THREE Rare Monuments of Antiquitie, OR BERTRAM, PRIEST, A FRENCH-MAN, Of the Bodie and Blood of CHRIST, (written 800 yeares agoe) with the late Romish purging thereof:

AELFRICVS, Arch-bishop of Canterburie, an ENGLISH-MAN, His Sermon of the Sacrament, (preached 627 years agoe:) AND MAVRVS, Abbot, A SCOTS-MAN, His discourse of the same (820 years agoe:) All stronglie convincing that grosse Errour of TRANSVBSTANTIATION.

Translated and compacted By M. VVilliam Guild, Master at King-Edward.

Printed at ABERDENE, by Edward Raban, For David Melvill, 1624.

To the truelie Noble, and right honourable, VVILLIAM, EARLE, Marshall of Scotland, Lord Keyth and Altrie, &c. My singular good Lord, and Patron: AND TO The Right Honourable, His most Worthie & Religious Ladie; the Gracious Daughter of a most Godlie Mother.

I Doubt not but your Honoures knowe, that when the most ancient treuth of the ancient of dayes, re­gistrate in his holie word, and left vnto vs to be the onlie rule of our fayth, doeth fayle our Adversaries of the [Page 6] Romish Church, that then their next refuge is, after that they haue loa­ded sacred Scripture with odious imputations of obscuritie, imperfe­ction, and sweying everie way, in their severall conflictes, to fill the eares of each one with their clamo­rous vp-brayding of Antiquitie, and humane authoritie, when di­vine hath forsaken them; like Saul, who when God would not aun­swere him, had his recourse to Sa­muel. Which notwithstanding how little it maketh for them, & how as smallie it avayleth them, as Balaam did Balak, when hee sent for him to curse, where in the contrarie hee blessed: or as Baal ayded his owne priests, when hee was so earnestlie in-called vpon by them to answere, while in the meane time there was no voyce heard; any one, who with a single eye ever perused the same, may easilie perceiue, and manifolde experience hath oftentimes proven.

And yet we see that this is their great Diana of Ephesus, wherein they [Page 7] glorie more than the Iewes, when they cryed, The Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord: and as Rahel hid her fathers Idoles, with the Camels furniture, and sate on the same, and would not aryse; So with the furni­ture of venerable, but wrested and wronged Antiquitie, they would hyde their Errours, and cover the Idolatrie of their whorish mother, from whom they can not bee moo­ved to depart, nor goe out of Babel, or put away their strange gods, and bee purged with Iaakobs godlie fa­milie.

So that their doing is like the craftie dealing of the Gibeonite Am­bassadoures,Ioshua, 9. who to make a League with the Lordes People, pretended that they had journeyed from a ve­rie farre countrey, and were come for the Name of the Lord: and this their impudent lie (which yet they would haue to bee believed as an vndoubted trueth) they soothe vp (forsooth) by demonstration of Antiquitie; that therefore all which [Page 8] they had was olde: and this was their onlie proofe, whereby Ioshua, and both Princes and People were deceived: the reason whereof is gi­ven in Scripture, Because they as­ked not counsell at the mouth of the Lord.

Even so, that which our Adver­saries bring, when they haue quit­ted Scripture, to make their blas­phemous lies to bee believed, as sure & sacred trueth, is that which (as they pretende) is from a verie farre, even the Apostles tymes, and ancient holie Fathers of the primi­tiue Church, glorious in sufferings, and from their immediate succes­sours: And all this they doe (for­sooth) but for the Name of the Lord, having a religious pretence (as Simeon and Levi did) of clearing trueth, & convincing errour there­by, and so to make vnitie of fayth in the Church of God.

And to performe all this, all which they would seeme to showe or say, is all olde, drawne from An­tiquitie: [Page 9] But beeing aware (by Io­shua's example) will wee trye the men, and their speaches, their furni­ture, and pretences, and all this by the right rule, with the men of Be­rea, and as Israel should haue done the Gibeonites, asking counsell at the mouth of the Lord, which hee hath opened in holie Scripture, and which wee are bidden search, not believing rashlie everie doctrine, to bee carried about there-with, but trying the spirits, whether they bee of God, or no: and then wee shall easilie discerne and discover their guyle, and knowe the Beast by his Dragon mouth, to bee but a craftie counterfet of the Lambe.

And tho for a seducing ende (as was that of the olde Prophets of Bethel, 1. King. 13. pretending the word of the Lord) that these ancient Fa­thers are adduced by them to proue, yet they are found rather to im­proue their erroures: and beeing violentlie drawne contrarie to their minde, to pleade for lies, they either [Page 10] stand (as Christ before Pilate) not vttering a word, or (as Daniel for Susanna) opening their mouthes to withstand conspyring falshood, and defende injured innocencie, where­by bragging Goliah so, hath often­times his head cut off with his own sword; and what they most repose in, is found truelie to depose against them.

And moreover,How the Pa­pist [...]s [...]buse Antiquitie. howe they vse Antiquitie, let the single eye judi­ciouslie heere-by remarke:

First,1. By making them [...]lu [...] Iudg [...]s over the Ancients. by making themselues Iudges of the Fathers, whome yet they pretende to admit as Iudges over them, by admitting the Inter­pretations of such as they list, and seeme to make for them, and round­lie rejecting the Expositions of others; as Bellarmine doeth clearlie, lib. 1, de Pu [...]g. cap. 5, of such as make against them. And as for the Pope, by giving him vncontrollable po­wer to over-top them, [...] Q [...]to. de [...]. Epist. in [...] assigning to their wordes his fittest meaning, yea, and to make to bee the mea­ [...]ng [Page 11] which is not, by his celestiall judgement.

Next,2 By wre­sting then meaning. (as is set downe in the [...]xpurgatorie Index of this same [...]ERTRAM) they avowedlie pro­fesse, That in the ancient Catholick Writers they tolerate manie Er­ [...]ours, and must extenuate and ex­ [...]use them, and oftentimes must de­ [...]ye them, by devysing a fit shi [...]t, [...]nd some handsome meaning vnto them, when in Disputations they are opposed against them.

Besides,3. By razing out of their W [...]s what makes against them. howe shameleslie they raze out of Auncientes whatsoever maketh against them, their avowed practise of the same, in the last Edi­tion of Sainct Augustine, printed at Paris, by Nivel, in Sainct Iacques Streete, at the Storks, 1571, in these wordes doeth testifie, Ex sanctiss. Tridentini Concilii decreto veterum pa­trum codices sunt expurgandi. To whome I must say as Amb [...]ose sayde of olde to the Arrians, Orat. [...]. contra Arriā. That they may well blot out the letters, but the fayth they shall never abolish.

[Page 12]Moreover,4. By rejecting them g [...]oss [...]ly. how disdainfullie [...] times they reject all the Father [...] and bring in some handsome expo [...]sition of their owne, to fit their pur [...]pose, let that practise of Bellarmine [...] lib. 1. de purg. cap. 6, giue proof [...] and in particular of some, (as o [...] Tertullian) saying, [...] That little cred [...] is to bee given him: and of others (as Origen) That hee was accursed on earth, [...] lib. 2. cap. 8. and was seene in Hell a [...] ­ter death, with Arrius and Nesto­rius.

Yea, of them all in common h [...] spareth not to say, when they mak [...] against him, Scripta Patrum non sun [...] regulae, De Co [...]. [...] 2, cap. 12. nec habent authoritatem obli­gandi. And againe, Argumenta à ve­terum testimonio petita,De Co [...]cil. I. 1, cap. [...]3.posse merito c [...]n­temni dum [...]a opponuntur.

In like manner, such as they grant of the Auncientes to bee but counterfets,5. By calling them Count [...]r­f [...]ts, wh [...] they make against them: but obtruding them as true, when they seeme to make for them. (especiallie affirming so, when they are adduced against them) in peremptor manner they obtrude them as true, when they seeme to make for them, as the [Page 13] cleare collation of the ensuing pla­ces will evidentlie giue notice: Bel­la [...]m. lib. 1, de Christo, cap. 10, com­pared with lib. 2, de Pont. cap. 16. Also lib. 2, de Missa, cap. 12, compa­ [...]ed with lib. 1, de Verbo, cap. 14.

In the same forme they vse their owne moste famous Writers,6. By calling them manif [...]st L [...]ars. [...]nd Histriographers, calling them [...]eart Liars, when they make against them, as Bellarmine doeth [...]ozomen and Socrates, lib. 1, de Cleri­ [...]is, cap. 20: and yet as moste fayth­full Writers hee vseth them to prooue this point, lib. 4, de Pont. cap. 9.

Neither may I omit the shame­lesse corrupting of the Fathers,7. By putting in fal [...]e words of their owne in the Writs of the Aun­cients. by putting in false wordes, as well as [...]hey raze out the true: Examples whereof in place of manie wee may see in Bellarmine, lib. 2, de verbo, cap. [...]2: where hee citeth Chrysostome to haue [...], where hee hath truelie [...]: and lib. 2. de reliq. Sanctor. cap. 3, hee maketh Chrysostome to say in his Sermon of luventius and Maxi­mus, [Page 14] Tumules Martyrum adoremu [...]. where there is no such word in t [...] Greeke.

And as wee haue showne,8 By call [...]g the most an­cient Coun­cels false. and fraud [...]ull. how they vse the ancient Fathers at the pleasure, so how they vse ancie [...] Councels, when they make not f [...] them, let Bellarmine declare in h [...] Preface, De summo Pontifice, and e [...] where; accusing the second gen [...] ­rall Councell of Heresie, for oppug [...]ning the Papall Supremacie,B [...]ll l. 1, de L [...] [...], cap. 20. An [...] 381: and the Councell of Chalcedo [...] holden Anno 451, [...] 1, de P [...], cap. 9 of falshood an [...] fraude, while as yet they will haue the Pope onelie with his privat [...] Consistorie, whether hee erre, [...] not, to be obedientlie believed.

But moste clearelie (to con [...]clude) how despisinglie they reject not onelie humane Antiquitie,9. But most of all, in pudent­lie rejecting [...] and tran [...]gre [...] ­sing (by their owne Con [...]s­s [...]on, the most sacre [...] Anti­quitie of [...]ll, which is that of scripturall Precept, and Christ [...]s pra­ctise. b [...] divine there-withall, how ever the [...] brag of nothing more, let their ow [...] plaine Confession in that Councel [...] of Constance, Sess. 13, beare witnesse [...] where concerning the taking away the Cup from the people, they say [...] [Page 15] Albeit Christ instituted the Supper vnder both kyndes of Bread and Wine; and such-lyke, albeit in the primitiue Church this Sacrament was received vnder both kindes, yet for avoyding some dangers, let it be taken heere-after by Laiks on­lie vnder one kynd,Concil. Trid. S [...]ss. 5, cap. 3, can. 1. and that vnder the paine of a Curse, as the Coun­cell of Trent hath decreed.

So that as the chiefe Priests, and Elders, and all the Councell, sought false witnesses against Christ, and tho manie came; yet found they none, till at last two came: Even so, altho the Pope, and all his Coun­cell, seeke busilie false witnesses against Christes blessed Trueth re­gistrate in Scripture, yet amongst these reverend Fathers, and ancient Doctors of the primitiue Church, they shall finde none conspyring so together in everie age, as they al­leadge for them: & tho they would make a show of manie who seeme to say for them, yet in effect the ju­dicious and vnpartiall Reader and [Page 16] remarker shall finde it so no wise, till some came in in later tymes for the behoose of that Romish high Priest, and few Pople in great store in the Lords field, and thorow faire pretences, and secret subdolous meanes which they vsed, and the not so warie vigilancie of the Lords owne Servants, altho they were not so clearelie perceived, nor heedful­lie resisted in the beginnings, yet when that wicked seede beganne to kythe more plainlie by anie growth and discoverie of it selfe, it was remarked by sundrie vvho vvere awake, and from tyme to tyme op­posed by some, tho few, who were as Elias in Achabs time, or the two afflicted witnesses spoken of in the Revelation, who were still suppressed as they rose and spake, or els killed by that bloodie Beaft.

A particular prooffe of the trueth heereof your Honours may see in these worthie Monuments of Antiquitie, concerning that maine pillar whereon Poperie standeth,TRANSVE­STANTIA­TION. [Page 17] the verie Soule of their Soule-Mas­ses; which beeing taken away, lyke Dagons house, it falleth to the ground, and the palmes of the handes of that proude Idole are cut off, where-by for their spirituall merchandize they so largelie re­ceiue.

COnsidering then the worthie paines that the Pennes of the godlie of our Neighbour-Nation from time to time haue taken, for the common benefite of all, in translating sundrie worthie Au­thors, for comforting and confir­ming the truelie religious amongst them; as also finding how that glo­rious reformed and refined Church of France had not suffered the same to bee hid from the eyes of their people, and had therefore translated the same into their natiue Idiom; the sight whereof in that worthie Gentle-mans Librarie, George Ogilvie of Carnusie, (a Lover of Letters, and the Learned) did much encourage [Page 18] me to put Pen to Paper. And there­with considering with what serious intreatie that great & glorious Mar­tyr, [...]ooke of. Martyrs, Fol. 1660. Bishop Hooper, at his going to the fyre, made to Doctor Brookes, then Bishop of Glocester, for his right information in the matter of the Sacrament; desiring him to reade this worthie BERTRAM, whom in a singular and earnest manner hee recommended vnto him.

Weighing these together, (I say) and viewing with what rare light, as a cleare Torch-bearer, this man so long since hath gone before, howsoever others worthilie of late haue followed after, I was moved to bestow some paines in exposing it (especiallie in these dangerous dayes) to the common view of all: whereby if our spirituall Nasci & Pasci, the new birth, and new re­paste, be compared, and the trueth, or realitie of both, according to the effectuall force and vertue which a thing hath, be rightlie considered, [Page 19] (which maketh the verie renewed Gentile to be a true Iew indeed) so far as ignorant Nicodemus swarved by his literall and carnall meaning,Rom. 2, 29. from the true vnderstanding of Christs words, when Hee spake of the one; as farre with the carnall Capernaite shall our Adversaries bee groslie found to erre, by their like literall and carnall meaning, from the true vnderstanding of Christs words, when he spake of the other. And that to them as clearelie Hee showeth the way to vnderstand aright the true manducation of His Bodie, while as Hee sayeth, The wordes that I speake, are spirite and lyfe, Iohn, 6, 63. as Hee pointeth at the true meaning of His wordes, that a man must be borne of new againe, while as Hee sayeth, Except a man be borne of water, Iohn, 3, 5. and the spirite, he cannot en­ter into the Kingdome of GOD.

These paines then that I haue taken heerein, with a most duetifull hand, & devoted heart, to your Ho­nours [Page 20] gracious acceptation, hum­blie doe I offer the same, without assentation, (which least of anie becommeth not my calling) cea­sing to blaze mans praise; and as best befits mee, I pray to God, that the deepe Impression of His Image, who is the viue Character of the Father, may by the powerfull hand of his Spirit bee so seated and setled in your heartes, that by that hea­venlie Stampe it thay bee both in­wardlie witnessed to your owne Consciences, and outwardlie testi­fied in your liues to the world, that Your Honoures are the adopted Children of that heavenlie Father, whome as You set Your selues to glorifie on earth, hee shall not (af­ter the heaping of much Honour and Happinesse vpon You and Yours) fayle to glorifie You in the highest Heavens, which is the full Felicitie and blessed Rest of His owne Sainctes, and which, as the highest of all Wishes, I shall not [Page 21] ceasse to beseech GOD to ef­fectuate towardes YOVR HO­NOVRS, and YOVR Hope­full and Happie Off-spring.

Your Honoures, in all humble duetie, WILLIAM GVILD.


THis Popish Plasma, bred of Hydra's Braine,
Come from the Snakie Cerberus his Lake;
Which Pitchie-Charon-Popes for trueth maintaine,
And it a Fulcre of their Fayth doth make.
Loe! GVILD but guyle doth here expand their Packe
Of wicked Wares, vnto judicious view:
That who so reades this Booke, may notise take,
And clearlie see this Paradox vntrue.
By written Word, and Antiquaries olde,
He doth this Dogma dash, and Trueth vnfolde.

The Life of BERTRAM, PRIEST, BY IOHN TRITHEMIVS, a Popish Histriographer.

BERTRAM, PRIEST, and MONKE, was one that was singu­larlie Skilfull in holie Scripture, and notablie learned in like manner in humane Scien­ces, of a most pregnant and quicke wit, [Page 24] of an excellent and eloquent vtterance: Neyther was hee lesse Notable and re­nowned for his holie lyfe, than his great learning.

Hee wrote manie excellent Workes, and Treatises, where-of not-with-stan­ding few haue beene suffered to come to our knowledge: but in especiall, hee wrote a most laudable and prayse-wor­thie Worke of Predestination, vnto King Charls, Brother to Lotharius the Emperour: and like-wyse a Booke of the Bodie and Blood of the LORD. Hee lived in the tyme of Lotha­rius the Emperour aforesaid, in the YEARE of GOD 840.

BERTRAM His Treatise Of the Bodie and Blood OF CHRIST: TO CHARLES, King of FRANCE, Nephew to CHARLES, the Great Emperour.


YOu command (Renowned Prince) that what I thinke concerning the my­sterie of the Bodie & Blood of CHRIST, I should signifie to your Highnesse: A Commandement (indeede) in [Page 26] howe much worthie of your high Soveraignitie to enjoyne, in so much moste harde to my small strength to performe: For what is more worthie of Royall provi­dence, than catholicklie to vnder­stand His holy Mysteries who hath deigned to bestowe vpon you that princelie Throne, and not to suffer your Subjectes divers [...]ie to bee di­stracted in Opinions concerning the Bodie and Blood of CHRIST, wherein doeth consist the summe of Christian Redemption?

For while some of the Faithfull affirme,The state of the Cont [...]o­versie. that the mysterie of the Bo­die and Blood of Christ, which is daylie celebrated in the Church, is to bee considered without anie fi­gure or vaile, (of vsuall, to wit, and sacramentall speach) and to be taken onelie according to the na­ked simplicitie of the verie literall words: and others againe, that these things are set downe, and compre­hended vnder a figure, and mysti­callie; so that it is one thing which [Page 27] is seene by the bodilie sight, and another thing altogether diverse which the eye of fayth onelie be­holdeth. Heereby it commeth to passe, that no little strife is found to bee amongst them.

And seeing the Apostle writeth to the faythfull,1. Corinth. 1. that they thinke and speake all one thing, and that no division be seene to be amongst them; they are not then a litle divy­ded, who speake so diverslie of the Bodie and Blood of Christ, not beeing alike minded.

Wherefore your Royall Maje­stie, stirred vp by the zeale of Fayth, weighing these things aright, and desiring according to the Apostles direction, that all thinke and speake one thing, doeth diligentlie search the hid trueth of this point, that you may call backe the wanderers vnto it: whence it is that you dis­daine not to inquire the veritie ther­of, even from them of the meanest ranke, knowing that the mysterie of such an hid secret cannot bee vn­derstood [Page 28] but by God his revealing of the same, who without excep­tion of persons showeth foorth the light of his trueth by whomsoever he chooseh.

But in how much it is pleasing to my meannes to obey your com­mand, it is as hard to dispute con­cerning a matter most distant from humane senses, and not to be passed thorow without the instruction of the Spirit of God.

Beeing subject then to the dire­ction of your Highnesse, and con­fyding in his favour and aide con­cerning whom we speake, in as few words as I can, not trusting to mine owne wit, but following the foote­steps of the holie Fathers, I shall open vp what I thinke in this mat­ter.

YOVR High Excellence desires then to vnderstād,The two Questions which this Trea [...]ise pro­poneth. If that Bodie and Blood of CHRIST which is taken by the mouth of the Faythfull in the Church, bee taken so in a mysterie, or according to a literall veritie? that is, Whether it containe some secret thing, which is onlie manifest to the eyes of Fayth? or without the covering of anie such mysterie, if the eyes of the bodie beholde that outwardlie, which the soule and mynde doeth beholde inward­lie?

That the whole matter which is in hand then, may appeare mani­fest, and if it bee that same Bodie which was borne of the Virgine Marie, which suffered, died, and was buried, and rising againe, as­cended [Page 30] to heaven, and sitteth now at the right hand of the Father; let vs looke throughlie first to the for­mer of these questions.

And lest we be intangled with­in the obscure circuit of ambiguous and doubtfull words,The fi [...]st Que­stion is, Whe­ther the literal sense, or a fi­gu [...] at [...]e, is to be [...]etained in the word [...]s of the LORDES Supper? we must first define what a figure is, and what we call literall veritie, that so eyeing some certaine thing, we may know assuredlie whither to direct the course of this our present discourse.

A figure then,He call [...]th at a figure, which we cal a Tro [...], and C [...]ero. the ligh [...]es of speach. is a certaine over­shadowing of a thing with some vailes (or ornaments of speach) manifesting so what it intendes, as for example,So Sacra­mentes are vi­sible wordes, and externall [...]ig [...]es, wherby (as Loinbard sayeth, lib. 4, dist. 1.) we are taught in hea­venly matters. when wee speake of the worde, wee call it Bread, as in the Lords Prayer, when wee desire to bee given vs our daylie Bread, or when Christ (who is the incarnate worde) speaking in the Gospell, sayeth of himselfe, I am the living Bread, which came downe from Hea­ven: Iohn, 6, & 15. Or when hee calleth him [...]elfe a Vine, and his Disciples Branches; [Page 31] all these speaches say one thing, and signifie another.

But [literall] veritie is the de­monstration of a manifest thing not covered with anie resemblances of shadowing,He c [...]lleth that V [...]ritie, which is a proper speach: and which there­ [...]fter hee calleth a proprie­tie. Therefore Augustine sayeth, lib. 3, contra Maxim, Sacramentes are one thing, but signifie another. Ther­fore wee must beware, that wee take not a figuratiue spe [...]ch accor­ding to the let [...]r, lib. 3, de do [...]. Christ. cap. 10. but insinuated in its owne pure and proper (and that wee may speake more plainlie) in its owne naturall and manifest sig­nification, as when Christ is said to be borne of the Virgine Marie, suffe­red, was crucified, died, and buried; there is nothing heere over shado­wed with covering figures; but the veritie of the thing is showne by the proper signification of the natu­rall words themselues; neither may wee vnderstand anie other thing heere than is spoken. But in the former examples it was not so: for Christ substantiallie is not Bread, nor a Vine, neither were the Apo­stles Branches; wherefore heere is pointed foorth a figure: but in the preceeding speaches the literall ve­ritie, that is, the plaine and open [Page 32] meaning in a cleare discourse is ma­nifestlie showne.

But let VS returne to that for whose cause these thinges are for­merlie spoken, to wit, to the con­sideration of the Bodie, and Blood of Christ:

For if the mysterie thereof bee celebrated without anie figure,1. Argument, taken from the nature of a mysterie. it is not convenientlie called a mysterie; seeing that cannot bee called a my­sterie, wherein there is no secret thing, nothing removed from our corporall senses, nothing hid with some coverture or other: But that bread which by the administration of the Priest is made the Bodie of Christ, showeth one thing to the outward senses of men, and cryeth another thing inwardlie to the soules of the Faythfull: Outwardlie the Bread is that selfe-same which it was before; for wee see that same shape, and colour, and that same sa­vour thereof is also perceived; but inwardly a farre more different, pre­cious, and excellent thing is intima­ted [Page 33] and exhibite, because it is hea­venlie and divine; that is, the Bodie of Christ is showne vnto vs, which is not seene with these fleshlie eyes, but is seene, and taken, and eaten, by the looking on of a faythfull soule.

The Wine also which by the Priestlie consecration is made the Sacrament of Christs Blood,2. Argument, from the judgement of our senses [...] and from expe­rience [...] v [...]to which judge­ment Christ him selfe ep­pealeth, Luke, 24. repre­senteth one thing outwardlie, and containeth another thing inward­lie; for what see wee outwardly, but the substance of Wine? taste it, and it is Wine; smell it, and it savours Wine; looke to it, and you shall be­holde the colour of Wine: But if it bee considered inwardlie in the mynde, it tasteth not as Wine, but as the Blood of Christ, vnto the Be­lievers soules, and is acknowledged so while it is seene, and is approven while it is so smelled.

These things to bee so, it is ma­nifest, seeing no man can denye the same; because that Bread and that Wine figuratiuelie onelie is the Bo­die [Page 34] and Blood of Christ: for in that Bread, as is clearelie seene, there is no flesh knowne to bee in it; or in that Wine anie drop of blood to bee pointed foorth, while as after this mysticall consecration they are not-with-standing neyther called Bread nor Wine, but the Bodie and blood of Christ.

For if according to some there bee nothing taken figuratiuely in this Sacrament,3. Argument, from the na­ture of fayth, whose proper­tie is [...]o be [...] conver [...] about spiritual subjectes. Heb [...]. 11, 1. but all bee conside­red according to the [...]oresaide ver­ball veritie, (or literall meaning) then faith worketh nothing heere, because there is nothing heere con­sidered spirituallie, but all whatso­ever, is taken corporallie. And seeing fayth, according to the Apostle, Heb. 11. 1, is an evidence of things which appeare not, that is, not of those substances which are seene, we shall get nothing heere by fayth, because whatsoever is heere, falleth vnder, and wee judge it with our corporall senses.

There is nothing more absurd4. Argument, diffe [...]t things cannot be pre­d [...]ble one of another [...] but the br [...]d and the bodi [...] of Christ are dif­ferent, &c. L [...]go. [Page 35] also than to take that bread to bee flesh carnallie, or to say that that Wine is Blood reallie; for so it will not bee a mysterie, seeing there is no secret nor hid thing in this sort of speach anie way contained.

How likewise are these sayde to be the Bodie and Blood of Christ? seeing there is no change vnder­stood to bee made of them;5. Argument, from the [...]du [...]uon of di­verse forces of substanti [...]ll changes, whereof Tr [...]nsubs [...]n­tiation [...] e [...] 1. o [...]. for all [...] change is either from that which is not, into that which is, or from that which is, into that which is not, or from that which alreadie is, into another which in like manner is. But in this Sacrament, if the trueth in simplicitie be onelie considered, and none other thing bee believed by the senses than that which they see, there shall none alteration heere bee seene to bee made.

For neither is there a change out of that which was not, into that which is, which manner of change is seene in things growing, seeing they were not before, but that they may haue a being, they are changed [Page 36] from not being, into that which hath a being: But this Bread and Wine were, before they were tur­ned into the bodie and blood of Christ. Neither is there such a mutation as of that which hath a being, changing into that which hath no being; which sort of altera­tion is in thinges perishing by de­caying; for whatsoever decayeth, first of necessitie had some being; neither can that suffer such an alte­ration, which never had a being. Now that this sort of alteration, is not in the Sacrament, is cleare lyke­wyse; because according to the trueth, the forme of the creature which it had before, is knowne as yet constantlie to remaine.

Also, there is an alteration which is of that which hath a being, into that which lyke-wyse hath a being; which sort is seene in things suffering a change in their qualities onelie, (the substance remaining) as when that which was white, is changed into that which is blacke: [Page 37] but neither is this alteration known to be made in this Sacrament; for there is nothing found heere to bee changed, neither in touching, nor colour, nor favour. If therefore there bee nothing heere changed, the elements are none other, than that they were before.

But heere the Bread and Wine are other things,6. Argument, from a S [...]cr [...] ­mentall sort of [...], which must be gran­ted in [...] because the bread is made to bee the bodie, and the wine the blood of Christ; for so saith he himselfe, Take, eate, this is my bodie: and so of the Cup, Take drinke, this is the blood of the new Testament, &c. Wee must then demande of them, who will vnderstand nothing heere figuratiuelie, but all things to consist in verball simplicitie, where­in this alteration is made? seeing they are not nowe these thinges which they were before, to wit, bread and wine, but are the bodie and blood of Christ; for according to the forme and shape of visible thinges, both these haue in them­selues (substantiallie) none altera­tion: [Page 38] and if they haue suffered no alteration, they are nothing else but that which they were before.

Wherefore (Renowned Prince) your Highnesse seeth to what point these of the contrarie opinion are driven; for they denye that which they are thought to affirme, and that which they belieue, they are found to destroy.

For they confesse truelie, that it is the bodie and blood of Christ: and when they say this, without doubt they graunt, that the bread and wine is not that nowe which they were before: and if they bee other than they were, then they are changed, seeing that cannot bee denyed. Let them therefore tell wherein they are changed? for we see nothing corporallie to be chan­ged in them: of necessitie then they must confesse either that they are changed in some other respect, (to wit, in vse) and consequentlie not to bee that which they otherwise are seene to bee in veritie, but ano­ther [Page 39] thing which they are not seene to be according to their owne pro­per and substantiall existence. Or if they will not confesse this, they shall bee constrayned to denye, that they are the bodie and bloode of Christ at all: which not onelie is abhominable to say, but to thinke onelie.

But because they will confesse, that they are the bodie and blood of Christ, neither could they haue beene so, except the change had beene to the better; neither is that change corporallie, but spirituallie made, of necessitie the speach there­of is figuratiue; because vnder the vaile or curtaine (as it were) of corporall bread and wine, is con­voyed vnto the soule the spirituall bodie and bloode of Christ: Not that these are the existences of two diverse things, to wit, as of a bodie and a spirit, but one and that same selfe thing, according to one consi­deration is a sort of bread and wine, and according to another is the bo­die [Page 40] and blood of Christ: according to that, as they are touched corpo­rallie, they are kyndes of corporall creatures; but according to that power whereby they are made so spirituallie, they are the mysteries of the bodie and blood of Christ.

Let vs consider also the Laver of holie Baptisme,7. Argument, from B [...] p [...], wher [...]n the water change [...]h not its [...] nature; there­fore neyther the bread and w [...]ne in the Lords Supp [...]. which worthilie is called the fountaine of life, be­cause it reformeth the commers vn­to it, by the newnesse of a better life, and gif [...]eth them that are dead in sinne, with liuelie grace and righ­teousnesse: according to that it is the element of water, hath it that power? and yet except it had the vertue of Sanctification, it could not wash away the blot of sinne: and except it contained the strength of life, it could no wise giue life to the dead: not in the flesh, (I meane) but in the soule. And yet if wee consider, in that fountaine onelie that which our bodilie eye percei­veth, it is seene to bee a moyst ele­ment, subject to corruption, having [Page 41] no power, but to wash onelie the bodie: but the accessorie vertue of the holie Spirit, by priestlie conse­cration, maketh it pithie, not onelie to wash away the filth of the bodie, but also to purge, by a spirituall grace, the foulenesse of the soule.

Beholde then, in one, and that same element, wee see two contra­rieties to remaine; that is, that which is subject to corruption, to giue in­corruption; and that which hath no lyfe, to giue lyfe. It is manifest then, into that fountaine to be both that which the corporall senses see­keth, and therefore to bee change­able, and corruptible: and againe that also to bee in it, which onelie sayth beholdeth, and therefore can­not bee corrupted, nor suffer the losse of lyfe. If thou consider it, as it washeth outwardlie, it is an ele­ment; but if thou weigh it, as it cleanseth inwardlie, it is the power of lyfe, of sanctification, and im­mortalitie. Therefore in the pro­per nature thereof it is corruptible [Page 42] water, but in the mysterie thereof, and holie vse, it is curing grace: even so that which is called the bo­die and blood of Christ, in the out­ward show considered, it is a crea­ture, subject to mutabilitie, and cor­ruption, but if wee consider the ver­tue of the mysterie thereof, it is life, giving immortalitie to the parta­kers thereof.

These thinges then are not all one,8. Argument, from [...] for that which [...] the body [...] he [...] or [...] which i [...] [...] of the bodie. as they are seene, and as they are believed: for according to that as they are seene, they beeing cor­ruptible, they feed the bodie which is corruptible; but as they are belie­ved, beeing immortall, they feede our soules to immortal [...]ie.

The Apostle also writing to the Corinths,1. Cor 10. 9 Arg [...]ment, from [...] Apostl [...]. his [...] Our F [...]thers in the Ser, [...] and in the water that pushed out of the Rocke, were p [...]t [...] ­kers of Christ his bodie and blood; other­wise they shoulde no [...] [...] vnto the faythfu [...]l in the Old. Testam [...]t that which th [...]y [...] but all the for­m [...], non [...] of them requi­red not the [...]o porall pre­fence of that which they signi [...]ied. ther­ [...]oe according to the invisi­ble [...]fficacie of the holie Ghost onelie they had their [...] men [...]ll force [...] as doeth the LORDES Supp. [...]. sayeth, I would not, Brethen, that you should bee [...] ignorant, that all our Fathers were vnder the Cloude, and all passed though the Sea, and were all baptized vnto Moses in the Cloude, and in the Sea, and did cate the same spiri­tuall meate, and drinke the same spirituall drinke: For they dranke of that spiri­tuall [Page 43] Rocke that followed them, and that Rocke was CHRIST.

Wee perceiue then, that the Sea, and the Cloude, did carrie a fi­gure of Baptisme, and that our Fa­thers in the olde Testament haue beene baptized in them. Now, could the Sea, in that it was an ele­ment, haue in it the vertue of Bap­tisme? or could the Cloude, in that respect it did kythe the thickest part of the aire, sanctifie the people? Neither can we say, that the Apostle (speaking in Christ) hath sayde vntruelie, that our Fathers were baptized in the water, and in the cloude. And albeit that Baptisme did not represent the same forme of Baptisme of Christ which is nowe vsed in the Church daylie, yet not­withstanding no man, in his wits can denye, but it was a sort of Bap­tisme, and in it our Fathers to haue beene baptized; except, madlie, he presume to gaine-say the Apostles wordes.

Therefore the sea and the cloud, [Page 44] in that they are naturall bodies, giue not the cleannesse of sanctification, but according to that they contai­ned in them invisiblie the sanctifi­cation of the holie Spirit; for there was in them a visible forme, which might appeare to the corporall sen­ses of all, not in similitude, but in the veritie it selfe; and inwardlie a spirituall power shyned, which ap­peared, not to carnall eyes, but to the eyes onelie of the soules of the godlie.

Like-wyse the heavenlie Foode which rayned from Heaven, and the water that gushed from the rocke, was corporall, and fedde and watered the people corporallie: yet not-with-standing the Apostle cal­leth that M [...]nna, and the water Spi­rituall Food. Wherefore serveth this? Because there was a spirituall po­wer of the word of GOD in these substances, which did feede and wa­ter rather the soules of the belie­vers, than their bodies.

[Page 45]And altho that meate and drinke fore-shewed the mysterie of the bo­die and blood of Christ,10, Argument, from the in­tern [...]ll matter of the Sacra­ment [...]s: Our F [...]th [...]rs were m [...]d [...] pa [...]t [...] ­k [...]ts of Christ, but wee are m [...]de [...] of Christ: [...], both wee and they of one thing. then onelie to come, which the Church nowe celebrateth as come; not-with-stan­ding the holie Apostle affirmeth constantlie, That our Fathers did eate that same spirituall foode, and did drinke that same spirituall drinke.

Perhaps then thou wilt aske, what hee meaneth by that same spi­rituall meate and drinke? To wit, Even that same which the Children of the faythfull eate and drinke now-a [...] dayes in the Church: for wee must not conceiue diverselie heere, because one, and that selfe­same CHRIST, who fed the peo­ple in the Desart, being baptized in the water, and the clowde, hee wa­tered them then with his bloode, which hee gaue them to drinke, and fed them then with his flesh: and nowe in the Church of the Fayth­full hee feedeth his people with the same bread of his bodie, and giveth [Page 46] them the same water of his bloode, both for drinke and nowrishment. Which thing the Apostle did goe about to signifie, when hee sayde, That our Fathers did eate that same spiritual food, and dranke that same spirituall drinke: and therefore hee did consequentlie adde, That they dranke of that Spirituall Rocke which followed them, and the Rocke was CHRIST: that wee might there-by vnderstand, that Christ in the Desart did consist in that spirituall Rocke, and gaue to the people the water of his bloode. Who there-after having taken flesh of the Virgine, hath given him selfe in our tyme vnto the death of the Crosse, for the saving of the fayth­full: and since that tyme hath shed the water of his blood, where-by not onelie wee might bee redee­med, but also where-of wee might plentifullie drinke.

A wonderfull mysterie indeed, because incomprehensible, and in­estimable! Hee had not as yet ta­ken [Page 47] on the shape of Man, Hee had not as yet tasted of Death, for the safetie of the Worlde, Hee had not as yet redeemed vs, with his pre­cious blood, when alreadie our Fa­thers in the Desart, by Spirituall Food, and invisible Drinke, did eate his bodie, and drinke his blood, as the Apostle t [...]stifyeth, when hee af­firmeth our Fathers to haue eaten that same Spirituall Food, & drun­ken that same Spirituall Drinke: Not that how the same was done is to bee inquired; but Fayth that it was so done, is to bee acquired: For that selfe-same GOD, who in his Church, by his Almightie power, changeth the Bread and Wine, into his Flesh and Blood, after a Spiri­tuall manner; that selfe-same GOD (I saye) turned in the verie like sorte the Manna which rayned from Heaven, into his owne bodie vnto them invisiblie; and turned the wa­ter, gushing out of the rocke, into his owne blood.

[Page 48]Which thing David vnderstan­ding,11. Argument, from o [...] fel­eo [...] pur [...]rs o [...] that [...]piri­tuall and [...] ­ [...]lie foode. The Angels did not [...] [...] of that corpo [...] [...]ll Manna, [...] of that spirituall; therefore even so the [...]ayth­full, not in a corpor [...]ll, but in a spirituall manner, by fayth doe [...]ate the [...]od [...]e of CHRIST. hee declared the same mani­festlie, beeing instructed by the ho­lie Ghost, saying, that Man did eate the bread of Angels. For it is a thing to bee laughed at, to suppose that that corporall Manna given to the Fathers, doeth feede that hea­venlie hoaste, or that they doe eate anie such meate, who are filled with the Banquets of that Heavenlie worde. The Psalmist surelie sho­weth, or rather the Spirite of God speaking by the Psalmist, either what our Fathers by that heavenlie Man­na did receiue, or what the faythfull nowe in the mysterie of the bodie and blood of Christ ought to con­ceiue, and belieue. In both these (surelie) Christ him selfe is meant, who feedeth the soules of the earth­lie believers, and is the meat of the heavenlie Angels: and both this is done, not with a corporall tasting, nor by a bodily foode, but by the vertue of the spirituall word.

[Page 49]And vvee vnderstand by the Evangelistes rehearsing,12. Argument, from the c [...]r­cumstance of the tyme of the [...] ra­t [...]on and insti­tution of the Lords Supp [...]s Matthew, 20. that our Lord Iesus Christ, before that hee suffered, taking bread, gaue thanks, and gaue to his disciples, saying, This is my Bodie which is given for you; doe this in remembrance of Mee. Likewyse He tooke the Cup, after Supper, saying, This Cup is the New Testament in my Blood, which is shed for you: Where wee see that Christ as yet had not suffered, and yet the mysterie of his bodie and his blood was alreadie celebrated: for wee thinke not, that anie of the faythfull will doubt, that that bread was made the bodie of Christ, which giving to his disciples, hee sayeth thereof, This is my Bodie, which is given for you: Neither that they will doubt, that that Cup doeth con­taine the blood of Christ (sacra­mentallie, to wit) concerning the which hee sayeth also, This Cup is the new Testament in my blood, which shalbe shed for you: So that a little before hee suffered, hee could thus [Page 50] haue changed that substance of bread, and creature of wine, into his owne bodie which was to suffer, and into his blood, which was to be shed: and so also he was able to con­vert that heavenlie foode after the same manner that rained in the wil­dernesse, and that water which gu­shed out of the Rocke, into his bo­die and blood, albeit that long after hee was incarnate, and his flesh was to hang vpon the Crosse for vs, and his blood was to bee shed for our ablution.

Heere also wee ought to consi­der how the words are to bee taken which himselfe sayeth,Iohn, 6. [...]3 Argument, from the ab­sued and wic­ked v [...]l [...], which necessa­r [...] followeth that gross [...] & [...] [...]t [...]ng of Chi [...]stes [...]o­d [...]. Except yee eate the flesh of the Sonne of man, and drinke his blood, yee haue no lyfe in you. Hee sayeth not, that his flesh which did hang vpon the crosse should be cutted in pieces, and eaten by his Disciples; or that his blood, which was to bee shed for the redemption of the worlde, was to bee given to his Disciples to drinke, for that were a facinorous and an abhominable [Page 51] thing, if either his blood were so drunken, or his flesh eaten; accor­ding, as that grosse and incredulous people thought. Wherefore in the words following,14. Argument, from Christes visible as [...] ­sion, and the estat [...] of his glorious bo­die in heaven: not to be bro­ken any more, or catnallie to be eaten by p [...]ale on earth. hee sayeth to his Disciples, who indeede believed his words, but not as yet had through­lie pearced vnto their right mea­ning, Doeth this (sayeth hee) offend you? what therefore if yee shall see the Sonne of man going vp, where hee was before? As if he would haue sayde, Yee shall not thinke that my bodie is to bee divyded in partes amongst you, to bee eaten corporallie, or my blood to be so drunken; when after my resurrection yee shall see mee going vp to the heavens, with the whole fulnesse of my bodie and blood, then ye shall vnderstand that my flesh is to be eaten by the fayth­full: not as these grosse and incre­dulous people doe thinke, but true­lie, and in a mysticall manner, bread and wine being converted (sacra­mentallie, to wit) into the sub­stance [Page 52] of my bodie and blood, to bee taken by the faythfull.

And thereafter hee lyke-wyse sayeth,15. Argument, from the Au­thor of that [...], whereof the [...] by the [...] to wit, the [...], which qu [...] ­keneth. Where wee haue to no [...], [...] It is the Spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing. Hee sayeth, the flesh profiteth nothing that way as the incredulous Capernaites vn­derstood: for other-wise it giveth lyfe, as it is taken in a mysterie by the faythfull. And hee showeth manifestlie himselfe wherefore this is, when hee sayeth, It is the Spirit that quickneth. Therefore in this mysterie of the bodie and blood of Christ, there is a spirituall opera­tion which giveth lyfe; without the which operation these mysteries profite nothing, because they may feede the bodie indeede, but they cannot nowrish the soule.

But heere aryseth a question, which sundrie doe propone; affir­ming, That these thinges are not fi­guratiuelie to bee vnderstood, but according to the verie literall veri­tie: which while they say, they with­all gaine-say the writings of the ho­lie [Page 53] Fathers. Sainct Augustine, one of the chiefe Doctors of the Church, in his third Booke concerning the doctrine of Christ, writeth so; Ex­cept yee eate (sayeth our Saviour) the flesh of the Sonne of man, and drinke his blood, yee shall not haue lyfe in you. Hee seemeth to command a wicked and facinorous fact; but hee doeth not so: for he speaketh figuratiuelie, commanding vs to communicate of the Passion of the Lord; and that wee should profitablie and comfor­tablie lay it vp in our mynde, That his bodie was crucified, and woun­ded for vs.

Wee see then, that Augustine sayeth,16. Argument. from the [...] of [...] who sayeth, [...] wordes [...]. that the mysterie of the bo­die and blood of Christ, is to be ce­lebrated by the faythfull, vnder a figure, or in resemblance: for to eate his flesh, and drinke his blood car­nallie, it is not a point of Religion, but of wicked villanie: amongst whom were these, who in the Gos­pell vnderstanding the wordes of our Saviour carnallie, departed [Page 54] from him, and went no longer with him.

Lyke-wyse Augustine, 17. Argument, from the [...]u [...]l soune of speach in such things, which is [...]igura [...]e, and yet easilie vnderstood. in that Epistle which he wryteth to Bishop Boniface, amongst other things saith this, to wit, When Easter approa­cheth, wee vsuallie say, that the morrow is the day of the Lords Pas­sion, when not-with-standing hee hath suffered manie yeares agoe; nei­ther was that Passion of his but once, and vpon the Sabbath there­after wee say, This is the day of the Lords Resurrection, when notwith­standing manie yeares are by-past since hee arose. Wherefore no man will bee so foolish, as to accuse vs, because wee call these dayes so, but according to the similitude and me­moriall of those on which these things were done. So that that is called the day, which is not the day it selfe, but alyke vnto it by revolu­tion of tyme, and that is sayde to be done on that daye, in respect of the celebration of the Sacrament, and memoriall thereof, which notwith­standing [Page 55] is not on that day indeede, but long agoe is done.

Was not Christ lyke-wyse but once onelie crucified in his owne person?18. Argument, from the sa­cramentall proportion & similitude be­tweene the sigue, and th [...]ng signi­fied; which who taketh away, over­throweth the nature of a Sa­crament. and yet not-with-standing not onelie in the Sacrament at all these solemnities at Easter, but eve­rie day also hee is crucified before the whole people.

Neither speaketh hee vntruelie,19. Argument, likewise who knoweth not, that for this resemblance the name of the thing sig­nified is impo­sed on the signe, is igno­rant of the nature of Sa­m [...]ntes. who beeing asked at the tyme of the Sacrament, and in the meane while answereth, that Christ is in crucifying: for if Sacramentes had not a similitude of the things them­selues whereof they are Sacraments, they were not at all to be called Sa­craments.

From this similitude then,20. Argument, that which after a sa [...]a­ment [...]ll man­ner is Christes bod [...]e, is not the same pro­perlie. and resemblance, the Sacramentes, for the moste parte, take the names of the thinges them selues.

As then, according to a certaine manner, the Sacrament of Christes bodie, is the bodie of Christ; and the Sacrament of Christes bloode, [Page 56] is the bloode of Christ; so the Sa­crament of Fayth, is Fayth.

Wee see then,21. Argument, Who con­ [...]oundeth the signe, with the thing signi­fied, making the one to be the other, de­stroyeth the n [...]t [...]re of a S [...]ment. that holie Augu­stine sayeth, that the Sacrament, in effect, is one thing, and the thing signifyed, another: for the bodie of Christ which suffered, & that blood which gushed foorth out of his syde, are the reall thinges them selues; but the mysteries of these thinges, are that which hee calleth the Sacrament of the bodie and blood of Christ, which is celebra­ted in rememberance of the Lords Passion: not onelie at the solemni­tie of Easter yearlie, but also everie day through-out the whole yeare.

And not-with-standing that there is but one bodie of the Lord,22. Argument, from the na­ture of Christ [...] Bo [...]e, which is but one, & there­fore can bee but in one place at once. And seeing he suffered there­in on [...] [...], it cannot bee anie more cor­porallie bro­ken, nor his blood shedde againe. where-in hee suffered once onelie; and one blood, once onelie shedde for the redumption of the worlde: yet the Sacramentes haue taken the names of those same thinges them selues: so that they are called the Bodie and Blood of Christ, while as they are so onelie called but for [Page 57] the similitude of those things which they signifie: as the Passion daye, and the daye of the Resurrection, are so called, which are yearlie cele­brated, while as not-with-standing in his bodie hee suffered but once, (as is sayde) and rose but once: Neyther can these dayes bee called backe againe, because they are al­readie by-gone: Yet not-with-stan­ding, by that forme of speach, they are called such dayes, where in the rememberance of the Lordes death and Resurrection is commemora­ted, because they haue the simili­tude and resemblance of those dayes, where-on our Saviour suffe­red, and rose againe: Whence wee say, the daye, or tomorrowe, or the day after, to bee the daye of the Lordes Passion, or his Resurrection: when as not-with-standing those dayes where-on these thinges were reallie done, are by-past manie yeares agoe.

So also wee may saye, That the Lord is sacrificed, or offered vp, [Page 58] when the Sacrament of his Obla­tion is celebrated,23. Argument, from the man­ner how he is sayd daylie to bee sac [...]ced, or suffer; which is sa­cramentallie onelie, or by resemblance, and comme­moration. while as not-with-standing hee was but once onelie sacrificed, for the salvation of the worlde, in his owne person, as the Apostle sayeth, CHRIST once suffered for vs, leaving an exam­ple vnto vs, that wee might followe His Foote-steppes: 1. Pet. 2. For hee sayeth not, that hee suffereth daylie in his owne person, which hee did but once: but hee left vs that example, which vnto vs that are the fayth­full, is daylie represented in the mysterie of his bodie and bloode: that who-so-ever commeth vnto it, may know, that hee must bee parta­ker of the Lordes sufferinges: the patterne and resemblance where-of, hee giveth in his holie mysteries, ac­cording to that of Salomon, Prov. 23. When thou commest to eate at the Table of a mightie man, consider diligentlie what is set before thee, knowing that thou must prepare such things againe.

[Page 59]To come then to the Table of this mightie man,24. Argument, the thing sig­nified in the Sacrament. cannot be re­ceived and eaten with the mouth. is to bee partaker of the heavenlie Food: and the ta­king heede to those thinges which are set before thee, is the vnderstan­ding, and discerning aright, of the bodie and blood of Christ: Where­of who-so-ever hee bee that is par­taker, let him take heede, that hee must prepare such thinges also; to wit, that hee must bee Christes fol­lower, by dying with him: the me­morie of whose death, hee must not onelie by believing, but by ta­sting also confesse.

Also the blessed Apostle Sainct Paul, wryting to the Hebrewes, sayth, Such an high Priest it became vs to haue, Hebr. 7. who is holie, harmelesse, vndefy­led, separate from sinners, and made higher than the Heavens: Who nee­deth not daylie, as those high Priestes vnder the Lawe, to offer vp Sacrifice, first for his owne sinnes, and then for the peoples: for this the Lord IESVS CHRIST did once, when hee offered vp him selfe. And now that which [Page 60] hee did once, is daylie re-iterated: for hee offered himselfe once for the sinnes of the people, and yet not-with-standing this Oblation is daylie celebrated by the faythfull, but in a mysterie, that that which our Lord IESVS fulfilled, by offering vp him selfe once in per­son, might, in rememberance of his Passion, bee daylie performed, and that by celebrating the holie myste­ries there-of.

Neither is it vntruelie sayd, that in these mysteries the Lord is cruci­fied, or suffereth, because they car­rie the similitude of that death and suffering, whereof they are resem­blances: Whence it is also, that they are called the Lords bodie, and his blood, because they take the name of that, whereof they are the Sacrament.

Hence it is,25. Argument, from the mat­ter of the Sa­crament, which is the fruites of the earth; and therefore not Christes bodie and bloode properlie, seeing it was of the seede of the Virgine. that blessed Isiodor, in his Booke of Etimologies sayeth, that this word SACRIFICE, is so called as it were a Sacred fact, be­cause this action, or Sacrament, is [Page 61] consecrated with a mysticall sort of Prayer, vnto the remembrance of the Lords Passion. From whence it is, that at his command wee call that the bodie and blood of Christ; the which while it is made of the fruites of the earth, it is sanctified, and so becommeth a Sacrament, by the Spirite of God, working invisi­blie. The Sacrament of which Bread also, and of which Cup, is in the Greeke called Eucharict, which in Latine being interpreted, signifieth THANKS-GIVING.

And what is better (I pray you) than the bodie and blood of Christ?26. Argument, That which is compared vn­to the bodie and bloode of Christ, is not the verie same. and therefore that bread and that wine are compared to the bodie and blood of Christ, because as the substance of this visible bread and wine nowrisheth,27. Argument, That which is the foode of the soule one­lie, is not food for the bodie also. and refresheth the outward man, so that word of God, which is the living bread, by the participation of it refresheth the mynds of the faythfull.

And that holie fore-named Fa­ther doeth ever teach, that the my­sterie [Page 62] of the Lords Passion,28. Argument, Th [...]t which is celebrated in remembrance only of Christ his suffering, is not that bodie which pro­perly suffered. is to be celebrated in remembrance onlie of the Lords suffering for vs. And so by saying this, hee showeth, that the Lords proper suffering was but once, but that the daylie remembe­rance thereof in our holie Solem­nities is often to bee represented. Whence it is, that the bread which is offered, al-be-it it be taken of the fruits of the earth, while it is sancti­fied, it is turned in the bodie of Christ; and that wine which did proceede from the Vine-grape, by the sanctification of the holie my­sterie, is made the blood of Christ: not visiblie, (as is vsuall, is substan­tiall conversions) but (as the same Father sayeth) by the invisible ope­ration of the holie Ghost.

And because they are a farre more different thing,29. Argument, whatsoever outwardlie is taken by the mouth, serveth for the re­freshment of the bodie: but Christes bodie and blood ser­veth for the invisible and spirituall fee­ding of the soules, and therefore it is so taken. by the invisi­ble power, than they appeare out­wardlie, and are seene to bee, hee distinguisheth them, while he saith, that the bread and wine are there­fore compared to the bodie and [Page 63] blood of Christ; because as the sub­stance of the visible bread and wine nowrisheth and cheareth the out­ward man, so the worde of God, which is the liuelie bread, by the participation thereof, refresheth in like manner the soules of the fayth­full.

By saying of which things, hee confesseth plainlie, that whatsoever is taken outwardlie in the Sacra­ment of the Bodie and Blood of our Lord, it is meete for the refresh­ment of the bodie onelie; but the word of God, which is the invisible bread, beeing invisiblie present in that Sacrament, doeth feede the soules of the faythfull invisiblie, quickning them by the participa­tion of himselfe.

Hence it is, that the same divine Doctor sayeth, that it is a Sacra­ment, in anie celebration, when the action is so performed, that some thing is vnderstood to be signified, which is to bee holielie taken. By saying which, hee showeth, that all [Page 64] Sacramentes in holie matters, doe containe some mysticall thing, and that it is one thing which is seene by our outward eyes, and another thing which is inwardlie to bee vn­derstood by our mynds. And after this hee showeth what Sacraments are to bee celebrated by the fayth­full, to wit, Baptisme, and that of the Bodie and Blood of Christ.

Which are called Sacramentes,30. Argument, Those thing [...]s which vnder the over of corporall thing [...]s haue an b [...] and di­vine opera­tion, ends not to h [...]ge their essence: but the sacra­ments are so: Ergo, &c. because vnder the covering of the corporall thinges in these Sacra­mentes, the divine vertue more se­cretlie worketh salvation: Whence it is, that from their secret and sa­cred vertue, they are called Sacra­ments. And thereafter hee sayeth, that in the Greeke they are called MYSTERIES, because they haue a secret and hid nature and dis­position with them.

What then are we taught here?31. Argument, Those thinges that are not perceived, nor taken, but by diverse instru­mentes, they are not the same, but the Bread and Wine, and the Bodie and Bloode of Christ, are not perceived, nor taken, by the same instru­ments, but by diverse: and therefore are not the same. but that these things which are sayd to bee the bodie and blood of our Lord, are therefore called mysteries, because they haue a secret and hid [Page 65] disposition and qualitie; that is, that one thing they show outwardlie, and another thing invisiblie they worke inwardlie. From this they are also called Sacramentes, because by the covering of corporall things, the heavenlie power more secretlie dispenseth the salvation of the faith­full partakers.

Out of all then which hath bene formerlie spoken, wee haue showne vnto you, that the bodie and blood of Christ, which is taken in the Church, by the mouth of the fayth­full, are signes and figures, accor­ding to their visible shape; but ac­cording to their invisible substance,Conclusion. that is, according to the power of the heavenlie word, they are the bo­die and blood of CHRIST truelie: whence it is, that according as they are seen as the visible creatures, they nowrish the bodie; but according to the vertue of the more powerfull substance, they both nowrish and sanctifie the soules of the faythfull.

WE must looke now to the drift of the second Question,The second Question, Whether the matter of the Sacrament bee the natu­rall Bodie of CHRIST, or no? & consider if that same bodie which was borne of the Virgine, and suffered, died, and was buried, and sitteth now at the right Hand of the Father, bee that which is taken by the mouth of the fayth­full, daylie in the mysterie of the Sacrament?

Then let vs aske at Sainct Am­brose, 1. Argument, from [...] showi [...]g, that the matter of the Sacrament is taken cor­porallie, and nowrisheth of itselfe but the naturall lyfe: But the Bodie of Christ is not so, for it nowrisheth onelie the spi­rituall lyfe. what hee doeth thinke concer­ning this matter? for hee sayeth, in his first Booke of the Sacramentes, Surelie it is a wonderfull thing, that God rained downe heavenlie Food vnto our Fathers, and that they were daylie nowrished vpon cele­stiall meat; whence it is sayde, that Man did eate the bread of Angels: [Page 67] and yet they who did eate that bread, died all in the Desart. But that meate which thou takest, and that bread of life which came down from heaven, furnisheth the now­rishment of everlasting lyfe: and who-so-ever eateth this bread, hee shall never die: and this bread is the bodie of Christ.

Looke then in what respect it is, that this holie Doctor sayeth, that Christes bodie is foode, which the faythfull receiue in the Church; for hee sayeth, that bread of lyfe which came downe from heaven, furni­sheth the nowrishment of everla­sting lyfe.These words directlie con­tradict Pope Nicolas, De Consceratione, Dist. 2. cap. Evo Berenga­rius. Now (I aske) if it furnisheth that nowrishment, as it is seene? or as it is taken corporal­lie? as it is chewed with the teeth? swallowed with the mouth? and received in the stomacke? Not. For that way it should feed the flesh onelie, which is mortall; neyther giveth it anie immortalitie that way, nor can it bee sayde, that who-so-ever eateth this bread so, shall not [Page 68] die for ever: for that which the bo­die receiveth, is corruptible: neither can it availe vnto eternall lyfe, be­cause that which is subject to cor­ruption, cannot giue eternitie. Ther­fore in that bread there is a lyfe, which is not seene with these cor­porall eyes, but which wee beholde with sight of fayth, and that is that heavenlie bread which came downe from heaven; and concerning the which it is sayd, who-so-ever eateth this bread, shall liue for ever, which is the bodie of our Lord.

Also in the wordes following, when hee was speaking of the al­mightie power of Christ, he sayeth so, The word of God that might of nothing make that which was not, can Hee not change these thinges which are, into that vvhich they were not? For it is not a greater matter to create new things, than to change natures.

Sainct Ambrose then sayeth, that there is in the Sacrament of the bo­die and blood of our Lord, a muta­tion [Page 69] made marveilouslie, because divinelie and ineffablie, in respect it is an incomprehensible mysterie.

Let them tell then (sayeth he) who will haue nothing vnderstood according to an internall secret ver­tue,2. Argument, What change is in the Sa­crament? Not of substances: and therefore no T [...]usub­stan [...]ation, but a mysti­call change, and in vse. but all to bee esteemed after an outward and visible manner onelie, wherein this mutation is made? for according to the substance of the creatures, they are that same there­after, which they were before the consecration: they were first bread and wine, vnder the which shape they beeing consecrated, are seene still so as yet to remaine. It must be inwardlie then, that they are chan­ged, by the mightie power of the holie Spirit; and that which fayth beholdeth, feedeth the soule onlie, and furnisheth the nowrishment of eternall lyfe.

Also in the words following he sayeth, Wherefore seekest thou the order of nature in the bodie of Christ? aboue the order of nature our Lord was borne of the Virgine [Page 70] Marie. But heere then aryseth the hearer, and sayeth, that that is the verie bodie of Christ which is seene, and that is his blood which is drun­ken; neither that we must aske, how it is so; but that wee must belieue, that it is so.

Thou seemest (for-soothe) to thinke well, but if thou weigh di­ligentlie the force of the wordes, thou believest indeede faythfullie, that it is the bodie and blood of Christ: but yet if thou wouldest vn­derstand aright, thou shalt finde that that which thou believest, thou seest not as yet: for if thou did­dest see it, thou wouldest not say, I belieue that this is the bodie and blood of Christ, but I see the same.

Now then, because fayth onelie beholdeth all that,3. Argument. The Br [...]ad & Wine are Christ [...]s Body and Bloode in ver [...] onelie, and efficacie, vnto the fayth­full applyer alone: & not so of themselues substantiallie. what-so-ever the same be, and the carnall eye appre­hendeth nothing there-of, a man may easilie vnderstand, that these things in outward forme which are seene, are not the bodie and blood [Page 71] of Christ, but that they are so in vertue onelie and efficacie.

Whence he sayeth, The order of nature is not to bee looked to heere, but the mightie power of Christ to bee adored, who what-so-ever hee will, how-so-ever he will, and in what-so-ever hee will, crea­teth that which was not, and beeing created, changeth it into that which it was not before.

The same Doctor subjoyneth,4. Argument, From the di­stinction be­tweene Christ his Flesh, where-in hee was but once crucifyed in veritie, and the Sacrament of his Flesh. where-in hee is daylie cru­cifyed in re­semblance and mysterie. The true flesh of Christ (saith he) which was crucified, and buried, is then truelie the Sacrament of his flesh: for the Lord Iesus Himselfe cryeth, saying, This is My Bodie. How carefullie and wyselie, there­fore, is this distinction made? for hee speaketh concerning the flesh of Christ, which was crucified, which was buried, that is, accor­ding to which Christ was both cru­cified and buried; that is indeede the true flesh of Christ: but concer­ning that which is taken in the Sa­crament, hee sayeth, This is truelie [Page 72] the Sacrament of his flesh: distin­guishing so the Sacrament of his flesh, from the veritie of his flesh, in that respect that he sayeth, Ac­cording to the veritie of his flesh, which hee tooke of the Virgine, that hee was crucified, and buried: but that mysterie which is now ce­lebrated in the Church, hee would call that the Sacrament of that true flesh wherein he was crucified: Tea­ching the faythfull evidentlie, that this flesh where-in Christ was cru­cified, and buried, is not a mysterie, but the plaine veritie of nature: but this flesh which beareth the simili­tude of it in the mysterie, is not flesh indeede, but by a sacramentall man­ner, seeing according to the out­ward shape it is bread, but in the Sacrament it is the bodie of Christ, seeing he sayeth himselfe, This is My Eodie.

Also in the wordes following:5. Argument, from the spi­rituall sense of [...]us [...]g spiri­tual [...] howe sweete the Lord is: and not by a cor­povall taste, which is but of Bread and Wine onelie. what wee should eate, and what we doe drinke, the holie Spirit (sayth hee) expresseth vnto vs, by the [Page 73] holie Prophet else-where, saying, Taste, and see how sweet the LORD is; happie is the man that trusteth in Him. Showeth the corporall taste of that bread or wine how sweete the Lord is? Not: For what-so-ever is sweete that way, is corporall onelie, and delighteth the mouth.

To taste then howe sweete the Lord is, is it to taste by the outward sense anie corporall thing? Not: It is the Spirituall taste then which in­viteth vs to prooue this sweetnesse spirituallie; and in that bread and wine to consider nothing corporal­lie, but to vnderstand all to bee spi­rituallie meaned,6. Argument. Christ is in that Sacramēt, (as the thing signifyed with the signe,) compleating the same [...] but the Bread and Wine is to: Christ. For by that substan­tiall ch [...]nge, the signe, with the thing sig­nified, should bee so con­founded. because the Lord is a Spirite, and blessed is the man that putteth his trust in Him.

Also there-after he saith, Christ is in that Sacrament, because that Sacrament is the bodie of Christ: therefore it is not a corporall food, but a spirituall nowrishment. What is more cleare, more manifest, and more divinelie spoken? For hee sayeth, In that Sacrament CHRIST [Page 74] is. Hee sayeth not, that that bread and that wine is Christ. Which if hee had sayde, hee would haue af­firmed, that Christ was subject to corruptabilitie, and mortalitie: for what-so-ever is seene, or tasted in that foode corporallie, it is mani­fest, that it is subject vnto corrup­tion.

Heere-to hee addeth; Because it is the bodie of Christ (sayeth he) thou wilt object, and say, Beholde, manifestlie hee confesseth, that this bread, and this wine, is the bodie and bloode of Christ. But take heede what is subjoyned: This is not corporall foode, but spirituall. Looke that thou conceiue not a a carnall meaning heere-fore; for there is no such thing heere. True it is, that it is the bodie of Christ; not corporall, but spirituall: the blood of Christ; not corporall, but spirituall. Therefore there is no­thing to bee vnderstood heere cor­porallie, but spirituallie. It is the [Page 75] bodie and blood of Christ, but not corporallie.

Also in the wordes following, hee sayeth, The Apostle speaketh concerning the Type of Him, Our Fathers did eate the Spirituall Foode, and dranke the Spirituall Drinke: For the bodie of God, is a spirituall bo­die: the bodie of Christ, is the bo­die of a divine Spirite, because that Spirit is the Spirit of Christ, (who is God, and therefore it is divine) as wee reade in the Lamentations, Lament. 4. He is a Spirite before our face, even CHRIST the LORD.

The Apostle hath taught vs then sufficientlie, howe wee ought to vnderstand the mysterie of the bodie and bloode of Christ: For when hee had sayde, that Our Fa­thers did eate that Spirituall Foode, and dranke that Spirituall Drinke; which Manna not-with-standing that they did eate, and which Water whereof they did drinke, were corporall bo­dies, as no man doubteth, hee ad­deth there-to, concerning the my­sterie [Page 76] which is vsed in the Church daylie,7. Argument. No spirituall thing is visi­ble, nor p [...]lpa­ble. but th [...] which we re­ceiue in tha [...] divine myste­rie, is spiritual: The Blood and Wine of the contra [...], bee­ing palpable, and visible, therefore they are no that spirituall thing [...] seeing we both feele and see them. showing in what respect it is the bodie of Christ, while hee sayeth, that the bodie of God, is a spirituall bodie: For Christ is God, and that bodie which hee tooke of the Virgine, which suffered, which was buried, and rose againe, was a true bodie, to wit, that same which remained visible, and palpable. But that bodie, which is called The di­vine Mysterie, is not corporall, but spirituall. And if it bee spirituall, it is not visible, nor palpable.

Hence Sainct Ambrose subjoy­neth this, saying, The bodie of Christ, is the bodie of a divine Spi­rit: but a divine Spirit hath in it no corporal nor corruptible thing, nei­ther is it palpable in the existence there-of. But this bodie, which is celebrated in the Church, accor­ding to the visible forme there-of, it is both corruptible, and palpable. How is it sayde then to bee the bo­die of a divine Spirit? To wit, ac­cording to that it is spirituall; that [Page 77] is, as it is invisible, impalpable, and consequentlie incorruptible.

Hence in the words following,Note That the [...] of Christ indeed giveth lyfe, [...] not absoluteli [...], but as it is the flesh or the di­vine Worde. From whome, as the Po [...] ­ [...]taine, by the fleshe, as the Channell, lyfe is conveyed vnto vs. Because CHRIST is a Spirit, as wee reade Lament. 4, Hee is a Spirite be­fore our face, even CHRIST the LORD, hee showeth clearlie, in what respect it is esteemed the bo­die of Christ; to wit, because the Spirit of Christ is in it; that is, the power of the Word of God, which not onelie feedeth the Soule, but al­so cleanseth it.

Wherefore the Author him selfe sayeth in the wordes following,8. Argument, From the na­ture of the soule, which is spirituall: and therefore requireth spi­rituall Food. To what effect, as the Prophet rehear­seth, doeth that food confirme, and that drinke gladden the heart of man? for confirmeth corporall food the heart of man? or doeth earthlie drinke gladden the soule? No. That hee might showe then what foode, and what drinke hee meant, hee added emphaticallie, and in a speciall manner, That drinke (saith hee) and that meate. What mea­neth hee by that meate, and that [Page 78] drinke? to wit, the bodie of Christ, the bodie of that divine Spirit. And that it may bee more clearelie na­med, It is spirituall Christ, concer­ning whome it is sayde, Christ the Lord is a spirit before our face.

By which thinges it is showne evidentlie vnto vs, that nothing is vnderstood in that meat and drinke corporallie, but all is to bee taken spirituallie: for the soule of man, which is signified by his heart, is not fed with corporall foode, but is nowrished and quickened by that word of God. Which the same Doctor showeth more manifestlie, in his fift Booke of the Sacraments, saying, It is not that bread wich en­tereth into the bodie, but that bread of lyfe, which giveth quickning to our soules.

And that Sainct Ambrose spake not this of the common bread, but of the bread of the bodie of Christ, the next words manifestlie declare, for hee speaketh of the daylie bread, which the faythfull desire to bee [Page 79] given them, and therefore hee sub­joyneth these wordes, If it bee our daylie bread, why take yee it onelie at the ende of a whole yeare? as the Grecians in the East vsed to doe. Take then that daylie, which will bee profitable to thee daylie; and liue so, that thou mayest bee worthie daylie to receiue it.

It is manifest then concerning what bread hee speaketh, to wit, concerning the bodie and blood of Christ, which nowrisheth not, in that it goeth downe into the bodie, but because it is the bread of everla­sting lyfe.

By the authoritie then of this most learned man wee are admoni­shed,A cleare Con­clusion of Ambrose mynde. that there is a great difference betweene the bodie of Christ which suffered, and his blood which gu­shed foorth out of his syde on the Crosse, and betweene this bodie which is celebrated daylie by the faythfull, in the mysterie of the Lords Passion, and that blood which is taken by the mouth of the fayth­full; [Page 80] seeing it is the mysterie onelie of that blood, wher-with the whole world was redeemed.

That bread and that drinke, therefore, according to that they are seene; are not the bodie and blood of Christ, but according to that they furnish the nowrishment of lyfe spirituallie. But that bodie of Christ, wherein he was crucified, carried none other shape, or appea­rance, than wherein it did consist truelie: for it was truelie that bodie which was seene, which was tou­ched, which was crucified, which was buried; lyke-wyse that blood which gushed foorth out of his side, seemed not one thing outwardlie, and mysticallie covered another thing inwardlie; therefore it was true blood which sprang from that true bodie. But that blood of Christ, which now the faythful drinke, and the bodie which they eate, is one thing according to their shape, and another thing according to their signification: for it is one way wher­by [Page 81] they feede the bodie with cor­porall foode, and another where [...]y they fill our soules with the sub­stantiall nowrishment of eternall lyfe.

Concerning which thing Sainct Ierome, 9 Argument, From Sainct Ierome his testimonie. in his Commentarie vpon Sainct Paules Epistle to the Ephe­sians, writeth so, The bodie and blood of Christ (sayeth hee) may be vnderstood two māner of ways; either spirituallie, concerning the which hee sayeth, My Flesh is Meat indeed, and My Blood is Drinke indeede: or corporallie, according to that flesh which was crucified, and that blood which was shed by the Soul­diours Lance. It is not then by a small difference that hee maketh such a distinction of the bodie and blood of Christ: for while he saith, That this flesh or blood which is taken by the faythfull, is spirituall, but that flesh which was crucified, and that blood which was shed by the Souldiours Lance, is not spiri­tuall, hee insinuateth thus much, [Page 82] that there is great difference be­tweene these, as there is betweene corporall things and spirituall, vi­sible and invisible, naturall and su­pernaturall: and in respect that they differ so, it followeth, that they are not one.

Therefore that spirituall flesh which is taken by the faythfull on­lie, and that spirituall drinke, which is exhibited vnto the believers day­lie to bee drunken, differeth from the flesh which was crucified, and the blood which was shedde by the Souldiours Launce, as the authori­tie of this holie Man testifieth: and therefore (I say) they are not all one thing.

For that flesh which was cruci­fied,10 Argument, From the diversitie of that which is Christs natu­rall bod [...]e, [...]d that which is his sacramen­tall bodie. was made of the Virgines flesh, joyned with Bones and Si­newes, distinguished by the Linea­mentes of humane Members, quic­kened with the spirite of a reasona­ble soule, to the vse of a proper life, and agreeable motions. But that spirituall flesh, which feedeth the [Page 83] believers spirituallie, according to the outward shape, it consisteth of the graines of Corne, made by the hand of the Baker, joyned with no sinewes nor bones, distinguished with no varietie of members, quick­ned vvith no reasonable soule, and which can exercise no proper mo­tions: for what-so-ever in it giveth lyfe, is of a spirituall power, of an invisible efficacie, and of an heaven­lie vertue: for it is a farre more diffe­rent thing, as it is believed in a my­sterie, than as it is seene outwardlie.

More-over,11. Argument. As the Bread made of many Graines, is the Bodie of the Church, so is it the Bodie of Christ: But it is the one by representa­tion, [...] [...]ot by anie corpo­rall cha [...]ge: Therefore so is it the other. the flesh of Christ which was crucified, shewed no more outwardlie, than it was in it selfe, because it was the flesh of a true man onelie, to wit, a true bodie, vnder the shape of a true bodie. But we must not onelie consider in that bread, this bodie of Christ, but also the bodie of the whole believers in him must be represented, for which cause it is made vp of manie graines of Wheate, because so the bodie of the Church is made vp of manie be­lievers, [Page 84] by the word of Christ: for which cause as in the mysticall bread, the bodie of Christ is vnder­stood; so also in the same mysterie the members of the Church are re­presented, to bee one in Christ: and as not corporallie, but spirituallie, that bread is called the bodie of the Church, or believing people. So also of necessitie it must bee vnder­stood to be the bodie of Christ, not corporallie, but spirituallie.

So also in the wine,12. Argument From [...] Christs blood [...] is converted in his blood. which is called the blood of Christ, it is com­manded to bee mixed with water: neither is it suffered, that one of them bee offered without the other, because the people can-not be with­out Christ, nor Christ without his people; even as the head cannot be with-out the members, nor the members with-out the head: for the water in that Sacrament signi­fieth the people. Then if that wine, which is sanctified by the office of the Ministers thereof, bee turned corporallie into the blood of Christ, [Page 85] the water also which is mixed with it, of necessitie must bee converted corporallie into the blood of the be­lievers: For where there is one san­ctification, there is one operation; and where there is a-lyke reason, there is a-lyke mysterie: But wee see in the water nothing to be chan­ged corporallie, and therefore con­sequentlie neither in the wine: So that what-so-ever in the water is signified concerning the people, it is taken spirituallie: Then of neces­sitie what-so-ever in the wine is meaned concerning the blood of Christ, must be taken spirituallie.

Also these thinges which differ amongst them selues,13. Argument, From the op­posite diffe­rence of Christ his na­turall bodie, and the sacra­mental [...]. are not one: the bodie of Christ then, which hath died, and is risen, and is made im­mortall, dieth not now; for Death hath no more dominion over it, for it is eternall, neither is it now passi­ble at all: but this which is celebra­ted in the Church, is temporall, and not eternall; corruptible, as that which is yet in the way, and not al­readie [Page 86] in the natiue Countrey: wher­fore they differ from them selues, and therefore are not one.

But if they bee not one, howe then are they called the true bodie and blood of Christ? For if it bee the bodie of Christ, and that bee sayde truelie, because it is so, then in veritie it is his bodie: and if it be in veritie his bodie, it is incorrup­tible, and doeth not nowe suffer, and consequentlie is eternall. Then of necessitie this bodie which is ce­lebrated in the Church, must bee incorruptible, and eternall. But it can-not bee denyed, but that is sub­ject to corruption, which is divy­ded in partes, to bee taken; and beeing brayed with the teeth, is sent downe into the Bellie. Therefore it is one thing that is seene outward­lie, and another thing which is be­lieved by fayth inwardlie. For as it falleth vnder the sense of the bo­die, it is corruptible; but as fayth believeth, it is incorruptible. That which is seene then outwardlie, is [Page 87] is not the thing it selfe, but the re­semblance of it; but that which is felt inwardlie, and vnderstood by the mynd, is the veritie of the thing it selfe.

Hence it is, that Sainct Augu­stine, in the Exposition of the Evan­gelist Sainct Iohn, sayeth, while hee was speaking of the bodie & blood of Christ;14. Argument, From the te­stimonie of Augustine. Moses did eate (saith he) that Manna, and Aaron, and Phineas, and manie moe die eate the same there, who pleased GOD, and they died not. Wherefore? because they tooke that visible meate spiri­tuallie, they tasted spirituallie, that they might bee filled spirituallie: for wee now-a-dayes in lyke-manner take visible bread. But a Sacra­ment is one thing, and the vertue of a Sacrament another.

Also in the wordes following: this is the bread which came down from heaven: that heavenlie Manna did fore-show this bread: the Altar of God also did fore-shadow this bread. All these were Sacraments, [Page 88] which are diverse, according to their signes, but a-like in that which they signified.

Let vs heare the Apostle Sainct Paul also:1. Corinth. 10 Brethren, 15. Argument, From Sainct P [...] his wordes. (sayeth hee) I will not haue you ignorant, that our Fathers were all vnder the Cloude, and did all passe through the Sea, and that they were all bap [...]ized vnto Moses in the Cloude, and in the Sea, and did all eate that same Spirituall Meat, and did all drinke that same Spirituall Drinke. I say, that same spirituall meat, and that same drinke, because they did eate other corporall meat, & dranke other corporall drinke, in respect they did eate Manna; But wee doe eate another thing, and yet they did eate the same spirituall meat which wee doe: and they all dranke that same spirituall drinke. But accor­ding to the visible shape, these thinges were different, which not­with-standing did signifie but one thing spirituallie. Howe then did they drinke of that same drinke? Hee answereth, They did drinke of [Page 89] that spirituall Rocke that followed them, and that Rocke was Christ. From thence came the Bread also, from whence the Drinke came: and the Rocke Christ was given them for a signe: but true Christ was ex­hibited in the worde, and in the flesh.

Also, this is the Bread which came downe from Heaven; where­of if anie man eate, hee shall not die. But hee meaneth heere that which appertayneth vnto the ver­tue of the Sacrament, and not that which appertayneth to the visible Sacrament. Who so eateth with­in, and not without, participateth heere-of, who so eateth with his heart, and not with his mouth.

Also in the wordes following, bringing in the wordes of our Sa­viour,Iohn, 6. hee sayeth,16. Argument, From Christ his wordes. Doeth this of­fende you, because I sayde, I giue you my Flesh to eate, and my Blood to drinke? What then if yee shall see the Sonne of man going vp [Page 90] where hee was before? What meaneth hee by this? Heere hee taketh away that doubt which trou­bled them: heere hee cleareth that which offended them: For they thought, that hee was carnallie to bestowe his bodie vpon them by morsels. But hee shewed, that hee was to goe vp to Heaven, with his whole bodie. When yee shall see the Sonne of Man then going vp where hee was before, surelie then it shall be manifest, that the LORD bestoweth not his bodie according as yee suppose: surelie then yee shall vnderstand, that his grace is not consumed by mo [...]sels.

Also hee sayeth, It is the Spirite that quickeneth,17. Argument. the flesh profiteth nothing. And a good while after hee addeth this, Who-so-euer hath not the Spirite of Christ,Rom. 4. (sayeth the Apostle) the same is not his. Then it is the Spirite that quicke­neth, the flesh profiteth nothing. The wordes that I speake vnto you [Page 91] are Spirit and Lyfe: That is (sayeth hee) they are to bee vnderstoode spirituallie. Vnderstandest thou them spirituallie? Then they are Spirit and Lyfe vnto thee, Vnder­standest thou them carnallie? Even yet they are Spirite and Lyfe, but not vnto thee.

By the authoritie then of this learned Doctor,A cleare Con­clusion out of Augustines wordes. wee are taught ma­nifestlie, that the wordes of our Sa­viour, concerning the Sacrament of his bodie and blood, are to bee vnderstood spirituallie, and not car­nallie: as hee sayeth him selfe, The wordes that I speake vnto you, are Spirit and Lyfe: To wit, the wordes concerning the eating of his fleshe, and drinking of his bloode: For it was concerning this that hee was speaking when his Disciples were offended. Therefore, that they might not bee offended, our hea­venlie Master calleth them backe, from the flesh, vnto the Spirit; from corporall sense, to spirituall vnder­standing.

[Page 92]Wee see then, in the eating of the Lord [...] bodie, and drinking of his blood, in what respect the same is his bodie, and his blood, truelie; to wit, according to that that the same is Spirit and Lyfe.

Also these things that are a-like, are comprehended vnder one defi­nition. Nowe concerning the true bodie of Christ, it is sayde, That hee is true God, and true man, who in the latter tymes of the world was borne of the Virgine Marie. But these things cannot be sayde of the bodie of Christ, which is celebrated by a mysterie in the Church. Ac­cording then to a certaine manner onelie, it is acknowledged to be the bodie of Christ; and that manner is by a figure, and in resemblance, that so the veritie and thing it selfe may bee the more sensiblie vnder­stood.

In the Prayers also which are sayde after the mysterie of the body and blood of Christ,18. Argument, From the olde custome of praying at the Sacrament. and wherein [Page 93] the people answere AMEN,Here wee see, that of olde, when these Prayers were made, there were no pri­vate Masses, where [...] the Priest [...] communica­ted: but both People and Pa [...]or did communicate. And the Sa­crament then was for [...], and thankes­giving; and not a propi­ [...] sacri­fice for the quicke and the dead. the Priest vttereth these wordes, Wee request Thee humblie, O LORD, who are now partakers of the Pledges of eternall Lyfe, that which we touch in the resemblance of this Sacrament, wee may receiue in the manifest parti­cipation of the thing it selfe.

Now we know that a pledge or resemblance, is of another thing, where-of they are the pledges or re­semblances; that is, they are not to bee considered as they are in them selues, but as they haue a reference to another thing: for a pledge is of that for the which it is given; and so is an Image the resemblance of that whose similitude it represen­teth: they signifie then the thing whose Images they are, and doeth not showe the same in it selfe mani­festlie.

Which while they are so, it is evident, that this bodie and blood are the pledges and resemblances of that to come, that that which is [Page 94] shown vnto vs by a similitude now, shalbee clearlie revealed vnto vs in tyme to come. It is one thing then which is done nowe, and another which shall bee manifested heere­after.

Wherefore it is the bodie and blood of Christ which the Church celebrateth, [...] Prayer. but as a Pledge and re­semblance: the veritie it selfe shall bee when neyther Pledge, nor re­presentation, but He him selfe shall clearlie appeare.

And in another place he sayth,19 A [...]gument, F [...]o [...]he di­stin [...]on of the resem­blance, and the thing it selfe. O LORD, accomplishe in vs that which THY Sacramentes contayne; that that which wee nowe celebrate in resemblance, wee may bee partakers also of the veritie of the thinges them selues. Hee sayeth then, that these thinges are celebrated in resem­blance; that is, by similitude, and not by the manifestation of the thing it selfe: So that the resem­blance, and the veritie of the thing it selfe, are there distinguished.

[Page 95]Wherefore the body and blood of Christ, which is nowe celebrated in the Church, differeth from that bodie and blood which is knowne to bee glorified in Christ his bodie by his resurrection. And this bodie which is celebrated in the Church, is but a Pledge and resemblance of that; but that is the veritie it selfe. This is done, while wee come to that; but when wee come to that, this shall bee remooved.

It is manifest then, that there is great difference betweene them, as much as there is betweene a Pledge, and that wherefore it is given; and as much as there is betweene an Image, and that which it represen­teth; and as much as there is be­tweene the resemblance of a thing, and the veritie it selfe.

Wee see then that there is great difference betweene the mysterie of the bodie and bloode of Christ, which is taken in the Church by the Faythfull, and that which was [Page 96] borne of the Virgine, which suffe­red, which was buried, which rose againe, and went to heaven, and now sitteth at the right hand of the Father: For this which is celebra­ted in this mortall Iourney, is taken spirituallie, because fayth believeth that which it seeth not, and spiri­tuallie feedeth the soule, and gladde­neth the heart, and giveth eternall lyfe, and immortalitie, while that is not taken heede vnto which fee­deth the bodie,20. Argument From the pro­perties and [...] of the [...] of Christ his na­turall bodie, eve [...] after his resurrection, which that which is [...]or­ged by Trans­substantiation hath not. and is torne with the teeth, and broken in pieces; but that which is spirituallie taken, and by fayth apprehended.

But that bodie wherin he suffe­red, which rose againe, and is his proper bodie, which hee tooke of the Virgine, was palpable and vi­sible, after his resurrection, as hee him selfe sayeth vnto his Disciples;Luke, 24. Wherefore are yee troubled? and wherefore doe cogitations enter in­to your heartes? Looke to mine Handes and Feete, if I bee not the [Page 97] same Man: handle, and see, because a spirit hath not flesh and bones, yee see mee haue.

Let vs also heare what holie Fulgentius sayeth,21. Argument, From the Te­stimonie of E [...]lg [...]ius. in his Booke con­cerning Fayth; Gripe stedfastlie, (sayeth hee) and doubt no-wyse, that the onelie begotten Sonne of God was made flesh, that he offe­red him selfe vp in a Sacrifice ac­ceptable to God, to whome, with the Father, and the holie Spirit, the Patriarches, Prophets, and Priestes in tyme of the Olde Testa­ment sacrificed Beastes; and to whom now in the tyme of the new Testament, with the Father and the holie Spirite, who maketh but one God-head, the Sacrifice of bread and wine is through faith and charitie offered by the Catholicke Church throughout the world. In these carnall Sacrifices, there was a representation of the flesh of Christ, which he was to offer for our sinnes, being without sinne him selfe; and [Page 98] of his blood, which he was to offer [...] the remission of our sinnes. But in this Sacrifice is a Thanks-giving, and commemoration of the bodie of Christ, which hee offered for vs; and of his blood, which hee shed for vs: concerning which the bles­sed Apostle Paul sayeth, in the Acts of the Apostles;Acts, 20. Take heede there­fore vnto your selues, and to all the flocke, over which the holie Ghost hath made you over-seers, to feede the Church of God, which hee hath conquest with his owne blood. In those Sacrifices then it was showne figuratiuely, what was to haue bene given vnto vs: but in this Sacri­fice is clearelie showne, what is al­readie given vnto vs. Saying then that it was signified in those Sacri­fices, what was to bee given vnto vs, but in this Sacrament that wee should commemorate that which is alreadie given, hee showeth evi­dentlie, that as that had a figure of the things to come, so this should [Page 99] haue a resemblance of thinges al­readie by-gone.

By which wordes also he decla­reth manifestlie, what great diffe­rence is betweene the bodie of Christ which suffered, and that bo­die which serveth for the comme­moration of his death and suffering: for the one was his true and proper bodie, having no mysticall signifi­cation, nor resemblance of any other thing in it; but this other is mysti­call, showing one thing outwardlie by figure, and inwardlie represen­ting another thing vnto vs, by the vnderstanding of faith.

Let vs bring one testimonie yet of Sainct Augustine, 22. Argument From a Testi­monie of saint Augustine. which will confirme the thing we haue said, & put an ende also to our present Dis­course: In that Sermon which he made vnto the people concerning this Sacramēt of the Altar, he saith; That which yee see on the Altar of God, yee saw it this night by-gone, but yee heard not yet what it was, [Page 100] or what it meaned, and of howe great a thing it was a Sacrament. That which yee see then, it i [...] bread and wine, which your eyes point foorth vnto you: but that which your fayth is to bee instructed in, is this, That that Bread is the Bodie of Christ, and that Cup the Blood of Christ. This is shortlie sayde, which perhaps would suff [...]ce your fayth: but your fayth requireth in­struction; for the Prophet sayeth, Except ye [...] belieue,I [...], 6. ye shall not vn­derstand. Yee may then say vnto mee, Thou hast commanded vs to belieue; declare vnto vs, that wee may vnderstand; for this cogitation may enter into the mynde of anie man; wee know whence our Lord Iesus tooke flesh, to wit, of the Vir­gine Marie, being an Infant, he suc­ked, hee was nowrished, hee came vnto youth-head, hee suffered per­secution of the Iewes, hee hung vp­on a Tree, hee was killed, taken downe from the Crosse, hee was [Page 101] buried, and rose againe the third day, at his appointed time, he went to the Heavens, and lifted vp his bodie thither, from whence hee is to come, to judge the quicke and the dead, & there he is presentlie, at the right hand of his Father sitting; howe then can this bee his bodie? or this Cup, or that which it con­taineth, his blood? Brethren, these thinges are called Sacramentes, be­cause in them there is one thing seene, and another thing is vnder­stood: that which is seene, hath a corporall shape; but that which is vnderstood, hath a spirituall fruit.

This Venerable Doctor then, by saying this, teacheth vs, what wee ought to thinke, concerning the proper bodie of Christ, which was borne of the Virgine, and sit­teth nowe at the right Hand of the Father, in which hee is to come to judge the quicke and the dead: and what wee ought to thinke of that which is offered vpon the Al­tar, [Page 102] where-of the People are made partakers. That bodie is whole; neither is it divided by any cutting, nor covered with anie figures: But this which is set vpon the Table of the Lord, is a resemblance of that, because it is a Sacrament: And that which is seene outwardlie, hath a corporall shape, and feedeth the bo­die: but that which is vnderstoode inwardlie, it hath a spirituall fruite, which quickeneth the Soule.

And when he would haue spo­ken more manifestlie, concerning this mysticall bodie, hee sayeth thus in the wordes following; If ye will vnderstand concerning the bodie of Christ,1. Cor [...]nth. 10. heare the Apostle, saying, Yee are the Bodie and Members of Christ. If then yee bee the bodie and members of Christ your mysti­call resemblance is set on the Lords Table, and yee receiue the mysterie of the Lord, and vnto that which you are, yee say AMEN,Here you see, that the olde custome was, that the whole people, & not th [...] C [...]ke on­lie, said AMEN. and by aun­swering so,Iust. Apolog. 2. yee subscrybe there-vn­to. Thou hearest then of the bo­die [Page 103] of Christ, and thou aunswerest AMEN. Bee a member then of the bodie of CHRIST, that that may bee a true AMEN.

Wherefore then is this myste­rie in the bread? Wee shall bring nothing heere of our owne wit, but let vs heare the Apostle, when hee was speaking of that Sacrament, saying, For wee being manie, are one bread, and one bodie.

And holie Augustine, instructing vs sufficientlie of the rest, sayeth, That as in that bread which was offered on the Altar, the bodie of Christ was resembled, so also the bodie of the people that did re­ceiue, it was lyke-wyse represen­ted; that so hee might showe mani­festlie, that that is the proper bodie of Christ onlie, which was borne of the Virgin, sucked, suffered, died, was buried, rose againe, ascended to the Heavens, and which present­lie sitteth at the right Hand of his Father, and is to come to Iudge­ment: But this which is set vpon [Page 104] the Lordes Table, containeth the mysterie of the bodie of the fayth­full, as the Apostle witnesseth, say­ing, For wee beeing many, are one bread, and one bodie in Christ.

Wherefore (most Noble Prince) let your wisedome consider, that it is most clearlie showne, by Testi­monies of holie Scripture, and Say­ings I of the holie Fathers, That that Bread which is called the Bodie of Christ, & that Cup which is called the Blood of Christ, is a figure, be­cause it is a mysterie.

II And that there is a great diffe­rence betweene the mysterie of his bodie, and his bodie it selfe, which suffered, was buried, and rose a­gaine; because this is the proper bodie of our Saviour; neither is there in it any figure, or signifi­cation, but the manifestation of the thing it selfe is knowne; and the be­lievers desire the sight of him, be­cause hee is our head: and by the sight of him, our desire shal be satis­fied, because He and the Father is [Page 105] one, not according to that that our SAVIOVR hath a bodie, but according to the fulnesse of the DEITIE which dwelleth in the Man CHRIST. But in that which is celebrated in a mysterie, is a re­semblance, not onlie of the proper bodie of Christ, but also of all be­lievers in him: for it beareth the fi­gure of both the bodies; that is, both of Christ which suffered, and rose againe, and of the people which are renewed in Christ by Baptisme, and quickned from the dead.

Let vs also adde this, That that III Bread and Cup which is called the Bodie and Blood of Christ, repre­senteth the remembrie of the Lords Passion, or Death,Matthew, 26. as him selfe sayde in the Gospell, Doe this in remembe­rance of Mee. Which the Apostle Sainct Paul expoundeth,1. Corinth. 11. saying, How often so-ever yee eate this Bread, and drinke this Cuppe, yee shall re­member the LORDES death, till His comming againe. We are taught then by our Saviour, and also by the [Page 106] holie Apostle Sainct Paul, That that Bread, and that Bloode, which is set vpon the Altar, is set downe in rememberance and resemblance of the Lordes death and Passion, that it may call to recent memorie that which was done long a-goe: where-by wee beeing remembered of his death and suffering, may bee made partakers there-by of that heavenlie Gift, where-by wee are redeemed from Death ever-lasting.

IIII Knowe wee lyke-wyse, that when wee come to the sight of Christ him selfe, wee shall not haue neede of such meanes, where-by wee may bee admonished, what his great bountifulnesse sustayned for vs: because beholding him selfe, face to face, wee shall not bee put in mynde, by the outward admonition of temporall thinges; but wee shall beholde him by the contemplation of the veritie it selfe, even as wee ought, to giue thankes for ever vn­to the Author of our Salvation.

[Page 107]Neyther, there-fore, let it bee V thought, al-be-it wee say this, that there-fore the Bodie and Bloode of Christ is not truelie apprehended by the Faythfull, in the mysterie of this Sacrament; seeing Fayth appre­hendeth, not that which the Eye seeth, but that which it selfe belie­veth; because it is spirituall foode, and spirituall drinke, feeding the Soule spirituallie, & giving lyfe full of eternitie, as the Lord, our Sa­viour, commending this mysterie, fayeth,Iohn, 6. It is the Spirite that quicke­neth, for the Flesh profiteth nothing.

Desiring, then, to obey Your Highnesse Commaund heere-in, I beeing but of small abilitie, haue vnder-taken to reason concerning thinges of no small importance and controversie: not following the presumptiō of mine own thoughts and estimation, but looking to the authoritie of Fathers, and those that haue gone before mee. Which if You allowe to bee spoken catho­licklie, [Page 108] attribute the same vnto the worthinesse of Your Fayth; who laying a-syde the Glorie of Your Royall Majestic, was not ashamed to haue an Aunswere of the Veritie from Your humble Servaunt. But if it please You not, let it bee impu­ted vnto mine insufficiencie, vvho was not able to declare these things so effectuallie, as other-wyse I de­syred.


The Purging of BERTRAM,

Out of the Expurgatorie Spanish Index, of Don Gasp [...]r, Quiroga, Cardinall, and Arch-bishop of Toledo, Generall Inquisitor of Spayne; and set foorth by his Com­maund, and of the Councell of the sayde Generall Inquisition; according to the Decreet of the Councell of Trent: and by the speciall Mandate & Authoritie of Philip the second, King of Spayne; And by the care and di­rection of the Duke of Alue, in the Low-Countreys. Framed, and made vp, Anno 1571.

According to that Copie, printed at Madrill there-after, by Alphon­sus Gomesius, His Majesties Prin­ter there, Anno 1594.

That the Booke of BER­TRAM, Priest, Of the Bodie and Blood of CHRIST, beeing amended, may bee hence-foorth to­lerated.

The Iudgement, and Decree, of the Vniversitie of Duay, approoved by the Censures, as fol [...]oweth:

ALtho wee greatlie account not of this Booke, and therefore we are not much carefull altho it were not at all, or had perished: yet not-with­standing seeing it hath beene often printed here-to-fore, & read by sun­drie, & that by the forbidden name there-of it hath bene made knowne to all, and that the Heretickes doe vnderstand of this mans prohibi­tion by diverse Catalogues, and that he was a Catholicke Priest, and a Monke of the Monasterie of Corbei, and greatlie beloved and reveren­ced, not so much by Charles the Great, [Page 111] as Charles the bolde, as we may con­sider in the Historie of his age: yet in him, as in other Catholicke Wri­ters, wee must beare with many Er­roures of theirs, and we must exte­nuate and excuse them, and often­tymes by devising a fit exposition to their words: Let vs even often­tymes denye them, & frame a com­modious meaning vnto them, while as in Disputes, or conflicts with the Adversaries, they are opponed a­gainst vs: And therefore wee see not why this BERTRAM requireth not the same equitie, and diligent examination: lest doing other-wyse, by full suppressing of him, the He­retickes accuse vs, That wee burne and prohibite all Antiquitie ma­king for them: And therefore, that it is no marvell that fewe seeme to make for them, when wee that are Catholickes, so vnreverentlie and disdainfullie thrust foorth, and de­stroy all Antiquitie amongst vs, that but in verie show doe disagree from vs.

[Page 112]As also wee feare that not onlie that Booke bee read by Heretickes, but also that by disobedient Catho­lickes the same bee more greedylie perused, in respect of the interdi­ction there-of, and that the same be more dangerouslie alleadged; and that beeing al-to-gether prohibited, that it shall hurt more than beeing permitted: for there is nothing in it worthie of rebuke, except the ob­scurenesse of the mans speach, and an vnfit, either vsurpation, or ex­position, of some wordes, and sen­tences, which by a marginall expla­nation, either prefixed, or affixed, if they were interpreted, and the Authores meaning and scope were there-by declared; and finallie, if that some thinges which seeme not obscurelie to be by some Hereticke inserted, or added, about the ende of the Treatise, were remarked, and eschewed, there would bee nothing then resting which might be feared by the Reader in this Worke.

[Page 113]There-fore, neyther evill, nor vnadvisedlie, let all these thinges bee omitted.

About the ende of the thirde Page, these wordes, It is lyke-wyse to bee considered, that in that Bread, &c. Even to this a good deale af­ter, But it is another thing which is outwardlie done, &c. And againe, even in the same Page, and in the next there-vnto, all these speaches which followe.

As also these things that are one, are comprehended vnder one Definition, &c. Even vnto that. For that which is done in the lyfe spirituallie, &c. So these thinges beeing omitted, ney­ther shall they obscure the precee­ding meaning, nor cause anie thing to bee maymed, or superfluous.

There resteth onlie one scruple, but verie little to them that are Ca­tholicklie taught, (as BERTRAM [Page 114] not once sayeth) That that which appeareth in the [...]VCHARIST doeth seede the bodie, is corrupti­ble, and not eternall, &c. For that the Catholicke Fayth attributeth all these thinges vnto the Species and Accidents of the Substances which were before Trans-substantiation, is more clearlie knowne, than can bee declared other-wyse. For so wee aunswere vnto the Experiences and Assertions of the Berengarians, which are rehearsed in Gvitmundus, who sayde, That they founde by expe­rience, some to haue lived long, and growne, by the Encharist alone: to wit, these Accidents did as much as other Substances.

Neyther doe wee thinke, with Guitmundus, that another substance was substitute for their incredulitie, or that Consecration or Trans-sub­stātiation did not solow, when their intention who did celebrate the same was wrong: For the naming [Page 115] of the Substances of Bread and Wine, (as hath beene sayde) are taken for the formes, or accidentes, of Bread and Wine. Altho I de­nye not, but BERTRAM at that time did not exactlie vnder-stand, that these Accidentes did subsist with­out a substance; and other thinges also, which in the latter Age moste subtillie, and truelie, by holie men were added.

Next, followeth those thinges vvhich out of BERTRAM are al-to­gether not to bee deleted.

Fol. 1137, reade Invisiblie for Visiblie. And there-after, According to the substance of the creatures, which they were before Consecration, that same they remayne after. It is to bee in­terpreted, According to the exter­nall Accidents of the Sacrament.

Fol. 1140. But this which is ce­lebrated in the Church, is temporall, [Page 116] not eternall. It is to bee interpreted, According to the corruptible acci­dents, or of the thing it selfe, or vse of the Sacrament, vvhich onlie is in this Lyfe.

An ancient Sermon, of AELFRICVS, Arch-bishop of Can­terburie, an English-man, OF THE SACRAMENT: Convincing the late Errour now-a-dayes of Trans-substantiation. Preached in the time of Etheldred, King, And in the Yeare of our LORD 996. Vttered in the SAXON Tongue: And thereafter in an old English trans­lated.

MEN, BELOVED, It hath beene often sayde vnto you, about our SA­VIOVRS Resurrection; Howe hee on this present day, after his suffe­ring, [Page 118] mightilie rose againe from Death. Now will wee open vnto you, by GODS Grace, of the holie HOVSELLor Sacra­ment,, vvhich ye should now goe vnto; and instruct your vnder­standing about this Mysterie, both after the Olde Covenan [...], and after the New, that no doubting trouble you concerning this lyuelie Food.

The Almightie God bade Moses, his Captaine, in the Land of Aegypt, to command the people of Israel to take to everie Familie a Lambe of a yeare olde, the night that they de­parted out of the Countrey, towards the Land of Promise; and to offer that Lambe to God; and after to cut it, and make the signe of the Crosse with the Lambes blood vpon the side-poastes, and vpper poast of the doore: and afterwards to eate the Lambes fl [...]sh roasted, and vnleave­ned Bread, with wylde Lettuice. God saith vnto Moses, Eate of the Lambe, not raw, nor sodden in wa­ter, but roasted at the fire; eate the [Page 119] head, and the seete, and the inwards; and let nothing of it bee left till the morning: and if any thing remaine, that shall yee burne with the fire. Eate it this wise, Gird your Loynes, and doe your Shooes on your seete, haue you Stau [...]s in your hands, and eate it in haste. This is the Lords Passeover. And there was r [...]a [...]e on that night, in everie house through­out Pharaohs Reigne, the f [...]st-borne chylde: and Gods people of Israel were deliuered from that sudden death, thorow the Lambes offering, and his bloods marking.

Then said God to Moses, Keepe this day in your remembrance, and holde it a great Feast in your Kin­reds, with a perpetuall observation; and eate vnleavened bread alwayes seaven dayes at this Feast.

After this deede, God led the people of Israel thorow the red Sea, with drye foote, and drowned ther­in Pharaoh, and all his Armie, to­gether with their Possessions; and [Page 120] fed afterwards the Israelites fourtie yeares, with heavenlie foode, and gaue them water out of the hard Rocke, vntill they came to the pro­mised Land.

Part of this Storie we haue trea­ted of in another place, and part we shal now declare; to wit, that which belongeth to the holie Housell.

Christen men may not now keepe that olde Law bodilie; but it behoveth them to know what it ghostlie signifi [...]th. That Innocent Lambe, which the olde Israelites did then kill, had signification after ghostlie vnderstanding of Christs suffering, who vnguiltie shed his holie blood for our redemption. Heere-of sing Gods servantes at everie Masse, Agnus Dei, qui tollis pec­cata mundi, miserere nobis: that is in our speach, Thou Lambe of God, that takest away the sinnes of the world, haue mercie on vs.

Those Israelites vvere delivered from sudden death, and Pharaohs [Page 121] bondage, by the Lambes offering, which signifyed Christes suffering; thorowe which wee are delivered from ever-lasting Death, and from the Devils cruell reigne, if wee rightlie belieue in the true Redee­mer of the whole Worlde, even Christ, the Saviour.

That Lambe was offered in the Evening, and our Saviour suffered in the last Age of the Worlde. This Age of the corruptible Worlde, is reckoned to the Evening.

They marked with the Lambes blood vpon the Doores, and vpper postes, [...], THAV, that is the signe of the Crosse, and were so defended from the Angell that killed the Aegyptian first-borne. And we ought to marke our Fore-heads, and our Heartes, with the Bloode of our Lordes Suffering.

Those Israelites did eate the Lambes flesh yearlie, at Easter time, when they were delivered: And wee receiue Christes bodie ghostly, [Page 122] and drinke his bloode, when wee receiue, with true beliefe, that ho­lie Housell.

That tyme they kept yearelie at Easter, seaven dayes, with great worship, when they were delivered from Pharaoh, and departed from that I and. So also Christen men keepe Christes Resurrection, at the tyme of Easter, seaven dayes, be­cause thorow his Suffering, and ry­sing, wee are delivered, and are made cleane, by going to this holie Housell, as Christ sayeth in his Gos­pell, Verilie, verilie, I saye vnto you, Yee haue no lyfe in you, except yee eate My Eleshe, and drinke My Blood. Hee that eateth My Fleshe, and drinketh My Bloode, abydeth in Mee, and I in him, and hee hath that Ever-lasting Lyfe, and I will rayse him vp at the last Daye. I am that lyuelie Bread which came downe from Heaven: not so as your Fathers did eate Manna in the Wildernesse, and died. Hee that eateth this Bread, li­veth for ever.

[Page 123]Hee blessed then Bread before his suffering, and divided it vnto his Disciples, thus saying, Eate of this Bread, It is My Bodie: and doe this in My rememberance. Also he bles­sed Wine in one Cuppe, and sayde, Drinke yee all of this: This is My Blood, which is shedde for manie, in forgiuenesse of sinnes. The Apostles did also as Christ commanded: that is, They blessed Bread and Wine, to housell againe afterwardes in his re­memberance. Even so also their Successoures, and all Priestes, by Christes Commaundement, doe blesse Bread and Wine, to housell in his Name, with the Apostolicke Blessing.

Nowe men haue often searched, and doe yet often search, howe Bread, which is gathered of Corne, and thorowe Fyres heate baked, may bee turned to Christes bodie? Or howe Wine, which is pressed out of manie Grapes, is turned, tho­rowe [Page 124] a blessing, to the Lordes bloode?

Nowe saye wee vnto such men, That some thinges bee spoken of Christ by signification, and some be thinges certayne. True this is, and certayne, That Christ was borne of a Mayde, and suffered death of his owne accorde, and was buried, and on this Daye rose agayne from Death. Hee is sayde to bee Bread then by signification, and a Lambe, and a Lyon, and a Mountayne. Hee is called Bread, because hee is our Lyfe, and Angels lyfe. Hee is sayde to bee a Lambe, for his innocencie. A Lyon, for strength, where-with hee over­came the strong Devill. But Christ is not so, not-with-standing, after true nature, neyther Bread, nor a Lambe, nor a Lyon.

Why is then that holie Housell called Christs bodie? or his blood, if it bee not truelie that which it is called? Truelie the bread and the [Page 125] wine, which in the Supper by the Priest is hallowed, showe one thing with-out, vnto humane vnderstan­ding; and another thing with-in, vnto believing mindes. With-out, they are seene bread and wine, both in figure, and taste: and they bee so truelie after their hallowing: But Christes bodie and blood, by ghost­lie mysterie.

An Heathen Chylde is christe­ned, yet hee altereth not his shape with-out, though hee bee chaunged with-in. Hee is brought vnto the Font-stone sinfull, thorowe Adams disobedience: And how-be-it hee is washed from all sinne with-in, yet hee hath not changed his shape with-out.

Even so the holie Font water, which is called the Well-spring of Lyfe, is lyke in shape vnto other water, and is subject to corruption: but the holie Ghostes might com­meth to the corruptible water, tho­rowe the Priestes blessing: and it [Page 126] may after wash the bodie and soule from all sinne, thorowe Ghostlie might.

Beholde, nowe wee see two thinges in one creature, after true nature, that water is corruptible moysture, and after ghostlie my­sterie, hath whole-some vertue. So also, if wee beholde that holie Hou­sell after bodilie vnderstanding, then wee see that it is a creature, corruptible, and mutable: but if we acknowledge there-in ghostlie might, then vnderstand wee that life is there-in, and that it giveth Immortalitie to them that eate it with beliefe. Much is between the invisible might of this holy Housel, and the visible shape of its proper nature. It is naturallie corruptible bread and wine: and is by might of Gods word, truelie Christes bodie, and his blood: not so, not-with-standing, bodylie, but ghost­lie.

Much is betweene the bodie [Page 127] of Christ, which hee suffered in, and the bodie which is hallowed to housell. The bodie, truelie, that Christ suffered in, was borne of the flesh of Ma [...]ie, with blood and bone, with skin and sinewes, in humane limmes, with a reasonable soule, living: But his ghostlie bodie, which wee call the Housell, is ga­thered of many Cornes, with-out blood and bone, with-out limme, with-out soule; and there-fore no­thing is to be vnderstood there-in bodilie, but all ghostlie. What-so-ever was in that Housell, which giveth substance of life, that is of the ghostlie might, and invisible doing.

Therefore is that holie Housell called a mysterie, because there is one thing in it seene, and another thing vnderstoode. That which is there seene, hath bodilie shape; and that which wee doe there vnder­stand, hath Ghostlie might.

Certainlie, Christs bodie which [Page 128] suffered death, and rose againe from death, never dieth hence-foorth, but is eternall, and impassible. That Housell is temporall, not eternall; corruptible, and dealed in-to sun­drie partes; chewed betweene the Teeth, and sent downe in-to the bellie: how-be-it never-the-lesse after Ghostlie might, it is all in eve­rie part: Manie receiue that holie bodie, and yet not-with-standing it is so all in everie part, after Ghostlie mysterie. Though some chewe the lesse, yet there is no more might not-with-standing, in the more parte, than the lesse, because it is whole in all men, after the invisible might.

This mysterie is a Pledge, and a Figure. Christes bodie is Trueth it selfe. This Pledge wee doe keepe mysticallie, vntill that wee bee come vnto the Trueth it selfe, and then is this Pledge ended. Truelie it is so as wee before haue saide, Christes bodie, and his blood, [Page 129] not bodilie, but ghostlie.

But now heare the Apostles wordes about this mysterie. Paul the Apostle speaketh of the olde Is­raelites thus, writing in his Epistle to faythfull men; All our Fore-fathers were baptized in the Cloude, and in the Sea; and all they did eate the same ghostlie Meate, and dranke the same ghostlie Drinke: They dranke truelie of the Stone that followed them, and that Stone was Christ. Neither was that Stone then from which the Water ranne, bodilie Christ; but it signi­fied Christ, who calleth thus to all believing and faythfull men; Who-so-ever thirsteth, let him come to Me, and drinke, & from his bowels shall flow liuely water. This hee saide of the holie Ghost, which they received, who believed in him.

The Apostle Paul saith, that the Israelites did eate the same ghostlie Meate, and dranke the same ghost­lie Drinke, because that heavenlie Meate that fed them fourtie yeares, [Page 130] and that water which from the Stone did flow, had signification of Christs bodie and his blood, which now are offered daylie in Gods Church. It was the same which wee now offer, not bodilie, but ghostlie.

Wee saide vnto you ere-while, that Christ hallowed bread and Wine, to housell before his suffe­ring, and said, This is My Bodie, and My Blood: yet he had not then suffered, but so, not-with-standing he turned, thorow invisible might, that bread to his owne bodie, and that wine to his owne blood, as hee before did in the Wildernesse, be­fore that he was borne to be a Man, when hee turned that heavenlie meat to his flesh, and the flowing water from that Stone to his owne blood.

Verie manie did eate of that heavenlie Meat in the Wildernesse, and dranke that ghostlie Drinke, and were never-the-lesse dead, as [Page 131] Christ saide: and Christ meant not that death which none can escape; but that ever-lasting death, which some of that folke deserved for their vnbeliefe. Moses and Aaron, and many others of that people which pleased God, did eate that heavenlie Bread, and they died not that ever­lasting death, tho they died the common death. They saw that that heavenlie Meate was visible and corruptible, but they ghostlie vnderstood, by that visible thing another Meate, and ghostlie recei­ved it.

Our Saviour, saith, Hee that eateth My Flesh, and drinketh My Blood, hath ever-lasting Life. Now hee bade them not eate that bodie where-with hee was inclosed, nor drinke that blood which he shed for vs: but hee meant by these words, that holie Housel, which ghostlie is his bodie and his blood; and hee that tasteth it with a be­lieving heart, hath that eternall life.

[Page 132]In the olde Law faythfull men offered to God diverse Sacrifices; which had fore-signification of Christs bodie, which for our sinnes hee him selfe hath since offered to his heavenlie Father for sacrifice. Certainlie this Housell, which wee hallow now at Gods Altar, is a Re­membrance of Christs bodie, which hee offered for vs: and so him selfe commanded, Doe this in My remem­brance. Once suffered Christ by him selfe; but yet never-the-lesse his suffering is daylie renewed at this Supper, thorow the mysterie of the holie Housel.

Therefore wee ought to con­sider diligentlie, how that this holie Housel is both Christs bodie, and the bodie of all faithfull men, after ghostlie mysterie, as wyse Augustine saith of it, If yee will vnderstand of Christes bodie, heare the Apostle Paul, thus speaking, Yee, truelie, be Christs bodie, and his members. Now is your mysterie set on Gods [Page 133] Table, and yee receiue your my­sterie, which mysterie yee your selues bee. Bee that which you see on the Altar, and receiue that which yee your selues bee.

Againe, the Apostle Paul sayeth, Wee beeing manie, are one Bread, and one Bodie. Vnder-stand now, and rejoyce: Manie bee one Bread, and one bodie in Christ: Hee is our head, and wee are his limmes. And as the Bread is not of one Corne, but of manie; nor the Wyne of one Grape, but of manie: So also wee all should haue one vnitie in the Lord; as it is written of the faythfull Ar­mie, howe that they were in so great an vnitie, as tho all of them were one soule, and one heart. So Christ hallowed on his Table, the mysterie of our peace, and of our vnitie. Hee which receiveth that mysterie of vnitie, and keepeth not the band of true peace, receiveth no mystery for him selfe, but a witnesse against him selfe.

[Page 134]It is verie good for Christen men, that they goe often to housell, if they bring with them vnto the Altar Vnguiltinesse, and innocencie of heart: if they bee not oppressed with sinne. To an evill man it turneth to no good, but to destru­ction, if hee receiue vnworthilie that holie Housell.

Holie Bookes commaund, that water bee mingled with that wine which shall bee for housell; because the water signifyeth the people, and the wine Christes blood: And there-fore the one, with-out the other, shall not bee offered at the holie Housell: that Christ may bee with vs, and wee with Christ; the head, with the limmes; and the limmes with the head.

Wee would before haue intrea­ted of the Lambe which the olde Israelites offered at their Easter time, but that we desired first to declare vnto you of this mysterie, and after, how wee should receiue it.

[Page 135]I. That signifying-Lambe was offered at the Easter: and the Apo­stle Sainct Paul sayeth, in the Epi­stle of this present day, that Christ is our Easter, or Passe-over; who was offered for vs, and this daye rose agayne from death.

II. The Israelites did eate the Lambes flesh, even as GOD had commaunded them, with vnleave­ned bread, and wilde Lettuice: So should wee receiue that holie Hou­sell of Christes bodie and bloode, with-out the leaven of Sinne and Iniquitie: For as Leaven turneth the creatures from their nature, so doeth Sinne also change the nature of Man, from Innocencie, to Vn­cleannesse. And the Apostle hath taught, howe wee should feast, not in the Leaven of Evilnesse, but in the sweete Dough of Puritie and Trueth.

III. The Hearbe which they shoulde eate with the vnleavened bread, is called Lettuice, and is bit­ter [Page 136] in taste: So wee shoulde with bitternesse of vnfeigned repentance purifie our myndes, if wee will eate Christes bodie.

IIII. Those Israelites were not wont to eate rawe flesh, and there­fore God bade them to eate it ney­ther rawe, nor sodden in water, but roasted with fyre. Hee shall re­ceiue the bodie of God rawe, that shall thinke, with-out reason, that Christ was onelie Man, lyke vnto vs, and was not God. And hee that will, after mans wisedome, search of the mysterie of Christes Incarnation, doeth lyke to him that seetheth Lambes flesh in water; be­cause that water in this same place signifyeth mans vnder-standing. But wee should vnder-stand, that all the mysterie of Christes huma­nitie was ordered by the power of the holie Ghost. And then eate wee his bodie roasted with fyre, because the holie Ghoste came in [Page 137] fyerie lykenesse vnto the Apostles, in diverse Tongues.

V. The Israelites should eate the Lambes head, and the feete, and the purtenances; and no-thing must there-of bee left over-night. If anie thing there-of was left, they did burne that in the fyre: And they brake not the bones. After ghostlie vnder-standing wee doe then eate the Lambes head, when wee take holde of Christes Divini­tie in our Beliefe. Againe, when wee take holde of his Humanitie with loue, then eate we the Lambes feete; because that Christ is the Be­ginning, and the Ende, GOD be­fore all Worlde, and Man in the ende of this Worlde. What bee the Lambes purtenances, but even Christes secret Preceptes? And these wee eate, when wee receiue with griedinesse the Worde of Lyfe. There must no-thing of the Lambe bee left till the morning; be­cause all Gods Sayinges are to bee [Page 138] searched with carefulnesse, and great diligence: so that all his Pre­ceptes must bee knowne in vnder­standing and deede, in the night of this present lyfe, before the last day of the vniversall Resurrection doe appeare. And if wee can not search out throughlie all the myste­rie of Christes Incarnation, then ought wee to betake the rest vnto the might of the holie Ghost, with true humilitie: and not to search rashlie of that deepe secretnesse, aboue the measure of our vnder­standing.

VI. They did eate the Lambes flesh with their Loynes girded. In the Loynes, is the lust of the bodie. And hee that will receiue that holie housell, shall cover and wrap in that Concupiscence, and take with Chastitie that holie Receit.

VII. They were also shod. And what bee Shooes, but of the hydes of dead beastes? Wee bee truelie [Page 139] shod then, if wee match in our steps and deedes, the liues of men depar­ted this lyfe, which pleased God with keeping of his Commande­mentes.

VIII. They had Staues in their handes, when they did eate. This staffe signifieth a care-fulnesse, and a diligent over-seeing: and all they that best knowe, and can, should take care of other men, and stay them vp with their helpe.

IX. It was enjoyned to the eaters, that they should eate the Lambe in haste; for God abhorreth sloath-fulnesse in his Servants: and those hee loveth, which seeke the joye of Ever-lasting Lyfe, with quicknesse, and hastinesse of mynd. Prolong not to turne vnto GOD, left the tyme passe away, thorowe thy slow tarrying.

X. The eaters might not breake the Lambes bones: No more might the Souldioures, which did hang [Page 140] CHRIST, breake His Holie Legges, as they did of the two Thieues which hanged on eyther syde of Him: And the LORD arose from death sound and whole, with-out all corruption: And at the last Iudgement, they shall see Him, Whome they did moste cruellie wound on the Crosse.

XI. This Tyme is called in the Hebrew Tongue PASCHA, and in Latine TRANSITVS, and in English a PASSE-OVER; Because that vpon this daye the people of Is­raell passed from the Lande of Ae­gypt, thorowe the redde Sea, from the bondage of Pharaoh, towardes the Land of Promise. So also did our LORD, at this Tyme, de­parte (as sayeth Sainct IOHN the EVANGELIST) from this Worlde, to His heavenly Father. And even so wee ought to follow our HEAD, and to goe from the Devill, vnto CHRIST: from this vnstable [Page 141] Worlde, vnto His stable KING­DOME: How-bee-it wee shoulde first, in this present lyfe, departe from Vyce, vnto holie VERTVE: from evill manners, vnto good: if vvee vvill, after this our lent lyfe, goe to that Eternall Lyfe, and af­ter our resurrection, to CHRIST: Hee bring vs vnto His Ever-la­sting Father, Who gaue Him vnto Death for our Sinnes: To Him bee Honour, and Prayse of Well-doing, Wordle with-out ende.



A Notable Short DISCOVRSE, VVritten by a Scots-man, (AS BALE vvitnesseth) OF THE SACRAMENT: Who lived in that same Age with BERTRAM, 800 yeares agoe: na­med RABANVS, or Magnentius Maurus: learned in all Scien­ces, A Professor long in the Vniversitie of Paris, and at last made An Abbot, vnder Lodovicus Pius.

OF the other two thinges,Lib. 5. c. 11 De Seim. propriet. left vnto vs in Legacie, that is, Of the Bodie and Blood of the LORD, it may be as­ked, Why amongst all the Fruites [Page 144] of the Earth, chiefelie he did choose Bread and Wine, to designe the same, as if these did excell all other Fruites of the Earth in woorth, and were of greatest value? Which Question wee thinke may bee thus solved: Our LORD did choose, that the Sacrament of his bodie and blood should bee so received by the mouth of the Faythfull, and that the same should bee converted to their nowrishment; that by the visible worke, the invisible effect, and working of the other, might be showne, and made manifest.

For as the materiall Foode out­wardlie nowrisheth and feedeth the bodie, so the Word of God inward­lie nowrisheth the Soule, & streng­theneth the same: For it is not by Bread onelie that Man liveth, but by everie Word that procedeth out of the Mouth of God: And the Word is become Flesh, and hath [Page 145] dwelt amongst vs (sayeth Trueth it selfe.)

And (as sayeth Christ himselfe) My Flesh is Meat indeede, and My Blood is Drinke indeede. Now the flesh of Christ is Meate indeede, because it feedeth truelie, and nowrisheth man vnto eternall Life; (which is onelie true Life) and his blood is Drinke indeede, because truelie and solidlie it satiateth and slockeneth for ever the hungering and thirsting soule after Righteousnesse. For as for temporall life, men indeede may haue the same with-out this meate and drinke; but that Eternall they cannot attaine vnto; because that this Meate and Drinke signifieth that eternall societie and fellow­ship of the members vvith their head, and their strait conjunction: For (sayeth hee,) Hee that eateth My Flesh, and drinketh My Blood, abydeth in Mee, and I in him. Wher­fore it is needfull, that wee receiue [Page 146] his bodie and blood, that wee may abyde in Him, and become mem­bers of His Bodie.

And the Sacrament heere-of, to wit, of our Becomming one with CHRISTES bodie and blood, it is taken off from the Table, to some men, vnto destruction; but the thing it selfe which is signified, is taken by all men vnto lyfe, and by none vnto destruction. For who-so-ever is partaker of that, the same man shall bee associate as a member to CHRIST his head, into that Heavenlie Kingdome.

For it is another thing the Sa­crament it selfe, and the vertue of the Sacrament. The Sacrament it selfe, is onelie taken by the mouth; but by the vertue of the Sacrament, the inward man is refreshed. The Sacrament also is turned into the food of the bodie; but by the ver­tue [Page 147] of the Sacrament, the dignitie of eternall Lyfe is obtained. In the Sacrament againe, all the faythfull Communicantes make a paction of mutuall fellow-ship, and brotherlie peace amongst them selues heere; but by the vertue of the Sacrament, all the members, joyned and strait­lie coupled with their head in eter­nall Glorie, shall rejoyce for ever.

Therefore, as the Sacrament it selfe is turned in our substance, when wee haue eaten and drunken the same; so lyke-wyse shall wee be turned into the bodie of Christ, if wee obedientlie and holilie liue in him.

Wherefore, because Bread strengtheneth the bodie, therefore for the lyke operation towardes the soule, it is called Christs bodie: and because Wine furnisheth nutritiue blood, and cheareth the bodie, therefore is for that relation to [Page 148] Christes bloode, why it is compa­red there-vnto. And these visible signes, when they are sanctified, then by the holie Spirit they are converted into the Sacrament of the bodie of Christ.

But it is onelie in the way of this lyfe,Cap. 10. de Euchari­stia. that wee are so sed, and refreshed with the Sacrament of the bodie and blood of Christ; that so nowrished there-by, wee may become one bodie: and by the ta­sting of this heere, wee may bee prepared for immortall and eternall thinges heere-after.

And in so farre as spirituallie wee are quickened in him, being sealed vp by Angels Foode vnto that lyfe, that holie Spirite of his worketh powerfullie in vs, by these his holie Sacraments.

And because according to the [Page 149] flesh it behoved him to pearce the Heavens,Cap. 41. that these who by fayth are renewed, and borne over againe in him, might more confidentlie and earnestlie long after him, hee hath left vnto vs this Sacrament, as a visible Figure, and Resem­blance; a Signe, and a Seale of his bodie and blood: that by these thinges, our myndes, and our bo­dies, by fayth, more plenteouslie may bee nowrished, to partake of invisible and spirituall thinges.

Now it is the Signe and Seale which outwardlie we see and feele: but that which is inwardlie partici­pated, is all Substance and Trueth, and no shadowing or resemblance: and therefore there is nothing but Trueth, and the Sacrament of the verie flesh of CHRIST, which is manifested vnto vs. For the verie flesh of CHRIST which was crucified, and buried, even the [Page 150] SACRAMENT of that true flesh it is, which by the Priest vpon the Altar, through the word of CHRIST, and power of the holie Spirit, from Aboue is consecrated, & made holie.



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