THE ROYAL EXCHANGE.

Contayning sundry Aphorismes of Phylosophie, and golden principles of Morrall and naturall Quadru­plicities.

Vnder pleasant and effectuall sentences, dys­couering such strange definitions, deuisions, and distinctions of vertue and vice, as may please the grauest Cittizens, or youngest Courtiers.

Fyrst written in Italian, and dedicated to the Signo­rie of Venice, nowe translated into English, and offered to the Cittie of London.

Rob. Greene, in Artibus Magister.

AT LONDON, Printed by I. Charlewood for William VVright. Anno. Dom. 1590.

To the right honourable Sir Iohn Hart, Knight, Lorde Mayor of the Cittie of London: and to the right worshipfull Ma. Richard Gurney, and Ma. Stephen Soame, Sheriffes of the same Cittie. Robert Greene wysheth increase of ho­nour and worshippe.

WHen the golden Tripos, (right Honourable, and no lesse Worshipfull) whereon was written Detur sapients, was found in the Promontories of Grecia, they presented it to Socrates: and such Anti­quaries as could from the Gymnosophists, draw any speci­all principle of gouernment, brought all their opinions in­to the Librarie of Themistocles. The Graecians dooing the one because Socrates was a wise man, the Antiquaries the other, for that Themistocles was a great polytitian. Apollo is worthy of his Laurell, Mercurie of his Caduceus, Iupi­ter of his Scepter: Caesar must haue his due, Kinges theyr fealtie, and Magistrates their honours, euen with reue­rence. Hauing (right Honorable and Worshipful) read ouer an Italian Pamphlet, dedicated to the Signorie of Venice, called La Burza Reale, full of many strange & ef­fectuall Aphorismes, ending in short contriued Quadru­plicities, translating it in [...]o our vulgare English tongue, & keeping the tytle, which signifieth the Royall Exchange, I presumed, as the Italian made offer of his worke to the Venetian state, so to present the imitation of his labours to [Page] the pyllers of thys honourable Cittie of London, which to counteruaile theyr Burza Reale, haue a Royall Exchange: flourishing with as honorable Merchaunts, as theirs with valorosissim [...] Mercadori. But to leaue off comparisons, be­cause such insertions are odious, yet this boldly wee may boast out of the Antiquaries, that our Cittie of London, that famous Troyno [...]ant, plotted and erected by Brute [...] and after famozed by king Lud, and his successors, is more an­cient farre then their Cittie of Venice. For theyr Magi­strates, although theyr cheefe Gouernour be a Duke, yet his estimation is so circumscript within the counterchecks of the Consiliaedori, that his Dukedome is a bondage, his au­thoritie small, and his commaund little, and Ex Cont [...]mp­tu s [...]mper manca [...]st iustitia, in so much that the verie poore C [...]ttizens will in derision, call him Aurco s [...]ruidore: where­as the Lord Mayor of London, entituled with honour and knight-hoode, purchased by his Predicessours valour, vn­der whom the Sheriffes are next in authoritie, hath by a speciall Charter and priuiledge, graunted him from the Crowne, the Lie [...]tenantshyp, and absolute gouernaunce and reg [...]ment of the Cittie, in such ample manner, as hys commaund stretcheth to the setting vp and aduauncing of ve [...]tue, and to the suppressing and abolishing of vice and vanities. Prouided that the honourable C [...]ttizens alwaies carefull for the Common-wealth, elect such a graue, an auncient Magistrate, as for his vertue, religion, wealth & worthinesse, may rightly be called Pater Patria. For our Merchaunts and other Cittizens, though they generalli [...] attaine not to that excesse of riches that the Venetians do, yet for the enlargement of the liberties of their Citie, they stand so much vppon their credits, as they grudge not to disburse any sum, eyther necessarie to their priuate Polu­t [...]ia, or helpfull to the common profit of theyr Countrey. For religion they haue the Gospel, for iustice a seuere law executed with clemencie, beeing Merchaunts wyth theyr [Page] freendes and traffique fellowes, otherwise martiall minded souldiours, to resist the violence eyther of any priuate mu­tinie, or any common enemie, as valiant to attempt in wars as to counsaile in peace. And although Venice be a Cittie seated in the Ocean, and enuironed round about with the Sea, standing much vpon their Armado and Nauall fight, yet our Cittizens of London, (her Maiesties royall fleete excepted) haue so many shyppes harboured within the Thames, as wyll not onelie match with all the Argoses, Galleyes, Galeons, and Pataches in Venice, but to encoū ­ter by sea with the strongest Cittie in the whole worlde: Considering therefore, (right honourable and worshipful) the excellencie of thys Cittie, the honour of the Magi­strates, the worshyp of the Merchaunts, and the generall worthines of all in one simpathie. I thought good, as the Italian presented his Bursa Reale to the Venetians, so to presume the patronage of this Royall Exchange vnto your Honour, being worthily aduaunced to the regiment of the Cittie, and to the right worshipfull Sheriffes, for their ver­tues called to their speciall offices: hoping your Lordship and theyr worships, will vouchsafe to patronise the labours of so meane a Scholler, if not for the worthines of the mat­ter, yet for the name and tytle of the Pamphlet: frō which Royall Exchange, if any Cittizen or other gather any prin­ciple of worth, or haue in-sight for the following of vertue or auoyding of vice, their profits shall be noted to proceed from your honourable and worshipfull dispositions, vnder whose patronage this booke is shrowded. And thus re­sting vpon your gracious and fauourable acceptaunce, I commit your Lordship and theyr worships to the tuition of the Almightie.

Bounden to the honorable and worshipful of the Cittie, Rob. Greene.

To the right honourable Cit­tizens of the Cittie of London.

WHen I enter into the considera­tiō how honorable the estate of thys your Cittie is, famozed with great & auncient buildings, excelling for lawes executed with iustice, renowned for worthy Magistrates, & peopled with warlike M [...]r­chaunts, and politick Cittizens, I cannot but com­pare it to the imagined Common-wealth of Plato, and say, O fortunate Cittie for so famous Cittizens. Seeing therefore the parts and members of your Po­luteia are Homogenei, concordant and consonant in one vnitie, to erect vertue and abolish vanities, ha­uing translated a booke called the Royall Exchange into English, I thought good, as it was patronaged vnder the L. Mayor and Sheriffes, so to shrowde it likewise vnder the fauours of such honourable Cit­tizens, considering your Exchange in London, eue­rie way duelie weyed, excelleth all the Burse reales in the world: for as you finde in theirs welthy Bur­gamaisters, and Grandi Mercadori, so in ours you finde, men that esteeme more of honour then of wealth, and such as for the defence of theyr Cittie hyre not stragling Mercinaries to withstande theyr enemies, but they themselues well appointed, et ar­mis et side, march like approoued Caualiers, to a­byde the brunt of any iniurious mutinie. But nowe honourable Cittizens, looke not into my Exchange for any wealthy traffique of curious merchandize, eyther silke to make men effeminate, or costly abili­ments [Page] to make women proude, heere be no fans to shadowe the face, nor no Alexandrine paintings to make honest wiues seeme like curtizans, no com­modities to wrape Gentlemen in statutes or recog­nisaunces: onely thys Exchange is royall, and the Phylosophers sette abroche theyr principles: heere you may buy obedience to God, performed in the carefull mayntenaunce of his true religion, here you shal see curiously sette out reuerence to Magistrates, fayth to freendes, loue to our neyghbours, and cha­ritie to the poore: who couets to know the duety of a Christian, the offyce of a Ruler, the calling of a Cittizen: to be breefe, the effects Tullie pende down in his Officies, eyther for the embracing of vertue, or shunning of vice, let hym repayre to this Royall Ex­change, and there he shall find himselfe generally fur­nished: hoping therefore, if it be but for the name sake, you will with a curteous acceptance, thinke well of my labours, and view ouer the work, I com­mit you to the Almightie.

Rob. Greene.

CORNVCOPIA: OR The Royall Exchange.

Arte. Arte.

Foure thinges are made good by art [...].

  • 1. A wise wife.
  • 2. An eloquent tongue.
  • 3. A ripe wit.
  • 4. And fauor in worldly affaires.

Cicero in his workes De Oratore, calleth arte the po­lisher of nature, saying: that what nature (as presuming too much in her cunning by obliuion,) hath left imperf [...]ct: arte by the m [...]anes of industrie, reduceth to a sp [...]cial sin­gulariti [...], so that alluding to the opinion of Plato, he thin­keth nature neu [...]r in her [...]xcellencie, till she be beautified by arte.

Animale. Creatures.

Foure creatures liue seuerally and solie in the foure Elements.

  • 1. The Herring in the water.
  • 2. The Salamander in the fire.
  • 3. The Moule in the earth.
  • 4. And the Camelcon in the ayre.

Plinie in his naturall Histories, assignes these foure creatures to the foure El [...]ments, proouing that nature hath so particulerlie tied them to these seuerall limits, as otherwise they cannot liue: for proofe, hee saith that the Herring séeing the North star, leapeth at it, but by thru­sting her head out of the water, ly [...]th a long while after [Page] dazeled. The Salamander (saith Aristotle) in his bookes De natura Animalium, is of a cold c [...]nstitution, and there­fore harboureth neere to the Mount Etna, where amidst the continuall flames he batheth himselfe in the fire: whereof comes the foolish comparisons of our Poets, that séeing Louers scorch [...]d with affection, like [...]eth th [...]m to Salamanders. The Cameleon féeding onely with the ayre, hath this propertie, that hee can change his colour, and turne himselfe into the likenesse of euery obiect, wher­vpon flatterers that by their ad [...]lation feède euery mans humour, are compared to Cameleons.

Foure creatures aboue others are most fruitefull.

  • 1. Sheepe.
  • 2. Oxen.
  • 3. Hennes.
  • 4. Bees.

These cr [...]atures saith Auicen in his Aphorismes, are as they are most familiar to men, so most fr [...]endly to men, yeelding for euery benefite a requitall, and paying them due with thankfulnesse: for béeing nourished by the hand of man, they yeeld the fruites of their bodi [...]s, their liues or labours for paiment, appeaching vs thereby of ingra­titude, that shew not the like gratefull mindes to our be­nefactors.

Abondanza. Aboundance.

The aboundance of foure thinges are hurtfull.

  • 1. Of women.
  • 2. Of meates.
  • 3. Of gaming.
  • 4. Of words.

The Philosophers whose sayings haue béene holden as Oracles, haue sette downe this for a principall, that howe perfect a woman be eyther in vertue, beauti [...], or wealth, yet they are to men necessarie euils: so that Ty­mon of Athens who was called Mysanthropos, seeing a [Page] trée whereon diuers women had hanged th [...]mselues, wi­shed that euery trée might yeelde such fruite. More sayth the wise man, hath died by gluttonie then by the sworde. E [...]cesse of meates is preiudiciall both to soule and bodie, inferring (saith Socrates) both sinne and pouertie. Too much gaming in olde time was so odious, that Chilon the Lacedaemonian béeing sent Embassadour to Corinth and finding the noble men playing at dice, hee returned with­out vnfolding the cause of his comming: not so much as naming the league that hee shoulde haue intreated o [...] be­twixt them, saying: that he woulde not eclipse the glorie of the Spartanes with so great an ignominie, as to ioyne thē in societie with dice-players. Antisthenes was wont to say, that in many words, did eyther lye hid much fraud or follie: wishing his disciples to take heede to their talk, for that words had wings, which once let slyp, could ne­uer be recalled.

Affetto. Affect.

In foure things princi­pally men doe affect.

  • 1. The gayne of money.
  • 2. In clyming vnto dignitie.
  • 3. In gouerning a familie.
  • 4. In dooing euill.

These foure bréede a restlesse desire, and affectionate passion in the minde of man, being couetous to get coyne, ambicious to seeke after preferment, imperious in rule, and insatiate in dooing euill.

Foure affects are insatiable in man.

  • 1. The will to profit.
  • 2. The desire of knowledge.
  • 3. The sight of the eye.
  • 4. And to heare.

Tullie in his Orator, calleth Laelyus helluo Librorum, a deuourer of Bookes, as one neuer satiate with reading ouer many and sundry Authours. Plato spent the greatest [Page] part of his life in trauell, onely for the desire of learning. And the Bragmaes and Gymnosophists, counted not those bearers amongst their liues wherein they learned not somewhat. Zeno the Stoick, b [...]eing foure-score and four­teene yeeres olde, lying on his death-bedde, and hearing some in disputation, lifted himselfe vppe to heare, and bee­ing demaunded why he did so, aunswered, that when I haue learned this principle I may die.

Abuzo. Abuse.

Foure things are of great a­buse in thys worlde.

  • 1. A king vniust in his gouernment.
  • 2. A minde negligent of Religion.
  • 3. A wyse man without shewing the fruites of his wisedome.
  • 4. A rich man vncharitable, and not gi­uing any almes.

Plato in his Common-wealth, and Aristotle in hys Polliticks, sets downe, that the heauiest burd [...]n which a a Monarchie can beare, is to suff [...]r an vniust king. Tynion at hys death wishing y ouerthrow of the state of A [...]hens, prayed that the Cittie might be seditious, and gou [...]rn [...]d wyth vniust Rulers. If iustice (sayth Anaxagoras) be to giue euery man his due, what a Monst [...]r is iniustice, that defraudeth euery man of hys right.

There be foure sorts of p [...]ople of great a­abuse in the world.

  • [...]. A Christian giuen to factions and dissention.
  • 2. A poore man proude.
  • 3. An olde man withou [...] religion.
  • 4. A Woman that is not sh [...]me­fast.

It is one of the principall badges of the true Church sayth Chrisostome, to liue in vnitie, [...]or there is but o [...]e God, one fayth, and one baptisme: then sith concorde in the principles of Religion be precious, it follow [...]s, that scismes and controuersies are most pernitious. Wherunto [Page] a Poet merilie alludeth this distichon.

Cur nunc tot sidibus luditur vna fides.

There is foure great abuses in thys world.

  • [...]. A noble man without vertu [...].
  • 2. A people without discipline.
  • 3. A Common-wealth without Law.
  • 4. A young man without obedience.

Lycurgus was wont to say, that the Lawes were the sinewes of a kingdom, which as they did waxe weak, so the Common-wealth dyd decay: and béeing kept in force, did remaine in their pristinate strength & vigour, whereupon, when he had giuen Lawes to the Spartans, he swore them to kéepe his statutes inuiolate till his returne from Delphos, whether he banished himselfe: and after his death, caused his bones to be burned, and the ashes to be throwne into the Sea, that they might for euer be tyed to the obseruing of his Lawes.

Allegrezza. Myrth.

There are foure things that bréed suddaine ioy.

  • 1. To be freed out of prison.
  • 2. To be married.
  • 3. To become a Souldier.
  • 4. To be promo [...]d to dignitie.

The sw [...]etest thing that can happen vnto man saith Crates, is hope in aduersitie to come vnto prosperitie, and eclipsed w [...]t [...] d [...]rkn [...]s to see the light [...]f [...]he [...]nn [...]: for mi­serie is not so [...]itter as felicitie is pleasant, so that well sayth Virgill in the person of Aeneas:

Olim hec maem [...]iss [...] Iuuabit.

Afflictione. Affliction.

For foure causes a man doth will [...]ngly suffer affliction.

  • 1. To g [...]tte honour.
  • 2. To auoide p [...]rtie.
  • 3. In es [...]hew disgrace.
  • 4. To in [...]i [...] his children

[Page]It hath beene an olde Prouerbe, that happy is that sonne whose father goes to the deuill: meaning by thys allegoricall kind of speech, that such fathers as seeke to in­rich theyr sonnes by couetousnes, by briberie, purloyning, or by any other sinister meanes, suffer not onely affliction of mind, as greeued with insatietie of getting, but wyth danger of soule, as a iust roward for such wretchednesse.

Antonomazia. Agnomynation.

Foure sorts of men are knowne by excellency, or tytle of ag­nomination.

  • 1. Salomon when they name the wife.
  • 2. Aristotle when they name the Philosopher
  • 3. Uirgill when they name the Poet.
  • 4. Paule when they name the Apostle.
  • The first admonisheth with wysedome.
  • The second wyth Phi­losophie.
  • The thyrd wyth Poe­trie.
  • The fourth teacheth the true fayth.

These béeing [...]wo Iewes and two Gentiles, famous for Theologi [...] and Philosophie, sheweth to vs by what sundry gifts God doth glory in his creatures, for although Virgill and Aristotle were ignorant of the diuine essence, and knewe God but in shadowes, and as i [...] were in glasse, yet the secret skill they had in the depth of his works, did prooue a mani [...]est action against all Infidels and A [...]he [...]s [...]s that denie there is one almightie & euerlasting GOD, Creator of all things.

Auidita. Greedinesse.

Foure things greedie mindes cannot per­forme. To

  • 1. Abstaine frō things [...]orbidden.
  • 2. [...]nioy things graunted.
  • 3. Use pi [...]tie.
  • 4. Know a meane in getting.

The perfect description of a greedie or couetous mind, which like the Serpent Hydaspis is so insatiate, as the more he drinketh, the more hee is a thirst, and the more he desireth, the farther is he from the end of his couetous imaginations: yet hauing gotten in part what hee cra­ueth [Page] his estate is so miserable, as he gréeueth to vse that for the vse of himselfe, which with long care and trauell he hath gotten.

Amore. Loue.

There are foure degrées in Loue. To

  • 1. Talke.
  • 2. Be conuersant.
  • 3. Taste.
  • 4. Possesse.

In thys diuision is comprehended whatsoeuer is in loue, for the inward motion of the mind which wee com­monly call fancie, must be discouered by the tongue, which must be continued by conuersation, otherwise the parties shall not be priuie to the mutuall manners eyther of o­ther, which is the che [...]fest interest in affection: and theyr mindes once vnited, followeth the fruite of their desires, which is not mad [...] perfect till hee peaceably possesseth the good he presentlie enioyeth.

Auaritia. Couetousnesse.

Foure things doe spring from couetousnesse.

  • 1. Rapyne.
  • 2. Periurie.
  • 3. Fraude.
  • 4. Murther.

By the braunches is easily discouered what the Tree is, & by such effects is manifested a most wretched cause, so that thys agréeth with the saying of Thales Mylesius, that Auaritia est radix omnium malorum.

Foure things make a man couetous.

  • 1. The feare of want.
  • 2. The oppression of seruitude.
  • 3. The enuie of o [...]hers.
  • 4. The abo [...]ndance of children.

It is remembred that Crassus the Romaine, whose reuenewes were so great, as beeing a priuate Ci [...]izen, he was able to maintaine tenne Legions of Souldiours for [Page] two yeeres with meate and money, yet was so couetous as his extortion had no ende: and beeing demaunded why he was so greedie to gaine: aunswered, for that he sawe the misery of such as did want.

Foure thinges doo asswage couetous desires.

  • 1. The aboundance of riches.
  • 2. Youth inriched with health.
  • 3. Conuersation with liberall men.
  • 4. And want of children.

As before he placed the number of children to be the cause of couetousnesse, so he adde [...]h the want of children to be the meanes to mittigate such inordinate desire: mea­ning heereby, that Nature carefull of her seede sowne by propagation, dryueth a care into the minds of Parents to heape vp wealth for their children: and yet Antisthenes at the day of his death, made this prou [...]so in his last will and Testament, that if his sonnes were wise and Philo­sophers, they should not enioy one penny of his goods, but if fooles, they should possesse all his treasures.

Allidini. Sloth.

Foure things pro­cure sloth.

  • 1. Obscure and darksome places.
  • 2. Solitarie quiet.
  • 3. Displeasant feare.
  • 4. And weake cogitations.

Pythagoras among his obscure Aenigmaes, hath thys: Take heede thou sitte not vpon a bushell: meaning that sloth and idlenesse were especially to be eschewed, as vi­ces most pernicious to a Common-wealth. For Plato re­hearsing certaine perticuler causes of sedition and ciuill mutinie, alleageth idlenesse not to be one of the least, al­luding to the saying of Seneca, that as labour and trauell appeaseth tumults, so sloth nourisheth vprores and facti­ons: to auoyde this vice, Hesiodus counsayle is, to shutte vp the day with sweat, to spende time rather in needelesse exercise then in idlenes.

Auocato. Aduocate.

Foure things ought euerie iust Aduocate to obserue.

  • 1. To heare the aduersary wt patience.
  • 2. To consider déeply of ye things heard.
  • 3. To prepare a right aunswere to the cause considered.
  • 4. To conclude by measuring the caus [...] after his owne case.

Aristides, the perfect iusticiarie of his time, was so impartiall in hearing his aduersaries plea, that when one came to the harre and tolde him what euill the Plaintife had spoken against him, hee made this aunswer, tell me not what iniuries hee hath doone to my selfe, but what wrong he hath doone to the defendant, for I stande heere to minister iustice, not to reuenge.

Auditore. A hearer.

Foure things are necessary for eue­rie one that hea­reth any thing to take heede of.

  • 1. To heare him with silent patience that speaketh.
  • 2. To consider well of the thinges heard.
  • 3. To committe to memorie what is good.
  • 4. To put to obliuion what is euill.

Heere is the counsaile of Plutarch verified, that wi­sheth euery man to haue two passages in at his eares, the one for good principles, which must be kept as Pearles, the other for such friuolous matters as béeing carelesly heard, ought to be soone forgotten.

Alfiero. A standard bearer.

These foure conditions ought to adorne & beau­tifie a standard-bearer or Auncient.

  • 1. Noblenesse of blood.
  • 2. Loue to his Countrey.
  • 3. Courage of minde.
  • 4. Policie in warre.

[Page] Themis [...]ocles the honour of his Countrey, and the fl [...]wer of Chiualrie in his time, who was both a valiant Souldiour and a wise Philosopher, would not suffer anie to beare the standarde or Ancient in hys time, that was not able to carrie ye Armes of his auncesters in his flag, and that had doone some exployte before in some battaile of vtteraunce.

Amicitia. Freendship.

Foure things doe procure amitie and freendshippe.

  • 1. A benefite.
  • 2. Familiaritie.
  • 3. Similitude of manners.
  • 4. Eloquence.

Amongst all other causes of perfect freendship, the likenesse of manners and similitude of life is the chéefest, so that when the parts of the minde be homogenes, of one vniforme and mutuall disposition, then commonlie the freendshippe is firme and endureth long: whereas dispa­ritie of manners, may for a time maske vnder the collour of amitie, but at last prooueth brittle: for it is a censure holden for an infallible principle. Dissimulum infida est a­micitia.

Foure sorts of men loose their freendes wrongfully & with­out cause.

  • 1. A rich man oppressed wt pouerty.
  • 2. A mighty man depriued of hys dignitie.
  • 3. A happy mā thwarted wt disgrace
  • 4. An old man ouer burdened wyth yeeres. And these also are despy­and forsaken of men.

Scipio the Affrican, after all his glorious victories, sequestrating himselfe to a graunge place, beeing deman­d [...]d why he woulde not liue any longer in the Common-wealth, aunswered, for that flying from the iniuries of Fortune, I meane still to keepe my freendes: thinking that if he had beene checkt by any dis-fauour of the Se­nate, [Page] he had presently made shipwracke of his olde com­panions. For Nullus ad amissas ibit amicus opes.

There are foure prin­cipall sorts of freen [...]s different in cōditions.

  • 1. Fortune freendes.
  • 2. Cable freendes.
  • 3. Faithful freendes.
  • 4. And seruile freends.
  • The first departe at the frowne of Fortune.
  • The seconde vanishe by fragilitie.
  • The third are perpetual.
  • The fourth continue so so long as they are boūd by seruitude.

Thys diuision sheweth the difference betweene true and fained fréendship, the one beeing momentarie depen­ding on the fauour of Fortune, the other perpetual, which stretcheth vsque ad Aras: such was the fréendship of Da­mon and Pythias, of Scipio and Laelius, of Tytus and Gy­sippus, of Pilades and Orestes, and diuers others, that no aduersitie coulde diss [...]uer: where as Parrasites, such as Terence and Plautus discouers in their Comedies, hange theyr freendshippe at the Tables ende, and theyr loyaltie at the Caters basket.

Foure sorts of men speedilie get friends.

  • 1. They which be liberall.
  • 2. They which be mightie.
  • 3. They which be pleasant.
  • 4. They which be well tongued and af­fable in speech.

Doost thou couet saith Diogenes the Cinick, to haue multitude of freendes: then eyther seeke for store of possessions, promotion, or els become a flatterer.

Beneficio. A benefite.

The be foure sorts of men that in de­spight of thēselues haue good turnes and benefits doone them.

  • 1. The debtor when he is fréed from his debt.
  • 2. The childe when he is beaten for hys faulte.
  • 3. He which is troubled with ye Ly­targie whē he is waked frō sléepe.
  • 4. And hee which in his lunacie is quieted with bondes.

[Page]Although as Epictetus saith, there is nothing swéeter then moderate correction, yet such is our nature drowned in selfe-loue, as offend we néeuer so déepelie, yet we scorne not onelie to be corrected, but to be reprehended: heerein resembling infants & sucklings, y feare the rod more then offence: but as they by such chastisement wexe m [...] wa­rie, so a good man by reprehension becōmeth more wi [...]e.

Foure things doo induce a man to bestow a benefit.

  • 1. Gaine.
  • 2. Feare.
  • 3. Hope.
  • 4. Loue.

In a gift (saith Aristotle in his Ethicks,) thou must obserue circumstaunces, namelie, 1. To whom thou dost giue. 2. Why thou doost giue. 3. Howe thou doost giue. 4. And when thou doost giue. Otherwise thou mayest erre in bestowing a benefit: for if thou giue for feare, as thinking so to please thine enemie: for gaine, as couetous of lu [...]re: for hope, either of the like, or of better, thy gyft is not worth the name of a benefit.

Beni inutili. Things good, yet vnprofitable.

Foure things are good, and yet doe little preuaile af­ter a déede doone.

  • 1. Wytte.
  • 2. Consideration after the déede.
  • 3. Meditation.
  • 4. And sorrowe.

Sero sapient Phriges, when Troy was sackt, the Citti­zens were wise: to shutte the stable doore when the steede is stolne, is to wishe for a showre of rayne when haruest i [...] past: also when a fault is committed, tis good to enter into the consideration of the follie, and to be sorrowfull for the misse, yet they little or nothing profit.

Brenita. Breuitie.

Foure [...]hings cannot be of any long conti­nuaunce.

  • 1. A contentious man.
  • 2. A foolish Tyraunt.
  • 3. An v [...]iust possessor.
  • 4. And a prodigall spender.

[Page] Aristotle in his Physicks sette [...]h downe this principle. Nullum violentum est lontinuum: and Socrates alledgeth this Axiome, euery excesse is both a vice and momentary. Where is diuision, there saith Zenocrates, is confusion. And Thales Mylesius counted it a wonder of the worlde to see an olde Tyrant.

Citta. A Cittie.

Foure Citties more thē any o-other are scitu­ated by the sea.

  • 1. Genoa.
  • 2. Venice.
  • 3. Cōstantinople
  • 4. Pysa.
  • The fyrst rich.
  • The 2. abounding.
  • The thirde full of merchandize.
  • The 4. famous for honorable Citizens.

Venice is seated in the Sea, sixe myles from anie [...]rme Land, walled with the Ocean, and enuironed with Rocks, a Dukedome both rich and mightie.

Foure Citties are grea­ter then the most.

  • 1. Paris in Fraunce.
  • 2. Mylane. In Italie.
  • 3. Florence. In Italie.
  • 4. Rome. In Italie.

Foure things doo speciallie make a Cit­tie famous.

  • 1. Antiquitie of building.
  • 2. Nobilitie of Cittizens.
  • 3. Uictories wonne in the field.
  • 4. And obseruing leagues and promises.

Lacedaemonia, Thebes and Athens, the three lights of Greece, w [...]re famous for these foure poynts, being foun­ded long before the rest, bringing foorth many worthie Philosophers & couragious Captaines, as Epapinondas, Themistocles, Alcibiades, and infinite others, which by their Prowesse wonne many great and notable battailes, béeing so strickt in their promises, that they chose rather to die, then to be false to their confederates.

[Page]Foure things doo de­fende a Cittie.

  • 1. Peace.
  • 2. Wisedome.
  • 3. Feare.
  • 4. And iustice.

Demosthenes béeing demaunded what preserued A­thens so long in a florishing estate, made this bréefe aun­swere, the Cittizens delight in peace and quiet, the Ora­tors are learned and wise, the Common people are feare­full to transgresse the Lawes, and the Magistrates delight to doo iustice.

Foure things doo make a Cittie desert.

  • 1. Intestine and ciuill warre.
  • 2. Restlesse enuie.
  • 3. Want of victualles.
  • 4. And iustice blinded.

Foure things doo driue a man out of a Cittie.

  • 1. The wickednes of a tyrant.
  • 2. Famine.
  • 3. Prodigalitie.
  • 4. And vntimelie gifts.

If wee read the Annuall recordes that Historiogra­phers haue sette downe, as true antiquaries of tyme, we shall finde, that nothing hath sooner ruinated and subuer­ted Citties, then cyuill warres and enuie: for ambition creeping into the mindes of men through an enuious hu­mour that feedeth their harts, stirreth [...]hem by aspyring thoughts to striue for a sole supremacie, so the better to reuenge: as fell out betweene Ptolomie and Caesar, Sylla and Marius, Anthonie and Augustus, which breeding ci­uill warres, did almost subuert the state of the Romanes.

Foure things doo make a Cittie habitable, and to be frequented wyth Straungers.

  • 1. The preseruation of iustice.
  • 2. The bountie of ye Cittizens.
  • 3. Speedie gayne and returne of commodities.
  • 4. And aboundance of victuals and necessaries.

[Page]The Author in all his censures, setteth still downe iustice as a cheefe pyller in a Common-wealth: arguing by this repetition, that nothing is of-greater force in a Cittie, then to giue euery man his due, which Tullie set­teth downe for the perfect definition of that vertue, which (saith he) containes in it all other vertues.

Casa. A house.

Foure [...]hings doo often make a mā to returne to his house.

  • 1. The loue towards hys Wife.
  • 2. The pleasantnesse of his house.
  • 3. The want of companions.
  • 4. And the aduersitie of tyme.

Scipio the Affrican, hauing suffered so long his affec­tions to be ledde a wrye, that hee fell into loue with hys Concubine, and so placing her in a Graunge place, absen­ted himselfe from his wife, yet at last by secrete sparks of good wil, which still remained in his hart, calling to mind his wiues vertuous disposition, returned home and for­sooke hys follies.

Foure things driues a man from hys house.

  • 1. Too much smoake.
  • 2. A dropping roofe.
  • 3. A fylthie ayre.
  • 4. And a brawling woman.

Heere pollitiquelie is vsed a figure called Clymax, or Gradatio, where ascending from th [...] lesse, hee endeth in the greater: for rehearsing diuers enormities that are a­ble to driue a man from his house, at last hee concludeth with a brawling woman as the worst & greatest euil of al.

Conoscere. Knowledge.

Foure things are impossible to be knowne or discerned.

  • 1. The flight of a bird through the ayre.
  • 2. The way of a shyp through the sea.
  • 3. The passage of a Serpent ouer a stone.
  • 4. And the way of a younge man in his youth.

[Page] Salomon in his Parables as hauing wisedome giuen him from aboue, noting that the wayes of a young m [...]n are slipperie, and so ouer shadowed with vanitie as they blinde the sence: alludeth the knowledge of his follies to an impossibilitie, proouing by this Aenigmaticall kind of phrase, that his thoughts and [...] are builded vppon inconstancie.

Foure things are ea­sie to be knowne.

  • 1. A valiant man in battaile.
  • 2. A good Mariner in a tempest.
  • 3. Good gold in the fornace.
  • 4. And a fréende in aduersitie.

Amicus certus (sayth the Poet) in re incerta cernitur, mishappe is the true [...]ouchstone of freendshyp, and aduer­sitie the tryall of freendes. Curtius had not beene known to be valiant, if he had not so worthilie withstoode the Ar­mie of Porsena: Arsidas had neuer béene praysed to Alex­ander, for a good Mariner, if hee had not béene a good Py­lot in necessi [...]ie: neyther had Damon béene counted so faythfull to Pythias, if hee had not remained a pledge for his freende with Dyonisius in Sycillia.

Carita. Charitie.

Foure things doo procéed from cha­ritie.

  • 1. Reuerence towards God.
  • 2. Loue towards our neighbour.
  • 3. Succour to the oppressed.
  • 4. And instruction to them that erre.

The fruites of charitie are the perfect fulfilling of the Lawe, for Saint Paule sayth, that if he had fayth, & solde all that he had to giue to the poore, and yet wanted loue and charitie, hee were like a tynckling cymball: and in these foure braunches of charitie, is made a perfect deui­sion of the Lawe, for he setteth down our duetie towards God, in giuing him due reuerence, and our duety towards our neighbour, in louing, helping, and instructing him.

Costanza. Constancie.

Foure things doo in­duce constancie.

  • 1. The f [...]are of shame.
  • 2. The feare of punishment.
  • 3. The fear [...] of fame.
  • 4. And the feare of fraude.

Attylius Regulus was so constant in his promises, that he rather chose death then any way to spotte his fame by feare eyther of punishment or miserie.

Consigliare. A Counsellor.

Foure things are necessarie for him yt gi­ueth coūsaile.

  • 1. To heare the reasons of both parties.
  • 2. To consider of that which he heareth with discretion.
  • 3. To demaund equal hier for his pains.
  • 4. To giue counsaile conformable to the Lawe.

To be partiall saith Seneca in giuing of counsayle, dif­fereth nothing in preportion from trecherie, for the one deceiueth vnder the pr [...]ten [...]e of ayde, and the other vnder the colour of fre [...]ndship.

Four counsailes are profitable to man.

  • 1. To stand [...] far from strife & brawles.
  • 2. To preuēt perils before they be past.
  • 3. To leaue pleasures that are moste desired.
  • 4. And to make no choyse of delicate vi­ands.

Est virtus placidis abstinuisse bonis: tis a great vertue saith the Poet, to abstaine from things that are pleasant, and therefore séeme good: for vertue euer goeth bare fa­ced, but vice to allure with the more pollicie, hideth her impoysoned hookes with a s [...]ge [...]ed bayte.

Cortigiano. A Courtier.

Foure things doo apper­taine to a Courtier.

  • 1. To heare with sapience.
  • 2. To answer with prudence.
  • 3. To be offensiue to no man.
  • 4. And to profit the Cittizen.

Baldessar in his Courtier hath the like principles. For Gorsaga setting downe certaine precepts, wisheth that he be euery waie wise, both in hearing and speaking, that hee listen not to friuolous prattle, nor at anie time vtter talke of no importaunce, that hee be courteous and willing to please all, and especially readie to please the Cittizen, for from him riseth either his praise or infamie.

Foure thing [...] pro­cure a man to be a Courtier.

  • 1. Aboundance of riches.
  • 2. Ambition and desire of honor.
  • 3. Integritie and quicknes of wit.
  • 4. And y hope of rewarde by seruice.

Capitano. A Captaine.

Foure things are profitable for a Captaine in the warres.

  • 1. Treasure to make iust pay to hys Souldiours.
  • 2. Store of meate and munition.
  • 3. Multitude of Souldiers.
  • 4. And wisedome to know the condi­tion of the enemie.

Wee reade in the Chronicles of the warres of the Turkes, that amongst all the orders in his Armie, the Turke dooth vse to giue great pay to his Ianisaries: by that meanes to make them both hardie and faithfull. For in his warres against Cassanus the Souldane, when hée had taken him, and found in his Treasure store of coyne, and yet sawe the minde of the man was such and so mise­rable, as he would not make francke pay to his Souldiers, he shutte him vppe in a Chamber with all his treasure, and so starued him to death.

[Page]Four things doo belong to a Captaine in the wars.

  • 1. Howe to set his souldiers in squadrons with greatest vantage against ye enemie.
  • 2. Howe to foresee the enemies intent.
  • 3. To encourage thē cheerefully to fight.
  • 4. And to leade his men brauelie to the battayle.

Phillip of Macaedon, beeing demaunded why he was longer in subduing Thebes and Athens then of all Gréece besides, aunswered, for that theyr Captaines were Phi­losophers and Orators, able to perswade more with their eloquence, then he was to commaunde with his dignitie: whereby hee d [...]th admonish, that one of the principall points of a good Captaine, is to exhort his souldiers with skill.

Four things ought euerie one that ma­keth war to consider.

  • 1. Of what power he is himselfe.
  • 2. What forces the enemy is able to pro­uide.
  • 3. For what cause he taketh the warre in hande.
  • 4. And what shall be the successe of the battayle.

Foresight (sayth Epictetus) is the preuenter of re­pentaunce, and nothing is more preiudicial in a Captaine then to say (had I wist:) for vnlesse the forenamed cir­cumstaunces be carefully considered, he may slyppe into sundrie enormities.

Conditione humana. Humane condition.

Foure things do bewray the condition of man.

  • 1. Hys speech.
  • 2. His secrecie.
  • 3. The motion of his minde.
  • 4. And his exterior gestures.

Ex abundantia cordis os loquitur: alluding to our olde English prouerbe, what the hart thinketh, the tongue [Page] clacketh: meaning heerby, that the affections of man are knowne by his spéech, as sa [...]oring of wisedom or follie, of enuie, as louing to backbite: of wrath [...] as vttering cho­lerick tearmes and such like.

Comandare. To commaund.

Foure things doo ruinate him ouer whom they comma [...]nd.

  • 1. Loue.
  • 2. Hate.
  • 3. Feare.
  • 4. Gaynes.

Ouid, although he wrote his works De Artea man­di, yet being willed by Corynna to sette downe a perfe [...] definition of loue. He said it was a passion that he knewe not from whence it sprung, what it was, nor to what end it tended: onely this by experience hee was able to auer, that it was an affection that commaunded nothing but losse. Where hate and couetise of gaines ruleth, saith So­crates, there looke neither for charitie nor honestie, for h [...]te springeth from enuie, and couetousnes from iniustice.

Con [...]inat [...]. A banished man.

Foure things are profitable for a banished man.

  • 1. To consider the estate of them which are fallen.
  • 2. To hope to better his estate.
  • 3. To spend caref [...]lly.
  • 4. And to seeke after gayne mode­ratelie.

When Metellus was banished out of Rome, his friend Nastyca gaue him this freendlie aduertisement at hys de­parture: thinke thou art not (quoth he) the first that hath tryed his fortune: euer once hope to returne, be not pro­digall, least riot bréede want: nor too couetous, least thou purchase the hate of Strangers.

Domand [...]re. To demaund.

Foure things are profitable for him to consider that demaundeth.

  • 1. What he is that demaundeth.
  • 2. Of whom he doth d [...]d.
  • 3. For what cause he doth dema [...]d.
  • 4. And what it is he doth dem [...]nd.

These circum [...]au [...]ces of demaunding, of giuing, of receiuing or performing any duetie, the Reader may best learne in Aristotle his Ethicks, wh [...]re they are discoursed of at large.

Dottore. A Teacher.

Foure thinges doe belong vn­to a Teacher.

  • 1. In the day to looke ouer the Lecture he hath to reade.
  • 2. In the night by meditation to call it to memorie.
  • 3. Priuatly to resolue his schollers in al doubts.
  • 4. To be a [...]fable with them.

Foure things pro­cure a Teacher to reade well.

  • 1. The multitude of Schollers.
  • 2. Great reward for his paynes.
  • 3. The getting of greater knowledg
  • 4. And the hope to obtaine fame and honour.

The auncient Philosophers, especially Aristotle, was wont neuer to deliuer any newe principle in Peripateo, vnlesse the night before he had thrise called it to memory, by proouing pro et contra with himselfe, so to seeke out the trueth of the Axiome: and for this his paines, as hee got immortall renowne, so he purchased great rewardes, not only at the hands of Alexander, but by other his schollers of meaner calling: but so i [...] the condition of time chaun­ged, as the Teacher passeth ouer his preceps wythout a­ [...] great premeditation, for that his labour and industrie is so slenderly rewarded.

Donna. A woman.

Foure things doo belonge vnto a woman.

  • 1. Beautie of the face, and propor­tion of bodie.
  • 2. Chastitie of minde.
  • 3. Honestie of manners.
  • 4. And a familiar curiousnesse.

Crates the Philosopher said, that vnlesse vertue were added to beautie, howe [...]aire so euer the face were, a wo­man were most deformed: thincking the interiour per­fection of the mind was of more force then the exteriour constitution of the bodie.

Foure thinges are desired of women especially.

  • 1. To haue a fayre young man to her husband.
  • 2. To haue [...]ny children.
  • 3. To be decked wyth co [...]tlie appa­rell.
  • 4. And to haue supremacie aboue o­thers.

Plato in his A [...]drogina saith, that of all the affects that most troubles and disturbes the mindes of Women, the desire of soueranitie is ye most vehement: for so great­lie they hat [...] to be ouer-ruled, that Nynus the king of Ba­bilon, graunting his wife whatsoeuer she would demaund in his whole Empire, shee chose onely to rule thrée dayes as supreame in the Monarchie.

Foure things do greatly dis­please womē.

  • 1. That her husband shold loue any but herselfe.
  • 2. That shee be crossed wyth his fro­wardnesse.
  • 3. That her children want.
  • 4. Or he taken away by vntimely death.

Although sayth Iuuenall in his Satyrs, women loue to chaunge, yet it is death for them to allowe their H [...] ­bands such limits, and therfore the Poet calles them in­equall [Page] proportioners of duetie.

Digiuno. Fasting.

Foure things belong vn­to him that dooth fast.

  • 1. To ea [...] with modestie.
  • 2. To eschewe sinne.
  • 3. To meditate of heauen.
  • 4. To giue almes.

We sée by this deuision, that fasting consisteth not in abstaining absolutelie from all kind of meates, for he wyl­leth to eate with measure, but in refraining from sinne, in applying his thoughts about heauenly cogitations, and to be charitable: which indéede is the true fast.

Dolore. Greefe.

Foure things are gréeuous vnto a man.

  • 1. The wickednes of his Children.
  • 2. The losse of his possessions.
  • 3. The promotion of his enemies.
  • 4. And the fall of his fréendes.

There is nothing saith Salomon that more greeueth a father, then to haue a foolish & vnrulie sonne, for it ma­keth his heade full of gray haires, and letteth him from passing with quiet into his graue. Cato who was seuere in his actions, as he was halfe a Stoick, yet was sayde to sorrowe at the happinesse of Caesar, and gréeue at the fall of Pompey, the first his enemie, the second his fréende.

Dominio iniusto. Vniust rule.

There are foure sorts of men that rule vniustlie ouer others.

  • 1. The vsurer.
  • 2. The deceiuer.
  • 3. The proude man.
  • 4. And y impudent.

Hardlie besette are those Cittizens, (saith Socrates,) where the foole ouer-ruleth the wise, the proude man the humble, where trueth is seruaunt to falshood, and money task-maister ouer honestie.

[Page]Foure inconueni­ences doe spring from vniust rule.

  • 1. Deceitfull reuerence.
  • 2. Mortall enuie.
  • 3. The hate of Superiours.
  • 4. And the punishment of successors.

Where we may note, that although hee which ru­leth vniustlie, taketh a pleasure in such superioritie, yet pestilent & pernitious enormities are the fruites of such delight: for the reuerence which they shew him, is doone more for feare then for loue, their dutie is hate secretlie, and their reuenge is to become enuious to his honours.

Diletto. Delight.

Foure things doo breede great pleasure & delight.

  • 1. A sweete voice.
  • 2. A fayre face.
  • 3. Delicate meate.
  • 4. And a cleere day.

There is no such pleasing obiect to the eye as beauty, nor none breedeth greater pleasure to the eare, then an e­loquent tongue with sweete pronunciation. Alexander was neuer vanquished with any exteriour delight, but with séeing the beautie of the Amazon Queene, and An­thonie tooke his felicitie in hearing the sweete voice of the Egiptian Cleopatra.

Foure thinges doe greatlie please and delight a man.

  • 1. A wise sonne.
  • 2. The sight of riches.
  • 3. Preferment to dignitie.
  • 4. And reuenge vpon an enemy.

The wisedom of the Sonne saith Ecclesiastes, great­lie gladdeth the Father, and maketh his yeeres without number: for nature tieth vs with such a strickt league, as nature is greater in discent then ascent, and greater is the affection that commeth from the fa [...]her then from the Sonne.

Danari. Money.

Foure sorts of men doe get money.

  • 1. Fraudulent persons.
  • 2. Couetous men.
  • 3. Wise and discreete men.
  • 4. And they which be prouident and care­full.

Four things are gotten without the helpe of mo­ney.

  • 1. The despising of a mans life.
  • 2. Foolishnes.
  • 3. Pouertie.
  • 4. And sicknesse.

Aristotle in setting downe his happie man saith, be he neuer so vertuous, yet he cannot be faelix without money and riches: but we sée that miserie commeth so by fate, as we neede not the goods of Fortune to further it.

Difficulta. Difficultie.

Four things are passing hard and difficulte vnto man.

  • 1. To possesse an other mans goods and to restore them.
  • 2. To see villanie offered him, and to holde his peace.
  • 3. To receiue wrong, and not to bee sorrowfull.
  • 4. To haue things necessarie, and not to taste of them.

The Stoicks which were Apotho [...] without passions, held opinion, that it was the che [...]e poynt of vertue, not to be mooued with any affections, neither to be gladded with prosperitie, nor to be daunted with aduersitie, but to beare all chaunces alike if he were iniured: and there­fore they made a combat with theyr affections, counting nothing vertuous that was not difficult.

Dignita. Dignitie.

Foure things doo aduance a man vnto dignitie.

  • 1. Wealth.
  • 2. Reason.
  • 3. Science.
  • 4. And iustice.

The readie way saith Zenophon to preferment, is knowledge and vertue, for they which climbe vnto digni­tie by other means, are vnworthie such good fortune.

Desiderio. Desire.

Foure things are greatlie desired, and sought for of men.

  • 1. Store of money.
  • 2. Fulnesse of knowledge.
  • 3. Continuall quiet.
  • 4. And perpetuall ioy and mirth.

Plato béeing demaunded what he most desired in the whole world, aunswered, knowledge: whereof hee was troubled with insas [...]etie, to obtaine which, hee passed throughout all Greece and Egypt.

Dominare. To rule.

Foure sorts of men are great­ly desirous to [...]eare rule.

  • 1. The poore to get that is other mens.
  • 2. The rich to defend & keepe y they haue got.
  • 3. The iniuried to make reuenge.
  • 4. The good to defende the Cittie.
  • The first are mortall to cittizens.
  • The seconde may be suffered.
  • The thirde doe often harme.
  • The fourth do great­lie benefit.

Aristotle in his deuision of the Common-wealth, ap­pointeth the democracy or populer estate to be the worst of all gouernments, and therefore concludeth, they desire greatly to raigne, as men factious & desirous of noueltie.

Danno sensa rimedio. Losse without remedie.

Foure things may be taken away frō man which can ne­uer be restored.

  • 1. Uirginitie corrupted.
  • 2. Lyfe lost.
  • 3. Fame crackt.
  • 4. And a member cut off.

[Page] Byas the Philosopher, when by shipwrack [...] hee had lost all his goods, yet boldlie and merrilie could say, Om­nia mea, mecum porto: thinking that riches lost, might bée got againe by learning. But Themistocles when hee was by the Ostracisme vniustlie banished from Athens, sayd, I haue lost that I shall neuer recouer, (fame) for the Grae­cians that are ill, will thinke I haue deserued ill.

Dono senza danno. A gift without losse.

Foure things a man may gyue without losse.

  • 1. Knowledge when he instructeth.
  • 2. Fame when a man praiseth one.
  • 3. Reuerence when a man sheweth curtesie.
  • 4. And fayre language.

There are two things saith old Maister Gower, that a man may be prodigall of without offence: of his [...]ap in dooing reuerence, of his tong [...]e in giuing good spéeches: which two are fréelie giuen, greatly considered, and with­out any losse or detriment.

Delitto. Sinne or offence.

Foure thinges are nourished in sinne.

  • 1. The offence when it is not felt.
  • 2. To conuerse and company with him that sinneth.
  • 3. To escape vnpunished.
  • 4. And to profit by sinne.

Saint Augustine hath this golden sentence, that Con­suetudo peccati tollit sensum peccandi: the custome of sinning taketh away the féeling of sinne: so that offences without remorse are halfe incurable. To accompany with sinners, to escape witho [...]t punishment for the fault, and to profit by the swéetnes of sinne, draweth men headlong into ma­nie miseries.

Diuulgare. To manifest.

Foure things hurt being manifested.

  • 1. An offence committed.
  • 2. Ill gotten goods.
  • 3. A mans owne foolishnes.
  • 4. And riches vnder a Tyrant.

For a man hauing committed a faulte, to detect him­selfe, or to be the heralde of his owne follies, is a point of extreame madnesse, but to bewray his wealth vnder the gouernment of a Tyrant, is to giue himselfe a pray to the oppressour.

Dio. God.

Foure things are great­lie acceptable vnto God and vnto men.

  • 1. The concorde of brethren.
  • 2. The loue of neighbours.
  • 3. Quiet betwéen man & wi [...]e
  • 4. The repentance of sinners.

Dauid the holie Prophet, as inspired and wondring at the concord of bretheren, cryeth out with vehemencie of spirit, Ecce quam bonum, et quam iucundum, habitare fra­tres in vnum: comparing their loue to dewe that dropt on the Hill of Hermon, and to the oyle that ranne downe vpon Aarons beard: for the swéete consent and agréement in marriage, he addeth a blessing, that their children sitte about their Table, and for the repentance of sinners, hee saith the Angels makes ioy in heauen.

Eccellenza d' Huomini.

Foure excellent men in foure sundry Na­tions.

  • 1. Iudas Maccabaeus in Iudea.
  • 2. Charles the greate in Chri­stendome.
  • 3. Saladyne amongst y Sarasines.
  • 4. And Augustus Caesar amongst the Pagans.

Felicita. Felicitie.

Foure sorts of men are hap­py diuerslie.

  • 1. He that dilligently serueth God.
  • 2. He that directeth his actions after a good course.
  • 3. He that contemneth the vanities of the world.
  • 4. And hee y by an other mans mishap is learned to beware.

He meaneth not heere felicitie as Aristotle dooth in his Ethicks, by riches, byrth, parentage, beautie, or other gifts of nature and fortune, but he accounteth him happy that serueth God, walketh in his waies, & by other mens harmes can auoide the like mishap.

Foure sorts of feli­citie doo make men most vnhappie and miserable.

  • 1. The multitude of children.
  • 2. Aboundance of riches.
  • 3. To rule a Prouince.
  • 4. And to haue many fréendes.

Although children be a blessing of God, yet so it oft falleth out, that the number of them beeing many, it ma­keth a man full of cares to prouide thinges necessarie, and amongst manie, it cannot be, but commonlie some wyll prooue infortunate, as of them, so of fréendes, for Pytha­goras, amongst his Aenigmaticall precepts, hath this for one: Eate not with many hands. Meaning, not to com­panie with manie freendes, for necessitie vrgeth that some pro [...]ue trecherous.

Figliuolo. A sonne.

Foure bands tyeth the son to the father.

  • 1. To reuerence him.
  • 2. To obey him.
  • 3. Not to giue him occasion of sorow.
  • 4. And to releeue him when he is olde.

Plinie in his Naturall Historie saith, that the young Storke, when he séeth the olde is so weake & ouer-growen [Page] with yeeres that he cannot [...]lie, not onely prouideth vic­tuaile for his nourishment, but to sollace, carrieth him a­bout on his backe: which curtis [...]e, the Graecians called Antipelargein, kéeping his picture in their houses, to giue thereby example and president of duetie to their children.

Fede. Fayth.

Foure things doo issue and procéed from fayth.

  • 1. The certaintie of things not séene.
  • 2. The goodnesse of life.
  • 3. The foode of the soule.
  • 4. And the worshipping of God.

The effects and fruites of faith are sufficiently dis­coursed by S. Paule to the Romaines, and in the Epistle of S. Iames, to which places I refer the curteous Reader.

Fanciullo. A childe.

Foure properties are in Children.

  • 1. To be soone angrie.
  • 2. To be soone reconciled.
  • 3. To forget quicklie.
  • 4. And to play with their equals.

These properties of a child were good to be found in olde folkes, that although they tooke occasion of offence, yet they might quicklie forgiue and forget the faulte. A young man that was about to marrie, came to Pittacus one of the seauen Sages, to aske his counsayle what ma­ner of wif [...] [...]e should choose: the Philosopher straight gaue him this aunswer, goe and play amongst children: whe­ther when the young man came, hee founde them vnwil­ling of his company, going to a play that they had, which was, euerie man choose his peere: by this he was admo­nished to match with his equall.

Forza. Force.

To foure good works good men are forced vnto as it were by constraint.

  • 1. To promote the vertuous.
  • 2. To Punish offenders.
  • 3. To honour vertue.
  • 4. And to reléeue the oppressed.

[Page] Vbique in pretio habetur virtus, saith Chilon the Lace­daemonian: vertu [...] is generallie honored: for when Ouid was banished from Rome, and liued amongs [...] the barba­rous Geeates, yet hee was there loued for his learning, courtesie, and good behauiour: much more doo good men séeke to aduaunce them that are vertuous.

Fatila. Labour or industry.

Foure things cannot be obtayned without labour and industrie.

  • 1. Excellent prayse.
  • 2. Great knowledge.
  • 3. Wealth or goods.
  • 4. And rule or power.

The slothful man (saith Cicero) sleepeth in his own want, whereas Nihil est tam durum quod non solertia vin­cat. Hercules had neuer beene famous but for his labors: Hector had neuer so long béene a defence for the Troyans, had hee not béene (patiens laboris,) able to endure labour and trauell. Tis hard (was Apelles the Painter wont to say) for him that will not labour, to excell in any art.

Falondia. Eloquence.

Foure things make a man eloquent.

  • 1. Boldnesse.
  • 2. Understanding.
  • 3. Delight.
  • 4. And vse.

Demosthenes who was counted the most eloquent Oratour that euer Gréece afforded, was a long time with­holden from the barre for pleading, because he was bash­full, in so much that they neuer hoped of his successe, till on a day imboldened by the presence of his many fréends, he prooued the most eloquent man of his time.

Gouare ad al [...]rui. To pleasure others.

Foure thinges pleasure others more then thē ­selues.

  • 1. Birds in making their nests.
  • 2. Bées in working of honey.
  • 3. Oxen in wearing the yoke.
  • 4. And shéepe in bearing wooll.

Gola. Gluttony or the throat.

Foure thinges are enemies to gluttonie.

  • 1. The carefulnesse of gayning.
  • 2. The mortifying of the bodie.
  • 3. To combat with hunger.
  • 4. And the desire of money.

Foure things doo make a man gluttonous.

  • 1. To lye in a [...] Inne.
  • 2. To follow the Courte.
  • 3. To haue great reuenewes.
  • 4. And to take continuall [...]ase.

The effects of gluttonie are manifold, procéeding frō sundrie causes, and bréeding infinite enormities, which prooue pernitious both to soule and bodie. Wealth bredde it in Heliogabalus, Nero, and Caligula. [...]ase in Lucullus: following of the Courte in Rodericus: but Socrates was so farre from this vice, that he would not salute him that was infamous for gluttonie.

Gouernatore. A Gouernour.

Foure things ought to be ob­serued by a good Gouernour.

  • 1. To vse equalitie.
  • 2. To maintain plentie.
  • 3. To heare gentlie.
  • 4. And to preserue iustic [...]

Cicero was therefore called by the populer sort Pa­ter Patriae: for because he founded y Law in Rome which was called Lex Annonae for the prouision of victuals, al­waies by pollicie ayming at plentie: and Antoninus the Emperour was therefore called Pius, because so curteous­lie he would héere euerie mans complaint.

Gnadaguo mentito. Gaine falsified.

Foure sorts of men say they gayne more then they doe.

  • 1. A player of Comedies.
  • 2. An Aduocate.
  • 3. A flatterer.
  • 4. A Phisition.

[Page]The Aduocate by manifesting more gaines then hee getteth, and so likewise the Phisition, thinke to procure their Clyants or Patients to more liberalitie.

Foure sorts of men sweare they gayne lesse then they doo.

  • 1. The gouernour or ruler of an o­ther mans goods.
  • 2. The husbandman in reaping his seede.
  • 3. The Merchaunt by sale of hys Merchandise.
  • 4. The Dicer of y which hee win­neth.

Tullie in his Officies, intreating exactlie of duties, al­lowes not such libertie either to Merchaunts, Farmers, or Rulers, for (saith he) Honestas arte ponenda est vtilitati: trueth and honestie ought to goe before commoditie.

Giudice. A Iudge.

Foure things belong vnto a Iudge.

  • 1. To heare curteouslie.
  • 2. To aunswere wiselie.
  • 3. To consider soberlie.
  • 4. To giue iudgment impartially

Foure thinges doe ouerthrow iustice.

  • 1. Loue.
  • 2. Hate.
  • 3. Feare.
  • 4. And gaine.

Cambyses, noting howe freendes through loue, bribe­rie through gaine, enemies by hate, and dignitie by feare did peruert iudgment, taking one in the faulte of iniu­stice, caused him to be fleyed quicke, and his skinne to be hunge vppe ouer the seate of iudgment: and then placed his sonne that was so tormented, in his roome, to the end that hys fathers punishment might learne him to become more warie.

Grauezze del' huomo. Heauie things vnto man.

Foure things are most hea­uie vnto man.

  • 1. To serue an ingrate­full man.
  • 2. To intreate and not be heard.
  • 3. To doo well and not be rewarded.
  • 4. And to looke for that neuer happeneth.

Or

  • To lye [...]cke.
  • To be poore.
  • To stande in suspence.
  • To lie in prisō.

There is no one thing more heauie nor burdenous vnto man, then to beare the ingratitude of a thanklesse person: or hauing deserued well, not to be iustly rewar­ded. The exile Themistocles suffered, gréeued him not so much as the vnkindnesse of his Countrimen, who in re­quitall of his so many gotten victories, rewarded his va­loure with banishment.

Four things are more heauie to man aboue the rest.

  • 1. To liue with a foolish familie.
  • 2. To haue store of wicked children.
  • 3. To consume that is gotten lauishly
  • 4. To be ouer-ruled of an enemi [...].

These thinges are heauie, in that they are eyther contrarie to the nature or disposition of man, for there is none so meane nor base, but would grudge to be in subiec­tion to him that he hateth.

Giouane. A young man.

Foure things ought a young man to doo.

  • 1. To seeke after riches.
  • 2. To delight in honour.
  • 3. To procure freendship.
  • 4. To abstain frō things vnlawful

Zenophon describing the duties of a young man, wil­leth him to be sparing, & an enemie to prodigalitie, which was noted in Alcibiades, who was wont to say, that ther­fore he would be giuen to frugalitie in his youth, that in his age he might be liberall. Epaminondas béeing but a [Page] childe, offered sacrifice to the Gods, that he might doo no­thing but that which was vertuous and honourable.

Foure things young men cannot eschew.

  • 1. The approching of olde age.
  • 2. The losse of a freende.
  • 3. Infortunate chaunces.
  • 4. Nor the assault of death.

Time (as the olde prouerbe is) tarrieth no man. Olde age, as Tullie saith in his booke De Senectute steleth vp­pon vs by degrees, and by necessitie, that it is assured to vs by fate: for euery day saith Zeno, we wexe olde, youth hath no priuiledge against fortune, and as soone commeth the young Lambe to the Butchers shambles as the olde sheepe.

Giouanetto. An vnbridled youth.

Foure things are oft the faultes of youth.

  • 1. To abuse their patrimonies.
  • 2. To despise correction.
  • 3. To snare themselues in vice.
  • 4. To make no account of profit.

A certaine inhabitant of the Cittie of Pysa, beeing demaunded why the state of theyr Cittie did so sore decay, fetching a déepe sigh made thys aunswere: our young men are prodigall, our old men are too affectionate: wee haue no discipline for offences, nor no punishment for such as spende their yeeres in idlenesse.

Guerra. Warre.

Foure daungerous effects procéed from warre.

  • 1. It maketh a Cittie desolate.
  • 2. Bréedeth famine.
  • 3. Forceth the people to depart.
  • 4. And for punishment hath po­uertie.

One going about to prooue that generally there is vi­cissitudo omnium rerum, argueth thus: peace bréedeth plen­tie, plentie pride, pride warres, warres pouertie, pouer­tie [Page] peace, and so forth: alleaging that of conseque [...]e ma­nie discommodities doo proceede from the Altar of Mars.

For foure things it is law­full to make warre.

  • 1. For fayth.
  • 2. Iustice.
  • 3. Peace.
  • 4. And libertie.

Such was the warres that Hanniball, attempted a­gainst the Romaines, for after that he gad giuen his fayth to the Senate of Carthage that hee would reuenge theyr iniuries, he sealed his promise with his blood. Scipio, bée­ing demaunded why the Romans made such hote warres with the Numantines, aunswered, we seeke for peace at the walles of Numantia with the sworde.

Huomo. A man.

Foure things are déere vnto men.

  • 1. Carefulnesse to gaine.
  • 2. Sparing to preserue riches.
  • 3. Pati [...]nce in iniuries.
  • 4. And abstinence for offences.

Plato béeing demaunded by Dionisius the Tyrant of Sycillia, whereof he coulde boast, in this quoth the Philo­sopher, that I can suffer iniuries with patience.

Foure things d [...] fortefie a man more then others.

  • 1. Beautie of bodie.
  • 2. Wisedome of mind.
  • 3. Laudable fame.
  • 4. And eloquence.

Nestor was a stay to the Graecians for his wisedom, Absolon was loued of all Israell for his beautie: Alexan­der was guarded with the strength of his fame, and Vlis­ses was desired of Agamemnon because he was eloquent.

Foure things are ve­rie great in man in this present age.

  • 1. The knowledge of a mās selfe.
  • 2. Dissimulation in iniuries.
  • 3. To gouerne well a familie.
  • 4. And rule in the hands of a wo­man.

[Page]The first precept that the seauen Sages preferred as chéefe of their principles to Apollo at Delphos, was N [...] ­ce te ipsum, know thy selfe: which whosoeuer (saith Cleo­bulus) obserueth, neither is proude in prosperitie nor dis­pairing in aduersitie. Thales Milesius béeing demaunded what was the point of a wise man, to dissemble quoth hée an iniurie.

Foure things make a man perfect.

  • 1. To worship God sincerelie.
  • 2. To loue his neighbour hartilie.
  • 3. To doo to others as he wold be doone vnto.
  • 4. And to wish no worse to others then to himselfe.

Alteri ne feceris, quod tibi fieri non vis: measure an o­ther mans actions by thine owne desires.

Foure sorts of men doo displease bothe God & the world.

  • 1. A poore man proude.
  • 2. A rich man a lyer.
  • 3. An olde man Lecherous.
  • 4. And one that soweth discord be­twéene bretheren.

The meaning or glosse vpon this, I referre to the Prouerbs of Salomon.

Ira. Anger.

Foure things doo grow of anger.

  • 1. The trauell of the mind.
  • 2. Ignoraunce of a mans selfe.
  • 3. Uniust dealing.
  • 4. And an inequall sentence.

Ira breuis fur [...]r saith Socrates, anger is a short madnes which disquieteth the mind as with a lunacie, it maketh a man forget himselfe, to passe the bounds of iustice, and to doo all things contrarie to equitie and reason.

[Page]Foure things bring [...]orth anger.

  • 1. Contempt.
  • 2. Uillanie.
  • 3. Ingratitude.
  • 4. And iniustice.

Foure things appease anger.

  • 1. Swéete words.
  • 2. Reuenge.
  • 3. Satis-faction.
  • 4. And pouerty or want.

A milde aunswer saith the wiseman appeaseth ch [...]l­ler, and there is no greater bridle to furie then curteous language: the worst salue for anger is reuenge, for it cha­lengeth no more by extremitie. The surest reconciliation, saith Boccace, is satis-faction, for it glutteth anger wyth Lawe.

Inuidia. Enuie.

Foure things doo spring frō Enuie.

  • 1. The gréefe of the enuious.
  • 2. The ruine of the enuious.
  • 3. The diuisiō of the people.
  • 4. The destruc­tion of y citie.

Or thus

  • 1. An afflic­ted life.
  • 2. Calami­tie.
  • 3. Surcui­drie.
  • 4. And po­uertie.

Well and wiselie saith the Poet, Inuidus alterius re­bus macrescit opimis, the enuious man wexeth leane wyth the fatnesse of his neighbor, for he séeth nothing that pros­pereth, but breedeth his discontentment: all good success [...] is a torment to his mind, and his happinesse consisteth in the vnhappinesse of others.

Four things bring foorth Enuie.

  • 1. The desire of honour.
  • 2. The greedines of gaine.
  • 3. The felicitie of others.
  • 4. And the hate towardes our neigh­bour.

[Page]Had not Caesar béene tickled with an insatiable desire of honour, he had neuer so greatlie enuied Pompey. Had not Crassus beene without measure in his couetise, he had not so deepelie enuied Maetellus. The felicitie of others, is a spurre to an enuious person. For as Mantuan in his Eg­logues auerreth, he thinketh his neighbors profit (though lesse) yet alwaies greater then his owne.

Vicinumque pecus grandius vber habet.

Foure things doo race out enuie.

  • 1. The priuation of power.
  • 2. Want.
  • 3. The mortifying of the senses.
  • 4. And the desire of vertue.

They which enuie other mens good fortunes, beeing aspyred, and growne to preferment, and after abased: shame so at their fall, and at their owne defect, as they cease to enuie, more for greefe then good nature.

Infermo. A sicke man.

Four things must a sicke man doo.

  • 1. Obey the Phisition.
  • 2. Spend largely in things necessary
  • 3. Haue confidence in the Phisition.
  • 4. And comfort himselfe with hope.

Alexander the great, béeing taken with a greeuous sicknesse, had Letters sent him to beware of Phillip hys Phisition, for he had agréed with Darius for a summe of money to poyson him: as Alexander had read the Letters, Phillip came in with a potion to minister, which notwith­standing the former contents, he dranke, deliuering the Letter while he was drincking to Phillip, such confidence had that mightie Monarch in his Phisition.

Ingratitudine. Ingratitude.

Foure sorts of men do forget a good turne.

  • 1. A young childe.
  • 2. A proude man by promotion.
  • 3. A pro [...]de man by natur [...]
  • 4. And a prisoner fréed from prison.

[Page] Pride is [...]he verie mother of Ingratitude, for Alexander neuer grew to be vnmindfull of benefits, till he would bée honoured with Persian ceremonies, and called the sonne of Iupiter.

Impossibilita.

Foure things are im­possible to promise.

  • 1. Continual securitie on the se [...].
  • 2. Alwaies to haue a cléere skie.
  • 3. Flowers in Winter.
  • 4. And in the spring snow.

The conditions of the Sea and the Heauens, sayth Marrot in his Epigrams, are like to Womens thoughts, euer wauering and inconstant: and therefore rightlie did the Poets faigne Venus to be borne of the Sea, sith shée, and all vnder her influence are so vncertaine.

Infelicita. Infelicitie.

Foure sorts are vnhap­pie and in­felices.

  • 1. Hee which is fallen vnder some deadlie sinne.
  • 2. He which can doo good and doth it not.
  • 3. He which is ignorant & wil not learne.
  • 4. And he which can instruct and will not teach.

The greatest vnhappinesse which falleth to man in this world, is sinne, for that without repentance it is a depri­uation of the fauour of God. And in the Gospell hee com­maundeth him to be cast into vtter darknes, that hid his talent in the ground, and would put it to no vse.

Insatiabilita. Insatietie.

Foure things are insatiable and haue neuer inough.

  • 1. Fyer.
  • 2. Earth.
  • 3. Hell.
  • 4. A Woman.

Inurbanita. Inciuilitie.

Foure things make a man vnciuill.

  • 1. The motions of anger.
  • 2. The sting of want.
  • 3. Cou [...]tousnesse.
  • 4. And enuie.

These affections ouer-ruling reason and the sences, make a man so farre to forgette himselfe, as he passeth the bonds of humanitie: Crassus grew so couetous, that in his age he [...]ecame halfe a Tymonist, and Manlius Nasica had such delight in his Country tillage, that he so little fre­quented the companie of men, as he got the name of In­urbanus.

Inimicitia. Enmitie.

Foure things d [...] brée enmitie.

  • 1. Dishonest spee [...]he.
  • 2. Iniuries.
  • 3. Couetousnesse.
  • 4. And disdaine.

Disdaine [...]red the factions [...]nmitie betw [...]ne Sylla [...] M [...]ius [...] [...]p [...]eche be [...]weene Tully and An­thony: [...] Ca [...]ely [...]e and the Counsel: Co­ [...] betw [...] Ag [...]h [...]les and Mys [...]tus.

Ingan [...]. De [...]te.

Foure things de­ceiue a man.

  • 1. The l [...] of wealth.
  • 2. T [...] [...]ch wiue.
  • 3. [...]ugred words.
  • 4. [...] of gayne.

They of Lacedae [...]o [...]ia, when the wa [...]res were most [...]ote [...]wne them and the Athenians, refused to admit Demo [...]enes for an Emb [...]ssadour, so greatlie did they feare to be dec [...]ued by his elo [...]uence. Mydas was decei­ [...]d with his golden wi [...]h, and Alexander found the grea­tes [...] decei [...]e amidst his cupp [...]s.

Lussuria. Lecherie.

Foure especi­all effects of Lecherie.

  • 1. It de [...]leth both bodie and soule.
  • 2. It weakeneth the sences.
  • 3. It wasteth the patrimonie.
  • 4. And hasteneth an olde age.

Salomon in his booke of Wisedome, dooth bitterlie inueigh against this vice, as the principall of all other deadlie, in that this in one action offendeth both Tables of the Lawe, and ouerthroweth the welf [...]re of a mans owne selfe, which Demosthenes no doubt considered, whē he said at the doore of Lais the harlot, Now [...] p [...]nit [...]n­tiam emere.

Foure things doe further Lecherie.

  • 1. Sweete wines.
  • 2. Delicate meates.
  • 3. Familiaritie with women.
  • 4. And delight in ease.

Truelie sayth the Poet, Et venus [...]n vinis, ignis in ig­ne fuit. Meaning that the liquour of Bacchus, is like Oyle to quenche the flames of Venus, and that glu [...]y is halfe an efficient cause of lecherie. Alexander was con [...]inent as long as he was sober, and [...] the warres he neuer gaue his minde to loue, but when he neuer so little ga [...] himselfe ouer to ease and banquetting, then he found that Ephestion truely [...]olde him, In otio amor.

Foure things doe asswage lecherie.

  • 1. The vse of water.
  • 2. The coldnes of m [...]ates.
  • 3. Absence from women.
  • 4. And continuall l [...]bour.

Romulus for [...]d any virgine to drinke Wine as a li­quour greatlie prei [...]diciall to modestie, and Pythagora [...] who was famous for his abstinence, vsed [...]nely water and colde [...]earbes knowing this prouerbe to be true, Sine Ce­rere et Baccho frigit Venus, vsing continuall labour as an Antidote against wanton affections: which Ouid pre­scribeth [Page] for a principle in his Remedio Amoris.

Otia si tollas periere Cupidinis Arcus,
Contemptaeque iacent et sine Luc [...] faces.

Lymosina. Almes.

Foure sort [...] of almes.

  • 1. To giue to the poore.
  • 2. To pardon him that offendeth.
  • 3. To admonish him that sinneth.
  • 4. And to rayse him from his errour that is amisse.

Where we may note, that euery good action which profiteth our neighbour, is as it were Qu [...]dam species Ele­mosynae, a kind of almes.

Leggi [...]rezz [...] apparente. Lightnes so seeming.

Foure things séeme light, and yet are of great importance.

  • 1. To honor euery man in words.
  • 2. To say the trueth.
  • 3. To offend no man.
  • 4. To accompanie with good men.

Things which séeme eas [...]e to be done, and yet in per­formaunce are of great weight: for as Socrates saith, al­luding to that spoken in Esdras, there is nothing greater then the truth: heerin saith Pyttacus doo we resemble the Gods, if we endeuour to offend no man.

Lingua. A tongue.

Foure things procéede from an euill tongue.

  • 1. The séede of dissention.
  • 2. The hurt of other mens fame.
  • 3. Wicked misconstruing.
  • 4. And the instruction of euill.

For thys cause did cr [...]ked Aesope bring his Maister tongues, as the worst meate in all the market, meaning that there is no vice so bad which a wicked tongue cannot vtter, sowing strife dissention, and slaunder, procuring murthers, and infinite other mischéefes.

Liquore. Liquor or moysture.

Foure kind of liquors are neces­arie more then anie other.

  • 1. Water.
  • 2. Wine.
  • 3. Hony.
  • 4. And oyle.

Auicen in his Aphorisines sayth, that whatsoeuer is necessarie is not excessiue: therefore h [...] doth appoint th [...]se foure liquors as principall aboue the rest, for that [...] Phisicke can be exercised if one of these shold be wanting.

Medico. A Physicion.

Foure things doe belong to a good Phisition.

  • 1. To search out the occasion of the disease.
  • 2. To apply medi [...]in [...] in time.
  • 3. To visite his Patient often.
  • 4. To comfort the sicke cunninglie.

Hippocrates was of this opinion, that it was more cunning to search out the nature of the disease, then after it was knowne to apply the Medicine: for quoth he [...], soo­ner dooth the eye discerne the simple, then the imaginati­on conceiue the sicknesse. It is reported that Galen was pleasant and merrie of disposition, which thing in a Phi­sition is precious.

Martirio. Marterdome.

There be foure sorts of martirdome with­out sh [...]dding of blood.

  • 1. Uirginitie in youth.
  • 2. Abstinence in aboundance.
  • 3. Humilitie in prosperitie.
  • 4. And patience in tribulation.

Thys word Martir beeing a Greeke worde, signifieth onelie a witnesse, as he is counted a Martyr which sealeth his Christianitie with his bloode, thereby witnessing the fi [...]menesse of his faith: so they which striue against the three enemies which S. Iohn speaketh of, namely y pride [Page] of life, the lust of the eye, & the concupiscence of the flesh, may be called M [...]rty [...]s, as witnessing their cléere consci­ences by the mortifi [...]ation of rebellious affections.

Me [...]cante. A Merchant.

Foure things doo belong to a Mer­chan [...].

  • 1. Discretion in bargaining.
  • 2. Care in selling.
  • 3. Sure of hys promise.
  • 4. And affability w [...]h his customer [...].

Marito. A Husband.

Fo [...]e thi [...]g [...] ough [...] a husbande obserue towardes his wife.

  • 1. To keepe her at her worke.
  • 2. To make her stand in feare.
  • 3. To cherish her carefullie.
  • 4. And to clothe her comelie.

Cato the [...]ensor made a Lawe in Rome, that such wiues as their h [...]sbandes founde idle or were stubborne, should haue no re [...]rence doone them by theyr ch [...]ren in publique places: esteeming them vnworthie anie honour, that could not by their vertues profit their houshold.

Moglie. A Wife.

Foure thinges ought a wife to haue care of for the loue of her husband.

  • 1. To loue him aboue a [...] men.
  • 2. To seeke the meanes o [...] his credi [...]e.
  • 3. To cōfort him in sorrowes.
  • 4. And to haue care hers [...]lfe of his person.

Lodouicus Viues in his instruction of a Christian Woman, hath so well han [...]led these poynts, as I referre the courteous Reader to the consideration of his learned workes.

Morte. Death.

Foure things are worse then death it selfe.

  • 1. An olde man to be poore.
  • 2. He that is depriued of his sences.
  • 3. A sinner drowned in sinne.
  • 4. And a sicke man holden in praise.

Calisthenes the Philosopher and freende of Alexander the great, chose rather to drinke poyson that Lysimachus gaue him, then liue distressed in pryson. Death is the end of miserie, and sweeter then beggerie in age, which is th [...] cheefest miserie.

Foure things kill a man before his time.

  • 1. A fayre wife dishonest.
  • 2. The sting of melancholie.
  • 3. Impoysoned meates.
  • 4. And corrupted ayre.

The Melancholicke humour, or rather Melancholick constitution, sayth Auicen, is so contrarie to the vitall spi­rits béeing colde and dry, that where it maketh any deepe impression, it inferreth speedie death, by killing of the na­turall heate the maintainer of life.

Mutabilita. Mutabilitie.

Foure things are verie mutable.

  • 1. A mans will.
  • 2. The winde.
  • 3. Fortune in prosperitie.
  • 4. And the countenaunce in action.

Natura hominum (saith the Poet,) est nouitatis auida: men are desirous of noueltie, and theyr willes are so mo­mentarie, as they change almost at the sight of euery ob­iect: whereunto alludeth our old English prouerbe.

Wynters wether, and womens thought.
And Gentlemens purposes chaungeth oft.

Miracolo. A miracle.

There are foure vni­uersal mi­racles.

  • 1. That a Tyrant hated kéepeth a king­dome in subiection.
  • 2. That in war the lesse number hath the victorie.
  • 3. That the poore take not the treasure frō the rich.
  • 4. That most men stand wayling on deceit.

Cleobulus meruailed greatlie how tyrants did raign [...] amongst the multitude, when vertuous Princes are faine to haue guardes for their persons. Pythagoras béeing de­maunded what strange things he had séene in his trauell, recounted this for one, that hee sawe fraude and guile at­tended on with manie sutors.

Negotio. Businesse.

Foure things are to be con­sidered in euerie busines.

  • 1. Necessitie.
  • 2. Lawe.
  • 3. Honestie.
  • 4. And profit.

Thys is most learnedlie and largelie handled by Tul­lie in his Officies.

Nascondere. To hyde.

There are foure things cannot be hydden.

  • 1. The cough.
  • 2. Loue.
  • 3. Anger.
  • 4. And sorrow.

These affect [...]ons are addicted to much impatience, and maketh a man so passionate, as they are almost impossible to be concealed.

Natura. Nature.

Foure things doo alter and change the nature of m [...]n.

  • 1. Honor or preferment.
  • 2. Extreame loue.
  • 3. Womens allurements.
  • 4. And wine.

[Page] Honores mutant mores, honours chaungeth manners, and the custome of life saith Plutarch, is alienated by dig­nitie: for Nero who béeing the scholler of Seneca, was most vertuous, no sooner came to [...]he Empir [...] but [...]e pr [...] ­ued most vi [...]ious. Alexander the great, of himselfe was patient and continent, but once ouercharged wyth Wine, he chaunged his nature, and became most furious and lux­urious.

Ostinati [...]e. Obst [...]na [...]e.

Foure sorts of men are per­emptorily ob­stinate.

  • 1. A Tyra [...]t in retayning his gouern­ment.
  • 2. An Hereticke in the wickednesse of hi [...] [...]ayth.
  • 3. An accustomed [...] in his [...].
  • 4. The possessour of an other mans wealth.

The difference that the a [...]nci [...]nt Fath [...]rs doo make betweene a Scismaticke and an H [...]retick [...], [...]s, [...]at the Scismaticke [...]oth erre from the trueth, but as it were in suspence, for that [...]e [...] and therefore easilie to be recalled: but the Hereticke, as one blinded [...]n his owne conceit, obstinatlie and peremptorilie persisteth in his heresie, so that one of the Doctors of the Church hath this saying: Errare possum, hereticus esse nolo.

Offesa senza Giou [...]mento. Offence without profit.

Foure things offend much and profit nothing.

  • 1. Barraine lecherie.
  • 2. Hatefull sorrowe.
  • 3. A vaine thought.
  • 4. And byting enuie.

Thales Mylesius was wont to say, that two kinde of men were miserable in this world: he that was pensiue and sorrowfull without redresse, and he that troubled hys mind with thoughts th [...]t ret [...]rne to no effect.

Occhio. The eye.

Foure things doo delight the eye.

  • 1. A fayre countenaunce.
  • 2. A pleasant coloure.
  • 3. Exteriour ornaments.
  • 4. And cleerenes of the skye.

Opinione d' hanere. Opinion or conceit in hauing.

Of foure things a man hath more store then he thinketh.

  • 1. Of enemies.
  • 2. Of sinnes.
  • 3. Of yeeres.
  • 4. And of debts.

The good Emperour Traian had this saying alwaies in his mouth, that the knowledge of freendes and of ene­mies, was the hardest things to attaine vnto: for in pros­peritie, the secrete enemie is an open fréend, and in aduer­sitie the greatest fréend oft prooueth the sorest enemie.

Opere. Workes.

Foure kind of works men ought to vse one to another.

  • 1. To be charitable.
  • 2. To be faithfull.
  • 3. To instruct the ignoraunt.
  • 4. And euer to honour old age.

Certaine Lacedaemonian Embassadours being sent to Athens, sitting in a sumptuous place prouided for them in the Theater to sée certaine playes, espying an old man white headed to stand on his feete, one of them rose out of his seate, and placed the aged man in his roome, saying, the Athenians knew how to giue precepts, but not howe to followe them.

Foure works are most prayse wor­thie.

  • 1. To make peace.
  • 2. To preserue iustice.
  • 3. To helpe the oppressed.
  • 4. And to ayde a poore man in his businesse.

[Page]In Thebes when any priuate dissention grew betwixt neighbours and fr [...]en [...]s, he that could sette them in peace and vnitie, was honoured with a garlande of Oliue, as a recompence of his trauell.

Prudenza. Prudence.

Foure things especially we are taught by prudence.

  • 1. To remember things past.
  • 2. To dispose things present.
  • 3. To prouide for things to come.
  • 4. And to suspēd those which are in doubt

In these foure is comprehended the perfect course of mans life: for saith Zenophon in his Occonomica, a man must remember things past, that what he hath doone well he may immitate, and what ill, hee may feare to commi [...] the like: he must sette in order thinges present, to keep [...] that he hath gotten, and to preuent penurie, prouide for the time that is to come.

Foure things make a man wise.

  • 1. Studie.
  • 2. Experience.
  • 3. Nightly consideration.
  • 4. And immitation of the wise.

Foure things belong to a wise man.

  • 1. To liue ordinatelie.
  • 2. To get riches honestly.
  • 3. To follow others rightly.
  • 4. And to moderate himselfe.

Learning and experience telleth vs, that an ordinate life, measured by the true proportion of equitie, cannot be founde but in wise men: for to obseru [...] the meane be­tweene two extremities, is a poynt of great prudence.

Foure sorts of men haue néede of great wisedome.

  • 1. The Preacher in his doctrine.
  • 2. The Iudge in his sentence.
  • 3. The Phisition in his patient.
  • 4. And ye rich man in his treasure.

[Page]There was none admitted in Athens to the calling of a Iudge, before he was olde, that experience & many yeres might be a warrant of his wisedome: so deceitfull sayth Solon are the allurements of riches, that he had neede of great wisedome which is not abused with their vanities.

Padre. A father.

Foure are the du­ties that a father oweth to hi [...] son.

  • 1. To instruct him in the Sciences.
  • 2. To learne him good manners.
  • 3. To hold him in obedience.
  • 4. And to nourish him moderatelie.

So carefull wa [...] the Senate of Rome for the instruc­tion of children, that such fathers as were negligent in instructing them, were fined by the Censors in a [...]eat summe, and lost their fréedome in the Cittie. Cato Vti­censis helde his sonne in such obedience, that he caused him to be banished Rome, for breaking a pytcher which a maid carried full of water in her hand.

Prelato. A Prelate or Priest.

Foure things do [...] be­long as necessarie to a Priest.

  • 1. Residence in hi [...] Ministrie.
  • 2. Honestie in his manner [...].
  • 3. Care of his flocke.
  • 4. And hospitalitie.

Paule wryting vnto Timothie, handleth thi [...] matter at large, to whose censure I refer the courteous Reader.

Parlare. Speaking or speech.

Foure things be­long to him that hath to speake.

  • 1. To premeditate what he will say.
  • 2. To consider wel to whom he spea­keth.
  • 3. To note the time and place.
  • 4. And to pronounce his wordes di­stinctlie.

[Page]When Phillip the Macaedonian sent Embassadours to Athens, Demosthenes béeing appointed by the consent of the Senate to aunswere them, was found the night be­fore in great consultation with himselfe: and beeing de­maunded why he was so solitarie, and so perplexed in his minde, knowest thou not, quoth hee, I must to morrowe talke with the Embassadours of Phillip?

Pace. Peace.

Foure effects that procéede frō peace.

  • 1. It increaseth a Cittie.
  • 2. Breedeth store of victuall.
  • 3. Heapeth vp riches.
  • 4. And maketh merry Cittizens.

Tullie thought so well of peace, that hee had oft this saying in his mouth: Iniustissima pax, iustissimo bello est an­teferenda, that the most iniust peace, was to be preferred before most iust warre: Zeno at his death being demaun­ded by his Schollers, what nowe he would craue of the Gods, this quoth he, that my fréends may liue vertuously, and the Common-wealth may florish with peace.

Foure things are neces­sarie for him that obser­ueth peace.

  • 1. Not to defraude any man.
  • 2. To vse patience.
  • 3. To maintaine league.
  • 4. And in euery thing to vse iustice.

Want of performance of iustice by the Senatours, made many & sundry breaches in Rome, of peace breeding ciuill mutinies and discorde, for those which were wron­ged and iniuried, in the time of Catelyne prooued his con­federates.

Penuria. Penurie or want.

Foure sorts o [...] men fall into penurie.

  • 1. The prodigall.
  • 2. The glutton.
  • 3. The olde man.
  • 4. And he that delighteth in strife.

[Page]Dissention and discord is as a Moath that eateth and consumeth riches, and prodigalitie is a vice that ruina­teth Monarchies.

Pericolo. Perrill.

Foure sorts of men put their compani­ons in daunger.

  • 1. He that is in punishment.
  • 2. He that is afflicted in his iourney
  • 3. He that walketh in dignitie.
  • 4. And he that looseth a battaile.

Cicero clyming by his wisedome and eloquence vnto promotion, walking in the slypperie path of dignitie, no sooner fell in disgrace, but all those of his alliance or affi­nitie, were in great perrill and danger: insomuch that his sonne in Lawe Dolobella, sequestred himselfe from Rome to auoide imminent daungers.

Foure things are perrilous.

  • 1. To liue vnder a Tyrant.
  • 2. To trust in the wind.
  • 3. To [...]ight in warre.
  • 4. And to company with a foole.

When one of the thirtie Tyrants told Socrates, that it was dangerous for him to macerat his bodie so much with fasting, nay quoth Socrates, but it is dangerous for a man to liue vnder a Tyrant. Diogenes seeing a Cap­taine of Alexanders talking with a foolish man, had hym take heede: why is there any danger quoth the Captain, yea quoth Diogenes, if thou cōpany long with that man.

Pouerta. Pouertie.

Foure Artes doo im­pouerish a man.

  • 1. Grammer.
  • 2. Lodgicke.
  • 3. Arithmeticke.
  • 4. And Geometrie.

By this, the Author meaneth as I gesse, that all li­berall Artes decay, that deuotion towardes learning is [Page] told, and that it is the poorest condition to be a Scholler, all Artes fayling but Diuinitie, Law, and Phisicke, the one profiting the soule, the second the purse, the third the bodie.

Foure things make a man poore.

  • 1. A woman.
  • 2. Gaming.
  • 3. Ill cōpanie.
  • 4. And strife.

Or thus

  • 1. To stand idle.
  • 2. Reuenge.
  • 3. Gluttonie.
  • 4. And to liue be­beyond a mans boundes.

These are foure notable vices, which bring bothe health and wealth to confusion.

Peccato. Sinne.

Foure sinnes in man most dete­stablie wicked.

  • 1. To kill a mans neighbour without cause.
  • 2. To speake euil of any man.
  • 3. To defraude vniustlie.
  • 4. And to offer causelesse iniurie.

Pregato. Prayer or intreatie.

Foure things he ought to consider that is intrea­ted.

  • 1. What he is by whom he is intrea­ted.
  • 2. For what cause he is intreated.
  • 3. What shall folow if he doo graunt.
  • 4. And what may happen if he doo not graunt.

Presenti. Presents or gifts.

Foure things doe presents procure.

  • 1. They driue away the couetous.
  • 2. They couer faultes.
  • 3. Increase nobilitie.
  • 4. And choake an enemie.

Therefore dyd Lycurgus forbid any that bore office in the Cittie, to take any presents, because, quoth he, they [Page] cloake offences and mittigate punishments. When the Ciuill warre was most hote betwéene Caesar and Pom­pey, Pompey sent presents vnto Caesar, which when the Monarche saw, he vttered these wordes, now that Pom­pey seeth fortune faile him in the wars, he séekes to con­quer his enemie in bountie.

Perfectione. Perfection.

Foure things doo bring a worke to perfection.

  • 1. The knowledge of Artes.
  • 2. The imitation of wise mē.
  • 3. The kéeping of custome.
  • 4. And a gratious pronunti­ation.

Penitente. A repentant.

Foure things are necessary to him that repenteth.

  • 1. Confession of mouth.
  • 2. Contrition of hart.
  • 3. Satis-faction by works.
  • 4. And to continue in well dooing.

The Pharisie in the Gospell had confession of mouth, but the Publicane had contrition of heart: for not euerie one that cryeth Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heauen, but he saith Christ that dooth the will of my fa­ther, which is in heauen.

Prezzo inestimabile. Inestimable price.

Foure things are so great as they cannot be valued.

  • 1. Knowledge.
  • 2. Health.
  • 3. Manners.
  • 4. And vertue.

Popolari. The Common people.

Foure things doo delight the Com­mon people.

  • 1. Want and defect of Artes.
  • 2. Cheapenesse of victuailes.
  • 3. The oppression of Nobilitie.
  • 4. And de [...]re of noueltie.

[Page]Héere is made a right perfect and absolute description of the faultes that raigne in the mindes of the populer sortes: for not séeing into the profit that ryseth to y Com­mon-wealth by the knowledge of the liberall Sciences, they hold learning and learned men in contempt, counting nothing necessarie, but what is mecanicall, whereof it is truelie sayd: Scientia non habet immicum praeter ignorantem: againe, they brooke not the Nobilitie, as impatient of su­periours, and as men wishing euery Common-wealth were a Democracie, striue to be Lords themselues, ay­ming at such desires by enuie. Desirous they are of change, both of Magistrates and of Lawes, as contented with nothing but foode and noueltie.

Re. A king.

There are foure things glorious in a King.

  • 1. To rule his Subiects with father­lie care.
  • 2. To get fréendes with his deserts.
  • 3. To be affable to sutors.
  • 4. And to vse iustice with clemencie.

These foure things were found to be in ye good Emperor Tytus, for he was in his gouernment, tender ouer his sub­iects as the father ouer his children: so that in the warres he preferred the life of one Romane, before the death of a hundred enemies: he gotte him many fréends by his ver­tues, and counted not that day amongst the number of his yéeres, wherein he had not giuen some benefit, or graun­ted some sute.

Ringiouenire. To wexe young.

Foure things doo wexe young in an olde man.

  • 1. The hart.
  • 2. Uanitie.
  • 3. The tongue.
  • 4. And conc [...]piscence.

Religioso suddito. A religious subiect.

There are foure things belonging to a religi­ous Subi [...]ct.

  • 1. To attend vpō his Office.
  • 2. To obey the Bishops.
  • 3. To flée idlenes.
  • 4. And to giue himselfe to prayer.

Rettore. A Ruler.

Foure things are neces­sarie in a Ruler.

  • 1. Experience in affayres.
  • 2. Loue towards his subiects.
  • 3. Constancie in his actions.
  • 4. And iustice in euery thing.

Codrus bare such loue to his Subiects, that when it was sette downe by the Oracle, that his men shoulde be discomfited vnlesse he were slaine, he put himself into the apparrell of a base Souldiour, and got him to the enemies Campe, where quarrelling with one of the Scowtes, hee was slayne, and so preferred death before the losse of his subiects.

Foure things doo be­long to him that is a Ruler, and yet sub­iect to an other.

  • 1. To obey his superior in things Lawfull.
  • 2. To prouide for the weale of the Common-wealth.
  • 3. To aduaunce the good.
  • 4. To beate downe the wicked.

Such were the Tribunes and Triumuirs, the Que­stors, Cenzors, and Ediles in Rome, which ruled among the people, and yet were all subiect to the Senate, wh [...]m they obey [...]d with all reuerence: so by their ob [...]dience drawing the Common people to the like submission: pro­uiding carefully in their seuerall Offices for the Cōmon-wealth.

Robba. Wealth.

Foure things take away a mans wealth vpon the sud­daine.

  • 1. Fyer.
  • 2. A Tyrant.
  • 3. A tempest.
  • 4. And an Armie, or Ene­mie.

Antisthenes liuing in Athens, vnder the gouernment of the thirtie Tyrants, no sooner became Auditor to Phi­losophie but he gaue away all his wealth and substaunce, and béeing demaunded why he did so, made this answer, I had rather be counted a Philosopher for contemning riches, then be thought vnhappie in hauing them taken a­waie by Tyrants.

There are foure things which de­priues a man of his substaunce.

  • 1. Water.
  • 2. Gluttonie.
  • 3. Gaming.
  • 4. And lecherie.

Diogenes, séeing a byll of sale sette on a gluttonous mans doore, sayd, I thought that thys house would sur­fet so long, that at last hee woulde spue out his Maister, thinking that gluttonie and superfluiti [...] of fare, had wa­sted his substaunce. Wee reade in the Gospell, that the prodigall and wanton disposition of the vnrulie Sonne, brought him to goe naked and poore, wasted his patrimo­nie, and consumed all that wealth which his father had bestowed vpon him.

Superbia. Pryde.

Foure things procéede from pryde.

  • 1. Ingratitude.
  • 2. Oppression of our neighbour.
  • 3. Ill speeche.
  • 4. And dissention.

The proude man taketh such conceit in himselfe, that hee taketh all good turnes that are doone him, to come of [Page] dutie, and therefore is ingratefull, not sparing to sp [...]ake ill, or to oppresse his neighbour, for that chalenging a su­perioritie aboue others in his minde, he thinketh his acti­ons are not to be controlled.

There are four things which make a man proude.

  • 1. Wealth.
  • 2. Power.
  • 3. Dignitie.
  • 4. And parentage.

Foure things abates pride.

  • 1. Pouertie.
  • 2. Oppression.
  • 3. Olde age.
  • 4. And sicknes.

Pride beeing (sayth Socrates,) an ouerweening of a mans selfe, is commonlie a fault in youth, which when consideration and experience hath sifted and layde in the ballance, olde age findeth too light for his humour, and therefore reiecteth it as a follie. Sicknesse quaileth, and bringeth those sences in defect, which are ye very sinewes and force of pryde.

Speranza. Hope.

Foure things procéed from hope.

  • 1. Health of bodie.
  • 2. Quiet of minde.
  • 3. Comfort of labours.
  • 4. And length of life.

Let vs alwaies hope well (sayth Zenocrates) least if that fayle, we prooue miserable: for the gréefe of our la­bour, toyle, and industrie is asswaged by hope, which ma­keth all endeuors, though neuer so dangerous, séeme eas [...]e.

Seruire. To serue.

Foure things doo make a man to serue.

  • 1. Feare.
  • 2. Loue of gayne.
  • 3. To be marked.
  • 4. And ambition.

[Page]Seruile mindes that feare the frowne of their Supe­riours, are glad to become seruaunts, by such obedi [...]nce and humilitie séeking to please: and so forceable is the desire of gaine, as it oft times metamorphiseth a frée mind into a slauish condition, and therefore did Per [...]ennius serue Commodus the Emperour, because hee was ambitious, and aspired to the Empire.

Foure things doo app [...]r­taine to a Seruaunt.

  • 1. Carefuln [...]sse in s [...]ruice.
  • 2. Willingn [...]sse to doo what he is commaunded.
  • 3. Affabilitie in sp [...]ech.
  • 4. And myrth ioyned with hys laboure.

Whereupon an olde English disticke.

A seruaunt that is diligent honest and good.
Must sing at his worke like a bird in the wood.

Foure things make a man seruile.

  • 1. A flattering & pleasant tongue.
  • 2. Desire of gayne.
  • 3. To receiue presents.
  • 4. And little vnderstanding.

Pompey when he was about to be chosen Consull, sent pres [...]nts to Cato, which hee refusing, willed the Messen­ger to say [...]o Pompey, that he should take againe his gyft, for he would speake in his behalfe as a frée-man [...] not as a seruaunt, alluding to the Fren [...]h prouerbe.

Chi d' al [...]rui preud,
Subiect se reud.

Foure things doo belong to a hand­m [...]yde.

  • 1. To haue care ouer her mistresse.
  • 2. To be no carri [...]r of newes.
  • 3. To be shamefast.
  • 4. And to doo her busin [...]s with dili­gen [...]s.

As before in the d [...]tie of a wif [...], so I refer [...]is place [...]o the censure of Lodo [...]cus Viues, in the instit [...]ti [...]n of a Christian Woman.

Soldato. A Souldier.

There are foure things be­longing to a Souldio [...]r.

  • 1. Witte.
  • 2. Courage.
  • 3. Money.
  • 4. And liberalitie.

Epaminondas the Theban Captaine, was wont to wish that all Captaines were Philosophers, and al Soul­diers learned: he appointed none to any great Office that was not passing wise, and somewhat skilfull in the libe­rall Sciences: and of such courage he was, that fighting a battaile to the vttermost, being wounde [...] to death, hee would not out of the field, till newes was brought hym that his souldiers had won the victorie.

Sommessione. Submission [...]

Foure sorts of men doo well to hold other in submission

  • 1. A king his subiects.
  • 2. A father his children.
  • 3. Husbands their wiues.
  • 4. Maisters their schollers.

Stimolo all delitto. A prick vnto sinne.

There are fo [...]re th [...]gs d [...]o pricke a man forward to [...]inne.

  • 1. Anger.
  • 2. Necessitie [...]
  • 3. Hate.
  • 4. And couetousnes.

Durum necessitatis te [...]m, the sting of necessity is sore, and therefore it is sayd to be without Lawe; as prescribed within no certaine limmits. Necessitie forced the [...]dians to inue [...]t gaming. N [...]cessi [...]ie forced the inhabitants of Thebes to breake the league, otherwise they had béen ru­inated by famine.

Secretezza inutile. Secrecie vnprofitable.

Th [...]re [...]re [...]oure thi [...]s which doo little profi [...] being kept secrete.

  • 1. Rouenewes.
  • 2. Power.
  • 3. Knowledge.
  • 4. And eloquence.

[Page] Appolonius Tianaeus a Pythagorian Philosopher, be­ing demaunded wherein a man did bothe hinder himselfe and other: in hyding (quoth he) of knowledge, which rea­son mooued Plutarch greatly to inueigh against Neocles the brother of Epycurus, for setting downe to his disciples this principle, (hide thy life) as counting him an enemie to man, that would obscure knowledge.

Senso. Sence.

Foure things doo sharpen the sense.

  • 1. Desire to profit.
  • 2. Necessary consideration.
  • 3. Cōference with wise mē.
  • 4. And the occasion of a be­nefite.

Marcus Aurelius the Emperour béeing verie old, and yet of verie quicke memorie, béeing demaunded on a time how béeing so farre in yeeres his sense [...] were fre [...]h, made this aunswer, as a knife i [...] kept bright from rust by scow­ring, so are the senses preserued by reading & conference.

There are foure sense [...] neces­sarie aboue the rest to man.

  • 1. Seeing.
  • 2. Hearing.
  • 3. Touching.
  • 4. And tasting.

Foure things doo great­lie dull the senses.

  • 1. Delight in women.
  • 2. Cruell aduersitie.
  • 3. Oppression through famine
  • 4. And too much prosperitie.

Plato admitted no Auditour in his Academie, but such as while they were his schollers woulde abstaine frō wo­men: for he was wont to say, that the greatest enemie to the m [...]morie, was venerie. Aduersitie so troubleth the heade, which is the seate of the sences, with cares, as by continuall r [...]minating of thoughts, it wearieth out the senses with yrkesomnesse. And prosperitie so puffeth vppe [Page] the minde with pride, that it maketh a man not oneli [...] to defect in his senses, but euen to forget hymselfe.

Scienza. Knowledge.

There are foure things which first brought in knowledge.

  • 1. The loue of vaine glorie.
  • 2. Delight to reade.
  • 3. Desire to gaine.
  • 4. And Diuine inspira­tion.

Tys reported that the Liberall Sciences were first drawne into forme by Hermes Tresmegistus, whō there­fore the Poets tyteled with the name of Mercurie, calling him the Messenger of the Gods, meaning by that Aenig­matical fiction, that he attained to such knowledge by some diuine inspiration.

Sauio. A wise man.

Foure things sound not wel in the mouth of a wiseman.

  • 1. To extoll baze things.
  • 2. Not to prayse that is prayse worthy.
  • 3. To contrary in vnknown things him that is skilfull.
  • 4. And to striue with his neighbour for things impertinent.

Erasmus in his Chiliads calleth thys foolish strife be­tweene Neighbours, Pro lana Caprina rixare, to stryue for Goates hayre, to make a question of that which gotten or lost, redoundeth to small profit or disprofit.

Sanita. Health.

Foure things are hurt­full vnto health.

  • 1. Inordinate vse of women.
  • 2. Superfluitie of meates.
  • 3. Too much colde.
  • 4. And too much labour.

[Page]Although we are commaunded by the learned Phisi­tions, to accustome our bodies to labour, and that Tully in hys Epistles to his freende Atticus, and his fréeman Ty­ro, willeth them for their health to vse exercise, yet excesse in euery thing being a vice, causeth too much labor great­lie to weaken the bodie.

Stato. State.

By foure things a man may come to good estate.

  • 1. By dooing well.
  • 2. By vsing loyaltie.
  • 3. By saying trueth.
  • 4. By thinking no vile things.

Agathocles béeing a Potters sonne, and preferred to the dignitie of a king, béeing demaunded merrily by one of his fréendes, by what meanes he aspired to such prefer­ment, aunswered, by thinking honorably, and speaking the trueth.

Temperanza. Temperaunce.

Of foure things Tempe­rance dooth admonish vs [...]

  • 1. To cut off superfluitie.
  • 2. To bridle desires.
  • 3. To abstaine from vnlaw­full things.
  • 4. And to banish al vaine de­lights.

Socrates was a Philosopher of so great temperaunce [...] that going into the market, and séeing many things there of great price, said, O God, howe many thinges be there that I neede not.

Traditore. A Traytor.

Four things are to be no­ted in a tra [...] ­tour.

  • 1. Most sweete hony in his mouth to de­ceiue.
  • 2. Deadly gall in his hart to betray.
  • 3. A fayned laughter in his countenance to intrap.
  • 4. A mortall effect in a fained action.

[Page] Synon, as Virgil makes mention in his Aeneiodos, when he went about to betray the Cittie of Troy, had sor­row in his tongue, and treason in his hart: Iudas smyled and kist Christ when he betraied him: Amo Proditione [...] (saith Phillip,) not proditorem, the Traytor may be flatte­red, not loued: looked to, but not trusted.

Terra. The earth.

There are foure things which the earth grudgeth to beare.

  • 1. A slaue that hath rule.
  • 2. A foole that is rich.
  • 3. A woman that is odious, and yet married.
  • 4. And a s [...]ruant that is he [...]or to her Mistresse.

Of this reade more in the Prouerb [...] of Salomon, and the booke of Wisedome.

Tedio. Tediousnes.

Foure things are very tedi­ous and toylesome.

  • 1. Rayne in the day time.
  • 2. Too much talke.
  • 3. Winde in the spring.
  • 4. And affliction wt labour.

Aristotle hearing a babling fellowe tell a long tale, and being demaunded how he liked it, went presently and layde him downe vpon his bed, giuing thē to vnderstande by this, that it was yrkesome and tedious.

Tyranne. A Tyrant.

Foure things doth a Tyrant alwaies.

  • 1. He destroyeth the good.
  • 2. He driueth away poore men.
  • 3. He aduaunceth the wicked.
  • 4. And suppresseth vertue.

Heliogabalus after hee was possessed of the Empire, sought straight the ouerthrow of such as were vertuous, and preferred to dignitie, bawdes, gluttons, and such like.

[Page]Foure things doo op­presse a Tyrant.

  • 1. Want of v [...]tuales.
  • 2. Too much oppre [...]sion.
  • 3. To attempt warre.
  • 4. And to abandon iustice.

Foure Tyrants haue beene more cruell then any other.

  • 1. Herod.
  • 2. Attyla.
  • 3. Nero.
  • 4. Esselynus.

Foure things deceiue a Tyrant, in thinking he hath y which hee hat [...] not.

  • 1. The fauour of the people.
  • 2. Nobilitie of fame.
  • 3. Aboundance of riches.
  • 4. A [...] will to rule.

A Tyrant causeth foure effects.

  • 1. Hee causeth dissention amongst the Cittizens.
  • 2. Oppresseth thē which are wise.
  • 3. Spoyleth the rich.
  • 4. And pulleth downe the mighty.

Four things hinder the rule of a Ty­rant.

  • 1. Concorde of Cittizens.
  • 2. Store of rich men.
  • 3. The fore [...]ght of the wise.
  • 4. And the courage of the mightie.

Foure things doo in­crease with the life of a Tyrant.

  • 1. The seueritie of his actions.
  • 2. The styng of pryde.
  • 3. The affliction of his subiects.
  • 4. And the disdaine of his nobles.

Four customes vsuall in a Tyrant.

  • 1. To be headlong in cruel actiōs.
  • 2. To be impatient in hearing.
  • 3. To wyll that all things come from him.
  • 4. To bee reprehended of no man.

Foure things are profitable for the subiect of a tyrant.

  • 1. To honour the mightie.
  • 2. Not to o [...]fend any man.
  • 3. To speake little.
  • 4. And liue solitarie.

Vtili [...]a. Profit.

Foure things are profi­table before the déede.

  • 1. To examine the beginning.
  • 2. To consider the midst.
  • 3. To fore-sée the end.
  • 4. And to aske counsaile of a wise man.

In all the actions of humaine life, saith Periander, if thou fore-sée what thou takest in hande, thou shalt not greatly erre, (principiis obsta,) stoppe at the beginning, and there consider what it is thou doost attempt, least time be­ing let slip, thou finde she is balde behinde. Amongst the darke precepts of Pythagoras, this was one (Dimidium plus t [...]to,) the halfe is more then the whole: meaning héer­by, that he which well weigheth the [...]rst halfe of his acti­on, hath doone more then if he performed all, inconsidered. Remember the ende (saith the wise-man) and thou shalt neuer doo amisse. For the finall euents foreséene, hardli [...] are any déedes bitten with repentaunce.

Vecchiezza. Old age.

Foure things doo spring from olde age.

  • 1. The defect of the senses.
  • 2. Cruell couetousnesse.
  • 3. Want of strength.
  • 4. And vaine ostentation.

There is no sinne but weareth away by time, coue­tousnes only excepted for adulterie ceaseth, when Natur [...] [...]ayleth, Gluttonie abateth by the weaknes of y^ stomack, Wrath and Enuie are the fruites of choller, and therfore not predominant in olde age, but Couetousnes neuer for­saketh a man, but sléepeth with him in his graue.

Foure things olde men doo.

  • 1. Giue holesome counsaile.
  • 2. Reach coldly to him which demaun­deth.
  • 3. Prayse things past.
  • 4. And accuse things and time present.

[Page]Olde men, (saith Sir Iefferie Chawcer,) are then in their right vaine, when they haue In diebus illis in theyr mouth: telling what passed long agoe, what warres they haue seene, what charitie, what cheapenes of victuals, al­waies blaming the time present, though neuer so fruitful.

Foure thinges doo belong vn­to olde men.

  • 1. To speake profitablie.
  • 2. To counsayle.
  • 3. To set enemies at concorde.
  • 4. And to instruct them which are ig­noraunt.

Zeno the Stoick béeing wexen olde, was demaunded of certaine Lacedaemonian Embassadours nowe that he had giuen ouer his Scholle [...]s, what he did practise in his age. I nowe (quoth hee) giue good counsaile, and seeke to pacif [...]e dissentions.

Vergogua. Shame.

Foure things are the efficients of shame.

  • 1. The increase of want.
  • 2. To receiue a iourney.
  • 3. To intreate others.
  • 4. And to be driuen from the multitude.

There is nothing that maketh a man more ashamed [...] then when he hath [...]éene rich to be oppressed with want, and to craue that of others, which before time his abilitie hath serued him to giue [...] which Alcibiades found true in his banishment, for séeing one of his Countrimen in ne­cessitie, and he not able to reléeue him, he [...]ghed and said, I am ashamed that I haue liued thus long.

Foure things driue away shame.

  • 1. Little knowledge.
  • 2. Heaping vp of riches.
  • 3. Excessiue power.
  • 4. And pride in Science.

The foole (saith Ecclesiastes) so delighteth in his fol­lie, as he regardeth not shame, and hee that is miserable [Page] sayth Erostratus, pref [...]rreth gaines before hones [...]ie, and is not ashamed to get by what sinister meanes so euer.

Foure sorts of men must not be shame fast.

  • 1. Players.
  • 2. Co [...]on [...]rs.
  • 3. Flatterers.
  • 4. And [...]eggers.

Vdit [...]. Hearing.

Foure things doo de­light the hearing.

  • 1. A sweete voyce.
  • 2. An eloquent tongue.
  • 3. A pleasant murmur.
  • 4. And an honest sute.

Traian the Emperour tooke such a delight in hearing the goods sutes and complaints of his subiects, that it is reported of him, he neuer denyed any mans sute that was lawfull and honest.

Vitio. A vice.

Foure vices are more hey­nous then any other.

  • 1. To denie God.
  • 2. To betray our Country.
  • 3. Wilful murther.
  • 4. And to deceiue a mans companion.

So greeuous a vice is this detestable sin of Atheisme, especially when a Christian through obstinacie denies his God, as it is not to be named amongst men. Sultan Soly­man, hauing the Ile of Mely [...]ta betrayed into his handes by a Christian, called Byzellius, to shewe howe hee did e­steeme of him that betrayed his Country, no sooner had the Traytor in his possession, but he [...]eyed him quicke, as a man vn [...]t for the company of men.

Foure things doo couer vices.

  • 1. Bountie in spending.
  • 2. Affabilitie in speech.
  • 3. Honestie in manners.
  • 4. And subtiltie in workes.

[Page]They which be vicious and rich, saith Epicte [...]s, co­uer their faultes with their treasure. There is nothing saith Clitobulus, that more eclipseth the sight, then the co­lour of gold and courteous language, for long was it ere the conspiracies of Catelyne could be discouered, he was so plausible a man among the Romaines. Cicero in his Phi­lippica, against Anthonie hath these wordes: hadst thou not couered thy gluttonies with hospitalitie, and thy ryot with giuing to the poore, long ere this had thy vicious life béene manifested vnto the people.

Foure punishments follow the adulterers vice. Eyther

  • 1. Etreame pouertie.
  • 2. Suddaine death.
  • 3. Shame before a Iudge.
  • 4. And losse of a member.
Quatuor impurus paenis plectetur adulter.
Aut hic pauper erit aut hic subito morietur.
Aut cadit in causam qua debet iudice vinci,
Aut aliquod membrum casu vel crimine perdet.

Verita. Trueth.

Foure things doo ma­nifest the trueth.

  • 1. Sight.
  • 2. Touching.
  • 3. A true witnesse.
  • 4. And tasting.

Although we commonly preferre sight for the sure [...]t sence, yet Aristotle in his Booke De sensibili et sensato, sayth, that of all the senses, it easeliest and soonest is de­ceiued, by the mea [...]es of the disparitie, and apparence of sundry obiects, or hauing the intermedium proportioned with too long a space.

Foure things darken trueth.

  • 1. Feare.
  • 2. Loue.
  • 3. Hate.
  • 4. Gaine.

Vita. Lyfe.

Four things doo prolong a mans life.

  • 1. To liue soberlie.
  • 2. To dwell with fréends.
  • 3. A holesome scituation.
  • 4. A quiet and a merry mind.

Nestor, who as Homer and other Historiographers doo report, liued three ages, beeing demaunded by Aga­memnon what was the causes of his so long life, aunswe­red, the first or primarie cause was the decrees of the Gods, the second, frugalitie in dyet, want of care and of melancholie. If you will die olde, (sayth Hermogenes, lyue not in Law-places, eschew delicates, and spend thy idle time in honest and merry companie.

Vso. Vse.

Foure things cannot be well attayned vnto without vse.

  • 1. The knowledge of Grammer.
  • 2. To wryte fayrer.
  • 3. To preache well.
  • 4. And to make verses.
FINIS.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.