THE COVNSELLOR.

Exactly pourtraited in two Bookes. WHEREIN THE OFFICES OF Magistrates, The happie life of Subiectes, and the felicitie of Common-weales is pleasantly and pithilie discoursed.

A GOLDEN WORKE, REPLENISHED with the chiefe learning of the most excellent Philosophers and Lawgiuers, and not onely profitable, but verie necessarie for all those that be admitted to the administration of a well-gouerned Common-weale.

Written in Latin by LAVRENTIVS GRIMALDVS, and consecrated to the honour of the Polonian Empyre.

Newlie translated into English.

LONDON Imprinted by RICHARD BRADOCKE.

Anno Salutis Humanae M. D. XC. VIII.

❧ TO THE MOST excellent and most mightie Prince Augustus King of Polonia. &c.

AS euerie man well knoweth those commonweales be most blessed where men do liue in peace: so are those countries miserable where people are not maintained in securitie. And as euerie commonweale is happie wherein subiects are good, so in good commonweales no subiect can be vnfortunate: yet what doth worke the welfare of com­monweales and people, is and hath beene (euen among the most learned,) long disputed. Some suppose it procee­deth of goodlawes: others haue thought that ciuill education doth enforme it: o­thers imagined that the temperature of the heauens doth make men apt for ciuill life: some also do thinke it proceedeth from the endeuour of good kings: because sub­iects by imitation of their Princes vertue, do (for the most part) become like vnto them. Which opinion I verelie thinke to be most true, so perswaded by obseruation of your Maiesties example, Neither do I iudge the great quietnes and blessednes of this commonweale and kingdome, doth proceed from other cause, then the excellent splendour of your princelie vertues, which are such and so great, as doe not one­lie incite all subiects to behold them, but also with exceeding admiration and imi­tation to loue them. Sith euerie man endeuouring (aboue all things,) to honour your Primcelie example, your iustice, and your clemencie, is no lesse enforced to o­bey, then to loue; and the greatnes of your authoritie is such, as your maiestie is not onelie a moderator and disposer of lawes, but also (which in a free state is most) a iust iudge of each mans vertue, praise, and dignitie: and therewith also haue fra­med a kingdome so perfect, as on earth none more perfect can be. Moreouer, this kingdome is come to your maiesties hands not by inheritance, not by blood, nor by [Page] vsurpation (as are many [...]thers) but by publique consent of all the Polonian Nation, thereunto perswaded by the auncient vertue and wisedome of your Maie­stie, and your most noble auncestors. For (to confesse truth) the house of Ia­geloni, hath beene a Seminarie of Kings so plentifull, as not onely our common­weale, but also diuers other nations did desire to be thereby gouerned; and would to God that most noble raze had still in Bohoemia, and Hungarie continued. For by the valour thereof, the Turkish empyre should haue beene restrained of that greatnes whereunto it is now aspired. All which things as they are admi­rable, so are they also the more noble, that holding in hand the Raines of so great a gouernment, your Maiestie by your own iudgement hath called vnto you a Counsell both for nobilitie & wisedome excellent, by whose moderation & prudence the quiet & glorie of our kingdom hath bene greatlie preserued. I Omit to speake of other ma­gistrates by whom the felicitie of our commonweale is not onely ornified, but also en­larged: so as Polonia may be well called the habitation of libertie, and seate of iust gouernment. And that your highnes is author and doer of these things, who doth not see? I in my youth did behold them, & in mine elder age found them agree­able vnto the rules of excellent philosophers and auncient well gouerned common­weals, which moued me to thinke it were no lost labour, if by mine owne endeuour or the obseruation of other mens workes I should somewhat say of that matter to the profit of all posteritie. This worke therefore I determined to dedicate vnto your Royall Maiestie, as chiefe causer of mine endeuour. Not meaning therby to enforme you (for such is your excellent wisedome as needeth not the instruction of anie) but that by reading, your Maiestie may be delighted to behold your owne vertues, and as a Prince of that gouerment, be glad, that the same is most iust and respondent to other auncient and praiseable commonweales▪ Yet do I well knowe that to discourse of qualities appertaining to an excellent Counsellor, is not onely of great importance, but also accompanied with manie difficulties▪ But my hope is, that albeit my skill cannot therein merit praise, yet (as I hope) my earnest desire of publique vtilitie, shall hold me excused, assuring my selfe, that your maiesties wisedome and princelie Counsell (a vertue proper to all the house of Iageloni) will take my humble endeuour in good and acceptable part.

❧ THE FIRST BOOKE.

WHO so wholy applieth himselfe to those studies which concerne not onely priuate pleasure, but also publique commoditie, doth (as I thinke) seeke a knowledge perfect and most worthie com­mendation. For to be skilfull in that whereof o­thers receiue profit, doth aboue all thinges best become a wise man. Among such sciences as were wont to bring with them both profit and pleasure, there is not (in my iudgement) any more profitable or pleasing, then is the skill of gouernment, beeing a guide of humaine happinesse, and tutresse of publique commoditie, and common life. Which I by the example of many others, and no small experience knowing to be true; beeing also assured that the knowledge whereby commonweales be go­uerned, is certaine, and the proceeding of all thinges directed by rea­son and iudgement▪ not by fallible conceipt, chaunce, or fortune; haue determined to discourse what ought be the duetie, vertue and dignitie of a perfect Councellor, to the ende that those that shall be called to gouernment, or take delight in such wisedome, may be there­of partakers. For pe [...]forming of which entent, I haue thought good to sounde the depth of ciuile knowledge, and with greate diligence haue serched the secrets of most excellent Phylosophers, not meaning to set forth any fained conceipt, but that which accordeth with authori­tie of wise law makers and graue Councellors. I doe therefore thinke expedient, that in the person of our Councellor, there shoulde be such ripenesse of age as might exercise the vertues beseeming so honourable a personage, and in his calling, holde so greate a grauitie and reputa­tion, [Page 2] as all other Citizens and subiectes may hope at his hande to re­ceiue comfort, quiet, & councell profitable to the whole commonwealth. My intent is not to frame an Idaea, or Councellor imagined, such a one as cannot be seene but onely in conceipt, or that the heauens haue skantly any so perfect, or the earth doth not containe any shadowe of such a man; (as did Plato in his common weale and Cicero in his Orator) but our speach shall tende to thinges possible, not exceeding the ordi­narie vse of men. Yet my meaning is to gather into this booke, what­soeuer hath heeretofore beene spoken, knowen, or founde, eyther by learning of schooles, by Councels in commonweales, by pollicy, in gouernmente, by forraine experience by the Histories, touch­ing the qualitie and perfection of a Councellor. And as Plato hath set downe those things which he thought fittest for the felicitie of his Ci­tie, the like will we doe in the discription of our Councellor: and ima­gining to haue mett with wise men of all nations, Cities and common­weales repayring to a market of wisedome, we will take from euery one, such vertues, customes, lawes and dueties, as seemeth to vs most ex­cellent, and therewith furnish our Councellor. But for so much as through the diuersitie of commonweales, it seemeth that the quality and offices of Councellors be diuers, we haue iudged that forme of com­monweale to be of all others most iust and indifferent, where the Kinges authoritie and the peoples power, by the councellors wise­dome and aduise is qualefied. We haue therefore thought fitt, first to discourse the diuersitie of commonweales, as well in kinde as forme, of their felicitie, of the happinesse of subiectes, of the education and instruction of a Councellor, to the ende he may the rather vnderstand the state where he gouerneth, and be skilfull in the precepts of vertue. So as in that sort furnished, he may direct his life in all honesty, and de­seruingly be aduanced to a charge of so greate honour and reputation. And we will, that the vertues of our Councellor be such, as are not one­lie profitable for the gouerment of one state, but shall be of that ex­celencie as the same may be practised in the proceedings of all o­thers. For we haue learned of Plato, that those commonweales be moste happy, which are gouerned by Phylosophers, or where the gouernours are wholy disposed to the studie of Philosophie. Therefore from such a wise man, and such a ciuill science, wee haue determined to take matter, whereof to frame our excellent Councellor.

[Page 3] Among all creatures contayned within the circle of the earth, that which we call man, is the chiefest and of most reputation. For he alone, of all other liuing thinges of what nature so euer, is made not onely an inhabitant and Citizen of the world, but also a Lorde and Prince therein. Which authoritie, honour and greatnesse, from God the supreame gouernour of heauen and earth is giuen, who hath also vouchsafed to receiue him, as it were a companion in the gouer­ment of this vniuersall Citie common to God and men, adorning him with diuine vnderstanding, to the end that through his godly reason and councell, this worldly Empyre, might be wisely, holily and iustly gouerned. The cause of this societie betwixt GOD and men, pro­ceedeth from reason, which beeing perfect, doth make men like vnto God, and seeme as it were mortall Gods: whereof may be concei­ued, that betwixt God and men, some affinitie, aliance or kinred re­maineth. Notwithstanding, without the presence of God, no reason is good and perfect, for the diuine seedes beeing sowen in mens bodies, so much thereof as happeneth into the handes of good till-men, doth bring forth fruite according to him that did sowe them: but of the rest beeing handled by euill husbandry, doth (like vnto corne sowen in bar­ren soyle) become br [...]mbles, and within short space decay and die. Man therefore knowing himselfe, and conceiuing that within him all things are diuine, shall be perswaded that his minde and reason doth represent an holy Image, and must therefore continually indeuour to doe and imagine thinges worthie so heauenly a grace. Thus beeing made of God his societie, and reputed of his race and progenie, it must needs be, that in the gouernment of this world we haue from him The science of gouern­ment pro­ceedeth from God.him the authoritie of rule and commaunding. Sith then he is the au­thor and director, and that our beeing proceedeth from him as the creator of all thinges; euery councell, lawe, and ordinance is at his handes to be required, to the ende that this diuine worlde may be knowen and gouerned not by men, but the will, wisedome, and pro­uidence of God. For as brute beastes cannot without a heardman, of other beastes be gouerned▪ Euen so men by men, without the guiding of GOD▪ cannot be ruled. For if it so happen, that any man doth take in▪ hande to gouerne without GOD, that is to say, without his diuine will, wisedome and knowledge: It must needs be that euery commonweale so gouerned, and the life of euery priuate [Page 4] Citizen therein, shall become vnhappy and miserable. For in vaine it were to studie the welfare of any state, if God be not the defendour and keeper thereof. It may then be conceyued; that all vertue and wisedome of man proceedeth from God, which was the cause that our auncestors in times past, were wont to dedicate publique temples to vertue, faith, concord, wisedome, and peace. But are the Councels of gouermente to be asked of God? or ought all requestes and prayers, aswell for small as greate graces, ascende vnto his heauenly hearing? Yea surely. So that our suite and prayers doe not discente form reason. Good lawes therefore are obtayned at Gods handes by intercession of wise men, and not by holding vppe the handes of fooles, or be their lowde cries, or prostrating their bodies vppon the earth. For God is onely present with wise men, and as Ouidius saith well.

Est Deus in [...] agitante calescimus illo
Spiritus hic sacrae lumina mentis habet.

The wisedome of GOD doth enter and possesse their mindes, Wherein a wise man is like vnto godand as they doe honour it, so dooth it honour them, whereby they are made (as it were) Gods. Without GOD no good or wise man liueth: For hee onelye is prouidente, politique, and full of councell. The wise man by his vertue resembleth the likenesse of God, which proceedeth of perfect reason. It behooueth vs there­fore, (not as some men teach) onely to be men, and vnderstand things humaine and mortall, but also if possiblie it may bee, excell all mor­talitie, The best thing in man is reason.and liue according to that parte which is in vs moste excellente. But what is that which in man is moste excellente? surelye reason, by meane whereof wee knowe God, vse vertue, imbrace good and es­chewe euill. This is that which maketh men perfect, wise, valiant and iust. Thus it appeareth, that through diuine reason the worlde is gouerned by man. It shall therefore behooue him in all his procee­dings of gouerment, to follow the direction thereof, and as of a diuine Oracle in all his councels, lawes & cogitations, to pray for the grace and assistance of the almighty, wherby he shal gouern all things wisely, godly & iustly. For as the reason in God is the law most supreame: So the reason of a wise man being perfect may be called God or law. In respect wherof the Lacedemonians called those men Gods, whom for wisedome & iustice [Page 5] they thought to excell all others. And as such a one Homer describeth Hector, saying.

Non hominis certe mortalis filius ille
Esse videtur, sed di [...] semine natus.

Who so therefore obeyeth reason, and by her in all his wordes and workes is gouerned, ought be reputed as a God among men. He onely for King, Prince and Ruler of the vniuersall worlde is to be accounted. And finally he knoweth what is to be done, what to be thought, what to be determined, and what proceedeth from diuine reason and councell. Nowe for as much as this Prince and Gouernour shall liue in the societie and company of men, which societie consisteth partly in the vniuersall conuersation of the whole world, and partly of priuate Cities: It behooueth him for preseruation of the common society and loue among men, that he indeuour the whole force of his capacitie, reason, and councell, to gaine the good will and fauour of Publike go­uerment to be consi­dered in two sortes▪men. We will therefore commit vnto his charge two diuers countries, or common weales, to be gouerned. The one is that which contai­neth both God and men, not confined within the boundes of Africa, Asia, or Europa, but is by the course of the Sunne, described. The o­ther is, the place where our mortall condition hath appointed our birth and beeing, as Greece, Italie, Germanie, Fraunce, Spayne, Polonia, or such like. To [...]hing gouernment of common weales: It shall behoue the gouernour with reason and vnderstanding, to comprehend the or­der and nature aswell of the vniuersall vvorld, vvhich the Latines doe cal maiorem mundum, as of the other wherein we haue our life and aboade: which they likewise doe name maiorem mundum. For whensoeuer the minde hath shaken of the bondage of bodie, it presently recouereth the perfect nature thereof, performing the true offices; embracing these thinges which bee good, and reiecting the [...]uill, It loueth ver­tue, and loatheth vice, it suppresseth lust, and commaundeth it selfe. What Empyre or gouernment can be said or thought more deuine or godly? Moreouer, when the minde hath discouered the nature of heauen, earth, seas, with euery other thing, and knoweth whereof they be made, what beginnings, cause, and ende they haue, what is the disposition of Starres, what is the reason of the sunnes rising and [Page 6] going downe, what mooueth the Moone, what is the destruction of all thinges, what the nature of Elementes, of liuing creatures, and the vertue of herbes, when all these thinges (I say) be knowne, and God the supreame gouernour of all, well neere comprehended, the pos­sessor of such wisedome and knowledge of nature, shall he not deser­uinglie be accounted a Citizen and dweller of any towne or place, or rather a Prince of the worlde vniuersall? Socrates beeing asked of what countrie he was, answered, A man of the worlde; imagining him­selfe to bee, not onely a Citizen and inhabitante, but also as it were a The world a Citie commō to all crea­tures.Prince vniuersall. What doth La [...]rtius reporte of Diogenis other, then he was such a one. This Citie yeeldeth no obedience to Tyrants, nor is sub­iect to lawes inuented by men, nor can be inuironed with walles, but is contayned within the vniuersall circle, with motion and order natu­rall, as it were by lawe certaine and euerlasting, constantlye gouerned within walles made of Elementes. The Citizens of this towne, are by a name diuine called Philosophers, commaunded onelye by them­selues, bearing aboute them mindes inuincible, and armed against the force of all misfortune. Such Princes no force of enemies can depose, no violence of armes remooue, nor furie of fyre disturbe, for they be alwaies inuincible, valiant, happy, and free from feares and daun­gers.

When King Demetrius the sonne of Antigonus had surprised Mega­ra, in which Citie S [...]ilpho the Philosopher liued, he caused him to be brought to his presence, and asked what had beene taken from him, offering restitution of all his losses. Whereunto S [...]ilpho answered, that hee neuer had seene anye man that coulde offer violence to Phi­losophie, much lesse take the same from him that was thereof posses­sed, imagining himselfe to be onely owner of such riches, accoun­ting the rest of his goods to be no more his, then the enemies that besieged Megara. But seeing the science of Philosophie consisteth Philosophy of two sortes.partlie in contemplation, and partlye in action, it must needes bee that the skill of gouernment, doth also consiste vppon two. Those that apply themselues to contemplation, doe onely labour to attaine the knoweledge of trueth, and not desiring, to proceede further, stay their imaginations wholye in considering by what meanes the world might bee guided with the raines of wisedome. This sorte of men were wonte to delight in priuate and solitarie life, carelesse of autho­ritie, [Page 7] house, or famelie, as Homer doth describe them. From which rest or rather idlenesse, we ought first by desire to perswade them, and that not suffising, by inforcement to drawe them to action of gouern­mente, which is the seconde parte of ciuill duetie. For the knowledge Contemplati­on without action im­profitable.and contemplation of nature prooueth improfitable, if no action ther­of doe followe, which appeareth in the preseruation of all commodi­ties belonging to men. Who is there so studious in naturall knowe­ledge, that beeing informed, his friendes, his neighboures, his kins­folkes, and countrye shall perish without his presente helpe, but will preferre the safetie of them, before the contemplation of all the Starres, Elementes and worlde vniuersall? We therefore doe exhorte all wise men to action, and recommend vnto them the commonweale, not that cōmon weale containing all the world, & is bounded by the perambulation of the Sunn, but that which is subiect to ordinances and lawes, and composed of the congregation and societie of men: hoping that through them (posses­sed Philosophers men most fit to gouerne commen­weales.of diuine knowledge) this worldlie gouernmente may with more wisedome and iustice bee directed. The contemplation of thinges di­uine doe teach and informe the minde of a wise man, and hee beeing ac­customed, to the cogitations of heauenlye reason, wisedome and lawe, doth become as it were an other GOD. Solon indued with such know­ledge, gouerned the Athenians. Lycurgus the Lacedemonians, and Par­menides the Eleati.

The like lawes and ordinances Lycis the Pythagorian inuented for Epa­minundas, Plato for Dion, Aristotle for Alexander the greate, Anoxa­goras for Pericles, Pythagoras for the Princes of Italie, and Agrippa for the Emperour Octauianus. Which examples haue mooued manye wri­ters to affirme, that those commonweales were moste happye where Philosophers gouerned, or where the gouernours were accompanyed and councelled by Philosophers. Cato that moste excellente Senator, for the loue hee bare vnto wisedome, intertained Athenodorus; Ʋlysses (as Homer sayeth) embraced Caritus. Pirrhus esteemed Artemius. Traian desired Plutarchus, and Scipio was councelled by Panetius: A man (as Plutarch writeth) learned in all sciences both good and euill. But if this diuiue knowledge doe happe vnto any man, that delighteth on­ly Phiosohy in, priuate men improfitablein rest and idlenes, not indeuouring to do other then lurke at home, as it were within the cōpasse of a magicall circle, stretching himself in the sunn, accōpanied only with staffe & wallet; careles of all action & desire to doe [Page 8] good to others▪ surely such wisdome proueth to no purpose, and with himselfe in shorte space vtterly perisheth. Where contrariwise, if the same be possessed by any Prince or person disposing himselfe to the affaires of gouernment, hee becommeth thereby diuine, noble, wise, and prouident. But happilie some man may demaunde what com­mon weale that is which shoulde bee committed to this wiseman or Diuine Philosopher? which doubte doth not arise from the name of What a com­monweale is.common▪ weale, being a certaine order among the inhabitants abiding in one cytie, but of the diuersitie and difference of the common weales. The gouer­ment of com­monweales diuers.For as mens manners, delightes and estates bee diuers, so also is the gouernment of common weales manifould. And though the end of euery of them is but one thinge, that is to say, good, or wel beeing, which consisteth in the felicitie of men, and euery state doth labour to attaine, yet are the meanes of aspiring to that happines diuers, and so consequently lawes and customes of sondry sortes are by them v­sed. For who so shall conferre the lawes of Hipp [...]d [...]mus framed for the Miletians▪ with those of Mi [...]s made for the Candians, or will com­pare the ordinances of [...]ic [...]rg [...]s with the decrees of Solon, the one wri­ting the gouernment of the Lacedemonians, the other of the Athenians▪ shall easily conceiue their lawes to be most diuers, their Magistrates vnlike, and the forme of their states farre discrepant. The seauen wife men also (Thales except who refused to intermedle in the common weale,) brought in sundry exercises, sundrie lawes, and sundry gouern­ments according to the qualitie of the peoples capacitie, and their owne fancies, & by sundry orders and [...]ses did execute them. Which varietie of gouerments, haue ministred matter of much controuersy & contrarietie of opinions. In so much as the learned men both in our vniuersities & for­raine schooles, haue presumed to dispute how many sortes of common­weales, there are, and which of them ought deseruinglie, to be most [...] commended and imbra [...]ds Plato and Aristotle in that matter do seeme to haue excelled all others. For they with great iudgement, and respect to the nature of men and the Regions of the world; haue learnedlie al­lotted lawes and gouerments agreable with the disposition and humor of the places! Following therefore the opinion of these Philosophers, we The deuision of common­weales.will first frame three sortes of common weales. The first is called Mo­narchia, the second Aristocratia, and the third Democratia. The Latines haue named them R [...]gnum, Optimatum principatus, and Popular is resp [...] [Page 9] God by his heauenly prouidence hath appointed, that the powers of mans minde shoulde rest in three sundry partes of his bodie; seeming thereby to represent three Idaeas or formes of commonweales, appoin­ting reason as King to haue his abiding in the heade & hiest part, as one­ly Lorde and Prince to commaund all. The second part as vigilant and readie to obey, hee hath placed neere vnto it in the breaste, making the same as a companion and helper vnto the heade. Plato calleth it vis irascendi, and affectuum sedes. The thirde resembling a multitude, witlesse, frowarde, and full of sensuall desires, hee hath harboured beneath the hearte, secluded farre from both the other. In these parts of our soule (as in an image) wee may beholde three formes of commonweales. The highest hath the place of king, as destined and appoynted to com­maunde all, the seconde though in place inferiour, yet in quality is of no lesse regarde, beeing well obeyed. For where reason ruleth with­out the guarde and ayde of the affections, all actions are weake and Reason with­out the affe­ctions, feablewithout force. Euen so a Senate not assisted by reason, which partlie as Captayne, and partly as Soldiour in all actions and consultations is vsed, becommeth fearefull and effeminate. Aristotle hath therefore de­uided the power of reason, making one parte absolute and standing vppon it selfe▪ the other as it were depending and seruing, like vnto a sonne that obeyeth his Father. Which Titus Liuius hath well expres­sed in setting forth the error of Minutius in his vnaduised fight against Hanibal, which Fabius doth reprehend in these wordes. O souldiours, (quoth hee) I haue often hearde that who so can by himselfe rightly iudge, is to be moste honoured▪ next vnto him are they that obey the good aduise of others. But hee that can neyther councell himselfe, nor knoweth howe to followe an other mans aduise, is of all others, of least wisedome and capacitie. As touching the Optimatie, it hath not onely the force of reason, but in all actions is helped and incouraged by the affections, as the Poets haue written.

Non hic [...]ine numine diuum, furit.

The thirde parte of mans minde resembleth a popular gouerment: wherein the multitude hath authoritie to heare all matters, and deter­mine all lawes, many contentions and discordes doe there ensue, like vnto the nature of men licentions and proane to lust, containing such life [Page 10] Common­weales resem­bled to priuate families. as accordeth with reason and vertue. Aristotle doth also write, that the image of commonweales, may be found in priuate families. For the authoritie of the father ouer his children, may be likened to principa­litie: because the children are the fathers charge. He alone must pro­uide for them all, and their faultes are by him rather chastised then seuerely punished. In like manner ought a good king to behaue him­selfe towarde his subiectes. Therefore Iupiter the God of Gods and men, is by Homer called Father. The husbandes authoritie ouer his wife may be compared to the Optimatie. For the husband ought to gouerne his wife according to iustice, and commaunde her to doe thinges honest. The populer state is likened to brotherly societie. For they ought to liue in equality, differing onely in the degrees of age. But as the Father that vseth his children wickedly, cruelly and vnnatural­ly, is reputed a tyrant and no father: Euen so a king that studieth for priuate commodity oppressing his subiectes, contemning his lawes, and liuing dishonorably, doth lose the name of a King and is called a Tyrante. Also a husband and wife liuing in discorde, eyther through negligence or wilfulnesse reiecting the care of their children and householde, doe thereby abuse their authoritie and become vn­worthy the name of naturall parentes. In like manner brethren dis­agreeing and quarrelling, neglecting the common profite, and giuing By euill gouerment, common­weales are chaunged.themselues to slouth or lasciuious life, are not to be accounted bre­thren. Thus it appeareth that through the default and imperfection of gouernours, true commonweales be conuerted into false and con­trarie gouerments. The Monarchie or kingdome, becommeth a Ty­rannie. The Optimatie, is reduced vnder the authoritie of a fewe. The popular common weale is conuerted into plebeiall insolencie. Pol­licie (which the Graecians call Politeia, and is by Plato and Aristotle some­times called Respublica popularis,) may be referred to all kindes of commonweales well gouerned, because that worde is vniuersall and includeth all ciuill gouernment. Plato addeth a seuenth kinde of go­uernment, The opinion of Plato touching kinges.that is to witt, A King subiect to his lawes▪ making a Mo­narchie of two sortes, and consequently framing two Kinges, the one bounde and confined, the other free and not restrayned to anie lawe. This is the opinion of Plato touching Monarchie. The power & autho­ritie (saith he) of one Prince gouerning with good lawes, is among the sixe kindes of commonweales, the best and most perfect. But such [Page 11] gouerment being without lawes, is heauy, & hard to those that liue therin▪ Yet if the other states be also without lawes, that is the best, the seuenth except. For a King gouerning in that sorte, is of all other gouernours to be obeyed and honoured as a GOD among men. The diuersitie of commonweals doth not proceed from fortune, nor the disposition of the heauens, but euery gouernment is framed according to the mindes of Euery gouer­ment ought be framed according to the men, and place.men, their wits and education. Also the varietie not onely of mens incli­nations, but also the nature of commonweales is made diuers, through the diuersitie of countries, their climate and beeing. What shall I say of sedicions, warre, and factions? for they oftimes doe vtterly subuert commonweales, or chaunge them into states contrariwise gouerned. Such is the condition of worldly thinges, that mischance standeth next to good fortune, and vice is mixed with vertue▪ so as with facilitie men fall from good into euill. Sometimes it also happeneth, that common­weales well framed, through euill ministers are eyther extinguished, or altered into other formes of gouerment. Hereof it commeth that king­domes become Tyranies; Optimaties are made the gouerment of a fewe, and populer states are conuerted into licentious liberty, and from that, brought backe vnto Tyranie. Plato writeth that the change of common­weales is fatall, through disposition of the heauens and planets. The variations of states doe also otherwhiles proceede from the varietie of What sorts of men are fit for euerye kinde of cō ­monweales.mens mindes and order of life. For in some state there be many rich men, in others many poore, in others plentie of noble men, soldiers and ploughmen, in others plenty of merchants, craftes men and artificers. Then whensoeuer the number of merchants, artifizants and ploughmen doe surmount the rest, that state most commonly beeommeth popular: But where rich men are most plentifull, there groweth the gouerment of a fewe great men. Where the most part of Citizens be good men, wise and vertuous, that state is apt to be gouerned as an Optimatie. There are three thinges (as Aristotle thinketh) which contende for the gouern­ment, Libertie, Riches, and Vertue. For nobilitie, (which holdeth the fourth place) is companion both to vertue and riches, because the e­quall mixture of rich and poore men, is called a popular state. A faction onely of rich men▪ is named the gouerment of a fewe, and the consent of all three, that is to say, free men, rich men, and good men, is accounted an Optimatie. Such a one was the Carthagenian commonweale for riche men, good men, and noble men, were therein equally esteemed. [Page 12] Thus haue wee discouered all kinde of common weales, which either by mans experience haue beene founde, or by the industry of law makers or Philosophers coulde bee deuised; but which of them is most perfect and excellent, cannot (as hath before beene saide) easilie be determined. For there is no man that preferreth and praiseth not the state wherein he What people doe most wil­lingly obey the king.was borne and bredde. Some more willingly doe liue in kingdomes then any other state, who are chiefely such men as are naturallie apt to honour those, that be virtuous and fitte for action. The Cappadoci­ans hauing many ages liued vnder kinges (whose rase was extinguished) were offred by the Romaines, to haue their state conuerted into popu­lar libertie, but they refused it. Then the Romaines appointed Ari­obarsanes their friende to bee King of Cappadocia. The contrary course was followed by the Athenians, for they affecting a popular state, would neither consent to be gouerned by one nor many. Yea some there are that doe most allowe the Tyranical gouernment, as in oulde time the Siculi, whose state was alwaies accustomed to tyrants, and so are The people of Asia natu­rally seruile.well neere all the people of Asia, who being by nature seruile, are e­uen till this age subiect to tyrannicall gouernment. Such as are fittest to be ciuilly gouerned, are men accustomed to honest riches and glory for their vertuous enterprises in warre. For they not forgetting the The best common weale is, where the people be best ordered.condition of their gouernment, are content by turnes aswell to obey as commaunde. But let vs nowe discourse of the best common weales. Whosoeuer shall take in hande to speake thereof, it behoueth him first to vnderstande what is the best kinde and order of life. For being ther­of ignorant, a perfect commonweale cannot be conceiued. It standeth him also vpon to vnderstand, by what meanes men be brought to good order of liueing. For the state is alvvaies like vnto the men that liue therein, but which kinde of life ought bee accounted best the Philoso­phers haue not by consent determined. The Stoicks, the Peripatetickes & the Epicures doe diuerslie iudge of that matter, and into diuers sectes and opinions haue deuided the vvorlde. But our intent is to concurre vvith the Perepatetickes, because their scholes haue brought fourth men of most perfection, and to their virtues they haue ioyned the vse of ex­ternall thinges, vvherevvith the felicitie of man is not onelie ornified, but also perfected. Wee therefore accounte their preceptes to bee most profitable, asvvell for men as common vveales. The Stoicks louing austeritie of life, doe grounde their felicitie vppon vertue on­lie, [Page 13] which we mislike not, so as therewith they consent, that to the vse of vertue men haue neede of externall goods, which both nature and for­tune haue made for vse of man, to the ende he might become the more happy, better and perfect. For seeing that felicitie of man, is numbred a­mong thinges of perfection, and that thing is onely perfect, which wanteth nothing: surely whosoeuer desireth to be happy, must of force be furni­shed fully, so as his felicitie may be absolute and without want. It beho­ueth him therefore to be wise, iust, temperate, valiant, rich, honourable, The felicitie of man whe [...] ­in it consi­steth.comely, healthie and strong. And sith the happinesse of mans life consi­steth in his felicitie, and that he is made of bodie and minde, it is neces­sarie that he be no lesse happy in minde, then in bodie: For beeing in a­ny of them infortunate or disabled, he cannot be called perfectly happie. Moreouer if all good things doe tende to mans felicitie, it is requisite to haue of them abundance, which whosoeuer hath, must vnderstand, that onely for himselfe he was not borne, but (as Cicero saith) his country, his friendes, his kinsfolke and aliance doe claime their share in the fruites of his felicitie, because to euery of them, if he will be thought happye, it behooueth him to giue part, not onely of his treasure of minde, as iustice and wisedome, but also of all other thinges bestowed on him for the vse and life of man. The liberall man needeth money to performe the actions of liberality, and the iust man therewith must reward, and make satisfac­tion. The valiantman requireth force and powre, to be therby inabled to execute somewhat worthy his vertue. The temperate man asketh au­thoritie and liberty, wherby he might shew himselfe to be such a one. The Mans life of three sortes.Philosophers affirme, that there are three sortes of life. The first consi­steth in action, the second in contemplation, and the thirde in pleasure, which beeing exercised in lustes and licentiousnes, is beastly and proper to men of basest condition. That which resteth in action▪ vnlesse it be al­so accompanied with wisedome and vertue, proueth improfitable, and is subiect to great vices and imperfections. That which is imployed in contemplation, not beieng ioyned with some action, becommeth vaine and without effect. For as men that earnestly behold the brightnes of the sunne, with the vehement heat and light thereof are made blinde: E­uen so the minde of man continually wrought with imagimations & spe­culation of hie mysteries, doth become dull, heauy and languishing. Who so therefore desireth to liue vertuously and happely, must participate both of the ciuill and philosophicall liues, which are action and contem­plation. [Page 14] The mixture of which two, doth make man to be like vn­to GOD, blessed and fortunate. For hee that vseth his minde to the cogitation of thinges diuine, is thereby made moste acceptable to GOD, who doth greatelye esteeme of those men, that liue ac­cording to the spirite and reason; because it appeareth thereby, that they labour to bee like vnto him, who is also a spirite, and thinges of one nature doe willinglye conioyne in loue. They that vnto spe­culation doe adde honest action, may also bee called diuine and hap­pye. Reason the most preci­ous gift.There is nothing more apparante, then that GOD among manie other graces, hath giuen reason vnto men, as a gifte most sin­gular, to the ende that through vertue thereof, hee may beholde the nature of all thinges aswell coelestiall as terrestriall, and therewith honour reuerence and loue him. Who so therefore beeing minde­full of GOD and natures benefites, doth well employe this heauen­lie gifte of reason, and both in action and contemplation, imitate the eternall GOD, doth thereby become as his childe, and is holden as a God among men. Contrariwise, such as doe forget nature and hu­manitie, delighting onelye in sensualitie, neclecting or vtterlye forsa­king reason, are accounted to haue of men nothing but the face and name: because the true and proper nature of man, is in them wan­ting.

Why some are free, and others borne to bondage. Heereof proceedeth the diuersitie of men, that through the ex­ercise of reason and vertue, some are borne free, noble, wise and fitt to gouerne: others slaues, rusticall, and witlesse, destined to serui­tude and bondage. Euerye societie of men doth also willinglie o­beye Diuersitie of mens naturesthe wisest, aduauncing them to offices and honours with greate respecte and reuerence. Plato writeth that God in the creation of mens natures hath taken such order, as in the generation of those that are apte to gouerne, hee hath mixed golde; To them that are de­stined to assiste the gouernours, hee hath put siluer; And with the nature of Plowe-men and Artizanes, Brasse and Iron is compounded. Which similitude, Aristotle doth applye to the manners, vertues, and capacities of men. For albeit that euerie man naturally desi­reth his children might resemble himselfe: Yet doth it often hap­pen, that of golde commeth siluer, and of siluer some met­tell of other nature. God hath therefore commaunded Princes to vndestande the nature of their thildren, to the ende tha [...] [Page 15] they, whose disposition is like vnto Iron, should be conuerted to gold, or that prouing impossible, he hath willed the gouerment shoulde be to others allotted. It hath beene also oraculously prophycied, that those Cities which are gouerned with Brasse and Iron, shoulde perish and come to confusion. Xenocrates appointeth the first parte of mans life to the exercise of vertue, the second to good health, the third to honest plea­sure, How mans life is im­ployed.and the fourth to the gathering of riches iustly. As without ver­tue mans life is vile, so is it without health, weake and feeble: For the minde shut vp within a sickly bodie, doth languish and become disable to performe his owne duetie. All men therefore through force of good lawes, ought be trained vnto happy life, for by such meanes, common­weales become good and blessed. Let vs nowe consider with which of these three states first remembred, the diuine and happy life doth best a­gree, which beeing knowen, the face and forme of a perfect common­weale What things are chiefly considered in the election of kinges.is easily discerned. To the election of kinges men are induced, by their vertue, and beholding their egregious actes. For whenso­euer we see a man to excell in those thinges, wee accounte him as a God among men, and forthwith consent to make him king, follow­ing the common prouerbe. Rexeris, sirecte facies. Because that gouer­ment is iust, where the gouernour is vertuous, commaunding him­selfe, and ruling his subiectes, not as as Maister gouerneth his ser­uantes, but as a father ruleth his children. The Athenians (as De­mosthenes in his oration against Neaera writeth) when Theseus had fra­med their commonweale, were wonte to choose some one of the ver­tuous number, and by holding vp their handes elected him Kinge. In olde time, the election of kinges was among all people holden a thing diuine and holy. Romulus after the sight of twelue Rauens, (as Liuius sayeth) or rather because the lightning had pearced his bodie, from the lefte to the right side; (as Dionisius writeth) was by diuination chosen king, which was the respecte, that by lawe it was pro­uided, that no man shoulde take vppon him any magistracie or be made kinge, without diuination. In so much as that ordinance cal­led Ius Auspiciorum was obeyed and religiouslye obserued. The au­thoritie of kinges hath euer beene accounted a thing diuine, for Ho­mer The authori­tie of kinges diuine.and Isocrates affirme, that hee who gouerneth alone, doth repre­present a diuine maiesty. The kinges of Persia were honoured as Gods, and the people beleeued their authoritie to be the onelie defendour [Page 16] and mainteynour of the commonweale. The anciente Latines called their Kinges Indigetes, that is to saye, deified, (as Eneas and Romu­lus were) whose bodies after death coulde neuer be founde. The e­lection of kinges, was in time paste proper to the moste vertuous people, vnto whome the gouernment of Tyrantes was odious. Yea the ancient lawe of God, doth as it were allowe, or rather com­mende Optimacy.the gouernment of one. An Optimatie consisteth of vertuous Citizens, who deserue commendation in respecte of vertue, because they gouerne the commonweale, as becommeth good men, in no Popular states.wise digressing from the rule and line of lawe. In popular com­monweales all thinges be contrarilie handled: for libertie beeing the ende thereof, the state is ruled according to will, and popular furie, most commonly without vertue and reason. In such Cities men are called good, because they are profitable to the commonweale, not for that they are indued with honestie, which confisteth in action of vertue: So as vertue is measured, not by honestie, but by common profite and libertie. For popular iustice (called Ius populare) is, where the honours are giuen, not according to vertue of him that receiueth them, but the number of those that giue them, who thinke those thinges not to bee iust which by iustice ought be, but that which to the greatest number doth seeme iust, esteeming that also to be honourable, which by popu­lar fame is accounted glorious. Therefore although in all sortes of commonweales the lawes of vertue are sometimes peruerted, yet doth the same most commonly happen in popular states. For if any good man liuing there, shall happen to mislike the plebeyall life, and doth labour by admonishing, reprehending, and correcting the Citizens, to reduce them to honesty and vertue, he is forthwith iudged an ene­mie to liberty, and by the law Ostracismo arested, and many times put to death. With this kind of persecution, many notable Citizens inhabiting the popular states of Graecia were afflicted, as Cymon, Aristides, Thucydides, Socrates, Themistocles, and Damon: also in Rome, Camillus and Scipio were in like manner handled. The fame of Aristides is of all posterity worthy to Aristides▪be remēbred▪ he being a man singularly vertuous & wise, for his integrity of life & honest cōuersatiō was with the assent of all men surnamed Iustus. At such time as the law Ostracismas was vsed in Athens, a certaine rude & ru­stical felow, bearing a scrol of paper in his hand hapned to mete him, & with great earnestnes required, that the name of Aristides might be therin writtē. [Page 17] Aristides much marueiling thereat, asked whether any man had euer beene by him iniured, no, (quoth hee) but I cannot in anye wise indure thy surname of Iustus. Cicero reporteth, that at such time as the Ephesi banished their Prince Hermodorus, they pronounced this sentence, Let none of vs excell an other, but if anye so doe, let him no longer heere dwell, but inhabite elsewhere. O moste straunge customes of popular commonweales▪ Plato vseth that speach before of vs remembred, that no state doth continue, beeing go­uerned with Iron or Brasse, that is to say, by foolish men, borne ra­ther to obey then commaunde. For they after some fortunate suc­cesse of warre, taking vnto them loftie mindes, haue at hande tu­tors and popular Captaines to extoll and commende their vertue. Then after long hunger, allured with the sweete baite of glory▪ they reiect the authoritie of their leaders and all wise men, taking the gouer­ment wholy into their owne handes, directing the same by their The originall causes of states popu­lar.owne willes and discretion, which is the cause that such common­weales are not of long continuance. For through diuersitie of minds, those men become voyde of councell, and after much insolencie, con­tention, and faction, they yeelde their obedience eyther to a fewe, or some one mightie personage. So did the people of Athens which beeing author of the victorie by sea, against the Medians, puffed vp with pride of that fortune, stirred greate troubles and seditions in that state, and all good Citizens laboured in vaine to preuente that mis­chiefe. Also the originall of popular states, doth sometimes pro­ceede of Rebellion attempted against the nobilitie: as it many times happened in Rome: when the people tooke armes against the Kings and Senate. Sometimes also the cause of such popular gouerment, proceedeth through good successe of some action enterprised by the people. Who taking vppon them the minde of Lordes, doe vsurpe the state, as did the Athenians when they had vanquished the Medians, and as the Romaines hauing ouerthrowne the Cartha­ginenses. The same also otherwhiles chanseth, when the people is made desperate, by tyrannie of their Prince and gouernours, for then by force of armes, or oppression of their king, they frame a forme of gouernment among themselues, which in our dayes the Swisseis haue done. A popular state established with good lawes is [Page 18] manie times gouerned iustlie and poletiquelye, but the same wan­ting lawes or consente of the people, doth not merite the name of a commonweale. Of the Oligarchia or Tyrannie I meane not to en­treate, The vertue of euery peo­ple knowen by the lawes and gouer­ment.because such gouerment is in all respectes vniuste, contra­rie to vertue and ciuill life. The excellencie of euerie people or commonweale, may be knowen by the gouermente, lawes and li­berties thereof. For those people are accounted the beste, which within a good commonweale doe liue with iustice and libertye, and they deserue the more commendation, that doe continue the same with most constancie and longe preseuerance, which thinges are thought chiefly to appertaine, to the antiquity of men liuing in honour Lacedemoni­ans▪and nobilitie. The Lacedemonians are highly praised, for hauing con­tinued seauen hundred years without any alteration of their customs, Venetians.their lawes, or their gouerment: But the Venetians haue in that respect deserued greater glory, because they, till these our daies, haue cōstant­ly liued in one forme of gouerment, by the space of a thousand years, or more. Thus haue we discoursed the diuers formes of commonweales, with the natures & disposition of men there liuing. Among them (as easely appeareth) the Principalitie and Optimatie are the best. This, for that therein most good men doe exercise the publique functions: and that, because the publique commoditie is preserued by one with gene­rall consente of minde. So as if any doe excell the reste, to him the commonweale is committed. In these two states men doe liue best, because the order of them doth not onely preserue Cities, but al­so make the Citizens happie. Some men haue thought the moste perfect commonweale, should be tempered and framed of all the three estates. Which is the cause, that they preferre the Lacedemonian go­uerment The forme of the Lacede­monian com­monweale.being compounded of the nobilitie, (which was the Senators) of the authoritie of one, (which was the King) and of the people (which were the Ephori.) For they were alwaies chosen among the The Romane state.number of popular men. Polibius extolleth the Romane state, be­cause it consisted of the King, the Nobilitie, and the people; sup­posing that the king for feare of the people, coulde not become insolente, and the people durste not disobeye him, in respecte of the Senate. Which forme of commonweale was with good reason accounted most iust. For as perfect harmonie is compounded, of [Page 19] treble, meane, and base tewnes: euen so a good commonweale, and the surest agreement amongest men, is (as Cicero saith) made by mixture of the best, the meane, and the base people. We are also of opinion, that commonweale is perfect, which containeth good and vertuous▪ subiectes, and is gouerned by a king, a Senate, and consent of the people; wishing the King should obserue his lawes, and doe those A perfect cō ­monweale.thinges which be honourable, and agreeable to the aduise of his coun­cell. For the lawe is most perfect reason, whereunto whosoeuer o­beyeth, doth seeme a God among men. Wee wish likewise, that all Councellors should be men of much vertue: for they being a meane betwixt the king and people, may the rather giue councell, by what meanes the state may be safely gouerned. The authoritie of Coun­cellors The authority of Coūcellors▪consisteth in consulting, iudging and commaunding. The king vseth these men as friendes and Councellors, imploying their vertue and aduise in matters of most difficulty, which is the cause that men say, the king hath many hands, many eyes, and many feete. More­ouer, for that it seemeth a thing rather diuine their humaine, that one man alone should gouerne the whole state, it is necessary to haue the aide of many others; yet referring the determination to the king alone, all things are like to proceede well. But he that doth manage all mat­ters without Councel, trusting only to his owne iudgement, is thought rather a selfe-liker, then a wise man. As therfore the aduise of Councel­lors is profitable in commonweales, where the resolution is reserued to the king only. So where the determination resteth in many, the same becommeth vnprofitable. For as a man hauing many seruantes, and commaunding somwhat to be done, euery one runneth, & yet nothing is done; but committing his busines to one alone, findeth the same performed: So happeneth it in commonweales, where many haue au­thority, one trusting to another, they become careles, & the affaires of the commonweale receiue preiudice. The multitude of gouernours' doth (as experience teacheth) proue vnprofitable, & therfore the pro­uerbe saith, Rex vnicus esto. And as the head, without perill of life, can­not be taken from the heart, so may not the king be remoued from his Councell, because such disiunction breedeth discord to the common The necessity of Coūcellorsweale, and in the ende confusion and destruction may followe thereof. In euerye commonweale a Councell is of greate necessitie, for [Page 20] it giueth aduise, not onely to the king, but vnto the state also; not vn­like vnto the vitall parte of mans soule, which being in the hearte, gi­ueth life to that which is pertaker of Reason, & is placed in the head. The king also through aduise of the Senate doth more profitably directe the commonweale, because hee onely doth gouerne, although in gouernment hee vseth to be councelled. For as reason doth in all proceedinges thereof, employe the seruice of the sences: Yet is it that alone which determineth, and ought aboue the reste to bee honoured. A Prince therefore contente to be councelled, becom­meth of all other men the wisest, because hee beareth aboute him a iudgemente perfecte and fullye furnished with the instructions and aduise of many. Thus doing, a Kinge shall well gouerne all things, not onelye through his owne opinion, which may many waies be de­ceiued, but also by the common aduise and councell of others, whereby his reason and iudgemente is brought to perfection. Of which two thinges who so euer is possessed, may deseruinglye bee thought a GOD among men. Euen as the hand deuided into ma­ny fingers, is thereby made strong and apte to laye holde of all things. So he that gouerneth with the assistance of Councellors and ministers, shall doe all thinges with better discretion and wisedome. For one man is not fitt to performe all actions. Alexander of Mace­don with his small hande conquered greate enemies. Pyrhus excelled in choosing places of fortification. Haniball was often victorious, yet ignorant howe to vse the victorie. Philopemen was skilfull in the warres by sea. Cleon coulde manure landes and possessions. Cicero was an excellente Orator, Pompeius a Captayne, Cato a Councel­lor, and Scipio skilfull both in warre and peace. So were diuers o­thers: for euerye man (as saith the prouerbe) is Roscius in his owne Orde popu­laris.facultie. Wee will, that the popular order or meane officers of this our commonweale (who ought also to participate of the gouerment) shall be chosen amongest the better and moste vertuous sorte of sub­iectes, wherein an Optimatie is resembled, for they are as a Semi­narie of Councellors and other magistrates. Betwixt which two sortes of men, this is the onelye difference, that those which are placed in the soueraigne offices, beeing both for age and dignitie the worthier persons, shall be most esteemed and honoured. As for [Page 21] the rest of the people, it shall suffice, that they bee maintayned in ci­uill life, and obedience of the Magistrates. For our meaning is not, that anye of the multitude, as Plowemen, Artizanes, and other persons of vile occupation shall aspyre vnto the offices, which oughte bee giuen vnto welthye Citizens, Gentlemen, and others of good education and wisedome. Moreouer, for so much as, all our discourse tendeth to describe a perfecte commonweale, which is that wherein the people doe liue happilye: and happinesse procee­deth of vertue, it behooueth that men beeing borne in that state shoulde bee capable of vertue, felicitie, and honestie. Wee maye not therefore permitte, that any Artizan, Merchant, or bondman shall exercise the gouerment, because their trade of life is vile, and voyde of Merchantes, Artizans, and seruants re­pulsed from gouerment.vertue. And albeit they are necessarie for the societie of men, yet in respect they bee occupyed in actions vnfitte for free men, they are not to bee admitted to gouerne the commonweale. Which was the reason that mooued Constantinus the Emperour to determine by lawe, that none of the base multitude, or mechanicall people shoulde beare of­fice in the state, because it is presumed, that Cities were builded as­well for the habitation of wise and honest men, as persons of necessitie. Yet are not such men to be contemned or reputed miserable, for it were vniuste, and againste the vnitie of a commonweale, to depriue them of all honour and rewarde, beeing partakers of euerye bur­then, and also of such condition as withoute them, the state cannot bee maintayned. It is therefore necessarie, that they doe participate of such offices as are fit for their callinges, and receiue rewardes accor­dinge to their qualitie. For as the noble and wealthie subiectes bee honoured in their vocation, so these hauing vertuouslye deserued, oughte to bee aduanced. Aristotle and Plato his Maister, doe af­firme there are sixe thinges wherewith euerye Citie shoulde a­bounde, Six things in all states re­quired.and that without them it cannot bee. The first is victu­all or foode, the prouiding whereof belongeth to husband­men and heardemen: The seconde is necessarye handie craftes, which is performed by the Artificers: The thirde is Armes to resiste forraine enemies and represse ciuill disorder. It is there­fore expediente to haue Soldiours prepared, and exercised, to the [Page 22] ende that the commonweale may be defended from forraine inuasion, and conserued in liberty and in peace. Fourthly the state hath neede of money, both for ciuill and militarie vses. Fiftlie it requireth mini­sters of diuine sacramentes. Sixtlie Iudges and Councellors are neede­full, because euerie commonweale is gouerned by good Councell, to the ende that iniustice, and the iniquitie of men may be extirped. By meane whereof iniurers, contemners of lawe, and all iniust persons The com. consisteth of sixe sortes of mē.be punished. Thus it appeareth, that euery commonweale consisteth of sixe sortes of men, to witt, husbandmen, Artizans, Merchantes, Sol­diours, Priestes, Iudges, and Councellors. Of this number wee will leaue aside three, as men vnfitte to gouerne, which are husband­men, Merchantes and Artizantes, beeing borne rather to serue, then commaunde. For to the happinesse of euerie commonweale, the councell of wise and free men is required, and the state needeth libe­rall, quiete, and honest ayde, which wanteth in men that are occupied in Two sortes of men onely fit for the pla­ces of gouer­ment.vncleane and illiberall artes. Two sortes of men therefore are onelie to be imployed as gouernours, that is to say, Soldiours and Councel­lors. For seeing that in all commonweales, two time are looked for, that is to witt, a time of peace and a time of warre. It behooueth, that those onelye shoulde be accounted gouernours, vnto whome the care of peace and warre is committed. For in time of warre the commonweale is defended by Armes, and in time of peace the same is preserued by Councell. Therefore to Soldiours and Councellors the conseruati­tion and authoritie of gouernment ought to bee committed. To the The office of meane sub­iectes.inferiour officers, which wee call Popularis ordo, wee giue power to e­lecte the greate Magistrates, with other rightes belonging to publique libertie and felicitie: Yet not to all men in generall, but to euerye one in particular, according to his vertue and office. The younger sorte shall be imployed in warre, because they are the strongest and of most force, and the elders muste gouerne and directe, as men of more wisedome and experience. Of such distribution, this good will ensue, which in euerie commonweale is commendable and holie, that men of grauitie and wisedome shall without iniurie to others exercise the soueraigne offices, and the yonger sorte wanting experience, shall not in those places inter­meddle The office of Priestes.nor deale in the affayres of moste weight and greatest impor­tance. Amonge these degrees and sundrie sortes of men, the order of [Page 23] Priesthoode hath the precedence, because the same is imployed in the administration of diuine ceremonies. The dignitie of that office hath alwayes beene holden moste holie, for in AEgypte it is vnlawe­full for anye Kinge to gouerne, vnlesse hee bee also a Prieste. Their duetie was to sacrifice to GOD for the peoples wellfare, and pray for those thinges which were profitable, aswell for priuate persons as the weale publique. When Alcibiades was condemned by the Athe­nians, order was taken that the religious people of eyther sexe shoulde curse him, which one of them refused to doe, saying they had entered Religion, not to make vniuste but iuste prayers. Plato Ordinances of plato tou­ching Priest­hood.in his common weale willeth, that the election of Priestes shoulde be lefte vnto GOD, to the ende that those whome hee thought fit­test mighte by lotte and fortune aspyre vnto that dignitie. Hee com­maunded moreouer, that those which were in election to bee chosen, shoulde bee examined whether they were persons honeste, sounde, of good education, and borne of noble parentage, and whether they were free from murther, and all other vices, contrarye to Gods commaundementes. Hee ordayned likewise, that no Prieste shoulde exercise that function longer than one yeare, nor be of lesse age then thirtie yeares. These and such like ordinances of priesthoode, Plato the wise Philosopher (as it were by diuine inspiration) hath written.

For they seeme to haue beene gathered rather from the Lawe of Moses, then the discipline of Socrates. This Phylosopher had his edu­cation among the Priestes of Egypte, where hee learned such instructi­ons as made his Philosophie so perfect, that whatsoeuer proceeded from the mouth of Plato, was accounted diuine. Aristotle excludeth this spirituall minister from the administration of ciuill polecye, gi­uing that authoritye, to the well deseruing Citizens. Seeing then it is nessarie that GOD shoulde bee serued, and that the Citizens of authoritie (as is aforesaide) are of two sortes, that is to witte, Soldiours and Councellors, it appeareth no bondeman, Artizan, Marchante or other person of base profession oughte be receiued Among what sort of men Priestes should be chosen.into the ministerie, but that euerye Prieste shall bee elected a­monge the number of Soldiours or professors of learning, and that with respecte of age and qualitie of bodie, to the ende they maye bee fitte to exercise the office of that diuine callinge. [Page 24] For it seemeth reasonable, that those who in their youth haue carefully & manfully employed themselues in the seruice of their commonweale, beeing become weried and vnable for action, should in their age be ad­mitted to liue contemplatiuelie, and die in Gods seruice. Among those kinde of men therefore he commaundeth, that the ministerie shoulde be distributed. Of the Athieste, we will say nothing, neyther will we dis­course of the Philosophers religions, who though not so impiously, yet otherwise then we, do honour God. Because ours is the true God, the true religion, and our ministers farre vnlike to theirs. It hath beene also determined in schooles and Vniuersities, that the most ancient and sincere religion shoulde be knowen to all men. But in what sorte the Priestes of our commonweale ought to be chosen, our intent is not heere to discourse, neuerthelesse let vs consider, whether they ought to be admitted to gouerne in the state or no. It seemeth apparantly, that the Priestes in most ancient time were made by the author all good, and first lawemaker Iesus Christ, who beeing himselfe before all o­thers, a Priest according to the lawe of Melchisedech, did thereby declare he was the head and foundation of that order, & that nothing was in hea­uen more holy, nor in earth more diuine, nor in the whole worlde bet­ter, and to those men he gaue the knowledge and iudgement of that di­uine lawe and ordinance. It was therefore thought expedient, profi­table, and necessary, that the Princes of euerie commonweale should be accompanied and councelled with spirituall ministers▪ and that not without cause. For what is more worthy, or in gouerment more iuste and godly, then that those who be indued with wisedome (not learned in the temple of Delphos but receiued from the heauenly spirite,) should execute the lawes thereof iustlie and holily. Who so then doth banishe those men from the commonweale, seemeth vniust, barbarous, vnex­pert, and no Citizen of our Christian state. And i [...] euerie commonweale be conserued by the religion of God, wherein the ministers haue moste knowledge, those states seeme to doe most godly and iustly, that in their gouerments haue imployed such councell; as the Romanes, the Egyptians the Iewes, and many other haue heeretofore done. To such men there­fore God hath committed the welfare and felicitie of men. Who is then so simple or sencelesse, that thinketh not their councell necessary for the conseruation of libertie, goods and fortune? Heetherto wee haue de­clared which is the best commonweale, and what order of life the [Page 25] Citizens thereof ought to embrace. A commonweale then so framed, accustomed to vertue, and plentifully furnished with fortunes giftes, doth seeme of all other thinges to be most noble, most holy, and most fortunate. In the description whereof, least we be thought to haue one selfe conceit with Plato, so as what hath bene said of his commonweale, may be likewise affirmed of ours, (that neuer any such thing is, hath bene, or can be,) it seemeth necessary to produce examples of those formes of gouerment. And although our intent is not to abandon the reason of Philosophers, yet whēsoeuer they rely ouer much to their own wisedom, (as sometimes they doe) esteeming more their priuate iudgement, then the opinion of others, our meaning is not to beleeue them. For there be many things in their bookes and sayings, which with the times present, and vse of ciuill life, are not in any wise conformable. For if the Veneti­ans, the Scoises or Gene [...]oies, should imitate the gouerment of Plato his commonweale, in vaine they should doe it, or if we did follow the ordi­nances Plato his commōweale▪of Cyrus written by Xenophon, happely the same should not much informe our Princes. Of other commonweales I speake not. The descrip­tion of that state which we intend to frame, shalbe ordinarie, reasonable, and according to the custome of men, yet accompayning the fame with Philosophicall histories. The forme of our perfect commonweale was described in the ancient Athenian Monarchie. That people being dis­persed▪ The Athenian cōmonweale.and like vnto beastes wandring in the field, were first by Cecrope, and after by Theseus constrained to inhabite a Citie, which was then cal­led Cecropiae, and since named Athens, and at length (reduced to a king­dome) descended to their posterity. But what authority the Senate, vnder those kings had, (which order did represent the Optimatie) by reason the time is long since passed, and few writers haue therof written, cannot be to vs apparantly knowen: yet must we beleeue, that those kinges had about them wise men, whose councell they imployed in gouerning. The kinges of that age (as Thucidides affirmeth) did rule by consent of the people, and with their suffrages determined many thinges, whereof themselues were doubtfull. Yet that gouerment in­dured not, but was through tract of time (which alter [...]th all things) com­mitted to the multitude, whose force and power vtterly subuerted the commonweale. The Lacedemonian state (as is before said) seemed The Lacede­monian com­monweale.to containe all three sortes of gouerment, that is; the King, the Nobili­tie, and people. What shoulde I say of the Romanes? Shall I not [Page 26] The Romane Monarchie. call those times golden, when kinges were content to be Councelled? Romulia▪ as Liui [...] writeth, being by consent both of Gods and men elected king, notwithstanding the state was then little, refused to go­uerne the same alone; calling vnto him an hundred Senators for his assistance, whom eyther in respect of their age or vertue, he called fathers. And least the people should hold themselues ill satisfied, and defrau­ded of all honours, and thereby hatred might ensue, eyther towards the King or Senate, he made them capable of the iudiciall offices, and suffered them to haue voyces in determining warre, and concluding of peace, with many other priuiledges. And wolde God that forme of commonweale had still continued in Rome: For then so great effusion▪ of blood had not beene made▪ in the aspyring to liberty, and exten­ding the boundes of the Romane Empyre. Neyther shoulde the hap­pines of that state haue beene with so many seditions disturbed, where­by scarsly at any time it hath liued in peace. But let vs now consider of The Empyre of Germany.commonweales in our age: we see that the Empyre of Germanie con­sisteth of the Emperour, the Princes and the people. That state beeing gouerned by diuers potentates, and the pollecy drawne into sundry go­uermentes, The French Monarchie.cannot easely be described. The french Monarchie, hath in it a king who ruleth at his owne discretion, and although his autho­ritie be not confined to lawe, yet against lawe and honour he doth not anything, but liueth as a iust and honourable Prince. In that kingdome, the noble men whom they call peares, represent an Optimatie, the people is deuided into three sortes, Gentlemen, Priestes, and popu­lar multitude, and a choise number compounded of these three, and as­sembled by the kings commandement, doe determine of matters, which in the commonweale are of most importance. This Councell was an­ciently called Pauceltium, as the Aet [...]oli named their generall assemblie Panaetolium▪ or as the vniuersall Councels of Ionia was termed Panionium. The Monar­chy of SpayneIn Spayne the king hath authority soueraigne, the Councel royall resem­bleth the Optimatie, and the three chiefe orders of knighthood, may be likened to the popular state. For the order of S. [...]ago, Callatraua, & Al [...]an­tara, assembled with the king, do determine of matters most important▪ The Monar­chy of Polo­nia.The kingdome of Polonia doth also consist of the said three sortes, that is, the king, nobility and people: But it is to be noted, that this word people includeth only knights and gentlemen. The liberty & fellowship of those orders is so great, as the king, without aduise of his coūcel & their autho­rity doth not any thing, neither ca [...] the coūcel determine without the al­lowance [Page 27] of the King, and consent of the people. In that kingdome the lawes are of so great force, as euery man religiously sweareth to keepe and obserue them, and ifcontrarie to that othe any thing be done, the same is accounted iniust and impious. That othe which they sweare for the obseruation of their lawes and liberty is in their language cal­led Captue, which signifieth in Latine Tegmen capitis, for as the heade is kept from cold by being couered, so through vertue of that othe, their lawes, liberty and welfare is conserued, because in maintayning thereof, no good man feareth to aduenture his life against Tyrants, and all others that labour to violate the boundes of publique liberty and happinesse. That people therefore doe liue in great liberty, beeing perswaded that to liue according to lawe, is indeed perfect freedome. In that kingdome, the Prince gouerneth by lawes, and proceedeth not according to will. In making of warre or concluding of peace, he vseth the aduise of his Councell, neuer transgressing the lawes; which worketh this effect, that among the people the kinges person is not onely highly honoured, but also for a God rightly reuerenced and adored. For who is he that would not entirely loue, honour, and reuerence that Prince, who in gouerning, is of one selfe minde with the lawe, contented to be led by the line of rea­son, directing his doings, according to the expert wisdome of his Coun­cellors. If authority be thus vsed, what consent, loue, and mutuall affec­tion doth it make among subiectes? To conclude, the king of Polonia seemeth such a Prince, as Plato, Aristotle, Xenophon, and other law-makers haue wished to be in commonweales, & as nature and God himselfe doth allowe. The Senate doth in that state represent the Optimatie, and hath (as is aforesaid) great authority. For being chosen amongest the most graue and wise gentlemen, they onely with the king doe consult of the com­monweale. Their authority is not vnlike to the Homotim [...] in Persia, or the Ephori in Lacedemonia. The gentlemen of Polonia doe represent the popu­lar state, for in them consisteth a great part of the gouerment, and they are as a Seminarie from whence Councellors and Kinges are taken. The The king­dome of England.kingdome of Brytannie now called England, obeyeth one King, who choseth his. Councellors, vnto whome the rest of the Nobility and po­pular order being ioyned, doe make one common Councell: which in their language is called Parliament. The Venetian state, seemeth framed The Venetian state.after the same fashion, but they within the name of people, doe onely include Gentlemen and Citizens, taking great heede, least any other [Page 28] should vsurpe that title, because they onely are capable of the magi­stracie. Out of that number the Senate is chosen, which represen­teth an Optimatie, and is as foundation of that state. The Duke is also elected of that number resembling a king. And surely there is no Monarchie or commonweale that can compare with it, for quiet go­uerment and longe continuance; whether the cause thereof proceedeth from God, from fortune, from the obseruation of Iustice, or from the naturall seate of that Citie, I neede not nowe to discourse. But true it is, that all occasions of ciuill discention and subuersion are remoo­ued. Of good commonweales, let this we haue sayde suffice: and consider what are those thinges that doe chiefly make them perfect and happie.

In euerie cō ▪monweale three things required. In euery good and perfect commonweale, three thinges are specially required, that is to say, Magistrates, lawes, and ciuill discipline: for without these, no Citie nor societie of men coulde euer be preserued▪ The office of Magistrates.The office of Magistrates is, to rule and commaund the people to doe those thinges, that be iust, profitable and agreeable to lawe and rea­son. Cicero no lesse learnedly then eloquently saith, that as the lawes gouerne the Magistrates, so the Magistrates ought to gouerne the people: and the Magistrate may be iustly called the liuing lawe: and the lawe a dombe Magistrate. Hee therefore in all commonweales is of greate necessitie: for without his wisedome, councell, fidelitie, and discretion, no state can stande nor be gouerned, whereof also the state and order of euerye commonweale may be knowen. As the shippe in tempestious seas is endangered, and many time drowned vn­lesse by the labour and industrie of the mariners it be saued: So the commonweale tormented with tempest of seditions and discord, must perish, if through the diligence and wisedome of the Magistrates it be not preserued. Or as mans bodie is ruled by reason▪ so euery Citie and Lawe, the soule of cōmonweals.societie of men must of necessitie containe a soule (which is the lawe) to be thereby gouerned, and that lawe proceedeth from the reason, coun­cell and iudgement of wise men. For where no lawes nor Magistrates are, there no God, no men, nor no society can be continued. The true law of man is reason, which wisemen doe giue vnto themselues, & others receiue from the Magistrates, perswading them to eschue things forbid­den by law, no lesse then if the same were contrary to reason. They ther­fore that in wisdom & discretion do excell others, & are (as is aforesaid) [Page 29] made of golden or siluer nature, because they can deserue best of mans society, are to be aboue others aduanced. For as Cities well walled and fortefied, are thereby defended from the fury of enemies: So tran­quilitie and happie life is by the councell of wise men preserued. Ther­fore What know­ledges ought be in Coun­cellors.it behooueth them first, to be indued with such vertues as may make the commonweale happy, then, that they be affectionate to the state, and liue therein contented, to the ende they attempt no innouation, and lastly that they be authorised to execute those thinges, which they thinke profitable for the commonweale. For so shall they commaund with more reputation, and the subiectes more willingly obey them. Surely whosoeuer shall without indignitie aspyre to the place of supreme gouerment, hath neede to vse great art and singular wisedome. For such a one is to gouerne, not one onely house, not one onely famely, not one onely wife, not one onely rase of children, but the commonweale, deuided into infinite and contrarie humors of men, which by his wise­dome must be reduced to one consent, equality, and concord. More­ouer VVhat magi­strates are most profita­ble in the state.for somuch as in commonweales, there are three degrees of magi­strates, among whom the king holdeth the most supreame place, next vnto him is the Senate, and the third is distributed to the people, what profit may be reaped of euery of them, let vs now consider. The kinges The office of Kinges.authority contayneth great vertue, high vnderstanding, and diuine wise­dome; for as God is prince of the vniuersall world, so is the King Lord of the whole commonweale. It behooueth him therefore to gouerne iustlie and godlie, because in the commonweale he is accounted the Lieuetenant of God. For the Councell, wisedome, and knowledge of kinges is not their owne, but giuen them of God. Also, for somuch as, no king can with his diligence and onely wisedome, equally gouerne the whole state, (for it is rather the vertue of God then man, exactlye to know all thinges apperteyning to good gouerment) they haue therfore vsed to call vnto their assistance some wise men, whereby the common­weale might be the better gouerned. Those men beeing as a meane betwixt the king and the people, doe on the one side, know the office of the king, and on the other, what are the customes and lawes belonging to the people: thereof conceiuing, what ought be done for preserua­tion of the kinges honour, and what apperteyneth to the profitt of the commonweale & people. We thereof inferre; that these magistrates or councellors, are of all other most able to stand the cōmonweale in stead. [Page 30] The king being but one onely man, cannot looke vnto all thinges, and sometimes it happeneth that eyther by giuing liberty to his appe­tites, or yeelding to his affections, hee is seduced from true reason: and the ignorant multitude, being (as they say) without head or di­scretion, cannot be capable of that knowledge. Yet the Senate being A Senate in al cōmonweales of much ne­cessitie.chosen, and made of vertuous, wise and expert men, may from their place (as from a watch-tower) looke about, and prouide thinges needefull for the state, preuenting all seditions, tumultes, and pe­rils that can be attempted: which is the respect, there is not skantlie any commonweale, which vseth not to commit eyther the whole, or the greatest charge of gouernment to the Senate. For albeit they were indeede called Kings, who first assembled the habitation of men into Cities, liuing before sauagely, dispersed in woods and fieldes; yet with that course of gouernment, the kings could not alone retayne them in obedience. Neyther did the authority and wisdome of one Prince suffise, when the mindes of men were reduced to ciuilitie, and their The originall of Counsel­lors.wonted bestialitie reiected. It therefore behoued kings to be accom­panied with the Councell of wisemen, to the ende the commoweale might be the better gouerned: which we reade, was done by Romulus. For he supposing that the gouernment of one without aduise of Coun­sell, would proue eyther perilous, odious, or without grauitie, did call vnto his assistance a hundreth Senators, whome eyther in respect of their age, or wisedome, he named Fathers. The like was done by Theopompus, king of Sparta, who appoynted the Ephor [...], giuing them great authoritie in the state: whereat his wife offended, and saying, that he [...]ad thereby diminished the power of his posteritie in that kingdome, answe­red, that it was enlarged and strengthened, being perswaded, that tho­rough Counsell and authoritie of the Senate, the state wold be excee­dingly encreased and inforced. Whereby it appeareth, that the ad­uice of Counsellors were from the beginning by kings embraced, and all men haue thought those resolutions to be most firme and assured, VVhat a Se­nate is.which were by Councell and wisedome of the Senate digested. I call that a Senate, which is the chiefe magistracie appoynted to giue Coun­sell VVhat sort of men ought to be made Se­nators.and gouerne the state. And consequently, the Senator is a man lawfully elected into the number authorised to counsell, & gouerne the commonweale. It hath therefore alwaies beene, that the order of Coun­sellors was framed of the most discreet, wise, and noble sort of subiectes [...] [Page 31] because there is not any society of men so barbarous, but desireth the gouernment should rest in men of such vertue, and thinketh it a thing honest and iust to obey them. Among all sortes of men, there is not any so wise, and of such perfect and absolute vertue, as is the Senator, be­cause all others, eyther through want of yeares, lacke of experience, or inconstancie, are (for the most parte) withdrawen from the best course of life; but a Counsellor is not by any affections troubled, by appetites transported, nor by youth inueigled, but by reason gouer­ned, by Counsell directed, and by ag [...] made perfect. Counsellors also in respect of their capacities, reason, Counsell, iudgement, and VVhereof the Senators be so named.ripenes, may be called Senators, because in them all youthfull appe­tites and furies be decayed, and the force of reason increased▪ which being growen to perfection in men, doth make them like vnto Gods. Furthermore, for somuch as there are (as the Philosophers affirme) in all things three degrees, Great, Small and Indifferent, that is thought most perfect, which doth participate of eyther. So the Senator be­ing The duetie of Senators.as it were a meane, betwixt the king and people, may the better finde the perfection of all things, and consider, what are the offices of Kinges, and what the dutie of people, with the right, liberties, and lawes apperteyning to eyther, least the people, for want of good gouernment, do coue [...] immoderate liberty, or the King lacking aduise, doe fall into tyr [...]n [...]y. It behoueth the Counsellor to be of high wise­dome, great vnderstanding, and much experience▪ endeuouring him­selfe to [...]e carefull and vigilant, for the well doing, quiet and happi­nesse of all the commonweale, which ought be the study of him that is of high capacity and supernaturall vnderstanding. Scipio saith, that as the ende of the Saylors endeuour, is good passage▪ the Physi­tions trauell tendeth to health; and the captaynes labour to victo­rie: so the happy life of subiectes, their wealth, their glory and vertue, ought to be the endeuour of our Counsellor; and from him, as one amongst the rest, of most singularity and perfection, the same proceedeth. We shall now therfore discourse, what foundati­on of great wisedome hath, and what exercises, knowledge and ver­tue ought to be in a Counsellor: which being knowen, the waies and degrees, wherby he may attayne to so excellent qualities, shall be the more easie. For as much as the foundation and roote of euery com­monweale, is the inhabitants thereof, we will first aboue all thinges [Page 32] The Coun­cellor must be of naturall birth. determine, that our Councellor shall be naturally borne within that state where he gouerneth. Because that birth and being, doth not onely binde him, but also leade him to beleeue, it is honourable, iust and necessary, to spend his blood in defence of his country: for the onely loue which men doe beare vnto their country, doth exceede all other pie­tie. And how is it possible that any man should not loue that country, wherein he hath his parentes, his children, his neighbours and friends; The loue of our country naturall.and that which hath freely giuen him life, name, and honour, with eue­ry other thing requirable, eyther for delight or necessity? Surely Na­ture hath so deepely and firmely planted in the mindes of men the loue to their country, as neuer any good subiect did feare, at necessary occa­sions, to aduenture his life. Yea we haue found the force therof to haue beene such, as euen the wicked and most vnnaturall subiectes, attemp­ting the subuertion of their country, at the onely sight of their naturall soyle, haue stayed their handes from performing so wicked an enter­prise. Did not Veturia disswade her sonne Martius beseging Rome? only by reducing to his memory, the loue he ought to haue vnto his naturall country, calling him impious and audacious, for daring to disturbe that Citie wherein he was begotten and bred, forgetting that within the walls thereof his mother, wife, children, famelie and friendes liued? Greate was the loue of Ʋeturia towardes her country, and no lesse was the pi­etie of Martius in pardoning his country: which through the cruel­tie of the Tribunes; at that time persecuting the Nobilitie, had beene to him vnthankefull. Sertorius in like manner desired Pompeius and Me­tellus to procure his reuocation, saying, he desired rather to be called an obscure Citizen of Rome, then else where an Emperour. Therfore Ouidius Naso the Poet saith truely.

Nescio qua natale solum dulcedine cunctos
Ducit, & immemores non sinit esse sui.

Great is the obligation which bindeth vs to our country, where­unto our goods and persons are (as it were) impawned. Pythagoras (as Plato saith) beeing asked in what sorte a man shoulde be vngrate­full to to country, answered, as to his mother, because all iniuries are to be pardoned for our countries sake: neyther is there anye of­fence so greate, which the loue of our country ought not delaye and [Page 33] diminish. Let our Councellor therefore be a subiect naturally borne, Strangers sus­pected in the cōmonweale.sith no man of forraine birth ought be preferred to that dignitie, be­cause the Councell of strangers, is accounted suspicious, perilous and dangerous. The Athenians therefore did not onely seclude all strangers from their Councels, but also suffered them not to dwell within their Citie: leaste by such meanes they might aspyre vnto the magistracie, and induce the Citizens mindes to innouation, whereby change of lawes, customes, manners and seditions might growe. Which manner of proceeding, we see the Ʋenetians haue carefully obserued. For among them greate heede is taken, least anye vnder false tide, shoulde intrude himselfe into that number; which is capable of the gouerment. Whereby all forenners and stran­gers bee vtterly excluded. But happelye it may seeme considera­ble, who those are which ought be called Citizens. This worde What a Citi­zen is.Citizen, hath beene aswell among Phylosophers as lawe-makers, diuerselye defined. Some haue called the whole number of Inha­bitantes by the name of Citizens. Others, onely those that are des­cended of Noble and free Citizens. Others haue called them Citi­zens, who haue one of their parentes free borne within the Citie. And some woulde that the Citizen shoulde fetch his Pedigree from his ancient grandfathers. Some doe also thinke that strangers re­ceiued into the societie of Citizens and naturallized, shoulde be cal­led Citizens. Aristotle doth call them by the name of Citizens, that are capable of the offices in the state, and are descended of free and honest parentage. Surelye the opinion of euerye of these touching the name of Citizen is not to be thought strange, see­ing that custome and lawe doth in euerye place giue direction what is to be done, framing their reasons according to the qualitie of the state wherein they liue. In popular states all they are com­monly Who is called a Citizen in states popu­lar.called Citizens that doe inhabite the Citie, aswell poore as rich, bad as good, wise as learned, not beeing bonde men, for euerye one is capable of the gouernmente, and liue all in one equalitie. Of this nature was the Athenian commonweale, so long as it was popularlye gouerned, and in our dayes the Cantons of Switserlande doe obserue the same customes. Diuers other cities in Germanie are called free, where the inhabitantes doe liue popularly, se­cluded Who is called a Citizen, in A Monarchie, or an Aristo­cratie.from gentlemen & noble citizens. In Monarchies, & Aristocraties [Page 34] those are named Citizens that liue according to vertue. And in the one, onely good and vertuous men doe exercise the gouerment, and in the other, one alone for bounty excelling the rest doth commaund all, who Whereof the king is called Rex.eyther a regendo, or recte agendo, is called Rex. Those people which are naturally slaues or wicked, doe for the most part obey Tyrants, and that gouerment is called Imperium despoticum, because they gouerne by will without lawe. Such people are seruile, barbarous, and without vertue or honour. Yet are not they to be accounted slaues, that be oppressed with power, ambition and couetousnesse of Tyrants, if that therwith they be not base minded and vitious. For we may read of many such, that haue reuenged the seruitude, both of their owne persons, and of their country, by sleying or expelling the Tyrants, or not being able so to doe, haue chosen rather to loose their liues then their liberty: as in Rome, Brutus, Cato, and many other had done. In an Who is a Ci­tizen in an Oligarchia. Oligarchia, because men are chiefly respected for their riches, they who are most welthy will onely be reputed Citizens; which kinde of men ought be holden dishonourable, because they are carelesse of all vertue, and studie for nothing else, then how to become rich by what meane soeuer, to the ende, that not as wise and vertuous; but as rich men, they may aspyre to the offices and honours in the Who weare Citizens in Rome.commonweale. Among the Romaines, there were diuers kindes of Citizens: for some were called, Municipes, some Col [...]i, and some Latini, euery one retayning those conditions that were granted them by the people of Rome, some were free, some confederate, and some stipendarie. Some were made Citizens pleno iure, which was by consent of voyces, and they were capable of all honours: or Iure honorario, which were they, that were onely admitted into the Citie without suffrage, and for honours sake called Citizens, as were the Company and Equiti. Hee was also accounted a Citizen of Rome, whose name was written in the Censors booke, and was an householder in Rome. By these thinges we haue sayde, it appea­reth, that in all commonweales those are properly called Citizens, that in their Citie haue right to beare office, and giue suffrage in the state, which priueledge who so wanteth, is rather to be cal­led an Inhabitante or Clyant, then a Citizen. In other thinges, requisite to the perefction of a Citizen, as vertue, naturall byrth, riches, and Nobilitie; the custome and lawe of euery state, is to [...]e [Page 35] obserued. Of all these we will onely allowe of two sortes, the one No­ble, Two sortes of Citizens.the other plebeiall. For euery Citie consisteth of the people, and the multitude; within the name of people (as Caius the Doctor writeth) all principall Citizens, Noblemen, Senators and Gentlemen are con­teyned. The worde plebeiall, includeth the rest of the inhabitants, and others that haue beeing within the state. So as the one sort ought be called Citizens properly, and the other so termed by imitation and courtesie. But our Councellor shall be of the number of noble and free Citizens. A noble Citizen taketh his title of that nobilitie which The Councel­lor must be of the number of Noble Citi­zens.hath the originall of vertue, which is partlie his owne, and partlie as or­nified and increased by the vertues and riches of his ancestors. They therefore, that aswell by their owne as their ancestors vertue be made noble, are to be preferred, honoured and reuerenced before others, because of good parents good children are begotten: as the Poet saith.

Fortes fortibus creantur & bonis,
Est in iumentis, est in equis patrū
Virtus, ne [...] imbellet feroces
Progenerant [...]q [...]ilae [...]o [...]mbam.

To the per­fection of a Noble Citizē three things required. To the perfection of a Noble Citizen (as Aristotle saith) three thinges are chiefely required; good parentage, riches, and vertue. Who so possesseth all those, wanteth nothing appertayning to true and perfect nobilitie, and such men were euer wonte to be called most Noble Citizens. But because it seldome happeneth that one man can be owner of them all, vertue alone doth chalenge, (as her right) pow­er to make men noble. Touching riches and honour of ancestors, as Nobilitie for vertue.they doe ornifie Nobilitie, so doe they greatly disgrace the beau­tie thereof in those, that liue not vertuouslye. For such men doe make the name of their ancestors obscure, and through the vices of their posteritie, they become vtterly vnknowne. It is therefore better (as Tullius saith) to be noble by a mans owne vertue, then by the opinion conceiued of his ancestors, because the beginner of No­bilitie Nobilitie by descent.is most praise worthy. Who so is descended from Noble pa­rentes, doth deferne vndoubtedly to be commended and honoured, so that he doth endeuour himselfe to equall, or excell the glorious actes and vertue of his ancestors. And who would not greatly commend [Page 36] them for so doing, declaring themselues thereby thankefull towardes their ancestors▪ by not burying the fa [...]e of the dead, and increasing the The Rhodian lawe.same by their owne vertue yet liuing? The lawe of the Rhodians see­meth commendable, for therby it was enacted, that those sonnes which followed not their fathers vertue, but liued vitiously▪ should be disin­herited, and their la [...]des giuen to the most vertuous of that rase, not admitting any impious heire whatsoeuer. It is an office of our f [...]ith and pietie, to leaue vnto the posteritie of men, a declaration howe mindfull and thankefull we are towardes our ancestors, whose heirs we are; not onely of their worldly goods, but of their vertue, glorie, faith▪ & religion; which is the true inheritance, and may indeed be called the true possessions. For it is not a Hall painted full of proude Armes or badges, but vertue which maketh a man Noble. As [...]uuenall saith▪

Tota licet veteres exornent vndique cerae
Atria, nobilitas sola [...]st [...]; que vnica virtus.

For wheresoeuer vertue abideth, in all estates the same is more praise worthy then fortune, because it refuseth no man, but may be by euery one embraced. Cleantes was a poore water drawer: and vertue found not Plato [...]oble man, but made him noble. We c [...]ld also tell, that of diuers bond-men, kinges haue beene descended, and of kinges of [...] spring, some haue become bond-men: such variety long tract of time bringeth, and fortune turneth all thinges vpside downe. Was not A­g [...]thocles from a potter aduanced to be a king? what was Romulus, Tul­lius Hostilius, Tarquinius Pr [...]s [...]u [...], and all the progeny of Romanes? wher­of Iuuenall writeth thus.

Et tamen vt longe repet [...] longè que reuoluas▪
Nomen ab infami gentem dedu cis Asyl [...].

Who is therfore a Gentleman? he that by nature is made vertuous. If any goodnes be in nobilitie, it is as Boetius thinketh, a certaine ne­cessity imposed vppon Gentlemen, that they should not degenerate from their ancestors. Moreouer, as the exercise of our qualities and actions are diuers, so are the degrees of Nobility proceeding of ver­tue, likewise diuers. The Nobility of priuate men, and all such as [Page 37] liue in contemplation, may be called Philosophicall nobilitie, but the same in those, that eyther gaine glory by counselling the commonweale Nobilitie ciuill.wisely, or that shew themselues valiant in the warre of their country, is called ciuill nobility. The force of this nobilitie extendeth to all posterity, and the memory thereof to be recorded by portratures, badges and monuments, wherewith men are incited to imitate and ho­nour the vertue of their ancestors. For the badges of nobility doe re­present Badges and Armes of Nobilitie.nothingelse, but the title or claime to nobilitie, and is a mo­nument of ancient vertue and dignitie, wherewith we are (as by a pledge of honest life) bound to follow the ancient vertue and actions of our forefathers. As in euery commonweale, there is two times, the one of peace, the other of warre, so be the noble Citizens of two sorts: the one for warre, the other apt for peace. The first of them by Armes doe inlaige, or at the least defend the confines of our country, the the second with counsell and wisedome doth gouerne and preserue it. They ought therefore be mixed, to the ende the commonweale may re­ceiue the more profit. For in all things consultable, action followeth Consultation to be prefer­red before action.Counsell, which was the respect, those men whose counsell in time of peace, gouerned the commonweale wisely, peaceablie and happilie, were preferred before them, that eyther defended or enlarged the same by armes. For as the soule is more worthy then the bodie, and peace more precious then warre, so is the one sort of men to be preferred be­fore the other. Homer induceth Agamemnon saying, he coulde more easely surprise Troy▪ with the Counsell of ten Nestors or Vlisses, then with the force of twise so many A [...]aci or Achilli. Pirrhus was also wont to say, the eloquence of Cyneas had conquered more Cities, then he with all his soldiers. But who excelleth both in wisedome and mar­tiall knowledge, is deseruingly aboue all others to be esteemed and honoured. For who so possesseth most vertue is to be reputed most worthie and honourable. We will therefore that our Councellor shall not onely be a good Citizen, but also a good man. For the vertue of The vertue of a good Ci­tizen, and the vertue of a good man, is diuersa good man differeth from the vertue of a good Citizen, in that the one vseth all vertues agreeable to honest life, the other obserueth onely the lawes made for preseruation of ciuill commoditie. And as sometimes we see a cunning Artizan an euill man, so a good Citizen in seruice of the state, may be politique, diligent, and stout, yet otherwise iniust, in­temperate, and cowardly. It is saide that Iulius Caesar was such a one, [Page 38] because his manner of life was not vnfit for a good man, yet such as did differ from the qualitie of a good Citizen. But we will that our Sena­tor shall be such a man as hath beene described.

The felicitie of common­weales and men, as one thing. Those commonweales haue euer beene accounted fortunate and hap­pie, wherein the subiectes be also blessed. For euerie Citie is such as are the manners of the Citizens. The felicitie of men and common­weales doth seeme to spring from one fountaine, from one selfe cause, and through vertue they doe become both happy. Yet all states and By what meanes the commōweale is madē hap­py.men are not onely happy by the benefit of vertue, but doe also neede the ayde of fortune. For that state onely is happy, which is good. It be­houeth therfore, that therein be the goods of minde, the goods of bodie, and riches▪ The goods of minde are gained by vertue, by ayde wher­of By what meane the commōweale is made wise.onely, the Citie is wise, strong, temperate and iust. That state is wise, which is indued with wise and good Counsell, vnderstanding what belongeth to knowledge and learning: which wisedome or knowledge, cannot be in bace people and men mechanicall, but in ciuill persons destined to honour and vertue: as Princes, Councellors, Iudges, ge­nerals and gouernours: in respect of whome the state is called wise. For if those sortes of men be foolish, vnexpert and vnlearned, the same By what meane the commōweale is valient.doth cause the whole commonweale to be vaine and simple. The valor of the state consisteth in Captaines and Soldiers, whose industrie, cou­rage and expertnes in causes militarie, doth make the commonweale valiant. Such men be formidable to foes, and defende the common­weale from dangers, whereby it becommeth assured and quiet. It great­lie behoueth euery state to haue expert and well trained soldiers, wher­by the same continueth quiet from terrors and tumults. It is therefore necessary, that in time of peace the vse of Armes be not discontinued, and that soldiers be exercised for vertue and not for violence. For to employ Armes against friendes, or the commonweale, seemeth not onely the part of a bad soldier, but also of an euill man. Wherefore The office of Soldiers.the chiefe vertue of a soldier ought be, to shew himselfe towards those of his owne country, modest, courteous and mercifull, and towardes e­nemies, fierce, couragious, and cruell. For while furie of warre raigneth, and enemies doe assault subiectes, into their handes, the com­mon welfare, religion, fidelitie and liberty of the commonweale is com­mitted: because they onely doe support the liues and goods of all o­ther subiectes. Euery soldier then that deserueth to be called a defender [Page 39] of his country, doth know, his delight ought not to be in pleasure, idlenes, or domesticall delicacie, but Armes, weapons, lances, labour and sweat. A soldier ought also to auoyde, priuate quarrell and fac­tious enterprises; neyther shall he entermeddle with ciuill conspiracy or rebellion, but at all times be carefull to withstand the perils attemp­ted against his country. Doest thou delight to hunt the Bucke, the Boare, the Beare and Hare? or take pleasure to teach thy Dogs to kill them? why shouldest thou not likewise studie to assault Castles, leade soldiers, and vanquish thine enemy? If in these things thou be igno­rant, and care onely to fill thine owne paunch, then thou makest warre with sauage beastes onely, and liest in waite for thy neighbours goods or life, whereby certainly thou liuest a seditious, ignoble and idle life, not worthy to be called a soldier, but a sluggard; not a Gentleman, but a Iugler; and therefore as a slaue, vnworthy thy dignitie we doe re­pute thee. Is the warre proclaimed? then must thou without delaie be readie, least in long thinking what pay is prepared for thee, thy e­nemie hath fraught himselfe with spoyles, and is escaped, wherby thy country shall afterwardes too late lamente thy slooth. It is therefore more profitable spedely to take armes, then with long musing to marre all. Buthappely no wages is giuen, what then? wilt thou rather sell thy seruice, or giue it to thy country; which hath giuen thee life, honour, riches, with all other things, in hope of this onely duetie, that thou shouldest hold it most deere, and as a faithfull and voluntary soldier freely defend it. God forbid thou shouldest thinke, that thy vertue were to be made Noble with money, or that thou would be called rather a couetous soldier, then a true seruant to thy country. Be perswaded that the duetie of a soldier is, to know howe to handle Armes and be fit for the warre, to liue iustly and equally with other subiectes, not offending their quiet or reputation. For if thou fight for peace, ha­uing peace, why doest thou make warre at home? Certainely it stan­deth the commonweale vpon, to prouide by lawe, that soldiers may be compelled to honest life, and feared from offending others: For there is nothing more terrible, then iniurie armed. The boldnes of soldiers not bridled by lawe, doth passe on so farre forward, as may eyther subuert the state, or inforce the good and modest subiectes, yea iustice it selfe to obey Armes; which we read heeretofore happe­ned among the Romaines, where the soldiers for diuers yeares hauing [Page 40] authoritie to choose the Emperours, vsurped the State, when ney­ther the Senate, the people, nor the lawe, coulde by any meanes resist their insolency. But of soldiers we haue perhappes to long dis­coursed.

By what meane the commōweale is made tem­perate & iust. That commonweale is temperate and iust, where the Prince and Citizens therein doe liue temperately & iustly, which things are brought to passe by the execution of lawes. For they onely are the directors as­well of life as honest liuing. From this fountaine are sprong lawes to reforme superfluitie in building, apparrell, and festing, with all others apertaining to excesse. Also from temperancie, other ordinances doe proceed belonging to iudgements: whereof the foundation, is iustice: a By what meanes the commōweale is made strong and fortunate.vertue, giuing to euery man that which is his owne. As touching the goods of body and fortune, they shall be plentifull in those common­weales, where the subiectes be healthie, strong, valiant, rich, honoura­ble and glorious. Of all which things, in the ende of this worke we will more at large entreate. Thus haue we alreadie discoursed what a commonweale is, and wherein the felicitie thereof consisteth. It remai­neth now to speake of the Citizens happie life; whereby shall be con­ceiued, in what artes and sciences our Counsellor ought be instructed To the perfe­ction of man three thinges required.to enioy both priuate and publique felicitie. To the perfection of man three things (as the Philosopher affirmeth) are required, that is to say, Nature, Custome, and Reason. As touching Nature: to be thereby good and happy, it resteth not in our power, but in the gift of God. For whomsoeuer he blesseth, is by the instinct of Nature good, wise, and of perfect iudgement. It many times also happeneth, that as one man beget­teth an other, & one beast an other, so of wise and good ancestors, wise & good posterity doth descēd, which nature alwaies indeuoreth to bring to passe, but not therin preuailing, appeareth how corruptible our nature is, either through education, or (to speake in Christian wise) through the sin of our forefathers, whō the bad Angel diuerted & corrupted. Wherfore nature hath only left in vs certain sparks, wherwith to kindle our inclina­tiō to vertue & become apt for all things, the rest is performed by reason, art, & vse. It behoueth man therfore to cleaue fast vnto that nature (which The office of man.is good) & at his hand desire felicity & perfectiō. The chife duty of man, is to know that his originall proceedeth frō God, & frō him to haue re­ceiued reason, wherby he resembleth his maker. But for that the reason of man is shut vp within the body, as a prison, wherby it knoweth not it self; [Page 41] It behoueth the minde to breake forth from that place of restrainte and winne libertie, whereby it may behold, know and perceiue, howe much it resembleth God. For man is most properly so called, when he liueth according to that part of the minde which is partaker of reason, and is furthest remoued from pleasing & obedience of the bodie. Lear­ning therefore is to be desired of men, sith thereby reason and the per­fection Wherein the perfection of man cōsisteththereof is chiefly obtained. For as nature, vnlesse it be perfect, wanteth her good, so the good of man is not absolute, vnlesse therein be perfect reason: which being in man is called God, Nature, Lawe, Vertue and goodnes. Whereupon may be inferred, that such lear­ning By what stu­dies the per­fection of man is attai­ned. Philosophie. is requisite, as bringeth with it vnderstanding and knowledge of God, Nature, Lawes, Vertues and all good things. This learning is called Philosophy, the eternall and immortall gift of God, instructing vs in the knowledge of all things both diuine and humane, and conteyneth the skill whereby to know, the beginning of vertue and vice, with the na­ture of all other things. So that, whosoeuer shall (as in a glasse) looke therein, may see, the formes, the Images, and Idaeas of euery thing, & [...]hal well neere behold the counterfeit of his owne body and minde. It was therfore not without cause of Cicero called the vniuersall knowledge, the guide of life, the sercher of vertue, the expulser of vice, the medicine and health of the soule. For there is nothing in this worlde to be done or The profit that proceedeth of Philosophie.thought, eyther in Court or Iudgement, be it great or small, which pro­ceedeth not from Philosophie as mother of all Counsels, actions and resolutions; whom, if in all thy wordes and workes thou doest followe, whatsoeuer thou shalt speake or doe, will be wise, discreete, diuine, and in all respects perfect. For in whatsoeuer commonweale, the Prince that raigneth is a Philosopher, or counselled by Philosophers, there is sel­dome any warre, sedition, hate, discord, or violence of euill men. But now me thinks, I heare some one saying; doest thou Sir Philosopher think, that the felicitie of commonweales, and the wisedome of Kings & Prin­ces, doth proceede from thy lasie discipline? For that arte of thine is rather to be tearmed the science of prating, then a knowledge whereby men attaine vnto felicitie. How doest thou dare infect the common­weale with those things, which will be the destruction thereof? and as thou hast filled the scholes with contention and scoulding, so wilt thou deuide the state into sundrye seditions, which discorde in scholes may be without bloode disputed, yet thinkest thou that [Page 42] in a commonweale they can bee without blowes determined? Howe shall the happinesse of commonweales be conserued by Philosophers, whose opinions are diuers▪ doubtfull and contrarie? Whether shall our state trustvnto the Epicu [...]e, the Peripateticke, or the Stoicke? Who contend not onely for the confines, but the very possessi­on of felicitie? And they that are not agreed what is the chiefe good, do they not discent vpon the whole substance of Philosophy? For who so knoweth not what is the chiefe good, must of force be ignorant what course o [...] life to leade. I doe therefore thinke, that the teachers of such doctrines (who trust onelie vnto Philosophie as the Ta­bernacle of their life,) are rather to be remoued, then receiued to gouerne the commonweale. For what doest thou thinke will be said or done, where Philosophers consulte of warre and peace, of lawes and iudgementes? Surely they will imagine themselues to sit in Counsell of Cyclops and Giantes, and thinke Armes alreadie in hande, so soone as they heare the war [...] consulted vppon. Is it rea­sonable that he shoulde be a lawe-maker, that obeyeth no lawe but that which he prescribeth to himselfe? vsing onely his owne reason, or rather his owne priuate opinion, accounting all others as beasts, himselfe onely excepted? I [...] not this the guise of your philosophi­call flocke? What thinke ye of Diogones, Zeno, Epictetu [...] and many others? would you wish such wise men to be Princes and Gouernors of What kinde Philosophers are vnfit to gouerne.the commonweale? Whereunto may be answered. There are two sortes of Philosophers, whome I thinke in deede vnfitt to gouerne the commonweale. The first are they who haue scantlie tasted of Philosophie, whereby the thirsting heate of vices and desires, is not with vertue quenched: So as, those men doe leade a life di­uers from the groundes of true Philosophie not yet well rooted in them. For the knowledge thereof doth make men no lesse good then learned, and by knowledge they become learned, and through Iustice, Temperance, and Fortitude, they are made perfect. Sure­ly there is not any thing in Philosophie more notable, then the iustitutions and preceptes of vertue, whereof who so hath the vn­derstanding, doth leade a happie and blessed life. An other sorte of Philosophers there is contrarie to these, who hauing in their youth learned Philosophie, doe (as it were) vnto the Syrene rockes cleaue thereunto▪ euen the whole course of their liues. Such kinde of con­templation [Page 43] and Philosophie which concerneth not the profitt, nor ciuill affayres of men, is in trueth improfitable for the state. For albeit those Philosophers be learned and wise, yet onely applying their thoughtes to Philosophie, not hauing experience of courte or ciuill affayres, are vtterly vnfitt for gouernment. Therefore Plato commaundeth that those solitarie worshippers of wisedome, being by nature apt for action in the commonweale, shoulde be founde out, and compelled thereunto, thinkng them fit to gouerne Cities, and appease the sedition of people. And touching the rest, which are not apt for that purpose, he suffereth them to enioy their rest, and were out their life in contemplation. Wherefore neyther they that be lightly learned, nor those that are become ouermuch in bondage to Philosophie, ought be admitted to gouerne the com­monweale, because the one haue not by Philosophie attained anie ende of honest life whereunto to leane, and the other, being per­swaded they haue a life much better then ciuill, doe passe their age so­litarie (as they thinke) among rockes of the fortunate Ilandes. For there is not any life (as Plato writeth) which hath ciuill magistra­cie in more contempt, then that which is exercised in true Philo­sophie. The meane sort of Philosophers are therefore (in our iudge­ment) What Philo­sophers are fit for gouer­ment.most fitt for gouernment: because they doe not by the studie of Philosophie search deeper then the knowledge whereby men may at­tayne to happie life, and become fit to gouerne the commonweale. To which kinde of Philosophie we exhorte our Counsellor. For there­by not onely the knowledge of humaine happines, but also the sci­ence of gouerment is attained. First we will that his nature be apt for philosophie; that is, temperate, docible, and iust: because there is no man that can well exercise himselfe therein, if naturally he be not of good memorie, docible, couragious, a and louer of trueth, iustice and temperancie, which disposition being bred onely by good edu­cation, it is necessary that from his childhoode he be so trained. The Good educa­tion the roote of wisedome.ground of all wisedome, Plato saith, is good education, for thereby as it were in sporte, we profit in all kindes of vertue. Men must ther­fore from their tender yeares be instructed to reioyce or be sorie for those things, which ought iustlie to glad them, or sad them. It is therfore a vertue to know how to reioyce, or to be sory, for such knowledge, as Ari­stotle thinketh, is true educatiō. And as it behoueth a perfect cōmonweale [Page 44] to haue good subiectes whereby it may also become good, so ought The Com. must be care­full in the education of youth.there be great diligence in their education. For as a good husband­man diligently proyneth his plants, to make them grow the faster: So the commonweale which is the mother & house-wife of subiects, ought The Lacede­monian edu­cation.to be exceeding carefull for the education and vertuous instruction of young people. The Lacedemonians were wont for the education of their Citizens, to elect Magistrates among the number of their most ancient and graue Citizens, and them they called publique Tutors, for which respect, they were holden vertuous men in action, valiant and excellent in military discipline. It is written that Diogenes returning from Sparta to Athens, was by the way asked from whence he came and whither he went: Whereunto he answered, he came from men, and was going to women, noting thereby the effeminacie of the Athenians, who were for that vice, by the Lacedemonians and the other Grecians mocked to scorne. Vpon which occasion, Agesilaus then King of Sparta, hearing an Athenian boasting the thicknes of Athens walles, saide, that the same did well become them, because high walles were wont to be built for women. But let vs returne to education, whereof in these daies to small care is taken: for children, are neyther by their fathers taught a­ny liberall or honest science, nor committed to the tuition of any skil­full The Romane education.instructers. I cannot therefore but commend the diligence of Cato in the nurture of his sonne, for he disdained not to be present, and looke vpon his wife, at such time as she washed and swathed his young children, and so soone as yeares had abled them for learning, he tooke them into his owne tuition, and taught them. At that time he kept Chylo the Grammarian in his house to instruct children, who was in deed learned, yet thought he not fitt that Chylo being a seruant should cor­rect his sonne, and when he erred pull him by the eares, also he disday­ned to be beholding to a scholemaster for the education of his sonne. Hee therefore himselfe did teach his sonne learning, lawes and man­ners, and likewise instructed him howe to darte, to handle weapons, ride, swime, and suffer heate and colde. It is saide moreouer, that with his owne hande he wrote an Historie, and gaue it to his sonne, to the ende he might therein see the Actes of his ancestors, and learne the skill howe to gouerne the commonweale. In his sonnes presence he neuer vttered any vncleane, foule, or angrie speach, but vsed so great respect, as if the vestall virgins, or Priests had looked on him. Such was the [Page 45] domesticall discipline of Cato, and the most of the Romanes, in educati­on The educati­on of Graeciaof their children. The Philosophers in Graecia made plaies for the in­struction of young men: which discipline, eternall memory hath pre­serued till these ourdaies. From them is also come the vnderstanding of vertue and knowledge, which we haue taken by tradition. Those Phi­losophers were not onely Tutors of good and happy life, but also tea­chers of ciuill gouerment. Yea this present age, hath (according to the Graecian custome) vniuersities, which are as Seminaries of learning and vertue. Thither young men (as vnto a haruest of good science,) may daily resort, and gather the fruites of good discipline and vertue. Would God the Masters of those schooles, wolde frame the wittes of young men there, rather to liue well, then dispute well: for happilie, so should they both of the commonweale and life of men deserue bet­ter, and their schollers not desire (as they say) rather to heare a lester then a Philosopher. In ancient time Philosophers taught their pupils first to be silent, but now their chiefe instruction is to speake a pace, which breedeth so many pratling Orators and witlesse Philosophers: For they studie not to fill their breastes with vertues and honest disci­pline, but teach their tongues plentie of wordes: So as, we see them commended of their teachers, for wrangling & strength of witt in argu­ment, not for modesty, wisedome, and iustice. But all learned men The office of learned men.ought know, that they should not keepe schooles for such drousie and slouthfull Philosophy, but teach ciuill knowledge, the commendation whereof consisteth in well doing and thinking truely. The ancient Aca­demies of Graecia were the nurseries of all commonweales, & out of them (as from the Troian horse) came forth most excellent kings, singular Cap­taines and gouernors. Alexander and Scipio (two most noble Chieftains) were brought vp in schooles. I omit many others. Thus it appeareth, that men ought to be trained in schooles, and there to learne honest life & the skill of gouerment. Also euery state should be carefull to haue schooles, as shops filled with all sorts of vertue. In such a one therfore as shall become a Counsellor, we wish good nature, & education. For that being euill, is not only to be bettred by Philosophy, but becōmeth much the worse: for mans nature is most prone to euil, & being strengthned & in­structed with sciēce & Philosophy, gaineth therby more force & skil to do euill: sith the best knowledges possessed by a mā of peruerse nature, are de­praued, & chāged into a cōtrary dispositiō, wherof euill coūsel procedeth. [Page 46] The cogitations of an angrie minde in an euill man, doe increase fu­rie: which is the cause, that a subtill spirit moued to coller, is conuer­ted into madnes. It may then be concluded, that a good nature euill instructed, becommeth worst of all, and euill nature well instructed, is also oftentimes abused and imployed in wicked actions. For euerie good euill vsed, becommeth worse then euill it selfe: not vnlike to good seedes sowed in euill soyle, which do for the most part change their nature. Great is the force of education, which changeth, and rechan­geth the tender mind of youth, aswell to good as euill. Diogenes being asked, how man might lead a quiet life, answered. First he must honour the Gods, who are the makers of all felicitie: Secondly, he must bring vp his children in vertue, for being euill instructed, they become the grea­test enemies to their aged fathers: Thirdly, he must be thankefull to­wardes his friends. The saying of Apollo is true, that the vnthank­full Education of children.man is most hurtfull, and odious to the whole world, Moreouer, it behoueth for the better institution of children, that they be instructed in the propertie of speach, eloquence, and knowledge of the trueth, whereunto he attaineth by the sciences of Grammer, Rhetorike, and Lo­gike. For these knowledges, are as it were gates and entries of wise­dome. From them he may receiue the rules of speaking, which are confirmed by vse, domesticall exercise, and the reading of antient Po­ets and Orators. For being instructed in these, he will leaue the cogi­tation of common and knowen things, and call vnto his consideration matters of more importance. Because the minde beginning to know it selfe, doth then seeke for true foode, wherof to feede and be satisfied. The true foode and medicine of the mind is Philosophie, because it hea­leth all sortes of sicknes and sorrowes therein, making a perfect path vn­to happines; and by vertue therof, our mindes are stirred to more worthy cogitations. The reason therof is, that the mind abandoneth the bodie and all terrestrial thoughts, and studieth vpon things high and coelestial. Philosophy of two kindes.This knowledge of Philosophy is of two sortes, the one consisteth in the subtiltie of nature & is subiect to the vniuersall contemplation of the whole world: the other sheweth the true institution of mans life, & man­ners, how commonweals should be gouerned, and priuate housholdes maintained. To the first appertaineth these parts of Philosophy, called Physica, Metaphysica, and Methematica, & to the other; Ethica, Politica, and Oeconomica. The end of both those knowledges is not diuers. For as by the [Page 47] contemplation of things diuine, the mind disioyned from the body, by it selfe is made blessed & like vnto God. So doth it come to passe in honest actions, that reason being garded by vertue, doth withhold the minde from the vncleane actions of the corrupt body. The minde by these two meanes disseuered from the body, becommeth like vnto God, and may iustly be accounted happy & blessed. In this onely, those two knowledges doe differ: that the one by action, the other by contemplation represen­teth the similitude of God. Wherof a double felicity followeth, the one Two kindes of felicity.priuate, the other publique. Those that put their felicity in the exercise & action of vertue, are at all times most profitable for the cōmonweale, & that which is good, the more cōmon it be, the better & more profitable it is accoūted: So that felicity wherby many receiue benefit, is reputed bet­ter then that, which is contained in one only head. Yet must we confesse, that the contemplatiue felicity, hath the precedence & more noble place, because it sheweth the causes & occasiō of all things to be done. God allo without action, by his perpetuall contēplation, forseing all things, doth by his example, moue Philosophers to prefer the contēplation of things diuine, before all humaine action & felicity. Now forsomuch as, the feli­city What [...] is [...] for a Coun­sellor▪of euery Counsellor, & all knowledge consisteth in action, to the end lie be not ignorāt what is the best course of good & honest life, what is re­quired in the administration of matters both priuate & publique, & may know how to gouerne people, ordaine lawes & correct iudgments, it be­houeth him to be studied in that part of Philosophy, which cōtaineth the rules of mens actions, & the science of gouermēt. Let him therfore be per­fectly instructed of that part which intreateth of māners, wherby he may attaine the skill, not only of life, but also of well liuing & counselling. For how should he speake of mans life agreable to vertue, that knoweth not what vertue is? Or what discourse can such a one make in Counsell tou­ching iustice, fortitude, tēperancie, or wisdome? How should he appease seditions, or qualefie laws, vnles he partly knoweth the precepts of Iustice & prudence? What counsell can any wise man giue of war, peace or con­tracts? if he beignorant what war is iust & vniust, what honorable or diso­norable peace, what treaties are godly & what vngodly? For all the pre­cepts & force of honesty & vertue ought be to him knowē, not only by name but in mind exactly cōceiued. The sume of which knowledge, in the booke of Ethicks, Politicks & Oeconomicks is cōtained. Frō thē as treasure houses, he may take the knowledge of vertues, the skil of gouerment, the maners [Page 48] of men, and the order of domesticall life. Moreouer that discipline shall furnish him with knowledge, whereby to iudge of all things, and informe him, what is in euery thing honest, and what the contrarie. It The know­ledge of histories.behoueth him besides these, to know and consider deepely, the nota­ble sayings and actes of men that heretofore haue liued. Which things are not so plentifully found any where, as in the monuments of Annales and histories. This was the cause that Tullius called an histo­rie, the witnesse of time, the light of trueth, the memoriall of life, and the report of antiquitie. For can any man describe better the vertue of fortitude, Iustice, continencie, frugality, and contempt of paines and death, then the actes of the Cornelu, Valerii, Fabritii, Curi [...], Dec [...]i, and Mutu? what may likewise be said of our owne countrimen? was there not singular vertue in the L [...]skies, Piasties, Boleslias; & Iageloneys. This know­ledge is not onely to be gathered frō late & present times, but from the memorie of all posteritie, honest life, & acts most praiseable. From thence he may draw the precepts of ciuill knowledge, & the imitatiō of vertues and valiant actions. He ought also to knowe all those thinges, which appertaine to the vse of subiectes and professions of men. What acci­dents Politicall knowledge.doe happen in mans life, in the commonweale, in ciuill societies, in the common humors of men, in their natures and manners. It is al­so more then necessary, that our Senator be perfect in all ordinances, concerning warre, peace, prouisions, the qualitie of subiectes, the administration of the state, and natures of men, knowing also those things, wherwith their mindes be exalted or deiected, what vertue is, what ought be the discipline of youth, what the education of subiectes, what customes should be confirmed, what honour belongeth to God and religion. Besides those, let him not be vtterly ignorant, in con­tractes, leagues, and aliences with other Princes and Potentates. For we see all these things laid before the eyes of men, and daily vsed in their proceedings and in Court. And it were very vnseemely, that a Coun­sellor should be a stranger in customes of state, in examples, in lawes, and the disposition of that people he gouerneth, It seemeth therfore that Antonius hath well described a Gouernour or Councellor saying, he should be such a man as vnderstandeth, by what meanes the common­weale is pro fited or enlarged, and at occasions to vse them. For (saith he) such were in Rome the Lentuli, Gracchi, Metelli, Scipioni and Lelii. In this our age, there are many, that aspyre to offices of state, without [Page 49] sufficiencie, without knowledge, and without wisedome. And if any man seemeth sufficient for Counsell, the cause thereof is, eyther one yeares experience in warre, practise in the lawe, ri­ches, or domesticall authoritie: but in all good and honest sciences, and and in the knowledge of vertue, they are vtterly ignorant. And in mine opinion, no Counsellor deserueth true commendation, who knoweth not, or wanteth will to thinke well, and doe iustly. For it were vn­seemely, that he shoulde sweare others to the execution of lawe, vnlesse himselfe be a man for high Wisedome and Counsell most perfect: be­cause he ought be iust, indifferent, and praise worthy: which procee­deth from vertue, lawe, and perfect reason. All wisedome doth assu­redly come from the knowledge of thinges, which vnlesse man attai­neth vnto by experience in great matters & learning, he shall neuer think, speake, or doe any thing worthy a Counsellor or wise man. A greate part also of wisedome required in a Counsellor, consisteth in the know­ledge Trauell in forraine na­tions.of manners, lawes and customes of diuers nations, which is best attained vnto by forraine trauell, as Homer writeth of Vlisses.

Di [...] mihi Musa virum captae post tempora Troiae
Qui mores hominum multorum vidit, & vrbes.
What to be obserued in trauell.

But in trauelling, great respect ought be vsed, to learne those man­ners and forraine customes which are honest, eschewing others, that be euill and vngodly. The trauellor shall likewise carefully enforme him­selfe, what lawes, iurisdictions, liberty, what order of life, what disci­pline of warre, what ciuill gouernment, what domesticall life is in eue­rie nation vsed. He shall also note the scite of euery region, the buil­ding of Cities, their fortification and munition. Let him also vnder­stand the vertue of each Prince, and how their people are effected to­wardes them, the wisedome of their senate, the forme of their iudge­ments, the nature and wit of the people, what vertues they delight in, what vices they follow, what learned men, wise men, soldiers and chief­taines are in euery country to be found. Many other things there are which a man of iudgement can well discouer and report: so as if the vse of them be necessary in his country, they may be obserued and exerci­sed. Neuerthelesse greate heede must be taken, that by vsing forraine fashions, our countrimen be not made new-fangled, effeminate, or care­lesse [Page 50] of their owne ancient vertue, customes or lawes: for the nature of base people, is desirous of nouelties, which being pernicious, may greatly molest the commonweale. Such things therfore as are honest, agreable with the nature of our country people, profitable for the state, or not contrary to the earth and ayre where we liue, may be receiued from forraine Nations: for such fruites of trauell, and no other ought be commended. Many most notable men haue taken pleasure in trauell: as Nestor, Menelaus, and Alexander the great. The words which Diodo­rus Siculus reporteth to be written vpon the tombe of Osiris are rightno­table, Osiris.contayning this effect. Osiris rex sum, Saturni antiquior filius, qui nullum orbis locum reliqui, quem non attigerim, discens ea omnia, quae generi humano vtilia sunt & necessaria. But if he wanteth meanes to trauell, let Geogra­phy and Cos­mography.him reade histories, Geography and Cosmography, indeuoring himselfe to know all things. We thinke also very conuenient, that he haue some taste of naturall Philosophy, but to consume much labour in that study, we account superfluous. For among the manifold actions of mans life, it is lawfull to be ignorant in somwhat. The field of knowledge is imme­surable and infinite, which was the cause that men applied themselues Things to be knowen of three sortes.to particular studies, as impossible for one man to excell in all. And for so much as things to be knowen, are of three sortes: that is to say pro­fitable, pleasant, and honest; the knowledge of things pleasant and ho­nest, is not for gouernment of the state so necessary, as to him that know­eth them, sweete and contenting. Yet is such science very fit to recreate the minde of him that is wearied with hearing, thinking, & consulting of causes concerning the commonweale. At which times, knowing how to entertaine himselfe, it will greatly content him. This kind of Philoso­phie therefore is very profitable in the commonweale, chiefly if those that be therein learned, doe leade a ciuill life, being conuersant with other Citizens, and not lurking within their priuate houses or solitarie places. Neuerthelesse if eyther for lacke of health, or other impediment they be knowen vnfit for the gouernment, then doe we permit them to liue according to their owne nature, powring oyle vppon their heads & crowning them with wooll, & dismisse them to their studies, schooles, In what sorte priuate Phi­losophers be profitable.and caues of contemplation. This kinde of Philosophie although it be priuate, yet may it greatly profitt the commonweale. For they are not onelye to bee allowed whose knowledge doth gouerne the state, but those also that in writinge doe leaue eternall [Page 51] Monumentes of their wisedome, or that by their precepts doe instruct others in vertue and the knowledge of gouernment. For out of their bookes we gather many thinges touching the lawes, customes, and felicity of the commonweale, so that their studious quiet, seemeth greatly to aide our action. Such kinde of men were Theophrastus, Hera­clides Ponticus, Dicaearchus, Socrates and Pithagoras. The schollers of Dicaearchus wrote a booke of the commonweale, requiring, the same might euery yeare be publiquely reade in Sparta, and commaunded that all the youth of that Citie shoulde be at the reading present. The preceptes of Philosophie are to bring vertue and knowledge into the mindes of men, and not to maintaine disputation and contentions. For in my iudgement, all strife, wrangling, anger, and euill speach, are things vnworthy of Philosophie, and I holde him vnwise that thinketh Philosophie to consist in wordes. For constancie, felici­tie, VVhich is the true Philoso­phy.and honestie, are in deede the true Philosophie, because the o­ther sciences are not vertues, but the instrumentes and ornamentes of vertue. Neyther doe I thinke it good, that the mindes of men shoulde be drawen into fectes. Wherefore first we will vtterly ex­tirpe all Epicurisme out of our mindes, because that knowledge sup­ported of sensuall pleasure, ought not to be in him, whome we seeke and desire shoulde be a Cheiftiane in publique Counsell and gouern­ment. With the Stoickes I finde no faulte, yet doe I thinke them wor­thie to be dismissed, as vnfit for the companie of our Counsellor. Because (as Cicero saith) they affirme onely Philosophers to be wise, and all others to be theeues, enemies, barbarous and madde men. Neyther will they consent, that there is any wise man liuing. It were therefore absurde, to admit him a Counsellor, that thinketh no Coun­sellor to be wise, a Citizen, or a Free-man. Betwixt the sectes of Stoickes and Peripatetickes touching this summum bonum discention hath euer beene, but our intente is, to concurre with the Peripatetickes: be­cause they are the more true Tutors of manners and vertue, and out of that famelie, perfect Citizens, Emperours, Kinges, and Philo­sophers (as out out of the Troian horse) haue issued. These most Eloquence.noble sciences and artes in a Senator, shall be greatlie beautified and graced by eloquence, which is is the true ornament of wise­dome. For without that we see all other thinges (though commen­dable) are as it were drowned. An eloquent and excellent Oration, [...] [Page 54] made good and of honest conuersation. For men are not onely to learne the skill of commaunding, but also the order of obeying, and that they ought aswell to honour and loue the Magistrates, as performe their commaundements. Which thing proceeding from the due exe­cution of lawe, the Counsellor must in that poynt endeuour himselfe to become a skilfull aud learned lawier. The first degree to the attaining of vertue and honesty, is to obey the lawes and Magistrates. For What law is.the lawe of euery state, is nothing else but vertue and good order of life, reduced into rules certaine. Theopompus king of Sparta being told that the Lacedemonian commonweale flourished because the kinges thereof were skilfull in gouerning, answered, no. But the reason ther­of is, that the subiectes knowe well how to obey. Among many other The Lacede­monian disci­p ine. The Graecian discipline. Lacedemonian disciplines, the chiefe was (as Plutarch reporteth) to o­bey the lawes and magistrates, to indure all trauell patiently, and be per­swaded to fight manfully, and die willingly. The like discipline was obserued in all other places of Graecia, and therein the youth were exer­cised: to the ende that through such instruction, they might learne, in time of warre to defend their country, in time of peace to gouerne, and such as liued in priuate life, to imploy their leysure honestlie, that is to wit, in learning, well gracing their iesture, musicke, painting and swimming: deriding all those that were ignorant both, in good letters and the skill of swimming. A certaine Ciiizen of Thebes being asked how the state of euery commonweale might be preserued? answered, by the obseruation of iustice, and chiefly where is discipline among young men, and no couetousnes among olde men. Great assuredly is the force of ciuill discipline in euery commonweale, for through it, e­uerie subiect is made apt for all kinde of vertue. Yet is it a thing nota­ble, that some men with little or no studie, vtterly voyde of arte, no­thing learned, and such as neuer tasted of Philosophie, nor scarsly euer heard thereof, doe neuerthelesse seeme wise, good, iust and valiant, bearing office & gouerning ciuill affaires with great reputation. Which so being, may happily moue some men to require an other kinde of Phi­losophie, reiecting that we haue spoken of, supposing those preceptes vnfit for their yeares and capacities, alledging the saying of Phisitions, that, Art is long, but mans life short. And Plato also, that he is com­monly called happy: vnto whome in age, or rather in the declination of life, knowledge and true opinion of all things is granted. Experience trieth what is best, and time doth teach vs to be more wise. I confesse [Page 55] wisedome is hardlie gotten, and (that which is most to be lamented) the frailtie of mans life doth cause many impedimentes, which hinder the attaining thereof. Many there are, whome fatall death in the middest of their life, or rather sooner, haue taken away. Some also more willing to follow the delightes of bodie, then the vertue of minde, doe (as it were from Scilla and Caribdis) flee from knowledge, as a hard and vn­reasonable life. What should I say of those that in dispite of Minerua, are not content to doe or thinke any thing worthy Philosophie? All which reasons, albeit they do in some sort cut of our hope, to attaine Phi­losophie and perfect wisedome, yet ought they not vtterly discourage and make vs desperate: For the length of mans life is not to be measu­red by number of daies, but by vertue, which wanting, although thou suruiue the yeares of Nestor, or the Phoenix age, thy life shall be short, miserable, and vnhappy. What harme is it for thee to die young, if after this death, vertue doth giue thee an other being? Silenus the Po­et taken by theeues, and brought before King Midas, wanting money wherewith to redeeme himselfe, desired the king to grant him libertie; offering in recompence therof, to giue him a thing for his Maiesty more precious then any siluer or golde, which gift, pleasantly and truely, he Mans life mi­serable.described in these wordes, saying. The greatest good that God can giue man, is not to be borne, the next is, to die soone. Which after he had by diuers reasons proued, the king did not onely deliuer him, but also re­warde him. Who is he that desireth more this frayle, miserable, and incertaine life, then the other blessed happie and eternall? the possession wherof is gained by the exercise of true vertue? we liue to die, why should we not rather die to liue? vertue hath giuē thee happy life, thou shalt then die happie. Therfore our whole endeuor & studie ought be, to at­tain vnto vertue; wherof Philosophy is the nurse & Tutresse, for therby we shall either aspire hiest, or at the least, behold many vnder vs. It shall suf­fice, that albeit we are inferior to the first, yet we are equall to the second or third, so shall we be chiefe of those that come after vs. Among things excellent, those which be next the best are accounted great, for he that cā ­not aspire to the martiall glory of Achilles, nedeth not be ashamed to receiue the praise due to Aiax or Diomedes: or who so attaineth not the knowledg Vulgar & or­dinary wise­dome.of Plato Lycurgus or Solon ought not therfore to be reckned without lear­ning. Many (as is aforesaid) haue gained the possession of wisedome and skill of gouerment, not by reading the bookes of Philosophy, but by the [Page 56] obseruation of their ancestors, example, custome, experience, do­mesticall discipline, lawe, manners, and a certaine sagacitie of nature, being somewhat graced with honest and liberall education. Of such men, in all commonweales many examples haue euer beene. The Court is their learning; and vse, lawe, ordinances, which the customes of their forefathers haue taught them. Demades, a man very wise and well practised in state, being asked what Tutor he had to instruct him wise­dome, answered: The Tribunall of the Athenians; thinking the Court and experience of things to excell all the precepts of Philosophie. Ney­ther did the ancient Romanes frame their iust and honest forme of go­uerment, so much according to the bookes of Philosophers, as their own naturall wits. What should I say of our ancestors? who deuised a commonweale, not vnlike to the Romane state. The discipline of Pla­to, Licurgus, Solon, Aristotle, and other most notable Philosophers, and law-makers, doe differ from the Polonians, whose greatnes grew on­ly by the vertue they receiued from themselues, and not from bookes. Their wisedome was to honour vertue; and contrary to it, neyther to doe, or thinke any thing. Therefore they vsed not their Kings and Se­nate, to compound controuersies, suppresse contentions, or pronounce iudgements, but to receiue from them examples and rules of vertue, and as cheiftaines in warre follow them in defence of their countrie. The golden worlde.That olde worlde (which the Poets called Golden) produced a race of men, of themselues most happy and wise: and truely not vnlike, for in that time of mans first age, (vertue onely raigning) the misery of vices and wickednes was not knowen, for they loued an vpright, iust and sim­ple life, wherunto vertue and reason consenteth. They were therfore inforced to vertue and honesty, euen by the spurre of their owne nature, fleing vice, which because it was to them vnknowen, might more ea­sily be eschewed. Of that time Ouidius Naso writeth most excellently.

Aurea prima sataest aetas, quae vindice nullo,
Sponte sua, sine lege, fidem rectumque colebat:
Poena metusque aberant, nec supplex turba timebat
Iudicis ora sui, sederant sine iudice t [...]ti.

But so soone as the sonne of trueth declined, and with the cloudes of vices began to be darkned, forthwith the minds of men fell into wicked [Page 57] nesse, as desirous rather to knowe vice then vertue, delighting in the one and shunning the other. Then euery man armed himselfe against vertue, thinking it was lawfull to offend others, to liue vngodly, abusing reason, and employing it in euill exercises, as the same Poet saith.

Protinus erupit, venae peioris in aeuum
Omne nefas, fugêre pudor, verumque, fidesque;
In quorum subiére locum, fraudesque dolique,
Insidiaeque, & vis, & amor sceleratus habendi.

And surely that floode and rage of wickednesse, had vtterly drow­ned all mankind, had not the force of nature and reason which remained in a few; opposed it selfe against the fury of so great calamities. Those fewe then (as it were proclaminge warre with vice) perswaded other men, Who those were that re­stored the gol­den world.(who then liued as bruite beasts) to reduce themselues to humanity, en­forming them not onely by wordes, but also by writing, what was ciui­litie, vertue, and honour, whereof grew lawes in Cities as a tutresse to good life. So as men might there learne to thinke and doe those things which were honest, iust and godly: and to the ende those lawes might neuer perish, they caused them to be written in bookes which are records of immortality, and preseruers of eternall memory. From hence the precepts of vertue did take their beginning, and many volumes of man­ners and dueties of men haue bene written. After them followed others, who aspyred not onely to knowledge of the offices and dueties belon­ging to men, but also serched the nature of all things. This conside­ration of humaine nature and world vniuersall, was in one worde by the Graecians called Sophia, and the inuentors thereof were named Sophi: who afterwardes more modestlie (by example of Pithagoras) called themselues Philosophers. By this meane, the light of reason, and hu­maine nature which lay hidden, and was made darke with cloudes of vice, did recouer his vertue, and brought vnto vs the knowledge both of diuine and humaine thinges. Which knowledge is cal­led Philosophie: by the benefit whereof, mortall men recouered the ancient vertue, simplicitie, innocency and happines. Whosoe­uer in those daies desired to liue honestlie and well, flee vice, and knowe vertue: applied himselfe to reade the Philosophers bookes and marke their sayings, as men that vtterly mistrusted their owne na­ture and witt infected with knowledge of vice, euill education, [Page 58] slouth, delicacie, Idlenes, opiniatry, and wicked conditions. Thus was that golden world by Philosophers restored, and the olde estate, na­ture and felicity, was recouered. Therefore, whosoeuer doth receiue from thence the precepts of vertue, honest life, and that ancient and gol­den humanity, is made not onely ciuill and wise, but also happy and VVho is with­out Philoso­phie wise.most blessed. All those that without Philosophy and learning are indeed wise, doe attaine to their wisedome by one of these two waies. The one, by being indued with diuine nature, the vertue whereof comprehendeth, foreseeth, and vnderstandeth all things. In olde time, amongest the Grae­cians, Theseus and Cecrops: and among the Latines, Romulus and Numa go­uerned commonweales, not with Philosophy, but were instructed by the celestiall Muses. The second meane to gouerne without learning is, to be perfect in forraine experience, and a vigilant obseruer of ciuil cautions. Such men if they be good, and permit all things to be direc­ted by lawe, are praiseable, albeit their wisedome is imperfect, and subiect to many perils and mutations: but if they be euill, then are they so pernicious and hurtfull to the commonweale, as nothing can be more. Therefore Mitie said well, that there was nothing more vniust then ignorant man; for he not knowing the true rules of gouerment, thinking that the experience of one court is the whole summe of ciuill discipline, doth fill the state full of tumultes and seditions, not concei­uing by what meanes, reason, cunning or counsell, such mischiefe is happened: and so being, wanteth-both wisedome and iudgement. Of which two things, ignorance the mother of vice and all euill, hath bereft him. Sith then by the benefit of nature onely, we cannot be made happy and wise, our mindes being ouercharged with burthen of body, indued with the knowledge of things euill, and that we liue in such an age, as doth not (as in olde time) bring forth plenty of good men: It beho­ueth to deuise good meanes, whereby the minde may shake of the in­cumbers and vices of body, so as cleared from the rage of time pre­sent, we may be reuoked to the ancient diuine and perfect life of men: which thing may be done, by the helpe of art and exercise, the one is attained by labour, the other gotten by Philosophy. For the name of Philosophy.Philosophy includeth all things humaine & diuine, the knowledge of all artes, all vertues, all gouernment of state, and euery other thing which is eyther in heauen or in earth contained. This is that, which deliuereth the minde imprisoned in the body, from all affections, & teacheth it coun­sell, [Page 59] to liue well, commaund, and gouerne. Our Counsellor then instru­cted in the precepts of Philosophie, shall not from thence forth be shut vp, lurke vnseene, be solitarie, walke vnaccompanied, auoyde the sight of men, nor couer his slouth with keeping himselfe within doores: but shall conuerse with the multitude and Citizens, and with his presence ho­nour and aide the societie of men. For no vertue, wit, or wisedome, can The Coun­sellor must not be solitarie.be famous, being shut vp within the wals, but of force it must come forth and shew it selfe. And the wisdome of a solitary Citizen is no more pro­fitable, then the treasure of a couetous man buried in the ground, which ferueth him no more, then if he possessed it not. What can be so great or noble, as that the vertue of euery particular man shoulde be seene, and brought forth, to be heard & seene of all men. For it is not easely knowen of what capacity, wisedome, and iudgement man is, vnlesse proofe be made thereof. As the strength of wrastlers is knowen by the fall, and the swiftnes of the horse by his carrire: so the vertue of a Senator, is by his actions tried. Thus haue we (as I hope) sufficiently spoken of that disci­pline, wherby a Counsellor becommeth happy, and fitt to gouerne the commonweale according to iustice. And sith onely by the vertue of na­ture, that happines & knowledge cannot be attained, the same is to be supplied by vse. For we ought to learne, & so long to learne, as we are ignorant, or (as Seneca saith) so long as we liue, & repent not that we haue profited. The most assured signe that we haue profited in vertue, is, if we finde in ourselues, that the force of our reason & vertue hath suppressed vnreasonable desires and affections, and if among men, we haue liued iustly, wisely, and temperately. But let vs now discourse of the manner of chosing our Counsellor, determining therin chiefly to obserue com­lines and equity. Among other things which do preserue the common­weale The elec­tion of ma­gistrates.& happines therof, there is nothing better then to elect such men for magistrates, as be indued with greatest wisedome, iudgement & ver­tue: and such as aspyre vnto honour, not by power, not by force, not by ambition, not by corruption; but by lawe, vertue, modesty & worthines. Magistracy in all commonweales is a thing of most reputation, because the magistrates are called the best, wisest, and most honorable men Ma­gistracy, is as it were an ornament of vertue, bestowed on the best sorte of men, for their vertue and well deseruing of the state. It is therefore the part of a good Citizen and good man, entring into magistracy, to The duetie of a good magi­strate.preferre the welfare & honour of the commonweale before his priuate [Page 60] reputation and domesticall commoditie, not imitating Sylla, Cinna, Carbo, Marius, Pompeius, Caesar and such other Senators, whose ambi­tion, sedition and factions, brought there commonweale well neere to vtter destruction. For they woulde not liue with equalitie, pre­ferring the fruite of priuate glory, before the profit and tranquilitie of their countrie. As Lucanus writing of Pompeius and Caesar saith.

Impatiensque loci fortuna secundi.
Nec quenquam iam ferre potest, Caesarue priorem:
Pompeiusque parem.

Ambitious men punisha­ble. In euery well gouerned commonweale, this insatiable desire of ho­nour must be brideled, which the Romanes did, so long as their state flourished: oppressing practises, and punishing the ambition of such men as contrarie to lawe and honestie, eyther by force, corruption, or any other dishonest meane aspyred to office. Some men distrusting their owne vertue, doe by bribes, aduance themselues vnto the most so­ueraigne dignities, which thing is more then any other, fowle, and per­nitious to all estates. For such men in respect of riches, doe dispise both vertue and honesty: and thinke that honour or vertue doth not Couetiousnes perilous to the commōwealebecome any man, but him that is rich: which is the cause, that they attend too their priuate, not the publique commoditie; because they knowe all honours and dignities, are giuen to rich, and not to vertuous men, whereof proceedeth, that in euery such state raigneth couetousnes & immesurable desire of wealth: and of them, groweth voluptuousnes, deceipt, fraud, enemitie, contempt of God, Law and Magistrates. Insuch states, men imbrace not that which is honest, but that which is profitable: Magistracy ought be gi­uen to vertu­ous men, with out respect of riches.for finding no rewarde due vnto vertue, euerie one holdeth the vertu­ous man vnder, by fraude, deceipt, and power: so as the poorer sorte doe liue in the commonweale oppressed with miserie, and are forced to serue the rich, as more worthy persons: not in respect of vertue, but of power, fraude, and subtiltie. For they doe alwaies preferre priuate v­tilitie, before honestie and vertue, selling, coarsing, and reiecting all lawes, liberty, rightes and iustice it selfe. Iugurtha, seeing great store of corruptible Senators in Rome (as it were exclaming) saide: That that Citie was salable, and would quickely perish, if any buier coulde be founde. The Lacedemonians consulting of the continuance of their state, were by [Page 61] Appollo answered. That Sparta should be destroyed by no meanes, but onely by auarice: and to auoyde that fatall prediction, they reiected the vse of all golde, siluer, and brasse, making a coyne of iron, wher­with men should be lesse delighted, and in keeping thereof more com­bred. Great care therfore must be taken in euery commonweale, that the offices should not be giuen rather to the rich then the vertuous men, and that those may be punished, that seeke with money to oppresse ver­tue. For it is a most readie meane to bring that state to ruine, where more regard is had to riches then vertue, because the subiectes will labour rather to attaine welth then vertue, disposing themselues wholly to heape vp coyne, which maketh them effeminate; fraudulent, desirous of other mens goods, lasciuious, and abounding in all kindes of vices. Where vertue is not esteemed, the Priest contemneth pietie, the soldier layeth by his sworde, the Senator seeketh not wisedome, fidelitie and diligence, and the people make no account of ciuill disci­pline; which so being, into their places entereth, audaciousnes, violence, iniustice, lasciuiousnes, and barbarisme, the sinke of all vices. It is therefore necessary, that good order and forme be obserued in the elec­tion of magistrates, so as in the choise, chiefe respect may be had to the vertue of good men. As touching the meane offices of state, by what order they should be bestowed, it is not our intent to discourse. It shall suffice, that the lawes and common custome be therein obserued. But for so much as among all sortes of magistrates, the place of him whom we call a Counsellor is of most reputation, vpon him (as it were a foundation) the whole waight of all other Counsels, and welfare of the commonweale resteth. It behoueth therefore that the choise of Euill magi­strates the confusion of cōmonwealshim be made with great care and circumspection. Euery state hauing euill Counsellors, is most euill gouerned, and no signe of equitie, iustice or religion, will therein appeare: But fraude, deceipt, iniustice, and im­pietie raigning in magistrates, shall easily, by imitation, corrupt o­thers. For we see by experience, that through the vices of gouernours commonweales be changed. Monarchies become Tyrannies, Aristo­craties are altered into Oligarchias, Democraties conuerted into Ochlocra­ties: In the elec­tion of Coun­sellors three things to be considered.Therefore in election of Counsellors, these three things are chiefly to be obserued: of whome, to whome, and how they ought be chosen. To the first we haue (as I hope) already sufficiently spoken, when we said that in the number of naturall subiects the Counsellor ought be [Page 62] elected, and thereof a little before we discoursed: Nowe are we to tell to whome, and how Counsellors are to be chosen. Wherein we haue thought good to resite the customes of other commonweales, which being knowen, we may the more easely conceiue what kinde of election fitteth with euery state, and which of them ought be accounted best and most profitable. In the election of all Magistrates, and chiefly Coun­sellors, all people in euery state were wont to respect three things, li­bertie, riches and vertue. For what doth depende of those three, and euery of them, is to be considered. Those that desire the forme of a po­pular state, doe chiefly respect liberty, for there is nothing that l [...] ­deth them to like and desire popular gouernment so much, as the sweet Popular li­bertie.desire of liberty. Because they thinke libertie consisteth principall [...]e in commaunding and obeying by turne, iudging it reasonable, that all Citizens should commaund, or at the least somtimes to cōmand & some­times to obey. Therfore in all such commonweales, the Magistrates are chosen by lott, wherin Chance & Lucke doe helpe more, then Reason or Wisdome. Which order was inuented for the preseruation of liberty. For all men desiring to be thought and accounted equals, doe vse therein the ayde of fortune & chance, to the end that the rich & poore, the eloquent and simple, the mightie and weake, the wise and foolish, shoulde be equall, & that no one by wealth, eloquence, wisedome or friendship, shoulde oppresse an other, and consequently vsurpe the state with the libertie thereof common to them all. Imagening moreouer, that the common good, profit, and liberty, may be preserued, better by many then one, or diuers. In those states therefore the condition of all men is a like, and it maketh no matter whether they be rich or poore, lear­ned or foolish, so long as they be borne free men. In commonweales gouerned by a fewe, the order is, that a small number of wise, dis­creete, or rich men should gouerne, but in popular states it is contra­rie, for there the ignoble, poore men and artifizers, haue equall pro­caedence with the rich men. Wee reade that the popular state of A­thens The Atheniā cōmonweale.was gouerned in two sortes: the one, by fewe Magistrates, which were eyther rich men or wise men, the other consisted of all the whole number of free Citizens. The first was instituted by The­seus, who assembled the people into Cities, liuing before dis­persed sauagely in the fielde, perswading the most potente per­sonages, that the Democratie ought be preferred before the Monarchie; [Page 63] to the ende the soueraigntie should rest in the people, and he himselfe would be but as a Captaine generall in warre, and defender of the law: but in all other respectes euery of them should be his equals. Moreo­uer he instituted a conuocation of the whole people, making this diffe­rence betwixt the Noble men and Artificers & Housbandmen; that is to wit, that the noble sort should haue the ministerie of the Church, the soueraigne offices, and iudiciall places: but otherwise to liue in e­quall honour and dignitie with the rest. This first Prince (as Aristotle saith) would not frame any kingdome, but conforming himselfe to the disposition of people, contriued such a commonweale, as in the iudge­ment of all men was thought most allowable, most iust and most con­tentfull. In like manner he deuised such a popular state, as should not be gouerned by violence and furie of the multitude, but all things to be qualified by iudgement and reason, so as by honest liuing and obedi­ence of lawe, the commonweale might enioy her happines. This com­monweale begon by Theseus, was after gouerned by Draco, who gaue thereunto certaine bloodie lawes. Then Solon through sedition & dis­cord of the Citizens, reduced the gouerment into the handes of a fewe, somewhat altering the lawes and magistrates. Last of all, that Demo­cratie came vnto the hands of Clisthenes, Aristides and Pericles, and after all them, to Demosthenes. These men being pleasers of people, reduced all the Citizens to equalitie, increasing the tribes, entering seruantes and strangers into the company of Citizens. Clisthenes inuented the lawe called Ostracismus, which was executed vpon those of whome there was any opinion conceiued, that their wisedome or vertue might hinder the popular liberty. Aristides iudged it a thing reasona­ble, that banished men and the basest multitude, should be capable of magistracie. Pericles diminished the authoritie of the Senate, and weak­ned the dignitie thereof. Demosthenes finding the state fully in possessi­on of the multitude, by a solemne oration allowed and commended What kinde of Democra­cy is iust.thereof. Aristotle and his Tutor Plato, with other politicall Philoso­phers, doe thinke that the popular forme of commonweale is not vn­iust, being accompanied with good lawes, and a people willing to o­bey the same. For who is he that can mislike that state, wherein each man hath a lawe, to be as king and keeper of his libertie, and of the lawe, himselfe is Prince and Lorde. Surely I coulde well allowe of such a commonweale, where it not subiect to greate tumultes, [Page 64] Democracy inconstant. seditions and sodaine mutations. First, who is he that knoweth not the nature of common people is mutable, and will vse libertie immode­rately. For indeed, the multitude eyther obeyeth slauishly, or doth commaund cruellie: being also entised or rather filled with the sweet­nesse of libertie, so soone as it hath by some action aspired to greatnesse or glorie, it becommeth insolent, desiring to be thought chiefe, and hol­ding equalitie vniust, doth vse most intemperately to beare hate, sediti­on, and ambition. So as, of such a commonweale groweth an in­solent plebeyall domination. It also sometimes happeneth, that men blinded with loue of riches and wealth, doe chose rich men onely to be gouerners and keepers of common libertie, supposing them to be most worthy and fit to beare office in the state. Such a commonweale is called the authoritie of a fewe, or an Oligarchia, for those Citizens doe beare the soucraigne offices, who are aboue the rest of most wealth and substance. The Senators and other Magistrates in that state, are Who are cho­sen magi­strates in an Oligarchia.partly by election, partly by lot, and partly by generall consent, and some­time by a fewe created. And because the choise is made according to mens riches, each man indeuoreth himselfe not to attaine vertue but welth, knowing the offices are as it were thereunto due. In such commonweales, so greate veneration and worship is giuen to riches, as there is nothing so holie, so godlie or religious, that coueto­usnesse, (the fatall plague of all gouermentes,) cannot violate and subuerte. They that in the election of Magistrates doe one­ly respect vertue, and by it doe measure the felicitie of the state, doe VVhat kinde of magistrates are chosen in Monarchies and Aristocra­ties.inhabite kingdomes or Optimaties. For those that obey Kinges, whe­ther they be by election or naturall discent, the people beleeue them aboue all other men to be most diuine, most wise and most worthy. And they that desire to be gouerned not by one alone but diuers, doe in election of their gouernours obserue the like reason. Be­cause among those men choise is made of the best, most iust, and suf­ficient persons to be Magistrates, without attributing any thing to lot or fortune: for each man examineth his owne iudgement touch­ing the vertue of them, whome they desire to aduance, which is a respect of singular commendation in the bestowing of honours. For (as the Poet saith) it is a great matter to be poynted out with the finger, euerie one saying, this is he. Wheresoeuer chance hath more power then reason, there is little place left for vertue. [Page 65] Yet doe I not, in a free state mislike the suffrage of chance, that goeth What kinde of lotting is best.before or followeth the iudgement of good men, touching particular mens vertue. For in that cōmonweale where is most plenty of good men, there to admit chance for iudge of each mans worthines, may be thought reasonable. By that meanes men in office shall account themselues the most worthie Citizens, knowing they are aduanced aswell by the iudgement of good men, as the sentence of fortune. This order of election is obserued by the Venetians. The like institution Solon did make in Athens for chosing the 500 Senators. For out of euery Tribe was chosen so many, as were thought fit to become Senators whose names they vsed to put into one Pott, and into an other▪Pott as many beanes, the one halfe white, the other halfe blacke, then so many as hap­pened vpon the white beanes were pronounced Senatos, and those that lighted vpon the blacke beanes as repulced, returned home without office. Therefore Thucydides called that Counsell Senatum a Faba.

Among the Romaines (sometime Lordes of the whole worlde) the Senators were chosen diuers waies, according to the diuersitie of times. VVhat consi­derations the Romans had in the electiō of Senators.For eyther they were chosen by the Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Tribunes of the people, Censors or Chieftaines. In all which elections till the time of Augustus no mention is made of lottings, but the vertue, fame, familie, age, order, office before borne, wealth, and profession were chiefly respected Nowe for so much as there is nothing more excellent, nor more diuine then vertue, we thinke expedient, that in the choise of Counsellors chiefe regard must be had thereunto, because through it, Counsellors be made iust, valiant and wise. It behoueth all Magistrats, in euery well gouerned commonweale to be indued with vertues, and chiefly those that are aspired to the dignity of Cousellors. For Coun­sellors be reputed the defenders of lawes, the moderators of liberty, and conseruers of the whole commonweale. And as the commonweale is many times infected and corrupeed, by the vices and wickednes of Ma­gistrates: The euill ex­ample of ma­gistrates worse then their vices.so is the same corrected and repaired by their vertues: Neyther is the mischiefe of their faultes so great, as that many others will imi­tate those euill examples. Such are the people of euery state, as are the manners of those that gouerne; and what mutation of manners the Prince vseth, the same is by the subiectes followed. Plato most excel­lently and wisely saith, that the estate of commonweales is changed, like vnto the alteration of musitions voyces. But it was better said of one [Page 66] other, that the change of a Princes life, & the alteration of maners in great Magistrates, would also change the māners, customs, institutions, rights & the cōmonweale it selfe. And truely I think that euil Princes do deserue worst of the cōmonweale, not in that they do euill-themselues, but that thereby all others become infected▪ and therefore the vices are noe so hurtful, as are their vicious exsamples. Such men therefore as not onely with their owne actions, but their examples doe preiudice the state, are most seuerely to be punished. How is it possible, for any man to perswade others to vertue and obseruation of lawe, himselfe liuing otherwise? The Romaines laughed Scylla to scorne, that being a man most in­temperate and delighting in licenciousnes, did notwithstanding vse to exhorte and compell others to sobrietie, temperance and frugali­tie. Lysander.Who woulde not also finde faulte with Lysander, though he did contrarie to Scylla, allowe those vices in the Citizens from which Lycurgus.himselfe refrained. But Lycurgus is in deede iustlie to be commen­ded, because he neuer commanded others to doe any thing, which himselfe would not first doe and firmely obserue. Therefore they, vnto whome the commonweale hath giuen authoritie to choose Counsel­lors and other Magistrates, ought to be of greate iudgement, and high wisedome. For they shoulde electe those whome they thinke to ex­cell all others in witt, wisedome, iudgement, vertue and good ac­tion. I doe therefore greatly dislike the popular order of lotting, to finde out men fitt for this purpose, because the people by helpe thereof, desiring to preserue their equalitie and libertie, doe incurre such errour, as they commonly choose men most vnworthy the name and vertue of a Senator. Wherefore they ought in preferuing of li­bertie, to be most carefull of that which might chiefly profit the com­monweale, not giuing (in respect of commaunding and obeying by turne) the gouernment to the slouthfull and foolish sort: for euery man liueth with equalitie enough in the state, so long as the same be gouer­ned VVhat elec­tion of Magi­stratesis most perfect.by the wisest, discretest and grauest Citizens. We therefore deter­mine, that election of Counsellors is most perfect, which proceedeth from men excelling in wisedome and iustice, because they being ver­tuous, VVhether Se­nators ought be chosen by one or diuers.cannot permit any thing iniust, eyther in themselues or in the commonweale. In this our estate being gouerned by a King, a Senate, and people, some man may doubt whether the Senators ought be cho­sen by diuers or one alone? Where diuers haue authority to choose, ey­ther [Page 67] all subiects are included or part of them: as in a popular state the one, and in an Optimatie the other is vsed. Which so euer of them doth claime right of electio▪ must of necessity disdaine the other; for the people doe affect liberty, & the noblemen desire authority. Wherefore, eyther they fall into sedition one against the other, [...] agree by law, or consent that eyther of them shall enioy the liberty of election. And though it so doe [...]ne to passe, yet will if not be long, before they returne to their for­mer discention. For euery one knowing he hath gotten a partiall iudge of his vertue & wisd [...], & beleeuing himselfe to be disdained of the con­trary faction, practiseth [...]a [...]red & conspitacy in the state, & reiecting the ornaments of ver [...]ue (trusting to [...]o [...]ed friends) studieth ambitously by followers & corruption to aspire unto authority, & what cannot be attained vnto by vertue he extorteth by force and violence. So as good subiectes are by euill oppressed, and in place of iustice, vertue and wise­dome, The multi­tude no [...] iudge [...].deceipt, fraud, vice, & iniustice doe gouerne all. Surely it is a thing most perilous, that the magistrates of any state should be chosen by the multitude, which is no reasonable of indifferent iudge of men­worthines. For many times, eyther it enuieth or fauoureth those vn­to whome they giue their libertie, not iudging according to reason, but is often moued by fauour, or drawen with desire to honour those that ambitiously labour to aspyre. And to conclude, whensoeuer the multitude doe make choise, the same is not performed according to discretion, knowledge, and iudgement, but fury and rashnes. There is not (as Tully saith) any Counsell, Reason, Iudgement, or diligence in the base people, and wise men haue euer thought good to suffer those things which the people doe, but not euer to commende their doings. The multitude haue alwaies had the desire, but not the iudgement to bestow the dignities, for their voyces are wonne by flattery, not gained by desert. This custome being by lawe or vse allowed in other common­weales, The election of Counsel­lors apper­taineth to one.shall not be admitted in our state; forwe recommend the electi­on of our Counsellor, to one alone, being of all men iudged for vertue, wisdome & knowledge most worthy: thinking, that one may more ease­ly then many, eschew those perils, which happen in chosing Counsellors. But let him to whome this authority belongeth, receiue the same as gi­uen him by lawe or consent of the people, & not aspyre therto by force, corruption or Tyranny. The custome of free people, in the election of their Senators, vnto whome they commit their welfare, is to chose them [Page 68] among themselues, or else to giue that authoritie of election to an o­ther▪ which we reade the Romaines sometimes to haue done, who did not thēselues choose the Senate, as they did other magistrates, but com­mitted the doing thereof to one man alone, of most excellencie, good life, manners, authoritie, wisedome, and iudgement. Romulus the first father of that Citie, elected a hundred Senators, which custome was vsed by the other kings succeeding. But when the kings (through the insolent gouernment of Tarquintus) were remoued, this power of election (according to the qualitie of time) was somewhat altered, yet not giuen to many. For till the state returned to a Monarchie, the Se­nators were chosen eyther by the Consuls, the Censor, the dictator, or cheiftaine. Our ancestors haue most discretely brought that custome of the Romaines into this commonweale, giuing vnto the Kinge power and authority to make choise of Counsellors, and be an onely iudge of each mans vertue; electing those whome for age, wisedome, and no­bilitie he thought worthie. We therefore doe determine the power and right of electing Counsellors, to appertaine onely vnto the king, wherein, his greatest wisedome and iudgement ought be employed, not calling any to Counsell for skill in domesticall affaires, for riches gai­ned by agriculture, nor for skill in architecture: but for wisedome in gouernment of the commonweale, for preseruation of Subiects, and knowledge in good and wholsome lawes. If our bodies be diseased with sicknes, we consult with learned Phisitions, or if we want gar­ments or howses, we seeke for skillfull Artificers: why should we not also (as a thing of most importance) looke out and choose such men to gouerne the people and commonweale, whose wisedome can con­serue the same in peace and tranquilitie. It therefore behoueth a Prince in the choise of such men, to vse the whole force of his capacitie, wise­dome What things are to be re­spected in choise of Coū sellors.and diligence. For he is not onely to see, that in the Counsellor there be those partes whereof we haue spoken; to wit, that he be a natu­rall subiect, well borne and bred, and indued with those artes and dis­ciplines, which are thought worthy a ciuill man destined to gouerne the state, but he must also consider the quality of his manners, fame, fame­lie, age and vertue. It is moreouer to be knowen in what office or seruices the Counsellor (before his election) hath bene vsed, and with how much endeuour, fidelity, wisedome, and diligence he hath ser­ued: For from some other place of imployment, the Counsellor [Page 69] ought be chosen: which the Romaines vsed, electing their Senators onely out of that number, whome they called Patres, which was as it were, the nourserie of Counsellors. To be short, whosoeuer cho­seth Counsellors, ought aboue all, to lay before his eyes the profit of the commonweale, whereby he shall easely conceiue, what men and Coun­sellors the state wanteth, and how much or little euerie one can helpe, how great a burthen each man can beare, and what is to waighty for his force. Let vs hereafter discourse wherein all these thinges consist, what good the state receiueth by a Counsellors wisedome, and what dueties he is bound vnto. By that which hath beene alreadie saide, the King may sufficiently conceiue what things are considerable, to knowe a perfect Counsellor, and likewise a Counsellor shall finde what is to be obserued and vsed in gouerning. But lest the discourse of this in­stitution should seeme ouer long, we thinke fit to speake of those quali­ties in one other booke following, for not werying the readers minde with many wordes, and thereby become ouer tedious.

Finis Libri Primi.

[Page 71] ❧ The second Booke.

WE haue (as I hope) in the former Booke suffici­entlie at large discoursed of the first principles appertayning to the Counsellors dignitie, how many kindes of commonweale there is, and which of them ought be accounted most per­fect. We haue also laide the foundation of ci­uill felicitie, which is in the societie of men, a thing most notable and diuine. Nowe our en­tent is in this booke, to set downe those vertues which are required, not onely in a newe magistrate, but an olde and expert Counsellor, so shall the science of gouernment be complete perfect and fully finished.

The know­ledge of com­monweales, necessary in a Counsellor. First, it behoueth a Counsellor to know the forme of that common­weale wherin he is to giue counsell and be a minister, what people, what lawes & liberties are therunto belonging: what manners are there vsed, & by what discipline, vse, and custome, the state is gouerned; he ought likewise to know, not onely those meanes wherby the state may be orni­fied, increased & preserued, but also how the same may be weakned, hin­dred, or subuerted. For as that Pilot is not accounted perfect & skilfull, who knoweth only how to sayle & keepe course in quiet seas but he that by his Art vnderstādeth the nature & force of tempests, winds & storms, how to eschew perils, & by his art saue the ship tormented with fury of wind & water, leading hir to ha [...]borow & hauen of safetie: euen so the wisdome of a Counsellor, gouerning a quiet and peaceable state deser­ueth praise, yet much lesse then he, who finding the same wrought with windes of sedition, and afflicted with stormes of great dissention, resto­reth it vnto good and desired pacification, making the people con­tented, tractable, peaceable, and voyde of perturbation. Themisto­cles is much commended, for reducing the Athenians (being then [Page 72] sauage and simple) to liue in the Citie, and subiect themselues to lawes. But much more ought Solon to be praised, who finding the Citie, distur­bed with rebellion and ciuill warre, reduced it to vnion, reestablishing the lawe, and confirming the Magistrates. Neyther doe I thinke that Camillus for hauing deliuered Rome from the Galli is lesse to be honoured, then Romulus that first builded the Citie. Or is not Cicero to be prefer­red before the Fabii? he hauing recouered Rome from the wicked hand of Catiline, and they vndertaking a domesticall warre against the Vei­enti. Pompeius loued the commonweale, but Cicero preserued it, so as Pompeius might say, that vnlesse Cicero had preserued the state, he should haue wanted place where to triumph. Therefore Cicero would some­times gloriously say, that others had done things honorably, but the thanks for conseruation of the state was due vnto himselfe. Who thin­keth the vertue of Caesar or Pompeie, to be compared with the vertue of Scipio Africanus? yet did they most notable actes for their countrie, but he finding the same broken, weake, and as it were within one daies space to become subiect to the Armes of Haniball, did not onely rescue and recouer it, but also increased and inlarged it; which proueth the say­ing true.

Non minor est virtus, quam querere, parta tueri.

Cyrus in conquering kingdomes was happy, but in holding them vnhappy, he knewe the arte to winne, but was ignorant how to keepe. And surely those daies wherein we are preserued, ought be to vs more deere, then that wherein we were borne. Likewise they doe better de­serue of mankinde, whose wisedome hath deuised the welfare of men, then they, from whome their generation or conception proceedeth. I doe therefore wish the Counsellor to be indued with such knowledge, as consulteth not onely vpon things present, but also foreseeth things to come, comprehending in minde the whole state, diligently conside­ring all the chances, perils, mutations and inclinations thereof, wherby he shall with more facilitie conceiue the mischieues which happen, and The know­ledge of sun­dry states ve­ry profitable.eyther by foreseeing diuert them, or being growen, extirpe them. Neyther doe I thinke fit, that our Counsellor should be igorant in the gouer­ment of other states, for by such examples he may conceiue the lawes wherewith they are gouerned, the manners they haue vsed, in what [Page 73] sort they haue beene altered, amended, and preserued. Likewise with what authoritie each lawe is made, what is the order of their publique Counsels, with the duetie belonging to euery of them, what libertie, dignitie, authoritie and iurisdiction appertaineth to euerie common­weale. In this our state, for so much as the Senate is a meane betwixt the king and people, it behoueth euery Senator to know, what is the The state of Polonia.maiesty of a king, his greathes and iurisdiction, and likewise what is the right and libertie of subiectes, because the king and people many times contende one against the other, the one desiring immesurable li­bertie, the other affecting oppression. The intemperate contention of those humors doe greatly afflict the commonweale. For if the one doth preuaile, he putteth on the person of a Tyrant, or if the other be victorious, thereof are engendred as many thousande Tyrantes as heads of men. The tyrannie of many, is alwaies more cruell then of one. For the one taketh ende eyther by death, or by sacietie of com­maunding, but the insolent and insatiable licentiousnes of the multi­tude, doth feede the vaine of tyrannie; the venome whereof, doth long after infecte their posteritie. Therefore the Senate ought be ex­ceeding diligent in preseruing the libertie due and common to e­uerie one, and from that meane place, (as from a watching house or tower) to foresee the welfare of all, and take order that through se­dition or contention the commonweale be not indemnyfied. For the Senate is a iudge betwixt force and feare, libertie and seruitude, the The art of Tyrantes.king and people. Tyrantes were wonte to vse certaine sleightes, in arming themselues against the liberty of people. First by remouing all good and wise men, with euerie other person hauing power in the state (because the vertue of good men is to Tyrantes suspected) and that one, compell the rest eyther by feare or force to become seruile, and they themselues to doe all things according to their owne lust and plea­sure. Such counsell Periander gaue vnto Thrasibulus, perswading him to cut of the highest spikes of corne, meaning be should put the most noble Athenians to death. The like subtiltie was followed by Sex­tus Tarquinius the sonne of Lucius. He being suborned by his fa­ther, pretending to be banished, fled fraudulently vnto the Gabii, where hauing so much acquaintance and friendship as he thought suffized, sent secretly vnto his father to knowe what his pleasure was shoulde be done, who leading the messenger into the gar­den, [Page 74] there walked, and in his presence with his staffe strake of the heads of all the Dazles, which being reported to his sonne, he put the chiefe noble men of Gabia to death, by force and iniustice vsurping the com­monweale and liberty. The Tyrants doe also oftentimes inhibite the societie of Subiects, their meetings, their conferences, conuentions, feastings, and the studie of honest disciplines. Tyrantes also many times, doe sowe discord among the people, to the ende, that filled with hate and priuate displeasure, they may dispose themselues to warre and sedition, and thereby be impouerished, and being poore, and the warre ended, the offenders are forced to pay for pardon, so that euery way fleesed of their riches and made needie, they doe become base minded and vnsit to defende both liberty and well doing. These and many such like things the Counsellor ought indeuor himselfe to knowe, and by foresight prouide that the commonweale be not by those meanes af­flicted. The office of Kinges.Let him likewise vnderstand, that the office of a king is not to care or studie so much for his owne priuate profit, as the common commoditie of his subiectes, to obserue his lawes; to preserue the rights and liberty of the people, and to maintaine the authority and reputa­tion of his counsell. For kings were instituted to aid good men against the wicked and vngodly, and to them was giuen absolute power to reuenge iniuries, preserue liberty, and beiudges of each mans vertues and vices. A good king ought therefore to haue no lesse care of those he gouer­neth, then hath the shepheard of his flocke, that is, to make them bles­sed and happy. Homer calleth king Agomemnon the sheepheard of people, whom Plato doth imitate, calling him sheepheard and keeper of man­kinde. Moreouer a king ought to gouerne his people: Not as maisters doe their seruants, but as the father ruleth his children. Wherefore, as it is the part of good parents sometimes to rebuke their children, some­times to admonish and cherish them; and sometimes also to correct and punish them. So shoulde a Prince behaue himselfe towardes his subiectes, as well for the peoples preseruation, as the safetie of the commonweale, shewing himselfe sometimes seuere, sometimes gen­tle and placable, defending and enlarging the common profit with no lesse care, then a father prouideth for the sustentation of The differēce betwixt kings and Tyrants.his children. Thus appeareth the difference betwixt kinges and Tyrantes, the one doth care for the common commodi­tie, the other studieth onely for priuate profitte. The ende [Page 75] of the Tyrants indeuour, is voluptuousnes, but the ende of a kinges studie is honour. To excell in riches is proper to Tyrants, but a kings chiefe desire, is honour. A Tyrant desireth the ayde of strangers, but a king is garded with his owne subiectes. Alfonsus king of Arragon be­ing asked which of his subiectes he helde most deare? answered, I loue them better that wish me well, then those that feare me: which seemeth reasonable, because feare is accompanied with hatered. A King therefore should be no more safe by defence of Armes, then loue, good will, and fidelitie of subiectes. He is also to be honored as the minister of publique Counsell, the defender of lawes, and con­seruer of common right and liberty. For better performing of all which offices, he shall doe well to harken to the aduise of his Coun­sellors and (as his parentes) loue and honour them. Traianus that great Emperour of the world, vsed continually to call the Senate his father: For like as the father doth foretell his sonne of those things he thinkes profitable: so doth a Senate Counsell the king howe the state may be preserued, and by what lawes and orders it shoulde be gouerned. Of these and other thinges appertayning to the office of a king, or that haue beene receiued by lawe, vse or custome, a Coun­sellor The popular sort incon­stant.ought to be fully enformed. The popular sorte of men, is for the most parte mutable, by reason of the diuersitie of their ages. For of them, some being young, some olde, and some of middle age, it must needs be, that great dissentions should arise, euery man hauing a will and opinion diuers from others, and because they are all free men, each man frameth his life and manners according to his owne fancie, supposing there is libertie, where all men doe that which they lust and like. The diuersitie of manners doth breede among them varietie of mindes, and thereof doth followe sundry iudgementes touching the state, lawe, and liberty, whereof hate, displeasure and seditions doe ensue, so as all men are not equallie affected to the common­weale.

VVho are good sub­iectes. Those that be honestlie brought vp, naturally good, and well trained in learning, not surious, nor voluptuous, not womannish or licenti­ously giuen, are most willing obseruers of lawes, rights, concord, and ciuill society, not sweruing (as men say) one inch from the rules of vertue, fidelity, & glory of their ancestors, because they keepe and retaine all those things as inheritance descended from their forefathers. That sorte [Page 76] of men is in the commonweale to be reputed good subiectes: But they whose follie hath bene nourished by domesticall libertie, being borne at home and not trained vp abroad, wherby they haue neuer seene, done, or Seditious subiectes.heard any thing notable, magnificent or noble, are to be thought persons seditious, crastie and perilous subiectes, yet would they be called and thought good, honest, quiet and modest, notwithstanding the contempt they haue to imitate honestmen. And to the ende they shoulde not be thought blockheades and fit for nothing, deuise some new practise to gaine themselues fame, glory and commendation. And it commeth many times to passe, that pretending the patronage of liberty, by pub­lique perswasion and furie, they take matters in hande in apparance godlie, but in trueth profane. And if any of them be by birth or educa­tion apt for sedition, and excell the rest in witt and eloquence, they of­fer themselues vnto the ignorant sort to be captaines and reformers of lawes, religion, and order, conspiring against the King, the Counsell and all good subiectes, as men that had taken in hand the renoua­tion of the whole commonweale: Such men were of the Romanes cal­led Plebicolae. who to saue themselues from some punishment which before they deserued, doe take vpon thē the name of defending liber­tie, stirring newe troubles and alterations in the state; eyther else moued by some sodaine furie of minde, doeperswade the people to discorde and sedition, or else hauing intangled or rather prodigally consumed their inheritance and substance, (desirous to haue fellowes in miserie, and perish rather publiquely then alone,) were alwaies wont to attempt rebellion. Of such disposition were the Romaines called Gracchus, Clo­dius, Catiline. And in Athens Calistines, with many others.

As the bodie of our commonweale consisteth in the coniunction of three estates, whose vniuersall consent and temperature doth make it most perfect and happy: so if the same bodie be deuided or dismem­bred, that state becommeth of all others the mostlame, imperfect, and infortunate. For all other commonweales are subiect to one onely mu­tation, because they rest vpon one onely simple gouernment: But our state being mixed and made of three, must of force be subiect to as many conuersions and inclinations. If the king abuseth his office, the state hath one Tyrant, if the Senate so doe, there are diuers Tyrants. But if the power of people doth surpasse the authority and force of both the other, then the commonweale is afflicted with an infinite number of [Page 77] most pernicious Tyrants. Wherefore if in such a State, the office, libertie, dignitie, authoritie and iurisdiction of euery of them, be not confined and bound by lawes certaine, so as both by feare and punish­ment they be compelled to obserue lawe and liue honestlie, all good men shall there in vaine looke for quietnes.

The office of Counsellors. The proper office of a Consellor (as Cicero saith) is to imagine he beareth the person of the state: the reputation whereof, he is bound to maintaine, to obserue the lawes, set forth the proceedinges, and be mindfull of things, committed to his fidelitie. Also it becommeth him The duetie of priuate persons.as a priuate man, to liue in equality with other subiects, neither debasing nor extolling him selfe, and to desire onely those things in the common­weale, which be peaceable and honest: so shall euerie one performe the true duetie of a good and loyall subiect. It also becommeth sub­iects moderately to vse their libertie. For as Quintius saide, temperate libertie is profitable to euery Citie, but ouermuch libertie is euill, and maketh men headdie or desperate. To suppresse the licentiousnes of euill subiects, seueritie of lawe is required: Therefore it behoueth the state to foresee, that through not punishing of euill mens offences, the good subiects be forced to suffer at their handes. For the common­weale ought be accounted the possession of good and not of euill men. Moreouer, it cannot be, but in euery commonweale, seditions and mo­tions will arise, and (Hannibal said) there was no great Citie that could liue long in quiet, vnlesse it had some enemies abroade, because other­wise, domesticall foes would therein arise. And as mightie bodies Great states most subiect to trouble.seeme assured from externall harme, so are they euer bourdened with their owne waight. Besides that, sith we are men, we must not (as the Comoedian saith) thinke our selues free from any misaduenture that may happen to mankind. For although we be wise, prouident and good, yet are we men, and by instinct of nature lesse proan to vertue then vice, and in like sort there is no Citie that wanteth wicked, vicious and dis­orderly people. Therefore whensoeuer the floode of troubles doth In appeasing sedition, what order is to be taken.happen to arise in the state, the office of a Counsellor (as Cicero saith) is patiently to indure the peoples wilfulnesse, to winne the heartes of those that are vnasiured, keepe them that are alreadie wonne appease the offended, and aboue all prouide that the worst sort may not in any thing haue the aduantage: It is not also amisse that sometimes he winke and seeme not to see, so that those faultes whereat he winketh [Page 78] doe proceede rather of errour then wilfulnesse. But to pardon such as voluntarilie haue offended or committed any impious act against the commonweale, the honest orders of men, or the lawe, is not onely to be thought pernicious, but also wicked and detestable. Wherefore in suppressing so great a furie and rashnesse of mens fancies, the Counsellor ought to employ great wisedome and diligence, and let him therein chiefly vse those two precepts which Cicero reciteth from Precepts of Plato.the mouth of Plato, the one is, that alwaies he looke well vnto the common profit, referring thereunto all his actions, and forget euery priuate respect: the other is, to be carefull for the whole bodie of the commonweale, least in taking the protection of part, he doth aban­don the rest. For who so defendeth one onely sort of men, doth induce hatred and sedition: which two plagues, doe debilitate and subuert the state. He ought therefore to be as carefull of the people as of the King, of the nobilitie as of the meaner sort, of the rich as of the poore, of the wise, as the simple, and so consequently of all sortes and estates of men. The omission of which rule, was that which afflicted the Athe­nians, and filled Rome with sedition, tumults and ciuill warres. Let him therefore in al things obserue indifferencie and equalitie, for there­by the commonweale shalbe assured, and the people in good will, loue, Equalitie of commonw. of great ne­cessitie.and peace preserued. In that state where small respect is borne vnto e­qualitie, there quarrell, contention, and enmitie doe dailie arise: which commeth to passe, for that men equall do aspyre to things vnequall, or vnequall men to things equal. But men of one fortune do best consort together, and like will to like as the prouerbe saith. They therfore that excell others in riches or birth, are not to be preferred, neyther are they to be equally esteemed who are equall in liberty, but those that excell Wherein e­qualitie con­sisteth.others in vertue, are to be accounted both superiors and equals: that is, in respect of law or number, (as the Arithmetricians call it) they are equall, but in dignitie, they are superiour, because in the bestowing of honours, vertue is chiefly respected. For who so is most vertuous de­deserueth most honour and glorie, and this equalitie because it is measured by reason and iudgement, is called Geometricall. I doe therefore thinke fit that the Senator should obserue both equalities. In the distribution of iustice and conseruation of libertie, he is to be to­wards all men indifferent. For whom the law hath made equall, ought to liue in rule and libertie, neither giuing nor taking from one more then [Page 79] an other, as the line of law doth direct him. The rule of which equali­tie Equalitie A­rithmeticall.is easely obserued. For the condition thereof is in all commonweales prescribed, which is, that each man should enioy so much as by lawe, cu­stome, or conuention to him appertaineth, wherin heede must be taken, that neither wealth, powre or parentage be respected, but that aswell the poore as rich, the noble as ignoble may be equally iudged. As touch­ing equalitie, according to the iudgement of reason, whereby men Equalitie Geometrical.would be preferred and honoured more then others, is not so easelie discerned. For to iudge of each mans valewe, wisedome and vertue, with the honours to them due, is rather proper to a deuine, then humaine wit. The reason thereof is, we are often deceiued in our opinion of that which is accoūted good, neither be we euer vpright Iudges of other mens deseruing. Herein therfore resteth the difficultie, for who so can truely iudge of mens vertue, shall therby shew himself rather a God then man. In conclusion, the commonweale is not preserued by any vertue more, then that: who so then in gouerning is a iust iudge of ech mans value & vertue (for it resteth in his censure,) & knoweth also, vnto whose hands to commit or not cōmit the state, whom to loue and whom to hate whom to reward and whom to punish, shall make the gouernment most quiet: but not knowing so to do, the same becommeth of all other the most wicked▪ corruptible and disordered. Therefore in popular com­monweales where the multitude is rude and ignorant of discourse and reason the people are rewarded and punished by lot, for they pray God that each man may find fortune according to his merit. Notwithstan­ding for so much as the temeritie of lotting, obeyeth rather to fortune then reason, in the conseruation of equalitie we allowe of wisedome and humaine pollecie to be Iudge, rather then fortune. With which vertues if the Counsellor be indued, he shal easelie discern what ought in all things to be done. And therein he shall imitate the duetie of a good husband. For he hauing within his house diuerse honest persons, estee­meth one for his age, an other for his vertue, & a third for his condition: So the Counsellor in the commonweale should haue respect to each mans age, vertue, condition and calling. He must also vnderstand the Wherin law and populer libertie con­sisteth.right & liberty of people, (which as they think) do consist chiefly in being capable of the offices, to haue power to make & correct lawes, to speake freely in matters that concerne liberty, law or iniury, not to be arrested [Page 80] or imprisoned without order of lawe or authoritie, nor be vniustly iudg­ed, robbed or forced to pay tribute. They desire moreouer not to obey officers contrarie to lawe, not to be hurt of those that be more mightie, nor be oppressed by force, to haue libertie to desire and doe allthinges that is not by law and reason forbidden, to defend their law and libertie from Tyrants, to be partakers of the Parliaments, to beleue the King of highest authority, & the Councell of greatest vnderstanding. For where the Senate is Lord of publique Councelles, and all thinges by it deter­mined, are of other estates of men obeyed, where libertie is in the people, authoritie in the King, the Councell in the Senate, there is the best tem­perature of libertie and equalitie, chiefelie if the lawes be alwaies o­beyed. The Counsellor ought likewise to foresee, that the commonweale be not molested with any sedition, for in times of such troubles, the life of men is miserable and vnhappie. There is nothing Sedition the po [...]son of Commonw.so deuine, humaine, holie or religious that sedition doth not conta­taminate, disturbe and subuert: That is the poyson of all states, which maketh the greatest dominions, small and mortall. The causes of se­dition in all commonweales are more then the witt and reason of man can imagine. Wherefore continuall watch ought to be, lest the mis­chiefe begun, should more and more increase. The mindes of great men much honoured in the state, must be reconciled, for the discords of mightie personages doe drawe the whole commonweale, & of small beginnings most miserable euentes doe follow. In appeasing sedition two things are chiefly to be obserued, that is, in what sorte men are dis­posed What to be considered in appeasing sedition.to rebellion and for what causes. It happeneth sometimes that mens mindes are moued with furie, desire, feare, anger or such like af­fections: eyther else they are drawen with couetise, gaine, contempt, iniurie, disdaine, honour, and sometimes with religion. Sedition doth also follow, where one part of the people doth gaine great reputation and authoritie ouer the rest, and by some prosperous successe beeing insolente, desire to be aduanced aboue others, as the Areopagi among the Athenians, and the noble men of the Argiui, who hauing victorie of the Lacedemonians, sought to reiect the popular gouern­ment. Also the multitude of Siracusa puffed vp with pride of their prosperous warre vppon the Athenians, changed their state from a Democratie to an Ochlocratie. In Rome likewise the multitude not induring the dignitie of the Senate, made manie motions, [Page 81] and in the ende created Tribunes, by whose furie and insolency, the au­thoritie of the Senate was diminished, and by sedition and troubles brought the state to vtter destructiō. Sedition doth also sometimes hap­pen in the commonweale, by reason one man doth exercise diuers offi­ces, which thing is perilous in euery state, for that others doe seeme thereby defrauded, and iudged vnworthy of honour. Let each man therefore content himselfe with one office, so shall the state haue many ministers with diligence to attende the well doing thereof. Yet is it sometimes profitable, that in small commonweales, one man shoulde exercise diuers offices, but in great states the same vseth to In preuen­ting of sediti­on what the Counsellor ought doe.moue sedition. A Counsellor therefore ought foresee, chiefly in extir­pation of seditions, that nothing be done contrary to the ordinances, lawes and customes, preuenting all disorders in due time: for mis­chiefe growing by little and little is not easely perceiued, but hauing gained force, it sheweth it selfe and cannot be lightly suppressed. He ought also not to be ouer credulous of perswasions craftely inuented to abuse the people, which are many times deuised by popular men and flatterers, who louing innouation, dare enterprise any thing to make them owners of their desire, and resting in that minde, they con­spyre against the prosperitie of good men, cloaking their vice with the rashnesse and fury of people▪ which flame and insolency not being quenched in time, doth commonly runne so farre, as with the fire there­of, the whole state is consumed. The commonweale therefore requi­reth the Counsell of some notable and diuine man, in whome it may re­posethe care of hir happines and welldoing. By his directions and go­uernment, all perils, seditions, discordes, mutations and inclinations may In a perfect Counsellor fower vertues chiefly requi­red.he suppressed, and therby enioy a happy peace and tranquility. Who­soeuer endeuoreth himselfe to be such a one, it behoueth him to be pru­dent, iust, valiant and temperate, for from those fower vertues, all hu­maine things, wordes, and workes doe proceede. Surely wisedome is a great & singular vertue▪ & so great, as I know not any thing in this world that may be therunto compared. For without it, the other vertues can neither be exercised nor cōprehended, which is the cause that Socrates Prudence.(though therin he d [...]enteth frō Aristotle) doth call Prudēce the only ver­tue: meaning, as I think▪ that without Prudence no vertue can be, or con­tinue. Bion thought that Prudence excelled all other vertues, as far as the sight doth exceed all the other senses, affirming moreouer, that vertue to [Page 82] be as proper to olde men, as strength or currage was to yoong men. Wherfore we will that our Senator should be indued with this vertue, for he can neyther say or doe any thing worthy his commendation and age, if the same be not, (as with a sawse) seasoned with wisedome. But what this prudence is and wherein it consisteth, it seemeth necessary we shoulde What Pru­dence is.heere declare. The Latines haue called this vertue Prudentia, of proui­dendo, because through it, the minde doth foresee things to come, dis­poseth of things present, and remembreth things passed. For he that thinketh not of things past, forgetteth his life, and he that foreseeth not things to come, is subiect to many perils, and vnaduisedly falleth into euery misaduenture. Prudence (as Cicero saith,) is the knowledge of things good, euill, and indifferent, consisting wholly in the chosing and knowing what is to be desired or eschewed, and (as Aristotle thinketh) it is an habit coupled with perfect reason, apt for good action, and is ex­ercised in those things which may happen to men, well or euill. There­fore Theoricall wisedome. differeth frō Prudence. Theoricall wisedome, doth differ from Prudence: because that passeth not the boundes of contemplation, and this is wholly giuen to action and humaine busines. Moreouer this kinde of wisedome needeth counsell and fortune, to defend those things wherein it delighteth, be­cause it is occupied in certaine and no variable sciences, which is the cause that Geometricians, Mathematicians, (with all the crew of na­turall and solitarie Philosophers) are men learned, and skilfull, but not Contempla­tiue Philoso­phers, called rightly Sapi­entes, but not Prudentes.prudent. In like manner Diogenes, Zenocrates, Chrysippus, Carneades, De­mocritus, Metrocles, Aristippus, Anaxagoras and Thales were men of great knowledge, but not prudent; because their manner of wisedome or Phi­losophy was different from true prudence, being ignorant in those things which were profitable for themselues and others, delighting in matters secret, hidden, and obscure; which sciences, although they be good and notable, yet vnprofitable and impertinent to humaine felici­tie. Because prudence consisteth in those things whereof deliberation and counsell is to be taken, but if those contemplatiue Philosophers, had not estranged themselues from the conuersation and actions of men, but beene employed in the affayres of gouernment as was Pericles, Solon, Lycurgus, Plato, Demosthenes, Cato, Cicero and others, they had (no doubt) The originall of Prudence.beene men in wisedome most excellent. For true wisedome proceedeth from perfect reason, which if the Counsellor attaineth, eyther by Philoso­phy, ciuill discipline, or experience, he shall thereby know how to foresee [Page 83] things to come, gouerne well and wisely things represent, and when trou­ble or doubtfull accidents happen, speedely resolue, and giue present counsell; according to the time and occasion. Plato saide there were two things most notable in the life of man: the first was, a wise man to knowe all things, the second to know himselfe. Therefore with this most notable, great and diuine vertue, let our Counsellor be fully fur­nished, for without it no reason, no vertue, no action nor cogitation can be good or perfect. The chiefe propertie or force of this wisedome (as wise men affirme) it to be wise for our selues: because the prudent man doth first settle his owne affaires, for wanting wisdome to gouerne well his owne priuate estate, he may be rightly called foolish. Vnder Pru­dence is contained the skill of well handling matters domesticall; the knowledge of making lawes, ciuill wisedome, and the conning of con­sulting and iudging. Therefore Prudence in a mans owne affaires, is Prudence of two kindes.by Cicero called domesticall wisedome; and the same vsed iu publique matters, is named ciuill wisedome. For the perfect conceiuing of all these things, it behoueth him to vnderstand what is true and iust, because the knowing of trueth, is proper to Prudence. For if we abandon trueth, all things said or done, will be false iniust and euill. Wherefore who so wisely & with a sharpe conceipt seeth & knoweth what in all things is A wise man.comely and true, performing the same speedily & wittely, is in my iudge­ment to be reputed a wise man. And to the ende the wisedome of a Counsellor may haue certaine groundes, whereunto his imagination may resort for reasons to leade him to the trueth, let him keepe in minde these two things: that is, honesty and profit. Then whatsoeuer he spea­keth or doth, eyther in priuate or publique, the same must be, (as at a marke) directed and leuelled by honesty and profit. For all things which are conceiued by reason or expressed by speach, within the boundes of these two are included. We therefore require a sharpe and sounde conceipt in finding out what is honest and profitable, least the minde blinded with affections and desires, doth seduce the iudgement of our Counsellor and leade him from the path of true reason. Many men there are, who finding themselues to haue a little abused reason by giuing head to their affections & lustes, do fall forth with into opinions, from wisdom diuers and contrarie, wherof followeth, that they are not onely deceiued in their opinion of things honest & profitable, but are also with the loue of dishonesty & improfitable desires blinded. For auoiding wherof these [Page 84] What is to be eschewed in Prudence. two errors must be eschewed. First not to take things vnknowen for knowen and rashly assent vnto them; next, not to yeeld vnto that which is euill, and contrarie to vertue and honesty. A thing most easie it is for the Counsellor, to comprehend the endes of honesty and profit, if he layeth before his eyes the good and welfare of the state, which is the end and scope whereunto all wisedome and prudence of euery The end of Counsellors wisedome.Counsellor ought be referred; because neyther God, the people, his country, nor wisedome it selfe, can at his hand require more, then that the commonweale may be preserued in safetie and happines. And The felicity of common­weales.euery state is happy, which doth abound with all good things, and if the people therein be iust, temperate, valiant, free, wise, and therewith­all rich, healthy, vnited and voyde of factions. The office of a Se­nator is also, not onely to take care of those things which tend to the felicity of the commonweale, but he ought be much more carefull to know by what meanes it may be therin continued and preserued. For it oftimes happeneth, that by negligence of magistrates, the subiects (as each man is by nature proane rather to euill then good) by little and little doe decline from vertue, infecting the state with diuers mischiefes, wherin the commonweale must of necessity be drowned. For preuen­ting Law the con­seruer of ver­tue.wherof, it behoueth, those euill accidents to be met with and remo­ued by law. For the nature of law in all commonweales is a bond to tye each man to his duty, and defend them in vertue and fidelity. But it sufficeth not onely to make lawes, wherby men are rewarded What is to be considered in making of lawes.or punished according to their merrits: but it behoueth (as the La­cedemonians did) to prescribe examples, customes, and exercises of vertue, wherin the people may take delight. Therunto ciuill disci­pline is to be added: which both in time of peace & warre shall make men apt and obedient to all exercises of vertue. I wish also aboue all things, that in making of euery law, such iudgement should be v­sed, that therin all occasion of offending may vtterly be remoued. And as the Phisition doth heale the sicke body by medicine, so ought the Counsellor by good lawes to cure the mind. Yet can I not allow of those, who finding an inconuenience begun and growing, doth forth­with execute punishment, without deuising a reason how the same mis­chiefe Occasion of offending to be remoued by law.may after be extirped. For I thinke it more expedient by Coun­sell and reason, to prouide how men may be made iust and honest, rather then how they might be put to death or punished. What man is so [Page 83] cruell, that would not take away occasion of these, rather by making prouision of corne for the poore, then through want thereof enforce them to become theeues and put them to death? And who is he that seeth the commonweale inclined to vice, and the people spoyled with licenciousnes, but would reforme the same rather by pecuniall then ca­pitall lawes? Therefore Tullius said, if thou wilt take away couetous­nes, thou must first remoue her mother excesse. A counsellor ought to haue euer before his eies, all the commodities & discommodities of the The como­dities and dis­commodities of common [...]common weale, which being to him vnknowen, it is impossible to cure the sores and woundes wherewith it may be greeued. He ought ther­fore to be informed, what life euerie notable subiect leadeth, how he is affected to the state, whether he obeyeth the lawes or be enclined to faction, whether the magistrates be faithfull and diligent in the pub­lique affaires, whether they be couetous, cruell and vnmercifull, or whether they be iust, gentle and pitifull. Also whether the Iudge be wise and learned in the ciuill ordinances, and whether they determine accor­ding to lawe, or their owne pleasure. Let him also so well compre­hend in mind the whole commonweale, as to know all rightes, liberties & lawes belonging to the people, & as (Cicero doth counsel) what mu­nition Knowledges necessary in Counsellorsthe state hath, what soldiers, what tresure, what confederats, what friendes, what stipendaries, and by what lawe, condition or compact euery of them is bound: he must also be perfect in the custome of iudgements, and the presidents of times past. All these things it be­houeth a Counsellor to know, and continually to thinke of them, for he is the man at whose hand the people and countrie doe looke for their welfare: and he fayling of his endeuor, or refusing to worke the weldoing thereof, doth commit an error not onely reproue­able, but also impious. The chiefe duetie of our loue and fidelitie (next vnto God,) is due vnto our countrie: which who so loueth not, is perhaps to be holden inferior to beastes: many of which kinde, drawen onely with loue to their naturall soyle (as captiues to their countrie) doe choose rather to die then abandon the place wherein they had their birth and education. This loue to our country ioy­ned vnto high wisedome, doth make such an vniuersall agree­ment Loue to our country.among men, as nothing can be in counsell saide or done offen­siuely, vnwisely or vniustly, but euery thing in the ballance of perfect iudgement equally and indifferently examined. Thus we see the force [Page 84] of wisedome is great, sith through it (as by a gate,) we passe vnto all the other vertues, and without it no vertue can defend it selfe, because onely by benefit of it, we become iust, temperate and valiant. Also by it, we are instructed where, when, and how to vse all other vertues.

Prudence hath also vnder her certaine other vertues, which are as it were followers and companions, by which meane, her power becom­meth enlarged and ornified, which if the Counsellor doth carefully remember and diligently obserue, he shall thereby in his actions and counsell gaine great praise and glory worthy the wisedome of so great Companions to Prudence.a personage. Wherfore first it behoueth him to be witty, docible, of good memory, of sound vnderstanding, circumspect, prouident, warie, and wilie: For these vertues (as Plato and the Peripatetickes affirme) are the followers and seruants of Prudence.

Witt. Witt is a certaine naturall force, by nature incident to reason, hauing power to cōceiue things proceeding from reason, which although many times it be not nourished by industrie, art and memory, yet is it alone of force, and without vse or learning, doth make many men very com­mendable. Lot the Counsellor therfore know his owne wit, and become sharpe in the excogitation of reasons, eloquent in delating and ornifying his speach, and firme in memory. This wisedome whereby we first con­ceiue all things, doth spring from the quicknes of wit, and is increased by memory and aptnes to learning, of which two, men are called in­genious, and is confirmed by learning and experience. That witt is most laudable, which is constant, strong, sharpe, immutable, noble, pleasant, gallant and liberall.

The sharpnes of witt is much ornified by docilitie and memory: by the one, we be taught to conceiue those things which are laid before vs, by the other we retaine in minde whatsoeuer is eyther by our selues in­uented, or by others vttered. In the exercise of those things, it be­hooueth a Counsellor to be most diligent: for not to conceiue quick­ly and remember what hath beene spoken of others, is the proper­tie of a dull and foolish witt, which was the cause that Demostines, Alcibiades, Mithridates and diuers others most notable men, haue beene (as we read) in those things much practised. Furthermore we must know, that as witt is the grace of euery Counsellor, so vnder­standing Vnderstādingis the light of wit, by vertue whereof, thinking and vnder­standing, we conceiue all things, or their Ideas, as well true as false. [Page 85] For by common vnderstanding we comprehend the knowledge of things, and through it iudge, that euery thing honest ought be referred to vertue, and whatsoeuer is dishonest must be included in vice; which vnderstanding is not disioyned from the sences, who are, as it were interpreters and reporters of knowledge, yet must we take heede not to be deceiued by sensuall iudgement: and therefore all feblenes, dul­nesse, and insensibilitie ought be eschewed. For it often happeneth that eyther by art or subteltie, we become shamefully deceiued, which error in all things (and chiefly in the knowing and iudging of good and true from bad and false) is to be auoyded.

Circumspe­ction. We will also that our Counsellor should be ciscumspect, not one­ly in those things which doe happen priuately, but also in euery other that may be hurtfull to the commonweale. For he must endeuor himselfe in the safetie of subiects, to foresee all stormes that can hap­pen vnto the state, and prouide for the preseruation of euery mem­ber thereof. This vertue called circumspection, is a carefull consi­deration of things to be done, and both in warre and peace of much importance, because through wise circumspection, the force and furie of fortune is diuerted, and we yeeld rather to reason and counsell, then trust to the rashnes and fiercenes of fortune. In this vertue Quintus Fa­bius did excell, for he (as is reported) by delaies and protracting time, saued the Romain state: but contrariwise, Flaminius incircumspectilie trusting to his courage & strength assalted Hanibal, to his owne great disaduantage. I omit to tell how Q. Scipio the Consull with diuers others was through want of circumspection, by the Cimbri distressed. In time of peace it is also most needfull & profitable that the Counsellor should vse circumspection, and be as an Argus or Lynceus in the common­weale, to spie out those things which appertaine to the concord, peace and welfare of the people. for not so being, he cannot foresee what seditions, wars and vnlooked for accidents, do daily happen to the pre­iudice of the commonweale. Some there are so ignorant, so vnwise or blinded with abundance of pleasure, as scarsely they can discerne things before their faces: much lesse foresee them, which (by the euent of things and time, become perilous to the commonweale) are an occasion of many misaduentures; which kind of men, (as more carefull of their owne priuate, then the publique commodity) might deseruedly be remoued from gouernment. For notwithstanding they see the threatnings of war▪ [Page 86] the people caried away captiue, the countrie spoyled, women and chil­dren sold for slaues, townes burnt, fieldes wasted, and temples profa­ned, and moreouer behold the commonweale with most extremitie af­fected by barbarous enemies; yet vse they no circumspection, coun­sell, nor medicine, wherewith so great a furie of miserie may be cured or cooled. For perhaps they more willingly behold the people troubled and weakened with sedition, the meaner sort of the more mightie op­pressed, The circumspection of a Senator.and the religion of God neglected. But the good Senator, with all his force embracing the commonweale, studieth by what meanes the common saueftie and welfare may be made happy and perpetuall. He prouideth that the furie of enemies, may by garrisons and fortres­ses be restrained: that castles and bulwarkes may be builded, the pla­ces of defence may be repayred, and that passages may be stopped: all which things are commonly great obstacles and impeachments to ene­mies. It is also requisite to haue some subiects well trained, reddie, and exercised, for by such preparation the cōmonweale being as it were for­tified, disdaineth the force of forraine enemies, and diuerteth their mindes from offering violence. The Lacedemonians were wont to call the bodies of men, the walles of Sparta. The felicitie of subiects is pre­serued By what meane the felicitie of subiectes is preserued.by giuing to euery man his right, vniting them by fauour, by seueritie of lawes and iustice: In all which things it behooueth the Counsellor to shew himselfe wise and circumspect; for to neglect those things which appertaine to the conseruation of peace and repressing of rebellion, is not only foolish & ignominious, but also impious & wicked. And who is he that may better preuent these mischiefes then the Coun­sellor? for he being placed amid'st the people, seeth not onely the order of each mans life, his right, libertie, licentious and seditious disposition, but is, (as it were purposely placed in a tower,) dili­gently to behold both things present, and also foresee things after­wardes to follow. And as the Phisition findeth the disease increasing, the Captaine conceiueth the subtiltie of his enemies, and the shipma­ster preuenteth the tempest of the seas: So ought the wise Counsellor to foresee the perils, inclinations, chances and mutations of the com­monweale. For his office is not onely to see things present, butalso foresee things to come, wich vertue of foreseeing, is called Prudence: Prouidence.and they that are therewith indued, be named prouident and pru­dent. Because Prouidence (as Cicero writeth) is that, wherby things to [Page 87] come are scene before they happen: Yet true it is, that to foreknowe things, is rather proper to wits deuine then humaine, because God onely knoweth things to come, and such knowledge is the proper ver­tue and condition of mindes deuine. Notwithstanding, for that we haue in vs a certaine shadow or likenes of diuinitie, it happeneth that we also doe coniecture and forsee things to come, which may be by two meanes: eyther by inspiration and will of God, or by our owne pro­per instinct. To the first kinde, belong prophesying, diuination, & such Prouidence diuine.like knowledges, which are in men by inspiration and reuelation from God. Secondly the soule being seperated from the bodie, remembereth things past, beholdeth things present, and foreseeth things to come. And of that prouidence this our present speach entreateth. For those things which are written touching dreames, intrailes of beastes and fowles, lotts, monsters, stars, southsaiers, Aaguri, Ar [...]oli, Astrologers, spirits, and infinite other meanes, whereby the Achei iudged of things to come, seeme not to appertaine to our purpose. But if the minde of our Counsellor be holy, pure, and vndefiled with dregs or spot of vices, and that his bodie be an habitation of that celestiall spirit and diuine minde, absolute and perfect, by vertue thereof he may prognosticate and foresee things to come, and may be called not onely prudent, wise or prouident, but also holie, diuine, godly and religious. Such men were the prophets in our law, and the Sibille and southsaiers, with all those (whom they say) were instructed by the Nymphes and Gods: as Tircsias, Mopsos, Amphiaraus, Calchantas. But how this celestiall prouidence is attained, our intent is not here to discourse. This skill of prophecy being put into men, and by diuine inspiration shut vp in our bodies, is most strong, when the soule deuided from the bodie, is by diuine instinct moued. But let vs returne to humaine prouidence, the Humaine pro­uidence.exercise whe [...]of is also to be accoūted diuine. For whē the mind of a wise man, is indued with the knowledge of all humaine thoughts and acti­ons, and vnderstandeth also the beginning, euent, mutations and de­clinations of things present and future, comprehending likewise in minde, the Idaea and forme of things to be done, which nature or reason doth gouerne by a certaine and inuoluble course, being I say in all these things studied and informed, hauing sharpened the edge of his witt, and conceiued the state of mens actions and affaires of the commonweales, he may by such meanes foresee and foreknow what is [Page 88] Dem [...]nium Socratis. in them good, what euill, what infirme, what durable, because in such men there is somewhat diuine, called a spirit, which Socrates had, and was therewith alwaies accompanied: which spirit is nothing else then the minde of a wise man, chast, vndefiled and exercised in the iudge­ment of things: for such a one by euerie small coniecture may (at oc­casions) conceiue what is hereafter to come. A certaine prouidence is also also learned by vse and examples, which the Counsellor shall do well not to contemne. In which knowledge, he shall be chiefly helped by reading Histories: because examples are of great force to diuert or remooue in cōuenients, sith euerie man flieth that willingly, which he hath found most dangerous in others. Therefore a Counsellor ought be wise in foresight and conceiuing euils long after to come, and omit none oportunitie to forewarne and consult what is fittest for the state: because, loked for mishap [...]; are with more patience indured. Sodaine mischiefes are for the most part with difficultie or great danger eschew­ed, because in things sodaine, our mindes are dismaied and voyde of counsell, but those things which are naturally looked vnto, are well a­voided. We must therefore take heede in time, least our wisedome be learned to late, and it were a shame to say in vaine, had I wist. If the Pilot before the tempest prouide not that the ship may saile in safe­tie; when windes do rage, his prouidence proueth to no purpose: So the Counsellor should thinke how the state may be preserued, before the same be hurt, offended, or assaulted with enemies. For it is bet­ter to be warie by foresight of perils past, then make proofe of misad­uentures present: because (men say) errors by past, may be reprehen­ded, but not amended.

Prouidence is alwaies accompanied with caution, wherby we es­chew Caution.those present euils which may happen vnto vs: for nature hath so framed vs, as naturally we desire good things and shunne euill. Which shunning of euils (if it proceedeth from reason) is called Caution, and therwith onely wise men are indued. The profit of this vertue is chiefly seene in words and works, for to vtter thy conceipt warely, and worke that thou art to doe aduisedly, is the part of a wise and well experien­ced man. Wherefore in all consultations it behooueth the Counsel­lor, to be in speach not onely graue and short, but also warie and heedefull, as Horace doth well warne him, saying.

In verbis etiam tenuis, cautus (que) serendis.

[Page 89] It happeneth also, that so often as any thing be spoken rashly we repent the vnaduised vtterance of that speach, and many times our selues and the commonweale also are brought to disaduantake, when forraine affaires be done rashly, or any consultation of publique cau­ses be carelesly performed: because in sodaine speech we powreforth many things, which ought to be concealed. Therefore the Comedi­ [...]n VVhat is to be obserued in speaking.warneth vs well, saying, It is folly to discouer that which ought to be concealed. In speach a Counsellor must alwaies remember, to speake nothing in anger, in feare, in mirth, in hast, or vnpremedi­tated, which things obserued, he shall declare himselfe both graue and wise. Hauing also occasion to conferre or speake with the ene­mies, neighbours or ambassadors (the indeuor of whome is to disco­uer secrets) he must be most warie; for therein they vse great cunning to vent our thoughts by coniectures, and gather our meaning by signes. In those actions therefore a Counsellor must haue a setled minde shew­ing the constancie thereof in iesture, countenance, words and mouing of his eies: For they are the bewraiers of mens thoughts. He must be also nothing hastie in beleeuing other mens words, for there is nothing more profitable for a wise man then incredulitie: Yet let him so vse the matter as not to seeme hard of beliefe, or be altogether incredulous, vnlesse the reputation or troth doth otherwise require. For against ap­parant trueth to maintaine any thing, is very vnseemely. Neither would we haue him so silent, as thereby to be thought dull or effeminate, for the one is imputed to want of kuowledge, the other to a certaine mai­denly bashfulnes which in men is alwaies to be reproued. Therfore a certaine meane is to be used aswell in silence as speach, yet so, as he be a Silence.greater hearer then speaker: which was the respect, that nature gaue vnto man two eares & one tongue. Surely it is a singular wisedome to know in what sort to be silent, & euery man ought to consider wel what, how, where, to whom, & in what place to speake. Also in all negotiatiōs buisines & counsels great cawtion is to be vsed, which may be done by such as search wisely what is in euery thing comely or vncomely, what profitable or vnprofitable. Let his counsell be sound, prouident and prudent, and in vtteting thereof, he must vse great sagacitie and be warie. How necessarie warines and cawtion is in warre, needeth not here to be discoursed: for our intent is frame to a Counsellor of state in counsel, in court, in iudgement, and in peace, gowned not in warre armed. [Page 90] Yet this I say, that warrs haue not beene better gouerned, nor armies more safely preserued, nor the subteltie enemies of more wisely discoue­red, then by the vertue of caution, which if a chieftaine wanteth, he is ignorant in all other vertues belonging to a Captaine generall.

We will also that our Counsellor should be quicke witted to con­ceiue Sagacitie.and search out the reason of matters propounded to consul­tation. For in deede sagacitie is a sharpe and present conceipt: and as it is the propertie of a wise man to consult well: So is it the property of a quicke spirit, wittily to vnderstand, and soundly to iudge of that which an other man speaketh.

Moreouer I wish him to be not onely sharpe in conceiuing, but also Wilines.craftie and subtill in searching what subiects doe thinke, what they de­sire, what they hope for, and what they aspect. By that meanes he shall retaine the multitude in obedience, and by knowing their coun­sels and cogitations, direct those things which be in them euill. Some lewde subiectes doe vse to conspire the destruction of good men, ey­ther induced thereunto by hate, furie or insolencie, sometimes also they so doe of will, hauing the gouernment in their hands, sometimes for that they finde themselues inferiors to others in riches, honour & autho­ritie: and sometimes, because they thinke themselues disdained & light­ly regarded in the state. So as for these causes they beare displeasure to others, mouing warre, and sedition, practise their death (& if their force doth so suffice) they aduenture to bring the state into apparant hazard. The meanes to suppresse sedition.In suppressing of these motions and cogitations of euill men, the coun­sellor must shew himselfe warie and subtle, not euer dealing openly, or by direct opposition, but rather charging the force of such men, eyther behinde, or on the side, and by perswading, admo­nishing, desiring and courteously chastising, reduce them to be bet­ter, more tractable, and more perswasible. He must also, at occasions threaten them with authoritie, & by seueritie diuert thē from such wicked & execrable enterprises: alwaies cōsidering & deeply pōdering in mind, by what art and meanes, the quiet and tranquility of subiects may be pre­serued, and how sedition & discord, with their causes should be extirped. For that is a thing which appertaineth chiefly to the conseruatiō of cō ­monweales. Consultation.For bringing of which thing to passe, prudent consultatiō & deliberation must be vsed, because consultatiō is the scholler of good counsel. It therfore behoueth a Coūsellor in this & all other things to be [Page 91] carefull that whatsoeuer is determined, may before execution with great wisedome, and found iudgement be considered and examined. The force of all consultation consisteth in those things which apper­taine VVhereof to consult.to the common life of men and conseruation of a commonweale. He ought not therefore to consult of things eternall or celestiall, as of the world, or of things which cannot happen, or of them that doe hap­pen by nature, chance, or fortune, as of findings treasure and such like, neither shall he consider of trifles, as of emptines, nor of things past: for what is done, cannot be againe to doe▪ But all consultation should be of things to come, and that which may happen or not happen after this or that sort, the reason whereof seemeth to belong vnto the profit of men. Of which things, Aristotle rekoneth fiue kindes: Of getting money, of peace and warre, of conseruation of our countrie, of commodities to be brought in or caried out, and making of lawes▪ If consultation be for leuying money, then must the reuennues, customs Consultation touching mony.and imposts of state be seene and knowen, to the ende they may be increased or diminished. Yet vnlesse great necessitie so requireth, the imposts would not be inlarged. For all new impositions (although reasonable) are commonly offensiue to the subiects, and breede much occasion of trouble. Tiberius the Emperor being perswaded to increase the tributes of his people, said it was the propertie of a good shepe­heard to shere his sheepe, but not to fleae them. He shall also per­swade necessary charges of state to be continued and remoue superflu­ous expences. For the better knowing whereof, let him aswell imitate the examples of other nations as his owne country, wherein the know­ledge of histories will greatly helpe him. If consultation be of warre Consultation of warre.and peace, it is to be considered of what force the enemie is or may be, what kind of warre is to be made, and against whom. It is also good to know the strength of neighbours, whether their force consisteth in footemen or horse, whether it be equall or vnequall to ours, in what respect they be stronger or weaker, to the end that peace may be made with the stronger, and warre with the weaker, which thing must be per­formed with great iudgement & sound deliberation. Moreouer he shall consider whether the cause of warre be iust, and whether without armes our desire may be brought to passe. For a wise man ought to proue all meanes before he taketh armes, because honest peace is euer to be preferred before cruell warre. Touching the defence of our Consultation of defence. [Page 92] countrie, it behoueth to know how much force is required, how it is garded, and what places of strength is thereto belonging. It is al­so Consultatiō of marchandizenecessary to remember the order of our warre and seruice. But if we consult of portage and reportage of commodities, aboue all heede is to be taken, that the commonweale may not at any time want things ne­cessary, and that whatsoeuer is superfluous may be solde and caried a­way. Care must be likewise taken, that in exchanging marchandize the prises of things may be considered, to the end that the state be not [...]bbed of money, and in lue thereof, such needles merchandize brought in, as doe make the peoples mindes vaine and effeminate. In Consultation of lawes.the ordaining of lawes also, great wisedome is required: For in them resteth the well doing of the whole commonweale. Therein it hel­peth much to vnderstand the course of the state, what lawes haue bene receiued, and by which of them it hath bene conserued, and by what new ordinances it may be assured. Whereof may be inferred that the lawes ought be framed for the commonweale, not the commonweale for the lawes: because one kind of lawes are not fit for all countries. Neither are these knowledges onely profitable, but it is also necessary to know all the confines of our countrie, the better to forsake those for­raine things which be euill and receiue the good. In cōsultation of mat­ters of most importance, it is many times good to vse the aduise of o­thers, for one man foreseeth not all, which proueth that saying of Homer to be true.

Bini vbi conueniunt, melius rem perspicit alter.

For of good and prudent consultation wise counsell doth com­monly proceed: which is the chiefe foundation to performe things commendable. It therefore behoueth a Counsellor to excell all others in Counsell. For Counsell is a certaine aduised reason touching the Counsell.doing or not doing of things propounded, which a Counsellor must of necessitie at all occasions be readie to giue, grauely, wisely and honestly. For sith in all matters three things are required, that is counsell, reason and successe, it is requisite, that good consultation should aswell go be­fore action, as good successe follow good consultation. And as a man fighting doth deuise how to hurt his enemie: so must the Counsellor in counselling accommodate his counsell vnto the time and persons. The [Page 93] things wherof we are to consult (as Cicero teacheth) are of three sortes, Matters con­sultable of three sortes.eyther we consult of things honest, things profitable, are of those things wherein profit and honestie doe contend. These three being exactly knowen to a Counsellor, doe fully informe him how to giue Coun­sell in all matters whatsoeuer. Yet is great wisedome required in knowing what is honest and what is profitable, and it is a matter of no lesse vertue to vnderstand of two honest and profitable things, which is the most honest or most profitable. We vse sometimes to take counsell of the matter, the time and occasion, wherein (as in all other things) we must neuer flie from honesty or profit, for we flie that which offendeth, imbrace that is profitable, and among many euils, choose the least. Furthermore in euerie good Counsell we should resort to that which of all other good things is the best, as well in the particular good of our owne life, as the publique good whereon common felici­tie dependeth. Herein all the originall causes of our cogitations and Counsels ought to consent. For all Counsels are vaine, which tende The ende of good counsel▪not vnto this ende of publique felicitie, as no winde is prosperous for him, that knoweth not in what hauen he desireth to ariue. In ta­king counsell, great wisedome, and in giuing counsell, fidelitie and re­ligion is desired. For euill counsell is worse in him that counselleth, but wise and faithfull aduise, is accounted most commendable. Let the Senator also take heede least in giuing counsell he attribute any thing to fortune or chance, for they doe seldome or neuer perfectly follow the trueth: Euen as the man is not valiant, who doth valiantly by chance or vnaduisedly: So he that followeth fortune or hap without reason and iudgement, is not wise. The Counsell of a senator must be wise, The qualitie of counsell.good, faithfull, mature, deliberate, and free: not foolish, craftie, hastie or pernicious. All craftie and audatious Counsels are in ap­parance pleasant, in execution hard, and in euent dangerous. Let him also know, that there is nothing so great an enemie to good coun­sell as hast, being alwaies followed by vile and shamefull repentance: Hastie coun­sell dāgerouswhich is proued true not onely in ordinarie actions, but also in martiall enterprises. Neuerthelesse we perswade not our Counsellor to trifle the time, but execute speedely. For celeritie tempered with wise coun­sell, is alwaies profitable, many things there are also, wherein a wise Counsellor should not intermeddle, but if he happen so to doe, they may not be abandoned. Therefore wee commonly saye, [Page 94] that, aduise should be slowe, but execution speedie, for the end and not the beginning of euery Counsell must be considered, and all things referred to necessitie. Neither haue commonweales appointed meetings and assemblies of Counsellors for other purpose, then that of aged and wise men, all matters might be first pondered, and after maturelie performed. At which deliberations and consultations of great mat­ters, we will that these men should be present. For it proueth greatly expedient and profitable, that matters propounded in Counsell, should be much and long considered, & it were follie in one howre to deter­mine matters of most importance.

After Counsell followeth sentence, which is nothing else then the Sentence.plaine demonstration of a mans minde and counsell. For it behoueth in words and speach to expresse what we haue thought, to the end we may know what lieth hid in the minde and reason of man. This secret, see­meth to proceede of nature, that diuers men who are not wise, yet in vttering their sentence and concept, doe seeme reddie witted, of good vnderstanding, and subtill: all which giftes they commonly attaine vnto by a certaine habit of age, whereunto Prudence is an handmaid and fol­lower. Old men most apt to vtter sentence.Olde men are therefore most perfect in vttering their conceits, notwithstanding they be vnlearned: for by vse and experience they haue (as it were) a third eye wherewith they easely descerne the begin­ning and euents of things. As euerie man is by speach discouered, So a Counsellor by vttering his opinion declareth how wise and pru­dent he ought be accounted. Socrates, vpon a time, behoulding a young man neuer before seene, said vnto him, speake, that I may know thee, as though a man should say vnto a Counsellor, by grauity of thy speach let me know thee for a good Counsellor. And we commonly say, speach The ende of sentence.is the touchstone of mens mindes. Therefore a Counsellor ought in vttering his sentence, employ all the force and strength of minde, to speake things profitable for the state, which is the ende of sentence. Some men doe vse certaine cunning and plausible speaches set forth with painted words, which seeme more then true, yet triall sheweth, that in them there is no sinceritie, fidelitie, or grauitie. And indeed it is not euer necessarie that the Counsellor should speak to the wiser sort eloquently, nor to the foolish truely. Others there be swelling with pri­uie grudge, anger and hate, so soone as they haue caught occasion to speake, doe forthwith fall into blaming and slaundering others, hoping [Page 95] by that meanes to win good will and reputation. Which kinde of men, doe no waies profit the commonweale, but rather by hatred, displeasure and discords hinder the state. For if they were good men, in causes concerning their countrie, they eyther would not or should not be angrie, hate or grudge at others. Some also being scarse of counsell in pronouncing their sentence doe follow the footesteps of other Counsellors, saying after them, and therfore were among Romaines called Pedar [...]j Senatores: Yet i [...] they so doe not through igno­rance, ought be allowed: for it is reasonable and profitable for the state, to imitate and follow the opinion of wise and good Counsellors. And sometimes it happeneth, that all Counsellors are of one minde and meaning, which so being, it is better to affirme that which was spo­ken by others, then with many wordes, as it were of one effect, con­sume the time. A Counsellor must also beware that in speaking his sentence, there appeareth in his speach not selfe liking or ostenta­tion. And albeit diuersitie of opinions, will sometimes occasion con­tention in Counsell, yet therein all slaunder, offence and other per­turbation, (which may peruert or disturbe the state) ought be eschewed. And in reconciling of opinions, let the greater number preuaile, for that which seemeth good to most men, must be thought iust and most agreeable to reason. The order of speaking in Counsell, is The order of pronouncing sentence.in diuers states diuersly vsed: for in some the eldest men do speake first, in other the yonger Counsellors, and in some also they that are of most experience and wisedome, are preferred. In that matter the custome of euerie place is to be obserued, and that order to be reputed good, iust, profitable, & conuenient, which reason & common vse among men frō time to time hath receiued. Yet doth it seeme best that the opinions of the most aged and experienced men should be first hard, to the end the yonger sort may haue the more time to deliberate of their speach. Besides that, the younger Counsellors opinion, being first pronouun­ced, doe sometimes deuide the elder; and drawe them into sundrie conceipts. Therefore the best is that euerie one should speake, not when he would, but when he is asked. For by such meanes order shall be obserued, and all occasion of contention remoued. In speaking, it is lawfull sometimes to speake doubtfully, because the difficultie of the matter may excuse the speaker, also by the diuersitie of other mens opi­nions, the minde is distracted, not knowing to which side to yeeld, wher [Page 96] in the suspicion of rashnes must be eschewed, least of set purpose or af­fection more then of iudgement, we yeeld to the opinions of other men. For the censures of other men are to be pondred not numbred, Sentences to be pondered by waight not by num­ber.and [...]eede must be taken, that the greater part doe not oppresse the truer.

Aristotle doth permit that a man in saying his sentence may twise speake doubtfully: But if the third time he trip or fayle, he shall not aster be suffered to speake in that cause. We must also take heede least our speach be ouer long, for therein a double fault is committed: by making our selues wearie with speaking and others with hearing. The [...] of the Coun­sellors speachWhich error Caesar sometimes reproued in Cato. Let the Counsellors speach therefore be short, sincere and not obscured with inticing termes, not vnaduised, not doubtfull, or deceiptfull, but graue, simple, holy, and true. And it is fit each man should speake sworne, to the ende God may be the witnes of his minde. It importeth not much whether his sentence be written or rehearsed in words, yet the rea­sons written are commonly set downe with more diligence, chiefly if the matter requireth a long oration. His voyce would be manly, and The voice of a Counsellor.framed rather to grauitie then effeminacie, cleare and audible: not soft, nor so low as cannot be well heard. In conclusion, the Counsel­lor ought to obserue three things by Cicero prescribed; that is, to be Three things specially to be obserued by Counsels.present in counsell, (for the ordinarie meeting of Counsellors doth adde thereunto a grauitie,) to speake in place vnto that is asked: and in good sort or vse measure, which is, that this speach be not infinite. That the Counsellor which absenteth himselfe is blameable, wherefore being called he must obey. Neither is it fit that any Counsellor, should goe into forraine nations, vnlesse he be publiquely sent as Ambassadour, Gouernour, or Commaunder in warre, least by such absence the commonweale be damnified. The chiefe sub­stance and ground of a Counsellors wisedome, is, that in all his wordes and workes he performe the part of a good and iust man, which chieflie consisteth in the comlinesse of his life. For it suffi­seth not, that we be wise, vnlesse we are also good. For prudence without iustice is meere subtiltie, and holden rather a vice then ver­tue. By the benefit of vertue we are made good, that is iust, courteous and honest, but by wisedome we become onely wise. Besides that in respect of vertue we are called good, [Page 97] but for wisedome alone we are not. Therefore he is indeed (as Who is a good man. Plato also affirmeth) to be named a good man that embraceth the vertues, liuing accordingly, and feareth not to die for his countrie, whensoeuer the same is assaulted or oppressed, and be content to suffer all things, rather then that the state should be changed: which is com­monly brought to passe by men of the worst condition. Wherefore the Senator must be carefull to be no lesse good and iust, then prudent or wise. For wisedome without iustice is euill, sith of iustice men are called good: Some men in authoritie doe prooue themselues eloquent Abuse of au­thoritie.and wise, but therewith full of subtiltie and dishonest sleight. For they hauing in hand the patronage of libertie and lawe, doe in speach and apparance seem carefull therof, but (their actions well examined) dee detect them for men vniust, vnworthie, and dissembling. And being indued with a false kinde of wisedome, hauing their tongues but not their mindes instructed, doe commonly indeuor to alter and not amend the publique pollicie. There is not in anie commonweale a worse mis­chiefe then the authoritie of such men. For they doe alwaies ad­uance persons licentious, subtill, deceiptfull vniust, and seditious, and in practising subtiltie, doe somewhat whereby to be thought good Iustice.men. But as a man come to his perfection is of all creatures the best: So if he forsake iustice and lawe, is of all other accounted the worst. For extirpation of which sortes of subiectes, we ought pray vnto God, and euery Counsellor carefull that his life be well exercised and employed. But men being wise must also be iust, therefore what iu­stice ought be in a Counsellor, we are now to discourse.

Whosoeuer will with an attentiue minde behold and search the con­dition of things diuine and humaine, shall see that nature hath giuen to euery thing a firme, stable, and constant course, which of it selfe cannot be changed, but by a certaine and determined way doth passe and returne. First we behold the celestiall orbes, the Elements, beastes▪ foules, and creeping creatures haue their properties, not re­ceiued by chance, but by such naturall instinct, as leaue them they will not; or if they would, they cannot. What should I say of men? doe not we see a certaine way to felicitie, prepared of GOD for good men, and likewise destruction made for euill men. Also the path which leadeth to vertue is narrowe, wrong, and hard to be disoerned, but the waie vnto vice on the left hand [Page 98] to be large, plaine, and open to manie. But to speake of the gouern­ment of Cities and states, if their courses of life and administration, be certaine, perfect, and absolute of nature, that is to say, proceeded from God or reason, they doe neuer abandon them, but are of long continuance, but otherwise become of no force, weake and decay­ing. I speake not of all. Let it suffice that nature hath made all things we see, to be good, certaine, perfect, and in all respects abso­lute: Naturall [...]which moued the Stoicks to affirme, that to liue according to nature, was the chiefe felicitie of man: for nature is in deede the Con­ductrix and Tutresse of perfect life, whereby we follow and obey the Author thereof. This harmonie of nature, may righty be called Iustice: For this is that vertue which defendeth lawe and consent of nature: sith whatsoeuer consenteth with nature is iust, and whatsoe­uer dissenteth with it, is called vniust. Such men then as liue ac­cording to nature and in all things obey her, are of all others most iust. For it is a thing contrarie to nature to doe or thinke against God or man: Whereupon Iustice is thought to be of three kindes naturall, diuine, and humaine. The first foundation of Iustice Iustice. of three sortes.naturall, proceedeth from nature it selfe, which doth informe vs what to embrace, and what to eschue. Naturall equitie com­maundeth vs to abstaine from iniuries, and therefore we ought to doe nothing whereby an other may be offended. By this vertue men are so fast bound one vnto another, as euerie man wisheth well to all mankinde. In that antient age, which the Poets called golden, through the benefit of Iustice, no deceipt, fraude, or in­iurie was knowen. Then were no seditions, no tumult, no hate, but beneuolence, fidelitie and loue. Then needed not they any law-maker, any iudge or pleader: For equitie and goodnesse de­termined all things, and euery man thought his owne things to ap­pertaine as much to his friends as himselfe. By which instinct, we loue our parents, our children, our alliance and kindred. The Iustice due vnto our Parents is called pietie: with which vertue (we reade) that aboue others the daughter of Cymon was indued. For she by giuing her owne milke vnto her father, (in prison condemned to die) thereby saued his life, and wonne her selfe immortall fame. This propertie also is with men common to other creatures, that euery kind do naturally conspire to defend themselues. Iustice doth also require at [Page 99] our hand, that ech man should nourish, defend and gouerne himselfe: for he that by wilfull hunger, negligence, or death, is distroyed, ought be iudged iniust and an enemie to nature. We are also bound by na­ture, to relieue our friends with our goods, and by generation of chil­dren to continue a posteritie. In fine, those that obey nature, are re­puted iust, and those that do thecontrarie, are iudged vniust: for nature Iustice natu­rall.abhorreth euill, and embraceth that which is good. Socrates, and his schollers, defined this naturall Iustice, saying it was the science of good and euill according to nature: which if a man doth exercise alone, (fol­lowing nature as guide) he ought be called a good man: and com­municating it with others, deserueth the name of a good Citizen, be­cause then he is not onely profitable for himselfe, but others also. To be iust after this manner, in liuing according to nature, doth not on­ly become a Counsellor, but also euery other man. Moreouer, they that by nature are indued with more singuler gifts, ought to be aboue others most iust. And therefore sith nature hath aduanced a Coun­sellor before other men, it behoueth him to excell in Iustice, for being inferiour herin, is reputed dishonorable & ignominious. These are those things which in the cōuersation & maners of men ought tobe obserued.

That Iustice which belongeth vnto God, and whereby we are by Iustice diuinenature bound to acknowledge, worship, reuerence, loue and honour him, is onely proper to men. And it hath pleased nature, the mother of all things, that in the minde of man onely the knowledge of God should be impressed: leauing all other creatures to eate, feede, and pamper their bodies. Man onely is that creature among enumerable others, to whom the honour, reuerence, ad worship of God is committed. No people therefore inhabiting the circle of the earth, but honoureth some God: which they thinke a thing honest, iust and necessarie. The so­cietie of God and men is by a certaine naturall necessitie and beneuo­lence conioyned, and cannot be broken, as though men were borne of God, and therefore him they worship and reuerence as a father. It be­houeth that the honour giuen to God, should be most pure, most holy and full of pietie, that is, we should honour him with a chast, intire, and What teligi­on is.incorrupt minde. All the substance and force of holines and pietie, con­sisteth in religion: which is a vertue conteyning the knowledge how God should be honoured. By it we are also enformed how to render vnto him thanks with true honour and holy minde. Hereof men are [Page 100] called religious and holy, because they loue, and (as it were) binde themselues to do deuine honour. God fauoureth pietie and faith, and in respect of them extolleth kingdomes. All things doe prosper with those that obey God, and euerie thing decayeth in the handes of others, that honour him not. Moreouer, religion is of such force, as through it, men are indued with all vertues, and in retaining them, are made no lesse constant then religious. In him that honoureth God, there groweth a constant, true and inuentable hermonie of vertues: For whosoe­uer doth honour him religiously, is prudent, and temperate, which ver­tues are so tyed vnto religion, as by no possible meanes they may be sundered. A constant religion doth worke a firme continuance of lawes, customes, vertues, and commonweale it selfe. It behooueth our Counsellor therefore, to haue no wauering or mutable, but a sta­ble and certaine beliefe of God and religion, for that is the foundati­on of his wisedom, vertue, and dignitie. Neither should any Sena­tor be admitted to counsell, whose religion is inconstant or vnsetled. For in counsell nothing ought be done contrarie to religion, or a­against God: but euerie thing performed with constancie▪ synceri­tie, holinesse, and religious meaning. Therefore a Senate is cal­led sacred▪ because all things in it done, are reputed holy: not one­ly among men, but before God also. The place also wherein the Senate doth assemble, is accounted holy: sith euerie Senator ought (with reuerence,) to lay a side all vnlawsull counsels and euill cogitations. The Romanes going to Counsell offered Franken­sence, to that God in whose temple the Senate was assembled. But the Christians ought obserue other customes, for all their prai­ers and supplications, should be to obtaine grace and goodnesse from the almightie God, because their praiers onely are holy, and religious. Thus it appeareth, that false or vnsetled religion in Counsellors, is not onely accounted euill and vnworthie but al­so Ciuil Iustice.impious and wicked. But of diuine Iustice, let this we haue said, suffice.

The knowledge of humaine iustice, which is also called ciuile, is a thing secrete and hidden. For albeit hath originall from natu­rall Iustice, and therefore the precepts and vse of it seemeth easie and common: yet is it not truely conceiued or exercised but of such men, as are eyther indued with some diuine nature, or that haue bene employed in all kindes of vertue and good studies. For [Page 101] that Iustice requireth a learned and wise man, who endeuoureth himselfe therein, not casually, or against his will, but aduisedly, reasonably, constantly and willingly. Such a one we will our Coun­sellors should be, possessed with so noble and experienced a iudgement.

All force and vse of ciuill iustice consisteth partly in the preseruati­on of societie among men, and is partly exercised in court and place of iudgement. And there is no vertue more fit or profitable, to e­stablish, conserue, or amende the Senate, then this▪ All other vertues are referred to their particuler endes, and may be well with­out man exercised: but Iustice resteth in the tuition of mans so­cietie, which is the cause we call it Reconciler and conser­uer of mankinde. This vertue alloweth of no foule, cruell, barbarous, or vnseemely thing, but embraceth things honest, quiet, and peaceable, caring for nothing more, then that men should liue together louingly, free from iniuries, seditions, hate, and enmitie▪ not desiring the goods of others, but giuing to euerie one that which to him appertaineth. With this vertue, we will that our Counsellor should be indued, for thereby he becommeth the defender of common profit, the protector of innocents, weake and hum­ble persons, a repressor of proude men, a louer of the good, an The office of a iust Coun­sellor.obseruer of trueth, an enemie to euill men, and so to vice. The foundation of this vertue is fidelitie, which (Cicero defineth it) to be a constant and true performing of more and promise. A iust Counsellor therefore doth affirme things true, not doubtfull, ob­serueth his promises, standeth to compactes, restoreth what he bo­roweth, and to the performing his faith is not compelled by lawe, by witnesse, or oath, but by his owne willing consent▪ freewill and word, which he accounteth as a lawe. Moreouer, being called from the priuate life to gouerne in state, he laboureth by counsel­ling, caring and prouiding that iniustice be kept vnder; and that by the stronger, the weaker sort be not oppressed▪ euer eschewing the desire of riches. Whatsoeuer ought be giuen for vertue, or well deseruing, he bestoweth vpon honest and well deseruing subiectes.

Furthermore, he iudgeth valiant men worthie to be rewar­ded, and slouthfull subiectes to be punished. For by these two, paines and preferment, the welfare of euerie common weale is preserued. In the bestowing of offices, he declareth himselfe vpright▪ [Page 102] reputing those worthie of most honour, that are men of most merit. And in euery state I thinke it fit, that care should be had of the distri­bution To whom ho­nour ought be giuen.of offices: because honour is the reward of vertue, and euery good man accounteth it the fruite of his labour, and seruice. Nei­ther ought that state be commended, where offices and honours are giuen without respect, aswell to the euill, as the good, the fooles as the wise men. It ought therefore be prouided by lawe, that the ho­nours may be made due to those, whose vertue and industrie is re­commended by good men. In the commonweales of ancient time, Images of metall, arches tryumphall, publique sepulture, open praise, and such like honours were giuen to men of seruice and good deseruing▪ In company and conuersation, regard must be had to each mans age, degree, and condition: and diligent consideration, what is in euery man of necessitie, vertue, or vse. We account those most worthy honour, who are men well borne, vertuous, in authoritie, and rich: because they are most profitable for other men and the state also. We likewise vse to honour & reuerence our elders, by bowing our bodies & giuing them place. Moreouer, for so much as the good in men, is of three sortes, that is, goods of the minde, of the bodie, and of for­tune, they are all in the bestowing of honours to be iustly respected. Therefore the goods of minde must be preferred, next vnto them the goods of body, and last the goods of fortune ought be regarded. To euery of these somewhat belongeth, according to the worthines Equality to be obserued in the bestowing of honor.thereof and each man ought to haue his right and honour due. All these things a Counsellor ought to know, and in bestowing offices, honours and gifts obserue equalitie; for that is the ballance of iustice wherewith each mans manners, vertues, and actions, are waied and examined. In which, heede must be taken, that by ouermuch leaning towards one side, we seeme vnequall iudges aud esteemers of other mens vertue. For he that giueth ouermuch to him that deserueth it not, doth giueto little vnto him that is of better desart, and conse­quently no rightfull or iust iudge. Whereupon, this iustice is defined by the Philosophers, to be an habit of the minde destined to common v­tilitie, giuing to euerie man the honour he deserueth. Among the ver­tues which chalenge interest in the conuersation of humaine societie, e­qualitie is not the last, beingthe handmaiden, seruant, and follower of iustice: because it doth not (as men say) remoue one hai [...]e bredth [Page 103] from her. This equalitie in iust pondering and esteeming things and Equalitie of two sortes.persons, vseth a double manner of proceeding: the one ordinarie and common, iudging by number, waight, and measure: the other more difficile and secret, that is, waying euery thing by reason and iudgement. Which knowledge is onely vnderstood of wise men, and those that are practised in great affaires: and the other chiefly know­en to such as are occupied in barrating buying and selling. Let the Counsellor therefore haue the skill of that equalitie which proceedeth from reason and iudgement, whereby he may conceiue what is due to each man, what honours should be giuen, what giftes bestowed, what offices dstributed, what is iust, indifferent, good and wise, in all things, in all persons, and in all places. This equalitie is assuredly a notable thing, and for the seruice of euerie state, exceeding necessarie. And in deed we see many therein dull and incapable, whereby matters are handled at all aduentures and contentiously, greatly disturbing not onely the societie of men, but the commonweales also. Thus much we hope shall suffice, to haue beene said of Iustice▪ which consi­steth in vse, societie, and conuersation of men; not intermedling with courts of Iudiciall seats.

Fortaine Iu­stice. An other kinde of Iustice there is, not farre vnlike to this, and that concerneth iudgement: the foundation whereof is lawe and the iudgement of wise and iust men. Before such time (as is be­foresaid) that the skill of written lawes was inuented, each man pre­scribed a lawe vnto himselfe, and sought not the same in the books of lawmakers or Doctors. For in those most ancient times, that chast and pure virgin (Iustice I meane) had her habitation within the mindes of men, giuing them lawes and precepts how to liue iust­ly, and vprightly: for she being present, suffered not among men any thing to be done, vniustly, deceitfully, or wickedly. But so soone as men grewe wearie of iustice, beginning by little and lit­tle to couet other mens goods, offer iniuries, and take ouermuch to themselues, not restoring that they borrowed: forthwith arose hate, dissimulations, enemities and warre: and thereupon martiall instruments were deuised, hauing in them so great furie as might force not onely iustice, but Iupiter himselfe to giue place. Iustice with feare of these terrors driuen away) left the earth to be gouerned by [Page 104] humaine licentiousnes, and fled to heauen, making her house of ha­bitation there betwixt Leo and Libra the celestiall signes. Euer since which time those that desired to gouerne iustly, were forced to looke Iustice to be sought in heauen.for wisedome from heauen, because the precepts of true iustice, defi­led with our vices, cannot without the speciall grace of God be con­ceiued. Homer not without cause, was wont to call kings and o­thers inspired with the wisedome of gouerning, Sonnes of Iupiter. Therefore this gift of diuine iustice must be desired of God, that through the precepts and lawes therof, men may be reduced to their ancient and golden perfection, and such effect be wrought in the tui­tion of mans societie and in gouernment of commonweales, as in olde time that celestiall and incorrupt virgin (during her presence on earth) was wont to performe. Wherby we may suppose to haue called her from heauen to dwell with vs againe vpon the earth. And sith reason cannot preuaile in vs so much, as thereby to liue iustly, godly, & holily, by Iustice it must be obtained, sith she by her lawes forewarneth, exhor­teth, and correcteth vs, preparing rewardes of vertue for the good, and VVhat is Iu­stice.punishment for the euill. This iustice, (as Ʋlpianus teacheth) is a con­stant and perpetuall desire to giue vnto euerie man, that which to him belongeth. The ordaining of lawes is proper to Counsellors, because they are of all other men, accounted the wisest, and so the La­cedemonians, Romaines, and other people haue euer thought them. Also in the making of lawes, these things (as Plato teach­eth) ought be obserued, that is, the law-makers should write them with a certaine fatherly loue, and no Lordly intent or tyrannicall mea­ning, framing them to the terror of others, and with threatnings cause them be proclaimed to the people, themselues neither obeying, nor regarding any order or lawe at all, but practise the common speach. Sic volo, sic [...]ubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas. The law-maker ought also be carefull that the lawes containe not more pre­scription The ende of lawes.of commandements, then discipline of manners. The intent of euerie law-maker is, that by the lawes men may be made good and happie, and that offendours should be punished rather for neces­sitie, than set purpose. For which cause the Emperour Iustinian deuided the commaundements of lawe into three. To liue honestly, Law com­maundeth three things.to hurt no man, and giue to euerie one that which was his owne. And sith lawes doe proceede from true reason, it must needs be, [Page 105] that they doe onely respect vertue, and from it dissent nothing▪ be­cause they are (as it were) rules of honestie, reason, nature, and good life. Who so therefore doth abandon lawes, is wicked: and to contemne them is no lesse euill, then to dispise nature, God, vertue and reason. Heràclitus the Ephesian was wont to say, that free men ought as manfully to defend the lawes, as the walles of their Citie, for without walles a Citie might be preserued, but without lawes it cannot. In all commonweales therefore the lawes ought be ob­serued, and from them the rules of life, good customes, and of all things to be done or not none, must be taken. Licurgus and So [...]o [...] are commended for making such lawes as prescribed not onely what was presently to be done; but also what was after to be es­chewed. Which our Counsellor must consider, and doe to the end he may know by whatmeanes and exercises men be made good, and what is the ende of perfect life in euery commonweale. By this meane each man will apply his minde to such studies, as be agreeable to his owne nature, thinking it praisable to excell, and for excellent men the rewardes of vertue be prepared. And in trueth there is nothing so hard which men leaue vnattempted if great giftes and rewardes be thereunto due. Which onely thing doth remooue and driue away all slouth and idle life, the mother of euery vice. For by idlenes we see the mindes of men to growe wanton and perish, and as Cato said truely, by nothing doing, the people did learne how to doe euill. Diodorus writeth of a certaine lawe among the Aegyptians, The Aegypti­an law against idlenes.whereby euerie subiect was compelled to giue his name to the ma­gistrates, therewith declaring, what kinde of life he liked, how he liued, and what art he exercised.

The law of Draco & Solō And if any did tell vntruely or not performe his duetie sufficientlie was put to death. Draco seeing the Citizens wastfull, prouided by lawe, that who so was found idle▪ should be put to death, which lawe (as to extreame) Solon did qu [...]llifie, punishing that offence Imperiall lawes.with infamie onely. By the imperiall lawes, it is prouided, that some idle, slouthfull, and vn [...]hriftie subiectes should be de­priued, and eyther be whipped to death, or imployed in publi­que slauerie. In euerie state, there are certaine exercises aswell for Discipline of warre and peace in eue­rie common­weale.peace as warre. The one education, doth breede Priestes, Coun­sellors, and Iudges: The other Chieftaines, Captaines and Soldiers. [Page 104] By which meanes, the commonweale shalbe furnished with subiectes, aswell for warre as peace, and by their vertue, seruices both diuine and humaine may be performed, the countrie from inuasion defen­ded, Change of lawes dange­rous.and the bonds thereof enlarged. Great care must also be ta­ken that the lawes may notby any meanes be altered, for such mutati­on is alwaies accōpanied with change of mens manners, & disposition. And as the nature of people is alwaies apt to innouation, so soone as one lawe is altered, forthwith they desire the alteration and subuertion of all the rest. Which thing breedeth not onely con­tempt of lawes, but also sedition, and mutation of the state. The an­cient lawes therfore ought be obserued, and sometimes wisely correc­ted, and reformed. For euery mutation in the commonweale, (be The ordi­nance of the Locrensi a­gainst the change of lawes.it neuer so small) is a thing most perilous. Among the Locreuses it was prouided, that if any man did inuent a newe lawe, he should first propound the same to the people, wearing a halter about his necke, to the ende that if it were thought pernitious or vnprofitable, as an author of euill, he might forthwith be hanged. Periander was wont to say, that olde lawes ought be obserued, and they being growne The princes life a lawe to the people.from vse, newe might be receiued. It doth also greatly profit the state, that princes and others hauing authoritie to ordaine lawes should as­well obserue them in their owne persons as compell them to be obey­ed by others. For there is nothing which subiects so much behold as their Prince, whose life is looked vpon and followed as a lawe. Se­leucus made a lawe, that whosoeuer were token in adultrie should loose both his eies. Afterwardes his owne sonne being found in that fault, was desired by all his subiects to pardon him: but that suite preuailed not otherwise then that first he caused one of his sonnes, an other of his owne eies, to be taken out, to the ende the seueritie and reputa­tion of lawe might be obserued, and that the force thereof might be Lawes are made for two endes.more regarded then the authoritie of men. The endes why lawes be ordained in euerie state are two, the one that Iustice may be entred into men, the other to continue it in them. The first appertaineth to the lawmaker, who frameth the people fit for vertue, the second belon­geth to the Iudge, for he represseth the desires of offenders, and con­serueth all the right appertaining to the commonweale. The Iudge (as Aristotle thinketh) ought from the lawmakers to receiue the lawes whereupon he should giue iudgement. First for that it is intended [Page 105] one law-maker is of more wisedome, then many iudges. And next because he foreseeing things to come, doth determine without per­turbation. Which the Iudge doth not, being subiect to affection, in that he dealeth with things present and iudgeth of persons certaine. Euen as to make good lawes and obserue them, is profitable for the state, so to determine and end contentions by lawe, is thought a thing commendable. Among men sometimes contention of doubtfull matters doth arise, whereof it behoueth the iudge to determine. The Iudge therefore is no lesse necessarie to compound controuersies in the commonweale and administer iustice, then is the soule in a liuing bodie. For being indifferent to both parties, he reduceth that to equalitie which he thinketh vnequall▪ not vnlike vnto a line cut into vnequall partes, that part which is to long is cut shorter and added to the other: So doth the Iudge being the liuing lawe, and as it were an Oracle in the commonweale. The Iudge ought also to ac­count himselfe an interpreter to law-makers, a minister of iustice & his chiefe vertue must be to know what is iust and true. He ought ther­fore not to swerue from lawe and the meaning therof, but giue iudge­ment as the lawes, equitie, and iustice doth commaund: For which respect it behoueth him to be sworne, to the end God may be pre­sent to witnesse his intent and conscience, which of all other things God hath made in man most diuine. Let the Iudge likewise be free from ire and all suspition of hope, loue, and hatred, not corrupti­ble Qualities re­quired in a Iudge.with giftes, not fearefull of threats, nor by flatterie abused or sedu­ced. For where iudges are subiect to these passions, Iustice is farre remoued both from the iudiciall seate, and the Iudge himselfe: and there is nothing that infecteth the commonweale more with seditions, hate, and iniuries, then the corruption and iniustice of iudges. By good and equall iudgements, the loue vniuersall of men is pre­serued, quarrels, enimitie, warre, and sedition are thereby appea­sed: because they are in euerie state of so great force, as by good iudgements the whole commonweale doth seeme maintained, and by euill iudges subuerted. This iustice which concerneth iudge­ment, hath greatest power to extirpate vices in all states: for if of­fenders be punished, there will be no place left for violence, fraud, and audaciousnesse, presumption or iniurie.

The person of iustice was by the ancient Pholosophers painted [Page 106] like vnto a faire virgin, hauing a seuere and fearefull aspect▪ peircing eyes, chast and modest countenance, inclined to grau [...]tie▪ which I­mage seemeth to represent, that Iudges ought be incorrupt and chast, seuere, sharpe witted, good conceiuers of all things, graue, constant, & inexorable. Cambises king of Persia, caused the skin of one vniust iudge Cambises correction of Iudges.to be fleade from his bodie, and hanged vp in the place of iudgement, to the end that therby all other iudges might be warned to be iust and vpright. In like manner ought our Counsellor, to take heed that his iustice (which extendeth to all sorts of people) may be most duetifull, and that both in making and executing of lawes, he may declare him­selfe a man of singuler iustice, for it were shame to him not to obserue lawes, who is the executor and maker of thē: he commaundeth others, and the lawe commaundeth him: not that lawe onely which is written in bookes and tables of brasse, but the liuing lawe of reason which re­maineth in our mindes. Solon being asked how the commonweale might be preserued, answered, if the people obey the magistrates, and the magistrates obey the lawe. Bias also said, that commonweale might be best assured, where all men feared the lawes, no lesse then a Tyrant. It were a thing most inconuenient in all states, that the lawes should be reputed like the spiders webbe, to take hold of the weake or simple, and suffer the strong and mightie to passe. Of which errour our Counsellor shall be heedfull, indeuouring himselfe to loue, obserue and continually be carefull howe the lawes may in violablely be preserued.

The office of a Counsellor. For it is the true office of a Counsellor to know the lawes, and honour iustice: yetdo we remember him, in the execution of lawe, to auoid ouer much seueritie & crueltie. Because extream iustice is accoūted extreame iniurie, he must therefore so behaue himselfe, as the subiects may more feare his seueritie, then detest his bitternes and crueltie. Conformable seueritie (as Cicero saith) doth ouercome the vaine hope of clemencie. Crueltie is proper to tyrants & barbarous people, neither is there any vice in the commonweale more vile, cruell, and destable. Let the Coun­sellor be neither extreame, nor ouer pitifull, so as in punishing, the punishment shall not be greater then the offence. We read that in In Rome viii. sortes of pu­nishments. Rome, there were eight sortes of punishments, that is, domage, im­prisonment, stripes, recompence, ignominie, exile, bondage, and death. In punishing he ought to resemble lawes, which are not distur­bed [Page 117] or moued, but executeth reuenge vpon all offences, moderate­lie VVhat is to▪ be obserued in punishing.and peaceably, as hating the fault, not the men. He shall also re­member, that the more authoritie a man hath, the more moderately he ought to vse it. Albeit that Iustice in ayding the societie of men doth imploy the seruice of all other vertues, and is therefore called their Queene: Yet hath she her peculiar companions, handmaidens, and followers, which are not so common to all other vertues. The Companions of Iustice.chiefe of them is petie, goodnes, innocencie, courtesie, gentlenes, clemencie, friendship, and concord. With these whatsoeuer Sena­tor is indued, furnished and ornified, is in all respects an absolute and compleat professor of Iustice. Pietie.

Through pietie we gaine the good will not onely of God but men also, by it we are counselled to imagine no vaine, foolish, or deceipt­full thing, thereby our words and actions doe purchase credit, be­cause the godly man is accounted in the fauour of God, and by his counsell to be gouerned▪ Numa Pompilius to gaine himselfe credit in the religion which he deuised for the Romaines (dissembling pietie) brought them in beliefe, that he with his wife Aegeria vsed to meete the▪ Gods in a certane place sacrificed to Camena, and there receaued the lawes and religion, which the Romaines were to liue in. They ther­fore who neither by perswasion nor force could be reduced to religi­on, by colour of pietie were drawen to be most religious. That re­ligion (though fained) was profitable for the Romaines: but howe much more profitable shall the same be in our Counsellor whose religion is true, holy & sincere? What rights what ceremonies, and what workes of pietie ought be in a Senator, is not in this place to be dis­coursed. It sufficeth (I thinke) that each man is instructed in the rules of true religion, whereof we haue said somewhat in our treatie of diuine iustice. In the obseruation of pietie, two things are chiefly VVhat to be eschewed in Pietie.to be eschewed, that is, heresie, and superstition: which vices doe many times in weake mindes peruert true pietie. We owe also a certaine pietie to our parents which is performed by loue & reuerence. For to them we are bound to to do all honour, seruice, & duetie: and be­ing aged, (if need so requireth) we ought with our owne hands to helpe them, and defend them from all misaduentures, Goodnes requireth we should be good, which is to performe the actions of vertue. Our Senator Goodnes.therefore shalbe a iust and goodman, and attaine to such perfection of [Page 108] minde, as he will not onely refraine euill doing, but also though he would doe euill, yet he could not: so as, the prouerbe of countrie people which Cicero speaketh of, may be in him verified. Where it behoueth that in all his actions he doe follow vertue as a Captaine, which doing, he shall rightly performe all things belonging to the duty Innocencie.of an honest iust man. For nothing, recōmendeth a Counsellormore then innocencie of life, seeing thereby he shalbe euill willed of no man, feare no mā, norbe enemie to no man, but liue happy, without suspicion, feare, force, and subtiltie; syncere, perfect, true and without reproach. Of the innocencie required in a Counsellor this is the foundation: to do good to all he is able, and to hurt no man. This vertue Ioueth sim­plicitie, conioyned with prudence, allowing of nothing that is clo­ked, dissembled, fayned or shadowed: therefore sycophants, dissem­bles, lyars, talebearers, and slaunderers must be excluded from the number of Senators. It behoueth him in all his actions to deale libe­rally: For dissimulation is a seruile thing. As he is not rightly called innocent that hurteth a little, but he that offendeth not at all: so is he to be accounted no dissembler, that in deed is voide of all dissimu­lation. And like as no man entered the temple of Ceres Elucina vn­lesse he were innocent: being written vppon the doore: Let no man enter, but he that knoweth his owne innocencie; so into the holy coun­sell, which is temple of Iustice and trueth, I wish that onely Counsel­lors innocent, and men of integritie should come. Let the Counsel­lors mind be open and sincere, not hidden, obscure, or deceiptfull, saying one thing and meaning another: but his tongue must be a true interpreter of his minde, and his face, countenance and eyes free from disguising, and full of naturall sinceritie: for such customes be common to light persons, and barbarous people, who know not how to be good men, but abuse both the office & name of men, & therfore to them either little or no credit ought to be giuen. Our Senator therfore shall not on­ly disalow these vices, but also contemne all those that allow them, reie­cting them from his presence & companie, not hauing to do eyther pri­uately or publiquely with any light, vaine or babling companion. Our Counsellor shalbe also courteous to the good; for courtesie, & affable Courtesie.speach do greatly win the good will of all men. Let him thē be willing to answer, & cōtented to heare, auoiding all sowernes, & insolēcy in words, gesture & motion. Let him also cōtemne squirrilitie, & irreuerent mirth, [Page 109] moderately, or seldome vsing vaine sports and youthfull pastimes. For speach not merry but graue, not subtle but true, not ridiculous but constant, becommeth a Counsellor. Vnto courtesie, grauetie besee­ming a Counsellor, ought be ioyned, yet such as containeth no pride, disdaine, or insolency, but that which is modest, milde, and gentle. Also for that kindnesse or benignitie is necessarie to lead an honest life, Benignitie;the example of god doth shew, that through his benignitie we are iust & happie. For as God is to vs kinde, so ought we be gentle & courteous to others: because man should be (as is commonly said) a God vnto man. Gentlenes, priuately containeth in it humilitie, temperatenes, mildnes, and a certaine sweetnes of manners and speach: and publiquely it hath clemency and moderation. Wherefore it shall become the counsellor in conuersation to be gentle, courteous and sweet: not sowre, austeare and (as Timon was) a hater of men. Let him therefore dispose him­selfe, to loue others, profit, and helpe them. For as we owe vnto God religion and pietie, so is loue and beneuolence due vnto men. Clemencie belongeth onely to magistrates and men in authoritie, for Clemencie.by force thereof their displeasure towards offendours becommeth qua­lified. The opposit to this vertue, is cruelty and bitter extreamitie in punishing, a thing proper to Tyrants, and men void of all humanitie. Draco was so cruell, as by his lawes he ordained the punishment of death to be due aswell for idle life, as murther: And being asked for what cause he made the penaltie of the leaste offences, to be e­quall with the greatest: answered, that he thought so great a paine due vnto the least faults, and for the greatest he could not deuise any great enough. But with much more clemencie Scipio was wont to say, he had rather saue the life of one Citizen, then slea a thousand enemies. There is no vertue that maketh men so much loued as clemencie, and chiefly those that haue authority: For that vertue is most noted, which is accom­panied with authoritie, and it is a thing against nature for great men to hurt others. It is therefore no lesse reprochfull in magistrates to be com­mon punishers, then for phisitions to to bury many patients. Also the gouernours clemency, doth breed in men a bashfulnes and feare to of­fend. Yet do I thinke that clemency and mildnes are so to be vsed that seueritie (at occasion) be not neglected. For without it no common­weale can be well gouerned. To ouermuch clemency there belongeth a certaine superfluous pitie conceiued of the aduersitie of others: which [Page 110] the Stoicks would euerie wise man should want, saying it is the im­perfection of a base minde yeelding to the nature of other mens of­fences: and therefore such may be resembled to foolish women that would haue theeues deliuered, because they see them shed teares in prison. Moreouer the Stoicks affirme, that mercy ought to respect the cause, and not the fortune wherein clemency is vsed, for that pro­ceedeth of reason, the other should be eschewed. But omitting their opinions, we will that our Senator shalbe indued with clemency & mer­cie, imploying them in all things that are honest and iust.

[...]. Furthermore as the societie of men is preserued by those good gifts which proceed from a iust, sincere, and mercifull minde, so ought it also be assisted with externall furniture of fortune, as riches, possessions; In what sorte things ought to be cōmon.and mony, sith therby aswell our owne, as other mens liues by giuing and taking are maintained. Also whatsoeuer nature hath made for the commoditie of man, It willeth that the same should be common for all men, yet not so, that each man should haue therein property, but that by imparting, giuing, and lending, it should (so much as reason requi­reth) be made common: Of which coniunction of mindes, necessities, amities, and inward good will should grow. This vertue whereby we are perswaded to giue and supply the necessities of other men, is cal­led liberalitie, because it is a thing worthy a free man, and requireth a free minde. But for that there are diuerse degrees of mens societie, whereof some ought be preserued before others, the offices of liberali­tie In what sort to be liberall.shalbe obserued, if we become most liberall, and beneficiall to those that are to vs nearest and most deare: wherein the order of na­ture is to be followed, preferring our parents, children, and kindred VVhat to es­chew in libe­ralitie.before others, and our friendes, before men vnknowne. And like­wise our countreymen before strangers. In liberalitie heede must be taken, that we giue not more then our powre suffereth, nor lesse then the office of dignitie and humanitie requireth. For those that haue no staie in giuing, are prodigall; and they that giue nothing, be called ni­gardly and miserable, which vices, who so desireth to eschew (for all vices are indeed to be eschewed) let him looke to whom he giueth, when, how, what, in what place and time. For to giue vnto him that hath inough, (vnlesse ye beleeue he needeth more then he hath, or doe it to shew magnificence) by so doing, liberalitie is abused. We must therefore know, what is fit to be giuen to each man, for it were vnfit to [Page 111] giue a targat vnto a priest, a booke to a soldier, a gowne to a plough­man. We ought therefore to giue, first things necessary, then things profitable, and lastly things pleasant and durable. For necessitie & pro­fit are the causes of giuing. In giuing chiefe respect must be had to ho­nestie, to the ende we abuse not the office of liberalitie, by giuing e­uill things, or to euill persons: For benefits euill bestowed, are (as En­nius thinketh) reputed euill deeds: sith (as men commonly say) he that giueth to a person worthy, receiueth a benefit. Some men become li­berall moued thereto by a certaine furie of minde: whose gifts doe merit no praise, because they are not giuen as they ought be, deliberatly, and with iudgement: Such gifts are commonly bestowed by vaine and vnaduised persons. These customes are therefore to be eschew­ed in liberalitie, and the other to be obserued. There is no vertue that winneth the good will of men more then this: For through it we relieue others, and make proofe of our owne liberall, iust and well disposed minde. To be liberall, what is it else, then to imitate God? For as he is liberall towards vs, so we should be liberall to others. We must moreouer be warie least our liberall deeds be not performed with the spoyle of other men, for that libera­litie VVhereof to be liberall.which is done to harme other is greatly vniust. We must therfore giue of such goods which are iustly gotten by our owne or others in­dustrie: and chiefly to those, that by our giuing shalbe the better, ey­ther in studie of liberall sciences or in the discipline of warre, which are things most profitable to commonweale. Among many errors which men commit, those are most perilous, whereby we are so blinded, as we neither know how to giue, no of whome to receiue a benefite.

Therefore difference of men is to be made, also the manners & dis­position of each man towards vs with his worthines ought to be wayed: for nothing is done liberally, but that which is done iustly. Neither is the office of liberalitie exercised only by money: for some are helped with the presence of friēds; others with credit, others with fauor, others with counsell, others with authoritie, others with labour, and such like: which kind of benefits are most honourable, & fit for a coūsellor: for the one, cōmeth from the cofers of the liberall man, & the other frō his ver­tue, which cānot be exhausted or diminished. Amōg many other vertues in Scipio Africanus, this is not the least: that he neuer returned home, but [Page 112] before his returne, he made some one or other man beholding vnto him. The Sonne of Titus Ʋespatianus was wont to say, that the day wherin Lawes of liberalitie.he bestowed no benefit, was time vtterly lost. It is also the office of a liberall man to acquite a benefit with more abundance then it was re­ceiued. In giuing, these two precepts must be obserued: to forget the benefit we giue, and remember well that we haue receiued: for the com­memoration of a good turne receiued, is a kinde of exprobation, and a minde vnthankefull is odious both to God and men. We must also in giuing not be miserable, as though we were both vnwilling orsory to giue, but doe it willingly and with a franke minde, for be it money or other thing, whatsoeuer is giuen, the same is not to be called the bene­fit, but the signe of the benefactors minde: Neither shalt thou obserue what, but how willingly it is giuen, for liberalitie is measured chieflie by the will of the giuer: and therefore a certaine man receiuing a be­nefit of an other that gaue it vnwillingly, called that gift a loafe made of Magnificencestones. Next liberalitie, Magnificence followeth, which vertue con­sisteth in greate expences and giftes, differing from liberalitie in this onely, that the one is employed in small and meane giftes and the other in great. Magnificent men were wont to shew their ver­tue in building Churches, erecting cities, townes, villages, and doing all things wherby eyther God might be honoured, or their owne good same encreased. In which actions, comelines must be obserued, and respect must also be had to the person, place, time, and matter, wherein the magnificent charge is bestowed. For it were folly for him to seeme VVhat to be eschewed in magnifi­cence.magnificent, that wanteth both powre and iudgement to performe great matters. Let him also beware of that which is commonly said, that each mans coat must be cut according to the quātity of his cloath. And albeit that parcimonie is reputed a great reuenew, yet ought we not be so sparing as to seeme void of liberalitie, couetous, miserable, & carelesse, both of others and ourselues, also▪ we must not only be fillers of bagges, or hoorders of coyne, as men that studie more to enrich a lasciuious heire, then profit the commonweale, friendes or kins­folkes. Surely couetousnes is a sicknes incurable, which (as Salu­stius How mony ought be vsed.saith) doth effeminate both body and minde And it taketh de­light in two things, that is, to giue nothing, and receiue much. Money therefore is to be vsed liberally, moderately, and in good and honest vses: alwaies reseruing somewhat, not onely for friends, phisitions, [Page 113] and foes, but also for our countrey the necessitie whereof is to be pre­ferred before all other. They that are delighted in feasting, glote­nie, and play, therein consuming their substance, the memorie wher­of lasteth but one onely daie: are deuourers not onely of pri­uate but also of publique riches: they are also holden men of light minde and prodigall not onely of mony, but also of their fame, re­putation and honour. Truely it behoueth the state to prouide, that no Excesse i [...] commonw ought be re­strained by lawe.man should abuse his owne riches: and therfore I thinke it good, that such men were compelled by lawe, to spare their mony from vaine ex­pences & matters of no momēt. In Rome it was prouided by law, that no Senator should be indebted aboue a certaine summ prescribed. Which order was taken to remooue excesse and superfluous charges. P. R [...]fi­nus was deposed from the Senate by the Censores, for hauing ten pounds waight of siluer. Also Aemelius Lepidus hauing built a house which cost six thousand pound was for that cause depriued from the Senate. A Counsellor ought therfore to liue so, as he may be magnificent and li­berall, VVhat Mag­nificence is in a senator.not onely of mony, but also of reputation, counsell and good will: which vertues doe conioyne the peoples mindes, breeding friend­ship and concord, wherewith all Cities and common places be vnited. Furthermore nature hath so ordained, as without friendship no man hath euer liued, notwithstanding he were so abundantly furnished with ri­ches, as he wanted nothing to lead a desired life. For seeing man is Friendship.a ciuill creature and louer of societie, he cannot in any wise want the vse of other mens couersation. From this fountaine all naturall amities, as mariages, consanguinities and affinities doe proceed. Na­ture is a louer of men, conioyning them not onely in conuersation and good will, but also binding them with obligation of bloud. We see that all lawmakers haue studied for nothing more, then that by the be­nefit of lawes men might liue in loue & friendship, because whereso­euer the rights, of amitie are esteemed, their iniurie, sedition, and ha­tred cannot haue force: sith in all such places, peace, tranquilitie, loue, and affection doe raine, by which meanes the inhabitantes are made happy and blessed. Who so taketh away friendship from the com­monweale, doth (as it were) remooue the Sunne from the world.

Therfore commonweales receiue great good by friēdship, for where it is, no ciuill dissention can arise, and all men with one assent (as it were one particuler man louing his wife) will (as Pythagoras saith) ioyne in [Page 114] loue▪ and become as it were one man: for so much is the force of friendship, as of many it maketh one onely minde. Which friend­ship is, VVhat friendship is,by Leliu [...] defined, to be a perfect consent of things di [...]ne and humaine, in all loue, cha [...]itie, and affection. Diuerse kindes of a­mitie there are, whereby men are drawne to loue one another some do loue in respect of confanguimitie▪ some for allyance, some for a [...] ­f [...]it [...]. Ciuill friend­ship. [...]But of ciuill amitie (wherof vertue is the foundation, and grow­eth among men vnacquainted) the obseruation is not easie: for the di­uersitie of delights doth cause that good men doe seldome concurre in friendship, sith therunto time and conuersation is required: because the manners of men are often altered through aduersitie or prosperitie, age profit, losse, and honour. Each man at the first meeting is not to be re­ceiued into friendship, for (as the prouerbe saith) men must eare ma­nie bushels of salt together, before they become true and perfect friendes. The honest manners of men are to be diligently considered, and what sidelitie and loue we finde in our selues must be bestowed vpon The best kind of friendship.our friends. The Philosophers thinke that amitie is most assured which is bred by likenes of conditions: for where mens delights be one, there desires cannot be diuerse. Such friends were Theteus and Pericheu [...], A­chilles and Patroclus, Orestes and Pilades, Damon and Pythias. Of which two, the loue was so great, as Diontsi [...]s desired he might ioyne therein, and become a third. In choosing friends chiefe respect is to be had vnto vertue, for the nature of vertue is such as vertuous men doe not onely refuse the friendship of euill men, but also deeme them vnworthy to be looked on. Few friends are better then many: for perfect friendship cannot remaine in the minde of great numbers. They that are deligh­ted with familiaritie of many, are not accounted friends, but men com­pinable and faire conditioned: for it is one thing to be conuersable and gentle in the entertainment of all men, and an other thing to be a friend to one whom we make a perpetuall fellow and continuall companion of our cogitations and life. Epaminondas was wont to say, a man ought not go from court, till such time as he had wonne some new friend to be ioyned vnto the number of his old. Which rule seemeth to serue better to gaine the common goodwill of men, then perfect friendship. Those things which for the loue of friends ought be done, should be iust, Friendship requireth three tgings.not hauing more respect to loue, then honesty. True friendship requi­reth three things: first vertue, from which we may neuer be remoued [Page] then pleasure▪ which consisteth in familiaritie and s [...]ce [...]e coni [...]er sation of life: and lastly profit, wherby one friend helpeth an other with things necessarie. Peri [...] being desired by a friend to and him with false witnes, answered he would friend him as high as the heauens, [...] that men should aide their friends so farse as Iustice, equi [...]ie, land the lawes of God doe permit. Also it is more [...] friends from euils things, then therin to incou [...]rage them. So [...]ime also concen­tions doe happen betweene friends, because the one c [...]tente [...] the other, and each of them doth [...]o [...] for more respect at the others hand, then reason requireth: which things doe vitterly [...] How to im­ploy friends.amitie. Wherefore in friendship let [...]his be sp [...]ci [...]ly [...] that we require of our friend, not that which would [...] that which he may lawfully doe for [...] Which obsegua [...]i [...] is▪ [...] ­ned in the honour due to God and pare [...]ts: vnto [...]hom, we [...] meanes able to render honour and tha [...]s equall to [...] desarts▪ yet he that doth honour them to his power, is commonly called [...] and godly. Moreouer the friendship of fooles is [...] to be desi­red, for the familiaritie of such men breedeth contemp [...]. The [...] ­seruations as Counsellor ought hau [...] in the chois [...] [...] friends, where­unto himselfe shall adde diners other, as comprehended rather b [...] [...] and custome, then by precepts: alwaies remembring neuer to [...] from iustice. He must also prouide, that by the friendship [...] the quiet of other subiects may be preserued: for there is no­thingmore noble, then that the gouernours of state, should shewe themselues friends, companions, fellowes, and well willets. For what concord or consent of subiects can be in that commonweale, were the gouernours and magistrates doe disagree? Aristides and Themisto­cles Friendship of senators.were enemies, yet when soeuer they ioyned in publique [...]bas­sage or commission of warre, being come to the confines of the [...] ­thenians land, they layed downe all contention and st [...]ile, though af­ter their returne home, many times olde displeasure was pursued. It is the propertie of a noble & great minde to forget ini [...]ries & cont [...]e thē: which whosoeuer doth for loue to the cōmonweale, ought be called a good & iust man: and not so to do for the safety of friends, is a part of inhumanity, barbarousnes, and rusticitie: because friendship should be immortall, and enimitie mortall. To friendship hospitalitie is a com­panion, for it receiueth and courteously intertaineth not onely Hospitalitie.men knowne, but also persons vnknowne, and strangers. This [Page 116] vertue gaineth vs not [...]ely great praise and glory, but also reputati­on and honour. The priuiledges belonging to hospitalitie are so great, as the [...] obserued the rights thereof to their enemies, and would neuer sight till such time as the prisoners to whom they were indebted for meate, were set at libertie. The Counsellor therefore shall not onely make estimation of friendship in himselfe, but also exhort others to doe the same. The vse of frienship in every com­monweale is great, and much greater then of iustice, if therein all men constantly would per [...]euer. Plato finding he could not bring the commonweale to happines by any vertue, reduced all lawes and cu­stomes to friendship, deuising that all things should be made com­mon, for by meane thereof men should be retained in continuall so­cietie, affirming that two onely words that is is to say, m [...]ne and thine, we [...] the things which disturbed the societie of men.

Concord. Of amitie groweth concord, being nothing else then ciuill ami­tie: and is as it were a conspira [...]ie of all degrees of men, to main­taine libertie, lawe, iustice, sidelitie, religion, and quietnes in the commonweale. The chiefe hope to continue quietnesse in the com­monweale, is when all men consent in all times and all things to the preseruation thereof, and doe in counsell consult with vnitie and concord. Wherefore let our Counsellor be a defendour and cham­pion of concord: For discord is the poison of all commonweales. Seeing there was neuer any Emperour, Tyrant or gouernour that pre­uailed against consent. Therfore the Senate of Rome did most com­monly inhabit the house of concord, to shew thereby that in counsell, nothing should be done seditiously or contentiously, but all things performed courteously and peaceably. Agesilaus king of Lacedemonia, keing asked why Sparta was not inuironed with walles, informed the asker, that the Citizens liued vnited and armed, and shewing him the men said, Lo, heere are the walles of Sparta. Scilurus hauing fowrescore sonnes before his death offered them a bondle of arrows to be broken at once: they answering it were a thing impossible: he tooke the arrowes one by one, and brake them all, thereby war­ning his sonnes, to liue in concord, saying that by force therof they should be inuincible and happy. In like manner Mycypsa king Numedy being readie to die, assembled his children, and admonished them in any wise to be louers of concord, alledging the saying which neuer [Page 117] ought be forgotten, which is: that by concord small things encrease, Discord of Couns: dāge­rous.but by discord the greatest are consumed. The discord of Senators ought aboue all to be eschewed, lest by such example the other subiects be infected. It were dishonorable for them to spend time in chiding, and not in counselling, for there is nothing so agreeable to their calling, as loue, peace, concord, and good will: and that state is in apparant pe­rill, where the Senate is deuided. For how should those that contend one against the other consult of peace, concord, or quietnes in the commonweale? Wherefore, eyther the contendors mindes must be reconciled, or without respect to say their mindes: for those ought be remoued from Counsell and punished, that preferre priuate hate, be­fore publique peace and tranquillitie. In Counsell nothing should be done contentiously, vnwillingly, or seditiously. Of concord and Iu­stice let this we haue said sustice. Now, forsomuch as the condition of life is subiect to sundrie perils and misaduentures, so as it behoueth vs eyther to suffer, or mansully reu [...]nge, it therefore seemeth necessarie to Fortitude.discourse of Fortitude, with whose weapons all assaultes of the minde and fortune are vanquished. That kinde of life which is quiet, peace­able, and assured from all perils and discommodities, is most common­ly of men desired: esteeming that as singuler vertue which worketh such an effect as the professors thereof may be deliuered and made free from continuall molestation, cares, ttoubles, and discontentations. Notwithstanding, all men (in my opinion) be greatly deceiued, that think the life of man may be pleasantly passed without the mixture of perils & perturbatiōs. Fornature hath so prouided that our liues should be subiect to many mischances, and that as our bodies are disquieted with labour and toyle, so the mind should be trauelled with discōtented imaginations. Neither can there be any taste of vertue or happines, if without mishaps we alwaies did liue. For sorrowes being passed (like rest after labour) do make the fruit of felicitie much more pleasing. Vertue is not a Ladie of solatarie or idle life, but loueth labour, reioy­ceth, and triumpheth in times of perill which was the cause that Hercules contemned the way to pleasure, because it was large and wide, and made choise to seeke vertue, wherevnto the passage is hard, and full of difficul­tie. Who so desire [...]h to enioy the possession of perfect vertue and hap­pie life, must of force despise pleasures, disdaine worldlie things flie idlenesnd be perswaded that to feare and be irresolute, is a thing, [Page 118] most reprochfull. Also it becommeth vs not onely to ouercome all toyles and dangers in aspyring to vertue: but being thereof possessed, we ought with much more courage and greatnes of minde, endure all calamities, sorrowes and dangers whatsoeuer, wherein by vertue it selfe we are much aided, sith through it we are made constant, couragi­ous, strong, and mightie: and there is nothing so hard or difficult, which the force of vertue doth not withstand, and with her powre bring vnder. This excellency of minde is called Fortitude; an affection obeying vertue by constant suffering and enduring: which is an ornament to all [...] an [...] to [...] vertues▪other vertues. For the substance and nature of Prudence, Iustice, and Temperance, is of it selfe without fortitude soft, and effeminate: For the propertie of them is to thinke and doe onely; but the qualitie of this vertue is, to thinke and execute constantly, manfully, and valiantly. This vertue is assuredly most requirable in a Counsellor, for without it he shall neuer imagine nor performe any thing noble or worthie me­morie. VVhat to es­chew in forti­tude.Yet therein we must take heede neither to be foolish, hardie, proud, rash, timersome, slouthfull, or cowardlie. Who so would be valiant, it behoueth him to be so affected, as to do all things for loue to vertue, and in attempting perils be lead by reason, and not by ha­zard, chance, or desperation. All commendation due to Fortitude consisteth partlie in Domesticall, and partly in Publique, and mi­litarie Domesticall Fortitude.actions. Domesticall Fortitude doth ornefie the happines of life: and the qualitie thereof is to remooue all perturbation of mind, desire, feare, sorrow, voluptuousnes, anger, and euery other affe­ction: possessing our mindes with tranquillitie, constancy, and come­linesse Fortitude mi­litarie.of life. Fortitude militarie consisteth in suffering all labour and perill, and chiefly in disdaining death for cause of honestie, and the quarrell of our countrey. It is therefore the office of a valiant Coun­sellor not to be dismaid in time of danger, induring and suffering all things which to be done▪ are thought honourable, and not do­ing The proper­ties of Forti­tude.them, seemeth vile, and reprochfull. The chiefe properties of a greate and valiant minde, are, to feare nothing, to contemne all worldlie thinges, and be perswaded to suffer whatsoeuer be­falleth.

Moreouer it behoueth a Counsellor to be so couragiously affected and disposed, that all his gifts of wit & minde, together with his vertues be (as with a certaine sauce) tempered with Fortitude: For as our meats [Page 119] without salt, so all vertues wanting fortitude, are iudged vnsauerie. This is that, which defendeth both bodie and minde from all furies of misfortune. This is that, which maketh vs in Prudence quiet, in Tem­perance constant, and in Iustice stout, valiant, and inuincible. Wee ought therefore be alwaies valiant in minde, in enterprises resolute, in disdaine magnanimious, and in suffering neuer dismaid. This vertue called fortitude, wanteth not a flocke of meane vertues companions, and followers: As, magnanimitie, constancie, patience, confidence, Followers of fortitude.and securitie. It is the propertie of men nobly minded, to doe and as­pyre to those things which in euery vertue are thought greatest & most honourable. This vertue is chiefly knowne by aspyring to honours▪ for it disdaineth those whome she thinketh inferiours in vertue. The noble minded man ascendeth to honour by the stayrs of vertue, and as it were imitating the course of Marcellus, who of the Siracu­san spoyles builded a temple consecrated to honour, making the pas­sage thereunto in such sort, that no man could enter it vnlesse he first passe through the house of vertue to it adioyning: beeing perswaded there was no way open to honour but by vertue, which the noble Se­nator in aspiring and seeking his honour ought assuredly to beleeue. Moreouer, let him contemne small imaginations: for to men of so no­table vertue, no blot or touch of infamie can be imputed. He must aswell in aduersitie as prosperous fortune beare one selfe same minde, declaring the nobilitie of his valiant, and honourable heart in great The proper­ties of a magnanimious Counsellor.and extreame dangers, and not in any wise to faint though death should therof follow: for to such men, honest death is the beginning of life, whereunto a valiant Counsellor must giue himselfe willingly for ho­nour and immortall glories sake. The fame of Codrus shall liue for e­uer, because he, to saue his armie and countrie, sacrificed himselfe. Also the names of Curtius and Sceuola, the one casting himselfe hedlong into a deuouring pit to deliuer Rome from plague, the other burned of his owne hand, to make the enemies know that the Romaines were resolute in the defence of their libertie. The memorie of valiant men is hallowed with immortall honour, and by record of all Chronacles are preser­ued aliue for euer. It is also the part of a noble Senator to iudge true­ly and constantly of all things▪ not following the opinion of common people, who determine by chance, or as present occasion requireth. He shal likewise willingly take vpō him the defence of trueth, and therin [Page 120] not dissemble, protesting himselfe an open enemie to all euill men, vn­lesse he sometimes thinke good to disguise (as wise men do) being therto forced by necessitie, respect of persons and time. Let him willingly and freely bestow his benefits, & vnwillingly, bashfully and discretly receiue of others following the aduise of Hesiodus, who willed, that a good turne receaued should be reacquited with encrease: for he that receaueth is Taxilis.therein inferiour to him that giueth. Taxilis one of the Indian kinges, meeting with Alexander the great (as Plutarchus reporteth) saide vnto him▪ I challenge thee, not to warre nor combat, but vnto an other kinde of contention: if thou be our inferiour receiue a benefit, or if thou be our superiour, bestow a good turne vpon vs, to whom (it is written) Alexander answered: thus it becommeth vs to contend, not who should receaue, but who can excell & ouercome an other in well deseruing, and with those words imbraced him, & suffered him to enioy his kingdome with encrease. The Counsellor must also be liberall of his authority & indifferent to all men, but chiefly to those that be of meane fortune. A­mong great personages, he shalbe magnanimious & high minded: for in that presence to extoll himselfe, and discretly speake in his owne glory is the qualitie of a generous mind: but in companie of inferiours to do so, would be accounted a light part, for of the one glory, and of the o­ther How to take quarrell.hatred, groweth. In taking quarrell or offence, he shall attend iust cause, & honest occasion: therin shewing himself neither secret nor craf­tie, but plaine and open. For it is the propertie of a great mind to hate apparantly, & without disguising or dissembling countenance to cloke displeasure. The magnaminious Counsellor shall rather repulse, then of­fer iniurie, disdaining those wrongs that be done him, for it is the qua­litie of great spirits to set light and contemne small iniuries, and a wo­mannish thing it is to feare with anger, sith some beasts are so silly and of so small force, as neither Elephant nor Lion will vouchsafe to offend them. Let our Counsellor also be an earnest delighter in things honest, and a moderate seeker for profit. His life must be gouerned rather to his owne content, then the fancy of others, and trust rather to The Coun­sellor no fol­lower of each mans fancy.the counsell of friends, then the examples of other men. Let him be no euill conceiuour or speaker, nor willingly heare any man euil spoken of. Neither should he be without iust cause angry or offended, for an­ger is a seruile thing, as the Poet saith.

[Page 121]
Quo quisque est maior, magis est placabilis irae:
Et faciles motus, mens generoso capit.

Some men through a haughtie and proud arrogancie haue ob­scured the brightnes of their magnanimious mindes: which are chiefly those, that doe not rightly examine the duetie of their owne vertue or honour, arrogating to themselues more then becommeth good and wise men: which vice our Counsellor shall in any wise eschew: following that precept of Tullie, which saith, that the higher we are in authoritie, the more lowlie we ought behaue vs. For indeed arrogancy is both o­dious and offensiue to all men. In like manner, lightnes, viletie, and cowardice must be auoided, for he that putteth vp iniuries, and for feare or want of knowledge doth beare them, doth seeme a slaue or bondman. Some there are, who being good and wisemen, yet through faint heart and cowardice doe thinke themselues vnfit to performe great enterprices, and stand in feare to take in hand the defence of their countrie and friendes. Therefore are to be reputed fooles and slothfull.

Constancie. It also becommeth a valiant Counsellor in all speeches, actions, and aduersities (if any happen) to be constant: for a moueable and vnconstant minde more mutable then Proteus, is in such a man no lesse vnseemely then fraud or deceipt. True it is, that things are praisable, which be taken in hand with iudgement and reason: notwithstanding, if thereunto perseuerance be not ioyned, they be accounted discom­mendable. The constancie of Aristides meriteth high commendation: for when Dionisius desired his daughter in mariage, he answered that he had rather see her dead, then the wife of a Tyrant: and hauing slaine her, was againe asked whether he continued in that minde said: he was sorie for the fact, but glad that he had so spoken. Who would not also admyre the constancie of Cato? In whom (notwithstanding the affliction of his countrie) was neuer seene any alteration, but had alwaies one cheere, one countenance, aswell being repulsed and ac­cused, as when he was Pretor: continuing the same constancie in coun­trey, in counsell, in warre, in time of his death, and in that terrible feare, when the state was vanquished, Caesar armed and as victorious vsur­ped the commonweale. Xantippe was wont to say, that Socrates her husband returned alwaies home with the same countenance he went [Page 122] forth: for indeed such was the minde of that Philosopher, as neither with aduersitie or prosperitie it could be disturbed. It behoueth vs therefore in suffering sorrow and griefe to be firme and stable, re­pressing all perils of bodie and cares of minde, like vnto Regulus who rather then the prisoners should be restored, deliuered himselfe to the Carthagenienses. It is reported that when Anaxarchus was beaten by Nicorontus Tyrant of Cyprus, he said vnto him, thou maist for thy plea­sure persecute and torment this bodie, but my constancy of minde can­not VVhat to be eschewed in Constancie.not be harmed. Notwithstanding, the Counsellor shall aboue all things take heede not to be ouer constant in matters vniust, for constancy should onely accompanie vertue. Moreouer to defend any conceipt obstinately against reason and the opinion of good and wise men, or to perseuere in trouble, for an vniust cause, is the qualetie not of a constant but a selfe willed stubborne, foolish, and peruerse minde. Constancie is also required in the choise of mans life, for who so perseuereth not in that course and trade he hath chosen and embraced, is thought in all o­ther things worthy to want the praise of constancy. Constancie is the conseruer of all good counsels and actions: for vaine were our wise consultations, if the same should ebb and flow like the riuer of Eurip­pus. Also great constancie ought be, to keepe secret matters of counsell, for many things there spoken, are neither to be told to strangers nor do­mesticall friends. It is the propertie of a light and vnconstant head, to blab out mysteries done or spoken in counsell: which was the re­spect, that the Romaines consulting of great matters, would not admit the Pedarij Senators, nor any of the Clerks to be present, but they them­selues performed that office. At the beginning, the Senate house was open to all young men that were discended of the number of Patritii, til after that noble & memorable part, of Papirius they were forbiddē, least through inconstancie of youth, the secrets of state should be discoue­red, Papyrius.and thereby the commonweale damnified. Papirius being one day asked by his mother, of what matter so long disputation was held in Counsell, (dissembling the trueth,) answered, merely: whether it were more profitable for the state that one man should haue two wiues, or one wife haue two husbands. Moreouer, in fortitude, patience and a certaine Patience.suffering is looked for, which Tullie defineth, saying; patience is a volun­tarie and continuall induring of aduersitie for honour or commodities sake, the vse thereof is in warre greatest. For they that be soldiers, doe [Page 123] often aduenture their liues, and patiently suffer all dangers for the loue they beare to honour and profit. This vertue is also at some times ne­cessarie for the Counsellor, when he is wearied with domesticall and publique busines: for many troubles and cares doe happen in the com­monweale, which of force must be borne with patience. Surely if Corio­lanus in his repulse, aspiring to the consulship, had vsed patience, he had thereby done more wisely, and his life should not haue beene followed with so many misaduentures. The olde saying is assuredly true: that pa­tience is a remedie against all griefes: for things past and not recouera­ble may be endured, but not amended. Our Senator indued with this suf­fering shall easely finde a meane to disgest and contemne both priuate and publique sorrowes: he that cannot endure griefe, is soft and effe­minate, but who so can, is rightly called patient, yet in the vse of patience VVhatto be eschewed in Patience.we must take order, least through the multitude & greatnes of iniuries we become distraught: for patience oftē offended & moued, prouoketh furie. Therefore griefe must be qualified with moderation of mind, and whatsoeuer necessarily must be borne, becommeth euery man to endure sith all sorrows are ouercome by patience. There is also a certaine assu­rance of mind, orcōceipt of good successe, which many times doth make vs valiant. That vertue is called Cōfidence encouraging vs to hope well Confidence▪in great & honorable enterprices. Which conceipt proceedeth of wise­dome, counsell, & perfect hope: For whensoeuer we haue gotten the knowledge & opinion of somthing, not hastely assenting to reason: that imagination doth draw vs on, as that which we thinke honest, & without feare resolutely we performe it: because he that is cōfident, feareth not. It is reported, that Iulius Caesar seeing Caius Crastinus prepared with good hope, to fight in the Pharsalike warre, asked of him what (as he thought) would be euent of that battell? wherto Crastinus holding vp his hand armed, said, Caesar thou shalt be victorious, & haue cause eyther to com­mend me aliue or dead: which indeed came to passe, for fighting most valiantly in that exployte he was slaine: and Caesar assembling all his ar­mie, made an oration in his praise. Aristotle saith that men accustomed to victorie doe therby conceiue a cōfident hope of happie proceeding. The like hope we haue by fortunate successe in other actiōs. Plutarke wri­teth that Antonius was alwaies accōpanied with an Aegyptiā Philosopher who onely by mens aspect knew the nature, felicitie, & desteny of each mā: he vsed to cōmend much the fortune of Antonius, but much more the [Page 124] happines of Octauius: saying, that the spirit which followed Octauius was of more powre, then that which accompanied Antonius, for be­sides other coniectures, he so conceiued, because in gaming or fight Genius vita­tor.of Cockes and quailes, Octauius had the better hap and was more luc­kie. It is supposed that nature hath giuen vnto euery King, Prince, and great personage a certaine Angell to be defendor of his life, and forewarner of that he is to take in hand: which spirit Homer and Plato doth call Genium, other doe name it Laris, Demon, Lemuris, and we haue termed it Angelus. Which Angell doth assist valiant men in bat­tell; and many times doth enforme them what is to be done. Of them, there are two sortes, the one good the other euill. We reade that Vladislaus Iagelonus king of Polonia in the warre of Prussia against the Germaines did see an Angell armed assisting him in fight, whome he religiously called Diuum Stanislaum. By reason of this sight he fought cofidently, was victorous, and in dispite of the Tyrants de­liuered Prussia. Plutarcke writeth of an euill Angell which accompani­ed Brutus, for he vpon a time reasoning of the warre, there appea­red a man of exceeding greatnes: and Brutus asking what he was, an­swered his euill spirit whom he should see in the Philippian warr: which seemed true, for thereby he foretold both the infortunate successe of that warre, and his death also. The Romaines were wont to haue confidence in the predictions of their spirits: as is appeareth by the inscriptions of the ancient Romoine coyne, Genio Augusti, Genio Senatus, Genio populi Romani, and therupon Ouid saith.

Et vigilant nostra, semper in vrbe lares.

Moreouer, there is nothing better in confidence, then to trust vnto wisedome and counsell, with which confidence let our Senator be in­dued, to make him in euery action valient, and couragious, for all o­ther helpes and hopes doe sometimes fayle, because they are not in our VVhat to eschew in confidence.power. Therefore as it is most noble, so is it also most sure to haue a confident hope in vertue. In confidence we are to eschew temeritie, foolish hardines, and desperation: which vices doe sometimes fill our Securitie.mindes with a false hope of fortitude, casting vs vnaduisedly into dan­gers. As securitie is the ende of good life, so is it also the ende of a valient life: sith thereof commeth repose of cares and tranquilitie [Page 125] of minde. The man indued with securitie, is (as Cicero saith) in the same condition wherein he was before his birth. Securitie is the want of sor­row and sicknes wherein some Philosophers did thinke the happie life consisted. For loue thereof, Democritus and Homer trauelled Aegypt, Babilon and Persia, hoping to attaine knowledge, whereby their minds instructed with diuerse sciences might become secure, perfect, and con­tented Publike secu [...] ­ritie▪with ther owne fortune. The profit of securitie appeareth in the commonweale, when therein all things are peaceable, quiet, and free from perils, feares, quarrels, and troubles: which euery man calleth common happines. Yet are we to take heed, not to build our societie vpon light, vncertaine, or fallible things: neither shall we hold our selues secure by being slouthfull, carelesse, or negligent. Pompeius hauing a VVhat to be eschewed in securitie.great armie and comming to fight with Caesar, seemed secure: yet those Captaines who feared the diligence of Caesar warned him to be vigilant; to whom he answered, that all was sure, and willed them to sleape on both sides. But this securitie deceaued him, for he was vanquished by Caesar and forced to flie. This error happeneth to many common­weales: for being vsed to long peace, they deeme themselues in secu­ritie, which may more rightly be called slouth, cowardice, dulnes, or negligence. In such states we see all things neglected, which appertaine vnto good gouernment: eyther to withstand publike dangers, or make the subiects valiant or iust. The Empyre of Rome was not inlarged, so much by any meanes as by the vertue militarie▪ In somuch as, not one­ly the Romaine armes, but also their lawes extended farre. That Citie from the time of Romulus till the raigne of Octauius Augustus, was neuer disarmed. But Octauius finding the whole world in peace, caused the tem­ple of Ianus (which onely in time of vniuersall peace stood open) to be shut: as though thereby the state should be euer secure from martiall tumults Rome being by this meane made secure, no Emperour succeding opend the the temple of Ianus so as from thence forth the people embraced rather an idle industrious life: whereof followed, that with time, all kingdomes, countries, & cities, cast of the Romaine yoke, & wan vnto thē ­selues libertie & Rome it self being vtterly disarmed, became subiect to the Gotij. We therfore aduise our Counsellor to allow only of such security, VVhat mo­ueth men to be valiant.as [...]āteth not care & prouisiō wherby peril & misfortune may be auoi­ded. For happy is that cōmonweale which in time of peace prepareth for war. We may not now forget to discourse what reasōs do perswade mē to [Page 126] be valiant, and willingly imploy their persons in actions militarie. There are many that onely lead with loue to honestie and vertue, doe rather choose to hazard their bodies and liues in fight, then in time of danger to abandon their Countrie, Prince, or friends. Which commendation our countrey men may challenge, because they are willing to serue in warre, onely for honour and vertues sake. We read that the Romaines, Germaines, and French Captaines, at such times as they brought their soldiers to fight, did alwaies animate them with perswasions of their owne great forces, the excellency of their Generall, the vertue of their ancestors, and the spoiles of the enemies: but our chieftaines do vse none other eloquence to incourage their armie, then this, Let each man now remember his owne vertue and reputation: which onely perswasion sufficed the Polonians, whose propertie is eyther to be victorious, or die in the field. Who so therefore is so affected, as for loue to hone­stie and vertue will refuse none aduenture (the same being performed according to iudgement) ought iustly to be called valiant: as he that The rewardes due to soldiersfor desire of glorie and praise doth attempt all things valiantly. Which kind of men for their noteble actes, ought be honoured with rewards and badges of dignitie. And albeit soldiers doe more commonly en­deuour themselues to vnderstand how enemies should be vanquished, then how subiectes may be gouerned, yet being wise men, they ought be aduanced to the dignitie of Counsellors. For it is reasonable, that af­ter much labour in seruice of their countrie, they should be clad in long robes, and enioy the benefit of ciuill ttanquilitie. In Rome, all such sol­diers were adopted Senators, as brought home any spoyle that apper­tained to the person of the enemie, or that did weare a garland, for sa­uing a Citizen by fight. Those that had borne office in the field by the space of ten yeares, were admitted to ciuill magistracie. Regulus being remoued from the dignity of a Senator, receiued that disgrace in so great disdaine, as he tare his clothes open, and shewed the woundes of his bodie: thereby claiming a place in Senate, and recounted what martiall seruices he had done for thewelfare of his countrey. Which persuasion preuailed, and he againe became remitted to his former dig­nitie.

Some there are, who lothing their owne liues & lead with a certaine VVhat to be eschewed in fortitude.desperation, do rashly aduenture themseues to dangers, imagining that therin they imitate the actions of valiant mē, alledging this poeticall speach.

[Page 127]
Ʋna salus victis, nullam sperare s [...]lutem.

The people of Numantia, did choose rather to slea themselues, then yeeld to the handes of mercifull enemies. The Saguntin [...] were of like re­solution, as Liuius writeth. But we ought neuer to doe any thing des­pe [...]ately. For who soeuer dispaireth, doth flee from Fortitude, and it is the sinne of an abiect minde through feare and cowardice, to seeke death. But a valiant man doth contemne life with iudgement, & figh­teth valiantly, not as voide of all hope, but because he thinketh so do­ing is honest and necessary which is the reason, he maketh choise ra­ther to die, then dishonour his life with reproch, preferring honest death before a shamefull life. The Paripatetians affirme anger to be Anger.the wherstone of Fortitude, and men being therewith lightly moued, do attempt all enterprices with more earnestnes of mind. Neuerthelesse in vse thereof, all furie and outrage must be auoided, least we seeme ra­ther mad then valiant: which may be done, by making Ire a companion and no Captaine to Fortitude. There is nothing more vnseemely in men, (and chiefly in Counsellors) then doing all things angerly: for who so is lead with that passion, seemeth to imitate the cōdition of bruit beasts whose property is to reuenge in fury. In enterprising all couragi­ous attempts, let honestie and reason march before, and anger be rea­die to assist them. Plato calleth anger the senowes of the minde, because through it the minde is stretched vp, and by mildnes let downe. Who so beginneth a warre in heat and anger, is called colloricke but not valiant, because he maketh his enterprise, moued by perturbation and not by honour or reason. Therefore the Epicure saith well, that immode­rate Ire doth ingender madnes: and must be eschewed, not so much for loue of moderation, as healths sake. Some there are, that attribute so much to Fortune, as armed only with that conceit, do p [...]oclame triumph Fortune.before victorie; not fearing any enterprice whatsoeuer, which error is greatly to be reproued. For albeit the force of Fortune be great, and greatest of all in war (because it claimeth most power in things where re­son preuaileth least) yet ought we not yeeld so much to fortune, as tru­sting only to her, reiect all aduise & counsell: sith good Captaines being gouerned by reasō, haue smal need of Fortune. Hannibal desiring peace of Hanniball. Scipio, vsed these words: I haue bin taught somtimes by euill & somtimes by good successe, that it is better to trust vnto reasō thē fortune. Fortune doth for the most part suffer mē to fal, that put their whol cōfidē [...]e in hit [Page 128] not mixing therewith the aide of good counsell. For nothing is more vncertaine, nothing more vnconstant nor of lesse force: and it blin­deth the iudgement of those that doe not bridle her headstrong furie. Therefore let our Counsellor be (as men say) faber [...]u [...] fortunae, doing all things according to high reason and counsell: whereunto fortune will giue fauour, for she followeth reason as a shadow. Xenophon saith that in warre euill fortune followeth euill men, and good fortune followeth good men. Alexander, Scipio, and Hanniball were fortunate, yet not so much through fortune, as the benefite of vertue, wisedome and good counsell. It is the part of a wise and valiant man, to take for­tune when she offereth her selfe, and imploy her according to counsell. Some men voide of experience, finding things proceed to their owne liking, doe ascribe the same to fortune: and surely not without cause: for as of beastes, so of fooles, fortune hath domination: yet no wise nor Temperance.good man would euer make her the guide or directer of his life. Na­ture hath so determined, that betwixt the mindes and bodies of men, there should be a certaine fight and contention, suspending & diuerting their dispositions from the true offices of vertue. For the alluring and pleasing lustes of the bodie doe labour to oppresse the minde, and hold the same vnder: and the minde being armed and aided with reason, doth resist and repugne, all it is able. That vertue of minde which resisteth the affections and bringeth them vnder her rule, is called Temperance, commanding vs both in desiring & eschewing to follow reason. Tem­perance is employed in contemning of pleasuresand chiefly, those that take end by taste and touching. Yet doth it not generally abhorre all pleasures, but onely such as be contrarie to vertue and reason. There are some pleasures by nature honest, and some others dishonest, and ei­ther of them as incident to the mind, as the bodie. The comprehension How perfecti­on of man, is attained.of all these pleasures consisteth in the sences, which are (as it were) their seruants and champions. Certainly it behoueth man to be not onely sound of bodie, but also perfect of minde: which perfection must of force be attained by the exercise of vertue. That vse of vertue which pertaineth to the bodie is called Temperance, working such effect that it yeeldeth to reason, leading a life honest and worthie a good man. The pleasures of bodie, be borne and from our birth bread vp with vs, which is the respect they are with great difficultie reftained: chiefly for those men that take more delight in the exercises of bodie then of minde; [Page 129] which among men, is of all other things most beastly and vngracious. Therefore it standeth vs vpon that the body be bound to the obedience of the minde, and from it be neuer separate nor remoued: for such coniunction doth make men perfect. All vertues doe also make the commonweale happie, blessed, and peaceable: but Tempe­rance alone is the keeper and preseuer of felicitie: for it forseeth that the Temperance the preserued of ciuill feli­citie.state be not infected with excesse and vnreasonable pleasures, whereby many great and most notable Cities haue beene subuerted. Euerie commweale furnished with good lawes and customes, ought to take heed, least riott, and excesse should poyson the subiects, for thereof groweth couetuousnes the mother of all vices. We read that in Rome lawes were deuised against excesse in expences and apparrell, whereby an order of good and honest life was prescribed. The Lacedemonians also did keepe their feasts in publique places, to the ende that no man should dare to be wastfull in the sight of other Citizens. In old time the magistrates of Gallia Belgica, permitted not any custome that might make the people effeminate. At this day in some Cities of Italie, the li­bertie of immoderate expences is by law inhibited. The luste of men is insatiable, and cannot be staied but onely by the bridle of law: for it al­lureth the minds of all subiects, and consequently moueth them to sub­uert their owne countrey. The conspiratours with Cateline are therof an example, who being thriftles and licentious people, attempted to make warre against the commonweale. Therefore the life of euery subiect ought be trained to temperance, prouiding that the state do not abound with excesse: for by that meane the cōmon quiet, the happines of subiects, their welfare, health, and substances shalbe preserued, and they at all oc­casions be ready to take armes for their country, not fearing either want of wealth, nor excesse of pleasure: which two, do many times bring Ci­ties into seruitude. It also standeth the state vpon, to forsee that the life of subiects be neither in priuate or publique, intemperate, nor that any man should abuse welth and substance. A temperate & moderate life in priuate men, is an ornament of common foelicitie. Insolency of life is therfore to be suppressed, for from thence as the head, all conductes of mischiefe do take their beginning. And the Counsellor himselfe ought to be no lesse free from intemperancy, then he would haue others. Wherin let him imitate the seuerity of the Censors, who in old time were the ma­sters of ciuill tēperance & modesty. He shall therfore aswell by priuate [Page 130] The followers of Tēperance admonition as publique correction, reduce them from intemperancie, for the punishment due thereto ought be grieuous. By the benefit of Temperancie we become modest, bashfull, honest, and continent: Through which vertue, the happie life of man is beautified, encreased, and inlarged. Modestie (as the Stoicks affirme) is a vertue that con­taineth the knowledge of all things to be done or spoken. For in euery Modestie.speech and action a measure ought be obserued, least we doe speake more, then necessitie requireth, forgetting the Counsell of Solon, ne quid nimis. But therein time is to be obserued, and a fit opportunitie awai­ted: for actions not well vsed, are oft times the cause of many incon­uenients. Let comelines therfore be kept in all actions and speeches, fra­ming our countenance, eies, gesture, motion, (& in briefe) the whole bo­die to modesty: so that therby we may seeme to haue an honest, plaine, Bashfulnesse.& stable intent. We are somtimes also recōmended by Bashfulnes, which is that vertue that conserueth honest life: because in all actiōs it shunneth reproch & villany. And as Iustice cōmandeth that no man should be spoiled, so bashfulnes biddeth that no man should be offended: for a good man refraineth from iniury, not onely wilingly, but is also terrefied with bashfulnes. Yet do I not require in our Counsellor that bashfulnes which is peculier to yong men, or offendors. Because such persons are most Two sorts of bashfulnes.commonly against their will bashfull, and ashamed. That pertur­bation of mind doth misbecome a graue & temperate man. But the bash­fulnes we seeke for, doth imitate vertue: and therby a certaine habit and exercise of eschewing euill; so as, if at any time through ignorance error be committed, we are therof ashamed, which is very cōmendable. Iulius Caesar fighting with the yonger Pompeius at Corduba, and seeing his soldiers readie to runne away, passed forth before the foremost ranke, & there most valiantly fought in person: which the soldiers seing, could not for shame but turne face to the enemie, prouoked partly with the the valure of the generall, & partly with their owne shame fastnes

Honestie. There is in the capacities of men a certaine instinct of honesty where­with they are cōpelled to perform things honest & flie frō their contra­ries. Also all the meanes to attaine vnto knowledge of honesty procee­deth frō vertue, & therin her excellency & dignity resteth, which may somtimes proceed of cōmon fame, glory, and opinion. Moreouer who so through diligence and obseruation, knoweth what is measure, order, and grauetie, performing in wordes and workes, that beauty, sweet­nes, and rule, taking heede not to doe or thinke anie thing [Page 131] vnseemely, effeminately, or licentiously, is thereby made honest. And the force of honestie is so great, as it alone sufficeth to diuert men from all shamefull life and euill actions.

Continencie & abstinency Among the praises due to Counsellors for their good conuersation, continencie and abstinencie doe chalenge no meane place. For they commaund not onely to contemne the inticements of desires, but also staie our mindes, our eies, and our handes from following vnreasona­ble affections. There is no spectacle of life more noble, then to see men contented with their owne and not couet things appertaining vnto o­thers. Paulus Aemilius is commended, for that of all the treasure which was brought from Macedon and Spaine, he conuerted no part to his pri­uate vse, but deliuered all into the publique Threasurie, choosing rather to abstaine and continue poore, then become rich by deceauing. For after death, his goods being sold vnder the Launce (as the custome was) there wanted whereof his wife might be sustained. The example of Scipio Affricanus his continency is most admirable: he being but twentie yeares of age at the taking of Carthage, found there (a­mong many other captiues) one maiden of most excellent beautie; yet would he not touch hir virginitie, but deliuered her vnto an hus­band whom she was before betrothed vnto: and gaue her in mariage all that golde which her friends offered, to redeeme her. I omit to speeke of Alexander the great, and many others, who gained no lesse glorie by continency, then martiall triumphes. We will therefore that our counsellor should be continent, following the coun­sell which Pericles vsed to his companion Sophocles and pretor in Rome beholding and commending the beautie of a y oung wo­man whom they met in their waie towards the Senate house: saying. It becommeth a Pretor to haue not onely hands free from corruption, but also continent eyes voyd of vnchast lookes. It was therefore thought to be wisely done of Cato the Sensor, to re­moue L. Quintus Flaminius from the Senate for his incotinency: Because he being Consull in Fraunce was intreated by a harlot, that without offence, she might strike a prisoner condemned to die. Manlius was also deposed from that dignitie, because he kissed his owne wife in the presence of her daughter. Likewise Salustius for adultery and light conditions, was depriued the Senate. Surely there is nothing that doth more dishonor the dignitie of a Counsellor then incontinency & lewde [Page 132] life: because it procureth priuate reproch and blemisheth the maiestie of commaunding. Sardanapalus consumed whole daies in the nurserie among women, sparing no time from incontinent exercises: As appea­reth by the Epitaph, which liuing he commaunded to be written on his tombe.

Ede, Bibe, Lude.

Aristotle chancing to finde the Epitaph, staied, and read the first part thereof, and smiling said: A man would thinke, this writing fitter to be fixed to the graue of an oxe, then writtē vpon the tombe of a Prince? And hauing perused the three last verses: said further, that Sardana­pulus enioyed that, being dead, which liuing he neuer had but so long as he was in feeding his paunch. All pleasures not being reduced to necessitie and honestie, are reprochfull: and aboue the rest, those two which are taken by touching and tasting, doe draw men most to offend in vice, and vncleannes. A counsellor therefore ought to be care­full, that the life of subiectes be not tombled into this myre of vo­luptuousnes and soule delights, but that all things may be done with shamefastnes and honestie. All dishonest and vnlawfull delightes should be extirped, and likewise all occasions and opportunities whereby the people are trained to liue dishonestly, shamelesly, wic­kedly, and imtemperately ought be remoued. The Lacedemonians were wont to shew their dronken seruants vnto their children, to the ende that they (lothing their vile gestures and beastialitie) might a­uoide the vice of much drinking. But would God we were as wil­ling to follow, as remember those ancient customes. Great was the moderation and temperance which our ancestors vsed in their diet: for they liued not to eate, but did eate to liue. In these daies, the plague of intemperance is growne so great, as more men perish by inconti­nencie and gluttonie, then by force or fury of warre. Also in some na­tions men take no delight but onely in drinking. Who would not then commend M. Curius the Romaine Senator, that was content the em­bassadours sent by the Samnits should finde him homely set at sup­per by his fire, drinking in a cup of wood: and there refused the golde which they did present him: saying, I had hather command rich men, then be a rich man my selfe. I speake not of Fabricius, Tubero, Fabius, Cato, and Scipio, whose temperate and sober life hath [Page 133] beene by immortall fame preserued. Hortentius was much reprooued for that he, at a supper (prepared for the Auguri) set before his gests a boyled peacocke: likewise Cassius was deemed intemperate, because publiquelie he dranke water, and could not endure thirst for a short time. Duronius was also remoued from the Senate, for that he be­ing Tribune, he cassed the lawe concerning the restrainte of feasting. Surely the Romaine state was happy in hauing such Senators as were not onely princes of Counsell, but also masters of good manners and vertues. Whereof may be coniectured how temperate the people of Rome were in those daies. It is reported that when the presents which Pirrus king of Epirus (after his ouerthrow) were brought vnto Rome, and shewed about the streats: hoping thereby to winne good will of the people, there was nor one man seene to put out his hand towards them: fo as that king found himselfe no lesse vanquished with conti­nencie then force of armes. But when excesse, after the victorie of A­sia, had entred Rome, and that through plentie and idlenes, the peoples mindes began to grow wanton, sodainly that ciuill discipline of tempe­rancie, parcimonie, and societie, were extinguished: and in liew therof, couetuonsnes accompanied with all mischiefes possessed the Citie▪ which (as Salust saith) way the very cause that destroyed the Romain em­pyre. The Counsellor therefore must foresee that in the common­weale excesse may not long indure: because it peruerteth publique peace, and maketh the subiects soft, effeminate, miserable and needy. Diogenes hearing that the house of a certaine prodigall man was offred to sale; said, I knew well that house was so full of meate and wine, as (or long) it would vomit out the master. The Counsellor shall also eschew nothing more in his owne person, then immoderate eating and drinking: because it consumeth the force both of bodie and minde. Notable is that lawe of Solon, which iudgeth a drunken prince wor­thie of death. Philip king of Macedon being disguised with drinke, gaue iudgement against a woman: she furthwith appealed, and being asked to whom? answered to king Philip when he is sober. Certainly the force of wine taketh away all iudgement in man; in so much as thereby kings are made seruants, olde men become children, wise folkes are turned to fooles, and fooles changed to mad men. The Coun­sellor therefore shall obserue measure, and drinke for necessitie, not for sacietie: following the counsell of Anacharsis, who said that the first [Page 134] draught was of necessitie, the second of superfluitie, and the third of madnes. It were most vnseemely in a Senator to haue a countenance full of furie, eyes full of anger, and speech full of pride, all which doe accompanie dronkennes: and as euill it will become him being ouer­charged with meate and wine to consume the whole night in sleaping. But how much good diet helpeth to preserue health, & prepare the bo­die to action, we may learne by experience. For by moderate diet we finde not onely the minde, but the bodie also more obedient, but sacie­tie, and fulnes of belly, is no other, then a sepulture to a liuing minde. It therfore beseemeth a Senator not onely priuately, but also publique­ly to obserue parcimonie and frugalitie. Yet heed must be taken, least he seeme ouersparing, hard, or straight in expence: for it is the proper­tie of a bace and abiect minde to abuse comlines and honour in his li­uing. Therefore priuate excesse shalbe banished, and publique magni­ficence Order and rule of mans life.retained: needlesse delicacy, but (much more) misery and ni­gardlines must be auoided. For as immoderate expences be hurtfull, so necessarie and conuenient fare is honest and wholsome. Respect is also to be had to the place, the time, and persons: waying there­withall, what belongeth to priuate and publique honestie, dignitie, and profit, not neglecting the change of exercises and honest pleasures. L. Tubero making a publique feast, couered all his beds with the skins of kids, and for so doing was thought indiscrete, and ignorant in things belonging to publique honour and reputation: also for the same was deposed from the office of Pretor. But of Temperancy let this suffice which we haue hitherto spoken: Let vs now (sith the time and order of our matter so requireth) intreat of the goods of bodie and fortune, wherewith the felicitie of a Counsellor is not onely ornified but also made perfect. For so much as the bodie of man, is, (as it were) a dwel­ling place, and tabernacle of his mind, it behoueth vs and our liues to be furnished no lesse with the perfections of minde, then of bodie. For as the actions of vertue cannot be exercised by a weake bodie, so the bodie wanteth power to performe his duetie, being gouerned by an imperfect minde. These two are so coopled and conioyned together, that as the Master without a seruant, so the minde may not execute his duetie without obedience of the bodie. Therefore the philosophers writing of pollicy, doe conioyne the exercises of bodie and minde, as though men imperfect eyther in bodie or mind were improfitable in the [Page 135] societie of men. Euen as ciuill discipline and good lawes doe worke the How perfec­tion of mind and bodie is attained.perfection of minde: so nature (chiefly ioyned with exercise) doth make the soundnes of bodie: which is conserued by phisicke. There­fore in commonweales well gouerned certaine lawes and ages for ma­riage ought be prescribed & likewise education ordained for children, to theende they may be informed in ciuill discipline. So as by nature and art, the people may become both of minde and bodie most perfect. But sith heretofore we haue discoursed of the qualities of mind, and the perfections thereof: it resteth now to speake of those qualities of bo­die which ought to be in a Counsellor. For it behoueth him much to be as perfect in bodie as of minde. True it is, and that trueth by lear­ned men confirmed, that the felicitie of man, cannot be defended with the vertues of minde onely, but needeth also vnto the perfection therof, externall commodities. Which albeit are not by themselues laudable, yet because vertue is knowne in their vse and moderation, they ought greatly to be desired. The goods of the bodie do seeme to con­sist partly in the whole bodie, and partly in particuler mem­bers: Perfection of bodie.for health, beautie, strength and soundnesse, are required in the whole bodie: but perfect sence, and nimblenes of legs and hands, are wished for onely in some parts. As there is a society and con­sent of body and minde, so is there a certaine liking and correspon­dence betwixt the vertues of bodie and minde. Health resembleth Iu­stice: because it reduceth the diuerse constitution of bodie to an equall temperance: so beautie is likened to Temperance: and they both con­spire in the perfections of bodie & mind. Strength is compared to for­titude, because in the enduring of labour & danger, the one of thē doth aide the other. Soundnes of bodie is likened to Prudence: For as Prudence doth reconcile all opinions and iudgements, euen so in a sound bodie, all partes doe ioyne and make one perfect bodie. How much health auaileth to lead a good and happy life, experience teach­eth. For there is nothing that we can doe or thinke, but therein good Health.health doth helpe vs, and the want thereof doth hinder vs. We will therefore that our Counsellor should be healthie, for thereby he may the better attend publique affaires, vse the exercises of bodie, & lead a quiet and contented life, free from griefe & all sorts of sorrow. The first cause of health, is God, the maker of all bodies: the second good diet and exercise. For great regard must be had, least health be [Page 136] taken away by negligence or intemperancie. Health (as Cicero saith) is maintained by knowing a mans owne bodie, and obseruing of those things, which agree, or disagree with nature: also by being continent, in diet, apparrell, and contempt of pleasures: whatsoeuer else apper­taineth to this matter, must be learned of Galen and Hippocrates. Dio­genes was wont to laugh those to scorne that by sacrifice sought for health of the gods, and notwithstanding lead an intemperate life. A good constitution of bodie is also commendable in a Counsellor. Let him therefore eyther be (as the phisitians doe terme it) sanguine, VVhat tem­perature of bodie, is best.or colloricke: for those humors doe make men apt for vertue: and such persons are commonly wittie, docible, healthie, and of good memories. Aristotle calleth melancholy men wittie, for being incli­ned to anger they are disposed to haue in them certaine diuine thoughts and deepe cogitations. Notwithstanding we vtterly exclude them from counsell, as men vnmeete for affaires of state, because their liues are, for the most part, gouerned by malancholy and not by wisedome. The humor most abounding in that complexion, is cold and d [...]ie; which maketh their cogitations to be solitarie, inclined to enuie, sowernesse, sadnesse, and sorrow. Cicero reading that place of Aristotle which calleth melancholy men ingenious, smiling said, that he reioyced much that nature had made him dull witted and not melancholy. Caesar being war­ned to beware of a certaine fat, merry, and liberall speaker, answered that such men were not to be feared, but those rather that were sad of swarfie complexion and leane; pointing to Brutus and Cassius. We al­so mislike that any flegmaticke person should be so much as the Romaines called him Pedarius Senator: least his humor be offensiue to all the rest: For as the motion of flegmatike bodies, is slowe, and heauie, so likewise is their disposition of minde. Also good propor­tion or comelines doth recommend, not onely the bodie, but also the minde, so as, it seemeth, the Poet said well.

Gratior est pulchro veniens [...] corpore virtus.

We wish therfore that our Counsellor should be a seemly personage. Comlines of person requi­red in a coun.I call comlines, a manly & not effeminate body. This vertue is perceiued in the features of bodie, face, and countenance. Let him therefore be neither huge nor small of stature, but of the meane sise. In long [Page 137] bodies (as Aristotle saith) there is no great vertue, and in short perso­nages, as little. Moreouer, his bodie should not be exceeding grosse, nor exceeding leane and drie, for the one is apt for trauell, the other ouerweake to indure paine. We also commonly take heede of those whom nature hath marked by defect of any member, as they that are lame of one legge, squint eyde, or deformed in person: for such men are accounted craftie and subtill. Neuerthelesse, if any such personage be knowen for good, and by the excellency of vertue hath ouercome the imperfection of nature; then shall he deseruingly be admitted to the dignitie of Counsellors. The proportion of face or visage, is much beautified by good collour or complexion, which oftimes bewraieth the secret conceits of mind. Our inward disposition is also sometimes knowen by the outward collour of skin. Philopaemen a notable Captaine Philopemen.of the Achaeans, was an euill fauored man, and being taken prisoner, was forced to cut wood. Afterwards he became knowen, and saide; that he suffered the punishment due to his deformitie. We therfore commend a graue & pleasant face in our Counsellor: and allow most of such eies as are sweet & not cruell; for that countenance is fittest for men of such qualitie. Yet is not the coniecture we haue by the features of bo­die so certaine, as thereby we may exactly iudge the vertue of mind: for many there are, whose persons be not beautifull, yet in mind are vertu­ous men, that is to say, iust, prudent, & temperate. The mind is not ble­mished by deformitie of bodie, but by beauty of mind the bodie is beau­tified. Vertue is not bound eyther to a beautifull or deformed body, but is of it selfe comely, and doth grace all bodies with beautie therof. And therfore it behoueth vs in knowing of men, to vse not onely eyes, but also iudgement: euen so not onely the person countenance & eyes of a Counsellor, but also the whole face of a Counsellors minde ought be considered & preferred before all beautie & good proportion of bodie. All these things may be wished for the perfection of men, but are not commonly looked for. A Counsellor ought also to be comly appar­relled How a Coun­sellor should be apparrel­led.according to the dignitie of his office: for seemely garments doe adde a reuerence to his person, increasing, and ornifying the worthines both of mind and body. It is therfore requisite, that by his apparrell he should be known to differ frō other men, which custome is in all well go­uerned Latus clauus.cōmonweals obserued. The Senators of Rome vsed a garment set full of studs or tufts of gold, and on their hose they weare like vnto [Page 138] a moone, which were the cognisants or badges of most honour. That kind of ornament, the Romaines seeme to haue receiued from other na­tions. Cal ceilunats.For Esaias the prophet foretold the noble women of Iudaea, that God would take away those moones and ornaments of hose. Plutarch al­leageth sower causes, why the Romaines ware such hose: which to delight the reader, I wil recyte. The first was, because they thought that the soules of great men should by light of the moone be guided the next waie vnto heauen. The second reason that moued them, was that the signe of the moone, did shew they were discended from the Archadians, who came into Italie with Euander, for the Archadians did imagine them­selues more ancient then the moone. The third cause why they ware the moone was, to the ende, that in prosperitie they should remem­ber the inconstancie and mutabilitie of Fortune: For as the moone most commonly is in parte lightened and in parte darkened, so no honour or felicitie of men, can be so perpetuall, but is sometimes obscured or extinguished. The fourth cause was, for that the signe of the moone, doth stirre vp mens mindes to modestie and obedience: mouing them to pray vnto God for wisedome, whereby both to com­maund and obey: euen as the moone doth take her brightnes from the sunne, being a more noble and excellent light, so ought men to seeke for wisedome from heauen. Others doe fable and affirme, that the Senators of Rome ware not the image of the moone, but the pro­portion of the letter C, as though the hundereth whom Ro­mulus did choose to be, (as he called them) Patres should thereof take The degrees of men ought be knowen by their appar­rell.their title. In good commonweales the vse hath euer beene, that a diffe­rence of estates and degrees of men, should both by lawe and vse be knowne by the peoples garments: and that custome is assuredly of much moment to make them constant in their professions, and in the couersation of common tranquilitie. Which was also the rea­son, that among the Romaines no man might weare purple, but onely Senators, Magistrates, Priestes, and young men of noble families. I omit to speake of rings, chaines, and bracelets which were giuen to men of vertue, aduanced to dignitie. How these customes are in these daies obserued, it sufficiently appeareth: for we may behold a greate alteration not onely of vertues and manners, but of times also: sith the garments of soldiers, magistrates, and senators, doe not differ from the habite of seruantes, marchantes, artisans, and plowemen. [Page 139] True it is, that the vertue and condition of men is not bound to any badge or ornament: yet is he thereby put in mind, with more diligence to maintaine and exercise the office belonging to his dignitie. For Sep­ters, Crownes, Cheynes, Rings, Gownes, Robes, and Saddles, are no dignities, but the badges of dignitie, wherewith men are stirred vp to performe and doe honour to the office and place whereunto that badge Badges of honour.belongeth. Romulus (as Liuie writeth) intending to gouerne a newe people, apparrelled himselfe with an habit of maiestie, and called twelue Littori with mases, to attend vpon his person, thereby to ap­peare with more reputation, and reuerence. It shall therefore be­come our Counsellor to be apparrelled according to his grauetie▪ honour, and dignitie: taking heede that his garments doe not pro­mise any varietie, lightnes, or inconstancy. He must euer obserue therein a certaine comely neatnes, such as beseemeth men and not wo­men; not exquisite or curious, but comely and manly, yet void of rusti­city. Let him also in all motions, gestures, standings, goings, sittings & lyings, frame a good grace and grauetie beseeming a Counsellor. It is also very necessary, that he be strong of bodie, well knit, and manly pro­portioned. Strength of bodie.Which things because they proceede from nature, he shall be more carefull in vsing and conseruing them, then diligent in attai­ning vnto them. Strength is commonly in those men that be sound, nimble, and firme fleshed: which things with age doe naturally encrease and decrease: for young men are strong and mightie, but olde men be broken and feeble. And for so much as, the force of minde is more requisite in a Senator then the strength of bodie: therefore we desire not in him the force of a gyant, but conuenient and rea­sonable strength. Milo being growne olde, beholding cettaine wrast­lers contending in strength, looked vpon his owne loynes weping. and called them dead: because (as I thinke) his whole vertue and ho­nour rested in the strength of his bodie, We are now to discourse, what The age of a Counsellor.age is most fit for the perfection both of bodie and minde, and of what yeares a Counsellor ought be. They that haue desired the length of mans life, doe confine the same within a certaine pro­portion of time. Plato assigneth eightie one yeares, Solon eightie, and others affirme the life of man to be determined within seauentie yeares: because they referre all to the number of seauen, sith euerie seauenth yeare some mutation of bodie appeareth. The first seuen years [Page 140] the teeth of children doe fall: the next seauen yeares, their heare doth grow, the third, their bodie is at the longest: the fourth, their bredth▪ the fift, they are strongest: the sixt, desirous of pleasure, the seauenth wise, the eight aged, the ninth feeble, and the tenth prepared for death. Others affirme that the change in mans life is euery nine yeares: and some ascribeth alteration therof at euery vnequall number till twentie and one. Pythagoras called the eightie yeare of mans life, fatall deuiding the same into fower times twentie: so as childhood should last till twentie, youth other twentie, mans estate other twentie, and olde age doth determine all, after the fourth twentie: comparing it to the foure seasons of the yeare: the spring time was likened to children, sommer to young men. Autume to ripe age, and winter to old folke. Ʋ [...]rro ma­keth fiue degrees of mans age, including euery of them into fiueteene: as though childhood lasted till the ende of fiueteene yeares, for so long children are tender and without hare: youth till thirtie, because till that time man increaseth in length and bredth. Ripe age induced till fortie fiue, for so long the strength of bodie abideth, and men are able for armes and all other publique actions: olde age beginneth at three­score, for then the bodie wasteth and groweth ripe. With this opinion we thinke good to concurre: but the distinction of ages by number, Critici vel iu­ditiarii dies.doth chiefly appertaine to phisitions, for they in their fomentations and mede [...]ines, doe obserue certaine particuler and speciall daies. But our opinion is that the fortie fiue yeare of mans age is most meete for coun­sell, because about that time, man is of most force both in bodie and minde. Besides, that age is the middest of mans life, then in the ripenes both of bodie and minde. At that time (being the middest of mans life) the minde is not drawne with desires, not transported with youthfull fu­ [...]ie, not subiect to affections: but perfect of iudgement, counsell, and experience of all things. When Rome flourished, the Senators were chosen of that age: because those yeares were accounted apt for coun­sell, in respect the heate of youth was cooled, and the minde attained to perfection: for as the perfection of bodie commeth by age, so is the minde thereby made ripe in wisedome and experience. Yet denie I not that many men are olde at thirtie yeares, that is to say, they be then both prudent and wise, for they desiring to be olde long, begin soone to be graue. We read that in Rome diuers were made Senators before the thirtie yeare of their life, which we also allow: For men may be re­puted [Page 145] olde, aswell in respect of vertue, as age. Yet care must be taken, The common weale chieflie to be gouer­ned by olde men.That the state be chiefly gouerned by olde men, for Plutarch saith, that commonweale proueth happie, wherein is plentie of yong mens Lances, and olde mens Counsels. The saying of Euripides is also notable.

Dictum est vetustum, facta iuuenum, ceterum
magis valent consilia senum.

In Athens no man was created a Counsellor before fiftie yeares of age, and in Rome it was lawfull for any man of sixtie yeares to come in­to the Senate, although he had neuer beene elected a Senator, and after that yeare he had liberty to come or not at his pleasure. In that point therefore the custome of each commonweale must be obserued, and euery Counsellor (though he were in age euen with Nestor) ought to endeuour himselfe at all times and in all places to employ his power for the Commonweale. Plato saith; that men should learne, till they be so aged, as one foote is entred the graue: but why doth it not become them aswell to counsell and serue their countrey? Notwith­standing we forbid men much aged, decrepit, and decayed as well in The qualitie of decrepit age.minde as body, to giue counsell. Because their counsels be common­ly doubtfull, and their iudgements are rather coniectures then affirma­tions, alwaies vsing these wordes, perchance and perhaps. The cause thereof is, that they haue proued sundrie perrils, and are affraid to Goods of For­tune requisite for a Counsel­lor.feele them againe. Now for so much as the felicitie of man without externall goods cannot be absolute: therefore they are for a Senator of much necessitie, aswell to ornefie his estate and dignitie, as the more commodiously to performe the actions of vertue. Vpon this pointe, the philosophers doe grealty contend: for some of them doe exclude the goods of Fortune: and others affirme the possession of Fortunes giftes to be of necessitie in mans felicitie. Both which opinions are true, if we consider the condition and ende of each mans life. For they that affect priuate felicitie, haue none or very little need of Fortune: but others that doe exercise vertue publiquely, liuing in the societie of men and gouerne the commonweale, cannot without the goods of Fortune performe any great, notable, or liberall action. Therefore riches, lands, and possessions are of necessitie for a ciuill man & magistrate: aswell to exercise the offices of vertue, as to relieue the people, and repulse iniu­ries: [Page 146] so as it is apparant, that without externall goods euery state is▪ miserable and vnhappie. Me thinks therfore, the philosophers had done more wisely, if they had disputed of the vse of riches, and not of riches it selfe, deuiding felicitie according to the condition of persons. For it is not felicitie, but the life of man, which needeth things requirable to the sustentation of life. Whereof the condition being diuerse, it behoueth each man aboue all things, to know the state of his life & felicitie, posses­sing so much substance as is thought necessarie to liue well and happely. For which respect, the felicitie of Diogenes was farre other, then the fe­licitie The felicitie of Alexand. and Diogenes diuers.of great Alexander: the one was poore, the other rich: the whole world could not suffice the one, the other was contented with a silly cab­bin. Their orders of life were diuerse, so was also their felicitie: yet were they both philosophers, but the one delighted in priuate felicitie, and the other affected publique happines: this ought be commended, the other not dispraised. That course of life is to be followed imbraced and retained, whereunto God, nature, election or will hath called vs: and the same should be ornified, as vertue, reason, God, and nature it selfe requireth. Which is the cause, that some had rather be poore then rich, learned them wealthie, priuate then publique, soldiers then priests: for for each man esteemeth the life he best liketh. But for so much as the life and felicitie of a Counsellor is laid open to the face and sight of the commonweale: it behoueth him in any wise to be furnished with the goods of Fortune, as, good parentage, honour, glorie, fame, friends kinsfolke, children, riches, and money. I wish the parentage of Good paren­tage requi­red in a Counsellor.a Counsellor should be good, for that many times of honest parents good children be gotten. Let him therfore be borne a gentleman, and discended from a stocke or house of nobilitie or gentrie: for that ho­nour left from his ancestors, was giuen by the commonweale, to the ende that at occasions he should with the more fidelitie fight for his countrey. There was a lawe in Rome, whereby Senators were forbidden to marry women that had beene slaues. Neither was it lawfull for any gentlewoman to take a husband of base parentage, or that was discen­ded New nobility.from such parents as exercised any mistery or gainfull traffique. Yet do I not dislike of those that take the badges of honor from thēselues, and make the foundation of their nobilitie vpon their owne vertue. For vertue entreateth both new and ancient men after one fashion, for she refuseth none that resorteth vnto her for honour. It is reported that [Page 147] Cato being in contention with Scipio Affricanus, said merely, that Rome would become glorious, if great noble men, did not yeeld the chiefe part of vertue vnto their inferiours: and contrariwise, if the multitude (whereof he was one) did contend in vertue with those that were no­ble in parentage. Moreouer touching the beginning and originall gen­trie is to be considered, who is in deed aspired to honour by the right degrees of vertue, for the new gentleman ought not be accounted in­feriour to the olde, if he be aduanced for no light or fained vertue, but How new no­bilitie is Cō ­mendable.is made noble in reward of his great, laboursome, and honest industrie. In consideration whereof, the vertue militarie and the vertue of wisdom & doūsell, be preferred before all contēplatiue vertues, wealth & riches. In euery commonweale two rewards are prepared for vertue: the one Honour and glorie re­wards of ver­tue.is honour, the other glorie: which who so hath, cannot be called infor­tunate. Honour consisteth partly in hauing authoritie and office, and partly in the reputation which is giuen by great and notable men for the excellent vertue they thinke to be in him who is honoured. Tullius saith, that is true honour, which is giuen to noble men, not in hope to haue benefit from them, but for their excellent deserts. Who so there­fore desireth honour, must not onely attaine therunto by shew­ing olde painted armes or images engraued in brasse, but by his owne vertue; whereunto the true and euerlasting rewardes are belonging. Cato seeing Rome filled with the portratures of noble men, refused to haue any made of him, saying, he had rather men should aske why he had none, then why he stood there. For the honour due to vertue, ought be perpetuall and euerlasting: not fading or subiect to ruine. Of three hundreth portractures set vp for king Demetrius, not one was by time decayed, nor by negligence defaced; but in his owne life they Glorie.were all turned vpside downe. Yet a counsellor ought to desire glory, as the most notable reward of vertue. And he is in glory most excel­lent, that passeth all others in vertue. Thesius asked of the Gods three things, that is, good fortune, want of inward sorrow, and such glory as was neither false, counterfeite, nor fained. Who so seeketh glorie for vertue, and noble acts, doth not commit any thing dishonourable, eyther towards himselfe or others: because he measureth his fame and dignitie by vertue and iudgement. It is the propertie of men well borne Fame.and liberally brought vp, to desire the good report of his countrey, strangers, friends, and leaue good fame to his posteritie by consent of [Page 148] all honest people. All men therefore (but chiefly Counsellors) must take heede, least they make any euill impression to deface their good name or fame, for seldome eyther in time present, or age to come, by vertue of posteritie it can be cancelled. For time speaketh, and fame is neuer silent, also libertie of tongue remaineth to thinke and pronounce the sayings and actions of other men. Moreouer we one­ly doe not reape the fruite of good fame, but our neighbours, friends, and children are thereof partakers: in so much as all people and their posteritie doe commend vs, admyring our liues, and extolling the time wherein we liued, the commonweale where we gouerned, and the lawes by vs ordained. In our owne life time it behooueth vs to doe the like, least vertue, faith and religion doe seeme in vs altered and extinguished, or that our posteritie should imagine that we did degenerate from the vertue of our ancestors, or willingly reiected their precepts. Fame is the ground of perpetuall commendation: therefore let each man es­chewe vice with the danger of disestimation: for the losse of Fame and fidelitie, are greater disaduentures then can be imagined. It was proui­ded by lawe, that no wan of corrupt fame should be chosen a Senator The losse of Fame of all others grea­test.of Rome. And he was holden of corrupt fame, that had beene con­demned for a diser, a deceiuer of others, a theese, an vniust man, a false performer of testaments, a lyar, an hereticke, a banished man, or knowne guiltie of any other enormitie whereby good fame was blea­mished. In Athens there was an order, that the life of euery Senator before his creation should be examined. Also Solon prouided by lawe, that no man misliked of honest men, or noted of dishonestie, should be admitted a Senator. Which kinde of men we also disalowe, iudging them not onely vnfit for the place of Counsellors, but also vnworthie the name of men. Therefore the whole life of our Counsellor must be referred to vertue and honestie: for of them all true glorie, fame, praise renowne and dignitie groweth.

Friendes. Moreouer the vse of friends and neighbous, doth greatly beauti­fie the honour of Counsellors: sith they doe not onely make mans life happie, but also comfortable. For it is a singuler pleasure to cōmuni­cate our affaires with friends, vsing their fidelitie, and both in priuate, & publique buisines, to be helped with their aide and assistance. Alexander being asked where he would haue his treasure preserued: answered, amōg his friends, because he thought, good will to be the owner both of his, [Page 149] and other mens riches. Also to such a Counsellor as is desirous of Children.posteritie, a number of good and honest children are an inlargement of felicitie. For men haue no treceiued from God any benefite so great, as is ofspring and discent of children, whereby we enioy immortall and eternall increase of life. Bercilidas a chieftaine or gouernour in Sparta, sitting at meate, did forbid that the yonger sort should doe him reuerence: reprouing himselfe of barrennesse, because he had not begotten any children to doe them the like honour when they were olde. In Rome the custome was, that they who had furnished the commonweale with children should be after exempted from the payment of taxes, and in token thereof, those men were called Proletarij. But let vs now speake of riches, the possession wherof is for a Counsellor of singuler necessitie: for money is not onely needed in Riches.priuate, but also in publique affaires, and without it he cannot per­forme any notable or vertuous action. Maiestie without force is slenderly assured, and wisedom without authoritie, must yeeld to folly. The opinion of Plato is, that the gouernours of Cities, should be ney­ther ouer rich, nor ouer poore: for the one doth make them coward­ly, slouthfull, subiect to pleasures, and desirous of nouelties the other maketh them silly, weake, and rusticall. Therefore the wealth fit for a Counsellor, should be sufficient for his degree, and gotten without reproch. Aristotle produceth two meanes of gaining riches: where­of the one is according to nature, and honestie, the other against na­ture, and dishonest. The naturall meanes of getting, is by agriculture hunting, fishing, fowling, and such like, which containe not in them any deceiptfull permutation. Agriculture (as Cicero affirmeth) is of all other things the best, the most profitable, most pleasing, and most worthie a free man. Cato being asked by what meanes a man might soone become rich, answered, by feeding of cattell: and being asked the second time, said: by well and fat feeding. Whereby he seemed to thinke, that riches gotten by tillage, and nourishing beastes, was of all other the most honest. When the Ro­maines would commend any man, they vsed to call him a good man, and a good husband, in so much as the Senators themselues liued in the countrey, and at occasions, were by pursuiuants called to the Citie. Lu­tius Quintius Cincinnatus & diuerse other notable men were called from the countrey, to be made Dictators. But it is to be thought, that their [Page 150] dwelling the villages was rather for solace, and recreation, then for a­any necessitie wherein they liued. Gaines against nature, are all kind of craftes for lucre, merchandise, and vsurie: because men doe ther­by seeke dishonest profit, and be therein onely occupied. Cato be­ing asked what he thought of vsurie, answered. What is it to kill a man? A Senator therefore must in no wise meddle with any dishonest gaine, he must also auoide all base and fowle trauelingetting his riches: for by such exercises the honour of a Counsellor is defiled. It was ther­fore prouided in Rome, that no Senator should be owner of any ship containing 300. Amphore, because immoderate gaines was not in the noble men allowed. Also it must needs be, that those that binde themselues prentice to bace and soule gaines, will not thinke vpon ho­nest matters and be carefull of the commonweale: therefore such Se­nators were deposed from the Romaine Senate. All honest riches do seeme to consist in money, lande, houses, houshold stuffe, sheepe, slaues, and such like things which are imployed in honest and liberall Valewation of wealth.labours. There was a custome in many commonweales (and chieflie populer states) to create the Senators according to their wealth, and for that purpose a valewation was made of each mans substance. Solon deuided his valewation or cesments into foure. The first was of [...]00. Medimn [...], the second of 300: the third of 200. and in the fourth were the poore men artificers, and mercinarie people. Those that were rated at the second valewation, were called Equites. They that were rated in the third valewation, were termed Zeugitae, as men that deserued one horse, and in the first valewation, all Senators, Magistrates, and great no­ble men were included. Among the Lacedemonians, no man was ad­mitted a magistrate, that had not of wealth sufficient to contribute to the publique feast called Phidicia. Plato likewise deuided his commonweale into foure valewations, so as the whole number of Citizens were included in the first, second, third, and fourth valew­ation. In like manner the Romaine state had a certaine diuerse va­lewation, for in the one the Senators and in the other the Citi­zens Valewation necessarie.were valewed. It seemeth therefore necessarie in all common­weales, (for thereby order of state is obserued) that customes and taxations be continued, the famelies numbred, the peoples manners reformed, all excesse extyrped, and men made diligent in defending their countrey. The Censors or valewers of Rome, were the tutors [Page 151] for good manners, and conseruers of ciuill and honest discipline, as were the Nomophilaces among the Graecians. Notwithstanding, it see­meth not good to me (be it spoken without offence) the Counsellors Riches with­out vertue nor worthy honorshould be chosen onely in respect of their riches. For to giue the gouernment into the handes of the most wealthie sort, doth seeme as though the charge of a ship, were deliuered, not to the best saylor, but the richest passenger: whereof perils and shipwracke will ensue: Plinius finding fault with the Romaine magistrates, their er­rours and euill manners, doth attribute the cause of all their iniqui­tie, to the respect they bare towards the wealth of men: saying thus: after Senators were created for their riches, Iudges promoted for sub­stance, magistrates aduanced for money: and chieftaines elected be­cause they were rich, the price of mans life was troden vnder foote. True it is, that riches without vertue it little worth, but being ioyned to vertue, doth increase a happie life. Therefore Counsellors ought be both rich and vertuous: and if any tich and good man being of suffici­encie to gouerne in the commonweale do refuse the dignitie of a Coun­sellor, he ought by the law of Sensures to be therunto cōpelled, for it is a shamefull thing not to serue that state which begot him, & that coūtrey which gaue him life, honour substance, & education. But here heed must be taken, that witlesse rich men, fit for nothing, should not in any sort be made magistrates: for honour giuen to such persons, doth transforme them frō fooles to mad men. It is very reasonable that rich men of good desert should haue some preferment in the state, because they haue most substance, chiefly, if they be iust, prudent and learned. Otherwise, to aduance men for riches only is against Iustice: for they are apt to iniu­rie the poore, and proane to sedition and innouation. We are now to Reward due to Counsel­lors.declare what rewards are due to Counsellors, what fruit belongeth to their labour, and what recompence the commonweale ought giue to their excellent wisedome and worthines. For we are all allured and drawen by hope of reward to exercise the actions of vertue. The opi­nion of Solon was, that commonweales were preserued by two things▪ that is to say, by reward and punishment: which not being bestowed according to the vertue and vices of men, the state might be accoun­ted vnhappy and miserable. It is therefore fit that Counsellors should Rewards of vertue diuers▪receiue rewards, not only of vertue, but also of honour, & authority. The reward bestowed by cōmonweales (as Cicero thinketh) do consist, either [Page 152] in fauours, in profit, or in honour. These are therefore to be looked for, eyther at the hande of the commonweale, or of God. But the most noble reward is glory, for vertue desireth none other recompence of her labour, but the glory and praise thereunto due. All honest tra­uell of Senators ought be rewarded with honour glory, and renowne. There is no pleasure among men (as Xenophon saith) which approch­eth so neare the nature of God, as to enioy honour and glorie. The graces which God hath bestowed on men are so great, as neyther in word or thought can be expressed; Yet doe we giue vnto him, ho­nour, praise, and glory, as that which is thought greatest, and most no­table. As therefore in all other things, so therein let the Counsellor imitate God, esteeming that reward for his vertue, dignitie, and la­bour, to be greatest, which consisteth in commendation, glorie, and exaltation of his name. And euerie good man setteth his chiefe glorie VVherein the glorie of a Counsellor consisteth.in vertue; As the soldier in fight, and the captaine in victorie: So the whole glorie and honour of a Counselor is discerned by preseruing the people, wel gouerning the state, and doing things worthy commen­dation. He must also account the office of a Senator to be the grea­test reward of his vertue: For as dignitie in a person vnworthie is in­dignitie, so the same in a man worthie is a signe of greatest ho­nour and glorie. For indeed to greate men greate honours are due. Our Senator therefore shalt repute himselfe to be best honoured and rewarded for his vertue: When he is applauded of the people, of all men highly esteemed and by publique consent pro­nounced to be a father, preseruour, and defendour of his countrie. The badges due to such honour are not vaine or mortall, but immortall and eternall: for they remaine for euer impressed in the Poeples mind, extant in the memory of posteritie, and in mouthes and the eares of the whole commonweale. Of that praise and honour, our children, our neigh­bours, and friends doe participate: supposing it their duetie to imi­tate such actions, to be equall vnto such ancestors, and (if it be pos­ble) surpasse them in glory: so as, all good men by this desire of praise and glorie, doe deserue well of their commonweale, and countrey. The houses of Senators must be as it were nurseries of vertue, where Counsellors ought be ho­noured.the commonweale may (as a field replenished with vertue,) reape good fruit. The Senators ought therefore to be highly honoured and reuerenced of other subiectes, not onely in respect of their [Page 153] age (which is due to all aged men) but for their authoritie, dignitie, wisedome, fidelitie and diligence in gouerning the commonweale. Who so therefore shall dishonestly or irreuerentely abuse them, is Iniurie of [...] counsellors to be punished.with great seueritie to be punished. In Rome, the respect and reuerence to magistrates was so great, that to offer them iniurie, was accounted a crime capitall. For by lawe, it was enacted, that his head that did iniurie to a Tribune, an Edile, a Iudge, or a Decemuirat should be sacrificed to Iupiter, his familie to Ceres, and his children sold. Seruiliu [...] Isaur [...]cus after he had beene Consull chanced to walke in the streat, & in a straight place was mett by a horseman, who did not alight to doe him reuerence▪ for which act the said horseman was bound to appeare before the Iudges, who with great indignation did condemne him. Be­cause they thought, that he who did not honour vnto authoritie and the magistrates, was readie to aduenture euery mischiefe. By the law (called Lex honoria) it was prouided that no man should doe iniurie to any Senator, for he that so did, should be reputed a traitor, & offendor: Ornaments and rewards of the Sena­tors of Rome.not onely against the gouernours, but also the Senators, being reputed as members of the lawe. Therefore it was not lawfull to offer them a­ny indignitie, by deed, word, or writing. The ornaments or rewards of honour due vnto the Senators of Rome, were (as Cicero writeth) the place, authoritie, domesticall splendor, fame, and fauour in forraine coun­tries, robes of honour, sadels of state, armes, bondels of rods, com­mandements in the armies, in warre, and prouinces. I omit to speake of images made of stone and brasse, chariots, and diuerse other things to long to be recited: which are at large described in a booke intituled desenatu Romane lately written by Ioannes Samoseius, a man not onely skilfull in the Romaine antiquities, but also in euery other more commen­dable learning. Counsellors are therefore to be honoured in the com­monweale, not onely by hauing precedence of place, going and sit­ting, How much the Emperours esteemed their Senatorsbut with all other markes and badges of praise and reuerence. So oft as Augustus Caesar came into the Senate, he vsed to salute euery Se­nator by name: also going from thence he left them sitting in their place, and so without more ceremony said farewell. Adrianus the Emperour, seeing a man of his (whom he greatly fauoured) to walk cheek by cheek Adrianus.in the middest of two Senators; commaunded an other of his seruantes to strike him on the face, because he vsed not the reuerence due vnto Senators. In Athens a crowne was the rewarde due [Page] [...]

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