TWO Guides to a good LIFE.

The Genealogy of Vertue AND The nathomy of Sinne.

Liuely displaying the worth of the one, and the vanity of the other.

virtute duce non errabis.

LONDON Printed by W. Iaggard 1604.

To the reader,

THer is no mettal so pure but hath som drosse, and therfore (Gentle Reader) I will not excuse this Booke of faults: such as it is, I lay it o­pen to thy view, wishing thee rather with the Bee to gather honnye, then with the Spider poison; not that the Flowers of this poore garden include any such danger, but that the mind of rhe beholder (if not rightly tempered) may like the Spider turne that to poi­son, which a better disposition digests for honny: I will hope the best, and so farewell.

Nihil tam probe, quod non vellicare malignitas:

The Anathomy of Sin, discouering the whold bodie of Imperfection and pollution,

THat captain that looks for victorie, will striue to knowe the number, strength and fortifica­tion of his enemies, the better to prepare his force against them: the like may be saide of a Christian Souldier, in the conflict of this life, when he once per­ceiueth the sleights and oppugnations wherewith his enemies, the world, the Flesh, and the Diuell astaile him hee will prouide himselfe accordinglye, to withstand their violence: This cannot better be performed, than by consul­tation, first, to vnderstand what sinne is, and the diuers braunches thereof, [Page] and then to bee well acquainted with his opposites.

What Sinne is.

SInne may bee definde to bee the transgression of the Lawe, his Ca­pitall heads are in number seauen: namely, Pride, Couetousnesse Luxury, Enuie, Gluttony, Wrath, and Idlenes: which are auoided by seauen contrary vertues: as humilitie, liberalitie, Cha­stitie, Charitie, Abstinence, Patience, and Deuotion.

Thus knowing what sinne is, wee must next seeke and study how to shun it, which cannot better bee effected then by learning how to detest it.

How to detest Sinne in general.

COnsider that it is as venemous as Hydra, as prodigious as the head [Page] of Gorgon, as infectious as the bloud of Nessus, as fatall as the Night Rauē, as loathsome as the Leprosie, as full of torment as the heart of Titius, as gree­die as the Iawes of a hungrie Lion, and as deuouring as the deepe sea. Beside all this, the World erected to vs for a blessing, through sin becoms a cursse: that created to the Image of God, tho­rough sinne, we are made as ouglie as Diuels; that so often as wee sinne wee strike our maker on the face, & finallie being adopted heires of heauen, tho­rough sinne, we are cast out as bonde­men for hell.

How to auoide Sinne in generall.

THe first remedie against sinne, is pouertie, because Riches are the Winges and armes of Concupis­cence, which being clipt and restrai­ned by want, wee cannot so easilie flie [Page] into the bosome of pleasure, nor appre­hend her dalliance: prouided that it be true and godlie pouertie, which neuer diuerts from Faith, vpon anie extremi­tie whatsoeuer.

The second remedie is comtempt of the World, least opening our eares to the vaine praises of mens lips, or aduanced to sudden honour and estimation, our hart sucke in the poison of selfe conceit, whereby we thinke our own ex­cellencie a sufficient dispensation for sinne.

The third remedie, is to make elec­tion of such a State of life, as offereth the least occasion of il; for whosoeuer followeth the common course of the World, can hardlie performe anie ac­tion tending to the sinceritie of life.

The fourth remedie, is the auoiding of peruerse companie, for the wicked will infect the godlie, as one bough of a tree, being set on fire, consumeth the rest.

[Page]The fift remedie, is to shun the op­portunity of time and place, as he that sees not riches, nor commes into the house of Luste, is lesse troubled with their seuerall temptations.

The sixt remedie, is the breath of of­ten and deuout praier, which like vnto a sharpe Northeast wind, nips sinne in the verie springe and blossome of his strength.

The seuenth remedie, is tribulation and aduersitie, for as blacke pitch be­ing brused becomes white, so the spots gotten by sinne, are purged cleane a­way by tribulation.

The eight and last remedie, is a con­tinuall meditation, that wee muste all once die, and after come to iudgment, where euerie one shall bee rewarded according to his works, they that haue done well with eternal happinesse, and they that haue done ill, with torments that neuer shall haue end.

Of vertue in generall.

VIrtue, is a proportion and vpright­nesse of life agreeable to reasonne, and consisteth in mediocritie, as Vice doth in excesse or defect: It is neither subiect to Fortune, sclander, sicknesse, olk-age, aduersitie, or tyrannie.

Of vertues there are two kindes, con­templatiue and morrall: contempla­tiue, which is a quiet and setled behol­ding of all those good things gathered together by reason, and approoued by iudgement: and morrall, which consi­steth in the practise and dispersing of those good thinges to the benefite of humane societie; so that it is not suffi­cient to thinke well, but to doe well. And the bodie of vertue is of that na­ture, that it must be complet, not found of one lim, and lame of another.

For if either chastity shall be without humility, or humilitie without chasti­tie, [Page] when god doth as well detest pride as vncleannes, by what meanes shall proud chastitie be acceptable in his sight, or vnclean humility, good things are not pleasing to God, which are spotted with the commixture of euill: as for example, to liue soberly, and to be asleepe to good workes, or to exe­cute good works and liue licentiously are both vaine.

Therefore the tree of vertue muste florish in euerie brāch, In which sence it will be as a shelter in time of neces­sitie, and a hauen of peace to the con­science. Nowe to the particuler wea­pons, wherewith synne assaileth the sacred person of vertue.

Of vice in particular, and first of pride.

PRide is saide to be the tympanie of the soule, because it is a puffing vpp of the heart and mind, proceeding frō the opinions of some good thinge in vs [Page] more then in others.

The roote of pride is riches, Nobili­tie, Fame, Knowledge, Strength, Ho­nor, Beautie, good successe, Delicate feeding, fine clothing, Health, sharpe­nesse of wit, and such like.

His companions are Enuie, Anger, Impatience, Indignation, Selfe-will, Obstinacie, &c.

Pride is said to be full of Enuie, be­cause the proud man thinketh himselfe onlye the worthiest, and that euerie mans greatnesse is a hindrance to his. Of Anger by supposing himself neuer so well thought of as he deserues.

Of Impatience, in that hee will not suffer himselfe to be reproued, but will haue his vices accounted vertues, and looke to be commended for them.

Of Indignation, as esteeming (in cō ­parison of himselfe) euerie man vnworthy of any good that befals him.

Of Obstinacie, by stiffely holding of his owne opinion, notwithstanding [Page] anie authoritie or proofe alleadged to the contrarie.

Those men are most subiect to pride, that are most rude, most abiect, moste inconsiderate, moste hastie and head­strong: for such as are wise, sharpewit­ted, considerate and well staied, doo looke into themselues, and finde no­thing in them worthye to make them swell or looke bigge with pride.

This sinne of all other sinnes is the most dangerous, because other sinnes proceed from euill deedes, but pride is to be feared, euen in good & vertuous actions.

Of pride there are nine branches.

PResumption, Obstinacie, Hypocri­sie, Boasting, Ingratitude, contempt of others, Disobedience, Ambition, and Curiositie, and of euery of these in particular.

Presumption what.

[Page]Presumption is taken three maner of waies. First, when a man rashlie by a­ny interiour qualitie or exteriour acte, doth enterprise a worke that is aboue his skill or calling.

Secondly, when a man thinketh him selfe better, or more wise or worthy of temporall gifts than another.

Thirdly, when a man will not be re­prehended by another, of any thinge that he hath either done or said amisse, but blindly goeth on in his sinnes, and thinketh himselfe most safe, when hee is in most danger.

Obstinacie what.

OBstinacie is, where a man esteming himselfe better than another, hol­deth his own opinion hard (as it were) by the teeth, and will not submit vnto the iudgement of the wiser.

Obstinacie is of two sorts: first, whē a man refuseth to confesse his falt, how [Page] grose or palpable soeuer it be.

And secondly, when hee striueth to make it lighter than it is, or lay it vpon the backe of another.

Hypocrisie what.

HYpocrisie is, when a man is inwardly in himselfe wicked, & yet would outwardly seeme vertuous.

Hypocrisie is of three sorts: first whē a man for feare of worldly shame, seeks to couer and dissemble the circūstance of his synne, when hee ought rather to confesse it.

Secondly, when a man dooth accuse himselfe in the ptesence of others for a notable synner, that so hee may seeme deuout, religious, and humble, when as in hart he is full of deceipt, violence and craft.

And thridly, when a man will inde­uour himselfe to doe good workes, to no other end but to be praised of the World.

Boasting what.

BOasting, is to extoll our selues in wordes more than cause is, or that we are worthy of.

Boasting is of three sortes, first, when we do shew our selues proud and arro­gant in respect of temporall goods, as of wealth, great offices, costly raimēt, or in respect of giftes of the bodie, as of beautie, strength, health, and such like: or in respect of the guiftes of the mind, as of knowledge, sharpenesse of wit, perfection of memory, &c.

Secondly, when we make a repeti­tion of our good workes, or graces, more for vaine-glorie and to winne re­putation in the worlde, then for good example or to the glorie of God.

And thirdly, when wee publish out of our owne mouthes in ostentation, how rich we are, of what authoritie & dignitie, thereby to terrifie others and [Page] make them to submit vnto vs, which kind of pride is most odious, insomuch as God hath not bestowed those bles­sings vpon vs to boast of, but to relieue the wantes of others, and to defende their necessities and wrongs.

Ingratitude what.

INgratitude is a sinne, whereby wee suffer the remembrance of a benefite or good turne to slide away or bee for­gotten.

Ingratitude is of twoe sortes, firste when we neither acknowlegde nor re­quite a good turne.

And secondly, when wee are not so contented, but wee hate and secke to hurt him that hath done vs good: for this we need no further example then of those, that neither acknowledge nor giue God thankes for his benefites bestowed vpon them, but go about to returne his loue with blasphemie and contempt.

Contempt of others what.

COntempt of others, is to despice all men in respect of our selues.

Contempt is of two sorts, first when through a certaine nicenesse wee con­temne such as are poore sickely, igno­rant and sinners, because we are not, or at least thinke we are not touched with any such imperfection.

But to checke this kinde of pride, let vs consider & we shal find these things ordinarily incident to al men, and that we either haue or may be subiect vnto them as well as others.

Secondly, when wee depise the au­thority of our superiors: and to check this kind of pride, we may take the ex­ample of brute beastes, the horse will acknowledge his rider, and the dogge will feare his maister.

Ambition what.

[Page]AMbition, is an inordinate desire to enioy honour, dignitie and great places, therby to be predominant and aboue others, not for their good, but to the satisfieng of our owne priuate appetite: it was a thing that Christ and his Apostles hated, and therefore wee ought to take heed of it.

Ambition is of two sortes, one when priuate men contend for superioritie, another when princes aspire.

The fruites of ambition are sedition, warre, ruine, bloudshed and cruelty.

Curiositie what.

CVriositie is an vnusiall precisenesse, or vnnecessarie superexcellence in any thing.

There are six kindes of curiosity, first when we couet pretious ornaments ex­ceeding our estate and calling: or whē we couet them in superfluity, or with a greater care then we ought.

[Page]Secondly, when through a vanity of spirit we striue to find out the vnderstā ­ding and sence of friuolous matters, which when we know, doe vs more hurt then good.

Thirdly, when we spend more time or take more delight in amorous and ydle Pamphlets, or in the works of po­ets and Phylosophers, than in the book of God.

Fourthly, when wee presume to in­terpret the holie Scriptures after our owne fantasies, and not according to the auncient Fathers of the church.

Fiftlie, when we prie narrowlie into the life and doings of other men neuer so much as once looking backe into ourselues.

And lastlye, when wee presume to search into the secrets of God, which in no wise belong vnto vs.

Disobedience what.

[Page]DIsobedience, is a neglecting of that which is commanded, or a wilfull spurning against authoritie.

Disobedience is of three sortes, ei­ther when we despise our Prince, Pa­rents, maisters or gouernors, or when we depraue their worth by our malici­ous words, or when we wishe or prac­tise their ruine, so to procure an altera­tion in the state.

The contrary to this is Obedience, which is of two sorts: actiue, in doo­ing all such thinges as are commanded (so they concur with vertue) and pas­siue, in suffering patiently whatsoeuer is imposed vpon vs, not repugning the honour of God and the health of our soules.

How to detest Pride.

PRide if we consider the cause there­of, is fluxiue, momentarie and verie vncertaine: for if it proceed from Ri­ches, [Page] who knowes not riches may wast either by sureti-ship, riot, loste by Sea or Land?

If from Nobilitie or great birth, it may be stained.

If from knowledge, knowledge is full of error: If from strength, strength may sonne decay; If from honor, Ho­nor is but a ceremonie: If from beau­tie, age may wrinckle it: If from good successe, Fortune may alter it: If from daintie food, it may breede surfetting, and surfetting commonly brings death

If from cloathing, what is it but the skins, wool, nay the verie excrements of brute beasts and stones of the earth? If from health, sicknesse may destroy it

If from multitude of friends, are they not like water brookes, that in summer become drie, and in winter frozen?

If from sharpnesse of wit, Semel infa­niuimus omnes, there is no man liuing but is guiltie of Follie.

Pride likewise considered by his ef­fects, [Page] will appeare far more dangerous, as the thing that bringes with it, con­tempt both of God and men: contēpt of God, as appeares by his worde and by his iudgments: By his word, in that he saith, He will resist the Proude and giue grace to the humble: By his iudg­ments, in that he spared not his glori­ous Angels, but for their pride threwe them out of heauen to the bottome of hell. Amongst mortall men also, how seuerelie hath he punished pride? Pha­rao and his hoast for that sin were drowned in the Red sea, Iessabel hadde her bloud lapped vp of Dogges, the King of Babell for seauen yeares space, was companion with bruite beastes, and Hammon executed vpon the same gibbet, which he had prepared for Mardocheus, the prouerbe is, Pride goes be­fore, and shame followes.

Among men there is nothing like­wise more odious: for whom doe wee more despise, more feare, more grudg [Page] or repine againste, than the haughtie and intollerable humor of proud men. Naye it makes vs hatefull to our owne selues, when looking backe into our corrupt nature, we finde nothing wherof to be proud: for our conception is sin, our birth paine, our life labour, and our death necessitie.

How to auoide Pride.

The only and chiefe remedy against pride, is humilitie; for as by pride wee are banished from the presence of god so by humilitie we are recald vnto him againe, because without humilitie, no other vertue whatsoeuer is acceptable in his sight.

What humilitie is.

HVmilitie is the contempt and loa­thing of proper excellence: of hu­militie there are three degrees.

[Page]The first is, to submit our selues vnto our superiors, and not presume aboue our equals. The second is, to submitte our selues to our equals, and not to pre sume aboue our inferiors; The third is, to submit our selues to our inferiours, and to presume aboue no bodie; The humility likewise of Christ and his ho­lie saintes, being sette before our eies, may serue as a powerful remedy against the infection of pride. For when wee consider that our sauiour Christ for our sakes left heauen for earth, of God be­came man, of a Lord a seruant, and of the most almighty and most honoura­ble, suffered himselfe to be trodē down and crucified of the most abiect, vile and base; what reason haue we to bee puft vp with arrogancie, knowing that if wee meane to raigne with him, wee must likewise suffer with him.

Finis pride.

Of Couetousnes.

COuetuousnes is said to be the drop­sie of the soule, because the Coue­tuous man, the more he hath the more still he desireth. It is also a kind of bad motion, whereby the diuell intiseth vs vnlawfully to withold our own goods, or vniustly to couet other mens.

There are foure sortes of Couetuous­nesse, the first is to desire that which is another mans, not caring how we get it, by right or wrong: or when with a deliberate minde we hunt after wealth and honor, that so wee may the more commodiouslye feede and cocker our owne pleasures.

The second is, when we study to get money, wealth or fauour, by wicked or filthie meanes.

The third is, when we wil not restore that which wee knowe to be another mans, whether we either founde it, or [Page] that it was cōmited to our trust to keep

The fourth is, when we treasure vpp much wealth, and neither vse it our selues, nor imploy it to the benefit and releiuing of others.

Couetousnesse hath nine hands or hookes by which it snatcheth at the trash of this world.

NAmely Fraud, Vnquietnesse, per­iurie, taking of bribes, Sacriledge Theft, Vsurie, Rapine and Symonie.

Fraude what.

FRaud, is by all kinde of craftie and coulourable meanes, to vsurpe that which belongs not vnto vs.

Vnquietnesse what.

AS well night as daie to be continu­ally possest with care how to inrich [Page] our selues, not relying vpon the proui­dence of God, who hath commanded vs to cast our care onely vpon him.

Periurie what.

PEriurie, is when we call God to witnesse in a false and vntrue matter, therby to win either credite or commodity, as verie often times fals out a­mongst merchants and trades-men, & in persons that giue in euidence be­fore maiestrats: or in our priuate con­ference, when without dread or reue­rence to the name of God, wee sweare by it.

Taking of bribes what.

TAking of bribes is to swerue from the true course of Iustice for the loue of golde, or for rewarde to beare false witnesse against any man: wher­by three persons are at one time damnified [Page] and abused, first God whose holie name is prophaned.

Secondlie the Iudge, whom a lieng witnesse deceiueth: and thirdlie the innocent person against whom he testifi­eth, who commonlie by that meanes is vttterly vndone.

Sacriledge what

Sacriledge is through a greedie de­sire of temporall goods not to forbere the defacing of Gods Temple, nor the robbing of his ministers.

Theft what.

THeft is, when we either priuily purloine, or openlie extort from anye man (whether it be by the highe waie side, or in contention of lawe) that so we may haue to satisfie our own coue­tous humors.

Vsurie what.

VSurie is when vppon the loane of any thing, whether it bee money, meat, drinke or apparell, we do coue­nant before hand to receiue backe a­gaine more than the principall was, which we deliuered foorth, thereby to enrich or maintaine our estate and cal­ling: or when we ingrosse commodi­ties, or forestall markets, thereby to procure a dearth, and then to raise the prices of things as we list our selues.

4. Reasons to disproue Vsurie.

FIrst it is against the law of Charity, for whereas we are bounde to doe good one to another, the Vsurer con­trariwise, hurteth, where hee seems to helpe.

Secondly, it is against the law of Na­tions, in that ther is no nation, but hath [Page] som Iniunction, statute, or law against it.

Thirdly, it is against the law of na­ture, for in nature it is monstrous, that mony should beget mony, being in it selfe a dead and sencelesse substance.

Fourthly, it is expresly against the Law of God, for hee hath saide, Thou shalt not hurt thy brother by Vsurie of money, nor by vsurie of corne, nor by vsurie of any thing that he may be hurt withall, Deut. 23.13.

Fiue other reasons to shew the vilenesse thereof.

The first is, because it is woorse than theft for a theefe stealeth but now and then, but vsurie is a continual robbery.

The second is, because it is worse then Iudas, for Iudas solde Christ but once, but the vsurer selleth him eue­rie minute.

Thirdly, because Iudas restored the money againe which he tooke, but the [Page] Vsurer will neuer restore that which he hath vniustlie taken.

The fourth is, because it is woorse than death, for Death killeth but the bodie onelie, but Vsurie killeth both bodie and soule.

The fift and last is, because it is worse then hell, for hell torments the wicked only, but vsurie scourgeth and afflict­eth both good and bad.

Rapine what.

RApine is a forceable and violent extorting of other mens goods, tho­rough the vehemencie of a greedie minde, as by oppression and such like: the condition of which sinne is moste damnable, in that it is alwaies subiect to the cursse and exclamations of the wronged and oppressed, whose sighes and grones day and night solicite hea­uen for vengeance and reuenge.

Simonie what.

[Page]Symonie is when we giue or take re­ward for an enterance or admission in­to the ministerie of God, or the profit thereof.

How to detest Couetousnes.

COnsider that the matter thereof (which is riches) is moste vile and abiect, or else our Sauiour woulde ne­uer haue committed the purse to Iudas

That Christe chose not his Apostles and best beloued from amongst Prin­ces, but poore fishermen.

That no man can serue two maisters, God & the world, no more thā the eie can at one time behold heauē & earth.

That riches for the most part are gotten with paine, preserued with feare, and lost with sorrow, that many times they forsake vs liuing, and neuer accompanie vs being dead.

That how much soeuer wee couet for [Page] possesse, we can rightly saye no more is our owne, than what will serue to feed and cloath vs.

That the most couetous or wealthi­est man is but as the mil wheele, which though it turne all daye about, yet at night is found where it was in the morning: so howsoeuer we run about this vvorld for vvealth, yet at our deaths, vve shall be found as poore as vve vvere at our birth,

That as great burdens laide vpon the backs of trauellers hinder them in their iourney: euen so, much vvealth cannot be but a let and hindrance to vs, in our voyage and pilgrimage to heauen.

That couetous men are but as camels that all daie carry the kings treasure, & at night are turned into a filthy stable, being able to shevv no signe or appea­rance thereof, but their galled backes.

That the death of a couetous man is ridiculous, considering that al vvhich he hath so carefully scraped together, [Page] may fall into the hands of his enemies, or be spent of such as vvill neuer giue him thanks, vvhilst he himselfe sittes in the shadovv of death, and can shevv no remembrance of his great possessions, but the gaules and sores of a disquyet conscience.

The miserie of a couetous person is very vvell described by the Heathen Poet Plautus, vnder the person af Eu­clio, vvho hauing hid much treasure in his house, durst not go abroad for fear of robbing, nor stay at home for feare of killing.

But vvith much more terrour is it set foorth in the booke of god, vvhere it is said by the mouth of our sauiour, that it is easier for a Cammel to passe through the eye of a needle, then for a rich man to enter into the kingdome of heauen.

Achab desiring to be maister of poor Naboths vineyarde, vvas punished not onely vvith the losse of his kingdome, but vvith the deere forfeiture of his life.

[Page]The rich glutton in the gospell was so neare himselfe, that he woulde not spare the crummes which fell from his table, but in the end was carried naked to his graue, and his soule was left de­stitute in the flames of hel fire, without any hope of redemption.

How to auoid Couetousnesse.

The onely remedie against Coue­tousnesse is liberallity, which is a distri­bution of those good things that are in our possession, to the benefit of others: for wee haue nothing which we haue not receiued from god, ouer which we are but as stewards, and therefore the bread which we couetously deteine in our hands, is the bread of the hungry; the garments which we lock vp in our chests, the cloathing of the naked: and the money in our bagges, the treasure of the poore, the bloude of which if they perish through our lacke of pittie [Page] and compassion towards them, will be required at our hands.

In Liberality 10. circumstances are to be considered.

Frist we must (so neere as we can) giue to none but such as want.

Secondly our giftes must be profita­ble and not hurtfull.

Thirdly they must proceed frō a mer­ciful affection and not from vainglory.

Fourthly we must not be more boun­tifull then our ability wil suffer.

Fiftly, we must giue in due time without protraction or delay.

Sixly it must be done in secret.

Seauenthly, we must be liberall of our owne proper goods, lawfull not wrongfully gotten.

Eightly, our charity must be volunta­rie, and from the heart, not vpon com­pulsion or constraint,

Ninthly, we ought not to vpbraid him at any time to whō we haue bin liberal.

Lastly, what wee giue we must giue [Page] freely, and not in hope of rewarde, or further recompence, for so to giue, be­wraieth a couetous desire and no true deuotion.

Finis Couetousnes.


LVxury may be called the leprosie of the soule, and is an inordinate ap­petite of lasciuious & fleshly pleasures.

There ate sixe kinds of Luxury.

The first is Fornication, which is the vnlawful coyture or societie of one sin­gle person with another.

The second is Rape or rauishment, when a virgin is defloured, either with her consent or against her will: for al­though it be with her consent, yet it is counted rauishment, in respect of the [...]ainousnesse thereof, by reason it vio­lently [Page] breakes the lists of chastity, and opens a gap many times to further vn­cleannesse.

The third is Adulterie when the ma­riage bed is defiled, and this is of twoe sorts, either simple, as when the maried sinnes with the vnmarried, or double, when the married sinnes with the mar­ried.

The fourth is incest, when the abuse of fleshly lust is committed by such as are of one kinred, bloud, or affinnity: which sinne makes men of the nature of bruite beasts.

The fift, is Zodomy, which is of two sortes, when man lusteth after man, or man after beast, and this sin in the holy scripture is ranckt with murder and called a crying sinne, as continually soli­citing and calling for vengeance vpon the offendors.

The sixt is the excesse of carnall acti­on euen amongst the married; which although it seeme lawful, yet it offends [Page] god, if it exceede measure or modesty.

There are nine forerunners of Luxurie.

The first is voluptuous eating and drinking, the 2. scurrilous talke, the 3. a discouered dug, the 4. a naked brest, the 5. frizled haire, the 6. artificiall painting, the 7. costly perfumes the 8. a rowling eie, the 9. an vnsteady foote.

Appendants to Luxurie.

The appendants to Luxurie are these, loue, desire, concupisence, and iea­lousie.

Loue what.

LOue is an affection of the hearte, wherby it lusteth after somthing to haue the vse thereof, if the thinge be [Page] good it is called true loue, if bad, it is called concuspisence, which is the mo­ther of luxurie.

Concupisence what.

Concupisence is that kinde of loue which is accompanied with lust.

Loue is of two sorts.

True loue which is the loue to ver­tue, or such an affection of the hearte, that imbraceth a man more for his own sake then for any commodity, may be expected from him; & mercinary loue which is likewise of two sorts: the first, in respect of him that receiueth a be­nefit, louing the person for the profite that comes from him: and the second in respect of him that bestoweth a be­nifit, when he doth it more for reward and recompence, then for the loue of him to whome he doth it.

The difference betweene the loue of vertue which is called true-loue, and loue of Concu­piscence.

THe loue of virtue is without yrke­somnesse or intermission: the loue of Concupiscence is momentarie and oftentimes breedeth a loathing in the minde.

The loue of vertue is without feare, or care: the loue of Concupiscence is accompanied with griefe, vexation, and labour.

The loue of vertue wisheth a like af­fection in all others, as is in it selfe: but the loue of Concupiscence harboureth euill Iealousie.

Iealousie what.

Iealousie is a feare which a man hath least another whome hee would not, [Page] should enioy something which he stri­ueth to keepe peculiar to himselfe: and this may be good or bad, according to the obiect, whereon our fancie or de­sire is fixte.

Desire what.

DEsire, is the delay which is made between our liking conceiued of some good thinge, and the fruition of the same.

The effect of Loue.

The effect of Loue is, of manie to make one, as chiefly appeares bv mar­riage, whereof there are foure kindes Marriage of honour, mariage of loue, mariage of labor, & mariage of griefe.

Mariage of Honor.

MAriage of honour, hath three de­grees, the highest, between good [Page] and mans nature: the middle most, be­tweene God and the soule of man vni­ted by grace and the fruition of glory: the lowest, betweene God and his Church, when they are both made one mysticall bodye: and these three kindes of marriage are supernaturall, and appointed of god after an vnspea­kable manner.

Marriage of loue.

MAriage of Loue, is a faithfull con­tract betweene a good man and a vertuous Woman: or the coniunction, vnitie and society of religious and zea­lous people, grounded vppon Grace, peace and Concord.

Mariage of Labour.

MAriage of labour is, when any mā or woman marrieth more for co­uetousnesse and lust, than for Vertue, [Page] chastitie, or good report; or where two are matched together, betwixte whom there is no equality of age, birth or manners.

Marriage of griefe.

MAriage of griefe, is the coniuncti­on and familiaritie betweene the Wicked and reprobate, whereof still ensueth wretchednesse and miserie.

The preseruation of mariage.

THe preseruation of mariage, con­sisteth in the dutie of the Husband to the Wife, and of the wife to the hus­band.

The dutie of a Husband.

THe duty of a Husband towarde his wife, must bee confirmed by these nine circumstances. First, in louing hir aboue other women. Secondly, in go­uerning [Page] her graciously, Thirdly, in per­swading her more by reason than au­thoritie. Fourthlye, in not vsing her roughlie or iniuriouslye before others. Fiftly, in admonishing her often. Sixt­ly, in reprehending her seldome. Sea­uenthly, in striking her neuer. Eightly, in prouidnig for her carefullye, & last­lye, in louingly deuiding of his autho­rity with her, especially in matters that concerne her sex.

The duty of a wife.

The dutie of a wife toward her hus­band, standeth in these obseruations following.

First, she must loue him, and none o­ther but him.

Secondly, she must not depend too much vpon her wealth, beauty, or no­bilitie of birth, but haue her chiefest care bent vpon those things, that sitte nearest to her husbands hart; as the in­tegrity [Page] of manners and mildnesse of behauiour and conuersation.

Thirdly, as the Persians when their enemies came rushing vpon them, re­ceiued them with silence: and contra­riwise, if they were set vppon with si­lence, made head againste them with open mouth: euen so, a discreet Wo­man must hold her peace when hir husband exclaimes with choller: and con­trariwise if hee vtter not a worde, she must labour to cheere him with com­fortable speeches.

Fourthly, she must not discouer her husbands imperfections.

Fiftly, she must not vpon any disple­sure forsake her husbands bed.

Sixtly, she must be free from all sus­picion of incontinencie.

Seuenthlys she must be no gadder a­broad.

Eightly, she must be modeh in attire

Ninthly, shee must be secret as tou­ching houshold wants and affaires.

[Page]Tenthly, she must be ashamed to vt­ter anye dishonest speeches, floutes or iestes, or to giue eare vnto them.

11. She must be patient and wink at many things done by her husband.

12. She must be carefull to bring vp her children.

13. She must be faire spoken and curteous to her neighbours.

14. She must apply her hands to good huswiferie, and her mind to the know­ledge & vnderstanding of gods word.

Lastly, she must not forsake her hus­band, either for sicknesse, pouerty, or any other casuall affliction.

How to detest luxury.

COnsider that the obiect whereto it tendeth (which is the corporall fruition of vnchast persons) is, thogh can­died with a faire outside, inwardly the receptacle of vile and corruptible basenesse.

[Page]That lust is neuer satisfied, but alwais poore euen in plenty.

That the pleasure thereof is momen­tary, but the punishment eternall.

That it defileth the temple of the ho­ly ghost, which is mans bodye conse­created vnto Christe by his precious bloud.

That it is no sooner enioyed, but it breeds annoy: that it weakens the po­wers of the soule, and filles the body with many diseases, that it shortens the life and shadowes a good report.

That there is not so riche a treasurie, but Luxurie will draw it dry: that it is a fire, whose substance is Gluttonye, whose flame is pride: whose sparcles, are corrupt speeches, whose smoke in­famy, whose ashes filthinesse, & whose end is hell.

Remember the iudgementes of God executed vpon lustfull persons: as the sudden death of Onan, the plagues sent vpon Abimeleck king of Egipt, thogh [Page] but in thought he pretended lewdnes toward Sara Abrams wife, the sworde of dissention that neuer departed from the house of Dauid, for taking the wife of Vriah: the violent death so Ammon by his owne brother, and many other examples, which may terrify & bring vs in detestation of his sinne.

How to auoide Luxurie.

The best remedy againste Luxurie is Chastity, which is of foure sorts: ey­ther of Nature, as of such as are borne Chast: or by Artes of such as are made chast by men: or by praier and indu­stry, as of such as haue made themselus chast for the kingdome of Heauen: or by marriage, as of such as liue chastly in Wedlock. Mat. 19.12.

Chastity what.

[Page]CHastitie is the brideling of lust vn­der the yoke of reason, or a cleere disposition of the bodye without the filth of concupiscence: it is the beauty of the soule, the ioy of heauen, and the best Iewell on earth.

To preserue which Iewell without flawe or blemish, is to auoid the causes wherewith it is foild, as first to cast out of the minde all wicked and vnchaste thoughts.

Secondly, to auoide filthy commu­nication.

Thirdly, not to frequent the compa­ny of lewd and lasciuious persons.

Fourthly, to bee temperate in diet, and modest in apparell.

Fiftly, to refraine the handes from vnseemlie touching and handling.

Sixtly, not to couet the sight of thin­ges that may tempt to vncleannesse.

Seuenthly and lastlye, to keepe the mind and body continuallye practised in godly and vertuous exercises: For [Page] ydlenesse is the gate that lets in the in­fection of the soule, and the Diuell is most ready to assaile, when he findeth vs most vnprouided to resist, which is, in the time of ydlenesse.

There are other remedies also for the auoiding of Luxurie, as when wee feele it creepe vpon vs, not to yeeld or giue way vnto it, but to strangle it, euē in the cradle and first birth: to thinke when we intend any vnlawfull and corrupt enterprise, that howe close or se­cret soeuer we keepe it from the eie of man, yet it lieth open (as the noonday) to the sighte of God: and therefore if we be ashamed that men shuld see our vncleanesse and beastlye behauiour, much more ought wee to tremble and be ashamed that god should beholde vs, who is our iudge, and a iudge of that nature, that not only afflicteth our bodies with temporall punnishment, but can if it please him, cast our soules into euerlasting torment.

Finis Luxurie.

Of Enuy.

ENuie may be said to be the canker of the soule, for that it eates and frets into the inward man, no otherwise than rust doth into yron; it is a reioy­cing at another mans hurt, and a sorro­wing for his good.

Enuie is of two sorts good and bad, good enuie is that, when behoulding the perfections of another, wee are an­gry with our owne imperfections, and labour seriously to be equall, or at the least to imitate the vertuous and good qualities, which wee see to flourishe more in others than in our selues, and this is calde emulation: prouided that we speake not our owne glorie, but the glory of God.

Bad enuie is, when wee grieue that the like profit or good qualities are [Page] not in vs, or not as well in vs as in anye other: And of this there are fiue bran­ches, Detraction, discord, murmuring, hatred and hurt.

Detraction what.

DEtraction, is the blemishing of an­others good name, which may bee done sixe manner of waies; first when priuely or openly, wee malitiously im­pose a crime vpon another, wherof he is not guiltie.

Secondly, when we do aggrauate and increase other mens faultes or offences by our spitefull reports.

Thridly when without any necessity our iust cause we take occasion to speak of other mens vices, publishing them to the world though nothing vrge vs thereunto: and therfore the backbiter is compared to a Butchers cur, whose lippes are alwaies bloudie with the slaughter of some beast or other.

[Page]Fourthly when wee interpret in the worse part the good deeds and words of others, and giue a badde censure of them.

Fiftly, when we deny any virtue, good qualitie, power or authority to bee in another whom, notwithstanding our conscience knowes, is well furnished to the contrarie.

Sixtly, when wee see any vertues or good qualities in a manne or woman, worthye of commendations and wee conceale them and leaue them vnspo­ken of, but if wee spie the least vice or imperfection in them, we straightway with a kind of greedinesse, reprehend and discouer it: and in this sence an en­uious detracter may be compared to a Swine, that comming into a garden where he sees sweet flowers and stink­ing ordure, neglectes the flowers and runs presently to the dung: or to him that snuffes a candle with his bare fin­gers: for although his fingers bee de­filde [Page] thereby, yet the candle giues the cleerer light: euen so, hee that tradu­ceth the virtuous, defiles his own con­science, but makes him a great deale the more glorious.

Discord what.

DIscord is the violating of the bond of Charity: which may happen 3. manner of waies, First, when through hatred and enuy, we will not reconcile and set at vnity such as we see to bee at variance.

Secondly, when we labour spiteful­ly to breake off the loue and amitie of such as before were frends, and to sow contention and debate between them.

Thirdly, when we scoste, deride, or giue ignominious names to men, ther­by to bring them into hatred and con­tempt.

The fruites of discord.

[Page]Discord brings forth quarels, mur­der, cursing, swearing, perturbation of soule, and the ruine and destruction both of commonweales and families.

Therefore contend not at al, specially with these fiue kindes of people.

1 Not with a mighty man, least you fall into his hands.

2 Nor with a rich man, least with his gold he weigh downe your right: for bribes peruerts the harts euen of prin­ces, and magistrates.

3 Nor with a talkatiue person, for hee will heare no reason.

4 Nor with an angry man, least you in­crease his fury.

5 Nor with your wife or familiar frend because such strife and contention, is as thornes in the bosome, smoake to the eyes, vineger to the teeth, and gall to the state.

Murmuring what.

[Page]MVrmuring is a repining of the hart or a speaking of the tongu against god or our neighbour.

To murmure against god is of three sorts. First when we grudge at our own infirmity or pouerty: that we haue not as perfect and sound bodyes or as well beautified minds, or as great plenty of wealth, reputation, and friendes as o­thers haue; forgetting that God hath said with his owne mouth, that before him, there is no respect of persons: that he hath not regard to the outward dis­position of the bodye, but to the in­ward zeale and godlynes of the hart: that whom the lord loueth hee chasteneth: that hee hath chosen the poore of this world, to be riche in fayth and heyres of his kingdome, whereunto we cannot enter, but by many trybula­tions and afflictions.

Secondly, wee murmur against god, when we find falt at the course of time [Page] or the vnsesonablenes of the weather, knowing that in all thinges we ought to submit to his will and prouidence; so that neither for the oppression of wicked men, nor the distemperature of drouth, moisture, cold or heat, oght we to be dismayde, but faithfully be­leeue that God will at length remem­ber vs.

Thirdlye, when wee seeme to reproue the iustice of god, for sending prosperity to the wicked, and aduersity to the godly, which is a great madnes and lack of faith, considering the wic­ked are made happy in this world, but to their further condemnation, and the godly miserable, to their further iustifi­cation: the one being very aptly com­pared to the labouring Oxe, that euery morning is fetcht out of the pasture and brought to the yoake; the other to the Oxe appointed for the slaughter, who is suffered to lye still and feede at his owe pleasure.

[Page]To murmur against our neighbour, is likewise of two sorts, first when we iudge them vnwoorthy of those good blessinges which are bestowed vppon them.

And secondly, when we cannot in­dure to heare them commended for any thing, but strait, we either contra­dict their praise, or else by frowarde wordes do disable them, that so they may seeme contemptible rather then deseruing any good opinion.

Hatred what.

HAtred is an offence rooted in the hart by continuance of time, where we study to doe hurt and mischiefe to him with whom we are offended.

The ground and roots from whence it springs are Offence and anger.

Offence, is a certaine greefe of the heart, which commeth thorough the touch of some euill, that agreeth not [Page] with our nature.

Anger is a boiling of the bloude a­bout the hart, frō which ascend fumes and hot vapors that disturbe the brain, and distract the countenance, so that the party so inflamed, becoms frantike and beside himselfe, till he bee reuen­ged on that which was the cause of his anger: and hereupon anger is calde a short madnesse; but if it be more then momentarie, it is called no longer an­ger but hatred,

There are two kindes of hatred, good and bad: good, when we hate the Vi­ces which wee perceiue to bee in our selues, or in others; and bad, as is be­fore defined.

How to suppresse hatred.

TO suppresse hatred is to mode­rate anger, and to bee troubled with neither, is to take heed that we be not thirstie after reuenge, for as [Page] anger goes before it, so reuenge follo­weth, if in time it be not preuented.

Reuenge what.

REuenge is a motion of the hearte, whereby it doth not onely turne a­side from that which offendeth, but la­bours withal either to repell and van­quish it, or to punnishe him that is the cause thereof.

For two causes menne ought not to desire reuenge.

First, because God hath said vindicta mihi, vengeance is mine, and therfore it is rebellion to offer to pull that priui­lege out of his hands.

And secondly, because it is a greate part of folly and iniustice, to thinke we are reuenged of an iniurye, when wee haue punnished the body of him, that offered it, knowing the soule and af­fections are the chiefe cause (which are out of our reach) and the body but the [Page] soules instrument, and therfore he that in furie and rage tyranizeth ouer the body for anye offence is offered him, doeth as the dog, that bites the stone, and suffers him that caste it, to passe a­way vntoucht.

Hurt what.

HVrt is, when in our owne person or by the meanes of others thorough mallice or enuy, wee study to empoue­rish, wound, maime or hinder another man, whom in dutye and religion, we are bounde, to pardon, helpe and suc­cour: for he that will forgiue, shall be forgiuen, and he that will shew mercie shall haue mercy; but to the cruel, like measure of cruelty shalbe extended.

This branch of Enuie differeth from reuenge in this, that reuenge alwayes followes vpon some offence, but hurte is oftentimes practised vppon a malici­ous and hatefull stomach without any [Page] precedent quarell or displeasure; and therefore this kinde of enuie is called the enuie of the diuell, who hates and striueth to hurt the whole race of man­kind, not for any damage they can doe vnto him, but vppon an inueterate ha­tred.

Why it is easier to hate then loue.

BEcause hatred findeth a better soile in our harts, and a more apt foun­dation to be laid vpon, than loue doth: and that for two reasons. First, because of the corruption of our nature, which sauours more of Sathā who is enuious, hatefull, and a lyer, then of God, who is loue, truth and charity.

And secondly because the infirmity of our nature wil not permit vs to inioy any good thing in this world, that is pure and of long continuance, but suf­freth vs onely to haue a little taste and [Page] sence thereof: hereupon men say that pleasures, seruices, and good turnes are made of feathers, and therefore easely caried a way by reson of their lightnes: but offences, euils and displeasures, are made of lead, and therefore by reason of their weight, they sinke downe and lodge in the bottome of the heart.

How to detest enuy.

Consider that enuy is the badge and cognisance of the diuell, for the diuell is not better knowne then by his enui­ous disposition, and therefore such as giue place in their heartes to this vice, are discouered to bee the seruants of the deuell: if seruants of the diuel, they are enemies to god, if enemies to god, they become subiect to eternall dam­nation.

Consider likewise that enuie is the transformer of men from the perfectiō of their first creation: in their first creation, they are amiable, milde and gentle [Page] but through enuie they growe sterne, rough and impatient, hauing their eies sunke into their heades, their browes wrinkled, their cheeks pale and wanne, their teeth grinning like dogges, their tungs hissing like serpents, their ioynts trembling, and their whole body leane and vnsightly.

Enuy is also tearmed the mansion of error, the hell of minde, the pricke of conscience, and the sting of corruption and by the opinion of some, helde for sinne against the holy ghost, for that it wilfully and of malicious stomack im­pugneth the graces bestowed vppon gods children.

Yet of all other sinnes, it is accoun­ted the iustest, for that it taketh ven­geance vppon it selfe; for although it leuell the dart of mischiefe against o­thers, yet it woundes it selfe, ann is to the hart of man, as the worme bred in the tree to the wood therof, by whom at laste it is deuoured: but say it were not of that nature, but that enuy were [Page] very pleasing and plausible in it selfe, yet knowing that God wil be reuēged vpon it, as appeares by the example of Caine, for his enuy towarde Abell; of Saul, for his enuy toward Dauid; of the sonnes of Iacob for their enuy toward their brother Ioseph: of Ammon, for his enuy towards Mardocheus, it is to be loathed and abhord: but being so, that it consumerh the heart, drieth vp the body, vexeth the mind, and indangereth the soule, what can be thought more detesteable?

How to auoid Enuy.

THe onlie remedy againste Enuie, is charitie, to doe vnto others as wee would bee doone vnto our selues: this virtue of charirie spreades it selfe into two partes: firste, into the loue which we owe vnto God, and secondly, into the loue which we owe vnto our neighbours.

How we ought to loue God

With al our soule, with al our strēgth with all our power: that is, chiefly and aboue all other things; for he saith our sauiour Christe) that loueth not mee more thē eithes father or mother, wife, children, sister or brother, hath no part in me, nor I in him.

Fiue reasons why we ought to loue God.

First, Iure preceptions, because hee hath commanded it.

Secondly, Iure creations, because he hath created vs.

Thirdly, Iure redemptionis, because he hath redeemed vs.

Fourthly, Iure sanctificationis, bicause he hath sanctified vs.

Fiftly, Iure Amoris, because he hath so loued vs, that he hath not only giuē [Page] vs all things necessary for this life, but hath prepared eternall happinesse for vs in the life to come.

How to loue our Neighbor.

We must loue our neighbour as our selfe: for he that saith he loueth God and hateth his brother, is a lyer, and there is no truth in him.

Foure reasons why wee ought to loue our Neighbor.

First, because wee are all of one bro­therhood in the flesh.

Secondly, because we are of one re­generation in spirit.

Thirdlye, because of the wordes of Christ, who hath commanded that we loue one another as he hath loued vs.

And fourthly, because we are mem­bers of one and the same misticall bo­die, whereof he is the head.

Finis Enuy.

Of gluttony.

GLuttony may bee called the De­luge or inundation of the soule, because it is a rauenous desire to feed and fill the stomach, beyond the rule or bounds of nature.

There are two sortes of gluttony, the first, consisteth in greedie, often, and immoderate desire of delicate meates, and varietie of dishes.

The second is, when in stead of refre­shing the body with sufficiēt moisture, we drowne it in the superfluity of drin­king.

We may eate or drinke immoderately, seauen manner of waies.

FIrst when we our selues in our own persōs do surfit in excesse, or so load [Page] and ouercharge the stomach as we de­uise meanes by hotte drinkes or other­wise to cause digestion.

Secondly, when wee our selues ob­serue a moderation, yet in vaine-glory and ostentation prouide such superfluitie at our feasts and banquets, as others thereby become immoderate eaters or drinkers.

Thirdly, when (though we haue but moderate prouision) wee racke the in­uention and art of cookery for strange compositions, vnusual sauces, and pro­uocations, therby to please and delight the appetite.

Fourthly, when wee eate or drinke more vpon wantonnesse, then anie ne­cessitie.

Fiftly, when we are more costlye in one dish of meat, or one draught of wine, then would suffice for the value to sustaine many multitudes, as the dis­soluing of gold and precious stones to that purpose; by the example of Cleo­patra [Page] to Antony, & Mulcasses King of Tunis, the one carrowsing to her loue at one draught, a iewel of inestimable price; the other, bestowing a hundred crounes vpon the dressing of a peacock for his owne diet.

Sixtly, when our tables are full, and we well satisfied, we rather couetously lay vp the remainder, than charitablie bestow it to the reliefe of the hungry.

7. and lastly, when wee vse delicate meats and drinkes for the prouocation and stirring vp of the body to lust, and performance of the act of venery.

The effectes of Gluttony.

THere are many dangerous effectes that follow Gluttony: especiallye these eleuen ensuing.

First, stupidity or dulnesse of wit, for the stomach being filde and the braine trobled, we are vnfit to praye, or vse a­ny other duty of good Christians.

[Page]The second impotency, when tho­rough Gluttony our bodies are infec­ted with many diseases: as the dropsy, palsie, feauers, inflamations, and diuers others; so that our limbes becom weak and feeble.

The third scurrilitye, which is an im­pudent behauiour or disordered gest­ure of the body, whereby we prouoke men to laugh vs to scorne; as appeares in drunkards, when their toongs stam­mer, their feete stagger, or any other vnseemly and ridiculous action pro­ceedes from them.

The fourth Furie, when through the ill disposition of excesse, wee spurne at reason and good counsell, wounding, killing, and doing deedes of mischief, we care not vnto whom.

The fifte loquasitie or superfluous talke, when through the force of wine, we vomit out detractions, curfinges, horrible oathes and blasphemies, filthy, ydle, and vnchast wordes.

[Page]The sixt drowsinesse, when through rauenous eating or drinking, wee are fit for nothing but for sleepe.

The seuenth, beastly nastinesse, whē for want of other vtterance, our surcharged stomache bewraies our intempe­rance, by vomiting, belching and stin­king of the breath.

The eight, lust; for belli-cheere and drunkennesse, are the bellowes to con­cupiscence: and as the pampered horse will cast his rider into the mire, so the flesh being pampered, will hurle the soule into the lake of all vncleannes

the ninth pouertie, when for abu­sing of plenty we are plagued and pin­ched with penurie.

The tenth, losse of credit and estima­tion in the world.

11. And last, the wraith and indig­nation of God, whome (thorough our Gluttonie) of a mercifull and louinge father, we make a rigorous and puni­shing Iudge.

Lesse content in superfluity than sobriety.

BEcause superfluitie and intempe­rance preuent the sweetnesse and pleasure of the sense, hauing no feeling of hunger, thirst▪ or any other motion of the body: but sobrietie forbearing the fruition of pleasures a long time, re­ceiues a far more perfect taste of them for saciety makes pleasant thinges be­come lothsome and vnpleasant.

How to drinke Wine.

THe first draught is for thirst, the second for nourishment, the 3. of pleasure, & the fourth of mad­nesse.

How to detest gluttonie.

Beside the reasons before mentio­ned, [Page] there are eight other circumstan­ces inducing vs to the detestation of gluttony.

First, because it hasteneth the disso­lution of the body.

Secondly, because it taketh part with the fleshe, in the combat betweene it and the spirit: so that there is twoe a­gainst one▪

Thirdly, because it invreth the body to an euill custome, which will after­ward very hardlie be forsaken.

Fourthly, because it plaies the hyp­pocrite with vs, appearing sweete and pleasant at the first, but in the end it bi­teth like a Scorpion, and is as fatall as poison.

Fiftly, because it liues continually vnder the curse of God, whoe pronoun­ceth a woe vnto them that rise vp early to follow drunkennesse, and continue in it till night.

Sixtly, because it discipateth and de­stroyeth the sence, for drunken menne [Page] neither knowe what they doe them­selues, nor what is done vnto them.

Seuenthly, because he that is subiect to the desire of the belly is in perpetu­all slauerie by reason the bellie doeth alwaies craue and is neuer satisfied.

Eightlie, because of the iudgements of God inflicted vpon offenders in this kinde, as vpon Noah being derided of his owne sonnes, and of Lot that in his drunkennes committed incest with his daughters; whereof did spring a most wicked and pernitious generation.

How to auoid Gluttonie.

TO auoid Gluttonie wee must em­brace temperance and sobrietye: which consisteth in chastening and ta­ming the desires of the bodie, by fast­ing and abstinence.

There are two kindes of fasting, the first is, to abstaine from meat & drink; the second, to refraine from sinne, and [Page] the corrupt affections of the heart, the first is good, but the last is better than the first.

The properties of true Fasting.

THere are foure thinges required of him that will truely fast.

The first is a voluntarie motion he must not doe it vpon constraint. The second, is zeale without vainglo­rie, he must not doe it to bee praised or seene of men.

The third, praier, he must cal for the assistance of god.

The fourth, almes-deedes, hee must giue to the poore, to shew the fruits of his fasting: for to faste or vse a sparing diet, not to the intent that we may be the better able to relieue others, but to enrich our selues, is no fast, but rather a chiefe point of auarice.

The better to incourage vs to exer­cise [Page] fasting and to auoide gluttonie, is to lay before vs the example of Christ, who notwithstanding he were Lorde of al treasure both in heauē and earth, yet voluntarilie fasted forty daies, and fortye nightes: and of Iohn Baptiste, whose best delicates was but Locustes and wilde honny: And of the apostles, that so awed their bodies with tempe­rate diet, as they were glad to pull the eares of corne to satisfie hunger.

We read that Gallen was a hundred and twenty yeare old, and when it was wondred how hee liued so long, hee made answere, that he neuer rose from his table with a full stomach.

The Egyptians vsed in the midst of their banquets, to bring in the anatho­my of a dead body dried, that the hor­ror thereof might keepe them within the bounds of temperance: so that for the bodyes health, and for the vigour and alacritye of the soule, there is no­thing better then fasting, nor any thing [Page] worse or more fatall than this sinne of gluttonie.

Of Wrath.

WRath may be called the frenzy of the soule, and is defined to be a vehement motion of the hart tending to reuenge, whereby the bloud boiling exceedingly, sendeth vp hot and burning vapors to the braine: so that reason is smothered, and the wil made obedient to the affections.

Of Wrath there are eleuen branches.

MAllice, Furie, Impatience, Male­diction, Blasphemy, Reproch, Re­uenge, Contention, Threatning, Cru­eltie, and Murder.

Mallice what.

MAllice, is a kinde of anger deeplie rooted in the hart, and closely concealed, til opportunity serue to do mis­chiefe: the contrarie to this, is clemen­cie, soone forgetting and easily pardo­ning an offence.

Furie what.

FVrie, is a chollericke passion of the minde, which presentlie breaketh foorth into violence, either by worde or deed, and is deafe to all trueth and reason, during the time it is in heat: the contrarie to this is meekenesse, where­by we are hardlie mooued to anger.

Impatience what.

Impatience is an easie inclination to wrath or anger, and it happneth three [Page] maner of waies. First, when the minde stirred vp by offence inuolueth it selfe in manye bitter cogitations, studying how he may be reuenged on him with whom he is displeased.

Secondly, when the minde surchar­ged with vnkindnesse, breaketh forth into disordered clamors, and confused speeches.

Thirdly, when we grudge and repine at the harmes, calamities, sicknesse, or other euils inflicted vppon vs by god; not remembring that for three causes wee ought rather to reioice: first, be­cause tribulation is the badge of a christian souldier; and it is more honor for a souldior to be in battell, then to hide his head in a Castle or fortresse.

Secondly, because in patient suffer­ing of afflictions, we are made like vn­to our captaine Chirst, and to bee lyke him is the greatest glory.

Lastly, afflictions are a sure testimo­ny vnto our consciences, that wee are [Page] the beloued of God, for whome the lord loueth he correcteth.

The contrary to impatience, is pati­ence, which is a voluntarie and longe suffering of affliction and hard extre­mities, for the loue of vertue and ho­nestie.

Malediction what.

Malediction is, when through wrath or anger, we cursse, banne, or wish euil to another: which sinne I finde to bee very detestable for these three reasons.

First, in that for the most part curses redound vppon the head of him that curseth.

Secondly, in that the euill doer is ra­ther to be praied for than to be cursed, considering that to curse, is to heape more euill vpon him, whereas he had enough and too much before.

And thirdly, in that it is so vnlawfull a thinge, as that it is not permitted a­gainst [Page] the diuell, much lesse against a­nie christan; as appeares by the exam­ple of Michael the Archangell, whoe when he stroue with the diuel aboute the body of Moses, he did not reproue him with cursed speaking, but onelie said; The Lord rebuke thee Sathan.

The contrarie to malediction is be­nediction or blessing, when wee wish well to all men, yea vnto our enemies. Blesse them that curse, Do good to thē that hate.

Blasphemie what.

BLasphemie, is a reuengefull intent vttered against God himselfe, tho­rough opprobrie and contumelious speeches; which for fiue causes is held a most horrible sinne.

First, in respect of the greeuous pu­nishment which god himselfe did set downe against it in the old Tastament, which was stoning to death

[Page]Secondly, in respect of the ingrati­tude of the blasphemer, that dishono­reth god with that member of his bo­die, in which god hath honoured him aboue all other creatures, namely, his tongue.

Thirdlye, in that the blasphemer is more wicked and rebellious then al o­ther creatures, for all other creatures doe praise and magnifie their creator, according to their kinde, declaring his power, wisdome, goodnesse and om­nipotence, but the blasphemer dooth not only neglect that dewty, but what in him lies, contriueth to make a scorn of his name and dignitie.

Fourthly, in respect of the peruerse disposition of the blasphemer, which attributes to himselfe that good which he doth, but the euill which befalleth him, he ascribeth vnto God: whereas contrariwise, euils doe fal vpon vs tho­rough our owne desert, and whatsoe­uer is good proceedeth only from god

[Page]Fiftly, in thar the diuel speaketh in blasphemers, for their wordes are so horrible and full of terrour, as no man of any conscience, or hart-feeling pit­ty, can indure their speeches, but will be moued to stop their eares againste them; the contrary to blasphemye, is Sanctification, adoring and worship­ping the name of God, neuer presu­ming to haue it in our mouthes, but with great and singuler reuerence: for as it is written; our God is a consum­ing fire, and will not hold them guilt­lesse that take his name in vaine.

Reproch what.

REproch is an imperfection, where­by we are moued to scorne, check, or deride another man, either for the defect of minde or bodie; or when we studie to detract or speake euil of a mā behinde his backe: the contrarie vnto this, is humility or vprightnes of heart [Page] and toong, giuing to euery one a good report; for therefore hath god in the creation of the tongue, obserued these foure thinges. First, he hath made it tender and soft, to signifie our wordes should be of like temper.

Secondly he hath tyed it with many threades and stringes, to restraine and bridle it.

Thirdly, it is euery way blunt, where by we are admonished that our words ought not to be pricking or hurtfull.

And fourthlye, it is inclosed with a quicke-set and strong rampier of teeth and gummes, and with lippes which are as gates to shut it vppe, for feare it should take too much liberty.

Reuenge what.

REuenge is, to take the rod of Iustice out of gods hand, and our selues to render euil for euill, which is very ab­surde, considering that it is the soule [Page] which offendeth, and we haue power ouer nothing but the bodie; like him that breakes the sword and suffers him that gaue the wounde, to passe awaye without blame or preiudice: the con­trary to reuenge is lenitie and mildnes, forgiuing euery one as we looke to be forgiuen our selues.

Yet is not reuenge altogither forbidden, maiestrates may vse it; for they are as Gods substitutes; prouided they do not execute it, as caried away by their owne affections of wrath or anger; but as tēdring the glory of god, the course of Iustice, and the safetie of the Com­monwealth.

Contention what.

COntention is when through the chollericke disposition of nature, we are alwaies apt to fight, quarrell, or contend, for euery light occasion; the contrary to this, is peace or placcabili­ty of mind, rather resoluing to lose our [Page] right, then by vaine cauiling, to breake the bond of charity.

Threatning what.

TO threaten is to pronounce mis­chiefe & hurt vnto another, not in respect of iustice and correction, but onely in desire to satisfie reuenge. The contrarie to this, is frendly admoniti­on, aduising our aduersary, and rather reclaming him by faire perswasions and faithfull counsell, then bending the brow, or whetting the tong against him.

Cruelty what.

CRuelty is a priuation of pittie and compassion, wherof ther are three sortes, the first is, to procure mischiefe, the second is, to execute it without mercie, and the third, not to defende cruelty, and oppression from others, [Page] whome we see extreamely dealt with, if it lie in our power to helpe them: the contrary to this, is mercifulnesse and compassion; which is a like sence and feeling of euil and griefe which others suffer, as if wee were touched with the same; or a mittigation of the extremity of that which one hath deserued, vp­on the consideration of our own frail­ty and selfe-guiltinesse.

Murder what.

MVrder, is so far to be inraged with wrath, as to wish or not be satisfi­ed till we haue the bloud of him that offended.

Murder is of two sorts; internal, con­ceiued tn the hart; & external, brought foorth in action, so that to kill is not simply vnderstood of the shedding of bloude onely, but by euery occasion tending thereunto: as taking away of a mans good name, his house, goods, or [Page] any thing else, whereby he preserues his being here in this world.

How to detest Wrath and Anger.

THe circumstances whereby we are taught to detest anger are these: first, by the example of bruite beastes, who though they be neuer so fierce or cruell, yet amongst such as are of their own kinde they wil alwaies shew themselues meek and gentle, as the Li­on wil not hurt the lion, nor the Drag­gon the Dragon.

Secondly, in respect that by nature we are brought foorth naked and vn­armed; which signifies wee ought to loath all barbarous cruelty.

Thirdly, to remember what we were when Christ laid downe his life for vs, with what gentlenesse hee suffers our daily multiplying sinnes, and to think that if wee can exspect mercy at his [Page] hands, that we ought to shewe mercie to others.

Fourthly, so long as we are in wrath and displeasure with our btethren, so long neither praiers, nor almes deeds, nor any thing else that we doe is ac­ceptable in the sight of god, but wee stand as exiled from his fauour and lo­uing kindnesse.

Fiftly, our anger howsoeuer is abursd, for if wee maligne the iust, then wee striue against god, who standeth with the iust: if the vniust, it is a meanes ra­ther to increase their lewdenes then to diminish it; and so our anger prooues hurtfull to ourselues and profitable to no bodie else▪

Sixtly, if we looke well about vs, it is more then wee can well doe to be at peace within our selues, and therefore great improuidence to make war vpon others.

Seauenthly, whilest through wrath we striue to tyranise ouer others, and [Page] wee our selues like base cowardes are trodden down of our owne affections.

Eightly, the wrathfull man liues in a continual purgatory and hell of con­science, sometime afflicted with iniu­ries, and manye times smarting with woundes and blowes.

Lastly, we must not let the sunne goe downe vppon our anger: for our Saui­our hath said, Whosoeuer sayeth vnto his brother, thou foole; is in danger of hell fire.

How Anger is good.

When it breedeth dislike in vs of other mens vyces, or stirreth vs vp to the desire of excellent things, as when we see our selues contemned for base actions, and loathing them, we addict our selues to things that are better, and more noble; and hereof comes indig­nation; which is a griefe wrought in vs, when we behold some good thing be­fall [Page] an vnworthy person, and he that is worthy, depriued thereof.

The difference betweene Indignation and Compassion.

INdignation, is in regard of som good that happeneth to one that is vnworthy of it. Compassion or pitty, ariseth of some euill that befalleth or is procu­red to him that hath not deserued it: and of these twoe mingled together, springeth zeale; which is an indignati­on of heart conceiued in reguarde of those things, that are vnworthyly don againste him that is deare vnto vs, and whome wee loue; as appeareth by the example of Christ, whoe was so much mooued with the indignity offered to god the Father, when hee came into the Temple at Ierusalem, by suche as solde Doues and changed money in it; as in great indignatiō, he took a whip and scourged them out, tellinge them [Page] his fathers house was a house of praier but they had made it a den of theeus.

We must beware that our indgna­tion spring not of enuy, not our zeale of ignorance.

How to auoyd Anger.

ANger is to be auoyded two maner of waies: first, in respect of others; and secondly, in respect of our selues.

How to auoyd the anger of another man.

We shall the sooner auoyde the an­ger of another man, if either wee giue place to his fury, or staieng by him vse milde and gentle speeches.

How to reconcle an enemy,

AN enemie may be recōciled three manner of waies: first, by crauing [Page] pardon in words; secondly, by shew­ing signes of humillitie by the bodye; as by kneeling or prostrating our selues vppon the ground; and thirdly, by the seruice of charity, according to the saying; If thine enemie hunger feed him, if he thirst, giue him drinke.

How to auoyd anger in our selues.

THe principall meanes to auoyd an­ger in our selues is patience, in tol­lerrating and suffering of euill with a quiet mind, thinking that whatsoeuer is layd vppon vs in this life, whether it be affliction, persecution, or reproche, that there is nothinge can touche our soule, but our owne iniquitye: and so long as our soules are safe which are truely our selues, whatsoeuer happens to our bodies, we ought to esteeme as not happening vnto vs; and therefore not to be regarded of vs.

Beside, to bridle anger, consider the [Page] party by whome we are displeased: if it be a stranger that mooues vs, impute it to his ignorance; if a Childe, to his folly; if a Maiestrate or father, to his authoritie; if a wife, to her Loue; if a friend, to his care; if a brother, to his boldnesse; if a seruant, to his negli­gence; if a neighbour to his rashnesse, not doubting but vpon better consideration, they will all repente them of their ouersight.

The example of Moses auaileth very much to the auoiding of anger, whoe notwithstāding that he had byn many times reuiled and exclamed vpon, by his countrey men the Israelites and that without cause, yet was so far from being angry with them, as when the Lorde for their rebellion against him, determined to cut them off, Moses ra­ther besoght him that his name might be wipte out of the booke of life, then any such harme should befal that peo­ple. Dauid a man chosen of God, and [Page] an anointed king, euen in the midst of his guard and men of warre, suffered a base fellow to reuile him and throwe dust in his face.

Finally, let vs alwaies obserue this one rule, that when soeuer wee finde our hart kindled with anger, we deuise some meanes to prolong the time be­fore we strike or make reply, as Theo­dosius and other vertuous men haue done, that would either reade the Al­phabet ouer, play vppon some instru­ment, or make a certaine space before they would reply vpon their offenders and by this meanes, as they, so shal we the more easily subdue and vanquish this wilde and sauadge passion.

Finis Wrath.

Of Sloth.

SLoath may be called the lethargie of the soule, being a lither deiecti­on of the whole man from the laudable exercise of virtue, so that in a mā ner he becomes sencelesse, but in truth altogether vnprofitable.

There are eleauen branches of sloth, protraction, Remisnes, Negligence, improuidence, indeuotion, sluggish­nesse, pusilanimity, irresolution, dispe­ration, misprision of time and omition.

Ptotraction what.

PRotraction, is that defect of minde, which when a man is to enterprise or take in hand some good woorke or other, makes him defer the time, and vse much delay ere he attempte it; and [Page] this is the fault of those that know, that with out repentance we shal die in our sinnes, and yet defer their amendment of life from day to day.

Remisnesse what.

REmisnesse, is where hauing begun a good woorke, wee quicklye are mooued to leaue it off againe; and this is the fault of such, as entring into reli­gion, and resoluing vppon a Godlye course of life, by the vaine inticements of the worlde, or the corrupt pleasures of the flesh, fal to their old bias again.

Negligence what.

NEgligence, is when we enter vpon a good worke, and proceede in it, but without care whether it bee well done or no; and this is the fault of such as are content to come to church to pray, heare sermons, and giue to the [Page] poore, but doe it more for fashion sake and feare of punishment, then vpon a­ny true zeale: or labour not effectually to deserue the name of Christians, but thinke it sufficient, howesoeuer they performe the outward ceremony.

Improuidence what.

IMprouidence, is when a man doth not prouide aforehand against that which is like to happen, but stan­deth still, or spendeth the time care­lessely, till an inconuenience take hold vpon him, and this is the fault of those that neuer forsake sinne, till sinne for­sakes them, nor haue anye thought to liue well, vntill they see they must die presently, thinking their rotten old age sufficient for God, whereas they haue spent their lusty youth in the seruice of the diuell: but there are fiue reasons to moue vs to beware of improuidence & that wee defer not our conuersion to virtue and godly life.

[Page]The first is induration, for that olde age hauing a long time continued in the custome of vicious life, like a stiffe tree is hardly bowed or brought to better order.

The second, is the longer a man abi­deth in sinne; the greater will bee the burden of sinne, the greater the burden of sinne is, the more hardly will he rise from vnder it; especiallye considering his chiefe strength and vigour is be­fore wasted and consumed.

The third, the more strange we are to virtue and godlye life, the larger ex­pence of time wil be required; for our entertainment and familliar acquain­tance, so that hauing alyenated our sel­ues all our life time, death in our olde age layeth hold vppon vs, before wee can put foorth our hand to apprehend the benefit of her presence.

The fourth, the difficulty and vnaptnesse vpon our death bed to turne vn­to the Lord, by reason of the torment [Page] of sicknesse, the care of our goods, the clamour of wife and children, and the terror that death brings with him.

The fift, because at the houre of death the diuel is more ready to assaile vs thē at other times, knowing that if he then faile, his pray is euer after past recoue­ry, and we then most vnable to resiste.

Indeuotion what.

INdeuotion, is the spiritual drouzines of the soule; when neither through weaknesse or wante of power, but by a certaine wearisomnesse in the execu­tion of good workes, we cast them be­hinde our backes, and leaue them vn­done; and this is the imperfection of those, whose faith is wauering and in­constant, loosing the heate and vigour thereof.

Sluggishnesse what.

[Page]SLuggishnesse, is a kinde of heauy, and lumpish vnwillingnesse to any good or commendable practise, and it is of two sorts; corporall, or spiri­tuall; corporall sluggishnesse, is when we had rather indure any necessity, thē by industrie to paine the body, for the auoiding thereof.

Spirituall sluggishnesse, is when we had ratherlie walloing in the pleasures of this life, though to our destruction, then wander thorough the thorny and bitter path of affliction, though to our eternall happinesse: and this is the falt of those, that so their bodies be secure and at ease, haue no further care, but thinke all thinges well with them.

Pusillanimity what.

PVsillanimity, is a faintnesse of heart, whereby we become slacke euen in things, which we are sufficient able to [Page] performe. And this is the fault of such as hyde their tallant, or shrinke backe from the waye of virtue, because they presume it is to hard for them to folow and so consequently fall into distrust of the helpe and assistance of God.

The cause of Pusillanimity.

THe cause of pusillanimitye is feare, which is of two sorts, one good, the other bad.

Good feare what

To stand more in awe of blame, re­proch and dishonour, then of death or griefe.

Bad feare what.

BAd feare is a false opinion of euill, imagining it to be greater thē it is, and this is of two sortes, first when the [Page] soule thorough a cowardlye dispotion bocomes ydle, dead and void of euery good effect. Secondly, when the wick­ed through horrout of paine and pu­nishment, and not for loue of godlines, are bridled and restrained from their villanies.

Irresolution what.

IRresolutiō is a hanging of the mind between two opinions, now deter­mining this, now that, yet in the end attempteth nothing at all. And this is the fault of such, that would faine inioy the blessednesse prepared for true chri­stians, and yet are loath to forsake their carnall affections; like the yong man in the gospell, that came to our Saui­our with a desire to obtaine heauen, but when he was bid to sell all hee had & giue it to the poore, hee went away very sad and pensiue, making no reply, whether he woulde at such a rate purchase [Page] the kindome of heauen or no.

Desperation what.

DEsperation is a kind of sloth, where by the soule waxeth fainte vnder the burden of sinne, or of anye good woorke, and thinketh there is no hope of pardon, or possability to prosper, because shee wanteth will to aske the one, or courage to attempt the other; as appeares by the example of Kaine, Iudas, and such like, who offended god more in dispairing of his mercy, then in the committing of their offences: for the first steppe to saluation is to de­cline from sinne, and the second not to dispaire of mercie.

Misprision of time what.

MIsprision of time is a kind of sloth mixte with vnnessessarye labour, whereby time is otherwise spent then [Page] it shoulde, and therein although we seeme industrious, yet because our la­bour both of minde and body is either about trifles or vnlawfull actions, therefore such labour is accounted idlenes: And this is the fault of such, as breake their braine aboute the studie of mis­chife, and wicked inuentions, discourse vpon vaine and filthy matters, seriously read profane bookes, practise vnlaw­full games, gad vp and downe vppon no ocasion of businesse, spend time in daliance, drinking and eating, or make a continuall custome of such excersices as are appointed onely for recreation:

Omission what.

OMission is a kinde of sloth, where­by we let slippe the knowledge of such thinges as we ought to knowe, or the prosecution of such thinges as we ought to doe, and this is the faulte of those that being cōmaunded to watch [Page] and pray, ouerpasse that duety by the means of being imploied about worldly vanities, or of such as know that god is the gracious giuer of all those bene­fites which they enioy, and yet forget to giue him thanks for the same, or re­soluing vpon some good worke to the aduauncement of gods glory and the profite of the common wealth, are carried away through the streame of their owne affections and so leaue it vnfinished.

THis sinne toucheth all sors of peo­ple; as magistrates when they o­mit the administration of iustice, mini­sters when they omite the preaching of the worde, parents when they neg­lect their children especially in matters touching their soules health, children when they dispise the disciplin of their parents and so foorth, through all de­grees and callings where there is anye neglect of duety.

Duty what.

[Page]DVety is the bonde of the soule, whereby we cheerefully and wil­lingly without force or constraint giue to euery one that which belongeth vnto him, as honour to whome honor, reuerence to whom reuerence, tribute to whom tribute, and succor to whom succour belongeth: it is of two kindes, duety towards god, and duety towards our neighbour, duety towardes god is loue testified by obedience, duety to­wardes our neighbour is loue testified by vpright dealing.

How to detest Sloth.

REmember that sloth is a vice which impouerisheth both soule and bo­die, the soule of internall graces, the body of externall goodes, as appeares by the words of the gospel: to him that hath shalbe giuen, and to him that hath not shall be taken euen that which he [Page] hath; and by the wisedom of Salomon the idle hand is filde with penury.

Remenber likewise that it is a vice, which captiuates and bringeth vs vn­der the slauish tyranny of our worlde­ly enemies, the world, the flesh, & the diuell: for whilest through a carelesse and negligent regard, we make slight acount of their temptations, or valiantly perseuer not in fight agaiust them, we lose the honour and reward of vic­tory, and euer after lie bounde in the seru le chaines of darkenesse.

Remember also it is a vice which is the roote and nurse of many other vi­ces, as appeares by the example of Da­uid, who no sooner gaue himselfe to rest after his painefull warres, but hee fel into the sinnes of adultery and murder.

Saloman so long as he was busy in building the Temple and other houses, cō ­tinued zealous in the seruice of God; but waxing negligent, he fell straite to [Page] lust after women, and commit idola­try.

Fourthly, remember that it is helde a vice so detestable in nature, as verie brute beastes abhor it: as we may ga­ther by the industrie of the Ant, Bee, and other smal and contemptible creatures.

Lastly, let vs consider that all other creatures not hauing life, are so oppo­site to sloth, as they continually keepe the first course wherein they were cre­ated without intermission or ceasing, vnlesse it be vppon some violent and accidentall cause, as wee see by the re­uolution of the sunne, moon and stars, by the ebbing and flowing of the sea, and by the iust returne of summer and winter, spring and Autumne; nay the very stones of the earth, thogh they be sencelesse and lye still, yet haue they in them a kind of working faculty which giues them groath and increase; if then these, much more ought men, indued [Page] with reason and vnderstanding, to de­cline from sloth and imbrace the labor whereunto they are ordained; for man is created not to take rest but to trauel, and he liueth most happily, who as lit­tle as may be liueth to himselfe.

How to auoid Sloth.

COnsidder that wee enter into this worlde as it were to run a race, or fight a battell, if therefore wee run not so, as we may get the gole, we lose the rewarde; or if we fight not so, as we may preuaile, we loose the reward and honour due to victory.

Consider likewise, that we neither runne this race nor fight this battell in priuate to our selues, but in the open sight of him, that wil one day call vs to a reckoning how we haue bestowed e­uery houre and minute allotted vs for that purpose: pronouncing in the mean space, a curse vpon them that doe this [Page] worke negligently.

The best remedy therefore against sloth and ydlensse, is deuotion, which is a ready and willing performance of the seruice of God, and of all other du­ties required of vs in the course of this life. Deuotion is of two sorts, the one, belonging to the minde, which con­taines the exercise and labours of the minde, as prayer, prayse, thanksgiuing and such like: the other, to the body, which comprehendeth the workes of charrity, abstinence, humility, and such like corporal functions.

To be incited the rather herunto, let vs call to minde, the examples of such persons as for the loue of virtue, haue refused no paines cost or industry: what monumēts may we behold erected by the dilligence of our fore fathers? what large reuenues left to the reliese of the poore? What books and volums writ­ten for our instruction? which we had neuer beene happy by, if they had de­lighted [Page] more in sloth then dilligence.

The Queene of Saba, trauelled ftom the furthest part of the south to Iudea, to heare the wisdome of Sollomon: S. Paule neglected no perril nor persicu­tion in many countries, for the daily & hourely planting of the holy Gospell: euen heauen men are liuely patternes vnto vs for the auoiding of sinne. Plau­tus by day writ his commedies, and in the night ground in a mill, that so hee might haue wherewith to maintaine him at his study.

Apelles for the desire he had to excel in the art of paintng, would let no day passe wherin he drew not some line or other. If these men were so desirous of wordly honor, and the transitory commodities of this life, how muche more paineful ought we to be for the obtai­ning of heauenly honor & the wealth and riches that shall neuer fade. To the which, God for his mercie bringe vs, Amen.

The Genealogie of VERTVE.

THe first thing that requi­reth our consideration in this Genealogy of virtue, is to know the parent or first originall, frō whence this glorious Impe and ofspring of happinesse takes her beeing. For as in the descent and pedigree of men, it is held an honourable thing, to be deri­ued from worthy parents: so, to make the excellency of Vertue more noble and respectiue in mens eies, is to shew that she is no meane borne personage, but sprung from the mightye king of heauen and earth, euen God himself. For proofe hereof, we haue both Na­ture and Scripture: Whoe hath euer seene Figges to spring of Thistles, or [Page] grapes of thorns? Good fruit is gathe­red from good trees, no man ought to thinke that any perfection or excel­lent guift, tending to the beauty and blessednesse of this life (such as virtue is) doeth proceede or hath his begin­ing from anye other then the father of lightes: which being so, let vs pay vn­to her that tribute of loue and reue­rence which we owe vnto her, let vs re­uerence her for her nobillity, and loue her for the infinite treasure of good­nesse that she brings with her

Comming thus like a royall princesse, the second thing to be considered is, where she makes her throne of rule & gouernment: not in anie base corner of the world, but in the heart of him that is the ruler of the worlde: Soloman would not erect a throane vnto him­selfe but of pure gold, no more wil vir­tue, but of the heart of man; as she is her selfe excellent, so will she haue her seate agreable: for of al creatures man [Page] is most excellent.

The third, thing to be considered is, the quality of her gouernment: she is not tyranous, bloudy, or cruell, but gentle, meeke, and gracious: mak­ing the place where she raigneth, a paradice, and the parties ouer whom she raignes, Peerlesse. Shee bringes with her peace of conscience, and qui­et of soule, arming her subiectes with invincible power againste the force both of domesticall and forren ene­mies: Domestical, which are the per­turbations and wilde affections of the soule, as Ambition, Anger, Sloth, Pride, Couetousnesse, and such like, and forren, as shame or sicknesse, pouertie, persecution, old age, imprisonment and death, &c.

The 4. thing to be considred, is the continuance of her Kingdome: it is not momentarye but eternall, and to such as imbrace her for their Soue­raigne, she plats a wreath of immor­tality: [Page] earthly Princes may giue ex­ternall happinesse, which for an age or so, may happilye indure; but she in­vesteth her friends and louers with that blessednesse, that neuer shal haue end. Plato was woont to say, that the diffe­rence of Virtue compared with the Pompe of the world, is so great: that if it were put into one skale of the Bal­lance, and virtue into the other, this would ascend vp to heauen, and the o­ther touch the center of the earth.

The fift thing to be considered, is her Lawes and statutes, they are not (such as Dracos were) writ in bloude, but drawn with a soft and gentle hand, vsing rather perswasion than compul­sion, faire intreaty, rather than foule inforcement.

The sixt and last thing to be considred, is to whom she prescribes her Lawes and Statutes, which is not to a creature dull and vncapable, but to an essence deuine and apt to conceiue, which is [Page] the soule of man, created after the I­mage of himselfe. And this is the king­dome she labours to beautifie, and the Gardens she faine would plant with all manner of sweete and odoriferous flowres. Nor doth she stand in need as other Princes doe, for the helpe of na­ture, or anie coniugall societie of a se­cond person, to the propagation of her posterity; but is in her selfe (like a foun­taine) fruitefull and ful of increase. But before we come to the perticuler issues that flow from this rich spring, it shall not be amisse, to consider how necessa­rie it is for man to be made a subiect of virtue.

How necessary it is to be made a subiect of Virtue.

THe sinne of disobedience (com­mitted in paradice) hauing depri­ued all mankinde of that happinesse whereunto they were first created, as [Page] their bodies by that occasion, were left a prey to manifold misseries and infir­mities, so their soules (before in their affections vpright and without ble­mishe) haue euer since vndergone so greate a change and alteration, as in stead of quiet & setled contemplation they are filled with manye furious and turbulent perturbations: Loue turnes to lust; Anger, to fury; Iustice, to seueritie; Wisedome, to curiositye, Desire, to couetousnesse; Hope to pre­sumption; Liberalitie to Prodigallity: all which being in their owne Nature good, doe euer since that first corrup­tion laye holde vppon vs, tend to the worser part and are become euill: So that least man should faint vnder this heauye burden of calamitye, and fall headlong into destruction, God of his infinite mercy hath ordained a meanes (if not altogether to cure) yet to re­dresse these imperfections, which is virtue. For with virtue and the instruc­tions [Page] proceeding from her, we learne to moderate our passions and affecti­ons, by keeping them, that they break not out into excesse or defect, as when we so bridle loue, that it tend not to lust; Anger, that it turne not to fury; Hope that it presume not, and liberali­tie that it play not rhe prodigall, and so of all other affections; For which cause it is very requisite we should sub­mit, to be vnder the rule and authority of so happye a guide and Schoole-Mistris.

How to be prepared to come to Vertue.

THere are 2. principal good things to be followed and pursude of men in this life, vnder which all other good things are contained: God which is our soueraigne good, and virtue which is the meanes to attaine to that good. [Page] As the Romans did builde their Tem­ple of honor in such sort, that no man could haue accesse into it, but first hee must come through the temple of ver­tue: euen so we may say of the temple and pallace of heauen: there is no loo­king for entrance there, except we first passe thorough the gates of piety and vertue here. This was the reason that moued Aristotle to say, that man was borne Ad intelligendum & agendum, Man by creation had this propriety as­signed him, to labour for knowledge, and not so only, but being furnished therewith, to endeuour to set it forth by action and conuersation. For as to be ignorant is a thing contemptible, so is it farre more odious to knowe much and practise little; to be rich in Sci­ence, and poore in Conscience. The meanes therefore wherewith we must be furnished to come to vertue, is a willingnesse and loue to the studie of Philosophy.

What Phylosophy is.

PHylosophie, is a profession and ex­ercise of that wisdome, which is the knowledge of Diuine and human thinges: which we may deuide into twoe partes, Contemplatiue, and Morall. Contemplatiue, which containeth the knowledge of God and his works, and morrall, which teacheth vs howe to liue well, and how to shew our selues helpefull and officious to the world.

How to know God.

GOd doth reueale, and as it were make himselfe visible vnto vs af­ter two manner of waies: first, in the booke of his word, by the mouthes of his holy prophets, Apostles, and Pa­triarches: and secondly, by the book of nature, in the whole frame of hea­uen and earth, which wee cannot be­hold, [Page] but we must needs confesse, that neither heauen hath his motion, the sunne and moon their light, the earth, his fruitfulnesse, nor the sea his waters, but it comes to passe by the power, wisedome, and prouidence of one su­preme creator and preseruer, which is God. And as the contemplation of his creatures, is a forcible argument to beate into vs the knowledge of his deyty; so the behoulding of no one creature helpeth more to that ende, then the consideration of our owne nature.

How to know our selues.

SOcrates the Prince of Philosophers, greatly condemned the students of his age, in that they toyled so much a­bout the knowledge of external things and neuer had anye care to caste an eye vnto that which was internall; meanning, that all their studye and la­bour [Page] tended to the marking of the re­volution of the heauens, and other na­turall causes vppon earth, but neuer were solicitous or troubled about their owne nature: but as his opinion was, so let ours be, that wee cannot come to the knowledge of God (which is the end of our cteation, and being knowne to glorifie him) than by the knowledge of our owne nature. Ther­fore to know our selues and our owne nature, is to consider that we are compounded of a bodie that is earthly, & a soule that is heauenly; of a body that is palpable, to be felt and scene, and of a soule that is invisible, and not sub­iect to externall sense: of a body that is mortall and must die, and of a soule that is immortal, that shall neuer dye: and that at first, we were created vp­right both in soule and body, but since through sinne, we are become de­formed both in soule and bodye. And although we might heere take [Page] occasion to speake of the excellencie of the composition of the partes of the body, as a thinge full of admiration, and many deepe secrets in nature; yet because the more principall parte of man, which is the soule, is the only obiect of the matter we haue in hande, wee will passe ouer the great knowe­ledge that might be hadde in viewing the corporall frame, and onely tie our discourse to the spiritual essence: which beeing the harder and more difficulte matter (by how much it is more excellent than the other) therfore once loo­ked into (though but sleightly) we shal the sooner come to the knowledge of the whole.

What this knowledge of ourselues doth worke in vs.

THe knowledge of our selues doeth worke in vs a two-folde effect, a meanes to be humbled, and a meanes [Page] to glory and reioice. To be humbled, in respect of the sense and feeling of our vanity; and to glory, in respect of the mercy of God, by whose grace we recouer our selues from the daunger of vanity: for our sicke soule being lost to perdition, is reuiued and quickened a­gaine by regeneration.

What the Soule is.

THe soule cannot be known as it is, but by the craetor that made it by reason that in vs there is no nature more high or excellent to com­prehend it: all the knowledge that we can haue of it, proceedes from those effects which it doeth manifest in vs, and therefore we cannot giue any ab­solute definition of it, But according to the effects we may thus describe it. The soule is a spirit, which giueth life to the body whereunto it is ioyned, and which is capeable of the knowledg of [Page] God, to loue him as being meet to be vnited vnto him to eternal happinesse. In that it is a spirit, it confutes their op­pinions, that thought the soule did proceed frō the tēperature and harmo­ny of the partes of the body, but in that it giueth life, it confutes their oppini­on, that thought it was mortall, and that with the death of the body it like­wise perished. But the soule is as far frō perishing (being seperated frō the bo­dy) as an expert musition, frō losing his skill, being bereft of his instrument. Others there are that thinke, because man liueth no longer then he hath breath; on because losse of bloud brin­geth the losse of life; or because in death they perceiue no difference be­tweene men and beastes; that there­fore the soule is nothinge else but bloude, or a puffe of wind. But these men haue no further insight into the soule, than is conceiued by their ex­ternall sense. A minde refynde and [Page] eleuated aboue the earth, findes that the soule is the Image of God, who is a spirit and eternall, therefore the soule of man must be a spirit and e­ternall; for there is alwayes an agree­ment betweene the Image and the thinge of which it is an Image.

How the soule is celestiall.

THe soule is celestiall, not in that sense, as if it were a parte of the substance and nature of god him selfe, but it is saide to be celestial in 3. respectes. First, to shewe a difference betweene the soule of men and the soule of beastes. Secondly, in regard of the agreement which it hath with the deuine nature through immortali­tye. Thirdly, in respect it approcheth neerer to the nature of god, thē any o­ther creature except Angels, and yet Angels are not of the nature of God [Page] neither; for, they are not immortall of themselues but haue their immortaltty and their superexcellencie of God, who both giueth it vnto them, and preser­ueth them in it, and can if it please him depriue them of it.

How the soule is in the body.

THe soule is in the body not▪ as pro­ceeding from the generatiue seed, or the commixture of the humours, for then the soule should be corrupti­ble as they are: but the soule is in the body by infusion of God the creator, after that the parts of the body are al­ready framed & fashioned, and that by no other vertue, but by his own omni­potent power: so that we must thinke when God inspired a soule into Adam, he made not a blast of his own nature, nor of the ayre round about him, but euen of nothing: who being himselfe incorporall, made the soule also incor­porall; [Page] but yet he being vnchangable, made the soule mutable, because him­selfe being vncreated, made the soule a creature. Vpon this may rise a questi­on, that if the soule be infused and cre­ated of God, and comes not by propa­gation from our parents, whence hath it then the pollution which we call ori­ginall sinne? It were horrible to say it were so created, knowing that all the workes of God are pure and holy; and from the body it cannot come, for the bodie infectes not the soule, but the soule the body, whose instrument it is. Wee answere, that as the soule is in­fused by god, in that respect it is clean & without spot, but so soon as it is en­tred vnder the line of the children of Adam, it is presently made subiect to the curse which God laide vppon A­dam and his posterity, and so becomes guilty of originall sinne.

The difference betweene soule and Spirit.

[Page]BEcause these words are often times, confounded, it shall not be amisse to know their difference. By the soule we may vnderstand man as he is born, hauing the vse of the annimal, na­turall, and vitall powers, and by the spirit, whatsoeuer grace and knowledg is giuen vnto man by God: so that by soule we may vnderstand man as he is in the corruption of his nature, and by spirit as he is regenerate and borne a­new. There is also another difference, which may giue some light in ma­ner to discerne between these twoe names, which is this; Soule is a word more general than spirit, for it may be attributed to other creatures as well as to man. As hearbs, plants & tree, haue haue onely a vegetatiue soule, Sea-spounges, cockles, and such like, haue onely a vegetatiue and sensetiue soule: brute beasts haue a vegetatiue, sense­tiue, and cogetatiue soule; for they do not onely growe, increase; and haue sence and feeling, but they likewise are [Page] indued with cogitation, knowledge, and memory, how to preserue their liues, guide and gouerne themselues according to naturall inclination: but the soule rationall and regenerate by the grace of adoption, and therfore called a spirit, is onely proper to men and inriched with immortality.

How the soule is immortall.

THat the soule is immortal, appea­reth by some reasons before aleadged, as that it is the Image of god (who is imortal) & therfore hath som agree­ment with him in that respect: but for further assurance, we haue scripture & her owne properties. In the booke of Gen. 2.7. it is said, God made man a liuing soule, that is immortall. In the gospell after S. Mathew, Christ admo­nisheth his disciples, that they should not stand in feare of those that kill the bodie (meanning bloudy tyrants) but could not kill the soule: whereby it is [Page] manefest the soule liueth after the bo­die. Likewise in the gospell after S. Luke, 16.22. the begger dyed, and his soule was carried into Abrahams bosome. And in the 23. of the same gospell the 43. verse our sauiour christ said to the repentant theefe, This day thou shalt be with mee in Paradice, (meaning his soule and not his body) which words he would not haue vtte­red if the soule had perished with the bodie and not been immortall. Many other places might be recyted, but if these seeme insufficient, so wil the rest. Further, the soule appeares to bee im­mortall by her owne properties: first, in that it giueth life to the body, and is so farre from corruption, that so long as it bides therein, it preserues the bo­dy from corrupting; Secondly, in that it is in continuall motion, and neuer ceaseth (whether wee sleepe or wake, walke or sit still) to apprehend, think, or ponder vpon something; in a mo­ment [Page] it wanders through the heauens, compasseth the earth, and crosseth the broadest Seas. Thirdlye, it may be thought immortall, in respect of that propertye which it expresseth in the mindes euen of Atheistes and heathen men, who notwithstanding they not beleiue or deny the immortality of the soule, yet ye deuinity of their souls with in them working to the contrary, make them balke their owne opinions, and by the monumēts which they set vp to continue their name & remembrance, bewraies the soule to be immortall be­cause in that respect they plainly shew a feruent desire to liue for euer.

Why some beleiue not the immor­tallity of the soule.

THe reason that moues them heare­unto, in some, is the blockishnes of nature; who obstiniately refuse to be­leiue any thing but what they may be [Page] able to comprehend by their outward sense. And againe, some are so per­uerse, as they wish not only their soules were not immortall, but that there were no god nor any other life, to the end they might haue no Iudg, but that this life might end with their delight, & the soule vanish with the body. But here may rise an obiection, If the soule be immortal, why is it said in scripture; euerie soule that sinneth, shall die the death? And againe, it appeares by ma­nie places, that the soules of the wic­ked shall suffer eternal death. We may answere, that the soule is said to dye (not that it is quite bereft of any bee­ing) but for that it is for euer bannished the ioyes of heauen, which vnto the soule is accounted death, as the ban­nishnement of the soule from the bo­die is accounted the bodies death.

What makes the soule mortall and in danger of such a death.

[Page]THe first thing that indangers the soule with mortality is originall, sin, which sinne by regeneration of holie baptisme being remoued, the next thing that indangers it, is the pas­sions and affections of the soule, which fall backe into their first corruption, by spurning against vnderstanding and reason, the soueraigne faculties of the soule, which are spirituall and intelligi­gible, stirring vs vp to virtue, to pietye and godlinesse; and by yeelding obe­dience to the sensual and inferior fa­cultie of the soule, which is the will, who by reason it is neerer and more famillier with the corporal senses then vnderstanding, therfore rather consen­teth to the Lawes of the members, which are full of ignorance, froward­nesse, miserie, shame, death and con­demnation; than to the workes of the spirit, which are loue, ioy, peace, long suffering, gentleness, faith, meeknesse, temperance and such like.

The difference betweene vnderstan­ding and the will and affections.

FIrst, they differ according to the place and situation which they haue in the bodie of man. Secondly, accor­ding to the time wherein they are im­ploide, and thirdly according to the dignitie of their offices. They differ according to their situation, in that vn­derstanding hath his seat in the braine, and the will and affection in the heart: And this is the reason that we se many men indued with great knowledge of diuerse good and virtuous thinges, but haue no willingnes or affection to fol­low after them, or to shew them in their life and conuersation, because their hart and their braine, their will & their vnderstanding agree not: Like­wise we see others to haue a will to do well, yet because they want vnderstan­ing & knowledg to discern what is iust, they faile of the execution thereof.

[Page]Secondly, they differ according to the time wherin they are imploide, in that vnderstanding alwaies goes be­fore, and the affections follow. For we cannot hate or loue, vnlesse we first know the thing which is to be hated or loued.

Thirdly, they differ acording to the dignitie of their offices, in that vnder­standing sits as a King to commaund, and the wil and affection, stand as sub­iectes to obey. For as God hath giuen vs an vnderstanding to know his law, so hath he giuen vs a wil to follow him and his law so far foorth as our nature is capable thereof.

When vnderstanding and the affections agree.

THe vnderstanding and affections doe agree, when the wil followes or forsakes, shuns or receiues nothing, but what iudgmēt hath first determind [Page] to be good or euill: and when iudge­ment determineth nothing before it be aduised by reason: and whō reason adviseth not before she haue conferred things one with another, & throughly examined them. Which property she takes from consideration: and when consideration hath nothinge without requiring it of memory: And when memory will keepe nothing but what is committed vnto it by knowledge and vnderstanding. These rules obser­ued, there is an vpright gouernment in the soule, which otherwise by the af­fections, comes to ruine and subuer­sion.

What the affections are.

WE may cal the affections those motions of the soule, wherby the heart is stirred vpp to the following after good and eschewing of euill; as loue, hope, ioy, sorrow, in­dignation, [Page] compassion, Ielousy, feare, and manie such, the number where of is infinite, not in respect of their own na­ture, but in respect of vs that are not a­ble to comprehend them. These affec­tions haue great agreement with the quality and temprature of the bodies wherein they are, and therefore as the bodies wherein they are, doe more or lesse perticipate of heat, colde, drouth, or moysture; so do the affections rise or decline, according to the nature of the forsaid qualities. For which cause, wee ought to bee moderate in eating and drinking, for as we are either tem­perate or intemperate, so the affecti­ons of the soule will bee more mode­rate or immoderate, and the perturba­tions which they bring with them, wil also be greater or lesse, more easie or vneasie to be prouoked or appeased.

Why affections are in the Soule.

[Page]AFfections are appointed of god to remaine and haue residence in the soule for two causes: first, to the intent they may as pricks waken and stir it vp from being asleepe & opprest with the heauinesse of the body, least peraduenture it shuld be negligent in the care of good things, & such as are most expedient and profitable for it. And secondly, to the intent they might as bridles, stop the hasty course wher­into the soule is some time caried, so that it were like to perish, but for the hand of some other affection that res­traines it: as we see in the desire of of wealth, or coueting of honor, wee may run into auarise or ambition, both which vnlesse they be moderated with iudgement and discreation, proue dangerous enemies to the tranquillitie both of soule and bodie. For euen as by the corruption and inequalitie of the humors, are ingendered those dis­eases that infect and annoy the bodie; euen so, by the disorder, corruption, [Page] and vneuen proportion of the affecti­ons, doe spring the maladies and dis­eases that peruert and contaminat the soule. Which diseases, are farre more dangerous and mortall then those of the body, in so much as they are not so easily discerned, and therefore not so easilie nor so soone cured as the o­ther may be. What griefe is it lurking in the bodie, but will at sometime or other, either by the countenance or some other accident discouer it selfe, that a remedie may be sought for it: but the soule being inuisible and not subiect to externall sense, lies manie times in manie persons dangerouslie sick, hauing her glorius essence spoild and defaced by vice, and yet those that are the owners of such a soule, thinke themselues the soundest men in the world. This happens by the head­strong wilfulnes of the affections, who are oftentimes so feirce and vncōtrolable as they ouerwhelm reason & virtue by which the soule receiues medicine [Page] and preseruation: but then they are no more called affections, but passions or perturbations.

What Passions or perturba­tions are.

PAssions or perturbations, are vyo­lent motions which (vnlesse restrai­ned) carrye the Soule headlong into many mischiefes. The groundes that they proceede from are false opinions, which perswade vs otherwise of things then they are in deed. And these false oppinions are alwayes accompanied with these foure thinges, immoderate desire, vnbridled ioy, immeasureable griefe, and extreame feare, which do carry the soule hither and thither, and in the ende so subdue the reasonable power thereof, as they make it seruile and obedient vnto the sensuall appe­tite of the wil; as we haue examples in Histories, how some haue grown mad [Page] through anger, some kilde themselues for griefe: some died with immode­rate ioye, and other some languished through a fond and impatient desire. But all passions which are in the body are not of this nature, there are some which are good and necessary, and do properly belong vnto the body, euen from the first creation, which are not to be reproued, nor can be taken away without the vtter ruine of humane na­ture: as the desire of eating, drinking, and such like: yet these are not so ne­cessary neither, but that they likewise stand in need of gouernement, or else they quicklie run into superfluitie.

How affections become passions.

AS the earth when it swalloweth in stead of supporting; the water when it drownes, in stead of refresh­ing: the ayre when it stifles, in stead of comforting: and the fire when it burns [Page] in stead of warming: are no longer accounted profitable but pernitious; euē so the affections, when they once turn from that good end and purpose, for which they were annexed to mans na­ture, they are no longer profitable, but hurtfull, nor any longer to bee called affections, but perturbations. As for example, hope was giuen vs to seeke after God our soueraigne good, in whom alone we find all delight, rest, and pleasure: but if this hope presume too farre, it is no longer hope but pre­sumption. In like manner, feare is gi­uen vnto vs, to stande in awe of Gods iudgements; but if this feare passe his appointed limits, it is no longer feare but despaire.

How to remedie passions.

THe last remedie againste the passi­ons of the Soule, is to preuent and hinder them that they take not roote [Page] in vs, but so soone as they begin to stir, to bridle them by the authoritie of vir­tue and reason, which we shal the soo­ner accomplishe, if we perswade our selues that the good and euil of this life (which are the causes that our mindes are depriued of all content) are indeed neither good nor euil, and consequent­lie that they ought not to breed passi­ons within vs. For to iudge vprightly, what is honour, wealth, riches, beau­tie, and such like, but good thinges in opinion onely, and not in deed? And what is pouertie, sickenesse, imprisō ­ment, and such like, but euill only be­cause we imagine thē so to be, and not that they are so in their owne nature? It was neuer or very seldome seen, that passions did arise in vs for that which is the true good of the soule, but onely for that which fooles doe falslie call good, and Philosophers tearme the goodes of the bodie, and fortune. No man doth so desire virtue, as that when [Page] he hath obtained it, he reioiceth exces­siuely therin, nor doth any man so feare the obtaining of her, as that the feare thereof driues the soule from her set­led quietnesse. But since the hauing of her is the true happinesse of the soule, freeing our mindes from all perturba­tions, and enduing vs with a firm and stable possession; against which, nei­ther Fortune, slaunder, death, nor old age can preuaile; let vs (to returne at last to that from which we haue al this while digrest) embrace her as the So­ueraigne ruler of our thoughts, whoe togither with the grace and spirit Di­uine, is onlie sufficient to giue the soul in this life peace and reste, and in the life to come immortall glorie.

What Vertue is.

VErtue (according to the opinions of Phylosophers) is a disposition and power of the reasonable part [Page] of the soule, which bringeth into or­der and decencie the vnreasonable part therof, by causing it to propound a conuenient ende to it owne affecti­ons and passions, whereby the soule a­bideth in a comely and decent habite, executing that which ought to be don, and declining from that which ought to be shunned. And therfore it is said, that he which hath vertue is only happie, though he be plunged in a thou­sand miseries: and he that is accompa­nied with vice is onlie vnhappie, al­though he haue the wealth of Cresus, the empire of Cyrus, or the glorie of Alexander.

The effects of Vertue.

VErtue may be said to be the hauen of the soule, the nurse of piety, the mother of content, the root of blessednesse, the shield against aduersity, the staie in prosperitie, the beautie of cit­ties, [Page] the gloue of kingdomes. The ho­lie patriarke Abraham, got himselfe more honour by his vertue of obedi­ence▪ in shewing himselfe ready (at the commandement of God) to offer vpp his only son Isaack, then by the great victorie which he obtained against di­uerse powerfull kinges, in redeeming his brother Lot, when he was taken prisoner Gen. 14. Ioseph was more re­nown for his continencie in withstanding the [...] of Potiphars wife, then by being made high stuard of king Pha­raos house. Gen. 39. If the power of virtue in these men be so greatly to be admired that knew the immortal god, and were guided and led foorth by his holie spirit▪ how much more than may we stand confounded at the example of others, that neither know God nor the [...] immortalitie of the soule, and yet prefer the regard of vertue before al other thinges in the world, yea before life it self. Anacharsis led with the loue [Page] of vertue, left the kingdome of Scithia to his younger brother▪ and trauelled into Grecia, where he learned Philoso­phy of Solon: Anaxarchus chose rather to die, than to be thoght so inconstant as to bewray the coūcel that was held against the tyrant Nero. So that virtue at all times & in all persons, is the most excellent & happy thing that may be.

Why some men regard not vertue.

THere are three principal excuses or pretences, wherewith some men wold fain color their negligēce, in not regarding the studie or practise of ver­tue. The first, is the difficultie therof; they say it is a hard & laborious matter to attain to the knowledge of it, vsing the same perswasion that the Atheni­ans did in their prouerb: Non licet cu­iuis adyre Corynthū. Twas not for euery one to arriue at Corynth; euen so say they, it is not for euery one to be a stu­dent [Page] in Philosophye, nor stands it with the dexteritie of euerie ones wit, or the a­billitie of his minde, to trafficke with so magnificent a prince, as virtue is, therefore say they, it is better to con­tent our selues in the course of meaner matters. How absurd a starting hole this is, appeares in that, euen in those weake matters which they prefer be­fore the studie of virtue, for the moste part, they spend more time and aduen­ture more danger to compasse their desire, then they should haue done in a­nie point of the discipline of virtue, and yet when they haue what they would haue, it is rather their destruction then their happinesse, their disturbance thē their quiet: as we see in the end of ri­ches, how will the couetous man, la­bour and sweat, spare and pinch him­selfe, to the intente he may haue his bagges cramd and his coffers stuft? and yet when they are so, his fear is greater to lose them, then his care was before [Page] to get them; nay oftentimes he is con­strainde to forgoe them, euen with the forfeyture of his life. Euen so in honor, the ambitius man wil refuse no paines, thinke much of no extremitie, but be readie to indure the heate of summer, the colde of winter, to watch, attend, ride and run, in hope to reach at laste the top of preferment: which when he once hath got, and thinkes to sleep securelye, some sinister blast or other shakes his tottering state and hurles him suddenlie downe into the pitt of all disgrace and obloquy. But these are indifferent thinges, and in some sorte tollerable enough for men to spende time about them, but in cases altoge­ther condemnable, is it not an vsuall or ordinarie thing, to see & heare of men that doe take more paines to tread the path that leades to hell, than the god­lie doe to finde the waie, that guides to heauen? we need no far fetcht examples for the proofs [...]erof; it is thought [Page] the Guisians before they brought to passe the bloudie massacre at Parrisse, were eight or nine whole yeare busied and imploied in meetings, consultati­ons and beating their brains about it. Richard the third king of England was almost twentie yeares in plotting and complotting bloudie and secret mur­ders, to make the waie smooth for him to come vnto the diadem. Herodes thoughtes were neuer quiet, after hee heard of the birth of Christ, til the ho­wer of his death, how he might dis­stroie and shed his guiltlesse bloud: in lesse than halfe which time he might haue learned the grounds of true chri­stianity, and haue saued his own soule. The like we may conclude of al others that think the knowledg of vertue te­dious and hard to attain (the end wherof is happines and peace) wheras they are cōtent to spend more time & sweat, vnder the burdē of greater labor, to attain to those [...] whos end is misery & distruction. The [...]color or pretence [Page] wherby men labor to cloke their slacknes in the study of vertue is pouerty we finde (saie they) by experience, that vertue giues her louers and welwillers aboundance of knowledge, but verie little wealth: plentifull braines, but verie needy and penurious backes: ad­mit it were so, yet let me aske this ques­tion; whether is better the riches that shall neuer vanishe, or the riches that dailie are subiect to casualtie? whether more excellent, the possession whose fruite is eternall, then the possession, whose profits are momentarie and e­uer fading? I thinke there is no man so void of reason, but will say the former: but notwithstanding this difference it is manifest that such carpers & detrac­ters doe walke in a very palpable and grosse errour. For why, vertue is so far from leauing her friends destitute and contemptible, as she is the cause con­tinually both of wealth, honour and promotion. Did not Iacob prosper and growe riche in the seruice of his [Page] Vncle Laban because of his vertuous disposion? was not Alexander sirna­med the great, rather for his virtues than his victories? And what I praie brought Ester & Mardocheus in grace and fauour with king Ahashueros but their vertues?

The third and last pretenced cauill against the studie of vertue, is the per­rils which it bringes men into, by rea­son it hazardes their liues, liberties, & welfares: for say they, to reproue mens behauiours wherunto they are nature­ally inclinde, or to find fault with their delightes, or condemne their actions (as commonlie the virtuous are stirred vp to doe) is but a meanes to make thē incur hatred, lie open to checkes and tauntes, and be subiect to a perpetuall warfare of an infinite number of such like inconueniences. I answere, that through the mallice of the diuel and of the world, it is true in deed, that ver­tue is many times liable to such afflic­tions: [Page] but withall we must remember, that as the measure of calamitie which insistes vpon vertue is great, so the measure of patience which accompanies her, is likewise great; yea so great, that it maketh those thinges which seeme sowre and vnpleasant, to haue a moste sweet and delectable tast: hence it is, that many vertuous men haue suffered a thousand outrages with such constan­cie, that tyrants haue binsooner wea­rie in persecuting, than they in suffe­ring: naie they haue vndergone their martirdomes with such ioy, as in be­houlding of them, you would either haue thought they had beene sensles, or that in seing them, you did not see them. Witnesse the example of Igna­tius, a holie and religious man, who being condemned and throwne into a caue to be deuoured of wilde beasts, when he felt their teeth take hold in his flesh, cried cheerfully out, as if he had felt no paine, grinde small, and [Page] make sweete manchet for my God to feed vpon To come neerer home. Bi. Cranmer Archb. of Cant. (as we read) was a man of that vertous resolution, that without shrinking, he suffered his right hand to burn off, with the linge­ring flame of a torch; and therfore we see, as vertue is subiect to calamity, so is she strong to make a scorne of cala­mity.

What Vice is.

AS no man can loue vertue or anie other good thing, before he know the goodnesse therof; no more can we hate vice or anie other euill, except we first vnderstand what it is. Therfore we do here oppose these contraries toge­ther, to the intent, as thereby vertue will appeare more excellent; so Vice may be knowne to be more lothsome, vile and detestable. Vice is said to be a iarring or inequality of manners, the true essence of vnhappines, the sicknes of the soule, proceeding from a nautie [Page] disposition of the will and affections, to al corruption of pleasures and vnbridled desires, so that in the end wee be­come most vnhappy, yea more wild & sauedge then bruite beasts themselues.

The effects of Vice.

BEside, that vice is the mother of all disorder, rancour, murder, conten­tion, periury, lust, and such like, it hath four other principall and most daunge­rous effects. First, it is the depriuation of grace, it robs a man of the fauour of God, and leaues him in the power of the diuell: and what it is to be forsakē of god, appears by the example of saul that slue himself, & Iudas that hanged himself. Secondly, shame in the world, for it leads men blindfold (as the Pro­phet did the Aramits 2. king. 6, 20. til it hath broght them into the midst of al infamy, and then it opens their eies & lets them see their ignorāce and folly.

[Page]The third is torment of conscience, which is equall with vice, both for birth and age, and followes it no other wise than the shadow doeth the body. For euen at the same instant that wic­kednesse is committed, she frameth in and for her selfe her own punishment, which beginneth to afflict & torment her with the remorse thereof; and this is it, which the Diuines call the worm of conscience that neuer dieth, but continually (like Titius vultur) tyreth vp­on the hart of a malefactor, accompa­nyeng his miserable life with shame, confusion, frightes, and continual dis­quietnesse, euen to his latest gaspe: so that his whole life is nothing else but a figure of eternall death: as is made ap­parant vnto vs by the example of Ne­ro, who when he had slaine his owne mother, could neuer sleepe quietlie in his bed, but alwaies thought hee sawe her follow him and torment him with firebrandes. We read another strange [Page] example to the like effect in our eng­lish Cronycles, of king Richard the se­conde, who hauing put to death the Earle of Arundel and other noblemen, (rather for that they reprooued his vy­ces, and sought to bridle his head­strong youth, than for anye capitall point of treason) was so troubled af­terward with remorse of his bloudye fact, as that one night he started out of his bed, and being in great agony and passion of soule, would not be perswa­ded but that the Earle of Arundell was reuiud and sought to persecute him, til such time as he had opened his graue, and saw that his dead bodie lay there still without a head.

The fourth and last effect of vice and wickednesse is infection, for it is not onely noisome and pernitious to him in whom it remaines, but it also vseth him as a means to corrupt and spoil o­thers: the proofe hereof we see dailie, in that there is not any wicked person, [Page] but he will labour to make others like himselfe, which it he cannot bring to paste, yet he wil think them to be such, and seeke to perswade the worlde that they are such, or rather worse than he himselfe is.

Why men are more prone to Vice then Vertue.

THere are fiue motiues that stirre vp men rather to consent and followe after vice than vertue. The first, is the cursednesse of our nature, which lyke the earth, vnlesse it be manurde and tilled, wil bring forth nothing but weeds and brambles.

The second, is the disguise which vice puts vpon her, blearing mens eies with false and fained shewes, so that she creepes into them and bewitcheth them, vnder the title and cognisaunce of vertue; as when she perswades them and sets before their eies the things of [Page] this world as their true and onely feli­citie.

The third is authority; some men will be the more audatious and readye to commerce with Vice, for that they thinke their high birth or calling may be a priueledge for their lewde beha­uiour: but such men forgette, that to whom more is giuen, of him more shal be required, & that the greater shame and scandall shall redound to such a one, who being borne to commaund men of all estates and condicions, and like a Lampe to giue light vnto them; doth notwithstanding suffer himselfe to be made seruyle to such vyle and abiect thinges, as are sensuality, igno­rance, concupisence, and other like effectes wrought and brought foorth by Vice.

The fourth is wealth, which often­times makes men dreadlesse to run in­to vnlawfull practises, for that they know they can purchase impunitie, and [Page] beare awaie the matter with their mo­nie: but this proceedes from the cor­ruption of the age wherin they liue, for if there were no bribe-takers, there would be no bribe-giuers.

The fift and last, is close conueiance: manie thinke because they can hide their vncleanesse from the eye of the world, and so escape the temporall pū ­nishment, that therefore they are safe, and need not feare to wallow in their vices: but I would wish thē to cōsider, that although their clossets and secret corners, are hid from the world, yet not onlie those places; but the very reines and center of their hartes lies open as noondaie to the sight of God, who wil one daie become a sharpe censurer of their secret filthinesse.

Vertues first issue.

THe first issue that vertue makes, is twofold, Theological and Morall; [Page] Theological, spreads it selfe into three braunches, Faith, hope, and charitye. Morrall into foure; Prudence, Tempe­rance fortitude and Iustice. And from these as from so manie liuelie and euer flowing fountaines, doe issue and pro­ceede all kinde of duties required of vs either towardes God, towards men, or toward our selues.

What Dutie is.

DVtie is the bond, or obligation of the soule, wherby we are inioind cheerfully and willingly, without force or constraint, to be to euerie one that which we should be, and that which we are borne to be; namelie that we should be holie to God, righteous to the world, and sober to our selues. The performance of which dutie in these seuerall points, makes our life perfect, & acceptable, but failing in any one of thē, we fail in that for which we were [Page] created, and so consequentlye shall neuer attaine to that end and soue­raigne good, for which these dewties were appointed, namely eternall hap­pinesse. Therefore it is a fond opinion of those men, that thinke al is well with them, when they haue well prouided for themselues: a further charge is laid vpon them, they must also be carefull for others, and labor so far foorth as in them lyes for the common good and profitte of all men. For he liues moste orderlie and moste happelie, whoe as little as may be, liueth to himselfe: and he moste disorderlie and most cursed­lie that liueth onely to himselfe, and hath regard of nothing but his owne profit.

The subiect of Theologicall Vertues.

THe subiecte wherein Theologi­call Vertues abide, are the faithfull [Page] hearts of Christians onelie, for no man can be saide to haue Faith or Hope in that sense as the holie ghost prescribes, but such as are ingrafted in the promi­ses of God, thrugh Christ. The Pagan Phylosophers had some slight know­ledge of Charitie and the vse thereof, in that they had a care to preserue hu­maine societie; but to say they had ei­ther Faith or Charitie after that man­ner as is required at our handes, were most absurd, considering they neuer so much as dreamt of anie Messias or resurection of the bodie.

How Pagans may haue Faith

FAith is diuerslye taken, firste in the Hebru tongue, it is put for veritie and truth. Secondlie in the greeke, wherein the Apostles and Euangelists writte, for perswasion: Thirdlye a­mongst the Latines, it signifies a con­stancie [Page] which men obserue in their words and promises, of which we wil speake hereafter. Fourthly, according as it is effectuall to saluation, the holye scriptures call it the ground of thinges which are hoped for, and the euidence of thinges which are not seene, Hebru. 11, 1. that is, Faith is an assured confi­dence of the accomplishment of gods promises made vnto vs in Christ Iesus. As it is thus taken, it hath no residence in the breasts of Pagans, but as it is vn­derstoode the other three manner of waies, it may bee as well in them as in vs.

Two sorts of christian Faith.

THere is first a iustifieng Faith effec­tuall, and accompanied by good works, not that good works are the merits or any cause of our saluation; but that they doe necessarily followe faith as the fruites and declaration thereof: for if we shoulde attribute any parte of [Page] our saluation to our owne merits, then were not our redemption of the free grace of God, but of desert: as is in the epistle to the Romans 4. chap. to him that worketh, the wages is not counted by fauour but by debt. Againe, Gen. 3, 10. The workes of the Lawe are vn­der the cursse, but he that beleeueth in the sonne, hath life euerlasting. Iohn 3 36. Therefore faith onely iustifieth, though this faith be necessarily accompanied with good workes.

Secondly, there is another kinde of Faith, which only consisteth in word, without any desire to expresse the same in action: as there bee many that will say, they beleeue in God, and they be­leeue his word, and they tremble at his iudgements; but to be mercifull vnto their brethren, to relieue the poore, or helpe the fatherlesse or widdow, that they either care not for, or think to be no part of their dutie: but this a dead faith, an vnprofitable faith, and such a [Page] faith as the diuell himselfe hath Ia. 2.17.19.

How Faith is in vs.

FAith is in vs, neither by nature; for by nature we are the sons of wrath and destruction: nor by rewarde, for then might Symon the sorcerer haue purchased it with monie. Act. 8.20. Nor by our own industrie, for though Paule plant and Apollo water, it is God that giueth the increase 1. Cor 3.6. But by the spirit and free gift of god, and by the meanes which he ordai­neth for vs to receiue the same gifte, which is by the hearing of his worde, preached and taught vnto vs.

The opposite to Faith.

THat which standes against Faith is infidelity and Atheisme, which is [Page] of foure sortes: The first is of those mē that thinke there is no God at all, but that the world is gouernd by the course of nature, had neuer beginning, nor shall euer haue end.

The second is of those, that although they can be perswaded that there is a God, yet they will not beleiue that he hath anie respect to the actions and course of mens liues.

The third is of such, as beleiue after a sort there is a God, and that by his prouidence all thinges are gouerned; but will not be perswaded there is anye iudgment or resurrection of the body, after this life.

The fourth and last is of those, that beleiue there is a god, the creator, gui­der and gouernor of all thinges, that weighes mens actions, and shall sit in iudgment vpō thē at the general day of resurrection, but yet in their manner of conuersatiō, throgh their sins & wickednes, they seem to deny all this: and such [Page] kinde of Atheistes may the best Chri­stians be: for there is none that doeth good, no not one Psal. 14.4

What hope is.

HOpe is an affection of the soule, so imprinted in our hearts, that we doe not onlie certainlie ex­pect the fruition of those good things promissed vnto vs in the scriptures, but we also patientlie abide anie extremi­tie of this life with a setled, constancie and peaceable tranquillitie of mind, because at length we knowe we shall inioy them.

Two kindes of Hope.

THe first is, that which is grounded vpon the promises of God, which is alwayes certaine and infallible, be­cause he that is the end of such a hope, [Page] is truth it selfe and neuer changable.

The second is a vaine, doubtful, and deceitfull Hope resting vpon earthlie and transitorie thinges, and because they are alwais fleeting and euer changing; so is the Hope that dependes vp­on them: as we see by experiēce in the affaires and enterprises of this world, sometime we hope for one thing, and the clean contrarie happeneth vnto vs. A learned Athenian was wont to saye, that there are two thinges verie hurtful vnto men, Hope and loue, the one leade them on to seek out meanes to execute their thoughtes, and the other perswaded them of good successe. But as the one proued oftentimes a false guide, so the other deceiud them with their promised reward.

The fruites of Hope.

HOpe is commended in this, that it stealeth awaie our labours, causeth [Page] fear of perril to cease giues vs comfort in aduersitie, being in il case promiseth vs better fortune, abideth with them that haue no others goodes, and (like a soueraign medicin, or precious balm hourelye applyed) preserues mannes weake and crasie life. Alexander the great, when he was to make warres a­gainste the Persians, inquired of his friends that were to follow him, how they were prouided: and finding them but bare and needie, gaue vnto some great offices; to some landes and pos­sions; to some Iewells and great somes of monie; and to some the president­ship of rich townes and Citties. And when he was asked of Perdicas one of his coūcelors, what he reserued for him selfe: he answered, Hope: so greate a power and force did this conquerer attribute thereunto, that if he had no­thing else in the world, yet by hope he had all thinges.

The Titles of Hope.

HOpe is said to bee a guide to direct vs, a prop to strengthen and vphold vs, and a spur to pricke vs forward with boldnesse in all our actions; prouided that it be alwaies fixed vpon right and equitie.

The difference betweene Faith and Hope.

BY faith we beeleue the certaintie of thinges, but by hope we already in­ioy them. By faith we are wel perswa­ded, but by hope we are wel rewarded. Faith is euer permanent, but hope no sooner hath got the thing it hoped for, but straight way it dies and comes vn­to an end: as for example, we shall stil beleeue that Christ is our sauiour, al­thogh we be rapt into heauen & there raign with him, but we no longer hope for that blessednes, because we then en­ioy it.

The opposite to Hope.

THe opposite to hope is Despair, which is a certaine pusillanimity of faintnes of the heart, vtterlye drooping and distrusting the successe of things, and therefore wisheth rather to lie still and languish than to rise vp and prosper.

What Charity is.

CHarity is an affection of the heart, which bindeth vs to loue God, because he hath loued vs, and to do vnto men, as we would bee doone vnto our selues. Of all vertue it is the most excellent. For loue is the fulfilling of the law And as the apostle saieth; Though I speake with the toong of men and an­gels, and haue not loue, I am but as a sounding brasse, or a tinckling cimbal. 1. Corint. 13, 1.

How we may be Charitable.

WE maye be Charitable foure manner of waies, first in par­doning our neighbours their offences, secondlie in distributing to their wants, thirdly in defending their wrongs; and fourthly in admonishing them of their errors and ignorances.

In whom Charity is.

CHaritie remaines not in such, as are enuious, proud, ambitious, or churlish; but in such as are meek, gentle, pa­tient and long suffering: and these and such like are the fruites and effectes of Charitie. We reade of a Philosopher, called Heraclitus, who although hee were a heathen and knew not the true God, yet he had so great an instinct of Christian Charitie in him, as it is saide of him, that all his whole life he did no thing but weep and poure forth flouds [Page] of teares, in compassion of mens fol­lies and miseries. The life of our sauiour Christ (as writ the holie Fathers) con­sisted of two things, in passion and cō ­passion; either in suffering for vs, or in suffering with vs.

The opposite to Charitie.

THat which stands against the effect and power of Charitie, is obduracy or hardnesse of heart, which is a kinde of vicious quallitie, that shuts vp our eies from relenting, our handes from giuing, and our mindes from pittieng: but our sauiours councel is otherewise; giue to him that asketh, and from him that would borrow, turne not awaie thy face.

A second issue of Vertue.

To the aforesaide Vertues there are belonging or depending other ver­tues [Page] also; as namely Religion, Deuoti­on, Contemplation, Zeale, Indignati­on, Praier, Repentance and such like.

What Religion is.

TO describe Religion, according to the properties therof: First, we may call it Religion, of reelection; because where by our sinnes we had lost Gods fauour, by Religion wee were chosen and brought into grace again: Secondlie, we may call it religion, of relecti­on, that is of reading ouer: because he that wil be religious must often read & studie ouer the Scriptures: Thirdly, we may call it religion, of reliction; that is, of leauing of our wickednes and our owne wayes, and cleauing to God and his wayes: lastly, we may cal it reli­gion, of religation, that is, because it bindeth vs againe vnto god, frō whom we were seperated: so that of these perticulers, we may conclude this gene­neral, [Page] that religion is the Vertue, wherin consisteth the seruice of God and the saluation of our soules.

What Deuotion is.

DEuotion is a word deriued from the Latine Deuoueo, which sig­nifieth ro vowe or addict ones selfe, to some thinge which wee knowe to be good, and therefore the heart of man, after it once hath had a tast of religion, and the sweetnesse thereof, deuotes it selfe wholie to the act and exercise of godlines, which is the fruit of religion; so that deuotion may be called a hea­uenlie disposition of the will, enclining to all such things with great affection and earnestnesse, as appertaine to the seruice of almightie God.

The Properties of Douotion.

DEuotion according to the excel­lent effectes that proceede from it, [Page] may be compared vnto three thinges: First to a blast of fresh aire, because as the holesome aire refresheth mans bo­die, so the spirit of God by deuotion, refresheth and comforteth our soules.

Secondly, it may be compared to a precious ointment: For as a precious balme or ointment, suppleth and mol­lefieth the ioynts of mans bodie, ma­king thē nimble for performance of anie action, euen so deuotion viuifieth & quickneth the powers of the soule, enduing them with that quicknes and agillitie, as that they may easilie tread downe and run ouer the difficulties & drowzinesse of the flesh, to follow ver­tue, and the works of the spirit.

Thirdly, it may be compared to an o­deriferous perfume; For like as a per­fume, killeth the stenches or il sauours in a house or lodging, so as they can­not be perceiued; euen so deuotion so long as it abides in the heart, spread­eth abroad such sweet and oderiferous [Page] fumigations, as that the noysome and stinking appetite of our euill desires, can not be so much as perceiued or felt.

What Comtemplation is.

AFter that by continual custome, de­uotion becomes a habit, it bringes foorth another excellent vertue called contēplatiō; which is a rest of the soule and spirit in the consideration and be­holding of all Gods fauours and mer­cies: so that night and daye it medita­teth thereon, as a thing wherein con­sisteth all delight & true happines, and from this proceedeth also thankesgi­uing, zeal, and indignation.

What Zeale is.

AS vpon the consideration of gods fauours and our owne vnworthi­nes, we are moued to giue him thanks: so from the same head, springeth ano­other [Page] duty, which is a care ioined with a kinde of disdaine or iust displeasure if at anie time, we shall chaunce to see him dishonoured or vnreuerently vsed by his creatures; because we intirelye loue him and hold him deare vnto vs: and this affection or good motion of the soule is called zeale: prouided al­waies, that it proceed not of ignorance This made the good seruants of God (that were otherwise verie meek, gen­tle, and patient, in any indignities of­fered to themselues) to become impa­tient and full of anger, shewing inuin­cible courage and implacable minds, till they had reuēged the iniuries done vnto their God. As appeareth by the example of Moyses, who descending from the mount, and finding the peo­ple of Israell worshipping a Caulfe, threwe the two tables of stone where­in the Lawe was written, and brake them all into peeces, and yet beeing not so satisfied, ground the image into [Page] pouder, made them drinke it, and then commanded the Leuites to gird them with their swordes and to go thorough the hoast, and slay euery man his bro­ther, and euerie man his companion, and euerie man his neighbour, inso­much as there fell that daie of the peo­ple, aboue three thousand. Exod. 32.

What Indignation is:

INdignation, is a greefe wrought in our mindes, when we see some good befall an vnworthie person, and hee that is worthie to be depriued thereof: As when we see the honour that is due vnto God, attributed vnto men, Idols, or anie other thing: or in humane af­faires; when we see men of no desert aduaunced to worshippe and dignitie, and the vertuous kept back, left desti­tute and despised. This vertue of indignation hath some resemblaunce with the former of zeale, but that zeal takes [Page] his beginning from some euill that be­fals a worthie person; and indignation ariseth from some good which befals an vnworthy person. Beside, indigna­tion is not altogether so forceable as zeale, nor doth so soone breake forth into redresse or ease of it own wrongs, but rather smothereth discontent, and flieth to praier rather than to violent pursute.

What praier is.

PRaier, is a talke or conference with God, either in mind submissiuelie, or in word more openlie; wherby we lift vp our hartes, our eies & hands, vnto him for his helpe and mercy, ei­ther for our selues or others, in the time of calamitie, want, or affliction.

Why our praiers manie times are not heard.

[Page]THere are sixe reasons why we praie many times and are not heard: first because we are not in Charitie, when we pray.

Secondlie, because we praie not with a full hope and assured faith to obtaine that which we praie for, but are waue­ring or doubtfull of Gods mercie and louing kindnesse toward vs. Ia. 1.

Thirdlie, because we doe not pray in the name of Iesus Christe, without whose intercession nothing is accepta­ble in Gods sight, and through whom the father will giue vs whatsoeuer wee aske. Io. 16.

Fourthly, because we pray more to satisfie our own lustes, than to glorifie God: more for temporal thinges, than spirituall thinges.

Fiftlie because we vse much babling, as though God did not know what we stand in need of, except we set foorth our defects, with an elaborat and rhe­toricall kinde of oration: and because [Page] we pray not continually, but vse our inuocations by starts.

Sixtly, because we are not so feruent as we should be, nor so attentiue to the matter we haue in hand; but suffer our thoughts to wander hither and the­ther whilst our tongues speake vnto God▪

The efficacie of Praier.

FIrst it is as swift as thoght, because it is no sooner conceiud in minde, but it is as soone receiud of God.

Secondlie, it is as pearcing as the sharpest steel, for that it is no sooner vt­terred in the servency of spirit, but it straight way makes passage through the cloudes and firmament, euen to the presence of god.

Thirdly; it is the greatest and chie­fest point of Charity that may be vsed, for that at one instant by prayer we [Page] may shew our selues helpfull to manie thousandes, yea to the whole worlde, whereas by our bountie we can be be­neficiall but vnto few.

Fourthly, it is more victorious then the mightiest hoast of men, or the gre­test conqueror of the worlde; in that (with reuerence be it spoken) it doeth as it were ouercome God himself, who ouercommeth all things, and at whose becke heauen and earth shake: as ap­peareth by the example of Moyses. Ex. 32.10, 14▪ Likewise in Eliah, we may read the great force and efficacie of praier, who praied that it mighte not raine, and it rained not for three years and sixe moneths. And againe, when he praied, the heauens poured foorth their shewers, 1. King. 17, 1: and chap. 18, 45.

At the praier of Ioshua the Sun and Moone stood still: and at the praier of Hezechias, the shadowe of the Dyall went back ten degrees. 2. king. 20, 10:

What Repentance is.

AS by faith we are stirred vp to be­leeue Gods word, to depend vp­on his promises, acknowledge his gra­ces, and to bee zealous in his seruice: euen so, when by sinne or the frailetie of our nature, we fall from any of these duties, to worke our reconciliation, we must laie hold vpon true repentaunce; which is a conuersion or turning again vnto God. In which conuersion we de­part from eulll, beleeue the promise of forgiuenes of sinnes, and studie to lead a new life, according to the Lawes of God: whereupon there follows these three good effects. The first is a clean­sing or deliuerance from sinne, by the bloud of Iesus Christ. 1. Iohn 17

The second, is the imputation of the righteousnesse of Christ, when as his obedience, truth and innocencie, by faith is made ours. Rom. 5.

The third, is the acceptance into euer [Page] lasting life, for whom the Lord iustifi­eth, them also he glorifieth. Romans 8 But as true repentance is neuer with­out faith; so is it likewise at all times accompanied with good works.

What good workes we ought to doe.

INsomuch as the lord pronounceth he is worshipped in vaine with the commandements of men; therfore wee must practise and doe such good workes, as are prescribed vnto vs in the worde of God, Ezec. 20. because ma­ny things may seem good in our eies, that are abhominable in the sighte of God.

How good workes are to be done.

AFter that a godlye and religious man hath found out what workes are to be don, forthwith he addresseth [Page] himselfe to vnderstande in what sorte they are to be done: for resolution of which question, that one place in the Epistle to the Heb. 11, 6. may be suffi­cient, wher it is said, That without faith it is impossible to please god: so that the distribution of our good workes, must alwaies bee accompanied with faith in Christ Iesus. For neither loue nor obedience can be acceptable, ex­cept mercy and reconciliation for the mediators sake bee first apprehended. By this are excluded the good workes of the wicked and vnbeleeuers, in that howsoeuer they seeme beautifull and beneficiall to the world; yet god hath no reguard of their deedes: insomuch as they are not presented vnto him in the obedience and perfection of chri­stes merits. As in the example of Sci­pio, and Dauid: they both fought for their countrey; Scipio fought, and Da­uid also fought, and yet their warfare was not to bee accounted of alyke: [Page] For the warfare of Scipio did not plese God, because he was not regenerate, but the wars and labour of Dauid did please God, because he was accepted by faith.

The causes of good Workers.

THe causes that stir vp mens mindes and pricke them forward to worke wel, may be said to be three; The first is the necessitye of Gods commaunde­ment, keepe my statutes (saith he) and walke therein. Le. 18.4. Which ne­cessitie of good workes or walking in Gods commaundement, stretcheth it selfe into foure other braunches, that is to say, necessitie of debt: we must doe good deedes, because they are a debt which God requireth at our handes. Ro. 8.

The second is necessitie of faith: hee that prouideth not for his owne, and namelie for them of his houshold de­nieth [Page] the faith, and is worse than an in­fidell. 1. Ty. 5.8.

The third is the necessitie of auoi­ding punnishment, for vnlesse wee de­cline from inequity and performe the dutie of good Christians, the Lord will plague and punnish vs: he that knowes his maisters will and prepares not him­selfe to doe thereafter, shalbe beaten with manie stripes. Mat. 12.47.

The fourth is the necessitie of con­uersion: because the Lord hath said, I desire not the death of the wicked but that he turne from his way and liue, Ezech. 33.11. Therefore by necessity we are bound to fly from sinne and doe good, or else we shal neuer be conuer­ted to the Lord, nor the Lord to vs.

The second cause of good works.

THe second cause that may stirre vs vp to good workes, is the dignitie which we receiue thereby; being re­generate [Page] by faith, and faith working in vs to Godlinesse and all manner of Christian-like exercises, we are made holie, as our heauenly father is holie, I Pet. 1, 16. Our bodies become the temples of the holie Ghost, and of god himselfe to dwell in vs: and what hon­nour, ioy and comfort that is, may be imagined by the honour and ioy that a priuate subiect receiueth, when his prince and Soueraign doth vouchsafe to come and lodge with him in his house. Therfore they that pollute this temple with the filthinesse of Sathan, so that the holy ghost is either not ad­mitted, or being admitted, is churlish lie cast out of his dwelling againe, let them imagine what an act of crueltie they commit.

The third cause of good workes.

THe third cause that may moue vs to obedience towards god, in the [Page] performance of our duties both toward him and the world, is the reward and recompence which he hath promissed shall succeed and redound vnto vs by our good workes; not for their owne worthynesse but for the promisse of his grace, which promise doeth assure vs not only of all good in this life present, but also in the life to come. I Tymo. 4. So that if neither the necessitie nor dignitie of good workes may induce vs to imbrace them, yet for the profit and cō moditie that comes by them, let vs not neglect them. The Souldior reguardes not woundes so he may be conqueror: nor the Marchant the perils of the Sea, so he may growe wealthie, let it not be saide that they haue greater Zeale and Fortitude in seeking after shadowes, than the Children of God in purcha­sing the substance.

The Second braunch of Vertues first issue.

THe second braunch of Vertues first issue, are these foure moste beautifull & gracious ofsprings, Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude, and Iustice: Which are called Cardinall vertues, for that al other Morall vertues (as vpon hindges) doe hange and de­pend vpon these. These are the guides of the soule, whereby all ciuill du­ties, either of man towarde man, or of man towardes himselfe, and conse­quentlie of both to the glorie of God, are directed in the way of truth and e­quitie.

The subiect of Cardinall Vertues.

THe subiectes wherein these Cardi­nall Vertues doe remaine, are the reformed and docible mindes, not on­lie of Christians, but also of Pagans: [Page] nay oftētimes the efficacy and strength of these vertues, doe more clearelie shine and appeare in Pagans than in Christians. What Christian is so abso­lute that may not learne preceptes of wisedome, out of the bookes of Aristo­tle, Plato, and diuerse other heathen Philosophers? And so consequentlie of all the rest of the Vertues.

What Prudence is.

PRudence is the light of vnderstan­ding, whereby we know God and affect his workes, to which know­ledge is ioyned a discretion, to be able to discerne good from bad, profitable from that which is hurtfull, to the end we may shun the one and practise the other: it is to the minde as sight (of all other corporall sense) is to the body; for as the sight is most peircing, cleare and apprehensiue, so is prudence, by whose determinate and deepe iudge­ment, [Page] all other vertues are gouernd in their good and commendable opera­tions.

Why God gaue Prudence vnto man.

COnsidering that mens thoughts are wauering and their inuentions vn­stable: and considering that the wilde affections of mans nature do rather o­presse then cōfort, seduce then conduct the soule to that end for which shee is created, namely to the knowledge of God and his creatures: therefore hath the almighty (of his free grace and mercie) to lighten this darknesse, and re­moue this danger, let fall a sparke of his eternall light (which is wisedome) wherby men see to gouern their acti­ons, to the glorie of god, their owne good & the profit of humane societiy.

How this wisedome appeares.

[Page]TO be known to haue wisedome wil appeare two manner of waies: first inwardly by the dexterity of the mind, and decent cariage of the body, wher­by such as are so disposd, are said to be men of a good presence, or men of a faire behauior. Secondly, it wil appeare outwardly in things belonging to ourselues, as sobriety of diet, or in thinges belonging to others, as in comely en­tertainment, well gouerninge of our house and family, and such like.

The difference betweene wit and Wisedome.

AS a tuneable Instrumente, in the hand of a an vnskilfull musition, so is witte to manie men, in it selfe verie ripe and pregnant; but because they know not how to vse it, therfore it stāds them in little steade: so that wee may [Page] define wit to be a faculty of the minde, whereby men vnderstand and knowe much good, but oftentimes they neg­lect to follow it: but wisedome wee may tearme to be that corresponden­cie of the powers of the soule, when will and vnderstanding, knowledge & practise goe together.

Why wisedome is said to be the light of the minde.

WIsedome is said to be the light of the minde, because as the bodie hath two instruments to direct it, which are the two eies; e­uen so Prudence to giue both minde and bodie better direction, is likewise said to haue three eies: The first is the eye of memory, with which she behol­deth time past: The second, is the eie of vnderstanding, with which she behol­deth time present: And the third the eye of prouidence, by which she takes a vew of thinges to come.

Two sortes of Prudence.

THe first kinde of Prudence, may be said to be that ripnesse of know­ledge and experience which men haue in worldlie matters, and so Machevile may be said to be a wiseman, but such wisdome is accounted foolishnesse before God. 1, Cor. 3, 19. And in the end intangles the owners in their owne craftinesse, as appeares by the desperate end of Achitophell. 2. Sam. 17.23.

The second kinde of Prudence, is that knowledge, which is had in de­uine matters, touching the vnderstan­ding of Gods word, and the mysterie of our saluation, which is called true wisedome; and though the drift here­of especiallie tend vnto that end, yet is it not without a sharp insight also, and an able discretion in such thinges as appertaines vnto this world: but it vseth this, but as a seruāt, or handmaid [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] to the other. And this is that wisedom which Solomon so greatly cōmendeth, and so largely beautifies and sets forth in his booke of prouerbes, accounting all other knowledg, but as vanity in re­spect of this. When petition was made to the oracle of Apollo, to know what people or nation in the wolrd was the wisest & best learned, the answer was yt the Hebrews were the wisest mē, for that they had the knowledg of the true God, and so had not the rest.

The daughters of prudence or Vertues third issue.

THough we may well say, that all o­ther vertues take their beginning from Prudence, as the head and foun­taine of the rest, without which they are altogether vnprofitable, yet for the better vnderstanding of her gracious effectes which shee bringeth foorth in the hearts of men, it shal not be amisse [Page] to consider that from her doe springe & proceed these fiue peculier vertues: namely consultation, vigilancy, dilly­gence, prouidence, and constancy: all which are made manifest vnto vs, in that one example of the fiue wise Vir­gins recorded in the 25 Chapter of the Gospell after S. Mathew. Firste, they had consultation in preparing and prouiding themselues to meet the bride­groome: Secondly, they had prouy­dence in regarding the length of time, and so furnishing thēselues according­ly with oile: Thirdly, they had vigilā ­cie, in watching for the houre of the bridgromes cōming: Fourthly, they were dilligent, in triming their lamps: lastly they were cōstant, in that, though they wayted long, yet they were not weary of their labour. So that by these necessary and helpful effects which fol­low wisedōe, we may gather other vn­necessary & hurtfull accedents which it may run into, if not ruled and tempe­red as it should be.

The maimes to Prudence.

THere are three speciall euills which wisedome may indanger it selfe with all, if it be not carefullie looked vnto: The first, is temerity or rashnes when it either giues councell, or puts in execution anie thinge before ma­ture and serious consultation be had: or when vpon a sudden determination, it concludeth vpon thinges vnknowne, for knowne; vncertaine, for certaine.

The second is credulitie, when it o­uerlightly beleeueth or giueth credit to any thinge it heareth, and doeth not first examine the circūstances of euery matter; nor confer and lay them together, that so the truth may by sifted out.

The third is curositie, which appears two manner of waies: First, when we pry into thinges forbidden, or couet to know more than God hath thought good to reueale vnto vs. As Aristotle, [Page] that died for griefe, because he could not finde the natural cause why the sea did ebbe and flow: or of those men that now a daies by their curious que­stions, striue to knowe what god did before he made the world, or why he gaue not man such a soule as mighte not sin, with a number such like im­pious and vnlawfull demaundes. And secondlie, when we seek to be renow­med, in shewing and expressing what power of wisedome we haue in triflles and thinges of no moment, as he that spent much time and labor, in making a locke and a chaine of three and for­tie linckes, that was in waight no more but one graine or wheat corne: so that it being tied about the necke of a flye, she was able to drawe it after her. An­no Regno Elisa. 21.

The opposites to Prudence.

[Page]EVerie vertue holdes the myddle betweene two extreames, so that on the one side prudence is beset with ignorance, and on the other with craft or subtletie. And as the one is vi­cious in respect of the defect, so the o­ther is odious in respect of the excesse; the one is so farre from knowledge, as it knowes nothing, or verie little, and the other is so fraught with skil and experience, as it turnes the vse thereof to many most vile and vngracious purpo­ses.

What ignorance is.

WE may call Ignorance, an vn­skilfulnes both in human and deuine matters, what we haue to doe, or what wee haue to leaue vn­doone: what wee haue to choose and make much of, or what wee ought to reiect and auoid.

The effects of Ignorance.

IT takes awaie the sight of the minde, as blindnesse dooeth the sight of the bodie: it makes a man prodigal whē he should be liberall: couetous when he thinkes to auoid superfluitie: if a man be meane, it makes him fearefull, superstitious, vnprofitable, needie, slothfull, and vnfit for any thing. If hee be mightie, it makes him arrogant, rash, cruell, talkatiue, inconstant, and giuen to voluptuousnesse and luste. It is the spring of all errours, bad opinions, and absurd behauiors: and as by wisdome men are renowmed and had in reputa­tion; so by ignorance, they become base, contemptible, and of no recko­ning. Yet it is better than subtletie, be­cause that which is misdoone through ignorance, is more excuseable, thā that which is misdoon willingly & against the conscience.

What subtletie is.

[Page]SVbtletie is a vicious qualitie of the mind, whereby we dispose the po­wer of wisdome to bad purposes; as to deceiue, beguile, seduce and in­trap others, thereby to delighte or in­rich our selues. The author thereof is the Diuell, and the companions that attend vpon it, Hypocrisy and dissimu­lation; but the reward it shall receiue, is hate and suspition amongst men, & before God perpetuall reiection. One Nestorius (as we read in histories) was so subtile, and so full of hypocrisie and dissimulation, as in the end for a iuste punishment, his toong was eaten out of his head with wormes. Dyonisius the tyrant, would cunningly smoth and laie sweet baites, till hee had caughte such as he woulde haue within his po­wer, and then like the Crocodile hee would deuoure them; but in the ende he was thrust from his throne and dya­dem. So that we see by these and the like euents, that the issues of vertue are [Page] of that consanguinitie, so linkt and af­fied together, as they cannot one bee without another. For as no man can be perfectlie temperat, vnlesse he haue wisdome to direct and gouern his ap­petite, to know when, how, and wher­in to be temperate: so in like manner, no man can be perfectlie wise, without temperance, which serues as an vmpire or moderator to keepe our knowledge within rule, and the boundes & limits which are appointed for it. Therefore it followeth that wee speake nexte of temperance.

What Temperance is.

TEmperance is that vertue of the soule, whereby the appetite and vnrulie affections of mans nature are kept in awe and gouernment; so that the eie lusts not, the toong offends not, the hand breakes not forth into vnlawful actions, nor any part of the whol [Page] bodie straies beyond that dutie requi­red to the honor of god, and the good of our neighbour: this vertue is so ne­cessarie, that like as a cunning Pylot in a ship, so she sits in the fraile vessell of mans bodie, that but for her gui­dance, wold either be dashed in peeces against the rockes of affliction, or sinck in the sandes of a thousand temptati­ons.

The opinions of Phylosophers con­cerning Temperance,

AGapetus a Learned man, writing to Iustinian the Emperor (who was a verie temperate and well gouernde Prince) told him he was the inheritor of a double crowne; the one was the crowne of regalty, whereby he did cō ­maund ouer men, the other was the crowne of temperance, whereby hee did raigne ouer his owne affections.

Socrates was of opinion, that no­thing [Page] did preserue the soule in hir per­fect essence, nor lift her vppe if at any time she chanced to fall through vice and impiety, so well as temporance.

Plato testifieth, that temporance is the mutuall consent of the affections, whereby the soule liues in perpetuall harmonie.

Cicero, accounted it the pathe that leades vnto al decencie and comlines, both in worde and deed.

To what Temperance may be compared.

TEmperance, acording to the worthy effects that proceed from hir may be compared to these sixe thinges: First, it may be compared to the sunne; because as the sunne drieth vp the foggie and mistie vapors of the earth, euen so temprance driues awaie the darknesse and filthy euaporations of the soule, that otherwise woulde [Page] choke it, and giueth it the comforta­ble light of reason, whereby it is refre­shed.

Secondly, it is compared to a bridle, that as a bridle restraineth the head­strong wilfulnesse of an vntamed hors: euen so temperance in the middest of pleasures and temptations, holdeth vs backe, and compelleth vs to followe reason.

Thirdly, it is compared to a sharpe rasor; because like vnto a rasor, it cut­teth and loppeth awaie the superfluity of corrupt desires.

Fourthly, it is compared to a shield or helmet, because as these twain keep off and defend the violence of our eni­mies weapons: euen so temperance is a bulwarke or defence, againste the sharpe darts of luxuriousnes.

Fiftlye, it is compared to a tutor or corrigidor, because with like authori­tie as they command ouer their pupils, or charge committed vnto them, euen [Page] so doth she checke and beare swaie o­uer immoderate passions. Sixtlie, it is compared to a bonde orchaine; where-with things are bound vp and kept close together, and thereby made of the greater force and preheminence: euen so by temperance, all other ver­tues are coupled and knit together in­to an inuincible strength and power, which otherwise lose that vigour and efficacie. As we see in fortitude, he that is of an high and couragious spirit, and wanteth temporance to rule and go­uerne it, runneth many times into in­tollerable mischiefes. Likewise in Iu­stice: he that would be esteemed as a iust man, and is not able (through the helpe of temperanee) to keep his soule free from perturbations, will sooner commit wrong, than patronage or propulse iniurie.

The obiects of Temporance.

[Page]THe obiects whereabout this vertue is busied, and wherein she sheweth her power and authoritie, are many in number, but especiallie these: the de­sire of honor, riches, promotion, fame, dignitie: the passions of the minde, as ioy, griefe, feare, compassion, anger, hate, enuie, and such like: the bayts of loue, beutie, gorgeous attire, sumtuous buildings, dainty dishes, wine, musick, gaming, and all other delightes and pleasures: But here is to be vnderstood that we doe not set downe temprance, as binding her to that strict obseruati­on, as that wee would haue her depri­ued of pleasures, but our meaning is, that shee shoulde so vse them, as that thereby followe no inconuenience or abuse.

The daughters of Temperance, or vertues fourth issue.

[Page]THere are sixe other stems or plants that draw sap and nutriment from this root of Temperance; that is to say: Continency, Clemency, Mo­destie, Sobrietie, Frugalitie and order. All which, like true ofsprings of so gracious a stocke, helpe to beautifie the parentage from whence they are deri­ued:

What Continency is.

COntinency is that part of temprāce wherby concupiscence and desire are gouerned by councell and reason: This vertue did shine most clear in Sci­pio, who at the winning of Carthage, hauing taken a verie beautifull Ladie prisoner, was so farre ftom being amo­rous, as he sent her away with a great dowrie, to him vnto whom shee was betrothed.

What Clemency is.

[Page]CLemency is that parte of tempo­rance, whereby (the mindes of men rashlie carried awaie with hatred of anie one, or with desire to hurte) are kept backe and restrained by gen­tlenesse. Adrianus before he was made Emperor, enuieng a Romane for some displeasure which he had conceiued a­gainst him ye same day he was elected, meeting his enemy in the streete, saide to him aloude, Euasisti, meaning that he being nowe a prince, might in no wise reuenge an iniurie.

What Modestie is.

MOdestie, is that power of the mind whereby honest shame and bash­fulnesse, purchace good and deserued honor. And because shame is the foundation of modestie, it shall not bee a­misse to speake somewhat thereof.

What Shame is.

[Page]WE may define Shame to bee a kinde of modest feare, where­by we dread the danger of di­shonour or reproofe likely to happen vs, by some vndecent or enormous action: or an indignation conceiued against our selues, after the commiting of any dishonest crime, prolocution of anie foolish and absurde word, or the expressing of anie vnciuill or rude ge­sture.

Two kindes of Shame.

THe first is a good shame, whereby we are ashamed of euill. The se­cond is a bad shame, whereby wee are (vnder colour of modestie) restrayned from performance of some good and laudable action, because (against right and equitie) wee feare to displease a multitude, or dare not withstande the authoritie of him that is mightie. As Pylate, that faine would haue pronounced our Sauiour guiltlesse, and yet be­cause [Page] he feared the people, gaue sen­tence vpon him against his owne con­science.

Rules of good shame.

IF at a feast thou be inuited, to drinke more than reason or thirst requires, be not ashamed to refuse it.

If a babler or ignorant fellow, seek to staie thee by discoursing of vain and tedious matters, bee not ashamed to shake him off.

If thy friend or any man else, either in act or purpose offend, bee not asha­med to reproue him.

If any man make a request vnto thee that is either vnlawfull, or not in thy power to performe, shame not to de­nie him.

If any man aske thee a questiō wherin thou art ignorant, shame not to confesse thine ignorance, that thou mayest be instructed.

[Page]If any man withhold thy due, shame not to challenge it.

Effects of bad shame.

THese are the effects of bad shame. Cowardlines, Impudencie, liberty to sinne, base Flatterie, oppression, neglect of benefite, betraying of ones self, hate of the world, and prostitution of the sences.

What Sobrietie is.

SObrietie is properlie called a mo­deration in diet: a thing so estee­med of wise men, as Augustus the Emperour, neuer vsed to sit downe to meat before others had halfe dined, and was the first againe that rose from the table. Pythagoras seldome or ne­uer drunk wine. Socrates wold alwais spil the first pitcher of water yt he drue [Page] for himselfe, to this ende (as he saide) that he might acquaint his sensuall ap­petite to expect a conuenient time of reason.

What Frugalitie is.

FRugalitie, may be said to be a mo­deration in expences, vnder which title, many haue beene so sparing and neere themselues, as they haue incurd great shame and infamye. As Lewes the eleuenth king of France, who was of such a niggardly and pinching dis­position, as after his death, there was found in his chamber of accountes, a bill of expences, wherin was set down twentie souse, for two new sleeues to his olde doublet, and fifteene deniers for grease to grease his bootes.

What Order is.

ORder is a conuenient disposition of all thinges (according to their [Page] worth and dignitie) into that place, & at that time as shall seeme most requi­sit. The world is called Mundus, which signifieth a well disposed order of all thinges: by beholding of which, wee may learne to keepe our bodie (which is a little world) in vpright and eeuen manner, without confusion.

The opposites to Temperance.

VPon the right hand it is accompa­nied with intemperance, and vp­on the left, with Stupiditie: which are as two blinde guides, and looke vnto which soeuer of them temperance gi­ueth consent to follow, shee straight­way loseth the name and title of Ver­tue, and is branded with the stampe of Vice.

What Intemperance is.

INtemperance, is an ouerflowing of voluptuousnesse against reason, and [Page] the health of the soule, seeking no o­ther contentation than in that thinge which bringeth delight and pleasure to the senses; as appeares by the example of Vitellius Emperour of Rome, who had serued in to his table at one supper, two thousand seuerall kind of fishes, and seauen thousande sortes of feathered foules: or of Phyloxenus, who wished that he had a neck as long as a Crane, that the taste and pleasure of his meates and drinkes, might con­tinue long, before they descended in­to the stomach.

How we may be intemperate.

WE may bee intemperate foure manner of waies. First, in ap­parell, when we either couet that which is too costlie, or to haue more store than is sufficient, so that the moathes rather consume it with eating than we with wearing.

[Page]Secondly, in meate and drink, whē we are lauish and superfluous, or ouer nice and curious. Thirdly, in veneriall and other corporall pleasures, whether tasted of by the eie, the eare, the hart, hand, or any other part: and fourthly in giuing way to our passions, as ioye, feare, anger, &c. without stop or con­troulment.

What Stupiditie is.

STupiditie, is a numnesse or chilnesse of the senses, so that we neither haue feeling of any pleasure, nor are moued with any desire; but this is a defecte hardly or neuer seene amongest men (especially hauing health of body) and therefore we will passe it ouer, & come to Fortitude, the third branch of Ver­tues first issue.

Whence Fortitude hath her denomination.

[Page]THis vertue of Fortitude, taketh her denomination neither frō strength of bodie, hugenesse of limbes, tough­nesse of armour, walled townes, mul­titude of souldiers, nor any other mu­nification of place or aduauntage of time; but from the generositie and greatnesse of courage, which like a ho­ly and spirituall fire liues in the heart, and from thence sendes heat & vigour through the whole bodie, enabling it for the execution of difficult and mightie deedes.

Why it is annexed to mans nature.

THe seedes of all vertues are ori­ginally adioyned and fixt to mās nature, but by reason of the de­grees of growth which the body hath they cannot shewe themselues in anye perfection, before they be aduaunced and set forward by the help of Time, labour, and instruction; so that Forti­tude [Page] is annexed to mans nature for 3. especiall causes. First, that as his Cre­ator (after whose image he is fourmed and made) daily expresseth and shew­eth forth wonderfull workes for the benefite of his creatures; so is he born to drawe neere vnto him in similitude of goodnesse, and might haue in his soule a kinde of naturall instigation, to pricke him forward by all lawdable, high and laborious actions, to profite those amongst whom he liueth.

Secondly, that knowing the excel­lencie of his owne nature, & the stock from whence he is deriued, hee might not care for mortall goodes, nor feare the contrarie; but think himselfe wor­thie of eternall happinesse, and be pro­uoked with great corage to desire the same.

Thirdly, that he might feare to de­generate from so high and noble a lig­nage, by committing anye base or ig­noble deed, vnbeseeming the excellencie thereof.

What Fortitude is.

FOrtitude, is a firme stability and re­solution of minde, whereby neither for feare of death it selfe, nor anye o­ther inconuenience that may befall vs, we turne aside from the way of Vertue and Iustice; but after good considera­tion had, remain stedfast and immoueable (against all the worlde) in our thoughts and purposes.

Two sortes of Fortitude.

THe first is employed in the compasing and perfourmaunce of great deedes, for the loue of vertue: and the other, in suffering for the same with an inuincible and vndaunted courage, a­ny wrong, affliction, torment or extre­mitie whatsoeuer. For the firste, wee haue the example of king Dauid, whoe shrunke not back from the encounter either of men or monsters, for the establishing [Page] of Gods glorie: and for the second, the examples of the prophets and Apostles, that (notwithstanding their wrongs and great reproches) spa­red not to seale the profession of gods holy religion, with the effusion of their blouds.

The properties of Fortitude.

BEside many other good properties and inclinations that followe this vertue, wee may reckon these fiue in speciall: first, it is free from all feare of death. Secondly, it is constant in all aduersities. Thirdly it so hates and de­testes the dooing of euill, as it wil stu­dy to do good vnto it enemies. Fourthlie, as it striues to haue dominion ouer external thinges, so it accounts it most base, not to be able to rule the internal passions of the minde. Fiftly, it neuer fights or contends, suffers or indures for any thinge, but that which is iuste [Page] and honest; so that neither they that suffer for wickednesse or vniust mat­ters, nor they that fight for their pri­uate commoditye, or to satisfie theyr owne vnbrideled furie, are to bee ac­counted valiant men.

The obiects of Fortitude.

THe obiects of Fortitude are passi­ons to maister them, iniuries to suppresse them, prosperity not to be lifted vp with pride; aduersitie, not to bee cast downe with despaire: enemies, to be made more dilligent to looke vnto our behauiour: losses, to ouercome them with patience: death to contemn it, because it bringes immortallitie, & a number such like.

The daughters to Fortitude or ver­tues fift issue.

AS the rest, so this vertue of Forti­tude is not barren of increase, but [Page] from her teeming womb sendeth forth these goodly ympes of grace and ho­nour: Magnificence, Confidence, pa­tience, Compassion, and perseuerance.

What magnificence is:

MAgnificence is an eleuation of the soule, whereby it is not content with euerie meane dewtie, but seeketh to compasse and bring to passe things that are moste rare and excellent. As Alexander, that thought it too meane a point of fortitude and valour, to ouer come Darius in battell, vnlesse he also vanquished him in the virtues of the minde; and therefore he vsed his wife and children with all bountie and hu­manitie, after he had taken them pri­soners. Augustus, held it not sufficient valour, to omitt the taking of reuenge vpon a fellowe that sought all meanes possible to murther him, but aduaun­ced him likewise vnto a cheefe place [Page] of dignitie vnder him. Hannibal estee­med his passing ouer the Alpes, and al his other labors and victories nothing, vnlesse he conquered Rome, that then held her selfe queene and mistresse of the world.

What Confidence is.

COnfidence is a conceite or hope which the mind hath of prospe­rous successe, how dangerous or desperate soeuer things appeare to be. Ri­chard the first king of England, going to warre with diuerse other Christian Princes, against the Turkes and Sara­zens, and beeing in Palestine when a quarrell arose betweene him and the king of France, insomuch as not onlie he, but all the reste forsooke Richard, and departed with their powers homeward: yet king Richard, notwithstan­ding he was left alone, his armie small and the number of his foes almost in­innumerable, [Page] was of that confident spirit as he proceeded against his enne­mies, and draue them out of Ierusalem and the holy land.

What Patience is,

PAtience, is a voluntarie and continuall suffering for the loue of vertue and honestie: and therefore whatsoe­uer happeneth, a wise man by this ver­tue is prepared to digest and turne it to the best. Socrates being councelled to reuenge a wrong receiued; answe­red, What if a Mastie had bitte me, or an Asse had strucke me, would ye haue me go to lawe with them? Esteeming no more of the despights offered vnto him of men, then if they had bin done of bruite beasts.

What Compassion is.

COmpassion is a like sense or feeling of euill or griefe, as if we our selues [Page] suffered that which wee see others in­dure by reason of that coniunction which ought to be of one with another as members of one and the same body: and therefore it is requisite this vertue should be in a valliant man, that when he sees iniurie offered vnto any one, he should bee mooued with the violence thereof, no otherwise then if it were offered vnto himselfe. Marcellus, after he had conquered Syracusa, not with­out great slaughter of manye people, mounted vp an high tower of the ca­stle, and with many teares lamented the rufull and tragical fall of the cittie, feeling in himselfe (as it were) a fellow sufferance of their greeuous miserie.

What perseuerance is.

PErseuerance, is that parte of Forti­tude, when a man doth firmely and stedfastly abide in his resolution & [Page] purpose, vndertaken with good consi­deration and aduise. Zeno hauing re­solued to keep silence whatsoeuer the king of Ciprus did demand of him, and being persecuted with tormentes for the same purpose, least hee should bee found not to perseuer in his intent, bit off his tongue, and spit it in the tormē ­ters face.

The opposites to Fortitude.

THe opposits to fortitude, seeking to dim hir glory with their dusky presence, are Cowardlines, and wilfull presumption.

What Cowardlines is.

COwardlynes is a base kind of fear, void both of reason and assurance, causing a man thrugh the want of sense & vnderstāding, that he can neither be profitable to himselfe, nor the commō [Page] wealth, but remaines as the shaddowe of a man caste downe and astonnished with daungers, or the report of euerie ydle dreame & vision. As Mydas K. of Phrigia, who being troubled with the terrour of a certaine dreame, dranke poison and killed himselfe. Or as the Gentleman of Padua, that Speron tal­keth of in his dialogues, who beeing cast into prison vpon some accusation, when it was tolde him ouernight that he should lose his head the next mor­ning, conceiued such an impression of feare in his hart, that his haire which before was blacke, that same night al­tered and became gray.

Two sortes of Feare.

THe one good, when wee stande more in awe of blame, reproch, & dishonour, then of death or griefe. The other bad; which is likewise of 2. sortes. The first, maketh the soul dead [Page] and voide of euerie good effecte, as is before declared. The seconde is that, which worketh in the wicked a hor­ror of paine and punnishment, where­by they are brideled and restrained from their villanies, and as the firste is a signe of an abiect and contemtible nature; so this argues a corrupt and wicked disposition.

What wilfull presumption is.

WIlfull presumption, is a kinde of audacious boldnes, when a man without necessarie con­straint, or for euerie friuolous matter, casteth himselfe into certaine and vn­doubted danger. As I haue read of an Italian louer, whoe walking with his ladie by a riuer side, and making great protestations what he woulde doe for her sake, she to proue him, badde him leape into the Riuer, which no sooner heard, but hee to shewe his rashnesse, [Page] without anye further consideration, threw himselfe from the bancke into the streame, and there was drowned. And thus much touching Fortitude. Now to proceed, the next branch of vertues first Issue, to be considered of, is Iustice.

The foure elementes, Earth, Water, Ayre, and Fire, are of all thinges the most different and disagreeing: yet by the diuine prouidence of God, they are daily so tempred, as nothing can be found or imagined to be of greater harmonie, more consonant or agree­ing. The like we may say of the foure cardinall vertues; which althogh they are diuers, being considered in theyr perticular effect, yet in nature & com­pleat order, they so depend one vpon another, as many times one includs al the reste, as euidently appeares in this vertue of Iustice: hee that is petfectlie iust must be wise, temperate & valiant. Wise, to discern good from bad: tem­perate, [Page] to gouern and rule his affecti­ons: and valiant, not to feare to helpe the wronged, albeit with hazzarde of his own life. And yet for all this, Iustice includes somthing in itself, whereby it may be discerned from the rest, as by the sequele may be seene.

What Iustice is.

IVstice is a motion of the soul, wherby we are stirred vp to giue to eue­ry one his right, and that which be­longs vnto him, euen as willinglie ob­seruing law and dutie towarde others, as we would haue the same obserued and kept toward ourselves.

Tenn sorts of Iustice.

THe first is the preseruation and or­der which God himself obserueth in the gouerning & maintaning of the world, without which we shuld haue a generall confusiō & many times wrōgs [Page] would passe with that secresie and po­wer, as innocencie quite woulde bee ouerborne, but that his iustice at con­uenient time reueales them, & giueth them their due punishment, and this is called prouidence.

The second is the diuine exhibition and accomplishment of that seruice and obedience, which Gods creatures owe vnto him, and this is called piety

The third, is that distribution of right and equity which wee are bounde to shew one toward another, and this is called Charitie.

The fourth, is that care and respect which we ought to haue vnto ourselus in accepting or renouncing, in apply­eng or restraining, what may be preiu­diciall or profitable vnto vs: and this (beside that it may also be called cha­ritie) hath another name, which is, in­dulgency or selfe affection: for there is no man but is bound by the lawes of God and of nature, with moderation [Page] and discretion to haue a respect vnto himselfe.

The fift is that religious administra­tion, which euery magestrate ought to haue, which is called to bee a su­preame gouernour, or to haue any in­feriour office or authoritie in the com­monwealth, and this is called equitie and peace.

The sixt, is that mutuall societie and louing coniunction which is expreste between man and wife, without either vsurpation or tyrannie, and this is cal­led vnity and concord.

The seuenth is that awfull respect, which seruants in simplicitie of heart without dissimulation or hypocrisie, shew to their maisters, and this is cal­led reuerence.

The eight, is that carefull and pro­uident respect which maisters ought to shew toward their seruants, especi­ally when they mixe their authoritie with loue and curtesie, and this is cal­cald [Page] humanitie or gentlenes.

The ninth, is that natural submission and louing feare which children owe to their parents, and this is called ho­nor.

The tenth, is that moderation and abstinence which the soule is ingaged for to the body, and this is called helth or alacrity of the spirit.

So that by these aforesaide circum­stances (our speciall purpose being to speake of that measure of iust and vp­right dealing which is to be obserued betwen man and man) we may gather another diuision of Iustice, which is only humane, and that may be contra­cted or drawne into two partes.

Two parts of humane Iustice.

THe firste is called Distributiue, which consisteth in giuing to euery one according to his desert, whether it be praise or punishment; honour or disgrace, money or monies [Page] worth, litle or much, &c. And this is confirmed by the words of Christ, giue vnto Caesar that which is Caesars, Mat. 22.21. And of S. Paule. Giue vnto all men their dutie, Tribute to whom tri­bute; Custome to whom custome; and fear to whom fear belongeth. Ro. 13.7

The second is called commutatiue: which hath relation to the exchange of dutie, and the fidelity and constant truth which ought to bein mens words and promises, contracts & couenants: and this is that faith which is said to be the foundation of Iustice: contrarie to which, are all falshoodes, deceipts, coosenages, treasons, periuries, breach of promises and lying.

Whether all promises be to be kept.

SOm men are of opinion that promi­ses which are made either for fear, or through deceipt are not to bee kept. Tis true indeed, that a wicked promise [Page] or an vngodly vowe is better broken than kept, but a wise man will be so ad­uised, that he will neuer promise or vndertake any thing, which shall be contrarie to duetie, vppon any necessitie whatsoeuer: no not for death it selfe: and when he doth ingage himselfe, it is vppon discretion and sound iudge­ment; and being so ingaged hee will shew forth his truth and fidelitie, and be maister of his word, though it be to his own losse and hindrance. Psal. 15.5

If a lie be tollerable.

OVr Phylosophers whose doctrine without any further reference, was only directed by the rule of reason, say there are three sorts of lyes; a pleasant lye, a profitable lye, and a pernitious lye: and that the two first are in some sort tollerable▪ but the last by no mēas to be admitted. We that are christians and know there is a God, and that God [Page] is truth and to denie the truth (howso­euer we cloke or excuse yt with profite or pleasure) is to denie God, and to prefer the Diuell which is the father of lyes before God: ought to thinke that it is lawfull in no manner of sort to tell a lie: but if we shall answere for euerie ydle word that passeth our lips, much more shall wee answere for lying and falshood.

The necessitie of Iustice.

HOw necessary Iustice is amongst men may appeare in this, in that it defends the oppressed, helpes the needie, incourageth the vertuous who else would desist from wel doing, if they saw their good endeuors despi­sed, and represseth the wicked, whose mallice would ouerthrow the state of humaine society, but that they see ven­geance & punishment prepard forthē; nay it is so necessary (as Cycero sayeth) [Page] that very Pyrats, theeues and robbers, cannot liue together without obser­uing some part of Iustice.

The end of Iustice.

THe end of Iustice, is the glorie of God, and the preseruation of the common secrecie of men.

The perfect vse of Iustice.

THe perfect vse of Iustice, is to make no difference of men ey­ther in reguard of wealthe, kin­dred, friendship, pouerty or dignitie. Iunius Brutus consull of Rome (as Pli­ny reporteth) caused his owne sonnes to be beheaded, for an offence which they hadde committed. Papinianus a pagan being commanded by the Em­perour Caracalla to defend an vniuste cause, would not doe it. Cleon of La­cedemon, being elected to an office in [Page] the common wealth, called all his friends and kindred together, and told them, during the time of his magistra­cie and gouernment, he did renounce and discharge himselfe of al friendship and affinity.

Denial of Iustice dangerous.

BEside that wee may holde it for a maxime, that man is no longer a man, a King no longer a King, nor a magistrate no longer a magestrare, thā he is willing, forward and ready to ex­ecute Iustice; so wee may conclude, that the deniall or delaying of Iustice, is so hainous a thing, that it hath been either punished and reuenged by men or where men could not reach, God hath stretched foorth his arme and gi­uen it checke and controlment. For the first, we haue the example of Henry K. of Sweathland, who striking a gentle­man with a dagger, that was an impor­tant suter vnto him for Iustice, so rob­bed [Page] him of the hearts of his people, as shortly after hee was deposed and put in prison: and for the latter, wee haue the example of Herod, who beeing of that power that the worlde coulde not punish his tyrannie and iniustice, was stricken by the hand of God, insomuch as his verie bowels were eaten out of Lice. Act. 12, 23.

The opposites to Iustice.

STill to obserue our first purpose, that contraries opposed will alwais shine more cleare and euident, and that eue­rye vertue hath her extreames, which consist in too little or too much; ther­fore it followeth that we set down the opposites to Iustice, which are two in number; namely Iniustice, which is the defect, and Seueritie, which is the excesse: for as the one makes the seate of Iustice a shop of disorder, so the o­ther makes it a shambles of Tyrannie.

What Iniustice is.

INiustice is the deniall of right and equitie, either toward God, our nei­ghbour, or our selues: so that wee may saie we are so many waies vniust, as we denie vnto God, vnto our neighbour, or vnto our selues, those dewties which we owe vnto them.

The effects of Iniustice.

THe effectes of Iniustice are infinite, but these in speciall. Disorder, confusion, torment of conscience, euen in him that is iniust; Impunitie, free scope for murther, thefte and violence, cla­mors of Widdowes, Orphants and in­nocents, whereby vndoubtedly follo­weth at length the vengeance of God vpon that kingdom or countrie where it is vsed, as it is written: The crye of the children of Israell is come vp vnto me (saith the Lord) & I haue also seen [Page] the oppression wherewith the Egypti­ans opprest them, and I will stretch out my hand and smite Egypt. Exo. 3, 9.20 And againe, Woe vnto him that buil­deth his house by vnrighteousnesse, & his chambers without equitie, that v­seth his neighbour vniustly, and giueth him not his hire. Ier. 22, 13.

What Seuerity is.

SEueritie, is a racking of Iustice be­yond her limits, carried away with fury and passion of the minde, ra­ther than ledde by truth and vprighte iudgement: so that it punnisheth small faultes for great, and allotteth ouerplus where an indifferent measure mighte haue serued the turne. Piso appointed proconsull in the Romans warre, when two souldiers by his permission, went out together about some businesse, and the one returned to the campe and the other did not, hee condemned him, [Page] thinking he had slaine his companion, and therefore commanded him to bee executed. At the very instant of execu­tion, the other came; whereupon the Captaine that had the charge to see him put to death, returned to the Pro­consull with both the souldiers; but Pi­so being offended therewith, put them all three to death: the first, because he was condemned; the second, because he was the cause of the condemnation, and the Captaine, because he had not obeied. So that by rigor and seuerity, he made away three for the innocen­cie of one.

How all vertues are preserued.

AS all vertues are planted in vs by nature and the help of art, so are they preserued and kepte in their full strength and vigor by vse and exercise: for better neuer had, than not exerci­sed and put in practise: nay, howsoe­uer they are aboundantly in vs, yet if [Page] they be not exercised, they quickly va­nish and are forgot, as it appeareth by things most naturall vnto vs. For what is more naturall than to speak, and go? yet the familiaritie with strangers may make vs forget the one, and a litle sicknesse decay the other. And thus in spe­king of Vertues genealogie, and the increase and branches that are deriued from her, although much more might haue bin saide, yet this I truste may in some sort shew her worth and excellencie: and what my pen hath ouerslipt, I wishe (together with so much as is in this booke) may bee more plentifullie exprest in mens deedes.


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