Euphues his censure to Philautus, Wherein is presented a philosophicall combat betweene Hector and Achylles, discoue­ring in foure discourses, interlaced with diuerse delightfull Tragedies, The vertues necessary to be incident in eue­ry gentleman: had in question at the siege of Troy betwixt sondry Grecian and Troian Lords: espe­cially debated to discouer the perfection of a Souldier.

Containing mirth to purge melancholy, holsome precepts to profit maners, neither vnsauerie to youth for delight, nor offensiue to age for scurilitie.

Ea habentur optima quae & Iucunda, honesta, & vtilia.

Robertus Greene, In artibus magister.

LONDON. Printed by Ihon Wolfe for Edward White, and are to bee sold at his shop, at the litle North doore of Paules, at the signe of the Gunne. 1587.

TO THE RIGHT HONORA­ble Robert, earle of Essex & Ewe, vicount of Hereford, and Bourghchier, Lord Ferrer [...] of Chattley, Bourghchier and Louayne, maister of the Queenes maiesties horse, Robert Greene wisheth increase of honor and vertue.

THe Egyptians (right hono­rable) seeing the counterfait of Mercurie figured with his Caduceus in his ryght hande, offered for sacrifice nothing but bay leaues [...] in that they knew such oblations best ted his humor: Such as sought to beautifie the temple of Pallas, set vp for Iewels bookes & shields, for that the goddesse did most patro­nage learning and souldiers: Hectors delight was martiall discipline, and they presented him with horse & armour, noting by these presidents, how all haue sought in their pre­sents [Page] to keepe a decorum: hauing by happe chaunced on some parte of Ephues counsell touching the perfection of a souldier, sent from Silexedra his melancholie cell to his friende Philautus new chosen generall of certaine forces, wherein vnder the shadow of a philosophicall combat betweene He­ctor and Achilles, imitating Tullies orator, Platoes cōmon wealth, and Baldessars cour­tier, he aymeth at the exquisite portraiture of a perfect martialist, consisting (sayth hee) in three principall pointes; wisedome to gouerne; fortitude to perfourme; liberali­tie to incourage: I thought good (right honorable) (hauing heard of your noble & vertous resolutions, not onely in lauda­ble and honorable qualities, generally in­serted in your Lordships mynde, but espe­cially in the fauour of warlike indeuours, following the steppes of your honorable father) whose life and actions left an ad­miration of his Vertues, to present your Lordship wyth this homelie gyfte, vnper­fect [Page] as the halfe formed counterfaite of A­pelles: and shadowed with such bad col­lours, as might I not excuse my boldnesse, in that blinde men are euer most rash, and ho­norable men euer the most courteous, I should the more grieue at my inconsidered presumption: but two especiall coniectures doe somewhat salue the sorrow of my for­ward follie: the first, the report of your ap­prooued courage and valour (in the lowe Countries) shewed in the face of your ene­mie, maintained with such a magnanimi­ous resolution, as the foe was faine to con­fesse Vertue in his aduersarie: the seconde, your Lordships courtesie in acceptaunce of good wil from the meanest: th'one manifes­ting your desire to be thought an honorable souldier, biddeth mee hope, that as Alexan­der did vouchsafe of Misons rude & vnpoli­shed picture of Mars: for that the prince delighted in wars, so your honor will giue a glance at this toy, if not for the workman­ship, yet for that it treateth of martiall disci­pline: [Page] the other assures mee, that amongst many other, I shall, though without desert, [...]aste of your Lordships honorable courte­sie, in vouchsafing such a meane and vnsa­uorie present, wherewith if I be fauored (as I hope well) my labour hath his reward, and my desire his content: in which assured hope resting, I commit your honor to the almightie.

¶ To the Reader.

GEntlemen, by chance some of Eu­phues loose papers came to my hand, wherein hee writ to his friend Philautus from Silexedra certaine pinciples necessary to bee obserued by euery souldier, con­iecturing with my selfe the opynion of the man would bee not onely authenticall, but pleasing, and that the tyme required such a discourse, as necessa­rie: I thought not to conceale his censure, but to participate what I had to your courteous fauours, although intēded by him for the pryuate vse of his deerest friend, hoping as euer I haue done to find your courteous acceptation, and that you will for Euphues sake vouchsafe of the matter, and re­quitall of my trauell make some fauorable conie­cture of my good meaning: which hoping to ob­tayne, I rest satisfied [...]

A Philosophicall combat betweene Hector and Achilles, wherein in the persons of the Tro­ian and Gretian Lords; are in fowre discourses in-ri­ched with fowre delightfull Hystories, the ver­tuous mindes of true nobilitie and gen­tility pleasantly discouered.

HElena the haplesse wyfe of vn­happy Menelaus, beawtified frō aboue, to inflict a mortall punish­ment vpon men beneath: hono­red in Gréece more for her beawty then hir honesty (a fault which fondlings account for a fauour) fulfilling the dreame of Hecuba, that she hatched a fierbrād which should bring Troy to cy [...]ers: through her lawlesse consent to Paris, so troubled the qui­etn [...]sse of Asia, that Priamus [...]lowrishing as prince of [...]at part of the worlde, was with his sonnes and daughters brought to ruine: (the ende of voluptuos appetites) which they mayntained with the sworde. For Agamemnon copartner of Menelaus gréefe (as friendship is the [...]rind to reueng) ayded with all the Kings, Princes, Dukes, and Knightes of Gréece intended a resolute leg [...]r to the citie of Troy, which conti [...]ued [...]wo yeares without truce, by sun­drie assaults, [...], and [...], had d [...]uo [...]r [...]d of both part [...]s [...] my vahaunt captaynes that by common consent after a frie [...]dly par [...] they res [...]lued vpon a truce for [Page] thirty dayes during which time, the Tr [...]ian Ladies (re­sembling Proserpina that must of necessity taste a gra [...]ne of the forbidden Pomgranate) namely Andromache, Cas­sandra and Polixena, accompanied with Hector, Troilus, Aeneas, Helenus, and diuers other of royall parentage, went to sée the Gretian tents peopled with their enemies. Fame (the spedy discouerer of new [...]s) bewraying their in­tent to the states of Gréece: Achilles amongst the rest ( [...]or that the report of Polixenas beawty had made a conquest of his affections) in that the [...]are leadeth to the inwarde senses as well as the eye, craued of the Gouernour and generall of their forces hee might bee honoured with the intertaynment of the Troians: his request graunted ac­companied with his Myrmidones, he went to meete them in this manner.

First marched on before the rest, a hundreth and fifty on the most gallaunt Coursers that Greece did afoorde, their caparisons of Greene Ueluet interseamed with stars of Golde, about which was writ [...]en thus impre [...]ze, Lux & tenebra. Next to these Achilles, mounted vpon an A­rabian courser couler Blacke, whose furniture was blewe Ueluet fringed with Golde, whereon was curiously em­brodred the Target of Pallas with a Gorgons head, his impreeze. Sic Amor. His companions weare Vlisses, Dio­me, Patroclus, with many Lordes of great valour and progenie. The Gretians thus marching on in order met Hector who was fi [...]st of his companie, whose very face harboring an extraordinary kinde of mai [...]stie gaue them all to knowe, by supposi [...]ion, that this was he which by his valour had made such dismall massacres, euen to their very Pauilions. Letting him and the rest of his crue passe with an enuious courtesie, as feeling in their mindes th [...] scarres of his man-hoode: at last Aihilles and hee came within view, who neuer hauing seene each other be­fo [...]e, but in armor as enemies manacing reuēg in the field, stood along time as men in a trance, till Hector burst foorth into speaches.

[Page]Lords of Gréece, enemies by defiaunce, and yet frinder vy Fortune, hoping to finde you as firme in promise of truce, as resolute in performaunce of valour, in that no­ble mindes preferre honour before conquests: The Ladies of Troie (whose princely thoughts account none enemies but in Armour) noting from ye Walles your experience in martiall discipline desirous to prayse vertue in an enemy, are come vnder the conduct of naked knights (yet armed by the lawe of armes) to see if the Gretian pollicie in cyuill court [...]sie, bée comparable to their prowes in warlicke inde­uours. This onely cause hath made the Ladies thus farre aduenturous, if they haue lycence to passe further, their sight satisfied, and the end of their desires fauoured with well construing of their trauells: They meane, safe re­tourned, to make requitall with thankes and prayse, the truest tokens of liberalitie, and surest defensories against ingratitude. If their labour bee in vaine, and further graunt of passage denyed, to make a counterpoyse of dis­courtesie to the vtteraunce, I auow by the oath of knight­hoode to seale the summe of such iniury (the truce ended) at the tent of your generall maugre Achilles, and all his Myrmidones, and for that you shall challeng what I pro­mise in silkes to bee perfourmed in Armour. Know I am Hector. His chardge giuen him by the Ladies vttered. The Lordes of Gre [...]ce pawsing vpon the magnanimity of Hector that durst amidst his enemies resolue [...]ppon reuenge. Achilles whose senses generally were troubled with speciall obiects, lending as well his eye to the beaw­ty of Poli [...]ena, as his [...]are to the parlée of Hector gathe­ring his wittes together retourned him bouldly and brie­fly this answere.

The Gretians worthy Lordes whose fore pointed re­solutions are euer limited within the proportion of Iustice, holde their woordes as lawes, and sacrifice their thoughts with their deedes, at the Aultars of equity, measuring ene­myes at the point of the Launce and frindes by perfour­mance of league, vsing their hands and heartes as the in­struments [Page] of Delphos, which might not be touched by any appeached of periury: honoring Ladies as well in armour as in Lawrell, and counting it the chiefe point of cheiual­rie to succour the oppressed enemie with the sworde: these premisses considered in the behalfe of the rest, I confirme specially to the Ladies as inforced by duty, and yet gene­rally to all, as constrayned by promyse a frindly welcome. For whose safty I pawne the pledge of a prince, which is honour. Threts that are conditionall are the more easely broked, and therefore omitting such fryuolous suppo [...]itions louely Ladies of Troy and your attendaunts, I sweare a hearty welcome: for performaunce of which, take the faith of Achilles. This promise past these two princes imbraced each other, the rest of the Lords imitating theyr mutuall fa­uors, interchanged the like courtesies, so that ioyning their Troupes together, they roade on towardes the campe. Achilles who knewe as well how to tune the Lute with Venus, as to sound the Trumpet with Mars, and had as great affability in his tounge to intertayne a Lady, as strength in his hand to repulse an enemy, that could as wel leade a daunce as followe a march: after generall courte­sies past betweene the Gretian Lordes, and the Dames of Troy, he subtelly singled him selfe with Polixena whom he held in prattle to his tent in this manner.

[...] see Madame, that your father Priamus is as polli­tick [...] [...]o make a conquest, as his sonnes bee valiaunt to at­tempt a victory, and that his indeuour to captyuate our myndes will be of more effycacie then their labour to wea­ken our forces, for that beawtie is of more vigour then pro­wesse, and affection a sorer enemy to resist then fortitude: Hercules found the sight of Deianyra more perilous then all the rest of his trauells. Mars had rather oppose him selfe against all the Gods, then enter a iarre with Venus. Beawty is metaphysicall, and therefore challengeth a supremacy aboue Nature: Exteriour actions are tyed to the Wynges of Fortune, but thoughts as they are pas­sionate, so they are within the compasse of Fancy, I speake [Page] this Madame, in that the Senators of Troy seeing how well the Greekes are able to brooke the force of Hector and Troilus, the two hopefull Champions of Asia, haue now not in defiaunce, but vnder Patronage of Truce sent such sweete enemyes, as are able with their very lookes to make a greater conquest, then all your hardy knights with their Launces; if then Madame vnarmed as we be, beawtie take vs at discouert, and make a Breach ma [...] ­gre our teeth into our rampiers, yet hold wee our selues good Souldiers in that her weapons are inchaunted, and such as the more they are resi [...]ted the more they pearce. Polixena who as she was fayre, so shee was wyse, seeing how clarkely Achilles began to claw hir by the Elbowe, willing to let him knowe shee was able to espie a pad in the straw, cut him of in the midst of his talke with this aunswere.

I cannot thinke sir but my father Priamus standeth in better hope to fier the Pauylions of his enemyes with a Brande then with a Booke, and putteth more assurance in the valour of his Sonnes then in the counsell of his Senatours, yet knowing the Goddesse Pallas whose sa­cred Palladium wee haue in Troy, vseth as well a pen as a Speare, hee counteth pollycie a necessary frinde to prowesse, and a Schollers Lawrell wreath, no disgrace to a Souldiours steeled Helmet. But whereas in [...]sho­nour of our knights, you alledge hee hath sent Ladyes to make a conquest by beawtie that cannot bee atchieued with the Swoorde: This were (good sir) but a slender shift to deceiue him selfe, for wee knowe that the eye be­ing impartiall in censuring of coullers neuer flattereth it selfe in the emblazing of Beawtie. The Gretian La­dies then being farre our superiours in those fauors which the Graces gyue, commaundeth vs to blush at compari­sons, I must as simple as I am suppose your coniect [...]re dissimuled, sith so litle probability drawes me on to beliefe. But put case this supposition beare some liklihood of truth. Doe wee not know our enemies are Gretians, taught in [Page] their Schoolles amongst their Philosophers, that all wis­dome is honest that is profitable, that theyr heads are as full of subtelty, as their hartes are of valour, howe their thoughts are plumed with the feathers of time, & that fan­cie hangeth at their eylids which neuer maketh so deepe an impression, but it may bee shaken of at euery wincke for an instaunce. Giue me leaue to alledge Theseus, who was as valiant as most, and yet saith Helena as variable as might bee. Then sir feare not our forces, for we Ladies come but to fetch [...]ier, neyther to see as desirous to choose, nor to bee seene as willing to please, only to trie the Grea­tian courtesie, and that wee looke for by promise. Achil­les amazed with the checke of such an vnlookt for mate, per­ceiuing that the Ladyes of Troie had a deepe in-sight into the Gretian actions, blusht at his owne conceiptes in yt he knew better how to redouble a blow vpon his enemie, then giue a counterchecke to such a subtill reply, yet following his footing, thus hee made answere.

T'is hard in deede Madame, to harbour beliefe in the bozome of mistrust, or to blind suspition with a false coul­ler, especially when conceipt standeth at the doore of an enemy. But were there a league betweene Asia and Greece, as a Flagge of defiaunce waueth ouer the walles of Troy, then might a creple hal [...] without checke, where­as [...]ow, tread we neaer so euen, our steppes are supposed aw [...]ye. But time the perfect Heralt of truth shall prooue the Gretians so far out of loue with the God Ianus, that frowne hee neuer so much they will not offer him a myte for a Sacrifice. Your honour my Lorde (quoth Polixena) doth but dreame with Endymion in the mount. Womens wills are peremptorie & like Faulcons sometime they will bate at a ful fist. Time is ye best orator to a resolute minde, & therefore argue not where a principle is denied, for there the party is incredulous. Let loue alone for we come not to feede our eies with beawty nor our eares with passions, our countrie smoake burnes cleare enough for vs to warme vs at, setting downe, which rest, I pray you my Lorde whose [Page] tent is this that appeareth so rich. Achilles séeing the ston [...] was so pure that his coine would beare no touch, fell from his amorous prattle and tolde hir that the formost of azur [...] bisse, topt with a Dragon, perced with a speare, was the pauilion of their Generall Agamemnon: what? the fa­ther (quoth) Polixena of Iphigenia so famous for hir wis­dome and chastity, whom the Gretians haue so honored in their madrigalles as a second Diana: The same (quoth) Achilles, and so madame you are welcome to the Greekish host, leauing of thus their priuate prattle, Agamemnon accompanied with aged Nestor and other Lords, stoode at the doore of Achilles tent redie to intertayne the Troians who with the rest dismounting from their horse, Hector pazing hand in hand with Achilles, Troilus with Vlisses, and Helenus with Patroclus, they were together with the Ladies in great magnificence conducted into the inner part of the pauilion: where Agamemnon after he had saluted the Lords, and welcomed the Ladies, he presented ye Troi­ans wyth as braue a spectacle, as they incountred the Gre­tians, for there came out in most rich attyre, Iphigenia, Bryseis, and Cresida, thrée nothing inferiour in fauours to the daughters of Priamus: an interchange of courtesie passed betweene these Dames, and some parlée had which I ouer passe, they sat downe to dynner, where sumptuously serued, taking their repast without any great talke: [...] ta­bles taken vp, Vlysses naturally desirous to haue an inught into the maners of men, began to break their silence in this maner.

I can but woonder worthy Lords of Troy at the mad­nesse of Paris, that allured by the care, passed the seas to possesse him selfe of a supposed Iem, syth his owne country soyle aforded farre more pretious Iewells, but lesse is the Margarite accounted of in the westerne world where it is found, then the seede Pearle in a straunge countrey where it is vnknowne, thoughts, the farther they wade, the swee­ter: and desires ended with perrill, sauour of the greatest de­light. Open prayses are counted secret flatteries, but the [Page] mouth of an enemy seldome ouerflowes with good words, if then without preiudice I may speake of wisedome at the shryne of Apollo. Let me say courteous Knights that your Dames, if eyther ye rest be like these, or their daily actions may be measured by their present behauior: are beawtiful [...] as fauored by nature in their exteriour liniamēts. Wise, as graced with a diu [...]ne influence, sober & silent, as portending a temperate & vnfained chastity. The perfection of Nature consisting in these pointes: I maruell Paris woulde make his choice of such a [...]eece, and hasard the welfare of his fa­ther, countrey, and friendes, for a woman only indewed with the bare tytle of beawty, such a fading good as scarse can be possessed before it be vanished? Cressida tickled, a little with a selfe conceipt of hir owne wit, willing to let ye Troians know the phrase of hir speech was as fayre as the fourme of hir face, & that womens tounges perced as déepe as thei [...] eyes, interrupted Vlys [...]es in his talke thus.

And as great maruell my Lordes haue we the Ladies of Gretia, that Hector and his brethren, so famous through all y world for their martiall exploits, should beare armes in her defence, whose dishonesty ruinates both theyr fame & theyr countrey. Iustice gyuing euery man his due, allot [...] lyttle pryuiledge to de [...]rawde a man of his wyfe, which is the surest fe [...]mple. The fayth of a knight is not limited by val [...]r, but by vertue: fortitude consisteth not in hasar­ding without feare, but in being resolute vpon Iust cause, Helena is stolen, a fact repayed wtih infamy. Menelaus is iniuried, a thing crying for reuenge: the princely souldiers of Troy defends such a misse with the sword: a shamefull victory, if happely they myght obtaine the conquest. He­ctor as Chollericke as she was scrupulous, roundly with­out longer debating with him selfe, made hir this answere.

As Madame, Iustice in a vertue that giues euery man his owne by equall proportion, so reuenge the sweetest content to parsons thwar [...]ed with iniuries, lookes not to end hir actions with an euen ballance, but vseth Legem Talio [...], repaying like for like: styrring vp the fire with a [Page] Swoorde, and for brasse weighing downe the scales with Leade. As my brother hath brought a trull from Gréece, so myne Aunt, perforce (a fault farre surpassing this fact) was stolne from Troy, and from the Daughter of a king made a seruile Concubyne. Nature, that despight of tyme will frowne at abuse and honour: that hurte thirsteth to salue hir selfe with reuenge, hath taught vs (although wee offer Helena thoughtes fit for hir offence) to mayntayne my Brothers deede with the Swoorde, not to allowe such a fact honorable, but as holding it princely, with death to re­quite an iniury. If then (quoth Ac [...]illes) honour hangs in reuenge, I hope our resolute mindes to acquit Menela­us abuse, shall witnesse to the world, wee prefer a princely thought before a priuate lyfe, and choose rather to dy satis­fied then liue dishonoured. Troilus willing to shewe that the weapons of Troy were as sharp ground as the swords of the Gretians, and that feare had as litle priuiledge to crepe within their walles as to lurke within ye others tents, made Achilles this answere.

My Lords of Greece, the talke of a Souldiour ought to hang at the point of his sword: threats are not to be me­naced with the tounge, but with the Launce, & tune craues a proportion in all thinges: wee came to see the order of your Pauilions, not to discourse of attēpts in battaile. To sacrifice the talke of warres to Mars, before Ladye [...] is to offer a drumme and Trumpet to dainty Venus for a pre­sent. Greece complayneth of iniury. Troy is impatient of dishonour: both greeued ayme at reuenge. The Truce expired, let the doubt by the fauour of the gods and fortun [...] [...]e decided. The Gretians greatly commended the reply of Troilus, so tempered with myldnesse and valour, as he see­med to hold a martiall peace in his forehead. Vlis [...]es gree­uing that hee was the author of this Iarre, seeking subtil­ly to cast the Shackle from his owne foote, followed his for­mer parle in this manner.

Thinke me not so forgetfull (worthy Troians) eyther of tyme or place, that my intent was to mingle the bytter [Page] potions of Mars wyth the sweete lyquor of Bacchus, that I ment to make a consort betweene the Trumpet and the Lute, or by rehearsing of Paris loues, to call in question our open warres: Only least time should accuse vs of nig­gardise, and the Ladyes grow to melancholy by ouermuch silence, by accusing Paris of folly I thought to discouer the force of fancy, which partiall in her Cenzures prooueth [...]wty more predominant in aff [...]ction, then vertue. He­lena was fayre and a Queene, witty and therefore the soo­ner woonne, but yet di [...]honest, a cooling Carde to desire, a stayne manifest to the mynde, and yet so quickly ouerslipt by the eye, as it sh [...]wes how litle Iuditiall the thoughtes bee of vn [...]ridled affection.

Had the Troians (quoth Iphigenia Academis) like to the Gretians, or were their cytties peopled as well with Philosophers as Souldiours, Paris had learned by their wise precepts to haue preferred Uertue before Beawty, & not to haue bought repentaunce so deare. Pallas stands sacred in Troy, but Priamus and his Sonnes lookes at her Speare, not at her booke: they finde in her foreheade warres, but they see not in hir Breast the pourtrature of Wisdome, they pen downe volumes of martiall discipline, but knowe not Apian of morrall Philosophy, which is the cause they measure all their passions by will, and call Ve [...] a goddesse onely for hir outwarde glory. Andro­mac [...]e hearing how [...] hardly Iphigenia did inueigh a­gainst theyr want of learning, thought a litle to be plea­saunt and yet Saty [...]icall, so that shee made hir this sharp answere.

In deede Madame you say well: The Gretians haue such a selfe conceipt in theyr wysedome, as they count all Barbarians that are not lym [...]ted wythin the confines of Greece, and so studious are they of philosophie that euery oeconomicall state standes vppon precepts, the wyfe sayes not Salue to hir husbande, but shee hath a warrant of hir action from the Philosopher: our Ladyes like homely hus­wyfes beguile time wich the Dystaffe, your Dames apply [Page] their myndes to their bookes, and become so well lettered that after long study they prooue as vertuous as Helena: giue mee leaue Madame to bring hir for a president of your philosophicall wysedome, as well as you induced Paris for an instaunce of our barbarous ignoraunce.

Iphigenia séeing hir selfe so clarkly ouertakē in hir own inuectiue, blusht, & the noble men smiled to sée how smooth­ly Andromache thwarted hir presumption. But Bryses willing to shew hir skil, made Andromache this answere.

And yet Madame by your leaue, the particular in­stance of one woman condemnes not the generall profit of good letters, Helenas dishonesty is no preiudice to the study of philosophy, neyther doo our Gretian Ladyes blush at hir folly, sith what Greece refuseth as an abiect, Troy harboreth as an Idoll, wherein wee may say without of­fence, that (such lipps such lettyce) that which the Citizens loue in their hearts they maintayne with the sworde: Ve­nus intreated Iupiter for Calisto when Diana had exiled hir for a refuse, and so Priamus honours hir for a Goddesse that wee hated for a Strumpet. Cassandra who all this while buried vp this talke in silence, at last as forced to speake in defence of hir countrey began in this maner.

Greece in deede swarmeth with Philosophers, the fa­thers and forepointers of wysedome, but [...]he learned dely­uer that in precepts, which the people neuer put in pr [...]ctise: Apollo the glory of Greece and God and prophet at Del­phos: saith [...] that vertue is not perfit without action, that stu­dy and contemplation is friuolous nisi adiungatur actio, for it is not sufficient, as Hermes Tresnygistus your great Philosopher affirmes to spend time in the knowledge of a­ny Science, vnlesse by attayning vnto that skill wee shewe the fruites of such doctrine in our liues. Then if action must of necessity be ioyned to study and contemplation, o­therwise a vertuous and happy life is not perfected, then we Barbarians may boast of our owne disposition, that ho­nour vertue in our deedes, which you onely account for a goddesse in thought, wee through ignoraunce haue fetcht a [Page] Harlot from Greece, and you that are learned make a chal­leng to recall vyce with the sword: whose folly is the grea­test, let the verdict of one of your owne Philosophers wit­nesse, whose censure is, that, Qui inuito peccat, minus peccat quàm qui sponte peccat. This philosophicall answere of Cassandra so satisfied the Gretians, as they admyred hir speech, and held hir reason for an Oracle. All driuen with this censure into silence, Vlisses as he was first, thought to be last, and therefore made this reply.

It is not seene Madame by your sweete selfe, but Phi­losophers are honou [...]ed in Troie, that you haue theyr pre­cepts so well in memorie. They which sacrifice to Nep­tune can talke of the Sea, and such as honor Mars, of war­like discipline: the stringes of ye heart reach to the tip of the tounge, thoughts are blossomes of the minde, & wordes the fruites of desiers. Your phisicall reasons bewraies a good naturalist, & your opinion of morall actions, an in-sight in­to philosophy: therefore Madame, to giue euery one theyr due, wee cannot but confesse the Troians are as wise as warlike, & the Ladies can apply the eye as wel to the booke, as the fingar to the dissafe: yet to sett truth in hir prime, l [...]t mee say thus much without offence, that neuer haue I seene lawl [...]sse loue end without losse, nor the nuptiall bed defiled escape without reuenge: m [...]n d [...]termine, but the god [...] [...]ispose: humaine actions are oft measured by will, but the [...]sures from aboue are iust and peremptorie: Fortune is a goddesse but hath no priuiledge in punishing of faultes: which one of our Poets no [...]ing well, by a plague inferred for some off [...]nce, yeeldeth this re [...]son [...], it was the will of Iupiter. To con [...]irm [...] which, if the Troian Lordes and Ladies giue mee leau [...], I will rehearse a plea­saunt hystorie.

Wee hard (quoth Cassandra) before any B [...]rke came within ken of Troy, that Ag [...]memnon was full of Ma­iesty, Achilles of cour [...]ge, Nestor of wis [...]ome, Vlisses of eloquence, an [...] the rest of th [...] [...]ordes i [...]d [...]wed with sundry and seu [...]rall vertues: to make a proofe of which, for that [Page] Fame is oft prodigall in hir prayses, wee aduentured this parle: & therefore, paying thankes for your paynes, we pro­mise to be silent auditors to your discourse, Vlis [...]es taking hir word for warrant, séeing how all the company setled themselues to silence, began on this manner.

Vlisses Tale. A Tragedy

IN our countrey of Greece, and in a prouince called I­thaca, as the annall recordes makes mention, there rayned a prince named Polumestor, happy as one fa­uored euery way by fortune: for hee was graced with a diadem as of royall parentage borne [...]o commaund, rich in possessions, able to be liberall in all his attempts, wyse, as sought to for his censures, like a seconde saint of Delphos, and martiall, as accounted one of the best Souldiours in his time: indewed with these speciall fauours, and adorned with sundry vertues, hee was feared of his enimies, as on [...] that ended his quarrells in reuenge, and loued of his frinds as a prince, limiting no tyme in frindship, being euery way of such perfect disposition, both in the complexion of his body, and constitution of his minde, as it was a question whether the lyniaments of his face, or the proportion of his wisedome helde the greater supremacie. Polumestor [...]ing thus happy, for that nature and fortune had made him so speciallie happy, the goddesse, whose actions are measured by inconstancy, willing to place him on the top of the high­est Pyramides of blisse, that so being a marke for enuy, the fall of hir wheele might be the end of his con [...]ent, and the deepe declining to mishap & miserie, gaue him in the prime of his yeares a wyfe, by byrth royall, fayer by nature, and learned by education, graced with such sondry excellent & exquisite qualities, as might not onely tie the affection of hir husband by endlesse desier to like and loue hir, but also force fame to make such report of hir supposed vertues, as the world should not onely admyre hir perfection, but coūt [Page] Greece happie for possessing so fayer and vertuous a crea­ture. But as the Panther hauing the fairest skinne hath the most infectious breath, and as the tree Alpyna is the more bitter, the smoother his barke is: so nature hauing drawen such an absolute counterfect of beawty, as might discouer what hir cunning coulde aforde, yet had placed in the midst of such a myrrour so imperfect a minde, as the staine of the one did ad a disgrace to the glorie of the other. For this Lady whose name was Maedina as she had an ex­teriour kinde of discretion so warelie to moderate hir acti­ons, as report coulde not pry into hir deedes, so inwardly had she such a subtil dissimulation to cloake the foulest spot of vice with the maske of vertue, that fame feared to enter into the discouery o [...] hir thoughts, so equall was the out­ward proportion of hir behauiour. But time the Heralt that best imblazeth the conceipts of the minde, willing to make an Anatomie of hir deceipts, began his Tragedie in this manner.

In the court of Ithaca there serued a Gentleman of good Parentage, though of small Patrimonie, who coue­ting to make a supply of his want by ye fauor of his prince, indeuored him selfe to all lawdable qualities, not onely in the exercise of his body, but in the deuise of his minde, as well I meane in wearing the Lawrell with Pallas, as the [...] with Mars, being so courteous both in duetie to his superiours, and in affalibity to his equals, as he was gene­rally loued and honored of all men.

Vortymis, for so was the Gentlemans name, lyuing thus fortunate, because fauored in the seruice of his prince, thinking that the fruite of time was [...]auored with all one tast, found that she was of the ofspring of Ianus double fa­ced, hauing as well wrinckles in the one to prognosticate mishap, as dimples in the other to make assurance of pros­perity: for enuy resembling the Serpent Hydaspis, that al­waies purgeth his venome on the fairest flower, séeing that Fortune had resolued to make him a lease of his happines. Ioyning in league with fancie, the worme that byteth so­rest, [Page] the flowrishing blossomes of Youth gaue him such a braie by the meanes of beawty, as he for a while thinking to be but a small check, found at last to be so hard a mate as no shift, but misery could countermaund. For the princesse whose h [...]nd sacrificed perfumes to Vesta when hir heart of­fred smoaking thoughtes to Venus, noting the perfection of Vortymis (as womens eyes delight in the variet [...]e of ob­iects) seeing that the sharpnesse of his wit (a sparke that soon [...]st inflameth desire) was answerable to the shape of his body, and that his minde was adorned with so many sondry good quallities, that if his fortune had bene equall to his face, his deserts might haue made him a prince [...] she began so far to enter into consideration of his vertues, that hazarding too rashlie in so dangerous a Laberinth, she felt hir minde begin to alter, and hir affec [...]ions to stoope to such a stake as repent she might, but recall she could not. But taking these thoughts for passionate toyes that might bee thrust out at pleasure, cursing loue that attempted such a chaunge, & blaming the basenesse of hir minde that would make such a choice to auoide the Syrene y inchaunted hir with such deceiptful melody, she called to one of hir maides for a Lute, whereupon singing a solemne madrygale shee thought to beguile such vnacquainted passions, but finding that musike was but to quench the fier with a sworde fee­leth assaultes to bee so sharpe, as hir minde was rea [...] to yeelde as vanquished, shee began with diuerse considerati­ons to suppresse this frantike affection, calling to mynde that Vortymis was but a meane G [...]ntl [...]man, one for his byrth not worthy to bee looked at of a princesse, much lesse to be loued of such a mighty Potentate, thinking what a discredit it were to hir self, what an infamy to hir husband, what a griefe to hir frindes, yea what a mighty shame should bee guerdon for such a monstruous fault, blaming Fortune and accusing hir owne folly, that should be so fond as but once to harbour such a thought as to fals [...]ie hir faith to hir husband, or stoope so low a [...] one of the meanest of hir subiects. As thus shee was raging against hir selfe, Loue [Page] feared, if shee dallied long to loose hir champion, step [...] more nigh, and gaue hir such a fresh wound as pearst hir at the very heart, that shée wa [...] faine to yéelde maugre hir former considerations, and forsaking all company to get hir into hir priuy Garden, where being sollempnly set in a coole Ar­bour, she burst forth into these passionat teares.

Infortunate Moedyna, hath Fame hetherto feared to speake ill of thy thoughts, & shall report now dare to mis­construe of thy actions? hath Greece honoured thee for thy vertues? and shall the whole world at last abhorre thee for thy vanities? shall the Ladies of Ithaca, who alledge thée for a president of chastity, blush when they heare of thy vn­bridled fancy? Nay shall Polumestor, who desired thée for thy honorable qualities, haue cause to loath thée for thy dis­honest conditions? No Moedyna, thinke this, there is no swéeter frinde then fame, nor worse enemy then report: Princes thoughts as they are royall, so they ought to looke no lower then honor. More is homely Bawcis accounted of for hir honesty in hir poore Cotage, then Venus withall hir amours in hir sumptuous Temples: And yet Moedyna, Loue is deuine, feare [...] of men, because honored of the Gods: not to bee suppressed by wisedome, because not to bee com­prehended by reason: without law, and therefore aboue all lawe. And why fond woman doost thou blase that with pra [...]es, which thou hast cause to blaspheme with curses: of­fer not Doues to Venus, but hemblocke: seeke not to extin­guish the flame with oyle, but temper the sweetest potions with the sharpest Uinegar: yea Moedyna, blush at thy for­tune, thy choice, thy loue, sith thy thoughts cānot bee concei­ued without secret shame, nor thy affections vttered with­out open discredit: farre are these fancies, or rather f [...]llies, vnfit for thy birth, thy dignities, thy kingdomes: hast thou not heard as an oracle from Apollo, yt it is better to perish with high desires, then to liue in base thoughts? Daphne chose [...]ather to loose hir humaine shape, then to make ship­wracke of hir honesti [...]. But yet Vo [...]tymis is beawti­full, a fauour fond foole, framed to feede the eye, not to [...]et­ter [Page] the heart, hee is wise, so thinke he is vertuous and will censure of thy actions according to desert, not desire: Tush, being both beawtifull and wise, why should hee not be lo­ued: wilt thou so farre forget thy selfe Moedyna, as to suf­fer affection to suppresse wisedome, & loue to violate thine honor. Let cōsideration (the enemy to vntimely attempts) tell thee that repentance in infamy is no amends, that there is no salue against the hurt that cometh, from report that honor lost biddeth a farrewell to hope, feare then to hasard that for the gaine of a momentary pleasure as is so preti­ous, that once crackt it can neuer bee recouered: how dis­mall would the fact bee to thy husband, how sorrowfull to thy subiects, how greeuous to thy frinds, how gladsome to thy foes, the greatest greefe of all, sith the smile of a foe that proceedeth from enuie, is worse then the teare of a frinde that cometh of pittie.

These premises then duely considered, prefer not a barlie corne before a pretious Iewel, set not a fading con­tent before a perpetuall honor, suppresse thy affections, and cease to loue him whom thou couldst not loue vnlesse blin­d [...]d with too much loue. As thus shee was perplexed with sondry passions, one of hir Ladies came into the Arbour wherevpon shee ceased hir complaintes, hoping that time would weare out that which fond Loue and Fortune had wrought, calling for her worke, that with easie labou [...] she might pass [...] ouer hir new conceiued [...]mours. But see the olde saying. Naturam expellas furea tamen osque reccur­r [...]t. Nature hath such a predominant power ouer the minde as the ramage Hawke will hardlie be reclaimed, the Ty­gre will neuer bee tamed, the Snayle cannot be inforced to bee swi [...]: Nor, a woman that resolueth possible to b [...]e per­swaded by reason, which Moedyna prooued true, [...]or so did the remembrance of hir late conceiued Loue alienate hir thoughts from hir woonted disposition: that shame and dis­honor the greatest preuenters of mishap, were no meanes to diswade hir [...]rom hir determined [...]ffection: i [...] so much that n [...]t possible to hide fier in straw, nor to smother vp fan­cie [Page] in youth, she bare such a fauorable countenan [...]s to Vor­tymis, that not only hir selfe but the rest of the court mar­ueiled at hir submisse familiarity: yet in that hir grace had heretofore troden hir shooe so euen, as no step was so much as thought awry, they construed all to the best, and thought hir fauours toward Vortymis proceeded as a rewarde for his vertues, not from a regarde to his beawtie. But at last being Venus scholler, & therefore daring with hir to danc [...] in a Net, shee so manifestlie discouered hir affections as all Ithaca spake of hir fancy, and the Gentleman him selfe be­gan to blush at hir follie. For wheresoeuer hee was resi­dent shée made it hir Chamber of presence, his words were musike and conserued with proportion, his lookes were Ka­lenders of hir thoughts, for if hee smyled shee could not but laugh, & euery frowne of his, made a wrinckle in hir fore­heade, hée did nothing but if shee were present past with a plauditie: to bée breefe, shée noted the s [...]quell of his life by the censure of his owne doings. Which well marke [...] by Polumestor hée began to be a litle Ie [...]lows, [...]ut measuring in his consideration hir fore passed life, hee began thus for his owne suspicion to inu [...]igh against him selfe.

Shamest thou not Polumestor to bee so inequall a Iudge, as to reward vertue with distrust, or to b [...]e suspici­ous where no occasion of doubt is offred. Knowest thou not that [...]mong all the passions wherewith human mindes are perplexed, there is none that gal [...]eth with restlesse despight as th [...]t infectious, s [...]re of iealowsie, for al other greefes are to be appeased with sensible perswasions, to be cu [...]ed with holesome counsaile, to bee relieued by want, or by tract of time to bee worne out, Iealowsie onelie excepted, which is s [...] sawsed with susities, doubtes and pinching mi [...]trust that who so seekes by frindly co [...]ns [...]e to race out this hel­lish pass [...]on, forthwi [...]h suspecteth that hee giueth this coun­saile to couer his owne guil [...]inesse: yea, who so is pay [...]ed with this restlesse torm [...]nt doubteth all, distrusteth him self, is alwaies frozen with feare & fiered with suspition, hauing that wherein consisteth all his Ioy t [...] be the breeder of his [Page] misery. Yea Polumestor it is such a heauy enemy to that holy estate of matrimonie, sowing betwéene the married couple such deadly seedes of secret hatred as loue being once raced out by sacklesse distrust thereof, through enuy e [...]su­eth blooddy reuenge. If then Iealowsie be such a fiend as pes [...]ureth the mynde with incessant passions, suffer not Po­lumestor such a Saturnine infusion of melancholie to bee predominant in thy thoughts, oppose ye proofe of thy wyues vertue as a de [...]ensorie to withstand suspition, think hir pri­uate familiaritie with Vortymis, is an honest [...]ourtesie y springs from a royall courage, not from a dishonest Con­cubine: suppose the best, least in vrging a blamelesse minde, shee begin to hate and indeuour to reuenge. And in this re­solution Polumestor rested vsing his Ladie with such good and woonted fauour as might haue drawen hir from hir foo­l [...]sh determination, for seeing hir giuen to bee solitarie and sad, hee prouided shewes, triumphes, maskes and other pa­stimes [...]o recreate hir minde, but loue that att [...]mpteth a se­cr [...]t Ioy with an open greefe gaue no content, but a pen­s [...]e musing of the successe of hir newe thoughtes: which thus fondly layed to the viewe of euery one. Vortymis not so blinde but he could Iudge of coullers, espied by the halfe, what the whole ment, and therefore puffed a litle vp in cō ­ceipt with the fauor of a princesse, séeing oportunitie layed hir hayrie forehead on his lappe, hee began somewha [...] pert­ly to pry into the exquisitnesse of hir perfection, séeing shee was passing beawtifull, & that maiesty added a grace vnto Nature, & being of royall Parentage, beawtie decked Na­ture with dignitie: this interchang considered, so charmed the poore Gentlemans affections, that faine hée would haue made requitall of hir fauours with like courtesie, if hir princely state, had not quatted his presumption with feare: houe [...]ng thus betwene two streames, at last he brast foorth into these bitter complaints.

Doost thou not knowe poore Vortymis that actions wrought against Nature reape despig [...]t, and thoughts a­boue Fortune disdaine: that what byrde gaseth ag [...]inst the [Page] sunne but the Eagle, waxeth blinde, and that such as step to dignitie, if vnfit [...]all, that thoughts are to bee measured by Fortunes not by de [...]iers, how falls come not by sitting lowe but by clyming high: shall therefore all feare to aspire because some hap to fall, no Vortymis thou art fauored: yea & fancied of a princesse whose dignity may shi [...]lde thée from mishap, ah fond man doost thou counte euery dimple in the Chéeke a Decree in the heart, euery laugh a warrant of Loue. Venus lookt on more then she loued, or els she was passing amoro [...]s: womens smyles are oft more of custome then of courtesie, and princes are prodigall with their eyes when they are nygards in thoughtes, for thinke not fond man that Eagles wil catch at f [...]es, Cedars stoope to bram­bles, or mighty princes looke at such homelie peasaunts, no, no, thinke hir disdaine is greater then thy desir [...], shee is a princesse that respecteth hir honour, thou a beggers bratt that forgettest thy calling, cease then not onely to say but to thinke shee loues thee. Vortymis with these pythie per­swasions somewhat appeasing the sparkling flames of loue that had alreadie warmed his brest, applyed him selfe to his woonted exercises, in hunting, hawking, running at tilt, and other pastimes wherein the king tooke chiefest delight: suppressing his affections with the due consideration of hir Maiesty and his meane estate, and counting it frenzie not fancie, to cou [...]t that which the very Destynies would deny him to obtaine. But Moedyna was more impatient in hir passions, for loue so fiercely assailed hir that neyther place, companie, time, nor musike coulde mitigate any part of hir lawlesse martirdome, but did rather farre more increase hir maladie. Shame th [...] hand-maide to dishonest attempts, would not let hir craue counsaile in this case, nor feare of report suffer hir to reueale it to any secret frinde, but shee made a secretary of hir selfe, & did participate hir thoughts with hir owne troubled mynde. Lingring for the time, till at last fortune willing in a sweete figge to present hir bitter wormewoode, found such fit oportunity, that Vortymis and shée met alone in the priuie Garden, where (as lust by con­tinuance [Page] groweth into impudency) she reauealed vnto him the summe of hir desters: Vortymis, for that custome in offending, had not yet taken away the f [...]eling of the faulte began to blush, and whether it were for conscience, or feare, begun with great reasons to perswade Moedyna from hir determined folly. Shewing first what an offence adul­trie was to the Gods, how such vnlawfull Actions did more displease the Heauens then men, that nuptiall faith violated did seldome or neuer escape without reuenge. He laide be­fore hir face that Polumestor was his soueraigne, & a king to whom he was bound by duetie and allegeaunce recoun­ting what soundry fauoures hee had receiued at his handes, and what vyllanous ingratitude it should be to requite him with such disloyaltie: hee tolde hir that Princes are glori­ous obiects to be gazed at with euery eye, that theyr déedes are euen table talke amonge beggars: that shame and infa­mie followeth at the héeles of vnbridled Lust, and report glorieth in blazing the mishappe of princes. These and such like perswasions of Vortymis could not preuayle to diswade hir from hir wicked resolution, but remaining ob­stinate in hir determination, hir furie so [...]iered with rage at this repulse, as it could not bee appeased with reason she be­gan with bitter taunts to take vp the gentleman, and to lay before him two baites, preferment and death, promising if hee graunted hir desiers to bee a meanes for his aduance­ment to high dignities, and vowing if hee reiected hir loue as refuse, she woulde with iniury woorse then death, requite his scornefull cowardize.

Vortymis s [...]eing that to perswade Moedyna any more, was but to striue agyinst the streame (as feawe intreaties serue to leade vnto vyce) consented as secret oportunitie should giue them leaue to bee hir faithfull seruaunt & frinde at commaund: Moedyna hearing this frindly conclusion of Vortymis, promysed in requitall of his graunt, that ney­ther tune, nor aduerse [...]ortune should diminish hir affection, but in that despight of the destinies she should bée alwayes faithfull, & therevpon for [...]eare of further suspition, she went [Page] into hir chamber, leauing Vortymis in a doubtfull dyle­man, which hee began thus to discusse with him selfe.

Too true it is Vortymis that iniust offences may es­cape for a tyme without anger but neuer without reuēge, that what the gods deferre they take not away, that delay in punishment is no priuiledge of pardon, feare then Vor­tymis to commit that which thou oughtst to feare, if not past all feare: Adultery, yea, adultery vile wretch [...] for thou canst not grace the crime with a better couller, a faulte so opposite to the heauens, so contrary to nature, so odious to men, as the Gods reuenge without forgetfulnesse. Brute beastes by meare instinct of nature abhorre, and men as a fault most impious censure with y guerdon of death. Truth but t'is a princesse that perswades. A Quéene that holdeth in the one hand death, and the other dignity: ah Vortymis what then, the higher honor is s [...]ated by vertue the déeper is hir fall ouerthrowen by vyce, the greater the persons bee that offend, the more foule and loathsome is the fault. Base thoughts as they are odious so th [...]y are inconstant, hot l [...]ue is soone colde, and fayth pighted with an adulterous vowe, as it is tyed without conscience, so t'is broken without care. Cōscience, yea, cōscience Vortymis, which is such a worme that fretteth like the Seres wooll: secretly and deepely, ease­ly gotten, but hardly worne out. What so is rubbed with the stone Galactites will neuer be hot. Flesh dipped in the Sea Egenun will neuer bee sweete. The herbe Tragion being once byt with an Aspis never groweth, & conscience once stayned with trecherous adultery is alwayes tyed to a guilty remorse.

But yet remember Vortymis that folly re [...]useth gold, and frenzie preferment: Wysedome seeketh after dignity, & counsaile after gaine: a pound of gold is worth a Tunne of Lead: Great gyfts are little gods, there is nothing sweeter then promotion, nor lighter then report: care not then for conscience so thou b [...]e'st rich, if not chastly yet charely, step not at a straw, but prefer an ounce of dignity before a scru­ple of honesty. And with that hee staide as halfe out of [Page] loue with his owne wicked resolution. For hauing mutte­red out these or such like words, seeing eyther hee must die with a cleare mynde, or lyue with a spotted conscience, hee was combred with diuerse cogitations, till at last Fancie growing to bee predominant ouer vertue, hée yeelded to the Alarumes of lust, and seeking after oportunitie, fo [...]nde the desiers of both their myndes satisfied: Remaining thus drowned a while in this supposed pleasure, doubting as feare is the companion to a guilty conscience, that their wickednesse should b [...]e espyed, they determyned as secretly and spe [...]dely as might bee to flie out of Ithaca into Samos, that harbouring there vnknowen, they might end their de­lights without disturbance, for they knew if euer (as time is a bad secretary) their adulterous practises should come to the eares of Polumestor, a worse mishappe then death should be allotted for their ingratefull mischiefe, resoluing therefore vpon departure least delay might breede daunger, and the grasse bee cutt from vnder theyr feete, they seueral­ly setled them selues to their secret indeuours, for Vorty­mis who was skilfull in the depth and daungers of the Ha­uens, Por [...]s, and Créekes about Ithaca, prouided a barke and layed it ready as soone as winde and weather woulde per [...]t to make way, for hee had warped it downe into the mayne, and let hir ride at Anker: And Moedyna had ga­thered together a masse of Treasure, all hir rich and costly Iewells, yea, whatsoeuer was any thing pretious in the whole Pallace, which by a man of hirs who only she made priuy to this practise, was conueyed into the ship: Fortune willing vnder the suppose of their felicitie to hide the very substance of their myserie, brought the wind about so faire for Samos that Vo [...]tymis giuing the Quéene intelligence, passing out at a Postern gate they went downe to ye shoare, where the Maryners ready with a Cockboate to set them aboorde hoysed sayles, and singling into the mayne, bad fare­well to Ithaca. These two thus fauoured as they thought by Fortune had so happy a gale, that in short tyme they ar­ryued at the desired harbour, where bountifully rewarding [Page] the Maryners for th [...]ir paynes: the Maister of the ship to couller his voyage made for an other Coaste, and they re­mayning as straungers, placing them selues in a countrey Uyllage liued peaceably a long while vnknowen. But to returne to Polumestor, who missing his wyfe, and woon­dring what the cause should bée of hir long absence, for that supper was ready, & they stayed only for hir presence, made inquiry of the Ladyes where hir Maiestie was become, & caused diligent search to be made, for yt the time of the night was not to make any longer walke. Hir Ladies returned answere, they knew not [...]f hir departure, y king halfe suspi­tious before, became now a little Iealous, and demaunded where Vortymis was, no man could tell or make dyrect answere of his being, which set the king in a furie, so that posting him selfe, with his Swoord drawne through euery priuy place, at last not finding what h [...]e sought for, he was constrained to vse patience perforce at so straight an exig [...]t, and so quieted him selfe at that time, vnwilling by an open discouery of his thoughts to bréede a manifest in famy to the Queene: the court being thus in an vprore for this night, ye next morning one of her maides of honor being stricktlie examined, conf [...]ssed that hir grace had made conueyaunce of all hir Treasure, Iewells, and apparell, and was secret­ly departed with Vortymis, but whether shee knewe not. Upon this the king sent dyuerse noble men to make search in euery place, and in euery part if it could bee knowen of hir passage, but returne was made in vayne, and hee onely rested resolued that shee was [...]ledde away with Vortymis: Continuing thus pensiue, the grief [...] of hir absence (for that loue in excesse yeeldeth to no censure of reason) so ouerchar­ged the king with melancholy, that hee fell into a quartaine Feuer, and was brought so low as his subiects hoped for no life, so that as men distract of th [...]ir wyts, they passed away the tyme in bitter complaintes and sorrowes. But Tyme (the sweetest phisit [...]n that allotteth a m [...]dicine, for [...]uerye mishap so alienated the kinges mynde with a due considera­tion of hir incestious behauiour, that finding it folly to sett [Page] that at his heart which other set at their héele: Contrary causes producing con [...]rary [...]ff [...]cts, loue wronged by iniury halfe turned into hate, hee began to take heart at grasse, & so chaunging his m [...]lancholy into myrth, waxed daylie more strong in the constitution of his body, so that within ye space of a moneth he aduentured to walke abroad, and to comfort him the more in his cōceipt, he heard newes by a Passenger that came from Samos wh [...]re the Que [...]ne and Vortymis were: how as man and wyfe th [...]y lyued in meane estate in Samos. The king smiling at the force of [...] lust that maketh no exception of Fortun [...], caused the passenger to stay in the Courte while hee shoulde consider with his counsaile what were [...]es [...] [...]o doe: For his minde was dy­uersly p [...]rplexed. The iniury proffred by hir adulterours de­parture, willed him to cast out no lure to such a hagga [...]de as would turne taile to a [...]ull fist: but loue that amidst the col­dest Cinders of hate had smothered vp litle sparkes of fore­passed affection, perswaded him to thinke no fault so great but might be salued with honest repentaunce. Againe, he called to minde that the Gouernor of Samos was his ene­my, who if by any meanes hee shoulde become priuy to this fact would not oneli [...] incourage his wife in hir wickednesse, but as a foe laugh at his mishap; houering thus in sondrie cogitations, at last thus hee resolued with him selfe to send a friendlie letter to Moedyna that shee should returne with as much spe [...]de as might bee to Ithaca, but the better to manifest Polumestors meaning, as neere as I can gesse, these were the contents.

Polumestor to Moedyna Health.

TO begin Moedyna with a discourse of thy follies, or my sorrowes were but in p [...]nning downe my thoughtes to aggrauate my gre [...]fes, and in committing such a chartell to [Page] thy view to rub a scarre halfe healed. Omitting therefore such needlesse preambl [...]s, let mee say that loue as it is vari­able, so it is mighty inforcing his effects without deniall: for as by constraint it wrought in thee a newe choyce, so it hath ti [...]d mee perforce so partially to thinke of thy fault, as iniu­ry offering no disparagment to affection I haue vppon thy r [...]pentance resolued quite to forgiue & forget such folly: Ve­nus hath hir charmes to inchaunt, fancy is a sorceresse that bewitcheth the senses, euery misse must not breede a mislike, and fi [...]st offences they say, craue pardons of course: I con­sider Moedyna, the purest glasse is most brittle, the finest Lawne taketh the soonest stayne, the highest honour the re­diest fall, and the quickest wit the more easly woonne: others haue forerunne thee in the like fault & haue beene forgiuen, returne thou with such resolued repentance, & I vow before the gods to graunt thee like pardon. Let Vortymis re­maine there for his p [...]nishment in exile, but for that he was thy f [...]inde, leaue him thy Iewells, that although he liue ba­nished, hee may liue rich. Doo this Moedyna and doubt not, for I write no treachery, and if I should: better were thou die in Ithaca repentant, then lyue in Samos disho­nest: Farewell and whatsoeuer thou doost I haue forgiuen thee, but shall neuer forget thee.

Hee whom no iniury shall Alienate Polumestor of Ithaca.

THis letter thus ended by the consent of his counsayle, he sent it by the forenam [...]d messenger to Samos, cau­sing him to be accompanied with two or three of his nobles disguised, that his commaunde might bee wrought with more efficacy: they hauing receyued their charge, apparel­led like Marchaun [...]s, carying ouer some small commodities with them, departed: and as fast as wynde and weather would permit, Came ouer to Samos, where b [...]ing safely & sp [...]edely arriued, making offer of theyr chaffer to sale, the [...]etter to passe the country without suspition: the messenger [Page] that brought newes first to Polumestor, leauing the nobles, went him selfe alone with the letter to the Uyllag [...] where the Quéene remayned. Comming thither contrary to his expectation, hee founde that Time the mother of mutabili­tie, had made a strange Metamorphosis since his last depar­t [...]re, for méeting with hir seruaunt, who through hir in­constancie grudged at hir actions, hee did vnderstand that Moedyna misliking of hir olde choyce, through the tickling desire of a new chaunge, had so cunningly feasted Vortymis at a Banquet, that closely giuing him some impoysoned po­tion, the n [...]xt day he was founde dead in his bed, the end of such Adoulterous ingratitude, as preferring the loue of a strompet before the lawes of the Gods, runne headlong vp­pon mishap and reuenge. His death being passed ouer with a feawe fayned teares, as womens eyes shed both sorrowe and dissimulation, hir mourning moneth was scarse ended but shee was fallen in loue with a gentleman in the same towne, (the supposed cause of Vortymis ouerthrow) who ayming at hir beawty and ryches, two great perswasions to affection, intertayned hir with such fauours, that shee onely thought hir content in his company. This notyce by hir seruaunt giuen to the messenger, som [...]what amased him when hee entred into the consideration of the incon­stant disposition of Concubins, yet going forwarde in his purpose, hée found oportunity to deliuer hir the letter, which when she had redde, and throughly construed ou [...]r the con­tents: conscience the worme that galleth with r [...]morse, pincht hir so at the heart with rem [...]mbrance of hir forepas­sed lyfe, and shame of [...]r present es [...]ate, that blushing at hir owne thought [...]s, shee burst forth into [...]eares hal [...]e re­solued to accept of hir husbands proff [...]r: But Lust that still kindleth a restlesse heate of d [...]sire, had so drowned hir in obstinacie, feared that hir husbands promises were but traynes to reu [...]nge, shame to re [...]urn [...] into Ithaca from whence so shamelesse she had fled with such infamy: all these considered, mad [...] hir oppose r [...]solution to r [...]mors [...] and to cast the letter presently into the fire, with straight [Page] command to the Messenger that hee shoulde with as much spéede and secrecie as might be hast him out of Samos, least if by his meanes hir calling or estate were discouered, in re­uenge shee repaied his villany with death: Hee that by o­ther mens harmes, thought best to beware, fearing if hee made any stay, he might with Vortymis tast of reuenge, as fast as horse would carry him, posted to the noble men, who amid [...]t their marchaundize were attending his comming: after hee had discoursed vnto them from pointe [...]o pointe, the forerehearsed premises of ye impoysonement of Vortymis, hir new loue, hir obstinate resolution, hir threats to reueng all of them: woondring at the wilfulnesse, and wickednes of such a Lasciuious woman: thought their kinge happy that Fortune by ill fortune, had at hazard giuen him such good fortune. Long had they not stayed in the country to haue a faire wynd for their departure, but that Moedynaes Seruant séeking to finde out the messenger, was by meere chance come to the Porte where the nobles were, who see­ing a Lord of Ithaca, whom for all his disguised apparrell hee knew, calling him a side, was desirous to speake with him. The noble man narrowly noting his face, called him to remembrance, and desirous to heare what newes, he car­ried him to his chamber, where the rest of his company ga­thered togither, the poore man suppressed with anguishe & remorse, brast foorth into teares, and after longe repentant stile for the sorrow of his fact, tolde them that the next night after shee receiued the letter from Polumestor, being all blubbred with teares, and as a woman in dispaire, she dely­uered him a Scroule which shee charged him vpon his lyfe to deliuer vnto Polumestor, after receipt whereof, before he could make preparation for his Iourney, she had slaine hir selfe. The noble men se [...]ing by the sequell of this tragicall stratageeme, the guerdon of Adultry, and the Iustice of the gods, receiued the Scrowle, and woulde haue had the man passed with them into Ithaca, but hee made a vowe in pe­nance of his former fault, to lyue a poore exiled life in Sa­mos: they as soone as the wynde came about, hauinge all [Page] thinges necessarie aboorde, they made way home into theyr owne countrey: no sooner they were gotte into the coast of Ithaca, but posting with all speede to the courte, they reuea­led to the king the successe they had in their iourney, of Vor­tymus mishap, and his wyues death, delyuering him the Scrowle, which contayned these fewe lines.

The contents of the Scrowle.

MOedyna, once the vnhappie wyfe of happie Polu­mestor, as gracelesse in hir deedes, as hee princely in his thoughts, wisheth him that she rest from hir selfe a long and contented life. Wisedome taught by ex­perience (the dearest price to buie witt) tolde mee my fault was so impious, as dispaire serued better to call on reuenge, then repentance to wish a remorse: Infamie and shame the inseperable sequels of Adultrie, forbad mee to see the smoake of Ithaca, for that death is more sweete then discredit. A guiltie conscience being a hell of restlesse passions, wisht mee as I sought mishap, so to ende miserie, preferring there [...]ore thy fame which was impaired by my follie, and seeking quiet of minde by quicknesse of death, dispaire, and sorrow, closing min [...] eyes, let the messenger report how willinglie I died.

Mo [...]dyna,

POlumestor hauing red the [...]ontents, perceyuing howe shame and remorse had made hir repentant, grieuing that dispaire had made hir so wilfull, burst into teares and passed a weeke or two in secret sorrowes: Which ended, & hee somewhat comforted, he kept a solemne show of hir fu­neralls, which performed with magnificence, hee passed the rest of his yeeres in quiet.

VLisses hauing ended his tale with a plawsible silence of both partes. Although Hector perceiued that this Tragicall hystorie was induced in hope of a restitution of [Page] Helena, yet dissimuling the matter, hee onely gaue praise to Vlisses for his good methode, yet superficially glauncing, hee said, that i [...] ill fitted a subiect to be so treacherous, sith his Soueraygne had kindly tied him with so many forepas­sed fauours, and that ingratitude challengeth by custome reuenge. Then (quoth Diomedes) let not Paris hope to escape without perill, who being so princelie intertayned by Menelaus, yet repayed him with such discourteous vn­thankfulnes. What needes (quoth Troilus) the rubbing of this scarre, vnlesse the Gretians bee fearefull to end their attempt, and had rather make a conquest of vs with Philo­sophy, then the swoord: for our partes, wee hold it the point of Souldiers to talke pleasantly at the Table, and fight va­liauntly in the [...]ielde. Agamemnon vnwilling any chol­lerick replies should procure a iarre, knowing in tearmes to iniury men vnarmed were a president of cowardise, de­sired them to grant him this fauour [...] as they were knightes, that amiddest all their talke, neyther the plaintiffe Mene­laus, nor the Defendant Paris should bee once named, sith the rehersall of their actions were but an alarum to further quarrell. This request thought honorable, and promise past on both partes, Achilles was warned that the Tables were couered for Supper, whereupon, desiring the Gene­rall to place his guests, they sat downe to supper, where pas­sing the tyme with many pleasant discourses, and sa [...]i [...]fiyng their stomacks with sundry delicates. The Troians by their intertaynment perceyued their princely welcome.

¶ The second discourse after Supper.

SUpper was no sooner ended. But after a hearty prou­face chaunged betwixt them: Aged Ne [...]or, whose words in [...] [...]ce were holden for principles, began to breke silence in [...]his maner.

Worthy Peares of Gréece and Asia, resolued to prooue [Page] inward vertue by outward valour, or els to buy fame with death: sith Hector and Achilles, the two hopefull Gentle­men of both armyes, accompanied with sondry princes of great parentage, are here vnited in a desired presence, omit­ting womens prattle, and leauing the Ladyes to their pry­uate chatte: l [...]t vs see if wee can make a perfect descrip [...]ion of a Souldier so proportioned in euery parte, as h [...]e may di­recting his course by our principles, lyue fortunate, and dye honorably. The doubt then to bee discusse [...] is what is ne­cessary to the perfecting of a Souldier, which might I with his fauour request, I would cōmit to the charge of Hector: as to him who of his very enimies is counted an exact mar­tialist. Hector, whose thoughts swelling with honor, died his chéekes with the fame of his prayse, willing to auoyde with one blast, both selfe loue and curiosity, made Nestor this answere.

Although forrayne fauours, are domesticall treasures, and it better fitteth honor, to praise an enemy, then a friend: yet to offer incense to Pallas in the Temple of Mars, were to prophane his deity: and to make mee an instance, Achil­les in presence, is to iniure his dignity: report is partiall, and the tip of the tounge soundeth not alwayes the depth of the heart: but let fame fly how shee list: I deny not but I haue dared to beare armour, and to haue pressed amidst the thickest of myne enimyes, therefore I thinke the most requisite vertue in a Souldier, to bee fortytude or magnani­mity. I thinke it necessary (quoth Achilles) as Causa sine qua non: for therefore is hee called Siles, for that hee doth, Animam fortem gerere: but yet the couller that giueth the swéetest glose to honor, in my opinion is Liberality: two necessary vertues (quoth Helenus) but yet a more princi­pall poynt then these, which hath made many Monarches triumph without bloode, is Wysedome ioyned with Sci­ence. Agamemnon desirous to heare these three discussed at large, thought to incourage them forward in this maner. Wyth so equall a proportion (worthy Gentlemen) haue you made a distinct deuision of the incident properties of [Page] Souldiers, as what is necessary not onely in martiall disci­pline, but in humaine life, is sufficiently in these thrée com­prehended. For wysdome mixed with learning and know­ledge, is so pretious a vertue in the lyfe of man, as it behoo­ueth not onely a prynce to haue the possession thereof, for the pollicy of his ciuill gouernment, but also to the performing of his warlike indeuours: Fortitude the fayrest blossome that springes from a noble mynde, is not onely requisite in peace to bew [...]y maiesty, but in warres necessary to s [...]eng­then pollicy, and were a prince indewed with both these, so as no defect might be obiected, yet were hee a couetous man that aymed at the suppression of his Subiects by extorting their substaunce by grieuous imposts, the want of Libera­lity, especially amongst Souldiers, would bréede such a mi­slike, that hee shoulde reape more discredit by his niggar­dies, then fame for his wisedome and fortune. Seeing then worthy Gretians and Troians, these thrée points as presi­dents are set downe to bee decyded: let vs first begin with the discourse of wisedome, which wee will referre to Hele­nus and Nestor, as to them which wee know are most fa­mous for those qualyties: in both our armies exception al­wayes made of Vlis [...]es, for that hee hath so well plaide his part amongst the Ladyes. Helenus bl [...]shing at the grant of this honorable charge, desired that sith Nestor was a­ged, and had by long arte amongst the Philosophers, and by experience in cyuill gouernment, attayned to the summary perfection of wisedome, that hee would [...]ase him of such a burden as was both vnfit for his knowledge, experience and yeares: Nestor, as willing amongst such an audience, to put the Troian to the plunge, sayd that Age was forget­full, and that his gray haires were decli [...]ing steps from me­mory [...] that what experience had ingrauen, tyme had almost worne out, and that were his memory neuer so fre [...]h, yet it were a greefe for him, through feeblenesse to vtter that with the tounge which hee did conceiue in his mynde: therefore, for the reuerence of his age hee would lay the charge vppon Helenus: who seeing that fortune had tyed him to his task [Page] gathering his wittes together bouldly, as one that was the brother of Hector, began on this maner.

Helenus his discourse of Wysedome.

THe fall that Phaeton had, was because hee would Al­tum sapere, stretcht his stringes to high, & being mor­tall would intermeddle wyth diuine attempts. The Shoo­maker had not this check from Apelles (Ne sutor vltra Cre­pidam) because he found fault with the Latchet, but that he medled with the legg. Euery one that gazeth at the stars is not fit to discourse of Astrologie, neyther can fishermen fell the Phusicall reasons of the motions of the Sea. Al­though their liues are spent, and their lyuings got, from the boosome of Neptune. And noble Gentlemen, it may bee that report, who is oft a false Heralte of humaine Actions, hath blabbed that shee hath seene some Philosophers works in my hands, & you hereof suppose that I haue their princi­ples in my heade: but many handled Orpheus Harp that knew not the secrets of Musicke, and dyuerse may gase into Philosophers conclusions that cannot Analuze theyr reasons. Yet howsoeuer it be, séeing I am enioyned I will rather be counted too forward then too froward, & therefore bri [...]fly, this is my bare censure.

The Philosopher whom Apollos Oracle long since graced with the title of a wise man, being demaunded what wysedome was, made answere: A diuine influence infused into the myndes of men, which being metaphysicall [...] kéepeth them from comm [...]g that wherevnto they are forced by sensuall appetyte. Epictetus calleth it the touchstone of mortallity, meaning, that as reason is the difference that distinguisheth a man from a brut [...] beast, so wysdome is that perfect [...]nder, that sheweth how farre one man excelleth an other in the pretious constitution of his mynde. Therefore did our Poets rightly fayne Mynerua to spring from the [Page] [...]rayne of Iupiter, and that hee durst doo nothing without her consent but his loues and amorous, meaning by this E­ [...]gmaticall allegory, that shee being the godd [...]ss [...] of wyse­dome, was the Loadstone for Iupiter to dyrect his actions, and where hee digressed, there shee sealed his thoughts with a frowne.

The Phenicians were reported to haue their begin­ning from the gods [...] in that they were the first that found out C [...]racters, whereby to expresse openly the hidden secretes of wysdome. The inhabytants of Egypt, as fame telleth vs, were honored of all men, sith they were the first that founded Schooles of Phylosophy. And the Caldees were companions to kings: so highly hath wysedome beene estee­med in all ages. But to leaue antiquities, and to come to our present tyme, what auayleth royall Parentage, and the possession of many Territories: what profiteth a Crowne and stately Diadem to the maiesty of a king: if to these forenamed fauours of Fortune hee haue not adioyned wise­dome and learning, the cyuill pollycie is not mayntained in his prime: martiall discipline wanteth hir chiefest collou [...]: courage is counted rashnesse, not fortitude: liberality know­eth not the circumstances how to giue, if wisdome bend not their course by a right compasse: so that I remember a cer­taine Philosopher of yours, wishing ill fortune might befall on the inhabitants of Samos, hee prayed onely their king might bee vnlettered, and a foole, thinking no greater preiu­dice could happen to a common wealth, then to bee gouer­ned by an vnwyse prynce. But omitting this generall di­scourse of wisedome, sith there is none so obstynate or oppo­site to hir honor: but will and must confesse that no humaine action whatsoeuer can rightly bee counted perfect or vertu­ous: if not bounded within the lymits of wysedome. To a more particuler proofe, and to the intent of our purpose [...] that it is especially requisite in a Souldier.

A Gretian being demaunded how it happened that his countrey florished in such happy estate, made answere, for that our Captaynes and Generalls are Philosophers, and [Page] our Philosophers made our Captaynes in warre: proouing by this reason, that where the martiall man was instructed in philosophy, there prowesse was strengthned with pollicy, and valour [...]doubled by wisedome: the Senate of Sparta neuer choose any to goe foorth with their army, but such as had spent many yeares in their academy, as well in natu­rall contemplation as in morall conuersation, and were as eloquent an Orator, as a hardy warriour, counting in­couragement giuen by wysedome, of as great force as a pre­sident manifested by prow [...]sse. When Esthemius the Ma­cedonian Monarche, successour to the offspring of migh­ty Nymroth had thought to make a conquest of the south­east parte of the Worlde: by chaunce hee made warre with a Barbarous people, so fierce and strong as his forces coulde not subdue: Delyghted with the sweetenesse of the soyle, and s [...]eing prowesse was in vayne, hee sent an Orator clad in riche and sumptuous attyre, who so tickled their eares with the pleasauntnesse of his spéech, that he re­duced the Barbarians, not onely to submit as vanquished, but to become ciuill as ashamed of their former lyfe: How necessary the knowledge of the lyberall Sciences is for a Souldier, let experience manifest: for what captayne shall bee able to make choice of his ground to fight with his ene­my to intrench to imbattayle, to leguer, to pitch his Pauili­ons at aduantage, vnlesse skilfull in Geography, to know the Nature and plott of the Countrey so lately discouered [...] How shall he order his men, or deuide them in companyes: how shall hee bring them into square, rounde, triangle, cor­ner or any other forme, vnlesse instructed in Arithmetike and Geometry. The necessity of Astronomy may bee proo­ued by a manifest instance: for Penthesilea the famous Queene of the Amazons, was resident in the city of Troy, making warre against Orythius hir bordering enemy: as the battayles were ready to ioyne, there chaunced in their fight to happen an Eclipse of the Sunne most fearefull and terrible, which greatly daunted both armies: but Penthesi­le [...] nothing amazed, as a good Philosopher discoursed to hir [Page] Ladies the naturall cause of the Eclypse, that it happened by the shadowing of the Earth; and the Moone, which so lightly accounted of, by their Generall they incouraged, set vpon Orythius, who ignorant of so strang a sight, and not knowing the cause of so prodigious an apparance, fled [...] and was vanquished: Sapiens dominabitur astris [...] a wise man m [...]y gouerne the starres, meaning hereby (as I coniecture) that if Fate and Fortune, should oppose them selues to wis­dome, yet their attempt were in vayne: therefore wisely did the Poets decipher Pallas to haue a Helmet on hir head, and a Booke in hir hande, and drewe hir Speares alwayes wreathed with Lawrell, signifying by this Embleme, that Mars and Mercurie were of one broode, that a [...]alyaunt mynde, vnlesse guyded by wysedome, rometh into many in­considered actions, which is so perilous in the state of a soul­dier, that one foolish thought that beareth in the foreheade, (Had I wist) maketh an ouerthrow of a whole Legion of men. Wee finde written in our Annalles of Troy, that Danaus the Graundfather of Pryamus making warre a­gainst the king of Hetruria when both the armyes were incamped, and the battayles ready to Ioyne his men, seeing so great a multitude were afraide, although their prince for­most in the field, sought to incourage them by the example of his valour, his forwardnesse nor threats no whit preuai­ling, but they still ready to flée: Apias a lame and impotent Poet stepping vppe amongst them, through certayne elo­quent verses, that hee vttered in euery rancke so animated the Souldiers, that ashamed at their cowardis [...], they furi­ou [...]ly ran vppon the enemy, and like valiant men obtayned the victory, so much doth learning and wisedome preuaile in martiall discipline.

I remember in deede (quoth Nestor) that I haue heard in the auntient Recordes of Greece, kept in the temple of A­pollo at Delphos: that ye God being demaunded the reason why Iupiter should bée Gouernor aboue the rest, sith Mars was the best warriour: his answere was, that as Mars was valiant, so Iupiter was wise, concluding by this oracle, that [Page] wisedome is of more force to subdue, then valour. And by your leaue sir (quoth Helenus) t'is a question, what prow­esse doth auayle without wisedome: for suppose the captaine hath courage enough to braue the enemy in the face, yet if hee know not by a wise and deepe i [...]ht into his enemies thoughts, how with aduantage to pr [...]t such ambushes as may be layed to preiudice his army, had hee as great cou­rage as the stowtest champion in the worlde, yet might the defect of wisedome in the preuention of such perills, ruinate both him selfe, his honour, and his Souldiers, in so much as your great Phylosopher Hermes Tresmegistus, was woont to say that wise men did therein resemble the Gods, in that they were wyse, and that many things imperfect by nature, were made perfect by wisdome, to cōfirme their force, where of may it please the Gretian Lordes to fauour mee with pa­tience, I will rehearse a pleasant tragedy. The noble men delighted with the swéetnes of his discourse, by setling them selues to silence, gaue a proofe how they ment to bee atten­tiue, which Helenus noting, began his tale in this fourme.

Helenus his Tragedie. Ex sapientia sumus prouidi.

THere raygned not longe since in the Countrey of Ly­dia a woorthy Prince, called Ebritius, who being happy as one fauoured with the fruition of exteriour plea­sures, and fortunate, as by a plawsible successe in all his af­fayres, enioying an inward content: yet in this was crossed by the destinies, that hee wanted a sonne to weare the Dia­dem after his death: only one daughter he had (a recompence that Nature had giuen to salue the defect that Fate and for­tune had inserted) who b [...]ing beawtifull, and therefore fea­red of hir father, sith oft beawty is the fayrest marke that leadeth to mishappe, and of excellent witte, a benefit that sometime is tasted with losse, had for hir sondry good quali­ties [Page] wherewith shee was graced, dyuers Sutors (princes I meane) that were his bordering neighbours, sent thither by fame, to see if hir beawty and wit were answerable to that which report had blazed to bee without comparison: a­mongst the rest Rascianus king of Caspia, a man greatlie feared for his valour and prowesse, not that hee him selfe was so hardy, but that his Generalls and Captaines were of such courage, as they neuer entred fielde from whence they returned not Uictors: a League of Truce hauing long contynued betwixt them, and yet with a dissimuled re­conciliation: sith the Caspians and the Lydians were like the Woolfe and the Tigre, whose blood can neuer be mixed in one howse. It fortuned that Rascianus vnder the pro­tection of his league, and intent to visit Ebritius, had a sight of Cimbriana, for so was the Lady called whose beawty seemed so swéete an obiect in his eyes, and whose wit soun­ded such a pleasing harmonie in his eares, that forgetting him selfe, he suffred his thoughts to bee subdued by affection, th [...]t neuer before felt the fo [...]le [...]f any conquest: For Loue seeing that Fortune, eyther for feare or fauour, as the god­desse is both partiall and deceiptfull, had drowned him with such varietie of sec [...]re contents, as hee was growen to bée an epicure in conceipt: thought at last to shew that Fancy hath hir [...]rownes as well as Fortune, and can eyther blisse with happinesse, or curse with disfauour at hir owne plea­sure: so fettered his mynde with the perfection of Cimbria­na, that maugre his teeth, hée was fayne to sacrifice his dea­rest good to Cupid, that hetherto had scorned to offer a little incense to Mars: the passions dryuing the prince to become pensiue, and the Idea of Cimbria [...]aes beauty imprinted in his heart, breeding a disquiet in his mynde so perplexed him, that for his last refuge hee was fayne to commence sute to Ebritius, for the grant of his daughter in mariage: Hee that like Ianus, bare two faces vnder one hoode: wea­ring a Lawrell in his hande, as desirous of peace: and a sworde in his heart, as wishing reueng: as hee would not deny for feare of a quarrell, so hee would not graunt to such [Page] hated affinity, but hauing forewarned his daughter, and therefore forearmed hir against the intreaties of the Cas­pian Monarche, he subtelly referred his grant to the will of Cimbriana: which being sought for of Rascianus, but found by a friuolous sute that he warred wyth the Giants against Iupiter, and with Danaes daughters filled the bottomelesse tubbe: forced by affection, (that is) impatient of deniall, and incouraged by the valour of his Captaines (a thought that brooketh not abuse) falling out in flat termes with Ebritius hee entred a [...]ter some parle with him and his daughter in­to this peremptorie r [...]solution, that if hee coulde not haue hir by a fauorable consent as a frinde, hee woulde both win hir and weare hir as an enemy by the sworde: and vpon this departed out of the confines of Lydia, and no soo­ner came to Caspia, but mustering his men, and storing him selfe with munition for the warres, hee marched for­warde to make challeng of Cimbriana for his wyfe. In the meane time Ebritius hauing lyued longe in peace, a worde that beareth honney in the mouth, and yet oft ill happe in the warre, for that as it affoordeth quiet, so it sincketh in security, had better Ciuilians, then Soul­diers, and Senators that coulde gouerne more by pollicie, then attempt by prowesse, as men that so long had forgot­ten the noyse of the Trumpet, as they counted it rather a trouble to the care then an incouragement to the heart: so that hee [...]eared when reporte tolde him that Rascianus was neare his Domynions, to make a challeng both for his Daughter and Dyadem: yet Maiesty, which in princely thoughts gardeth ye minde from cowardize, made him reso­lute rather to die honorably by withstāding an enemy, then to lyue tainted with a shamefull stayne of disgrace: resting vpon this resolute point, before Rascianus came within his territories, he fell sicke vpon such a mortal disease as féeling no hope of life, calling his Daughter Cimbriana, & his Se­nators before him with teares bewayled the suspected losse of their prince as his last farewell he gaue these precepts.

Cimbriana, thou seest my white haires are blossomes [Page] for the graue, and thy fresh coullers fruite for time & fortune so that it behooueth mee to think how to die, & for thee to care how to liue. Sicknesse & olde age, the two Crooches where­on lyfe walketh on to death, haue arested mee to pay Na­ture hir due, which being debt I am most willing to dis­charge: my Crowne I must leaue appointed so by fate, and thou enioy my kingdome by succession, wherein I hope thy vertue and wysedome shalbe such, as though my subiectes want my person, yet they shall see in thee my perfection. That nothing therefore may faile to satisfy my minde, or in­crease thy dignities, heare what age and experience hath taught me, that thy youth is not yet able to conceiue. Know Daughter that oportunities neglected are signes of folly, whereas actions measured by time are seldome bitten with repentaunce, honour is fickle, a sweete seate, but a [...]lippery passage, no sooner growen to a faier blossome, but fame in­forced by enuy séekes to blast it with the blacke and dismall Trumpet of report: A Crowne, Cimbriana, yea Cim­briana, a Crowne, a thing that all desire, feawe obtaine: and most account it once gotten, a weary and grieuous burden, is so sugred and pleasing an obiect to the eye, as it maketh men by ambition to forget they are men, and to think them selues more then gods: thou shalt haue a Crowne, but bée not prowde; maiesty is no priuiledge to contempt; thy glo­ry is great, but thy care is more; if thou meanest to lyue be loued and die honored: selfe loue is not fit for princes, nor pryde an ornament to a Dyadem: but if thou must be tic­kled with selfe conceipt, let it bee, Cimbriana, at the remē ­braunce of thy vertues, not thy dignities; least if Fortune f [...]owne, and thou shouldst happe to fall, to bée enuied, not pi­tied: when my body is closed in the graue, thy head impal­ [...]ed with a Crowne, thinke thou art a woman and a maide, though a Queene and a princesse, therefore bee milde as be­comming thy Sexe, and chaste as fi [...]ting thine honor: Let the Senators be thy fathers, and the lawes the directors of thy thoughts, least peruerting lawe by will, thy Subiects count thy gouernment foolish, and [...]ff [...]ynate tyrannie: [Page] take héede Cimbriana of Loue: thy yéeres being fruite for fancie: kinges seates are high markes, whereat Cupid can ayme, bée hée neuer so blind: the féete of princes haue Caeres and Bacchus for their footestooles, then cannot it bee but Venus must play the wanton in their Pallaces, but if af­fection, as women must loue, for that they are women, hap to treade vppon thy heele, then swéete Cimbriana choose flowers, not wéedes: thou arte a princesse, looke no lower then Maiestie: thou hast a Crowne, then gase not after ri­ches but vertues: tye not thy selfe to a meane person, for Venus is painted in silkes not in ragges, and Cupid tread­eth on disdaine when hee reacheth at dignity: but aboue all (Cimbriana) take héede of Rascianus a reconciled enemy, him account as thy supposed frinde and thy fathers foe: what hee cannot perswade with woordes, hée séeketh to constrayne with weapons, but rather die then consent, so shall my departing breth breathe out nothing vppon thee but blisse: and with that before hee coulde ende the sentence, hée gaue a gaspe and yéelded vppe the goste: Cim­briana séeing her fathers liuelesse body almost betwéene hir armes: melting into teares, burst foorth into such lamenta­ble complaintes, that hir Ladies carrying hir away in a­pace, & the sorrowfull Senators and Peeres of Lydia a­mazed at the sodaine death of their prince departed: no­thing sounded in the pallace but sighes and teares, no house in the Citty not filled with mourninges, in such sorte, that a longe while the people ranne as men bereft of their wits vp and downe the stréetes, forgetfull of their pryuate and ne­cessary businesse: but time that limiteth an end to the grea­test sorrowes, [...]aused Cimbriana after consideration howe Nature claymed but his, to take order for the pretious bal­ming of hir fathers corps, & for the magnificence of his Fu­neralls, which shee perfourmed in such sumptuous sorte, as might bewray hir duetifull affection, and hir fathers prince­ly Progenie: Fortune seeing the Lady not greatly checked with this mate, thought to sporte himselfe in the tragicall mishappe of this younge princesse. For the funerall ended [Page] and shee by will of the Senators going to hir Coro­nation, the solemnitie thereof was scarcelie finished, before woord was brought hir that Rascianus with a multitude of his Caspians, had placed a monstrous and strong Legar about the Cittie. Cimbriana willing to spight Fortune with patience, made no answere, as one not caring what the enemy coulde doo by force, and as resolued by hir fathers commaund rat [...]er to die then consent, committing therefore the garde of the citty to the charge of the Senators shée re­mayned quiet and secure in hir chamber. But the Sena­tors whose heads though not armed with helmet [...], yet stored with polliticke foresight of their enemies indeuours, caused the gates to be shut vp, the Percullyzes to bee let downe, the walls to bee countermured with rampiers of forces, and euery quarter of the citty to bee garded with seuerall com­panies, both of Captaynes and Souldiers fit for such a charge. Rascianus seeing how ye Cytizens prepared them selues to defence, scorning to beare the braue of such a paltry towne, yet willing to win the Lady [...] rather by intreaty, then by force, sent a Heralt of Armes, who frindly let into the gates and admitted to Cimbrians presence, hee deliuered his message from Rascianus in this manner.

The mightie prince of Caspia sendeth greeting to Cim­briana the famous Quéene of the Lydians, letting hir to vnderstand that hée is Copartner with hir of sorrowes, as hée would bée of affections, gréeuing at hir fathers losse, espe­cially growing so to hir mislike, but sith Fate and necessitie may not be auoided [...] hee wisheth the princesse to comfort hir selfe in hir greefes, and not to bee amased that hee commeth as an enemy denouncing wars, sith he holdeth both fire and water in his hands, both death and lyfe, vpon frindly condi­tions; namely if Cimbriana yeeld hir selfe as his wyfe, hir Crowne and kingdome into his hand, the Citizens in ioy of the marriage shall fill their bellies with feastes, their eares with musicke: and with sollemnitie, haue their heads decked with garlands of Lawrell: but if shee deny, his loue being chaunged into hate, Cimbriana shall liue the Concubyne [Page] of Rascianus in contempt, the Senators graye heads shall go vntimely to the graue, the children shall bee slaine, and the citizens haue no refuge but the swoorde, nor no pardon but death.

Befor [...] the Heralt coulde ende his charge, Cimbriana not bearing the presumptuous braue of such a tyrant, retur­ned him this briefe answere: For that heralt Messengers carry priuiledges in their foreheads, to frée them [...]rom any forraine preiudice, I heare with patience what thou hast in charge, but vnwilling to be further priuie to his friuolous threats, say thus from me to Rascianus: That Cimbria­na hauing teares in hir eyes, and sighes from hir heart for hir fathers death, hath no place left to gréeue at the daring termes of any tyrant, that she scorneth his proffer or friend­ship, as a prince vnworthy hir maiesty, much lesse hir loue: that hir Senators and Cytizens thinke they are as politike as hee is valiant, and are as able to defend as hee to assault: therefore will the prowde prince to doo his worst, for he can­not affright them with death that feare not death: and with that shée turned hir backe, leauing the Messenger amazed at an answere so full of maiesty. The Senators conducting him out of the Citty with a frindly farewell, suffred him to depart: who returning to the king tolde him the resol [...]e reply of the pryncesse, which perplexed Rascianus with a double passion, for as hee was inuironed with the courage of such a péerelesse Quéene as preferred maiesty and honor before death, so hee was gréeued that shee was so obstinate as to giue him the repulse of such a swéete and desired bene­ [...]it, reueng crying to take leaue of affection, so hardned his heart, that swearing neuer to intreate againe, hée presently commaunded his Generall (called Mandauior) a man of inuincible courage and valour, to giue a fierce and furious assault to the Cyt [...], sith the cowards had so fearefully har­boured them selues within the walles: Hée whom nothing better pleased then the command of martiall attempts, pre­sently vpon this charge, gathering his men at armes toge­ther, fitted with their scaling Lathers and other munition, [Page] Mandauior formost, as one full of courage, began so valy­antly to giue an assault, as had not the citiz [...]ns made as vio­lent an intermedley, by throwing downe not Pytch, Tim­ber, and s [...]ones from of the walles, the Citty [...]ad bene s [...]a­led and s [...]cke [...]: but such a hot resistance wa [...] made that the Caspians [...]ed from the walles: but Mandauior with the example of his fortitude, and the threats of reueng vpon the cowards, hee so incouraged them, that a fresh they assaulted, but with such great slaughter, that despight of him sel [...]e the Generall was faine to sounde retraite, and with some losse r [...]tyre to the campe. This repulse nothing amazing them, they assayed sundry times to indammage the towne, but all in vayne, which so grieued Mandauior, that impatient of fortunes frowne, hee so desperatly at the next assault offred to climbe the wall that hée was slayne, and his men bea­ten back with great effusion of blood: Mandauior deade, Rascianus appointed in his roome one Prelides, a man far more liberall then the other was valiant, who promising to performe that by prodigall expences, that Mandauior mis­sed of by his valiant indeuours, tolde his Lord that there was no Citty so strong, whereinto an asse laden with golde coulde not enter: that great gyftes were little gods, that p [...]lfe hath such force to perswade, as Auri Sacra fames: quid non mortalia pectora cogit? men haue their thoughts and their passions: and so great a conflict is there betwéene a lyberall Purse and a couetous, that might it please his ma­iestie to graunt him the distributing of his Treasures, hee pawned his life for the spéedy recouery of the citty: the king desir [...]us to hazard him selfe for the hope of reuenge, gaue him free vse of all his coyne, which once in possession of Pre­lides, he began first to pay al his Souldiers wages, the grea­test incouragement that may bee giuen to a frée mynde, [...]nd to bestow bountifully of euery meane man beyonde his de­ [...]ert, with promise, that if they sackt the Citty the spoyle should bee equally deuided amongst them, the king only cra­uing for his share the princesse Cimbriana, with Crowne and kingdome: this perswasion alleaged, and his Souldiers [Page] hearts [...]et on fier with hope of gaine, the next morning by breake of the day, hee made an assault with such force, as [...]he cytizens neuer felt before: but they poore men [...]ghting no [...] for golde, but for theyr lyues and family, so hardely abid the brunte, that Prelides was faine to retyre wit [...] great [...]i­shonor: His purpose not fitted by this pretence, secretly he gotte to speake with one of the Senators, to whom he pro­mised two Talents of golde that the Citty might bee deli­uered: The Lydians being more politicke then hee was prodigall, after a faint deniall gaue consent, & confirmed it with an othe, that for such a summe hée would delyuer vp the Citty, the agréement ended, and appointed, Preli­des carrying his gold, mette according to promise, the Se­nator, who receiuing him and his money with a great troupe of Souldiers, brought them within an ambush, an [...] made such a bloody massacre of them all, as there was not one left to beare dismall report of such mercilesse butchery: yet the triumph made in the Cittie, their heads set ouer the walles, and the Caspians Auntientes displayed on the Turrettes of the Citty, gaue Rascianus to vnderstand what ill fortune had fallen to his generall Prelides. This mishap still in­creasing the furie of the Caspian, called him so fast on to re­uenge, that now intending to loose in one day both his men and him selfe, vnderstanding that the citizens were greatly weakned, & also weary of their warre & of the si [...]ge, hee re­solued in person to giue the assault: but Cleophanes a no­ble man in the Campe, whose wisedome excelled either the fortitude, or liberallity of the other, noting with a deepe in­sight the sondry accidents, & seeing that the Senators were more wise then valiant, and defended the Citty better by wisedome then they coulde doe with pollicie, hée thought to giue them a soppe of the same sauce, and to thrust out one wyle with another, therefore hee desired of his Soueraigne that hee would suffer him to ouerthrow that with his head, that his whole hoste could not once shake with their hands, the king knowing him to bee of great experience, not onely graunted his request, but added a promise of higher dignity [Page] if hee [...]ulfilled his desire: wherevpon hee willed the king to craue a Truce for ten dayes, which being graunted, during the time of the league it was lawfull for any Caspian to go into the Citty, and for any Citizen to visite the Campe: this interchaunge of frindship confirmed, Rascianus by the coū ­saile of Cleophanes sent foure and twenty of his chiefe nobles, and chiefetaines into the Citty, as pledges, that the Senators might come safely into the Campe without pre­iudice, so to parle of the peace with the king: this request thought necessary by Cimbriana and hir Counsaile, the Se­nators came, in whose residence at the Campe, Cleopha­nes going into the Citty and into the market place, gathe­ring a multitude of the rude and common sort together, hée subtelly began to insinuate into their minds, with this plea­sing Oration.

Cleophanes Oration to the Citizens.

WOrthie Cytizens and inhabitants of Lydia whose forepassed peace, darkned with a mortall and resolute warre, and whose long happinesse quaketh at the thought of incident myseries, I cannot, though an enemy, yet passe the streetes without plaintes, nor though sworne [...]o your fatall ruyne, yet foresée your fall without teares: hath this citty beene famous for hir walles, hir Turrets, & stately edifices, bewrayed a pompe to the eye by hir sump­tuous buildinges, and shall it bee laide waste as a desolate place, so that straungers shall aske: where stoode the glori­ous Citty of Lydia? Shall so many men as are here pre­sent, whose yeares are younge enough, many dayes hence to passe with quiet into the graue, perish at the City walles with the swoorde? shall these sweete women, whose angels faces pleade for pitty, bee ledde as sorrowfull wydowes into captiuity? shall the little babes and tender infantes be taken [Page] from the T [...]ate, and lie strāgled in the streetes? shall the vir­gins, whose chastitie is so pretious, be a pray to the souldier, and be deflowred before the face of their paren [...]s? Nay for­getfull Cytizens of Lydia, shall fier and swoorde with­out mercy finish what I forewarne: and you so sencelesse as to beleue the doting Senators that féed you with hope of our remooue? Hath not the mighty Caspian compassed the Citty with such an hoste, and your liberty is no further then the limits of your walles: yea, and hath he not sworne to continue the siege till hee be king, and inuested with the Crowne? consider what hee craues, nothing but to haue the Queene to his wife, and you to continew his true and lawfull Subi [...]ctes, hee seekes not your liues, your goods, your ouerthrow, but to bee as soueraigne and protectour of so faire a citty, and so honest Citizens: what madnesse then (this requ [...]st so reasonable) hath incensed your Senators to resist him, whom fortune hath in farre more dangerous at­tempts sent away with conquest. Beléeue mee Cytizens [...] it is the feare of their wealth, not the care of your welfare; the dread of their owne mishap, not ye desire of your goods that driues them to make slaughter of the Citizens with­out reason: seeing then you are forewarned, be forearmed, prouide for your owne safty, suffer the king to come in, and I my selfe will remaine here among you as a pledge of your safty.

At these woordes, the vnbridled multitude desirous of nouelty: as men in a fury ran to the pallace, thinking by force to haue caried the Quéene to the Tent of Rascianus: But she hauing notice of their intent, secretly fled out of the pallace, and conueied hir into one of the Senators houses adioyning: the Cytizens not finding hir maiesty, fell to spoile of the treasures, which done, setting open the gates, they getting Branches of Lawrell in their hands, went to the Pauilion of Rascianus, where séeing the Senators talk­ing for the estate of their cōmon wealth, after certaine com­plaints vttered against them, they deliuered vp the keyes of the Citty into the kings hand: He taking oportunity at the [Page] rebounde, casting a frowning looke vpon the Senators, and with a submisse courtesie and a frindly oration of welcome, intertaining the Citizens, hee presently departed, and with all his hoste was receiued into the Citty: no sooner had Ra­scianus possest him selfe of the towne, and his pledges come into his presence, but by the perswasion of Cleophanes hée put all the Senators and chiefe of the Citty to the edge of the sword, giuing the rest of the Citty as a praie to his soul­diers: then they which were by the pleasinge Harmonie of his forerehearsed oration deluded, seeing themselues brought into extreme miserie, founde that the pollitike wisedome of Cleophanes had more ruinated their estate then all the former forces of Mandauior or Prelides: Well, repen­tan [...]e comming too late, the Senators slaine, the Cittye sackt and all brought to ruine: yet had not the kinge his purpose, for Cimbriana was missing, & could by no meanes bee found, so that the Caspian raging in the heate of his af­fection, hauing made a priuie search and all in vayne: was dryuen againe [...]or his last refuge to the pollicie of Cleopha­nes, who counsayled his maiesty to assemble all the women, of what age or Degrée so euer into the pallace, and after­ward to sel [...]ct out all the aged Matrons or others whatsoe­uer, aboue the age of twenty, and vnder the yeeres of LX. which done, that the rest might be appointed to dance. The king following the counsaile of Cleophanes, assembled them all, and sorted them: now amongst the maides was left Cimbriana in disguised apparell, who falling to the lot of one of the meane souldiers, assoone as the musick founded, and they began to treade the measures, coulde not so well dissemble, but there appeared in hir gestures such a maiestie, as euery eye might easely iudge hir to bee some extraordi­narie p [...]rson: herevppon Rascianus licensing all to depart, seased him selfe vpon Cimbriana, who seeing fortune would not let hir escape hir determined ill fortune, without feare confessed shee was daughter to [...]britius, and right possessor of that Crowne which hee did wrongfully vsurpe. The king seeking by laying downe the summe of hir miseries, to [Page] make hir more submisse, so preuailed, that two or thrée daies passed in sorowes, hee founde hir as tractable as hee coulde desire, and vppon hir frindly and louing consent, resolued to solempnise the marriage, and so to become peaceable posses­sor of hir and hir kingdome: resting vpon this resolution, while all things were preparing for such a sumptuous feast, Cimbriana accompanied with hir Ladies, finding that none but they and hir selfe were present, falling into sighes, and from sighes to teares, burst at last into these termes.

Honorable Ladies of Lydia, renowned through the world for your beauties & vertues, whose youth hath beene crossed by fortune, a [...]d whose age is assigned to misery, de­priued of your husbands, your parents, your children, your wealth, your liberty: yea, and in hazard of daily dishonor by the Caspians, the greatest losse of all. Whetherto doo wee looke but to shame and mishap? to what ende doo wee lyue but to disgrace and infamy? hath our frinds made defence of our safty with their liues, and shall we enter league with their enemies after death? shall the hande that slaugh­tred your parents bée thrust fréely into your Iuory bosoms? shall hee intertaine you with amours, through whom our city perisht in armours? No Ladies, let the sight of their carcases yet vnburied hale vs on to reuenge: let vs prefer death before dishonor, let vs choose rather to accompanie our frinds in their fortunes, then sporte in our enemies fa­uours: better is a moment of griefe then a wo [...]ld of my­serie: I se [...]ke not to perswade wherein I will not my self bee formost: let the Tragedy bee resolued on, and I will bee first actor to bathe my handes in blood: to bring which to pass [...], at the marriage, midst our mirth, and in the thickest of our cuppes let euery Lady choose a Lord, into whose cup let hir put a dramme of this deadly poyson, and so drinking the halfe, purchase an honorable death with reuenge. The Ladies freely consenting to this motion, Cimbriana gaue secret notice to such Cytizens as were left, hat when ye citie should bee in an vproare for the death of Rascianus, ready [Page] in armour, they would set vppon the sorrowfull souldiers, & put all to the edge of the sworde. This determynation a­greed vppon, and the confiction parted amongst them, the Ladies seeming maruelous pleasaunt, ceased not daily to banquet with the Caspian Lords till the marriage morning was come, whereon Rascianus going to the Temple, ac­companied with his Lords, & Cimbriana attended vppon with hir Ladies, they were solemnly married by the Fla­mine: the rites perfourmed and ended, and they returned to the pallace: the Caspians feasting for ioy of this great tryumphe, passed away dinner with great solemnity: Ra­scianus and the rest, swéetly swilled in their cuppes; Bac­chus liquor adding a heate to Venus charmes, they fell after their maner to dallying with the Ladies, who taking opor­tunitie by the forehead, called for wyne, whereinto they put the poison, which drinking of to the Lords; a [...]ter the pledge passed, & Cimbriana saw hir purpose had taken effect; with a sterne countenance looking vpon Rascianus, she told him that now shee had quitted hir cities spoyle with reueng, for know tyrant (quoth shee) that thou and all thy Lordes are impoysoned by the hands of women, who rather choose to die in dispaire, then liue vnreuenged in the handes of an enemy: scarse had she vttered this, but some of the Ladies, whose complexions were tender fell downe dead: Rascia­nus and his nobles amased, and feeling the force of the poy­son to worke, called to the Phisitians, but all in vayne, for within one houre there was not one of them aliue: the Caspian Souldiers seeing their King and their Captaines dead, stoode as men metamorphosed from their former sence: The Citizens of the contrary part, hearing of the desperat attempt of their princesse, as men furious and incensed with the heate of reueng, getting on their armour, gathered in troupes, and setting vpon the naked and amased Caspians, made such a bloody massacre of the poore wretches, that they left not one aliue, whatsoeuer hee was that came as merce­nary to Rascianus. This stratageme perfourmed, the dead [Page] carkases cast out of the City, Cimbriana and hir Ladyes richly intoumbed the Citizens, and longe after maintained their cyuill estate with a peaceable and quiet democracy.

HElenus hauing ended his tragedie, the grecian Lords with a plawsible assent praysing his discourse, confes­sed that wisedome was of great force, able to perfourme as much in humaine affaires as any other vertue whatsoeuer. And yet (quoth Hector) wee see that the ende of Cleopha­nes pollicie had a dismall counterpoise of reueng: that his wisdome could not preuent the feeble force of one woman: that fortune grudging at such treachery repaied all his craft with confusion. Let mee (quoth Troilus) haue such a con­quest as men shall attribute to courage, not to deceipt, and that may end, dispight of the enimy him selfe, in honor, not in curses, that Fortune may glorie in for hir fauours, not fame haue cause to obscure with hir darkest collours: I de­ny not but wisedome is necessary in a Captain [...], and there­fore naturall, as giuen to euery man of necessity: but va­lour, as it is expedient, so it is singularly bestowed vpō few, as a thing so pretious that the gods doo grudge to imparte it in common.

You measure (quoth Nestor) this wisdome which your Brother Helenus discoursed with too bare a proportion, as counting what witte or rather reasonable gouernment wee haue by the ordinary or naturall direction of our acti­ons to bee wisedome, but his description prooueth the con­trary, for hee setteth downe that to bee wisedome which is a habit inserted by Nature, but augmented by Arte and Science, such as is able to discerne betweene vertue & vyce: so that none can attaine to bée called Fortis, vnlesse first hee bee Sapiens, for without wisedome hee shall fall eyther to excesse or defect: eyther to bee too fearefull, or too rashe: and so passing that meane for want of wysdome commit some­thing worthy of blame. As thus they were redy to make [Page] further replie: Andromache and the other Troian Ladies seeing the sunne declining to the west, desirous to take their leaues hastened Hector from the companie, who with the rest breaking of from talke, after great thankes to his host Achilles, to Agamemnon, Vlisses, and the other Lords, for their sumptuous intertainment, with a request from Polix­ena and hir sister Cassandra, that the next morrowe they would accompany Iphigenia, Briseis, and Cressida to the City, who had past their promyse to come, they offred to de­part. Agamemnon onely making excuse for him selfe, but graunting his consent to his daughter: the other noble men promysed to accompany the Ladies, and for confirmation thereof, after an interchange of courtesies, mounting vppon their coursers, they roade with the Ladies to the very walls of Troy; where after a friendly far [...]well, they returned to their pauilions. Priamus glad to sée his children so merry at home, began to question with them of their intertain­ment, which Hector from pointe to pointe rehearsed vnto him, as before, with this addition, that the Gretians ment to dyne with him the next day: wherevpon Priamus made most princely preparation.

¶ The third discourse.

THe gladsome rayes of Phoebus had no sooner shaken of, by the consent of blushing Aurora, the dusky and darksome Mantle that denied Tellus and Flora the benefits of Tytan, but the Grecian Ladies, and especially Cressida, who all that night had smoothered in hir thoughts the per­fection of Troilus, were vp and at the pauilion of Achilles, to waken him from his drowsie nest: whose dreames were but swéete slumbers conceipted by imagination of the beau­ty of his fayer Polixena: The worthy Captayne glad he had such pretty Cocks to crow him from his dreames, hied [Page] him out of his bed, and with as much speede as might bee, sending for Vlisses, Diomedes, Patroclus, Nestor, and the rest, after a small desiune, for feare of the ayer, they moun­ted with the Ladies, and trotted on a solemne Pace to­wardes Troy.

Hector hauing by his espials vnderstanding of their comming, accompanied with a worthy troupe of Troians, went to méete them, hauing before him vpon white Arabian Coursers three hundreth gentlemen, clad in purple Bisse, their Hats plumed with crimson Feathers, that reached to the Arcons of their Saddles, their Coparisons interpointed with broken Launces spotted with bloode, about the borders w [...]s written this sentence:

Hac fortis sunt insignia.

Next to these, Hector, whose countenance threatned warres, & in whose face appeared a map of martiall exploits; framing his collours to his thoughts, was seated on a black Barbarian Gennet, whose furniture was black Ueluet, set with Adamants, interseamed with fluds, wherein were Salamanders bathing in content: there was imbrodered in letters figured with Pearle, this,

Sic pro Marte.

Hector thus in his Furniture mette Achilles, and the Ladies, whom after friendly salutations, and a second re­paying of thankes for their good cheere, they conducted to the Citty: where they no sooner entred the gate but He­cuba, the stately Troian Queene, attended on by Penthe­silea the princesse of the Amazons, hir daughters and other Ladies of great dignity, met them with most royall inter­taynment: whom after generally they had saluted, with a particular welcome, they accompanied to the temple of Pal­las, where aged Priamus, with six and thirty other kinges his allied frinds, amazed the Gretians with the sight of their maiesty: in so much, that Achilles as a man in a traunce, confessed in his thoughtes, that this citty was Microcos­mos, a little Worlde, in respect of the Cytties of Greece. [Page] Pryamus noting howe they stoode in a muse, saluted them in this maner.

Worthy Grecians, whom reueng and thirst of honor hath haled out of your natiue kingdomes, to sacrifice your bloode at the walls of Troy: sith in martiall myndes en­mity ought to hange at the Swords point, and thoughtes in maiesty ought to bee measured by promise; A league of friendship being passe for a prefixed tyme, I account our citty a free mart for the Grecians, and your Tents a Sanctuary for the peaceable Troians: which my daugh­ters confirmed by proofe, in hazarding, vpon the othe of an enemy, and you now ratefie, by committing your selues in­to a walled city, peopled with your professed foes. But ho­nor and maiesty brooking no treacherous suspition, putteth in assurance of safty: omitting therefore all friuolous pro­testation, the Ladies first, as respecting that once I was young, and the Lordes, as now I am olde: and both as I am Priamus are heartely and vnfaynedly welcome, to the poore besiedged citty of Troy: where if you finde no sights but Armour, no musicke but the Drumme, nor no delicates but souldiers fare, impute it to your owne wilful­nesse, and our necessities, which are forced to beare reueng with fortune: hoping therefore you will measure your in­tertainement by the time, Followe mee to the Pallace of Il [...]um.

The Grecians thanking Priamus for his Pryncely courtesie, paced on to the Pallace, where alighting, and en­tering, they found all things ready furnished for dynner, so that set downe euery man in his degrée, they fell to such cheere as so sodaine a warning would afford, which was so sumptuous and (to say troth) serued in with such prodygall magnificence, as the Gretians thought Bacchus and Cae­res ment there to discouer their superfluity: Feeding thus more with the eye then glutting the stomacke, yet taking their repast with good appetite, they past ouer dynner with many pleasant discourses; which for breuity sake I omitte. [Page] Well, the Tables vncouered, Hecuba and the Ladies went to walke, and to see the pleasures of the Pallace: but the Lordes sat still silent, vntill Priamus began to put them from their muses with these woordes.

I remember (mighty princes of Greece and Asia) that my sonne Helenus commended the Gretian banquets, to bee more delicate then any other that before hee had seene: his reason was thus; that their fare was not so sumptuous, as their philosophicall discourses were delightfull: so that to spend tyme well, they amidst their cuppes ceased not to learne precepts of morall vertue; so alaying the heate of Bacchus vynepresse, with the sweete conserues fetcht from Myneruaes Library: which as I greatly commend, he dis­coursed vnto mee your late disputation about the perfection of a souldier, consisting by your distinct diuision, in thrée partes, wysedome, fortitude, and liberalitie: all thrée ne­cessary, but the question which of them is most pretious: the first being discussed bad enough, as I coniec [...]re by the man; it resteth, if with your good fauours I might craue it, that now to adapt a fit digestion, wee might heare the se­cond question decided.

Aged Nestor seeing they sat all silent, rising vppe, and vncouering his hoary heade, that shyned like the Syluer gleaming Iuory, made him this answere: Mighty Pria­mus, honorable for thy thoughts, and famous for thy Issus; feared of Fortune, because in resolute maiesty aboue For­tune; the Gretians knowing their discent from the gods, therefore couet in actions to resemble the gods, which they Imagin to doe, by studying phylosophie to be come vertu­ous: so that they measure their time by pleasures and their pleasures by profit, counting nothing delightfull, which is not both profitable and honest: which inforced vs to inter­taine thy sonnes with our philosophicall discourses, to trie if their vertues were onely ingrauen by nature, or perfected by learning. How wee found them, giue vs leaue to re­porte in Greece, not in Troy: but so wée estéeme of them, [Page] as wee desire thy highnesse to forward our former disputa­tion; which belongeth vnto thy sonne Hector: namely to discourse of fortitude. Priamus promised to farther so good a motion: and therefore commaunded Hector, sith hee tooke the defence of such a vertue, to maintaine his charge: who duetifully obeying his fathers commaunde, seeing the Princes began to be attentiue, began his discourse in this manner.

¶ Hectors discourse of Fortitude.

ALthough it might amase Esculapius to alledge any of his Aphorismes in the presence of Apollo, or Sile­nus to treat of the nature of Grapes in the hearing of Bac­chus; yet it is no offence in Pallas temple to treate of wis­dome, nor at Venus altars to parle of loues; sith the god­desses doo patronage such affections. So, although the pre­sence of such mighty prynces, whose chieualry is famous from the East to the West, and whose valour by experience is able to deliuer principles of magnanimitie, might affray mee from this inioyned discourse of fortitude; yet, for that my fathers commaunde is a lawe of constraint, which Na­ture willes mee to obey, and the request of the Grecians such a clayme, as duety forceth mée to graunt; I will rather hazarde my credit on the honorable thoughts of these migh­ty Potentates, then seeme eyther scrupulous, or froward in gainesaying such a charge, hoping they will with Prome­theus, censure well of the workmanship of Lisias, & rather cast an eye at the nature of the stone by secret instinct, then at the beauty pollished by arte; in which hope resting, thus to the purpose.

The Phylosophers, whose liues spent in metaphusicall contemplation, hauing set downe in their precepts, the per­fect [Page] pourtraiture of vertue, figure hir bare counterfait, pla­ced by equall proportion, betwéene two vyces, noting there­by, that the meane kept betweene two extremes, is that laudable action, which by no other name can bee tearmed, but by the title of vertue; neither in excesse, soaring too high with Bolerophon, and so to hasard on the heate of ye sunne, nor in defect falling too lowe with Icarus, by the moysture of the Sea wetting his feathers; but flying with Dedalus, in the meane, so with case and quiet attayning to the desired ende; as for an instance, fortitude seated betweene two ex­tremities, Timiditas, and Audacia; feare fayling in defect, and rashnesse faultie in excesse; the meane being that cou­rage which ought to bee in a Souldier. For all desperate attempts that beare the shadowe of prowesse, and are of the common sorte honored with the name of fortitude, are not comprehended within the precinct of this vertue; for hée on­ly is counted a valiaunt man, that without any furious or rash resolution, feareth not to hasard him selfe in ye greatest perills whatsoeuer, for the weale of his countrey. So that by this definition wee see, that hee limited within the bonds of measure, is not to v [...]ture or make proofe of his valour in euery light cause; yea, for euery trifling thing, but with such proportion, as in scorning death; yet hee may honora­bly se [...]ke not to bee counted desperate. For I remember that Isadus a worthy Lacedemonian seeing their Citty be­sieged, and tha [...] the Souldiers resolutely issued out to fight with the enemy, hée being their Captayne, stript him selfe naked, and taking a Pollax in his hand, with such a despe­rate furie gaue the attempt, and so amazed, and repulsed them, that his Souldiers imitating his courage put all their foes to the edge of the sword: the battaile ended, the Se­nators gaue him a Crowne of Lawrell for the victory; but fined him in a some of money for his rashnesse, in that hee did so vnaduisedly put himselfe in daunger, being the Ge­nerall of their forc [...]s. So that wee see, there ought in this vertue of fortitude certaine circumstances to be necessary, as how it bee done, where it bee done, & why it bee done, and [Page] when it bee done; least in defect hee bée counted a Coward, and in excesse a desperate and vnaduised gouernour. Your Grecian Annales tells vs of one Lamedos, that being a Captayne ouer the Athenians, in a skirmish fledde, which one of his owne souldiers seeing, cryed in retyring to him: Lamedos, why dishonorest thou thy Countrey by flight? Thou deceiuest thy selfe man (quoth he [...]) I doo but looke to the profit that is behind mee, which after hée confirmed by proofe, for taking aduantage of the place, he discom [...]ted the enemy, shewing that hee feared not death, but sought howe to the profit of his countrey, best to make manifest his cou­rage.

Theseus yet liuing, who for his worthy and incompa­rable victories is canonised, as come from the Offspring of the gods, being in a battayle against the Athenians intren­ched him selfe with a stronge countermure, and would not in many daies bee drawen out to fight, which his enemy Lyme [...]tor séeing, comming to the trench cried out a [...]d said; Theseus, if thou beest such a hardie souldier as Fame re­ports thee to bee, why commest thou not out, but like a co­ward lyest intrenched: nay ( [...]uoth Theseus smiling;) Ly­mestor, if thou beest of such courage, why doost thou not force mée out of my trenches? By this delay, shewing that hee sought to set Fortitude in hir prime, to adde oportuni­ty to his valour, and so to fauour his prowesse with fortu­nate aduantage, that his attempt, as it should bee resolute, so it might bee for the profit of his Countrey, which insued according to his thoughts; for hee slew Lymestor, & all his people: Experience then tells vs, as fortitude is necessary, so it is to bee vsed with such moderation, as by keeping the meane, it bée counted a vertue: Howe requisite it is in a Captaine, consideration of his place makes manifest; for being appointed Generall, and therefore Guyder and Go­uernour of the rest, hee is to measure all his actions; yea, his very thoughts with such an honorable resolution, as lay­ing apart all feare of death whatsoeuer, his charge and due­ [...]y is to hazard him selfe in any perills, though neuer so dan­gerous, [Page] thereby to incourage his Souldiers, by imitating his valour to attempt the like, to bee formost in the march; and last in the retrayte: to preferre honor before death, and not to make estimation of the enemies, how many they be, but where they bee: otherwise in seeming to doubt of the multitude, his fearefull imagination greatly discourage his souldiers.

Sergius a woorthy Captaine, hauing but one hand, was of such courage and valour, that being alwayes in the face of the enemy: he returned Uictor in two and fifty great battailes. Lysias the woorthy Prynce of the Lacede­monians being demaunded how hee was honored with so many conquests, pulling out his sword, made answere; that with this hee made Fortune subiect to his desiers: attribu­ting more credit to his owne prowesse, than to the incon­stant deity of such a fickle goddesse. A Grecian Captaine, whose name commeth not readily to memory, being in a sore battaile against that mighty Monarch Pisandros, sée­ing his countrymen ready to flee for feare of the multitude of the enemy, whose fleete almost couered the Sea, sought to perswade them, but in vaine; wherevpon hée sent secretly one of his sonnes in a little skyfe to Pisandros, to tell him that his countrymen would escape by such a passage: which hee taking kindly, and presently stopping, added such a cou­rage to the coward [...]s, that by this pollicie drawen to bat­tayle, they put Pi [...]andros with great losse to flight: where wee sée how greatly the incomparable fortitude of the Cap­taine did preuaile in the getting of victorie.

In deede (quoth Troilus) I doo remember that Apollo, being demaunded by the inhabitants of Phasiaca, what cap­taine they should choose for the subduing of the Milesians: his oracle answered. Such a one as dare for the weale of his countrey, leape into the Mylesian gulfe: whereupon they returned, and made proclamation that their fr [...]edome could not be, vnlesse one willingly offred himselfe as a sacra­fice to Neptune: the men of Phasiaca naturally fearefull, sought euery man his owne saf [...]y, till at last a poore man, [Page] whom want had made desperate, offered him selfe: him they those for their Captayne, and going foorth to meete the Mi­lesians, hauing little skill in ordring his men, yet with such resolution, set vpon the enemies, tha [...] by his meanes they returned victors. T [...]uth (quoth Hector) of such force is fortitude, that the very name of courage daunteth the ene­my: for I haue heard my father Priamus often make men­tion of one Nasycles, who was so famous for his cheualry and prowesse, that his very name was a warrant o [...] victory to his souldiers: in so much that after his death [...] in a great battayle his countriemen being almost discomfited, cau­sing one to put on his armour, they fought a fresh, & cried Nasycles: which so affrighted the enemy, that they fled & were vanquished. To be short, wh [...]t can a captaine, were he neuer so wise, attempt by pollicie, but he must performe by Fortitude? What ambush so cunningly planted, but would be ouerthrowne, if garded with cowards? what en­counter, though fortune swore the victory, and taken with most great aduantage, could be atchieued, if the Captaine for feare discourage his Souldiers from the assault? which the forenamed Sergius noted very well, in th [...]t how small so euer his number was, yet hee woulde alwaies gyue the onset, saying that souldiers which stood at receipt, & felt the furious attempt of the enemy, were halfe discomfited: neyther doth liberality preuaile to incourage the So [...]ldiers to battaile, when they see their captaine stand more vppon his purse then his person, & had rather incounter with pelf [...] then with the sword. To confirme which forerehearsed pre­misses, pleaseth your honorable patience to giue mee leaue, I will rehearse a pleasant and tragicall historie: Priamus taking a delight in his sonnes discourse, nodding his heade, gaue sufficient proofe they were content to bee patient au­ditors: wherevpon Hector began his tale thus.

¶ Hectors Tragedie. Audaces Fortuna adiu [...]at.

IN the kingdome of Egypt, as the Cronicles of the Cal­des maketh mention, there ruled sometime as king and Soueraigne of the Countrey, one Sosthenes, a prync [...] whose Courtes florished wyth Lawrell wreathes, more then with stéeled Armour; and in whose City of Memphis were more Academies for Phylosophers, then Storehou­ses for warlike munition: as one that delyghted wholie in a peaceable time, to applie him selfe and his Subiects to the studie of good letters, accounting no thing more preti­ous, then what was cunningly begun by Nature curiously to bee perfected by arte: Loued generally hee was of his bordring neighbors in that finding content in his thoughts, hee sought not to inlarge that his Father had left him, by extorting an other mans due, but quietly liued a friend to forraigne Princes, and studyed to kéepe his owne Do­mynions from cyuill mutinies. Being thus happie, as one that knew not what mishap ment: Fortune inten­ding to make him a particular instance, on whom with­out chaunge to poure hir momentayne pleasures, [...]ent him three sonnes, the Eldest named Frontinus, was from his youth addicted to martiall discipline, taking no delight but in armour: in so much that before he was come to ye age of sixtéene yeares, hee excelled most of all ye Egyptian Lords in feates of armes: which seeing in a peaceable countrey hée coulde not practise, he secretly stole from his father, and tra­ [...]ailed into those partes where hee heard bloode and reuenge were painted on their Ensignes; being of such courage and dexterity in the field, that the fame of his valour & prowesse was not only renowmed in the court of Memphis, but bla­ [...]ed [Page] [...]hrough the whole world, like a second Mars: His other Brother, called Martignanus, contrary wise followed the steppes of his father, seeking rather after the Precepts of phylosophie, then ye knowledge of martiall discipline; coun­ted that head as glorious, that was Crowned with a Law­rell Garland, as that which was impalled with a Diadem; thinking as great Dignity to come from the penne, as the scepter; as high renowne to flowe from the well- [...]pring of Wysedome, as from the possession of the greatest Monar­ches in the world: In so much, that neither the Bragmans, Gymnosophists, Caldees, or other Phylosophers what­soeuer did exceede him, eyther in morall prynciples, or in the Physicall reasons of naturall Philosophy: the young­est, whose name was Ortellius, being neyther so mar­tiall as Frontymus, nor so bookishe as Martignanus, yet had a speciall conceipt aboue them both in the bounty of his mynde, being so liberall, as hée counted no action ver­tuous, which ended not in rewarde, nor no day well spent wherein hee had not bestowed some gifte, placing his Sum­mū Bonum, in this, that with a restlesse desire of largesse hee woon the hearts of all the commons of Egypt: Sosthenes blessed thus with thrée such sonnes, as for their seuerall ver­tues were famous through ye world, féeling that old age, the forerunner of death, had giuen him somons by his Heralt sicknes, to pay his debt vnto nature, seeing neither Crownes nor kingdomes coulde priuiledge the necessity of fate, hee only sorrowed that at his death his eldest sonne was wan­ting, and vnknowen where, whom otherwise hée might in his life haue installed in his kingdome; yet vsing the bene­fit of time, calling his two sonnes Martignanus, and Or­tellius before him, with the rest of his nobles, hee vttered vnto them these wordes, as his last farewell.

Age and time two things, Sonnes that men may fore­thinke of, but not preuent, haue with a fatall necessity en­ioyned, that my soule leaue this mortall body and transito­rie Cell, to goe to that place of rest appointed, according to well deserued actions, for those that passe out of this pilgri­mage: [Page] féeling therefore my feeble age to wax weake, and my breth so short, as I looke euery moment to goe to my last home, I thought at my death to giue some signe of my fore passed life, and so to make distribution of my Crowne and Kingdome, as no dissention after my death may breede any ciuill mutinie. This therefore is my will, that Fron­tynus haue my Crowne and Kingdome, as his by right and inheritance, and by desert of martiall discipline; but in his absence, till hearing of my Funeralls hee make repayre to Memphis, I commit it into the hands of you two, to be go­uerned by your aduice, and at his sight, peaceably to be re­delyuered into his possession. The Dukedome of Lysia Martignanus I giue vnto thée; and sonne Ortellius, to thee I bequeath all my mooueables, wealth, and treasures whatsoeuer. Hauing thus first placed you as ioynt part­ners in a Kingdome, take heede my sonnes gase not too high: aspyring thoughtes, as they are lofty, so they are perilous, and daunger euer hanges at the héele of ambition: a crowne is a sugred obiect, and there is no swéeter good then Soue­raignty: but Est virtus placidis abstinuisse bonis, take héede, the finest Delycates are oft most infectious, and Crownes are as brittle, as they are glistering; then liue in content, thinke it is your Brothers right, and your Fathers gyfte. Sonne Ortellius, thou arte wise and learned, but beware thou soare not too high in selfe conceipt, and with Phaeton fall headlong into mishap. Endimion was counted but too rash, in falling in loue with Luna, Quae supra nos nihil ad nos, take heede my sonne, Noli altum sapere, clymbe not too high in imaginations, gaze not with the Astronomer so longe at the starres, that thou stumble at a stone: poare not so longe at thy booke, that thou forget domesticall affayres: passe not so farre in the motions of the heauens, that thou bee negligent what to doo vpon earth: let not the olde prouerbe tread on thy heele, that the greatest clarkes are not the wi­sest men; thou hast a Dukedome; that possesse in quiet and gouerne with Iustice, so shalt thou liue happie, and die ho­norable. Ortellius, to thee I haue giuen all my treasure, [Page] so much as exceedeth number: but take heede, for r [...]hes are thornes that pricke men forward to many mishaps: bee not too prodigall, for of courtesie I neede not forewarne thée: [...]xcesse in euery thing is a vice; goods wasted are like blos­somes nipped off with an vntimely frost: pouertie is the soa­rest burden that can fall vpon honor; & riches consumed, men cease to bée enuied, & begin to be pittied. But such [...]xchange is miserable: gifts are little gods, which as they are honored in time, so the remembraunce thereof perisheth with time: giue not, and thou shalt not bee galled with ingratitud: yet some giue, and be [...] liberall, for it is the cognisance of ma­iesty; but so, as respecting the mayne chance, thou mayest haue alwaies to giue: let a fewe precepts suffice, and print t [...]em well in your harts, and therefore imitate them in your life, sith I meane to seale them with my death: after this, many daies did not passe before Sosthenes died, whose Fu­neralls sorrowfully and solemnly celebrated, and they by their fathers will and consent of the Lords appointed ioynt-protectors of the kingdome. Ambition, ye Serpent that sti­ly insinuateth into mens mindes, not suffring loue or Lord­ship to brooke any fellowship, entring league with Enuy and Fortune, two enemies to Peace and prosperity, began to present them with the desire of a kingdome, and to think that fathers wills were buried with their bodies in their graues: that their commaunds were dated but while death, and that for a Crowne both father and law is to be neglec­ted. Martignanus, wisest and eldest, thought that Pallas had power on earth as she had in heauen: that mens hearts were tied to their eares, that Eloquence could as much pre­uaile to perswade, as Mercuries Pipe to inchaunte: that the commons, whose mindes were to bee woon by plawsi­ble discourses, would sooner create him king then his bro­ther: taking therefore Time by the foreheade, seeing his el­dest Brother was absent, and vncertaine assurance of his lyfe: he began to imagine how hee might displace Ortelli­us, from y part of such a royall Legacie: his minde was not thus fraught with aspiring thoughtes, but Ortellius was [Page] as forward in the same supposition: for féeling by a little experience, what a swéete thing it is to command: & taking a delight in the pleasaunt tast of a crowne, he thought by créeping into the commons heartes, to rase his brother quite out of their bookes: and this his coniecture was somewhat probable. For he considered with himselfe, that Qu [...]d non mortalia pectora cogit? auri sacra fames, that liberality was the soundest rethorick [...], that giftes were hookes that men would willingly swallow, were they neuer so bare. Howe wisedome was a good thing, but men did estéeme more of gold than of bookes, and would sooner be wonne by the fée­ling of wealth then [...]he hearing of wordes: that conscience bare no touch where coyne brought in her plea: that the common people, whose mindes sought after ease and satiety, had rather liue riche than wise, and would make more ac­count of a coffer full of golde, than of tenne of the greatest li­braries in the whole world: hoping vpon these coniectures sparing no expense, sith a day should come that would pay for all, he gaue freely of that which his father lent him, kee­ping great hospitality (a great perswasion to winne the common sorte) and giuing franckely (a baite to allure the highest and wisest peere in the kingdome,) Martignanus espying a pad in the strawe, and séeing how subtilly his bro­ther stole away the commonalty: nay the whole realme by his liberality, beganne to checke his prodigality in open au­dience, and with a long discourse to reprehende the spending of his fathers goods in such riotous manner. Ortellius ta­king occasion of these spéeches, told him [...] what he spent was vpon his friends, and that he could haue no surer stewardes of his wealth than his faithfull and louing subiectes: vppon which they fell to iarre in wordes, and from wordes to blowes: so that not onely the citie of Memphis, but the whole Monarchie of Egypt was in an vprore, and this dis­sention grew at last to ciuill mutinie: so that taking armes, the brothers began to incampe themselues in the fielde, and parts being taken on both sides, Ortellius for his surest placard proclaimed himself king of Egypt, and caused him­selfe [Page] to be crowned. Martignanus not behinde challenged the diademe, and installed himselfe with the like proclama­tion: whereupon in flat tearmes of de [...]ance they fell to mor­tall and deadly warres. The eldest with his sweete Orati­tions promising, so wisely and warely to gouerne the com­mon wealth, as in choosing him for king, they shoulde haue peac [...] and quiet, as in his fathers dayes: whose vertuous ac­tions he meant to take for a president of his gouernement. The youngest swore to be bountifull, and that in taking him for king the streetes should flowe with milke and honie, & pouertie should neuer be heard within the gates of Mem­phis. Armed thus on both sides, a day of battell was set, wherein when both the armies were martial [...]d and placed in their seuerall ranckes, and either vauntgardes readie to ioyne. Martignanus incouraged his souldiers with long & sweete orations. Ortelius promised, if the victory were his, he would bestow all the spoyle amongst his men, and make the meanest of them all to liue in plentie: the skirmish furi­ously begun, continuing for the space of thr [...]e houres, with g [...]eat massacre and bloodshed, fell at last on Ortellius side: so that Martignanus was fayne to flie, and for safety to in­campe himselfe vpon a hill. While these two breethren con­tinued in [...] dissention, Fame, the speedy heralt of newes, had brought it to the eares of Frontinus (who then was in the Court of Mae [...]ion [...]he great Despotte of Af [...]ica, and for [...]und [...]y seruices [...]ahauntly performed in warres in high e­stima [...]ion) howe his father was deade, and his brothers at [...] [...]or the kingdome, vpon which report, discouering the [...] [...]o Maesion, he craued his [...]ide to set him peaceably in [...]is kingdome. The Despotte of Africa glad that Fortune h [...]d [...] him occasion to shew himselfe gratefull to Fron­ [...], g [...]aunt [...] him tenne thowsande of his best approued [...] so hardy and well experienced in mar­ [...]all discipline, that [...]he worst of them woulde haue seemed to ha [...] go [...]rn [...]d a whole army. Frontinus garded thus wi [...]h [...]h [...]se Gensdar [...]ies, taking his leaue of Maesion, pass [...]d [...] all h [...] towa [...]s Egypt: where after wea [...]ysome [...]our­nies [Page] arriued: hée was no so [...]ner entred, but report had [...] ­ted abroade his returne: which no sooner came to the eares of the [...]wo Brothers, but it strooke them in a maze: for ney­ther did Martignanus trust so much vppon his wisedome, nor Ortellius vpon his [...]beralitie: [...] that they seared [...]o incounter with the fortitude of Frontinus, whose valour was such as his very name was sufficient to represse the rebellious thoughts of his enemies. Now began there to bee a combat betwéene Enuy and Ambition: for Enuy thir­sting for reuenge, willed the brethren particularly to reuolt to Frontinus: but ambition perswadeth them rather to be­come friends, and to parte a kingdome betwixt them, then vtterly to be dispossest from their Diadems: resoluing thus with them selues, they concluded frindly, and swore to kéepe Frontinus from his inheritaunce: but hee whom no report could daunt, drawing nigh to the place where his brethren lay incamped, whom ioyntly, as hee vnderstoode were con­tracted, and resolued to bend both their forces against him, thought to demaunde his right by courtesie, and so sent one of his Lords to knowe the cause of their ciuill warres, & to cra [...] a par [...]e: Martignanus who was very polliticke consented, and pledges giuen on both sides, they met: where after a dissembled courtesie past betwéene them, Fronti­nus began in Brotherly tearmes to che [...]ke their foolish and vnbridled presumption, that woulde so rashly séeke each o­thers ouerthrowe for the momenta [...]y possession of an other mans right: the kingdome I meane (quoth hée) which my father left mee, both by will and inheritaunce: such a Lega­cie as I meane not to loose, nor I hope you intend not to desire: therefore laying downe these weapons, and wyping out this ciuill controuersie, dismisse your souldiers, & friend­ly let vs go home to the City. You mistake you greatly (quoth Martignanus) for how soeuer you conclude your supposed Syllogisme vpon inheritance, wee meane to de­ny your argument by the proofe of my fathers Testament: for as birth by eldership allotts you a Crowne, so his will by commaund hath depriued you of that priuiledge, and part [...]d [Page] the kingdome betwixt vs: therefore without any more fri­uolous circumstances, for your welcome take this of m [...]e: wee haue it, and wée will keepe it, despight of him that dare gain say: swearing vntill death to maintaine our right by the sword. Frontinus whose courage could not brooke in­treaties, especially for his owne right, told them that he sor­rowed at their follies, sith they did not with a déep [...] in-sight fore see their owne myseries, and espy reueng that presented a fatall Tragedy of their misfortunes: and with that hee turned his backe in great choller, swearing before night ei­ther to weare the Crowne, or leaue his Carcase in the field. Or [...]ellius smiling at his Brothers attempt, for that they had ten to one, passing with Martignanus to the army, set their men in array, and imbattailed them with great speede, the one giuing incouragment by sweete orations, the other with the remembrance of his forepassed liberality. Fronti­nus hauing ordred his souldiers and come within view, by computation might coniecture that his enemies were about thréescore thowsand: and séeing his men halfe frighted at ye presence of such a multitude, began to hasten them forward in this manner.

I neede not worthy gentlemen & souldiers of Africa séeke to incourage you with a long discourse, vnlesse putting oyle in the flame, I should ad a spur to a free horse: your former valiant resolutions manifested in many battailes, the honor whereof still glories your names with renowne, assures me were the enemy like the sands in the sea, and Mars oppo [...]ed against our forces: yet the quarrell good, & our mindes armed with inuincible fortitude, the vertue that dareth Fortune in hir face, maugrefates and destinies we shall, as euer hether­to we haue done, returne with conquest. And for that ye cause toucheth my selfe and you fellow partners of my fortunes, I will be the first man in the battaile, and the last man in the field, vnlesse death giue mée an honorable quittaunce of my kingdome: let mee be a mirrour this day of your magnani­mity: let my actions bee your presidents: presse but as far as your generall, & courage gentlemen, the victory is ours: see [Page] how my sorrowful coūtrymen st [...]nd to receiue vs whose co­wardize dare scaresly march a foote to méete: I sée, yea, I sée in déed in their very faces the portraiture: therefore, God & our right: & with that catching a strōg staffe, pulling down his beuier, & putting spurs to his horse, he furiou [...]ly rusht v­pon ye enemy, his souldiers following with such a desperat resolution, that ye Egyptians amazed at ye valor of their king, who like a lyon massacring whom he met, ran without stop through the troupes, they layed down their weapons & yéel­ded wtout any great slaughter, whervpon y Africans staied, but Frontinus forgetfull y they were his natiue coūtrymen still raged, till méeting his brother Martignanus, hee slew him, & neuer left murthering till finding out Ortellius that fled in chase, he gaue him his deaths wound: staied at last by one of the Lords of Africa, & told how the battaile was ended by ye submission of his subiects, who were ashamed that they had bene so forgetfull of their allegeance, causing the retreat to be sounded, he peaceably marched on towards Memphis, where putting certaine of the chiefe offenders to the sword, and interring his brethren, after his Coronation he sent the Africans home well rewarded with many rich presents to their king, liuing him selfe afterward most fortunate.

Hector hauing ended his Tragedie. The Grecians no­ting in his Countenaunce the very counter [...]ayte of magna­nimity, and in discoursing of valour, his very face prese [...] ­ted a myrrour of fortitude, measuring his inward thoughts by his outwarde gestures, did both commend the Hystorie and alowe of censure: saying, that where courage mana­ceth reuenge with the Sworde, there it is folly to bring in wysedome in hir Purple Roabes. Helenus hearing how the Grecians fauored his Brother Hectors verdite, wisht them to take heede they infringed not the sacred prayse of wysedome: for (quoth he [...]) as Pallas is learned, so shee is martiall: and Minerua hath as well a Speare, as a [...]en: perhaps Martignanus was onely a Philosopher & no soul­dier: whereas by the sequell it is inferred that Frontinus was both wise and valiaunt: so that adding to his wisedome [Page] fortitude, hee did the more easely obtayne the conquest. Truth (quoth Nestor) for Hector him selfe confest that fortitude coulde not bee without wisedome, seeing, being placed betweene too extréeme want of wisdome, might make him offend in defect, and so bee counted a coward: or in ex­cesse, and bee thought too desperate. If then fortitude can­not bee perfect without wisedome, and yet a man may bee wise without courage, it may bée cōcluded [...] that wisdome is the most necessary point in a souldier. Wee deny not (quoth Troilus) but it is necessarie, but not in the superlatiue de­grée, for wisdome supposed the cause, fortitude consequently is the effect; sith the one of it selfe may intend by pollicie: but the other is put in practise by prowesse. Still for our pur­pose, (quoth Helenus) for the Logicians hold it as a princi­ple, that the cause is greater then the effects: the Philoso­phers account a wise man onely to bee vertuous, thinking that wisedome being the chiefe vertue, produceth the rest as seedes sprong from so faire a Stemme: for it is possible for a man to want others, hauing this: but to possesse none, if this bee absent. Hector, a litle chollericke that so brauely they went about to prooue his haruest in the grasse, stammered out these or such like woordes. I tell you brother Hele­nus, both you and the rest are deceiued, & that I will prooue against the wisest souldier in the world with my sword, that Senators who sit to giue counsaile for Ciuill pollicie, had neede to be wise, sith their opinions are holden for Oracles, & Captaines valiant, whose deedes are accounted peremptorie conquests: put case wisedome & fortitude be in a Generall, yet is hee called wise as hee giues iudgement, and couragi­ous as with a hardy minde hee attempts the victories. Let men haue science in their heades, and no weapons in their hands, and whom can they preiudice: I say therefore, which none rightly can gainesay, that fortitude is most necessarie for a souldier, sith our common phrase confirmes my reason with euidence, in saying, hee is a wise Senator and a hardy souldier.

The Grecians séeing the sparkling flames of choller to [Page] burne in the face of Achilles, smiled to sée how hot he was in disputation, measuring by probable coniecture, that if hee met them in the field hee woulde affright them more wyth his sword, the [...] eyther Nestor or Helenus with all theyr Bookes: Vlisles merrily disposed, being ready to reply, the Ladies came in, who broake of their talk with telling them the vnlookt for brauery of Ilium, discoursing so long of the sundry sights they had séene within the walls of Troy, till the boordes being couered, aged Priamus rysing from his seate, placed all his guests downe at supper.

¶ The fourth discourse of Liberality.

SO desirous were the kinges and princes to heare the dis­course of liberality to bee discussed by Achilles, that no sooner was supper ended, and the Ladies walked abroade, but that they setling them selues, as Philos [...]phers in som [...] Academie: framed them selues to be silent Audytors to his parle: but hée, if possible it had bene, vnwilling to haue bene actor in such a royall audience, sat still without pressing to the discouery of y former purposes, vntill Hector wakened him out of his Melancholy, in this maner. Séeing honora­ble Achilles, for [...]une hath dealt vnequally, in allotting the former charge to two such, as ignoraunt of Phylosophicall principles, haue rudely deliuered what experience hath set downe by proofe, and nowe to recompence hir wronge pro­portion, hath for [...]peinted such a champion, to defend the pa­tronage of liberalitie, as hath t [...]mpered martiall affaires with the sweete deaw of sacred Sciences: let vs not misse of that which the slippe [...]y goddesse so charie of, hath giuen vs with such nyggardly proportion: it resteth therefore, you shew the necessity of liberality in a Souldier, and not only, that it is requisite, but more expedient then eyther wise­dome or fortitude: which if you con [...]irme by reasons, and [Page] wee allow as plawsible, we yeelde our selues vanquished by him whom wee neuer hoped to ouercome. It standeth (quoth Priamus) for his credit [...] sith being accounted one of the most worthy souldiers in the world, he cannot but know what is most nec [...]ssary in the state of a Captaine. As A­chilles was ready to reply, the Ladyes came, and desirous to know the effect of their discourse, Vlisses made answere, that is was a discouery of womens rethoricke: And I pray you sir (quoth Hecuba) what might that bee, doo not men and women agrée in the principles of that Science. Mary Madame (quoth hee) it is to describe the force of liberality, such a sweete plea in a womans eare, that hardly it may bee asked that bounty hath not of fréewill granted: for an ounce of giue in a Ladies ballaunce, weygheth downe a pound of loue mée. Are you Grecian Dames (quoth Hecuba to I­phigenia) so couetous as you measure affection by gold, and tie vp Fancie in the purse stringes, I am sure my Lord V­lisses speakes by experience, & yet hee was neuer acquainted with any Troiane Ladies, to make proofe of theyr desiers. Iphigenia blusht, and Vlisses to maynetaine his quarrell, tolde them that Iuno was Iealous as well in [...]arth as in heauen: Venus wanton as well in Paphos, as in Cypres: that the women had generally one minde, wheresoeuer they were bred, and therefore his conclusion was generall. Holde there (quoth Priamus) these women are but stumbling blocks for our eyes, and our thoughts: let them chat with them selues, and leaue vs to our discourse: Hecuba sitting downe, and the rest of the Ladies silent: Achilles seeing the soueraigne of his desiers, fa [...]re Polixena, indeuored to doo his best, and therefore thus rudely went to the matter.

¶ Achilles discourse of Liberalitie.

ORpheus, whose musicke was so swéete, that the poets faine his melody appeased the passionate ghosts from [Page] their auailes, when hee went for Euridice, say that he was so bashfull in his science, though the most exquisite that euer was, as hee blushed to tune his Harp before Mercurie: whereas Hypercion an vnskilfull musition, shamed not to trouble him with his daunces: ignoraunce hath euer the bouldest face, blinde Bayard is formost in the front, and thy which worst may, will formost desire to hold the candle: I speake this, sith my selfe whom yeares and experience would haue wisht to be silent, by too ouer rash censuring of a soul­diers estate, fondly thrust my selfe into the opinions of ma­ny, re [...]embling herein Mineruaes Owle, that se [...]ks not [...]o shrowd hir deformity in the Temple. But forward mindes, if not offensiue, may forecraue pardon: actions well ment ought to bee well taken: honor iudgeth with partiallity in being opinatiue towards straungers: maiestie wincketh at follies, and sooner will Iupiter beare with a fault, then Vulcan: the higher thoughts the sooner pleased, which con­sid [...]red, I am the more bolde in such an audience to hazard my credit on the sequell of their verdites, and rather be coū ­ted a little too rashe, then too much vnruely; hoping therefore my discourse shall be fauored with your honorable patience: thus to the purpose.

Hermes Trismegistus, whom some for his diuine pre­cepts, haue thought to bée the sonne of Mercurie, made such account of this vertue of liberality, that hee doubted not to call it the heauenly influence, yt the gods most niggardly had in [...]used into the mynds of men this, resembling their deities, that they grudged not to impart what Fortune franckly had bestowed vpon them. For the Philosopher that coue­teth in his Ethicks to [...]en downe a platfourme for the per­fecting of humaine lyfe, amongst other vertues, placeth this as forerunner of them all: inferring his argument for proofe (a contrarijs) if sayth hee, couetousnes be the root [...] of all ill, from whence procéedes as from a fountaine of mis­hap, the ruine of common wealthes, the subuersion of E­states, & the wrack of [...]economicall societies: if from thence doth issue iniustice, bribery, the slaine of conscience, slaugh­ters, [Page] treasons, breach of amity, confusion of mynde, and a million of other mischieuous enormities: how pretious a Iewell, how diuine a motion, howe swéete a vertue is Li­berality, that preserueth all these in a true and peaceable concorde: Prodigality, which without care wasteth what time and diligence by longe trauell hath purchased, is such a Moath to eate out the labours of men, that our Predeces­sours called it a fire of the minde, which is so impatient in heate, as it ceaseth not while any matter combustible is pre [...]ent, to burne necessary things to very dust and cynders: through this commeth pouertie, want, distresse, and in the ende dispaire: whereas liberality, the contrary to this vyce kéepeth such a direct meane betweene both, as it preserueth Fortune, Fame, and Honor in their iust and equall propor­tion: So exquisite are the principles to be obserued in this vertue, as it suffiseth not to attaine to the perfection of it by giuing, onely respecting the circumstances of time, person, and quality: but in receiuing, standeth a principall point of liberality: for if eyther wee take from him that can ill spare it, or more then desert afordes, or without a resolution to be gratefull, did wee our selues giue mountaines, yet wée can­not bee honored with the title of liberality, in that by gréedy receipt of vntimely gifts, wee bewray certaine sparks of in­satiable couetise: which Lisander noted very well, who be­ing presented by certaine of his poore neighbours with sun­dry presents, sent them all home, but with great thanks: saying [...]s one of his friends, seest thou not how liberall Li­sander hath bene too day, in bestowing so many good giftes vpon poore men: nay I haue not (quoth his friend) seene thee giue any thing at all: But I haue (answered Lisan­der) returned those presents, which I could not haue taken without their hinderance: meaning that preiudiciall gifts are rubbed with dishonor, and bring with them hatred and infamy. Theocritus an auncient Poet of ours, calleth libe­rality the theefe that most secretly stealeth away the mindes of men: his reason is this, that all estates for the most parte [...] adicted to couetousnesse and greedy desire of gaine, cast their [Page] eyes euer after that obiect that glistereth most with riches, and set their opinions and censures with partiality on those whom Fortune hath fauored with many treasures: such sayth hee (as most bee) that are blinded with this couetous desire, are tyed so stricktly to the purse of a liberall man, as hee may at his pleasure drawe to what hee purposeth to im­ploy their vses: In such estimation haue our predecessors had this vertue, that they accounted not that day amongst the tearmes of their yeares, wherein they did not liberally bestow some benefits.

But to touch more particularly a perfect dyscourse, and to prooue that it is necessarie in a souldier, let vs note the ende of martiall desires, which I remember, once I hard Thes [...]us deuide into thrée partes: the first and principall, honor generally aymed at by all, but specially belonging to the Captaines, yet due to the meanest souldier for his prow­esse: The second, the conquest, which fortune imparteth as hir fauour to the generall, and f [...]me to the rest of the soul­diers: the last, desire of spoyle and treasures gotten with the sworde, and so hardly attayned with the hazard of lyfe: this ought the common sorte of mercenary Souldyers to haue as their due, as a recompence for their perills, and an incourage to such warlike indeuours: for if the conquest and honor bee allotted to the Captaine, what great iniustice is it to deny the rest, the benefit of a litle momentanie pelfe: which mooued a worthy Captaine of Thebes, when he had obtained a victory against the Lacedemonians, of all the spoile only to take one sword, distributing the rest amongst his souldiers: saying, fellowes in armes, this I challenge, sith I wronge it out of the hand of mine enemy: what soe­uer els, is yours, as the reward of your trauels: for the The­ban Senators warre for honor, not for treasure. The mer­cenary man that beareth armes for hier, and for his ordina­rie pay, fear [...]th not to venture his life in the face of his ene­my, hauing but his wages he hath but his bare due, so that if hope of spoyle and the bounty of his Captaine did not in­courage him in his attempts, hee would both doubt the dan­ger [Page] of his person, and scorne for so little gaine to runne vp­pon such [...]minent perrills: which caused Zoroastes in his great warre against the Egyptians, to giue riche gyftes to the meanest of his souldiers, promising the spoiles of Egypt for the guerdon of their valour: his liberallity taking such effect, as hee returned with conquest: The great Monarche of the world, whose name I neede not rehearse, did see that liberality was such a glory in a Captaine, and such a spur to a souldier, that at his departure out of Greece, with resol [...] ­tion to make a generall conquest of the whole worlde: hee gaue to his Captaines & other men at armes, all his riches, treasures and possessions, reseruing onely for him selfe, the hope of the prowesse. For what doth the wisedome of the Captaine by long and swéete orations, and sundry pollicies? what doth the fortitude of a generall, by hazarding him selfe among the thickest of his enemies preuaile: on [...]ly in these two points, hee aymeth at his owne profit, the ouerthrow of his enemy, and perhaps a little incourageth his souldiers: but what reapes the mercenary and popular man, if withall he be coueto [...]s, but scarres, wounds, and penary: nay what doth the Captain [...] get if with a deepe in-sight he looketh in­to the souldiers minde, but a dissimuled loue, a secret hate, an intended contempt, and a forced courage rather to defend themselues from perill, then to hazard their liues for his saf­ty: whereas the Captaine that is liberall, not only in paying thei [...] wages (which I count it a sacriledge to deny,) but in imparting the spoyle (which I hold as their due) so ti [...]th the mindes of his souldiers to him with an vnfayned affection, that they count no perill too dange [...]ous, no attempt too hard, no nor force not of death to signifie their leue and d [...]sire to recompence his liberality. I remember I haue red of Cas­sius a Barbarian prince, which intending warres to the Li­bians, comming with a small power into Libia, passed with litle resistance euen to the very paui [...]ion of their king [...] where after a small skirmish, he tooke him prisoner, and vsed him princely, blaming his souldiers that woulde not aduenture more desperatly for the safty of their prince: after, passing [Page] into the Citty, in sacking his pallace, hee founde such infi­nite treasure as might haue hiered a multitude of merce­nary men for the defence of his countrey. Wherevpon, no [...]ing the couetize of the man, he so hated him, that shutting him in his treasurie amongst all his gold, hée pyned him to death: saying he was worthy of all mishap, that would not continually keepe ten Legions of souldiers to eate vp such riches: by which wee see what contempt a couetous Cap­taine incurreth by his niggardize: whereas liberality is an ornament both to wisedome and fortitude, & such a pretious Iewell, as no value may suffice to estimate. To confirme which, as Hector and Helenus haue done, I meane to re­hearse a Tragedy, so your honorable presence shall fauour mee with patience. Achilles séeing by their countenance they expected no lesse, began his tale in this manner.

¶ Achilles Tragedie. Index animi liberalitas.

IN the Citty of Athens (famous through the world for Philosophers and Souldiers) amongst the Senators [...] for the state of the City was Aristocratia, there ruled as chiefe (honored generally for his good partes) one Roxan­der, chosen by the consent of the Senate Dictator in the warres, this b [...]ing ele [...]ted Captaine, was so fauored by for­tune, as hee neuer waged batta [...]le wherein hee remayned not victor [...] in so much as the fame of his happy successe was a warrant to the Athenians of their safty. Of stature hee was small, of meane courage, no man greatly lettered: but to [...]ecompence these defects, he was of such exceeding boun­ty and liberalitie to all men, but especially to his souldiers, that his very countenance was sufficient to incourage th [...] most bash [...]ull coward to the combat: For the Athenians by [Page] their law gaue all the spoiles gotten in warres to the Cap­tayne, onely appointing to the souldiers their ordinary pay: but Roxander, as he triumphed in many [...]ictories, neuer in­rich [...]d him selfe, but equally imparted the treasures of the enemy amongst the souldiers according to their deserts: be­ing of such a liberall minde towardes them that prof [...]ssed martiall discipline, that at his owne charges hee founded hospitalls for such as were maimed in the warres, that their reliefe might ad a glorie to his renowne: G [...]uing dowries to the daughters of such as were slaine, and in peace being a father to all them ouer whom hee had bene a Captain [...] in warres. Enuy the secret enemy of honor, grudging as well at his vertues as his fortunes, brought him in as deepe hate with the Senators, as hee was in fauour with the soul­diers: for they suspecting that hee ment by this liberality to insinu [...]te into the hearts of the commons, and to steale a­way the mindes of the popular sorte, so to plant him selfe as sole gouernour: (the only thing they feared, least their Aristocracie should be reduced to a Monarchy) by a penall law called Ostracisme, founde fault with his aspyring and so did not onely confiscate his goods, but condemne him for [...]uer into exile: Roxander hauing the sentence of his va­nishment pronounced, thinking fortune ment to gi [...]e him a check, thought as roughly to deale with hir, and therefore put vp hir abuse with patience, smiling, that when the s [...]nat had prised the inven [...]orie of his goods, the summe amoun­ted not to so much as would discharge his passage into Sy­cilia, whither hee was banished. But the souldiers and popular sort, hearing of this iniury, as men furious, gotte them to armes, and in great multitude flocked to the doore of the senate house, where they swore to reueng the wronge offered to Roxander: The Senates and censors with o­ther officers of the Citty, sought by threats and other per­swasions to appease them: but in vayne, till that Roxan­der preferring the quiet of his country before his owne pri­uate welfare, standing vpon the staiers, descending from the councell chamber, pacified them with this briefe Oration.

[Page]Citizens of Athens, famous through all Greece for your dutifull obedience in peace, and resolute indeuors in wars: accounted the presidents of perfect subiects, by manifesting reuerence to such as the gods haue placed as gods to go­uerne men, I meane the graue and wise S [...]nators: what madnes hath incensed your mindes? what fury hath forced this vproare? what meanes the noyse of armour, & the wea­pons as fearefull obiect in such a peaceable time, vnlesse de­sirous to seeke your owne ruine, you intend a ciuill mutiny, th [...] fall of your selues, and the fatall mishap of your posteri­ty? what doo you want? who hath offred wronge? are not the Senators set to minister Iustice? an [...] with that before hee could vtter any more wordes they cried out: wée swere to keepe thee from banishment, and haue sworne to reuenge thy in [...]ury, whom we loue more then all the Senators. Af­ter the noyse was so ceased that hee might be heard, Roxan­der went forward in his speach: if it be [...] for mee (woorthy Cityz [...]ns) you haue taken armour in seeking to grace mee with your fauour, you pinch mee with dishonor: in coue­ting my lib [...]rty, you bring mee within the bondage of infa­my: The Senate hath past iudgement against mee in iu­stice, and I content to brooke the penalty of the lawe with patience: offences must bee punished, and punishments borne with quiet, not with reuenge: Haue I lyued forty yeare a duetifull subiect in Athens, and shall I now by your meanes bee accounted a mutinous rebell? no, louing coun­trymen: if euer my deserts haue bene such, as yée thinke mee your friend, lay away your weapons, returne euery man to his owne house, so shall Roxander account you his friend [...]; otherwise, for euer take you as his enemies. No sooner had hee spoken these wordes, but euery man peacea­bly, though sorrowfully, went home to his house: and hee within three dayes sayled poore, and dismissed into Syci­lia. Roxander had not lyued long in exile, but a quarrell grew betwéene the Thebans and the Athenians, about the deflowring of a maide of Athens: wherevpon, as enuy stir­reth vppe a secret grudge soone to reuenge, the Athenians [Page] by aduice of the Senate, mustred their men, leauied a great hoast, ouer whom there was appointed sir wise and graue Senators, the youngest of which ha [...] bene before tymes Dictator, to haue the conduct of the army, and ouer them all as Generall was placed Clytomaches, a man of inuincible valour and fortitude, stored thus with men and munition, with wise and valiant Chieftaines, they passed on towards Thebes: by the way giuing assault to a strong and riche citty called Lis [...]um, the souldiers thinking to finde in Cly­tomaches Roxanders liberality, so suriously gaue onset, that in short time, and without any great losse they scaled the walles, and almost put all to the edge of the swoord, the Souldiers thus couragiously hauing entr [...]d combat, and won the conquest as before time they had done, entring into euery house to fetch out the spoile, generall proclama­tion was made that no man vppon paine of death shoulde take one penny, but that euery one should returne to the campe, which so amaz [...]d and discourag [...]d ye mercenary men, that with hartlesse groanes they went stragling to the tents: the Senators entring the houses and possessing such spoyle, that they sent home Waggons laden with treasure to A­thens: After thus they had sackt the Citty, the Thebans hearing of this victory, gathering their forces togither, mar­ched on to meete them, and in a plaine not farre [...]rom Lisi­um gaue them the incounter, with such desire to reuenge, as the Athenians were forced a little to retier: but Clytoma­ches, whose courage no perill could daunt, incouraged his men, and for proo [...]e of his owne resolution, was formost in the v [...]warde, laying on such blowes, as he gaue witnes how willing hée was to be victor: the Senators likewise with e­loquent phrases sought to incourage: but to small purpose, for the souldiers warely retiring, neuer stoode stroke till they harbored them selues within the City, where rampiring vp the Gates like cowardes, they dishonored the forg [...]tten fame and honour of Athens: The Thebans, whose téeth were set on edge with this repulse, layed leagar to the wals and compassing the cit [...]y with a double trench, thought ei­ther [Page] to make them issue out to the battayle, or els to force them yéeld by famyne: the souldiers carelesse, and heartlesse, would scarse make defence on the walles, which the Sena­tors séeing, one of them stepped vp, and calling them all in­to the market made them this oration.

Worthy Citizens and Souldiers of Athens, shall wee bee such cowardes as to measure our thoughtes by the fa­uours of fortune, or resemble those bad hounds, that at the first fault giue ouer the chase, shall the fo [...]le of a little skir­mish affright those mindes that hetherto haue bene inuinci­ble? shall dishonor teare the Lawrell from our heads which we haue worne for so many triumphes? shall the Thebans who haue euer feared our forces, holde vs begirt as bond­slaues within a citty? shall y towne which of late we sub­dued, bee a harbour for our selues against the enemy? shall I say the world canonize our cowardize in y Records of in­famy, that hetherto hath imblazed our fame with restlesse prayses? No souldiers, and fellow companions in armes & in fortunes, let this checke be a spur to reuenge, let vs thirst with a passionate desire till with conquest or an honorable death we winne the glorie wée haue lost: our siluer haires, weakened in many forepassed battailes ended, to the honor of the Athenians, although they might bee warrauntes of rest, shall not priuiledge vs from hazarding our selues a­midst the thickest of our enemies: so that incouraged, and as m [...]n resolued to die, or within the field you will with vs is­sue out to put these vnskilfull Thebans from their trenches. The souldiers (so had ye discourteous couetize [...] quatted their courage) as men not hearing, slipt away murmuring, as malecon [...]ent: which Clitomaches espying, drawing foorth his sw [...]od, cried out vnto them: how are you besotted soul­d [...]ers of [...]thens? why are your cares inchaunted that the wisedome of the Senate is holden friuolous? For shame seeke not after dishonor; behold, Clitomaches your captaine will bee the first man that shall enter the trench of the ene­my; t [...]is sword, this hand, this heart companions shall for­gard you, as more willing to die, then to brooke this discre­dit, [Page] and if you be so obstinate, take this blade and sacrifice my bloode, that dying I may shunne that shame which for our [...]owardice is like to light on our heades: in vayne did Clitomaches crie out, for the souldiers went their way, and as melancholy men sat stragling and full of dumps in the streets: longe had they not bene thus béelegard [...] but that newes was brought to Roxander what mishap had fallen on his country: hée whom iniury nor death could not with­hold from wishing well to Athens, rather determined to hazard his life by breaking the Ostracisme in returning from exile, then to bee thought a fearefull and base mynded cowarde: passing therefore with as much spéede as might bee from Sicilia in poore and vnknowen attier, he landed in the Promontorie of Lisium, within thrée leagues of the Campe: where hee had not wandred halfe a myle, but by the scowts, he was taken prysoner, and caried to the Senat [...] of Thebes, who thinking that Roxander was banished, tooke him for a poore Sicilian, (as hee fayned him self) & suf­f [...]ed him to remayne quiet with frée libertie to passe and re­passe at his liberty. Roxander continuing thus amongst the Thebans, hearing that the Citty began to want victu­ales, and how the Souldiers mutynous, were about to de­liuer vp the City, despight of the Senate vpon composition: late in an euening getting close to the walles, called to the watch and told them hee had a letter to deliuer from Rox­ander to the souldiers of Athens: why villa [...]e (quoth the watchman) thou art mad, Roxander is banished: Truth (quoth hée) but returned, and taken prysoner by the The­bans, who to morrow by eight of the Clocke shall suffer death, if hee be not set free: for confirmation of my words deliuer this letter to his Sonne, who knowing his fathers hand, may both reade it and witnesse it to the Souldiers: the watchman hearing such sensible reasons to perswade him, tooke the letter; and Roxander secretly stoale again [...] to the Campe: No sooner did the morning starre & blushing Aurora begin to course hir selfe from the bed of Ti [...]an [...] but [...]he watchman hied with the letter into the City, and sought [Page] out Roxanders sonne, who was of no better account then a mercenary souldier, and to him imparted the whole mat­ter: who receiuing the letter, [...]ound that it was his fathers writing: wherevpon, taking the watchman with him, cal­ling the Souldiers by sounde of a Trumpet, to the market place: hee discoursed vnto them, first whose sonne hée was: secondly what had past the last night betwéene the watch­man and an vnknowen man, of his fathers imprisonment, and the speedines of his death: for proofe whereof hee red them the letter as foloweth.

Roxanders Letter.

THe distresse of my countrey bruted into Sicilia, where I liued poore and exiled, such was the eare I had of the common wealth, as I choose rather to die by breaking the law of the Ostracisme, then to bée counted slack in attemp­ting what I might for the benefit af Athens. Honors are not tied to times, nor courage to places: Death is sweeter then discontent, and more glorious is it to perish in wishing well to Athens, then in lying quiet in Sicilia: The The­bans haue ouercome, that greeues mee not, sith it is but a braue of Fortune, whose fauours are inconstaunt, whose frownes are momētany, whose check is the step to good hap. The Athenians are vanquished; what of this? men are sub­iect to the pleasures of oportunities, their actions haue not alwaies prosperity fauorable: time changeth: and more ho­nor is gotten in a moment, than hath bene lost in a moneth. The Athenians are rampired as cowardes within walles: this (country men) pincheth Roxander at the heart, that famous Athens, renowned Athens, Athens that was the chieftaine of Gréece for warlike att [...]mpts, should be stained with dishonor and cowardize: yea, countrymen and soul­diers, Roxander in bands in the hands of his enemies, rea­dy to die, greeueth at this disgrace, and blusheth more to heare the Thebans call you cowards, then to heare them pronounce the sentence of death: Once worthy souldiers [Page] you sought to frée mée from the handes of the Senat which were my friendes: now seeke to rid mée from the Thebans my foes, and your enemies, who intend to kill Roxander, onely because hee is Roxander: whose liberality was [...]he cause of your fauours. This if I obtaine, I only in recom­pence, promise to bee thankfull. Farewell.

Roxander the friend to Athens.

NO sooner had his sonne red the letter, but that the soul­diers showted at the very name of Roxander, & pul­ling his sonne from ye place where he stoode, made him their Captaine. The Senators h [...]aring this alarum, were dri­uen into a maze, till one of y Captaines discoursed to them from point to point, the forerehearsed premisses: whereat being astonied, cōming in with Clitomaches into the mar­ket place, they found the Souldiers in armes, and in aray ready to march towardes the gate of the Citty. Clitoma­che [...] willing to stay thē that they might not issue out with­out aduice, could not preuayle: but breaking downe th [...] rampiers as mad men crying, Roxander, liberall Roxan­der, th [...]y issued out, litle lookt for of the Thebans: who not­withstanding, standing within their trenches in defence, the Athenians so valiantly gaue y onset, that in a desperate ma­ner as in [...] contemnning death, they ran vpon the pikes, & presently discomfit [...]d th [...]enemy with such a s [...]aughter, as not one was left aliue to carry newes to Thebes of their losse: the ret [...]aite sounded, Roxander presented him selfe, whom with such louing submission th [...]y receiu [...]d and he returning such lowly t [...]anks to the Souldiers, that they calling to re­m [...]mbrance, [...]irst the iniury the Senators offered Roxan­der in his banishment, and their wronge at the sack of Li­sium, for deuision of spoyle, that like men haunted with a f [...]rie, running into the City, b [...]fore Roxander could know the c [...]use of the hurly burly, th [...]y so [...]ght out the Senators [Page] and Clitomaches, and put them to the edge of the swoord, presenting their heads to Roxander, who with teares dis­alowing their disobedience, and with threats s [...]wing him selfe discontent, was nothstanding, maugre his teeth crea­ted againe Dictator, in which estate hee liued long after in Athens.

Achilles Tragedie [...]nded, ag [...]d Priamus standing vp, gaue his verdite vppon their discourse in this manner. Al­though, worthie Grecians, I am not called to bee a Iudge in this controuersie, yet friendly and freely let mee say that such a perfect diuision of qualities, or rather vertues, necessa­ry and incident in a souldier, hath bin so liuely pourtraied, and figured foorth in such comely collours, as it is hard to censure whether of them holds the supremacy: for wisdome being the meanes doo dispose the army in his due order, and to haue an in-sight by pollycie to preuent what the enemy can intend, yet is but a shadowe drawne with a pensell, vnlesse fortitude & courage perfourme that in action, which hath bene purposed and determined by wisedome: neyther can these two haue longe continuance, and good successe, ex­cept liberality, as a linck to knit these two in their forces, presents the mindes of the souldiers captiuate by their Cap­taines bounty: then of these premisses wée may conclud [...], that none can come to ye perfection of a souldier, vnlesse he be both wise, valiant, and liberall: With this graue censure of Priamus, th [...]y res [...]ed all cont [...]nted, except the Ladi [...]s, who seeing Phoebus so fast d [...]clining to the West, hastened on Achilles to depart: he s [...]ttered with the loue of Polixena, woulde willingly haue p [...]rswaded a nightly rest at Troy, but that his thoughts would haue bene discerned: to pr [...]uent therefore [...]ll occasions of suspition, hee made has [...]e, so that taking his leaue of Priam [...]s, Hector, & the rest of the kings and Pry [...]ces resident at Troi [...], mounting vpon Horse he [...] went with I [...]higenia and the Ladies to their pauilions.

[...]te domum Satur [...], venit Hesp [...]rus: Ite Capell [...].

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