THE CASTEL OF Memorie: wherein is con­teyned the restoring, augmenting, and conseruing of the Memorye and Re­membraunce,with the safest remedies, and best preceptes therevnto in any wise apperteyning: Made by Guliolmus Gratarolus Bergomatis Doctor of Artes and Phisi\ke.

Englished by Willyam Fulwod.

The Contentes whereof appeare in the Page next folowynge.



Printed at Londō by Rouland Hall dwel­lynge in Gutter lane, at the signe of the half Egle & the Keye. 1562.


  • The j. Chapter declareth what Memory is where it florisheth, how profitable and necessary it is, &c.
  • The ij. conteineth the chiefe causes, where by the Memorie is hurte, with theyr sygnes and cures.
  • The iij. shevveth the principall endoma­ges of the Memorie in what sort soeuer they be.
  • The iiij. telleth lykewise the perticular helpes of the Memorye.
  • The v. cōprehendeth certayne best appro­ued and chosen medicinable compounded remedies, and preseruatiues great­ly encreasyng the Memorie.
  • The vj. expresseth Philosophicall Iudge­mentes, Rules, and Preceptes of Re­membraunce.
  • The vij. Chap. entreateth in fewe wordes of locall or artificiall Memory.
  • Last of all is [...]ut a [...]fe Epilogue of the foresayde thynges.

To the right ho­norable, the Lorde Robert Dudley, Maister of the Queenes Maiesties horse; and Knight of the most noble order of the Garter: Willyam Fulwod hartely wisheth long lyfe, with encrease of godlye ho­nour and eternal felicitie.

SIth noble Maxi­milian, king of Boemia: Defended hath this worthy worke in Latin toung (I saic).

Sith that also the godly prince
Edward, our late good king:
In French the same accepted hath
as a right nedefull thing.
I thought therfore my duty was,
(most honorable Lorde):
Soure worthy captain now to chuse
who with benigne accorde.
In English wold vouchsafe to saue,
this Castle from decay:
Protecting it from enuious toungs
that runne at large alway.
But whom might I rather elect,
my Patrone now to bee:
Then one who doth most mē excell,
in perfect clemencie?
In feruent zeale to godlynes,
In fauour of the iust:
In forwardnes to all good works,
the truth this tell needs must.
A note of highe Nobility,
a vertuous one in deed:
Whose good report hath caused me,
thus boldly to proceed.
Right happy sure may be yt realme,
and praise to god extend:
Wherin such prudēt peeres do rule,
Exod. 18. Deut. 1.
as Moses doth commend.
Yea blest it is of God the lorde,
that hath such worthy states:
Who righteousnes rightly exaltes,
and wickednes abates.
These golden giftes of godly grace,
thus planted in your brest:
Haue forced me to flie for ayde,
where plenty is exprest.
Receue therfore (o worthy Lorde),
an humble harte and true:
Protect also the Patronage,
which I submitte to you.
And graūt yt these my labors small,
may passe vnder your name:
Sith that this worke descēded hath,
from Princes of great fame.
For though that all Forgetfulnes,
be banisht from you quyte:
Yet hope I that this Treatise shall,
you honor much delyte.
Considering well the worthines,
of perfect Memory:
And what effect it furnisheth,
in all affayres. for why?
Lyke as Obliuion is the losse,
of high renoumed actes:
And causeth many worthy wightes,
forgo both fame and factes.
Lyke as it is an eatyng moth
and sore corrupting rust:
Abasyng things of noble state,
no better then to dust.
Lyke as it is a Chaos great,
confusedly compact:
Wherin al things both good & had,
haue true proporcion lackt.
So Memorie doth still preserue,
eche thing in his degree:
And rendreth vnto euery one,
his doughty dignitie.
So doth it pourge ech mans estate,
and skoureth it full bright:
Wherby appeares as in a glasse
his liuely shining light.
So doth it geue and attribute,
to good thinges good report:
To bad lykewise as they deserue,
in iust and equall sort.
How can yt Iudge iuste iudgement geue,
except he call to mynde:
The matters hanging diuersly,
the truth thereby to fynde.
Howe shall the Preacher wel recite
his matters orderlie:
If that he be forgetfull of,
his places what they bee?
How can yt Captayn well conduct,
his soldiers in array:
Or els preuent his ennemyes,
yf Memory be away?
How shal the Marchant safely kepe,
his recknings from decay:
If his Remēbrance shuld him fayle,
though writīg beare great sway?
How can yt Lawyer plead his cause,
before the iustyce seat:
If he his clyents matters shall,
at any tyme forgeat?
How shall the Husbandanā prouide,
all seasons to obserue:
If he do not remember well,
or any wise doe swerue?
How needfull then is Memorye,
to rule a publike weale:
In things deuyne & eke prophane?
God graunt it neuer fayle.
Or how can it at any tyme,
be spared in the fielde?
That is so requysite at home,
and strong defending shielde.
A good wit sone may learne things,
and vnderstand the same:
But them still to retayne and keep
in such order and frame,
That nothing be wanting therof,
when iust occasion shall
Procure rehearsall of such thinges,
as did to vs befall
Is thoffice of the Memorie,
the greatest gifte that can
Here in this world by any meanes,
come vnto mortall man.
For what helps it good bokes to read
or noble storyes large:
Except a perfect Memorye,
doe take therof the charge?
What profits is most worthy thīges
to see, or els to heare:
If that the same come in at thone,
and out at thother eare?
Why? then the matter is so playn,
that need (a perfect ground):
Doth vs compell to say no lesse,
when truth is truly found.
Therfore I breifly thus conclude,
take Memorye away.
What is a man? what can be doe?
or els what can he say?
Restore the same to him againe
in full integrytie:
It will him sone reduce in dede,
to all felicytie.
Wherin god graūt your honor may
longe here with vs endure:
And afterwards in heauens hie,
emong the Angels pure.


Your honors most humble Willyam Fulwod.

The Translator to the Reader earnestlye de­syreth grace, mercy, and peace.

AMongest other there bee twoo seuerall causes (good Reader) whiche instiga­ted me to enterprise and pub­lishe the translation hereof. Partly, because of myne own exercise and commoditie. But chiefely and especially, for the common vtilitie and profite of my natiue countrey. The aduauncement and benefite whereof euery man is bound bothe by nature & conscience to study for all meanes possi­ble [Page] to the vttermost of his power: and for that purpose to distribute accordynge to the greatnes or smalnes of the talent ministred & lent vnto Math. 35. Luck. 19. him: to the end that the same (be it neuer so lytle) yf it maye in anye wise profite, doe not remaine in him as dead and frustrate: but rather that it be bestowed forthe to en­crease and fructifie. Conside­ryng in deede that (as Plato sayeth) Non solum nobis sumus; or­tus (que) Plato. nostri partem patrīa vendicat, par­tem parentes, partem amici.

Accept therefore in good part (gentle Reader) my labours suche as they be: wherein yf thou shalte fynde any thing either not easye to be come [Page] by, or obscure and darke to thyne vnderstandynge (as perchaunce in artificiall Me­morie): thou must diligentlye and circumspectly often per­vse the same, whiche if at the length thou canst not vnder­stande, doe not therefore op­probriouslye contemne it, but rather aske counsell at some other, for Non cuiuis homini contin­git adire Corynthum. or elles re­pare to easyer and playner, wherof there is in this trea­tise greate abundaunce to the same effect what soeuer it be: for I haue not presumed to lessen myne Authour, and therefore reporte me fauou­rablye. In whiche doynge thou shalte styll encorage [Page] and prouoke me to further paynes, I truste to thy fur­theraunce, and the glorye of almightye God the Father, the Sonne, and the Ghost: to whome be laude and praise worlde with­out ende.


Lege & perlegé: Ne quid temeré.

The Bookes verdicte.

A Castell stronge I doe present,
well furnished and sure:
Munited eke with armoure bent,
For euer to endure.
Vhich hitherto longe tyme hath bene,
In (limbo patrum) hidd.
But now at last may here be sene,
from daungers men to ridd:
Procuringe them a perfect state,
Sapi. 6. 8. &. 18.
And safe security,
Whereby they may fynde out the gate,
Of wisedomes lore. For why?
He that hath lost his Memorie,
By me may it renewe:
And he that will it amplifie.
Shall fynde instructions trewe,
And he that will still kepe the same,
That it shall not decaye:
By me must learne: the way to frame:
And my precepes obaye.
Lo here ye see my full effecte:
And that I doe entend:
The secrettes therof to detect.
That therby wittes may mend.

Then Iudge me, As I am worthie.

What Memorie is, where it florisheth, how profita­ble and necessary it is.
The first Chapter.

MEmorie is by the A definiti­on of me­morie. whiche the mynde repeateth things yt are past. Or it is a stedfast percesuyng in the mynde of the disposition of thinges and wordes. Or as (Aristotle supposeth) it is an imagination, that remaineth of such Aristotle. thinges as the sense had conceyued. Also by yt sentence of Plato, Memo­rie is a sense & a safetie (or safe retei­ning Plato. of things): for yt soule obtaineth by the office of the senses whatsoeuer thinges chaunce vnder the sense, and therefore it is the beginninge of an opinion. But by the mynde it selfe it considereth intellectuall thynges, & so is it become intelligence. Yet yt [Page] Memorie being lost, it is renued a­gaine by remembraunce: for where­as forgetfulnes or the losse of Me­morie is double, to wit, perpetuall and temporall (or for a tyme), in this verely remembraunce worketh, of the which it shalbe spoken hereafter in his place. Neither is inuention or imaginatiō of yt one part of the soule or braine, and Memorie of the othe [...] but they are in one same subiecte thing and the functions of the same part of the soule, and either of them is of ye hole brayne, in whose hole bo­dy yt soule (being yt principal parte of vnderstanding) is dispersed: yet haue auncient Writers (not withoute a cause) saide that diuers partes of the head and braine be occupied of these functions of the soule: Memorie The seate of the Me­morie, is in the hinder part of the head. therefore hath his seate in the hinder part of the head in the thyrde Ven­tricle, whiche is also called Pup­pis. It would be long and altogether [Page] superfluous here (where I studye breuitie) to describe the Anatomie of the whole braine, the whiche is to be seene in the bookes of manyé, especi­ally of the learned yea and dilligent Andrea Vesalius. Yet will I briefe­ly Andrea ve­salius. speake somwhat making nerer vnto our matter. There be three operations of the soule in the braine, fan­tasie The sculo hath. 3. operations. (or imagination), reasonyng (or iudgement), and Memorie (or re­membraunce). The two first haue their operation in the two greater Ventricles of the braine, and the thyrde is erxercised in thirde and les­ser Ventricle. In the concauities or holownes of the brayne is frequen­ted The spirite is exercised in the concauities of the braine a liuelye, small, pure, and moste cleane spirite, and suche a one is cari­ed to the Memorie: the which surely hath neede of thè clearenes and sub­tilitie of the spirite. For if so be that that waye be not opened by the whi­che the spirite passeth to the hinder [Page] part (or Puppis) of the braine, the man remembreth nothing: and con­trariwise they that haue a swifte o­peninge of that waye, are wise, and answere spedely, as are diuers cho­lericke persons: and they that haue that openinge slowe, are dull and slack to learne and to aunswere, and such are for the most parte flematick or melancholicke, vsynge grosse and much meates and drincks. Certein­lye there be fewe founde that are indewed with a good witte and an excellent Memorie of Nature: for because that witte betokeneth a subtile and softe substaunce of the braine, and Memorie a permanent substaunce. Also Galenus saith in Galenus chap 12. Artis Me­dicio. his .xii. Chapter, Artis medicinalis, that witte declareth a subtile sub­staunce of the braine: and the dulnes of vnderstandinge, a grosse sub­staunce, &c. The spirite seruynge for this office, doth flee vpwarde from [Page] the heart thorough the synowes to the head, and is nourished with an outwarde compassing ayre, & obtay­neth a longe continuaunce. And to be short, al Philosophers do accorde, that Memorie is most of strength by the good temperature of the organe or seate, in the whiche the soule doth exercise this office. And it shalbe a token that they haue a good Memo­rie, whose hinder part of the head is great and longe: and they a weake Memorie, whose hinder parte of the head is as it were playne and equall with the necke. It is also to be kno­wen that it causeth wisedome by the goodnes of the spirites: and those are good spirites, whiche be tempered with clearenes mouing and subtili­tie. Plato in Theaeteto saieth, that Plato in Theaeteto. the soule is not well at ease in a bo­dy that is thicke or muddye, or that hath the fleshe to softe, or harde.

And vntemperatnesse chaungeth [Page] many wayes: For sometyme a body shall bringe it oute of the mothers wombe so stronge and violent, that not onelye the Memorie, but also the reason shalbe hurte, in suche sorte yt euen folishnes shall happen there­withall: the whiche amongest the o­ther signes that it hath, is the cause Intēperat­nes is the cause that the eares be great. Aristotle. 1. De anima­liū natura. that the eares are verye great and erected, as Aristotle reciteth in hys firste De animalium natura: Who so chaunceth to be borne when the Moone doth encounter the Sunne, wandering through Aries and Scorpio shall haue his brayne so afflicted, that beinge somewhat growen in yeres, a melancholicke passion shall beginne to spring. Also this vntem­peratues of the brayne commeth manye tymes of ill nourishement, sometyme of the vnwholsome ayre that is aboute vs: For it is an olde sayinge, there as the ayre is dryer, there also for the most part the wits [Page] be sharper, and the soule wiser and prompter: euen so a thicke & grosse element causeth the wittes to be duller. Of the same diet is reason, as also Galenus saieth in his booke Galenus Quod animi mores, &c. Quod animi mores, &c. The Memo­rie also is weakened of chaunce, of being striken, of sickennes and di­uers other lyke accidentes, whereof there maye be had manye examples aswell in Thucidides in his seconde Thucidi­des. 2. boke belli Pe­lop. booke belli Pelop. as in others: a cer­teine person beinge striken with a stone, forgat onely his learninge, be­ing fallen from a hye house, loste the remembraunce of his mother, kins­folkes and neighbours: also Messa­la Messala Coruinus. Coruinus the Orator forgat his owne name. Beholde therefore how Memorie is the chief goodnes of man. Seneca. fraile this most precious treasure of man is. Memorie (as Seneca wit­nesseth) is the principall commodi­tie and profit that mans nature can receyue: for it is an easie matter for [Page] studious persons to read many thin­ges, and it is not difficile for a good and an exercised wit to vnderstande the same: but to heape them toge­ther, and to conscrue them in the coffre or secrete of the Memorie in suche sorte that thei slippe not away, is the most necessarye and principall Plinius. 7. boke. 24. Chap. goodnes of mans lyfe. As Plinius reherseth in his .vii. booke, the .xxiiii. Chapter. Cyrus king of the Persi­ans called all his souldiours name Cirus king of the per­fians, by name. Mithridates also who was king of two and twenty nations, did vnderstande and answere so manye Mithrida­tes king of 22 nations. languages without an Interpretor: there wanteth no examples of the excellentnes of Memorie, whiche men haue had almost in all tymes. They therefore whyche haue not so excellent a Memorye, muste by labor get the same, withoute the whiche a man shall scarce attayne vnto anye perfectiō: for it chaūceth many times [Page] that somuch the more that a man ex­celleth in Memorie, he also somuche the more florisheth in wisdom, except it be some sluggishe or idle personne. And yt Poetes not wtout a cause haue feyned wisdome to be yt doughter of Wisedome is the doughter of Memo­rye. Memory: & of her it is rightly writtē.

By painefull vse begot I was,
a worthy wyght and cleare:
By Memorye brought forth no lesse,
who is my mother deare.

Diuers aged persōs vsing this practi­se, & applieng thēselues to study haue in fewe monethes proceded learned. Therefore we will declare in this worke, by what meanes it maye be gotten, encreased and kepte. For it is manifest by dyuers learned men, as also by Cicero, that Memorye hath a certayne cunning or practise and that Cicero. it procedeth not altogether of na­ture: so therefore we will first teache by what kynde of lyuynge and by what medecines it maye be gotten [Page] and established, expressing briefe, ex­cellent, and (by vse) approued pre­ceptes. Afterwardes, we will breifly entreat of artificiall Memory, which of it selfe is naturall, but it is confir­med by certayne preceptes, and con­sisteth in obseruations, places, and Images (or figures).

THE SECONDE CHAPTER containeth the cheife causes whereby the Memorie is hurte, with their fignes and cures.

THere be two principal causes Coldenes and moist­nes are cō ­traryes to the Memorye. which hurte the Memorye, to witte, coldnes and moystnes: the whiche coldenes is either alone, or els ioyned with moystnes, we wil omitte to speake of the corruption whiche commeth of ouer muche heat and drynes. Yet coldenes hurtethe more then moystenes: for coldenes doth confound the nature, & worketh not in it but as an vnder rulinge in­strument. [Page] And moistnes is contrary to the retentyue, the whiche is com­forted with a proportioned drines: for superfluous drynes is hurtfull espe­cially to the apprehension, whilest it The natur of coldnes is to re­presse, and the nature of heat is to moue. hindereth that formes or likenesses can not be receiued and setled in the same. It is the nature of coldenes to ceasse, and of heat to moue: therefore coldenes hindereth the mouinge ne­cessarie to the Memory. And moiste­nes hindereth the retayning thereof. To be breife, seing that forgetfulnes Forgetful­nes is the doghter of coldenes. Paulus Ae­gineta. is the doughter of coldenes, as Pau­lus Aegineta, and others doe testifie, it is to be said & affirmed, that colde­nes more hurteth the Memorie, then moystenes. For the figure or kynde of coldnes which congeleth humors and spirites, can not be conceaued. The slepings also of such whose Me­morie or vnderstading perisheth, are to be obserued, to witt whether they be vehement or moderate slepers, or [Page] altogether not slepie, but haue it ac­cording to the course of nature. And so shall you fynde vntemperatenes the vanquisher: and shall knowe also that moystnes & drines be the contraries: moistnes, because of ouer much slepe: drynes, because of ouer muche watchinge: and that of the meane of these twoo, equalitie, and the good proportion of humours procedeth. Moreouer it is to be considered, whether any thinge be voyded out of the nostrells or mouthe that commethe from the head, or whether those pla­ces be altogether drye or but partly: the knowledge of whiche precedent causes and showes will geue to vn­derstand the disposition of the head, whereby mai be ministred a fitte re­medye according to the disposition of the personne. They that haue greate The fignes of moiste­nes. Moystenes of the brayne, are verye desyrous of muche sleepe, whose mouthes are full of spittle, and their [Page] Nostrells and eyes frequented with fleame: all their Motions are dulle. Suche kynde of people doe remem­ber thinges present and lately done: but being done long agone, they doe either neuer, or with great paine re­member them. For suche is the na­ture of moystenes of the brayne that it easelye receyuethe what imprin­tings or infixions it listeth and with like easenes loseth them againe.

Wheras drines ruleth or reigneth, The fignes of drines. whiche is contrary to moistenes, it is knowen by the contrarie signes: the head shalbe geuē to watchinges and lightnes: and seldome doth the nose, the roufe of the mouthe, and the eies expell such superfluities: the eyes are holowe: they sone become balde: the eares abound with earwaxe. And as concerninge that it appertayneth to the Memorie: present thinges are wc more difficultie receiued or infixed then things past, and being receiued [Page] they doe longer abyde: whereof it cō ­meth to passe, that we haue a better Memory & vtterance, of olde things, then of newe. Ancient men may her­in be an example vnto vs, who will orderly recyte feates done from the beginninge of their age: but present thinges they eyther doe not remem­ber, or els doe confounde them in vt­terig. And this happeneth vnto aged men: because that the state or dispo­singe procedeth of frequented actes: wherby it commeth to passe that ex­treme olde men doe well remember auncient thinges: because they haue often pondered either them or yt like. But they doe yll remember newe thinges: because that the imprinting of them in theyr Memorie is not ea­sye by reason of the hardnes of the in­strument of vnderstanding.

Where as Coldenes ruleth, there The fignes of coldnes. the face is white, the eyes are feeble, the veynes can not easely be percey­ued: [Page] they be geuen to muche flepe, those partes that belonge to the head shalbe but litle warme, nor ruddye, the minde shalbe astonyed, the head troubled with gyddinesse, and shall bring things to remembraunce with muche a doe. Thys qualitye (as we haue said before) is very hurtful, and dothe diminishe the powers of the minde, and maketh them dull: for as it is the propertie of heat to moue, so is it the nature of coldenes to hinder the mouing: and take this for a gene­rall rule, that the braine of a liuinge body is warmer with a somers aire, then otherwyse, as also Galenus saith in his booke De vsu partium.

But when Heate flourisheth in the The fignes of heate. brayne it is easelye knowen by these fignes: for suche partes as are about the heade, are warmer and redder, then those that be farre of: you shall perceiue the eyes to be more rolling, and the veynes more apparante: As [Page] sone as they be borne their heares growe fourth, and are blacke, harde, and curled: they are contented wyth smalle and shorte sleepes, they haue quyckenes of motyons and remem­braunce. But if the heat doe encrease and become vnnaturall, they shalbe very vigilent. This ouer much heat doth boile the liuely spirites, and consumeth them into smokes and va­poures, and burneth yt iuyces which be apte to ingender spirites wherby they be destytute of a good or salfe Memorye.

But if the two qualities be Ioy­ned together, you shall knowe theyr signes by as greate a proportion, as these qualities be great, or lytle. And the iudgement of the foresaid things shall not be difficulte, as if that heat and drynes were without tempera­ture, there shalbe a permixtion of yt sence, or a frenesie accordinge to the greate or small degrees of the quali­ties. [Page] And therfore it is manifest that the Memorie may be kept, encreased and erercised by the scyence or prac­tise Memorie maye be holpen by phisicke. of Phisicke, seing that by sicknes it may be diminished, hindered, and loste.

Therfore as concerning yt meanes to cure it, firste of all the feedinge or The mea­nes to cure the dissea­ses. kynde of lyuing must be altered ac­cording to the varietie of the causes, as we will herafter showe. But first it is to be noted, that the forgetful­nes which cometh of nature cannot easely be taken awaye, nor yt whiche commeth of a hote and dry cause, the rest of the bodye remaininge sounde and perfecte. This also chauncethe some times, that the Memorie maye be diminished or loste by an vnaccu­stomed waye: & then it is to be feared of a worse sickenes, (except it be spe­delyremedyed) to witte of the Le­thargie, falling sicknes, Apoplexie, Palsey, and other suche kinde of dis­seases [Page] the which are engendxed of fleame in the brayne, for the whiche recourse must be had to the Phisiti­ons. Also if the Memorie be perished by extrome age, it is not in vaine to be laboured to be gotten againe by remedies: but onely muste be conten­ted with a conuenient kind of liuing or feeding, and must haue ministred sucking moiste & restoratiue meates and linctuaries, and suche as may­take away the drynes.

If the hurting of the Memory come by vehement purgations and other vnmesurable emptines, or of drynes it must onely be remedied by good & nourishing meates: for yt body being strengthened, & yt forces and powers gotte again, the Memorie is restored and fortified. Therfore meats being Obseruati­ons belonging to the Memorye. ful of good iuyce do help much, which be easelye concocted & bigestid in the ventricle: the wine must be red, ripe & alaied with water the exercise must [Page] be moderate & withoute wearines: the head must be lightly rubbed: they must slepe long; they muste lye softe: they must vse bathes of warme wa­ter: they must avoide sweatinges: the head being shauen there must be po­wred on Epithemata or Fomētations of the decoction of flowers of Camo­mill, Melilote, Linsede, hufked Bar­ley, & Milke newly milked: it must be anointed in wt oyle of Lilies, or of Almondes, oyle of Dialtea, (in yt French Guimauues), & with fresh Butter. Let them take cōserue of Borage, Bew­glosse, Orenge pilles preserued, and suche lyke.

If the annoiance of yt Memory come Other ob­seruations. of a colde vntemperature of yt braine alone wtout substance, let coldnes be­set against heat, & likewise drynes a­gainst moistnes, but neuertheles moderatly for in heat & naturall drynes the proportiō ought to be most equal to the ende, yt nothinge be to muche: [Page] because that a naturail heat is not a pure heat, but cōpounded, in yt which there is a proportiō of most equalitie. For all kynde of heate causeth not a good Memory, nor al kinde of drynes but yt which is of a temperate proportion, and floweth not into an immo­derate vntemperatnes, which hath yt power to take away ye acte of it owne vertue. Therfore it is to be takē hed [...] lest the brayne be made to hote, or to Note. dry. And he that hath a tēperate head let him take hede that he meddle not with any medicines. They therefore that haue the Memorie corrupted by vnmeasurable heat & drines (yt which being ioyned together doe oftē cause frenesies & dotings) must haue Oxir­hodinum, powred vpon their heades, & it shalbe easey to heale the rest with suche things as doe coole, & moisten. And if the hurte come of ouer muche heate ioyned with ouer muche dry­nes, (the whiche chaunceth comonly [Page] tyther because of longe sickenesses, or of excessyue labours of the bodye, or of fyerce sorowefull and carnest affections of the mynde, by the which the forces and powers of nature are greatly opened or weried & the liue­ly spirits dissolued and wasted) moistning and meanely warminge medi­cines hauing strength together, shal­be very defencible and necessarie.

But when the qualities shall doe Other ob­seruations for the Memorye. harme not alone by thēselues, but yt there shalbe also great aboundaunce of humours we must beginne wt euacuations & pourginges in prouiding before a concoction or digestiō, if nede be. The abundance of bloude requi­reth yt cutting (or opening) of a vaine which must be done wt the councel of a lerned Phisition: & let the veyne vp on the shoulder be opened, the which is called Cephalica, if the head only be burthened: if yt whole body be geued, the inward or middle veines must be [Page] opened. If a yelowe or fleamy choler abound, by the aduise of the phisitiō, it may be purged with medicines yt driue out choler, as with Rubarde, Manna Casia, iuyes of Roses, elec­tuarye of Roses, syrupe of Roses re­soluatiue or laxatyue, Tamerindi, or with golden Pittes & suche like. If it be a blacke choler or melancolye, it must likewise be remedied by conue­nient aides ministred by experte phi­sitions as wt the steeping or [...]or of Sene of Epithimum, of Veratrū, in them that be stronger. Diasene, Pilles Indie, &c.

But if the cause be (the whiche in a Moe obseruations. maner chaneeth alwaies) colde and moiste, these meanes shall serue to cure it: & first as touchīg their liuing let thē abide asmuch as is possible, in a light & cleare aire not windy: for the winds do hurt much. And let them auoide to eate any thing that encrea­seth fleame, as all colde things, and [Page] likewise vapourous, as oynions, and aboue al things yt fulnes & lothsome­nes of meates, or rawnes, & muche drinke, let thē forbeare much eating of fruites, meates of hard digesting, washing of thēselues with to hote or to colde water & to much drinking of water or wine. Therfore meates yt Meates permitted to the paci­ent. haue good nourishment, & ingender warme & liuely bloud, are very hel­ping & necessary: as wethers muttō, yt floshe of Goates, Eapons, Fesan­tes, Partriges, whose egges are of a singuler power in this behalf, pigiōs turtle doues, litle sparrowes, larkes thrusshes or throstles, & O w [...]elles: being dressed wt Hisope, sauerie, thime, maioram, Rosemary, Cloues, maces Ginger, Peper, Cinamom, Iuniper beries, chiefly in winter. Let thē eate Meates for bidden the pacient. no kind of liuing thing that is newly brought forth, because their fleshe is slimy & clammy: nor yt braines of any thing because they be fleamatike, except [Page] the braines of a Henne, for they be peculiarly & chiefly praised.

Let thē also forbeare Marow (which is in bones) Cranes fleshe, Fyshe, e­specially if it be clammye and nouri­shed in diches or holes, colde pot Her­bes, Milke, Cheese, especially much, or noughtie: fruites moiste & not ripe or oftē, but sometimes they may eate sharper or tarter meates, cheifly in yt winter, as Garlike, Peniroiall or Calamint, Capers being watered, mu­stard is praised of Pithagoras: thei must Pithagoras eate little & especially at supper: they must drinke no water except it be sod with Hony, or Cinamom or some o­ther pleasant spices. They muste ab­steine Moderate vse of wine allowed. from ouer much slepe, and not to slepe in the day time, nor vpon the noddle of the head, nor vpon to much fulnesse of meate: let them also take beede of ouer greate watchinges, for it weakeneth the spirite, and resol­ueth it and stuffeth the head. [Page] Let their exercise bee walkynge a­brode, Certaine exercise. and that before meales, with the rubbyng of the parts of the head (but hauyng firste bene conuenient­ly purged) with course clothes, and of the feete and handes, but mode­ratly, and the whole body muste be rubbed firste, then afterwarde the head, and let the rubbyng beginne at the legges, in rubbynge by lytle and lytle the vpper partes, that the substaunce may be drawen downe­warde. Let them not remain aboute pooles, fluddes, and moist sokye pla­ces, let them auoyde southe wyndes and rainy weather, let them dwell in lightsome and hie house, let their head be annoynted with helpinge and conuenient oyles (as it shalbe also deciared hereafter). Let them take heede of to muche frequenting of the act of generation, and al thin­ges that make feeble the braine, for the principall being weakened, that [Page] which springeth thereof must nedes be hurte. Let the body be kept cleare without superfluities. If therefore the fleume be colde and grosse, it must be attenuated, concocted and Sundry me dicines, re­medies, and oynt­mentes. prepared to be voyded forthe, with Ox [...]ll compounde or squilliticke or made De quinque radicibus, of Sti­chas, of Radishe rootes, with Rose honnye, as neede shall require, and with conuenient waters or decocti­ons. And to bryng forthe the prepa­red substaunce or matter they muste haue ministred vnto them Pilles or Cochies, or of the confection called Hiera Galeni, in puttyng to a lytle of the oyle of Castoreum, and of a Nut­mygge. Let there be also added vn­to it a prepared Colorynthis or Co­loquintida (a kynde of wylde Gour­des) according to the discretion of the Phisition then present: or let there be geuen them Hiera magna, wyth Nutmigs, or Hiera Rufi, of ye which [Page] Aetius in his thyrde booke maketh Aetius in his 3. boke. mencion: also Yeralogadii, and other things which helpe the payne of the head that commeth of fleume: then after let ther be made Gargarismes Fomentations, Oyntmentes, lytle Bagges, and suche lyke: the Garga­risme maye be made thus.

Take Calamus aromaticus, Peny­royal or Calamint, Hysope, Thyme of euery one a hand full, let them be sodde in water euen to the halfe of the iust quantitie, and to fyue vnces strained through a Colander, put an vnce and a halfe of Scilliticke Oxi­mell, and mingle halfe an vnce of Kose honny, and let it be gargaled warme in a morning fastynge. Also if there nede a Glister, let it be made accordinge to the diseases that haue respect to the head: nesynges or ster­nutations may be prouoked, as with Pepper, Struthion or Condisi, Elleborus albus, Lyngwort or neesyng pouder, [Page] Flourdeluce, and suche lyke: or of these, with Turpentine, and with a Gumme called Ladanum, let there be made sneesyng medecines. More­ouer yf the fleume procede further, good odours or Apophlegmatismi (me­decines that purge fleume and spit­tle) do much belp: Cubebes mastica­ted or chewed, doe sucour by al mea­nes: applye to their eares oyle of Ca­storeum, oyle of Lauander, oyle of Spike. If so be yt either there be not so great aboundance of such humors in the body, or that the pacient be not of so great strengthes, we must first dryue the fleume oute of the whole body by an easie purgation, and be­cause it shall rather suffre yt powers and forces to remaine in the mem­bers & parts of the body then to take them awaye, therfore let it be in this maner. Take Aloes wasshed wyth the iuyce of Thyme or Maioram or wyth their waters one Dramme, [Page] Trochisces of Agaricke two dram­mes, A dramme is the . [...]. Parte of an vnce. Masticke, Cubebe, Nutmygs, of eche of them sixe graines, with pleasaunt wyne let there be made twelue Pilles, of the whiche seuen must be taken in the morning with the sirupe of Stichas: and the rest three dayes after, two houres after supper: afterwardes they muste be strengthened with comfortinge ele­ctuaryes, such as folowe o [...] the lyke. But ouerpassīg also yt pur [...]g locals as aboue, if it be nedeful. Againe for the purgatiō these pilles also do pro­perlye agree. Take of male Fran­kenscence, of fyne Myrrhe, of Gin­ger, euery of them a dramme and a halfe, of the pouder of a Houpe or Lapwinges heade .ii. drammes, of Galyngalle twoo scruples, of A Scruple is the third parte of a dramme. Hiera maior one Dramme and a halfe, of oyle of Castoreum, of Colocynthys, of either of them half a scruple, dreesse theym wyth good [Page] Turpentine or with Syrope of Sti­chas, and let there be made past (or dowe) and minister vnto them but a fewe Pilles, and those great: vpon a lyght supper goynge to bedwarde: also suche thyngs as do dissolue may be taken awaye, that they may onely nourishe: these are most chiefe and singuler in this cause, and do princi­pallye helpe the Memorie. After­wardes to strengthen the Pacient let there be made suche an electua­ryc Strengthe­ninges for the paciēt. or in lyke maner.

Take of conserue of Rosemary flowers, of Baulme gentle, of eche of them an vnce, of Helycompane preserued, of greene Ginger, either of them halfe an vnce, of Orenge pilles preserued sixe drammes, of Diatrionpipereon, of Diambar either of them halfe an vnce, with a lytle Aquavite distilled together wyth good wyne in glasse vesselles, or with Baulme water, or with the [Page] flowers of Lilium conuallium: mingle them together: and let the Pacient take a dramme or twaine in the mornynge two houres before hys meate, and halfe a dramme at bedde tyme. Nucha (cal­led also spinalis me­dulla) is a substaunce procedyng from the brayne, alonge the backe.

It is also to be noted that the Nu­cha is colder then the brayne, and therefore it endureth and suffereth colde thinges better then warme, and for that cause it must be remembred, leste the causers of coldenes, whiche come from without doe not fall vpon the hinder part of the head. And therefore suche medecines as cause warmenes as well withoute as wtin the body are to be ministred. Other re­medies & oyntmen­tes. Thyme, Penyroyall, (or Cala­munt) Organie (or wylde Maioram) or suche lyke of this kynde muste be sodden in Vinegre and layed to the Nostrelles of the Pacient: annoynt the roufe of the mouth with verye [...] or sharpe medecines. Also in [Page] the sommer tyme annoynt the out syde of the head with warme Oyle, as wt Oyle of Rue, Oyle of Dill, &c. And in the Winter tyme wyth the Oyle of Flowerdeluce, in the which there shalbe sodden commen Sauo­ry or bush Calamint, Pepper, Bay berries, in puttyng to a lytle Vine­gre for to make it perce. Also Oyle of Castoreum shalbe verye good to a­noynt the hynder parte of the head withall: or suche an oyntment as fo­loweth.

Take oyle of Tyles, of Castoreū either of them halfe an vnce, of the rootes of Acorus or greate Galin­gale, of Phu or Valerian, either of them a scruple, of Pellitorie, of Rue or Herbe grace, either of them half a scruple, with as much waxe as shal suffice. Let there be made an oynt­ment, with the whiche the head be­ing shauen shalbe annoynted: and therevpon let there be layed a lytle [Page] bagge within the which there muste be of the flowers of Rosemarye, of Baulme gentle, of Lauander, ech of them half a handfull, of the flowers of an Elder tree a handful, of Stichas iij. drammes, of Nutmygges, of Lignum Aloes, of Maces, ech of them a scruple, beinge beaten together let them be put into a silke bagge.

Another ointment greatly helping the diminution of the Memorye and forgetfulnes.

¶ Take oyle of Elder flowers an vnce, oyle of Been .ii. vnces, oyle of Euforbium, oyle of Castoreum, either of them halfe an vnce, Vinegre .iii. drammes, mingle them together, & let the place be anoynted therwithal. Also oyle of philosophers (so called of Mesue. Mesue) being anoynted vpon the hin­der part of the heade, dothe wonder­fully repare the Memorye.

Another oyntment.

¶ Take yt rootes of Rew, Buglosse [...] [Page] Phu or Valerian with the rootes eche of them .iiij. vnces, of oyle of Castoreum of ij. or .iij. yeares olde, of the seede of Ashe kayes which is lyke to a byrdes tounge, either of them two dragmes: let them be made into pouder and mingled together: then take of the iuyce of Eufragia or Eybryght, of Clarie, of Veruen, ech of thē .iiij. vnces, of the pithe of Anacardum an Vnce, of the olde Grease of a male. Beare asmuch as shal nede, let there be made a moiste oyntment, and put it in a copper or tinne vessell, that it may remaine moiste, for els it is no­thing worthe, and therwithal anoint the hinder part of yt head. But if you will sonner helpe it, or that the paci­ent haue a colder head and that it be in a colde tyme, then let the nostrells within be anoynted with this odori­ferous ointment. Take oile of swets Spike an vnce, Cloues a scruple, Am bergrise halfe a scruple, Muske fyue [Page] graines, white Waxe asmuch as ne­deth: also a droppe of the same, before the puttig in of ye wax, being powred warme into the eares is verye good. Mesue .2. descriptio­ne Antid [...] tarii.

A plaister also of Mustarde (of the which Mesue speaketh in the second description of the boke of Medicines) is very expedient being laid to ye cold afflicted hinder part of the head: or els oyle of Mustard seed [...].

Also ye aforsaid medecines, aswell as those yt folowe (without anye former purgatiō) are very good for them that are vexed wt coldenes alone without great [...]es. And besides these before rehersed there be other yt helpe in wardlye, as righte Acorus preserued which I suppose to be Calamus aroma­ticus or Galyngalle,) Sugre, flo­wers of Betonnye, Rosemarye, Lauander, Spikenarde, Baulme Gentle, in puttynge to longe Pe­per, Cloues, Cinamom, Nutmeges and such like odoriferous things. [Page] Also Ginger preserned the quantitie of a filberde nut doth help much especially in a cold and moist ventricle, as it is almost in all or in yt greater part of them that are troubled with suche cause & dissease, for it doth amend the Memory beinge taken in yt morning (not in warme seasōs) foure howers before meate.

This also doth not a litle help.

¶ Take Frakensence, Ciperus, lōg Peper, Saffron, Mirrhe, of ech alike, mingle them wt Hony, and of yt same take euery day a dramme at the ho­wers aforsaid, & specially in yt mornig.

Another for yt same purpose cheifly working in aged persones.

¶ Take of ye hony of Anacardum, of whit Frākensence, of Ciperus, of right Acorus, ech alike .ij. parts, of round & lōg Peper either alike .i. part, of Mi­robalanū cepulū, ceruleum, either a­like .ij. partes, of Cummin .i. part, of Hony asmuch as shal serue, let there [Page] be ministred .ij. dragmes euery mor­ning: Diambar also is very good.

Also a confection of Anacardū doth profit much yf it be wel made, & vsed vi. monthes after, for it sharpneth the witte & sence and purifieth the vnder standing, it calleth againe yt mind, it healeth the lethargie & goute, it hel­peth much yt dissease of the hentricle & the bealy coming by coldnes, but it is to be geuē to them yt be astonined, & yt haue a very colde & reumy head. And it is thus made: takeof Miroba­lanū empeliticū, belezicū, of white & long Peper, ech of thē xij. drammes, of Ginger, of yt hony of Anacardū, ei ther of thē an vnce, of oile of Castore­um, of Stirax or Storax, of Cloues ech of thē v. drammes, of the flowers of Camomil, of Bay beries, of Ciperus, ech of thē iij. drammes, of Hony asmuch as shall suffice, mingle them after the maner of an electuary. Let a scruple of it be ministred at nyght, [Page] or the biggenes of a small or filberde nutte, that is halfe a Dramme, with warme wyne of the decoctyon of A­nyse and Fenell seedes: it maye also be taken in the morning.

But let theim that take it refraine from fleumatyke meates, from an­ger, from lecherye and dronckenes.

And before that Anacards be put into anye compounde Medecynes, they muste be dressed in thys maner that foloweth.

Take Anacards and beate theym verye well in a Morter and then put them in moste stronge Vinaigre by the space of seuen dayes, then seeth theym wythe a softe fyer in the same Vynaygre tyll there remaine but the thyrde parte of the Vinay­gre: then strayne the Groundes thereof whyche remayne in the bo­tome of the vessell, after that the Vi­naygre is firste lyghtelye strayned or powred oute, and those groundes [Page] beynge putte through the strainer or Colander, occupye theym in me­decynes: for also the fruytes of Anacrds are not putte in mede­cynes to be taken at the mouth, ex­cepte they be firste dressed in this or like maner.

Yf so be you wyll make Honny of. Anacardum, you muste putte wythe the same Anacardum so sod­oen in Vynaygre, asmuche cla­ryfyed Honnye, and lette theym boyle bothe together tyll they be thycke, and so shall youe haue Honnye of Anacardum, the whi­che hathe a wounderfull operatyon in the foresayde dysseases, yf you geue thereof a Drammo or two in the mornyng,

In Sycylya whyleste the Ana­cardij be newe they are putte in­to puryfyed Honny, and doe remaine long therin, and such is called Honny [Page] of Anacardum, and it is vsed with out the fruites thereof, and is putte in electuaries. If ther be ij. drammes geuen of yt Hony, it reneweth yt Me­mory of it owne property.

Also Acorus (yt is Galingale) is an approued thing, being nourished and sodden in Hony & reserued as yt nuts & rootes are conserued: likewise long Peper nourished & sodden in Hony & preserued, for they do kepe & encrease the Memorye: at euery time receyue a Dramme.

Another proued [...]forme of a pouder.

¶ Take Frākensence a dragme, Cyperus, Peper, Saffrō, Mirrhe, ech of them ij. drammes, let thē be beaten fine, & driuen through a searce, and so make it into a pouder, of the whiche the paciente shall receyue euerye mornyng when he riseth a dramme or at euenynge when he goethe to bedde.

Another proued.

[Page] ¶ Take Cummyn, Pepper either of them two drammes, whyte Su­gar thre drammes: let thē be beaten & reduced into pouder, take therof a dramme euery day in the mornyng.

Another likewise proued.

¶ Take whyte Frankenfence a dramme, longe or whyte Pepper a scruple, make them into pouder, which muste be dronke earely in the morninge all at one draughte, and that manye dayes, with three vnces of Honny water, or of Cinamon and Cloues moderatly decocted.

Another as good and certaine.

¶ Take Cummyn fyue drammes, newe Pepper one dramme, righte Acorus or Galingale, Cyperus, black Myrobalanum, of ech of them two drammes, Honny of Anacardū, (wherof we spake before) one dram­me, common Honny thre vnces and a halfe: let suche of them as maye be punned, be punned together, and in­corporated [Page] with Honny, and prefer­ued in a boxe: and rereyue thereof euery morning two drammes.

❧ The thyrd Chapter sheweth the principall endomages of the Memorie in what sort soeuer they be.

IT behoueth to auoyde vni­uersally rawnes or vndigessi­ons, as most daungerous and hurtefull both to the reason, and al­so to the whole bodye.

It is verye ill to drynke muche Wyne especiallye to them that be stronge: for it doth vehemently moy­sten Excessiue vse of wine in forbiddē the head, and there is almoste nothing that so soone bringeth for­getfulnes, as doeth superfluous moystenes.

The excessiue outwarde colde­nes hurteth the Memorie, and chie­fly in the night when the head is vn­couered. To goe through Myer in [Page] cold tymes, and bare footed doeth a­boue the reste, hurte and coole the brayne, and weakeneth the eyes.

Also to muche heate doth some­tymes greatlye trouble the reason and hurte the Memorie.

You muste forbeare the eatinge of fuminge meates and drynkes, as Garlyke, Leekes, Oynions, al­so Cheese and Peason: Brothes, Potage, and all ouer moyste thyn­ges are to be refrayned, especiallye at night: also all ill chewinge or ea­ting is noughte.

To drynke after meate (whyles the meates be digestynge, inter­ruptynge the same) namelye after supper, is verye hurtfull both to the Memorie and the brayne.

Ouer muche reste dothe wea­ken the heate: reteyneth and aggra­uateth the superfluities, and there­fore hurteth the Memorie.

[Page] It is verye noysome to slepe vp­on meate, to witte before that the meate be descended into the bottom of the Ventricle: therefore take your slepe two houres after: hauyng your head lying hie & wel couered, but not superfluously, because that to muche couerynge doeth either weaken the head in resoluynge: or els doth stuffe it in drawing.

Frequented venerye doth hurte either with a full stomarke or a hun­gry, or after the whiche no slepe doth folowe, or nere vnto the Eclipse of the Moone, or with anye other then their owne spouse.

To sleepe hosed and shoed espe­cially with foule sockes, doth hinder the Memorie, because of the reflecti­on of ye vapours: feebleth the syght, and causeth the body to waxe whote and burne.

Herbes eaten rawe, doe verye muche hurte the Memorie: lykewise [Page] Nuttes, Filberds, & Chestnuttes.

Also to see or heare thinges that please not the mynde: and such lyke Simptomata or griefes of the minde.

Feare doth oppresse the Memo­rie, or endurynge sadnes: also a pen­siue care of housholde busynesse is hurtfull.

Also immoderate sleepe and vi­olent vomiting.

Vinegre and all sharpe thinges doe the lyke: but if Vinegre be vsed of fattē and fleumaticke personnes let it be made of stronge Wyne, and let it be warme, and vsed seldome & that with Cynamon: and put Cala­mus aromaticus or Galingale into the Vinegre vessell, Penyroyall or Calamint: There be some saye that the bones of Cockes beinge sucked, do breede the Lethargie.

❧ The fourth Chap. telleth likewise the perticular helpes of the Memorie.

[Page] THe fruites that bynde or re­straine of Nature or arte, in keepinge fumes or vapours from rysyng, beynge moderately ta­ken after meates, doe greatlye helpe the Memorie.

The moderate eating or refecti­on of temperate meate and drynke, as of Hennes and Patriges, and es­pecially of the braynes, doth not on­ly comfort the Memorie, but also the whole bodye: for lyke as Cacochimia (that is euill nourishing meates) do hurte the workynges of the soule: so Euchimia (that is good nourishynge meates) do keepe them safe, & chief­ly in youth. And therefore a highe witte doth seldome springe oute of a meane or simple storke, except there chaunce a liberall education.

Moderate and conuenient exer­cise before meate, doth not only pro­fit the Memorie, but likewise the o­ther functiōs of the body, also let the [Page] mouing be long, and the exercise la­borious, according to the strength of the body, that it may resolue the su­perfluities and let it be in fayre and drye places: and (if it be possible) let all the parts of the body be exercised.

A conuenient and due expulsion of superfluities by the entrailes, by the roufe of the mouth, by the mouth, by the eares, by the vrine, by the rubbyng of the head with a combe, is very expedient to the memoratiue vertue, yf the exercise be done before sleepe and after.

An often callinge to mynde of The Me­morye muste be exercised. things seene or hard, doth strengthē and confirme the Memorie: for there is nothyng that is so soone encreased by diligence, or diminished by nec­gligence, as Memorie it selfe is: be­cause except it be throughlye tylled and exercised with a continuall me­ditation, it is soone corrupted by fluggishenes.

[Page] A temperate gladnes, and an he nest delectation, especially in the me­ditation of sciences, doeth not onely augment the Memorie, but also the intellectiue vertue, and all the other vertues of the body.

To washe ones feete often in warme water wherein hath bene boyled Baulme gentle, Baye lea­ues, Camomile, and suche lyke, is verye good for the Memorie, ye head and the eyes.

To washe ones head euerye tenth daye with Lee, in the whyche there hath a whyle sodden Camo­mile or Asarum, Baulme gentle, Sage, swete Maioram, or Maioram gentle, Baye leaues, or suche lyke, and Roses in the Sommer, doth co­roborat and fortifie the Memorie, as it shall also be more plainlye spoken of in the Chapter folowing.

To stande after meales, or to walke softly vp & downe, by meanes [Page] whereof the meate maye descende to the botome of the ventricle, is very expedient for the good digestion of the meates.

To take Coriander after meate, being well dressed with Sugre, doth let the vapoures from ascending to yt heade, and helpeth the Memorie: al­so Diacotoneon doth the same.

To chewe Masticke with a lytle Ginger being fasting, doth purge the heade from moiste fleumatike hu­mors without any greif or paine, and the Memorie being so hindred is ther with cōforted, Galingale beinge put to the nostrells dothe strengthen the colde brayne.

Take the whitest Frankensence beate it into pouder, put it in pure and symple colde water, and drincke it at the encrease of the Moone, at the springe of the daye, at noone, and at the Sunne settinge: and it wyll cause a good Memorye, a sharppe [Page] witte, and drye the brayne and the ventricle.

Symeon Sethi affirmeth that the Simeon Sethi. Galle of a Partrige being anoynted once in a moneth, vppon the vaynes of the temples, so that it doe perce thorowe, is verye profitable to con­firme the Memorie.

Baulme gentle establisheth the Memorie, quickneth the witte, and in what fashion soeuer it be eaten maketh a mā studious and dilligent the whiche vertue also Cresses doc bringe to passe in them that be colde and olde, wherof it is come into a cō ­mon prouerbe, Ede nasturtium, Eate Cresses. Baulme gentle also besides this bringeth quietnes to the minde in causinge a pleasant sleepe to come to the heade: It is also sayde that the fleshe of A Turtle Doue dothe en­crease the witte.

The braynes of a Henne dothe helpe the witte and the Memorye, [Page] in suche sorte that it hathe broughte some agayne to their wittes, that be­ganne to dote.

The seede of Orminum or hous­holde Clarye dothe wonderfullye ayde the restoringe of the Memorye, yf it be taken in poulder with some meate or drinke. And the scrapinges of Yuorie dothe remedye forgetful­nes, if a little thereof be taken in the morning in a litle wine.

Also a Grayne of whyte Fran­kensence when you goe to bedde, dothe greatlye helpe the clammye or glewed substaunce: for it dryeth vp the moystenes of the heade and the Ventricle, and so easethe the Me­morye. Vse thys after a purgary­on twyse or thryse in a weeke, yf there be much moistnes.

Twoo Drammes in wayghte of the confectyon of Ple [...]esar­ [...]hotycum taken when youe [Page] goe to sleepe, or Myrobalanum Ce­pulum preserued and well chewed beynge taken in the mornynge fo­wre howres before meate once in a weeke, dothe wounderfullye restore the Memorye especially yf it be hurte of a moiste cause. For Myrohala­ni cepuli, preserued doe strengthen the vnderstandynge and in a maner conserue you the. So doe passula.

It is good to take twise or thryse in a weeke preserued Ginger, the bygnes of a small nut or litle cheste nut, for it helpeth muche an emptye stomacke. The confection of Diam­bar hath the same effect

Remember that in a moyste sub­staunce or cause there procede fyrste purginges. For a moyste substan­ce is for the moste parte the cause of the weakenes of the Memorie, as it is alredy declared.

❧ The fifte chapter comprehendeth cer­taine best approued and chosen medicina­ble compounded remedies, and pre­seruatiues greatly encreasing the Memorye.

¶ A Medecine wonderfully helping the Memorie, and lethargie or for­getfulnes: it comforteth the ventri­cle and all the members weakened by fleume and coldenes.

Take Ginger, Galingale Mastike Cūmin, Organny, ech of thē vi. drammes, Nutmige, Calamus Aromaticus, Asarum or Fole foote, Carpesium, yt is Cubebe, Lignū a­loes, Mace, Percely seede, Ammios eche of theym .ij. drammes, whyte Frākensence, Cloues, Cardamomum or graines, Zedoaria, Piretrum or Pelli­torye, Castoreum, lōg & blacke Pe­per, Costum or Cocus, Ciperus, eche of them .iij. dragmes dry Mintes half an vnce: let theym all be punned and beaten to pouder, and with a suffi­ciente [Page] quantytye of Penydes and of puryfyed Honnye, let there be made a linctuarye: The whiche and the reste also you muste vse, chieflye in colde wether or not ouer hote, & that a good space betwene.

❧ Pilles that are good for a lan­guishing brayne especially in a­ged and colde folkes.

Take swete Amber or elect Am­bargrise one Dramme, Lignum A­loes halfe a scruple, Cubebe twoo scruples: with the purest and swetest wyne make .xv. Pilles, and minister a cople of them before supper.

Catapotia, or Pilles very effectu­all to the Memorie.

Take Cubebes, bushe Calamint, Nutmiges, Cloues, eche of theym a dragme and a halfe, pure Franken­sence, [Page] fine Mirrhe, orientall Ambar­grise, ech of them a dramme & a halfe Muske .v. graines: with Maiorā wa­ter make Pilles, & geue one at bedde time, and two at Sunne rising fyue howers before meat, in Somer by a monthes space, in the springe and in haruest seldomer.

¶ An odoriferous or swete swellinge Apple for the Memorie

Take the rootes of Floure de lu­ce, the seedes of Sesclis or Osiar, that is, Syler montanum or wylde Cummyn, Stichas, eche of theym two Drammes, Nuttmygge half a Dramme, Minte a Dramme, Am­bergrise, Frankensence, bushe Ca­laminte, Storax, Lignum Aloes eche of theym halfe a Dramme, Ladanum as muche as shall suf­fyce, make thereof an Apple by arte: the whiche notwithstanding in win­ter [Page] must be made of warmer things, and in sommer of colder.

A moste proued Experiment for the witte and Memorie, which is said to be of Aristotle,

Take Beares Greasse or fatte Aristolle. whiche he hathe in the righte shoul­der or sklyse, and put the same in the sayde Beares bladder together with his vrine or water and let them stand together eight dayes: than pul it out and take the iuyce of Orminum or housholde Clarie, Cybrighte, Ver­uene, Buglosse, Phu or Valerian, Aloes, of eche a lyke quantitye, and mingle theym together wyth the sayde fatte sturringe theym vppon the fyer wyth a wodden sklise, till it come to a thycke oyntment of ye whi­ch take when you will the quantytye [Page] of a lytle Beane, and anoynt the forehead, and the temples rubbyng them a lytle whyle, and you shall re­member the thynges that you haue harde.

¶ A comfortynge Water or Lees for the washyng of a cold and moyst head, also it helpeth the Memorse, and it must be of the Ashes of Twigges, or of an Oke, then after let these thin­ges boyle in it.

Take righte Acorus, Stichas, Baye leaues, Rosemary, Iua or Chamapithys, Sage, eche of them a hand­full: with this washe the head: and after the washynge bathe the fore­parte of the head with a lytle Aqua vite, and sprinckle it with the pouder folowynge.

Take Penyroyall, bushe Cala­mint, Cloues, Sandarake, Mace, Stichas, drye Mynte, Maioram, of [Page] eche fyue drammes: mingle them and make thereof a fyne pouder, and after the sprincklynge laye it vppon hempe towe. Also at other tymes when you goe to bedde put of the same pouder vpon the hinder parte of the head, the head also beinge vn­washed, for it dryeth. &c.

¶ Another Lee for to comfort the head and Memorie.

Take walle Yuye, Rosemarye Baye leaues, Stichas, Marubium or Horehounde, or Betony, and let them boyle in the Lee, and there­with you shall washe your head. Ci­pres nuttes haue almoste the same operation being often vsed. And that you mai haue Sope wt the same Lee.

Take Venice or Frenche Sope two pounde, Calamus aromaticus thre drammes, Maioram, Thyme, Stichas arabica, Nigella, Cloues, [Page] Cardamomum, eche of them two drammes, mingle thereto the rootes of drye and sweete Flouredeluce an vnce, and then mingle it with Sope fynely cut or scrapped in being well heated, & make lumpes or pilles in maner of a Walnutte, but yf you can not myngle them together by reason of the drynesse of the thyn­ges, then put thereto a lytle Maio­ram water or some other conueni­ent. Afterwardes let the head be well dryed in rubbynge it wyth warme lynnen clothes: but holde not youre head neare to the fyer, leste Vapours bee drawen to it and the head stuffed.

¶ Another, whiche is verye good for a moyste head, and is to be vsed once or twyse in a weke.

[Page] Take Senae, Roses, Camomill flowers, Acorus, Stichas, Bay lea­ues, Cypres nuttes, Sage, Iua, Yuye berries, eche of them an equal quantitie, boyle these in the Winter in Lee to washe youre head withall: but in Sommer take awaye Sti­chas, and put in Roses, and a fewe Myrtell berries, and vse it not to whote.

¶ Another most excellent remedye, but muche more difficile to be­gotten.

Take the flowers of drye Cy­trons, Buglosse, Rosemary, eche of them two drammes, Comomil, Vi­olettes, Roses eche of them a dram and a halfe, Seselis two drammes, Semen viticis or Agnus castus or Tutson seede, fielde Rue, eche of them .iiii. Scruples, greene Baye leaues, Maioram, Stichas, Sage, Elder flowers, Artimisia or Muge­worte, [Page] eche of them three drammes: let them be verye well beaten, and powred into three pounde of the best Aquavite, and sixe vnces of whyte Squilliticke Vinegre that is verye stronge, and let them rest together in a glasse vessell well couered for the space of two dayes, and then di­still them ouer ashes with a softe fyer: afterwardes take good oyle of Turpentyne distilled eyghtene vn­ces, oyle of Been distilled eyght vn­ces, of the foresayde water distilled xxiiii .vnces: in steede of oyle of Been you may take oyle of Beares grease distilled, but it is better yf you take of eyther of them halfe: but if you can fynde neither of them, take El­der oyle: put to these foresayde thin­ges Mennes heares well burned, for of their owne propertie they cause wakefulnes, and styrre vp them that haue the Lethargie: let them be mingled and distilled in a glassen [Page] vessell, euen vntyll all the water be drawen out, and kepe that same wa­ter a part: then take Euforbium .iiii. drammes, longe Pepper thre dram­mes and a halfe, Cummyn three drammes, cleare male Franken­sence two vnces and two drammes, Masticke, Myrre elect, either of them an vnce, Anacardum well beaten an vnce and two drammes, Carpo­balsamum, iiii. drammes, Pulpa Ca­storei, halfe a dramme, Myrob [...]lanū empeliticum, foure drammes and a halfe, Opopanax three vnces, rawe Sylke & finely cut in pieces a drāme and a halfe, Costum, rootes of fe­mall Pionye, fyne Cyperus, eche of them foure Scruples, Ladanum three drammes, Dragons bloude, (that is a Gumme so named for the lykenes of it) two drammes and a halfe, cleare Bdellium syxe dram­mes: let them that wyll be broughte to pouder be verye well beaten to [Page] pouder, and all powred into all the foresayde Oyle, and let them so reste in a temperate bathe the space of fyue dayes together in a glasse ves­sell closse stopped, but let them be styrred or myngled with a drye reede or stycke euerye daye: then let them be strayned forthe, and verye well trushed or pressed with a course cloth whiche hath fyrste bene put in­to the water and well wronge oute: and afterwardes let the Oyle (be­ynge in suche sorte strained) be distil­led, or let it bee so done withall as is done in the distillynge of Oyle of Ladanum: To wytte, fyrste be­gynne wyth a smalle Fyer of Coa­les in an Ouen or Chymney, tyll in so boylynge softelye, it begynne to distyll somewhat meanelye, then procede on wyth a small and easye flame, somme tymes renewynge it, vntyll the moyste and subtylle [Page] substaunce of the Oyles that were put thereunto be almost all distiled, the whiche you maye perceyue by your eye syghte, but better by the weyght of the Oyle that is distilled: then holde on with a meane fyer of coales, in puttyng awaye altogether the flame: and that which is distilled shalbe kepte in a glasse vessell well stopte. Last of all take Gallia musca­ta, Cloues, Maces, Cubebe, Nut­mygges, Cardamomū eche of them foure Scruples, Spyke, Calamus aromaticus, the outwarde barkes of an Orenge, of eche two Scruples, good Lignum aloes, two drammes and a halfe, fyne Ambergrise three drammes and a halfe, of the beste Muske a dramme and a halfe: Let them be all beaten fynely to pouder, and mingled with all the foresayde distilled Oyle, and let them so re­maine together two or three dayes in a temperate heate, and then after­wardes [Page] let them be distilled by their owne kinde, and be brought to a sub­till or pure substaunce, and let them be kept in a strong glasse vessell well stopped with waxe, and it is exceding good. The maner of vsīg of it is such, that firste if it nedeth there be a pur­gation made of all or of the head, and than vse it in the beginninge of the moneth of Nouember continuallye by the space of fyftye dayes, and af­terwardes once in eighte daies, and consequently also when you will re­duce thinges into youre Memorye, takinge it late in the euening when you purpose to rehearse, preach or entreate, of a thing in the morning.

¶ Also in a colde affectyon thys oyle folowynge shalbe notable good.

[Page] Take Turpentine resine if it may be gotten, (for it is broughte for the most parte out of Cyprus to Venice) or in place thereof take laricine the waight of a pounde, olde bricke or tile after the boyling or making not moi­stened, the which being broken in pieces and set on fyer and quēched haue bene in olde oyle of Olyues, halfe a pound: Mastike an vnce, let the tiles be rubbed or beatē in peices, and be­ing well mingled with Turpentine let them be set to the fyer of an ouer or furnays in a glasse or earthen ves­sell well hardened or nealed, and let the licoures that remayne be gathe­red a sunder, for there will runne out three of a dyuers colour, good better, and beste of al.

¶ An Ointment for the same purpose.

Take the fatte of a Beare, of a Capon, of a Henne, of a Cowe, and [Page] Yuye Gumme, eche of theym an e­quall wayght, and destil them al in a Lembicke of glasse with a softe fyer: with the which olye anointe your tē ­ples and the pulses of youre handes thrise in a weeke, and you shall per­ceiue it to be an excellent good thing.

¶ An Ointment wherwith you may moderately anoynte your temples onely in colde weather.

Take the fatte of a Moldwarpe of a Beare, of a Wesell, and of Ca­storeum, echof them a like, the iuyce of Betonye, and of Rosemary, either of them a like: and of al this make an oyntment, the whiche (as it is sayde) Aristotle dyd vse. Aristotle.

¶ To thende that you may retayne thinges profoundly and perpe­tually in your Memory, and that you may learne a thinge spedely: this haue many great men vsed.

[Page] Take the rootes of Langdebefe, the rotes of Valerian either of them foure vnces, the Rootes of Rewe twoo vnces: make thereof very fyne Poulder then take the Iuyce of Ey­bryghte, of Clarye or Orminum, and of Verueyne, eche of them foure vnces: lette the Iuyce be well strayned oute thoroughe a lynnen clothe, then myngle the Iuyce to­gether, and the poulders by theym selues, afterwardes take the vithe of Anacardum the waighte of an on­ce, and make a poulddr as aforesayd Also take the seede of Asshe kayes whyche is lyke a Byrdes tounge, and make a verye fyne Poulder, then myngle all the foresayde thin­ges together, to wytte, the Iuy­ces and the Poulders, and take an earthen Glassye fryenge panne, and sette it ouer the fyer, and putte therein Beares greasse, and poure it or melte it by lyttle and [Page] lyttle, and caste into the same the sayde Poulders alwayes myngling it wyth the Iuyces, and putte in styll of the same grease tyll it be­come a verye pure oyntmente wher­with annoynte youre temples and the parte of youre Memorye, and youre foreheade, and the parte of the Crowne of youre heade towar­des the noddle: and doe this twise or thryse in a yeare, and you must contynewe so in oyntynge, euen more or lesse as it shall neede: for Sorcerye is superstious and vaine. thys excedeth in vertue the supersty­tious arte of Sorcerye.

¶ To the same purpose.

Take eyghte cuppefulles of cō ­mon water, leaues of Yuye, of Sti­chas, eyther of theym a pounde and a halfe, putte them together into the water to boyle tyll the water be al­most consumed away, then take thē [Page] out and presse or wrynge them wel, and put therein a lytle Turpentine washed in Rose water, then washe your head with good Lee, and when it is dryed annoynte your temples and the hynder parte of youre head with the foresayd lycoure.

¶ An odoriferous or sweete smel­lyng Apple for the comfortynge of a colde brayne,

Take Ladanum, Lignum alo­es, Storar, eche of them a dramme, Cloues, Nutmygges, Basill seede eche of them halfe a dramme, with Rose water, in the which there hath been dissolued or put a lytle Muske and Ambergrise, make there of an Apple.

¶ To haue a profounde and good Memorie, or to recouer it again if it be lost by weakenes or infir­mity: it also helpeth the giddines

[Page] Take Rosemarye, that is Liba­notis, Borage, Camomill, Violets, Roses, eche of them an vnce, Sti­chas Baye leaues, Maioram, Sage eche of them two vnces: cutte or chop them all and putte them in excellent good wyne, and after a dayes space distil them in a Lembick of glasse or earth well nealde, and being distil­led kepe them, and put therin swete smellynge Turpentyne a pounde, whyte Frankensence eyghte vnces, M [...]cke, Myrrhe, Bdellium, Ana­cardum, eche of them foure vnces: bruyse all these, and let it so stande fyue dayes the distillation being co­uered, then distill them so long with a good fyer tyll you haue Oyle of them, the whiche youmuste keepe well closed in a glasse bottell harde stopped with Ware and parchment. The vse thereof is suche.

Receyue thereof at youre mouthe as muche as a Filberde shell would [Page] conteyne, and annoynte also there­with the partes of youre Memorye, to wytte the hynder parte of youre head and the other partes heretofore rehcarsed: so shall you proue it to be excellent good.

I myghte here gather toge­ther moe yea and profitable reme­dyes, but these shall suffyce, and make a waye for others to prepare according to the occasion: for I haue studied breuitie, and haue chosen oute of good the beste, nor I woulde not (as also it becōmeth not a Christian) haue them lye hidden in me. He shal fynde moe compounded and those not to be contemned whosoeuer rea­deth Antonius Fumanel­lus Vero­nensis chap 16. de compositione. medici­ment. in Antonius Fumanellus a phisicion of Verona, in hys worke of the composytyon of medecynes the xvi. Chapter I haue not wrytten o­uer those here, lest I shoulde doe the thing already done, although some of his doe in some part agre with mine [Page] let euery one chose oute that whiche shalbe conuenient for him: and he that can not, let him take counsell at a learned Phisition, and let him re­membre that there is nothing done or gotten withoute labour that is praise worthy. For God hath appoin­ted Nothinge without labour. al thinges to labour: nether are the meanes to bee despised of him that desyreth to obteyne the endes for because that (accordynge to the naturall Philosophers) a man can Naturall Philoso­phie. not passe from one extremitie to an­other without a conuenient meane: And it is the propertie of a sluggard not to addicte him selfe to immitate & folow euery good or best thing, for thoughe we can not fullye atteyne thervnto, yet at the least let vs come as neare it as we may, sythe that (as the Prouerbe sayeth) Mercurye is not made of euery woode.

The sixte Chapter expresseth Philosophi­call Iudgementes, rules, and preceptes of Remembraunce.

ARistotle thoughte good, to as­signe Aristole. two actes of Memoratiō: to wytte, Memorie and Remē ­braunce: although Remembraunce perteyneth to those thinges whiche we haue forgotten, and is the offyce of the extymatyue or cogitatyue ver­tue, not principally of the Memora­tyue, as Auerrhous and Auerrhous Auerrhous. Albertus. haue declared in their little Treaty­ses: or you may name that faculty to be the minde and vnderstandinge as Themistius ssythe: because there Themi­stius. is no power or facultie perceiued to wander about, but ye vnderstanding. And this wtout ye presence of ye obiecte is onely in Man: for with the presence of the obiect it is also founde in brute Beastes, as Aristotle hath assented, Aristotle. and as it euidentlye apearethe in a [Page] Greyhounde or Spayniel: and it is called the phantasticall sence.

But Memorye is a retaynyng of the Images or symilitudes first per­ceyued of the soule, the which neuer­theles is vnprofytable except it both retayne all, and also restore theym in the same order wherein it concey­ued theym. And it belongeth not to present thinges nor thinges to come, Aristotle. but onelye to thynges paste, as Ari­stotle saith. Also Memorie and Re­membraunce althoughe they doe a­gree in one same subiecte kynde, yet they Dyffer in aptenes, because that they that haue a good Re­membraunce, haue commonlye an yll Memorye.

Also as concernynge tyme, Me­morye dothe alwayes goe before Remembraunce: for a man can not Remember excepte those thin­ges whereof he hathe the Memo­rye. Also thys is graunted to ma­nye [Page] lyuynge thynges, but that one­lye to men: for syth that to remem­ber is as it were to argue perfitlye, that is to procede from knowen to vnknowē, therfore it appertaineth to man, whereof it commeth to passe that Rembraunce is a gift geuen to Man, as I haue alreadye expressed.

To the Memorie there belon­geth foure mouinges. Foure thinges belong to memo­rye.

The fyrste is a mouyng of the spi­rites which transport the figures or similitudes from the cogitatiue to the memoratiue.

The seconde is a picturynge and faynyng of fygures in the same Me­morie.

The thyrde is a reportation or caryinge agayne of the spirites from the memoratiue to the cogi­tatiue or ratiocinatiue.

The fourthe is that action by the whyche the cogitatiue consyde­reth [Page] and knoweth thynges per­fectelye, the whyche is proper­lye called the Memorie. We saye al­so that the arte of Memorye or Re­membraunce falleth by it selfe vp­pon three thynges as it were three obiectes, to wytte, vppon a thynge apprehended or taken frome elles where, vppon the acte by the whyche the same thynge was frome elles where apprehended, and vppon the determinate or indeterminate syme in the whyche the same apprehen­sion was made.

Yf anye of these thynges fayle or bee lackynge, the Memoration must needes fayle.

Therefore the Memorye maye also bee verye well thus defy­ned, that it is an apprehension of Another definition of Memorie. similitudes remaynynge in the soule, wythe a dillygente sear­chynge or inquisition: But of [Page] these thinges it is alreadye spoken in the fyrst Chapter. And nowe purpo­synge to speake of Artificiall Memo­rie, we wyll fyrste prescribe certayne thynges which he ought to performe of him selfe that wyll haue a good Memorie. The whiche shalbe at this tyme conteyned in Twenty precep­tes, but knyt vp in fewe words.

1. Fyrst iudge (let this and the like be spoken to yonge Studientes) the studies which you folow to be moste excellent of all other: and youre selfe to be happie yf you obteyne wysdome and bee sure to heare a learned tea­cher, whome also you maye bee con­strained to haue in admiration: for certeynlye it muche helpeth the Me­morie, yf you receyue such thynges as you read and heare with admira­tion and pleasure.

2. Iudge the same science or knowledge to be hard and wel kno­wen to very fewe, because thereby [Page] your wit must nedes arise and awa­ken: and that is profitable to the Memorye.

3. You must attentiuely and di­lygently geue eare to your teachers: lykewyse yf you reade anye thynge your selfe, doe it earnestly, gathering together all the powers of youre mynde to the studye thereof, neither let youre mynde wauer, but con­straine it to be onely vpon youre stu­dye, or with a lytle muttrynge call it backe againe, for he is easye to bee taughte who is readye to heare at­tentiuelye: for of a diligente attenti­on procedeth a greater mouyng & a more stedfast impryntyng. And ther­fore sayeth Terrence. Terence.

When earnestly the mynde is set,
Then doth the Wit great vertue get.

4. At suche tyme as you intende to collect or gather together manye thynges, reduce them as muche as is possible to shortnes and breuitie, [Page] for he that wyll encrease his lear­ning procedeth one way, and he that will augment his Memorie another waye: for he that learneth doth cutte and deuide the generall into partes euen vnto the vttermoste and laste, but he that wyll haue a good Me­morie, doth reduce and bryng a mul­titude into one, or at the least into a fewe.

Verses also doe helpe muche to the stedfastnes of the Memorie by reason of ye order of the compos [...] & good makyng, not rashly wandering or strayinge abroade, but closed and shutte vp in certaine limittes and measures, in such sorte that they suf­fer not the mynde to wander and erre.

5. Aboue all thynges let there be an order chosen out and obserued in deuidyng of the body into his mem­bres; for so shal you distribute Trea­tises in Chapters, and Chapters in­to [Page] conclusions.

6. Euery thinge must be often re­peated ouer, in suche sorte that when you haue learned one chapter, and the next folowing together, you must repeate or rehearse againe in youre mind the first and the second: & when you haue learned the third, then you muste beginne againe at the fyrste, and so folowe successyuely.

7. When you entende to com­prehende manye thynges, you shall seperate theym into mem­bers or partes: lesle that a dyffu­sed multitude doe confound the Me­morie. Wherof that Poete saith. A certaine Poete.

Yf you will this thinge well skan.
Into partes deuyde it than.

8. You must haue an often and dayly cogytatyon or thyncking of the same thynge, or a dysputation with other, or a declaration to another: for of frequented actes is engendred a state or habite, which is yt Memory. [Page] Nor let not the feare of erringe keepe you backe from disputinge: for you shal holde faster that which you haue lernid with shamefastnes and there­fore saith Seneca: Memorye loseth no Sences. thing, except that which it doth not of ten regarde or loke vnto.

9. Endeuour your selfe to vnder­stande perfectlye that which you en­tende to remember: neyther oughte you to take so greate care to reade manye thinges as to vnderstand ma­nye thinges: or ells reade fewe thin­ges often, especially of them that fyll not their papers or wryttinges wyth trifles.

10. Take heede leste the writinge of thinges doe not hurte your Memorye, to wytte, leste you coun­tynge those thynges to be sure and steadefaste, whyche you haue writ­ten in youre Booke of remembran­ces, doe ceasse to thyncke anye more of theym, and so trustynge [Page] to that securytye, doe suffre theym to slippe oute of your mynde. Herein the example of Antischenes the A­thenyan Antisthe, nes Athe­niensis. serueth verye well, who aunswerynge a certayne frende that made hys moone that he had loste his commentaries, said that he shuld rather haue writtē them in his mind then in hys Papers: meaninge the confydence of bookes to be the cause, wherby we doe / lesse exercyse our Memorye.

11. The dygestion of meate is to be procured, and suche thynges as be hurtefull to the Memorye are to be auoyded, and lette suche thyn­thinges as helpe it be putte in vse, as it is alreadye sayde in the thyrde and fourth Chapter.

12. Youre mynde muste be made free from all straunge cogitations, to witte from suche as doe not belonge to studye: for beynge busied wyth manye, &c.

[Page] 13. Such thinges as you will re­member, are not onelye to be hard, but also to be seene: for they that doe but once beholde a thynge doe better remember it, then they that heare the same verye often and be­holde it not.

14. Yf anye bodye aske you a que­stion, doe not aunswere hastelye or forthwith, that is to say, without ad­uisement or meditatiō: for a suddaine anuswere is alwayes and in­consulted.

15. You must measure the powers and strengthes of youre witte and of your Memory, leste you charge them wt more then they be able to sustaine and kepe: an example may be takē of the stomake, which if it be lodē aboue it strengthe, is made weaker for it doth not digest: nether doth a glutous body ware fat: euen so what soeuer is lerned, except it be reteined, doth litle profit: therfore if you cānot retaine as [Page] muche as shoulde be needefull, you must multiplie the number, and still diminishe the continued quantitie.

16. You muste appeint certaine howers or times for your studye, and especially those in the which your sto­make or ventricle shalbe emptye and not full of meate: for then the wytte is not fylled or darckned wt vapours: the conuenyent howers shalbe in the firste parte of the nyghte when e­uerye thynge is at rest, and in the mornynge at Cockes crowing: and take good heede leste by any chaun­ce or fortune, you mysse or lette slyppe the howeres appoynted for your studye.

17. Repeat ouer euery night that which you haue gotten by your stu­dye or lerning, after the imitation of Cato, who woulde call to Memorye Cato. in the eueninge, all that whiche he had done, reade or heard, in the daye tyme.

[Page] 18. Memorie is to bee exercised e­uen from youth, to the ende it maye be the readyer & easyer bothe in chil­dren and men: and it forceth muche in what kynde of learnyng a man is broughte vp in from his younge and tender yeres, For,

An earthen pot wyll sauour styll,
Of that thing which did first it fyll.

Moreouer all thynges be newe vn to children: and newe or wonderfull things do make a stedfast infixion or impression in the Memorie.

19. For the recreation of your mynde and the restorynge of youre strengthes, you muste not flie to fyl­thye and dishonest thinges, but you shal bring it to passe by chaunging of your studye: for it is better somwhat to refreshe youre mynde then alto­gether to lose it. Yea also the playes pastymes or Enterludes of Christi­ans ought to be sage and honest.

Therefore after earnest and grane [Page] studies you muste repaire to lighter and easier, as to Histories or Musi­call exercises: for it restoreth the strength and nourisheth the conue­nient rest, and also vertue is of more power after leasure and rest. There be some that had rather playe, the which in deede is graunted and per­mitted, so that the playe bee a playe and not an earnest or sad thinge, and let it be short, honest, without deceite hurte or couetousnes. The Chestes Cheaste playe. playe (a Treatise whereof I latelye translated into Englishe) doth moue and styrre vp the wit, but in the same is often bestowed to much tyme and study, the whiche ought to be better Tenyce playe. applied. The baule or Tenyce play, doth also profite the hole bodye. (But aboue all the noble exercyse of Shoo­ting (Shooting is most cō ­mendable) in the longe Bowe is most com­mendable). Walking abrode is good cheiflye for the heade: but it is better to dispute together walkinge vp and [Page] downe and mouing the hands. This recreatiō of the mind ought not to be daily nor oftē, & especially it must not be vsed at ye howres or time of study. Your witte being somewhat recrea­ted or confirmed, you must immedi­atly resort to yt study of your lerning leste tyme doe not peryshe, then the whiche nothinge is more precious or deare, and it must be brought to passe ye the time which is loste, maye he re­couered againe by earnest & dilligent study. For (as Philelphus saith). Philelphus▪

Beleue me, sure there is no playe,
more excellent and pure,
Or that more labour doth delaye,
and libertie procure:
Then wholly to addicte the mynde,
fayre vertues to attayne.
Fo [...]ve tue doth the diffrence fynde
betwene good thinges and vaynes
And doth also refreshe the spiryte
with ioyfulnes and reste,
Causing the same so to delyte
[...]hat therby it is bleste.

[Page] 20. Do not depart from your tea­chers before it besemeth or beho­ueth you. For many might become excellent men in scyence and know­ledge yf they were not ashamed to be scholers, before they be able to haue the iudgement and vnderstan­dyng of wisdome. Also it shal muche profite to teach others, to expounde, to declare, to aske, and toanswere: to doubt of some thyngsis good, so that it be not done wythout reason.

Finallye you shall recken that a­mongest the vnhappye dayes, in the which you haue not profited or lear­ned some thynge that myghte haue been yours or done you good.

So that (after the common saying)
No daye passe awaye without learnyng.

¶ Preceptes of remembraunce.

The firste precepte is, of the order and consequence of suche things as are to be remembred: for when we haue learned anye thynge orderlye [Page] being ioyned together with a certayn connexion and copulacion, thoughe we forget the same, yet the order be­inge repeated ouer, we shall easelye remember it againe: for the antece­dent being knowen, we shall easelye be brought into the consequent, and shall finde that which was loste. And therfore a certaine Philosopher saith right well. That suche thinges as be well set together in order, are easy to be remembred: but they that be yll, are difficultlye called againe into the Memorie. For we doe easely expresse or declare things that haue ben done when they be placed in the same or­der wherein they be donne: for looke what effycacye thinges that are done haue one towardes another: euen ye lyke haue they in mouinge and styr­ring vp the minde.

The second is, that when by one lyke thinge we be ledde into another lyke vnto the same, as yf we doe not [Page] remember Homere, let vs call to Memorie Homere. Virgill yt prince of Latin Poetes Virgill. whereby we shall come to the re­membraunce of Homere the Prynce of Greeke poetes.

The third is, that we do somtimes thincke vppon contraries: for he that wilbe mindefull of Hector, shall re­member Hector. also Achilles. Achilles.

The fourth is, the remembraūce of of yt place and time wherein yt thinge was done: for the place & the time doe [...]ely bringe the thinge to Memorie. There be also three seates of argu­ments, frō like, frō contraries, & from nere or betwene both.

The fifte is, to rehearse all thinges by their properties: as, if we wolde remember a fatte man, let vs consider Dionyfius, Siracusa­nus. Iustinus or thinke of Dionisius Siracusanus: who (as Iustinus is author) by fatnes loste hys eyes.

¶ The seuenth Chapter treateth in fewe wordes of locall or arti­ficiall Memorie.

ARtificiall Memorie is a dispo­syng or placing of sensible thin­ges in the mynde by imagina­tion, A diffinati­on of arti­ficiall Me­morie. wherevnto the natural Memo­rie hauing respect, is by them admo­nished that it maye be hable to call to mynde more easely and dissinctly such thynges as are to be remēbred: and (as Cicero saith in his seconde to Herennius) it consisteth or p [...] ­ces as it were of waxe or tables, and Clcero 2. to Herennius of Images as of fygures & letters. For so it commeth to passe that such thynges as we haue heard or lear­ned, we rehearse againe euen as though we read thē. Nor it skilleth not muche whether we beginne at the firste or at the laste. The places them selues must be set in order, for if there be a confusion in them, it fo­loweth of necessitie that all the rest [Page] must be disordered. And it behoueth also that there be manye places that manye thinges maye be placed by the same exercise and practise. Cice­ro Cicero. iudged that there shoulde be an hnndreth in number. Thomas A­quinas Thomas Aquinas. thought it good to haue me. For these places manye haue sear­ched by diuers & sundrye artes, Me­trodorus Metrodo­rus. founde oute thre hundred and sixe places of the .xii. signes in the whiche the Sunne goeth hys course: because the Astrologers doe deuide the Zodiarke into so manye degrees. Cicero inuented a certeine familiar house, seuered or parted in­to many places, & he thought it good that we shoulde deuise after euerye fyfte place either a golden hande or some other distinction, whereby the one might be discemed frō yt other, & also in thē to obserue a stedfast & vn­mouable order, yt we might alwaies entre in and go out at the right side. [Page] An other Authour not vnskūfull, fayned places by certaine lyuynge creatures and deriued their order out of the Latyne Alphabete, in such sorte that euerye one of their names shoulde beginne with some one of euerye letter: euen as yf these were the names: an Asse, a Beare, a Cat, a Dogge, an Elephante, a Foxe, a Goate, a Horse, a Iaye, a Kyte, a Lyon, a Mule, a Nightingale, an Oule, a Partrige, a Quaile, a Rab­bet, a Shepe, a Throstle, a Vnicorne Xistus the phisopher (who wrote of these) Hyena, Zacheus. He deui­ded all these into fyue places: into the head, into the forefeete, into the bealy, into the hinder feete and the tayle, for this order nature her selfe ministreth; neither can the witte be confounded in countinge or reken­nyng them. Hauynge thus gotten then an hundreth and fyftene places he graued in them the Images of [Page] thinges worthye of Memorie, and also he cōmaunded that many thinges shoulde be written by the mynde or witte in the face of him that spea­keth, in the heares, in the forehead, in the eyes, and so to descend downe­warde to the feete. But me thinketh it a very easye thing to deuise & ima­gine not onelye an hundreth but al­so infinite places, seinge no man is ignoraunt of the situation of the Ci­tie where he was borne, or in the whiche he hath long dwelled.

Therefore when the mynde entreth in at the gate, whiles it considereth the diuersitie of wayes, directinge and leadinge to diuers countreyes, and whyles it remembreth frendes houses, publike dwellynge places, Palaces or common places of Iud­gement, it shall fynde out a maruei­lous number of places. Hereto also it maye imagine greate courtes or places of larger roume, wherein it [Page] maye deuise as greate a number of places as it listeth, so that euerye thynge maye bee written therein that he wyll haue.

And because the teaching by exam­ples is briefe and effectuall: nowe wyll I put forthe some examples, to the ende that thereby the matter maye be the better perceyued. I will put forth an example of ten, and con­sequently by the proportion thereof shall bee deuised the example of a thousande.

And therefore I take or choose a great and emptie house, to the which you must not go often but feldome, and apoynte or set the fyrste place which is at the doore, three foote di­stant from the doore. Let the seconde place be twelue or fiftene foote de­stant from that, as for example, let there be one corner or angle.

Let the thyrde place be distant from the seconde euen as many, or twelue [Page] foote and there maye be perchaunce another corner, or a middest betwene the first and the seconde corner. The fourthe, shalbe a corner. The fyfte, shalbe a corner distante by asmuche. The sixte lykewyse: and the hall be­yng finished, you shall enter into one chamber, and immediatlye wythin the dore you shall note or appoynte the seuenth, and afterwardes in the firste corner of the chamber the eyght and in the seconde corner the nynthe, and in the thirde the tenthe wyth hys distaunce. And yf you will haue anye moe places, goe oute of the chamber, & so marke or note ye other chambers proporcionally.

But yet remember that the dystaunce whiche is geuen is mode­rate and conuenyent, but yf there be not founde soe greate a dystaunce, but a lesser euen vnto eyghte, or to lesse euen vnto fyue foote, yei shoulde it be tollerable. As con­cernynge [Page] the temple it oughte to be suche a one as must not be much fre­quented, especially of your self: to the ende that you be not confounded or troubled wyth the multytude of the fygures or Images. These places ought to be Memorable and remoueable with ones hād, for yt corners are not places, but fyxed Images sette and placed in the corners, vppon the which (euen as vpon paper) are pain­ted other figures, which maye be put out, euen as letters vpon paper: As for example, the first place is marked The righte waye to haue arti­ficiall Me­morie, is the collo­cation and dilligent obseruatiō of thinges. or knowē by an vrinall, in setting an vrinall in his place. The seconde by a salue bore, settinge there also a salue boxe. The iii. by a morter putting it there. The fourth by a pestill. The .v. by a payr of writīg tables. The vi. by a hares fote. The. 7. by a searcer. The 8. by a bag. The .ix. by a lofe of waxe. The x. by yt canes of caissa. And these names must be kept always in mind [Page] and yt places from .v. to .v. yt the qui­naries or fifte places may alwaies be had in Memorye. Of yt distance there is enough spokē. Yet note yt you may passe to .xxv. and not beyonde, leste there shuld chaunce a negatiō in the images. And be it spokē euē likewise of ye quantitie as thouching yt height, yt there be not many of a heighte, but frō v. euē vnto .xii. fote. And let euery fift place be marked, as it is saide of yt order. The quality also must be noted yt they be not to light nor to dark, nor to much frequēted. Let vs come to yt images which are yt things yt must be placed: yt images which be knowē vn to vs ought to be so set in these places with suche mouinges, that by them we maye call thinges to remem­braunce. For example, I woulde re­member twentye Names, I will doe thus: In the fyrste place I wyll sette the Image of Peter one whome I well knowe, wyth an [Page] vrynall full of water in his hand the whiche he shall powre vpon Iames one also well knowen vnto me: and so by this notable acte I shall re­membre these two & so place in my remembraunce these two names.

In the seconde place I wyll putte Henrye who is vnto me verye well knowen (for these fygures muste be exactly knowen that they may quic­kely come into ones Memorie) who shall put his hande into a boxe and pull out the salue and therewith all to besmyer Steuen one also whome I do verye well knowe.

In the thirde place I wil set Tho­mas, one whome I know also, who shall take out of the morter a plaster and shall putte it vppon Frauncis face: or by inuentynge some other madde iestes and toyes, whereby the Memorie maye be confirmed to beare awaye suche lyke names. And so in like maner procede wt the rest.

[Page] Likewise yf I woulde remembre anye man and also his acte, I wyll imagine him and the doing of hys acte: as, yf I woulde remembre one eating of Figges, then I wyll ima­gine that with a Figge he did some mery or straunge thing.

If you wyll remembre argumen­tes, you shall take the substaunce of the argument, and shall only place yt because the whole argument can not be placed, and so of other things after their place.

We wyll yet againe entreate of fygures by these fyue preceptes.

The firste is, that the fygure doe moue either to laughter, compassion or admiration: for one maye soone fynde a fygure that dothe styrre vp and moue the affection of the soule. An example hereof is this, yf I shoulde sette or place in the mouthe of a madde Asse the head of Anto­nye to bee almoste bitten in pieces, [Page] the bloude to gushe out of him, and that he asketh helpe, and holdinge vp his handes crieth out: for it can not be, but that when I would, I should see him with the eyes of my minde, & declare or expres Antony to him that should aske or enquire for him.

Another is, that we shoulde repre­sent either the like by the like, or by yt contrary, or els by the proprietie ther­of. An example of the firste is, as yf I were about to place the name of Ga­lene, I should write the name of som other excellente Phisition, whose authoritie (as nere as maye be) is ei­ther equall, or litle inferiour. An ex­ample of the second is, yf I write the same by the name of an vnlearned Phisition: yf I descrybe Thersites Thersites. Achilles. by Achilles, and the good for ye euyl: or the foule by the fayre. An ex­ample of the thyrde is, yf I re­present Ouidius Naso. Plato. Ouidius Naso, by a greate Nose: Plato by Large shoulders, [Page] Crispus by crysped or curled heares Cicero: Gelasinus. and Cicero by Gelasinus.

The thride is, that we accustome our selues to place things euen from oure verye youthe, and that we en­crease with daily ercercyse: althoughe that the teachinge thereof may helpe and prefyte euen theym also that be elder. The habite the perfectnes and dexteritie (I meane to practise these things) is much the more if they do so place al things which they shal either say or do & also what soeuer thei heare in communycation or talkinge. And they must lyke wise painte and graue the maners, gestures, and tymes: For in so doyng they shall in a shorte space be notablye well exercised. It profiteth also to playe one wyth an­other, and to goe about to excell hym that shall recyte many thinges, more clearelye, orderlye, and spede­lye then other.

[Page] The fourth is, that (in euerye qui­narie or fifte number of those things that are to be marked) we repeate a­gaine from the beginninge all suche thinges as are alreadye noted: for the repetition of thinges comonlye brin­geth great vtilitie and profit.

The fifte is, that we should repre­sent things compound with the simi­litude of simple things. As for exam­ple: he that will remember this sen­tence, Cicero contendethe with Hor­tensius, Cicero Horten­sius. shall Imagine the pease cal­led Cicer whiche complayneth of the barenes of the garden: for so doth Ci­cer resemble Cicero and the garden called Hortus doth represent Hortensius, and the complaint the contenti­on. And thus also may the chief poin­tes of the lawe be kept in mind, as yf we wold place this lawe to be had in Memorye, Publicati testamenti fides: the assurāce of a testamēt published: let vs imagine a writing in forme of [Page] a testament opened, vpon the whiche myre or dyrte hath been cast by some man, and so the assurance therfore is loste. Loe the assuraunce of the testa­ment ones published can not be read again. But these things shalbe more easely done yf there be learninge ad­ioyned hervnto, and the knowlege of thinges worthy of Memorie, and also perfecte and dailye exercise not wan­tinge, seying that exercise is hable to ouercome all things: so shall the phi­lition also remēber the rules of Phi­sick, and likewise ye Lawyer ye rules of the lawe with more facilitie.

The place therefore is like and is compared to ware or paper or tables (in the which of olde time many thin­ges were written): also the image or figure is likned to letters or writing: and the recityng of the names is com­pared to the readinge or recitinge of things being reade. The place is the parte seruing in stede of the Memory [Page] and receiueth thinges as the Memo­rie doeth, and it is multiplied by ha­uyng respect forward and backward to warde the right syde and towarde the left syde, vpwarde and downe­warde, by addynge somewhat or di­mishinge somewhat: and it is mul­tiplied by mesuring the longe, the o­uertwart, and the meane. The rule of the places briefly in order is thys also, that first there be an inuention of the places (whereof it is alreadye spoken) afterwardes an orderynge a meditation, a distaunce, a stedfast­nes, a solitarines, a meane light, a dissimilitude, a quantitie, a marking of the fifte places by a golden hande or of some other metall, and the va­rietie thereof, lest the simitude shuld cause a confusion. The images or fi­gures are simitudes of things con­ceyued in the mynde, or a proportion either wholly or partly lyke vnto the thing yt we wolde remēber, yea they [Page] be taken for yt thinges themselues yt are to be placed. And thei be in two kindes: to wit, either knowen or vn­knowen: of the notes or marks some be quicke, some dead: & aswell of the quicke as of yt dead some simple, and some compound. Again you shall not forget that in placing or setting of ye images or figures in their places the thing is alwaies to be placed wt a mery, a merueilous or cruel act, or some other vnaccustomed maner: for mery [...]uell, iniurious, merueilous, excel­lently faire, or excedīgly foule things do change & moue yt senses, & better styrre vp yt Memorie, when ye minde is much occupied about such things. also yt images ar varied by yt trāspositiō & trāsumptiō of ye letters: as if I wold remēbre nep, I shal place a pen Nep (an herbe so called.) & for a tiran, a rauenīg wolfe. It suffiseth therfore that we haue expressed a Methode or compendious waye, the which whosoeuer foloweth shall easly (so that exercise be not lacking) [Page] get and attayne the certaine and sure remembraunce, of many and sondry thinges as due occasion shal requyre: but as for the sluggishe and idle, let them slugge and slepe still, to whom all things are displeasing.

The Epilogue.

Last of all, in stede of an epilogue and as it weare a conclusion I will Erasmus Roteroda­mus. 3, booke Ec­cles. adde that whiche Erasmus Rotero­damus writeth in his. 3. booke of Ec­cles. To the power (saith he) of the n [...] ­tyue Memory being good of nature, must be ioyned intelligence, care, ex­ercise, and order, Phisitions also doe promise some ayde to the confirming of the Memory and to this agreeth, Marcilius Ficinus. But besydes Marcilius Ficinus. those thinges that we haue sayde, a perpetuall sobrietie of lyfe doth most of all helpe: for gluttonye and dronc­kennes, lyke as they doe dulle the witte, so doe they also vtterly ouer [Page] throwe & destroye the Memorie: also the varietie of cares, and yt heape of busynesses is hurtefull, the tumul­tuous readynge of diuers volumes or bookes is also noyous. I suppose this to bee the chiefe cause why age shoulde be forgetfull: because the power or strengthe of the mynde is ouerthrowen with the multitude of thynges. Also an imoderate bash­fulnes, the newnes or straunge­nes of Auditours, care and trouble of mynde doe annoye the Memorie: but bashefulnes and noultie are ouercome or remedyed by vse and custome.

Also great or carefull studye is like­wise hurtefull, in as muche as it is not without an earnest & gredye de­syre. In another place he sayeth thus. The best arte of the Memorie is, to vnderstande thynges throughly, and being vnderstanded to reduce them into order, & last of all to repeat often [Page] that which you woulde remember. Hitherto Erasmus. If therefore you wil haue an excellēt Memory of good Erasmus. things, you must take diligēt hede, ye you vnderstād ye perfect reasō of that you go about to lerne by hart, for reason is an vndissoluable bonde of the veritie and of the Memorie. For this cause possibly Plato sayd, that thing Plato. which is once wel vnderstanded, can neuer be altogether forgotten. Also those thinges are to be cōmitted to yt Memory which are not only profitable but also pleasaunt. For such nou­rishments as bring yt swetest tast, do the easelier passe & are cōuerted into our nature: & wt how much yt better appetite yt any thīg is takē, it remai­neth so much yt longer. Adde herevn­to that which Aristotle & Simonides thoughte good to be throughly obser­ued Aristotle. Simonides (to wit) yt there shoulde either be in déede a certain & sure order in tea­ching, or els at yt least excogitated & [Page] supposed. Order consisteth in a cer­taine proporcion and connexion. And if you take anye one thynge of those that are set in an exquisite & perfect order, the reste wyll followe forthe­with by a certayne necessarye con­tinuation eyther of Nature or of Arte. It is more ouer to bee obser­ued, that we doe meditate manye tymes those thinges that we haue learned: for so be the nourishemen­tes of the mynde digestid, and as it [...] eare tourned into the minde. It is verye good also to renewe and re­hearse verye often suche thinges as are committed to the Memory, with an elegant oration or a swete songe, as it is heretofore declared. For pleasure is the sauce of thinges, the foode of loue, the quickning of the wit, the nourisher of the affection, and the strength of the Memorye. The soule also must be purged frō euil things, that it maye be filled wt good things: [Page] And we must humbly desyre of God with a faithfull praier to graunt vs his spirite of wisedome and know­ledge for our Lorde Iesus Christes sake, to whome with the father & the holye Ghoste be all honour, laude and glorye, for euer and euer.


¶ Memorie sayeth.

To hym that would me gladly gaine?
These three preceptes shal not be vaine.
The fyrst is wel to vnderstand:
The thing that he doth take in hand.
The seconde is, the same to place:
In order good, and formed race.
The thyrde is, often to repeate:
The thing that he would not forgeate.
Adioynyng to, this Castell stronge:
Great vertue commes er it be longe.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.