aboue mentioned, who hath nobly vowed his time and fortune to bee imployed in the prosecution of this honourable action. For his Liuetenant I ap­pointed Mr. Edward Gifford, Twenty men left with Cap­taine Har­court at Wai­poco. a valiant and worthy Gentleman; and I left also with him of Gentlemen and others, about twenty more, with all such necessa­ries [Page 48] as I could spare, and thought conuenient for them: and so commending them to God the eigh­teenth day of August I departed from Wiapoco, and the day following arriued at Caiane.

At my comming to Caiane my Pinnesse receiued a leake,The Pinnesse receiued a leake at Caia­ne. which would haue proued dangerous, if wee had been far at Sea; whereby enforced to attend the stopping thereof, and new trimming of the Pinnesse; and vnwilling to bee idle in the meane space doing no­thing, I left my shippes there to repaire their defects, and in my ship-boate departed thence, the twenty three of August: taking with mee Captain Fisher, who hath euer been (since wee first crept into the world) my chiefe companion, both in Armes and trauels; I tooke also with mee his brother Vnton Fi­sher, Mr. Cradle the Masters mate of my ship, and a­bout six more. I followed the Coast to the Westward stering due West,R. Meccooria. and passing by the riuer of Mec­cooria, I lodged that night in the mouth of the riuer Courwo: R. Courwo. which hath a narrow deepe entrance, and within affordeth a good harbour, which may in time to come (for some speciall purpose) bee of great vse.

The next day, and the night following I procee­ded Westward with full saile, and passing the riuers of Manmanury, Riuers to the West of Cour­wo▪ Sinammara, Corassowini, Coonannonia, Vracco, and Amanna; I arriued the twenty fiue day at the riuer of Marrawini, which openeth a faire riuer, but is shoale vpon the Barre, which lyeth two or three Leagues off at Sea, hauing but two fadome water: within the Barre, the Channel is three, foure, fiue, and six fadome deepe. Fiue leagues within the ruier wee [Page 49] passed by certaine Islands called Curewapory, Islands called Curewapory. not inha­bited, for at the rising of the waters they are alwaies o­uerflowen, of which sort the riuer hath very many: wee lodged that night a litle beyond these first Islands at a vil­lage called Moyemon, on the lefthand, the Captaine there­of is called Maperitaka, of the Nation of the Parago­tos, a man very louing and faithfull to our Nation, whereof wee haue had good proofe. The next day wee proceeded vp the riuer three leagues, and stayed at a towne called Coewynay on the right hand, at the house of Minapa, (the chiefe Charib of that Signiory) to pro­uide two Canoes to prosecute our iourney for the disco­uery of this riuer.

The twenty eight day wee went forward passing ma­ny villages and townes,They pro­ceede in dis­couery of Marrawini. which I forbeare to name, and hauing gone about twenty leagues from the Sea, wee found the riuer in a manner barred vp with rocks, ouer which the water falleth with great violence, yet notwith­standing wee aduentured to proceed,The riuer full of ouerfalles. and the further wee went, the more dangerous we found the ouerfalles, and more in number; but when we had passed the first Mountaine, towards the high Countrey of Guiana, cal­led Sapparow, and discouered far off before vs other high Mountaines called Matawere Moupanana, They went six daies iourney vp the riuer. and had pro­ceeded 6. daies iourney vp the riuer (which was more thē forty leagues) we met with such shoale rocky streame, & great ouerfalles, that there to our griefour iourny ended.

Being thus for that time debarred from our intended discouery, wee prepared our selues with Patience to re­turne towards our shippes, and the third day of Septem­ber wee turned downe the riuer, shooting the ouerfalles with more celerity then when wee came vp, dispatching three daies iourney in one, and the fifth day returned [Page 50] safe to Moyemon; but before I departed thence, Cap­taine Fisher told mee of certaine plants which hee had then found, much like vnto Rose-trees, growing about halfe a yard in height, whereof (for the strangenesse of them) I cannot forbeare to adde a word or two.

These plants or little trees had assuredly the sence of feeling,Trees which had the sense of feeling. as plainely appeared by touching them: for if you did but touch a leafe of the tree with your finger, that leafe would presently shrinke, and close vp it selfe, and hang downe as if it were dead; and if you did cut off a leafe with a paire of cisers, then all the other leaues growing vpon the same tree would instantly shrinke and close vp themselues, and hang downe as if they were dead and withered, and within halfe a quarter of an hower, would by degrees open themselues againe, and flourish as before; and as often as you did either touch or cut off any of them, they would doe the like; which did e­uidently shew a restriction of the spirits, inuincibly ar­guing a Sence. Howsoeuer this may seeme strange and in­credible to your Highnesse, and to them that haue not seene it,Scallger, Ex­ercit. 181. sect. 28. yet forasmuch as Scaliger, and Bartas make men­tion of the like, I dare bee bold to affirme it vpon my credit,Bartas, Eden, 1. day, 2. week. hauing seene and shewed it to forty others: I ga­thered two of the plants, and did set them in pots in their owne earth, and carried them aboord my shippe, where I kept them fairely growing almost a fortnight, vntill they were destroied by certaine Munkies that brake loose, and pulled them in peeces: which might haue been preuented, but that I was constrained to set them in the open ayre, the better to preserue them.

The seuenth day I went to Wiawia, a great towne of Paragotos, Viawia a Towne of 20 houses. and Yaios, foure leagues to the West of Mar­rawini, whereof Maperitaka aboue mentioned, and Ara­pawaka [Page 51] are chiefe Captaines. At this towne I left my Cozen Vnton Fisher, Mr. Vnton Fi­sher and two others left at Wiawia▪ and Humfrey Croxton an Apotheca­ry, to beare him company, and one seruant to attend him called Christopher Fisher, hauing first taken order with Maperitaka for their diet, and other necessaries, both for trauell, and otherwise: who euer since (according to his promise) hath performed the part of an honest man, and faithfull friend.

I gaue directions to my Cozen Fisher to prosecute the discouery of Marrawini, and the inland parts bordering vpon it, when the time of the yeere, and the waters bet­ter serued; and if it were possible to goe vp into the high Countrey of Guiana, and to finde out the City of Ma­noa, mentioned by Sr. Walter Raleigh in his discouery. He followed my directions to the vttermost of his abili­ty, being of a good wit, and very industrious, and ina­bled to vndergoe those imployments, by obtaining the loue, and gaining the languages of the people, without which helpes, there is little or no good to bee done in those parts.

When the waters of Marrawini were risen, and the riuer passable,Mr. Fisher tra­uelled eleuen daies iourney vp the riuer of Marra, viz. 100 leagues. (much differing from the riuer of Wiapo­co, which is not to bee trauelled, but in the lowest wa­ters.) He began his iourney for the discouery thereof, in company of the Apothecary, his seruant Fisher, the Indi­an Maperitaka, and eighteene others, and proceeded e­leauen daies iourney vp the riuer, to a towne of Charibes called Taupuramune, distant from the Sea aboue an hun­dred leagues;The Prouince of Moreshe­goro. but was foure daies iourney short of Mo­reshego, which is also a towne of Charibes, scituate vpon the riuer side in the prouince of Moreshegoro: the chiefe Captaine thereof is called Areminta: who is a proud and bold Indian, much feared of all those that dwell within [Page 52] his Territories,Indians with rough skins like Buffe. hauing a rough skin like vnto Buffe lea­ther, of which kinde there bee many in those parts; and I suppose proceedeth of some infirmity of the body.

Hee vnderstood by relation of the Indians of Taupu­ramune, and also of Areminta, that six daies iourney be­yond Moreshego, there are diuers mighty Nations of In­dians, hauing holes through their eares, cheekes, no­strils, and nether lippes, which were called Craweanna, Pawmeeanna, Diuers migh­ty Nations of Indians far vp in Marrawini, towards the high land. Quikeanna, Peewattere, Arameeso, Acaw­reanno, Acooreo, Tareepeeanna, Corecorickado, Peeauncado, Cocoanno, Itsura, and Waremisso: and were of strength and stature far exceeding other Indians, hauing Bowes, and Arrowes foure times as bigge: what the Indians al­so report of the greatnesse of their eares, I forbeare to mention, vntill by experience we shall discouer the truth thereof. Moreouer hee learned that there fall into Mar­rawini diuers great riuers,Riuers falling into Marrawi­ni. called Arrennee, Topannawin, Errewin, Cowomma, Poorakette, Arroua, Arretowenne, Wa­oune, Anape, Aunime, and Carapio: whereof some he hath seene himselfe.Twenty daies iourney from Taupuramune to the head of Marraw▪ That it was twenty daies iourney, from Taupuramune, to the head of Marrawini, which is inha­bited by Arwaccas, Sappaios, Paragotos, and some Yaios; and that a daies iourny from thence to the land-ward the Countrey is plaine,The Country aboue the head of Mar. is plaine, and Champian ground. and Champian ground, with long grasse. Hee passed in this iourney aboue eighty o­uerfalles of water, and many of them very dangerous: of some of them I had experience the yeere before. Hee proceeded no further at that present, being vnprouided for so long a iourney, supposing that it had been neerer (then hee found it) to the head of the riuer by a fort­nights trauell: and so returned backe in six daies space, intending better preparation for a second iourney: but his purpose was preuented by an vntimely death: for [Page 53] shortly after hee was drowned by misfortune; whereby we see, that man determineth, but God disposeth.

The tenth day of September being Sunday,The tenth of September they left Gui­ana. I left the main of Guiana, and in my ship-boat stood off into the sea to seek my ships, which were forced to ride foure leagues from shoare, by reason of the shoales; but as wee passed ouer them,They were in danger to be cast away. wee were in danger to bee cast away by the breach of a sea, which verily had sunke our boat, if with great celerity we had not lightned her, by heauing ouer­bord many baskets of bread, of Cassaui, Maix, Pinas, Pla­tanas, Potatoes, and such like prouision, wherewith our boat was loaden; by which meanes it pleased God to de­liuer vs from present destruction, and to bring vs safe vn­to our ships.

When I came aboord, we weighed anchor, and steered away from the Island of Trinidado, and vpon the 18. day in the morning,They finde three English shippes at Pūta de Galea. we arriued at Punta de Galea, where wee found three English ships at anchor, which was no small comfort vnto vs, considering our great defects & wants. One of these shippes was called the Diana, belonging to Mr. Lula Dutch merchant dwelling in London. The other two, the Penelope, and the Indeuor, belonging to Mr. Hall, a merchant also of London. We staied at this place 6. daies to mend our bad caske, and to take fresh water: during which time I was kindly intreated, & feasted by the Mer­chants, and had supply of al such things as I stood in need of; which curtesie I requited in the best manner I could for the present.

Vpon Sunday the twenty foure of September we weighed anchor, so likewise did the Diana (the other two shippes being gone two or three daies before vs,) but the wind shifting to the north-east▪ inforced vs backe againe almost to the same place from whence we depar­ted. [Page 54] The twenty fiue we weighed againe, and plied along the shoare towards Cape Brea, Pitch gotten in the earth, which mel­teth not with the Sunne. about three leagues. This Cape is so called of the Pitch which is there gotten in the earth, whereof there is such abundance, that all places on this side of the world may be stored therewith.

It is a most excellent Pitch for trimming of shippes that passe into these Regions and hot Countries, for it melteth not with the Sunne, as other Pitch doth.

The twenty six day wee stood along againe, the winde being still contrary and variable, intermixt with many calmes,They arriue at Port ae Hispania. & so continued vntill the second of Octo­ber, when we arriued at Port de Hispania.

Within two daies after our arriuall there, Don Sanches de Mendosa, Don Sanches de Mendosa commeth aboord their shippe. the Teniente for that yeare, with certaine o­ther Spaniards came aboord vs: we gaue them the best entertainement that our meanes, the time, and place would affoord, and had much friendly conference toge­ther. They told me, that they lately had a conflict with the Charibes, wherein they had lost seuen or eight of their men, and had many others hurt and wounded, whereof some came to my Chirurgion to haue their wounds dressed during our aboad there. And they plainely confessed that they are verie much molested by the Charibes, The Spani­ards much molested by the Charibes. and knew not how by any meanes to sup­presse them.

We staied at Porte de Hispania vntill the seuenth day, in hope to get some good Tobacco amongst the Spani­ards, who daily fed vs with delaies and faire words, but in truth they had none good at that present for vs, which we perceiuing,They depart from Trinida­do. departed thence vpon the 7. day, about one of the clocke in the morning, leauing the other ships to attend their trade, and stood away for the passages, cal­led Les [...]iot boccas de Drago, and disembogued about [Page 55] eight of the clocke the same morning. Then we steered away for an Island called Meues, They arriue at Meues. and leauing the Islands of Granado, Saint Vincent, Guadalupa, and Monserate, in our starboord side, wee arriued there the twelfth day, where wee stopped to take in Ballast, and more water, for our shippes were very light.

In this Island there is an hot Bath,An excellent hot Bath at Meues. which as wel for the reports that I haue heard, as also for that I haue seen and found by experience, I doe hold for one of the best and most soueraigne in the world. I haue heard that diuers of our Nation haue there been cured of the Leprosie, and that one of the same persons now, or lately dwelt at Wollwich neere the riuer of Thames, by whom the truth may be knowne, if any man desire to bee further satisfied therein. As for my owne experience, although it was not much, yet the effects that I found it worke both in my selfe, and others of my company in two daies space, doe cause mee to conceiue the best of it. For at my com­ming thither,An extreame cough cured by the Bath. I was grieuously vexed with an extreame cough, which I much feared would turne mee to great harme, but by bathing in the Bath, and drinking of the water, I was speedily cured: and euer since that time, I haue found the state of my body (I giue God thankes for it) farre exceeding what it was before, in strength and health. Moreouer, one of my company named Iohn Huntbatch (seruant to my brother) as he was making a fire,A mans hand burned with Gunpouder, and by the Bath cured in 24 houres. burned his hand with Gunpowder, and was in doubt thereby to loose the vse of one or two of his fin­gers, which were shrunke vp with the fire, but he went presently to the Bath, and washed, and bathed his hand a good space therein, which soopled his fingers in such manner, that with great ease hee could stire and stretch them out, and the fire was so washed out of his hand, that [Page 56] within the space of twenty foure houres, by twice or thrice washing and bathing it, the sorenesse thereof was cured, onely the eye-sore for the time remained. Further­more, two or three others of my company hauing swel­lings in their legges,Swellings in the legges cu­red in a day. were by the Bath cured in a day. This can I affirme, and boldly iustifie, hauing been an eie witnesse thereof.

Hence wee departed the sixteenth day of October,They depart from Meues. in the afternoone, and leauing the Islands of St. Christo­pher, St. Martin, and Anguilla on the Starboord side, wee dissembogued through the broken Islands on the North side of Anguilla vpon St. Lukes day, where I thinke neuer Englishmā dissembogued before vs: for we found all our Sea-charts false concerning that place, those bro­ken Islands being placed therein, to the Southward of Anguilla, betwene it and St. Martins, and wee found them scituat to the Northward thereof.

When wee had cleered our selues of the broken I­slands, wee stood away North-East, shaping our course the neerest way wee could for Flores, and Corues, and so continued with faire weather, the winde still mending vpon vs, vntill the thirtieth day of October: about twelue of the clocke that day there began a storme, with contrarie windes, still variable, which continued vntill 4. the next day in the afternoone. In this storme wee lost the company of the Pinnesse in the night, but had fight of her againe vpon the fourth of Nouember late in the euening, and the next day shee came vp vnto vs, at two of the clocke in the afternoone. Then the winde came faire at West,They left the Pinnesse to follow after them. and wee steered away East by North, and E. N. Eastamong. The seauenth of Nouember I relie­ued the Pinnesse with more bread, and left her to follow after vs, not being able to keepe way with vs before the [Page 57] winde, which then blew strongly at West: for I was ve­ry vnwilling to loose the benefit of a speedy passage, which the cōtinuāce of that faire winde was like to afford vs. And so following our course, on the eleuenth day in the morning we had sight of Fayal, They fell with Fayal. one of the Islands of the Terceras, which we left on our starboord side, and steered away for England, the winde continuing faire vn­till the twenty foure day. But then it changed, first to the East by North, and then to the East south-east, and be­came so violent and furious, that for three daies space we were not able to beare out saile, but did driue before the winde at the least three leagues a watch,They are dri­uē by a storme into Ireland. out of our course; and the first land wee made was Cape Cleere in the South-west part of Ireland, where against our wils we arriued at Crooke Hauen the twenty nine of Nouember.

Our arriuall there at that present,Their great necessitie and want. was happy for vs, considering our extreame wants, and great necessities; for of all our store, we had remaining but one hogshed of water, halfe a hogshed of beuerage (all our beere be­ing spent and wasted by leakage) sixe peeces of beefe, and three of Porke, which was all our prouision: we had nei­ther fish, butter, oyle, cheese nor pease left to relieue vs, whereby we had fallen into a lamentable distresse, if al­mighty God had not in time brought vs vnto this har­bour where we supplied our wants, by the helpe of Cap­taine Reignolds commander of his Maiesties Pinnesse cal­led the Moone, whom we fortunately met there alto­gether vnexpected. But the winde continuing contrary at the East, and like to hold still in that corner, presa­ged new wants to insue, if a speedy remedy was not pro­uided. To preuent the worst, I resolued to goe by land to Yoghall, neere vnto which place remained some friends and acquaintance of mine, by whom I might prouide [Page 58] my selfe of meanes to defray my charge, vntill my re­turne into England: and therefore gaue commandement to the master of my shippe to wage a Pilot, and vpon the first shift of winde (if it fauoured him in any time) to bring the shippe about to Yoghall, where I ment to abide his comming, resoluing thence to goe for Bristol. And I appointed (if the winde did hold against him) to send him mony to supplie their victuals, vntill it pleased God to alter it: but he regarding his owne priuate ends, more then my commaund and direction, vpon the first shift of wind went away with my shippe (without my know­ledge) to Dartmouth in the west Country, and left me be­hind in Ireland: whereof as soone as I had intelligence, I presently tooke the opertunitie of a speedy passage in a barke then reddy bound for Bristol, and so the next mor­ning being the fifteenth of December, I departed from Yoghall, and arriued at Bristol the seuententh day.

My Pinnesse which we left at Sea to follow after vs,The Pinnesse first arriued in Ireland, and afterward at Bristol. was likewise by the aforesaid storme driuen into the west of Ireland, to a place caled Dingen le Coushe: and there re­mained along time wind-bound: but at the last (by Gods permission) arriued at Bristol the second day of February.

During the time of my voyage, we left but one land­man, who died in Guiana: and one sailer, and an Indian boy,The number of those that died. who died at Sea in our returne: and during the space of these three yeares last past since the voiage, of all the men which I left in the country, being in number about thirty, there died but six, whereof one was drowned: an­other was an old man of threescore yeeres of age: and another tooke his death by his owne disorder; the rest died of sicknes, as pleased God the giuer of life: for which small losse, his holy name be blessed now and euer.

Hauing thus (most noble Prince) declared the whole [Page 59] course of my voiage to Guiana, performed in the yeare of our Lord 1609. I hold it needefull for the better sa­tisfaction of the fauourers, and wel-willers of this action, by adding of a speciall note or two, and by a briefe re­remembrance of some points mentioned in the former discourse, to expresse the worthinesse of the enterprise, being of importance, and not to bee regarded lightly.

In euery forraine action vndertaken by the subiects of a Christian Prince,Three princi­pall ends to be obserued in euery for­raine action. they ought to haue especiall regard to three principall ends and designes. First, that it may bee for the glory of God: Secondly, for the honour of their Soueraigne: Thirdly, for the benefit and profit of their Countrey. Which three principall ends and in­tendements, if they faithfully prosecute, and labour to aduance with constant resolution, they shall infallibly bring their vndertakings to blessed, prosperous, and ho­norable end. And now if it shall appeare that this enter­prise for discouery and plantation in Guiana, is chiefely grounded vpon these three designes; I hope there is not any man (bee hee neuer so malitious and full of enuy) that can with iust exp [...]tions scandalise it, or worthily contemne it.

First then for the glory of God,1. The glory of God. it hath been, and euer will bee held cleere and vnquestionable, that God can­not be more honoured, nor his holy name by any meanes more glorified, then by the prosperous grouth and hap­py increase of his Church, through the conuersion of those that bee heathen and barbarous Nations to the knowledge of him our true God, his Sonne Iesus Christ, and the holy Ghost, the blessed indiuiduall Trinity, and to the profession and practise of Christianity; which heauenly and euer memorable worke, may through Gods good blessing and assistance (without which (in­deede) [Page 60] all our trauell therein, and all the labour of the world is but lost) bee easily effected and accomplished in Guiana▪ the people thereof being of a louing and tra­ctable nature towards the English, whom they loue and preferre before all other strangers whatsoeuer: and by whom (next vnder God) I verily hope, and am constant­ly perswaded, it will bee their blessed happe to bee freed from the seruitude of the diuell, that now so tyranizeth ouer them, and to bee led out of that infernall darke­nesse wherein they liue, and bee drawen to Christianity: for they will come vnto vs (already) at time of prayer, shew reuerence, and bee very attentiue all the while, al­though they vnderstand nothing: they will bee content that wee baptize their children, and will after call them by the Christian names wee giue them, suffer vs to bring them vp, and in a sort acknowledge their ignorance, and shew a kinde of willingnes to be instructed & reformed.

As touching the second, by what meanes may our gra­cious Souraigne the Kings Maiestie doe God better ser­uice,2. The honour of our Soue­raigne. and honour him more, or vnder him bee more ho­nored, then by obtaining and gaining the Soueraignty of so many great, spacious, and goodly Countries and Territories, not yet actually possessed, and inhabited by any Christian Prince or Sate whatsoeuer? which in that Region, by the timely and worthy vndertakings of his Subiects, (without bloodshed, and with the loue and affection of the people) may bee possessed, planted, and annexed to his Crowne, as the Nations and Countries beyond, by the Emperour Charles the fifth, were annex­ed to the Crowne of Spaine, whereby, what honour and benefit the Spaniards haue gained, and to what a degree of greatnesse they are thereby growen, these parts of the world can witnesse, and wee for our parts haue had tri­all, and might haue had woful experience of, if our God [Page 61] that alwaies tooke our parts,An. 1588. had not crossed their bloo­dy designes, and put them to flight and confusion.

And for the third,The profit of our Country. who can deny but that our Coun­trey by this worthy action may bee enriched, through diuers and sundrie commodities of great worth, in those parts dayly found, and easily obtained? which before are mentioned more at large, from page 31. to page 37. and therefore needeles here to bee againe repeated.

And for their further satisfaction, and more incou­ragement in this enterprise, let them consider the nature and disposition of the climate in this Region of Guiana, which for healthfull and wholsome ayre, (some few pla­ces onely excepted) I hold generally to bee inferiour to none other vnder Heauen: for notwithstanding it bee scituate vnder the Equinoctiall, by the ancient Philoso­phers called the burning Zone; The burning Zone habitu­able. yet such are the wonder­full workes of God for the benefit of man, that contrary to their opinion, wee finde by late experience, that those Regions which were in times past by them accounted vnhabitable, through extremity of drougth, and heate; are now found out to bee inhabited, temporate, and healthful Countries, as plainely appeareth in diuers patts of the East and West Indies, and especially in this Countrey of Guiana, whereof I haue taken possession to his Maiesties vse, being plentifully inhabited by people of diuers Nations: the climate there pleasant, and agree­able to our constitutions,The clmate pleasant, fruitfull, and healthfull. and the soile fruitfull, as before hath been declared; affording as many admirable helpes towards the leading of an happy life, as any knowne part of the world: for whatsoeuer is necessary for the re­liefe of man: eyther for foode, Phisicke, or Chirurgery, or for clothing and architecture, is here (by the proui­dence and goodnesse of God the creator) in plen­tifull [Page 62] store euen naturally prouided.

Moreouer the good inclination of the people towards our Nation,The loue of the people to­wards our Nation. being willing to trade with vs, and become subiects to his Maiesty, our Soueraigne; their louing and gentle entertaining of vs, desiring to haue vs liue and abide amongst them; and their tractable conuersation with vs, not refusing to be instructed in Christianitie; and coueting to imitate and learne any trade, or worke, that they see vsed or practised by our men: are no small motiues to perswade the prosecution of this action, and plantation in Guiana.

Furthermore,A good mo­tiue to those that want imployment. all younge Gentlemen, Souldiers, and others that liue at home in idlenesse, and want imploy­ment, may here finde meanes to abandon and expell their slouthfull humors, and cast off their fruitlesse and pernitious designes; and may worthily exercise their generous spirits in honourable trauels, and famous dis­coueries of many goodly and rich terretories, strange and vnknowne Nations; and a multitude of other rarie­ties, hitherto vnseene, and vnheard off in these parts of the world: which may be thought incredible, but that our own experience, & the generall & constant report and affirmation of the Indians, doth assure vs thereof.

And to conclude,An Empire may be gai­ned to our Soueraigne. we may by the gracious assistance of our good God, gaine vnto our Soueraigne the domi­nion of a rich and mightie Empire, which if it may bee once possessed by his Maiestie, and inhabited by his En­glish Subiects, will absolutely be inuincible, to the vn­speakable honour & renown of our natiō in al after ages.

All these things respectiuely considered, what may be more required? to moue & induce all noble and worthy dispositions, louing honour, and honourable attempts; all Marchants desiring wealth & riches; & generally al the in­habitants [Page 63] of this Kingdome, freely to giue assistance to­wards the aduancement of this noble action, and planta­tion; so much tending to the glory of God; the honour of our Soueraigne, and the benefit of our Countrey.

¶The names of the Riuers falling into the Sea from Amazones, to Dessequebe, and of the seuerall Nations inhabiting those Riuers.

  • Charibs.
    • 1 Amazones.
    • 2 Arrapoco, a branch of A­mazones.
    • 3 Arrawary.
  • Yaios and Charibs.
    • 4 Maicary.
    • 5 Connawini.
  • Arracoories
    • 6 Cassipurogh.
    • 7 Arracow.
  • Yaios and Arwaccas.
    • 8 Wiapoco.
    • 9 Wianary, a creeke or in­let of the sea.
  • 10 Cowe, not inhabited.
  • Charibs.
    • 11 Apurwacca.
    • 12 Wio.
    • 13 Caiane.
    • 14 Meccooria.
    • 15 Courwo.
    • 16 Manmanury
    • 17 Sinammara.
  • 18 Oorassowini, not inhabited.
  • Arwaccas.
    • 19 Coonannoma
    • 20 Vracco.
  • Paragotos, Yaios, Cha­ribs, Arwac.
    • 21 Marrawini.
  • Charibs.
    • 21 Amanna.
    • 23 Camoure, or Comawin, a branch of Se­linama.
    • 24 Selinama, or Surennamo.
    • 25 Surammo.
    • 26 Coopannomy
    • 27 Eneecare.
  • Arwaccas & Charibs.
    • 28 Coretine.
    • 29 Berebisse.
  • Arwaccas.
    • 30 Manhica.
    • 31 Wapary.
    • 32 Micowine.
    • 33 Demeerare.
  • Charibs.
    • 34 Matooronnee
    • 35 Quiowinne, braunches of Dessequebe.
  • Arwaccas & Charibs.
    • 36 Dessequebe.

The Plantation in Guiana is most easie to be performed, as is at large expressed in the former Treatise: And may in briefe appeare by these notes fol­lowing, which are here added for the better comfort and incouragement of the Aduenturers and Planters of the meaner sort.

FIrst, the climate in Guiana, although it bee hot, yet is it habitable;The nature of the climate. Page. 23. and affordeth healthfull habitations: for in three yeeres space that my Brother Captaine Mi­chael Harcourt and his company, remained in the Coun­trey, of thirty persons there died but six.

The naturall inhabitants of that Countrey are a lo­uing,The dispositi­on of the peo­ple. tractable, and gentle people, affecting, and prefer­ring the Englishmen before all other Nations whatsoe­uer, and desiring commerce and conuersation with them: with those barbarous people we may liue in safety, with­out suspicion of trechery, or dread of danger; if wilfully wee offer them abuse, and harme issue, the fault is ours; for a worme being trodden on, will turne againe. If they at any time doe giue offence to vs, they will suffer and abide such moderate chastisements, as we in our discre­tions shall thinke fit to lay vpon them.

The soile of the land there,The quallity of the land. Page 27. as is said before, is excee­ding rich, neuer yet broken vp, nor ouerworne with til­lage, but still remaineth in the greatest perfection of fertility.

The prouisions of that Countrey for victuals, are al­ready [Page 65] mentioned before. But it is fit they bee againe re­membred for the comfort of the ordinary people,The prouisi­ons of the Countrey page 27. 28. 30. and 31. that in person shall aduenture in this action. There are great store of Deere of all sorts; wilde Swine, Hares, and Co­nies; besides diuers other beasts vnknowne in these parts, Phesants, Partriges, wilde foule of all sorts, and e­uery house hath Cocks, Hennes, and Chickens, as in England; and the variety of Fish is wonderfull, without compare: but the chiefest comfort for our Countrey­men is this, that the beast called Maypury, and the fish called the Sea Cow (being seuerally as bigge as a Heifer of two yeres old,A beast and a fish like Beefe & of which kinde there are very many) are in eating so like vnto our English beefe, that hardly in tast wee can distinguish them, and may as well as beefe bee salted, and kept for our prouision.

There is also a beast in colour like a Fawne,A Beast like Mutton. but ful­ler of white spots; in stature somewhat lesse then a small sheep, and in tast like Mutton, but is rather better meate: the Baremo is also of the same taste.

These for the time will giue vs good content, vntill wee can bee stored with the breed of our English sheepe and cattell.

The store of Maix,Good bread. or Guinea wheat in Guiana, is very plentifull, which graine doth make an excellent good bread, and very wholsome. So likewise doth the Cassa­ui, whereof there is also great abundance; and much more may bee,Drinke like March beere. as we please to plant.

Of the Cassaui bread, the Indians do make good drink, which in colour, taste, and strength, doth equall our March beere in England.

Of the Guinea wheat,Excellent strong Ale. we may make good Malt, which also maketh as excellent strong Ale as can bee possible.

The soile being rich, fruitfull, and neuer nipt with [Page 66] frosts doth giue vs hope that in few yeeres space by plan­ting vines,Sacke, and Canary wine. we shal make good store of Sacke, and Canary wine, which in those parts are needefull, and very whol­some, and will greatly comfort and lighten the hearts of our Countreymen, and make them iouiall and couragi­ous to vndertake and execute the greatest laboures, and most difficult aduentures of discouery.

The commodities already found in Guiana, are at large declared in the former discourse;The commo­dities of the Country. pag. 31, and 32. yet for the better me­mory of those that are disposed to aduenture in this acti­on, I haue againe in briefe remembred them. First with­in a yeere without much labour, there may bee transpor­ted thence good store of Cotton wooll; diuers kinds of rich dies; sundrie sorts of gummes, drugges, and fea­thers; many kindes of rich woods: Iasper, and Purphe­ry stone; Balsamum, waxe, hony, and Tobacco. And hereafter within few yeeres, wee shall returne thence great plenty of Sugers: and I hope discouer as rich Mines, as euer the Spaniard found, eyther in new Spaine, Peru, or any other part of the Indies.

[Page] FOrasmuch as it hath pleased his Excellent Maiestie, for the planting and inha­biting of all that part of Guiana, or continent of America, lying betweene the riuer of Ama­zones, and the riuer of Dessequebe, to grant his gracious Letters Pattents to Robert Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt in the County of Oxford Esquire, Sir Thomas Challener Knight, and Iohn Rouenzon Esquire, and to the heires of the said Robert Harcourt, of all the saide Coun­tries, Lands and Territories betweene the said two riuers of Amazones and Dessequebe, and of all Islands, Lands and Territories within twenty Leagues adiacent thereunto, &c. Together with all Prerogatiues, Iurisdictions, Roy­alties, Priuiledges, Franchises and Preheminenses, both for Gouernement, Trade, Trafficke, and otherwise, in as large and ample manner, as either his Maiestie, or any of his noble Progenitors, or Predecessors, haue heretofore graunted to any Aduenturers, or Vndertakers of any Dis­coueries, Plantations, or Trafficke, of, in, or into any for­raigne parts whatsoeuer. To haue, hold, possesse, and en­ioy all and singular the premisses, to the sole and proper vse of the saide Robert Harcourt, and his heires for euer. And for that diuers honourable personages, Gentlemen, and others, who are willing and desirous, for the Glory of God, and the Honour of our Nation, to giue aide and as­sistance, eyther in person, or purse, to the vndertaking of this worthy Action, and Plantation, may truly vnderstand and know, how, and in what maner they shall receiue be­nefit and profit by their aduentures, and trauells therein; It is thought fit and necessary, for their better content and satisfaction, to publish these Articles insuing.

THe Planters in generall, are all Aduenturers either in per­son, or purse.

[Page 68] The meanest Aduenturer in Person, shall haue fiue hundred A­cres as a single share.

Euery one that aduentureth twelue pounds tenne shillings, shall haue fiue hundred Acres as a single share; and so ratably according to the aduenture, be it more or lesse.

The Plantation and Aduenture is intended to bee partly Gene­rall, and partly Particular.

In the Generall Plantation and Aduenture, all persons of all conditions and estates, euen to the poorest seruants, and laborers, men, women, and children, may aduenture asmuch or as little as they please, from ten shillings vpwards, and shall haue in fee sim­ple the assured ratable increase and gaine according to the quanti­tie of his aduenture; So as for euery ten shillings aduentured, he shall haue twenty Acres in inheritance, and so much yearely profit as those twenty Acres may yeeld.

A Register shall be truely kept of the names of euery Aduentu­rer in person, and of euery Aduenturer in mony, and of the summe by him aduentured, to the end that they may proportionably receiue the full benefit of their Aduentures.

During the first three yeres, the whole benefit shall goe towards the aduancement of the Plantation.

At the end of those three yeres, a fourth part of the cleere pro­fites remayning shall be diuided betwixt all the Aduenturers in purse or person, ratably according to their shares, and aduen­tures.

Yeerely for seuen yeares after the first three yeeres ended, three parts of the whole cleere yeerely profit vpon euery returne shall be in like maner diuided; and the other fourth part shall goe towards the aduancement of the Plantation.

In those tenne yeares the Land may be surueyed, & fit distribu­tions & alotments made thereof to the Aduenturers and Planters.

After those tenne yeares it shall be free for euery one to make his best of his alotment at his owne discretion by himselfe, or else to trade and deale in common, as he did before with others, which per­happes will be most conuenient for all small Aduenturers: And a setled order shall for that end be continued, for a continuall, ioynt, and common trade and commerce for euer; for otherwise it might prooue hard for Aduenturers of small summes to reape any benefit [Page 69] after the ten yeeres ended: but by a common continued commerce, they, or their heires, or assignes, shall be sure to haue it.

A Treasurer generall for the Plantation shall bee resident in London, and when the returne of profit diuidable shall be, he shall forthwith deliuer to a particular Treasurer resident in euery shire, the proportionable part or profit due to the Aduenturers of that shire, which particular Treasurer shall deliuer to the high Consta­bles of euery Hundred, the proportionable part due to the Aduen­turers of that Hundred: And the high Constables shal deliuer to the Constables and Minister of euery Parish within their Hun­dreds, where any Aduenturers shall be, the proportionable part due to the Aduenturers of that Parish. And the Constable & Mi­nister shal deliuer to euery person in that Parish his due, according to the proportion of his aduenture.

To this end a Register shall be kept by the Constable and Mi­nister of each parish, of the names of each Aduenturer in that Pa­rish, with their seueral aduentures, & the time when they brought in the same; So as such as he remooued out of a Parish where they aduentured, to some other place, shall either themselues, or their heires, or assignes receiue his proportionable profite in the parish where he aduentured, without further trouble or trauell.

The like Register shall remaine with the high Constables, of the Aduenturers in their Hundred.

And the like with the particular Treasurer of that shire, of the Aduenturers of that shire.

And the like of all the Aduenturers whatsoeuer, with the Trea­surer generall for the Plantation.

But yet such as aduenture not before this next intended voyage; (which wee account the first voyage for the Plantation) or before the second, but stay longer expecting the euent, must not expect e­quall shares with the first Aduenturers: but if his aduenture come in after the second voyage, and before the third, he shall want a fift part of that which the first Aduenturers shall haue. And such as come in before the fourth voyoge, shall want two fift parts. And such as come in before the fift voyage, shall want three fift parts. And such as come in before the sixt voyage (which perhappes may be the last voyage in the first three yeeres, a voyage being ses forth euery halfe yeare) shall want foure fift parts of what the first Ad­uenturer [Page 70] shall haue. And so a single share for so late an Aduentu­rer of twelue pound tenne shillings, will be but one hundred Acres in inheritance, and his profit accordingly in proportion, and so for a greater or lesser rate, so lately aduentured,

Euery Aduenturer in person, if he die hauing neyther wife, nor childe in Guiana liuing, his next kinsman that will goe in person at the next voyage or sending after his decease, shall haue his share or part: but if none such will goe in person, then the next heire of the deceased in England, shall haue a fift part of that share in in­heritance, being about one hundred Acres: And the residue being foure hundred Acres, shall be disposed of to some other that will goe in person, that so by the death of the party deceased, the number of the Planters in person may not be diminished, and that yet his next heire here, may haue some competent benefite by the aduenture of his kinsmans person.

If a man and his wife goe, each of them shall haue fiue hundred acres; yet so, that the share of the wife be at the husbands dispose, as is vsed by husbands in England, that marry women heires, who cannot alien the same without the wiues consent.

If a man & his wife goe, the suruiuor shal haue the others share, if they haue no children borne in Guiana; but if they haue children borne there, then onely the suruiuor shall haue the share of the de­ceased, vntill the childe be one and twenty yeeres olde, and then the child shall haue it, for that the share of the personall aduenture of the suruiuor, will be competent maintenance, so as the childe may well haue the other share.

If a man and his wife, and a childe of theirs goe, each shall haue fiue hundred Acres.

The shares of Commaunders, Officers, and men of place, and qualitie, that aduenture in Person, are not to be rated according to single shares of inferiour and common persons, that aduenture in person: but according to their place, qualitie, and merite, in such sort as shallbe fit to giue them content, and incouragement to ad­uenture their persons in so honorable and worthy an Action.

Diuine Preachers that wil imitate the glorious examples of the Apostles (who ceased not to trauell amongst all sorts of Heathen and sauage people for the plantation of the holy Gospel) are worthi­ly numbred amongst the persons of place & qualitie, and shall haue [Page 71] such worthy shares, for the aduenture of their persons, in [...] ser­uice of the blessed Trinitie, as shall giue them good content. Thus much concerning the Generall Aduenture and Plantation.

In the Particular Plantation and Aduenture, there shalbe cer­taine Signiories or other Portions of land allotted and graunted to such as like not to be partakers of the Generall Plantation and Ad­uenture; but haue otherwise a desire to ioyne together in seuerall companies or corporations of select friends and acquaintance, or else to plant apart, and single by themselues, as Lords of Mannors, or as Farmers.

These Signiories or Portions of Land shalbe conueyed and assu­red vnto them in Fee simple, with all such Royalties, Liberties, Priuiledges, Franchises, and Commodities, as shalbe fit and neces­sary for the aduancement of their Plantations, and can (by vertue of the Pattent) be granted vnto them.

They shall plant and people the same at their owne proper costs and charges, and conuert the profits thereof to their owne vse and behoofe, vnder the conditions following.

They shal yeerely pay vnto such Officers as shalbe appointed for that purpose, the fift part of all Ores of Gold and Siluer, as shall at all times hereafter, be found and gotten within the bounds and li­mites of the Signiories and Lands graunted vnto them, which fift part of Oare, is by the Pattent reserued to his Maiestie.

The fift part being deducted for his Maiestie, they shal also pay to the Patentees, or vnto their Officers for that purpose appointed, all such rents and dueties, as betwixt the said Patentees, and them, shall be agreed vpon, and such as haue beene vsually payed by the planters and inhabiters of the like Plantations, whereof there are extant many presidents: And also from time to time shall obserue, pay, & performe, all such other customs, impositions, reseruations, and limitations, as are mentioned & expressed in the said Patent.

And for their safety and defence in all the said particular Plan­tations, they shall be ayded, protected, and defended, both by Sea, and Land, against all assaulters, inuaders, and intruders, accor­ding to the power and strength of the Vndertakers of the Generall nerall Plantation, which I hope (with Gods assistance) shall be sufficient to resist and repell the ma­lice of our greatest enemies.


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