HAVVKING, Hunting, Fouling, and Fishing, with the true mea­sures of blowing. A vvorke right pleasant and profitable for all estates, vvho so loueth it to practise, and exceeding delightfull, to refresh the irksomnesse of tedious time. Whereunto is annexed, the maner and order in keeping of Hawkes, their diseases, and cures: and all such speciall poynts, as any wise, appertaine to so Gentlemanlike qualitie. Now newly collected by W. G. Faulkener.

Publicum comodum priuato preferendum.

Imprinted at London by Adam Islip, and are to be sold by Richard Oliue. 1596.

❧ To the Courteous and friendly Readers, the Author hereof wisheth their good acceptation of his paines.

I AM not ignorant (Gen­tlemen) how hard a matter it is for any one man to write that which should please and satisfie all persons, wee being commonly of so diuers opinions, and contrary iudgements. Againe, Tully affirmeth it to bee a very difficult thing to find out any matter, which in his owne kind may be in all respects perfect: wherefore I trust, of your owne iudgements J ought the rather to be pardo­ned, in that I seeke to please many with the varietie of matter: the Discourses being fower in number: Haw­king, Hunting, Fowling, and Fishing: being so briefly set downe, for the recreation of tedious time, and es­pecially for all those that take pleasure or delight there­in: which if it please you to accept my good will, you [Page] shall not only incourage mee to amend thats amisse, but also hereafter present you with such matter, as shall better counteruaile your courtesies, and saue mine owne credit. Thus being loth to bee ouerlong in so breife a matter, I commend you to the protection of the celestiall powers, and this to your friendly acceptation.

Yours in all humilitie, Wil­liam Gryndall, Faulkner.

❧ Hawking, Hunting, Fowling, and Fishing, with the true measures of blowing: Whereunto is annexed the manner and or­der in keeping of Hawkes, their diseases and cures: and all such speciall points, as in any wise appertaine to so Gentle­manlike qualitie.

TO intreat first of Hawkes from their be­ginnings being Egges, after they are dis­closed, Hawkes, but Goshawkes be com­monly disclosed assoone as Choughes, & in some places sooner, according to the tem­perature of the Country, and timely brée­ding: You are to vnderstād that Hawkes, do eyre and not bréed in Woods: and fur­ther, that Hawkes do draw, when they beare timbring to their nestes, and not that they build, or make their nestes: & in time of their loue, they cal, and not cauke, and you must say that they tread: and when they be vnclosed and begin for to feather any thing of length, by kind they will draw out of their nestes, and come to the boughes, and come againe to their nestes, and then they be called Bowesses: and after S. Margarets day, they flie from trée to trée: and when they are called Braunchers, then it is time for to take them, and seuen dayes after S. Margerets day, is the best taking of Sparowhawkes.

How you shall behaue you in taking of Hawkes, and with what Instruments, and hovv you shall call them.

HE that will take Hawkes, must haue Nettes which are called Vrines, and those must bée made of good small thred, and it must be dyed either greene or blewe, that it bee not e­spied, [Page] and you must take with you needle and thred, to insile the Hawkes that are taken, and in this maner they must bee insiled: Take the needle and thred and put it through the vp­per eye lid, and so of the other, and make them fast vnder the beake that shee see not: when she is insiled, beare her home on thy fist, and cast her on the Perche, and let her stand there a night and a day, and the next day take and cut the thred away, softly for breaking the eye lids, then gently begin to reclaime her, and deale easely with her, till she will sit vpon thy fist, for feare of hurting of her winges, and the same night after the teding, wake her all night and all the next day, then she will be easely enough to be reclaimed, and the first meat that she eateth let it be hot, and giue her enough thereof.

How your Hawke may be drawne to clayme, and the maner of her diet.

ANd if your Hawke be hard penned shée may bee drawne to be reclaimed: for while she is tender penned, shée is not a­ble to be reclaimed: and if she bée a Goshawke or Tercell, that is reclaymed, euer feede her with washt meate at the drawing and at the reclayming, but let it bee whot, and in this maner wash it: Put the meate into the water, and strike it vp and downe in the water, and wring the water out of it, and feede her therwith, if she be a Brauncher: and if it be an Eyesse, you must wash it cleaner then ye doe to a Brauncher, and with a linnen cloath wipe it and feede her: and euermore the third day when she is flying giue her casting, and if shee be a Gos­hawke or Tercell in this manner: Take new Blanket cloath, and cut fiue morselles, and with a kniues poynt make a hole in euery morsell, and put in the pellets of cloath, and put them in a faire dish of water, then take the Hawke and giue her a morsell of whote meate, the quantitie of halfe her supper, then take that which lyeth in the water and feede her for all night.

How you shall feed your Hawke, and to know her infirmities, and of the diuersities of them.

IF your Hawke bee a Sparhawke, euer feede her with vn­washt meate, and looke that her casting bee plumage, then looke it be cleane vnder the Perch, and the next day you shall finde her casting vnder the Perch, and thereby you shall know whether shée be cleane or not: for some peece will be yellowe, and some greene, and some glamos and some cleare: and if it bée yeallowe she ingendreth the frounce, which is an euill that will rise in the mouth, or in the cheeke: and if it bee gréene shée ingendreth the rye: the condition of this euill is this, it will a­rise in the head and make the head swell, and in the eye glamos and darke, and if it bee not holpen it will fall downe into the legges and make them ranckle, and if it goe into the head a­gaine, then the Hawke is lost, she ingendreth an euil called the Cray, which is when she may not mutise.

Marke well you Medisines here following.

FOr the Frounce in the mouth, take the small end of a siluer spoone and put it into the fire, till it bee hot, then open the beake and burne the sore, and annoynt it with the marrow of a Goose that hath lien long, and it will helpe her: if the frounce bée great, then there is a grube in it, which you must cut with a Raser, holde the Hawke and slit the place where the sore is, and you shall finde in it as it were the mawe of a Pigion, take a paire of sheeres and snip the sore, and make it as cleane as you can with a linnen cloath, and anoynt the sore fower daies with Balme, and afterwards with Pampilion till it be whole: The frounce commeth when a man feedeth his Hawke with Porke or Horse flesh foure daies together.

For default of hot meat the diseases of the Rye commeth.

How the Cray commeth.

THe Cray commeth of washt meate, which is washt with hot water, for lacke of hot meate, and it commeth of threds [Page] which is in the flesh that the Hawke is fed with, and though yée picke the flesh neuer so cleane, ye shall find threds therein.

When your Hawke shall bathe her.

EVery third day let your Hawke bathe her during Som­mer, if it bée faire weather, and once in a weeke in Winter, if it bee warme, and not els, and when you bathe your Hawke euer giue here some hote meate vnwashed, although shée bee a Goshawke.

How you shall make your Hawke flie with a good courage in the morning.

IF you will haue her flye in the morning, feede her the night before with hote meate, and wash the meate in Vrine, and wring out the water cleane, and that will make her haue a lu­stie courage to flie after the best maner.

How you shall guide your Hawke if she be full gorged, and that you would gladly haue a flight.

IF your Hawke bée full gorged, and that you would speedelie haue her flie, take fower cornes of wheate, and put them in a morsell of flesh, and giue it her to eat, and she will quickly cast all that is within her, and after that she hath cast, looke that you haue some hot meat to giue her.

A medisine for the Rye.

TAke Dasie leaues and stampe them in a Morter, & wring out the iuyce, and with a pen put it into the Hookemares once or twise, when the Hawke is smal gorged, and anon after let her lyre, and she shall be as whole as a fish.

Also, and you giue your Hawke fresh Butter, or Marrow of Hogges that is in the bone of the leg of Porke, it will make her cast water at the mares; but it wil make her hawty and prowd.

A medisine for the Cray.

TAke and chafe the fundament of your Hauke with your hand and warme water a good while, and after that take the pouder of Saxifrage, or els the powder of Rewe, and a quantitie of May butter, and temper them well together, then put it in a little Boxe and stop it close, and euery meale when you feede your Hauke annoint her meat therewith, and for the loue of the ointment shée will eat her meat the better. This experiment will kéepe her from the Cray, and many other sicknesses that oft ingender in Haukes. Also take the whole heart of a Pig, and féed her therewith two daies, and it will make her whole.

Also take Porke and put it into whote Milke, and féed your Hauke therewith, and that will make your Hauke mute af­ter the best manner: And Porke with the Marrow of the Leg of Porke will make her doe the like. Also vse her to fresh but­ter, and it will doe the same. Also one or two meales of a Pigs liuer whot will make her mute, but let her not haue too great a gorge thereof, for it is a perrilous meate. Also take the white of an Egge, and beate it that it bée as thin as water: put the same in the vessell, and stéepe the meat therein all a day before you giue it her, and at night féed her therewith, and that which shall be for her dinner the next day let it lie in stéepe all night: but in any wise sée that you haue fresh whites of Egges, and if her féeding be of Porke it is the better. This is proued.

The perfect and kindly tearmes for a Faulkner belonging to Haukes.

THe first is hold fast at all times, and especially when shée baiteth, it is called baiting: for shée baiteth with her selfe most often causelesse. The second is, rebate your Hauke to your fist, and that is when your Hauke baiteth, the least mo­uing that you can make of your fist, she will rebate againe on [Page] your fist. The third is, féed your Hauke: and not giue her meate. The fourth, she sniteth or sueth her beake, and not wi­peth. The fist, your Hawke iouketh, and not sléepeth. The sixt, she proyneth, and not pecketh: and she proyneth not but when she beginneth at her legges, and fetcheth moisture like Oile ather taile, and bawmeth her féet, and stroketh the fea­thers of her winges through her beake: it is called the note, when shée fetcheth such oile. A Hawke would neuer be let of her proyning: for when she proyneth her selfe she is lustie and of good liking, and when she hath done she will rouse her selfe mightily: and sometime she countenanceth as she picketh her, and yet she proyneth her not, and then you must say she refor­meth her feathers, and not picke her feathers. The seuenth, your Hawke colieth, and not becketh. The viii. rouseth, and not shaketh her. The ninth, she stretcheth, and not claweth nor scratcheth. The tenth, she mantelleth, and not stretcheth: when she putteth foorth her legges from her one after another, and her wings follow her legges, then she doth mantell her, and when she hath mantelled and bringeth foorth her winges toge­ther ouer her backe, you must say she warbleth her winges, and that is a tearme fit for it. The xi. your Hawke mutesseth, or mutteth, and not shiteth. The xii. you cast your Hawke vpon the Perch, and not set her vpon the Perch.

For speciall tearmes belonging to Hawkes, when you shall haue any cause to commend them for diuers of their properties.

FIrst, you must say she is a fayre Hawke, a huge Hawke, a long Hawke, a short thicke Hawke: and not to say, a great Hawke: Also she hath a large beake, or a short beake: and not call it a bill: and a huge head, or a small head, fayre seasoned. You must say your Hawke is full gorged, and not cropped: and your Hawke putteth ouer and endueth, and yet she doth both diuersly.

How your Hawke putteth ouer.

SHe putteth ouer when shée remooueth her meate from her gorge into her bowelles: and thus ye shall know: when she hath put it ouer, she trauersseth with her bodie, and specially with necke, as a Craine doth or other bird.

When you shall say she endueth and embowelleth.

SHe neuer endueth so long as her bowelles be full at her fée­ding, but assoone as she is fed and resteth, she indueth by lit­tle and little: and if her gorge and her bowelles in any thing stiffeth, you shall say she is embowelled, and haue not fully en­dued: and as long as ye may find anie thing in her bowelles, it is very dangerous to giue her any meat.

Marke well these tearmes.

SAy your Hawke hath a long wing, a fayre long taile with sixe barres out, and standeth vpon the seuenth. This Hawke is interpened, that is to say, where the feathers of the winges be betwéene the bodie and thighes: this Hawke hath an huge leg or a flat leg, or a round leg, or a fayre infered leg.

To know the mayle of an Hawke.

HAwkes haue white mayle, Canuas mayle, or red mayle, and some call red mayle yron mayle: which mayle is soone knowne. Canuas mayle is betwéene white mayle and yron mayle, and yron mayle is very red.

Plumage and cast your Hauke.

A Goshawke nor Tercell, in their sore age haue not their mayles named, but is called their plumage: and after the cote, it is called their mayle: And if your Hawke rewarde to [Page] any Hawke by countenance for to flie thereto, you shall say cast your Hawke thereto, and not flie thereto.

Noume or fenced.

AND if your Hawke noume a foule, and the foule breake from her, she hath discomfited many feathers of the foule, and is broken away: but in kindly spéech you shall say, your Hawke hath noumed or seased a foule, and not taken it.

Wherefore a Hawke is called a Rifler.

OFtentimes it happeneth with a Hauke, that for egernesse when she should noume a foule, she seaseth but the feathers, and therefore such Hawkes be called Riflers if they doe oft so.

The names of all the members of your Hawkes, with their conuenient tearmes.

FIrst, Cleys behind that straineth the backe of the hand, ye shall call them Talons.

The Cleys within the foot, you shall call them her pounses.

But the Cleys that are vpon the middle stretchers, you shall call them the long sengles.

And the vttermost Cleys, you shall call them petty sengles.

The Key or closer.

THe long sengles are called the Key of the foot or the clo­ser: for what thing soeuer a Hawke streineth, is vpon the sengle, and the strength thereof fortefieth all the foot.

Seres of watry or waxy colours.

YOu shall vnderstand, that the skinne about the Hawkes legges and her féet, is called the Seres of her legges, and her féet whether they be watry or waxy colour are yellow.

The beame feathers.

A Hawke hath twelue feathers on her tayle, and one princi­pall feather of the same in the midst, and in a maner all the rest are couered vnder the said feather, and that is called the beame feather of the taile, and there is blacke bars ouerthwart the taile, and those barres will tell you when she is full sum­med or full fermed: for when she is full barred she standeth vpon seuen, and then she is perfect readie to be reclaimed: as long as a Hawke standeth vnder the number of seuen barres, and she be in her sore age, you may say she is not full summed, for so long she is but tender penned, whether shée bée Braun­cher or Eyes: and if she be a mewed Hawke and stand within seuen barres, you may say she is not full fermed, for she is not able to be reclaimed, because she is drawne too soone out of the mew, for she is not penned no harder then a sore Hawke.

Brayles or Braylefeathers.

AN Hawke hath long small white feathers, hanging vnder her taile from her bowelles downeward, and it is called the Braylefeather: and commonly euery G [...]shawke and euery Tercelles brailes be besprinckled with blacke speckes like ar­mies, but for all that they be accounted neuer the better: But and a Sparrahawke bée so armied vpon the brailes or Mus­ket, you shall say she is degouted to the vttermost braile, and it betokeneth great hardinesse.

Breast feathers, Plumage, Barbe feathers, Pendant feathers.

THe feathers aboue the former part of an Hawke, bée cal­led breast feathers, and the feathers vnder the winges are Plumage: the feathers vnder the beake be called Barbe fea­thers: the feathers that bée at the ioint of the knée, that are hanging and sharpe at the ends, those be called the Pendant feathers.

Flage or flagges feathers.

THe feathers at the wings next to the bodie, be the flages, or flagges feathers.

Beame feathers of the wing.

THe long feather of the wing are called the Beame feather, and the feather that some call the pinion of other foules, of an Hawke it is called a sercell: and if she bée in mewe, the same feather will be the last that she will cast, and till that bée casted she is neuer mewed. I haue heard some say that she hath cast that first, but the other rule is more common: and when she hath cast her sercell in mewe, then is it time to féed her with washt meat, and to begin to ensayme her.


ENsayme of an Hawke is the greace, and if that bée taken away with féeding of washt meate (as it is declared hereaf­ter) she will gender a panell, which will be her vtter confusion, if she flie therewith and take cold therevpon.

Couerts, or couert feathers.

THere be feathers vpon the Sercelles, and those bée called couert feathers, and so al the feathers be called that bée next ouer the beame feathers, are the sage feathers of the wings.

Backe feathers.

THe feathers vppon the backe, halfe bée called backe fea­thers.

Beake, Clap, Nares, Sere.

THe Beake of the Hawke is the vpper part that is crooked: the nether part is called the Clap of a Hawke: the holes in the Hawkes beake bée called the Nares: the yeallow be­tweéene the beake and the eie is called the Sere.


THere bée long small blacke feathers like heares about the Seres, and those be called Cryuets of the Hauke.

Sore age.

YOu shall vnderstand that the first yeare of a Hawke, whe­ther shée bée a Brauncher or Eyesse, the first is called her sore age, and all that yeare she is called a sore Hawke: and if she escape that yeare, with good féeding she is like to endure long.

To reclaime a Hawke.

IF you will reclaime your Hawke, you must diuide one meale into thrée, vntill that she will come to reclaime: and when she will come to reclaime, make her that she sore not, though shee bee well reclaymed, it may fall out that shee will sore too high, that ye shall neuer sée nor find her: And if your Hawke flie to the Partrich, looke that ye ensayme her before she flie, whether she be a Brauncher, Eyesse, or mued Hawke.

When a Hawke is called an Eyesse.

A Hawke yt is called an Eyesse, is for her eyen: for a Hawke that is brought vp vnder a Busserd or Puttocke, as many haue watrie eyne: for when they be disclosed and kept in ferme till they be full summed, ye shall know that by her watrie eies, and also her looke will not bee so quicke as a Braunchers is: and so because the best knowledge is by the eye, they be called Eyessed: ye may know an Eyesse by the palenesse of the seres of her legges, or the sere ouer the beake: also by the taintes that bee vpon her tayle and her winges: which taintes come for lacke of féeding when they be Eyesses.

What a Taint is.

A Taint is a thing that goeth ouerthwart the feathers of the wings of the taile, like as it were eaten with wormes, and it beginneth first to bréede at the bodie in the pen, and the same pen shall fret asunder and fall away through the same Taint, and then is the Hawke desperaged for all that yeare.

Medisines to Ensayme your Hawke.

TAke the root of Rasne, and put into cleane water, and lay your flesh therein to temper a great while, and giue it to your Hawke to eat: and if she eat therof dread not but it will abate her greace, but in thrée daies she will not greatly abate. Also take Puliall and Garlick, and stampe it well toge­ther, and wring out the iuice in a dish, and then wet the flesh therein, and féede your Hawke therewith: Ensayme your Hawke within foure daies, but looke euery day that you make newe iuice, and when you féede her wet your meat therein: Also take iuice of Merslie mores, otherwise called Persley rootes, and the same of Isope, and wash your flesh therein, and your Hawke shall be ensaymed kindly, and no great abate to the Hawke. Some vse to lay their flesh in water almost a day, and giue the same to the Hawke at supper, and let that lie all night to giue her in the morning, and thus to féed them in the mewe, or ere they bée drawne about a month or sixe wéekes, and to ensayme them ere they come on the fist, and assoone as they cast their sercell, then is it time to féed them so.

How your Hawke ensaymeth.

YOu shall further vnderstand, that so long as your Hawkes féete looke blacke and rough, he is full of greace, and euer as she ensaymeth, her féet will ware yellow and looke smooth.

How you shall behaue your selfe in putting vp the Partrich.

WHen you haue ensaymed your Hawke and reclaimed her, and that shée is readie to flie to the Partrich, you must take a Partrich in your bagge and goe into the field, and let your Spannelles finde a couie of Partriches, and when they bee vp and begin to scatter, you must marke them and couple vp your Spannelles: and when you haue so done, let him that hath the Partrich in the bagge take and tey a cryance [Page] to her legge, and cast her vp as high as you can, and as soone as your Hawke séeth her she will flie therto: and if your Par­trich sease vpon her aboue, giue her a reward therevpon: this done, goe to the Partriches that you haue marked, doe as hereafter followeth: and if you haue a chastised Spannell that is rebuked and is a retrauer, vncouple him alone and goe and single out one of the Partriches of the couie, and goe as nigh to the rising of him as you can, and if your Hawke haue a de­sire cast her to it: and if she take it, them your Hawke is made for that yeare, and of the same Partrich that she sleyeth you must thus reward her as followeth.

Hovv you shall revvard your Havvke.

TAke the Partrich, and cut the head and necke from the bo­die, and strip the skinne from the necke, and giue it her to eate, and couer the bodie of the Foule with a hat, and lay the sayd head and the necke therevpon, and if she will forsake the Foule that she plumeth on and come to the reward, then se­cretly take away the Partrich and reward your Hawke with the braine and the necke, but beware that shée eat no bones, for it will make her vnlustie for to flie: and thus must you serue her of as many as she flieth at, but let her reward be the lesse, or els she will bée quickly full gorged, and then shée will not flie a good while.

Hovv your Hauke shall reioice her selfe.

VVHen your Hawke hath slaine a Foule, and that you haue rewarded her as before, let her flie no more till she hath reioiced her: that is to say, till she hath sewed or sni­ted her beake, or els roused her: and when she hath done any of all these, goe and retrine more, and she will noume plentie.

When your Hauke hath noumed a Foule, vvhat you shall doe that you rebuke not the Hauke.

LEarne this thing when she doth noume a Foule, stand a good way from her, and take away your Spannelles for [Page] rebuking of her, for diuers Hawkes cannot abide the Spanni­els, and when your Hawke plumeth, come softly towards her néere and néere, and if she leaue pluming and looke vpon you, stand still and chearke her and whistell her vntill shée plume againe, and serue her thus vntill you be nigh her, then softly fall on your Knées, and priuily while shée plumeth, set your hand and bée sure of the gosse, and then ye may guide all things as you will, and if you doe the contrarie, she will for feare car­rie game, or let it goe quicke, with losse both to you and to your Hawke also.

A Medson for an Hauke that is lovvsie.

TAke quicksiluer, and put it into a Bason of brasse, and put into it Salindine and Ashes, and mingle it well together till the quicksiluer be dead, and put thereto fatte of bones, and annoint the Hawke therewith, and it will kill the lise: also powder of Orpement blowen vpon the Hawke with a Quill will kill the Lice.

The opinion of Ostregiors.

AFter the opinion of many Ostregiors, and you féede your Hawke continually with Porke, with Rays or Pies, or carie her much in rainie whether, she will be lowsie.

Ostregers, Speruiters, Favvkners.

BEcause I spake of Ostregers, you shall vnderstand that they bée called Ostregers that kéepe Goshawkes or Ter­cels, and those that keepe Sparhawkes and Muskets bee cal­led Speruiters, and kéepers of all other Hawkes bee called Faulkners.

You shall call the long Line wherewith you call your Hawke withall, your Creance, whatsoeuer it be.

A Medson for an Hauke that casteth her flesh.

PUT the flesh that you féede your Hawke withall in fayre water, and féed her therewith thrée daies, and it will kéepe her in flesh.

A Medson for an Hauke that hath lost her courage.

YOu may know when your Hawke hath lost her courage, for when you cast her to the Foule shée flieth awayward, as though she knew not the Foule, or els shée will flie a little after her and then giue her vp, and this is a very good reme­die for such a Hawke. Take Oile of Spaine, and temper it with cleare Wine and the yolke of an Egge, and put into it some Béefe, and giue her thereof fiue morsels, and then set her in the Sunne, and at night féed her with an old hote Cul­uer, and if you féed her thus thrée times: and then your Hawke was neuer so lustie and iolly before, as she wil be after and come to her courage againe.

A Medisine that an Hauke shall not lie in Mevv for vnlustinesse.

TAke Fearne rootes that grow within an Oke, and Oke apples, and make iuice of them, and wet her flesh therein that she eateth, and féed her thrée or foure times, and it will make her leaue that.

A Medisine for an Hauke that hath the Tanie.

A Hawke that hath the Tanie a man may soone know if hée take héed: for this is her manner, for she will pant more for one baiting then some will doe for thrée or foure, and if shée should flie a little while, shée would almost lose her breath, whe­ther she be fat or leane, & she will be alwaies heauie, and this is the remedie. Take a quantitie of the rednesse of Hasell, and a little of the powder of Rosen, of Pepper, & somewhat of Gin­ger, and make thereof with fresh grease thrée pellets, and hold your Hawke to the fire, and when she féeleth the heate, make her swallow the thrée pellets by force, and knit her beake fast that shée cast it not out againe, and this doe thrée times and shée shall be safe.

Also take Alisander, and the Rootes of Primroses, and the [Page] root Grongnaulles, and séeth them in Butter, and giue her thrée morselles euery day vntill shée bée whole, and looke that she be void when ye giue the medisine.

Hovv you shall take your Hauke from the aire.

VVHo so taketh his Hawke from the aire, it behoueth him to be wise in bringing her easely, and to kéepe her from colde, and from hurting of her bones for they bée tender, and shée must haue great rest, and they must haue as cleane ayre as can bée, and alwaies giue her cleane and hot meate, and giue her a little and often, and chaunge her meate often, and cut her meate into small morselles, for they should not lyre on bones: and then when she beginneth to pen and plumeth, and palketh and picketh her selfe, put her into a close warme place where no vermin may come into her, and let the place be sure from wind and raine, and then shée will preue her selfe: and e­uermore giue her good hot meates, for it is better for a man to féede his Hawke while shée is tender with meate, and to make her good with some cost, then to féede her with euill meates to make her vnthriftie with little cost: and looke when she beginneth to ferme, then giue her baiting.

A Medisine for vvormes in an Hauke, vvhich sicknesse is called the sylanders.

BEware of this sicknesse, the remedie for it is this. Take an hearbe that is called Neppe, and put it into the gut of a Ca­pon, or of an Hen, and knit it with a thred and let her receiue it whole, and she will be whole and safe.

Thus you shall know when your Hawke hath wormes in her bellie: looke when shée hath casted, and then yée shall finde one or two about her casting place, if she hath ben with any.

A Medisine for an Hawke that casteth wormes at her fundament, and vvhat vvormes they be.

TAke the bymaile of yron, & mingle it with the flesh of Pork, & giue it two daies to the Hawke to eat, & she shalbe whole.

A Medisine for an Hauke that hath a sicknesse, called the Aggersteyne.

WHen you see your Hawke hurt her féet with her beake and pulleth her taile, then shée hath the Aggersteyne: For this disease, take the dung of a Doue, and the dung of a Shéepe, and strong vineger, and mingle them softly in a bra­sen basen, and mingle them will together to serue for thrée daies after, and giue her flesh of a Culuer with honey, and with powder of Pepper, and set her in a dark place nine daies, and when you sée new feathers on her taile, wash her with Ve­rose nine daies, and she will be whole.

A Medisine for an Hauke that hath the Crampe in her vvings, and hovv it commeth.

TAke a white loafe of bread somewhat colder then it comes out of the Ouen, and holde the Hawke softly for hurting, and cut the loafe almost through, and display her wing easely, and hold it betwéene the two parts of the loafe, and let it be held so the space of halfe an houre, and it will helpe her.

The Crampe commeth to an Hawke by taking colde in her youth: therefore it is good for an Hawke to kéep her warme whether she be young or old.

Let not your Hauke be put into mevv to fat, but in this maner as follovveth if you loue her.

KEepe her well and put her not late in mew: for who so for couetousnesse of flying, loseth the time of his Hawkes me­wing, and withholdeth her too long from it, hée may after put her to mewe at aduenture, for then a part of her mewing time is past. Who so putteth his Hawke in mew in the beginning of Lent, if she be kept as she ought to be, she should be mewed in the beginning of August.

Hovv you shall dispose and ordaine your mevv.

SEt and dispose your Mewe in this maner, so that no We­sell nor Polcat, nor no other Vermine, nor that it bée windie [Page] or cold, nor that it be ouer hot, let one part of it stand towards the Sunne, so that the most part of the day the Sunne may come to it. Also you must tooke that shée bée not troubled with noyse or the singing of men, and that no man come to her but only hée that féedeth her: you must let her haue a féeding stocke in her mewe, and a long string to bind her meate, or els shée will carrie her meate about the house and beray it with dust, and paraduenture shée will hide it till it stincke and then feede on it: which if shée should doe, it would bée her death. And ther­fore when it is bound to the féeding stocke, then shée will nei­ther at feeding, neither at lyring, nor at liking, nor at rising hurt her selfe: and when she hath fedde, take away that she lea­ueth, and looke that shée haue fresh at euery meale: for of stale and euill meates shée will ingender many diseases, and looke that you neuer goe to the mewe but when you carrie her meate or water to bathe her. Suffer no raine to wet her at any time if you may: and as for her baiting, that will nothing hinder her mewing.

The maner hovv a man shall put his Hawke into the Mevv: and is proued.

ONe thing you must beware of, that shée haue no sicknesse before you put her in Mew: for as I haue prooued, a sicke Hawke shall neuer mewe well, but though shée mewe shée shall not endure: but when shée is great and fat, for at the bating of her estate, shée will no longer endure. Sometime without a­ny medisine many men deuise how they might mewe their Hawkes: for some put them in at high estate, and some when they be very low, and some when they are emptie and leane: but it makes no matter for that, if she bée whole: neuerthelesse, you shall heare mine aduise as I haue séene and proued.

Whosoeuer putteth a Goshawke, a Tercell, or Sparre­hawke into Mewe, so high that shée may bée no higher, shée will hold her long ere shée lose and leaue any feathers: and who so putteth her into mewe leane, it will bée long ere shée remount: [Page] and who so putteth her in mew too leane and hungrie, if shée haue meate at her will, shée will eate too much, because of hun­ger, and shée is likely to kill her selfe therewith, as hath béene often séene: but who so will haue his Hawke indure and mew kindly, my counsell is that shée bée neither too high nor to lowe, nor in destresse of hunger, but as shée should best flie: but take héede the first day of too much dealing till the time that shée bée stanched, and after you may take her such meate as I shall de­scribe you hereafter.

In vvhat maner you shall feed your Hauke in your mevv.

LOoke what meate shée hath been most vsed to bée fed with, and féede her therewith eight daies together, and giue her Birds enough morning and euening, and let her plume vpon them well, and take casting of the plumage, and that will tal­lant her well, and cause her to haue good appetite, and it will clense her bowelles well, and when she is well clensed, you may giue her what meate you will, so it bee cleane and fresh. But the best meate to make her mewe soonest without anie medisine, is the flesh of a Kid, of a young Swanne, and of a young Chicken, and of a young Goose: for such meate is whole of it selfe.

Also take péeces of great fresh Eeles, and especially the colpen next the nauell, and wet in hote blood of Mutton, it is good to make her to mewe, but especially it will make her wight after her sore age. These said fleshes bée good to mewe a Hawke, and to kéepe her in state, but looke that shée haue plentie euery day that shée rather leaue then lacke, and euery third day let her bath if shée will: and when shée is waxed néere farme, then let her eate Hennes and fat Porke: and of a Hound is passing good.

To make a Hauke mevv quickly vvithout any hurting of her.

THe experiment is thus approoued. Take an Addar that is red of nature, and also there bée Snakes of the same kinde, [Page] and they bée verie bitter; take two or thrée of them and smite off their heads and their tayles: then take a new earthen pot that was neuer vsed, and cut them in small péeces, and put them into the pot to séeth, and let them séeth at leisure, and let the pott bee couered close that no ayre come out of it nor no breath, and let them séeth so long that the péeces turn to greace, and put it into a cleane vessell, and as oft as you féede your Hawke annoint her meate therewith, and let her eat as much as she will, and that will mew her at your will.

Who so vvould haue his Hauke mevv, and that her feathers should not fall.

TAke powder of Cauell, and the iuyce of Franeke costes, and the iuyce of Paraine, and take thrée or foure morsels of meate, and wet them therein, and make your Hawke swal­low them, and serue her so many times.

Also take the skinne of a Snake and of an Adder, and cut them into small péeces, and temper it with hot bloud, and make your Hawke to eat thereof, and she shall not mew.

For the Goute in the throte.

VVHen you sée your Hawke blow manie times, and that it commeth of no baiting, you may bée sure shée hath the Goute in her throte: and for that disease, take the bloud of a Pecocke, and Eneense, Myrabolana, and cloues of Gelofte, and Cauell, and Ginger: and take of all these euery euening and mingle them with Pecockes blood, and séeth it till they bée thicke, and thereof make morselles, and giue the Hawke morning and at noone.

For the Goute in the head and in the reynes.

WHen you see your Hawke may not endure her meate nor remooue her estate, shée hath the Gowte in the head and in the reines. Take Nomin, (among the Apothicaries [Page] you may haue it,) and the skinne of an Hare, and giue it to your Hawke to eat nine times with the flesh of a Cat, and if she hold the meat she shall be safe.

A medisine for the Crampe in the thigh, in the leg, or in the foot of an Hauke.

WHen you see your Hawke lay one foote vpon another, then shée is taken with the Crampe, then draw her blood, and vpon the foot that lieth on the other foot, and vpon the legge, and it will helpe her.

For the Cough or the Pose.

TAke the powder of Bayes & put it on the flesh of a Doue, and giue it oft to your Hawke, and it will helpe her.

A Medisine for the sicknesse within the body of any Hauke, if it shew not outwards, how she shall be holpen and in what maner.

A Man may knowe by the countenance of an Hawke part­ly her infirmities: but it is straunge to knowe a mans dis­ease, when hée knoweth not whereof nor how it commeth: For this disease féed your Hawke well of an Hen, and then make her fast two daies after, that shée may emptie her bodie: the third day take Honey and séeth it, and fill her full, and bind her beake that shée cast it not out againe, and then set her out of the Sunne, and when it draweth towards night féede her of a whote Foule: and if this will not helpe her neuer looke for other medisine.

For the passion that Goshaukes haue fasting.

TAke the root of small Rushes, and make iuice of them, and wet her meat therein and make her eat thereof.

For Haukes that be wounded.

TAke away the feathers about the wound, and take the white of an Egge, and Oyle of Oliue, and mingle them together, and annoint the wound, and kéepe it with white [Page] wine, vntill the time that you see dead flesh, and then put into the wound Escompe, vntill the time that the dead flesh be wa­sted: after take Ensence, and take as much of the one as of the other, and mingle them together: and when you will annoint the sore, heat your ointment, and annoint it with a pen, till the time the skinne grow againe, and if you sée dead flesh a­bout it and that you would haue it away, take Vineger, and then annoynt it with this oyntment aforesaid, and she shall be whole.

A medisine for an Hawke that hath the Artelick.

VVHen you perceiue that your Hawke is fat about the heart, you may trust to it she hath the Artelicke, there­fore let her blood in the orignall vaine, and after that giue her a Frog to eat, and she will be whole.

A medisine for an Hauke that is troubled in the bowelles.

WHen your Hawke is troubled in her bowelles, you shall know it by her eyes, for her eyes will bée darke, and shée will looke drowselie, and her mutising will defile her funda­ment, then take Hawkes meate, and annoint it with the pow­der of Cauell, and giue it her to eat and she shall be whole.

A medisine for an Hauke that hath the Gout.

FEede your Hawke once or twise with an Irchin, and it shall helpe her.

A medisine for an Hauke that hath Mites.

TAke the iuice of wormewood, and put it where they bée, and they will die.

A medisine for an Hauke that hath the Stone.

ANnoynt her Fundament, and put in the powder of Al­lom with a hollowe Strawe: Also take an hearbe called Christes Ladder, and annoynt her mouth therewith, and she will be whole.

A medisine for Vermin.

TAke the iuice of the root Fennell, and put it where the Ver­min, be, and they will die.

A medisine for the Rewme that Haukes haue.

VVHen you sée your Hawke close her eyes, and shake her head, giue her Larde of a Gote the first day, and the se­cond day giue her Epaticke with the flesh of a Chicken, and she shall be whole.

A medisine for Haukes that be drie and desire to drinke, to keepe them moist.

TAke the iuice of Horehound, and wet the Hawkes meat therein, and féed her therewith once or twise, and she shall be whole.

A medisine for diseases in the Entrailes.

TAke yolkes of Egges rawe, when they bée well beaten to­gether, put to it Spanish Salt, and as much Honey, and wet therein thy Hawkes meate, and feed her therewith thrée daies together: and if shee make deintie in eating of it, then make her of force to swallow three or foure morselles a day, and presently she shall be whole. Yet I will tell you another thing: Take Honey at the change of the Moone, and a sharpe Nettle, and make thereof small powder, and when it is well ground, take the breast bone of an Hen, and another of a Cul­uer, and make it small with a knife, and doe away the skinne, and put powder thereon, and all hote with the powder féed her thrée daies and she will be whole.

For sicknesse of swelling.

IF a Fellon bee swolne in such sort that a man may heale it, the Hawke shall not die. Thus a man may helpe her and lengthen her life, but the Hawke will be very eger and grée­uous of sicknesse: therefore ye must take the root of comfort, and of Suger like much, then seeth it in fresh greace with the [Page] third part of Honey, and then draw it through a fayre cloath, and then oft giue it to the Hawke and she shall be whole.

A Medisine for Blaynes in Haukes mouthes called frounces.

THe frounce is a fearefull disease and draweth her to death, and withholdeth her strength, and it commeth of cold: for cold doth a Hawke much harme. To cure her, take Fennell, Mariall and Serses alike much, and séeth them and straine them through a cloth, and sometimes wash her head therewith, and put some on the roufe of her mouth, and she shall be safe.

A Medisine for an Hauke that casteth her flesh.

SEeth Raysons in water and weete her flesh therein when it boyleth.

A Medisine for the Agrum.

WHen you see your Hawke haue blobbed chéekes, then she hath this disease called Agrum: therefore take a Née­dle of Siluer, and heate in the fire, and burne the narrelles throughout, then annoint it with oile Oliue.

A Medisine to make a Hauke fat.

TAke a quantitie of Porke and Honey, and Butter alike much, and purged greace, take away the Skinne, seeth them together, and annoint the flesh therewith, and she will encrease mightily.

For botches that grow in a Haukes iavv.

CVt the botches with a Knife, and let out the matter, and clense it with a siluer Spoone, or els fill the hole with the powder of Arne Melit burned into powder, and vpon the pow­der doe a little cloth bespred with hot waxe, and so it will away.

A medisine for an Hauke that vvill not come to reclayme.

TAke fresh Butter, and put into it Suger, and put it in a cleane cloath, and reclaime her to that, and kéepe it in a boxe and put it into your bag.

A Medisine for Haukes that be refrained.

VVHen you sée your Hawke to Neese and to cast water thorow her Nostriles, then doubtlesse shée is refrained, for this disease take the greines of Chaflegre and of pepper, and grind it well and temper it with strong vineger, and put it to the roufe of her mouth, and giue her flesh to eate, and shée shall be whole.

A Medisine for Haukes that haue paines in their Croppes.

TAke fayre Morfumum, and powder of Gilouer, and mingle them together and giue it her to eat, and if shée hold it past the second day, after she shall be whole.

A medisine for the stone in the fundament.

VVHen your Hawke cannot mute: then she hath this dis­ease called the Stone: and for this sicknesse you shall take the heart of a Swine, and the greace of a Swine, and cut it with the flesh of the heart, and she shalbe whole.

A medisine for the drie Frounce.

FOr this sicknesse, take the root of Polipode that groweth vpon Okes, and séeth it a great while, then take it from the fire & let it stand till it be luke warme, then wash your Hawkes flesh therein thrée times when you feed her, and it will helpe her.

A medisine for wormes called the Angules.

TAke pressure of a Lambe that was eyned before his time, and make thereof thrée morselles, and put it into the gut of a Culuer, and féed her therewith, and looke that the Hawke be emptie when you giue her the medisine, and take the iuyce of Dragons and fill the gut of a Pigion, and then cut it as the Hawke may swallow it, and knit his beake for casting it vp againe, and giue her the ballocks of a Bucke as hote as they be int [...]t, and make powder of the pissell, and cast it vpon the flesh and and she shalbe whole.

Proper tearmes vsed in keeping of Haukes.

AN Hawke tyreth, féedeth, gorgeth, beaketh, rouseth, en­dueth, muteth, percheth, and iouketh, puketh ouer, proy­neth, plumeth, shée warbeleth, and mantelleth: she tyreth vpon rumpes, shée feedeth on al maner of flesh: shée gorgeth when shée filleth her gorge full of meat: shée beaketh when she sueth, that is to say, when shée wipeth her beake: shee rouseth when shée shaketh her feathers and her bodie together: shée endueth when the meate in her bowelles fall to disgestion: shée muteth when shée auoydeth her order: shée perches when she standeth on anie bow or Perch: shée iouketh when shée sléepeth: shée pu­keth when shee auoydeth her meate out of her gorge into her bowelles: shée proyneth when shée fetcheth Oile ouer the taile and annoyneth her féete and her feathers: shée plumeth when shée pulleth off the feathers of any Foule, or any thing, and ca­steth it from her: shée warbeleth when she draweth her wings ouer the midst of her backe, and softly shaketh them and let­teth them fall againe: shée mantelleth when shée stretcheth out one wing alone, and afterward the other wing, and most com­monly she doth that before she warbleth her.

The names of Sparhawkes, as Ostregers and Speruiters haue determined.

THere is a question asked whether a man shall call a Spere or a Sparrehawke, or an Asper Hawke, and Ostregers and Speruiters say, shee may bee called all three names: for these reasons, shée may bee called a Sparrehawke: for of all Hawkes that there are, shée is most spere that is to say, most tender to kéepe: For the least misoieting and euill tending of her, killeth her, and shée may bée called an Asperre Hawke of sharpnesse of her courage, and of her looking quicke, and also of her flying. For she is most aspere and sharpe in all thing that belong vnto her. Of all Hawkes she may may bee called a Sparralike, for two reasons: one is, shée spareth Goshawkes and Tarcels vntill they time they bée reclaymed to flie, and till [Page] they bee fullie mewed and cleane ensaymed, for all the while they bée vnable, the Sparhawke occupieth that season, and fli­eth the Partrich well, from Saint Margarets day vntill it bée Lammas, and she will slea young Feasants, Hichcocks, in the beginning of the yeare: And I haue séene them slea the Teale, the black bird, the Wodcocke and the Thrush, although the Wodcocke bee combrose to kill: And therefore when you come to a Groue of Trées, or a Thicket of Bushes, cast your Spharhawke into the tree and beate the bushes, and at the ri­sing of the Foule shée wil be sure to haue her. Further, if that there were a ship fraught full of Hawkes: if there were but one Sparrehawke amongst them, there should bée no custome paid for anie of them, and therefore shée is in diuers respects a Sparhawke.

An Hawke flieth to the vewe, to the Beake, to the Toll, not a crewe, Ouerre, ferre Iutty.

AN Hawke flieth to the riuer diuers waies, and shée sleyeth the foule diuersly, that is to say, to the vew or to the beake, or the toll: and all is but one as ye shall vnderstand hereafter. Shée sleieth also to the querre, to the créepe, and no more waies but those thrée, and shée nimmeth the foule at the ferre Iute, or at the Iuttie ferre.

Novv ye shall knovv the meaning of these tearmes, Randon, Creep, Emewed.

YOur Goshawke or tercell that shall flie, to the vewe, to the toll, or to the beake: in this maner she must be taught. You must find a Foule in the Riuer or in the Pitte, and set your Hawke a good space from you vpon a Molehill, or vpon the ground, and creepe softly to the foule, and when you come neere where the foule lieth, looke backward to the hawke, and with your hand becke your Hawke to come to you, and when shée is on wing, and commeth low by the ground, and is almost at you, then smite your tabre and crie huffe, huffe, huffe, and make the foule spring, and then the Hawke will nime her.

[Page]And now take héede, if your Hawke nyme the foule at ferre side of the riuer, or at the pit from you, that shée slaie the foule at the ferre Iutte, and if she slay it vpon that side ye bee on, as it may happe diuers times, then you shall say she hath slaine the foule at the ferre Iutte. If your Hawke slay the Foule aloft, yee will say she tooke it at the mount or at the souce.

And if the Foule spring not but flie along after the Riuer and the Hawke nyme her, then ye shall say she slew it at ran­don. And if your Hawke fleeth at or to the Creep, when you haue your Hawke on your fist, and that you créepe softly to the Riuer or to the pit, and stealeth to the brincke thereof, and then crie huffe, and then by that meane nyme the Foule, then shée is slaine at the Creep, at the ferre Iutte, or Iutte ferre: and if it happen, as it doth often, that the Foule for feare of your Hawke will spring and fall into the Riuer again, or ere the Hawke sée her, and so lie still and dare not arise, then you shall say your Hawke hath renued the Foule into the Riuer, and there bee more Foules in the Riuer then your Hawke plumeth, and they dare not arise for feare of your Hawke.

A Theffe.

YOu shall vnderstand that your Goshawke must not flie to the Riuer with belles in no wise: and therfore a Goshawke is called a Theffe.


WHen your Hawke slieth to the Querre, when there bee in the stubbe time, Sardes of Mallards in the fielde, and when she espieth them and commeth couert her selfe, and flie priuelie to the hedges or low by the ground, and nyme one of them ere they rise, then you may say that the Foule was slaine at the Querre.

Marke this tearme draw.

SOme misuse this tearme draw, and say that their Hawke will draw to the Riuer: and that tearme draw, is properly [Page] assigned to that Hawke that will slea a Rooke, or a Crowe, or a Rauen vpon the land sitting: and then it may bee sayd that such an Hawke doth drawe well to a Rooke.

If you vvill make your Hawke to the Querre, you must vse her in this maner.

TAke a tame Mallarde and set him in a plaine field, and let him goe where he will, then set your Hawke vpon your fist, and goe to that plaine and hold vp your hand a pretie way off from the Mallard, and looke if your Hawke can espie it by her owne courage: and if shée haue found the Foule and de­sire to flie to it, let her kill her, and plume well vpon her, and erue her so three or foure times, and then shée is made to the Querre.

I haue knowne Gentlemen that when they haue seene a­ny tame Duckes, that if their Hawkes haue desired to flie at them, they haue let them flie to the encouraging of them ano­ther time, and so haue wonne them to the Querre.

A pretie deuice to take a Hauke that is broken out of Mew, and all maner of other Foules that sit in trees, or that hath taken vp their perch all night in any place.

YOu must in the night doe it. Climbe vp softly with a Skonce or a Lanterne, and you must haue but one light in your hand, and let the light be towards the Hawke or Foule that she sée not your face, and you may take her by the legges or any other place of her as you list. This is approoued: for I haue knowne diuers that haue taken many Foules after this same maner.

Of the Belles for Hawkes.

LOoke that the Bells that your Hawke shall weare, that they bée not too heauie, nor that they be aboue her power to beare, and that they be not one heauier then an other, but that they bee both of a waight: also looke that they haue a good [Page] sound and shrill, and not both of one sound, but that one bée of a semy tune aboue the other, and that they bée whole and not broken, especially in the sounding place: for if they bée anie whit broken they will sound fully.

Of Sparhawkes belles there is diuers choice, and little charge of them, for there is plentie of them: & for Goshawkes, the belles of Millaine were coumpted the best, and they are verie good: for commonly they are sounded with Siluer, and therefore they are sould thereafter. There are now vsed of Duchland belles made in a towne called Dordright, and they are excellent good belles, for they are well sorted, and well sounded, verie good in ringing of Shrilnes, and passing well lasting.

Here endeth the Booke of Hauking, and hereafter insueth the names of all maner of Haukes, and to vvhom they belong.

THese Hawkes belong to an Emperour, and these bée their names: and Eagle, a Bautere, a Melion: the simplest of these three will slea a Calfe, a Fawne, a Roe, a Kid, a Crane, a Bustarde, a Stroke, a Swanne, or a Fore on the plaine ground: and these are not in lure nor reclaimed, because they be so ponderous to the Perch protatife: and these thrée by their nature belongs to an Emperour.

These Haukes belong to a King.
A Gerfaulcon, a Tercell of a Gerfaulcon, are due to a King.
For a Prince.
THere is a Faulcon gentle, and a Tercell gentle, and these be for a Prince.
For a Duke.
THere is a Faulcon of the Rocke, and that is for a Duke.
For an Earle.
THere is a Faulcon Perigrine, and that is for an Earle.
[Page]For a Barron.
THere is a Basterd, and that is for a Barron.
Haukes for a Knight.
THere is a Sacre and a Sacret, and those be for a Knight.
Haukes for a Squier.
THere is a Lauer, and a Laueret, and those be for a Squier.
For a Lady.
THere is a Merlion, and that Hawke is for a Lady.
An Hauke for a young man.
THere is an Hobbie, and that is for a young man.

And these bee Hawkes of the Tower, and be both illu­red, and be called and reclaimed.


❧ The Booke of Hunting, where­vnto is added the measures of blowing, ve­rie pleasant to be read, for all those that haue delight in the Art of Venerie.

AS in the Booke of Hawking is discoursed and noted the proper tearmes belonging to that gen­telmanlike exercise: So in like maner is shewed in this treatise of Hunting, for all sorts of beastes of Venerie, and also is shewed all conuenient tearmes, as well of Hounds as of the beastes, or any other that appartaine to the Art of Venerie.

Of Beasts of Venery there be foure sorts.

THe Hart, the Bore, the Wolfe, and the Hare.

Beasts of Chase there be fiue kinds.

THe Bucke, the Rowe, the Martyron, the Foxe and the Dowe, and these are the fiue beastes of Chase, and if you chance to find any other, you shall call them Rascall.

Of the age of an Hart.

THe first yeare he is a Calfe, the second yeare a Broket, the third yeare a Spayd, the fourth yeare a Stagge, and the fift yeare a great Stagge, and at the sixt yeare an Hart.

Of a Heard, a Beuy, a Sounder, or a Rout.

THe Bucke, the Dowe, the Hart and the Hind,
They are called a heard when or where ye them find.
And a Beuy of Rowes whersoeuer they bée:
And a Sounder of Swine when ye them sée.
[Page]And a Rout of Wolues where they passe in:
So shall ye them call as many as they bin.

A middle heard, a little heard, a great heard.

TWentie is a little heard though it be of Hinds,
And thréescore is a middle heard, so call them by kinds.
And fourescore a great heard, call ye them so:
Be they Hart, be they Hind, be they Buck or Dowe.

You must say a great Hart and not a faire Hart.

A Great Hart so shall ye him call,
But not a faire Hart whatsoeuer befall.
A great Bucke, a great Hind, and a great Dowe,
Wheresoeuer ye find them call ye them so.

Of a Beuy of Rowes great or small.

SIxe is a Beuy of Rowes, and a middle Beuy is ten, and a great Beuy is twelue: and wheresoeuer you sée the number to be the many, the bigger is the Beuy.

What a Sounder of Swine is great or small.

TWelue make a Sounder of wilde Swine, and fiftéene a middle Sounder, and twentie a great Sounder.

Of the hunting of the Rowe, the breaking and dressing.

VVHen ye hunt at the Rowe, then ye must say,
He crosseth and trauerseth ouer the way.
A great Rowe bucke call him not so,
But a faire Rowe bucke, or a faire Dowe.
With the bowelles and with the blood,
Reward your Hounds that be so good.
And each foot you shall cut in foure as you ken,
Take the bowelles and the blood and put together then,
And giue it to your Hounds so,
And much the gladder will they go,
[Page]The Rowe shall be herdled as I wene,
The two fore legges the head laid betwéene:
And take the one hinder legge vp I you pray,
And the other farther legge right as I say:
Vpon that other farther legge vp ye them pit,
And with the other farther legge vp them knit.
On this maner when ye haue wrought,
Vp into the Kitchin it shalbe brought:
Saue that your Hounds eat the bowelles and the féet.

Of the age and vndoing of the Bore.

NOw to speake of the age of the Bore, the first yeare he is
A Pigge of the Sounder, so cald as I gis.
The second yeere a Hogge, and so shall he bée,
And a Hogge stere when he is of yeares thrée.
And when he is of foure yeares a Bore he shall be,
From the Sounder of Swine then goeth he.
When ye haue slaine the Bore then doe him right,
You shall vnflay him before it be night:
Thirtie parts and two, of him ye shall make.
As by the law of Venery I dare vndertake.
Though your Hounds by strength hath made him dead,
They shall haue the bowelles boiled with bread,
Cast vpon the ground where the Bore was slaine:
And that is calde a reward as Hunters sayne,
Vpon the earth as I gis,
Because it so eaten is.

Of the Hare.

NOw to speake of the Hare presently,
That beast King shalbe cald of all Venery.
For all the speaking and blowing so faire,
That commeth of séeking and finding the Hare:
For my deare friends I take it in hand,
He is the maruelloust beast in all this land.
[Page]For he femayeth, croketh, and rungeth euermore,
And beareth tallow and greace and aboue hath téeth before▪
And otherwhile he is male, and so ye shall him find,
And sometime female and kindly by kind.
And when he is female and kindeleth him within,
In thrée degrées he bareth them, or he with them twin:
Two rough and two smooth who so will them sée,
And two knots also that kindles will be.

The reward for the Hounds.

WHen the Hounds hath taken her and put her to death,
The Huntsman shal reward thē while they are in breath:
With the shoulders, and the sides, and the bowelles all,
And all things within her saue onely the gall.
Then the loines of the Hare looke ye doe not forget,
But bring them to the Kitchin for thy Lords meat.

The descriuing of a Bucke.

ANd ye speake of a Bucke, the first yeare he is
A Fawne sucking on his damme, say as I you wish.
The second yeare a Pricket, the third yeere a Sorrell,
A Soare at the fourth yeare the truth I you tell:
The fift yeare call him a Bucke of the first hed,
The sixt yeare a Bucke, doe as I you bid.

Of the Rowe Bucke.

ANd if ye of Rowe bucke will know the same,
The first yeare he is a Kid sucking his dame:
The second yeare a Girle and so be they all,
The third yeare a Hemuse looke ye him call,
Rowe bucke of the first head, he is at the fourth yeare,
The fift yeare a Rowe bucke call him without feare.
At S. Androwes, his horne he will cast,
In Moure or in Mosse he will hide them fast:
So that no man can them soone find,
Or els certainly he doth not his kind.
[Page]At S. Iohns day where so ye goe,
Then shall the Rowe bucke gender with the Rowe.

Of the Hart and the Hind.

OF the Hart and the Hind learne well ye may,
That they draw to the heard at Hollyrood day:
To the stepe then they goe each hot day at noone:
Which stepe they vse without any feare,
Vntill it be Midsommer at the least very néere.
The cause of the stepe is to kéepe them from the flie,
Who so commeth to the place may soone it espie:
And other things vse they my friends also,
The same time of the yeare to the soile they goe.

Of the crying of these Beastes.

A Hart belloweth, and a Bucke groneth I find,
And euery Rowe bucke certainly belloweth by kind.
The noise of these Beasts thus ye shall call,
For pride of their make they vse it all.
Say friend where you goe, I taught you say so.

Marke vvell these seasons following.

TIme of greace beginneth at Midsommer day,
And till Hollyrood day lasteth as you may say.
The season of the Foxe is from the Natiuitie,
Till the Annuntiation of our Ladie.
Season of the Rowe bucke at Easter doth begin,
And till Michalmas lasteth néere ere it lin.
The season of the Rowe bucke beginneth at Michalmas,
And it doth indure till it be Candlemas.
At Michalmas beginneth the hunting of the Hare,
And lasteth till Midsommer no man will him spare.
The season of the Wolfe is vsed in each Countrie,
As the season of the Foxe and euermore will be.
The season of the Bore is from the Natiuitie,
Vntill the Purification of our Ladie.
[Page]For at the Natiuitie of our Ladie swéet,
Ye may finde where he goeth by his féete:
Both in woods and fieldes for Corne and other fruit,
Where that after foode he maketh any suit.
Crabbes, Acornes and Nuttes where they grow,
And Hawes and Hippes with other things mowe.
And till the Purification as ye may sée,
And then the Bore in season will bée:
For while the fruit doth last, his time is neuer past.
NOw to speake of the Hare, how all shall be wrought,
When that she hath with Hounds bin sought:
The first word that the Hunter to the Houndes pit,
Is at the kenell dore when he openeth it,
That all may him heare, he shall say arere.
For els his Houndes will come to hastelie,
And this is the first word of Venerie.
And when he hath coupled his Hounds each one,
And that forth into the field he is gone:
And when he hath cast off his couples at will,
Then shall he speake and say them vntill.
Hors de couple auaunt se auaunt twise so,
And then so ho so ho thrise and no mo.
And then say sacy auaunt so ho I thée pray.
And if you sée your Hounds haue good will to rene,
And draw away from you say as I you learne:
Here ho againe them call so,
Then swefe mon amy swefe to make them soft tho.
And if any find that the Hare there doth goe,
And he a hight Richard or beamond crie so.
And if ye sée that the Hare a pasture hath béene,
If it be in the time of the Corne that is gréene:
And if your Hounds chase well at your will,
Then you shall blow three notes loud and shrill.
[Page]And anie Hound find her musing on her mace,
Where as she hath ben and is gone from that place:
Hasitouz cyeslile, so shall ye say,
Veny arere so ho say as lowd as you may.
All maner of Beasts whatsoeuer chased bée,
Haue one maner of word so ho I tell thée:
To fulfill or vntill all maner of chase,
The Hunter in his mouth that word hase.
And if your Hounds chase at Hart or Hare,
And they ren at default thus ye shall them fare:
I [...]o so how, assayne, assayne, stow ho ho,
Say astayne arere, so ho these words and no mo.
And if your Hound run well at the Fox or Doe,
And so faile at defaute, say further ere ye goe,
Ho ho sweffe aluy douce aluy, that they here
Ho hoy assayne sa arere.
So ho so ho venes a coupler, and doe as I ken,
The more credise may you haue among all men.
Your art let not be hid, and do as I you bid,
All my friends that be,
This game may know of me.

The Maister Hunter maketh his report to his man, as followeth.

THe maister to the man maketh his bost,
That he knoweth by kind what the Hart cost,
At Hunting euermore when goeth.
Quoth the maister to the man that were good
For to know what he doth the Hounds before.
What doth he before? (quoth the maister to the man)
He doth (quoth he) as euer thou maiest sée,
Breake, and so doth no beast but hée.
When breaketh he, quoth the man, what is that you say,
With his féet he openeth the earth when he goeth away.
[Page]What is the cause maister (quoth the man) I thée pray,
When the Hart before the Hounds runne his way,
That then to the Riuer he desireth to goe.
Quoth the maister to the man there are causes two.

For two causes the Hart desireth to go to the Riuer: marke vvell these tearmes follovveth, that is, dessend and other.

ONe cause for the Riuer desend he is aye,
And so he is to the water when he taketh the way.
Why callest thou him desend (maister) I thée pray,
For he payeth of his might the sooth for to say.
And another is to the water why he goeth otherwhile,
The Hounds that him sue of purpose to be guile.
Yet quoth the man to the maister when or where,
Into the water he leapeth, what maketh he there?
He proffereth quoth the maister, and so you shall say,
For he wotteth not himselfe how to get away:
Whether ouer the water he can forth passe,
Or turne againe the same way where he was.
And therefore it is proffer as the Hunters saine,
And reproffer if the same way he turne againe.
At the other side of the water if he vpstart,
Then you shall call it the soile of the Hart.

Novv of the numbles, marke vvell the tearmes.

THe man to his maister requesteth his mind,
That the numbles of the Hart he would forth find,
How many ends there is them within:
Quoth the maister but one thicken or thin,
The auaunters, the forcers:
Yet would I wit and thou wouldst me lere,
The crookes and the roundles, of the numbles of the Dere.
One crooke of the numbles lieth euermore
Vnder the throtebole of the beast before:
[Page]That called is auaunters who doth them ken,
And the hindermost part of their numbles then:
That is to say, the forcers lies euer betwéene
The two thighes of the beast that ouer crookes euen
In the midret that called is the rondell also
For the sides round about coruen it is fro.
My deare friends bold, say of game thus I told.
Yet would I learne maister why these Hounds all,
Bayen and crye when they him sée shall:
For they would haue helpe that is their skill.
For to flea the beast they run vntill.
Tell me maister (quoth the man) what doth it skill,
Why the Hare would so faine run against the hill?
Quoth the maister for her legges be shorter before,
And therefore she desireth to runne that way euermore.
What is the cause (qd. the man to the maister, yt you say of this best,
That she alwaies sitteth when she taketh rest?
Because other beasts lien as commonly men sayne,
For two causes (quoth the maister) I tell thée plain:
A cause there is and that is no lesse,
For she beareth sewet and pure greace.
Yet would I (quoth the man) faine know more,
Where the sewet of the Hare lieth behind or before?
Ouer the loine (quoth the maister) of that Hare thou dost take,
Betwéene the taile and the chine, euen on the back,
Yet I would of thée Maister of these leare,
When thou walkest in the field with thy lymere:
There as an Hare pastered hath or thou him see,
To know fat or leane whether he be?
I can quoth the maister well tell thée this case,
Wait well where he lay and where he fumed hase:
Yellow and englamed if it be,
Then is he fat, learne this of me.
And if it be blacke and hard and cleane,
Then is he megre larbre and leane.
[Page]And of this same thing learne of me,
Take héed in the winter and thou shalt it sée.
Yet maister, of the Hare faine would I learne more,
What he doth when he goeth the Hounds before?
He soreth and resoreth, and there he goeth away,
Pricketh and repricketh the truth for to say.
Whats that quoth the man when they so done?
That shall I quoth the maister tell thée full seene.
In the fields where he goeth there no waies béene,
There he soreth when he steppeth and may not be séene:
And after when he doubleth and turneth not againe,
Then he resoreth as good Hunters saine.
And when he runneth in way drie or wet,
Then may you find footstalkes of cleys or féet:
Then pricketh the Hare when he doth so,
And repricketh when againe he doth goe.

A vaunt, Lay, and Relay.

MAister yet quoth the man what is that to say?
That will I tell thée in words full féet:
When the Hounds are set an hart for to méet,
And other chaseth and followeth him for to take:
Then all these laies vpon him doe thou make.
Euen at his comming if thou let thy Hounds go,
While the other behind be ferre of him fro:
That is auaunt relay, and so shalt thou it call,
For they are before those other Hounds all,
And an hindering great all other vntill,
For after that they haue lost their will.
And hold thy Hounds still if thou wilt doe,
Till all the Hounds that behind, be come to,
Then let thy Hounds altogether goe,
That called is an alay, and looke thou say so:
And that yet is a hindering to them behind,
For the rested will euer ouergoe them by kind.
[Page]A relay is after when all the Hounds be past,
For before with the Hart that hieth him fast.

What is afforlone.

MAister, yet would I faine this at you leare,
What is afforlone? for that is good to heare,
That shall I tell (quoth he) the south at the least,
When the Hounds in the wood séeketh any beast,
And the beast is stole away out of the Frieth:
Or the Hounds that thou hast méet there with,
And any other Hounds before then may with them méet,
These other Hounds then for learnd I thée tell.
For the Beast and the Hounts be so farre before,
That the Hounds behind be wearie and sore:
So that they may not haue the beast at their will,
The Hounds before forlorne, and that is their skill:
They be so farre before if you will me trust,
And this is called forlorne if you learne lust.

What three thing causeth the Hounds to endure.

YEt would I maister know thy will,
When the Hounds run an Hart vntill,
And the further they goe the gladder they will be:
For thrée causes quoth he as often thou shalt sée.
One is when the Hart runneth fast on his rayse,
He sweateth that it runneth downe through his clayes:
The Hounds when they find of that his sweat,
Then had they rather runne and the lother to lete.
And another cause when the Hart no more may,
Then will he white froth cast where he goeth away:
And when the Hounds find of that then they are glad,
In hope they shall haue him, and run as they were mad,
The third cause when the Hart is nigh dead,
Then out of his mouth he casteth froth and blood red:
The Hounds know that he shall be taken soone then,
And euer the further they goe the gladder they ren.
[Page]These are the causes thrée, which makes them glad to be:
Which beast a slow Hound taketh as soone as a swift.
What beast yet maister I aske it for none ill,
That most while all Hounds run vntill:
And as soone the slowest shall him ouertake,
As the swiftest shall doe what way so he make.
That beast a Bauson hight, a Brocke or a Gray,
These thrée names he hath the sooth for to say:
And this is the cause thereof, for he will by kind
Goe through thornes alwaies the thickest he can find.
There as the swift Hound may no further goe,
Then the flowest of foot be he neuer so throe.

To vndoe the vvild Bore.

YEt my friends of the wild Bore to speake more,
When you shall him vndoe I tell you before,
Two and thirtie péeces ye shall of him make.
The first is the head what euer befall,
Another is the coller, and so ye shall it call.
The shield and the shoulder thereof shall two be,
Then euery side of the Swine depart in thrée.
The pestelles and the gammons depart them in two,
And two fillets he hath, forget not tho.
Then take the legges and his féet and shew your sleight,
For they shall of his bredes be counted for eight.
Take the thine and depart it in foure péeces and no mo,
And take there your bredes thirtie and two:
And faire put the greace when it is taken away,
Into the bladder of the Bore my friend I pray:
For it is medisine for many manner of things.

How you shall breake vp an Hart.

TO speake of the Hart while we thinke on,
My friend first him serue and that done,
[Page]And that is to say or euer ye him dight,
Within his hornes to lay him vpright.
Anon fat or leane whether that he be,
At the assay cut him that Lords may him sée.
Then cut off the Cods the bellie him fro
Or ye begin him to flea, and then ye go
At the chaules to begin assoone as ye may,
And slit him downe to the assay:
And fro the assay ouer downe to the bellie ye shall slit,
To the pissell where the Cod was away kit.
Then slit the left legge euen before,
And then the left leg behind or ye doe more:
And these other legges that vpon the right side,
Vpon the same maner slit ye that tide.
Ind to the chéekes looke that ye be prest,
And so flay him downe euen to the breast:
And so flay him forth right euen to the assay,
Euen to the place where the Cod was cut away.
Then flay the same likewise on the other side,
But let the taile of the beast still abide.
Then shall ye him vndoe my friend I you rede,
Right on his owne skinne and lay it abrede:
Take héed of the cutting of the same Dere,
And begin first to make thy erbere.
Then take out the shoulders slitting anone,
The bellie to the side to the corbin bone,
That is Corbins fee, at the death he will be.
Then take out the suet that it be not staft,
For that my friend is good for leach craft:
Then put thy hand softly vnder the breast bone,
And there shall ye take out the erber anone.
Then put out the paunch and from the paunch chase
Away lightly the rate and such as he hase
Hold it with a finger, doe as I you ken,
And with the blood and the greace fill it then.
[Page]Looke thrid that ye haue and néedle thereto,
For to sow it withall ere ye more vndoe:
The small guts ye shall out pit,
From them take the mawe forget not it.
Then take out the liuer and lay it on the skin,
And after that the bladder without more din.
Then dresse the numbles first that ye reake
Downe the auauncers, kerue that cleaueth to the necke,
And downe with the bole throte put them anone,
And kerue vp the flesh there vnto the backe bone:
And so forth to the fillets that ye vp arere,
That falleth to the numbles and shall be there:
With the neres also and the suet that there is,
Euen to the midrife that vpon him is.
Then take downe the midrife from the sides hote,
And heaue vp the numbles whole by the bolethrote.
In thine hand then hold and looke and see.
That all that belongeth to them together be,
Then take them to hold whom you trist.
Whiles that thou them doubles and dresse at thy list.
Take away the lights and on the skinne them lay,
To abide the Querre my friend I you pray.
Then shall ye slit the slough where the heart lieth,
And take away the heares from it and flieth:
For such heares hath his heart it vpon,
As men sée in the beast when he is vndone:
And in the midst of the heart a bone ye shall find,
Looke ye giue it to the Lord my friend by kind.
For it is precious for many malladies,
And in the midst of the heart euermore it lies.
Then shall ye cut the shirts the téeth euen fro.
And after the ridge bone cut euen so.
The forches and the sides euer betwen,
And looke that your kniues ay tharpe ben.
[Page]Then turn vp the forches and frote them with blood.
For to saue greace, so doe men of good.
Then shall ye cut the necke the sides euen fro,
And the head from the necke cut also.
The tung, the braine, the paunch and the necke,
When they washed be well with the water of the beake:
The small guts to the lights in the Déeres,
Aboue the heart of the beast when thou them teares.
With all the blood that ye may get and win,
Altogether take and lay on the skin,
To giue your Hounds that called is I wis,
The Querre aboue the skinne for it eaten is:
And who dresseth so by my counsaile,
Shall haue the best shoulder for his trauaile.
And the right shoulder wheresoeuer he be,
Giue it to the foster that is his fée.
And the liuer also of the same beast,
To the Fosters knaue giue it at the least.
The numbles trusse in the skinne and the herdle fast,
The sides and the forches that they together last:
With the hinder legges, be done so it shall,
Then bring it home and the skinne withall.
The numbles and the hornes at thy Lords gates.
Then boldly blow the price thereat,
Your play for to nune or ye come in.

Beasts of the Chase of sweet foot and of stincking.

ANd those are the Bucke, the Dowe the Beare, the Rayn­der, the Eylke, the Spikerd, the Ottor and the Martrone.

There be beasts of the Chase of the stinckling foote: the Roe bucke, and the Roe, the Fulmard, the Iches, the Baude, the Gray, the Foxe, the Squirrell, the white Rat, the Sotte, and the Polcat.

The names of diuers Hounds.

FIrst there is a Greyhound, a Basterd, a Mungrell, a Ma­stiffe, a Lemor, a Spanniell, Raches, Kenets, Terrours, Butchers Houndes, Dunghill dogges, Trindle tailes, and pricke eared Curres, and small Ladie Puppies, that beare a­way the fleas and diuers small faults.

The properties of a good Greyhound.

HEaded like a Snake, necked like a Drake, footed like a Cat, tailed like a Rat, sided like a Breame, and chined like a Beame: The first yeare he learneth to feede, the second yeare to fielde him leade, the third hée is fellowe like the forth: the fourth yeare hée is good enough, the fift yeare hée is none like, the sixt yeare hée shall hold the Plough, the seuenth yeare he will auaile great Biches to assaile, the eight yeare licke ladle, the ninth yeare cart saddle: and when hée is come to that yeare, haue him to the Tanner.

For the best Hound that euer you had,
At the ninth yeare he is full bad.

The proper tearmes and names of companies of Beasts and Foules, with others.

  • AN heard of Hares.
  • An heard of all maner of Deere.
  • An heard of Swannes.
  • An heard of Craines.
  • An heard of Curlewes.
  • An heard of Wrenes.
  • An heard of Harlots.
  • Any of Fesants.
  • A Beuie of Ladis.
  • A cete of Greys.
  • A Berry of Conies.
  • A Riches of Matrons.
  • A Besenes of Firets.
  • A brace of Greyhounds. ij.
  • A lease of Greyhounds. iij.
  • A couple of Spannielles.
  • A couple of running Hounds.
  • A litter of Whelps.
  • A Kindle of yong Cats.
  • A Beuy of Roes.
  • A Beuy of Quailes.
  • A siege of Herons.
  • A siege of Bytours.
  • [Page]A sore or a suce of Mallards.
  • A muster of Pecockes.
  • A walke of Snites.
  • A congregation of people.
  • An exalting of Larkes.
  • A watch of Nitinggales.
  • An host of men.
  • A fellowship of Yemon.
  • A cherine of Goldfinches.
  • A cast of bread.
  • A couple or payre of Bottles.
  • A flight of Doues.
  • An vnkindnes of Rauens.
  • A clattering of Choughes.
  • A dissimulation of Birds.
  • A rout of Knights.
  • A pride of Lions.
  • A sieuth of Beares.
  • A draught of Butlers.
  • A proud shewing of Tailors.
  • A temperance of Cookes.
  • A stalke of Fosters.
  • A bost of Souldiors.
  • A laughter of Ostlers.
  • A glosing of Tauerners.
  • A Malepertnes of Pedlers.
  • A thraue of Threshers.
  • A squat of Dawbers.
  • A fighting of Beggers.
  • A singuler of Bores.
  • A drift of tame Swine.
  • A harrase of Horse.
  • A ragge of colthor or arake.
  • A Baren of Mules.
  • A trip of Gotes.
  • A gaggle of Géese.
  • A brood of Hens.
  • A badling of Duckes.
  • A nonpatients of wiues.
  • A state of Princes,
  • A though of Barons.
  • A prudence of Vicaries.
  • A superfluitie of Nunnes.
  • A schoole of Clarkes.
  • A doctrine of Doctors.
  • A conuerting of Preachers.
  • A sentence of Iudges.
  • A damning of Iurours.
  • An obeysance of seruants.
  • A seat of Vshers.
  • A tygenes of Pies.
  • A host of Sparrows.
  • A swarme of Bées.
  • A cast of Hawkes of the Te­wer, two.
  • A lease of the same Hawkes.
  • A flight of Goshawkes.
  • A flight of Swallowes.
  • A bilding of Rookes.
  • A murmuration of Stares.
  • A rout of Wolues.
  • An vntruth of Sonners.
  • A melodie of Harpers.
  • A pouertie of Pipers.
  • A subtiltie of Sergeants.
  • A Tabernacle of Bakers.
  • A drift of Fishers.
  • A disguising of Tailers.
  • A bleach of Souters.
  • A smere of Curriours.
  • [Page]A cluster of Grapes.
  • A cluster of Churles.
  • A ragge of Maidens.
  • A raufull of knaues.
  • A blush of Boies.
  • An vncredibilitie of Cokcolds.
  • A couie of Partriches.
  • A spring of Eeles.
  • A desert of Lapwings.
  • A fall of Wodcocks.
  • A congregation of Plouers.
  • A couert of Cotes.
  • A dule of Turtles.
  • A scull of Friers.
  • Abhominable sight of Monks
  • A scale of fish.
  • An example of Marters.
  • A obseruance of Hermites.
  • An eloquence of Lawyers.
  • A faith of Merchants.
  • A prouision of Stewards of houses.
  • A kerfe of Painters.
  • A credence of Sewers.
  • A leape of Lybards.
  • A shrewdnes of apes.
  • A sculke of Foxes.
  • A neast of Rabits.
  • A labor of Moles.
  • A mute of Hounds.
  • A kenell of Raches.
  • A sute of Lyam.
  • A cowardnes of Curres.
  • A sourd of wild Swine.
  • A stod of Mares.
  • A pace of asses.
  • A droue of Nece.
  • A flocke of Shéepe.
  • A gaggle of women.
  • A péepe of Chickens.
  • A multiply of Husband.
  • A pontifica of Prelates.
  • A dignitie of Chanons.
  • A charge of Curates.
  • A discretion of Priests.
  • A disworship of Scots.

Heere follovveth the proper tearmes belonging to the brea­king vp or dressing of diuers kinds of Beastes, and Foules, and Fishes.

  • A Dere broken.
  • A Goose reared.
  • An embruing of Caruers.
  • A safegard of Porters.
  • A blast of Hunters.
  • A threatening of Courteours.
  • A promise of Tapsters.
  • A lying of Pardoners.
  • A misbeléeue of Painters.
  • A lash of Carters.
  • A scolding of Gamesters.
  • A wondring of Tinckers.
  • A waywardnes of Haywards.
  • A worship of Writers.
  • A neuerthriuing of Iuglers.
  • A fraunch of Millers,
  • A feast of Brewars.
  • [Page]A goring of Butchers.
  • A trinket of Coruisers.
  • A plucke of Shooturners.
  • A drunkenship of Coblers.
  • A cluster of Nuts.
  • A roge of téeth.
  • A rascall of Boyes,
  • And Egge tyred.
  • A Frier trimbred.

Of Fishes.

  • A Salmon chined.
  • A Pike splated.
  • A Hadocke sided.
  • A Cheuin finned.
  • A Sole loined.
  • A Gurnard chined.
  • A Tench sawsed.
  • An Eele trounchened.
  • A Breame splayd,
  • A Barble tusked.
  • A Trout gobbetted.
  • A Pig headed and sided.
  • A Capon sawsed.
  • A Cheuin frushed.
  • A Conie vnlased.
  • A Craine displaied.
  • A Curlew vniointed.
  • A Fesant alete.
  • A Quaile winged.
  • A Plouer cuinsed.
  • A Pigion thied.
  • A Brawne leched.
  • A Swanne lift.
  • A Lambe shouldered.
  • A Kid shouldered,
  • A Hen spoiled.
  • A Mallard vnbrased.
  • A Heron dismembred.
  • A Pecocke disfigured.
  • A Butter vntached.
  • A Partrich alet.
  • A Raile breasted.
  • A Woodcocke thied.

You shall say thus.

  • A Hart harboreth.
  • A Quier loggeth.
  • A Tyman beddeth.
  • Shouldring or leauing.
  • A Woodcocke breaking.
  • A Bucke lodgeth.
  • A Roe bedeth.
  • An Hare in his forme.
  • A Conie sitting.

The true and perfect measure of blowing.

FIrst when you goe into the field, blow with one wind one short, one long, and a longer.

To blow to the coupling of the Houndes at the Kennell dore, blow with one, one long and thrée short.

[Page]The second wind one long, and short, and a short.

To blow to the field.

BLow with two winds: with the first one short, and long, and two short.

With the second wind, one short, one long, and a longer.

To blow in the field.

WIth two windes, the first two short, one long and two short.

The second, one short, one long and a longer.

To vncouple thy Hounds in the Field: thrée long notes, and with thrée winds.

To blow to seeke.

TWo Windes: The first a long and a short, the second a long.

When the Hounds hunt after a game vn­knowne blow thus.

BLow the Veline, one long, and sixe short: the second wind, two short and one long. The third wind one long, and two short.

To draw from Couert to Couert.

THrée winds, two short, one long and two short. The second, one long and a short. The third, one long.

To blow the earthing of the Foxe vvhen he is couerable.

FOure notes with foure windes. The reliefe, one long, sixe short.

To blow if the Foxe be not couerable.

TWo windes, one long and thrée short. The second wind long.

To blow the death of the Foxe in field or couert.

THrée notes, with thrée windes, the rechate vpon the same with thrée winds.

THe first wind, one long and sixe short. The second, one short and one long. The third, one long and fiue short.

The death of the Foxe at the Lords gate.

Two notes, and then the relife thrée times.

The death of the Bucke either with Bowor Hounds, or grey hounds.

ONe long Note.

The knowledge vpon the same.

TWo short and one long.

The death of the Bucke with hounds.

TWo long notes and the rechait.

The price of an Hart ryall.

NIne Notes with three restes. The Rechale with three winds. The first, one long and fiue short. The second, one long and one short. The third, one long and sixe short.

To blow the call of the keepers of any Parke or forrest.

ONe short, one long, and a longer. If the Kéeper answer you, blow two short with one wind, and draw towards him. And after that blow one short.

When the game breaketh couerd.

FOure with three windes, and the Rechale vpon the same,

The stent when the bounds can hunt no further.

With three winds, the first, one long and sixe short. The se­cond, one long and one short. The third, one long.

Where the Foxe is earthed blow for the Terriers after this maner.

ONe Long and two short. The second wind one long and two short.

Note this, for it is the chiefest and principallest point to bée noted.

Euerie long conteineth in blowing seauen quauers, one Minome and one quauer.

One Minome conteineth foure quauers.

One short conteineth thrée quauers.

The end of the measures of blovving.
A breife Treatis of …

A breife Treatis of Fowling. Wherein is contai­ned diuers proper deuises both of Bayts and others, with the making of Byrdlime, the maner and order in vsing of it on your Limerods: with ma­ny other speciall points appertaining to that Exercise.

A briefe Treatise of Fouling: wherein is conteined diuers proper Deuises both of Baites and others: with the making of Bird­lime, the maner and order in vsing of it one your Limerods: with many other special points. as appertaineth to that Exercise.

AS to the ornament of the ayre belongeth birds and foules, (as Beda saith) which I meane in this Treatise to set forth. Birds be called Aues, as it were deuide without way: (as Plinie saith) for their waies in the ayre are not distinguished in certaine, and birds with moouing of their wings deuide and depart the ayre: but anone after the flight, the ayre closeth it selfe, and leaueth no signe or token of their passage and flight. And foules be called Volucres, and haue that name of Volary to fligh: for birds fligh with winges, (as Isodore sayth) and therefore they bée called Alites, as it were Alates: that is, moouing and rearing vp themselues with winges: for they fligh not without winges, nor arere themselues from the earth vp into the ayre without the benefite of their wings: or els a bird is called Ales, and hath that name of Alendo, fee­ding: for hée is fedde of himselfe that feedeth birds and foules of heauen, and giueth meate to all flesh. (as Isidore sayth.)

The condition and properties of birdes bee knowne by di­uers thinges, by their substance and complexion: for the sub­stance of birds▪ and foules bée made of two middle Elements that bée betwéene the two Elements that be most heauie and most light: for in their compositions and making, ayre and water hath most mastrie? and therfore they haue lesse of earth­ly heauens, and more of lightnesse of the ayre then beasts that goe on land and swim on water. By lightnesse of the substance [Page] they be borne vp into the ayre, (as Isidore sayth) and the ayre that is closed in the hallownes of pennes and feathers, ma­keth a bird light, and disposeth and maketh him able and hel­peth him to mooue vpward. Also the condition of birds is kno­wen by generation, for they haue a feminall vertue of kinde plight in them, and by vertue thereof they bée kindly mooued to increase their kind by deed of generation, and to keepe their kinde in order: As it is sayd of Aristotle, all birdes (sayth hée) and foules when they bring foorth birds lay Egges, though it cannot bée séene in all for scarcitie: and the beginning of a ge­neration of a birde, as it is sayd, it commeth of the white, and his meate is the yolke: and after ten daies of the generation a bird is full shapen in all parts, and the parts bée openly di­stinguished and knowne, but then his head is greater then all his bodie: and if the Egge shell were then broken, the head should bée found bowed vpon the right thigh, and his winges spread vpon the head.

When the generation of all the members is perfectly made, and liniation and shape of the members, the shell brea­keth sometime the eightéenth day, or the twentieth day, as it fareth in Hennes, and then the Chickins come out of the shell aliue, being full shapt, and sometime twaine out of one shell. Among all beastes that bée in order of generation, birdes and Foules bée most honest of kinde: for by order of kind, Males seeke Females with businesse, and loue them when they bée found, and fight, and put them in perill for them, and bée ioined to them onely as it were by couenant and wedding, loue and nourish, and feed onely the birds that they get, and so kindlie they deeme and knowe betwéene sexe and sexe, male and fe­male, except fewe, (whom kind goeth out of kind) as Aristo­tle sheweth an example of the Partredge, that forgetteth his sexe, that is, to vnderstand the dissolution of male and female, and so hee saith, that the male leapeth vpon the male, and the female vpon the female. But of the Egges that come of such treading, come no Birdes, but they bee as wind Egges, and [Page] take an euill sauor of such treading, and an euill stinch. And Birds and Foules ingendering kéepe couenable time, for in spring time when the generation commeth in, birds crie and sing, males draw to company of females, and desire each other of loue, and woo with beakes and voice, and build Nests, and lay Egges, and bring forth birds, and when the birds bée gen­dered, they feede and nourish them, and bring them vp, but when the office of generation is full ended, then they cease of song, and depart from each other, and come not together till the time of generation commeth againe.

Also birds and foules bee knowen by the places that they dwell in, for some birds and foules as me séemeth, loue compa­ny, and dwelleth nigh men, as Hennes, Geese, Sparrowes, Storkes and Swallowes, and some dread and fligh, and bée a­fraide of conuersation of men, as foules of woods, of moun­taines and marries, for by their diuers complexious, they seeke and challenge diuers maners of places to inhabite in.

As we may sée in our owne country of England, some foules vse some sheires more then other some, and in some sheires there come none of some Foules at all, as they doe in other sheires. For those that bée cold and moist of kinde vse marrish and riuers for gathering of meate, and making of Nestes for sitting abroade, and for to bring vp and nourish their yoong Birds: and Foules that bée of more hot and drie kind, dwell on Mountaines and on high Rockes and stones, as Birdes and Foules that liue by pray: as Eagles and Faulkons, and o­ther such, to the which, kind giueth crooked Clawes and strong féet.

Also some wood foules vse and dwell in Woods and thicke tops of trees, and some of those bee more mild then other, as Birds that sing in sommer time with swéete notes in woods and trées.

And other birds there bée that liue onely in fields, and vse to bée therein, and get their meate, and eate continually of the fruit of the earth, as Cranes and Geese both wilde and tame, [Page] and such foules loue to dwell together, both on the grounde and on the ayre, and goe and flie together in heards, and leaue their owne kind, and make a King among them.

Séeing I haue declared the nature and propertie of foules in the ayre, I thought good to set downe some rules belong­ing to Fouling, to helpe to further some in that practise, which woulde faine learne and hath no teacher: which both to the pleasuring of them and small labour of my selfe, I haue done my good will.

First of fouling with Limetwigges, and how we should set our Limetwigs for sortes of Foule. You must chuse Lime­twigs of those twigges that grow on the bodie of the trée, and not of no bow twigs, for that they bée britell and will not hold, but will snap a two, but the twigges that grow on the body of the trée are young bending twigges, and you must haue to your whole set a thousand iust: there is also diuers other man­ners of fouling, as with Nets, Springes, baites and snares, with diuers others. But to speake first of fouling with Limetwigges, as some are set lowe and some high, and that is as wee knowe the haunt of the foule that vses to that place, whether they bee Geese, Duckes, Sknipes, or Hearnes, or Craines, or any other maner of foule that vses to the place that you set your Limerods in. If you set your Roddes for Wilde Geese, you must sticke them in a manner vp­right, and halfe a yard asunder, which is almost narrow e­nough for a Sknipe: but if you should sticke them anie clo­ser, there would no foule venture at all, for the wilde Goose is the suttlest foule of any, for when shee lighteth, shee lighteth most commonlie in the deepest waters for feare of deceit, and if shee come out of the water to come to land, shee will spie to see if shee can spie anie thing before her: if shée spie any thing shée will into the water againe: but euer when you sticke your Roddes, sticke them so that the tailes of your Rods may bee to­wards the water, (if you sticke them by any Riuer side) and the heads of your Roddes scooping from the Riuer, that the foule [Page] may come with the Rods: for there is no foule that will come against the Rods, nor is not able almost if they would: but be­ing your Rods turned from the Riuer, they will bée the bolder to goe onwards, and then they can no way escape. And so like­wise set your Roddes about the whole plat that you set, with their tayles outward, and their heads stooping inward, for the foule will bée the bolder to goe amongst your Roddes, if they chaunce to light beside them: but you must giue good atten­dance vpon your Rods, least that the foule which is tangled doe picke themselues and get away againe, but you must lie verie close least that the foule doe chaunce to spie you: but if it bee somewhat darkish that you cannot espie whether there bee anie foule lighted among your Roddes, then goe to your Roddes and giue ashue, and if that there bée anie they will flut­ter straight and fligh vpward: and if that there bee none, then take your staffe and beat the Riuers and Lakes within halfe a mile compasse once or twise, if you be able to compasse it, or more, and then shall you haue them resorte to you Limerods very thicke: for hée that mindes to catch any, must so trauell that hee leaue no Lakes or Springes vnsearched, and sée that your Limerods bee set some what lowe round about at the ve­ry entring, for that is good for all manner of foule: but if that they bee set high within, it is good reason that the foule doth shut her winges before shee is altogether at the ground, and see that you doe set your Roddes within one another about three quarters or halfe a yarde asunder almost: and if it freese hard, you must trim them with a little new Lime and Goose greace mingled together, and that will kéepe them long from free­sing. And if there bee anie speciall place which foules doe re­sort to, as in deepe waters and running Riuers, and that the Riuer is deepe that you cannot set your Roddes in, then take a pole or a cord, and a long hay rope that will winde round a­bout the length of the pole, then take your Limerods and sticke them verie thicke and loose withall, and then lay your pole or poles ouer the Riuer, and thrust the end of your pole within [Page] the bancke, and tye the other ende of you pole next to you to the bancke side, and see that your pole bée a pretie way within the water, and that the heads of your Rods doe stand close to the water: and thus may you set as many poles or cordes as you thinke the place doth desire, and sticke your Roddes verie loosely that they may goe with the foule as soone as they touch them.

Good Spaniell a treasure to Fouler sure is,
To helpe him sometime els oft should he mis:
For water and land it is a good thing,
A Spaniell to haue his game for to bring.

Also there is another maner of way to catch in the water with small cordes being tied ouerthwart the water, and lime them as you doe your Limerods with good water lime (as wée call it) though indéed it is but Birdlime, but it is tempered to holde within the water, which if you let the cordes bée but a little within the water that it may scarce couer it: and if the water bee broad, then take a Corke or two and tie them to your Line to holde it vp. This is a pretie way and not to be suspected.

Hovv to make Birdlime very pure.

FIrst pill the Barke from the Holly trée about Midsommer, then boyle the same barke till the vtter rind will pill from the gréene barke, which will bée within one day, then lay the same inner barke so pilled in some close place on the ground, and couer the same with some greene weedes or dockes till it be well rotten, which will bée within nine daies or thereabout, then either beat it in morters or grind it very small, and then in some quicke streame wash it very cleane, then put it in a pot of earth and it will spurge within thrée dayes, then take of the skumme twise or thrise, for if there be any filth left in it, it will rot the Lime. After this keepe the Lime very close till you haue neede to occupie it, mingle a little Hogs grease with it, and so many you worke your Rods with it. Therefore [Page] as it is mentioned of the Poet, the Wosell or Robin is a great cherisher of the Holly tree, as Terence sayth, Turdus cacat si­bi malum, hée maketh a Rod for his owne taile, for the dung of the Wosell cherisheth much the Holly tree, which afterwards turnes to his owne sorrow.

A rare secret to catch foule, as Geese, Duckes, or Birds.

NVxe vomica, otherwaies called in English the Spring Nut, being a pretie deale of that sod in a pecke of Barley, or as little as you thinke good, or Fetchis, or Wheate, and be­ing strowed where wild Geese or wild Duckes come, and as soone as they eate of this they will sound, and you may take them will your hand. Also the powder of Nuxe vomica is good to kill Kites, Rauens, Pyes, Crowes, or anie other car­ronus foule. Also take a peece of flesh and lay it in the fielde, and make holes in it, then put in the powder of Nuxe vomica in euery hole, and as soone as any foule eats of this, they will bée ouercome, and then they will fligh boult vpright, and fall downe to the ground straight againe, and so you may take them.

Another pretie way to make birds dronke that you may take them with your hand.

TAke Wheat or Fitchis, or any other séed, and lay the same insteepe in lees of wine, or in the iuyce of Hemlock, and strawe the same in the place where Birds vse to haunt, and if they eat thereof, straight waies they will bée so giddy, that you may take them with your hand.

An excellent good vvay to make a baite to catch vvild Geese, or wild Duckes, and all other sort of foule.

TAke the seed of Belenge, and the rootes also, and steepe them in water the space of a day and a night: then seeth the said séeds and roots in the water that they were stéeped in, so that the séeds may well drinke & soke vp the water, [Page] then lay the sayd seedes or graine in the places where wilde Duckes and wilde Geese and woont to resort, and they will eat this graine or seede so prepared, and thereupon will sleepe as they were drunke, and in the meane time you may take them with your hands: but there must be a pretie quantitie of this, e­specially for wild Geese. This may also serue to take all other maner of foule that goe together in sholes or companies. If you seeth this graine in Brimstone, and lay it in the places where birds and foules are woont to feede, all that eate of it will fall downe and die: but to kéepe them that they die not, you must giue them to drinke Oyle Oliue, and shortly after they will re­uiue againe. This is approued.

Of fouling with Limebush.

TO speake of Limebush there can bee but little sayd, for it is commonly knowne and practised of all both in Winter and Summer. In Winter it is vsed with Limebush, which we call Bat fouling, along by hedges to catch those birds that rest in hedges, one to carrie a light and another to beate the hedge: as also the Limebush is vsed at house ends, Houels or Rickes: the Limebush is of little cost, and is good for all times of the yeare. In Summer you may call Sparrowes with a whistle to your bush. There is another pretie way to catch birds with your Limebush, if you can get but an Oule & set her vpon an hedge, and set a bush of two by her of one side of her, & when the birds espie her they will flutter about her, and you shall catch good store of Birds. In Winter you haue many other waies good.

How to foule vvith Nets.

ALso there is another manner of way to foule which is with Nets, but the vse of them is in the night, and the darkest night the better: and first of fouling with Nets, which wée call in England most commonly Birdbaiting, and some call it lowbelling, and the vse of it is to goe with a great light of Cressets, or ragges of linnen dipt in Tailow that will make [Page] a good light, and you must haue a panne of plate made like a Lanterne to carrie your light in, which must haue a great soc­ket to holde a great light, and carrie it before you on your breast with a Bell in your other hande of a great bignesse, made in manner like to a Cowbel, but of greater bignesse, and you must ring it alwaies after one order, with two to goe with Nettes one of each side of him that carries the Bell, and what with the light that so doth amase them, and the Bell that so dooth a­stonish them, they will when you come neare them turne vp their white bellies, which you shall quicklie perceiue, then lay your Nets on them and take them: but the Bell must not stint going: for if it cease, then the Birds wil flie vp if they heare anie more nigh. This is a good way to catch Larkes, Woodcockes, and Partriches, and all other land birds,

To goe vvith a Trammill.

TO goe a trameling with a Net it is a good way, for two may goe abroad with a Tramell and catch store. You must haue your Nette seauen yardes of length, and fiue in breadth, then take a couple of Poules or long roddes, so long as your Net is, and tie your poles to your Nettes all along the length of your Nettes, one of one side, and the other of the other side, then may you take your poule in your hand, and plucke out your poule out of breadth, and one goe in one thorow of the land and another in the other thorowe, and goe along in lands and carrie your Nette as farre forwards as you can, and when they heare you tread, then will they flutter vp into your Nette, which you shall quickly heare, then let downe your Nette to the ground, and gripe them, and take them from vnder your Nette, but if it be in a verie darke night, that you cannot see them, you should haue a little cloase Lanterne, that one may per­ceiue no light, but when it is opened to sée to take them, but wée commonly make shift without.

To set Springes.

ALso some vse to set Springes, which is made with a run­ning knot, and a sticke in the ground to yerke vp with an other sticke which the foule must tread one, which is in man­ner like to a trop or running knot which is made of heares, which is good to bee set in frost time in springs for Woodcocks and Snipes, or any other foule if they come where that sprin­ges bee set, or you may set them in Lands in the very thorowe for Woodcockes, where you know that they haunt, and in Summer you may set them in bushes either for Woodcocks or anie other birds, and you must looke that the sticke that they treade on bee somewhat round and browne, for if it bée white, they will feare to tread of it: and your nouse must be made of horse heare, and the blacker the better.

The end of Fouling.
A breife Treatis of …

A breife Treatis of Fishing, with the art of Angling. Wherein is contai­ned the perfect making of all maner of Implements ap­pertaining to that exercise: the diuers and seuerall baytes for euery kind of Fish, with the best times of the yeare for the taking of them.

A briefe Treatise of Fishing, with the Arte of Angling: wherein is conteined the perfect making of all manner of Implements appertaining to that exercise: The diuers and seuerall baites for euery kind of fish, with the best times of the yeere for the taking of them.

AS the wise man saith, a good spirit maketh a merie and flourishing age, and causeth a man to liue long: and truly in my opinion, these thrée thinges are a medesine, and a preseruation for the same. The first of them is, a merry thought. The se­cond is, labour not outragious. The third is, diet measurable. The first, if a man will euermore bée in a merry thought, and haue a glad spirit, hée must eschewe all contrarious companie, and all places of debate, where hee may haue anie occasion of melancholie, and hee must eschewe all places of Ryot, which is occasion of surfit and sicknesse, and hee must drawe him to places of sweete ayre, and eate nourishing meates and delectable.

As nowe I meane to descriue these disportes and games, to finde the best of them as truely as I could, and although the right Noble and worthie Duke of Yorke, late maister of the game, hath described this arte of Fishing, and the rest of these pleasures and disportes. For hunting in myne opinion is la­boursome, for the Huntsman must follow his hounds, sweating full sore, hee bloweth till his lips blister, and when hée thinkes hee hath a Hare, full oft it is a Hedgehog. Thus hée chaseth vp and downe, and knoweth not sometimes at what. He com­meth home at night rayne beaten and pricked, and his clothes torne all to peeces, wetshod and all myrie, and some of his [Page] hounds lost, and some surbated. Such griefes and manie other happen vnto the Huntsmen, which for displeasing of them that loue it I dare not report: thus truely mee thinketh it is not the best game and disport of the foure.

Hawking is labourous and troubelous: for as often the Faulkner loseth his Hawkes, as the Hunter his Houndes, then is his game and disport gone, yea, and full often hee crieth and whistleth, till he almost loseth his wind, his Hawke some­time taketh aboue, and giueth no minde nor sight to him: for when hee would haue her flie, then shee will bathe: with misfée­ding shee will haue the frounce, and many other diseases that bringeth to souce. Thus by proofe, this is not the best disport and game of the sayd foure. In my opinion the game of Fou­ling is the simplest: for in Winter in cold weather, the Fouler can doe no good, but in the hardest and coldest weather, which is greeuous: for when he would goe to his ginnes, hee cannot for colde: manie a deuise hee maketh, and yet in the morning his fortune is hard, when hee is wet vp to the waste. Manie dis­commodities I could shewe, but for offending I let them passe. Then sith it is so, that Hawking, Hunting, and Fou­ling bee so laborous, that none of them may bee a meane to a merrie spirit, which is the cause of long life, vnto the sayings of the wise in his Parables: doubtlesse then it must followe, that fishing with the Angle is most delectable, for all other are troublesome and laberous: For in some kinde of fishing it ma­keth the Fisher through wet and so colde, that many and sun­drie times there insueth diuers infirmities through the same: But the Angler hee hath no colde, no disease, no impediment, except it bee through himselfe: for hee can lose but a Line or a Hooke at the most, which hee may make againe at his owne leisure, as he shall be taught hereafter: So then is not his losse greeuous if the fish breake away with his Hooke, that is the most: for and he faile of one, hee hitteth of another: and if hee quite faile, yet hee hath his wholesome walkes, his pleasant shades, the sweete ayre, the excellent smelles of the sweete [Page] Medowe flowers, which maketh him hungrie: hee heareth the melodious Harmonie of Birdes and other Foules, which hee thinketh is better then the noise of Hounds, the blast of Horns, or all the cry that Hunters, Faulkners, or Foulers can make: and if the Angler doe take fish, then hath hée a mercy spirit, and a glad heart. But who so will vse this exercise, hee must rise carely, which is profitable to man for the health of his bodie: For as the olde English Prouerbe is, who so dooth rise carely shall be holie, healthie, and happie. Thus I haue shewed in this Treatise, that this disport and game of Angling, is the very meane to induce a man to a merrie spirit. And to the con­tent of all those that haue delight in these exercises, I haue col­lected this Treatise following, which you may vse at your pleasure.

IF you will bee perfite in this art of Angling, you must first learne to make your Implements: that is to say, your Rod, and your Lines of diuers colours: This done, you must know how you must angle, and in what place of the water, how déep, and at what time of the day, and for what maner of Fish, and what weather, how many impediments there be in fishing, and speciallie in Angling, and what baite belongeth to euerie fish euerie time of the yeare: And how you shall make your baites breede, where you shall finde them, and how you shall keepe them for the most part: How you shall make your Hookes of Steele, and of Osmonde, some for the Dub, some for the Flote, and for the ground. And here I will teach you how you shall make your Rod: you shall cut it betweene Michalmas and Candlemas, of an ell and a halfe long, beeing the arme of a great Hasell, Willow, or Aspe, and beth him in a whote Ouen, and set it euen and straight, and let it cole a moneth, then take a corde and bind it fast about, and binde it to a fourme or to a peece of square timber: then take a Plummers wyer that is euen and streight, and sharpe the one ende and heate it in the fire and Charcole, and burne the hole quite through in the pith, [Page] beginning at both endes and goe on too the middle: you may burne the hole with a Bird broch, but let the last broch bée big­ger then any of them before, then let it lie and coole two daies, vnbinde it and let it lie in the smoke, or the roufe of a house, till it bee through drie. In the same season cut a yard of greene Hasell, and beth it euen and straigh, and let it drie with the staffe: and when it is drie make it fit for the hole in the staffe, vnto the halfe length of the staffe: and to fill the other halfe of the crop, take a faire shute of Black thorne, Crab tree Med­ler, or els of Iuniper, cut in the same season, and well bethed and straight, and set them fit together, so that the crop may en­ter all into the sayde hole, then shaue your staffe and make it Tapar wise, then hoope the staffe at both endes with long hoopes of yron, or latten after the cleanliest maner, and a pike in the nether end fastened with a running wyer to take in and out of your staffe, and set your crop a handfull within your vp­per end of your staffe, in such wise that it bee as biggethere as in anie other place aboue, then arme your staffe downe to the fret with a Line of sixe heares, and dubble the Line and fret it fast on with a peece of a bowe: And thus you shall make you a staffe to walke with, and no man may knowe whether you haue such Implements about you: It will bée very light and nimble to fish with at your pleasure, and is alwaies very ready and necessarie.

AFter you haue thus made your Rod, you must learne to colour your Lines of heare after this manner. You must take of a white Horse taile the longest heares you can get, and the bigger and rounder it is, the better it is, depart them in sixe parts, and colour euery part by himselfe in diuers colours: as yeallowe, greene, tawnie, browne, russet, or duskie colour: And for to make your heare take a good creene colour, you must take a quart of Ale, and put into it halfe a pound of Al­lom, and put your heare and all together in a little pan, and let them boyle sofly halfe an hower, then take out your heare [Page] and let them drie, then take a pottle of faire water, and put it into a pan, and two handfulles of Wexen, and presse it with a Tyle stone, and let it boyle softly the space of an hower: and when it is yeallowe on the skumme, put therein your heares, with halfe a pound of Copperous beaten into powder, and let it boyle the space of going of halfe a mile, and then set it downe and let it coole the space of fiue or sixe howers, then take out the heare and drie it, and it will bée the best greene for the wa­ter that can bee, and the more that you put of Copperous to it the better it will be.

For to make your heare yeallowe.

DResse it as before with Allom, and after with Oldes, or Waxen, with Copperous or Verdigreace.

To make another yeallow.

TAke a pottle of small Ale, and stampe thereinto three hand­fulles of Walnut leaues, and put it together, and then put in your heare that it be as déepe as you will haue it.

For to make Russet heare.

TAke a pint of strong Lée, and halfe a pound of Sote, and a lit­tle Iuice of Walnut leaues, and a quart of Allom, put them altogether in a Pan, and boile them well, and when it is cold put in your heare till it be as darke as you will haue it.

To make your heare browne.

TAke strong Ale and Sault, and mingle them together, and put your heares two daies and two nights and they will bee a perfect colour.

For to make a tawny colour.

TAke Lime and water, and put them together, and then put your heares therein foure or fiue houres, then take them out, and put them into a Tanners Ose one day, and it will be as fine a tawny colour as can be for your purpose.

The sixt part of your heare, you shall keepe still white for [Page] lines, for the double hooke to fish for the Trout, & for small lines to lie for the Roche and the Dace.

When your heare is thus collected, you must knowe for which waters and which seasons they shall serue, the greene cullour for all cleare waters from Aprill vntill September. The yellowe cullour in euery cleare water from September to Nouember. For it is like the Weedes and other kinde of grasse that is broken in the Riuer. The russet cullour serueth all the Winter vntill the ende of Aprill, as well in Riuers as in Pooles or lakes.

The browne cullour serueth for the water that is blackish, in Riuers or other waters: the tawny cullours, for those riuers or waters that be heathy or morish.

Now you must make your lines after this order. First you must haue an inscrument for the twisting of your line. Take your heare and cut off a handfull at the ende, because it is not strong enough, then turne the top to the tayle ouer each alike, and make it into three parts, and knit euerie part by himselfe, and knit the other end altogether: then put that end fast into your instrument into the clift, and make it fast with a wedge, fower fingers shorter then your heare, then twine your warpe one way alike, and fasten them in three cliftes alike straight, then take that out at the other end, and let it twine that way that it desireth, then streine it a little, and knit it for vndoing, and that is good.

So when you haue so manie links as will suffice for a line to make it long enough, then must you knit them together with a water knot, or a Dutch knot, and when your knot is knit, cut of the voyde shore endes a strawe breadth from the knot, thus shall your lines be fayre and euen: and also sure for any maner of Fish.

The finest practise is in making your hockes, and for the making of them you may haue your seuerall kinde of tooles that you may doe them artificiallie. A semy clam of yron, a bendor, a payre of long and small tongues, and a knife some­what [Page] hard and thicke, an Anuild, and a little hammer.

And for a small Fish you shall take the smallest quarrell Needles that you can find of Steele: and you shall put the Quarrell in a fyre of Charcole till it bee of the same cullour that the fire is, then take it out and lay it to coole, and you shall find it well alayd to file, then rayse the beard with your knife, and make the poynt sharpe, then alay him againe or else hee will breake in the bending, then bend him as hée will serue for your purpose, you shall make them of great Needles, as shoo­makers Needles, Taylers needles, or imbroderers Needles: but looke that they will bowe at the point or els they bee not good, and when you haue beaten flat the end of the hooke, fyle him smooth that it fret not the line, the put it into the fire, and giue it an easie red heat, then suddainly quench it in wa­ter, and it will bée hard and strong. And for to haue knowledge of your Instruments that bee necessarie, without the which you are not able to accomplish your desire, that is, your Ham­mer, Knife, Pynson, Claem, Wedge, File, Wrest, and a Needle.

When you haue made your hookes, then you must set them on according to their strength and greatnesse. First take small red silke, and if it bee for a great hooke then double it and twist it, and for a small hooke let it be single, and therewith fret the line where as you will haue the hooke stand, a strawe breadth, then set to your hooke and fret it with the same thred the two partes, of the length that it shall bee fret in all, and when you come to the third part, then turne the end of your line vp again double, to the other third part, then put your thred in at the hole twise or thrise, and let it goe each time about the yeard of your hooke: then wette the hooke and drawe, and looke that your line lie euermore within your hookes, and not without, and then cut of the lines end, and the thred as nigh as you can, sauing the fret.

So, yee knowe with how great Hookes you shall angle to euery fish, now I will tell with how many heares you shall [Page] angle for euerie fish. First for the Menowe with a line of one heare: For the waring Roche, the Bleake, the Gogion, and the Ruffe, with a line of three heares: For the Dace and the Roch, with a line of three heares: For the Pearch, the Floun­der, and Bremet, with a line of foure heares: For the Cheuin, the Breame, the Tench, and the Eele, with sixe heares: For the Troute, and the grasing Barble, and the great Cheuin, with nine heares: For the great Troute with twelue heares: For the Salmon, with fifteene heares: and for a Pyke with a chalke line made in the colour aforesayd, armed with a line, as you shall heare hereafter. When I speake of the Pyke, your Lines must bee plumed with lead, and the nearest plumbe to the Hooke, bee a foote of at the least, and euery plumbe of the quantitie of the bignesse of the line: There be thrée maner of plumbes, for a ground line, renning, and for the slote: set vpon the ground line lying, ten plumbs all ioyning together on the ground line, renning, nine or ten small: the flote plumbe shall be heauie, that the first plucke of any fish may pull it into the water, and make your plumbes round and smooth, that they sticke not on stones and wéedes.

THen you shall make your slotes in this manner. Take a peece of a Corke that is cleane without holes, and bore it through with a small hote yron, and put thereinto a quill or pen euen and straight: alwaies note that the greater the hole, the bigger the pen, and shape it great in the middest, and small at both ends, and especiallie sharpe in the nether end, and make them smooth on a Grindstone, and looke that the flote for one heare be no bigger then a Peas, for two hears as a Beame, for twelue heares as a Walnut, and so euery line must haue accor­ding to his portion. Al maner of lines that be not for the ground, must haue flotes: & the renning ground line must haue a flote, and the lying ground line must haue a flote.

NOw I haue taught you to make your heares, hereafter I meane to shewe you the art of Angling. You shall vn­derstand [Page] that there is sixe manner of Anglings: the one is at the ground for the Troute, and other fish: another is at the ground at the Arch or stang where it ebbeth and floweth, for Bleake, Roch, and Dace: the third is with a flote for all ma­ner of fish: the fourth, with a Menowe for the Troute without plumbe or flote: the fift is renning in the same for the Roche and Dace with two heares or one heare, and a flie: the fixt is a dubbed hocke for the Troute or Grayling. And for the first and principall poynt in Angling, looke that you keepe you from the sight of the fish, either stande close on the land, or be­hinde some bush: for if hée sée you, then your sport is marde for he will not bite, and looke that you shadowe not the water as little as you can, for it is that which will make him be gone: for if the fish bée fraide hée will not bite a good while after. For all manner of fish that feede by grounde, you must angle for them to the bottome, so that your hooke shall runne and lie on the ground: and for all other fish that feedeth aboue, you shall angle for them at the middest of the water, or aboue the midst, or belowe the middest whether ye will, for the greater the fish, the nearer he lieth to the bottome of the water, and euermore the smaller the fish, the more he swimmeth aboue. The third good poynt, is when the fish biteth, that you be not too hastie to smite nor to take: for you must abide till the bayte bee farre in the mouth of the fish, and then tarrie no longer, and this is for the ground: and for the flote when you see it pulled into the water, or els caried softly vpon the water, then smite, and looke that you neuer ouer-smite the strength of your line for brea­king: And if it be your fortune to smite a great fish with a smal line, then you must leade him in the water, and labour him there till he bée drowned and ouercome, then take him as well as you can, and euer take heede that you streyne him not ouer the strength of your line, and as much as you can let him not goe past your lines ende from you, but keepe him euer vnder your Rod, and holde him as streight as your line will sustain, and beare his leapes and his plunges as well as you can with [Page] your Crope in your hand.

Here I will declare vnto you, in what place of the vvater you shall angle, either in Poole or standing water, & according to the deepenes of the said water.

THere is no great diuersitie in anie place of a Poole, so it bée deepe, for it is a prison to all fishes, and therefore the sooner taken: but in the Riuer the best angling is where it is deepe, and cleare by the ground, as grauell or clay without mud or weedes, and especially if there bee any whirling in the water, or a couert, as a hollowe bancke or great rootes of Trees, or long weedes fleeting aboue the waters, where the fish may hide themselues at certaine times when they list. Also it is good to angle in stiffe streames, and also in vallies of waters, and in flood gates, and Mill pits, and at the bancke where the streame runneth, and is deepe and cleare by the ground, and in any place where the fish haunt and haue any feeding.

Now you shall vnderstand the best time of the yeere, and the best times of the day, from the beginning of May to Sep­tember: the best time of their baiting is from foure a clocke in the morning vntill eight a clocke, and from foure in the after noone till eight at night: but it is not so good in the afternoone as in the morning: and if it bée a cold winde and a lowring day it is much better then a cleare day, and the Poole fishes will bite best in the morning.

And if you see at anie time of the day the Trout or the Gray­ling leape, angle for him with a dub according to the season of the yeare, and where the water ebbeth and floweth: the fish wil bite in some place at the ebbe, and in some place at the flood, af­ter they haue had resting behind Stanges and Arches of Brid­ges, and other such places.

The principall time to angle is in a lowring day, when the winde bloweth softly: for in Summer when it is verie whote then it is naught: from September vntill Aprill in a fayre Sunnie day, it is very good angling, and if the winde at that [Page] time haue anie parte of the Orient weather, then it is naught: and when it is a great winde & that it snoweth, raineth, or hai­leth, or is a great tempest, as Thunder or Lightning, or a swol­lie hot weather, then it is naught for to angle.

You shall further vnderstand that there be twelue empedi­ments, which cause a man to take no fish, as it doth most com­monly hap. The first is if that your harnesse be not fit and well made. The second is if your baites be not good and fine. The third is, if you angle not in biting time. The fourth is, if the fish be fraid with the sight of man. The fift, if the water be red, thick, and white, of any floud lately fallen: the sixt, if the Fish stirre not for cold: the seuenth, if the weather be hote: the eight, if it raine: the ninth, if it haile or snow: the tenth, if it ibe a tem­pest: the eleuent, if it be a great wind: the twelfth is, if the wind be in the East, and that is worst, for commonly neither in winter nor sommer the fish will not bite if it bee in the East, the West or the North is good, but the South is best of all.

And now I haue taught you to make your harnesse, and how you shall fish therewith in all pointes. Now there resteth to shew you what baites be best for euery kind of fish, for all times and seasons of the yeare, which is the principall part of this art: without the knowledge of which baites, al the rest before were to no purpose: for there is no man can take the fish to swallow the hooke without the bait, and therefore I haue set you downe euery Fish with his proper baite belonging to the time, and the best time to catcht them as followeth.

And because the Sammon of all fish is the most stateliest, therefore I meane to begin with him the first.

THe Sammon is a very gentle fish, but hee is troublesome to take, for commonly he is in deepe places of great Riuers, and for the most part hee will keepe him in the middest of it, that you may not come at him, and he is in season from March, vntill Michaelmas: in which season you may angle for him, with these baytes if you can get them. First with a red worme in the beginning and ending of the season, and also with a grub [Page] that bréedeth in a dounghill, and especially there is a soueraine baite that breedeth in a water Docke, and he biteth not at the ground, but at the flote, you may take him when hee leapeth in like maner as doth a Trout or a Grailing, and these are proued baites for the Samon.

The Trout because hée is a daintie Fish, and also a verie feruent byter: hee is the next that I meane to shewe you the time to catch him. From March vntill Michalmas hée lieth on the grauell, and in a streame you may angle for him with a line, lying or running, sauing in leaping time, and then with a dub, and early with a running ground line, and in the day time with a flote line. You shall angle for him in March, with a Menowe hanging on your hooke, by the nethernes without Flote or Plumbe, drawing vp and downe the streame till you feele him fast. Also it is good to angle for him with ground lines, and with a red worme, for the most part, and in Aprill take the same baytes, as also the Canker that bréedeth in a great tree, and the red snaile, you may take the bob worme vnder the Cowtord and the silke worme, and the bayte that breedeth on a Fearne leafe. In Iune take a red worme and nippe of his head, and a cod worme, and put it on the hooke. In Iuly take the Codworme, and the red worme together. In August take a flesh flie, and the fat of Bacon, and bind them together about the hooke. In September take the red worme and the Menowe. In October take the same. There bee speci­ally for the Troute all times of the yeare. From Aprill vntill September the Troute leapeth: then angle for him with a dubbed hooke according to the mouth: which dubbed hookes you shall finde in the ende of this Treatise, and the mouthes with them.

The Grayling of some so called, of others Vmbre, It is a right delicate fish to mans mouth, and you may take him as you doe the Troute, and these are his baytes. In March and in Aprill the red worme, in May the green worme, a little brai­sed worme, the docke canker, and the Hawthorne worme. In [Page] Iune the bayte that breedeth betweene the Barke of an Oke. In Iuly a bait that breedeth on the Fearne leafe, and the great red worme, and nip off the head and put it on the hooke, and a Codworme before. In August the red worm and a dock worm, and all the yeare after a worme.

The Barbell is a sweet fish, but he is a very queysie meat, and verie daungerous to eate: for commonly hee bringeth an inconuenience to the Febres, and if he be eaten raw, he may be the cause of a mans death, which hath oftentimes béene séene, and these are his baites in March and in Aprill. Take fresh Cheese, and lay it on a Trencher, and cut it into small peeces, the length of your hooke, then take a Candle and burne it on your hooke till it bee yellowe, and then bind it on you hooke with Fletchers Silke, and make it rough like a Welbede, this baite is good all the Sommer season. In may and in Iune take the Hawihorne Worme, and the great red Worme, and nip the head off, and put a codworme on your hooke before, and this is a verie good baite. In Iuly take the red worme for the chiefe, and the Hawthorne, together with the waterdocke leafe worme. In August, and for all the yeare, take the tallowe of a sheepe, and of soft cheese, eache of them alike, and a little Ho­ny, and temper them together till they bée tough, and then put a little Flower into it, and make it in small pellets, and that is a good bayte to Angle with at the ground, and looke that it sinke in the water, or els it is not good for that purpose.

The Carpe is a deyntie fish, but there is no great plentie of them, and therefore I write least of him, but he is a verie subtile fish to take, for heée is so strong in the mouth that there is no weake harnes will hold him: and as touching his baites I haue little knowledge thereof, and therefore I would be loth to write more then I know and haue proued: but I am sure the red worm, and the Menow are good baites for him at all times, as I haue heard diuers good Fishers report.

The Cheuin is a stately fish, and his head is a deinty mor­sell, there is no fish so strongly enarmed on the bodie with [Page] scales, and because he is a strong biter he hath the more baites, which are these: In March, the red worme at the ground: for commonly then he will bite there at all times of the yeare, if he be anie thing hungrie: In Aprill, the Canker that bréedeth in the tree, the worme that breedeth betweene the barke of the tree of Oke, the red worme, and the young Froshes when the feete be cut off: also the Stone flye, the Bob vnder the Cow­turd, the red Snaile: In May, the baite that breedeth in the Ozier leafe, and the Docke canker put on the hooke, and a baite that breedeth on the Fearne leafe, the Redworme, and the baite that groweth vpon the Hawthorne, and a baite that brée­deth on the Oke leafe, and a Silke worme and a Codworme together: In Iune, take the Creker and the Dorre, also a red worme the head beeing cut off, and a Codworme before, and put them on the hooke: also a Grub that bréedeth in the dung­hill, a great Greshopper, and the Humble bee in the Medowe: Also young Bees and Hornets, and the flie that is among the Pismiers hils. In August, take Wort wormes, and Maggots, till Michalmas. In September, the red worme, and a young Mouse not heared, and the House combe.

The Breame is a noble fish and a deyntie, and you shall angle for him from March vntill August with a red Worme, and then with a Butterflie, and with a baite that groweth a­mongst greene Reede, and a baite that breedeth in the barke of a dead tree: and for Bremets take Maggots, and from that time forward all the yerre take the red worme: and in the Ri­uer, browne bread.

The Tench is a good fish, and healeth in a maner all other fish that bée hurt, if they may come to him, hée is most partes of the yeare in the mud, and stirreth most in Iune and Iuly, and in other season but little, he is an euill biter, and his baites bee these: For all the yeare, browne bread tosted with Honney, the likenesse of a bantred loafe, and the great red wore, and take the blacke blood in the heart of a Sheepe, and flower and hony, and temper them all together, so make them softer then past, [Page] and annoint the red worme therewith, both for this fish and for others, and they will bite much the better thereat all times of the yeare.

The Pearch is a deyntie fish, and passing wholesome, and a great and earnest biter: In march, the red worme, the Bob vnder the Cowturde. In Aprill and May, the Slowthorne, worme, and the Codworme. In Iune, the bait that breedeth in an old fallen Oke, and the great Canker. In Iuly the bait that breedeth on the Ozier leafe, and the Bob that breedeth on the dunghill, and the Hawthorne worme, and the Codworme. In August, the red worme and Maggots, and all the yeare after take the red worme for the best.

The Roch is an easie fish to take, and if he be fat and pen­ned then is hee good meate, and his baites are these. In March take the red worme. In Aprill, the Bob vnder the Cowturde. In May, the baite that breedeth in the Oken leafe, and the Bob on the dunghill. In Iune, the baite that breedeth on the Ozier, and the Codworme. In Iuly, the House spies, and the baite that breedeth on an Oke, and the Notworme, and Ma­thewes maggots, vntill Michalmas, and after that the fat of Bakon.

The Dace is a gentle Fish, and is verie good meate, in March his haite is a red worme, and in Aprill the Bob vnder the Cowtord. In May the docke cancker, and the bayte on the Slowthorne and that on the Oken leafe. In Iune the Cod­worme and the baite on the Ozier, and the white Grub on the dunghill. In Iuly take house spies, and the flies that breede in Pismyre hils, the Codworm and Magots till Michaelmas, and if the water be cleare, you shall take fish when other shall take none, and from that time forth do as you would do for the Roch: for commonly their biting and baites be alike.

The bleake is but a feeble fish, yet is he holsome. His baite from March till Michaelmas bée the same that I haue written for the Roche and the Dace, sauing all the sommer you may angle for him with a house flie, and in Winter season with [Page] Bacon, and with other baites as hereafter you shall learne.

The Ruffe is a very good and a holsome fish, and a frée bi­ter: but subtill withall, and you must angle for him with the same baites and the same seasons of the yeare as I haue tolde you of the Pearch: for they bée like in fish and féeding, sauing the Ruffe is lesse, and therefore you must haue the smaller baytes.

The Flounder is a holsome fish and frée, but a subtill by­ter, in this manner: for commonly when he sucketh his meate, hée feedeth at the ground, and therefore you must angle for him with a ground line lying, and hée hath but one manner of bayt, and that is a red worme, and that is most chiefe for all manner of Fish.

The Gogin is a good fish of his bignesse, and he biteth well at the ground, and his baites for all the yeare is the red worme, Codworme and Magots, and you must angle for him with a flote, and let your baite bee neare the bottome, or els vpon the ground.

The Menowe when hée shineth in the water is bitter, and though his bodie bee but little, yet hée is a rauenous biter and eger, and you shall angle for him with the same baites that you doe for the Gogion, sauing they must be small.

The Eele is a quesie fish, and a rauenor and a deuourer of the broode of fish, and the Pike is also a deuourer of fish, I put them both behind all other fish for to angle. For the Eele, you shall find the hole in the ground of water, and it is blewe and blackish, there put in your hooke till it bee a foot within the hole, and your bait shall be a great angle with a Menowe.

The Pyke is a good fish, but that hée is a deuourer of all fish aswell of his owne broode as of other, and therefore I loue him the worse: and for to take him ye shall doe thus. Take a Rock or a fresh Herring, and a wyer with a hooke in the end, and put it in at the mouth and downe by the ridge to the taile of the Herring, and then put the line of your hooke in after, and draw the hooke into the cheeke of the fresh Herring, then [Page] put a plumbe of leade on your line a yarde from your booke, and a flote in the midway betweene, and cast it in a pit where the Pykes vse, and this is the best and surest way to take: and thrée manner of taking of him there is. Take a Frosh, and put it on your hooke betweene the skinne and the bodie in at the necke, on the backe halfe, and put on the flote a yard thereto, and cast it where the Pyke haunteth, and you shall haue him. Another way: Take the same baite and put it in safe tied, and cast it into the water with a Corke, and you shall not faile of him: And if you minde to haue good sport, then tie your cord to a Goose foot, and you shall see good haling betweene the Goose and the Pyke, who shall haue the hetter.

Now you knowe with what baites and in what seasons of the yeare you shall angle for euery kinde of fish, now I meane to tell you how you shall keepe and feede your quicke baites. You shall keepe them all in generall and euerie one seuerall by himselfe, with such things as they are bred in, and as long as they be quicke and newe they be fine: but when they be in a slough or dead, then they are nought: Out of these bée excep­ted three broodes: that is, Hornets, Humble bées and Waspes, which you shall bake in bread, and dip their heades in blood, and let them drie. Also except Maggots, which when they bee bred great with their naturall feeding, you shall feede them furthermore with Sheepes tallowe, and take heede that in going about your disports you open no mans gates, but that you shut them againe. Also you shall not vse this sport crafte­lie for couetousnesse, to the increasing and sparing of your money only, but principally for your solace, and for the main­tenance of your bodily health. For when you purpose to goe on your disports in fishing, you will not desire greatly manie persons with you, which might let you of your game, and then your minde may bee well giuen to the seruing of God, as in prayer or otherwise, and in so doing you shall eschewe and auoyde manie vices, as Idlenesse, which is the principall lea­der to vice, and it is commonly séene that it bringeth diuers [Page] to their vtter destruction. Also you must not bee too desirous of your game but with discretion, that you marre not other mens game and your owne too, as too much at one time, which you may lightly doe, if in euery poynt you fulfill this present treatise: but when you haue a sufficient messe, to content your selfe for that time. Also you shall apply your selfe to the nourishing of the gaine, and in de­stroying of such thinges as shall be the deuourers of it.


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