Work for Chimny-sweepers: OR A warning for Tabacconists. Describing the pernicious vse of Tabacco, no lesse plea­sant then profitable for all sorts to reade.

Fumus patriae, Igne alieno Luculentior.

As much to say, Better be chokt with English hemp, then poisoned with Indian Tabacco.

Imprinted at London by T. Este, for Thomas Bushell, & are to be sould at the great North dore of Powles. 1602.

To the Reader.

I Am to well asured (good Reader) that in vndertaking this vaine dis­course of the pernicious & vulgar vse or rather abuse of Tabacco, I shall draw vnto my selfe no small [...] a­mong our smoky gallants, [...] long time glutted themselues with the fond fopperies and fashions of our neighbour Countries: yet still desirous of nouelties, haue not stucke to trauell as farre as India to fetch a Dulce vene­num, a graecian Helen, an insatiate Messaline, and hugge a stinging serpent in their bosomes: nor am I ignorant, that to the wiser sort this treatise will seeme at the first a fruit­lesse labour, of an idle braine, and to other some a vaine florish of a carping minde: And that beecause in this treatise is vt­terly reprehended and in some sort refuted, that which of ma­ny excellent & learned men hath beene most highly commen­ded, and by sundry persons of high estate hath beene experi­mented and tryed verie commodious for the health of man.

For Monardus in his treatise of the West Indian sim­ples, Carolus Clusius in his Comment vpon Garcaeas de Stirpibus et Aromaticis Indicis, and Baptista Porta in his 8. booke and 11. Chap: of Naturall Magick doe commend this plant as a thing most excellent and diuine.

And in these our daies many excellent Phisitions and men of singuler learning and practise, together with many gen­tlemen and some of great accompt, doe by their daily vse and custome in drinking of Tabacco, giue great credit and au­thoritie to the same: yet neuerthelesse if it shall please them [Page] either with patience to heare, or with iudgement to reade these few lines, and with indifferencie to waie and ponder the reasons herein [...]dged, I doubt not but they shall finde, nei­ther the great authoritie of the one, nor the vsuall practise of the other, nor yet them both vnited and conioined in one, a ground for this their vulgar practise of a thing so hurtfull an [...] pernitious to the life and health of man.

Authorities of expert and learned men in their art (I confesse) bee motiues of waight and importance to leade and draw the vnlearned and vnskilfull sort, who for the more part sticke and relie more on the authoritie of the teacher, then on his demonstrations and proofes, to yeeld to their as­sertions.

But of all heresies in Philosophie that Pithagoricall pre­cept (Ipse dixit) seemeth most grose, hurtfull, and perniti­ous: Heerevpon wee finde that Aristotle in his Morals thought it not a matter of wisedome or worth commendaci­on, to content himselfe with the bare authoritie of his Mai­ster Plato (who no doubt was in learning most excellent: but laying Platoes assertions in one skale of the ballance, and reason with experience in the other, and finding his Maisters authoritie to light to counterpease re [...]son, hee made it no scru­ple to swarue and discent from Ipse dixit, and stuck to sen­sible reas [...]n, as a most euident meanes to bring a sensible and reasonable creature, to the knowledge and vnderstanding of the truth.

The like in Pnis [...]ke did Galen, dissenting sometimes from his Master H [...]pocrates, (for so may I terme him, for from him he had his light:) & of set purpose in his Comments on Hippocrates Epidemicks, and Aphorismes doth re­fute him: And Aristotle had wont to say, Amicus Plato, [Page] sed Magis amica veritas. Plato was his friend, (for from him hee had his learning and knowledge) but Truth and Ve­ritie was his greater friend, and therfore in equitie & right hee ought rather to take hir part.

So for truth sake onely did Varro write against Lelius, Sulpitius against Casselius, Saint Ierome against Hila­ris, Saint Augustine against Hierome and Ambrose also. These men made euer more accompt and estimation of veri­tie and truth, then of the authoritie of learning in any who­soeuer.

Let it not therefore (good Reader) seeme a vaine thing to you, or an argument of an Idle braine, for mee to discent in iudgement of Tabacco, from those authors before alea­ged, hauing as I suppose, both sollide Reasons and true Expe­rience on my side to counterpease their authorities founded rather on opinion then any certaine science or demonstration.

NOt the desire of any priuate game,
Nor [...] motions of a Carping braine,
Nor for reward from some [...] fil [...],
(How euer men may Censure [...] them lif [...],)
Nor the desire to see my name in [...],
Like pupill Poets who [...]e mindes looke a sq [...]i [...],
To heart the Vulger sorts applauding voice,
Commend their budding Mule, Inuentions Choice▪
Hath [...] mee take in hand this idle taske▪
And [...] smoke face vnmaske,
Who beeing but a [...]
Hath plaid the painted English [...]
(Pitie: that so [...] wits
Should fall into such furious [...])
But Nature, Lo [...]e, and my welwilling pen,
To Englands soile, and my dee [...] Countrymen,
Dutie and due alleg [...]unce binding band,
Hath [...] mee take this [...] taske in hand,
Which [...] comes to the [...] view,
Of the [...] sighted and [...] Crew,
Of new enstalled Knights [...],
Of the sterne Censours Leering [...]
I'm sure the one will wish the reeking [...]
That smoketh from his [...]
Like fire and brimstone: [...]
(Such is the flintinesse of moderne [...])
Another [...]eares my guiltlesse [...]
Hiding them in his bigge [...]
And at some publike shew in all [...]
With them hee kindles his [...]
They burne for Heretiques, ( [...])
C [...]se they blasphemed [...]
Let none denie but Iudi [...] soile can yeeld,
The sou'raigne simples, of Ap [...]ll [...] field.
Let England Spaine and the French [...]
Let Irish Kerne and the [...]
Confesse themselues in [...]
To wholesome simples of [...] land.
[Page]But hence thou Pagan Idol: tawnie weede,
Come not with-in our Fairie Costs to feede.
Our wit-worne gallants, with the sent of thee,
Sent for the Deuill and his companie,
¶Go charme the Priest and Indian Canniballs,
That Cerimoniously dead sleeping falls,
Flat on the ground, by vertue of thy sent,
Then waking straight, and tells a wonderment,
Of strange euents and fearefull visions,
That he had seene in apparitions.
Some swaggering gallants of great Plutoes Court,
I warrant you would he the truth report,
But would I were a Charmer for it sake,
In England it should little rest ytake,
O I would whip the queane with rods of steele,
That euer after she my ierks should feele.
And make hir sweare vppon my Charming hand,
Neuer t'set foot more on our Farie land.
Pittie it is that smoking vanitie,
Is Englands most esteemed Curtesie.
Oft haue I heard it as an ould saide sawe,
The strong digesting hungrie Camells mawe,
Brooks stinging nettles and the vilest weeds,
That stinking dunghils in ranke plentie feeds.
But t'is a toye to mocke an Ape in deed,
That English men should loue a stranger weed.
Oh crye you mercie now the cause I knowe,
It is probatum for the Pox I trow.
Peace tel-tale peace, blab not thy countries fault,
O seek to hide it in obliuions valt.
See if thou canst with arguments refraine,
The smokie humors of each wit-worne braine.
Then will I neuer looke for greater gaine,
Nor euer think my labour lost in vaine.
I. H.

FOR the dislike that I haue conceiued in the vse and prac­tise of Tabacco, I take it to be grounded on eight princi­pall reasons and arguments.

  • 1 First, that in their vse or custome, no methode of or­der is obserued. Diuersitie and distinction of persons, tymes and seasons considered, no varietie of accidents and diseases pondered.
  • 2 Secondly, for that it is in qualitie and complexion more hot and drye then may be conueniently vsed dayly of any man: much lesse of the hot and cholericque constitution.
  • 3 Thirdly, for that it is experimented and tryed to be a most strong and violent purge.
  • 4 Fourthly, for that it withereth and drieth vp naturall moi­sture in our bodies, therby causing sterrilitie and barrennesse: In which respect it seemeth an enemie to the continuaunce and propagacion of mankinde.
  • 5 Fiftly, for that it decayeth and dissipateh naturall heate, that kindly warmeth in vs, and thereby is cause of crudities and rewmes, occasions of infinit maladies.
  • 6 Sixtly, for that this herb or rather weed, seemeth not voide of venome and poison, and thereby seemeth an enemie to the lyfe of men.
  • 7 Seauenthly, for that the first author and finder hereof was the Diuell, and the first practisers of the same were the Di­uells Priests, and therefore not to be vsed of vs Christians.
  • 8 Last of all, because it is a great augmentor of all sorts of me­lancholie in our bodies, a humor fit to prepare our bodies to receaue the prestigations and hellish illusions and impressi­ons of the Diuell himselfe: in so much that many Phisitions and learned men doe hold this humour to be the verie seate of the Diuell in bodies possessed.

¶A Warning for Tabcconists.

The first Reason.

TOuching the first; Where no me­thod or order is vsed, ther resteth in all artes and other actions hu­maine, naught else but dissolati­on and confusion, a thing, as in the Common weale it is perni­cious, so in the preseruation of mans health it hath been alwaies adiudged most dangerous.

But that in these our daies, in this land of England, this new come simple of the West commonly knowne with vs by the name of Tabacco: is without all method and order of most men receiued, may be apparant by this, that it is taken early in the morning, and also very late at night: in the morning fasting, and in the euening feasting and on a full stomacke. In the beginning, mid­dle, and ende of meales. To be short, at all times, at all houres, and of all persons, this Indian stranger most fa­miliarly is receiued: for the smoake of Tabacco seemeth to the fauorits thereof at no time vnseasonable. Nei­ther that it ought to bee tied to reasons and rules (be­ing perhaps a thing in it selfe more irregular and vn­reasonable) seeing that by experience (as they thinck) they haue found great good & profit by the vse therof.

They boast much of this their experience as a suffi­cient [Page] ground for this their disorder. But their experi­ence not grounded on reason, but rather repugnant thereto, and contrary to commonsence also, is a mo­tiue sufficient for the simple, but no way an argument for the wiser sort, to daunce after their vnsauory and vnpleasant Tabacco pipe.

Galen in his Comment on his first booke of Hippo­crates Aphorismes: Galen. Com. ap [...]o. Hip. 1. Lib. 1. sheweth that the art of Phisicke stan­deth on two legges, Reason and Experience: Whereof if either bee wanting, the whole art is lame and mai­med.

For as Reason without Experience is very vncertaine:Experiment [...] falla [...]. Hippo. apho. 1. lib. so is Experience without Reason very perillous and dan­geroes; especially in matters inwardly to be taken and receiued into mens bodies, the which as they are di­uers and differing in nature and complection, so are they also diuersly in diet to bee ordered, and by farre contrary medicines in their sicknesses cured.

For Example.

1 The diet conuenient for youth, is no waies agree­able to old age: neither is that diet which is appro­priat to elder yeeres, any way profitable to youthfull and growing age.

And bodies of temper dry, require things in nature and qualitie moist. But moist complections and mala­dies growing of superfluities of humours, are more commonly remedied by things of nature drying and disiccatiue.Contrari [...] currantur contr [...]js. By which last meanes wee see by experi­ence, that some diseased of the dropsie (no doubt a colde and moist affect) haue receiued great helpe by the freque [...]t vse of this Tabacco. For the siccety, & dri'th [Page] of this simple, together with his heat, in a body hidro­picall, hauing fit matter & great store of cold humors to worke vpon, doth no doubt in that respect further their health, and yet can it not be iustly inferred heere of, that Tabacco simply taken without respect of times, persons, sexe, age, temperament and disease, any waies to be either profitable or else commendable.

Also fasting and abstinence for meate is assigned 2 by Hippocrates in his Aphorismes, for a good remedie a­gainst full and repleat bodies.

Abstinuisse decet nimium quibus humida membra,
Apho 79. li. 5
hu [...]da desiccat corpora nempe fames.

But yet the same Hippocrates denieth that kinde of abstinence to bee any waies conuenient for growing yee [...]es, or for the sicke of feuers consuming, & for such as are not accustomed therevnto.

Humidior victus pueris pariter (que) suetis,
Apho. 6. lib. 1
Conuenit, accensis corporibus (que) febri.

Moreouer some bodies receiue helpe and ease by 3 purging and euacuation, as the bodies of wrestlers, & such as are come to the top and extreame height of ful­nesse, of whom Hippocrates speaketh of in his 3. Aphoris­me of his booke.

Ad summam veniens habitudo athletica molem noxia,
Apho, 3. lib. 1
cum non quo progrediatur habet.
Vno namque statu cum non consistere possit, est in deterius retro necesse ruat.
Vnde fit vt corpus confestim soluere possit, quo poterit rursus conuenienter alt.

And yet the same author in his Aphorismes doth tes­tifie, purges no way to bee conuenient for sound and [Page] healthie bodies: for saith hee, ‘Sana corpora difficulter purgantia medicamenta ferunt, et cito a purgantibus exoluuntur.’

And to be short, neither one nor the other remedy can in any respect preuaile, if it be applied out of his due time and season: for, ‘Temporibus medicina valet,Ouid▪ data tempore prosunt, et data non apto tempore vina nocent.’

And truely as no one kinde of diet can fit all sorts of bodies: So no one kinde of remedie can aptly be ap­plied to all maladies, no more then one shooe can wel serue all mens feete.

What reason therfore haue these Tabacconists (I pray you) to offer this their Tabacco after one and the selfe same order to all men, ages, and complections indiffe­rently, making no scruple of the fitnesse of time, quali­ty of the disease, or temperament of the person to whom they offer it.

What thing can be more absurd and phantasticall, then to minister one & the selfe same remedy to con­trary & repugnant affects, hot & cold, dry and moist, emptie and repleat, acute and cronicall, which for the more part haue deeper rootes, and are of longer conti­nuance, then can sodenly be blowne away with a puffe of a smokie Tabacco pipe, yea & some of them can hard­ly be remoued by the great paynes, care & cunning of the expert and learned in Phisicke: for, ‘Nonest in medico semper releuetur vt aeger Interdum docta plus valet arte malum.’

And yet these Tabacco Baptista Porta lib. 8. Cap. 11. sau [...]rits hold no disease so in­curable but that in some measure it receiueth either [Page] cure or ease by this Tabacco.

But I assure you many diseases being of themselues and their owne nature, light and of easie cure, may by the vntimely vse of this same, become altogether incu­rable, such are, the first step or degree to an Heticke, dis­temper of heat in the Liuer, oppilations of the Lungs, and such like.

And truely if nothing else should make one out of fancie with the vse of Tabacco, it might be suffi [...]ient for an equall iudge to thinck with himself how vnnaturall a thing it is to peruert the naturall vse & offices of the parts of the bodie, for by the force of Tabacco the mouth, throte, and stomacke, (appointed by nature for the receipt of food & nourishment for the whole bo­dy) are made emunctuary clensing places and sincks, (supplying heerein the office of the most abiect and basest part) for the filth and superfluous excrements of the whole body.

The second Reason.

THe second reason against the ordinarie vse of Tabacco, is taken from the excesse of his two manifest qualities of heat and dri'th, which Monardus and others also haue affirmed to come neere to the third degree of excesse in either qualitie.

So that if men of hot and dry constitution should often vse the feume of Tabacco, no doubt they should increase much their distemper, for like added to his like, increaseth the resemblance & similitude the more [Page] according to that Axiome in Philosophie. Arist. [...]. Omnes unile ad­ditum simili reddia ipsum magis simile. Whervpon Aristo­tle in his 8. booke and 29. Chap.Arist. lib 8. Cap 29. De animal. De animalibus, infer­reth, that a Snake if he eate of a Scorpion waxeth farre more venemous then he was before.

But I neede not to stand long vpon this point, seeing that daily practise & experience teachth vs, that heat increaseth heat, & things cold, do increase in vs a grea­er cold, the like may bee said of the other qualities of dri'th and moisture, so that in natural reason and com­mon sence it seemeth true that the extreame & violent dri'th & heat of Tabacco, maketh it far vnfit & vnwhol­some for thin & cholericke bodies. And so is it also for youth and such as grow, for Qui crescunt plurimum ha­bent innaticaloris, this naturall heat in youth, by the im­moderate vse of this fierie fume would soone turne vnto a heat vnnaturall, and thereby be occasion of in­finite maladies.

But I hold it a thing very dangerous, not onely for the yonger sort, but also for all other ages and consti­tutions whatsoeuer, to bee ouer bold with Tabacco. For it doth not onely consume and dissipate naturall heat in them (by increasing of the vnnaturall) but it wa­steth also & drieth vp radicall moisture (the principall subiect of natiue heat) so that heereof insueth in the bodie great store of crud & vndigested humours, the effects of immoderate heat in vs.

For it is not fierie nor immoderate heat in vs, but rather a milde & vnctuous warmth, consisting in a temtperate & moderate moisture that performeth as well concoction as all other naturall actions in vs.

[Page]Which thing is very apparant & conspicuous in such as are afflicted with hot & burning Feuers: In whom as the fierie heat appeareth most, so crude and vndi­gested humours doe abound more then in such as are cleare of such extremitie of heates. Neither doe their humors at any time come to perfect digestion in them, vntill the rigor and violence of that fierie heate be in some sort (by cooling diet and medicine) repressed.

Much lesse therefore are the patrons of Tabacco to bee beeleeued in this, that hot and burning Agues ( [...]i­sing of corruption and putrefaction of choler & blood in the veines or about the principall parts of mans bo­die) may bee cured with an in [...]usion of Tabacco lease in white Wine steeped all night.

For as it was euer an aphorisme & maxime in Phi­sicke, that as like is maintayned by his like, So was it also of like certaintie in the same art, that Contr [...]ria a contrarijs currantur. Contraries are cured by their con­traries. I meane contrary rather to the disease, or to the cause of the disease.

But what contrarietie I pray you can be found be­tweene Tabacco and a Feuer tercian or burning Ague: When as they mani [...]estly agree in their principall qua­lities of heate and dri'th: both equally falling in ex­cesse of either of them? The like may be said of other effects proceeding of the same of like causes.

But to let the diseased passe, and to come to those which are of perfect health, I take it very dangerous and hurtfull for them often to vse this [...] for therby great part of that humour is dissipa [...]d, wa­sted, spent & cast foorth of the body by often [...], [Page] seeges, swets and continnall spittings and coughings, which in processe of time would turne to good blood, and holsome nurrishment for the bodie.

For Crude and watrish humors (which for the most part are all those which by this medicine are) are oftentimes very necessary for many vses in the body: As for pliant motion of the loints, and principally for nurrishment of the flegmaticke and colder parts.

And it is a receiued opinion amongst the best Phisi­tions that nature (being a prouident & carefull nurce of mankinde) hath purposely left this Crudie humour in our bodyes, to the intent that we might euer haue some thing in store to nourish vs, if happely we should at any time want other foode.

But that no small part of our nurishment is drawne away by the vntimely vse of this Tabacco, Tabacco de­priueth the b [...]dy of nou­rishment. may manifest­ly appeare by those men, who before the vse thereof were grose and foggy, but after they haue acquainted themselues with this kinde of practise, they became ve­ry leane and s [...]lender.

So that no doubt, if they desist not in time from far­ther vse therof, ther is no small suspition least that they shall therby fall into Consumptions, & to that of the most dangerous sorts called of the Phisition, Marasmos proce­ding of want of substanciall nurrishment, & dissipation of naturall heat and decay of spirits in the body.

And heerein I cannot but wonder much at the ouer sight of some, who otherwise being learned and wise, yet in this seeme very Paradoxicall, when as they con­tend to proue Tabacco to be a great nurrisher. For bee­sides that, it is manifest that it taketh away great part of [Page] our nurrishment, by the extreame euacuation it procu­reth, it is also (by meanes of his great heat & drynesse) very vnapt to breed any good nurishment in vs▪

To this may bee added, his vnpleasaunt and vn­gratefull smell, insomuch that the tasters thereof beare away with them in their bodyes and breath, the loathsome Tabacco sent, long time after.

So that it is very euident and manifest that as well in respect of his substance (ouer hot & dry) as also of his vnpleasing & stinking sent, it is neither fit to nurish the humerall & solide parts, nor yet apt to refresh & com­fort the spirits of man, be they naturall in the Liuer, vi­tall in the hart, or sensible or animall in the braine and sinewes. For as touching the humours in vs, they are aptest nourished by such things as are either humorall and mo [...]st, or else, may easely bee turned and conuer­ted into a liquid and thin substance.

And as for the hard and solede parts of the body▪ as bones, sinewes, vaines & artires) they cannot receiue any nutriment of any thing before it bee first turned into some moist and liquid substance also, apt to be [...]uk­ed & drunck into the former parts, & afterward by the force of natures worke, assimulated, hardened, & trans­formed into the very nature & substance of the parts by it nurished. But as for the spirits, it hath ben a questi­on much disputed on amongst the Philosophers, (as Aristotle, Plato, and others) of old time, & their expo­siters since; whether smels or odours may any wayes nourish the same. And (if I be not deceiued) they all agree in this, that mens spirits doe feele great comfort and refreshing by such sweet and pleasant sauours as [Page] are founded & subiected in some moyst & vnctuous matter. But this priuiledge cannot in any respect bee graunted to Tabacco, both for that hir sauour is very vn­sauorie & stincking, & also because it is placed & foun­ded in a very dry and withered substance. Insomuch as that the t [...]sters and drinckers thereo [...], thincke it not fit to bee taken, vntill it bee thoroughly parched and dryed, that thereby it might the better receiue the force of the fire, & the sooner be kindled therwith.

Now that sweet and pleasant sauours & delightfull fumes,Sweet smels [...] the spirits. doe greatly refresh our spirits and recreate the sences, it is euidently perceiued by our vsuall practise: When to the feeble and languishing persons, and to such as faint or [...]ound, we presently offer them the sent of Rosewater mixed with a little vineger, that it might the more speedely pei [...]ce; and the sicke person feeleth great comfort thereby.

But on the contrary, [...] stincking & filthie smels, are so far from re [...]e [...]hing vs, as that they vtterly extinguish & quell our spirits in vs; and to some procure hastie and vntimely deaths, (or at the least some vncurable ma­ladies and loathsome diseases.

[...] French Ch [...]rurgion not vnlearned, [...] & in his profession most expert, reporteth of himselfe in the 12. Ch [...]pter of his treatise of the plague, that visi­ting a certaine pacient of his, that had by meanes of the plague a botch in his [...]ancke or groyne, and other bl [...]es elsewhere in his body: Whilst rashly hee vn­folded the bed clothes, the better to take view of the sores, hee was sodainely stroke into a sound with the st [...]c [...]e & loathsome breath that steymed from these [Page] vlcers, & perced vp to his braine through his nosthrils, in such sort as that he hardly recouered his life. After­ward being recalled to his [...]ence & feeling againe, hee thought the house wherled round, & had fallen soden­ly downe againe, if happely he had not taken better holde of the bed post, and stayed himselfe.

How noysome and irkesome a thing vnpleasant and stincking sauours be to the braynes of men may easely bee con [...]ectured by the vsuall custome of most men, who neuer passe by any vnsauory place, but they streight wayes stop their noses & mouthes with their hands or other meanes, least that the ill vapor or stench therof should any waies offend or loath their braine.

But to come to our Tabacco, Tabacco vn­gratefull in sent. if any man doubt of his ill sauour & bad sent, I refer him to the report of those, who haue had longest tryall therof. No doubt, except they be altogether shamelesse, they will truely informe him therof. I remember that being called once to the cure of an honorable Earle now departed this life, a­mongst other learned and expert Phisitions, D. T. there hapned one to be called, who as in times past he was Chimicall, so in the vntimely vse of this plant he seemed to bee ouer fantasticall. It fortuned the very morning that he came vnto his Honors presence, he had (accor­ding to his accustomed wont) taken his mornings draft of Tabacco, with the fume wherof, he so perfumed his Lordships bedchamber in such sort, as that the Earle being meruaylous anoyed therwith, told me af­ter the departure of the former Phisition, that from thence foorth hee had rather lose the benefit of that mans counsell in Phisicke, then to indure such a horri­ble [Page] a fume againe. This good D. being demaunded of other Phisitions, (wherof two were hir Maiesties) thē present, what reason he had for this his custome? an­swered that he would not but for 100 pounds he had vsed this feume at first, for thereby he found great ease for his cold reumatick & stomacke. But now said he, I would that I could so easely leaue it, condicionallie I had giuen 300 pounds more, for I finde my selfe hart sick that day, till I haue tasted thereof.

No doubt the long and dailie vse of drincking Ta­bacco, had accustomed his stomack to draw to it watrish and rewmetick matter in great aboundance, the quan­titie wherof, vrged nature to seeke meanes for the ex­pelling the same againe, which could, by no other thing be more fitly performed then by Tabacco it selfe.

For as it hath a powre & faculty to draw to the sto­macke, (as other strong purges haue) so likewise hath it a property and vertue to expell forth the same, no o­therwise then all other purges haue. But heerein it dif­fereth from other purges, that it seemeth to be of a far more thin & subtile nature then other purges bee, by meanes wherof, nature is so pricked and forced often­times in such violent sort, as that it causeth violent e­uacuation, as well by stoole vomits and swetes, as also by saliuacion, coughing & spittings, which thing other purges vsually doe not, albeit they be very forceable, violent and strong.

So that heereof is gathered the fourth reason bee­fore aleadged, that Tabacco is not familiarly to be vsed beecause it is a vehement and violent purge.

The third Reason.

I Neede not stand long on this point,Tabacco a vi­olent purge. to proue Tabacco to bee a strong and violent purge: for that in daily practise & common ex­perience the same is most euidēt and manifest to most men. And to doubt of that which of it selfe is perspicuous, were grose stupiditie, and to denie that which is to our sence most cleere and euident, were a point next to extreame folly.

The often scowrings, fluxes, vomets, swetes, and other immoderate euacuations in [...]ident to this sim­ple, doe testifie the same to purge most violently.

Furthermore, Tabacco is found to be of that strēgth & force, that the verie maceration or infusion of one leafe thereof in white wine ouernight doth procure strong and extreame vomits.

It is as yet fresh in memorie, that diuers yong Gentlemen, by the daylie vse of this Tabacco, haue brought themselues to flixes and disenteries, and of late at Bath a Scholler of some good accompt and worshipfull calling,D. B. was supposed to haue perished by this practise, for his humours beeing sharpened and made thin by the frequent vse of Tabacco, after that they had once taken a course downward, they ran in such violence, as that by no Art or Phisicks skill they could be stayed, till the man most miserably ended his life, being then in the verie prime and vi­gour [Page] of his age.

But no purge, (be he familiar or gentle, or else vio­lent and hurtfull) ought by the rules of Phisicke to bee familiarly and daily vsed of any man that hath re­spect either of his life, or regard to his health.

For as concerning such as are in perfect health Hip­pocrat [...] the Prince of Phisitions in the 36.Hip. lib 2. Apho. 36. Aphorisme of his second booke affirmeth: Corpora [...] si per medica­menta purgantur exoluuntur celeriter; & quae prauo cibo vtuntur. Sound and healthie bodies (sayth he) soone wast and consume, by the vse of purging medicines. In like case doe they which feede on corrupt and vn­wholesome meates.

Likewise the same author in the 37.Hip. lib. 2. Apho 37. Aphorisme of the former booke, sayth, that Qui corpora habent com­moderata ijs purgationes difficiles sunt. To such as are in health purging medicines are very dangerous. And truely this his assertion seemeth to be grounded vpon good & substanciall reason. For wheras the vertue and operacion of the purge is to draw & expell foorth of the body such corrupt & vnholsome humours as haue any affinitie or likenesse in substance with the purge; & in healthy bodyes finding none of that disposition & nature, the purge then either loseth his operation and action, & therby is conuerted into some bad humour in the bodie, or else it draweth and expelleth foorth humours very profitable & necessary for the nurrish­ment and sustentation of the body. And therefore all purges must needes bee to sound and healthy bo­dyes very perillous and dangerous.

[Page]And as for sicke and diseased men, they ought one­ly to vse purging remedies at such times as their bodies and humours shall be made fit and apt for the operatiō of the purge, according to that counsell of Hippocrates in his tenth Aphorisme of his second booke, saying: ‘Purganti quoties vacuas medicamine corpus, quo bene res Cedat, fluxile redde prius.’

So often as thou purgest,Hip. Apho. 1 [...]. lib. so often also ought you to make your bodies apt thereto, and the humours (to be purged) fluxible, that the parts and passages of the body being open, and the humours apt to runne, the purgation might worke with lesse torments and griefe to the partie purged.

So that it seemeth very apparant true, that neither in health, nor yet in sicknesse, that so vntimely and vul­gar vse of Tabacco (beeing before prooued a violent purge) can be vsed without great hurt and danger.

Neither ought this kind of remedie to be giuen at anytime, but in causes of extremitie, and in desperate diseases onely. For that it is an extreame and desperate medicine.Hip. Apho. 6. lib 1. Extremis enim morbis extrema remedia adhibē ­dasunt, saith our Hippocrates. And in his comment vp­on the same Aphorisme, sheweth all strong purges to be reckoned amongst extreame remedies.

The fourth Reason.

THe fourth argumēt against this new­come simple, was that it drieth vp and withereth our vnctuous and ra­dicall moisture in vs, and therby see­meth an vtter enemie to the continu­ance and propagation of mankinde. This may be prooued in this sort.

[Page]That thing which depriueth the body of norishmēt and foode, doth also wither & dry vp our naturall and radical moisture; (because this hath his refreshing and sustentation from the purest part of the blood ingen­dred of our nourishments). But Tabacco was shewed before to depriue vs our norishment, in that it spen­deth and euacuateth out of vs by spitting and sweats & otherwise much of that matter that in time would proue in vs good blood & good foode for our bodies. And therefore Tabacco must needs be said to be a great decaier and witherer of our radicall moysture before specified.

Moreouer Tabacco by meanes of his great heat and immeasurable drinesse, dissipateth naturall heate and kinde warm'th in our bodies, and thereby is cause of defect of good concoction & perfect disgestion in vs. The humors therfore in vs by this meanes made crude and rawe, can be no fit aliment or nutriment for the vnctuous and substantiall humiditie, wherin with mo­derate and kindly heate the Philosopher esteemed the life of man to consist.

And last of all, wheras the sperme & seed of man, is supposed (by the Phisitians & natural Philosophers al­so) to be framed of the purest & finest part of his blood by the actiō & vertue of kindly warm'th working ther­in; the blood being now vndigested & crude, and the naturall heate peruerted & corrupted by the immode­rate vse of this hellish smoake, reeking foorth of Plutoes forge, what sperme or seed shall we expect to come frō them that daily vse or rather shamefully abuse this so apparant an enemy to the propagation therof, as wel if you respect the materiall cause of seed consisting in the [Page] perfect [...]st & most concocted parts of the blood) as his efficiēt (resting in the moderatiō of naturall heat) both greatly altered and decayed by the vse of Tabacco.

Hereby it must needs in cōsequent follow, that the continuation & propagation of mankinde (consisting principally in his perfect & vncorrupt seed) is in these men much abridged.

And for certaine proofe that Tabacco dryeth vp the sperme & seed of man, I heare by faithfull relation of such as haue much vsed it; That whereas before the vse thereof, they had bene long molested with a fluxe of seed, cōmonly called with vs the running of the reines, and of the Phisitian Gomorrhaea, (proceeding in them by reason of great quantitie & abundance of that mat­terseeking vent forth of the bodie) they were in short space eased of this affect by the onely vse of this medi­cine. For no doubt, this fierie fume, dried vp the super­fluitie of that matter, which by reason of her thin and great quantitie, easily dropped from them. But if they persist ouer long in the practise therof, no doubt more of that spermaticall humiditie wil be dried vp in them, the will be conuenient for their health, or for the in­crease of their like; wherby the propogatiō & cōtinua­tion of mankind in this world must need be abridged.

The fift Reason.

THe fift argument against Tabacco was, that it dissipateth naturall heate, and thereby was occasion of rawe and vndigested humours in the bo­die.

This thing in part hath bene de­mōstrated before in the chap. prece­dent, [Page] to which may here be added, that where naturall and kind heat is by any meane made more violent and fiery, there the parts of the body are made more hard and dried, and thereby the more vnfit and vnapt to drinke or receiue into them such liquid and moist mat­ter, as by the daily foode should accrue and grow to them. Wherevpon it falleth forth, that that humiditie that should bee conuerted into the nature & substance of the sollide parts, is made (by meanes of their not ad­mission thereof) excrementall and superfluous.

For it is not a thing either strange or absurd in Phi­losophie, that things of qualitie drie, may by an acci­dentall meanes, be cause of superfluous moisture. We see this thing confirmed by Galen himself, in his second booke and second Chapter, De tempera mentis, Galē. lib. [...]. de Temp. cap. 2. and also by Auicen.

We see by experience, that old persons being natu­rally drie in their sollide parts, and haue for that cause, their skin parched, their faces withered, their sinewes f [...]iffe, their backes stouping, and yet who doubteth but such persons haue in their intrailes and inward parts, great store of flegmaticke and excrementall moistures, proceeding of want of good digestian and concoction in those parts.

And truly those superfluities do the more abound in them, for that their firme and sollide parts (as Si­newes, Bones, & Flesh, Veines, Artiers, and Ligamēts) are too drie and hard to receiue and sucke vp so much of that alimentall humour which Nature dooth daily send to them for their sustenance and reliefe.

And hereof is seene in daily experience, that olde folk are troubled most with rewmes, Catarres, coughs, [Page] spatterings, vomits, scourings, and such like.

And that old age is naturally drie and hard, Galen declareth in these words: Senum temperies sicca est, Lib. [...]. De tem­pora. cap. [...]. pro exemplo sunt arbores, N [...]quoties senescunt magis exiccantur.

We see also that the earth in Haruest time being o­uer dried and parched with the heate of the Sommers Sunne, cannot so speedily suck and drinke vp such sud­den showres of raine, as at that time most vsually doo happen.

And therefore about that time of the yeare we see the greatest land flouds to appeare, and most harmes to happen to men by losse of their Hey carried away thereby.

All which proceedeth by reason of the great siccetie and dri'th of the earth at that season, causing it to be far vnapt to receiue that sudden moisture flowing on the face thereof.

In like case the firme and sollide parts of mans bo­dy, being ouer drie and hardned by the long and con­tinuall vse of Tabacco, do with the more difficultie re­ceiue and imbybe into them the alimentall humiditie before specified: and therfore they remaine more co­pious in the body.

The sixt Reason.

THe sixt Reason against Tabacco was, that this Plant seemeth not voyd of sus­pition of a venemous and poysoned na­ture, and therefore ought not so careles­ly or confiden [...]y to be vsed.

The venemous and poisoned substance and nature of Tabacco, is manifested and prooued by this, that it is daily experimented, and before was prooued by vs, [Page] to be a violent and most forceable purge.

Galen in his second booke De ratione virtus, and 12. Section, [...] holdeth for a certaintie that all vehement and violent purges, haue in them some deliterious & poy­soned nature, & a facultie or operation cleane contrary to the nature of man.

And in the sixt of his Epidenickes, the same Galen affirmeth, that in times past purging medicines were esteemed deliterious, for that they (being taken in any large quantitie) were offensiue to nature, destroying and wasting the same.

In good Authors I finde three kinds of deliterious 1 medicines. The one in manifest qualitie, either exces­siue hote, as Calcanthum, or else extreame cold (as Man­drake) or Opium.

2 Of the second sort, are those which by their owne poysoned nature and substance, be deadly offensiue to the takers therof, and they being receiued but in small dose or quantitie, kill and poyson the takers thereof. Such are venemous musrumps, Napellum, Taxicum, and such like.

3 Of the third kind of deliterious and deadly medi­cines, be such, as are by reason of their vehemēt & vio­lent euacuation, most daungerous and perillous, if in any large quantitie they be assumed. Such be Enphor­bium, praecipitate, Eleterium, and Tabacco it selfe.

Which last as it is deliterious by violent euacuation, So it is also very pernicious and hurtfull in his manifest and euident qualities of extreame dry'th and heate included therein.

But touching his violent euacuation and purging qualitie, it hath bene sufficiently shewed before. This [Page] one thing may be added therevnto, that Tabacco is in this respect more perillous, for that it is taken without due preparation and correction.

For it is confessed of all Phisitians,Io. Mesnes cap. de [...]. that euery pur­ging medicine if it be strong (in respect of the deliteri­ous & bad qualitie it hath) ought to be artificially cor­rected before it be takē, leas [...] he communicate his bad and venemous nature, to the stomack & inward parts.

Herevpon it is a vsuall custome in Phisicke, to mixe with purges, Mastich, Cloues, Cinamome, Ginger, Aniseeds, Nutmegs, and such like sweete and aramati­call Spices, partly to take away the vngratefull sent of the purge, and partly to defend the vitall spirits, & prin­cipall parts, from the malice and hurt which otherwise would happen by the ill qualitie of the purge.

Out of this rule of preparation of purges, onely Aloes Succotrine is by Mesnes excepted. Which as hee af­firmeth) is so farre from ill qualitie and deliterious na­ture, as that it is commonly giuen with other purges to amend & correct their venemous & malitious nature.

But what correctiues I pray you in our time and Countrey are there vsed in this Indian Tabacco, which the more simple & sincere it is, the more holsome and effectuall it is adiudged to be? And if it haue by any meanes any aramaticall spices shufled amongst it, it is straight reiected and condemned for naught & coun­terfeit.

I denie not but that since Hippocratus and Mesnes time, there haue beene found out sundrie purges by the latter Arabians, which for that they worke gently and without offence, are called of them, Benedicta Me­dicamenta: Blessed and safe medicines, and therefore [Page] haue need of no preparation to be vsed with them for their correction. Such are thought to be Manna of Ca­labria, Camarinds, Cassia of Rhubarbe. But this Tabacco (now in vse) is of an other keye, and no waies to be ac­counted Benedictum in working, but rather diabolicall and hellish: for that it worketh with extremitie, tor­ments and griefe.

And that it is also in substance and nature deliteri­ous and venemous,Tabacco in his nature poison. may be gathered by the symtornes and accidents which doo immediately follow and en­sue the large drinking therof. That are, violent vomits, many and infinite stooles, great gnawings and tor­ments in the guts and inward parts. Coldnesse in the outward and externall members, Crampes, Convulti­ons, cold sweats, ill colour, and wannesse of skinne, defect of feeling, sence, & vnderstanding, losse of sight, giddinesse of the head and braine, profound and deep sleepe, faintnesse, sounding, and to some hastie and vntimely death. All which, or the most part of them concurring, do manifest a poisoned qualitie or vene­mous nature in the thing receiued.

And it is the more daungerous for that it hath in it the effects of contrary and repuguant poisons:Tabacco a double poison for al­beit it be in qualitie very hotte & drie, yet hath it a stu­pifying and benumming effect, not much vnlike to Opium or Henbane: which ere held to be colde in the extreamest degree. And albeit, it be apt to suffocate or strangle like to Gipsum or playster of Parrise, yet doth it purge & scoure as violently as Precipatate or Quick-siluer sublymed.

I cannot resemble the poysoned force of this Ta­bacco to any thing more aptly, then to the venome of a [Page] Scorpion,Tabacco like the poyson of a Scorpion▪ D [...]oscord, lib. [...]. cap. 10. which neuer receiueth cure but from the Scorpion it selfe, bruised or annointed on the place stung. In like case the venemous impression left in the stomacke by Tabacco, receiueth no ease by any thing else whatsoeuer, but by Tabacco onely, eftsoone reite­rated and resumed. This onely difference seemeth to be betweene these two poysons, That the venome of the Scorpion hath his perfect and absolute cure from the Scorpion it selfe, but that of Tabacco hath onely a ce [...]taine ease and paliation for a time by the fume of Tabacco receiued; but after perfect and absolute cure, this Tabacco by it selfe a thousand times resumed or rei­terated, admitteth none.

Neither do I take it of great importance which is by some alleaged;Custome is of great force. That many here in England do take the fume of Tabacco without hurt or inconuenience, and without any such strange accidents following. For the custome of taking Tabacco with vs, is in that maner, as that, it neither profiteth, nor yet hurteth much.

For what great inconuenience (I pray you) can happen to the taker thereof,Euery Agent requireth time conuenient to worke his ef­fect. when as he receiuing it at the mouth, doth straightway puffe it forth againe, or snuffeth it out at his nostrels, before it can haue suffici­ent time and space, to imprint his malicious and vene­mous qualitie in their bodies?

Fewe or none do take it downe their throates,If the Agent lack due quā ­titie, he los [...]th his [...]orce. and such as let it passe down, they mince it in such sort, and swallow it in so small quantitie, as that no great detri­ment can happen to them thereby.

But if happily any, more audacious then circum­spect, shall let downe any large quantitie thereof, then shal you euidently perceiue in him, most of those ac­cidents [Page] before specified.

I am not ignorant that many perillous and deadly poysons are sometimes taken into the body without offence and daunger, but then they are either in very small quantitie (as I spake before) or else so repressed and corrected with other Cordialls,Poisons some­time may bee taken without o [...]fence. as that they can­not offend, but sometimes they bring great commodi­tie and profit with them.

For example, the flesh of Vipers in Treacle is so tempered and corrected, that it profiteth much to such as orderly re­ciue it, against any poyson or contagion whatsoeuer. And quick-siluer well mortified, is often giuen, & inwardly taken, against many infirmities, with good successe.

So in like maner we denie not but that in smal quan­titie Tabacco may be taken of any men without peril or imminent danger, & especially being corrected & pu­rified by the force of the fire wherewith it is ministred.

For that fire sometimes doth represse the poisoned vapour of venemous things,Fire correc­teth poison. may be prooued by the testimony of Seneca, who (in his 2. booke of his natural questions,Seneca. lib. 2. nat. quest. cap. 31. and 31. Chapter, going about to shewe the reason why that poisoned and venemous beasts do ne­uer engender wormes within them, vntill such time as they be first striken with lightning) saith, that wormes are engendred of humours apt to receiue life. But such be farre differing from such as are of a venemous or poisoned disposition or nature, for they are altoge­ther aduersaries and enemies to life. This poisoned and venemous nature in Serpents (once striken with lightning) is in them wasted, dissipated & dispearced, by meanes of the fire in the lightning, and the humors remaining after in them, beeing freed frō venome and [Page] poison, may the more aptly be conuerted into things bearing life, and to wormes themselues.

It may also be assigned out of Mercurialis for an o­ther reason,Hieronimus Mercurialis ll. 1. de veneni [...]. why wormes are not engendered in poiso­ned serpents, because that wormes haue their originall from vndigested and crudie humours in the body: But Serpents haue no such in them: for all their humours be well and perfectly digested. Which may well bee gathered by the fragrant and sweete smell, and pleasant smell and sent, which breathing from their bodies, is left behind in those places where they vsually haunt.

But here may be obiected,Obiection. that if Tabacco were of that poysoned nature (as wee haue affirmed) then no doubt, the Indians (who vsually drinke it) should haue long since bin poisoned therewith. But hitherto they [...]aue found no such hurt, but rather great commoditie and manifest benefit thereby. As appeareth by Monar­dus in his Treatise of Tabacco.

To this may be answered,Answere. that the oddes and diuer­sitie of their bodies and humours from ours, may alter much the case. Or else, that long custome and familiar vse of this Tabacco from their infancie, hath confirmed their bodies, to suffer & endure the same without hurt or offence: for custome altereth nature.

In like case I read in Galen in his 3.Galen lib. 3. de simpl med. cap. 18. booke of simples, and 18. Chap. of a certain old woman that nourished her selfe long season with poisoned Hemlockes By litle and litle (saith he) shee accustomed nature thereto, that at length, this poyson became familiar to her, and no way offen­siue, but rathe [...] nourishing to her body.

Auicen also in his Treatise de Viribus Cordis, alleaging Rufus an auncient Phisitian for his authour, reporteth [Page] that there was a yong maid, who being fed & norished long time with poyson, liued her self in perfect health. And yet with her venemous breath she poysoned and infected all other persons that came neare to the same.

Plynie in his 7.Plyn, booke & 2. chap. of his naturall histo­ry.Aul. Gel. And Aulue Gellius, noct. attic. 16. cap. 11. And Siluius Italicus in 8.Saluius. lib. doo all testifie that in times past there were certain people in Italy (Marsitians by name)Italicus. who vsually handled and sold, yea and fed on also the flesh of Vipers. Which of all Serpents are accounted most malignant and venemous.

And Virgil in his 7.Virgil. Aeneid. faineth those people to be the ofspring of Circes, Aeneid 7. and that they had a naturall gift giuen them by her, to tame & enchaunt that kind of Serpent: and also to qualifie & delay the venemous and poysoned nature thereof.

Of these men Galen maketh mentiō in his 11.Galen▪ booke of simple medicines, where he cōfesseth, that being at Rome, he inquired diligently of those people (tearmed Marsi) of the nature & qualitie of vipers, and how they differed from the other Serpent called Dipsas. Because (saith he) they were expert and cunning in them.

So that it is manifest & apparant by the testimonies before rehearsed,Custome is an other nature. that custome may alter & change na­ture and the qualitie of things, according to that vsuall Cōsuetud [...] alter an naturā. Custom changeth nature, & at lēgth turneth into nature it self; for it is an other nature.

The like is seene in the East Indies, where the Turkes familiarly vse Opium in large quantitie, which to vs but in very small dose is experimented to be manifest poy­son: onely long vse & familiar practise hath made this vnconuenient for their bodies.

[Page]And so no doubt if our countrey men from their infancie had by litle and litle vsed to take this Tabacco fume or other poyson whatsoeuer, they should haue had as litle cause to feare the daunger thereof, as the Turkes haue of their Opium, or the old Marsitians had of Vipers, or the West Indians haue of their Tabacco. But for want of that Custome, it fareth with vs in that sort, that if we take any great quantitie of the Opium before specified, we shall rather die on the sudden, or else fall into that kinde of dead sleepe, as that we shall by no other meanes then by the Arch-angels trum­pet (sounding at the latter day) be awakened thereout.

To this may be added a secret vertue and specificall qualitie giuen the Indians by nature, whereby they are not ouercome by this kinde of poyson, as other Nations be. For Sextus Empericus Sextus Em­pericus. reporteth in the like case, that one Attienagoras Argivus had a gift giuen by nature euen from his birth, that hee could bee hurt by no venemous Beast or Serpent whatsoeuer. And that certaine people of Aethiopia did naturally feed & nou­rish themselues with the flesh of Scorpions.

But we Englishmē may not safely presume that this specifical [...] vertue & hidden qualitie doth abide or lurk in vs, seeing that by far weaker poisons then these, we sustaine infinit perils, and often incurre death it selfe.

Wherefore we haue the lesse cause to venture on things in reason suspected to be of a venemous & poy­soned qualitie, because forsoothe the Indians doo it without offence.

Neither is it of any great waight or moment which is alleadged of the Tabacco patrons for her commen­dation, that Marriners and Sea-faring men, neuer [Page] found any remedie so forceable against the Scuruie and other diseases of like nature, commonly incident to that kinde of people (by meanes of the foggy ayre in the Sea, and their vnholsome diet) then is the fume of Tabacco.

The reason of this profit in Marriners may bee, because their bodies after long lying on the Seas, are filled and stuffed with badde and corrupt humours, on the which the force and power of Tabacco dooth worke, drawing and purging them forth of the body, no otherwise then other strong purges expell and purge forth such corrupt humours as haue any simili­tude or likenesse to themselues.

But as strong purges taken of sound and holsome bodies (as I shewed you before) be very perillous and dangerous: So truly is Tabacco, being taken of such as are cleare and voyd of such impure and corrupt mat­ter, which to the Marriners is most familiar and vsuall.

The like is seene of other poysons, which when they find any of their owne qualitie & nature in mans body, or that hath any likenesse or similitude to them, they drawe forth the same (the like coue [...]ing his like) and leaue the sound and healthy humours cleare and vnspotted.

But when no such poisoned matter is found in the bodie, then dooth the poyson or venome receiued, worke on the good humours, vtterly corrupting and destroying them. So that it is apparant that sometime venomes (to venemous and poysoned persons) may be profitable & medicinable. But to sound & healthy [Page] bodies they can neuer happen without danger.

The seuenth Reason.

THe seuenth reason against Tabacco was, that this hearbe seemed to bee first found out and inuented by the diuell, and first vsed and practised by the diuels priests, and therfore not to be vsed of vs Christians.

That the diuell was the first au­thor hereof, Monardus in his Treatise of Tabacco dooth sufficiently witnesse, saying. The Indian Priests (who no doubt were instruments of the diuell whom they serue) doo euer before they answere to questions pro­pounded to them by their Princes, drinke of this Ta­bacco fume, with the vigour and strength wherof, they fall suddenly to the ground, as dead men, remaining so, according to the quantitie of the smoake that they had taken. And when the hearbe had done his worke, they reuiue and wake, giuing answeres accor­ding to the visions and illusions which they saw whilst they were wrapt in that order.

And they interpreted their demaunds as to them seemed best, or as the diuell had counselled them, gi­uing cōtinual doubtful answers, in such sort, that how­soeuer they fell out, they might turne it to their pur­pose, like vnto the Oracle of Apollo. As ‘Aio te Aeacide Romanos vincere posse.’

Which might be vnderstood, that either he might ouerthrow the Romanes, or that the Romanes might ouercome him.

[Page]But yet in more plaine words, the same Monardus [...] litle after declareth the Diuell to bee the author of Tabacco, and of the knowledge thereof, saying: And as the Diuell is a deceiuer, and hath the knowledge of the vertue of hearbes; so hee did shewe them the vertue of this hearbe, by meanes whereof they might see the imaginations and Visions that hee represen­teth vnto them, and by that meanes dooth deceiue them.

Wherfore in mine opinion this practise is the more to be eschued of vs Christians, who follow & professe Christ as the onely veritie and truth, and detest and ab­horre the diuell, as a lyar and deceiuer of mankinde.

The eight and last Reason.

THe last, and that not the least argu­ment against Tabacco, was that it is a great encreaser of melancholy in vs, and thereby disposeth our bodies to all melancholy impressions and ef­fects proceeding of that humour.

Galen in his second booke of tem­peraments and 3. Chapter,Galen. lib. 2. de [...]empera. cap. 3. defineth Melancholy to be the very sediment and dregges of bloud; which is so farre thicker & colder then bloud, as yeallow chol­ler is held to be thinner and hotter then the same.

And this melancholy humour is said to bee of two sorts: the one naturall, the other vnnaturall.

The naturall is that thicke part of the bloud be­fore rehearsed. The vnnaturall is not the sediment or [Page] grounds of good bloud, but rather a certain burnt and parched matter rising of the adustian and scorching of the other humors, that is, of phlegme, yealow choller, and of the former sediment of pure bloud, which we termed naturall melancholy.

And albeit it seemeth very vnlike that phlegme (be­ing of nature cold and moist) may be any adustian be turned into swoart and blacke choller; yet in qualitie and disposition that humour doth often represent and resemble melancholy it selfe. And therefore Galen hol­deth sometimes melancholy to bee ingendered of phlegmy ouer-hardned and dried.

The contrarietie and diuersitie of these vnnaturall melancholies, doth hang and depend on the contrari­etie and difference of the humours whereof they bee engendered.

All these sorts of melancholies are augmented and encreased much in such as often accustome themselues to the fume of Tabacco.

For first, touching the natural melancholy, it is ma­nifest that the thicker and grosser that the bloud is, the more of that thicke and earthly sediment it shall con­taine. But Tabacco thickeneth and engrosseth the bloud, and therefore Tabacco engendereth in vs a greater store of that thicke and grosse sediment which wee defined to bee of Galen called naturall melan­choly.

The Maior or first Proposition is manifest, for all liquid and moist things are the more thicke, or thinne, and cleare, according to the quantitie of the grounds and feces mixed in the same. For if the groundes [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] be many, then is the matter or humor troublesome and thicke. But if the dregges or feces be fewe, then is the humor cleare and thin.

The Minor or second Proposition of the former Sillogisme, may be proued in this sort. All those things which waste and consume the purest & thinnest parts of the blood, doo cause the same blood to remaine af­terward more grosse and thicke, and therfore may iust­ly be said to thicken the blood.

But Tabacco wasteth and absumeth the liquid and thin part of our blood, and therfore Tabacco may iustly be said to thicken the same. The Maior Proposition being euident, needeth no farther proofe.

The Minor is prooued by daily and vsuall practise and experience of such as commonly doo drinke this Tabacco. For thereby doo they purge great store of a cleare and thin humour, which would mixe it selfe with the blood, and cause the same to be more liquid and fluent, and in time also (by good Concoction) turne into pure and subtile blood, apt to feede and no­rish the bodie.

And albeit melancholy (being of nature cold) see­meth to haue no need of phlegmetique and thin hu­mours to be mixed therewith (least that his colde di­stemper be greatly increased thereby): yet of necessi­tie some store of this crude and rawe matter is requi­red to runne with the melancholy Iuice, to moderate and temper his extreame siccetie and drythe, and to defend it from Induration & hardnesse. The increase whereof in our bodies, breedeth dulnesse, sottishnesse, and blockishnesse. All which are the vsuall effects of [Page] ouer-hardened and dryed melancholie.

For melancholy ouer-hardened, if it come once to be cooled, it is extreame cold as Iron. Which be­ing heat, is extreame hotte; and being cooled againe, is extreame cold also.

So this hard and drie melancholy once depriued of naturall heate by the inordinate vse of Tabacco fewme (the fierie heate of the one dissipating the na­turall and lesser heate of the other) can yeeld nothing else but the effects of an excessiue and immoderate colde cause lying in the veines, and mixed with the blood. Such are esteemed to bee dulnesse of con­ceit, blockishnesse, mopishnesse, and sottishnesse, one of the worst kindes of accidents that commonly ensue ouer-hardened, cooled and dryed melancholy in our bodies.

Againe, such as the partes of the blood be, such also is thought the blood to bee, and as the blood prooueth, so likewise are the spirites affected, for they doo issue and proceed from the blood it selfe. And such as the spirites are, such also is adiudged to be the temper and dissipation of the heart and braine: and as the braine is disposed and affected, so likewise are the vertues of conceit, imagination, vnderstanding, and remembrance, affected and disposed also. All which in particular, by sundrie examples were easie to prooue, for him that is but meanely seene and slen­derly read in Philosophie sayings, that the sanguine man by meanes of the puritie of his blood, hath his braine and inward parts well tempered, his sences cleare, his spirites light and subtile, his heart bold and [Page] merrie, his minde affable, curteous and ciuil. Whereas on the contrary part, the melancholy person by rea­son of the superfluous earthly and drie matter mixed with his bloud, hath his complexion more wan and swarte, his conceit of braine more dull and hard, his minde giuen to sollitarinesse and priuate life. For those two humours of bloud and melancholy, are in both their qualities very repugnant and contrary. The one being hotte and moyst, the other colde and drie.

But here me thinkes I hear you say, what maketh this idle discourse of bloud and melancholy, of the disposition of the braine and spirits to your purpose, or to the reputation of Tabacco?

Forsoothe very much. For heereby it appeareth that the continuall practises of Tabacco, destroy the pu­ritie and clearnesse of their bloud, in that as I proo­ [...]ed before, it hardeneth and thickeneth the same. And in thickening it engendereth dull & melancho­ly spirites, which make blockish and sottish conceits, and a timerous and deiected mind not fit or conueni­ent for man that delilghteth in ciuilitie and societie of others. For seeing that the fewme of Tabacco yeeldeth no good foode or nourishment to the pure blood, but rather troubleth and corrupteth the same, it is thereby most plaine and euident, that it ingendreth in vs most dull and troubled spirites, also tasting and sauouring much of that loathsome fewme and duskish smoake which rise [...] & steemeth vp to the braine by the roofe and pallate of the mouth, first sent thither through the Tabacco pipe full charged with Tabacco dust, and after­ward [Page] scorched and incinerated by the extreame heate of the parching fire.

This darke and smoakie fume, pearsing the cauities and ventricles of the braine, no otherwise, then a me­lancholy winde or adust vapour (rising from an adust Liuer, or obstructed splene) do breed in vs terror, and feare, discontentment of life, false and peruerse imagi­nations, and fantasies most strange, no way depending vpon iust cause or grounds, and alwaies a melancholy spirit, a fertfull and timerous minde. For truly the in­ward darknesse and obscuritie of the braine, doth ap­pall and terrifie our inward sences and minde also, in no lesse sort then doth the externall darknesse or myst of the outward aire, terrifie & apall the same.

And if any man be farre blinded with Tabacco, that he will not admit for true, that the vapour or fume thereof ascending to the braine, is darke and swart of colour, and of qualitie excessiue drie; let him but cast his eyes on the smoake issuing forth of the nosthrils of the Tabacconists, or to the smoakie tincture left in the Tabacco Pipe after the receit thereof, and he shall easily reclaime his error. This swart & sottish tincture clea­ueth so fast to the inward part of the Pipe, as hardly by any means but by the extreme heate of the fire it may be cleared from thence. And no doubt the like im­pression doth the same leaue in our braines, and in the cauities thereof. So that the animall spirits ingendred in those places, can no lesse but (participating thereof) sauour of the same, no otherwise then wine put into an vnsauorie and mustie bottle, doth euer sauour of a mustie taste.

[Page]Neither am I any waies ignorant that Aristotle in his Problems holdeth that melancholy doth help and profit much to the sharpening & quickning of the wit and vnderstanding: and that melancholy persons are deemed of him the most wisest. But this kinde of me­lancholy (which Aristotle talketh of) is altogether na­turall, and no way engendreth of the Tabacco smoake. For it is the sediment and groundes of the pure & per­fect blood,Ficinu [...] lib. 1. cap. 6. de s [...] ­ [...]it. [...]uend. in colour like golde, or somewhat inclining to purple: litle in quantitie, and somewhat shining. The spirits which issue from this kinde of melancholy, are verie light, fine and subtile, not much vnlike to the spirits of wine well distilled, and artificially rectified: which is by art and force of the fire drawne out of the feces or grounds of pure wine. And the spirits rising from this drie melancholy humor, are the thinner and the more subtile by reason of the closenesse & straight­nesse of the pores of the same matter: and they are the more firme & constant in their action, by meanes that they issue and proceed from an humor more compac­ted and close vnited.

The subtilitie therefore and stabilitie of these spi­rites, rising from such a naturall melancholy, doeth much further the sharpning of the wit and vnderstan­ding of man.

But the like cannot be expected of the spirites ri­sing of that kinde of melancholy which is engendred by the abuse of Tabacco. For this sort of melancholy humor is neither bright & shining like to molten gold, nor yet the grounds of pure and perfect blood, but ra­ther an earthly and adust matter, not much vnlike [Page] stoncole or scorched earth. So that the spirites issuing from it must needs be of a diuers and farre contrarie qualitie and nature.

Last of all, melancholy being of nature cold and drie, had in reason need of some thin and liquid hu­mor to be mixed therewith, to temper his extreame siccetie and drythe: which is the qualitie of most of­fence and annoyance in it. For as phlegme offendeth most in cold, so doth melancholy falt most in dry­nesse.

Tabacco therefore ought in no respect to be famili­arly vsed of the melancholy person, because it is exces­siue drie, both in his manifest qualitie, and likewise by accidentall meanes of his immoderate purging and euacuation, by meanes whereof, great part of that li­quid and moyst matter is purged out of the body that should retaine and keepe it in perfect state and temper. And for that Tabacco is confessed to be hotte, almost in the third degree of excesse, therfore his drithe and sic­cetie is thereby made the more vehement, and vntolle­rable.

So that it is apparant that vnnaturall melancholy, whether it be made of adustian of bloud, choller, or phlegmy, or else of the sediment of them, scorched and as it were in cinerated, hath no small encrease by the vntimely vse of this phantasticall deuice of Tabacco smoake, leauing in our bodies a fierie impression and drie distemper, not easily remedied.

And therefore in my opinion all melancholy per­sons, of what state or condition soeuer they bee of, and especially Students and Schollers, ought to bee very [Page] well aduised in the vse of so pernitious and dangerous a thing, least that in them, naturall melancholy be con­uerted into vnnaturall, and this also, either into a corri­siue and adust humour apt to inflame the braine, or else into a matter so hard and drie, as that it be altoge­ther hurtful and offensiue to the vnctuous and radicall moisture of the life of man: and thereby occasion a hastie and vntimely death. For no longer can life con­tinue, then naturall heate bee refreshed with an ayrie and moderate moisture included in the radicall humour, and appointed by nature for the reliefe and sustentation of the same.


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