A GVIDE TO GOE TO GOD: OR, AN EXPLANATION of the Perfect Patterne of Prayer, The LORDS PRAYER.

By WILLIAM GOVGE, B. in D. and Minister of Gods Word in Black-Friers LONDON.

ISA. 30. 21.
This is the way: walke in it.

AT LONDON, Printed by G. M. and R. B. for Edward Brewster, and are to be sold at his shop neere the great North dore of St. Pauls Church, at the signe of the Bible. 1626.

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE, RIGHT Worshipfull, and other my much respected Parishioners, Inhabitants in Blacke-Friers London, All needfull Prosperitie in this world, and eternall Felicitie in the World to come

I DESIRE (my much honoured and en­tirely beloued Parishioners) so long as the Lord of life shall preserue mee in the Land of the liuing, I desire to goe on in promoting your spiritual edification eue­ry way that I can, priuately, publikely, by prayer, by preaching, yea and by printing too. Behold here an eui­dence thereof. What priuately I first digested in mine owne meditation, and then publikely deliuered by word of mouth, whereof in the open Church you heard your children and seruants examined,Deus est nobis summum bonum. Ne (que) infra re­manendum nobis est, ne (que) vltra quarendum. Al­terum euim pe­riculesum, alte­rum nullum est. Aug. de Mor. Eccl. Cath. l. 1. c. 8 and for a blessing where­upon many prayers by vs all ioyntly and seuerally haue beene poured out before God, is now thorow Gods gra­cious prouidence so published as it may be reuiewed so oft as you please. Well accept it: for it is A GVIDE TO GOE TO GOD. God is the highest, and chiefest Good, below which we may not remaine, beyond which we cannot attaine. To place our rest in any thing before [Page] we come to God is dangerous.Oratione intra­mus coelestem il­lam curiam in qua Rex regum stellato sedet so­lio &c. Bern. Serm. de 4. modis Orand. Oratione praesen­tamus nos quasi saci [...] ad faciem cum Deo loquen­tes. Ibid. To attaine to any rest be­yond God is impossible. This therefore, is that proper place whether the soule well enlightened and rectified a­spireth, as all hot light things aspire to the high hot Re­gion. The meanes whereby wee men on earth haue ac­cesse to God in Heauen, is Prayer. By Prayer we enter in­to the Court where God sitteth in his Maiestie, and wee present out selues before him speaking vnto him as it were face to face. That therefore which instructeth vs to pray aright, directeth vs to God. This doth the Lords Prayer: And nothing can doe it better. For this end, To teach vs how to pray, it was first prescribed. It is not one­ly a most absolute prayer in it selfe, but also a perfect pat­terne for other prayers. And in this respect the only way wherein we can goe to God. Full of matter is this forme of Prayer, but few the words thereof. Such fulnesse of matter in so few words make it to many as the prophesie of Christ was to Candaces Eunuch, whereof he said (to him that moued this question, Vnderstandest thou what thou readest?) How can I except I had a guide? A guide therefore is needfull for many to direct them in this way to goe to God. Loe a Guide at hand. This Explanation of the Lords Prayer is offered to you for that purpose. But as a Guide that directeth a Traueller in his iourney to the Kings Court, maketh not the way better, but sheweth him how to order his trauell in that way: so this Guide, this Explanation, addeth nothing to the Perfection of the Prayer, but onely helpeth you in the vse thereof. The many particulars which minister iust matter of ardent supplication, hearty gratulation, deepe humiliation, and conscionable obseruation of our wayes, are in this Expla­nation distinctly set out. Thereby you may see how rich a Cabonet the Lords Prayer is: how full of most precious [Page] iewels, vsefull for the soule of man. The Excellencie of this forme of Prayer is set forth in the first Section of this Explanation. Whatsoeuer is therein performed is the fruit of my affected Retirednesse, and suspected Idlenesse in the countrey. So many, so continuall are my imploy­ments in the Citie, so many interruptions from my stu­dies day after day are there caused, as I neuer yet could find any leasure to set down distinctly such points as by Gods assistance were vttered out of the Pulpet. Whatso­euer hath hitherto been published by me, hath in my re­tiring time been prepared for the Presse. This benefit of a few weekes absence in the yeare from my charge (there being in that time a good supply made by my Reuerend Brethren) may gaine a sufficient dispensation with those that are not too supercilious; which I hope you, my Pa­rishioners, will not be. For I haue euer found such true loue, such good respect, such kinde vsage, such fauourable acceptance of all my paines in euery kinde, as I haue iust cause to blesse the diuine prouidence for bringing me to this place. The Lord God so blesse all my labours vnto you all, as we may haue al iust cause to blesse him one for another, and to continue mutually and heartily to pray one for another. Doe ye so: So will doe

Your carefull Pastor Church-Court in Black-Friers WILLIAM GOVGE.

OVR Father which art in Heauen, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy Kingdome come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heauen. Giue vs this day our dayly Bread. And for­giue vs our trespasses, as we forgiue them that trespasse against vs. And leade vs not into temptation: But deliuer vs from euill. For thine is the Kingdome, and the Power and the Glorie, for euer. Amen.

A Table of the seuerall and distinct points handled in this Explanation of the perfect Patterne of Prayer, as in order they follow one another.

  • §. 1. OF the Excellencie of the Lords Prayer. Page 1
  • 2. Of the seuerall branches of the Lords Prayer. 5
  • 3. Of the preparation to Prayer. 6
  • 4. Of the meanes to prepare vs to prayer. 7
  • 5. Of praying to God alone. 7
  • 6. Of Gods goodnesse and greatnesse ioyntly considered together. 8
  • 7. Of this title Father applyed to God. 10
  • 8. Of instructions wich the title Father applyed to God import. 11
  • 9. Of the prerogatiue of Gods children to speake to him face to face. 13
  • 10. Of their dutie who haue free accesse to God. 14
  • 11. Of the parties comprised vnder this particle (OVR.) 15
  • 12. Of applying Gods fatherhood to our selues. 16
  • 13. Of Gods impartiall respect to all his children and sufficiencie of blessing for all. 18
  • 14. Of their mutuall duties which say (Our Father.) 19
  • 15. Of the Saints participation of one a­nothers Prayers. 21
  • 16. Of Gods being in heauen. 22
  • 17. Of the direction which Gods being in heauen giueth vs for manner of pray­ing. 24
  • 18. Of the direction which Gods being in heauen giueth for the matter of Prayer. 28
  • §. 19. OF the manner of handling eue­rie Petition. 30
  • 20. Of the name of God and of the things comprised vnder it. 31
  • 21. Of Gods making knowne himselfe. 33
  • 22. Of Hallowing. 34
  • 23. Of the creatures hallowing the Crea­tor. 35
  • 24. Of the excellencie of holinesse. 35
  • 25. Of the extent of mans desire to haue Gods name hallowed. 36
  • [Page] 26. Of mans disabilitie to hallow Gods name. 36
  • 27. Of the force of this word (thy) in the first Petition. 37
  • 28. Of mans honouring God, because God honoureth him. 38
  • 29. Of Saints honouring God, because they are sonnes. 38
  • 30. Of preferring Gods honour before all other things. 39
  • 31. Of aiming at Gods honour in all things. 40
  • 31. Of the p [...]rticulars to bee prayed for vnder the first Petition. 41
  • 32. Of the particulars for which thankes is to bee giuen vnder the first Petition. 44
  • 33. Of the duties required by reason of the first Petition. 45
  • 34. Of the th [...]ngs to be bewailed in regard of the first Petition. 46
  • §. 35. OF Gods kingdome what it is and what be the kinds of it. 47
  • 36. Of Gods reigning ouer rebels. 48
  • 37. Of the kingdome of Grace and Glo­rie. 49
  • 38. Of the difference betwixt the king­dome of Grace. Glorie. 50
  • 39. Of the Churches gouernment. 51
  • 40. Of the encrease of the Church. 52
  • 41. Of the Churches imperfection. 52
  • 42. Of mans disabilitie to come vnto God. 54
  • 43. Of the force of this word (THY) in the second Petition. 54
  • 44. Of Gods power to make his kingdome come. 55
  • 45. Of the best meanes and fittest persons to hallow Gods Name. 55
  • 46. Of the spirituall blessings to be craued for the whole Militant Church. 56
  • 47. Of praying for the outward tem­porall estate of the Church. 59
  • 48. Of the extent of our prayer for the good of the Church after our time. 60
  • 49. Of praying against euils that annoy the Church. 61
  • 50. Of the things to be craued for parti­cular Churches that we know. 61
  • 51. Of praying for the Churches whereof in particular we are members. 62
  • 52. Of things to be desired for the Church Triumphant. 64
  • 53. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen by reason of the second Petition. 66
  • 54. Of the duties required vnder the se­cond Petition. 67
  • 55. Of the things to be bewailed vnder the second Petition. 68
  • §. 56. OF the will of God here meant and doing it. 71
  • 57. Of the extent of our desire to haue Gods will done. 73
  • 58. Of the rule of our obedience to Gods will. 73
  • 59. Of practising Gods will. 74
  • 60. Of mans disabilitie to doe Gods will. 75
  • [Page] 61. Of the force of this word (THY) in the third Petition. 75
  • 62. Of preferring Gods will before all o­thers. 76
  • 63. Of praying onely for men in earth. 77
  • 64. Of the meaning of this phrase (in heauen.) 77
  • 65. Of the manner of following a perfect patterne. 78
  • 66. Of the matter of Patience which the inhabitants of heauen haue. 79
  • 67. Of well doing go [...]d. 80
  • 68. Of propounding a perfect patterne be­fore vs. 81
  • 69. Of aiming at more then we can attaine to. 82
  • 70. Of the order of the third Petition. 83
  • 71. Of the honour done to God by doing his will. 84
  • 72. Of shewing our selues to be Gods sub­iects by doing his will. 84
  • 73. Of particulars which we are taught to pray for in the third Petition. 85
  • 74. Of the things to be prayed for in the di­rection of the third Petition. 89
  • 75. [...]f the distinct heads of the manner of doing Gods will in heauen. 89
  • 76. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen in the third Petition: and in the direction annexed to it. 91
  • 77. Of the duties to be obserued by reason of the third Petition. 92
  • 78. Of sinnes against Gods will reuealed by his word. 95
  • 99. Of sinnes against Gods will manife­sted by euents. 96
  • 80. Of sinnes against the manner of doing good. 97
  • §. 81. OF the meaning of the word (Bread.) 98
  • 82. Of the Arguments alledged for spirituall foode to be meant by (Bread) an­swered. 99
  • 83. Of praying for temporall blessings. 101
  • 84. Of mens right to the things of this world. 101
  • 85. Of sundry blessings arising from this particle (OVR.) 103
  • 86. Of the meaning of this word (Day­ly.) 104
  • 87. Of desiring no more then is needfull. 105
  • 88. Of couetousnesse, ambition, and volup­tuousnesse. 106
  • 89. Of Gods giuing temporall blessings. That he giueth them. How he giueth them. 106
  • 90. Of the instructions taught vs by asking bread of God. 108
  • 91. Of Gods free-giuing the things of this world. 108
  • 92. Of praying both for our selues and for others. 109
  • 93. Of praying for others outward well­fare. 110
  • 94. Of resting contented with our present state. 111
  • 95. Of seeking things which concerne our owne good as well as the glory of God. 112
  • 96. Of the principall end of this life 113
  • [Page] 97. Of plasing the Petition for temporall blessings before those for spirituall. 114
  • 98. Of rising from temporall to spirituall blessings. 115
  • 99. Of sundry particulars comprised vn­der the generall words of the fourth Petition. 116
  • 100. Of the extent of our Prayers for the temporall good of others. 117
  • 101. Of the things for which by vertue of the foruth Petition wee ought to giue thankes. 118
  • 102. Of the duties required by vertue of the fourth Petition. 120
  • 103. Of the sinnes whereof the fourth Pe­tition shewes men to be guiltie. 122
  • 104. Of neglecting the welfare of others, and of sundry branches of improuidence. 123
  • 105. Of carking too much for this world. 124.
  • §. 106. OF sinnes stiled debts and of the kinds of debts. 126
  • 107. Of Christs Actiue righteousnesse imputed to vs. 128
  • 108. Of mans subiection to sinne. 129
  • 109. Of falling into sinne daily. 131
  • 110. Of the difference betwixt Gods abso­lution, and mans apprehension thereof. 132
  • 111. Of Popish Indulgences for sinnes to come and shriuing in Lent. 133
  • 112. Of neglecting to seeke discharge of sinne till Easter, or till a day of visita­tion or death. 134
  • 113. Of the wofulnesse of the debt, of sinne. 135
  • 114. Of euery sinne being mortall, yet not equall. 136
  • 115. Of the distinction of veniall and mortall sinnes. 137
  • 116. Of duties to be obserued because eue­rie sinne is mortall. 141
  • 117. Of the many debts wherein we stand bound to Gods instice. 142
  • 118. Of the appropriation of sinne to our selues. 144
  • 119. Of Gods free and full discharge of mans debt. 145
  • 120. Of the concurrence of Gods mer­cie and iustice in the discharge of mans debt. 145
  • 121. Of mans disabilitie to discharge his debt. 147
  • 122. Of Popish satisfaction. 148
  • 123. Of Humiliation, and Abnegation. 150
  • 124. Of the remissiblenesse of sinne. 151
  • 125. Of Gods Prerogatiue in forgiuing sinne. 152
  • 126. Of Papists blaspheming in giuing men power to forgiue sinnes. 153
  • 127. Of confession of sinne to God and Man. 153
  • 128. Of confessing sinne to God, and see­king pardon of him. 155
  • 129. Of going to God for Pardon. 155
  • 130. Of Gods free and full discharge of sinne. 156
  • 131. Of Merit of Congruitie. 158
  • 132. Of Popish Satisfactions for sinnes remitted. 159
  • 133 Of the comfort that ariseth from Gods free and full discharge. 159
  • [Page] 134▪ Of praying for the pardon of our owne sinnes especially. 160
  • 135. Of praying for pardon of others sinnes. 161
  • 136. Of mans forgiuing another. 163
  • 137. Of speedy forgiuenesse. 169
  • 138. Of constant forgiuing. 171
  • 139. Of dealing with man as wee desire God should deale with vs. 172
  • 140. Of the seuerall kindes of debts whereby wee be come debtors to men 174
  • 141 Of making satisfaction for wrongs done to man. 175
  • 142. Of departing from our right. 177
  • 143. Of forgiuing all sorts of Debters. 178
  • 144. Of forgiuing our own debters. 180
  • 145. Of the force of this Particle (As) in the condition annexed to the Fift Petition. 181
  • 146. Of true and vnfained forgiuing one another. 183
  • 147. Of forgiuing one another freely. 184
  • 148. Of a full forgiuing one another. 186
  • 149. Of requiring proper debts. 188
  • 150. Of going to Law. 190
  • 151. Of Magistrates punishing wrong. 192
  • 152. Of imitating God in forgiuing wrongs. 193
  • 153. Of praying without reuenge, and of praying for reuenge. 196
  • 154. Of assurance which our forgiuing giueth of Gods forgiuing vs. 198
  • 155. Of reuenge which reuengefull per­sons bring upon themselves. 201
  • 156. Of deprecation against euill. 203
  • 157. Of taking care for our spirituall welfare. 206
  • 158. Of doubling our care for the good of our soules. 208
  • 159. Of blessings which pardon of sinne bringeth. 210
  • 160. Of the precedence of iustification before sanctification. 211
  • 161. Of graces to be prayed for in re­gard of the pardon of our sinnes. 213
  • 162. Of graces to bee prayed for in re­gard of the pardon of other sinnes. 215
  • 163. Of the graces which are to he prayed for by reason of the condition annexed to the Fift Petition. 216
  • 164. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen by vertue of the Fift Peti­tion. 218
  • 165. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen by vertue of the condition annexed to the Fift Petition. 220
  • 166. Of duties required in regard of desire of pardon of our owne sinnes and others. 221
  • 167. Of duties required by reason of our profession to forgiue others. 222
  • 168. Of that matter of humiliation which the Fift Petition affordeth. 223
  • §. 169. OF the summe and seuerall parts of the Sixt Peti­tion. 227
  • 170. Of Temptation and Tempters. 228
  • 171. Of the kinde of temptation here [Page] meant. 231
  • 172. Of mans subiection to temptation. 231
  • 173. Of leading into temptation. 233
  • 174. Of being in power of temptation. 233
  • 175. Of Gods leading into temptation. 233
  • 176. Of freeing God for being Author of sinne. 235
  • 177. Of mans disabilitie to resist temp­tation. 237
  • 178. Of Gods ouer-ruling power in temptation. 238
  • 179. Of the restraint of the power of Tempters. 239
  • 180. Of the extent of our desires for o­thers freedome from Temptation. 240
  • 181. Of that subiection wherein Saints are to temptation. 242
  • 182. Of the freenesse of mans will in sin. 143
  • 183. Of the extent of this word (Euill) 246
  • 184. Of Euill, the onely thing to bee prayed against. 247
  • 185. Of the respects wherein Sathan is stiled the (euill one.) 249
  • 186. Of the many wayes of deliuering from euill. 249
  • 187. Of that hope of recouerie which remaineth to them that fall. 250
  • 188. Of God the onely deliuerer. 251
  • 189. Of Sanctification accompanying Iustification. 253
  • 190 Of mens pronenesse to sinne after forgiuenesse. 255
  • 191. Of mans answering Gods mercy by dutie. 256
  • 192. Of anoiding temptations. 257
  • 193. Of calling on God for all things. 258
  • 194. Of generall points for which wee are taught to pray in the last Petition. 259
  • 195. Of the particulars for which wee are to pray by vertue of the first part of the last Petition. 260
  • 196. Of the particular for which wee are to pray by vertue of the se­cond part of the last Petition. 264
  • 197. Of the things for which we ought to giue thankes in the last Petition. 267
  • 198. Of the particulars for which thankes is to bee giuen by vertue of the first part of the last Petition. 268
  • 199. Of the particulars for which thankes is to be giuen by vertue of the last part of the last Petition. 269
  • 200. Of the duties required in the last Petition. 270
  • 201. Of duties required in the last Pe­tition in regard of others. 274
  • 202. Of the matter of humiliation ga­thered out of the last Petition. 276
  • §. 203. OF pressing Prayer with weighty Reasons. 281
  • 264. Of taking grounds for faith in Prayer from God himselfe. 282
  • [Page]§. 205. OF appropriati [...]g▪ Gods At­tributes to himselfe. 285
  • 206. Of Gods hauing all things at his command. 286
  • 207. Of the absolute Supremacie of Gods Soueraigntie. 286
  • 208. Of Gods being King onely. 287
  • 209. Of the duties due to God by reason of his Kingdome and comfort thence arising. 288
  • 210. Of Gods power what it is. How farre it extendeth. 289
  • 211. Of the difference betwixt Gods ab­solute and actuall power. 291
  • 212. How power is proper to God. 292
  • 213. Of the Duties due to God by rea­son of his power. 293
  • 214. Of the comfort arising from Gods power. 294
  • 215. Of Gods glory. What it is. 295
  • 216. Of the incomprehensiblenesse of Gods glory. 295
  • 217. Of the meanes of manifesting Gods glory. 296
  • 218. How glory is proper to God. 297
  • 219. Of mans giuing glory to God, and taking glory from God. 298
  • 220. Of duties due to God by reason of his glory. 299
  • 221. Of the wayes whereby others are brought to glorifie God. 301
  • 222. Of those who are to set forth Gods glory. 302
  • 223. Of the chiefest enemies of Gods glory. 303
  • 224. Of Eternitie, to what things it is applyed. 303
  • 225. Of the duties which arise from Gods Eternitie. 307
  • 226. Of immutabilitie: to what thing it may be applyed. 308
  • 227. Of the differences betwixt the Im­mutabilitie of the Creator and Crea­tures. 311
  • 228. Of the duties which arise from Gods Immutabilitie. 312
  • 229. Of Gods Kingdome. How it wor­keth confidence in Prayer. 313
  • 230. Of Gods power. How it strengthe­neth faith in Prayer. 314
  • 231. Of Gods glory. How it setteth the soule for obtaining her desire. 315
  • 232. Of Gods vnchangeable Eternitie. How it maketh vs rest on God for obtaining our desire. 316
  • 233. Of the speciall relation which the seuerall Petitions haue to Gods Kingdome. 317
  • 234. Of the speciall relation which the seuerall Petitions haue to Gods power. 318
  • 235. Of the speciall relation which the seuerall Petitions haue to Gods glory. 319
  • 236. Of the speciall relation which the seuerall Petitions haue to Gods vn­changeable Eternitie. 320
  • 237. Of the necessarie vse of this clause, Thine is the Kingdome, and the power, and the glory for euer. 321
  • [Page]§. 238. OF adding Praise to Peti­tion. 324
  • 239. Of praising God. How it is done, 326
  • 240. Of the things for which God is to be praised. 327
  • §. 241. OF the meaning and vse of Amen being prefixed be­fore a Speech. 330
  • 242. Of the vse of Amen being added to a speech. 331
  • 243. Of the duties which Amen added to a speech imply. 334
  • 244. Of the ground of faith whereby we may expect the obtaining of what wee pray for. 337
  • 245, Of setting Amen in the last place. 339


§. 1. Of the Excellencie of the Lords Prayer.

THose two things which are of greatest weight to commend vnto our diligent consideration, the reading or hearing of any thing, do after an especiall manner commend the Lords Prayers: The Au­thor and the Worke it selfe.

Two things in an Author make his worke to be esteemed

  • 1. Eminencie of place.
  • 2. Excellencie of parts.

The worke of a King is honoured, because it is the worke of a King, euen for his place sake.

The worke of a great Scholer is admired for his learning sake, though in his estate he be neuer so meane.

Two things also in the Matter or worke it selfe do com­mend it

  • 1. The perfection of it.
  • 2. The profit that may be got by it.

If an Art be accuratly handled, and so perfectly set out, as nothing can be found defectiue, and yet no superfluous redun­dancie therein, euery good Student will be sure to haue it, and will diligently studie it. Or if a worke that may bring much [Page 2] profit to such as carefully vse it, be published, hee will be thought carelesse of his owne good that vseth it not.

When all these meet together, an excellent Author and a worthie Worke: an Author to respected for eminencie of per­son, and excellencie of parts: a worke to be regarded for the abso­lute perfection of it in it selfe, and for the necessitie and vtilitie of it to vs, they are as a fourefold twisted cord, to draw our minds thereto, and to binde them thereon.

Such an Author is the indighter of this Prayer,The excellency of the Lords Prayer. and such a Worke is the Prayer it selfe. This title, The Lords Prayer, im­plyeth as much. The Lord is the Author. Prayer the Worke.

By the Lord is ment that one Lord Iesus Christ, 1. The Author of it. by whom are all things, 2. Cor. 8. 6. and we by him. The eminencie of whose person is such, as he hath a name giuen him aboue euerie name. Phil. 2. 9. No Monarch on earth, no Angell in heauen to be compared vnto him.

In regard of the excellencie of his gifts,Ioh. 3. 34. God gaue him not the Spirit by measure: for it pleased the Father that in him all fulnesse should dwell. Colos. 1. 19. For he is the onely begotten Sonne that is in the bosome of the Father, Iohn 1. 18. and knoweth what is the will of the Father, what most pleasing and acceptable to him; and what suites he is wil­ling to grant vnto his children. God would haue many things to be spoken and heard by the Prophets his seruants,Multa per Pro­phetas seruos suos dici Deus voluit & audiri: sed quanto maiora sunt qua filius loquitur? Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 1. but how much greater are the things which his Sonne vttereth?

For the Worke none so heauenly, none so profitable as Prayer, And among Prayers none to be compared vnto this, whether we consider the Matter contained in it, or the Manner of set­ting it downe.

The Matter is euery way sound,2. The Matter of it. compleat, and perfect. Euery word in it hath its weight. There is not one superfluous word in it that could be spared. Nor is it any way defectiue. What­soeuer is lawfull, needfull, and meete to be asked in Prayer is therein contained: yea whatsoeuer is to be belieued or practi­sed by a Christian is therein implyed.Nihil omnino praetermissum est quod non in pre­cibus nostris coe­lestis doctrina compendio com­prehenditur. Cypr. loc. cit. §. 5. No particle of any good Prayer commended in the Scripture, or at any time by any per­son well conceiued, but may be found couched in this. In this forme are comprised all the distinct kinds of Prayer: as Request for good things, Deprecation against euill, Intercession for others, and Thanksgiuing.

[Page 3] The Manner of setting downe the things contained in this Prayer is answerable to the Matter. 3. The manner of expressing it. By it we are taught how to begin Prayer, in what order to set euery Petition that wee make, and how to conclude our Prayer.

The order therein is as admirable as any other point.4. The order obserued in it. Though the things comprised in it are innumerable, yet are they all couched vnder so few words, as they may easily bee remem­bred.

In a word,The perfection of it. nothing any way pertinent vnto Prayer is omit­ted in this forme: and nothing is set downe therein which is not pertinent vnto Prayer. It may therefore be fitly stiled a Catho­licall, and a Canonicall Prayer. Catholicall, in that it compriseth the substance of all warrantable Prayers in it. Canonicall, in that it is the Canon or Rule to square and frame all prayers by it.

Is not this then a fit subiect for the greatest that be,Too much paines cannot be taken about it. in dig­nitie, in learning, in iudgement, in wit, or any other excellency to exercise their meditation thereon? Can too much paines be taken to open and discouer the rich treasure contained therein?

Are not they vngratefull to the Author of it, and iniurious to themselues, who lightly esteeme it?

What may we thinke of Papists that suffer not the vulgar people to learne it in their owne mother tongue?Papists abuse it. Indeed they suffer, yea and enioyne them to tumble it vp and downe, and to mumble it againe and againe, as it were by tale vpon their beads in an vnknowne tongue, whereby they make it a matter of meere babling.

What also may we thinke of Anabaptists and such like Schis­matickes as forbid people to vse it at all?Anabaptists vse it not. Of all prayers this without all contradiction is the most perfect, so as if any forme at all may be vsed, then this most of all.

Obiect. 1. Argument of Anabaptists. It is so profound and deepe as it is impossible for a­nie to fathome the depth of it.

Answ. It will not thence follow, that it is not to be vsed at all. Many of those Petitions which Christians in their owne forme of Prayer do make, imply more matter, then in the time of vttering them they are able to conceiue. Who can compre­hend the infinitenesse of Gods glorie? May we not therefore [Page 4] pray as Christ did,Iohn 12. 28. Father glorifie thy name? Who can vnderstand his faults? Psal. 19. 12. Shall not a sinner therefore aske pardon for all his sinnes?

Who can in the time that Amen may be vttered, thinke of euery particular point, that in a long Prayer hath bene mentio­ned by way of Petition or Thanksgiuing? May not therefore Amen be said at the end of our owne or anothers Prayer, if it haue bene long?

Assuredly, a generall apprehension of more particulars then can be distinctly conceiued at once, is acceptable to God: or else many approued Prayers recorded in Scripture were not ac­ceptable. No man can in particular expresse all things that are needfull and meete to be mentioned in Prayer: it is therefore very requisite that after we haue particularly and expresly men­tioned in our Prayer, such things as we conceiue to be most needfull and behoouefull, we should vse some such generall words and phrases, as may include all other needfull and be­hoouefull things. In which respect the common custome of concluding our owne Prayers, with this perfect forme of Prayer prescribed by the Lord, is very commendable.

2.2. Argument of Anabaptists. Obiect. This clause (After this manner pray yee) implyeth rather a plat-forme to frame other Prayers by it,Math. 6. 9. [...]. then an ex­presse forme to be vsed word for word.

Answ. That phrase may imply as well the very forme pre­scribed as a like forme. But Luke vseth a phrase which putteth this doubt out of doubt.Luke 11. 2. [...]. It is this, When ye pray, say. What should they say? Euen the words following: Our Father which art in heauen, &c.

Quest. Other formes of Prayer may be vsed. What need any other forme of Prayer be vsed, seeing this is so absolutly perfect?

Answ. To shew that we take a particular and distinct notice of the things which we pray for. On which ground both Christ himselfe, and the Apostles also, to whom this forme in speciall was prescribed, vsed other formes which are expressed in the Scripture.

By comparing these two forenamed places of the two Euan­gelists together,Math. 6. 9. we may well gather that both this very forme may be vsed:Luke 11. 2. and that other forme also may be framed answe­rable to this.

[Page 5] Behold,Gods goodnes in teaching vs to pray. here the goodnesse of God, who is not onely readie to heare vs in his Sonne, but also by his Sonne hath taught vs how to call vpon him Doth hee no [...] herein shew himselfe a Fa­ther indeed?Quanto effi [...]a­cius impetramus quod pe [...]mus in Christi nomine, [...]i petamus [...]psius orat [...]one? Cypr. de ora [...]. Dom. §. 1 Is not this a great motiue to prouoke vs with bold­nesse to goe to the Throne of Grace? How much more ef­fectually may we obtaine what we aske in Christs name, if wee aske it in his forme of Prayer?

That wee may be the better directed, and the more encoura­ged to call vpon God, and that by this excellent forme here pre­scribed, we will distinctly consider the seuerall branches thereof.

§. 2. Of the seuerall branches of the Lords Prayer.

THE Lords Prayer being (as wee haue heard) a most per­fect patterne of Prayer,The summe and parts. it containeth both the Circum­stances appertaining to Prayer, and also the very Substance of Prayer.

The Circumstances are two. One precedent, which is the Preparation thereto, in the Preface. The other subsequent, which is the Ratification thereof, in the last Particle Amen.

The Substance of the Prayer consisteth of two parts.

1. Petition.

2. Thanksgiuing.S. August. sometimes and some other anci­ent Writers, and most of the Papists, and some of our later Dimnes deuide the Lords Prayer into seuen Pe­titions: making two Petitions of the two clauses in the last Pe­tition. But the vsuall diui­sion of it into twice three, is the most natu­rel, & it is obserued by Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, Cyril, Chry­so [...]tame, Bernard, and other ancient Fathers, who though they doe not expresse any distinct number of Petitions, yet they so handle them, as the number of six [...] may easily be thence gathe­red. For they make but one Petition of these words, Leade vs not into temptation, but deliuer vs from euill. The moderne Orthodox Expositors of Scripture, doe most of them ex­pressely set downe the distinct number of sixe Petitions. * As for that argument which is ta­ken from the correspon­dencie of the number of Petitions to the seuen graces of the Spirit, it is but an idle conceit. For there are many more graces of the Spirit then seuen. Of the diuiision of the last Petition out of which they raise the se­uenth▪ See §. 269.

The Petitions are sixe in number:Aug. in Enchir. cap. 115. & in [...]b 2 de Serm Dom. in monte lib. 2. all which may be reduced vnto two heads. 1. Gods glory: 2. Mans good.

The three first Petitions aime at Gods glory: as this Particle THY, hauing relation to God, sheweth.Tertul. contr. Marc. lib. 4. Et de sug. in pers. Cy [...]il. Hier [...]s. catech▪ mis [...]. 5. Cyp [...] Orat. Dom. Ambr. de Sacram. l. 5. c. 4. Ch [...]y [...]. in Mat. 6. Hom. 20.

The three last Petitions aime at Mans good: as these Particles, OVR, VS, hauing relation to man, imply.

Of those Petitions which aime at God [...] glory: The first desireth the thing it selfe: the second, the meanes of effecting it: the third, the manifestation of it.

Of those that aime at Mans good, Bern. in Quadr. serm. 6. the first desireth his temporall good: the two last his [Page 6] spirituall good,Caluin. Instit. l. 3. c. 20. §. 35. and that in his Iustification and Sanctification.

In the forme of Praise three things are ac­knowledged:Vrsia. Expli [...]. Catech. par. 3.

1. Gods Soueraigntie,Daneaes de Oaat. Dom. c. 9. Thine is the King­dome.

2. Gods Omnipotencie,Musc. Comme [...]t. in Mat. 6. and Power.

3. Gods Excellencie,Gual. Hom. 88. in Mat. Piscat. Anal. Euang. Mat. Alijque Com­ment▪ in Mat. 6. & Expos. Orat. Dom. and Glory.

All these are amplified by the perpetuitie of them, for euer: which noteth our Gods E­ternitie.

These are the seuerall parts and branches of the Lords Prayer, which with the Lords helpe shal be more particularly opened, and that by way of question and answer for the better per­spicuitie.Omni [...]o con­gruit vt tot sint Petitiones Domi­nicae orationis quot sunt dona Spiritus S. Bella [...]. de bon. oper. l. 1. c. 5.

§. Of preparation to Prayer.

Q. VVHat is first to be considered in the Lords Prayer?

A. The preface prefixed before it, in these words, Our Father which are in heauen.

Q. What generall instruction thence ariseth?

A. Preparation is needfull vnto Prayer. For this Preface is purposely prefixed to fit and prepare our hearts to Prayer. To this very purpose tendeth this direction of the wise man, Bee not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart bee hasty to vtter any thing before God. Eccles. 5. 2. He there rendereth a weighty reason there­of, taken from Gods Eminencie, God is in heauen, a most high and glorious God. Men doe not rashly enter into the presence of a King on earth. They will,Gen. 41. 14. as Ioseph did, change their rai­ment: yea they will thinke before hand both of the matter which they intend to moue, and also of the manner of propoun­ding their suite. Should wee not much more come preparedly into the presence of the King of Kings?

To the Eminencie of his Person before whom we come,1. Tim 6. 15. I may [Page 7] well adde the Excellencie of the worke which is done. No other worke is more excellent then prayer. If preparation be requi­site vnto any worke, then most of all vnto Prayer.

§. 4. Of the meanes to prepare vs to Prayer.

Quest. HOw doth this Preface teach vs to prepare our selues to Prayer?

Answ. By describing and setting forth God.

Quest. What is thence taught vs?

Answ. His person on whom wee call to be d [...]ly con­sidered. A due consideration of his person to whom we pray is an especiall meanes to prepare vs vnto Prayer. They who duely weigh the Maiestie of a king aboue other men, will with better re­spect approach his presence. I finde it vsuall with the Saints, whose prayers are recorded in the Scripture, to be ample in set­ting forth the glorious properties of God in the beginning of their prayers, for which purpose note the prayers of1 King. 8. 23. Salomon, 2. Chron. 20. 6 Iehosaphat, 2. King. 19. 6. Hezekias, Ier. 32. 17. Ieremiah, Dan. 9. 4. Daniel, Nehe. 1. 5. Nehemiah Math. 11. 25. Christ, and theActs 4. 24. Apostles.

Meditation hereof is an especiall meanes to thrust out of the heart all bye and base thoughts, and to make the soule soare a loft, and flie vp euen into heauen; yea when a mans Spirit is dull, it will exceedingly quicken it, to call to minde Gods ex­cellent attributs and great workes, and to ponder them seri­ously.

The neglect hereof is one cause of that little deuotion which is in many mens hearts,Qui accedit ad deum per oratio­nem, non perpen­sa apud animum sublimitate po­tentiae ad quam accedit, turpibus & sordidis peti­tionibus maie­statem dedecorat imprudens, Greg. Nyss. ds Orat. while they are praying vnto God. Yea he that cometh to God in Prayer, and doth not duely weigh that surpassing excellencie before which he approacheth, doth vnawares dishonour the diuine Maiestie with vnme [...]te and vn­seemely suites.

§. 5. Of Praying to God alone.

Quest. TO whom may that description noted in the Preface of the Lords Prayer be applyed?

[Page 8] Answ. To God, and to God alone. None else can be called Our Father in heauen.

Quest. What learne we thence?

Answ. God onely is to be prayed vnto. See more of this point in [...]he whole armour of God, concerning Prayer. Treat. 3. §. 5. This Prayer is in that point defectiue, if any Saint, Angel, or other creature be to be called vpon. Good warrant wee haue both from light of Gods word, and also from light of nature to call vpon God: but no good warrant any way, to call vpon any other.

§. 6. Of Gods godnesse and greatnesse iointly considered together.

Q. HOw is God described in the foresaid Preface?

A. By his goodnesse, and by his greatnesse.

Q. What is thence inferred?

A. Gods goodnesse and greatnesse are both to be thought on when we pray to God. Reade the Prefaces of the Prayers before quo­ted §. 4. and of other like Prayers in Scripture, and ye shall find those two properties of old vsually ioyned together. The hea­then by the light of nature obserued these two to be the most principall attributs of God, and thereupon stiled him Optimus Maximus. The one of these sheweth how ready God is to heare: the other how able he is to helpe: so as these are two strong pillars to support our faith.

A due consideration of them both together,Mixture of faith and feare. is an especiall meanes to preserue in vs a blessed mixture of Confidence and Reuerence: both which are necessarie, because the place before which we present our selues in Prayer is a throne, at the foot­stoole whereof we must with all reuerence fall: and a throne of Grace, to which with all confidence we must approach. And thus shall we be kept in the golden meane, betwixt two dange­rous extremes, the gulfe of despaire, and the rocke of presump­tion: by either of which Prayer is made altogether, fruitlesse. For God turneth not to the doubting mind, Iames 1. 6, 7. and turneth from the proud heart: Iam. 4. 6. so as both must needs returne emptie from God.Iohn 5. 10. And no maruell: for he that beleeueth not maketh God a lyar: Psal. 10. 4. and the proud thinketh there is no God.

[Page 9] Learne therefore by the forenamed meditation on Gods Goodnesse and Greatnesse to preserue this soueraigne tempera­ture of faith and feare.Gods goodnes set before his greatnesse. On Gods goodnesse first let the eye of thy meditation be fixed. For Christ teacheth vs to say, Our Fa­ther, before he putteth vs in mind of Gods glorious place in hea­uen, which order he obserued when he himselfe prayed, saying, Father, Math. 11. 25. Lord of heauen and earth: In this order the Apostle stiles him,Ephes. 1. 17. The God of our Lord Iesus Christ, and Father of glorie.

I denie not but that there may be good vse of setting Gods greatnesse before vs, and that it may in Prayer be first expressed, as it is in the Prayers of Daniel, Dan. 9. 4. Nehemiah, and other Saints: but it must be by such as haue a stedfast faith in Gods goodnesse: Nehe. 1. 5. and at that time also must Gods goodnesse be in their mindes, as it was in Daniels: for so soone as he had said, O Lord God, great and fearefull, he immediatly addeth, which keepest couenant and mercie, &c. The brightnesse of Gods greatnesse would vt­terly dazell the eye of man, if first, immediatly, and onely it should be fixed thereon.

This direction is of singular vse to vs, base, sinfull, wretched creatures, who cannot but be astonished at the thought of Gods greatnesse, power, iustice, iealousie, and other like at­tributes.

Hitherto of such generall instructions as the Preface of the Lords Prayer teacheth. The particular branches shall in order be handled. The first whereof, concerneth Gods goodnesse in this clause (OVR FATHER) wherein we are to consider First, the relatiue title giuen to God (FATHER) Secondly, the cor­relatiue particle (OVR) whereby a particular application of that generall relation is made. In handling the title, we will declare: First the thing it selfe here attributed to God, which is PATERNITIE or FATHERHOOD. Secondly, the manner of expressing it in the vocatiue case, and second per­son: as if more fully it had bene thus said, O THOV OVR FATHER.

§. 7. Of this title Father applyed to God.

Q. Father a title proper to God. IS this title Father proper to God?

A. Yea, most properly it appertaineth to him. For it is the true and proper title of him that giueth a being to that whereof he is called a Father. They therefore among men that vnder God are instruments of the being of others, who bring children forth into this world, are most vsually called Fathers. But it is God onely that doth truly and properly giue a being to things:Math. 23. 9. whereupon Christ saith of him, There is but one your Father, 1. Cor. 8. 6. which is in heauen: and the Apostle to like purpose, There is but one God, Ephes. 4. 6. the Father: and among other vnities hee reckons this, One God and Father.

Now God is stiled Father both in relation to his Sonne the second person in Trinitie,Whose father God is. and also in relation to his creatures. In the former respect it can be applyed onely to the first person in Trinitie,Iohn 3. 16. whose onely begotten Sonne the second person is: and that by reason of his eternall generation, Prou. 8. 24, 25. and of the hypostaticall vnion of his two natures in one person.Luke 1▪ 35. In the latter respect it may be applyed to all the three persons in Trinitie.Iohn 1. 14. For not onely the first, Math. 28. 19. but the second person also is expresly called Fa­ther: and we are said to be borne of the Spirit, Isa. 9. 6. which is a worke of paternitie. Iohn 3. 5. All the three persons then are included vnder this title Father: And Prayer may be made to them all ioyntly as one in substance, and to any of them expresly by name, yet so, as when one onely is named neither of the other be excluded. For the Father is alwayes to be called vpon in the name of the Sonne by the assistance of the Spirit.Rom. 8. 26. Else we know not what to pray as we ought.

This one God distinguished into three persons,Iob 38. 28. is said to be the Father of his creatures, first generally, as he hath giuen a be­ing to them all: secondly specially as he hath set his image on some of them aboue others.

His Image is set on his creature two wayes.

1. By that excellencie wherein he created them.

2. By renewing an excellencie in some of them after their fall.

[Page 11] By reason of that primarie excellencie,Luke 3. 38. Adam and Angels are stiled sonnes of God:Iob 1. 6. for in regard of those diuine quali­ties, and that glorious estate wherewith he adorned them a­boue other creatures at the beginning, they are said to be made after the Image of God.

The Image of God, which is a kind of diuine excellencie, is renewed onely in some of the sonnes of men: and that in a ciuill and spiritu [...]ll respect.

In a ciuill respect, as they haue dignitie and dominion giuen to them ouer others: as all Magistrates & Gouernours, in whom there is a resemblance of Gods Soueraigntie: in which respect they beare Gods Image,Psal. 82. 6. and are stiled Gods, and Sonnes of the most High.

In a spirituall respect, Rom. 8. 15, 16. as God through his grace hath adopted some to be his sonnes: and by his Spirit begotten them anew.Ioh. 1. 12, 13.

Though out of the fatherhood of God here meant, that rela­tion which the first person in Trinitie hath to the second, may not be excluded (for they who apprehend not God to be a Fa­ther of Iesus Christ, cannot in faith, and with comfort call vpon him) yet it hath especiall relation to his creatures, who say, Our Father, and among them to sonnes of men since their fall, who say,Deum patrem esse voce propria consitentes de conditione serui­ [...] in adoptionem fi [...]io [...]u [...] nos pro­fitemur ascitos. Forgiue vs our trespasses: and among the sonnes of men to such as are adopted of God, and borne anew after his Image, who onely in truth say to God, Hallowed be thy name, &c. Thus we who with our owne voyce confesse God to be our Father, do professe our selues to be taken from seruile condition into the adoption of sonnes.

Many other more magnificent titles might haue bene attri­buted to God, [...]. Isa. de Orat. Cap. 18. but none more pertinent to Prayer then this ti­tle Father, Christ therefore vsually in hisMath. 11. 25. Iohn 12. 27. Iohn 17. 1. Math 26▪ 39. Luke 23. 34, 46. Prayer vsed it.

§. 8. Of the instructions which the title, Father, applied to God import.

Q. VVHat instructions may be gathered from this title Fa­ther, applyed to God in Prayer?

A. 1. God is to be called vpon in the mediation of Christ. In [Page 12] Christ onely is God a Father:Galat 4. 4. and in Christ onely are we adop­ted, and borne againe.1. Pet. 1. 3. Out of Christ God is a terrible Iudge, and a consuming fire▪ This title therefore includeth Christ, and faith in him.1. Pet. 1. 3. Thus Saint Peter first had an eye to Gods father­hood in relation to Christ his onely begotten Sonne, and then in relation to the Saints his adopted sonnes.

2. They onely haue this priuiledge to approach by Prayer into Gods presence, who can in truth call him Father: which none can do but they that beleeue in Christ. For as many as receiued him, to them he gaue power to become the Sonnes of God, euen to them that beleeue in his Name. Ioh [...] 1. 12. To them onely will God reach out his golden Scepter of Grace,Ester 5. 2. as Ahashuerosh did to Hester. 1▪ Cor. 1. 2. They therefore by a kind of propertie are said to call vpon God. Acts 9. 14.

3. Prayer must be made in confidence of Gods fatherly loue. Attolle [...]culos ad patrem, qui te per lauacrum genuit, qui te per filium rede­mit, & dic Pater noster. Aug. in Serm. 28 de verb. Dom. How shall they else call him Father? Gal. 4. 6. Because ye are sonnes (saith the Apostle) God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Sonne into your hearts crying Abba Father. Now the ground of this confidence resteth onely in Gods Fatherhood. For here are no other motiues, ei­ther from our selues or from others. ButMath. 7. 11. Paternitie promiseth all blessings.

4. There is ground of returning to God after we haue gone from him. For a father is readie againe and againe to receiue.Luk. 15. 18. &c. I will rise and go to my FATHER, saith the Prodigall: and when that Father saw his sonne yet a great way off, he had compassion. After that Dauid had iustly banished his sonne Absolom, 2. Sam. 13. 39. he longed to goe forth vnto him. As Fatherhood promiseth all blessings, so all forbearance. It maketh one readie to giue, and forgiue. A fa­thers loue is of all others most constant and immutable.Psal. 103. 13▪ Though he be prouoked to correct,Heb. 12. 5, 6. yet will he not forget to loue.

5. There is sufficient encouragement against euery thing, 1. King. 19. 12. 13. that may any way dishearten vs from approaching into Gods presence: whe­ther it be excellencie in God, or infirmitie in our selues. A father will lay aside in his childes presence,Quando patrem deum dicimu [...], quasi filij Dci a­gere debemus. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 8. whatsoeuer may dishear­ten him.

6. They who call on God must beare a child-like affection to him. For they who with their lips call God Father, and in their hearts respect him not as a Father, do apparently mocke him. [Page 13] On this ground saith God to his people:Mal. 1. 6. If I be a Father where is mine honour? 1 Pet. 1. 17. and Saint Peter, If ye call him him Father, passe the time of your soiourning here in feare. Quum praeceperi [...] vt in oratione patrem tu [...]m dica [...], nihil aliud quàm per diuinum vitae institutum. te coe­lesti patri si [...] ­lem esse iubet. Greg. Nys. lib. de Orat. This child-like affection will prouoke vs to seeke both his fauour and his honour: how to be accepted of him, and how to please him. This answerable disposition is a maine end of the relation betwixt God and vs. And when he commandeth thee in prayer to call him Father, this he willeth thee, that by a diuine course of life thou shoul­dest be like thy Father.

Thus much of the title Father. The manner of expressing it fol­loweth, in the vocatiue case and second person.

§. 9. Of the prerogatiue of Gods children to speake vnto him face to face.

Q. VVHat doth the manner of expressing this title Father, in the vocatiue case and second person import?

  • A. 1. A dignitie of Gods children.
  • 2. A dutie of Gods children.

Q. What is that dignitie?

A. Such a familiaritie with God, as face to face to speake to him. For this title, Father, is so set downe as directed to God himselfe in his owne presence. Dauid doth excellently set forth this priuiledge,Psal. 38. 9. where he saith, Lord I powre my whole desire be­fore thee. All haue not this libertie: as an euidence where of they haue not abilitie thus to come into Gods presence, They vpon whom God powreth the Spirit of grace, Zach. 12. 10. he powreth also the Spirit of supplication: but vpon no other. It is therefore a gift ap­propriated to the Saints, to call vpon God in faith: by whichActs 9. 14. stile they are described. Others may vse this word,1. Cor. 1. 2. and with their lips say to God,2. Tim. 2. 19. ô Father: but their supposed prayers are but meere iip-labour. At the best their inward desires are but wishes. Now there is a great difference betwixt wishing and praying. Differences be­twixt wishing and praying. A wish may intimate some sence of that which a man wants, and some desire of hauing it: but small care in vsing the meanes to get it, and lesse faith in obtaining it. But the faithfull prayers of the Saints argue Sence, Desire, Care, Faith and all. Balaam [Page 14] could with and say,Num. 23. 10. Let me die the death of the righteous. Like to whom were they that said,Psal. 4. 6. Who will shew vs any good? But Dauid goeth directly to God, and thus expresly prayeth to him, LORD life thou vp the light of thy countenance vpon vs. We know that any man may in any place wish and say, I would the King would grant me this or that sute: but at all times to haue a free accesse to the Kings presence, and to say vnto him, O my Leige I beseech thee grant me this sute, is a great priuiledge, ap­pertaining onely to Kings fauourites: and so much the grea­ter when there is assurance of preuailing by this free accesse: as there is assurance by that free accesse which Saints haue to Gods presence.

This is little considered of them, who make all their prayers rather by exhortation vnto Prayer, then by expresse Petition, in the third person, thus, Let vs pray that God would do this or that: which argueth too light an esteeme of the forenamed priui­ledge: and is a declaration of what ought to be done, rather then an actuall performance thereof.

§. 10. Of their dutie who haue free accesse to God.

Q. VVHat is the Dutie that is expected of such as haue the forenamed free accesse to God?

A. That in Prayer especially their heart be strucke with a due respect of Gods presence.Reuetence in Prayer. For then they stand face to face before him. This followeth as a iust consequence from the foresaid dignitie. When dutifull children or loyall sub­iects stand in the presence of their Father or Soueraigne, they will manifest all the due respect they can: especially when they make a sute to them. Should not we the children and subiects of God do it much more?

§. 17. When we come to speake of the glorie and greatnesse of God, we shall haue further occasion to presse this point.

Thus much of the relatiue title Father. The correlatiue is noted in this particle OVR. In handling whereof first we are to consider in generall the parties which are comprised vnder it: and then more particularly, the person, and number wherein it is expressed.

§. 11. Of the parties comprised vnder this particle OVR.

Q. VVHom doth this correlatiue particle (OVR) set out?

A. Mortall men that liue on earth.

Q. What is hereby giuen to be vnderstood?

A. The loue of God, and honour of those mortall men.

Q. How is Gods loue set forth?

A. By vouchsafing to be a Father to such base wretches.Gods loue to man in vouch­safing to be cal­led Father by them. There is an infinite disparitie betwixt God and man. God is a Lord of incomprehensible Maiestie, and perfect puritie. Man in regard of the mould whence he came, and whither be must returne is but dust:Quanta domini indulgetia, quan­ [...]a circa nos dignationis cius & bonitatis vber­tas, qui sic nos voluerit oratio­nem celebrare, vt Deum patrem vocemus! Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 8▪ and in regard of the corruption of his nature is worse then the brutest beast, and most vnreasonable creature. May we not then on this ground with an holy admiration say, Behold what manner of loue the Father hath bestowed vpon vs, that we should be called the sonnes of God! Who durst call God Father, if Christ had not warranted vs so to do.

Q. What is the honour that is hereby done vnto the sonnes of men?

A. The greatest that can be. For what greater honour then to be the Kings sonne?1. Ioh. 3. 1. Dauid thought it a great matter to be Sauls sonne in law (yet was Saul but a King on a small part of the earth,An honour to call God father. and Dauid was then annointed to be his successour.) What is it then to haue the King of heauen to be our Father?1. Sam. 18. 18. This is farre more then to be an Angell, who is but a messenger and seruant.Heb. 1. 14. Are they not all ministring Spirits, sent forth to mi­nister for them, who shall be heires of saluation?

Herewith may all they who haue this honour vouchsafed vnto them,1. Cor. 4. 13. vphold themselues against that vile esteeme where­in the world hath them. What need they care for the worlds despising of them,1. Ioh. 3. 1. who haue God to be their Father? For this cause the world knoweth vs not, because it knoweth not our Fa­ther.

This of the parties whose Father God is. The manner of applying Gods fatherhood by the first person OVR followeth.

§. 12. Of applying Gods Fatherhood to our selues.

Q. VVHat do we acknowledge by this correlatiue particle OVR, as it is the first person?

A. That God is not onely the Father of Christ, and of other men but our Father also:Math. 26. 39. as if one praying alone, and for himselfe should say as Christ did,Iohn 20. 28. O my Father: and, as Thomas said to Christ, my Lord and my God.

If it be obiected, that that which is vttered in the plurall number is not particularly applyed to ones selfe: I answer, that though it be not applyed to ones selfe onely, and alone, yet it may be to him ioyntly with others. Though I beleeue God to be a common Father of many (which the plurall number im­plyeth) yet that hindreth not, but that I may reckon my selfe in that number: and so make the application to my selfe. Thus much is fitly axpressed in this speech of Christ,Iohn 20. 1 [...]. I ascend to my Father, and to your Father. Here he acknowledgeth God to be a common Father of others (in these words your Father) and yet maketh a particular application thereof in these words, my Father.

Q. What instruction ariseth from this application of Gods Fa­therhood to our selues?

A. A particular perswasion of Gods fatherly affection to our selues is then especially requisite when we pray vnto him.Math. 26. 39.—27. 46. We cannot in truth say vnto him, our Father, without such a perswasion.

The benefits of that particular perswasion are great and ma­nifold.Benefits of a particular per­swas [...]on of Gods fatherly mind. For

1. It distinguisheth the sound faith of true Saints from the counterfeit faith of formall Prosessors and trembling faith of Diuels.1. It is a note of true faith. They may beleeue that God is a Father, but they can­not beleeue that God is their Father,Iam. 2. 19. and therefore they beleeue and tremble.

2. It maketh vs more boldly to come to the throne of Grace.2. It ministreth boldnesse. When the prodigall child knew not to whom to go (though he could not be ignorant that there were many fathers in the world) he,Luke 15. 18. remembring that he had a father of his owne, said, I will goe to my MY Father.

[Page 17] 3. It maketh vs to rest vpon God more confidently for pro­uision for all things needfull,3. It worketh confidence. and protection from all things hurtfull.Quid non det fi­lijs petentibus, cum hoc ipsum ante dederit vt filij essent. Aug. de Ser. Dom. in mon. lib. 2. For this particular relation of Gods fatherhood to vs, sheweth that God taketh an especiall care of vs, to whom the promise of Gods care especially belongeth.

4. It doth much vphold vs in all distresses.4. It vpholdeth in distresse. With this parti­cular perswasion did the Iewes vphold themselues when they seemed to be forsaken.Isa. 63. 16. Yea herewith did Christ vphold him­selfe in his greatest agonie.Math. 26. 39.—27. 46.

5. It strengtheneth our faith in all the properties and works of God.5. It strength­neth faith. For to belieue that it is my Father that hath made all things, and doth continue to vphold and order them: that it is my Father that is the fountaine of all blessing, and giueth what he will, to whom he will: that my Father is euery where present, knowing all the necessities and extremities of euery one: that the mightie, mercifull, wise, prouident God is my Father: to be truly perswaded hereof must needs minister much comfort at all times, in all places, whatsoeuer our present condition be. But otherwise, to know that by God the whole world is ordered, that his eyes are in euery place, that he is omnipotent, iust, wise, true, &c. and not to apprehend him to be our Father, cannot but much strike our hearts with much terror, and make vs to flie from him, as Adam did,Gen. 3. 8. when he heard the voice of God in the garden.

6. It affordeth much comfort against our manifold infirmi­ties.6. It bringeth comfort. For it assureth vs that God will take no aduantage against vs for them: but will rather accept of our poore endeauour: and when we cannot pray as we should, he will put desires into our hearts, and words into our mouthes. A childs owne father will accept of any manifestation of his minde and meaning: yea and say to him, Doest thou not meane this? wouldest thou not haue that?

7. All that can be said of Gods fatherhood will bring no comfort to a man,7. No comfort without it. vnlesse he can apply it to himselfe. Children do not go to a man for the things they want, because he is a Fa­ther of other children: but because he is their owne father.

As the manner of expressing the correlatiae particle OVR in the first person, whereby he that maketh the Prayer is included was [Page 18] obseruable: so is it also in the plurall number, whereby it is exten­ded to others?

§. 13. Of Gods impartiall respect to all his children: and sufficiencie of blessing for all.

Q. VVHy is the application of God fatherhood set downe in the plurall number, OVR?

A. To shew that God is a common father of all the Saints: God the Father of all Saints. euen of the whole Church, and of euery particu­lar member thereof.Ephes. 4. 6. As there us one God, so that one God is fa­ther of all. To which purpose is that emphaticall interrogation of the Prophet,Mal. 2. 10. Haue we not all one Father? Wherefore not one­ly the whole Church in generall, or publicke assemblies, but euery particular Saint is taught to say, Our Father.

Q. What doth this teach vs?

A. 1. Gods respect to vs.

2. Our dutie one to another.

3. The priuiledge of Saints.

Q. How is Gods respect manifested?

A. 1. By his impartiall fauour to all alike.

2. By the abundance of blessing which he hath, euen suffi­cient for all.

1. Concerning Gods impartiall respect,God carieth an equall respect to all. Christ here teacheth all, of what degree soeuer, to say to God, Our Father. God then is the Father of all: and as a father he carrieth himselfe to­wards all.Psal. 86. 5.—145. 14. He is good, and mercifull, and of great kindnesse, to all that call vpon him. He vpholdeth all that fall. Acts 10▪ 34. In this respect espe­cially is he said to haue no respect of persons. [...]. That title therefore which noteth out an onely sonne on whom all loue is cast,Math. 3. 17. and by a propertie is attributed to Christ the onely begotten Sonne of God, [...]. that very title is attributed to all the Saints, to shew, that though they be many,Ephes. 5. 1. yet so impartiall is Gods affection to them all, and to euery of them, as if they were all but one onely child of God.Heb. 12▪ 23. On which ground they are all called First-borne, Rom. 8. 17. Heirs, Reue. 1. 6. Kings, and such other names as do set forth an equall respect of God vnto them all.1. Cor. 12. 12. Yea they are all one Bodie, [Page 19] and one Spouse of Christ the Sonne of God.Ephes. 5. 3 [...]. If the ground of this impartiall respect be well weighed, the truth of it will more clearely appeare. For it wholly resteth in God himselfe, and proceedeth from his free grace, and meere mercie: and not from any gifts or parts that are in the Saints. If it did depend on any thing in the sonnes of men, then might it be partiall, as the loue of earthly parents is.

2.God hath abun­dance of bles­sing for all. Concerning the abundance of blessing which this our cōmon Father hath, it appeareth to be sufficient for all, in that Christ directeth all to go to him, and that for others as well as for themselues: and not feare to put him in mind that he is the Father of others as well as of our selues, and that he hath others to blesse as well as vs. So as God is not like Isaack, Gen. 27. 33. &c. who had but one blessing, and hauing therewith blessed one sonne, could not blesse the other.Psal. 36. 9. He is as a springing fountaine which euer remaineth full, and continueth to ouer-flow, though neuer so much be taken out of it. Men that are very charie in keeping standing ponds priuate to themselues, suffer springs to flow out in common for others. Thus doth Gods Fatherly bountie flow out to all that in faith come to partake thereof. Did not Saints know and beleeue as much, they would vrge and presse all the euidences they could of Gods Fatherly respect to them in spe­ciall (as Esau did to Isaack, Gen. 27. 32. saying, I am thy sonne, thy first borne, blesse me, my father) rather then make mention of his com­mon fatherhood.

§. 14. Of their mutuall duties which say OVR FATHER.

Q. VVHat are the duties on our part to be performed by reason of Gods common Fatherhood?

A. All make them­selues equall. 1. Great ones must make themselues equall to them of the lower sort. Though in outward priuiledges they be greater then other Saints,Rom. 12. 16. yet ought they as brethren to respect the meanest, because God is their Father also. Who greater in the Church then Apostles? yet they accounted, and called the meanest their brethren: which they learned of Christ their [Page 20] master,Math. 23. 8. who expresly told them, that they were all brethren. Yea Christ himselfe (though he were head and Lord of all) was not ashamed to call them brethren. Heb. 2. 11. Is it not intollerable arro­gancie to scorne to account him thy brother, whose Father God is, as well as thine? Such insolent persons cannot in truth say, Our Father.

2. Meane ones must be content in their estate: All content in their estate. and that be­cause God is their Father, as well as the Father of the greatest. Though in some outward respects they be meaner then others, yet in the greatest prerogatiue, which is to be a child of God, they are equall to the greatest.Galat. 3. 28. There is neither bond nor free, but all are one in Christ Iesus. A ground of great contentment.

3. Saints must take occasion of praying together. Pray together. So shall they most fitly say to God, Our Father. This is the rather to be no­ted, because Christ hath promised his presence after au especi­all manner,Math. 18. 19. Where two or three agree together.

4. Saints must pray one for another. Pray for one another. For Christ hath so ordered this Prayer, as thereby in vsing it, wee are put in mind one of another.Pacis doctor at (que) vnitatis magister singillatim noluit precem fieri, vt quis cum preca­tur, prose tantū precetur. Cypr. de Orat, dom. §. 5. The teacher of peace and maister of vnitie would not haue Prayer so singly made, as when one prayeth, he should pray onely for himselfe. By this mutuall intercession of one for another, as we acknowledge God a common Father, according to the scope of this phrase, Our Father: so we professe him to be the fountaine of all blessing, able to helpe all: euen others as well as our selues: which is a great honour done to God. And we do also hereby professe that we are willing and desirous that others should partake of the same blessings that we craue for our selues: of which mind was that Prophet that said, Would God that all the Lords people were Prophets: Num. 11. 29. and that A­postle that said,Acts 26. 29. I would to God that all that heare me were such as I am. Note euery of the Petitions which we are taught to make for our selues, and ye shall obserue euery blessing craued for our selues, to be craued also for others, as these two words, vs, OVR, expressed in euery of them doth plainly shew.

There is a double bond to binde vs hereunto: one of loue, the other of iustice. Christ noteth it to be the dutie of loue to pray for others:Math. 5. 44. and the Apostle noteth duties of loue to be a due debt.Rom. 13. 8. Herein lyeth a maine difference betweene Faith and [Page 21] Loue. Faith is as an hand closed, grasping all for it selfe. Loue is as an hand opened readie to communicate what it hath to others. Whereas therefore in our Beliefe, in the singular num­ber each one saith, I belieue, in Prayer each one saith in the plurall, Our Father, giue vs, forgiue vs, deliuer vs.

5.Pray in loue. Saints must pray in brotherly loue, and with hearts and minds vnited. This phrase, Our Father, putteth them in mind of a brotherly affection one towards another. To this purpose may be applied that consequence, which on such a ground the Prophet inferreth,Mal. 2. 10. in these words, Haue we not all one Father? Why do we deale treacherously euery man against his brother?

§. 15. Of the Saints participation of one anothers Prayers.

Q. VVHat is that priuiledge of the Saints that is gathered out of this phrase, Our Father?

A. They mutually partake of the benef [...]is of one anothers Prayers. For it may well be taken for grant, that this forme being prescribed by Christ,Publica est nobis & communis o­ratio: & quando oramus, non pro vno sed pro toto populo oramus, quia totus popu­lus unum sumus. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 5. they in whom the Spirit of Christ is, do accordingly vse it: and so pray for all whose Father God is. For this is a publicke and common Prayer: and when we pray, we pray not for one, but for the whole Church, be­cause we are all one. A great priuiledge this will appeare to be, if the benefit of Prayer be rightly discerned. And a great com­fort it must needs be to such weake ones, as cannot pray as they desire. The priuiledge of the Communion of Saints, in nothing more appeares, then in the mutuall participation of one ano­thers prayers.

Q. May not God be called vpon in the singular number thus, My Father.

A. A Saint may say to God, my Fa­ther. Yes: in priuate by one alone he may, so did Christ. Saint Paul also did in such a manner giue thanks vnto God. Yea thus we are directed by the Prophet to call vpon God,Math. 26. 39. and to say, My Father. Phil. 1. 3. Yet may not one so apply in particular Gods Fa­therhood to himselfe,ler. 3. 4, 19. as to appropriate it to himselfe: nor yet to be vnmindfull of others in his prayers, contrary to the scope [Page 22] of expressing this relation in the plurall number, OVR. This forme is not set downe to binde vs so strictly to the words or syllables, as neuer to swerue from them: but it is set downe ra­ther to teach vs what to aime at in the manner and matter of our prayers.

Q. May this forme (Our Father) be vsed by one alone?

A. One alone in Prayer may say, Ou [...] Father. Yes. So did Daniel, euen then when also being alone he vsed the singular number. O our God, saith he, heare the Prayer of thy seruant. Dan. 9. 17, 18. And in the next clause, ô my God, encline thine eare. In regard of that particular affiance which he had in God, he saith, my God: and in regard of his respect, euen when he was alone, to other children of God, he saith, Our God. For our loue to the brethren, and our perswasion of their vnion in Christ, must be manifested to God when we are alone as well as in companie.

Thus much of Gods Goodnesse. It remaineth to speake of his greatnesse.

§. 16. Of Gods being in heauen.

Q. HOw is Gods greatnesse set forth?

A. By his mansion place which is in heauen. A mansion place is an vsuall meanes of greatnesse or meanesse. When we see a little thatcht ruinous cottage, we imagine that he is a poore meane person that dwelleth there. Thus Eliphas setteth out the basenesse of men,Iob 4. 19. who dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust. But if we see a faire and stately Pallace, we thinke that he is a great personage that inhabiteth there. Great Nebuchadnezzar did thus set out his owne great­nesse,Dan. 4. 30. Is not this great Babylon that I haue built for the house of the kingdome, and for the honour of my maiestie? Yea if beggars see but a faire porch before the doore of an house, they conceit that one which can spare them something there abideth. To our capacitie therefore the Lord (who dwelleth in the light that no creature can approach vnto) is pleased thus to set forth his greatnesse▪ 1. Tim. 6. 16. glorie, and magnificence.

Many do so peruert this description of Gods greatnesse, as [Page 23] thereby they much impeach the excellencie of his Maiestie. For

1.God is not cir­cumscribed in heauen. Some thence inferre that God may be circumscribed, and compassed in a place: which is contrary to his infinite great­nesse,Ier. 23. 23. by reason whereof he is said to fill heauen, and earth: to haue the heauen for his throne, Math 5. 34, 35. and the earth for his foot-stoole: to be euery where,Psal 139. 7, &c. so as none can withdraw themselues from his presence: 1. King. 8. 27. yea to be so incomprehensible, as the heauen, and heauen of heauens cannot containe him.

2.Heauen hinders not Gods sight. Others thence inferre, that he is so high as he cannot see the things below:Iob 22. 12, 13, 14 which Eliphas noteth to be the mind of the prophane in his time, who say, Is not God in the height of heauen? How doth God know? Can he iudge through the darke cloud? Thicke clouds are a couering to him, that he seeth not: and he wal­keth in the circuit of heauen. But this conceipt is directly con­trary to that omniscience and perfect sight of God, which the holy Ghost thus setteth out:Psal. 102. 19. Out of heauen doth the Lord behold the earth. Prou. 15. 3. The eyes of the Lord are in euery place, beholding the euill and the good. Heb. 4. 13. There is not any creature that is not manifest in his sight, Gods proui­dence on things below. &c.

2. Others thence inferre, that thought it be granted that God seeth the earth, & all things done thereon, yet he ordereth them not:Apud Cicer. lib. 5 de Nat. Deorum, Cotta negat Deū curare singulos homines, aut ci­uitates, aut na­tiones. which was the conceipt of many Philosophers: A con­ceipt directly contrary to that excellent discourse which God himselfe had with Iob, and to the euidences of Gods proui­dence extending it selfe to the smallest things, as to all kinde of creatures, euen to little sparrowes: to the haires of our head: and to the grasse of the field.Iob 38. & 39. & 40. & 41.

But to let passe all such false, erroneous, absurd, and blas­phemous collections,Math. 10. 29, 30. & 6. 30. know that this placing of God in heauen is not properly,God said to be in heauen. but comparatiuely, and respectiuely to bee taken: and that to giue vs occasion to conceiue something of Gods excellencie,1. To make our soules soare vp. which is in truth vnconceiueable, and incom­prehensible.

Q. Why is God thus set forth?Cum deum dicit esse in coelis à terris abducit ornatem▪ &c. Chrys. Hom. 20. in Mat. 6.

A. 1. To make our soules ascend as high as possibly can be when we pray vnto him. Aboue heauen our thoughts cannot ascend. Therefore he is said to be in heauen, which is the highest [Page 24] place of all.Psal. 123▪ 1. I lift vp mine eyes to thee who dwellest in heauen, saith the Psalmist.

2. To distinguish God from earthly parents:2. To put diffe­rence betweene God and earthly parents. and to shew that he is farre more excellent then they: euen as heauen is higher then the earth: and things in heauen more excellent then things on earth. No Kings or Monarchs, though they should rule from one end of the earth to the other, can be like to our Father which is in heauen.Psal. 113. 5. Who is like to the Lord our God who dwelleth on high?

3. To shew that he is free from all earthly infirmities:3. To shew Gods immuta­bilitie. and from that changeablenesse whereunto things on earth are sub­iect. In heauen there is no corruption, dim [...]uution, or altera­tion. Much lesse can there be any such thing in him, who is the chiefest of all in heauen;Iam. 1. 17. and with whom is no variablenesse, nor shadow of turning.

4. To set him forth in the most glorious manner that can be.4. To declare his excellencie. As Kings are most glorious in their thrones, so is God in heauen, Math. 5. 34. which is his Throne. In heauen it is, where the Angels behold the face of God: Math. 18. 10. and where thousand thousands minister vnto him, Dan. 7. 10. and ten thousand thousands stand before him. In heauen is Christ set at the right hand of the Throne of Maiestie. In hea­uen it was where Saint Paul heard vnspeakable words, Heb. 1. 3. & 8. 1. which it is not lawfull (or possible) for man to vtter. 2. Cor. 12. 4. [...]. In a word, in hea­uen truly and properly are the things which eye hath not seene, 1. Cor. 2 9. nor eare heard, nor haue entred into the heart of man.

5. Because his glorie is most manifested as in heauen,5. To shew whence his glo­rie most shew­eth it selfe. so from heauen. For from heauen especially the glorie of his po­wer, prouidence, iustice, mercie, and other attributes is decla­red. The heauens declare the glorie of God. From heauen did God cause iudgement to be heard. Psal. 19. 1.—76. 8. From heauen the wrath of God is re­ [...]ealed. From heauen did the Lord behold the earth, Rom. 1. 18. to heare the groaning of the prisoners, Psal. 102. 19, 20. &c. From aboue is euery good giuing, and euery perfect gift. Iam. 1. 17.

§. 17. Of the direction which Gods being in heauen giueth vs for the manner of praying.

Q. DOth this description of Gods greatnesse giue vs any dire­ction for Prayer?

[Page 25] A. Yes. Both for the Manner and Matter of Prayer.

Q. No image of God to be con­ceiued i [...] prayer Exod. 20. 4. What direction doth it giue for the Manner of Prayer?

A. 1. That in Prayer we conceiue no Image of God. For where­unto can he, who is in heauen, be resembled? It cannot but much impaire the surpassing excellencie of Gods glorious Ma­iestie, to be likened to any creature: and that much more then if a great Monarch should be said to be like a toade, or viper. Oft and earnestly hath God fore-warned his people to take heed thereof:Deut. [...]. 15. &c. and much contested against them for it.Isa. 40. 18 &c. This one point of palpable idolatrie, if there were no other, is enough to keepe vs from communion with Papists.

2.No carnal thing to be conceiued of God. That we conceiue no earthly or carnall thing of God who is in heauen. To thinke that God dealeth hardly with vs, misiudgeth our intents,Iob 10. 4. accepteth not our good deeds, respecteth persons, or any such thing,Iob 34. 18, 19. is to conceiue a carnall thing of God. Is it fit to say to a King, thou art wicked? or to Princes, ye are vngodly? How much lesse to him that is in heauen, that accepteth not the person of Princes?

3.God not to bee measured by mans reason. That we measure not God, his word, nor workes by the laste of our reason. He is in heauen: we on earth. This therefore is to measure things heauenly with an earthly measure, which is too scantie.Isa. 55. 9. As the heauens are higher then the earth, so are my waies higher then your waies saith the Lord. This is to be noted espe­cially against such as in their distresses, when they can see no ordinarie meanes of helpe, thinke God himselfe cannot helpe: as the Israelites that said,Psal. 78. 19. Can God prepare a table in the wilder­nesse? and like the Prince that said,2. King. 7. 2. Though the Lord would make windowes in heauen, could this come to passe? This also is to be no­ted against such as vtterly dispaire of mercie,Gen. 4. 13. as Cain, Iudas, and others.Math. 27. 5.

4.Goodnesse of earthly parents transcendently applied to God. That we apply all the goodnesse of earthly parents to God af­ter a transcendent, and supereminent manner. For as the heauen is higher then the earth, so great is his mercie, &c. If ye being euill know how to giue good gifts vnto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heauen,Psal. 103. 11. giue good things to them that aske him?Math. 7. 11. On this ground haue the Saints in former times said, Though Abraham be ignorant of vs,Isa. 63. 16. and Israel acknowledge vs not, yet thou,Isa. 49. 15. ô Lord, art our Father, &c. Can a woman forget her [Page 26] sucking child? yea though they may forget, yet will not I forget, saith the Lord. Psal. 27. 10. When my Father and mother for sake me, then will the Lord take me vp. According to this transcendent application of fatherly loue to God, we ought to haue our faith strengthened therein. How much comfort may such Parents as are tender ouer their children, or such children as haue tender Parents, or any other that know the tendernesse of earthly Parents, receiue by this application, if they beleeue, as they ought, That Our Fa­ther which is in heauen, is as much more tender then fathers on earth, as Heauen is higher then earth? Yea such as haue impo­tent and vnnaturall Parents on earth, may vphold themselues through faith in their Father who is in heauen, being as a Fa­ther, readie, and, as in heauen, able to supply all their ne­cessities.

5. That with all reuerence we prostrate our selues before God our Father in heauen. Reuerendly bow before God. For this end, first a true feare of God must be planted in our hearts,Psal. 95. 3, 6. according to this patheticall wish of God himselfe,Deut. 5. 29. O that there were in their hearts a feare of me! Then must this feare be manifested by beseeming gesture and words,Placendum est diuinis oculis & habitu corporis, & modo vosu. Cypr. de Orat. dom. §. 2. neither ouer-curious, nor ouer-carelesse. Hereof wee haue an excellent patterne in the Lords Prayer, wherein there is admirable art (as we haue shewed§. 1. Eccl. 5. 2. before) and yet no frothy curiositie. The wise man, vpon the ground here noted, giueth a like direction. His direction is this, Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hastie to vtter any thing before God. His ground is this, God is in heauen. As for our gesture, on a due consideration of the greatnesse of God, we are exhorted to fall downe, Psal. 95. 3, 6. and kneele before him. The Publican with all humilitie caried himselfe in Prayer before God:Publicanus hu­militer [...]r [...]uit, & exaudiuit oran­tem qui humili­bus ignoscit. Cypr. ibid. §. 4. and kneele before him. The Publican with all humilitie caried himselfe in Prayer before God: and he who pardoneth the humble heard his Prayer. To conclude this point, all the reuerence both inward and outward, that possibly may be, is to be manifested to our Father in heauen, lest his father-hood make vs ouer-bold. Thus shall we in truth say vnto God, Mercie is with thee, Psal. 130. 4. that thou maist be feared.

6. That we make no place a pretext to keepe vs from Prayer. Pray euery where. For as the heauen, and the Sunne therein is euery where ouer vs, so as we cannot withdraw our selues out of the compasse thereof: so much more is God in euery place ouer vs, and with vs: nei­ther [Page 27] can we withdraw our selues out of the compasse of his presence. We may therefore, yea we ought, (as iust occasion and fit opportunitie is offered) pray in any place. We reade of the Saints prayers made in1. King. 8. 23. the Temple, inActs 10. 30. their owne hou­ses, on theActs 10 9. house top, inGen. 24. 63. the open field, inLuke 6. 12. a mountaine, in Ion. 1. 6. a ship, in—3▪ 2. the mid'st of the sea, in—2, 1. a fishes bellie, inGen 24. 12. a iour­ney, in2. Chron. 14. 11 a battell▪ and in sundrie other places. This being so, what need is there of going on pilgrimage to this or that shrine? Is our Father which is in heauen, tied to one countrie, or to one place in a countrie more then to another? An heathenish con­ceipt! For the heathen imagined their Apollo, from whom they receiued their Oracles to be at Delphi, Cuma, Dodona, and such other particular places.Pure hearts in Prayer.

7.1. Tim. 2. 8. 2. Tim. 2. 19. Psal. 26. 6. That we list vp pure hearts in Prayer. For heauen, where God is on his Throne of Grace, and whither our soules in Prayer ascend, is a pure, and holy place:Reu. 21. 27. into it no vncleane thing can enter. Besides, from heauen can God espie with what minds and hearts we come before him.Psal. 11. 14. His throne being in heauen, his eyes behold, his eye-lids trie the children of men. Now he can en­dure to iniquitie, no hypocrisie.Psal. 66. 18. Ioh. 9. 31. If we regard wickednesse, God will not heare our Prayers. Pro. 28. 9. Isa. [...] 15. They are abomination to him.

8. That our Prayers be made with an holy subiection to Gods will: saying as Christ,Subiection to Gods will in Prayer. Not my will be done, but thine. God being in heauen hath an absolute soueraigntie: his will must, and shall stand,Mat. 26. 39. whether we will or no. But by our willing subiection we make a vertue of necessitie:Luke 22. 42. which is a great point of wisedome.

9.Pray in faith. That in faith we lift vp eyes, hands, and hearts into heauen. Our Father on whom we call is in heauen. Psal. 123. 1. But locally in our bodies we cannot go thither.Lam. 3. 41. Spiritually therefore, with the wings of faith we must flie vp thither. Faith is the eye, hand, and foote of the soule.

10.Effectuall Prayer. That our Prayer be so sent forth as they may pierce the heauens where God is. This is to be done with extension not of voice,Dcus non vo [...]is, se [...]co [...]dis auditor est. Cypr. de Orat. dom. §. 3. but of Spirit. The shrillest sound of any trumpet cannot reach vnto the highest heauen: no nor the strongest report of any canon. But ardencie of spirit can pierce to the Throne of Grace. Such a Prayer was that which Moses poured out when [Page 28] God said,Exod. 14. 15. Why CRYEST thou vnto me? The Apostle stileth such desires as Gods Spirit raiseth in our spirits,Rom. 8. 26. Groanes which cannot be vttered.

11.Pray with con­fidence. That we pray with confidence in Gods almightie power: be­leeuing that God is able to grant whatsoeuer we shall aske ac­cording to his will.2. Chro. 14. 11. As the title Father gaue vs ground of confi­dence in Gods fatherly loue: so this placing of him in heauen, giueth vs as good ground of confidence in his power. Thus shall we (as Abraham did) Giue glorie to God, Rom. 4. 20, 21. being fully perswaded that what he hath promised he is able also to performe.

12.Pray with cou­rage. That we pray with courage, not fearing what any on earth can do to hinder the fruite and successe of our Prayers. For our Father to whom we pray, and from whom we expect the ac­complishment of our desire, is in heauen, higher then all. Daniel without question did well know and consider this ground of confidence, when notwithstanding the decree made against all that should aske any petition of any God or man, Dan. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. he prayed three times a day his window being open.

§. 18. Of the direction which Gods being in heauen giueth vs for the matter of Prayer.

Q. VVHat direction doth this placing of God in heauen giue vs for the matter of Prayer?

A. It teacheth vs what things especially to aske.

Q. What are they?

A.Aske of God matters of mo­ment. 1. Things of weight and worth, meete for such a Maiestie to giue. When subiects preferre a Petition to their Soueraigne sitting on his throne, or chaire of estate, they do not vse to make sute for pins or points. This were dishonourable to his maie­stie. Shall we then make sute to this highest Maiestie being in heauen, for toyes, and trifles? Shall a dice-player pray that he may win his fellowes money? Shall an angrie man pray to God that he may be reuenged on him with whom he is angrie? Shall any one desire God to satisfie his lusts? In this respect saith S. Iames, Iam. 4. 3. Ye aske and receiue not, because you aske amisse that you may consume it on your lusts. For this generall direction about the [Page 29] matter of Prayer, we haue a perfect patterne in this platforme prescribed by our Lord, wherein is nothing, but what is of great moment mentioned.

Obiect. We are there taught to pray for daily bread, which seemeth not to be so great and weightie a matter.

Answ. Vnder daily bread weightie matters com­prised. 1. Vnder bread all temporall blessings are comprised. Now all temporall blessings ioyntly considered together, are a matter of much moment, and meete to be craued of that Lord who is in heauen, Psal. 24. 1. and to whom the earth and the fulnesse thereof belongeth.

2. We do not there onely craue the thing it selfe, but a bles­sing with it. Now the blessing of the least creature is a weighty matter: more then all the world can giue. Without the blessing the creature it selfe is nothing.Deut. 8. 3. For man liueth not by bread onely, but by euery word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man liue.

3. Though temporall blessings in their kinde be compara­tiuely small,See §. 96. yet in their end they are of great worth. Their pro­per end is to enable vs the better to do that worke which God hath enioyned vs to do, and to honour him in this world, which the liuing onely can do.Isa. 38. 19. In this respect we are to craue them not singly,Psal. 6. 5. and simply in themselues, but as meanes to enable vs to honour God, and to do good vnto our brethren.

2.Aske things heauenly. Desiderari con­ueni [...] [...] & caquae haben [...]ur in caelis. Chrys. [...]om. 20. in Mat. 6. From this placing of God in heauen we are taught to craue things heauenly: which are

1. Such as tend to the glorie of God that is in heauen.

2. Such as helpe vs to heauen.

These are the things which Christ especially entendeth, where making a comparison betwixt our father on earth, and this our Father in heauen,Math. 7. 11. he saith. How much more shall your Fa­ther which is in heauen, Luke 11. 13. giue good things to them that aske him? S. Luke expressing the same point, in stead of good things puts the holy Ghost: whereby is shewed what are the good things which Christ meaneth, namely, such as proceed from the sanctifying Spirit of God. These heauenly things are most meete for him who is in heauen to giue. To this purpose tendeth this exhorta­tion of the Apostle,Col. 3. 1. Seeke those things which are aboue. Well had Salomon learned this lesson: for when God said to him, Aske [Page 30] what I shall giue thee, 1. King. 3. 5, 9. he answered, Giue thy seruant an vnderstan­ding heart: which is one of those good gifts that come from aboue.

Obiect. If the things which we are here taught to pray for be heauenly, how is it that temporall blessings come in the rank and number of them?

Answ. How earthly things are hea­uenly blessings. Math. 6. 33. As appendices, and appurtenanees to heauenly and spirituall blessings: for so they are promised. First seeke the king­dome of God, and his righteousnesse, and all these things shall be ad­ded vnto you. As when a man purchaseth mannours and lands, the wood in hedge-r [...]wes for fire-boote, plow-boote, and o­ther like purposes is giuen in the grosse. Or more plainly, when a man buyeth spice, fruite, comfits, or any such commodities, paper and pack-thred is giuen into the bargaine. So if thou get heauenly blessings, temporall things, so farre as they are need­full for thee, shall be cast in.

3.Aske heauen it selfe. From placing God in heauen we are taught to craue heauen it selsfe: that we may be where our Father is: and where we may most fully enioy his glorious presence. Thus did the Apostle desire to depart, Phil. 1. 23. for this very end that he might be with Christ. And the holy Patriarkes are said to desire an heauenly countrie:Heb. 11. 16. which also the Apostle noteth to be the desire of all true Saints.Heb. 13. 14. V [...]i deus, illic fundamenta ha­bitationis su [...] cuique sunt iaci­enda. Greg. N [...]s. lib. de Orat. Where God is, there must euery one lay the foundation of his abode.

Two things there be which will testifie the truth of our de­sire hereof.

1. A studying to enter into that rest, together with a cheare­full walking in the way that leadeth thereto.Heb. 4. 11.

2.Luke 13. 24. A cheere and ioy of heart when we see any signe of our dissolution approaching.Luke 2. 29. Old Simeon and Paul were exceedingly affected in this case.2. Tim. 4. 6.

Thus farre of the Preface. The Petitions follow.

§. 19. Of the manner of handling euerie Petition.

IN handling euery of the Petitions sixe points shall be distinct­ly obserued.

1. The Meaning of the words.

[Page 31] 2. The Order and dependance of one point vpon another.

3. The particular good things which we are to cr [...]ate.

4. The particulars for which we are to giue thankes.

5. The duties which we ought to endeauour after.

6. The failings for which we are to be humbled.

The three former of these are most proper and naturall. For

1. By opening the meaning of the words, the true and full in­tent of Christ will be better found out.

2. By noting out the dependance, one point will giue much light to another. For the order is very acurate.

3. By reckoning vp the particulars which are to be craued, we may easily discerne what abundance of matter is couched vnder a few words.

The other three points follow by iust consequence. For

1. Whatsoeuer we pray for, when we haue obtained it, we must be thankfull for.

2. We must do what we can to get what we pray for, or else we mocke God.

3. The want of such things as we ought to pray for, mini­streth iust matter of humiliation.

These three latter points therefore are to be considered in euery Petition as well as the former.

§. 20. Of the name of God, and the things com­prised vnder it.

Q. VVHich is the first Petition?

A. Hallowed be thy Name.

Q. What is the Name of God?

A. That whereby God is made knowne. For that is the end and vse of a name, to make knowne and distinguish that whose name it is.Gen. 2. 19, 20. Thus did Adam giue names to euery liuing creature to make them thereby be the better knowne; and to distinguish them one from another. Whatsoeuer Adam called euery liuing creature, that was the name thereof: namely a name proper and peculiar vnto it, whereby the nature of it was expressed, and so the creature made knowne. Thus whatsoeuer it is whereby [Page 32] God is made knowne vnto vs, may be comprised vnder this ti­tle Name attributed to God.

Q. How many things are there whereby God is made knowne?

A. Sixe things cō ­prised vnder Gods name. Sixe especially.

1. His Nature, 1. His nature. Ioh. 4. 24. which is a Spirit. Hereby we know him to be inuisible, and no way subiect to corporall grossenesse or weak­nesse. Yea hereby we know that he must be worshipped in spirit and truth.

2.2 The distinctiō of persons. Math. 28. 19. The Distinction of persons in the holy Trinitie. Hereby is Iehouah the true God distinguished from all false gods. For ne­uer came it into the imagination, or apprehension of any hea­thenish Idolater to conceiue that his God could be one in na­ture, and three in persons. Hereby also may we know how to approach vnto the Father, namely in the mediation of his Sonne by the assistance of his Spirit.

3.3. His titles. Vide Hieronym. in epist. ad Mar­tel. His Titles. The Iewes haue ten seuerall titles which they apply to God, and whereby they distinguish him from all crea­tures. Among the rest Iehouah is the most proper. For that is applyed to none but to God. These two titles, LORD, GOD, are most vsuall in our tongue.

That the titles applyed to God are properly his Name, is euident by that answer which God himselfe gaue to Moses, enquiring what he should say if the children of Israel should aske what the Name of that God that sent him, was. Gods an­swer was this,Exod. 3. 14. [...] say, I AM hath sent me to you. By the forenamed titles is God distinguished from all creatures.

4.4. His properties. His Attributes. Of these some are incommunicable, so pro­per to God as in no respect they can be attributed to any crea­ture: as eternitie without beginning, simplenesse without mix­ture, infinitenesse filling all places, prescience, knowing all things before all times, immutabilitie not subiect to any change, all-sufficiencie in himself, omnipotencie and such like. When we heare any of these to be attributed to any, we may thereupon inferre, surely that is God, or else they are falsly attributed. Other at­tributes are indeed communicable, and in some respects may be applyed to creatures, as puritie, wisedome, truth, iustice, mercie, and others such like, yet in that they are originally, infinitely, vn­changeably in God, they declare that God to be Iehouah, the su­preme [Page 33] Lord of all. Such as these were reckoned vp, when the Lord proclaimed his Name to Moses. Exod. 34. 5, 6, 7.

5.5. His word. His Word. This of all other doth most clearely, distinctly, and fully make God knowne vnto vs. Christ speaking of the holy Scriptures thus saith,Iohn 5 39. They are they which testifie of me.

6.His workes. His Workes. For the inuisible things of God from the creation of the world, Rom. 1. 20. are clearely seene, being vnderstood by the things that are made, Nomen eius glo­ria eius. Bern. in Quadragess. Serm. 6. euen his eternall power and Godhead. Gods workes do euidently declare him to be God, yea to be the onely true God, infinitely wise, iust, mercifull, powerfull, &c. In a word, Gods name is his glorie.

§. 21. Of Gods making knowne himselfe.

Q. VVHat learne we from this mention of Gods Name?

A. God may be knowne. Though he be inui­sible, vnconceiueable, incomprehensible in him­selfe, and in his diuine essence, yet it hath pleased him to set forth himselfe according to our capacitie, as is euident by all those places where mention is made of his name.

Q. God maketh himself knowne Why hath God taken a name to be knowne by?

A. 1.To make vs respect him. To worke in our hearts a due respect of him. Who will or can respect that which he knoweth not? But the name of God is in euery respect glorious. It therefore maketh them that know it to respect him.

2.To draw vs to him. To shew vs how we may draw neare vnto him, call vpon him, trust in him, and receiue from him all needfull blessings. If he had no name, or were no way knowne of vs, how could we seeke him, and find him? Thus he hath aimed both at his owne honour, and our good, in taking a name to himselfe. Where­fore we ought to enquire after the name of God, and to take notice of all those meanes whereby he hath made himselfe knowne to vs. That so we may the better hallow his name.

Thus much of this word Name. About the other word (Hal­lowed be) we will first consider the meaning of it, and then the man­ner of setting it downe: and that 1. Impersonally. 2. In forme of Pe­tition.

§. 22. Of Hallowing.

Q. VVHat doth this word HALLOW signifie?

A. Properly to make holy: being all one as to sanctifie. But it is diuersly vsed in the Scriptures.

It is attributed sometimes to things that are to be made ho­ly, and sometimes to things that are alreadie holy in them­selues.

Things to be made holy are hallowed two waies.

1. By setting them apart, or imploying them to an holy vse. This may be done by one creature to another. For thus God commandeth Moses to sanctifie or hallow all the first-borne. Exod. 13. 2, 12. And to shew his meaning herein, he saith a little after, Thou shalt set apart vnto the Lord all that openeth the matrix. Thus do ministers hallow the bread and wine at the holy Communion.

2. By putting holinesse actually and properly into that which is hallowed. This the Creator onely can do to his creatures. The Apostle therefore thus prayeth,1. Thes. 5. 23. The very God of peace san­ctifie you wholly. And this God doth by his Spirit, which is there­upon called the holy Ghost, and Spirit of sanctification. Math. 28. 19.

That which is holy in it selfe is said to be hallowed by estee­ming,Rom. 1. 4. acknowledging,Nos ipsos admo nemus desiderare vt nomen eius quod semper san­ctum est, [...]tiam apud homiues sanctum habea­tur. Aug. cp. 121. Isa. 29. 23. and declaring it to be as it is. In which sence saith the Lord, They shall sanctifie my name, and sanctifie the holy one of Iaakob. To sanctifie an holy one can import no more then (as was said) to esteeme, acknowledge, and declare him to be holy. This is all the hallowing, or sanctifying that can be done to the Creator. This therefore must needs be here ment.

Q. Why is choice made of [...] sanctificetur. a word that setteth out Gods holi­nesse, rather then any other of his attributes?

A. Because holinesse is in it selfe an especiall excellencie, and also the perfection of all other excellencies. If holinesse could be seucred from any of Gods attributes (which is impossible that it should be: for as soone may God ceasse to be God, as to be holy) it might then be said thereof, as it was said of Israel when the Arke was taken away,1. Sam. 4. 21. 22. [...] where is the glorie.

§. 23. Of the creatures hallowing the Creator.

Q. VVHat learne we from the desire of hallowing Gods name?

A. The Creator may be hallowed by his creatures: otherwise Christ would not haue taught vs to make this Petition; neither would there haue bene so many exhortations recorded in Scrip­ture to this purpose, as there are▪

This is not done by the creatures conferring of any thing vpon his Creator, but onely by the Creators gratious accepta­tion of our acknowledgment of him to be as he is.Iob 22▪ 2, 3. & 35. 7. For if thou beest righteous what giuest thou to him? or what receiueth he at thine hands? God is so absolute and perfect in himselfe, as do the creature what it will, it can no way increase the honour of God, no nor darken and obscure it. His name is holy in it selfe, whatsoeuer we say for it, [...] or against it. Neither is it needfull in regard of the Creator that his name should be hallowed: but in regard of the creatures it is very needfull. For the creatures hallowing of Gods name maketh nothing to the happinesse of the Creator hallowed,Cyril. Catech. myst. 5. but much to the happinesse of the crea­ture hallowing.Vt sanctificetur nomen dei non deo sed homini­bus prodest. Aug. epist. 121. Should no creature hallow his Creators name, the Creator were not the lesse honourable: but the creature that failed therein much more miserable.

Behold here the admirable goodnesse of God to man, who accepteth of that which is in himselfe, as giuen to him by man. Perfectly and infinitely holy he is, and yet vouchsafeth to bee hallowed. Ought not this gratious acceptation of God to moue vs to desire, and to do the things wherein, and whereby God is hallowed?

§. 24. Of the excellencie of Holinesse.

Q. VVHat is taught vs by the expresse mention of hal­lowing in this Petion?

A. Gods chiefest glorie consisteth in his holinesse. Reade the Scriptures obseruantly, and ye shall find this attri­bute most vsually applied to him. They who best know how [Page 36] most to glorifie God, do resound this one to another, Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord. Isa. 6. 3.—40. 25. [...] Yea by a propertie and excellencie is God stiled the Holy one.

Take heed therefore that no thought which may any way impeach Gods Holinesse passe from you: but let your heart giue assent,Rev. 4. 8. and your tongue say Amen to this diuine dittie of that heauenly Quire, Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God Almightie. So ac­knowledge him to be in all his counsels,1. Pet. 1. 15, 16. Fieri dici [...]ur sancta gloria dei, cum in sanctitate glorisicatur à nobis. Bern. in Quadrages. Serm. 6. words, and workes: and for a more euident demonstration thereof, As he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conuersation, because it is written, Be ye holy, for I am holy?

§. 25. Of the extent of mans desire to haue Gods name hallowed.

Q. VVHat learne we from the manner of setting downe this dutie in the third person indefinitely, thus, hal­lowed be.

A. Our desire of hauing Gods name hallowed, must be be­yond that which we are able to do by our selues. The extent of our desire in this respect must reach to all creatures, in all pla­ces, at all times. For this purpose reade Psal. 113. 2, 3, 4. and the whole 148. Psalme. This sheweth that in this our desire we simply aime at Gods glorie: and that we respect the ho­nour of God more then the reward that may redound to vs thereby. If our desire were restrained to our selues, that we onely might hallow the name of God, not caring whether it were hallowed by others or no, it might iustly be thought that the chiefe,Exod. 32. 32. if not the onely end of our desire were some recom­pence which from thence we expected to our selues. Moses ma­nifested a pure zeale of Gods glorie when he could haue bene contented to be blotted out of Gods booke, rather then Gods name should be dishonoured.

§. 26. Of mans disabilitie to hallow Gods Name.

Q. VVHy is this set downe by Petition thus, hallowed be, rather then by promise, thus, hallowed shall be.

[Page 37] A. Because it is not in our power to do it of our selues. For we are not sufficient of our selues to thinke any thing as of our selues: 2. Cor. 3. 5. Nulla sacit ho­mo bona, quae non deus praestat, vt faciat homo. Arans. Concil. cap. 10. our sufficiencie is of God. God therefore worketh in man that a­bilitie, mind and will which he hath to hallow Gods name: so as in truth it is God that in and by vs halloweth his owne name.

§. 27. Of the force of this word THY in the first Petition.

Q. TO whom is this particle, THY, to hereferred?

A. To him that is described in the Preface.

Q. What doth it note out?

  • A. 1. A reason of the Petition.
  • 2. A restraint of the Petition.
  • 3. An emphasis of the Petition.

Q. How a reason?

A. As it hath relation to the two properties of him that is described.God to be hal­lowed because he is good and great. He is Our Father, and he is in heauen: a good and a great God; a gratious and a glorious Lord. Is there not then good and great reason that his name be hallowed?

Q. How a restraint?God onely to be hallowed.

A. By implying that Gods name onely is to be hallowed.Psal. 148. 13. I am the Lord: Isa. 42. 8. (saith this God:) that is my name, and my glorie will I not giue to another. And as God will not, so neither must we giue that which is due to him, to our selues or others: on which ground the Psalmist thus prayeth,Psal. 115. 1. Not vnto vs, Ezec. 28 2, 7. ô Lord, Dan. 5. 20, 21. not vnto vs, Acts 12. 22, 23. but vnto thy name giue glorie. Tyrus, Nebuchadnet­zar, Herod, and many others haue bene seuerely reuenged for vsurping that glorie to themselues which was due to God.

Q. How doth this particle THY, God to be hal­lowed aboue all set out an emphasis?

A. By implying that the name of God is to be aduanced a­boue all names. As if we thus said, Thy name, be hallowed as becometh so great a name,Psal. 113. 4. whose glorie is aboue the heauens. Thus this particle THY, directing our heart to our Father in heauen, maketh it to soare aloft, and extendeth the desire thereof.

§. 28. Of mans honouring God, because God honoureth him.

Q. VVHat is to be obserued about the order of the first Pe­tition?

A. 1. The fit inference of it vpon the Preface.

2. The due precedence which it hath before all other Pe­titions.

Q. What learne we from the inference of it vpon the Preface?

A. 1. The honour which God vouchsafeth to man should moue man to seeke the honour of God.

2. Sonnes of God ought especially to seeke the honour of God.

The first of these is a generall Doctrine,Digna prorsus [...]o qui eum patrem appellauit ora­tio, nihil omnino prius quam pro illius gloria sup­plicare. Chrys. in Mat. 6. Hom. 20. arising from that prerogatiue which God in heauen vouchsafeth to men on earth, namely, to be their Father. Whence is inferred, as a dutie, their desire of hallowing Gods name. To this end is a like Preface prefixed before the Decalogue. In that Preface are laid downe the fauours of God to his people, and thereupon obedience to all Gods commandements (whereby God is much honoured) is required. This dutie of honouring God, vpon the forenamed ground of Gods honouring man, is much inculcated by Moses and the Prophets.

Both Iustice and Gratitude require as much. Iustice, because it is a due debt. Gratitude, because it is a rcall acknowledgment of kindnesse receiued.

We ought therefore to take notice of those speciall fauours and honours which God doth to vs: that our hearts may be the more stirred vp thereby to seeke his honour.

§. 29. Of Saints honouring God, because they are sonnes.

THe other Doctrine ariseth from the particular kinde of ho­nour noted in the Preface, which is, to be sonnes of him that is in heauen. Because he is our Father, and we his sonnes, [Page 39] therefore we especially ought to seeke his honour.Mal. 1. 6. If I be a Fa­ther (saith he) where is mine honour? God doth most expect it at his sonnes hands, as of right he may. For they are honoured with the greatest honour that can be. Can there be a greater honour conferred on sonnes of men, then to be sonnes of God? Consider this all ye that call God Father: especially, ye into whose hearts God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Sonne crying, Gal. 4. 6. Abba Father. In filiorum ordi­nem profecti, pro patris nostri glo­ria to [...]um im­pendamus affe­ctum, dicentes, sanctificetur no­men tuum. Ab. Isa. de Orat. c. 18. We that are in the ranke of Gods children ought wholly to apply our selues for the glorie of our Father, saying, Hallowed be thy Name.

§. 30. Of preferring Gods honour before all other things.

Q. VVHat learne we from the precedence of this Petition?

A. 1. Gods honour ought to be preferred be­fore all things.

2. Gods honour is the maine end whereat all our desires ought to aime.

The order of the Decalogue and the placing of the first com­mandement before all the rest, doth confirme the former of these instructions:Mat. 6. 33. so doth this exhortation, First seeke the king­dome of God. All priorities are comprised vnder that particle, First. Ioh. 12. 27, 28. Both before and aboue all things is that to be sought. Christ preferred his Fathers glory before his owne life: yea, and before freedome from that bitter agony whereunto he was brought, being our Suretie▪ For thus in his prayer he reasoneth about that point: What shall I say? Father saue me from this houre. Bnt for this cause came I vnto this houre. Father glorifie thy name. And then he resteth, as in that which aboue all he desi­red. This mind by the same Spirit was wrought in Saint Paul, who counted not his life deare: Acts 20. 24.—21. 13. but was readie to dye for the name of the Lord.

Q. Is Gods honour to be preferred before our eternall saluation?

A. 1. These two cannot stand in opposition.Our saluation standeth with Gods honour. The more we seeke Gods honour, the more we helpe forward our saluation: and the more we seeke our saluation aright, the more wee ad­uance Gods honour.

[Page 40] 2. If they could stand in opposition,Gods glory to be preferred before our sal­uation. then without contra­diction Gods honour should be sought rather then our owne saluation. On which ground Moses made this transcendent Prayer,Exod. 32. 32. If not, blot me I pray thee, out of thy booke which thou hast written.

Gods glorie is of all things the most excellent,Eccl. 7. 1. and pretious. If a mans name be better then pretious ointment,Pro. 22. 1. and great ri­ches, What is Gods? Hee primum fieri petionus quod maximum, vt nobis gloriae il­lius innotescat sanctitas illibata Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6. Now the more excellent a thing is, the more it is to be esteemed, and preferred. Besides by seeking and set­ting forth Gods honour, we seeke and set forth our owne. For as it is in it selfe an honorable thing to honor God, so God that can and will performe it, hath said, Them that honour me will I honour. Is there not then good reason to desire aboue all other things that Gods name be hallowed?1. Sam. 2. 30.

§. 31. Of aiming at Gods honour in all things.

THat Gods honour is also the maine end whereat all our desires ought to aime, is euident by that pertinent exhor­tation of the Apostle,1. Cor. 10. 31. Whatsoeuer you do, do all to the glorie of God. Phil. 1. 20. This was his reioycing, that the Lord should be magnified in him, Rom. 9. 22, 23. whether it were by life, Eph. 1. 6. or by death. God himselfe maketh his glorie the end of all his counsels and actions.Pro. 16. 4. But that end which he aimes at we also must set before vs. As for this end, it is the highest, chiefest and best end whereunto any thing can be referred. It is the end of this first Petition, & of all the rest: for the perfection of Gods kingdome, and subiection to his will tende directly to his glorie. As for the other three Petitions, though in the matter of them they concern our good, yet in the manner of seeking our good, namely of God, they make to Gods glorie. For in the fourth Petition Gods prouidence in the things of this life is acknowledged: in the fift his mercie in pardoning sinne: in the sixt his power, in keeping safe from all assaults.

This may serue as a touch-stone to trie the soundnesse of a Re­ligion.Our religion giueth more glorie to God then poperie. In opposition betwixt diuerse religions, marke which cometh nearest to this marke, nnd most tendeth to this end. If the religions of Protestants and of Papists be well touched with this touch-stone, and equally poised in these ballances, it will [Page 41] easily be found that the reformed Religion is much more sound then the other. For one maine difference betwixt vs and them in all our controuersies, is this, that we take away from man all manner of glorying in himselfe, and giue the glorie of all to God. But they rob God to giue to man matter of trusting vnto himselfe, and vnto others like himselfe, and of boasting in him­selfe and others. Instance the controuersies we haue with them about the authoritie of the Church aboue the Scriptures, The power of Popes and Priests, Adoration and Inuocation of Angels and Saints, Their intercession, The inherent vertue of Sacramtes, Mans free-will to good, Workes of satisfaction and supererogation, Me­rit of workes, Indulgences, Pilgrimages, and many other like these.

This also may serue as a touch-stone to try particular acti­ons. The more they aime at this end the better they be. Though a worke seeme otherwise neuer so good, yet if Gods glorie be not the end of it, it onely seemeth to be good, as that which seemeth to be what it is not. To giue almes, to pray, to fast, are workes in the generall matter and substance of them good, yet in these Christ censured the Pharises,Math. 6. 1. &c. and warned his Disciples not to be like them: and that because they missed of this end. Let vs therefore in all things aime especially at Gods glorie.

§. 31. Of the particulars to be prayed for vnder the first Petition.

Q. VNto how many heads may those particulars which in the first Petition we are taught to pray for, be referred?

A. Vnto three especially. For we are taught there to de­sire:

1. Such graces in our selues as may enable vs to hallow the name of God.

2. Such graces in others as may enable them thereto.

3. Such an ouer-ruling prouidence in God, as may direct euery thing thereto.Particulars prayed for in regard of our selues.

Q. What are the graces which we desire for our selues to the foresaid end?

A. Such as are requisite for euery power of our soule, and [Page 42] part of our body to make them fit instruments of hallowing Gods name: as

1. For our vnderstanding, 1. Knowledge of God. we desire knowledge of God: that (as the Apostle prayeth) God would giue to vs the Spirit of wise­dome and reuelation in the knowledge of him. Ephes. 1. 17. This wee may the more confidently pray for,Ier. 31. 34. because it is absolutely promised; and we ought the more earnestly to desire it, because it is the groundworke of all other graces. Before the vnderstanding be well enlightned, neither can the will be made subiect to God, nor the heart set vpon God, nor any other power of soule or part of body be seruiceable to him.Mat. 6. 22, 23. expounded. The light of the bodie is the eye: that is, the vnderstanding in man, the little world, is as that great light the Sunne in the great world. If therefore thine eye be single thy whole bodie shall be full of light. If the vnderstan­ding be well illuminated and do clearely discerne the truth, the whole man throughout will be well ordered. But if thine eye be euill, thy wholebody shall be full of darknesse. If the vnderstan­ding be blind, the whole man must needs be out of order. The knowledge here desired,How God is to be knowne. ought to be a particular and distinct vnderstanding of all the things whereby God is made knowne vnto vs: as of his Nature, Persons, Titles, and Attributes: yea also of his Word whereby all these, together with his whole will are plainly reuealed: and of his ordinances, wherein and whereby he is worshipped: and finally of his workes, whereby his wisedome, power, iustice and mercie, are euidently made knowne.2. Acknowledg­ment of God. Reu. 4. 11. Yea further we ought to desire that knowing God to be the onely true Iehouah, we may acknowledge him to bee worthie of all honour, as the celestiall spirits do.

2. For our Will, 3. Subiection of our will to Gods we desire a thorow and full submission of it to God, as to our soueraigne Lord. Hereof we haue a worthy patterne in Eli, 1. Sam 3. 18. Dauid, and Christ himselfe. Hence will follow Patience vnder all crosses,2. Sam. 15. 26. as laid vpon vs by God.Math. 26. 39. Contentment in our estate,4. Patience. as appointed to vs by God. Thankfulnesse for eue­rie blessing,5. Contentmēt. as bestowed vpon vs by God, and other like ver­tues,6. Thanfulnes. which as they haue respect to God do make much to the hallowing of his name.

3. For our Mind and Will ioyntly together,7. Faith. we desire Faith, whereby we giue all due credence to the truth of Gods word, [Page 43] and beleeue in him.Ioh. 3. 33. This is a great honour done to God: for he that receiueth his testimonie, hath set to his seale that God is true. Vnder this head is comprised affiance in Gods mercie, 8. Affiance. wherein the glorie of God doth most brightly shine forth:Psal 108. 4. (for his mercy is great aboue the heauen: 9. Confidence.) Confidence in Gods power, Rom. 4. 20. whereby Abraham gaue great glorie to God:10. Trust. Trust in Gods prouidence, a point much pressed by Christ:Math. 6. 25. &c. Perswasion of Gods diuine wise­dome, wherby all things are turned to the glorie of Gods name:11. Perswasion of Gods wise­dome. and other vertues of the like kind, whereby Gods name is also much hallowed.

4. For our Heart we desire that it may be wholly set vpon God:12. Loue. and that he may be made the obiect of all our liking affe­ctions,13. Ioy. to loue him with all our heart, 14. Delight. with all our soule, 15. Care. with all our mind: 16. Zeale. to ioy in the holy Ghost: to delight in his word: to care how to please him: Math. [...]2. 37. and to be eaten vp with a zeale of his glorie. And on the other side we desire that our disliking affections be set on that which disliketh him,Rom. 14. 17. as to hate sinne and obstinate sinners which are hatefull to him:Psal. 119. 77. to feare his displeasure:1. Cor. 7. 32. to grieue at his offence:Joh 2▪ 17. and to tremble at his iudgements.Psal. 139. 21.

5. For our Speech, Psal. 119. 120. we desire to mention the name of God, as we haue occasion,Psal 102. 9, 10. with all reuerence: yea and to take all occa­sions of speaking of the glorie of his name:2 Chro. 34. 27. for in this respect especially is our tongue,17. Sanctified speech. by an excellencie, called glorie. We de­sire therefore (when in truth, Deut. 28. 58. righteousnesse and iudgement it may be done) to sweare by his name:Psal. 45. 1. to call vpon his name; to praise his name:Psal. 57. 8. to declare his name to others, and to instruct them therein,Ier. 4 2. that so the name of God may be the more hallowed:Psal 50. 15, 23. yea aboue all to vse our glorie,Psal. 22. 22. our tongue in maintaining the truth of God,1. Pet. 3. 15. and in making a iust Apologie when question is made thereof.

6. For our life and outward actions,18. Holy life. we desire that they be holy, just,Math 5. 16. and blamelesse, that men may see our good workes and glorifie our Father which is in heauen. Ioh. 15. 8. Herein (saith Christ) is my Father glorified, 2. Cor. 8. 19. that ye beare much fruite: and S. Paul noteth workes of mercie to tend to the glorie of the Lord.

Q. What graces do we desire for others to the hallowing of Gods Name?Like graces desired for o­thers.

A. All those which we are to desire for our selues: that [Page 44] Gods name may be hallowed by others as well as our selues: which we are to desire, not onely for our children, families, kindred, neighbours, country-men, or such as we are by out­ward bands bound vnto, but indefinitly for all of all sorts: whereof we haue a worthy patterne in the 67. Psalme. Thus shall we shew that in this our desire we aime more at Gods glorie, (which is the maine scope of this Petition) then at the good of such as are any way deare vnto vs.

Q. What things do we desire that God by his ouer-ruling pro­uidence would turne to the hallowing of his Name?Pray that all things may make to Gods glorie.

A. Euery thing whatsoeuer: as

1. The vertues of his Saints,1. Cor. 8. 1. whereby else they may bee puffed vp.

2. The peace and prosperitie of his Saints,2. Chro. 26. 16. whereby else they may be drawne away from God.

3. The failings and folly of his Saints,Gen. 50. 20. as he did turne the enuie of Iosephs brethren to the accomplishment of his word.

4. The troubles and crosses of his Saints,Phil. 1. 20. that they sinke not vnder the burthen of them.

5. The wicked plots and practises of his enemies,Acts 4. 24. &c. and of the enemies of his Church.

6. All that all creatures do;Psal. 148. & 150. that thus in all places, at all times, in and by all things, the Name of God may be hallowed.

§. 32. Of the particulars for which thankes is to be giuen vnder the first Petition.

Q. TO what heads may those particulars, for which by reason of the first Petition we ought to giue thankes be, referred?

A. To the same that the particulars which we ought to pray for, were referred: which are

1. All things whereby we our selues are enabled to hallow Gods Name: whether in our soule, as theEphes. 1. 3. gifts and graces thereof: or in our bodie, asIsa. 38. 19, 20. health, strength, agilitie, and dexteritie to any thing that maketh to that end:1. Tim. 1. 12. or in our calling,1. Chro. 29. 12, 13. whether it appertaine toRom. 1. 8. Church, Common-wealth, or familie: or in our outward estate.

2. All things whereby others are enabled to hallow Gods Name:1. King. 10. 9. [Page 45] and that in their soule, bodie, calling, or estate.

3. All euents that any way make by the ouer-ruling prouidence of God to the hallowing of his name: as

1. All manner of blessings bestowed on his Churches and children.Psal. 147. 1 &c.

2. Iudgements executed on his or their enemies.Exod. 15. 1, &c.

3. Prouidence manifested in and vpon any creatures.Psal. 145. 1, 15.

§. 33. Of the duties required by reason of the first Petition.

Q. TO what heads may the duties, which by reason of the first Petition we are bound vnto, be referred?

A. Vnto two especially. One whereof respecteth our selues. The other respecteth others.

Q. What are we bound vnto in regard of our selues?

A. To make the best vse that we can of all the meanes which God affordeth to enable vs to ballow his Name, by giuing vs knowledge of God, bringing our wills in subiection to him, drawing our hearts vnto him, and breeding and increasing any of the forenamed graces in vs. For this end we ought

1. So to behold the creatures,Behold God in his creatures. and meditate on them, as we may discerne the stamp of God in them, and the euidences which they giue of his wisedome,Iob 42. 5. power, iustice, mercie, pro­uidence, &c. By this meanes did God bring Iob to a more full knowledge, and a more reuerend respect of his diuine Maiestie then he had before.Psal. 8. 1. &c. Dauid also by this meanes had his heart euen rauished with an holy admiration of God.

2. To take more distinct notice of God in and by his word.Know God by his word. The Scriptures are they that testifie of God.Ioh. 5. 39. And because for our helpe the Lord hath ordained and sanctified the preaching of his word (a powerfull meanes to breed and increase in vs all those graces whereby we may be the better enabled to hallow Gods name) we ought diligently to attend to it.Speake of Gods glorie.

3. To take all occasions of stirring vp our glory (as Dauid stileth our tongue) to speake of,Psal. 57. 8. and to spread abroad the glo­rie of Gods name:Psal 40. 9, 10. yea and to be willing to open our eares to [Page 46] them that are readie to speake of the same subiect: and by our mutuall conference to minister more and more matter there­abouts.

4. To order the whole course of our life,Honour God by thy life. Col. 1. 10. so as it may bee worthy of the Lord, and a meanes to bring honour to his name.Math. 5. 16.

Q. What are we bound vnto in regard of others?Bring others to honour God.

A. To do our vttermost endeauour to draw on others to hallow Gods name: Psal. 34 11. For this end we ought

1.Psal. 22. 22. To instruct such as are ignorant of God in the knowledge of God.Acts 18. 26.

2. To draw them to set their whole heart on God,Deut. 6. 4, 5. by com­mending to them the greatnesse and goodnesse of God, so as they may be enamoured therewith.

3. To encourage them to all good workes whereby God is glorified.

§. 34. Of the things to be bewailed in regard of the first Petition.

Q. VVHat are we to bewaile in regard of the first Pe­tition?

A. 1. Whatsoeuer is any way defectiue and wan­ting to the honour of God, so as, if it were more compleate, God might be more honoured thereby: As the elder Iewes which had seene the first Temple built by Salomon, Ezr. 3. 12. when they saw the foundation of the second Temple laid, wept with a loud voice, because that latter Temple was not so faire as the former. Thus if the brightnesse of the Gospell shine not forth so brightly, as it hath done formerly, or if any other way the glorie of God be obscured, it ministreth iust matter of much humiliation.

2. Whatsoeuer bringeth dishonour to Gods glorious name, as All manner of sinnes committed against any of the foure commandements of the first Table▪ vnder which head may bee comprised:

Psal. 10. 4. & 14. 1. 1. Atheisme: which is an vtter denying of God.

2. Ignorance of the true God; Gal. 4. 8. This makes men transferre [Page 47] the honour of God vpon others.2. Thes. 1. 8. Against such therefore will Christ come in flaming fire.

3. Errors of God. As when the vnitie of his nature, [...]rinitie of persons, perfection of power, mercie, iustice, wisedome, truth, or any other attributes are denied: or when God is in any meane respectPsal. 50. 21. 1. Sam. 15. 29. made like to man, or to any other creature.

4.1. Sam. 2. 30. Light esteeme of God: as when he is not trusted in, fea­red, loued, obeyed with all the mind and might.

5.Mal. 1. 10. Neglect of due worship: or yeelding false or carelesse seruice to him.

6.Deut. 28. 58. ler. 23. 10. Vndue vsing of his Name, as abusing the same by rash swearing, for-swearing, blasphemie, &c.

7.Psal. 119. 136. Prophanesse, and all manner of impietie.

8.1. Sam. 8. 7. Contempt of his image in such as he hath set ouer vs. These and such like tend directly to his dishonour.

To this head may be referred all such sinnes as make men at­tribute to others, or arrogate to themselues that which is due to God. Base flatterie and foolish admiration make some to deifie others: as theActs 12. 22. Tyreans did Herod. Selfe-con­ceipt, pride and arrogancie make others to deifie them­selues: [...] l Ezek. 28. 2. as Tyrus did.

3.Dan. 9. 5. &c. Ier. 9. 1, 2. 3. 2. Sam. 12. 14, 16 The sinnes of others, especially of such as prosesse them­selues members of the Church, which cause the name of God to be blasphemed.

4. The euill euents which follow from any of the troubles that befall the Church: as2. Tim. 4. 16. feare of man more then of God, de­nying the truth of God, and Apostasie.

5. All the aduantages that enemies of God and of his Saints do any way get.Psal. 10. 13.—42. 3. Their insultations, and cursed exprobrations, and that against God himselfe.

§. 35. Of Gods kingdome: what it is, and what be the kinds of it.

Q. VVHich is the second Petition?

A. Thy kingdome come.

Q. What is the kingdome of God?

[Page 48] A. That estate where as a King he ruleth. For that is a king­dome where a King raigneth and ruleth. Where God therefore raigneth, there is his kingdome.

Q. How doth God raigne as a King?

A. 1. By his absolute power he raigneth ouer the whole world.

2. By his speciall grace he raigneth ouer his Church.

According to this different manner of Gods raigning is his kingdome distinguished. For

1. He hath an vniuersall kingdome,Gods vniuersall kingdome. Vbi (que), regnat, v­bi (que), imperat, v­bi (que), maiestas eius. Bern. de verb. Isay. Serm. 5. called his kingdome of power: because by his absolute and supreme power he ouer-ru­leth all creatures whatsoeuer, or wheresoeuer they be In regard of this vniuersall soueraignty of God, the Scripture saith, His kingdome ruleth ouer all. For who hath resisted his will? And there­upon he saith vnto God,Psal. 103 19. How terrible art thou in thy workes? Through the greatnesse of thy power shall thine enemies submit themsel [...]es to thee. Rom. 9. 19.

2. He hath a peculiar kingdome,Psal. 66. 3. called his kingdome of Grace, Gods peculiar kingdome, his Church. whereby he raigneth ouer a select people culled out of the world, which voluntarily yeeld obedience vnto him. The companie of this people, is in one word the Church: and it is a societie chosen of God,Sanè secundum praedestinatio­nem nunquam Ecclesia electoric penes deum non suit. Bern. super Cant. Serm. 78. redeemed by Christ, called and sancti­fied by the holy Ghost, which hath bene in all ages of the world, some in heauen, others on earth spread ouer the face thereof farre and neare: in which respects it is stiled the holy Ca­tholicke Church. This is properly the kingdome of Christ, in, and by whom the Father raigneth. For it is said, that a kingdome was giuen to the Sonne of man: Dan. 7. 14. Of whom saith the Father, I haue set my King vpon my holy hill of Sion: Psal. 2. 6. whose people shall be willing in the day of his power. Psal. 110. 3.

Herein lyeth a maine difference betwixt Gods manner of go­uernment in his vniuersall, and in his peculiar kingdome, that the worlds subiection is forced, Psal. 66. 3.—110 3. but the Churches subiection is free.

§. 36. Of Gods raigning ouer rebels.

TOuching that vniuersall kingdome of God ouer all crea­tures in all places, seeing there are many which rebell [Page 49] against God and say,Psal. 2. 3. Let vs breake his bonds asinder, and cast his cords from vs: Luke 19. 14. We will not haue him to reigne ouer vs: and therupon walke according to the Prince of the [...]re, Eph. 2. [...] the spirit which worketh in the children of disobedience: and seeing the diuell is the god of this world, a doubt may be made, how God can be said to be their King, and Gods kingdome thus vniuersally extended ouer the whole world.

Answ. 1. Rebelion of subiects taketh not away the right of a Soueraigne.Psal. 2. 1, 6. Christ therefore notwithstanding the tumult of people is said to be a King.

2. None can do any thing at all without his permission. In­stance the arch-rebell of all,Iob 1. 11.—2. 5. of all, Satan, in the case of Iob. Instance also the many plots and practises of the wicked, which in all a­ges by an ouer-ruling hand of God haue bene disappointed and made void.

3. God can,2. King. 19. 28. when and as it pleaseth him restraine them, as he restrained Senacherib: yea and beate them downe, and vtterly destroy them,Exod. 14. 28. as he destroyed Pharaoh and his whole hoste.

4. Satan to whom the fore-named rebels are subiect, is but Gods executioner:1. King. 22. 2 [...]. he is one of the number of Gods seruants, though of his guiltie and reprobate seruants.Satan vnus de numero seruor [...] est, licet reorum iam, atque re­proborum, Chrys. hom. 20. in Mat. 6. So as euen in that power, which Satan hath ouer them, God sheweth himselfe to be their King.

Q. Is this vniuersall kingdome of God here ment?

A. No further then that God would order it to the good of his peculiar kingdome, which is here principally intended.

§. 37. Of the kingdome of Grace and Glorie.

Q. HOw may the peculiar kingdome of God be considered?

A. 1. In the beginning, and progresse of it.

2. In the consummation, and perfection of it.

In the former respect it consisteth of a mixture of euill per­sons with good ones:Kingdome of Grace. and of euill qualities, in those good per­sons, with good ones:Math. 13. 24.—47. in regard of which mixtures it is resem­bled to a field wherein grow tares with wheate: and to a draw­net which gathereth of all sorts:Mar. 4. 26. and to corne which ariseth with straw and chaffe, as well as with sound and solid graine.

[Page 50] In the latter respect it consisteth onely of such as are euery way perfectly good:Kingdome of glorie. and therefore said to shine as the Sunne,Math. 13. 41, 43. which hath no darknesse,Reu. 21. 27. nor any speck or spot in it. In the for­mer respect especially, it is called a kingdome of Grace: and that:

1. In opposition to those who neuer were,Why the king­dome of grace is so called. nor euer shall be of it: and therefore are obiects of Gods seuere iustice and re­uenging power:Ier. 10. 25. but in it grace raigneth.

2. For distinction from those who are translated out of it in­to heauen.Rom. 5. 21. For by reason of the many temptations and imper­fections whereunto the Saints on earth are subiect, thy stand in need of much more grace then the Saints in heauen, who are iust and perfect. Heb. 12. 23.

In the latter respect it is called a kingdome of Glory,Why the king­dome of glorie is so called. and that by reason of the Place, where it is, and of the Persons, which are of it.

1. The Place where it is, is the most glorious place of all the world: euen the highest heauens.

2. The Persons, both King and Subiects thereof are decked with vnspeakable glorie. The King doth there manifest his glo­rie more then any where else: as brightly as can possibly by the creature be discerned. The Subiects there partake of as much glorie as they are capable of: and that in soule and body: so as they are all glorious within and without.

§. 38. Of the difference betwixt the kingdome of [...]Grace. Glorie.

THis kingdome of Grace, and of Glorie, is but one and the same kingdome: distinguished into two parts, which differ in sixe circumstances.

1. In Time. The kingdome of Grace is now present while here we liue. The kingdome of Glorie is to come.

2. In Place. This of Grace is on earth: that of Glorie in heauen.

3. In Condition. This is continually warfairing against many enemies: in which respect it is stiled the Church militant; That triumpheth ouer all the enemies: in which respect it is called the Church triumphant.

[Page 51] 4. In Order of entring into them. This is to be entred into, and passed through before we can enter into that. The Priest was to enter through the Sanctuarie into the Sanctum San­ctorum.

5. In the manner of Gouernment. This is gouerned and or­dered by many subordinate meanes, as Magistrates, Ministers, and sundrie ordinances. That immediatly by God him­selfe.

6. In Continuance. This hath a date, and is to come to an end. That is euerlasting without end.

§. 39. Of the Churches Gouernment.

Q. VVHat learne we from this title, kingdome, here ap­plied to the Church?

A. Gods Church is a well gouerned estate. Psal. 122. 3. There­in is a King: a iust, wise, and potent King. No King is or can be like to him. He can, not onely restraine and subdue his ene­mies, but also change their hearts, and linke them to his sub­iects. He can make the Wolfe dwell with the Lambe, &c. Isa. 11. 6. &c. Therein are righteous lawes, excellent priuiledges, and all things requi­site for a well ordered politie, all tending to the good of the subiects. For it is the estate whereof God taketh most care.Exod. 19. 5.

They therefore that seeke to take away order,Order in the Church. and to bring confusion into the Church, do much dishonour this kingdome and the King thereof,1. Cor. 14. 33. who is not the author of confusion but peace. So do they also who professe themselues to be members of the Church,Iudg 21. 25. and yet liue as if they were without law, in no king­dome, vnder no gouernment.

This condition of the Church, to be a kingdome (if the King, scepter, lawes, and priuiledges thereof were well knowne) would be a strong motiue to draw such,Isa. 11. 10. as are out of the Church into it: and to retaine such as are of it, in it, and to make them say, It is good to be here. There is nothing worthy to be desired in a kingdome, but is after a most excellent manner in this king­dome: as, sufficient supply of all things needfull: safe protection against all things hurtfull.

[Page 52] Thus much of this title kingdome. The next word to be conside­red is, come.

§. 40. Of the encrease of the Church.

Q. VVHat doth this word, come, import?

A. 1. A want of perfection.

2. A progresse thereto.

The word,Cui dicitur, veni, nondum perue­neral. Bern. in Cant. Serm. 25. come, is metaphoricall. That which is comming is not where it would be: it may yet go further: and in that it is comming, it doth step by step draw nearer and nearer to that whereunto it would come: otherwise it did not come but stand still. Hereby then we are giuen to vnderstand that the king­dome here spoken of hath not yet attained to the highest pitch,Adueniat regn [...] tuum, veniat v­ti (que), quod perfe­ctain est, & eua­cuetur quod est ex parte Bern. Serm. in Nat. Mar. and fullest perfection thereof. Therefore we desire that by de­grees it may so proceed on thereto, as it may at length attaine that whereunto it doth proceed: that that which is in part may depart, and that which is perfect may be accomplished.

Q. To which of Gods kingdomes is this Metaphor to be applied?

A. To his peculiar kingdome, the Church, in both the parts thereof, militant, and triumphant. In the militant Church it is to be extended to all that in Gods decree are deputed thereto, whether called or not called. To such as are not called, that they may be called, and so come into the kingdome of grace. To such as are called that they may be more and more fitted to come into the kingdome of glorie: so as it may be full and per­fect in all the parts thereof.

§. 41. Of the Churches imperfection.

Q. WHat doctrine doth this desire of the comming of Gods kingdome imply?

A. Gods Church is not yet perfect. This is true of both the parts of the Church, militant, and triumphant.

The militant Church, whether it be considered in the seue­rall assemblies and congregations thereof (which consist of such as are but hypocrites, as well as such as are vpright) or in the best of those particular persons (which make vp those congre­gations, [Page 53] and hath in them flesh as well as spirit) cannot bee denied to be imperfect: whereupon, as in regard of the mix­ture of good and euill personsCant 2. 2. Dicuutur spinae propter maligni­tatem morum: d cuntur fili [...] propter commu­nionem sacra­mentorum. Christ saith of his Church, As a Lilly among thornes, so is my loue among the daughters (Thornes they are called for their wicked disposition, but daughters for their communion in holy things) so in regard of the mixture of spirit and slesh in such as are vpright; she saith of her selfe,Cant. 1. 4. Posest spous [...] cum pulchritu­dine naeuo non carere nigredi­nis. Bern. in Cant. Serm. 25. I am blacke, but comely. Blacke by reason of her infirmities, and imperfections, as well as of her afflictions and persecutions. For with some comelinesse there may be blacknesse.

The triumphant Church also, though in regard of that part thereof which is in heauen, it beEphes. 5. 27. glorious, not hauing spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing, yet because the combate of all that blessed communion is not yet full, and the bodies of them whose soules are in glory, yet be in the power of death, may be truely said to be imperfect. For theActs 3. 21. [...] ab H [...]sychio, exponitur [...] times of restitution, or per­fection of all things is to come. God will haue his creatures waite for it.Hab. 2. 3. The vision is yet for an appointed time: though it tar­rie, wait for it, because it will surely come.

Shall now particular Churches, which by the true notes of a Church may be proued to be true Churches, bee denied to bee Churches, and forsaken because of some imperfections therein? They who will abide in no Church but in that which is per­fect, may wander from Church to Church, and finde none on earth to abide in. Were it not for the Churches imperfection there would not be so great need of this Petition. This is thus noted not to iustifie any corruption, or imperfection. For this Petition which implyeth impersection, enioyneth vs to pray against it. And that which is prayed against must not be patro­nized: but rather the best meanes that can be must bee vsed to redresse the same.

As not particular Churches, so nor particular persons must be mis-iudged by reason of the imperfection of grace, or the corruption of flesh remaining in them. All here on earth is in part, all is imperfect. Spirits of iust men made perfect are to bee found in heauen, not on earth.Heb 12▪ 23. [...] They that think themselues per­fect are for the most part furthest from perfection. Let vs for our parts be of the same minde whereof the blessed Apostle [Page 56] was,Phil. 3. 12, 14. not to thinke our selues already perfect, but to follow hard after perfection, and to presse toward the marke for the price of the high calling of God in Iesus Christ.

§. 42. Of mans inabilitie to come vnto God.

Q. VVHat learne wee from the application of this word COME to the Kingdome of God?

A. Man of himselfe cannot come to Gods Kingdome. It must come to him, Isa. 65. 1. before he can come to it. I was found (saith the King of this Kingdome) of them that sought me not.Ioh▪ 16. 44. For, No man can come vnto him except the Father draw him: which made the Church thus to pray and promise, Cant. 1. 3. Draw me and we will runne after thee.

Man by nature is dead in sume. Ephes. 2. 1. Non iam capti­uos ocul [...]s extol­le [...]e in al [...]um Sponte potest, &c Prosp. de Ingra. c. 40. Can hee that is dead come, till he be come vnto, and haue life put into him?

Hereby both the free preuenting grace of God is com­mended vnto vs, and also all selfe-conceit in man is remoued, and much matter of humiliation ministred vnto him.

§ 43. Of the force of this word THY in the second Petition.

Q. TO whom hath this particle▪ THY relation?

A. Euen to him to whom the same Particle had relation in the former Potition. And it doth here im­port the same things that it did there. 1. A reason. 2. A re­straint. 3. An extent of this Petition.

A Reason, as it is referred both to the Preface, and also to the first Petition. The kingdome here meant is the kingdome of him who is our Father, who is in heauen, and whose name is to be hallowed. Great reason therefore that we should pray for this Kingdome to come.

A Restraint, as it implyeth that this Kingdome onely should be desired to come. So as, not any kingdome which is contra­rie to this, and hindreth the comming of this, but euery king­dome which is any helpe to the comming of this, in that onely respect as it is such an helpe, ought to be desired to come.

[Page 57] An Extent, in that it implyeth a comming fit for such a king­dome as Gods is: yea, and answerable to the excellencie of him who is the King thereof.

§. 44. Of Gods power to make his Kingdome come.

Q. WHat learne wee from directing this Petition vnto God?

A. It is in the power of God to perfect his Church. He can ga­ther all the parts thereof together: and bring them all to that measure of perfection which is meetest for them. Otherwise it were in vaine to make this Petition to him.1. Cor. 3. 7. It is God that giueth the encrease. It is he that is able to make grace to abound. 2. Cor. 9. 8.

Let vs therefore euer call vpon him to be fauourable vnto Si­on, and to build vp the walles of Ierusalem: Psal. 51. 18. and let vs in faith depend on him for the good of his Church: and so long as hee remaineth King thereof not feare what any creature can doe a­gainst it.Psal. 118. 6.

Thus much of the meaning of the words, and instructions ari­sing out of them. The order and fit inference of this Petition vpon the former followeth.

§. 45. Of the best meanes, and fittest persons to hallow Gods Name.

Q. VVHy is this second Petition inferred on the first?

A. 1. To point out the best meanes of hal­lowing Gods Name.

2. To shew what persons are fittest thereto.

Q. What is the best meanes?

A. The Church:Psal. 65. 1. wherein praise waiteth for God. For God is knowne in Iudah:Psal. 76. 1. his name is great in Israel. No where is God so well knowne as in his Church.

Q. Who are the fittest persons to hallow Gods Name?

A. Such as are members of the Church. Them therfore doth Dauid cal vpon to praise the Lord. Psal. 135. 19, 20, 21. No other persons can hallow Gods Name aright: for this is a worke of Gods sanctifying Spirit.1. Cor. 12, 3. No man can say that Iesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.

[Page 56] Vpon the two forenamed grounds, we ought the more ear­nestly to pray for the Church, that so the Name of God may be the more hallowed.Dan. 9. 19. This moued Daniel to bee exceeding fer­uent in Prayer to God for his Church.

§. 46. Of the spirituall blessings to be craued for the whole militant Church.

Q. VVHat are the particular good things which by vertue of the second Petition we ought to pray for?

A. All such things as concerne the good of the Church mi­litant, or triumphant.

In our Prayer for the Church militant we ought to haue re­spect to the things which concerne the whole body, or the seue­rall parts thereof, whether they bee more remote, or nearer to vs, and so we more especiall members thereof.

Q. What are wee to pray for in regard of the whole bodie of the Church militant?

A. 1. That God would blesse it with all needfull bles­sings both spirituall and temporall.

2. That he would protect it from all manner of euill.

Vnder the blessings craued for the Church the meanes which God hath sanctified for the better effecting of them are com­prised.

Q. What are the spirituall blessings which wee ought to desire for the Church on earth?Spirituall bles­sings for the whole militant Church.

A. 1. In generall that as God hath chosen it to bee as his Vineyard and Orchard, so he would take an especiall care of it, hauing his eye continually vpon it, to plant it, to water it, to fence it, to doe for it whatsoeuer he himselfe seeth requisite for it. Because we know that God better knoweth, then we doe, what is good for his Chnrch, therefore ought our desire of the good thereof to be referred to him, & extended to that know­ledge which he hath of it. To which purpose Dauid thus pray­eth, Doe good in thy good pleasure vnto Sion. Psal. 51. 18.

2. In particular we ought to desire both the dayly encrease of Gods Church on earth; and also the establishment of it.

[Page 57] For the encrease of it two especiall things are to bee desired, and that indefinitely without any limitation to any particular place.

1. That where no Church is,Pray that Chur­ches may be where none are Psal. 67. 2. God would bee pleased to plant one. Such ought the extent of our desire to be herein, as to pray that Gods sauing health may be knowne among all Nati­ons. Especially among such as haue a particular promise made to them,Rom. 11. 25, 26. as the Iewes. Psal. 67. 4. On this ground when they were a peo­ple, and we none, they prayed for vs.

2. That where any foundation of a Church is laid,Pray that Chur­ches planted may encrease. God would cause the building answerably to bee reared vp. To which purpose Dauid in his forenamed prayer addeth this clause,Psal. 51. 18. Build thou the walls of Ierusalem. This was the maine thing which the Apostles aimed at in that powerfull prayer which with one accord they made vnto God. Acts 4. 24. On this ground we haue iust cause to pray for Virginia, and other like Planta­tions.

For the establishment of the Church, two things also are to be desired.

1. That such Churches as are built vp may bee kept from ruine:Pray for preser­uation of Churches. 1. Thes. 3. 10, &c. and the people thereof from reuolt. On this ground we ought to pray for the Churches now in Europe.

2. That if any breaches haue beene made, they may bee re­paired, and such people as haue reuolted bee restored.Pray for reco­uerie of Chur­ches. On this ground wee ought to pray as for those Churches of Greece, which were planted by the Apostles, so for all those Chur­ches which hauing receiued the light of the Gospell,Dan. 9. 16. haue returned [...] Popery.Psal. 80. 14.

Q. Which are the meanes that wee ought to pray for, as sanctified of God for obtaining the forenamed blessings.

A. They are of two sorts.

1. Outward; Outward meanes of the Churches good the sacred ordinances of God.

2. Inward; the sanctifying operation of Gods holy Spirit.

Of outward meanes there are three especiall kinds.

1. The chiefest and most absolutely necessarie is the Mini­sterie of Gods Word.

2. The next to that is the administration of the Sacraments.

[Page 58] 3. The last, which is also of very good vse, is Ecclesiasticall gouernment.

By the Ministerie of the Word both such as are out of the Church are gathered into it:1. The word. Psal. 45 6.—110. 2. and they also that are in it, are further built vp in all needfull graces. That is Christs Scepter whereby he gouerneth his Church:Mat. 13. 19. and wherein his statutes, and ordinances,Psal. 147. 19. and all the priuiledges of the Church are con­tained.

By administration of the Sacraments that grace which is wrought by the Word,2. Sacraments. is confirmed, and established. These are Christs seales to ratifie his Couenant,Rom. 4. 11. and all his promises made vnto his Church.

By the Ecclesiasticall gouernment well ordered many scandals and stumbling blockes are remoued,3. Gouernment. or auoided. Such as are free-hearted and forward are encouraged; such as are back­ward and slothfull, are pricked on; such as are vnruly, and re­fractarie are bridled, and kept in compasse.

Q. What are we to pray for in regard of the ordinances of God?Pray for free vse of Gods or­dinances.

A. That they may bee freely and purely exercised. Pray (saith the Apostle) that the word of the Lord may RVNNE; (that is haue a free and a speedie passage) and be glorified, 2. Thes. 3. 1. [...] that is, be purely and powerfully preached. That which hee apply­eth to the Word, may also be extended to other holy ordinan­ces of God; which that they may be freely and purely exerci­sed,Pray for Mini­sters. we are to pray both for Ministers, & also for Magistrates. For Ministers especially,Mat. 9. 38. that the Lord would send forth labourers into his haruest: Ephes. 6. 19. and giue them vtterance, that they may open their mouth boldly to make known the mysterie of the Gospel: so as Abili­tie, Libertie, and Integritie, are to be prayed for in the behalfe of Ministers. Of all other functions none more needful, none more vsefull for the Church: none can lesse be spared then Ministers. Wherefore more instant Prayer is to be made for them.Pray for Magi­strates. Magi­strates also,Psal. 49. 23. [...] who are promised to be giuen as nourishers & nurses of the Church, may by their good gouernment procure much good to the Church, as Mordecai did. Wee ought therefore to pray for them:Est. 10. 3. that God would raise vp men of worth, that may feede his people according to the integritie of their heart, and guide them by the skilfulnesse of their hands, Psal 78. 72. as Dauid did. Where [Page 59] there are none to beare rule,Iudg. 21. 25. euery man doth that which is good in his owne eyes: whence must needs follow much confusi­on. And where there are euill Magistrates, people are oft drawne to follow their euill courses: witnesse this stile giuen to the first King of Israel, Ieroboam which made Israel to sinne. 2 King. 10. 31. If they will not follow their euill courses, they shall bee sure to be oppressed. For when the wicked beareth rule, Pro. 29. 2. the people mourne.

Q. What ought wee to pray for in regard of the sanctifying ope­ration of Gods Spirit?

A. That it may alwaies accompany all the outward meanes ordained of God for the good of his Church.Pray for the power of the Spirit. For nei­ther is he that planteth any thing: nor hee that watereth: but God that giueth the encrease: which hee giueth by the worke of his Spirit.1. Cor. 3. 7. The Spirit giueth life. The Apostle therefore prayeth for them that had heard the Word of Truth, 2. Cor. 3. 6. that God would giue them the Spirit of wisedome and reuelation. Ephes. 1. 13, 17. By the operation of Gods Spirit are all Gods ordinances made powerfull and ef­fectuall.

§. 47. Of praying for the outward temporall estate of the Church.

Q. VVHat are we to pray for in regard of the temporall estate of the Church?

A. All needfull peace and prosperitie.Psal. 122. 7, 7. Though all tempo­rall blessings be comprised in the fourth Petition; yet so farre forth as they tend to the good of the Church, being a meanes that the Gospell may be preached, and the Sacraments admi­nistred more freely, that people may bee more incouraged to come into the Church, and to abide in the Church, that Eccle­siasticall gouernment may be the better exercised, they belong to this Petition. Yet because the Church like a Palme-tree doth oft better grow, at least in purity, when it is pressed with ad­uersitie, we are in our desire of the outward peace and prospe­ritie of the Church to submit our desire to the wisedome of God, and no further to desire it, then God seeth it to be need­full, and vsefull for the Church.

§. 48. Of the extent of our Prayer for the good of the Church after our time.

Q. HOw farre ought our desire for the good of the Church to extend?

A. To present, and to succeeding times, that the Church of God may prosper, flourish and increase both in our dayes, and also in the dayes of our posteritie from time to time, till the day of perfect consummation, which is the day of the glorious appearing of Iesus Christ. For this end wee are to pray for Seminaries of Ministers,Pray for Semi­naries. Ma­gistrates and Christian people: as Schooles of learning, Colledges, Vniuersities, Innes of Court, and other such like places where youth are trained vp and fitted to bee vsefull members of the Church: yea also wee ought to pray for Christian Families, that in them children may from their infancie be trained vp in pietie. In the Scripture there is frequent mention made of children of the Prophets, 2. Kin. 2. 3, 5, 7. & 4. 1. & 6. 1. which were trained vp vnder Prophets to succeed them in their functions. And there were Colledges, and other like places for training vp of these.2 King 22. 14.

Concerning Seminaries, 1. Sam. 19. 18. 20. wee are to desire two things espe­cially.

1. A continuance of them.

2. Gods blessing on them: that they may flourish in good learning, and that their learning may be seasoned with Grace: for otherwise it may proue more dangerous then commodious to the Church of God.

This extent of our desire for the good of Gods Church after our time, sheweth, that therein wee aime more at Gods glory, and his Churches good, then at any priuate benefit to our selues.

§. 49. Of praying against euills which annoy the Church.

Q. VVHat are the euills from which we ought to pray that the Church may be protected?

A. The dominion of sinne, of Satan, and of all euill men which are Satans ministers and instruments.

These haue kingdomes:Rom. 5. 21. for sinne raigneth, and that vnto death, where it findeth entertainment: and it maketh men ser­uants vnto it selfe.Rom. 6. 17. Satan also is the god and Prince of this world. and as a Prince he ruleth and worketh in the children of disobedience, 2 Cor. 4. 4. Ioh. 14. 30. All tyrants, persecutors, and such like enemies of the Church,Eph. 2. 2. being in authoritie, are the deputies, and Vice-roys of sinne and Satan: vsing the vttermost of their power to bring men into subiection vnder sinne and Satan: the chiefest of these is Anti­christ. The kingdome of all these is contrary to Christs king­dome: and the standing of them hindereth the comming of Christs kingdome: and in that respect are we to pray that they may be weakned and demolished. Yea we are to pray that euerything which causeth offence in the Church may be remo­ued:Math. 13. 41. for which we haue an expresse promise.

These are the suits which we ought to put vp for the Church indefinitely: and for such parts thereof as we neuer knew, saw, or heard of.

§. 50. Of the things to be craued for particular Churches which we know.

Q. HOw ought we to pray for particular Churches whose estate we know?

A. We ought to frame our prayers according to that wee heare, see, or otherwise know of any. As

1. If any especiall blessing be bestowed on any,Col. 1. 9, 10. to pray that it may be continued and increased.

2. If any mischieuous plots be practised against any,Est. 4. 16, 17. to pray that they may be preuented.Acts: 2. 5.

3. If ministers or other members of any Churches be sur­prised,Heb. 13. 19. [Page 62] to pray that they may be deliuered.

4. If persecution be raised against any Church,Acts 4. 29. to pray that either that fire may be quenched,1. Pet. 5. 10. or else that sufficient courage and strength may be giuen to such as are persecuted to hold out, and endure the vttermost tryall.

5. If any noysome weeds of Idolatrie,Gal. 5. 12. heresie, schisme, or the like, sprout vp in any Church, to pray that they may bee rooted out. To sharpen our prayer herein, we ought oft to call to mind that which in this case is promised by Christ, Euery plant which my heauenly Father hath not planted shall bee rooted vp. Math. 15. 13.

This is that true vse which we are to make of the knowledge that we haue of the estate of any of Gods Churches.

§. 51. Of praying for the Churches whereof in particular we are members.

Q. HOw ought we to be affected towards those particular Churches whereof we are more immediate members?

A. 1. Our prayers ought to be more particularly applyed to them.

2 They ought to be more earnestly extended for their good.

To giue some instances of the particular application of our prayers in this kind.

1. We ought by name to pray for the Churches in the land wherein we liue:Pray by name for our owne Churches. as the Iewes in speciall manner prayed for Sion and for Ierusalem.Psal. 74. 2. & 137. 5, 6. Thus we of England ought in particu­lar and by name to pray for the Churches therein: yea because Scotland and Ireland are vnder the same gouernment that wee are, by name to pray for those Churches also.

2. We ought by name to pray for the Magistrates that are set ouer vs:And for our owne Magi­strates and Mi­nisters. as for the Kings Maiestie, so also for inferiour Magi­strates. And for the Ministers of Gods word in the said domi­nions.1. King. 1. 37, 47 Psal. 72. 1.

3. We ought more especially to pray for the Citie,Psal. 132. 9. Towne,And for the pla­ces of our a­bode. or Parish where we liue. Ieremiah exhorted the Iewes when they were in captiuitie to pray vnto the Lord of the Citie where they abode. Ier. 29. 7. Ought not wee much more to pray for the Citie or [Page 63] Parish where we are in our owne Countrie, & where we freely enioy the holy ordinances of God? Here we ought by name to remember the Minister that is set ouer vs;Ephes. 6. 19. pray saith the Apostle, and for me.

4. Yet more frequently and earnestly ought we to pray for the family where we are,And for our fa­milie. whether we be the head, or other members thereof. Christ bid his disciples into whatsoeuer house they entred to pray that peace might be to it: Luke 10. 5. much more ought we to desire the good of the familie where we haue our continuall abode. We ought by vertue of this Petition to pray that our familie in particular may be a seminarie and nurcerie of the Church: yea that it may be a Church (as the houses of Philemon, Aquila, and Priscilla were) which they are,Phile. 2. when morning and euening sacrifices of the calues of our lips are con­stantly offered vp therein:Rom. 16. 5. and other duties of pietie meete to be performed in a familie, are there conscionably obserued. Such ought euery ones desire to be for his owne familie, that if pietie should be banished out of the Land or Parish where he liues,Ios. 24. 15. yet it should find harbour in his house: which was the holy resolution of Ioshua.

5. Finally,And for our owne persons. because euery ones person is most neare to him­selfe, euery one ought most of all to pray for himselfe, that his person may be a fit temple for the holy Ghost: 2. Cor. 6. 16. and though the house where we liue be an impure and impious place, no mem­ber of any true Church, yet that he himselfe may be as Ioseph was in the house of Potiphar, Gen. 39. 2. a faithfull member of the true Church, a free-hearted subiect of the kingdome of God: and for this end euery one ought to pray that in his person he may be sanctified throughout, and his whole spirit, and soule, and bodie, be kept blamelesse vnto the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ. 1. Thes. 5. 23.

This is that true and proper vse which wee are to make of those bonds whereby we are outwardly linked one to another, that as we are more nearely knit one to another, so more spe­cially and instantly to pray that they to whom we are in out­ward bonds linked, may with vs be fast knit to the bodie of Christ, and as true members thereof may beautifie and honour it:Col. 2. 19. and that all the bodie by ioynts and bands hauing nourishment mini­stred, and knit together may encrease with the encrease of God.

[Page 64] Thus we see how our desire ought to be ordered for the mi­litant Church. It ought in generall to be extended to the whole bodie wheresoeuer: more particularly applied to the seuerall parts of it, as we haue any notice thereof: and more earnestly extended for such parts as wee our selues are more nearely knit vnto.

§. 52. Of the things to bee desired for the Church triumphant.

Q. VVHat are we to pray for in regard of the triumphant Church, the kingdome of glorie?

A. The full perfection, and consummation thereof. Whereunto tend these particulars following.

1. That we which liue in this kingdome of Grace,1. Pray to be fit­ted for heauen. may be fitted and prepared for that kingdome of Glorie: that we may be presented as a chaste and pure Virgine to our Husband Christ. 2. Cor. 11. 2. Such a prayer did the Apostle vse to make for the members of the mi­litant Church.1. Thes. 5. 23.

2. That we may be loosed, and be with Christ in that glorious place.2. Pray to be in heauen. For the gathering of such into the kingdome of Glorie,Phil. 1. 23. as belong thereunto helpeth forward the consummation of it.Hoc optamus vt finem nostris fa­ciat malis & nos assumat in reg­num. Aug. de Temp. Serm. 126 How we may pray for death. Votum affectus magis quam ef­fectus.

Obiect. How can this desire of being dissolued stand with the vnchangeable decree of God concerning the appointed time of mans death?

Answ. This kind of prayer rather sheweth what we could desire, if the will of God were so, then what we would whe­ther it were Gods will or no. Neither is it made to alter Gods determined purpose, but to manifest our longing desire after that which God in his eternall counsell hath purposed for vs. Thus did many of the faithfull Israelites, Math. 13. 17. that liued long before the Messiah was exhibited,1. King. 19. 4. Ionah 43. desire to see him. An absolute desire of present death (as was the desire of Eliah, and Ionah) is not warrantable, but a longing after death to be in the kingdome of Glorie (as was the desire of Paul) is very commen­dable.Phil. 1. 23.

3. That the number of those whom God hath ordained to3. Pray for ac­complishing the number of the Elect. [Page 65] make full the body of Christ, may be accomplished. For there is a certaine number ordained vnto eternall life, Rom. 8. 29, 30. till that he be full, the kingdome of Glorie cannot in all the parts thereof be con­summate.

4. That the signes which in Gods word are fore-told to goe before the comming of Christ may accordingly fall out:4. Pray for the signes of Christs comming. that by the sight of them we may be the more erected to looke for the glorious appearing of Christ. Math. 24, 29, &c. There are signes fore-told; these therefore must be prayed for.5 Pray against enemies of the Church.

5. That all the obstinate enemies of the Church which any way hinder the full and perfect consummation thereof may be destroyed: and those not only wicked men, and cruell tyrants, and persecutors, but also death, and him that hath the power of death,1. Cor. 15. 15. the diuell. The destruction of these is promised: so as there is good ground to pray for it.

6. That the bodies of all the Saints which from the begin­ning haue slept, 6. Pray for the resurrection. may be raised from death, to be vnited to their soules,1 Thes. 4. 16. and brought vnto the kingdome of Glorie. For this is absolutely promised.

Obiect. This is to pray for the dead.

Answ. Not for this or that particular friend departed whose estate we certainly know not:How prayers to be made, or not to be made for the dead. but in generall for all the true members of Christs celestiall bodie: nor to obtaine that for them which was to be obtained in the times of their life, remis­sion of sinnes: nor yet to alter their finall estate, the doome whereof passed vpon them at the moment of their dissolution: but onely as their resurrection is a degree to the perfecting of the kingdome of Glorie, we being taught to pray for the full perfection of that kingdome, pray indefinitely for the resurre­ction of the Saints which is a degree thereto.

7. That Christ would come in his glorie to iudgement:7. Pray for Christs coming. Reu. 22. 17. 20. Mat. 13. 41, 49. & 25. 32. &c. and make a perfect separation betwixt the elect and reprobate. For so much is foretold and promised.

8. That all the members of Christs mysticall bodie being glorified with him,8. Pray for the full glorificatiō of the Church. He may deliuer vp the kingdome to God the Fa­ther, that God may be all in all. For so much is also foretold.1. Cor. 15. 24, 28.

§. 53. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen by reason of the second Petition.

Q. FOr what are we to giue thankes by vertue of the second Peti­tion?

A. Euery thing that maketh to the good of Gods Church, whether directly, by blessings bestowed on it, or conse­quently, by restraining or ouer-throwing the enemies of it, mini­streth iust matter of thanks-giuing. We are therefore to be thankfull in the behalfe of the Church, in these cases following, and others like to them.

1.Acts 11. 18. When Churches are planted where none were before. Thus the Iewes glorified God, when they heard that the Gospell was embraced of the Gentiles.

2. When such Churches as are planted do thriue and pros­per. For this did S.2. Thes. 1. 3. Paul giue thankes in the behalfe of the Thes­salonians.

3. When good Magistrates are raised vp. In which case the Queene of Sheba blessed God for setting Salomon on the throne of Israel.1. King 10. 9. Much more are we to blesse God for good Ministers of his word: and that not onely when they are first raised vp, but also when being restrained by sicknesse or any other meanes,2. Cor. 1. 3, 11. they are againe restored.

4.1. Thes, 1. 2, 8. When the Gospell hath a free passage, and soundeth forth from one place to another.

5.1. Thes. 1. 5. When the ministry of the word is in power, and fruitfull a­mong the Saints.Col. 1. 6.

6.Psal. 147. 12, 13, 14. When the Church hath rest, peace, and prosperitie.

7. When such as are persecuted stand stedfast in the faith: and are not terrified with any oppositions against the truth,1. Thes. 3. 8, 9. nor drawne to denie the same.

8.Psal. 124. 6. When the Church is deliuered from any plots of the ene­mies against it.

9.Est. 9. 17. When vengeance is executed on the enemies of the Church.Exod. 15 1.

10. When Seminaries of the Church, as Schooles of learning, Colleges, and Vniuersities do prosper.

[Page 67] 11.2. Ioh. 4. When pietie is planted in families: especially in our owne.

12.Phile. 4. When priuate Christians grow in Grace: especially if with­all they edifie one another.

13.Congratulemur, vt dignum est, patri nostro: qus a & pium est de­functum plange­re Malachiam, & pium magi [...] Malachiae con­gaudere viuenti. Bern. Serm. in trans. Mal. When Saints that haue giuen vndoubted euidence of their perseuerance in the true faith, depart out of this life. Though that losse which the Church on earth may haue of them, minister matter of mourning; yet in that the triumphant Church is encreased by their departure, it is matter of thanks­giuing.

14. When we see the time of our2. Tim. 4. 6. owne departure to be at hand.

15. When we obserue any of thoseLuke 21. 28. signes to fall out which Christ hath foretold of the end of the world, Pro fidelibus de­functis debemus gratias agere. Idem de mod [...] bene viu. Serm. 70. and of his glorious comming vnto iudgement.

§. 54. Of the duties required vnder the second Petition.

Q. VVHat duties are we to endeauour after by vertue of the second Petition?

A. Euery one ought according to the estate and condition wherein he is, to do what lyeth in his power to helpe on the comming of the kingdome of God, and that both in himselfe, and in others also. For which end these particulars following are carefully to be obserued.

1. They who are out of the Church must come into it. If they be in the kingdome of darknesse, they must not abide therein. This is especially to be obserued of them to whom the light of the Gospell appeareth, and discouereth their darknesse. To such it is said,Eph. 5. 14. Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall giue thee light.

2. They who are in the Church must walke worthy of their calling. Ephes. 4 1. To such it is said, Ye were once darknesse but are now light, walke as children of light. Eph. 5. 8.

3. They who being of the Church are among such as are out of it, must labour to win them. Saint Paul went so farre he rein, as he became as without law, 1. Cor. 9. 21. that he might gaine them that were [Page 68] without law. To shew that this is a common dutie belonging to euery member of the Church,1. Pet. 1. 1, 2. Saint Peter exhorteth women so to carrie themselues towards their husbands, as if any obey not the word they may without the word be wonne by the conuer sation of their wiues.

4.1. Thes. 5. 11. Fellow members of the Church must edifie one another: and hearten,Heb. 10. 24. encourage, and prouoke one another vnto good workes, and to stand stedfast in the faith.

5.Rom. 15. 1. & 14 13. They who are strong must beare with the weake: and euery one take heed that they lay no stumbling blocke before any to make them fall:1. Cor. 8. 9. nor giue any offence.

6.Gen. 17. 12. If any be parents of children, they must be carefull to bring them to be incorporated into the Church by the Sacrament of Baptisme, and that while they are infants: and as they come to any yeares of discretion,Eph. 6. 4. to bring them vp in the nurture and ad­monition of the Lord: Pro. 22. 6. that thus, when they are translated into the triumphant Church, they may leaue their children behinde them true members of the militant Church; and that successiuely generation after generation.

7.Philem. v. 2. If any be housholder, their care must bee to make their houses (as the houses of Philemon, Rom. 16. 5. Aquila, and Priscilla were) Churches of God. And in this respect take vpon them the faith­full endeuour of Abraham, Gen. 18. 19. and setled resolution of Iosua.

8.Ios. 24. 15. They who are Ministers must take heed to all the flockes whereof the Holy Ghost hath made them ouer-seers to seed the Church of God: Act. 20. 28. and doe all things vnto edifying. 1. Cor. 14. 26.

9. They who are Magistrates must maintaine true religion in their dominions, and cause all that are vnder their iurisdiction to stand to the couenant of God. 2. Chro. 34. 33. Yea they ought to be so watchfull ouer the Lords vineyard, as to suffer neither wilde boare to roote it vp,Cant. 2. 15. nor foxes to make any hauocke therein. They must suffer neither profest enemies, nor running seducers to harbour therein.

§. 55. Of the things to be bewailed vnder the second Petition.

Q. VVHat are the things that we ought to bewaile by vertue of the second Petition?

[Page 69] A. All such things as any way make to the disaduantage or disparagement of the Kingdome of Christ. As

1.2. Cor. 4. 4. That great sway which Satan hath in the world, whereof he is the god: Ephes. 2. 2. and worketh in the children of disobedience: and that all the world worshippeth him. Reu. 13. 3, 4. For all Infidels, Idolaters, He­retiques, Schismatiques, hypocrites and profane persons are his vassals: and these are they with whom the world is filled.

2.Mic. 7. 1. The small circuit of Christs Kingdome. The Prophet thus bringeth in the Church her selfe bewailing her small number, Woe is mee: for I am as when they haue gathered the summer fruits: as the grape gleanings of the vintage.

3.Math. 13 25, &c. The mixture of Satans subiects with Christs in that small circuit. For where the Lord of the field soweth good seed, the enuious man soweth Tares: which maketh the seruants of the Lord to complaine.

4. The many clouds which obscure the light of the Gospell. I meane the clouds of errour, superstition, humane traditions and such like, whereby the cleare light of the Gospell is hindred from shining forth in his full brightnesse. Christ himselfe com­plaineth, that the Word of God is made of none effect through the many traditions of the Iewes.Mar. 7. 13.

5.Psal. 50. 13. The spoiles of the Church made by open enemies: whereof Dauid much complaineth: so doe also other Prophets.

6.Cant. 1. 2. Treacheries of false-hearted brethren. The Church com­plaineth that all her friends dealt treacherously with her: and Christ complaineth that his owne familiar friend in whom hee trusted,Psal. 41. 9. which did eate of his bread, lift vp his heele against him.

7. Vnsaithfulnesse in Magistrates: suffering such as beare no good will to the Church to creepe into it, lodge in it, and worke mischiefe against it.Neh. 13. 4, &c. This did good Nehemiah much complaine of. Much more cause of complaint there is, when Princes in the Church are roaring Lyons, Zeph. 3 3. and her Iudges are euening Wolues.

8. Vnfaithfulnesse in Ministers: when they are insufficient, idle, corrupt in doctrine or life: whereby the edification of the Church is much hindered.Isa. 56. 10. The Prophets oft complaine of such.ler. 23. 14, 17.

9. Desolation of Seminaries: as of Schooles, Colledges, V­niuersities, [Page 70] and such like.1. Sam. 22. 22. Dauid lamented the destruction of the Citie of Priests which was a Seminarie. The comming of the Kingdome of God is much hindred by the desolation of Semi­naries. So also is it as much, if not more, hindred by corrupti­on in Seminaries. If fountaines bee poisoned, can wholesome streames bee expected to flow from thence? In corrupted Se­minaries more vassals of Satan, then true subiects of Christ are bred and brought vp.

10. Disorder of Families. When pietie findeth in priuate Families little or no entertainment, if it bee not cleane thrust out of doores: and such licentiousnesse vsed, as houses are rather made sties for Satan, then Churches of God, great cause of mourning is giuen.Ier. 7. 18. Ieremiah complaines that husbands and wiues, parents and children, were all giuen to wickednesse.

11. Professors vnworthy walking. It is meanes to keepe such as are not of the Church from entring into it, when they see such as professe themselues to bee of the Church, to walke as children of darknesse, and to turne the grace of God into wantonnesse.Phil. 3. 18. Saint Paul doth bitterly complaine of such.

12. Reproaches cast vpon the Saints. Sarah when she beheld Ismael scoffing at Isaak, Gen. 21. 9. 10. was exceedingly moued thereat. So was Dauid at Michols scorning of him for the manifestation of his zeale.2. Sam. 6. 20. Some weake members of the Church may be discou­raged thereby; and in that respect it is a matter to bee la­mented.

13.1. King. 19. 10. Persecution raised against the Church. This did Eliah much bewaile: yea it made him weary of his life. A free pas­sage of the Word, and a free vse of other holy ordinances of God is much hindered thereby: and many are thereby brought to deny the faith: and therefore it is to be bewailed.

14.2. Tim. 4 16. Timorous backesliding of Professors. This did S. Paul complaine of in his time. Much doth this tend to the discou­ragement, and disaduantage of the Church: and much to be la­mented.

15.1. Cor. 1. 11. & 11, 18. Scismes, sects, and dissentions in the Church. These doe much hinder the growth of the Church: yea they oft cause greater desolation then open oppositions of professed ene­mies.

[Page 71] 16.Repugnans fit vt quaeramus inse­culo diu viuere qui petimus reg­num dei veloci­ter advenire. Cypr de Orat. [...] dom, §. 14. Too much loue of life in this world, and feare of death. If men might liue as long they would, how slowly would Gods Kingdome come! That wee who desire the kingdome of God to come speedily, should seeke to liue long in this world, implyeth contradiction.

§. 56. Of the will of God here meant, and doing it.

Q. VVHich is the third Petition?

A. Thy will bee done in earth as it is in heauen.

Q. What is here to be considered.

A. 1. The Thing desired.

2. The Manner of performing it.

The substance then of the Petition is in these words, Thy will be done in earth. In the words following is a direction for the better performing of that which is desired. Of these two points therefore we are to speake in order. And first of the Pe­tition, that setteth out the rule which in all things we ought to set before vs: namely, the will of God.

Q. How doth God will a thing?

A. 1.Ephes. 1. 11. By ordaining and deternining it.

2.Rom. 12. 2. By liking and approuing it.

By this differing manner of willing things,Gods secret and reuealed will. may Gods will be distinguished into his Secret Counsell, and Reuealed Word.

The former of these is that Soueraigne, absolute will of God, by which all things are, and without which nothing can be. ForEphes. 1. 11. He worketh all things after the counsell of his owne will: Psal. 115. 3. And hath done whatsoeuer he pleased. Rom. 11. 34. For who was his Counseller?

The latter is stiled Gods good and acceptable will: Rom. 12. 2. whereby he manifesteth what is pleasing vnto him.Gods reuealed will here meant

Q. Which of these is here especially meant?

A. His reuealed Word: as is euident by these reasons.

1. The reuealed things of God belong to vs and our children for euer, Deut. 29. 29.

2. Gods reuealed Word is that rule which wee must lay [Page 72] before vs,Non vbiquè sicut potestas, sic vo­luntas eius bona, & beneplacita, & persecta. Ber. de verb. Esa. Serm. 5. and the marke whereat wee ought to haue an eye in all things. Psal. 119. 9.

3. This will of God may be resisted, and is much resisted, by the sonnes of men. For saith Christ, How oft would I, &c. And ye would not? Math. 23. 37. Gods good and acceptable and perfect will is not euery where as his power is.

There is therefore great need that wee should pray to haue this done.Non vt Deus faciat quae vult sed vt nos facere possimus quae deus vult. Cypr. de Orat. dom. §. 11. Not that God would doe what he will, but that we may be able to doe what he will. As for Gods secret co [...]nsell (as it is kept secret) it cannot be here meant, as appeareth by these reasons.

1.Deut. 29, 29. Secret things belong vnto the Lord our God.

2.Pro. 19. 21. The counsell of God shall stand: it cannot but be done: so as we need not pray that it may be done.

3. A desire may bee made contrarie to Gods secret will without sinne. Instance the desire of Dauid to build a temple for the Lord: which desire both Nathan the Prophet of the Lord,2. Sam. 7. 3. and God also himselfe approued, and yet it was the de­termined purpose of God that Dauid should not doe that which he desired.1. King. 8. 18.

Yet if the foresaid counsell of God bee made knowne ei­ther extraordinarily by speciall reuelation,How Gods counsell is to be yeelded vnto. or ordinarily by e­uents (for euents doe declare the determined counsell of God) then ought there to bee yeelded thereto a willing submission: which submission is commended in the examples ofIob 1. 21. Iob, 1. Sam. 3. 18. Eli, 2. Sam, 12, 22, 23. Dauid, 2. King. 20. 19 Hezekiah, Act. 21. 13. Paul and other Saints. And thus doth this phrase (be done) import both obedience to Gods Word, and also subiection to his worke: or a willing yeelding to whatso­euer God saith or doth. It is a phrase both of action and passion. Of action in relation to Gods Word.How Gods will is done. Of passion in relation to his guiding prouidence: and importeth patience and content­ment euen in such things as crosse our owne minds: in which sence said Pauls companions, when they heard his resolution to goe to Ierusalem where the Prophet had foretold that hee should be bound,Act. 21. 14. The will of the Lord be done. In regard of Gods secret wil,Cum diuinus fiat voluntas tuae, no­bis ab illo prcca­mur ipsum obe­dientiam. Aug. epist. 121. we pray that nothing which God doth, displease vs: and in regard of his reuealed will, that nothing which wee do, displease him. Obedience therefore to God is here principally prayed for.

§. 57. Of the extent of our desire to haue Gods will done.

VVHy is this desire set downe impersonally, thus, be done?

A. Non dixit fiat in me, vel in nobis voluntas tua, sed prorsus vbiq, ter­raerum, &c. To shew the extent of our desire. If it had been expressed in the first person (thus, Let vs doe) our desire might seeme to be appropriated to our selues. If in the third person (thus; Let men doe) it might seeme to be posted ouer to others from our selues:Chryst. in Mat. 6. Hom. 20. but this indefinite phrase, be done, may in­differently be referred to our selues and all others whatsoeuer they be.

§. 58. Of the rule of our obedience, Gods will.

Q. VVHat learne wee from the expresse mention of Gods will in this Petition?

A. Gods will is the rule of our obedience: so as, if such a que­stion as the People, Luk. 3. 10. 12, 14 Publicans, and Souldiers propounded to Iohn, Luke 18. 18. or the Ruler to Christ: or the Iewes to the Apostles, be moued,Acts 2. 37. and it be demanded what is to be done, in a word out of this Petition,Ephes. 5. 17. this answere may be giuen, Gods will. This is it which oft▪ we are enioyned to vnderstand, Rom. 12. 2. to proue, to prac­tise: and which is so much pressed in the 119.Ephes. 6. 6. Psalme. And that not without iust cause.Gods will the ground of goodnesse. For Gods will is the very ground of goodnesse. Whatsoeuer is willed of God is good: and therefore good, because it is willed of God. Where the Apo­stle prayeth for the Hebrewes, that God would make them perfect in euery good worke; Heb. 13. 21. by way of exposition he addeth this clause, To doe his will.

They who make Decrees of Councels,No sufficient rule but Gods will. Traditions of El­ders, Statutes or Canons of men, or any other thing besides Gods Word their rule, haue but a Leaden rule, which may be bowed this way or that way. What may we then think a mans owne reason, will, lust, appetite or humour to be? and yet doe many make these the rules of their obedience.

For our parts let vs thorowly acquaint our selues with Gods Word,Be acquainted with the Word. Psal. 1, 2. and therein exercise our selues day and night. Let vs [Page 74] make it our Counseller, to be resolued thereby in all doubts: our guide to be directed thereby in all our wayes: our Light, to be enlightened thereby thorow the darknesse of this world: our Touchstone to proue and try all things thereby. And let vs haue it in as high account as euer Dauid had it.Psal. 119. ver. 72, 103.

§. 59. Of practising Gods will.

Q. VVHat doth this phrase (be done) teach vs?

A. Nothing is sufficient without practise. I say nothing, because neither knowledge of Gods will, nor a good disposition thereto, nor profession thereof, without doing it, is any thing. All these are in their kinde needfull: for practise without knowledge can not but be very preposterous: with­out a good disposition, meerely hypocriticall; and without a free profession, too too timerous; so as knowledge of Gods will is as light to giue direction vnto practise: a good dispo­sition thereto is as salt, to season it: a free profession is as wine to make it quicke and cheerefull. But yet all those with­out practise are as nothing. He that knoweth his Masters will and doth not according to it shall be beaten with many stripes. Luke 12. 47. Hee that hath a good minde and disposition to Gods will, and yet doth it not, condemneth himselfe in that which hee alloweth: and he that maketh a faire profession of it, but yet doth it not, is like to that Figgetree which Christ cursed:Math. 21. 19. and hee hath this doome denounced against him by the Iudge of all, De­part from mee thou worker of iniquitie. I may therefore well say to them that know, like, and professe Gods will, Blessed are ye if ye doe it. The benefit of practise, 1. Ioh. 2. 4. But without doing, all is in vaine. For

1. There is no truth of Grace, where there is no practise of Grace.

2.Deut. 6. 1. Doing of Gods will is the maine end of reuealing Gods will.

3. The benefit of all consisteth in practise: For by it, is Ioh. 15. 8. God most glorified: our1. Thes. 1. 7. fellow-Saints stirred vp to an ho­ly emulation:1. Pet. 3. 1. they which are without or wonne, or—16. made a­shamed: and we our selues2. Pet. 1. 10. assured of our Election before the world, and saluation after the world: gaining also thereby1. Tim. 5. 10. a [Page 75] good name while we liue, andProu. 10. 7. a blessed memoriall after we are dead.

If these motiues be not sufficient to moue such as know the will of God to adde practise thereunto, and to doe it, I know not what can be sufficient.

§. 60. Of mans disabilitie to doe Gods will.

Q. Quare precamur vt a Deo bonum nobit animi pro­positum contin­gat? Quia in­firma est ad bo­num humana Natura. Greg. Nys. de Orat. VVHat are we taught by desiring this of God that his will be done.

A. 2. Cor. 3. 5. Man is vnable of himselfe to doe Gods will. Ioh. 15. 5. Without mee (saith the Lord) yee can doe nothing. Phil. 2. 13. It is God that wor­keth in vs both to will and to doe. As for man, take him as hee is of himselfe, and it will appeare thatGen. 6. 5. euery imagination of the thought of his heart is onely euill continually. And by the weakenesse of this corruptible body wee are held backe from bringing our wils to yeeld vnto, and agree with Gods will. Is it then possible that of himselfe hee should doe that which is so pure and perfect as the will of God is?Ipsa corruptibilis huius infirmitate corporis praepedi­mur ne voluntas nostra diuinae valeat coberere. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6.

On this ground we see that there is iust cause

1. To deny our selues, andProu. 3. 5. not to leane vnto our owne wise­dome, will, conceit, or any naturall abilitie.

2. To call vpon God toCant. 1 3. draw vs, that so we may runne after him: and wholly to depend on him for his preuenting, assist­ing, and perfecting Grace.

3. To vse suchCol. 3. 16. meanes as God hath sanctified to enable vs to doe his will.Vses of the knowledge of mans disability.

4. ToRom. 11. 36. giue the praise of all that abilitie wee haue to doe Gods will vnto God, who worketh in vs hoth the will and the deed.Vt fiat in nobis voluatas deiopi. [...] est voluntate De [...] i-ope cius Cyp', de [...]rat. Dom. § 11.

5. To1. Cor. 15. 10. vse and imploy the said abilitie to the glory of God.

§. 61. Of the force of this word THY in the third Petition.

Q. TO whom hath this Particle THY in the third Petition relation?

[Page 76] A. To the same person to whom it had relation in the two former Petitions: and it importeth the same things in this Pe­tition that it did in the other two, namely, a Reason, Restraint, and Emphasis.

A Reason, because it sheweth that the Will here mentioned is the will of Our Father who is in heauen, whose name is a­boue all to be hallowed, and whose kingdome is before all to be preferred.

A Restraint, because it implyeth that his will onely is to be done.

An Emphasis, because it intimateth an aduancing of Gods will aboue all others.

§. 62. Of preferring Gods will before all others.

Q. VVHat then doth this Particle THY teach vs?

A. Gods will is to bee preferred before all o­thers. ThisGen. 39. 9. Ioseph, Dan. 6. 10. Daniel, and—3. 18. his three Companions, theActs 5 29. Apostles and many others well obserued, when they refused to yeeld to mans will against Gods: and 2. Sam. 15. 26. Dauid, Act. 21. 13. Paul, andMat. 26. 39. Christ, when they submitted their owne wils,Si filius obaudi­uit vt faceret pa­tris voluntatem, quanto magis servus obaudire debet, vt saciat domini volunta­tem. Cypr. loc. citat. to Gods, in such things as if it had beene the will of God, they could haue desired to haue beene otherwise. A­mong others, the example of Christ is to be obserued, because hee was a Sonne, and we are but seruants. If the Sonne yeelded to doe the will of his Father, how much more ought the ser­uant to yeeld to doe the will of his Master.

Both the supreme Soueraignty of God, and also the absolute perfection of his will require as much.Docemur semper ad Dei, non ad nostram respicere voluntatem, quia in nostra volun­tate aliquotiens contaria suut: in domini autem voluntate vita est semper & bonitas. Aug. de Temp. Serm. 126 As for our owne and o­ther mens wil they are subiect to much errour, and oft proue very pernicious.

This is especially to be noted of such as can bee content to doe Gods will so farre as it is agreeable to their own humour, or crosseth not the will of those men whom they are loth to offend. But if in these cases they refuse to doe Gods will, they haue it not in that high account that here they are taught to haue it, and they come very short of the extent of this Petition, whereby wee are taught alwayes to haue one eye on Gods [Page 77] will, and not on our owne. For in our will there are many con­trarieties, but in the Lords will there is alwaies life and goodnesse.

§. 63. Of praying onely for men in earth.

Q. VVHo are comprised vnder this phrase in earth?

A. Sonnes of men inhabiting in earth.Iob 4. 19. In this phrase there is a double trope.Metony [...]ia sub­iecti. Synec doc he generis. First the Place is put for them that are therein. Secondly, a generall is put for a particular. For there are sundry sorts of creatures that liue on earth: yet onely the chiefe and principall of them are meant: euen they who haue the dominion ouer all the rest. Now Men are here thus set forth, because while they liue on earth they are most backward to do Gods will.

Q. What instruction may be raised from this phrase in earth?

A. Men while they liue in this world need our prayers. All the directions giuen in Scripture to pray for any, all the promises made to prayer, all the warrant that is giuen for performing this dutie, is restrained to prayer made for them that liue in earth. And they are to be prayed for:

1. Because they are subiect to manifold infirmities.

2. Because they may reape benefit by our prayers: which they that are taken from earth can not doe. For they that are translated from earth to heauen are made perfect: so as they need not our prayers. And they that are cast downe from earth to hell, are implonged into such irrecouerable miserie, as they can reape no benefit by our prayers.

Let vs not therefore offer vp so pretious incense as prayer is, in vaine, for such as can reape no benefit thereby. But in faith let vs pray for them that are in earth.

§. 64. Of the meaning of this phrase in heauen.The inhabitants of the highest heauens, not the hosts of the middle heauen are here meant.

Q. VVHo are comprised vnder this phrase in heauen?

A. The glorious Angels and glorified Saints with Christ their head.

[Page 78] Some thinke the middle heauen to be here meant, where the Sunne, Moone, and other Stars are placed: and that partly be­cause the creatures in that heauen do constantly keepe that course wherein by the will of their Creator they were at first placed; and partly because they are visible, so as that constant course of theirs according to the will of God, may be seene by men on earth. But howsoeuer that constancie of theirs may be a witnesse against our manifold aberrations, and sweruings from that course wherein our Creator hath set vs: yet in that they haue no vnderstanding to take notice of the will of God, nor do what they do by any free,Hoc oramus vt dei volunt [...]s si­cut in coelestibus facta est creatu­ris, siat etiam in terrenis: vt sicut Angelus sic &. homo, &c. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6. willing choice, but by a natu­rall motion from which they can not swerue, we must ascend higher then that heauen, euen to the highest heauen of all, where the forenamed Angels and Saints are, who in all things by a most free and willing choice do perfectly fulfill the will of God.

Q. How can they whom we see not to be a patterne for vs?

A. By the word we may know what is done by them. For God hath thereby manifested how they do his will.

§. 65. Of the manner of following a perfect patterne.

Q. HOw can we do Gods will as they do it, seeing they in all points do it most perfectly: and it is impossible for vs to attaine to such a perfection?

A. 1. In such a manner as they do, may we also do Gods will, though not in so compleate a measure. A candle giueth light in an house, euen as the Sunne doth in the world: in such a manner, not in so great measure. There may be in qualitie and likenesse a comparison betwixt things that are in quantitie and measure very vnequall. In this respect they who haue hope in Christ are said to purifie themselues euen as he is pure.

2. All the Saints euen on earth haue the beginning of that heauenly perfection wrought in them:1. Ioh. 3. 3. which beginning the A­postle stileth The first fruites of the Spirit. Rom. 8. 23. Now we may be confi­dent of this very thing, Phil. 1. 6. that he who hath begun a good worke in vs, will [Page 79] performe it vntill the day of Iesus Christ: 1. Cor. 1. 8. that we may be blamelesse in that day.

3. Our desire and endeauour may and must be beyond our abilitie:Phil. 3. 13. as shall be proued by and by.

§. 66. Of the matter of Patience which the inhabi­tants of heauen haue.

Q. HOw can there be a sufficient patterne where there is no triall of Patience, as in heauen there is none? For the Angels and Saints in heauen are not subiect to any crosses that should trie their patience.

A. This patterne is especially for actiue obedience.

2. Those heauenly Spirits do many things which they would not but for the will of God. When it is the will of God, the An­gels do willingly descend from heauen to earth, Gen. 28. 12. sometimes to bring glad tidings to the Church,Reu. 14. 6, 19. and sometimes to execute vengeance on sinners. Yea the soules of the Saints which haue bene taken out of their bodies & carried into Abrahams bosome, that place of ioy and blisse, haue bene contented at the will of God to leaue their glorie,Mat. 27. 53. and to returne againe into their bodies, euen asIoh. 6. 38. Ioh. 11. 44. Christ came downe from heauen, not to do his owne will, but the will of him that sent him: and as his souleLuke 23. 43. after it had bene in Paradise—24 5, 6. returned into his body in earth. Now heauen, Para­dise, and Abrahams bosome is a place of such glorie, and so conspicuously doth the brightnesse of Gods glorie there shine forth, as the coelestiall spirits would neuer be willing to depart out of it, but to do the will of their Lord.

3. There is a compassion in them for the afflictions of the Church in earth. For the Saints in earth and in heauen are fel­low members of one and the same bodie: in which respect there cannot but be some sympathie and fellow-feeling of their fel­low-members afflictions: euen asMat 25. 42. &c. there is in the head of that bodie Iesus Christ. The maine reason why theReu. 6. 10. soules of the Martyrs, departed, desire vengeance on the enemies of the Church, is for those Saints sake who were liuing, and so sub­iect to their tyrannie and crueltie. It is said that there is ioy in the presence of the Angels of God, Luke 15. 10. ouer one sinner that repenteth. [Page 76] [...] [Page 77] [...] [Page 78] [...] [Page 79] [...] [Page 80] Why not then compassion also ouer the Church that is af­flicted?

4. The Saints in heauen through patience inherit the promises.Heb 6. 12. (For through many afflictions men enter into the kingdome of God) and therein we are exhorted to be followers of them.Acts 14 22. Sancti similes nobis [...]cre passi­biles, & ipsi pe­regrinationis hu­ius & exilij d [...] ­ploraucre mole­stias, &c. B [...]. infest. o [...]. Sanct Serm. 1.

5. With patience they expect the resurrection of their bo­dies, and perfect consummation of that glorie which is ordai­ned for the whole bodie of Christ, and all the members thereof. When it was tould the soules of the forenamed Martyrs de­ceased, that they should rest vntill their brethren should be fulfilled, they were silent, and patient: they replied not againe.

Thus then wee see that in heauen there is a patterne of patience.Reu. 6. 11.

§. 67. Of well doing good.

Q. VVHat learne we from this direction (as it is in heauen) added to the Petition?

A. Good things are to be done after a right man­ner. So much is noted in the summe of the Morall Law, as Mat. 22. 37, 39 In sacrificijs quae Abel & Cain primiobtulerunt, non munera eo­rum deus, sed corda intue batur vt ille placeret in munere qui placebat in corde. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 18. Christ hath set it downe. The good things enioyned are to loue God, and our neighbour. The manner of louing God, is to do it with all the heart, &c. The manner of louing our neighbour is to loue him, as our selfe. If the Scriptures be obseruantly read, we shall find them as copious in prescribing the right manner, as in pressing the maine matter of any du [...]ie: and in declaring Gods approbation of the one more then of the other. Take for exam­ple the first worke of pietie recorded to be done after mans fall. In the sacrifices which Abel and Caine first offered, God did not behold the offering, but the heart, that he might please God in his offering, that pleaseth him in his heart. The offering de­clared the worke: the heart the manner of doing it.

For1. Pet. 2. 15. Gods will is manifested in the manner as well as in the matter. Yea if a good thing be euilly done, God will say,Isa. 1. 12. who required this at your hands? For a good thing isIsa. 66. 3. cleane peruer­ted, and made euill by an euill manner of doing it.

It is therefore very requisite that we1. Cor. 11. 28. examine good things euen by the manner of doing them: and not thinke it sufficient [Page 81] that the thing we do is for the matter and substance of it law­full and warrantable. As many (if not many more) transgressions are committed by failing in the manner of doing good things, as by doing things which are simply euill.

§. 68. Of propounding a perfect patterne before vs.

Q. VVHat are we taught by the kind of patterne set before vs?

A. The patterne which we follow must be perfect: such a patterne is the example of those that are in heauen.Heb. 12. 23. They are spirits of iust men made perfect. Like patternes cannot be found on earth, except the patterne of Christ in the dayes of his flesh, Phil. 2. 5. Heb. 12. 2. which is also set before vs.

Q. How are examples of Saints on earth to be followed, if our pat­terne must be perfect?

A. No Saints example that euer liued on earth for the time of his abode on earth,How Saints on earth are to be followed. is made a patterne in all things without exception to be followed. But their examples are set before vs to be imitated.

1. In such particular good things as they did well. Thus Gal. 3. 7. Abraham in beleeuing Gods promises;Nom. 12. 7. Moses in being faith­full in Gods house; thelam. 5. 10, 11. Prophets in long suffering; Iob in pati­ence; other Saints in other particular graces are made pat­ternes.

2.1. Cor. 11. 1. So farre forth as they followed a perfect patterne we must follow them.

We are very proane to follow imperfections:The danger of setting imper­fect patternes before vs. as a streame where a breach is made, will leaue the channell to runne in that breach: and by striuing to runne therein will make the breach greater and greater: so we, where we see any defect in the pat­terne, are readie not onely to faile by that defect, but to be farre worse.Math. 23. 15. A Proselite made by a Pharisie, proued two-fold more a child of hell then the Pharisie. We are, by that corruption of nature which is in vs, proane to swerue from the patterne which is set before vs, euen where the patterne it selfe is good and right. How much more shall we swerue when the patterne is [Page 82] defectiue? YetPhil 3. 15. by a perfect patterne we shall be kept the nearer, and held the closer to perfection.

It is therefore a point that much concerneth vs to make choice of our patterne:Choice to be made of our patterne. and not to be beguiled with glorious titles of Antiquitie, Vniuersalitie, Multitude, and Consent of men on earth. Perfection was neuer found in these: much lesse in some few, or single men that are blinded and puffed vp with honour, wealth, power, or any such earthly preheminence. Yet how doth the whole world almost follow such, and make them their onely patterne?

§. 69. Of aiming at more then we can attaine to.

Q. VVHat learne we from setting those who are in heauen as a patterne before those who are in earth?

A. Such perfection as in this life cannot be at­tained to, may be aimed at. For it is not possible for any on earth to bee so perfect as they who are in heauen: yet must we aime at their perfection, and endeauour after it. For Christ exhorteth to be perfect as our heauenly Father is perfect. Mat. 5. 48.

1. Thus shall we the better discerne how far short we come of perfection, and of that integritie which is requisite for all those that stand in Gods glorious presence. On this ground saith Iob, Iob 9. 2. How should man compared vnto God be iustified?

2. Thus we shall be the more humbled, and brought to say to God as Iob did: Iob 40 4.—40. 6. Behold I am vile, what shall I answer thee? I will lay my hands vpon my mouth. I abhorre my selfe, and repent in dust and ashes.

3. Thus shall we be brought to a thorow and vtter deniail of our selues: and from all self-conceipt and confidence in our owne righteousnesse:Psal. 143. 2. and to pray vnto God not to enter into iudgement with vs.

4. Thus shall we be the more stirred vp to put forth our vt­termost abilitie:Phil 3. 13, 14. as it is in the Prouerbe, He that will shoote high must aime at the Sunne, a marke farre beyond his reach. A man that shooteth at a marke within his reach may shoote short for want of putting out his full strength.

[Page 83] Little do they regard these helpes,Their folly who make sinfull men their pat­terne. who set the examples of mortall, weake, sinfull men before them: and thinke all is well if they be any thing better then the worser sort of people; as that Pharisie who said.Luke 18. 11. O God, I thanke thee that I am not as other men are, extortioners, vniust, adulterers, or euen as this Publican. Hence is it that they are so farre from iudging themselues for many of their sinnes, as they are readie rather to iustifie them­selues when they are reproued, and to say, Do not such and such men the like? What sinne almost might not be iustified if the pat­terne of men on earth, yea of the best, were a sufficient plea and pretext? Haue ye not heard of Noahs drunkennesse, Dauids adulterie and murther, Lots incest Salomons idolatrie, Peters de­niall of Christ, and other like sinnes committed by other like men? By such patternes men are many times made to stumble in the way wherein they should walke, if they be not cleane turned out of it.

The patterne here propounded by our Lord stirreth vs vp to couet earnestly, Seeke to excell. 1. Cor. 12. 31.—14. 12. the best gifts, and to seeke to excell.

By this patterne in heauen set before vs,Reproofe of prophane scoffs. the common scoffes of prophane Libertines (vpbraiding such as endeauour to fol­low this direction, with the nick-names of Angels on earth, and young Saints) are wiped away. How can those tauntes be ima­gined to be otherwise made then in derision of this direction? which assuredly he that gaue this direction will not suffer to passe vnreuenged.

§. 70. Of the order of the third Petition.

Q. TO which of the former Petitions hath this third Petition re­ference?

A. To both of them.

To the first as a manifestation of the truth of our desire to hallow Gods Name. For no such euidence can be giuen thereof, as a true and thorow subiection of our selues in all things to the will of God. Then is Gods Name most hallowed, when his will is best done. Of all places, in heauen is Gods Name most hallo­wed, because there his will is best done: for which end Christ doth here set them in heauen before vs for a patterne therein.

[Page 84] To the second Petition hath this reference as a reason of our desire thereof. For the subiects of Gods kingdome are they that most readily and faithfully do the will of God. We there­fore desire that Gods kingdome may come, that there may be the more to do the will of God.

§. 71. Of the honour done to God by doing his will.

Q. VVHat doctrine ariseth out of that relation which this Pe­tition hath to the first?

A. Gods honour is most aduanced by a faithfull subiection to his will.Ioh. 17. 4. Thus doth Christ proue that he glorified his Father on earth, namely, by finishing the worke which he gaue him to do.

For by our forwardnesse to do Gods will we acknowledge both the greatnesse and also the goodnesse of God. We ac­knowledge that he is the supreme Soueraigne who hath power to require this and that to be done: and withall we acknow­ledge that what he declareth to be his will is most good. For these are the motiues which are of force to draw vs on to do any ones will: the Soueraigntie that he hath ouer vs that wil­leth this or that: and the equitie of that which hee wil­leth.

We ought therefore hereby to be the more stirred vp to do Gods will: because thereby his Name is hallowed.

§. 72. Of shewing our selues to be Gods subiects by doing his will.

Q. VVHat doctrine ariseth out of the relation which this Petition hath to the second?

A. They are the truest subiects of Gods kingdome, who are readiest to do his will.

Hence was it that the Psalmist where he shewed that God had set vp his Sonne a King, inferreth these exhortations, Serue the Lord, Psal. 2. 6, 11, 12. Kisse the Sonne, &c. And againe vpon a like ground he saith,Psal. 110. 3. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power.

[Page 85] The Word of God (which is that will of God that is here especially meant) is the Scepter of his Kingdome, and the law thereof. All the Statutes and Ordinances of his Kingdome are comprised in his Word; they therefore that doe it must needs be his best subiects.

This then is a true tryall of our spirituall estate:Mat. 12. 49, 50. whether we be indeed of his Kingdome or no.Psal. 40. 8. If wee delight to doe his will, and his law be in our hearts, then haue we good assurance in our owne soules, and giue good euidence to others that wee are true members of his Church, true subiects of his Kingdome. But if there be nothing but a bare profession, wee are like to the Figge-tree that cumbred the ground: Luke 13. 7. or like to those who said they were Gods people, but indeed were the Synagogue of Satan. Reu. 2. 9. Gods Kingdome commeth not by professing and saying, but by performing and doing Gods will.Math. 7. 21.

§. 73. Of the particulars which we are taught to pray for in the third Petition.

Q. VVHat are the particulars for which by vertue of the third Petition we ought to pray?

A. 1. Such as concerne the Petition it selfe.

2. Such as concerne the Direction added thereto.

Q. To how many heads may the things which concerne the Pe­tition it selfe be referred?

A. To foure especially. Which are these,

1. The Rule it selfe, in this word WILL.

2. The Restraint of it, in this Particle THY.

3. The Extent of it, in this phrase BE DONE.

4. The Place where it is to be done, IN EARTH.

Q. What desire we in regard of the Rule?

A. 1. Knowledge of Gods Word. Psal. 119. 16. For in and by Gods Word is his will reuealed:Col. 1. 9, 10. and knowledge thereof is the ground of true obedience. Giue mee vnderstanding (saith the Psalmist) and I shall keepe thy Law: Psal. 119. 34. yea I shall keepe it with my whole heart. Desire of obedience without knowledge is very prepo­sterous. An ignorant mans practise is like a blind mans wan­dring in by-wayes. How can it otherwise bee, but that such should fall into many dangers.

[Page 86] 2. A Conformitie of our wils to Gods: or a readinesse in our will and heart to yeeld to whatsoeuer wee shall know to bee Gods will.Psal. 27. 8. When God said to Dauid, Seeke my face, his heart answered,Psal. 119. 36. O Lord I will seeke thy face. For this was his prayer, Incline mine heart vnto thy Testimonies. It is a proper fruit of sanctifying knowledge to draw the will to embrace as good that which the vnderstanding discerneth to be true.

3. Strength of Memory to hold fast Gods Word, and that in the good directions and sweet consolations, in the precepts and promises thereof.Psal. 103. 17, 18. Where the Psalmist saith, that the mercy of the Lord is vpon those that remember his commandements, to doe them, Doth he not imply that to remember Gods Word, is an especiall helpe to the doing of it. Things not remembred are as not knowne. The Apostle noteth this to be the cause of the Hebrewes fainting in their troubles,Heb. 12. 5. that they forgate the di­rection and consolation of the Word.

4. Life of Conscience, both to cheere vs vp in doing the will of God, and also to checke vs when we swerue from the same, and not to suffer vs to be quiet till we turne to it againe. For these are the proper functions of a conscience quickened and sanctified. The Apostle noteth that they who giue themselues ouer to transgresse,1. Tim. 4. 2. haue their conscience seared with an hot iron: the life of it is taken away.

5. Loue of Gods Word: that our hearts be so set vpon it, as we make it our ioy and delight. This made Dauid so forward, as hee was, to doe the will of God: for Gods Word was his loue, Psal. 119. 97, 174, 162, 103, 72, 27. longing, ioy, delight, more sweet then honey, more precious then thousands of gold, or siluer. This reason of doing Gods will he himselfe rendereth in these words, My soule hath kept thy testimonies, for I loue them exceedingly. Loue setteth all the power of a mans soule, and parts of his body on worke to accomplish that which is loued. But vnlesse our heart and af­fections be set vpon Gods Word, very hardly shall wee be brought to doe it, because it is contrarie to our naturall and corrupt will.

6, Renouation of our outward parts, that they may bee made instruments in their seuerall functions, to execute Gods will: that thus as there is a readinesse to will, 2. Cor. 8. 11. so there may be a per­formance [Page 87] also:1. Thes. 5. 23. and for this end to pray that we may be sancti­fied as in our whole spirit,Phil. 2. 13. [...] so in bodie: and that he would work in vs both to will and to doe. All the former without this are no­thing. This is the maine and principall thing here intended.Voluntatis voca­bulum generali­ter omnes virtu­tes inse compre­hendit ac quae singulatim per bonum intelli­guntur, in volun­tate Dei omnia anim aduertun­tur. Greg. Nys. de Orat. The other are but preparations and helpes thereunto.

Here I might take occasion to reckon vp all those vertues which in Gods Word are enioyned to vs. For Gods will compriseth vnder it all those vertues: yea whatsoeuer may truely be thought to bee good, is comprehended in the will of God. But it is sufficient thus in generall to haue pointed at this head.

Q. What desire wee in regard of the Restraint of the fore-na­med rule in this word THY?

A. A distinct vnderstanding of the excellencie and perfection of Gods will:Psal. 119. 18. that so wee may addict our selues wholly to it:Pro. 30. 5, 6. nor taking from it,Deut. 12. 32. nor adding to it. Had we indeed as good an opinion, and as high an esteeme of Gods will as Dauid had, we would cleaue as close to it as he did.

2. A right discerning of the vanity and corruption of the crea­tures will, especially when it is not agreeable to Gods, but swerueth from it.Psal 94 11. In this respect it is said, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of man that they are but vanity: Iob 5. 13. and, He taketh the wise in their craftinesse. If we could truely, and thorowly discerne as much, would wee be so blockish as to preferre the will of any man before Gods?

3. A deniall of our owne will: a point which the wise man much presseth,Pro. 3. 5, 7. in these and such like prohibitions: Leane not to thine owne vnderstanding: Be not wise in thine owne eyes. Seldome or neuer are selfe-conceited men brought to yeeld simple obe­dience to Gods will. They will bee so inquisitiue into the ground and reason thereof, that if they be not satisfied therein, their owne will,Pro. 26. 12. and not Gods shall be done. There is more hope of a foole then of such an one.

4. Mortification of the flesh. Gal. 5. 17. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, so that wee cannot doe the things that we would. When we would doe the will of God,Rom. 7. 28, &c. yea, and delight in the Law of God after the inner man, wee shall finde the flesh war­ring against that Law of the minde, and bringing vs into cap­tiuitie [Page 88] to the law of sinne. This made Saint Paul with so bit­ter an exclamation to say, O wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer me from the body of this death!

Q. What desire wee in regard of the extent of the fore-named Rule? (be done.)

A. 1. An accomplishment of whatsoeuer God hath determi­ned. That what God willeth to be done may accordingly bee done, whether the creature will it or nill it. For we ought to beleeue that God wisely willeth all things to the best: and thereupon to desire that his counsell and purpose may stand: and euen from our hearts to say,Act. 21. 14. The will of the Lord be done. 2. Sam. 15. 26. Let him doe as seemeth good to him.

2. A contented submission to euery thing which God bringeth to passe. Hereof we haue worthy patternes in the examples of Iob 1. 21. Iob, 1. Sam. 3. 18. Eli, 2. Sam. 16. 10. Dauid, 2. King. 20. 19. Hezekiah, and other Saints. Wee can not be ignorant that euents doe declare the determined pur­pose of God. When such and such a thing is falne out, we may then conclude that God had so and so purposed it. For as Gods Word declareth his approuing will, what he would haue: so euents declare his peremptory will, what hee will haue. Our submission therefore to Gods will is tried in both. This is to bee applyed to all manner of crosses, and losses, whether of goods children, or other friends, to death it selfe, or to any other thing, that may seeme bitter to vs.

Q. What desire we in regard of the place here specified for do­ing the will of God, In earth?

A. 1. Grace well to vse the time of this mortall life. For the time while wee abide on earth isIoh. 9. 4. the day wherein wee may worke, andGal 6. 10. the time of doing good. Ioh. 9. 4. Christ tooke the aduan­tage of the day; and1 Phil. 2. 5. we ought to bee of the minde of Christ. Thus shall wee shew that wee haue as great respect to Gods honour, as to our owne happinesse: and as great a desire to doe the worke appointed, as to receiue the reward pro­mised.

2. Vniuersall subiection to Gods will throughout this world. For this indefinite phrase, in earth, sheweth that our desire ought to bee extended to all that are on the face of the earth. We pray not that Gods will be done only in our own house, or [Page 89] in our owne countrey, or in the countries neere adioyning to vs, but in earth. 1 Psal. 67. 2, &c. All the graces therefore before mentioned to be craued for our selues, must also bee craued for euery mem­ber of the militant Church.

§. 74. Of the things to be prayed for in the direction of the third Petition.

WHat are we taught to pray for in regard of this direction,Quid est aliud dicere, Fiat vo­l [...]tas tu [...] in coelo sicut in terra, quam vt sint homines si­miles Angelis, &c. Abb. Isa, de Vrat, c. 20. as it is in heauen.

A. In generall a conformitie of the Church militant to the Church triumphant. That, though these two parts of Gods Church be in one place distant one from another, yet they may bee of like minde and disposition towards God and his will. In this respect we are said to be partakers of the heauenly calling: and our conuersation to be in heauen. Heb. 3. 1.

2. In particular such a manner of obedience as is perfor­med by the Saints and Angels in heauen.Phil. 3. 20.

§. 75. Of the distinct heads of the manner of doing Gods will in heauen.

Q. TO how many heads may their manner of obedience be reduced?

A. To sixe especially: which are these that follow.

1. Sinceritie. 1. Sinceritie. Whatsoeuer those heauenly spirits make shew of,Reu. 14. 5. they doe it from the heart. In their mouth is found no guile; for they are without fault before the Throne of God. —21. 27. None that maketh alye can enter into that pure place.—22. 15. They are without, whosoeuer loue lies. All in heauen shine as the Sunne. They are transparent:Mat. 13. 43. there is no couer for hypocrisie. This sincerity did Dauid desire where he prayed that God would take from him the way of lying: Psal. 119, 29, 36, 80. and encline his heart to his Testimonies, and let it be vpright in his Statutes.

2. Integritie: 2. Integritie Reu. 14. 4. which is an vniuersall subiection to euery part of Gods will. The heauenly spirits follow the Lambe whether soeuer he goeth. In all places they attend vpon their Lord, and [Page 90] alwayes behold his face, Mat. 18. 10. to know what his will is that they may doe it. They are therefore by a kinde of excellency said to doe his commandements, Psal. 103. 20 hearkening to the voice of his Word. Neuer was there any stop or stay in any that euer entred into heauen at any thing that God willed to be done. This integritie also did Dauid desire, where he said, Oh that my wayes were directed to keepe thy Statutes! Psal. 119▪ 5, 6. then shall I not be ashamed when I haue re­spect to ALL thy commandements: Deut. 5. 29. yea this did God himselfe earnestly desire for his people.

3. Alacritie. 3. Alacritie. There is nothing wherein the heauenly spi­rits shew more cheerefulnesse then in doing Gods will. It is musicke and melodie to them. In which respect they are said to haue harps, Reu. 15. 2. as a signe of their cheerefull minde and disposi­tion.Ioh 4. 34. While Christ liued on earth, it was his meat to doe the will of him that sent him. Did hee not then doe it with cheereful­nesse? For this alacritie doth Dauid pray, where hee desireth God to quicken him. Psal. 119. 37, 88.

4. Sedulitie. 4. Sedulitie. The heauenly Spirits are both diligent, and also quicke and speedy in executing the will of the Lord.Isa▪ 6. 2. They are thereupon said to haue wings and to fly. Was not hee of that minde who said,Psal. 119. 60. I made haste and delayed not to keepe thy Commandements? For this end doth the Church desire Christ to draw her,Cant. 1. 3. that she might runne after him.

5. Ardencie and zeale. 5. Ardency. The heauenly Spirits in regard of their zeale are said to bee a flaming fire. Psal. 104. 4. [...] combussit. Inde [...] In which respect the title Seraphim is giuen vnto them: for it is an Hebrew name taken from heat and burning.Isai. 6. 2. There is nothing that doth more heat and enflame their loue, and delight, then Gods will. When they know that God willeth this or that, they are all on fire till it be done.Psal. 119. 20.—32. This zeale was in him that said, My soule breaketh for the longing that it hath to thy iudgements alwayes. And his expectation to haue his heart enlarged, sheweth that hee prayed for his holy zeale.Reu. 3. 19. Be zealous therefore.

6. Constancie. 6. Constancie. The heauenly spirits serue God day and night. Reu. 7. 15. They waxe not weary of doing Gods will. As the good Angels still keepe their first estate: so the glorisied Saints euer abide in their estate.Psal. 51. 12. & 119. 116. None of them haue yet, nor euer will fall away. This did hee pray for, who oft called vpon God to sta­blish [Page 91] him. This constancie is the grace of all graces. It set­teth the crowne on all their heads: and bringeth men to the fruition of the fruit of all:Reu. 2. 10. Be thou faithfull vnto the death, and I will giue thee the crowne of life, saith he who can make good what hee saith.

§. 76. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen in the third Petition, and in the direction annexed to it.

Q. WHat are the particulars for which we are to giue thanks by vertue of the third Petition?

A. I. All those graces whereby wee are enabled to doe the will of God.Ephes. 1. 3. As.

1. Illumination of our minds, whereby we may vnderstand what is the will of God.1. Cor. 14. 5.

2. Subiection of our will vnto Gods.2. Cor. 9. 13.

3. Happinesse of memory to keepe in mind the will of God:Psal. 119. 52. 61. that we forget it not, after we haue once knowne it.

4. Faithfulnesse of conscience to cheere vs when wee doe Gods will,1. Tim. 1. 12. and to checke vs when we transgresse it.

5. Setlednesse of heart and affections vpon Gods will.Psal. 40. 8.

6. Externall obedience in the seuerall parts of our bodie theretoRom. 6. 17.

7. Power ouer the flesh that drawes vs from the will of God.Rom. 7. 24, 25.

II. All euents of what kind so euer, be they losses or other crosses, minister matter of Thanksgiuing: for they are compri­sed in the number of those ALL THINGS for which we must giue thankes. Ephes. 5. 20. For this (saith the Apostle) is the will of God: 1. Thes. 5. 18. a rea­son very proper and pertinent to our purpose. Thus did Iob blesse God for taking away,Iob 1 21. as well as for giuing.

Q. What matter of thankes doth the direction added to the third Petition afford?

A. We ought to bee so much the more thankefull, by how much the more heauenly our obedience is: as when it is sweet­ned with Sinceritie, seasoned with Integritie, quickened with Alacritie, enlarged with Sedulitie, inflamed with Ardencie, [Page 92] followed and crowned with constancie. The more excellent the graces be wherewith wee are enabled to doe Gods will, the more matter of praise doe they afford. This was it that mo­ued Dauid to blesse and praise God againe and againe,1. Chron. 29, 10, 13, 19. that he and his people offered according to the will of God willingly in vprightnesse of heart, and with ioy.

§. 77. Of the duties to be obserued; by reason of the third Petition.

Q. VVHat duties ought we to endeuour after by vertue of the third Petition?

A. 1. We ought to search the Scripture that we may know the will of God.1. Search the Scripture. For in them is the will of God contained. This is that searching, Prou. 2, 4, 5. to which knowledge and vnderstanding is promised. And for our better helpe herein, wee ought dili­gently to frequent the Ministerie of Gods Word: as it is no­ted▪ of the conuetted Iewes,Act. 2. 42. that they continued stedfastly in the Apostles doctrine: whereby is declared that they were diligent and constant hearers of the Apostles, and also faithfull profes­sors and practisers of their doctrine. The former was the cause of the latter. The preaching of the Word is a great helpe to bring vs to doe the, will of God: and that in a double respect. First, because the will of God is thereby the more clearely, di­stinctly, and fully opened vnto vs. Secondly, because it is a meanes sanctisied of God to breed credence to the truth of that which is reuealed, and a [...]siance therein: yea, and to bow our will, heart, and affections to yeeld thereto, and to bee setled thereupon. In this respect saith the wisedome of God, which is especially set forth in the preaching of his Word,Pro. 8. 33. Blessed is the man that heareth me: watching dayly at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doores.

2. We ought to hide Gods Word in our heart, 2. Remember the word. wee may not carelessely let it slip. So will all the fruit and benefit of our rea­ding and hearing be lost,Psal. 119. 11. as meate, or physicke that is vomited vp so soone as it is taken.Heb. 2. 1. But by retaining Gods Word in minde and memory, wee shall be prouoked the more to doe Gods will, and kept from transgressing it: to which purpose [Page 93] the Psalmist saith,Psal. 119. 11. Thy word haue I hid in mine heart, that I might not sinne against thee. Col. 3. 16. Wherefore let the word of Christ dwell in you richly.

3. We ought oft and seriously to meditate on the excellencie of Gods will, 3. Meditate on Gods word. to draw our hearts the more to it. Whose heart was euer more set vpon Gods will to do it thenPsal▪ 119. 5, 20. Dauids? and who did more—97, 99, 148. meditate on the excellencie thereof, then he? It was his meditation day and night. The manyPsal. 19. 7. &c. excellent properties and effects which he doth attribute thereto: and the many Psal. 119. 72, 103, 127. sweete and pretious things to which he doth preferre it, do shew how excellent he accounted it to be.

4.4. Vow. We ought by solemne vow and oathPsal. 119. 1 [...]6. to bindour selues to do Gods will. This is an especiall meanes to keepe our words, thoughts,2. Chro. 15. [...], 14, 15. and actions within the compasse thereof. For sacred vowes,Neh. 10. 29. and oathes are as Tutors and Schoole-masters, which will oft put vs in minde of that which we haue vowed: and when we are about to start there-from they will restraine vs, and hold vs in.

5. We must keepe our owne will from rebelling against Gods. 5. Auoide rebel­lion. There is naturally in our will an antipathie and contrary incli­nation to Gods.Rom. 7 23. It is very prone to oppose and resist the will of God. As therefore we hold in head-strong horses with bit and bridle, so must we hold in our owne will: no way yeelding vnto it, but rather crossing it, when it riseth against Gods. This is an especiall branch of denying our selues. Math. 16. 24. Enitendum vt sit nobis cum di [...] vna voluntas: & quaecunque ei placent, placean [...] etiam & nobis. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6.

6 We ought to endeauour that our will may be one with Gods (as Christs was, who sought the will of his Father in all things. Ioh. 5. 30.) and that whatsoeuer pleaseth God, may please vs: so shall the will of God bee done by vs in­deed.

7. We must lay it downe as a rule not to be altered,7. Preferre God before man. and as an inuiolable law to obey God rather then man. For there is no comparison betwixt them. Yet is our foolish and corrupt heart readie to yeeld to such things as they who are ouer vs,Acts 4. 19. or from whom we may expect any aduantage, will haue to be done, yea though it be expresly against Gods will. But the forenamed set­led resolution will be an especiall meanes to keepe vs, as it kept the Apostles, Acts 5. 29. from preferring mans will to Gods. Thus this [Page 94] blocke being remoued out of the way, we shall much more rea­dily do the will of God.

8. We ought stedfastly to beleeue that all things are ordered by God: 8. Beleeue Gods prouidence. and that most wisely. This is the best meanes that can be prescribed to bring vs to a contented submission to Gods de­termined counsell and will manifested by euents.Rom 11. 36. He that be­leeueth that as God is a Lord of absolute soueraignty doing what he will (will or nill the creature) so he is a God of vn­searchable wisedome,Math. 10. 29. and infinite goodnesse, ordering all things to the best,Ier. 51. 15. will not grudge against that which God doth. For he well knoweth that as there is a necessitie of yeal­ding to his will, because it cannot be resisted, so there is also great equitie therein, because it cannot be bettered.

9. We must euer be striuing to do the will of God more and more: 9. Presse for­ward. better and better. This dutie ariseth from the patterne here set before vs. While we are on earth we cannot attaine to the per­fection of them who are in heauen.Phil. 3. 13, 14. We must therefore forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth to those things which are before, presse toward the marke for the price of the high calling of God in Christ Iesus. And as we were taught before to desire the best gifts, and therein to seeke to excell, so for this end we must stir vp the gifts of God in vs,2. Tim. 1. 6. and to the vttermost put forth that spirituall strength which the Lord is pleased to bestow vp­pon▪ vs: wisely obseruing both what is to be done, and after what manner it is to be done.

10. We ought,10. Pron [...]ke o­thers. as much as in vs lyeth, to prouoke others to do the will of God. For we pray not onely for our selues, that we may do it, but for others also, that it may be done euery where through the earth. Our endeauour must be answerable to our desire. Therefore Ministers, Magistrates, Parents, Tutors, Schoole-masters, Gouernours of families, and all that haue au­thoritie and charge ouer others, must most especially looke to this: because they haue best meanes to cause others to do the will of God. Thus shall they the better discharge that charge which is committed to them, and also much better accomplish the extent of that which is here desired:1. Thes. 5. 11. in which respect euen priuate Christians must also prouoke one another hereunto.Heb. 10. 24.

§. 78. Of sinnes against Gods will reuealed by his word.

Q. VVHat are the things which we ought to bewaile by ver­tue of the third Petition?

A. Both transgressions against the Petition it selfe, and also against the Direction added thereto. Against the Petition are all manner of sins both against the reuealed word of God, and also against the manifested workes of God.

Sinnes against the reuealed word of God to be bewailed by vertue of this Petition are such as these.Sinnes against the word of God.

1. Ignorance of Gods will reuealed by his word.1. Ignorance. Is it not a la­mentable case that the Creator should be carefull to reueale his whole counsell so farre forth as is requisite for the happinesse of his creatures, and yet the creature be carelesse in taking notice thereof?Ier. 5. 4. This was a thing whereof the Prophets much com­plained. And it is a matter for which we that liue vnder the bright light of the Gospell haue great cause to complaine.Hos. 4. 6. Ne­uer was there more meanes of knowledge: yet very small is the measure of knowledge whereunto many haue attained.Quo pacto vo­luntatem dei praeuiam sequar, vbi ignoro [...]am. Bern, in Quadr. Serm 6. How can it be thought that such as know not the will of God should do it? Can he that knoweth it not, follow it as a guide?

2. Obstinacie of our will against Gods. This may be in such as know the will of God. Christ complaineth of the Iewes obsti­nacie against the good will of God made knowne to them.2. Rebellion of will. The not doing of Gods will is hereby much aggrauated:Math 23. 37. and in that re­spect the more to be bewailed.Luke 12. 47.

3. Slipperinesse of memory, whereby the will of God made knowne is forgotten. By this the benefit of knowledge is lost. Ier. 2. 32. God much complaineth hereof: andHos. 4. 6. threatneth for this to forget their children.

4. Deadnesse of Conscience, which is the cause that men go on in sinne greedily and securely. The Apostle complaineth that men haue their conscience seared with an hot iron:1. Tim. 4 2. who being past fee­ling, giue themselues ouer to lasciuiousnesse,Ephes. 4. 19. to worke all vncleannesse with greedinesse.

5. Hatred of Gods word, which is that light that sheweth the [Page 96] good will of God.Pro. 1 29. Wisedome complaineth of these. There is no hope that such should do the will of God: forIoh. 3. 20. Eueryman that euill doth hateth the light. Wherupon God thus expostulateth with such an one,Psal. 50. 16. What hast thou to do to declare my Statutes, see­ing thou hatest instruction?

6. Actuall transgressions. These did Dauid much bewaile.Psal. 119. 136. They are directly contrary to that which is desired in this Pe­tition. Yet without hoe are these euery where, by all, of all sorts committed. O what cause haue we to be humbled for our owne sinnes, for the sinnes of others that are vnder our charge, for the sinnes of our families, for the sinnes of the Parish, Towne, Citie, or Nation where we liue and for the sinnes of the times where­we liue! In this respect we haue as great cause, as euer Ieremiah had,Ier. 9. 1. to wish and say, Oh that mine head were waters, and mine eyes a fountaine of teares, that I might weepe day and night for the [...]ransgressions which are daily committed against the will of God.

§. 79. Of sinnes against Gods will manifested by euents.

Q. VVHat are the sinnes, against Gods manifested workes, which we ought to bewaile?

A. 1. Inward discontentednesse.Sinnes against the worker of God.

2. Outward impatiencie.

The former is the cause of the latter.1. Discontented­nesse. It is noted of the Israe­lites that first they tempted God in their hearts (namely by their discontentednes at that prouision which he had made for them) and then it is added,2. Impatiencie. that they spake against God: of both which the Psalmist there complaineth.Psal. 78. 18.—19. When that which God causeth to fall out, any way crosseth our desire, as when children or o­thers whom we loue are taken from vs, when sicknesse, paine, penurie, or any other crosse is laid vpon vs, then we grow dis­contented in our minds, we mutter with our mouthes, and be­wray much impatiencie in our actions, and many times spare not to blaspheme the sacred Name of God, and to say, as that prophane King did,2. King. 6. 33. Behold, this euill is of the Lord: what should I waite for the Lord any longer? Who hath not cause in this respect [Page 97] to be much humbled for the bitternesse of his owne and other mens spirit, out of which much gall is oftentimes spit into the very face of God himselfe?

§. 80. Of sinnes against the manner of doing good.

Q. VVHat are failings against the direction which we ought to bewaile?

A. Isa. 1. 11. &c. An euill manner of performing good things: as when they are performed

1.Isa. 29. 13. Hypocritically, in shew and appearance onely, and not in truth:

2.1. Sam. 15. 13, 14. Partially, or by halues: so farre as seemeth good to our selues, but no further.

3.2. Cor. 9. 7. Grudgingly, as if it were done more by compulsion then by any free disposition of will:

4.Ier. 48. 10. Negligently, and carelesly, without heed-taking, or such respect as beseemeth so weightie a matter.

5.Reu. 3. 16. Luke-warmly, without any feruour of affections:

6.Reu. 2. 4. Inconstantly, as if we repented of that good we had done, and thereupon refuse to hold on therein.

Hitherto of the three first Petitions which concerne the glorie of God. The three other which concerne our good are next to be handled.


§. 81. Of the meaning of this word BREAD.

Q. VVHich is the fourth Petition?

A. Giue vs this day our daily bread.

Q. What points are here distinctly to be considered?

A. 1. The Thing desired,Though our En­glish do other­wise place the words of this Pe­tition, yet in the Originall Greeke and in the vsuall Latine [...]orme they are set down in this order. [...] Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis bodie. BREAD.

2. The Propertie which we haue therein, OVR.

3. The Kinde of it, DAILY.

4. The Giuer of it, OVR FATHER IN HEAVEN.

5. The Ground of asking it, GIVE.

6. The Parties for whom it is asked, VS.

7. The Time limited for it, TO DAY.

Q. What is meant by BREAD?

A. All manner of temporall blessings.Vnder bread all temporall bles­sings. For bread in his most vsuall and proper acceptation signifieth an especiall kind of foode whereby our bodies are nourished.Quandorogamus panem quotidia­num, quicquid nobis propter carnem nostram in terris necessa­rium est postula­mus. Aug. H [...]m. 42 in l. 50. Hom. Why bread is put for all tem­porall blessings. Yet so as by a Synecdoche 1. One kinde of foode is put for all other kindes: 2. One meanes of refreshing our bodies for all other meanes: 3. One temporall blessing for all sorts of temporall bles­sings. For there are so many temporall blessings whereof in this world we stand in need, as it would haue bene too tedious to haue reckoned vp euery particular by name. Wherefore Christ contents himselfe to mention onely one kind (Bread) which is of all the most vsuall. Euery one, poore and rich, in all places, vse bread: and so haue they done in all ages, whether they liue on flesh,P [...]ae [...]ibis omni­bus cor homin [...] confirmat panis. Bern. Serm. in can. dom. fish, butter, cheese, rootes, herbes, or any thing else, they must withall haue bread. Nothing can be lesse spared. For as foode, of all other temporall things is the most necessarie, so bread, of all other kinds of foode. WherePsal. 104. 15. other things refresh a man, this strengthens him: and hath therefore very fitly the stile ofPsal. 105. 16. staffe attributed to it. The want of no temporall thing [Page 99] brings a man to such distresse as the want of Bread:Gen. 41. 54, 55. which e­specially causeth famine, wherupon by a kind of property it is calledAmo. 8. 11. a famine of Bread. Vnder this title, Bread, are compri­sed meate and drinke; yea, food, raiment, sleepe, physicke, and other things needfull for our bodies,Panem cum di­cit omnia quae corpori necessa­riae sunt compre­hendit. Greg. Nys. de Orat. euen for preseruing, or re­couering the health and strength of them: and such a compe­tent estate also, as is meete for the place wherein God hath set vs, for the charge of children and others which hee hath com­mitted to vs, and for that function and worke which hee hath appointed for vs: together with peace, and all manner of pro­speritie. In a word, whatsoeue▪ is needfull and vseful for mans temporall estate in this world, is here comprised vnder this one particle BREAD. AndGen. 3. 19. most vsually in Scripture is it put forDeut. 8. 3. 82. temporall blessings.See §. 82. If at any time it bee put for Spirituall food,2. Sam. 3. 29. there is some circumstance or other that necessarily im­plyeth as much,Iob 15. 23.—27. 14. and plainely demonstrateth that there it can not be meant of corporall food.Psal. 37. 25. But there being no such cir­cumstance in this Petition,Pro. 12. 11.—20. 13.—31. 14. it is safest to take it in the literall, vsuall, and proper sence. If it be not here so taken, this forme of Prayer is defectiue,Ier. 44. 17. and compriseth not in it all things re­quisite to bee prayed for.Ezec. 16 49. For it is most requisite to pray for temporall blessings, as shall§. 83. afterwards be proued.

§. 82. Of the Arguments alleadged for Spirituall Food to be meant by Bread, answered.

THey certainely mistake the meaning of this Petition, who in this place apply this title BREAD to Christ Iesus the Spirituall Manna, which is thatIoh. 6. 33. Bread of God that commeth downe from Heauen, and giueth life vnto the world. Though in the sixt of Iohn, Bread be taken in that mysticall sence; yet is it not in that place singly and simply vsed, but with such a descrip­tion as plainely pointeth out the mysticall meaning of it, as Ver. 33. Bread of God, Ver. 50. Bread from heauen, Ver. 35. Bread of life, Ver. 51. Liuing Bread, Ver. 33. Bread that giueth life to the world, which Christ expres­ly applying to himselfe, sayth,Ver 48. I am the Bread of life. In that place therefore it cannot but be mystically meant. But here in [Page 100] this Petition there is no such cir­cumstance to point out any such mysterie.Of the attribute [...], whereby some thinke that more then ordinary earthly bread is meant, See §. 86. Where the double article [...] is pres­sed to prooue as much, It is well knowne that such ar­ticles do oft redound: or are vsed meerely for grace of speech. But it may be gran­ted, that here it implieth some emphasis, and yet no such mysterie as is preten­ded to be included therein. Of the order in placing it before iustification and sanctification See §. 97.

The chiefest arguments al­ledged for that mysticall inter­pretation are these.

1. Arg. If Bread be not here put for Christ, then the chiefest good thing that possibly we can desire is left out of this prayer.

Answ. 1. Christ as the very foundation, and roote of euery good thing, is included in the first clause of this prayer. For in Christ is God our Father. Eph. 5. 23.

2. Christ being the Head of the Church, he is expresly prayed for in the second Petition.

2. Arg. Temporall blessings are promised as additaments to the kingdome of God.Math. 6. 33. They need not therefore by name be prayed for.

Answ. That followeth not. So they be not preferd before the kingdome of God and his righteousnesse, they may ex­presly by for name be prayed for. Beside the warrantable pra­ctise ofGen. 28. 20. Iaakob, Pro. 30. 8. Agur, and other Saints, the Apostle comman­deth toIam. 5. 14, 15. pray for such as are sicke, that they may be healed.

Others obseruing that temporall blessings may not be exclu­ded, apply this title Bread, Cypr. de Orat. dom. §. 13. both to spirituall and also to corpo­rall foode.Greg. Nyss. de Orat. But this is to confound things of far different kinds in a forme where Christ doth very accuratly distinguish things that differ one from another.

As for Papists who apply this to the Sacrament of the body and bloud of Christ,Aug. in Enchir. cap. 115. they inferre thereby that the Lord should teach his disciples to pray for that which was not then institu­ted,Rhem. Annot. on Mat. 6. 11. and whereof they were vtterly ignorant.

§. 83. Of praying for temporall blessings.

Q. VVHat are wee taught by the mention of BREAD in this Prayer?

A. Temporall things are to be prayed for. Be­side the warrant of this Petition, and ofGen. 28. 20. other prayers of Saints guided therein by Gods Spirit,Pro. 30. 8. wee haue expresse Psal. 50. 15. precepts,Iam. 5. 14. 15. and promises, whereupon to ground our faith in this case. On these grounds the Saints that haue called vpon God for temporall blessings, haue also§. 101. giuen thankes to God the giuer of them. For

1. These are1. Tim. 4. 4. good things in themselues.

2. They are very needfull and vsefull. Needfull (as meanes sanctified of God▪) for preseruing our being in the world, which like a Lampe would soone be extinguished if continu­all supply of new oyle were not added thereto. In which re­spect they who bestow the things of this world, on such as want them, are said toRom. 12. 13. contribute to their necessities. Vsefull they are for enabling vs the better to do the worke which God appointeth to vs.

3. The want of them is a great hinderance to the worke of our calling, to workes of charitie and piety, andPro [...]. 30. 9. a temptation to iniustice.

Herein then the goodnesse of God in affoording to vs euery thing needfull for body as well as for soule, and for this present life, as well as for the life to come, is euidently set forth: and hereby we may and ought to take the more notice thereof.

§. 84. Of mens right to the things of this world.

Q. HOw is bread said to be OVRS?

A. In regard of a iust and true right that wee haue thereunto:Spirituall right to the things of this world. which right is two-fold: spirituall and ciuill. The spi­rituall right is proper to the Saints that beleeue in Christ. For Gen. 1. 28, 29. that right which God gaue to Adam vnto all things vnder heauen,—3. 17. was forfeited by sinne. But Christ the Lord & heire of all, vniting them that beleeue in him as members of his mysti­call body, thereby giueth them aIus i [...] re. new right to all that Adam lost. On this ground the Apostle saith to the faithfull,c 1. Cor. 3. 22, 23 [Page 98] [...] [Page 99] [...] [Page 100] [...] [Page 101] [...] [Page 102] The world, things prefent, and things to come are yours. Of which right he giueth this reason, Ye are Christs.

The ciuill right is that which is agreeable to iustice and e­quitie,Ius ad rem. and that in the courts of men. Thus children haue a right to the inheritance,Ciuill right to the things of this world. and portion which their Parents leaue them: which right Naboth had to the Vineyard which A­hab vniustly coueted.1. King. 21. 3. Thus they who bona fide purchase a thing haue right to it,Gen. 23. 16, 17, &c. as Abram to the field of Ephron, and the Caue in it. Thus haue men a right to that which they by Gods blessing on their honest diligence, in their lawfull calling get:Gen. 30. 40. as Iacob had to the party-coloured sheepe, which his vncle as wages allowed to him. Thus that which is giuen to a man by the owners thereof hee hath a right vnto:Iob 42. 11. as Iob had to the gifts which his friends bestowed vpon him. And sundry other wayes there bee agreeable to iustice and equitie, where­by wee haue a right to the goods of this world before men.

Now both the fore-named kindes of right must concurre to make a thing truely and properly a mans owne. They that are not Christs, haue no right to any thing at all before God: but are vsurpers of whatsoeuer they possesse and vse. Vnto the vnbeleeuing is nothing pure. Tit. 1. 15. They that are Christs, though they haue a right to all things, yet they may possesse and vse no more then what they can iustifie to be theirs before men, and that in iustice and equitie. Their generall right in Christ is to giue them libertie to hold and occupie so much as God by the hand of his prouidence shall reach out vnto them.Tu da panem. i. ex iustis labori­bus cibum adi­piscar. Nam si Deus iustitia est, non habet a Deo panem, qui exre fraudulenter & iniustè parta ci­bumhabet. Greg. Nyss. de Orat. Iustice is this hand of Gods prouidence. That which vniustly is gotten, can not properly bee said to be giuen by God. It is with Saints as with an onely child and heire while his father liueth: though he haue a right to all that his father hath, yet may he not possesse and vse any more then his father allotteth to him.

§. 85. Of sundry lessons arising from this particle Ours.

Q. VVHat are wee giuen to vnderstand by stiling bread Ours?

A. Two things especially.

1. The Saints haue in Christ a true right to the things of this world. The right of Saints to tem­porall things. They who are taught to say, Our Father in Christ (which all the Saints, and none but Saints can doe) are also taught to say,Tit. 1. 15. Our bread, (For to the pure are all things pure.) which is a good motiue to draw vs vnto Christ, that so wee may with good conscience vse whatsoeuer the Lord by his prouidence shall bestow vpon vs.

2. We may not desire that which is anothers. That which is anothers, not to be coueted. For wee are here taught to pray for that which we may call ours. Now we iustly so call nothing, but that whereunto we haue a ciuill, as well as a spirituall right. The Morall Law expressely forbiddeth to couet that which is anothers.Exod. 20. 17.

By this word of propertie,All things not common to all. Our, the Anabaptisticail conceit of a communitie of all things is euidently refuted. And we are taught to rest contented with that portion which the Lord is pleased to allot vs as our owne. Contentment.

§. 86. Of the meaning of this word DAILY.

Q. WHat is meant by this word DAILY?

A. Ordinary and v­suall bread, whereof we doe euery day stand in need, [...]. This word is very ambiguous. The vulgar Latine translates it supersubstantialem, as if [...] were put for [...]. Which many following doe expound this Petition of that bread of God which came down from heauen, euen Iesus Christ. Whereof see §. 82. Others make the notation to bee [...], ad substantiam, q. d. [...], bread helpfull to our substance, or fit and meet to nourish vs. Thus is it answerable to that phrase vsed by the Wise-man, Pro. 30. 8. [...] Panis praescripti, vel demensi mei (i) mihi praescriptus, aut mihi suctentando idoneus. The Syriack Translater of the New Testament see­meth to follow this sense, who thus expresseth it, [...] panem neces­sitatis nostrae, that which wee haue dayly need of. Others deriue this word [...] from [...], the participle of [...] adsum, vel supersto, vel subse­quor, whence the morrow is called [...] scil. [...], Thus it signifieth bread needfull for the present, panem advenientem, as Saint Augustine ac­knowledgeth the Greeke word to signifie, though he translates it super­substantialem. Serm, 18. de verb. Dom. Latinus hunc panem quo­tidianum dixit, quia Graeci dicunt advenientem. And in Enchir. c. 116. Panis quotidianus ideo dictus est, quia hic est necessarius. The common Translation of the word, quotidianum, daily, may wel stand with either of the two latter notations. Answerably to the common Translation: Saint Cyprian termeth it diurnam ci­bam, dayly food. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 14. being fittest for our substance, to pre­serue soule and body together, & to nourish and cherish vs here in this life. Thus it impor­teth the very same thing that the Wise man setteth out vnder this phrase,Pro. 30. 8. Bread of my allowance, or conue­nient for me. This word is thus here vsed to di­stinguish the food here meant, from that which Ioh. 6. 27, 33, 35.—4. 14. comming downe from heauen endureth to e­uerlasting life, whereof whosoeuer eateth shall neuer bee hungry, or thirst againe: and to prescribe a meane to our desire.

§. 87. Of desiring no more then is needfull.

VVHat instruction are we taught by this word DAILY? Quaerere iube­mur id quod satis sit ad naturam corporis conser­vandam, panem da ad Deum di­centes, non luxum &c. Greg. Nyss. de Orat.

A. Our desire must be for no more then is needfull for vs. On this ground the Apostle aduiseth to be1. Tim. 6. 8. content ha­uing food and raiment. Thus was the desire ofGen. 28. 20. Iaakob, Pro 30. 8. Agur, and other Saints moderated.1. Tim. 6. 9. Things need­full. Superfluitie is very dangerous. It is Satans baite whereby he allureth and beguileth many: his snare whereby hee catcheth and houldeth them fast: his hooke whereby he pulleth them downe, and drowneth them in per­dition.

Q. What may be accounted needfull?

A. 1. That which very nature requireth: as meate and drinke to feed the body, and cloathing to keepe it warme: Lam. 4. 4, 5. without these the body cannot but pine away and perish.

2. That which is meet for the estate wherein God hath set vs: as fit instruments for Artificers: bookes for schollers: amunition for Captains, and other Souldiers: yea also for pub­like persons, and for men of great birth, place, and dignitie, such sufficiencie as is fit for the same. Thus much the Wise-man intendeth vnder this phraseProu. 30. 8. Gine me not pouertie. A man may haue to sustaine nature, and yet be poore.

3. That which is requisite for the charge committed to vs. As if a man haue wife, and children, that which is m [...]et for them, as well as for himselfe, may iustly bee accounted needfull: so for others of his houshold and kindred lying on his charge. 1. Tim. 5. 8. The Apostle pronounceth him worse then an Infidell that pro­uideth not for his owne, and specially for them of his owne house. It behooueth vs therefore to pray for so much as may be suffi­cient for them for whom we ought to prouide.

4. That which is apparently needfull for the time to come. 2. Cor. 12. 14. Fathers ought to lay vp for their children. Gen. 41. 48, 49. When Ioseph fore­saw seuen yeeres Famine to come, hee laid vp great plenty of corne before hand.

§. 88. Of Couetousnesse, Ambition, and Voluptuousnesse.

COntrarie to the forenamed moderation of our desire is Co­uetousnesse,Auarus homo si­milis est inferno. Sicut infermus nunquam dicit, satis est, ita aua­rus nunquam satiatur, &c. Bern. de modo bene viuen. Serm. 44. which like to hell can neuer bee satisfied. For by aboundance this desire is encreased; so as the more it is filled, the lesse it is satisfied. Hereof our Lord aduiseth to Luke 12. 15. take heed and beware. For as it is an vnsatiable sinne, so also a deuouring sinne; as Pharaohs leane Kine deuoured the fat ones, so Couetousnesse deuoureth all Gods blessings and gra­ces,Gen. 41. 4. itMath. 13. 22. Ezek. 33. 31. choaketh the Word, and maketh hearers thereof vn­fruitfull. It so intangleth men with the things of this world, as it maketh itLuke 14. 18. easier for a Camell to goe thorow the eye of a needle, then for a rich man to enter into the Kingdome of God. No sinne more bewitcheth a man, drawing his heart from God the only true ground of confidence,Mar. 10. 25. and making him trust in vanitie which is plaineCol. 3. 5. Ephe [...] 5. 5. idolatry. Yea it is truely stiled.1. Tim. 6. 10. The roote of all euill. For it so blindeth mans minde, and hardeneth his heart, as he maketh conscience of no sinne: no not of denying God, and renouncing true Religion: nor of periurie, and blas­phemie: nor of prophaning and breakiug the Sabbath: nor of rebellion against Superiours, and neglect of inferiours: nor of murther or any other vnmercifulnesse, nor of oppression, de­ceit, falshood, or any other euill.

Contrary also to the forenamed moderation of desire, are Ambition or affectation of worldly honours and promotions, which like a winde make a man fwell aboue that which is meet, but yet fill him not: and Voluptuousnesse, or an eager hunting after earthly pleasures and delights, wherewith hee vseth to be sooner wearied then contented.

§. 89. Of Gods giuing temporall blessings. That he giueth them. How he giueth them.

Q. OF whom are we taught to aske bread?

A. Of our Father which is in heauen. For all the Petitions of this Prayer are directed to him.

[Page 107] Q. What is thence to be gathered?

A,Psa. 102. 19 20 The Lord in heauen is the disposer of all things on earth. ForGen. 14 22. Psal. 24. 1. hee is the possessor of heauen and earth. c The earth is the Lords, and the fulnesse thereof. He therefore giueth the earth and the things thereof to whom he will. Wee neither haue them of our selues, nor can haue them of any other but of God. What­soeuer the meanes of getting them be, they are but the hands of Gods prouidence, whereby he giueth vs what we haue.

Q. How doth God giue bread, and the things here comprised vnder it?

A. 1. By causing them to be brought forth. How God gi­ueth temporall blessings. For God at first made euery thing that is fit for mans vse: and hee continueth still to cause the earth, sea, and other like meanes to bring forth all things needfull for man.Psal. 104. 14. I will heare, saith the Lord, I will heare the heauens, Hos. 2 21, 22. and they shall heare the earth, and the earth shall heare the corne, and the wine, and the oile, and they shall heare Iez­reel. God is there set forth as the d first mouer, A Primus Motor. and the highest orderer and disposer of all secondary meanes, whereby things meet for man are brought forth.

2. By bringing them to vs, so as wee may partake of the vse of them.Hos▪ 2. 8. Thus saith God to Israel, I gaue her corne, and wine, and oyle, &c. It is the same God to whom the Psalmist saith, The eyes of all things wait vpon thee, Psal. 145. 15. O Lord, and thou giuest them their meat in due season.

3. By giuing them a blessing. Such a blessing doth God giue to the things which are brought forth, and brought to vs, as by vertue thereof they nourish and cherish vs. This blessing is in Scripture stiledLeu 26. 26. Isa. 3. 1. the staffe and stay of bread. This is that Deut. 8. 3. Word of God by which man liueth. By this man thriueth. For Prou. 10. 22. the blessing of God maketh rich. Whence this prouerbe hath beene raised, Giue me Gods blessing, and cast mee into the Sea. In regard of this blessing they who haue aboundance haue need to make this Petition. ForLuke 12. 15. a mans life consisteth not in the aboundance of the things which he possesseth, e Hag 1. 6. Psal. 127. 1, [...]. without Gods bles­sing nothing can doe him any good.

4. By sanctifying them to vs. This is done 1. by accepting our persons in Christ, and accounting vs pure.Tit. 1. 15. To the pure all things are pure. 2. By giuing vs in Christ a right to what wee [Page 108] haue.1. Cor. 3. 22, 23 All things are theirs who are in Christ. 3. By giuing vs a warrant out of the Word for enioying and vsing the same. 1. Tim. 4. 5. It is sanctified by the Word of God and Prayer. 4. By giuing vs grace well to vse what wee haue. By vertue of this grace. Phil. 4. 12. Saint Paul was instructed both to be full, and to be hungry; both to abound and to suffer need.

Though in the three first respects, namely, by causing things fit for creatures to be brought forth, by bringing them to his creatures, and by giuing a nourishing vertue to them, God may truely be said to giue bread to all sorts of men, good and euill: yea to all sorts of creatures, reasonable and vnreasonable: yet in the last respect, namely by sanctifying it, he giueth bread to the Saints alone.

§. 90. Of the instructions taught vs by asking bread of God.

IN that we are directed to aske bread of our Father in hea­uen, we are taught thereby:

1.1. Chron. 29. 11, &c. To acknowledge him the giuer thereof.

2.Psal. 145. 15. In all want to fly to him.

3.Psa. 147. 12, 13. To giue the praise of all we haue to him.

4.Prou. 3. 9. To honour him with our substance,

5.Hos. 2. 5. To ascribe nothing that we haue to any false gods, as the idolatrous Israelites did.

6.Deut. 8. 17. Nor to our owne power, asDan. 4. 30. proud Nebuchadnezzar.

7.Act. 24. 2, 3. Not to other men, as flattering Tertullus.

§. 91. Of Gods free-giuing the things of this world.

Q. ON what ground doe we aske bread of God?

A. Meerely on the free grace of God. This word GIVE doth import as much. For what is more free then gift.

Q. What doth Christ hereby teach vs?

A. All that wee haue commeth from the free gift of God. Rom. 11. 35. For who hath giuen to him first? We neither can deserue any thing of [Page 109] God: nor repay any thing to him. Well, did Iaakob vnderstand this lesson,Gen. 32. 10. which made him acknowledge himselfe lesse then all Gods mercies, and vnworthy of the least of them.

We ought hereby to be stirred vp to more thankfulnesse,1. Chro. 29. 13, 14, 15. as Dauid was. For the freer a gift is, the better it is: the more ac­ceptable to him that receiueth it, and the more worthy of praise to be rendred to him that giueth it.

§. 92. Of praying both for our selues and for others.

Q. VVHat persons are comprised vnder this particle V s?

A. All they whose Father God is. For OVR in the Preface, and V s in the three last Petitions, import the very same persons.

Q. What learne we from this manner of expressing the parties prayed for in the first person, and plurall number, V s?

A. In Prayer we must be mindfull both of our selues, and of others also. It is vsuall with the Saints so to expresse their desires, as they shew thereby they haue respect to themselues, and to o­thers too. Sometimes therefore hauing in the singular number prayed distinctly for themselues, they adde thereto Petitions for others: as where Dauid thus in particular prayed for him­selfe, Keepe my soule, Psal. 25. 20, 22. and deliuer me, he addeth, Deliuer Israel, O God, &c.

For our selues we must especially pray on these grounds.

1. Euery one is nearest to himselfe. And this is the tenour of the law,Math. 22. 39. Thou shalt loue thy neighbour as thy selfe. If then thou prayest for any, oughtest thou not much more for thy selfe?

2. Euerie one (if at least he be not blinded in his minde) best knoweth his owne needs, and is most sencible of his owne wants, according to the Prouerb, The foote best knoweth where the shooe most pincheth. Not vnfitly to this purpose may this principle be applied, what man knoweth the things of a man, saue the spirit of a man which is in him. Who can beter know when a man is hungrie or thirstie, or what he best rellisheth, then him­selfe?

3. Euery ones prayer is most effectuall for himselfe. No faith­full [Page 110] prayer made for ones selfe will God reiect: but Moses and Samuel, Ier. 15. 1. or Noah, Daniel, and Iob may pray for others, and yet deliuer but their owne soules.Ezek. 14. 14.

See the whole Armour of God on Eph. 6. 18. Treat. 3 § 36. Of praying for others see before in §. 14. the fourth dutie.

This of the generall Doctrine gathered out of this particle v s, being common to the three last Petitions made for mans good. The persons here intended are further to be considered in a more particular relation to this fourth Petition.

§. 93. Of praying for others outward well-fare

Q. VVHat doth the mention of others besides our selues, in this Petition for temporall blessings, teach v s?

A. We must as truly desire the outward wel-fare of others, Ier. 29. 7. as our owne. This precept of the Prophet, Seeke the peace of the Citie, and pray vnto the Lord for it, is very pertinent to this purpose. For by peace he meaneth especially outward prosperi­tie. So doth the Psalmist,Psal. 122. 6. where he saith, Pray for the peace of Ierusalem: for he addeth, Peace be within thy walles, and prosperitie within thy palaces. This might easily be exemplified by a particul­ar enumeration of all those temporall blessings which we may pray for in our owne behalfe, applyed to prayers for others.

Others are of the same mould whereof we are, and subiect to the same infirmities: they are supported and sustained by the same meanes that we are: and they stand in need of temporall blessings as well as we. These therefore must be prayed for in their behalfe.

This is the rather to be noted, because many who can be well content to pray for others spirituall wel-fare, faile exceedingly in praying for their temporall wel-fare: which ariseth from too much loue of themselues, and of this world. Men ordinarily are so addicted to this world, as, if it were possible, they would wholly haue it to themselues. They desire not therefore to haue it much communicated to others. As for grace they obserue it to be as communicable as light. No man hath the losse by the abundance of another. It rather encreaseth by communication and participation. They care not therefore how much others [Page 111] haue thereof. But the things of this world are of another na­ture. The more of them is giuen to some, the lesse remaineth for others. This maketh many the lesse forward to pray for the temporall estate of others. Let these two pestiferous rootes, Loue of our selues, and loue of this world be rooted out of our hearts, and the forenamed dutie of praying for the temporall wel-fare of others will be much more readily, and heartily per­formed.

From hence by necessarie and iust consequence it followeth,Others to be re­leeued with the bread that wee haue. that we ought to succour one another with the goods of this world, according to the rule of loue, which is, our brothers ne­cessitie, and our owne abilitie. For what we pray for in the be­halfe of others, wee must to our power endeauour to do for them. This is also the rather to be noted, because many who are readie to minister spirituall comfort to others, as to instruct them, to encourage them, to strengthen them in grace and godlinesse, and by Christian reproofe to pull them out of the way of perdition, yea and to exhort others to be mercifull and bountifull in distributing to the poore, are very backwards themselues to giue of the goods of this world which they haue,Iam. 1. 26, 27. & 2. 14. &c. to such as need. Surely such mens religion is vaine, and their pretence of faith and loue a meere pretence,1. Ioh. 3. 17. the loue of God doth not dwell in him.

§. 94. Of resting contented with our present estate.

Q. WHy is our desire here limited to THIS DAY?

A. 1. We do euery day stand in need of the bread which we are here taught to pray for. For it nourisheth but a day.Ioh. 4. 13. He that on one day eateth as much as he can, will be hungry the next day.

2. OurPsal. 90. 6. Luke 12. 20. life is but as a day. He that this day is aliuePro. 27. 1. Iam. 4. 14, 15. know­eth not whether he shall see the morrow or no: so as we are to account of euery day as of our last day: and accordingly euery day renew our prayers.d 1. Thes. 5. 17. This is to pray continually

Q. What especiall instruction doth this limitation of our desire for the things of this world teach vs?

[Page 112] A. We must be content with the things that are present. For God himselfe hath said,Heb. 13. 5. Per id quod ho­die iubet, intor­dicit tibi curam de Crastino. Greg Nyss [...]e Orat. I will neuer faile thee nor forsake thee. If the promise of him who is able to supply all our necessities be not sufficient to worke contentment, I know not what can be suf­ficient.

Cast off therefore all carking distrustfulnesse, andMat. 6 34. Dicit, Da nobis hodi [...], vt nequa­quam illos vlte­rioris d [...]ei cura co [...]tereret. Chrys. in Mat. 6. Hom. 20. take no thought for the morrow. Pray in faith for bread this day, and let the morrow take thought for the things of it selfe. He that boasted of his abundance laid vp for many yeares, when he had not many houres to liue, is branded for a foole. For when his life was euen wasted, and gone, his care was for plentie of prouision.

§. 95.Cui vila iam decrat, victus a­bundantiam co­gitabat. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 14. Lege Aug. de Temp. Serm. 126 Of seeking the things which concerne our owne good as well as the glorie of God.

Q. VVHat is to be obserued about the order of the fourth Petition?

A. 1. That which is common with the Pe­titions following.

2. That which is proper to it selfe.

Q. What is it that is common with the Petitions following?

A. The fit inference of such Petitions as concerne our good vpon such as concerne the glorie of God. For as in the three Petitions before this, we are taught to seeke the things of God, so in this and the two following, the things which tend to our owne good.

Q. What learne we from that inference?

A. It is lawfull to seeke such things as tend to our owne good, Things for our selues may be sought. as well as such as tend to the glorie of God. Can a better warrant then this platforme of prayer be expected? To adde other proofes, whereof the Scripture affoordeth many, were to light candles in Sun-shine.

Behold here the good respect that God heareth to man.Gods respect to vs. Though he might vse vs as gally-slaues, & other slaues are vsed, wholly and onely for his owne turne, yet doth he not denie vs libertie to seeke our selues, and our owne good. Yea if the ser­uices which we performe to him, hinder our good indeed, hee will that they giue place to this: and on that ground he saith, I [Page 113] will haue mercie, Math. 12. 7. and not sacrifice. And againe, The Sabbath was made for man, Mar. 2. 27. and not man for the Sabbath.

Should not this enflame our hearts with zeale of the glorie of God?Our gratefulnes to God. Should we not hereupon be euen eaten vp, as Christ was?Ioh. 2. 17. Most meete it is that Gods goodnesse to vs worke grate­fulnesse in vs to him.

As in respct of God this requireth gratefulnesse,Prouidence for our selues. so in respect of our selues, prouidence: that we be not carelesse in seeking that for our selues,Omnia bonum appetunt. which God in his care ouer vs giueth vs li­bertie to seeke. Ordinarily men are giuen to seeke their owne good.Arist. Ethic. lib. Yea nature inclineth euery thing to seeke that which is good for it selfe:1. cap. 1. & 4. so as I need not vse many words to presse this point.Phil. 2 22. Most faile in seeking their owne too much. Yet there are also failings in the defect, and that both of such as§. 157. neglect their best and truest good concerning their eternall saluation, and also of such as neglect euen their§. 103. temporall estate.

§. 96. Of the principall end of this life.

Q. VVHat are the things proper to this Petition,The end of our life to glorifie God. to be ob­serued about the order of it?

A. 1. The inference of such things as concerne this present life,Quia nondum perfectione gau­dentes, non sine magno labore di­uinae possumus obtemperare vo­lunlati, opus est cibo ne deficia­mus: opus est, inquam, pane qu [...]etidiano. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6. vpon such as concerne Gods glorie.

2. The placing of things temporall before spirituall.

Q. What are we taught by that inference.

A. The end of this life is to glorifie God. For being taught to pray for such things as tend to the glorie of God, wee are thereupon taught to pray for bread, that our life may be pre­serued to that end. Directly to this purpose the Psalmist thus prayeth,Psal. 119. 175. Let my soule liue, and it shall praise thee. This moued Isa. 38. 1, 2, 3. 18, 19. Hezekiah to pray for life when he had receiued the sentence of death, as may be gathered out of this reason, The graue cannot praise thee, death cannot celebrate thee. The liuing, the liuing he shall praise thee.

Acts 17. 28. Gods glorie to be aimed at in nourishing our bodies. In God we liue, moue, and haue our being. Great reason there­fore that our life should be ordered to his glorie.

Let vs on this ground set this end before vs in sustaining this present life: and so order it as, when we are to depart, wee [Page 114] may say to God,Ioh. 17. 4. as Christ did, I haue glorified thee on earth, &c. Whensoeuer we pray for the things of this world, we ought to haue this end in our minds,1. Cor. 10. 31, that whether we eate, or drinke, or what­soeuer we do, we may do all to the glorie of God.

On this ground also we must be the more watchfull ouer our selues,Life not to be mispent. that we mispend not our life, health, strength, or goods on any thing contrary to that end, as in persuing carnall plea­sures, worldly honours, earthly trash, and such like things. Note for this purpose that item which the wise man giueth to the young man persisting in mispending his pretious time, to whom ironically he saith,Eccl. 11. 9. Reioyce ô young man in thy youth, and let thy heart cheere thee in the daies of thy youth, and walke in the wayes of thine heart, and in the sight of thine owne eyes. But know thou, that for all these things God will bring thee to iudgement.

§. 97. Of placing the Petition for temporrll blessings before those for spirituall.

Q. VVHy is this Petition for temporall blessings set before the Petitions for spirituall blessings?

A. Many good and weightie reasons may be giuen of this order, which will plainly shew that the placing of this Petition before the two following is no sufficient argu­ment, to proue that by BREAD Christ is here meant. Some of them are these.

1. This is an expresse Petition for good, as the three former are: but the two last are deprecations from euill. It was therefore requisite that all the good things to be craued should be men­tioned before the euils against which we pray.

2. The Lord by placing temporall blessings, whereof we are more sensible, before spirituall, doth endeauour by degrees to raise vp in vs a desire of spirituall blessings: which though they be more needfull,Ioh. 4. 53. are lesse sensible. The Ruler whose sonne Christ healed, was thereby brought to beleeue in Christ.

3. This Petition, being of least consequence, is most fitly put in the middlemost place. For as matters of greatest weight are first mentioned to stirre vp ardencie, euen in the beginning of prayer: so other things of much moment are reserued to the [Page 115] latter places to quicken the spirit, and to reuiue ardencie, euen in the ending of prayer. This method do the best Orators vse in their Orations. Thus Chris [...] beginning this prayer with the chiefest good thing of all, the glorie of Gods name, endeth it with the best good things concerning men, which is his spiri­tuall good.

4. Though temporall blessings be not in their kind better then spirituall, yet is man more hardly brought to depend on God for temporall, then for spirituall things. Witnesse this prouerbiall speech, God take care for my soule, and I will take care for my bodie. Witnesse also that distrustfulnesse for outward estate, which is in many Saints that stedfastly trust in God for pardon of sinne, and sufficient grace to bring them to eternall life. In this respect our faith in God for things of this life, hath a preheminence and precedence before faith in God for the things of a better life.

5. The things craued in the two last Petitions are to be ob­tained in this life. In this life if pardon of sinne, and freedome from Satans power be not had, they can neuer be had. He that dieth with the burden of sinne lying on his soule shall neuer be eased of it in the world to come. This life then being presup­posed for obtaining pardon of sinne, and deliuerance from euill, it is meete that it be first prayed for.

§. 98. Of rising from temporall to spirituall blessings.

Q. VVHat may we learne from placing, this order of placing, temporall blessing before spirituall?

A. By our seeking of such things as concerne the good of our bodies, we must be led on to seeke such good things as concerne our soules. To this end did Christ preach that excellent Sermon of the bread of life to such as followed him from place to place to haue their bodies fed.Ioh. 6. 26. &c.

Thus shall wee make a double vse of the temporall good things which God bestoweth on vs: one to refresh our bodies: another to stir vp our minds to seeke the things which may re­fresh our soules.

[Page 116] Blessed are they which thus vse any temporall blessings: and by the sweetnesse of them are brought to hunger after the bread and water of life, euen for that meate which endureth to euerlasting life.

§. 99. Of sundrie particulars comprised vnder the generall words of the fourth Petition.

Q. VVHat are the particular good things for which vnder the generall words of the fourth Petition we pray?

A. 1. Life it selfe. That, so long as it pleaseth God, our tem­porall life in this world may bee preserued. This didPsal. 21. 4. Isa. 38. 2. good Kings,Psal. 119. 175. Prophets,2. Cor. 1. 8. &c. Apostles, and other Saints pray for, being therein guided by the Spirit of God. For the time of this life is Ioh. 9. 4. the day to do the worke of God: the time of death is the night wherein no man can worke.

1. Ob. 1 King. 19. 4. Elias, Ion. 4. 3. Ionah, and other Saints desired death.

Answ. Therein they did not as becometh Saints. That their desire was a fruite of the flesh, and not of the Spirit: and there­fore not to be imitated.

2. Ob. Phil. 1. 23. Paul with a better spirit desired to be dissolued.

Answ. That was no simple absolute desire of death, but a thing which he could in regard of his fruition of Christs pre­sence haue desired, if that worke which God appointed by him to be done, had bene finished.

2. Health and strength of bodie. What doth the PsalmistsPsal. 88. 3. &c. com­plaint of weaknesse imply, but desire of health and strength? Yea, heVer. 2, 13. expresly prayeth for as much. It is noted as an especiall blessing bestowed on the Israelites when they came out of E­gypt, thatPsal. 105. 37. none were feeble.

3. Meanes which God hath sanctified to preserue life, health and strength, as Psal. 145. 15. meate, Iudg. 15. 18. drinke, Gen▪ 28. 20. apparell, Psal. 127. 2. sleepe, &c.

4. Me [...]es to recouer health, and strength: Leu. 26. 6. as Physike, and all kind of medi [...] Chyrurgerie and all kinds of salues, with the like. This phrase,Mat. 9. 12. The s [...]cke need a Physitian, and the2. King. [...]0 7. direction which Isaiah giueth to Hezekiah about the laying of a lump of figs vpon his boile, giue warrant for the vse of Physicke and Chyrurgerie. It requireth learning, skill, obseruation and ex­perience [Page 117] both to know the nature of diseases, wounds, sores, and other maladies, and also to know the different vertue which by the diuine prouidence is giuen to hearbs, rootes, drugges, and other creatures: and wisely to apply fit and pro­per remedies, to sundry and different maladies. These things therefore may be prayed for.

5.Psal. 90. 17. Good successe in our callings, labours and paines to get such meanes as are fit to preserue or recouer health and strength:Ruth. 2. 4. and to maintaine our estate. For allPsal. 127. 1, 2, that we can doe is altogether in vaine, except the Lord prosper our endeuours.

6. Gods blessing on the things which wee possesse and vse. Without this blessing a man were as good eate grauel as bread. Therefore for obtaining this blessing,1. Sam. 9. 13. grace, Mat. 14. 19. (as wee speake) vseth to be said before meat, and thereby food is said to bee blessed.

7. A diuine sanctification of all we haue. For1. Tim. 4. 5. euery crea­ture is sanctified by prayer.See §, 89.

8. Freedome and deliuerance from all kinde of externall miseries, asPsal. 142 6. oppression,Acts 12. 5. [...] imprisonment,Exod. 2. 23. bondage,1. King. 8. 47. cap­tiuitie, and other like distresses.

§. 100. Of the extent of our prayers for the tem­porall good of others.

Q. ARe wee to pray for no more then is needfull for our selues?

A. Yes. What we craue for our selues, we ought to craue for others also. For the Petition is made in the plurall number,

Q. Who are those others for whom wee must craue temporall blessings.

A. 1. They who are of our Family. 1. Tim. 5. 8. It belongeth to vs to prouide for them. We must therefore pray that we may haue sufficient for our selues, and them: and that God would further bestow on them whatsoeuer is requisit for them in their places.

2. They who are of our kindred, or alliance, though they bee out of our Family. [...]. That distinction which the Apostle maketh betwixt these two phrases, his owne, and them of his house, where [Page 118] he requireth a prouident care for both, sheweth that respect must be had to our owne, that is, our kindred, though they bee not of our Family.

3. They which are of our towne, parish, or citie. That which the Prophet aduiseth concerning the Citie where the Iewes in their captiuitie dwelt (which was to pray to the Lord for it, Ier. 29. 7. and to seeke for the prosperitie of it) may bee applyed to the Parish, Towne, Village, street, or any other such common place. And this reason which the Prophet rendreth (in the peace thereof shal you haue peace) may be extended to all such places.

4. They who are of our Nation. The Psalmist ment his whole Nation,Psal. 122. 6. when he said, Pray for the peace of Ierusalem. And a­gaine, If I forget thee, Psal. 137. 5. O Ierusalem, &c.

5. They who any where liue in this world. That all of all sorts may in their places be maintained, we ought to pray for a con­tinuance of those things which at the beginning God ordai­ned for the preseruation of the world: that, as God hath pro­mised,Gen. 8. 22. there may be, while the earth remaineth, seed-time and haruest, and cold and heat, and Summer and Winter, and day and night: and all other things meet for man in this world. Yea al­so according to publike extremities, and necessities must our prayers be ordered, as in time of drought, for1. King. 18. 42, Iam. 5. 18. raine:1. Sam. 12. 18, 19. when faire weather is seasonable, for faire weather: in time of2. Sam. 24. 25. Plague,Ioel 1. 14, &c Famine,Exo. 17. 10, 11. Warre, or any other like di­stresse, for succour against those Messengers of death: that thus so long as God hath appointed vs to liue in this world, we may comfortably passe ouer that time of life.

§. 101. Of the things for which by vertue of the fourth Petition we ought to giue thankes.

Q. VVHat are the particular good things for which, by rea­son of the fourth Petition, thanksgiuing is re­quired?

A. 1. Life it selfe. For euery day that is renewed vnto vs af­fordeth matter of thankes euen for that life which is lent vs. Thus much doth the Psalmist intend in these words. While I [Page 119] liue will I praise the Lord, Psal. 146. 2. I will sing praises vnto my God while I haue any being.

2. Health and strength in that life. Ios. 14. 10, 11. This is it which Caleb that faithfull seruant of the Lord acknowledgeth, and that to the glory of God, for he ascribeth it to God.

3.Deut, 8. 10. Sufficient meanes to preserue these. This Moses giueth in expresse charge to Israel, saying, When thou hast eaten and fil­led thy selfe, thou shalt blesse the Lord thy God. The Scripture vnder one blessing compriseth all blessings of the same kinde: so as by virtue of that charge wee ought to blesse God for apparell, sleepe, and other meanes of maintaining health and strength.

4,Isa. 38, 9, &c. Recouerie of health and strength. For this did Hezekiah (as a perpetuall testimonie of his thankefulnesse) indight a Psalme of praise, and cause it to be registred for all ages.

5.Gen. 24. 26, 27. Good successe in our paines. For this doth Abrahams ser­uant giue expresse thankes vnto God.Gen. 31. 5, &c. And Iaakob ascribeth that encrease which he had to God, which acknowledgement is a thanksgiuing.

6. The extent of Gods prouidence to our Family, and to such as we ought to prouide for. Iaakob acknowledgeth thus much, saying,Gen. 33. 11, 20. God hath dealt graciously with mee, and I haue enough, meaning enough for himselfe, and all that belonged to him: and thereupon he erected an Altar in testimonie of his thanke­fulnesse.

7. Gods bounty extended to the places where wee dwell. Sion was the Citie of Dauid, Psal. 147. 12, &c. and in Ierusalem was his habitation: he doth therefore praise the Lord for that peace, plenty, safety, and other like blessings which God had bestowed thereupon. On this ground wee are to blesse God for such good Gouer­nours as he hath set ouer vs,1 Kin. 10 9. in regard of the temporall bene­fits which we receiue thereby.Prou. 29. 2.

8. Gods prouidence in keeping away, or remouing any euils, as Psal. 107. 8, 9. Famine,Psal. 91. 2, &c. Plague,Exo 15 1, &c. Sword,Est. 9. 23, 24. Plots and practises of Ene­mies, with the like.

9 The common blessings which God bestoweth on the whole world. The consideration whereof muchPsal. 8. 1, &c, & 145. 1, 14, 15. enlarged Dauids heart to praise the Lord. Here therefore we are to take notice [Page 120] how all the creatures in heauen, earth and sea still continue, as from the beginning, to be vsefull vnto man.Psal. 104, 2. The heauens re­maine to couer him,& 136. 7, 8, 9. the Sunne, Moone and whole Hoste of heauen to giue him light, and to send him down a sweet influ­ence: & 139. 7. the clouds continue to water the earth,& 104. 13, 14, 25, 26. the earth to feed diuers sorts of creatures which are for mans vse: yea and to nourish sundry Trees, Plants, and Hearbs, and they in their kinde to bring forth seuerall fruits: and the Sea to bring forth sundry creatures that are fit to liue therein: and the waters that spring out of the earth to refresh the creatures thereon. All these, and others like to these, minister much matter of thanksgiuing.

§. 102. Of the duties required by vertue of the fourth Petition.

Q. VVHat are the duties after which we ought to endeuour by reason of the fourth Petition?

A. Prou. 13. 4. 1. Diligence in our calling. This is that meanes which God hath sanctified to get bread, that is, such things as are needfull for our temporall estate.Gen. 2, 15.—3. 19. This was at first enioy­ned by God to man in his innocent estate: and afterwards againe in his corrupt estate: yea it is practised by vnreaso­nable creatures,Prou. 6. 6, 7, 8. who in this respect are set as a patterne be­fore vs.

2. Good conscience in getting the things that are needfull for vs. Thus will that which we haue bee OVRS; according to that direction of the Apostle to Christians, that they eate their owne bread. 2. Thes. 3. 12. Thus also will that which wee haue bee the more sweet vnto vs.Prou. 15. 15. For a good conscience is a continuall feast. This is the maine thing which the Apostle intendeth where hee for­biddeth Christians to steale, Ephes. 4. 28. and enioyneth them to worke the thing that is good. Psal. 37. 5.

3.Qui diem tibi dat, etiam ea quae ad diem pertinent dat. Greg. Nys. de Orat. Confidence in God for his blessing: namely both on our paines, and also on the things which wee haue gotten by our paines,Ioh. 6. 11. being perswaded that hee which giueth the day will giue things needfull for the day. Christs giuing of thankes for [Page 121] the creatures which were prouided, giueth euidence of his con­fidence in Gods blessing.

4. Faith in the Lord Iesus, Tit. 1. 15. for a right to what wee haue. Thus shall we haue a right euen before God to that which we haue lawfully gotten before men. And much comfort may we reape thereby.

5. Faithfulnesse in nourishing and cherishing our bodies with that which wee haue. Eccl. 5. 17, 18. This is the maine end of this Petition. The Wise-man pronounceth them blessed that eate in time for strength. Eccl. 10. 17. Yea nature it selfe draweth man hereto. For no man hateth his flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth it. Ephes. 5. 29.

6. Temperance in vsing such things as are most vsuall and vse­full for vs. Those are the things which are here stiled dayly bread. To this purpose tendeth this direction of the Wise-man, Put the knife to thy throat, Pro. 23. 2 if thou beest a man giuen to thine appe­tite. Luke 21. 34. Thus shall wee not be oppressed with surfetting and drun­kennesse.

7. Contentment in that which God bestoweth on vs. Heb. 13. 5. This clause THIS DAY importeth this duty.1. Tim. 6. 8. Much quietnesse will this bring vnto the mind. Till this be attained to, nothing will satisfie a man: but the more he hath, the more he will couet.

8. Prouidence for such as belong to our charge. On this ground we pray in the plurall number, Giue Vs. The Apostle noteth this to be a bounden dutie, saying, Fathers ought to lay vp for their children: 2. Cor. 12. 14. and hee layeth it so straitly to the charge of Christians,1. Tim. 5. 8. as if they faile therein, hee accounteth them worse then Infidels.

9. Liberalitie to such as need. The extent of this particle Vs reacheth to all of all sorts. Now God giueth to some aboun­dance, that out of their store,2. Cor 8. 14. they should minister to such as want. Wee therefore that pray that others may haue bread, ought, when wee haue sufficient for our selues and others,Neh. 8. 10. to giue vnto them.

10. Ioy in the occasions of reioycing which others haue for Gods blessing on their temporall estate. To that generall direction of the Apostle,Rom. 12. 15. Reioyce with them that do reioyce, may this particular be referred. We are taught to pray for others, as for our selues: We must therefore be answerably affected to their good.

§. 103. Of the sinnes whereof the fourth Petition sheweth men to be guilty.

Q. VVHat are the sinnes contrary to the fourth Petition, that we ought to bewaile?

A. 1. A carelesse neglect of our owne or others welfare. 2. A distrustfull carking for the same.

Q. Who may bee accounted guilty of neglecting their owne welfare.

A. 1. They who care not what hurt they doe to their bodies. Many bereaued of their wits, or possessed with a deuill, care not to thrust Pins, Kniues, Daggers, and such like sharpe instru­ments into their flesh, and toMar. 5. 5. strike themselues with stones. If any in their right wits doe so, they are worse then mad men.

2. They who ouer-rigorously punish their bodies. Many blinded with superstition, and besotted with idolatry,Col. 2. 23. spare not their flesh. The1, King. 18, 28. Baalits cut themselues with kniues and launces. Papists teare their flesh with whips, and sundry other wayes macerate their bodies: whereof it may be said, Who required this? They who being better instructed, doe, in performing such duties as are in their substance warrantable, impaire their health and strength by fasting, watching, or any other kinde of not sparing their bodies for duties of piety, are not free from all blame, but come too neere to superstition: their deuotion carieth them be­yond the bounds of this Petition.

3. They who thorow too eager a pursuit of what they like, waste their naturall vigor, asGen. 25. 29, &c Esau, who followed his hunting till he was faint. Fearfull was the issue which thereupon followed: for it cost him his birth-right. All immoderate paines of minde or body, are aberrations sweruing from this Petition, whether they be of Porters, Labourers, Husbandmen, Tradesmen, Sea­faring men, Students, or any others.

4. They who by immoderate passion shorten their dayes. It is taxed, as a fault inIer. 31. 15. Rachel, that she refused to be comforted: from which faultGen. 37. 35. Iaakob was not altogether free. If by intempe­rancy in eating, drinking, or any other way men bring diseases vpon their bodies, or hasten their death, their sinne is much more hainous.

[Page 123] 5. They who thorow niggardlinesse afford not themselues things needfull. This is one of the great vanities which the Wise-man taxeth, thatEccl. 6. 2. a man to whom God hath giuen riches, wealth, and honour, Pecuniae non do­minus sed servus est: custos, non possessor. Bern. su­per Cant. Ser▪ 21. so as he wanteth nothing for his soule of all that he desireth, yet God giueth him not power to eate thereof. Such an one is a ser­uant, not a Master; a keeper, not an owner of his wealth.

6. They who cast themselues into needlesse dangers. 2. Sam. 23. 16, 17. After Da­uid had beene a meanes of mouing three of his Worthies to hazard their liues to satisfie his longing, his heart smote him for it.2. Sam. 2. 14, 15 How fearfull was the issue of those twelue couples of yong men whom Abner and Ioab sent to play a dangerous sport? On this ground quarrellers, challengers, vndertakers of single combates, especially on priuate occasions, but most of all where the combates are desperate, as with Pistols, or dou­ble Rapiers, their bodies being naked, are condemned.

7. Selfe-murtherers. It is the maine scope of this Petition to desire preseruation of life. How contrary thereunto is it to take away a mans owne life? They were desperate reprobates that in Scripture are noted to haue done so: as1 Sam. 31. 4. Saul, 2. Sam. 17. 23. Achi­tophel, andMath. 27. 5. Iudas. As forIudg. 16. 30. Sampson, the thing that he aimed at was to destroy the enemies of the Church, not himselfe: and what he did, he did by an extraordinarie Spirit: and therein he was a type of Christ, who by his owne death destroyed the enemies of the Church.

§. 114. Of neglecting the welfare of others.

Q. VVHo may be accounted guilty of neglecting the wel­fare of others?

A. 1. They who are improuident for such as are vnder their charge: as improuident Husbands, Parents, Masters, and other Gouernours.Math. 7. 11. Such as are euill, can giue good things to their children; what may then be thought of them that doe it not?

2. They who are vnmercifull to others that need,Iam. 2 13. Saint Iames denounceth iudgement mercilesse against such. A feare­full doome. For mercy is the onely ground of that hope, which sinners can haue.

[Page 124] 3. They who enuie at the prosperitie and aboundance of others: as theGen. 26. 14.—30. 1. Philistims enuied Isaak: and Rachel enuied her sister. Well saith the Wise-man hereof, that it is the rottennesse of the bones, Prou. 14. 30.

§. 104. Of sundry branches of improuidence.

Q. HOw is the forenamed improuidence manifested?

A. 1. By idlenesse, and negligence in a mans cal­ling, whereby he depriueth himselfe of the meanes wherewith hee should prouide for himselfe, and his charge.Pro. 24. 30, 31. The field and vineyard of the slouthfull bringeth forth thornes and nettles, in stead of Wheat and Grapes.

2. By medling too much with other mens matters. Such an one isPro. 26. 17. as one that taketh a dogge by the eares: hee may get a snap thereby. Therefore Saint Peter wisely exhorteth Chri­stians 1. Pet. 4. 15. not to suffer as busie-bodies: a man can haue no more comfort in such sufferings, then in suffering for theft, murder, and such crimes.

3. By following pastimes too much. ForProu. 21. 17. hee that loueth pastime shall be a poore man. Much time and money vseth to be spent by such. Faire inheritances haue beene cast away at Dice.

4. By frequenting lewd companie. For Prou. 6. 26. by meanes of a whorish woman, a man is brought to a peece of bread: and —23. 21. The drunkard and the glutton shall come to pouertie.

5. By prodigalitie.Luke 15. 13. The Prodigall child wasted his substance with riotous liuing.

§. 105. Of carking too much for this world.

Q. VVHo carke too much for their temporall estate?

A. 1. Profane Worldlings that preferre the things of this world before the glory of God. They would haue the fourth Petition to bee first. Such were the Iewes that madeHag. 1, 4. seeled houses for themselues, while the house of God lay waste: and theMath. 8. 34. Gadarens that preferred their swine before Christ.

2. Couetous men, whose desire is neuer satisfied: they are like the things that can neuer say,Pro. 30. 15, 16. It is enough. They who [Page 125] are couetously minded, regard not the limitation of this Peti­tion, by THIS DAY. Their mind is more on yeares then dayes: as his was that said to his soule,Luke 12. 19. Thou hast much goods laid vp for many yeares.

3. Vnconscionable persons, who care not how they get what they haue. They haue no respect to this particle of right, OVR. Vnder this head1. King. 21. 8. Iam. 5. 4. all the violent oppressions, and fraudulent circumuentions which any vse, may be comprised.

4.Tit. 1. 15. Vnbeleeuers, who before God can call nothing their owne.

5. Vngratefull wretches, that haue neither mind nor time to giue God thankes for the good things they haue: like to theLuk. 17. 17, 18. nine Lepers, who being clensed, neuer returned to giue thankes to Christ. Do these account their Father in heauen to be the giuer of the things on earth?


§. 106. Of sinnes stiled debts, and of the kinds of those debts.

Q. WHich is the fifth Petition?

A. And forgiue vs our debts, as also we forgiue our debters.

Q. [...]. What is the Summe of this Petition?

A. Iustification.

What are the parts thereof.

A. 1. The Petition it selfe.

2.Et remitte nobis debita nostra, si­cut & nos re­mittimus debi­toribus nostris. A condition annexed thereto.

The Petition containeth the thing which is prayed for.

The condition giueth assurance of obtaining it.

Q. How many distinct points are noted in the Petition.

A. Foure. 1. Debts acknowledged.The originall word which we translate trespas­ses, properly fignifieth debts [...]. DEBTS or TRES­PASSES.

2. An appropriation of them. OVR.

3. The kinde of discharge. FORGIVE.

4. The parties to be discharged. VS.

Q. What is meant by DEBTS?

A. Sinnes.Math. 6. 14, 15 Debitum quid est nisi peccatum? Aug. de verb. Dam [...]a [...]a. 28. Christ himselfe declares his owne meaning. For immediately after this prayer, he returneth to the condition of this Petition, to vrge and presse the same somewhat more forceably: and in the repetition thereof, for debts he putteth trespasses, and that three seuerall times. [...]. Yea Saint Luke setting downe this forme of prayer, thus expresseth this Petition,Luke 11. 4. [...]. Forgiue vs our SINNES: for we also forgiue euery one that is indebted to vs. That which by Mathew is called debts, by Luke is called sinnes. And whereas Luke in the Petition expresseth sinnes, in the condition he mentioneth debters. Againe,Luke 13, 2, 4. the Lord hauing occasion twice [Page 127] at one time to inculcate this question, Thinke ye that these were sinners aboue others? First he vseth this word [...]. sinners: then this, [...]. debters. It was vsuall with Christ to resembleMat. 18. 24. &c. Luke 7. 41. &c. sinners to debters.

Q. In what respect are we sinners counted Debters?

A. 1.Luk. 17. 10. As we are seruants of God. So wee owe obe­dience.Rom 6. 16.

2.Ezek. 18. 4. As we are sinners against God. So we owe death.Rom. 6. 23.

Thus there is a double bond whereby wee stand bound as debters to God.Man a debter to God by a dou­ble bond.

One is the bond of the Law, whereunto we are tied in a dou­ble respect.

1. In regard of the supreme soueraignty, and absolute au­thoritie which God hath ouer vs. This is expressed in the Pre­face before the Decalogue thus, I am the Lord thy God.

2. In regard of the many benefits which wee haue all our daies receiued, and still do continue to receiue from him. By God we are what we are: and haue what we haue: He created vs, He preserueth vs, He prouideth for vs all needfull things, He protecteth vs from all hurtfull things. This also is intimated in the fore-said Preface by mention of one great benefit, Free­dome from Egypt, the house of bondage.

The other bond is the curse of the Law, whereunto we are tied by forfeiture of the former.Deut. 27. 26. For he that performeth not the condition of a bond, standeth liable to the penaltie of the bond. In regard whereof the Law is called [...]. Col. 2. 14. an hand-writing against vs.

Adam, euen in his innocencie, and all we that come from him, are in the former respect debters by vertue of our creation. A­dam since his fall, and all his wicked off-spring are in the latter respect debters by reason of our transgressions.

Q. Which of those debts do we here desire to be forgiuen?

A. The latter most especially, whereby wee are bound to theGal. 3. 10. curse of the Law, which is the penalty of it. This penalty▪ if it were exacted, would make vs most miserable. There is good cause therefore of praying to haue that remitted. As for the o­ther debt of obedience, we ought to desire rather abilitie to per­forme it, then libertie to be freed from it. Yet notwithstanding, [Page 128] because it is impossible for vs, so long as flesh is in vs, to pay that debt, as it ought to be paid, by consequence we desire a re­mission of that debt; namely, that God would not exact of vs to be performed by vs in our owne persons such exact and com­pleate obedience as the Law requireth.

§. 107. Of Christs actiue righteousnesse imputed to vs.

Q. IN regard of our disabilitie to discharge our debt of obedience to God, what may be inferred?

A. Imputation of Christs righteousnesse is necessary for our instification. Christ teacheth vs to desire a discharge of all debts. The Law requireth a debt of perfect righteousnesse. This we are not able to pay of our selues. But our Suretie being able, did pay it.Mat 3. 15. He fulfilled all righteousnesse. By the imputation thereof to vs, are we discharged.Rom. 5. 18, 19 For as by one mans disobed ence many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. His righteousnesse is vpon vs to iustification of life. In this respect Christ is said to be1. Cor. 1. 30. made vnto vs righteousnesse: and we are said to be2. Cor. 5. 21. made the righteousnesse: of God in him. This kind of debt is not duly considered of them,Arg. against Christ actiue right. answ. who exclude the actiue obedience of Christ from our iustification. They presse those places which make mention onely of the bloud of Christ, for­getting the Synecdoche which is frequent in the Scripture, whereby one member or part is put for all of that kind. In par­ticular they presse this Petition, which placeth our iustification in remission of sinnes, not conceiuing that vnder debts here mentioned, all manner of debts are comprised: and vnder this word forgiue, all manner of needfull discharge. Where further they say, that Christs actiue righteousnesse: was necessarie for himselfe, they do not duely consider the dignitie of his person by vertue of the hypostaticall vnion of his two natures: which dignitie exempteth him from all necessitie of obedience to the Law, in regard of himselfe.

This doctrine of the imputation,Comfort. euen of the Actiue obedi­ence [Page 129] of Christ,Isa. 64. 6. bringeth much comfort to poore sinners, who knowing that all their righteousnesses are as filthy rags, do there­upon tremble at the thought of the presence of the righteous Lord. But their faith in Christ his righteousnesse imputed to them (in stead of that debt of righteousnesse which they owed to God) whereby they are accounted righteous before God, maketh them with much comfort and great confidence present themselues before him.

§. 108. Of mans subiection to sinne.

Q. VVHat obseruation doth the acknowledgement of debt afford?Nemo sine pecca­to. Ambr. in Psal. 118. S [...]rm. 16.

A. No man is free from sinne. Peccatum habe [...] qui clamat ad deum, Dimitte nobis debita nostra. August. l. de Haer. cap. 88. As this Prayer, so this Petition therein is prescribed for euery one on earth: which by iust con­sequence implyeth, that euery one is guiltie of sinne: otherwise he had no need to pray for forgiuenesse. But besides this neces­sarie consequence, the point is in expresse termes1. King. 8. 46. oft set downe in Scripture.Rom. 3. 23. And euery one, whose eyes the god of this world hath not blinded,Iam. 3. 2. and whose heart and conscience hee hath not hardened and seared,1. Ioh. 1. 8, 10. findeth it by wofull experience to be too true.Vitium boc, vnde praua oriuntur desideria, manet in homine. Aug. contr. [...]ul. lib. 6. Lex peccati & remissa est in re generatione spi­rituali, & [...]a­net in carne mortali Aug. de Nupt. & Concup. l. 1. c. 25. Neither can it be otherwise, because originall corruption, the mother and nurse of sinne abideth in him so long as any breath and life remaineth.

Obiect. They who haue their sins forgiuen are free from sin. But in this world many haue their sinnes forgiuen.

Answ. Remission taketh away the guilt of sinne, but not the roote of sinne. The law of sinne is remitted in spirituall rege­neration, and yet it remaineth in mortall flesh: otherwise sinne could not be propagated in the regenerate,Iustificatis d [...]sci pul [...]s lequebatur. Aug de ciu. dei. l 21. c. 27. who haue their sins forgiuen. Therefore this Petition was prescribed euen to the Disciples that were iustified.

Iust cause on this ground haue we to detest the contrary po­sitions of our aduersaries,Presumptuous positions of Papists. which are these that follow and such like.

1. Whatsoeuer is truly and properly sinne is taken away by Bap­tisine. Concil. Trid. §. 5. Decret. de o [...]ig. pec. And to explaine their meaning to the full, lest it should [Page 130] be thought that by taking away sinne, they vnderstand no more then forgiuing or not imputing sinne,Bellarm. de Bap. lib. 1. cap. 13. their great Champion ad­deth, that by Baptisme all sins are in very deed taken away, so as not onely it is not imputed, Baptismo re [...]psa telluntur omnia pecca [...]a, vt non solum non impu­tetur, sed [...] si [...] quod imputart possit ad culpam. but there is not that which maybe imputed for fault or blame. Do they not hereby shew that the truth is not in them? For1. Ioh. 1. 8. if we say that we haue no sinne, we deceiue our selues, and the truth is not in vs?

2. That concupiscence which is in the regenerate, is not truly and properly sinne. Answ. What is this, but to hold that the spring of sinne is cleane dried vp in the regenerate?Concil. Trid. ibid. Bellar▪ de Amiss grat. l. 5. c. 7. If the spring be drie, whence shall any streames of sinne proceed?

3. They which are iustified are able to keepe the whole Law. Concil. Trid. §. 6. c. 11. Answ. If then they do what they are able, what need they aske remis­sion of sinne,Bellar. de Iustis. l. 4. c. 10. Loc. citat. which is a transgression of the Law.

4. The workes of iust men are perfect. Answ. Perfection needs no remission. For such workes then by their doctrine they need aske no pardon. O presumptuous and arrogant conceipts!

Let the vndeniable certaintie of the forenamed doctrine,Be humbled for sinne. that No man is free from sinne, humble vs for that wofull condition wherein we liue,Bonum est homi­ni vt imitetur publicanum, nec tumescat sicut pharisaeus, qui i [...]ctauit [...] sua, texit vul [...]e­ra sua. Aug. hom. 42. in l. 50. Hom. while here we liue. Sight of sinne was it that humbled the Publican: whom it is better to imitate then to swell as the Pharisie did, who braged of his merits, and couered his wounds. Assuredly this ministreth iust cause of great humili­ation: and it cannot but force such as haue any spirituall sight & sence thereof to say, as the Leper vnder the law was wont to say, Leu. 13. 45. I am vncleane, I am vncleane: and in horror & dete [...]station of our selues, when we thinke of the presence of the Lord, to say as Pe­ter did,Luke 5. 8. Depart from me for I am a sinfull man, ô Lord. Yea to crie out with Saint Paul, Rom. 7. 24. O wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer me from the bodie of this death!

And that those out-cries may appeare to be effects of true hu­miliation,Seeke pardon for sinne, rather then of desperation, we ought earnestly and in­stantly to seeke remission of sinne, which is the maine matter intended in this Petition: well weighing for the point in hand, that1. Tim. 1. 15. This is a faithfull saying, worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Iesus came into the world to saue sinners.

§. 109. Of falling into sinne daily.

Q. VVHat obseruation doth our daily praying for forgiuenesse of sinne afford?Docetur peccare se quotidiè, dum quotidiè pro pec­catis iubetur o rare. Cypr. de O­rat. Dom §. 16. For the word, this day, expressed in the fourth Petition, is to be vnderstood in euery Petition.

A. Euery day men fall into sinne. The Metaphor ofIob 15. 16. drinking ini­quitie like water, importeth as much: for it sheweth that it is as ordinarie and familiar for a man to sinne as to drinke, which he doth oft euery day. Dares any man denie the truth of this do­ctrine vpon his experience? If he dare, surely his conscience is as seared with an hot iron, or else he lyeth against his conscience. For the forenamed originall corruption as it remaineth in vs, so it remaineth as a spring in vs, continually sending forth some salt and bitter water of sinne, more or lesse.

Many excellent directions may fitly be inferred from this ob­seruation.Duties for re­dressing the sin whereinto we daily fall. As

1. To set apart some time euery day for examination of our selues: that so we may the better obserue those seuerall sinnes which euery day passe from vs. If they be not obserued, they may lie so long festering the soule, as thereby proue incurable.

2. To humble our soules daily before God. Euery day is the fire of Gods iealousie kindled by our daily sinnes, whereby he is prouoked to come out in wrath, and to take reuenge. Euery day therefore must we fall downe before him with broken spi­rits and humbled soules. This is a meanes to turne his furie to pittie.

3. To renue our couenant with God euery day. For euery sin maketh forfeiture of the couenant. The couenant being forfei­ted, with what comfort can wee apply it to our selues? with what confidence can we plead it before God?

4. To repent daily.Luke 17. 4. Repentance is a prouiso annexed to a mans forgiuing his brother.Quia nullus est dies in quo [...] possit esse si [...]e peccato, vna die esse non debet si ne paenitentia. Aug. in Apoc. Hom. 2. Much more doth God expect it of such as expect forgiuenesse of him. He that sinneth seuen times in a day, must repent seuen times in a day. As sinne incenseth wrath, so repentance for sin maketh God to repent his wrath. Because therefore there is no day wherein a man is without sin, he ought not to be one day without repentance.

[Page 132] 5. To meditate euery day as on the satisfaction which the Lord Iesus once made vpon the crosse for our sinnes, so on the inter­cession which he continueth daily to make at the throne of Grace.Rom. 8. 34. This giueth good ground of assured hope of continuall pardon for our continuall sinnes. For the maine end of Christs continuall intercession is to make continuall application of his all-sufficient sacrifice to our continuall sinnes.

6. To pray euery day for pardon. This we are here expresly taught to do. All the forenamed points are but preparations vnto this. This, if it be performed in faith, is it that obtaineth pardon so oft as we sinne. The daily offerings which euery mor­ning and euening were appointed vnder the Law,Exo. 29. 38, 39. prefigured thus much.

7. To watch continually. The more subiect and prone wee are to fall into sinne, the more needfull it is, that with all heed­fulnesse we watch against sinne. Satans sedulitie, the deceitful­nesse of sinne, and our owne foolishnesse require diligent and constant watchfulnesse.

§. 110. Of the difference betwixt Gods absolution, and mans apprehension thereof.

Ob. GOds forgiuenesse is full, compleate, and absolute. Whom once he acquitteth, he neuer calleth to accompt againe. His discharge is of sinnes past, present, and to come. What need then of those daily duties?

Answ. That which on Gods part is at once fully done, is on our part by degrees ap­prehended and applyed. I grant it to be so in the eternall decree and secret counsell: yea and in that couenant which is made betwixt him and his Sonne, our Suretie. But in the application thereof to vs, and in our apprehension of it by faith, (whereby onely our soule can rest quieted, and assured of it) a proceeding by degrees must be acknowledged. Though a beleeuer do for the present apprehend a full discharge of all the sinnes whereof he doth then stand guiltie, yet through the violence of temptation, and the weakenesse of flesh, he may againe and againe make question and doubt of that discharge, especially when he hath fallen into other sinnes, or returned to the same sinnes for which he before craued pardon. Oft sinning doth much shake and weaken faith. [Page 133] Christ saw it needfull to giue to the woman, whom hee him­selfe absolued,Ioh. 8. 11. this caueat, Sinne no more. Wherefore for strengthening our weake faith in a full pardon of all our sinnes, for new setling of it when it is shaken, for healing the wounds which are dayly made in our conscience by dayly sinnes, for preuenting the aduantage which might bee taken from our many forfeitures of couenant, the forenamed directi­ons are daily to be obserued.

§. 111. Of Popish indulgences for sinnes to come, and Shriuing in Lent.

COntrarie to this branch of this Petition are the blasphe­mous Indulgences which by Popes and popish Priests are giuen for sinnes to come,See §. 126. and that not onely for some particular sinnes,Vid. Hadrian. in tract. de Indulg. Nauar. de. Iubil. Cornubens. de Indulg. Ioh. de Turrecr. in Com­ment. de Poen. Bell. de Indulg. whereby they eag on, and embolden men to commit those sinnes, but also for all manner of sinnes, not for a day, or a weeke, or a moneth, or a yeare, but for many yeares, yea all their life. And lest they should feare vengeance and punishment for their sinnes after this life in Purgatory (with which fiction they much affright their people) they extend their indulgen­ces farre beyond the times which they themselues doe set for Purgatorie, euen vntoIndulgentiae in­terdum continent condonationem poenitentiae quin­decim, vel vi­ginti millium annorum. Bellar. de Iudulg. l. 1. c. 9. Auditum sub coe­lo non legitur quod corum voce depromitur, Date nobis veniam, dum tamen nos in errore mane­mus. Gelas. Epist. ad Faust. Concil. Trid. §. 14 c. 5. 6, 7. 8. fifteene and twenty thousand yeares. Are not flood-gates hereby wide opened to all manner of li­centiousnesse? are not men hereby made not onely secure, but also impudent in committing sinne? By those indulgences men are taught to say, Grant vs pardon, euen while we commit sinne. Was euer the like heard?

To the like licentious libertie doth their superstitious cu­stome of Auricular confession, and of absolution thereunto giuen by a Priest once a yeere in Lent, bring men. Yet this is not onely by ordinarie custome practised, but by their great Councell at Trent warranted.

§. 112. Of neglecting to seeke discharge of sinne till Easter: or till a day of visitation, or death

VVHat now shall wee say of such among vs as put off all serious and thorow examination of themselnes, con­fession of their sinnes, and renewing of repentance of Easter, when they intend to receiue the holy Communion? Though they forbeare the superstitious practise of Auricular confessi­on, yet they make as wide a gap for licentiousnesse, and wic­kednesse as Papists doe. For such commonly make little o [...] no conscience of any sinne till about Easter time. And is there not iust cause to thinke that that shew of conscience which they then make, is but a meere shew? and that it sauoureth more of fond superstition, then of sound Religion? Can it be imaginned that such as all the yeare long let loose the raines to impietie, and iniquitie, can once in the yeare make a thorow examina­tion of their soules, and confession of their sinnes? Neither will they haue any minde to diue to the depth of such a sea: neither if they had a will thereto, could they possibly doe it. Such mens soules must needs fester for want of timely and due search thereinto.

Much more desperate must there case needs be,The danger of putting oft exa mination, and repentance too long. who are so farre from a dayly, yea and yearely searching of themselues, and seeking to be discharged of their sinnes, as all their life long they neuer thinke of any such matter, vnlesse God by some extraordinarie iudgement bring them, as hee brought Pharaoh, Exod. 10. 16. generally and confusedly to acknowledge that they haue sinned: or vnlesse they obserue death to haue seased vpon them: at which time if their sinnes bee laid before them, ei­ther their heart is like,1. Sam. 25. 37. as Nabals, to die in them, and to be­come sencelesse as a stone: or else their conscience to be, as Iudas his conscience was,Math. 27. 5. was, a racke, or rather an hell vnto them, vncapable of comfort. For at the time of death the bodie is weake, the heart faint, the spirits dull: yea to him that hath not before made his peace with God, the thought of death can not be but very terrible, a meanes euen to astonish him [Page 135] that is otherwise feeble, dull and heauy. Satan, that is not ig­norant hereof, taketh great aduantage there at: and is then most busie to tempt, and most fierce and forward to assault▪ when man is least able to resist. And whereas all our hope of stan­ding against Satan is in Gods helpe: such as haue all their life long prouoked Gods wrath, and vsed no meanes to be reconciled to him, can haue little hope in the last act to receiue helpe from him.

§. 113. Of the wofulnesse of the debt of sinne.

Q. WHat doctrine doth the resemblance of sinne to debt, imply?

A. Sinners debters to God iustice. Sinne maketh man bound to the reuenging iustice of God. He that thus prayed to God,Psal. 143. 2. Enter not into iudgement with thy seruant, well knew as much.

Euery sinne is a breach of Couenant betwixt God and man. It maketh forfeiture thereof. As a debter therefore that hath made forfeiture of his bond, stands liable to the reuenge of the Creditor: or rather, as a malefactor that hath transgressed the Law of his Soueraigne, is liable to the penaltie of the Law: so a sinner to the iust reuenge of Gods Law.

Take notice hereby of the horrible nature of sinne.Horriblenesse of sinne. It kindleth the wrath, it prouoketh the reuenge of the Creator. Who knoweth the power of his anger? Psal. 90. 11. As his greatnesse is, so is his anger: Infinite, insupportable. Hence is it that the crea­ture on whom it lyeth, lyeth vnder it eternally. For hee is no way able to ease himselfe of that burden. If this were duely weighed, and seriously thought of when we are tempted to any sinne, would we be so foolish, as for a little momentany de­light to runne into such a debt as will cast vs into that prison, out of which there is no release, and in which there is torture and torment, endlesse and easelesse. We count them miserable that fall so farre into mans debt, as they are neuer able to dis­charge it. What may we then thinke of such as fall into this debt of sinne?

Take also hereby further notice of the necessitie of such a Surety as Iesus Christ is,Necessitie of Christs Sureti­ship. God-Man in one person. For such [Page 136] is the debt of sinne, as no creature in heauen or in earth was able to discharge it. If Christ had not vndertaken the discharge thereof, our case had been like to the case of those Angels, who are reserued in euerlasting chaines vnder darknesse, Iude, verse 6. vnto the iudge­ment of the great Day.

§. 114. Of euery sinne being mortall, yet not equall.

Q. WHat doth the penaltie whereby sinne is made a debt, import?

A. Sinne is mortall. Yea because this Metaphor, Debts, being of the plurall number, is indefinitely vsed, and com­priseth all manner of sinnes vnder it, I may further inferre, that

Euery sinne is mortall. For that penalty which is due to these debts, is death. InstanceGen. 2. 17. the first sinne that was committed. And to shew that the like holdeth in euery sinner, the Pro­phet without any limitation, reseruation, or exception at all, saith,Ezek. 18. 4. The soule that sinneth it shall dye. If it be a sinne, in that it is sinne, deadly it must needs be, bee it great or small; in thought, word, or deed. ForRom. 6. 23. the wages of sinne, (euen of what­soeuer is sinne) is death. Being a sinne, it is a transgression of the Law. For these two words, sinne, transgression, are con­uertible, and reciprocall termes: one importeth as much as the other. [...]. Sinne is a transgression. 1. Ioh. 3. 4. And, [...]. All vnrighteousness (or euery transgression) is sinne. But euery transgression is dead­ly. For,Gal. 3. 10. Cursed is euery one that continueth not in all things that are written in the Law. And all vnrighteousnesse is deadly. For Rom. 1. 18. the wrath of God is reuealed against all vnrighteousnesse. And that not without iust cause. For all vnrighteousnesse, euery transgression, euery sinne is against the good will of God who is of infinite excellency and Maiestie,See my Trea­tise of the sinne against the holy Ghost. §. 31. and in that respect it is of an infinite praultie, and deserueth an infinite punishment, eternall death.

Obiect. Thus all sinnes are made equall.

A. Nothing lesse. For neither doth the same kinde of pu­nishment make all the crimes, for which it is inflicted, equall; [Page 137] nor doth the same kinde presuppose the same measure of pu­nishment. Robbers and murtherers are put to the same kinde of death: yet is murther a more hainous sinne then robberie. Besides among such Malefactors as are put to death, the kinde of death whereunto some are put, is much more terrible, then that whereunto others are put. Will any thence inferre, that all crimes which are capitall, are equall? Much more absurd is the inference of Papists, that all sinnes are made equall, be­cause all are made mortall. They themselues doe not hold all the sinnes which they iudge mortall,Mat. 11. 22, 24. to bee equall. There are degrees of torment in hell. Though all such in their nature and kinde (if they be not forgiuen) implunge men into death and damnation, yet not into the same degree of torture.

§. 115. Of the distinction of Veniall and mortall sinnes.

Q. ARe then no sinnes at all Veniall?

A. The distinction of Veniall and mortall sinnes rightly and wisely limited, may safely be admitted, and that in foure respects especially.

1. In regard of the order that God hath by his Word re­uealed.

2. In regard of the subiect or person in whom sinne is.

3. In comparison of one sinne with another.

4. In regard of the Churches manner of proceeding against sinners.

1. Concerning the order which by Gods Word is reuealed, there is an irreuocable Decree passed vpon the sinne against the Holy Ghost, Math. 12. 31. that it shall neuer be forgiuen. Heb. 6. 4. &c.—10, 26, &c. Howsoeuer the se­cret Decree of God bee as inuiolable against all the sinnes of euery Reprobate, yet because that determined doome is not reuealed against any one sinne but that, of It onely it is said, There is a sinne vnto death. 1. Ioh. 5. 16. The sinne therefore against the Holy Ghost is mortall. But in opposition to it, Christ saith, All sinnes shall be forgiuen: Mar. 3. 28. that is, they are remissible, pardonable, and in the respect veniall.

2. Concerning the subiect, or person in whom sinne is, after [Page 138] that by faith the Elect are ingraffed into Christ, though sinne remaine in them, yet is it not imputed to them for condemna­tion. There is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus. Rom 8. 1. All the sinnes therefore of true Beleeuers are veniall. They shall be pardoned; but all the sinnes of vnbeleeuers are mortall: they shall be punished with euerlasting damnation.Ioh. 3. 36. The wrath of God abideth on him that beleeueth not. Quaedam pecca­ta mortalia in poenitentia fiunt venialia. Mag. Sentent, lib. 4. dist. 20. Besides, the true Belee­uer, though he may fall into many sinnes, will impenitently lye in no sinne. So as such sins as in another would incurre death, and proue mortall, in him by repentance become veniall, and are pardoned.

3. Concerning comparison of sinnes, it cannot bee denied that some sinnes are very small, as a by-thought in an holy duty, an idle word, a little tap with the hand; and that other sinnes are very hainous, as blasphemie, periurie, murther, a­dulterie and such like. Therefore comparatiuely smaller sinnes may bee stiled veniall, in relation to hainous and notorious sinnes, which are called mortall, in that they doe more appa­rantly and more deepely implunge into death and damnation. Thus all Ecclesiastical Writers, both ancient and moderne, haue vsed this distinction.

4. Concerning the Churches manner of proceeding against sinners, many sinnes doe dayly passe from men, which▪ though by Ministers they be reproued, and Gods iudgements be de­nounced against them, yet passe not vnder the Churches pub­like censure. These haue been called veniall. There are other sinnes which euen before men seeme so intollerable, as the Church thinketh not the committers of them worthy to bee admitted to the holy ordinances of God, but denounceth a­gainst them some publike censure of suspention, excommuni­cation, or execration and anathema, till publike repentance be manifested, and satisfaction giuen to the Church. Thus be­cause one of the Church of Corinth had committed such forni­cation as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, 1. Cor. 5. 1▪ 5. Saint Paul deliuered him to Satan. These sinnes worthy of such censure, haue been called mortall.

But as our Aduersaries vse the distinction of veniall and mortall sinne,Sinne not veni all in its owne nature. it cannot stand with the forenamed nature of [Page 139] sinne, implyed vnder this Metaphor Debt. They say that ma­ny sinnes areRhem. annot. on Rom. 1. 32. veniall, because they are pardonable of their owne nature, and not worthy of damnation. They giue these and such like instances of veniall sinnes: Sudden motions of lust, B [...]llar. de Stat. pecl. 1. cap. 3. anger, and enuie: Immoderate laughter, an idle word, deceit in a small thing, as an halfe-peny, &c. Their great Champian doth thus ex­presse the meaning of their Church in this point:Veniale pecca­lum ex natura sua distinguiturà mortali, ac sinc vlla relatione vel ad Praedestinati­onem, vel ad miscricordiom Dei, vel ad sta­tum ren [...]lorum, est eiusmodi, vt poenam aeternam non mereatur. Bellar. de Stat. pec. lib. 1. càp. 9. Veniall sinne is in its owne nature distinguished from mortall, and without any respect to predestination, or to the mercy of God, or to the state of the regenerate, it is of that kinde, as it deserueth not eternall punishment. He inserteth these phrases (without respect to Pre­destination, or to the mercy of God, or to the state of the regene­rate) because orthodoxall Diuines haue granted that the title veniall, may be applied to sinne in regard of Gods eternall pre­destination, and purpose to pardon sinne, and in regard of the mercy of God, which is greater then the desert of sinne, and in regard of the regenerate, whose faith gaineth an absolution for sinne. To shew therefore, that hee and his hereticall Church, whose cause hee maintaineth, goeth beyond the li­mits of all truth, hee reiecteth the fore-named limitations wherein truth is bounded: and will haue ventall sinnes to be of themselues in their owne nature not worthy of damnation. In their sence, these two termes, Sinne, Veniall, are contra­dictorie, Sinne is (according to the doctrine of the Scripture) worthy of damnation. V [...]niall (according to their sence) is not worthy fo damnation. Rom. 6. 23. To say therefore that sinne is veniall, is to say that worthy of damnation, is not worthy of damnation. But I demand, are their veniall sins pleasing or displeasing to God? one of them they must be. A meane cannot bee giuen betwixt these two contradictorie termes, which is neither of them. They dare not say that veniall sinnes are pleasing to God. Then doe they displease him. If they displease him they offend an infinite goodnesse, an infinite excellency, an infinite Maiestie, and in that respect are worthy of an infinite punishment.

As for their owne instances of veniall sinnes:

1. The suddennest motions that can be, though no consent should be yeelded to them, are against the first and last com­mandements. Besides, the perfect Law of God is spirituall. It [Page 140] requireth integritie in the innermost parts, euen in the spirits of men The fore-mentioned thoughts are against spirituall in­tegritie: and in that respect against the Law: and deserue the curse thereof. Yea further the secretest & suddennest thoughts, are acts and motions of the soule: as manifest to God as out­ward actions of the body. If therefore they be euill, they are in his sight apparant transgressions. As for motions to lust, though neuer so sudden at the very sight of a woman,Math. 5. 22, 28. Christ accoun­teth them a kinde of adulterie. And motions to anger hee ac­counteth a kinde of murther. But Adulterie and Murther are against the Law, and deserue the curse of the Law.

2. Of idle words, Christ saith,Math. 12. 36. Men shall giue account at the Day of Iudgement. When the account is taken, shall idle words at the barre of that Iudgement be approued, or condemned? To say they shall be approued, were much to impeach the per­fection of Christs purity and iustice If then they be condemned, eternall death is their due. There is then no other penalty to be inflicted. All standing at that Barre, are pronounced blessed, or denounced cursed.

3. For stealth of an halfe-penny, doth the Law which saith, Thou shalt not steale, exclude halfe-pennies or no? If no, where is the exception. The words are indefinite, Thou shalt not steale. He that stealeth an halfe-penny, stealeth. In stealing an halfe­peny therefore he is a transgressor of the Law, and guilty of the penalty and curse thereof.

To conclude, God shall bring euery worke into iudgement, Eccl. 12. 14. with euery secret thing whether it be good or euill. The smallest things that can bee imagined are comprised vnder these phrases euery [...]orke, euery secret thing. If they be brought to iudgement, it is either to be rewarded, or reuenged. If they be good, to be re­warded. For a cup of cold water onely giuen to a Disciple in the name of a Disciple shall in no wise lose his reward. Math. 10. 42. But if they bee euill, to be reuenged. If at the Day of Iudgement they be reuen­ged, surely the reuenge is eternall death. But veniall sins are euil, not good. They shall therefore be brought into iudgement, con­demned, & punished with eternall death. I speake of sinnes not repented of: not washed away by the bloud of Christ: of sinnes as they are in their own nature, in their own desert. For so stan­deth the controuersie betwixt vs and Papists.

§.1. Learne to know sinne. 116. Of duties to be obserued because euerie sinne is mortall.

THe knowledge of the nature of euery sinne,2. Auoid sinne. and of the due desert thereof,3. Be not acces­sarie to others sinnes. ought to make vs diligent in searching in­to the Law of God, that thereby we may know what is sinne (forRom. 3. 20. by the Law is the knowledge of sinne.) And knowing sinne, carefully and conscionably to auoide it: (ForRom. 6. 23. the wages of sinne is death: 4. Repent.) And no way make our selues accessarie to the sinnes of others (for soEzek. 3. 18. we bring the bloud of others vpon our owne heads.5. Search our selues.) And if we haue committed sinne our selues, or made our selues accessarie to the sinnes of others,6. Get a dis­charge. not to sooth our consciences with the smalnesse thereof, and thereupon remaine secure,7. Be watchfull. not caring to repent thereof. (Luke 13. 3. Except ye repent ye shall perish.) To worke the more through repentance we ought throughly to search our selues,8. Cōtemne the reproches of precisenesse. and from time to time strictly to 1. Cor. 11. 28. examine our thoughts, words, and actions. And as we discerne any transgressions or alterations in any of them, instantly to craue pardon for them. Yea because we cannot be ignorant that many sinnes vnawares passe from vs, to desire a generall dis­charge of all other sinnes (which two points are expresly noted in this fifth Petition.) As wee craue pardon for all sinnes past, so ought we to beIoh. 5. 14. watchfull ouer our selues for the time to come, euen so watchfull as to1. Thes. 5. 22. abstaine from all appearance of euill: Not2. Sam. 6. 21, 22 Peccata ignoran tiae vel negligen tiae melius accu­santur vt pere­ant, quam excu­santur vt mane­ant. Aug. in Psal. 105. regarding the common scoffes against precisenesse, as the world termeth Christian, carefull & conscionable watch­fulnesse ouer a mans selfe. Commonly the wickeder sort do most iustifie themselues:Ipsa leuia non contemnantur. De minutis gut­tis flumina im­plentur. Per an­gustas vimulas insudat aqua, na [...]is impletur sentina, & si contemnatur sentina, nauis mergitur. Aug. hom. 42. in lib. 50. Hom. and the vpright most iudge themselues. The vpright vse to iudge themselues for their very ignorances and negligences. And surely sinnes of ignorance or negligence, were better be iudged that they may be destroyed, then excused, that they should be nourished. ForEccl. 12. 14. euery thing must be brought to iudgement: andMat. 12. 36. of euery idle word that men shall speake, they shall giue an account in the day of iudgement. Let not therefore, the small sinnes be sleighted. Floods are made with small drops. Water soaketh thorow small chinks, the ship is therewith filled, and if the pump be not plied the ship is drowned.

§. 117. Of the many debts wherein we stand bound to Gods iustice.

Q. WHy are debts set downe so indefinitely in the plurall number?

A.Iam. 2. 3. Our debts are many. Our sinnes are of sun­dry sorts:Amos 5. 12. and of euery sort there are many in number. First ori­ginall corruption, which is the seed and spawne of all sinnes, is a debt. [...] Cyril. Catech. myst. 5. Thereby forfeiture is made of that integritie wherein God at first created vs, and which Gods Law, that is spirituall, requireth of vs.Psal. 51. 5. This doth Dauid expresly reckon vp among those sinnes and debts whereof he desireth to be discharged. Besides all the sinnes which in our infancie, and younger yeares, euen before our calling, which on ignorance or weaknesse wee committed, are debts: in which respectHeb. 9. 7. the high Priest offered for the errors of the people. These are so many, as Dauid was moued thereby to say,Psal. 19. 12. Who can vnderstand his errors? Yet because they were debts, euen the secretest of them, he desireth to be clensed from them. Much greater debts are the sinnes which we com­mit after we come to riper yeares, or after our calling, against knowledge and conscience, wilfully and presumptuously. Ear­nestly therefore doth Dauid pray to bePsal. 19. 13. kept from presumptuous sinnes. So many are the sinnes whereby, as by debts, we stand obliged to the iustice of God, as they cannot possibly be all rec­koned vp. But the word DEBTS being indefinitly set downe in the plurall number without restraint to any sorts of sinnes, im­port all sinnes.

Q. What instruction doth this implying of many sinnes import?

A. Notice is to be taken of the manifold sinnes whereby we stand indebted to God. Take notice of the multitude of sinnes. Surely those Saints of old did enter into a deepe consideration hereof, who acknowledged thatEzr. 9. 6. their iniquities encreased ouer their head, Psa [...]. 38. 4. and grew vp vnto the heauens, and were an heauie burthen, too heauie for them to beare.

By taking thorow and due notice of our many seuerall sinnes

1. Our soules will be the morePsal. 38. 3. 4, &c. wounded,Isa. 66. 2. and humbled for them.Math. 11. 28. The benefit whereof will be, thatPsal. 51. 17. God will be the [Page 143] more moued with pittie and compassion towards vs.

2. Our desire of discharge will be the morePsal. 51. 1. feruent.Dan. 9. 19. Where­by the Lord will the rather be moued to grant our desire.Iam. 5. 16. The effectuall feruent prayer of a righteous man auaileth much.

3. TheNehe. 9. 17. long-suffering of God in bearing with so many sinnes, so many waies committed against him, and from time to time heaped one vpon another will bee the better dis­cerned.

4. TheExo. 32. 31, 32 riches of Gods mercie in forgiuing not a few pence, nor yet a few talents, butMath. 18. 24. many thousand talents will bee the more admired and magnified: and he himselfe the more loued. Luke 7. 47. Shee that had many sinnes forgiuen, loued much.

Little do they consider the necessitie of this doctrine, who neuer thinke of their sinnes, or of seeking any discharge, but when they haue committed some hainous notorious sinne, which bringeth them to some open shame, and then acknow­ledge that sinne onely, as if, that excepted, they were cleane from all sinne. I denie not, but that good vse may be made of fastening the mind vpon one principall sinne, which seemeth most horrible to the conscience, and maketh the partie most ashamed, and whereby he conceiueth Gods wrath to be most prouoked, as the Israelites, who said,1. Sam. 12. 19. We haue added to all our sinnes THIS EVILL: and Ezra, who said,Ezr. 9. 14. Should we againe breake thy commandements, and ioyne in affinitie with the people of these abominations? And Dauid, where he said,Psal. 51. 14. Deliuer me from bloud-guiltinesse. For by this meanes our corruption and vilenesse will appeare in our sight much greater. Yet are we not to rest onely in acknowledgement of such sinnes alone. If we obserue the fore-named confessions of Ezra and Dauid wee shall find many other sinnes reckoned vp.

Let vs therefore learne how to set our sinnes in order before God. To this purpose we haue two excellent helpes. One without vs. The other within vs. That without vs is Gods Law. That within vs is our Conscience. Gods Law sheweth what is amisse. Our Conscience sheweth what we haue done amisse. Apply thy Conscience to the Law, and thou shalt find thy selfe guiltie of an innumerable companie of hainous sinnes. These acknowledge: and hauing acknowledged what debts [Page 144] thou canst call to mind, and in particular craued pardon for them; then because many sinnes daily passe from thee, whereof thou takest no notice, pray in generall for pardon of all, and say as the Psalmist,Psal. 39. 8. Deliuer me from all my transgressions. The burthen of the least sinne is too heauie for thee to beare, it is sufficient to crush thee downe to the place of the damned. Were it possible to be eased of all but onely one, that one retained would hold thee in euerlasting chaines vnder darknesse. It is therefore ne­cessarie that a discharge of all sins be had.

Hitherto of the thing acknowledged DEBTS. The appropria­tion of them in this word OVR followeth.

§. 118. Of the appropriation of sinne to our selues.

Q. IN what respect are the debts here mentioned stiled OVRS?

A. As they arise from our selues, and as we are the true and proper cause of them, euen the principall authors and practisers of them. This particle of relation OVR is here vsed in another sence then it was in the former Petition.See §. 84. There bread was called OVRS because it was giuen to vs of God,Nemo habet de suo nisi mendaciū & peccatum. Concil. Araus. can. 22. and by that gift we had a right to it. Here sinnes are called OVRS, because they proceed from vs: in which respect nothing is so properly OVRS as sinne.

Q. What learne we from this application of debts to our selues?

A. Wee are the proper cause of the sinnes which we commit. On this ground saith the Prophet, Hos. 13. 9. O Israel thou hast destroyed thy selfe.

Sinne is a voluntarie action: and the will of man is free, so as it cannot be forced to sinne: as we shallSee §. 282. hereafter more fully declare.Nemo se palpet: de suo Sathanas est. Tolle peccatū quod est tuum. Aug. in Ioh. tract 49. Onely hereby learne, that no man hath cause cause to sooth or flatter himselfe. Of himselfe man is as bad as may be. Sinne being thine, take that away which is thine owne.

The thing acknowledged (Debts) and appropriation of them (our) being noted, the kinde of discharge (Forgiue) is to be declared.

§. 119. Of Gods free and full discharge of mans debt.

Q. VVHat doth this word FOR GIVE import?

A. Freely and fully to discharge a debt. Freely without any satisfaction on our part. Fully without any reseruation of any part of the debt to be exacted of vs: but rather such an acceptation, as if we neuer had bene in any debt at all.

To forgiue, is so to passe by an offence as neither to exact nor to expect any thing, either in way of recompence, or in way of punishment forit. Both recompence and punish­ment are counted a kind of satisfaction, which is directly con­trary to remission. It is noted of the seruant whose debt the Lord forgaue, Mat. 18. 25, 27. that he had nothing to pay: no recompence there­fore was giuen: yet was he not imprisoned: no punishment therefore was taken. But that seruant that imprisoned his fellow-seruant, forgaue not the debt, and yet he receiued no part of the debt. For imprisonment is a punishment: and pu­nishment is a kind of payment, which he that is punished is saidPoenas pende­re, expendere, de­pendere, dare, persoluere, luere. [...]. to pay.

Againe, though a man actually exact nothing for a debt, or an offence, yet if he beare a reuengefull mind, or a grudging heart, he is not thought truly to forgiue. Nay if he be not as good friends with the debter or offender, as if he neuer had had ought against him, he doth not truly forgiue him, but onely to teeth outward, as we speake. But Gods forgiuing is as true, full, and euery way perfect as possibly can be: and therefore as it ex­pecteth no satisfaction, so it is accompanied with as gracious an acceptation, as if no sinne had bene committed.

§. 120. Of the concurrence of Gods mercie and iustice in the discharge of mans debt.

Q. CAn it stand with strictnesse of Iustice so freely and fully to acquit sinners?

A. 1. It is not against iustice that he who hath [Page 146] an absolute and supreme power ouer all, and is to giue an ac­count to none, should freely forgiue any thing which is any way due to himselfe, whether it be dutie or penaltie.Exod. 33. 19. I will shew mercie on whom I will shew mercie, saith this supreme Lord. And againe,Math. 20. 15. Is it not lawfull for me to do what I will with mine owne?

2. Christ our Suretie in our stead, and for vs hathGal. 3. 13. endured that penaltie which we by sinne deserued, andRom. 5. 19. fulfilled all that righteousnesse which we owed.

2. Q. Can satisfaction and remission stand together?

A, Yes, in three cases.

1. WhenLuke 7. 42. the partie forgiuen neither doth nor can make any satisfaction.Psal. 143. 2. Such are we in regard of that debt which we owe to God. No satisfaction therefore is exacted of vs in our owne person.

2. When his Sonne, who forgiueth, maketh the satisfaction. Such a Suretie haue wee, who hath made satisfaction for our sinnes: euenIoh. 3. 16. the onely begotten Sonne of God, who is true God. So as God hath made satisfaction to God.Rom. 8. 32.

3. When hee who forgiueth, is no further bound to ac­cept the satisfaction which he doth accept,Heb. 6. 17. then by his owne promise. What other bond can be alledged to binde God, then that whereby he hath voluntarily bound himselfe. So as all on Gods part is most free. Freely he gaue his Sonne a ransome. Freely hee imputeth what his Sonne did and suffered, to vs. Freely he accepteth vs in his Sonne. Freely he acquitteth our debt. HereuponEph. 1. 7. the Apostle ioyneth our Redemption by Christs bloud, Remission of sinnes, and the riches of Gods Grace altoge­ther: implying thereby that neither of these crosse the other, but that all of them may and do stand together. Christs satisfaction is so farre from impeaching the freenesse of Gods grace, as it doth the more commend the same. For it is much more grace, and farre greater mercie in God, not to spare his onely begot­ten Sonne, but to giue him for sinners, then vpon his absolute prerogatiue without any satisfaction at all to forgiue sinners. Christ, the Sonne of Gods loue, is more highly esteemed of God then any satisfaction can be. But by the satisfaction which the Sonne of God hath made, there is manifested a perfect [Page 147] concurrence of infinite mercie, and absolute iustice: and the freenesse of Gods grace is clearely manifested, and highly mag­nified thereby.

§. 121. Of mans disabilitie to discharge his debt.

Q. WHat doctrine doth this word FORGIVE imply?

A. Man is not able to himselfe to discharge the debt of sinne. If he were, what need forgiuenesse? This is the reason why the Psalmist desireth God not to enter into iudgement with him, Psal. 143. 2. because no man liuing can be iustified in his sight, namely of and by himselfe. From Gods forgiuing of sinne the Apostle gathereth,Rom. 4. 5, 6. that man is not iustified by workes that is, by any thing which he himselfe can do.

The recompence which is to be giuen for discharge of the debt of sinne, must be of infinite value and worth. For sinne being committed against an infinite maiestie, prouoketh infi­nite wrath, and so becometh an infinite debt. Can a finite crea­ture, as man is,Mat. 16. 26. giue a recompence of such worth? What shall a man giue in exchange for his soule?

Nay, man hath by sinne vtterly depriued himselfe of all manner of abilitie to do any thing that in any respect might carrie any shew of recompence.Eph. 2. 1. He is dead in sinne: Not suf­ficient of himselfe so much as to thinke any thing as of him­selfe. 2. Cor. 3. 5.

But if it were granted that man were able of himselfe to do somewhat, what is that to God vnto whom the recompence must be made? Ioh. 22. 2, 3. Can a man be profitable vnto God? Is it any plea­sure to the Almightie that thou art righteous? Or is it gaine to him that thou makest thy wayes perfect?—35. 7. If thou beest righteous what giuest thou to him? Or what receiueth he of thine hand?

§. 122. Of Popish Satisfaction.

DEtestable in this respect are many positions of Papists concerning mans satisfaction for sinne, by punishments voluntarily vndertaken,Concil. Trid. §. 14 de oper. satisfact. cap. 9. or imposed by Priests, or in­flicted by God: and concerning the merit of workes where­by the guilt of temporall punishment for sinne may be re­moued.

Some of the chiefest of those positions I will set downe in the words of their great Champion: because the very expression of them is a sufficient refutation of them.

The Councell of Trent doth teach that God is satisfied three wayes,Bellarm. de Poe­nit. lib. 4. cap. 4. By bearing patiently the punishments and scourges which are inflicted by God,Concilium Tridentinū do­cet tribus modis Deo sa­tufieri, Poen [...] & flagella à deo immissa patienter ferends, opera laboriosa sponte assumendo, & mul­ctam sacerdotum arbitrio iniunctam subeundo. Satisfactio nostra requiri­tur, vt iniuria deo facta compensetur, & diuina iustitiae satisfiat. Debemus satisfacere per ea bona quae nostra sunt. Satisfactio condigna esse debet, & eam proportionē c̄ peccato exigere, vt verè per eam offensio cōpensetur Per opera poenalia verè ac propriè deo satisfit pro rea­tu paenae qui post culpam dimissam remanet expian­dus. Accedente gratia dei verè possumus aliquo modo ex proprijs, & ad aequalita­tem, ac per hoc iuste, & ex condigno satisfacere. Habemus opera propria & indebita quibus pro iniu­ria satisfaciamus. By vndertaking of our owne accord la­borious workes, and By vndergoing the penaltie imposed by the censure of Priests.

Our Satisfaction is required,Ibid. cap. 9. that the wrong done to God may be recompensed, and the diuine iustice satisfied.

We must satisfie by those good workes which are ours.Ibid. cap. 6.

Satisfaction must be worthy,Ibid. cap. 9. and it must keepe such a proportion with sinne, as the offence may be truly recompensed by it.

By paenall workes satisfaction is made to God,Ibid. cap. 7. truly and properly for that guilt of punish­ment which remaineth to be expiated after the fault is forgiuen.

Gods grace assisting,Ibid. we may after a cer­taine manner truly satisfie out of that which is our owne, euen to equalitie, and in that respect iustly and of desert.

We haue workes of our owne,Ibid. whereunto wee are not bound, by which wee may satisfie for wrong done to God.

[Page 149] Our workes as they come from the Spirit of Christ dwelling in vs haue a certaine infinitenesse,Ibid. and thereby also a certaine equalitie with the wrong whereby wee had troubled God by sin­ning.

Full remission of sinne,Ibid. cap. 15. so much as con­cerneth all guilt of punishment,Opera nostra vtà Spiritu Chri­sti in nobis habtant proce­dunt, quandam habent infi­nitatem, ac per hoc etiam quandam aequalitatem cum in­iuria qua deum peccando affe­ceramus. Plena peccati remissio, quoad omnem poenae reatum, premi­um est bonorum operum quae satisfactoria dici solent. Opera laboriosa prosunt ad cul­pae remissimem, & mortis aeternae liberationem. is the reward of those good workes which are wont to be called satisfactorie.

Laborious workes are profitableIbid. cap. 12. for remission of sinne, and for deliuerance from eternall death.

If by these and such like positions, that which is due to the all sufficient satisfaction of Christ be not attributed to man, let any indifferent reader iudge. Can the things which in these po­sitions are auouched, of recompencing wrong done to God, of satisfying the diuine iustice, of a condigne, or worthy satisfaction, of satisfying truely and properly, to an equalitie, iustly, condignely, and that out of our owne workes whereunto we are not bound, of a certaine infinitenesse of our workes, and a certaine equalitie with the wrong whereby wee haue troubled God by sinning, of full re­mission of sinne to bee the reward of fatisfactorie workes, of the profit of laborious workes for remission of sinne, and deliue­rance from eternall death, Can these things stand with Gods in­finite iustice, with mans disabilitie to any good thing, with mans vnworthinesse, and with the imperfection of mans best workes? Then may light and darknesse in their most extreme degrees, then may the Arke of God, and Dagon, then may Grace and Workes stand together: and yet the Apostle saith, If by grace, Rom. 11. 6. then it is no more of workes, otherwise grace is no more grace. But if of workes, then it is no more grace, otherwise worke is no more worke.

They alleadge for grounds of the worth of mens workes that,

1. They come from the Spirit of Christ.

2. Christ giueth the vertue of satisfaction to mens workes.

3. Mans satisfaction is not for the fault, but for the punish­ment.

[Page 150] 4. The punishment for which man satisfyeth, is not eternall, but temporall.

To these I briefely answer, that

1. Though the worke of the Spirit bee pure in it selfe, yet comming from vs it receiueth a tincture: As water that com­ming from a pure fountaine passeth thorow a foule chanell. Be­sides, the Spirit worketh according to the capacitie of the ob­iect,1. Cor. 13. 12. not all fulnesse and perfection at the first, but in part, by degrees.

2. For Christ to giue the vertue of satisfaction to mens workes, is to make men Priests, and Sauiours: which offices are his glory.Isa. 42. 8. But he will not giue his glory to others.

3. The fault being discharged by Christ, the punishment is also thereby discharged.Sublata causa tollitur effectus. For the fault is the cause of punish­ment. Take away the cause, the effect followeth and falleth a­way. As God said to Adam of the forbidden fruit,Gen. 2. 17, 2. Sam. 12. 13. In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt dye the d [...]ath: so Nathan said to Dauid, The Lord hath put away thy sinne, thou shalt not die. His sinne being remitted, the punishment was remoued.

4. That satisfaction which taketh away the greater punish­ment, by iust consequence taketh away the lesse. If temporall punishment as well as eternall were not discharged by Christs satisfaction, it were not complete, but an imperfect satis­faction.

But howsoeuer Papists being prest by our vnanswerable ar­guments, to auoid them, doe vse the forenamed distinctions of satisfying for the punishment, & no the fault, for the temporal, and not for the eternal punishment: yet in their fore-named Po­sitions they apply mans satisfaction to the recompencing of wrong dene to God, to diuine iustice, to remission of sin, and to deliuerance from eternall death; and thereupon they attribute thereunto a certaine infinitenesse, and equalitie to the wrong wherewith by sin­ning we haue troubled God. O blasphemie!

§. 123. Of humiliation and abnegation.

AS the greatnesse of the debt wherein man standeth ob­liged to God, so also mans impotencie, and impossibili­tie to discharge it, aggrauateth that wretched estate [Page 151] whereinto man by sinne is implunged, and giueth him much more occasion, and matter of humiliation. If there were iust cause to weepe much, Reu. 5. 4. because no man was found worthy to open the sealed Booke; how much more cause of weeping and mour­ning is there, that no man is able to cancell the Bils and Bonds whereby wee stand indebted to God, or any way to discharge that debt?

Hath not man in this respect iust cause also to deny him­selfe, and as a selfe-condemning Debter and Malefactor to cast himselfe downe before the Mercy-Seat of God, and to craue mercy and forgiuenesse,Math. 18. 26. as that seruant in the Parable who had nothing to pay?

§. 124. Of the remissiblenesse of sinne.

Q. VVHat doctrine doth praying for pardon of the debt of sinne afford?

A. Sinne is remissible. If it could not be pardoned, it were altogether in vaine to pray for forgiuenesse. Christ would ne­uer haue directed and incited vs to pray for that which is not possible to obtaine.Mat. 7. 7. He stirreth vs vp to aske, seeke, and knocke, on these grounds, It shall be giuen you, Yee shall finde, It shall be opened vnto you.

The true reasons hereof are:

1. The free grace of God.Ephes. 1. 7.

2. The price that Christ hath paid for this debt.1. Pet. 1. 19.

The knowledge hereof doth

1. Minister good ground of much comfort to poore sinners that groane vnder the heauy burden of sinne.Math. 9. 2.

2. Embolden sinners in faith to seeke pardon.1. Ioh. 1 9.

3. Prouoke and encourage them to turne from sinne.Ezek. 33. 11.

Q. What doctrine may further be gathered from the applicati­on of forgiuenesse,Psal. 103. 3. to debts in the plurall number?Quia fidelibus oratio ista conue­mat, & Ecclesiae regula ipsa testa­tur, & ipsius era­tionis exordium. Chrys. hom. 20. in Math 6.

All the sinnes of the faithfull are remissible. I say, of the faith­full, because they who haue right to say to God, Our Father, (which the faithfull who are sonnes of God onely haue) are taught thus to pray, and because they by the continuall and powerfull assistance of Gods Spirit shall bee kept from falling [Page 152] into the onely vnpardonable sinne, the sinne against the Holy Ghost.

As the free grace of God, and the price which Christ hath paid are the causes, that sinne is pardonable: so the infinite riches of that grace,Numb. 14. 19. 1. Ioh. 1. 7. aud the all-sufficiencie of that price are the causes that all manner of sinnes are likewise pardonable.

Let no sinne therefore keepe vs from seeking pardon.Qui orare nos pro peccatis docuit paternam mise­ricordiam promisit, et veniam se­cuturam. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 16. Well note the gracious inuitation of the Lord, Isay 1. 18. He that hath taught vs to pray for pardon of sinne, hath promised fa­therly mercy and pardon to follow thereupon.

Of these two points, that Sinne, and that euery sinne is re­missible: See in my Treatise of the sinne against the Holy Ghost. §. 5. & 6.

§. 125. Of Gods Prerogatiue in forgiuing sinne.

Q. TO whom is this Petition for forgiuenesse of sinne di­rected.

A, To God. For euery Petition hath relation to the Preface, and to him that is there described, which is God onely.

Q. What may thence be gathered?

A. 1. God hath power to remit sinnes.Debitorum re­missio proprium ac peculiare Dei munus & offici­um est. Greg. Nyss. l. de Orat. Mar. 2. 7.

2. God onely hath that power.

As here, so euery where in Scripture we are directed to goe to God for pardon: but no where throughout the whole Scrip­ture to any other. The Iewes so firmely held these doctrines as they accounted it blasphemie for any to arrogate that power to himselfe.

Euery sinne, 1. Ioh. 3. 4. as a sinne is a breach of Gods Law: and in that respect committed against him, though it be also a wrong done to man. Now God being a supreme Lord ouer all, who can bee imagined to haue power to forgiue transgressions against him, and his Law?

1. This Prerogatiue sheweth that Christ is true God.Christ true God. Had not Christ beene God, the Scribes had iustly accused him of blasphemie for taking vpon him to forgiue sinne.Mar. 2. 5, &c. Christ there­fore in answering their slander doth not deny their principle, [Page 153] that God onely can forgiue sinne, but by a visible demonstration proueth himselfe to be the True God, and thereby discouereth their mis-application of that true principle, whereby they de­nied to him who was true God, his Prerogatiue, and in accu­sing Christ of blasphemie, they themselues were impious blas­phemers.

§. 126. Of Papists blasphemie in giuing to men power to forgiue sinnes.

2. THe Pope assuming this Prerogatiue to himselfe,Bonif. 8. in Ex­travag. Antig. Ioh. de Turrecr. in coment. dict. 1. de poenil. doth thereby shew himselfe to be plaine Antichrist. For as by his flatterers there is giuen to him, so hee assumeth to him­selfe a power of granting Indulgences, Releases and Pardons for sinnes past, [...] ple­naria, ple [...]iar, plenissima. present, and to come: and of these some are full, some more full and some most full releases. Yea some of these Releases and, Indulgences are oft extended to more yeares to come,See §. 111. then can be imagined that the world shall con­tinue.

3. The power of absolution which is also giuen by the Church of Rome is derogatorie to the fore-named Preroga­tiue of God, and in that respect blasphemous. For by the §. 14. de. Absol. c. 6. Can. 9. Councill of Trent it is decreed, not to be a ministeriall decla­ration, but a iudiciall act of forgiuing. Whereupon they inferre thatVt flatus extin­guit ignem, & dissipat nebulas, sic Absolutio Sa­cerdotis peccata dispergit. Bellar. de Poen. l. 3. c. 2. as winde doth blow out a flame, and driue away clouds, so the absolution of a Priest doth put away sinne: and that thereby Ibid. l. 4. c. 9. both the fault, and also eternall punishment is remitted: and that many are damned because they die before they are absolued of a Priest. What is this but to make Priests Gods?

§. 127. Of confession of sinne to God and Man.

THe forenamed Prerogatiue of God doth plainely shew that Auricular confession, Auricular con­fession. as Papists enioyne it, is not abso­lutely necessarie. For they hold that a particular confession of all a mans sinnes which he can call to minde is necessarily to bee made in the eare of a Priest,Concil. Trid. §. 14. c. 5. Can. 6, 7, 8. and that vpon paine of dam­nation. We deny not a necessitie of Confession. For without [Page 154] confession of sin, no remission,Pro 28. 13. 1. Ioh. 1. 8, 9. no absolution can be expected. But this absolute necessitie must bee applied to confession vn­to God, whose Prerogatiue it is to forgiue sinne. Yea fur­ther we acknowledge a necessitie of confession to man: and that both publikely and priuately: and both these either vpon iniunction by authoritie, or vpon a mans owne voluntarie mo­tion. Publike confession is to be made of sinnes publikely com­mitted, whereby publike offence is giuen, or publike detri­ment and damage made. In this caseIos, 19, 20. Ioshua enioyned Achan to confesse his sinne, and he confessed it. BecauseAct. 5. 8, 9. Saphira re­fused to make confession, being required of Peter to doe it, she was suddenly strucke with death?Act. 19. 18. They of Ephesus that had been notorious sinners voluntarily made publike confession of their sinnes. Priuate confession is to be made also in three cases. 1. When one in authoritie requireth it, as2. King. 5. 25. Elisha required his seruant Gehazi to doe it. 2. WhenMath. 5 24. priuate wrong is done, or offence giuen to one. 3. When a sinne burdeneth the con­science: on which grouud2. Sam. 12. 13. Iam. 5. 16. Dauid made confession to Nathan: and Saint Iames exhorteth all Christians to confesse their sinnes one to another, that so they may receiue the more comfort by mutuall prayer and direction. In this case choise must be made of such persons as are fit to haue secrets made knowne to them, and able to helpe and ease a burthened conscience. Such are men of vnderstanding, discretion, wisedome and experi­ence, yea such as are faithfull, and pitifull, and beare a louing heart toward the partie that commeth to them for comfort. Among others, Ministers are in two respects most fit. 1. Be­cause by their dayly studie and practise they are most acquain­ted with the temptations of Satan, dispositions of people, and consolations of Gods Word. 2. Because by vertue of their ministeriall function,2. Cor. 5. 18, 20. being Ambassadours for Christ, and hauing the ministerie of reconciliation giuen to them, the patient may with more assurednesse apply to his soule the promises which they pronounce.

But necessarily to tye euery Christian, vpon paine of damnation, to make confession of all the sinnes whereof hee knoweth himselfe to be guiltie, to the Priest vnder whose charge hee is, bee hee neuer so ignorant, or lewd, is with­out [Page 155] all warrant of Gods Word, and against common sence and reason.

§. 128. Of confessing sinne to God, and seeking pardon of him.

5 FOr the maine dutie which ariseth from the fore-mentioned doctrine concerning Gods Prerogatiue in forgiuing sinne, let vs not dare to hide our sinne from God, asGen. 3. 7, 8. Adam sought to doe, but humbly and pe­nitently confesse the same,Iob 31. 33. asPsal. 32. 5.—51. 1, &c. Dauid, and other Saints of God from time to time haue done. This dutie is to be done not so much to make our sinnes knowne to God (For hee knoweth them whether wee confesse them or no) as to shew that wee our selues know them,Neh. 9. 3. take notice of them,Ezr. 9. 6, &c. feele the burden of them,Dan. 9. 4, &c. are grieued for them, hate them, desire to bee freed from them, and truely repent of them. Thus will God bee moued to take pitie of vs, and to bee mercifull to our sinnes. God is not like man who taketh aduantage from the delinquents confession, according to the Prouerbe, Confesse and bee hanged, but rather from thence taketh occasion to shew mercy. In relation to God, this may well come into a Prouerbe, Confesse and bee saued. For if wee confesse our sinnes, 1. Ioh. 1. 9. hee is faithfull and iust to forgiue vs our sinnes.

§. 129. Of going to God for Pardon.

6. GOds Prerogatiue to forgiue sinne doth further embol­den vs to goe to him, and to him onely for pardon of sinne. In that sinne is remissible, and may bee pardoned, we haue encouragement to seeke for pardon. In that it is God that forgiueth, wee are directed to seeke pardon of him. I, euen I am hee, Isa. 43. 25. that blotteth out thy transgressions, saith the Lord. And well wee may be glad that hee reserueth this pre­rogatiue to himselfe. For of whom can wee with greater con­fidence expect to receiue this gracious fauour then of him, who is full of compassion, Psal. 103. 8. and gracious, slow to wrath, and [Page 156] plenteous in mercy. Ier, 2. 13. Fateor quia pec­caui, & conscien­tia mea nou suffi­cit ad satisfacti­onem. Sed certum est quod miseri cordia tua supe­rat omnem offen­sionem. Aug. Medit. cap. 39. Let vs not therefore leaue this fountaine of liuing water, and goe to broken cesternes that can hold no wa­ter. As wee desire to bee discharged of the debt of sinne, so let vs seeke this discharge of him that is able and ready to giue it. Though we can make no satisfaction, yet his mercy sur­passeth all our offences.

§. 130. Of Gods free and full discharge of sinne.

Q. VVHat doctrine ariseth from the kindes of discharge im­plied vnder the word FORGIVE?

A. The discharge which God giueth is See §. 119. a free & full discharge, It must needs bee free, because in man there can be nothing to procure it. Nay out of God there is nothing to moue him to doe it.Isa. 43. 25.—48. 9. I blot out transgressions, saith the Lord, for mine owne sake. And againe, For my names sake will I deferre mine anger. Mic. 7. 18. He retaineth not his anger for euer, because he delighteth in mercy. Benigniffima Di­uinitatis natura liberaliter agit, ignoscit plenarie. Bern. de Euan. 7. pan. Serm. 3. That the discharge also which God giueth is full, is euident by the many Metaphors vsed in Scripture to set it out: Such are these that follow.

1. I am hee that BLOTTETH OVT thy transgressions, saith the Lord. This Metaphor is taken from Creditors, who when they purpose neuer to exact a debt,Isa. 43. 25. will blot it out of their bookes. After that a Debt is strucken out of a Bill, Bond, or Booke, it can not be exacted: the euidence can not be pleaded.

2 I haue put away thy transgressions as a cloud, Isa 44. 22. and thy sinnes as a mist, saith the same Lord. Wee know that the clouds which are driuen away by the winds appeare no more, nor the mist which is dried vp by the Sunne. Other clouds, other mists may arise: but not they which are driuen away and dryed vp. Thus the sinnes which God forgiueth returne not againe.

3. The same Lord saith, Though your sinnes be as skarlet, they shall be as white as show; Isa. 1. 18. though they be red like crimson, they shall be as woll. Skarlet and crimson are double and deepe dies, dies in graine, yet if the cloth died therewith be as the wool before [Page 157] it was died, if it be as white as snow, what is become of those dies? Are they any more? Is not the cloth as if it had not bene died at all? Euen so, though our sinnes, by reiterating them, by long lying in them, haue deepely seazed into vs, yet by Gods discharge of them, wee are as if wee neuer had committed them.

4. Ye are washed, 1. Cor. 6. 11. saith the Apostle. By washing the filth of things is cleane taken away.

5. Thou hast cast all my sinnes behind thy backe, Isa. 38. 17. saith Hezekiah to God. That which a man would not looke on, or regard, that he casts behind his backe. The sinnes which God forgiueth he will haue as out of his sight, which he meaneth no more to meddle withall.

6. Thou wilt cast all their sinnes into the depths of the sea, Mic. 7. 19. saith Micah to the Lord. When a man would haue a thing vtterly gone, he will cast it into the bottome of the sea, from whence there is no fetching it againe. So deales the Lord with the sins which he forgiueth.

7. The Psalmist pronounceth him blessed whose sinne is couered. Psal. 32. 1. A thing couered is not seene. So sinne forgiuen is before God as not seene.

8. The same Psalmist pronounceth him blessed to whom the Lord imputeth not sinne. Psal. 32. 2. A sinne not imputed is as not com­mitted.

9. The Prophet saith of sinne forgiuen,Ier. 50. 20. that it shall be sought for and not found. Is not that fully discharged which shall neuer be found, neuer appeare?

10. God himselfe saith,Ier. 31. 34. I will remember their sinne no more. Surely that which God will not remember, hee hath fully dis­charged.

Finally,Rom. 4. 6, 7. the man is pronounced blessed whose sinne is forgiuen. If the discharge were not full, how could the partie discharged be by vertue thereof blessed?

Forgiuenesse being an Act of God, it must needs be both free and full. For whatsoeuer God doth, he doth freely for himselfe, without any former desert, without expectation of any future recompence. No creature can deserue any thing at his hands: much lesse can sinners and rebels. Neither can any creature giue [Page 158] any reward or recompence to him: as he needeth none, nor ex­pecteth any, so he can receiue nothing which is not his owne.

§. 131. Of Merit of Congruitie.

THeRom. 11. 6. Illis operibusquae ex fide & gratta proficiscuntur fa temur nos mereri remissionem pec colorum. Bellar. Indic. de lib. con­cor. Mend. 8. Idem de Iustif. l. 5. c. 22. free discharge of God directly excludeth all merit of man. For that which is done for merit is not freely done.Meritum de con­gruo & condigno Bellar. de Poenit. lib. 2. cap. 12. Papists who maintaine mans merit, not onely for his sal­uation after this life, but also for his iustification in this life, and for remission of sinnes, thinke to salue vp all by a distinction of merit of Congruitie or meetnesse, and condignitie or desert and worth. They say that merit of condignitie followeth iustification: but merit of Congruitie goeth before it, and meriteth and obtai­neth both remission of sinnes and iustification.The whole Armour of God Treat. 2. Part. 4. §. 7. on Eph. 6. 14 Of that merit of condignitie I haue elsewhere spoken: neither is it pertinent to this place.

For merit of Congruitie:

1. Though it be taken in the fairest interpretation that can be, yet can it not stand with free grace, with meere mercie: but it much impaireth the same.

2. When they expound their owne meaning, they acknow­ledge that remission of sins and iustification is due as a recom­pence or reward to the said merit of Congruitie. For, say they, To euery merit a reward answereth: as there is a merit of Congruitie, so also a reward of Congruitie. Omni merito re­spondet merces. Sicut meritum est ex congruo, ita merces ex congruo. Bellar. de Iustif. lib. 1. cap. 21. And the merit of Congruitie is rather founded in some dignitie of the worke, then in the promise of God. Doth not their owne exposition of Congruitie make it a plaine condig­nitie and desert.

3. When God first acquitteth and iustifieth a sinner, hee findeth in him no congruitie,Fundatur meri­tum de congruo potius in aliqua dignitate ope [...]s quàm in promis­sione. Ibid. to meetnesse to receiue mercie, but rather an enemie-like,Rom. 5. 10. and rebellious disposition against him. For when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God. Eph. 2. 4, 5. And, God, who is rich in mercie, for his great loue, wherewith he loued vs, euen when we were dead in sinne, quickned vs.

§. 132. Of Popish satisfactions for sinnes remitted.

GOds full discharge of sinne excludeth all remainder of pu­nishment to be endured in this world, or elsewhere by way of satisfaction for the sin forgiuen. For it any satisfaction remaine to be done, the discharge is not full. Derogatory there­fore to the absolute fulnesse of Gods discharge is the doctrine of our Aduersaries in this point. For they hold that after sinne is forgiuen,Concil. Trid. §. 6. cap. 14. & §. 14. cap. 12. there may remaine a guilt of punishment to be sa­tisfied for, sometimes in this life, sometimes in another life, namely in Purgatorie, sometimes in both.Bellar. de Purg. lib. 2. cap. 1. & 9. & de Poenit. l. 4. cap. 2. But by such punish­ments for sinne, sinne would againe be cald to mind and me­morie, to view and sight, to reckoning and account, which can­not stand with the forementioned Scripture phrases of not re­membring, not imputing, couering, casting behinde the backe, casting into the bottome of the sea, blotting out, &c. We denie not but that Saints whose sinnes are forgiuen, may notwithstanding be pu­nished in this life (as for the fiction of Purgatorie it deserueth rather to be hissed at, then by arguments refuted) but withall we say, that those punishments are neither expiatorie, nor sa­tisfactorie, nor yet vindictiue for sinne. If they were, Christs expiation, satisfaction, and suffering might be thought insuffi­cient. The punishments which are inflicted on them whose sins are forgiuen,Dolor medicina­lis, non sententia poenalis. Aug. in Psal. 138. are as a medicinable corsiue, but not a iudiciall re­uenge.

§. 133. Of the comfort that ariseth from Gods free and full discharge.

THe free and full discharge which God giueth of sinne,Deus sic ex toto indulsit, & tam liberaliter om­nem donauit in­iuriam, vt iam non damnet vl­ciscendo, nec con­fun [...]at imprope­rando, nec minus diligat imputan­do. Ber. de Euang 7. pan. Serm. 3 is a most sound and soueraigne ground of comfort to such as by faith rightly can apply the same to their owne soules. For so freely and fully doth God remit all offence, that neither by reuenging it, doth he condemne vs: nor by vpbraiding it confound vs: nor by imputing it the lesse loue vs.

A due consideration of our many hainous sinnes cannot but [Page 160] astonish vs, and make vs ashamed to appeare in the presence of God for pardon of them: but knowledge of the free grace of God, (who of himselfe, for himselfe, for his owne names sake pardoneth sinne) and faith therein, emboldeneth poore sinners to draw neare to the Throne of Grace, and to cast themselues downe before Gods mercie-seate for pardon,Dan. 9. 18. and to say, We do not present our supplications before thee for our righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies.

Againe, knowledge of the desert of sinne, how the least sin deserueth the wrath of God, and the least degree of Gods wrath is an vnsupportable burthen, cannot but affright the soule of a sinner through the apprehension of any vindictiue punishment to be endured for sinne. What then can remaine to satisfie the poore sinner, but faith in Gods full discharge? The promises of God being the ground of our faith, good ground we haue to beleeue that according to the forenamed promises, our sinnes, which we haue humbly and penitently confessed, and for which wee haue craued pardon, are freely and fully dis­charged. If vpon our owne true humiliation, and heartie sup­plication we did beleeue this, what comfort, what peace might be brought to our soules thereby? Let vs the efore oft medi­tate on the fore-named grounds of faith, that our faith thereby may be the more established, and our consciences the more quieted.

The thing acknowledged, DEBTS,

The appropriation of them, OVR,

The kinde of discharge, FORGIVE, haue hitherto bene handled.

The parties to be discharged, VS, are now to be considered.

§. 134. Of praying for the pardon of our owne sinnes especially.

Q. VVHo are comprised vnder this particle Vs?

A. We our selues, and others. The first per­son includeth our selues. The plurall number extendeth this Petition to others.

Q. What doctrine may thence be gathered?

A. Pardon is to be sought for our owne and others sinnes. Of [Page 161] seeking pardon for our owne sinnes no question can be made. Holy men of God guided by the Spirit of God haue done this in particular, euen in the singular number for themselues. Put away MINE iniquitie, Psal. 51. 1, 2, 7. Cleanse ME from MY sinne, wash ME, Purge ME, saith the Psalmist.

Loue begins at home. If any dutie of loue be to be shewed to our selues, then this especially aboue all other. For if sinne bee not pardoned, what can be comfortable, what can be be­neficiall and profitable to vs?

The application of this point concerneth not onely such as (through ignorance of that fearefull estate wherein they lie by sinne, or a prophaine neglect of this holy and heauenly dutie of prayer) neuer call vpon God for this or any other blessing, in their owne or others behalfe: but also, and that more especially such, as through some violent temptation, and deepe apprehen­sion of Gods indignation against them, are afraid to pray for pardon of their owne sinnes, and yet can heartily pray for the pardon of others sinnes. These must bee well instructed in this priuiledge that is here afforded vnto vs: and in that respect which God hath to the particular prayer which is made by a penitent soule in his owne behalfe.Ezek. 14. 15. God oft heareth one pray­ing for himselfe, when he heareth him not praying for others: but we neuer heard of any accepted for others, that were not accepted for themselues. Euery ones prayer is most auaileable for himselfe. Let the mind that such haue to pray for others, pro­uoke them to pray first for pardon of their owne sinnes. For till a mans sinnes be pardoned, hee cannot expect any blessing on others by his prayers.

§. 135. Of praying for pardon of others sinnes.

THat prayer is to bee made for others hath beene§. 14. & 92. before shewed. If for any other blessing we ought to pray in the behalfe of others, then most of all for the pardon of their sinnes, the greatest blessing, if the extent of it be well obserued, that in this world can be obtained for them. This was it for which Moses so earnestly prayed in the behalfe of the Israe­lites:Exod. 32. 32. Iob 1. 5. and for which Iob offered vp sacrifices in the behalfe of [Page 162] his children. That expresse precept which the Apostle giueth of praying for others, hath especiall relation to their sinnes, as the reason importeth in these words,Iam. 5. 14, 15, 16 If he haue committed sinnes they shall be forgiuen him.

That reason is a reason of great weight:Iam. 5. 20. for by obtaining par­don of sinne for another, ae soule is saued from death. What a pri­uiledge, what an honour is this to a Christian, that he should be a meanes of sauing his brothers soule? What a benefit doth he thereby bring to his brother? The Scripture giueth vs many instances of the benefit of prayer in this kinde: namely, that it hath bene a meanes of obtaining pardon for many sinners: and of preuenting or remouing many iudgements from them. Wit­nesse theExo. 32. 11. &c many prayers which Moses made for the Israelites when they had sinned against God:Num. 14. 19, 20. and in particular forNum. 12. 13. Mi­riam. Witnesse also2. Chro. 30. 18, 20. the prayer which Hezekiah made for the people that came vnprepared to the Passe-ouer: andIob 42. 8, 9. the prayer which Iob made for his friends that spake not of God the thing that was right. No doubt butCōpare Luke 23 24. with Act. 2. 38, 41. & 4. 4. the prayer which Christ made on the crosse for them that so euilly entreated him, was a meanes that many thousand Iewes anone after his ascension were conuerted, and had their sinnes pardoned. The like may be said ofAct. 7. 60. Stephens prayer.

Not onely to others may much good be brought by a con­scionable performance of this dutie, but to our selues also. For our faith in the pardon of our owne sins will be much strength­ned thereby. By praying for the pardon of others sinnes wee shall the better acquaint our selues with the extent of Gods promises, which are the holy oyle to make the lampe of our faith to continue her light.

Learne we hereby to take notice of others sinnes as well as of our owne. Take we notice of the publicke open sinnes of the times and places where we liue, of those among whom we con­uerse, but especially of those who are vnder our charge. And as we obserue them, we ought to be humbled for them, to make confession of them to God, and supplication for pardon of them.Ezra 9. 3. &c. Hereof we haueRom. 14. 19. many excellent patternes in GodsNeh. 1. 6. &c.—9. 16 &c. word.Dan. 9. 5. &c.

In performance of this dutie let our minds be especially fixed [Page 163] on the sinnes of those who are vnder our charge: and to whom we are by some speciall bonds linked: as Iob who prayed for hisIob 1. 5. children and—42. 9. friends: andExo. 32. 32. Moses for the people vnder his charge. It is meete also to enlarge our prayer, so as the inha­bitants of the Parish, Towne, Citie, and Nation wherein we liue may be comprised therein: asDan. 9. 7, 8, 9. Daniel who confessed the sins of Ierusalem, Iudah, and all Israel, and craued pardon for the same Here we ought especially to be mindfull of the sinnes of our Gouernours, and Ministers, asNeh. 9. 34. the Leuits were of the sinnes of their Princes and Priests. Finally, our prayers in this respect must be extended to our enemies: for which we haue both the Mat. 5. 44. precept, andLuke 23. 34. patterne of Christ, and the patterne of theActs 7. 60. first Christian Martyr.

Hitherto of the substance of the fift Petition. The condition annexed thereto followeth.

§. 136. Of mans forgiuing another.

Q. VVHich are the words wherein the Condition annexed to the fifth Petition is expressed?

A. As we forgiue our debters.

Q. What are the distinct points here to be considered?

A. 1. The Dutie required, FORGIVE.

2. The Persons tied thereto, WEE.

3. The Parties to whom it is to be performed, DEBTERS.

4. The Restraint thereof, OVR.

5. The Resemblance, As.

In setting downe the dutie we are to note

1. Wherein it consisteth.

2. When it is to be performed.

Q. What is the maine dutie here required?

A. Mon must forgiue one another. Many precepts of Scrip­ture tend hereunto: as,Mat. 5. 39. Resist not euill. Rom. 12. 19. Auenge not your selues. Col. 3. 13. Forbeare one another. Forgiue one another. Rom. 12. 21. Ouercome euill with goodnesse. And answerable haue the practise of the Saints bene from time to time. InstanceGen. 50. 17, 20. Ioseph, Num. 12. 13. Moses, 2. Sam. 19. 23. Dauid, Gal. 4. 12. Paul, and others like them.

[Page 164] This is an especiall propertie of a Saint,Iam. 3. 17. and child of God, in whom the wisedome that commeth from aboue abideth. For that wisedome is peaceable, gentle, easie to be entreated, full of mercie and good fruites. Hereby a manifest difference is discerned betwixt that Spirit which cometh from aboue, and that spirit which a­riseth from the flesh: betwixt a regenerate and a naturall man. By nature man is exceedingly proane to reuenge.Heathen hold reuenge lawfull. The heathen, who were guided onely by the light of nature, discerned not the excellencie and necessitie of this grace.Vlcisci te lacessi­tus potes. Cic. de Orat. Their Philosophers, who were their Diuines, accounted it not vnlawfull to reuenge wrongs.Odi hominem & odero: vtinam vlcisci poteram. Cic. ad Attic. Sophocles in E­lectra. Euripides in Oreste. Yea they held it a bounden dutie, and a glorious vertue to seeke and take reuenge: insomuch as if any notorious wrong were done to a man and he taken away, before reuenge taken, & the suruiuing friends were negligent in reuenging the same, they imagined that the ghosts of the deceased would neuer leaue haunting and terrifying those suruiuing friends till they had taken reuenge.

Many among vs,Mans pronenes to reuenge. that are taught better diuinitie, do too much nourish this corruption of nature. If they be wronged by word or deed, they thinke it dishonourable to put it vp, or passe it ouer without reuenge: which is the cause of so many chalenges as from time to time are giuen and taken: and of the many mortall monomachies, and desperate duells which are daily vndertaken: yea and of many secret plots and practises for doing some notorious mischiefe, and for taking away the very life of such as haue done them wrong. If such as are able with better discretion, and more moderation to temper their outward actions, well obserue, and throughly trie their inward disposition, they shall find this sprout of corrupt nature, reuenge, too deepely fixed in them: yea they shall find many bitter fruites thence sprouting, in reuengefull thoughts and desires, wishing many mischiefes to fall vpon them by whom they thinke themselues any way wronged. What is this but inward reuenge? Surely reuenge is one of the most incurable sores of the flesh. It is most hardly subdued and mortified. A good signe therefore of renewed nature it is to forbeare reuenge and forgiue wrongs: if at least it be done in truth, from the heart, for the conscience sake.

[Page 165] Farre short of the Christians Goale doe they come,Euill to bee ouercome with goodnesse. though they thinke they goe farre in the Christians race, who onely are milde, gentle, kinde, and courteous till they be wronged, but then are implacable, and will accept of no reconciliation, till they haue taken reuenge for that wrong. They thinke it a great glory that they can say, I runne into no mans debt, I doe wrong to no man, I euen haue beene, and euer will be ready to doe all offices of kindnesse that I can. But if any abuse mee any way and wrong mee, they shall know whom they abuse: and I will make them repent the wrong which they haue done. My friend shall taste of my kindnesse: but mine enemy shall know what I am able to doe. The pretended goodnesse of such men wanteth the substance of goodnesse: it hath but a shew and shadow thereof. That is sound, solide, pure gold that abideth the flaming heate of the fiery furnace. A mans goodnesse cannot be proued to be sound till it bee tried by the fire of wrong, or offence. Dogs, Beares, Tygers,Saeuis inter se conuenit vrsis. Iuiuen. Lyons, and the most sauage beasts that bee, can bee quiet, and gentle till they be stirred and incensed. A Prouerbe saith The Diuell is good while hee is pleased. Behold then what kinde of goodnesse it is, whereof such men boast. No better then the goodnesse of the most cruell creatures, not the Diuell excepted. Doe what you can to a sheepe, you cannot make it snarle or bite. Doe but clap a Dogge on the backe, hee will be ready to fly in your face. He therefore that being prouoked is stirred vp to reuenge, retaineth his naturall doggish dispo­sition. Hee that may iustly bee accounted a Lambe, or sheepe of Christs fold, and to haue the Spirit of the Lambe of God in him, will recompence to no man euill for euill, but ouercome euill with good. Rom. 12. 17. 21. To this height of goodnesse doth the condition of this Petition call vs.Non haec dixisse contentus estsed abundanius oftendere volens, quantum buius rei curam gerit, idipsum etiam specialiter incul cauit post imple­tam orationis formulam, &c. Chrys. bom. 20. in Mac. 6.

This dutie of forgiuing one another being the maine and principall point intended in this condition added to the fift Pe­tition, which is the onely bie clause in the whole Lords Prayer, and which Christ thought not enough to insert in the Prayer, but so soone as hee had ended his forme of prayer returned to this point againe, and againe and againe presleth it both affir­matiuely, and negatiuely, shewing the aduantage of forgiuing, and the damage of not forgiuing. For a further pressing and [Page 166] enforcing of it, I will endeuour to set out the Excellency, Vtili­tie, Necessity, Difficultie, and Raritie of it.

1. For the Excellencie of it,Excellency of forgiuing. it is one of those excellencies wherein God himselfe glorieth, thatExod. 34. 7. he forgiueth sinne. There­fore with great Emphasis he saith,Isa. 43. 25. I, I am he that blotteth out thy transgression for mine owne sake. And with great admiration of this excellencie saith the Prophet,Mic. 7. 18. Who is a God like vnto thee that pardoneth iniquitie? They therefore that forgiue wrongs shew themselues like to God in this his excellencie. Whereupon the Apostle hauing exhorted vsEphes. 4. 32. to forgiue, addeth, as a further motiue to presse the dutie, this clause,—5. 1. Bee ye fol­lowers of God as deare children. Herein man sheweth himselfe a God to man: as on the contrarie by reuenge, hee sheweth himselfe a very Deuill: Many, likeGen. 4. 23. Lamech, boast and glorie in taking reuenge, as in a matter of great manhood, whereas in truth it is a part of much basenesse, and great pusilani­mitie.

2. For the Vtilitie of it,Vtilitie of for­giuing. If this question bee asked, What profit is there of forgiuing? I answer as the Apostle did of Cir­cumcision,Rom. 3. 1, 2. Much euery way. Thereby assurance of Gods for­giuing our sinnes is obtained. Wee are made more capable of receiuing mercy from God. We shall haue much quietnesse in our soules. We shall appeare more amiable before men, bee the better loued of them, and receiue more kindnesses from them. We shall auoid many mischiefes whereinto wee might implunge our selues by taking reuenge, and which both God and man might bring vs vnto for taking reuenge.

3. For the Necessitie of it;Necessitie of forgiuing. it is absolutely necessary for So­ciety with men, and Communion with God. In regard of so­cietie with men, there is no liuing in this world without a mind willing and ready to forgiue wrongs: and that by reason of the wrongs which others from time to time will doe to vs, and wee to others. Wee liue here among many and sundry sorts of people, and those of diuers and different dispositions: some giuing offence in one kinde, others in another. If we be forward to take reuenge of euery wrong, and haue not a minde forward to forgiue, we shall neuer haue a quiet minde. Re­uenge will bee as a poison continually working in our soules, [Page 167] exceedingly disturbing and disquieting them. And for our selues, flesh is in vs all: it abideth in the best, so long as they abide in this world. By reason of the flesh in vs wee are sub­iect to many infirmities, whereby sundry offences are giuen to others, sometimes on weaknesse, and sometimes on wil­fulnesse: sometimes on sudden passion, and heate of bloud, and sometimes againe on deliberation and cold bloud. By reason hereof we need that others should beare with vs, and forgiue vs. But if we forgiue not others, how can we looke that o­thers should forgiue vs. 1. Our example in taking reuenge of others, is a patterne to others to take reuenge of vs. 2. It is iust with the Lord to suffer men so to doe, according to that which Adoni-bezek said,Iudg. 1. 7. As I haue done, so God hath requi­ted mee. Mat. 7. 1. So much is oft expressely threatned. In regard of Communion with God, Luke 6. 37. there is no hope, no possibilitie of recon­ciliation and atonement with God for such as are ready to take reuenge of men. Christ hath set it downe, as a ruled case, as an inuiolable Law, more stable, and vnalterable then the Lawes of the Medes and Persians established by the King, Math. 6. 15. that, if yee forgiue not men their trespasses, neither will your heauenly Father forgiue your trespasses. Math. 18. 27, 32, 33, 34. In the Parable wee reade that the Lord who forgaue his seruants debt, recalled his grant, when hee heard that seruant would not forgiue his fellow seruant.

Q. May then that remission which God granteth be reuersed?

A. 1. That which hypocrites presumptuously assume to themselues,How remission is recalled. without due consideration of the conditions and qualifications of the Gospell, may. For it is an absolution vn­iustly taken before it is fully giuen. 2. That circumstance in the Parable is noted not simply to declare any reuersing of Gods grant, but to aggrauate the hainousnesse of reuenge, and Gods hatred of it, and indignation against it. And it sheweth that though God in himselfe be ready and forward to forgiue, and could and would otherwise forgiue such a Debtor, yet if that debter bee hard-hearted to his brother, and forgiue not him, neither will God forgiue.

4, For the difficulty of it,Difficultie of forgiuing. wrath and reuenge cannot easily be subdued. A combate, and a conquest in that combate is re­quisite thereto. The combate must be with our owne passions, [Page 168] and the conquest must be ouer them, which conquest flesh and blood can neuer get. He that ruleth his spirit is mightier then he that taketh a Citie. Prou. 16. 32. Passions are exceeding violent, very dange­rous and pernicious. In vs there is a great pronenesse to yeeld vnto them. Our flesh is very loth to striue against them. What hope then is there of any victory ouer them. Surely there must bee more in vs then flesh and bloud to subdue them.

5.Scarcitie of forgiuing. For the Raritie, or scarcitie of it, I may iustly in the Pro­phets sence vse these words of the Prophet,let. 5. 1. Runne yee to and fro thorow the streets, and see now and know, and seeke in the broad places, if ye can finde a man, if there be any that forgiueth wrongs, and passeth by offences. View the world, obserue such as are re­puted to haue a generous minde. Among them yee shall finde Challenges sent and taken, and despera [...]e Combates vnderta­ken for euery flight wrong, for euery disgracefull and displea­sing word. Enter into the Citie, goe about the Country, marke the disposition of inhabitants in Citie and Country, and ye shall finde among them for petty iniuries, and ignominious spee­ches, complaints to Iustices, Warrants, Arrests, Actions, Impri­sonments, and sutes in Law to the vtter vndoing of one ano­ther. Innes of Court, Seates of Iustice, Vniuersities, Yea, and Pulpits are full of bittet inuectiues, spightfull calumniati­ons, and reuengefull defamations for euery offence, and that ofttimes when the offence is rather taken then giuen. Men, Wo­men, Old, Yong, Rich, Poore, Brothers and Sisters, Fellow-seruants, Neighbours, Friends, all of all sorts, are exceedingly giuen to reuenge. If the thoughts of men could bee ransacked, and the desire of reuenge that therein lurketh be discouered, it would then more euidently appeare that this grace of forgi­uing wrongs, which is indeed rare in the excellency of it, is also exceeding rare in the scarsity of it: hardly to be found any where.

If now the Excelleucy of a thing in it selfe, if the Vtilitie and benefit which it bringeth to them that haue it: if the absolute Necessitie thereof for communion with God or Man: If the Difficultie of attaining thereto: If the Raritie of it, being such as very few attaine vnto it, bee motiues to stirre vs vp diligently and earnestly to seeke after it, Motiues are not wan­ting to stirre vs vp to vse all meanes that may bee to sup­presse [Page 169] reuenge, and to worke in vs a readinesse, and willing­nesse to forgiue.

This of the Dutie here required. The Time when it is to be per­formed followeth.

§. 137. Of speedy forgiuenesse.

Q. VVHat time is limited for forgiuing?

A. The Time present. The word is of the present Tense, [...] wee doe forgiue, which implyeth a present performance, and a constant continuance. The time present hath an Opposi­tion both to the time to come, and also to the time past. Hee that in the present doth a thing putteth it not off to the future, contenting himselfe with a purpose to doe it afterwards, as if it were enough to say, I will forgiue: neither doth hee leaue off to doe it, contenting himselfe that heretofore he hath done it, as if it were enough to say, I haue forgiuen. But so soone as occasion of doing it is offered, he doth it: and so long as the occasion continueth, he continueth to doe it.

Q. What doctrine may be gathered from the profession of for­giuenesse in the time present?

A. We must presently forgiue. So soone as occasion of exer­cising this duty is offered, it must be put in practise. As the shadow sheweth it selfe so soone as a body appeareth in sun­shine, so must forgiuenesse as soone as a wrong is discerned. When ye stand praying, forgiue. Mar. 11. 25. Wee may not dare to stand vp to pray, vnlesse we forgiue. Is it not then requisite that wee for­giue instantly. To this purpose tendeth this prohibition, Let not the Sunne goe downe vpon your wrath. Ephes 4. 26. His meaning is that we should not harbour heart-burning any whit at all.Non debuit oc­cidere Sol super iracundiam ve­stram, & multi soles occiderunt. Aug. hom. 42. in lib. 50. Hom. The phrase of not suffering the Sunne to goe downe on a thing, is prouerbiall, and implyeth a speedy redresse. Contrary hereunto doe they who suffer many sunnes to set on their wrath.

Reuenge is a kinde of fire, which if it bee not presently quenched,Danger of de­laying to for­giue. will soone proue vnquenchable. Nay it is a deadly poison, which if it once ceaze on the soule will soone destroy it. No fire, no poison of a more encreasing nature then reuenge. InstanceGen 4. 5, 8. the reuenge and wrath incensed in Cain against Abel, [Page 170] and in theMath. 26. 4. Scribes and Pharises against Christ▪ It encreased to bloud. Reuenge the longer it lasteth, the stronger it waxeth. But forgiuenesse is the onely meanes to quench that fire, to expell that poison. Can then forgiuenesse with safety bee put off?

Assuredly Satan will take great aduantage from the least de­lay.Triall of one fitted to forgiue Whereupon the Apostle aduiseth to giue no place to the di­uell. But by putting off reuenge, wee giue much place to him.

Hereby tryall may be made of a mind rightly fitted and pre­pared for this duty of forgiuenesse. It manifesteth it selfe so soone as occasion is offered. So soone as the Lord had striken Miriam with Leprosie for the wrong she did to Moses, Moses to shew how ready he was to passe it by,Numb. 12. 13. and to forgiue it, presently prayed for her.

But the deceitfulnesse of their heart is euidently discouered,Delayed for­giuenesse de­ceitfull. whose forgiuenesse consisteth onely in a purpose to doe it af­terwards. That which is truely purposed, will not alwayes re­maine a meere purpose: but, so soone as occasion is giuen, proue a practise. Many thinke it time enough to forgiue when they goe to the Lords Table: yet it may be that such goe to that holy board but once a yeare.Si in domibus vestris scor­piones essent aut aspides, quan­tum laboraretis vt domus vestras purgaretis & securi habitare possetis? Irasci­mini, inueteran­tur irae in cordi­bus vestris, fiunt tot odia, tot scorpij tot serpentes, & domum Dei, id est, cor ve­strum, purgare non vul [...]is? Aug. Hom. 42. in lib. 50. Ham. Surely that forgiuenesse which is then intended cannot be sound.Reuenge retai­ned diuellish. It may iustly be sus­pected to bee more on vaine superstition, then true deuotion. What if they die suddenly before that time, and haue no time, no thought to forgiue, can they thinke it safe to depart out of this worsd with a reuengefull minde? I would gladly know of such whether they intend to pray before that time set for re­ceiuing the holy Communion. If they doe intend so to doe, can they thinke it well to pray in wrath? Did men know what a Wolfe, what a Tyger, what a Viper wrath and reuenge were, they would at the first sight thereof be startled, and get themselues as farre from it, as they could. If Scorpions and Aspes were in mens houses, what paines would they take to cleanse their houses, that they might dwell securely? But they keepe anger, wrath, malice, hatred, reuenge, which are so many Scorpions, and Serpents, and cleanse not the house of God, which is their heart. Yea such a peruerse disposition haue many, as they vse all the meanes they can to retaine, and nou­rish [Page 171] reuenge, and to keepe it in minde and memory. By oath, by imprecation, and other wayes they will binde them­selues, not to forgiue. They forbeare not to say, I may forget the wrong, but I will neuer forgiue it. Hereby they prouoke God to keepe their sins in perpetuall memory, and to binde himselfe to execute vengeance on them.

§. 138. Of constant forgiuing.

Q. VVHat other doctrine may bee gathered from the profession of forgiuenesse in the time present?

A. Forgiuenesse must bee a continued act. It must not, so long as we liue, be reckoned among the things vt­terly past, and no more to be performed. The time past hath his date. The time to come may haue no date at all. The time present is alwayes in being. God therefore setteth out his eter­nall being and abiding by the time present, in this Title, I AM THAT I AM.Exod. 3. 14. [...]. LXX. Interpr. Hee therefore that in truth saith, I doe forgiue, must neuer bee of another minde: hee must neuer thinke of recalling what he hath forgiuen, or of waxing wea­rie of forgiuing, though neuer so many wrongs from time to time be offered.Mar. 11. 25. Christ saith, when yee stand praying, for­giue. 1. Thes. 5. 17. And his Apostle saith, Pray continually. If we must pray continually, and praying forgiue, them must we forgiue conti­nually.Math. 18. 22. Where Christ enioyneth to forgiue vnto seuenty times seuen, he intendeth a readinesse to forgiue so oft as wee are wronged,Synecdoche. be we wronged neuer so oft. A set and definite num­ber is put for an indefinite.

Constant continuance in a good thing is that which set­teth the crowne vpon it, and maketh it not to bee in vaine. But intermitting, and omitting that which is well begun, taketh away the glory thereof. Reuenging after-wrongs, pro­uoketh God to passe by without reward or regard our forgi­giuing of former wrongs.

Let vs not therefore bee ouercome of euill: Be not ouer­come of wrong Rom. 12. 21. but rather ouer­come euill with goodnesse. Wee haue need, in regard of that extent of duty here required, to take vnto our selues an in­uincible resolution. For while wee liue in this world, it can­not [Page 172] be but that we shall haue wrongs offered vnto vs. It is not without cause that the Apostle aduiseth to Let patience haue her perfect worke. Iam. 1. 4. The perfect worke of patience consisteth, as in the truth of it, whereby it is sound, not fained, so in the extent of it, that it reach to all kinds of wrongs and offences, and in the continuance of it, that it endure to the end. The [...]. notation of the word which the Apostle vseth, implyeth this last branch of perfection, which is a persisting to the end, euen to the end of this mortall life wherein wee shall haue vse and need of exerci­sing this duty of forgiuenesse. We may not therefore so much consider what wrongs and offences we haue forgiuen, as how many more we may hereafter take occasion to forgiue: that by our continuall practise of this duty, wee may day after day say, I doe forgiue.

Thus much of the Duty required. The Parties tyed thereto, are next to be considered.

§. 139. Of dealing with man, as we desire God should deale with vs.

Q. VVHo are especially tyed to the condition of the fift Petition?

A. They who call God Father, and craue forgiuenesse of him. For this Particle WEE in the condition, and the Particles OVR, VS, in the Preface, and in the Petitions, are all of the same Number and Person, and haue a mutuall reference to the same persons.

Q. What doctrine hence ariseth?

A. Saints that craue and expect mercy of God are most bound to shew mercy to man. This did the Lord presse vpon his ser­uant thus, I forgaue thee all thy debt because thou desiredst mee: shouldest not thou also haue had compassion on thy fellow-seruant, euen as I had compassion on thee? This also doth the Apostle espe­cially presse vpon Professors, Ephes. 4. 4, 5, 6. as these Reasons shew, There is one body, and one Spirit, euen as yee are called in one hope of your Calling: One Lord: one Faith: one Baptisme: one God and Fa­ther of all.

By the mercy which Saints, that craue and expect mercy [Page 173] from God, shew, both God that forgiueth them, and Christ, for whose sake God forgiueth them, are most glorified. The Gospell also and their profession thereof, are most graced, and honoured thereby; yea and the mouthes of such enemies as watch for oc­casions to disgrace professors of the Gospell, are stopped. Fi­nally the mutuall good of the members of Gods Churches is hereby much promoted.

What great and iust cause of complaint is in these respects giuen,Quarrels of Professors. by reason of the teachy, wrathfull, reuengefull disposi­tion of many that in profession of Religion are very forward. Of those who in outward profession make their houses Gods Churches by the dayly exercises of piety therein,This complaint against quarrels of Professors is not made as an inuectiue a­gainst professi­on, but against such as abuse profession, and made it a cloak to [...]ouer their hypocrisie. constantly of­fering vp their morning and euening spirituall sacrifices, who also by frequenting the house of publike prayer, the ministerie of the Word, the Lords Table, and other seruices of God, make great shew of much piety, haue the name of Saints, and seeme to expect much mercy from the Lord, of those, I say, there be many who are full of enuy, wrath and reuenge, very quarrellous and contentious, ready to arrest, to bind to the Peace and good behauiour, to cast into Prison, to commence suites in Law, and enter actions of trespasse of defamation, and of other like pet­tie matters vpon very sleight occasions. The Prophet foretold the Wolfe should dwell with the Lambe, Isa. 11. 6. and the Leopard lie d [...]wne with the Kid, &c. But now such as professe themselues to bee Lambs, and Kids of Christs flocke can scarce dwell quietly one by another. Many Professors are as very fire-brands as any o­ther.Iam. 1. 27. Surely their profession and religion is vaine. They mocke God, they deceiue man, they lie against their conscience, when they say, We forgiue. Their sinne is the greater, in that thereby they open the mouthes of prophane persons against the Gospell of Christ, and a profession thereof.

Let vs who call God, Father, who craue, who expect mercie of God, learne with what mind to do it: namely, with a mind ready and willing to do for others what we desire to be done for vs. Lift vp pure hands without wrath,, thou that desirest God to turne away his wrath from thee. Shew mercie thou that crauest mercie of God. Be bountifull, thou that lon­gest to taste of the sweetnesse of Gods bountie. Forbeare thy [Page 174] brother, thou that wouldest haue God forbeare thee. So deale in euery other respect, as thou prayest God to deale with thee. This is acceptable to God. This well becommeth thy profes­sion. This will bring much comfort to thy soule. Thus shall not thy prayer be made in vaine.

The Dutie and Parties most bound thereto being declared, The Persons to whom the dutie is to bee performed are to bee set out.

§. 140. Of the seuerall kinds of debts whereby we become debters to man.

Q. VVHo are meant by DEBTERS?

A. Such as any way wrong man. For the Apostle ioyneth together these two phrases, Philem. v. 18. [...]. wronged, endebted. So many wayes as one wrongeth another, he becometh a debter to him. But one may wrong another (ac­cording to those seuerall, distinct heads of duties which the law enioyneth to bee performed to our neighbours) fiue waies.

1. In his place or dignitie. HereinNumb. 12. 2. Aaron and Miriam, —16. 3. Corah, Dathan and Abiram became Debters to Moses. They spake against that authoritie, eminencie, and dignitie which God had giuen him.

2. In his Person or life. Herein1. Sam. 19. 10, 11. &c. Saul became a debter to Da­uid by persecuting his person, and seeking to take away his life. Herein alsoActs 2. 23. the Iewes were debters to Christ.

3. In his chastitie. Herein1. Sam. 25. 44 Phalti and Michal became deb­ters to Dauid, in that (2. Sam. 3. 14. Michal being Dauids wife) they two as man and wife liued, and kept, companie together.

4. In his goods. Herein Onesimus became a debter to Philemon, by running from him, and purloyning his goods, which moued Saint Paul to say,Philem. v. 18. If he haue wronged thee, or oweth thee ought, &c.

5. In his good name. Herein2. Sam. 16. 7, 8. Shemei became a debter to Da­uid, by reproaching him, and calling him a man of bloud, a man of Beliall.

All these wrongs hath God expresly forbidden in his Law: [Page 175] so as they are double debts. One as transgressions against God. The other as iniuries against men. The later of these kinds of debts is here meant in this condition. Of that kind are all the forenamed instances.

§. 141. Of making satisfaction for wrongs done to man.

Q. VVHat doctrine doth this title DEBTERS applyed to wrongs do [...]e to men, imply?

A. Wrong doers must make satisfaction for the wrong which they do. Euery wrong is a debt. But a debt must be satisfied, according to this chargeRom. 13. 8. Owe nothing to any man. Leu. 6. 2 &c. Numb. 5. 7. God gaue to the Israelites an expresse law for restitution or sa­tisfaction of that wherein one had wronged another.

By satisfaction, as by a plaister, the wound which is made is healed, and so wrong becometh to be as no wrong.

The truth of repentance for the wrong which is done, is also manifested by satisfaction.Luke 19. 8. Zaccheus hereby gaue euidēce of his vnfeigned repentance. Were it possible to make satisfaction for the debts wherein we stand bound to God, we ought to do it. But because by reason of the infinitenesse of that debt wee are not in any sort able to satisfie it, Christ, who is able, hath vnder­taken it. He is become our Suretie, He hath discharged our debt. So as in regard of our debts to God, all that is expected of vs for satisfaction thereof, is by a true faith to apply the satis­faction of Christ. But because wee may be profitable to man, & may make some recompence for that wrong we haue done to him, we ought in this case to do to the vttermost of our power what we can.Pollicetur sibi magnae [...]wrae fore vt omnia ciuita­tibus quae cuius (que), fuissent restitue­rentur. Cic. in Ver. Aut vim fieri vetat, aut restitui factam iubet? Idem pro Cecin. He that is carefull to make satisfaction, sheweth that he is sensible of the wrong he hath done, and would if it were possible, that it had not bene done: which implyeth a pe­nitent heart.

Besides, common iustice and equitie requireth satisfaction in what we are able. The heathen by the light of nature well discerned as much; and haue giuen many good directions there­about. What a shame would it be for them that haue the light of the Gospell added to that light of nature, more to liue in [Page 176] darknesse, and more to loue the workes of darknesse, then they did?

Obiect. They to whom men are indebted must forgiue their debters. Why then should debters thinke of restitution or satis­faction?

Answ. 1. That dutie of forgiuenesse is required in case that a debter cannot through disabilitie, or will not through obsti­nacy make satisfaction. But it giueth no libertie to him that is able, to bee willfull in refusing to do what hee is bound to do.

2. Gods requiring mercie of one, doth not iustifie iniustice and iniurie in another.

Wherefore let euery one looke to that especially which be­longeth to him:Redresse wrong and obserue wherein he hath wronged ano­ther, to do him the best right that he can: and that according to the wrong which hee hath done. If it be a wrong knowne, humbly to acknowledge the same to the partie wronged. If an inferiour haue wronged his superiour by any disloyaltie, let him bee the more loyall for the time to come. If one vnder subiection haue bene rebellious, let him be the more submissiue and obedient. If one who owed seruice to ano­ther haue bene negligent or carelesse in his businesse, let him be the more industrious and diligent. Let him that hath any way dealt vnmercifully with another, take all occasions to shew the more mercie to him. He that hath any way defrauded another, let him to his vttermost power make full re­stitution. He that hath impeached the good name or credit of another, let him endeauour to right him whom he hath discre­dited, in his reputation. And so in other wrongs. Thus will there be an healing of the wounds that haue bene made. And this is fruite worthie of repentance, Math. 3. 8. which we are commanded to bring forth. Note this all ye that by word or deed haue offen­ded any. Adde not obstinacie to iniurie. Persist not in wrong. That is to make the sinne out of measure sinfull. To your sinne your iudgement shall be answerable.

As for such, as hauing done wrong refuse reconciliation when it is offered, surely they haue a diuellish spirit. Such were they of whom the Psalmist thus complaineth,Psal. 120. 6, 7. My soule hath long dwelt [Page 177] with him that hateth peace. I am for peace, but when I speake, they are for warre. These are fire-brands in the societies where they are. More fit to liue in hell among diuels, then on earth among men.

§. 142. Of departing from our right.

Q. WHat other doctrine may bee gathered from this meta­phor DEBTERS in relation to the dutie of for­giuing?

A. To forgiue we must part with our right. For a debter to pay what he oweth is a right, due to the creditor. But a debter must be forgiuen. This cannot be, except the Creditor let go his right: and forbeare to exact that, which, were it not for this du­tie of forgiuing, he might exact. Saul hauing shewed himselfe a profest mortall enemie against Dauid, acknowledged, that Dauid, when he had him in his power, might haue killed him: so as in sparing him, Saul acknowledged that Dauid departed from his right.1. Sam. 24. 18, 19. Thou hast shewed this day (saith Saul to Dauid) how thou hast dealt well with me: forasmuch as when the Lord had de­liuered me into thine hand, thou killedst me not. For if a man find his enemie, will he let him go well away? The truth is, that Dauid was by all law bound to spare Sauls life, and to forbeare all re­uenge against his person, because he was with his Soueraigne: which1. Sam. 24. 5, 6. Dauid well knew, and accordingly hee professed as much: but—18, 19. in Sauls opinion he departed from his right: which he did in truth in2. Sam. 19. 22, 23. Shemeis case. We haue a worthy patterne for departing from ones right for peace sake in theMat. 17. 26. 27 example of Christ, who though hee were able to proue that hee was not bound to pay tribute, yet payd it. So1. Cor. 9. 15. S. Paul did forbeare to ex­act that of the Churches which he might haue done.

If a man haue no right to exact that which he seemeth to forgiue, his forgiuenesse is no forgiuenesse. It is no worke of mercie.

The common practise of men,Vttermost of right not al­waies to bee stood vpon. in standing to the vttermost for their right, cannot stand with the equitie of that which is here professed, We forgiue our debters. In all manner of wrongs to a mans place, person, chastetie, goods, or good name, there is a kind of right for a man to take reuenge, and such a right, as [Page 178] it may be, is not condemned, but rather iustified by mans law. What kind of debt then can be forgiuen, if that, which may bee thought mans right, be exacted to the vttermost? Quarrels, con­tentions, needlesse but harmefull suites in Law, disturbances of peace, and other mischiefes for the most part arise from mens ouerstrict standing to that which they conceiue to be their right, from which they will not yeald one heires breadth. If the Law giue a man aduantage against his neighbour for a reproachfull word, for a sudden though light blow, for a trespasse on his Land, for any forfeiture, or the like, that aduantage is taken by many: and therein they thinke they do what they may do: and yet for all that, therein they may do much wrong: for oft times Extreame right is extreame rigour. Summum ius summa iniuria. Learne wee more to weigh what Christian equitie and charitie requireth vs, then what conceipt of our owne right, or extremitie of humane Law may egge vs on to do. Thus will peace, vnitie, amitie, and charitie be preserued and contiuned among men.

§. 143. Of forgiuing all sorts of Debters.

Q. VVHat doctrine doth the expressing of Debters in the plurall number import?

A. All sorts of Debters must be forgiuen. The Debters here haue no limitation. Forgiuenesse therefore must haue no restraint. Whosoeuer do offend, friend or foe, neighbour or stranger, great or meane, rich or poore, inferiour or superi­our: In whatsoeuer any do offend and wrong vs, in our place, person, chastitie, goods, or good name: yea if one man shall in many offences, or oft in one offence become a debter, and in that respect be as many debters: forgiuenesse in all these, and in all other like cases must be granted.Philem. v. 17. S. Paul requireth Phile­mon to forgiue his inferiour, his seruant.1. Sam. 24. 7. Dauid forgaue his su­periour, his Soueraigne.Num. 12. 2, 13. Moses forgaue the wrong done to his place and dignitie.Act. 7. 60. Stephen forgaue the wrong done to his per­son and life. Dauid forgaue the wrong done to his2. Sam 3. 14. chastitie and to his—19. 23. good name. The forenamed wrong which Philemon was required to forgiue was in goods. Many, many were the wrongs [Page 179] which the Priests, Scribes, Pharises, and other Iewes did to Christ, yetLuke 23 34. he forgaue them all.

Mercie hath no stint set vnto it. It is as a springing fountaine which can neuer be dried vp. Though neuer so much be fetched from it continually, yet it euer remaineth full.1 Cor. 13. 4, 7. Charitie is boun­tifull, it beareth all things, [...]. beleeueth all things, hopeth all things, endu­reth all things. Forgiuenesse therefore, being a worke of mercy and charitie, is of the same nature and condition.

As for the kind of debts, the greater they be, or the more it goeth (as we speake) against the haire, against our corrupt dispo­sition to forgiue them, the greater is our glorie in forgiuing them. To forgiue a small debt, a small wrong, is scarce thanks-worthy. He is worse then a sauage that can passe by nothing.

Hereby further triall may be made of the truth of forgiue­nesse,Triall of true forgiuenesse. whether it flow from the forenamed fountaine of mercie and charitie, or be forced, and performed on bie respects. If it extend it selfe onely to some Debters (whom for kindred or friendship sake, or for hope of recompence, or for feare of grea­ter mischiefe, or for some other like bie respects we are willing to forgiue) and not to all sorts of debters: or to small debts and wrongs (the forgiuing whereof is scarce thanks-worthie) or otherwise if it be drawne drie by the multiplication of debts: and after some debts forgiuen it be no more to be found, surely it is not true forgiuenesse: it floweth not from the right foun­taine and head. By this note of tryall may many be found faul­tie in the condition here required: the extent whereof as it is to be applyed to enemies who most incense the wrath of man: so to neighbours, who, by reason of the many occasions of of­fence through their continuall commerce, do most often pro­uoke: yea and to friends also, from whom offences are most vnkindly taken. All must be forgiuen.

After the Dutie required, the Persons tied thereto, and the Parties to whom it is to be performed, The Pestraint thereof in this word OVR followeth to be handled.

§. 144. Of forgiuing our owne Debters.

Q. VVHy is this particle of restraint, OVR, applyed to those Debters whom we must forgiue?

A. 1. To distinguish them from Gods Debters.

2. To distinguish them from other mens Debters?

Q. What doctrine ariseth from this restraint?

A. Euery one must meddle with his owne debts. Luke 11. 4. Saint Luke maketh this doctrine most cleare,Securus huius o­rationis fiducia de suis admissis veniam postula­bit, quisquis re missus erga suos duntaxat, non erga domini sui extiterit debito res. Abb. Isaac de Orat. cap. 21. by shewing who are our debters, namely, Euery one that is indebted to Vs. He saith To vs, not to others. Duely weigh all the places where this duty of forgi­uing is pressed on man, and you shall find it limited with this restraint. Gods word layeth no charge on man either to forgiue Gods debts, or other mens debts.

True mercie, charitie, patience, and wisedome, is exercised in forgiuing our owne debts onely: and thereby are these vertues best discerned to be sound and good.

It is intolerable presumption for man to take vpon him to forgiue Gods debts, which are sinnes: as we haue§. 126. before no­ted. One man may pray to God for such as sinne (asActs 7. 60. Stephen did) that God would not lay their sinne to their charge: and by that meanesIam. 5. 15. sinne may be forgiuen: but no man can himselfe actually forgiue any sinne.

1. Obiect.2. Sam. 12. 13. Nathan forgaue Dauids sinne.

Answ. He onely pronounced remission of his sinne in the name of the Lord. His words are expresse, The Lord hath put away thy sinne.

2. Obiect. Ioh. 20. 23. Christ giueth power to his Apostles to forgiue sinnes.

Answ. He giueth not them power actually of themselues or in their owne name to forgiue: but to declare, to apply in par­ticular, and to assure the conscience of the penitent beleeuer that God hath forgiuen him his sinnes.

As for other mens Debters,A point of folly to discharge o­ther mens debts it is the part of a busie-bodie to vndertake the forgiuing of them. Such remission may be an oc­casion of much contention, and thereby a man may bring him­selfe into needlesse danger.Pro. 26. 17. He that passeth bie, and medleth with [Page 181] strife that belongeth not to him, is like one that taketh a dogge by the eares. What getteth such an one but a snap for his paines: Well therefore doth the Wise-man brand him for a foole that medleth, Prou. 20. 3. namely with other mens matters.

It is further a note of hypocrisie for a man to bee forward,A note of hypo­crisie to stir vp others to for­giue what they themselues for­giue not. and earnest in pressing other men to forgiue their debters, and yet is himselfe hard-hearted to his owne debters. They are in some respects like to those notorious hypocrites, that laid such burdens on other mens shoulders, as they themselues would not moue with one of their fingers. Math. 23. 4. The hard-heartednesse of these men to their owne debters is so much the more offensiue, and inexcu­sable, by how much the more earnest they are with others to forgiue.Rom. 2. 21, 22, &c. The Apostles seuere exprobration against such as did not themselues practise that which they taught others, may fit­ly be applyed to these hypocrites.

The last point obseruable in the condition annexed to the Fift Petition is the note of Resemblance, As, which remai­neth to be handled.

§. 145. Of the force of this Particle As in the condition annexed to the fift Petition.

Q. VVHat doth this Particle, As, import, whereby the condition is limited to the Petition?

A. A resemblance betwixt Gods dealing with vs, and our dealing with others. This resemblance consisteth not in equality, quantity, or measure; but in equity, quality and manner: that as God according to his surpassing greatnesse is mercifull, so wee according to our poore and meane ability should also be mer­cifull, though not in such a degree, yet in such truth, and that freely and fully, as God forgiueth,

This note of resemblance therefore,Difference be­twixt the resem­blances in the third and fift Petitions. is not here vsed as it was in the third Petition. For

1. There that from whence the resemblance is taken is more eminent. Here much meaner. It is there taken from those that are in heauen. But here from vs on earth.

2. There it noteth a patterne for doing. Here, an euidence of doing.

3. There it is vsed for direction, to shew what wee should [Page 182] doe. Here for imitation, to declare what we endeuour to doe.

Q. Doth not the manner of setting downe this resemblance by way of condition, import that our forgiuing goeth before Gods?

A. No. For it hath relation to our assurance of Gods forgi­uing vs, not to the act of forgiuing, as it is in God himselfe: as if more amply we should say, Lord, by that readinesse which thy Spirit hath wrought in vs to forgiue our debters, wee haue an eui­dence of thy readinesse to forgiue vs, in faith therefore we craue for­giuenesse of thee. After this manner reasoneth the Apostle in these words,1. Ioh. 4. 13. Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and hee in vs, because he hath giuen vs of hit Spirit.

To forgiue our brother is a fruit of brotherly loue. Brother­ly loue sprouteth from our loue of God.1. Ioh. 4. 19. But wee loue God, be­cause he loued vs first. Gods loue therefore goeth before our loue. And God forgiueth vs, before wee forgiue our brother. But as the life of a tree which causeth the fruit thereof, is dis­cerned by the fruit, so Gods loue in forgiuing vs, which causeth vs to forgiue our brother, is by our forgiuing of our brother dis­cerned, and thereby also we come to haue assurance thereof.

Obiect. Saint Luke setteth downe this clause, with a cau­sall Particle,Luke 11. 4. thus, For we also forgiue, &c. whereby he implyeth that our forgiuing one another is a cause that moueth God to forgiue vs. [...]. And if it be a cause it must needs goe before. For the cause is before the effect, at least, in order of nature.

Answ. That Particle FOR doth not alwayes note the cause, but many times the effect, especially when the effect is a signe and euidence of the cause.Luk. 7. 47. As, where Christ said of that deepe­ly penitent women, Her sinnes which are many are forgiuen, for she loued much. That her loue is there noted as an effect of Gods forgiuing her is euident by the question going before,Luk. 7. 41, 42, 43 and the answer made thereto. The question was this, A Creditor had two debters: the one owed fiue hundred pence, and the other fifty: And when they had nothing to pay, he frankely forgaue them both. Tell me, which of them will loue him most? The answer was this, He to whom he forgaue most. Is not loue in this question and an­swer, expressely noted to be the effect of forgiuenesse? In the same sence, respect and relation is loue, vsed in this application of that Parable, Her sinnes which are many are forgiuen, for she [Page 183] loued much: Her much loue declareth that many sinnes are forgiuen her. Thus is this Particle FOR ordinarily vsed as a note of the effect or signe in our common speech: As when we say, There is fire, for I see smoake. This tree hath life, for it sprouteth. The Sunne is risen, for behold sunshine.

§. 146. Of true and vnfained forgiuing one another.

Q. WHat doctrines doth the resemblance betwixt Gods for­giuing and ours import?

A. 1 We must in truth forgiue one another. Thus doth God: thus may we forgiue. Thus, as we may, must wee bee like vnto God, and forgiue, as he forgiueth. If we doe not so, we lye in saying, Forgiue vs As we forgiue. Wee are expressely charged, 1. Ioh. 3. 18. [...] not to loue in word, or in tongue, but in deed, and truth. But more particularly for this purpose,Mat. 18 35. [...] Christ expressely noteth that forgiuenesse must be from the hearts of men.

Of the bene­fit of truth, see The whole Ar­mour of God, in Ephes. 6. 14. Treat. 2. part. 3. §. 9. Truth is a kinde of perfection in this and all other duties: the best and greatest perfection that in this world wee can at­taine vnto. It seasoneth and sweetneth that little that we are able to doe, and maketh it acceptable to God: without this sea­son and fauour of truth all the shew of forgiuenesse which we make, is odious and detestable vnto God: neither can it bring any comfort to our owne soules.Dimittite vbi Deus videt. Ali quando enim ho­mo dimittit ore, & tenet in cor­de: dimittit ore propter homines, & tenet in corde. Non times oculos Dei? Aug. Hom. 42. in l. 50. Hom. God is a searcher of the heart. He that would haue his forgiuenesse acceptable to God, must from the heart forgiue.Discouetie of counterfeit forgiuenesse. 1. When it is mixed with de­sire of reuenge. He that forgiueth with his tongue that which hee retaineth in his heart, forgiueth for mans sake, but respecteth not God.

How many be there, whose forgiuenesse if it be tryed by this Touch-stone of truth, will be found to bee plaine counterfeit, and so nothing worth? Counterfeit forgiuenesse is farre vnlike Gods. It cannot be pleaded in prayer: nor can it giue assurance of Gods forgiuing vs. Yet the forgiuenesse of most is no better.

Some thinke they doe very well, if they forbeare to take out­ward reuenge, though they retaine an inward grudge, and se­cret hatred. This may be something to man, who knoweth not the thoughts of the heart: but to God, the searcher of hearts, it is as nothing. And if as nothing to him, to whom (if to any) it [Page 184] is pleaded in prayer,Sunt aliqui sic donantes iniuri­am, vt non vlcis­cantur, sapius tamen imprope­rent. Sunt & alij, qui, sileant licet, manet tamen al­ta mente re­posta, & ranco­rem tenent in animo: quorum vtique neutra plena indulgentia est. Bern. de Euang. Sept. pan. Serm. 3 in what stead will it stand? Surely in no other stead, then to bee as a witnesse against him, at the iudge­ment seat of God. For when a man outwardly restraineth that which inwardly he retaineth, his outward forbearance shew­eth, that in his iudgement he disallowerh that which he keepeth in his heart. Thus hee is made a witnesse against himselfe. Is not his secret corruption the more aggrauated hereby? and shall not his condemnation be the more encreased?

Yet greater shall their condemnation be, who carie a faire face, and make shew of forgiuenesse, when they retaine a full purpose of taking reuenge, onely they put it off to some oppor­tunitie: asGen. 27. 41. Esau put off the reuenge hee intended against his brother, till the death of their father. This putting off of re­uenge till an opportunitie, sheweth that it is no small reuenge which they intend,2. When re­uenge is put off to a fitter time. as appeareth by that which Esau said, then will I slay my Brother: and it implyeth a setled resolution to doe it, though for a time there bee something that hindereth them. What is this but setled anger, setled hatred, setled malice? By these circumstances is the sinne made much more hainous.

But what may be thought of them,3. When a shew of forgiuenesse is made a means of reuenge. who make pretence of forgiuing to be a meanes of taking reuenge: as Ioab did,2. Sam. 3. 27. when hee tooke Abner aside to speake with him quietly, and smote him vnder the fift rib: and2. Sam. 20. 9, 10. when he tooke Amasa by the beard to kisse him, and shed out his bowels. And as2. Sam. 13. 26, 28. Absolon did, who inui­ted Amnon to a Feast where he caused him to be slaine. If such should vse this Petition, they would thereby make a fearfull imprecation against their owne soules. A meere shew of for­giuenesse without truth, doth make God to take the greater reuenge of them. Let men therefore forgiue in truth, as God doth, or not seeme to forgiue at all.

§. 147. Of forgiuing one another freely.

Q. VVHat other doctrine doth the resemblance betwixt Gods forgiuing, and ours, import?

A. We must freely forgiue one another. The word forgiue applyed to God, implyeth as much. We therefore professing to forgiue As God forgiueth, must forgiue freely, [Page 185] not on bie-respects, not as forced, not for outward recompence, or aduantage to our selues, but for the Lords sake, for loues sake, and for his sake whom we doe forgiue. Where the Apo­stle before this duty of forgiuenesse premiseth kindnesse and ten­dernesse, Ephes. 4. 32. saying, Be kinde one to another and tender-hearted, for­giuing one another, hee giueth vs to vnderstand that it must be freely done: which is further enforced by the patterne of God that he setteth before vs, in these words, Euen as God for Christs sake forgaue you. That which God doth for Christs sake, he doth most freely. This pattern the Apostle himselfe exactly followed. For where he maketh mention of his own forgiuing another, he saith,2. Cor. 2. 10. [...]. I forgaue in the person, or in the sight of Christ, that is, freely, heartily, approuing my selfe to Christ therein, in whose pre­sence I stood.

A kindnesse freely done is a double kindnesse. Much more acceptable to God,2, Cor. 9. 7. who loueth him that doth what hee doth cheerefully and willingly: and much more gratefull to him, to whom it is done.Prou. 22, 9. He that hath a good eye, and thereby mani­festeth willingnesse, and cheerefulnesse in that good which hee doth,Prou. 23. 6, 8. shall be blessed. But a man of an euill eye, maketh the good which he doth to be vomited vp.

That in this particular we may indeed doe as we professe to doe,Motiues freely to forgiue one another. that is, freely forgiue others, as God doth freely forgiue vs, let vs duely weigh the excellency of the patterne here set before vs, the great difference betwixt a free and forced kindnesse, the glory of this kinde of forgiuing (the more free it is the more diuine it is) the great need wherein wee stand of a free forgiue­nesse (did not God freely forgiue vs, we could looke for no for­giuenesse at all) and the great benefit that thereby redoundeth to vs: for that which is freely done bringeth much comfort to the soule of him that doth it, makes other men the more to commend it, and moues God the more graciously to accept it, and the more aboundantly to reward,Offer forgiue­nesse. and recompence it.

To shew how ready we are freely for the Lords sake, for con­science sake, Seeke recon­ciliation. not on bie-respects, to forgiue, hauing to doe with such wrong doers as are stout, and will not aske forgiuenesse nor seek reconciliation, we, euen we that haue receiued wrong, must offer it, asGal. 4. 12, &c Saint Paul did to the Galatians: and1. Sa 24. 9, &c.—26. 18, &c. Dauid [Page 186] to Saul. The phrases of1, Pet. 3. 11. seeking andHeb. 12. 14. pursuing peace, imply as much. We seeke things that are not offered to vs: and we pur­sue things that fly from vs. The Apostle presseth this duty on vs to the very vttermost of our endeuour.Rom. 12. 18. If it be possible, saith he: as much as in you lyeth liue peaceably with all men. 2. Cor. 5. 20. God of­fers reconciliation to vs, and beseecheth vs by his Ministers to be reconciled to him. If therefore we will be followers of God, and forgiue as God forgiueth, Wee must not alwayes stay till he who hath done the wrong commeth & asketh forgiuenesse: thus may we meet with such as we shall neuer forgiue, and so depriue our selues of the glory of this worke of mercy

§. 148. Of a full forgiuing one another.

Q. WHat third doctrine doth the resemblance betwixt Gods forgiuing, and ours import?

A. Wrongs must be so passed ouer as if they had not been done. This is a full forgiuenesse, answerable to Gods: who so fully acquit­teth vs of our sinnes as if we had committed to sinne at all. Our forgiuenesse therefore, by vertue of the foresaid resemblance must extend it selfe not to some part onely, but to the whole debt or wrong, and that with such a minde, as if no debt had been due, no wrong done. Where the Apostle, to them, that by starting from the Gospell which he had taught, had exceeding­ly wronged his Ministery,Gal▪ 4. 12. saith, Brethren, I beseech you, bee as I am, for I am as ye are, ye haue not iniured me at all, doth he not fully forgiue the wrong, euen so fully, as if at all they had not wronged him. Thus much doth the same Apostle require of Philemon, Philem. ver. 6. in regard of the wrong which his seruant Onesimus had done him.Gen. 50. 17, 21. So did Ioseph and Moses passe ouer the offences of their brethren.Numb. 12. 13. They did so accept and esteeme them, as if they had done no wrong at all.

Q. What if by the wrong a man doth me, I obserue such infirmi­tie, yea and iniquitie to be in him,Direction for cariage of our selues to wrong­doets. as by experience I finde him to bee a farre other man then at first I supposed him to bee, ought I not­withstanding to make such account of him as I did before?

A. Wee must put difference betwixt a wrong done vpon such an occasion as may afterwards be auoided, and that which [Page 187] is done vpon an euill disposition, which remaining in a man, may be a meanes to make him continue to doe more and more wrongs. The wrong of the former must be so forgiuen, as the wrong doer be so accepted as if he had done no wrong at all. As for the latter, we are to try if he may be brought to sight of his euill disposition, and to repentance for the same. If he be, then ought we to esteeme him as if hee neuer had done vs any hurt. But if obstinately he persist in that euill disposition, and be like, on all occasions, againe and againe to wrong vs, though we doe, as we ought, fully forgiue all the wrongs done, and neither take any present reuenge, nor keepe them in mind and memory for any future reuenge, yet may we in our iudgement esteeme him to be such an one as wee finde him to be.Isa. 5. 20. (Woe to them that call euil good: that put light for darknesse, and sweet for bitter.) For example, if I finde one of whom I haue had a very good account, and thereupon vsed him very familiarly, to haue no command of his tongue, but on all occasions to be ready to blab out, and blaze abroad whatsoeuer hee seeth or heareth, if therein hee haue wronged mee, I may forbeare to vse him so familiarly as I did before, and take heed what secrets I communicate to him, though I fully forgiue the wrong that is past. Or if I haue accounted one to be an intire friend to mee, but by experience finde him to bee hol­low-hearted, and maliciously minded against mee, I ought wisely and warily to auoid his societie, and to take heed of the snares which he layeth for me.1. Sam. 19. 20. (For which wee haue the pat­terne of Dauid, Ioh. 2. 24. and Christ) yet so to passe by the wrongs done as if none had been done.

For attaining to this degree of forgiuenesse,Direction for manifestation of forgiuenesse that our for­giuing may be, as Gods, full.

1. Reuenge must be purged out of the heart. The heart is the fountaine. If that bee cleansed the streames will bee cleare.

2. Wrong must bee put out of minde and memory so farre as possibly can be. Things forgotten are as things not done.

3. No needfull kindnesse must bee denied to him that hath wronged vs.

[Page 188] 4. Occasions of doing good to wrong doers must not one­ly bee taken, but sought. Readinesse and willingnesse to doe all offices of courtesie and charitie to such as are ready to doe all the mischiefe and iniurie that they can vnto vs, shew­eth that no reuenge lurketh in our hearts. Continuall fruits of loue cannot issue out of a reuengefull heart.

The seuerall points of the condition annexed to the fift Petiti­on hauing been distinctly handled, for better clearing there­of, sundry questions about proper debts, sutes in Law, and execution of Iustice are to be resolued.

§. 149. Of requiring proper Debts.

Q. MAy a Christian require debts of money or other like things due to him?

A. He may. For

1. The Law of God giueth liberty to a Creditor to take a pledge of the Debter for securitie of paying the debt:Deut. 24. 10, 11, 12. in case the debter be not very poore, and the Pledge such an one as he cannot spare.

2. Debters are commanded to pay their debts:Rom. 13. 7, 8. Creditors therefore may take them.

3. God did extraordinarily prouide for a poore widdow wherewithall she might pay her debt.2. King. 4. 7. Had it beene vnlawfull for a Creditor to require his debt, God would rather haue prouided meanes to restraine him from exacting the debt, then for her to pay the debt.

Q. How can requiring debts, and forgiuing debters stand to­gether?

A. 1. Forgiuenesse here professed hath respect rather to wrongs done, then to commodities due. The word, Debters, is metaphorically by way of resemblance vsed. For hee that doth wrong, maketh himselfe, as a debter, bound to some penaltie for the wrong hee hath done. Saint Mathew in his exposition of this condition vseth a word which in relation to man,Mat. 16. 14, 15. [...]. signifieth offences, wrongs, or iniuries.

2. It restraineth all reuenge in exacting due debts. What­soeuer wrong wee conceiue to be done vs by not paying the [Page 189] debt must so farre be forborne, as we take no reuenge thereof. We may not hate, reuile, or euilly entreat our debters for not paying their debts.

3. It keepeth our exacting of debts within the compasse of mercie. Which is, that in case the debter be no way able to pay the debt, we rather forgiue it, then by hard and cruell meanes vtterly vndoe him, as by laying executions vpon all he hath, or keeping him vnder perpetuall imprisonment.

Obiect. Luke 6. 35. It is Christs expresse charge to lend hoping for nothing againe. How then may a debt be required, if it may not be loo­ked for againe?

A. 1. That, as other like precepts in Christs Sermon on the Mount, is not simply, but comparatiuely to be taken: that we shold be so farre from the cruell Vsurers mind, who is resolued to haue both principall and interest, or, rather then faile of either, to do what he can in strictest rigour of Law against principall and suretie, we should I say be so farre from such a mind, as not to looke for any thing, no not for the principall againe.

2. That precept is laid downe as a rule of loue: and accor­ding to the rule of loue to be taken. Now loue requireth mer­cie to be shewed to him that needeth. The rule of loue is, on the one side, my brothers necessitie, and on the other, mine owne abi­litie: 1. Iohn. 3. 17. which the Apostle implyeth in this instance, Who so hath this worlds goods (there is a mans abilitie,) and seeth his brother hath need (here is his brothers necessitie.) On this ground when a man lendeth, he must be so mercifully minded, as, if his deb­ter fall into extreme pouertie, and be not able to pay what hee hath borrowed, willingly to remit the whole debt, and in such a case not so much as to looke for any thing againe.

3. Some restraine that generall particle nothing to interest and ouerplus,Sentit, opinor, de f [...]nore quod ex mutu [...] redit. Nam in hunc sensum interpre­tantur veteres. Erasm in Luc. 6. 35. as if he had said, Lend, hoping for nothing aboue the prin­cipall; or for nothing by way of interest. In this sence it maketh not against the forenamed position of requiring a mans due debt:See D. Downam on the 15. Psal. interest being no due debt, but forbidden by Gods word.

§. 150. Of going to Law.

Q. MAy a Christian by Law exact his due debt, in case his debter be able, but wilfull, and refuse to pay it?

A. Yea, he may. For publicke Magistrates and Iudges who haue power to determine cases in Law,Rom. 13. 1. are of God. God hath appointed them, to force such as are wilfull and ob­stinate to do that which is iust and right, and to giue to euerie one his owne: yea and commanded his people in matters of controuersie to stand to the determination of the Iudge.Deut. 17. 8. 9, 10, 11.

Obiect. S. Paul blameth the Corinthians for going to law one with another.1. Cor. 6. 1.

Answ. Going to law is not there simply blamed and forbid­den, but sundry abuses thereof. As,

1. Going to vnfit Iudges (whom the Apostle stileth vniust, Ver. 1, 6. [...]. Ver. 2. [...]. Ver. 5. and vnbeleeuers) and bringing Christians before them.

2. Contending about small matters, and meere trifles: euen about words, and light damages.

3. Too much forwardnesse to Law. When Law is the first remedie that is vsed for getting that which a man conceiues to be his right. Many are so forward, that secretely without any notice giuen to the partie sued, they will steale a iudge­ment.

4. Doing wrong themselues.Ver. 8. Euen they who went to Law were wrong doers, as the Apostle saith, you do wrong. Many which do wrong to others, complaine, and commence suite in Law against those to whom they do the wrong, to colour the wrong which themselues do, and to get aduantage for doing the greater mischiefe,

Q. In what cases may Christians go to Law?

A. 1.Deut. 17. 8. In matters of moment: which are too hard for priuate Christians to decide.

2. When we haue to do with wilfull persons, who will be brought to nothing, but what they are forced vnto. Saint Paul hauing to do with such,Acts 25. 11. was forced to appeale to Caesar.

3. After all priuate meanes that we can thinke of haue bene vsed. So as Law must be vsed in the last place, as the last reme­die. [Page 191] After one hath admonished a brother secretly, yea and ta­ken the helpe of some few friends,Math. 18. 15, 16, 17. and yet he remaineth obsti­nate, Christ aduiseth to tell such as are in autoritie.

Prouided that all suites in Law be made in loue.1. Cor. 16. 14. Let all your things be done in charitie. Many are of opinion that no man can go to Law in charitie. But they are grosly deceiued. For,

1. He that iustly and rightly goeth to Law at least supposeth that he hath right on his side, and that the partie whom hee sueth doeth wrong in that for which he is sued. Now to bring a wrong-doer to do right, is a dutie, and fruite of loue.

2. Suing in Law hath respect onely to that particular thing which is in question. But charitie extends it selfe to all things wherein one may be profitable to another. The man that in one particular seeketh to haue from another that which of right belongeth to himselfe, may in all other things be readie to do what good he can to that other.

3 The manner of prosecuting a sute of Law may be, as with all equitie, so with much tendernesse, mildnesse, and compassi­on and so that very particular be done in loue.

4. In a doubtfull case questioned in Law a man may bee so willing to stand to the sentence of Law, as to bee content either way, whether it goe with him, or against him. Yea if it appeare that right be on his aduersaries side, to bee glad that the Law hath discouered right euen against himselfe. Doth not this shew much loue? Wherefore though by the Apostles prohibi­tion we are taught,1. Cor. 6. 1. &c. as much as may be, to forbeare Law, to suffer some losse, to beare with some wrong, and in some things to part with our right, yet on the forenamed grounds, and with the forenamed prouiso, it is both lawfull and expedient to seeke the helpe of Law: the ends whereof are very good, as, To defend the innocent, to releeue the oppressed, to punish the euill doers, to decide doubts, to determine rights, and to giue eue­rie one their owne.

§. 151. Of Magistrates punishing wrong.

Q. MAy wrong done to a man be punished?

A. Yea, by such as haue authoritie. The Lord hath giuen to Magistrates, and such as are in authoritie, the po­wer which of right belongeth to them for this end,Rom. 13 4. Deut. 25. 1, 2. To punish euill doers. 1. King. 2. 31, 46. They that haue so done haue bene commended for it.1. Sam. 3. 13. They who haue beene negligent therein haue themselues beene punished of God. He to whom the wrong is done may forgiue the wrong done, and yet the Magistrate punish him.

Q. May Magistrates punish wrong done to themselues?

A. Yea also. For the office of a Magistrate may be distin­guished from his person. The wrong is done to his person, the punishment is taken by vertue of his place and office. The wrong for which Salomon commanded Adonijah to be slaine, and Abiathaer to be remoued from the Priesthood was against himselfe:Compare 1. King. 17. &c with King. 2. 24, 26, 31. and the particular occasion which he tooke of putting Ioab to death, was conspiracie with Ado [...]ijah against him­selfe.

Q. How then are Magistrates tied to forgiue their debters?

A. By being restrained from priuate reuenge. In which respect Dauid blesseth God for keeping him from reuenging him­selfe with his owne hand. 1. Sam. 25. 33. We must distinguish betwixt publicke iustice, and priuate reuenge. 1.Deut. 17. 9. That ariseth from iudgement: Gen. 4. 5. this from wrath. 2.2. Cor. 4. 2. That is accompanied with loue:Gen. 27. 41. this with hatred. 3.Rom. 13. 4. That is done in Gods name: this is a mans owne. All priuate reuenge, though no outward hurt, or wrong be done thereby, is a sinne in the reuenging partie because of the inward corruption whence it ariseth. Much hurt may fall on a delinquent by publicke Iustice, and yet no sinne in the ex­ecution thereof, because it may stand with equitie, pitty, mercy, and charity: and it may aime at the good of the partie pu­nished: yea and turne to his good also. A malefactor may be accused, condemned, and punished with stripes, fine, impri­sonment, banishment, excommunication, death, or otherwise, and yet the bonds of mercie and loue not transgressed. Thus may suites of law be made, and willfull or negligent debters [Page 193] cast into prison, as these are parts of publicke iustice, and yet the condition of the fift Petition not be violated, if anger, ha­tred, malice, reuenge and such like corruptions taint not the foresaid execution of Iustice.

The distinct points of the forenamed Condition hauing beene all handled, The maine scope and iust consequence thereof is further to be considered.

§. 152. Of imitating God in forgi­uing wrongs.

Q. VVHy is the Condition annexed to the fift petition?

A. 1.Exemplo ineffa­bilis misericordiae Dei, nos etiam ad dandam peccan­tibus in nos ve­niam cohortatur. Chrys. Hom 20. in Mat. 6. Math. 6. 14, 15. To moue vs to forgiue one another.

2. To giue vs assurance of Gods forgiuing vs.

A strong motiue it must needs be, in that all the euidence that we can haue of Gods mercie in forgiuing vs, ariseth from our readie mind and forward disposition to forgiue others. If we forgiue men, God will forgiue vs. If we forgiue not men, God will not forgiue vs. Our Lord therefore enioyneth vs to make this profession, As we forgiue, that we knowing and be­leeuing Gods indulgencie and readinesse to forgiue vs, might be moued to do the like for others; and might not dare to ap­proach to the mercie Seat of God to craue pardon of him, vn­lesse our conscience can and doe beare witnesse for vs, that we are on all occasions ready to grant pardon to such as wrong vs.

Q. What doctrine doth the first end of the condition added to the fift Petition afford?

A. Gods mercie to man is a forceable motiue for man to shew mercie to man.Gods patterne a weightie mo­tiue. Therefore Gods practise is oft set as a patterne before men. Lege Chrys. loco citato. Forgiue one another as God hath forgiuen you. Be mer­cifull, as your Father is mercifull. Walke in loue, as Christ hath loued vs.Eph. 4. 32. Be followers of God.Luke 6. 36. Be perfect,Eph. 5. 1, 2. as your Father in heauen is per­fect.Mat. 5. 48.

Two especiall things there be in Gods patterne which are of great force to moue vs to imitate him.

1. That infinite difference which is betwixt him and vs.

2. That infinite debt wherein we stand bound to his iustice.

[Page 194] Such is the surpassing excellencie of God,Infinite diffe­rence betwixt God and man. such the bright­nesse of his Maiestie, such the absolute supremacie of his Soue­raigntie, such the omnipotencie of his power, such his all-suffi­ciencie, as man compared to God isGen. 18. 27. but dust and ashes, Iob 40. 4. vile, Reu. 3. 17. wretched and miserable: yeaIsa. 40. 17. All nations before him are as no­thing, and they are counted to him lesse then nothing. What man is, he is of God. God is our Creator, we the worke of his hands. He our Soueraigne,Equalitie be­twixt man and man. we his subiects. Betwixt man and man there is no such difference. All, in relation to God the high Lord, are fellow seruants. Though in a mutuall relation one to another there be some differences, as betwixt Magistrates and Subiects, Maisters and Seruants, Parents and Children, yet are those differences but externall, and temporall. Externall, in the affaires of this world, for outward order and gouernement. (Gal. 3. 28. In Iesus Christ all are one) Temporall, for the time of this world. (After this lifeIob 3. 19. the seruant is free from his Maister. Mat. 22. 30. All are as Angels,) yea all children of Adam, as in the points of their humiliation they are from the same mould, of the same corrupt nature, subiect to the same infirmities, at length brought to the same end, so in the points of their exaltation, they are all (I speakeDe generibus singulorum, non singulis generum. V [...] distinguit August. in E [...] ­chir. c. 103. & de correp. & Grat. c. 14. of the seuerall sorts and kinds of men not of euery particular person) they are all made after the same Image, re­deemed by the same price, partakers of the same grace, and heires of the same inheritance. If then God, the Creator of all, and Supreme Lord ouer all, who standeth in no need of any thing that man can do, nor can reape any benefit from man, who neuer wronged any, nor needeth forgiuenesse, if God for­giue man,Ille qui nihil nos laesit, non vult se vindicare de no­bis: & nos qua­rimus vindicari qui penè quotidie deum offendi­mus? Aug. Hom. 42. in l. 50. Hom. shall not man forgiue man, one creature another, one fellow-seruant another, man who needeth mans helpe, and may reape much good by mutuall agreement and reconciliation with man, who oft wrongeth another, and needeth to be for­giuen of others, shall not man forgiue man, man that daily sinneth against God? As the difference betwixt God in relation to man, and man in relation to other men is beyond compari­son: so also is the debt which man oweth to God, and that which one man oweth to another.Mat. 18. 24, 28. In the Parable the debt due to the Lord is said to be ten thousand Talents: and the debt due to the seruant, an hundred pence. Amongst men some difference [Page 195] there is betwixt Talents and Pence: [...]. Cyril. Catech. myst. 5. and betwixt tenne thousand, and one hundred: so that, as in a Parable, that setteth out a great difference betwixt the debt wherein we stand bound to God, and that which one man oweth to another. And this difference doth much enforce the motiue taken from Gods example. If God forgiue Talents, shall not we forgiue Pence? If God forgiue ten thousand, shall not we forgiue one hundred? But this difference is onely in a Parable. In truth there is infinitly more difference betwixt the sins which we commit against God, and the wrongs which one man doth to another, in weight, then betwixt Talents and Pence: and in number, then betwixt ten thousand and one hun­dred. Our sinnes for weight are infinite, being committed against an infinite Maiestie. The penaltie due to them is Gods infinite wrath, the infinite curse of the Law, eternall damnation. No such wrong can possibly by done to man. As for the number of our sinnes it is innumerable. Psal. 40. 12. They are moe then the haires of our head. No man can do so many wrongs to vs as we doe daily commit sinnes against God. On these and other like grounds might the Lord well say to his hard-hearted seruant,Mat. 18. 32. 33. [...]. I forgaue thee: Shouldest not thou also haue had compassion on thy fellow-seruant, euen as I had pittie on thee? Considering the great things we receiue for small, let vs not be slacke to forgiue one an­other.Cyril. loc. citat. Meditate on Gods patterne.

This patterne of God is duly to be weighed, and oft to be meditated on. Good patternes and presidents as they giue good directions, so they are great incitations, and inducements to stirre vs vp to do a thing: especially when they are the ex­amples of such as we haue iust cause highly to esteeme. Now who is more highly to be esteemed, then God? what more worthy patterne can there be? An high honor it is to be like vn­to God, & to do as he doth. Gods example is a perfect patterne: and in that respect to be followed: yea so much the rather be­cause it taketh away all those pretences which men vse to al­ledge for iustifying their reuenge, and not forgiuing such as wrong them.

Their pretences are such as these.Pretences for reuenge answe­red.

1. He that hath wronged me is a base fellow.

A. What more base to thee, then thou art to God?

[Page 196] 2. The wrong done is vnsufferable.

A. What? more vnsufferable then thy sinnes against God?

3. It is not the first time that he hath wronged me.

A. Diddest thou neuer but once sinne against God?

4. He may wrong me againe and againe if I put it vp?

A. Why doest thou thinke so vncharitably of thy brother? But maist thou not sinne againe and againe against God?

5. It beseemeth not my place and honour to put vp wrongs.Quid aduersus cum tantopere iracundia effer­uescis, si quis negligentior, &c. quum te ipsum inspicere oporteat qualis tu aduer­sus Dominum fueris. Greg. Nyss. lib. de Orat.

A. Is thy place and honour greater then Gods?

6. I shall be counted a Coward if I reuenge not wrongs.

A. Is God so accounted for bearing with sinnes?

If God do thus, why art thou so much incensed with wrath, when any doth any wrong to thee? Thou shouldest rather be­hold thy selfe, how thou hast carried thy selfe against God. If any thing will make thee forgiue, surely this will.

§. 153. Of praying without reuenge: and of praying for reuenge.

Q. VVHat other doctrine doth the said end of the condition added to the Fift Petition import?

A. Prayer may not bee made for pardon, with a reuengefull minde. For we are bound to make profession of forgiuing our debters, so oft as we pray for pardon of our sinnes. The charge of lifting vp pure hands without wrath tendeth to this purpose.1. Tim. 2. 8. So doth also the charge of leauing the gift before the Altar, and being first reconciled, Math. 5. 23, 24. if we remember that our brother hath ought against vs. [...]. Act. 24. 20. [...]. This phrase, hath ought against thee, is a Law terme, and implyeth a sute in Law, or a difference. So is it vsed by Saint Paul in his Apologie before Felix. They ought to haue beene heere before thee, and obiect, if they had ought a­gainst mee. So as the reconciliation required, is in a variance, whether we haue done, or receiued wrong. Satisfaction must be made for the wrong which a man doth. Remission must be granted to the wrong which is done to a man. He that refu­seth to doe the one or the other, if he say the Lords Prayer, maketh a fearfull imprecation against himselfe, as wee shall [Page 197] §. 155. Sacrificium De­us non recipit. d [...]ssidentis. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 18. hereafter more distinctly shew. Let not therefore that man thinke that he shall receiue any thing of the Lord. The God of peace accepteth not the sacrifice of him that is at va­riance.

Obiect. Is prayer then to be omitted when by a wrong done passion is moued.

Answ. A double sin would so be committed. One by omit­ting a bounden dutie. The other by persisting in an hatefull sin. The onely warrantable and comfortable course in that case, is to subdue passion, to cast off desire of Reuenge. Breach of chari­tie, giueth no dispensation for neglect of piety. Christs charge is this,Mat. 5. 24. Iubot prius con cordare cum fratre, tunc cum pace redeuntem Deo munus of­ferre. Cypr. de vnitat. Eccl. §. 11 First be reconciled, then come and offer thy gift. Let this bee well noted of such as forbeare to come to the Lords Ta­ble because they are not in Charitie. An vnchristian practise.

On this ground, as at all times, so especially when we draw neare to the Throne of Grace, wee ought to keepe a narrow watch, that anger, wrath, enuie, malice, reuenge enter not into vs. Yea then especially we ought thorowly to sift, search, and examine our selues, whether those or any other like euill qua­lities haue been bred in vs, or haue entred into vs, and still re­maine lurking in vs. First purge them out before thou prayest.O [...]e. 6. 6. Ad sacrificium cum dissentione venientem Deus re [...]ocat ab altari, &c. Cypr. Loc. citat. God preferreth mercy before sacrifice. Him that commeth to offer a sacrifice being at variance, God calleth from his Altar.Isa. 58. 4, 5. Them that fast for strife and debate God regar­deth not:—1. 15. neither will hee heare the many prayers of them whose hands are full of bloud. Iam. 1. 20. For the wrath of man worketh not the righteousnesse of God.

What now may wee say or thinke of such asSee the whole Armour of God on Ephes. 6. 19. Treat. 3. Part. 2. §. 57, 58. pray for ven­geance to fall vpon others? Surely their prayers are odious in Gods sight, and thereby they pull vengeance on their owne pates: which they doe much more, that by Prayer, Vow, and Sacrament binde themselues to doe mischiefe, and take re­uenge, yea & that vpon their Soueraigne, and Kingdome where they liue: as Iesuites, and other Papists oft doe. It is probable thatLuk. 13. 1. they whose bloud Pilate mingled with their sacrifices, so did: and that that kinde of punishment as a iust recompence was by the diuine prouidence inflicted on them.Psal. 109. 17. 1 [...] As a man loueth cursing, so shall it come vnto him: as he cloatheth him­selfe [Page 198] with cursing, so shall it come into his bowels like water, and like oyle into his bones.

§. 154. Of the assurance which our forgiuing giueth of Gods forgiuing vs.

Q. The first end was A motiue to forgiue. §. 152. VVHat doctrine doth the other end of the condition annexed to the fift Petition afford?

A. Mans forgiuing his Brother giueth as­surance of Gods forgiuing him. This is one maine end of adding this condition of our forgiuing our brother, to our desire of Gods forgiuing vs: as is euident by that causall Particle, FOR, which Saint Luke setteth before it,Luke 11. 4. thus, For wee also forgiue. The reference which Christ maketh immediately after this prayer doth make the point most cleare.Math. 6. 14. His inference is this, If yee forgiue men their trespasses, your heauenly Father will also forgiue you. Doth he not thereby imply that by forgiuing men, we gaine assurance of Gods forgiuing vs? On this ground did Nehemiah in his prayer to God plead the kindnesse which hee had shewed to the people of God. Neh. 5. 19. & 13, 14, 22.

Obiect. Many Heathen, and other meere carnall men, who could haue no assurance of the forgiuenesse of their sinnes, haue forgiuen many wrongs done to them.

Answ. Carnall mens forgiuing is on bie respects. Their forgiuing is no true forgiuing, because it ari­seth from bie-respects to themselues, and not from his brother­ly loue: much lesse from conscience and due respect to God. For if their kinde of forgiuing bee duely weighed it will bee found to be

1. Either in some sleight matters which doe not much pro­uoke wrath, nor greatly need forgiuenesse.

2. Or to some friend, kinsman, or such like person, whom in some outward respect they like and loue.Math. 5. 47.

3.Act. 24. 27. Or for hope of some recompence, and aduantage to them­selues.

4.Math. 14. 5. Or for feare of greater mischiefe which might ensue if they should manifest any thought of reuenge.

5. Or it may be, by reason of an heauy and dull dispositi­on, which maketh them vnsensible of wrongs: like him that [Page 199] is brought in thus speaking,Pro. 23. 35. They haue stricken me, and I was not sicke: they haue beaten me, and I felt it not.

True Christian forgiuing,Iam. 3. 17. is a part or branch of that wisedome which commeth from aboue, a fruit of that spirit that resideth in Christ,I [...]est nobis quasi a natura, magis autem ab exter­mineo naturae, affectio quaedam pessima, libids nocendi, vt inex­tinguibilis inue­niatur in miseris animabus nostris malitiae delecta­tio. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6. an effect of Gods forgiuing vs. For sonnes of men are by nature wrathfull and reuengefull. Wrathfull, in that they are very soone vpon euery small and sleight occasion prouoked to wrath, as dry Tinder is ready to be fiered by the least sparke. Reuengefull, in that being prouoked, they are as it were on fire with reuenge: like Gunpowder, which so soone as it hath ta­ken any fire is instantly all on a flame. The Apostle among o­ther properties of a naturall man reckoneth these, malicious­nesse, enuie, debate, malignitie (whereby all things are taken in an euill part) implacablenesse, and vnmercifulnesse. And in an­other place to the same purpose he saith, wee are hatefull, and hating one another. Rom. 1. 29, 30. In regard of this wrathfull and reuengefull disposition,Tit. 3 3. men are resembled to Wolues, Leopards, Beares, Lyons, Isa. 11. 6, 7, 8. Aspes and Cockatrices. Vnlesse this nature be altered it is no more possible for a man in true brotherly loue to forgiue, then for one of the forenamed sauage creatures to bee quiet, and doe no hurt, when they are stirred vp and prouoked. Na­ture must be altered before a wrong can be thorowly & rightly passed by and forgiuen. This alteration of nature proceedeth from an apprehension of Gods loue to vs in Christ, and that in pardoning our sinnes. For the loue of God shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, is as fire that warmeth our hearts thaughing out the hard frost of hatred and reuenge, and making them plyable to Gods heart and affection to vs, mercifull as he is mercifull, kinde, gentle and patient as hee is, forbearing wrongs, and forgiuing debts as hee doth. Hence then it followeth, that if our disposition be inclinable to for­giue, and if according to that inclinablenesse we doe in truth actually forgiue, we may be assured that God hath forgiuen vs: euen as when we finde a cold thing hot, we may inferre it hath been heated.

Learne hereby how to know,Vses. 1. Tryall of Gods minde to vs. Gods minde towards thee, Thou needest not to climbe vp to heauen there to behold the face of God whether he frowne or smile, whether loue or an­ger [Page 200] be seated in his eyes, but diue into thine owne heart, and there obserue what is thy minde towards thy brother. No loo­king Glasse can giue a truer representation of thy face, then thine owne heart a demonstration of Gods heart towards thee. Wee loue, 1. Ioh 4. 19. because hee first loued vs: and we forgiue because he first forgaue vs.

Well may we hereby comfort our soules in the day of temp­tation,2. Comfort in time of tempta­tion. when the conscience is perplexed with doubting of pardon. If thou findest in thy selfe a readinesse to forgiue thy brother, thou maist conclude that God hath forgiuen thee. To strengthen thy faith herein duely weigh the infinite disparity betwixt Gods goodnesse and thine. This is as an Ocean that hath no bottome, no bounds: thine but as a drop. If then thou for his sake out of thy drop of goodnesse canst afford forgiue­nesse answerable to the wrongs done to thee,Exiguam hu­manitatem ego exhibui. Non enim amplius ca­picbat natura. Tua vero muni­ficentia exigui­tate potentiae non prohibetur, quin quantum velis tantum largiaris Greg, Nyss. lib. de Orat. maist thou not inferre that God out of his bottomelesse Ocean will affoord forgiuenesse answerable to the sinnes which thou hast com­mitted against him? When thy conscience is burdened with the heauy weight of thy sinnes, thinke of thy willingnesse to for­giue thy brother, and from thence as from a signe, or effect, or euidence learne to quiet thy conscience, and settle thy faith, and in faith say, Forgiue mee as I forgiue: or forgiue mee, for I forgiue. It is indeed but little mercy that I haue shewed: for my nature was capable of no more. But thy bounty is not hindred by want of power. 3. Motiue to forgiue. Thou canst grant as much as thou wilt. Thus may the heart be enlarged in crauing pardon,Si D [...]o pro mise­ricordia atque venia preces ob­laturi simus, co [...] ­scientia fiduciam nobis paremus, vt vitam nostram aduoca [...]am & patronam huic voci praeficia­mus, & verè di­camus Et nos remisimus de­bentibus nobis. Greg. Nyss. loc. citat. and faith setled in ob­taining it.

And because this is such an especiall meanes to resolue thy soule of the pardon of thy sinnes, bee the rather moued to subdue thy passion, when thou art prouoked to cast out wrath and readily to forgiue. Seeing it is requisite that wee offer vp prayers to God for mercy and pardon, let vs by the testimonie of our conscience get to our selues, that we may make our ca­riage an Aduocate to our prayers, and truely say, We also for­giue our debters. They who feele the weight of sinne would giue all they haue, and doe what possibly they could to bee ea­sed thereof. If thou neuer felt'st the burden of sinne on thine owne soule, enquire after such as are wounded in conscience: [Page 201] and, because things seene are more sensible, and make a dee­per impression, got to them, marke their agonies and their out­cries; thereby iudge what an heauy burden sinne is, when the soule feeles the burden of it. If once thou feelest the weight of it, I make no question, but that, if Christ should aske thee, as once he asked a blind man,Mar. 10. 51. What wilt thou that I should doe to thee, thou wouldest answer, Lord, that I may be eased of the bur­den of sinne. Behold here how thou maist be eased. As any occa­sion is offered, Forgiue. Thus in doing goodnesse to man, thou doest the best and greatest goodnesse to thy selfe, in that God (whose goodnesse infinitely surpasseth thine) is moued there­by to doe good to thee. This is a great encouragement, a ground of much comfort to such as can and doe forgiue men. Though they haue no recompence from man, though they be laughed at for it: yea though they be worse dealt withall (as Psal. 35. 12.—120. 7. Dauid was) and more wronged because they are so ready to forgiue, yet Gods gracious acceptation thereof, his mercifull dealing with them for it, is recompence enough.

§. 155. Of the reuenge which reuengefull persons bring vpon themselues.

Q. VVHat doctrine followeth as a iust consequence from the forenamed condition?

A. Placatum habert Deum non potest qui cum fratre pacem per zeli discordiam non habet. Cypr. de [...]nit. Eccl. §. 11 They who forgiue not men are not forgiuen of God. Bring that which is here intended by Christ into a true, Logicall, Syl­logisticall forme, and the consequence will appeare to be most iust. The forme is this. Forgiue vs as wee forgiue others. But we forgiue not others. Therefore forgiue not vs. The proposition is expressed in the Lords Prayer. The assumption is deducted out of the inward disposition, and outward practise of the re­uengefull person. The conclusion floweth from the Premisses by iust and necessarie consequence. Yet further to confirme this conclusion, and to shew that it is not wrested, let it bee noted how Christ immediately after this prayer, expressely inferreth as much in these words,Mat. 16. 15. If yee forgiue not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgiue you your trespasses. In the Para­ble ye finde as much verified. For the Lord deliuered that ser­uant, [Page 202] that would not forgiue his fellow-seruant,Math▪ 18. 34, 35. to the Tormen­ters, till he should pay all that was due to him. Thereupon Christ maketh this Inference, So likewise shall my heauenly Father doe also vnto you, if yee from your hearts forgiue not euery one his bro­ther their trespasses.

It is Gods vsuall manner to deale with men according to their dealing one with another. These prouerbiall speeches im­port as much,Math. 7. 1. With what measure you mete it shall be measured to you againe. Gal. 6. 7. Whatsoeuer a man soweth that shall he reape. Hee shall haue iudgement without mercy that hath shewed no mercy. Iam. 2. [...]3. Diues, Luk. 16. 21, 24. that denied to Lazarus the crummes that fell from his Table, was denied a drop of cold water to coole his tongue. For man is to man in Gods stead. By our cariage to man God ta­keth tryall of our disposition to him. Whereupon Saint Iohn saith,1. Ioh. 3. 17. Who so hath this worlds goods, and seeth his brother hath need, and shutteth vp his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the loue of God in him? For hee that loueth not his Brother whom hee hath seene, —4. 20. how can he loue God whom he hath not seene?

Gods mercy is operatiue as fire: it warmeth that heart in which it abideth, and worketh mercy therein. Where therefore no mercy to man can be found, there is iust cause to suspect no mercy of God hath been shewed. The soule of an vnmercifull man is no fit receptacle of the mercies of God. It abuseth, it peruerteth them.

Behold here the folly of cruell hard-hearted and reuenge­full persons,Folly of re­uengefull per­sons. who like the vnmercifull seruant, deny that to their brother which they craue of God. What can they looke for of GodMath. 18. 3 [...]. but such measure as was meted out to the said ser­uant, and toLuk. 16, 24. 25. Diues? They therefore that deale vnmercifully with others, doe most hurt to themselues, because thereby they prouoke God to deale vnmercifully with them. Consider this O wrathfull & reuengefull persons. The time may come when you will as earnestly desire one drop of Gods mercy, as Diues desired a drop of water to coole his tongue: and yet you shall haue your desire no more satisfied then his was.

This consequence of Gods retaining their sinnes who for­giue not their brethren,Motiue to for­giue. doth much enforce the a fore-mentio­ned154. [Page 203] exhortation to forgiue. As there was shewed the great ad­uantage of forgiuing others (which is assurance of Gods for­giuing them) so here is declared the great damage of not for­giuing: which is a strict exaction of the vttermost penaltie for all that debt wherein we stand bound to Gods iustice. He that from his heart forgiueth not his brother that hath offended him,Quisquis in se delinquen [...]i fia­tri non ex corde dimiserit, non in­dulgentiam sed condemnationem deprecatione hac s [...]imet impetra­bit, suaque pro­f [...]ssione semetip sum dirius iudi­ca [...]i. Ab. Isaak. de Orat. cap. 21. [...] by this Petition procureth to himselfe not absolution, but condemnation, and by his owne profession causeth himselfe to be more seuerely iudged. For he turneth his Petition for him­selfe into a fearfull imprecation against himselfe: and what­soeuer his words be, in effect he prayeth that God would not forgiue him. He turneth the sence of this word, Forgiue, to be, Forgiue not. Is not this the ready way to pull vengeance vpon his owne pate for all the sinnes whereof in any kinde hee standeth guiltie before God? Wofull in this respect is their plight, whom reuenge doth so possesse as they cannot forgiue. How vnsensible of their good or hurt are they on whom these motiues worke nothing at all! Oh be moued, euen for auoid­ing this great mischiefe, to forgiue: and take heed that by not forgiuing thy neighbour some small and light wrongs against thee, thou keepe thy selfe from obtaining pardon of thy hai­nous sinnes before God.Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5.

§. 156. Of deprecation against euill.

Q. VVHat is to bee obserued about the order of the fift Petition?

A. 1. That which it hath common with the sixt?

2. That which is proper to it selfe.

Two things are common to them both.

1. The distinct kinde of them both is the same.

2. The generall matter

The distinct kinde wherein these two last Petitions differ from all the rest, is Deprecation, that is, Prayer for the remouall of euill. In the fift Petition we pray to bee freed from the guilt and punishment of sinne. In the sixt, from the power and bondage of sinne.

[Page 204] Q. What doe we hence learne?

A. Deprecation must be added to Petition. We must be care­full as well to pray against those euils which doe, or may annoy vs, as for those good things which may, or doe helpe vs, [...] 1. Tim. 2. 1. This kinde is expressely mentioned among the other warrantable kindes of Prayer: and on all occasions it hath been vsed by the Saints. Accordingly it may and must be vsed by vs, and that in regard of Gods glory, and our owne good.

1. The glory of Gods pittie and power is much magnified hereby. Of his pittie, in that by going to him in all our miseries we acknowledge him to be a God of compassion, moued with our miseries: else could we haue no heart to goe to him. The seruants of the King of Syria perswade their Lord, being ouerthrowne in battell to go with sackcloth vpon their loynes,1. King. 20. 31. and ropes vpon their heads to the King of Israel, on this ground, We haue heard that the Kings of the house of Israel are mercifull Kings. Were we not perswaded that he to whom we goe, is pittifull and mercifull, scarce should we be moued to lay open our sores before him. Well, markeNum. 14. 18, 19. the prayers of the Saints, and you shall finde the mercy, pitie and compassion of God much pleaded in them.Dan. 9. 9. The glorie of Gods power is also magnified by Deprecations,Psal. 51. 1. in that he is acknowledged to bee for all turnes able to doe, and able to vndoe. Able to doe that good for vs which he seeth to be needfull for vs: and able to vndoe that knot of misery wherewith thorow our owne folly we are bound, and to breake those snares wherewith wee are entangled.

2. Our need requireth, that being in misery we should be deliuered out of it: or else all the good that can be bestowed vpon vs, will bee but as a shew or shadow of goodnesse: no sweetnesse thereof can be tasted: no benefit can bee reaped thereby. Abraham conceiuing it to bee a great misery to be childlesse,Gen 15, 1, 2. when God graciously promised him to be his shield, and exceeding great reward, he answered, What wilt thou giue me, seeing I goe childlesse? This supposed euill tooke away the sweetnesse from that exceeding great reward which was prof­fered to him. The Israelites being in grieuous bondage, when Moses came to them in the name of the Lord to comfort [Page 205] them,Exod. 6. 9. They hearkned not to him for anguish of spirit. All the de­lights which the heart of man can desire are as nothing to him that is sicke at heart, or tortured with tormenting diseases, if he bee not freed from that sicknesse, and eased of that paine.

In what a desperate case may we now thinke them to be, that, being in miserie, either seeke no helpe at all: or, which is all one, seeke helpe of such as can afford them no true helpe.

Of the former sort are

1.Refusers of helpe in misery. Such as thorow a blockish stupiditie, like beasts, lye vnder that euill which lyeth vpon them: and seeme not to be moued therewith, as those Iewes of whom the Prophet thus com­plaineth, O Lord thou hast stricken them, Ier. 5. 3. but they haue not grieued, &c.

2. Such as through wilfull obstinacie are so farre from pray­ing to haue the euill that is on them remoued, as by continuing in sin, they bring more and more euill vpon them: like Ahaz, who therefore is thus branded,2. Chro. 28. 22. This is Ahaz.

3. Such as through a malitious impudencie, when they are pin­ched and pressed with the euill that lyeth on them, blaspheme the Name of God, as the prophane2. King. 6. 33. King of Israel, andRen. 16. 8, 9. they who were tormented at the pouring out of the fourth viall, did.

Of the latter sort are,Seekers of helpe where no helpe is.

1. Such as trust to meanes without God: as2. Chro. 56. 12 Asa, who sought not to the Lord, but to the Physitians: and theIsa. 31. 1. Israelites who went downe to Egypt for helpe, but sought not the Lord.

2. Such as seeke helpe of such things as haue no powre or vertue at all to helpe them in that for which helpe is sought: as they, who, being troubled in conscience and wounded in soule, seeke to ease themselues by merrie company, musicke, gaming, and the like. So1. Sam. 16. 17. Saul, when the euill spirit came vpon him, must needs haue musicke: and the1. King. 18. 26, 28. Baalites when their request was not granted, Leaped vpon the Altar, and cut themselues with kniues and lancers: and Papists to like purposes whip themselues: yea also they seeke to driue the Diuell away with holy water, holy oile, crucifixes, crossing themselues, and other like foolish toyes.

[Page 206] 3. Such as seeke helpe of him that will take all aduantages against them, and worke them the more mischiefe for trusting to him, euen the Diuell himselfe. All that go to Witches, Con­iurers, Sorcerers, and such instruments of Satan, for helpe in any need, seeke helpe of Satan: as1. Sam. 28. 8. Saul that went to the Witch at Endor: and2. King. 1. 2. Ahaziah that sent to Baal-zebub.

All these, and other like helpes are no better then aEzek. 29. 7. reede, whereupon if a man leane it breaketh, and renteth his flesh that leaneth thereon.

For our part therefore let vs take notice of the euils where­unto we are subiect,What euils are to be prayed a­gainst, and how, See in the whole Armour of God, on Eph. 6. 18. and of the remedie warranted and sancti­fied for remouing of them, and wisely and conscionably vse the same.

This of Deprecation, which is the distinct kind of the two last Petitions.Treat. 3. §. 32, 33 &c. The generall Matter of them both followeth.

§. 157. Of taking care for our spirituall welfare.

Q. VVHat is the generall matter nf the two last Petitions?

A. Spirituall. Such as concerneth our soules. As in the fourth Petition wee were taught to pray for such tem­porall blessings as were meet for our bodies,Post subsidium ci­bi petitur & ve nia delicti, vt qui à Deo pascitur in Deo viuat: nec tantum praesenti & temporali vi­tae, sed & aternae consulatur. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 16. and for our out­ward estate in this world: so in the fift and sixt Petitions wee are taught to seeke such spirituall blessings as concern the good of our soule, that he who is fed of God may liue in God.

Q. What are we taught hereby?

A. We must take care of our spirituall welfare. Care must be had for the good of our soules as well as of our bodies.Ioh. 6. 27. Where Christ moueth vs to moderate our immoderate care for the things of this world, he presseth vs, earnestly to care for our soules. And that not without iust cause.Mat. 6. 33. For

1. Our happinesse consisteth in the spirituall well-fare of our soules.Psal. 32. 2. Blessed is the man vnto whom the Lord imputeth not ini­quitie, and in whose spirit there is no guile.

2. Herein lyeth a maine difference, not onely betwixt rea­sonable and vnreasonable creatures, or ciuill & sauage men, or Professors of true religion and idolaters, but also betwixt all [Page 207] naturall and spirituall men. The naturall man, whether he liue in the Church or out of it, mindeth onely the things of this life. The things of the Spirit of God, 1. Cor. 2. 14. which concerne his soule and the spirituall good thereof, He receiueth not; for they are foolishnesse to him. Onely the spirituall man, who is both in the Church and of the Church, enlightned and guided by that Spirit which is in the Church, and in euery part and member thereof, well discer­ning the things of the Spirit of God, tending to the happinesse of his soule, doth carefully seeke after them.

The folly of most men is hereby discouered.1. Reproofe. For their care is wholly and onely for the things of this life. They neglect their soules, as if they had no soules at all to care for, or cared not what became of them. Their owne Prouerbe verifieth as much against them, which is this, Let God take care for my soule, and I will take care for my bodie. A cursed Prouerbe. In both the parts thereof it sauoureth ranke of Atheisticall prophanenesse. The latter part implyeth a desperate casting off Gods care for their bodies: the former, a presumptuous thrusting of their soules on God, against that course which he hath expresly pre­scribed.

Let vs learne wisedome from this ground of wisedome taught by him that is the wisedome of God.2. Aduice. Let vs not dis­ioyne the care of these two sweete companions, which God hath so nearely linked together, our bodie and soule. Let both in their place and due manner be cared for. Let spirituall things be prouided for the soule, which is a spirituall substance, as well as earthly things for the body which is of the earth. By that care which nature moueth vs to take for the temporall good of our bodies, we ought to be so farre from resting there­in, as we ought rather to be raised vp thereby to seeke how we may procure good to our soules. Surely Christ by inferring the Petitions for our soules good, immediatly vpon that which concerneth the good of our bodies, intendeth thereby, that by sence of our bodies need we should be made sencible of the soules need.

For this end, let vs

1. Take notice of our spirituall needs. Ignorance of need maketh men negligent of prouiding things needfull. Laodicea [Page 208] not knowing that she was wretched, Reu 3. 16, 17, 18 miserable, poore, blind and na­ked, regarded not the gold that might make her rich, the white rayment that might couer the shame of her nakednesse, and the eye-salue that might make her see.

2.Prou. 2. 4. Enquire after the meanes of helpe.—4. 5. The wise man doth oft much presse this dutie of seeking and searching after the things that are needfull and vsefull.—8. 5.

3. Conscionably and carefully vse the meanes which are affor­ded for helpe. This was the counsell which Christ gaue to the forenamed Church of the Laodiceans, to buy gold tried in the fire, and white raiment, Reu. 3. 18. and to annoint her eyes with eye-salue.

§. 158. Of doubling our care for the good of our soules.

Q. WHy are there two Petitions for our spirituall good?

A. 1. The things concerning our spirituall estate are farre more excellent: as the soule is more excellent then the bodie,Things of the soule most ex­cellent. and as things concerning eternall and heauenly happinesse surpasse such as concerne onely a tempo­rall and earthly contentment.Mat. 13. 44, 45, 46. The Merchant that sold all that he had to buy the treasure hid in the field, and the pearle of price, was not ignorant hereof.

2. They are more absolutely necessarie.Things of the soule most ne­cessarie. We may want the temporall things of this world, and yet not be miserable. God can turne that want to our aduantage.Luke 10. 42. But the want of spiri­tuall blessings maketh vs extreamely miserable. True happi­nesse consisteth in the fruition of these. Yea the happinesse of our temporall well-fare consisteth in our spirituall well-fare. No benefit, no comfort can be receiued from all that this world affordeth, vnlesse sinne be pardoned and we freed from the po­wer thereof.

3. We are by nature more dull and backward to seeke after things spirituall,Man carelesse of his soule. then temporall. These are visible, and the sweetnesse of them is more sensible, sooner discerned, and more easily tasted. The other being inuisible, are more insensible. So as we haue more need to be the more earnest in seeking of them.

[Page 209] Q. What are we taught hereby?

A. Our care for spirituall things must be double. With much more earnestnesse must we seeke spirituall then temporall bles­sings. It is of spirituall good things that Christ saith,Mat. 6. 33. [...]. First seeke, &c. Both before and aboue all other things seeke them. First, doth not onely note out the order, but also the manner of seeking.2 Pet 1. 10. [...]. Of spirituall blessings it is That Saint Peter saith, Rather giue diligence, or giue the more and greater diligence to make them sure. Our mind must with the vtmost of our endeauour, euen with full bent be carried that way.

A due consideration of this point doth manifest the2. Pet. 1. 9. blind­nesse, and aggrauate the folly of them who preferre temporall before spirituall blessings:Mar. 5. 17. like to the Gadarens, who made more account of their swine then of Christ. Into this ship of fooles may they well be thrust

1. Who put of the time for seeking the good of their soules,Who preferre things tempo­rall before spi­rituall. but will loose no time for aduancing and encreasing their tem­porall estate. They who put off their prouiding of oyle till the houre wherein the Bridegroome came are stiled foolish Vir­gins. Mat. 25. 2, &c.

2. Who put bie the opportunities that by Gods prouidence are afforded for doing good to their soules. As Felix, who when by Pauls preaching his heart was so smitten as he trem­bled, Acts 24. 26, 27. said, Go thy way for this time: and yet watched all oppor­tunities for a bribe.

3. Who so eagerly pursue the things of this world, wherein they take delight,Gen. 25. 29, &c. or from whence they expect profit, as they neglect the care of their soules. Such an one was prophane E­sau, who followed the profits and pleasures of the field till hee fainted, and then sold his birth-right for a messe of pottage.

4. Such as seeke the spirituall things of their soule, but so loosely and carelesly as if they cared not much for them. These are like the Luke-warme Laodiceans who can expect nothing but to be spued out of the mouth of Christ.Reu. 3. 15, 16.

Let vs be otherwise minded: and for that end,

1. Well discerne betwixt things that differ.Direction. Till the vnder­standing be throughly enformed in the difference of matters, and know which are the more excellent, the will cannot en­cline [Page 210] it selfe to one more then to another. This therefore doth the Apostle pray for in the Philippians behalfe,Phil. 1. 10. [...] vt dignoscatis quae discrepant. Psal. 4. 6. To discerne things that differ.

2. Wisely prefer [...]e the more excellent. As Dauid, who, when others said, Who will shew vs any good? (meaning tempo­rall goods) thus prayed to God, Lord lift thou vp the light of thy countenance vpon vs?

3. Stirre vp the gift of God. 2. Tim. 1. 6. That desire, that loue, that de­light that in any measure is in thee towards the spirituall good things of thy soule, nourish, and encrease, that they neither de­cay nor die in thee.

4. Helpe the weaknesse of nature.Mat. 26. 41. When the spirit is ready, the flesh will be backward.Rom. 7. 21, 23. And when one would do good, euill is present with him. A law in the members warreth against the law of the mind. This oft maketh vs dull, heauie and sluggish. Where­fore (as the wise man aduiseth) when the iron is blunt, Eccl. 10. 10. put to more strength.

Hitherto of the generall matter common to the two last Pe­titions.

§. 159. Of the blessings which Pardon of sinne bringeth.

Q. VVHat proper thing is to be considered about the order of the fift Petition?

A. 1. The inference of it vpon the fourth.

2. The Precedence of it before the sixt.

Q. What doctrine doth that inference afford?

A. By pardon of sinne the things of this world are made true bles­sings. All the things which in this prayer we are taught to craue, are so to be craued as blessings. But sinne is as deadly poyson to daily bread: while it remaineth vpon vs vnpardoned, no­thing that this world affordeth can be a true blessing: for sinne bringeth a curse vpon euerie creature that we vse:Deut. 28. 16, &c. but pardon of sinne taketh away that curse, and so maketh all that wee vse to be true blessings.Psal. 32. 1. That man therefore is pronounced blessed whose transgression is forgiuen.

Learne hereby in the vse of all temporall blessings to seeke [Page 211] for pardon of sinne. It is one end of Grace before meate (accor­ding to the1. Sam. 9. 13. Math. 14. 19. Luke 24. 30. Acts 27. 35. ancient and commendable custome of Gods peo­ple) to haue the curse taken away from the creatures we vse, and to haue them turned into a blessing. Do the like, craue pardon of sinne, before thou goest about the worke of thy calling, be­fore thou takest a iourney, before thou goest to any recreation though thou knowest it to be lawfull and meete, before thou goest to bed, when thou risest vp, in all things, at all times seeke remission of sinne. Neuer thinke thy selfe well or safe, no not in thy greatest abundance or best prosperitie till thou haue assu­rance thereof.Gen. 4. 7. Sinne not remitted lieth as a bondage at the doore, and keepeth all Gods blessings from entring.Lam. 3. 44. Sinne, like a cloud, hideth from vs the bright Sunne-shine of Gods fauour. Sinne like the accursed thing which Achan stole,Ios. 7. 11. &c. 2. King. 4. 40. maketh vs a prey to our deadliest enemies. Sinne, as the wilde gourdes, bring­eth death with it, and that into such things as are otherwise wholesome,Dan. 5. 5, 6. and good. Sinne, like that hand-writing which on a wall appeared to Bel-shazzar, in the middest of our greatest iolletie, will change countenance, trouble thoughts, loose ioynts, and make knees to smite one against another. Is there not then great and iust cause in all things at all times to seeke pardon thereof?

This of the Inference of the fift Petition on the fourth.

§. 160. Of the precedence of Iustification before Sanctification.

Q. VVHat Doctrine doth the precedence of the fift Petition before the sixt import?

A. Iustification goeth before Sanctification. For the former of the two last Petitions concerning our spirituall good setteth out our Iustification, the latter, our Sanctification. This precedence is to be applyed rather to Order, then to Time. For at that very moment that Christ pardoneth sinne, he con­ueigheth his Spirit into vs whereby sinne is mortified. S. Paul therefore where hee setteth downe these two together, setteth Righteousnesse before Sanctification.

Iustification causeth Sanctification:1. Cor. 1. 30. in which respect the [Page 212] Apostle saith that we are sanctified by faith in Christ, Acts 26. 18. that is, faith vniting vs to Christ, by whom we are iustified, receiueth grace for grace, a further grace to sanctifie vs.

Sanctification declareth Iustification:Iam. 2. 24. in which respect Saint Iames saith, that we are iustified by workes: that is, declared so to be. As by vertue of our Iustification wee are presented blamelesse before God: so by vertue of our Sanctification wee are declared to be righteous before men.

As the cause therefore goeth before the effect, and as the effect followeth the cause, so are Iustification and Sanctification in their order one to another.

1. This order affordeth one sound argument against Iustifi­cation by workes.Rom. 3. 28.—11. 6. All good workes are parts of Sanctification. If by the merit of them we be iustified, Sanctification must goe before Iustification.

2. This order proueth our Iustification to be free.Rom. 3. 24. Because in order of nature it goeth before any good thing that wee can do.

3. It also demonstrateth the precedence of faith before ac­ceptable repentance, in order of nature. Faith is the instru­ment of our Iustification, Repentance a principall grace of our Sanctification.

4. It layeth downe the ground of pardon of sinne:Psal. 51. 1. which is, nothing in our selues, but the meere free grace of God, which is to be pleaded for obtaining pardon.

Thus much of the Order of the fift Petition. The particular good things to be craued, are next to be declared.

§. 161. Of graces to be prayed for in regard of the pardon of our owne sinnes.

Q. VVHat are the particular good things for which wee are taught to pray by vertue of the Fift Petition?

A. 1. Such as concerne the Petition it selfe.

2. Such as concerne the condition annexed to it. The things which concerne the Petition it selfe haue respect to the pardon both of our owne, and of others sinnes. For wee are taught to say in the plurall number and first person, Forgiue VS OVR trespasses.

Q. What are the things that concerne the pardon of our owne sinnes to be prayed for?

A. 1. Knowledge of the nature of sinne: how horrible a thing it is: into what a wofull plight it bringeth the creature, making it a debter to the reuenging iustice of God.Deut. 28. 15, 16, &c. For this end doth the Law distinctly set downe the curses which by sinne are pul­led on man.

2. Knowledge of a mans owne sinnes. How he himselfe being guilty of sinne is a debter to God: and in that respect in a most wofull estate. This did Dauid well know when he said, I know mine iniquitie: and Iob who said, Behold, I am vile. Psal. 51. 3. Iob 40. 4.

3. Sence of the burden of sinne. All the knowledge that can be had of the horriblenesse of sinne, and of the multitude and hainousnesse of the sinnes whereof wee stand guilty, will not sufficiently moue vs to be eased of the burden of them, till we feele the weight thereof lying on our owne soules, and euen op­pressing them. This made Dauid so earnestly desire God not to rebuke him in anger: For of that earnest sute he rendereth this reason, Mine iniquities are gone ouer mine head: as an heauy bur­den they are too heauy for me. Psal. 38. 1, 4.

4. A broken heart, and contrite spirit. A man may feele the heauy burden of sinne, and yet not seeke to bee eased: but lye vnder it as a beast: or as one that despaireth of all helpe. But if the heart be truely broken, and touched to the quicke with the sence of sinne, it will not let a man rest till hee haue obtained [Page 214] pardon.Psal. 51. 17. In that Psalme where Dauid most earnestly craueth pardon, he sheweth that he had a broken heart.

5. Humble confession of sinne. For this Petition is a plaine ac­knowledgement thereof. WithoutProu 28. 13. confession there is no hope of pardon: but1. Ioh. 1. 9. Psal 32. 5. promise of pardon is made to him that con­fesseth his sinne.

6. Earnest desire of pardon. That we may be freed from the guilt and punishment of sinne. To confesse sinne and not to de­sire pardon, is but to put in an euidence against our selues. This is that which is most distinctly expressed in this Petition: and which hath euer been performed by all the Saints.

7. Knowledge of Gods free grace and rich mercy. Without this, though a man neuer so much feele the burden of sinne, he hath no sure ground, nor can haue any heart to seeke pardon. It appeareth that Dauid was well instructed therein,Psal. 51. 1. in that hee doth so much plead and presse it.

8. Vnderstanding of the sacrifice of Christ. What that sacri­fice was;1. Pet. 1. 19. the pure and precious bloud of the Sonne of God. By whom it was offered vp;Heb. 9. 14. by himselfe thorow his eternall Spirit. For whom; euen for vs 1. Tim. 1. 15. miserable sinners. To what end; to be 1. Tim. 2. 6. a ransome for our sinnes: that so satisfaction might be made to Gods iustice for the same. This sacrifice added to God [...] mer­cie shewes how perfectly Gods mercy and iustice meet toge­ther in mans Redemption. No maruell then that1. Cor. 2. 2. Saint Paul desired to know nothing but Iesus Christ and him crucified.

9. A right discerning of the perfection euen of the actiue obe­dience of Christ, and of the end thereof: how heeMath. 3. 15. fulfilled all righteousnesse: and howRom. 5. 19. we are made righteous thereby. Thus we may see how the debt of obedience which wee owe, and are not able to performe, is performed by our surety, and we by reason thereof are accepted as righteous.

10. An high esteeme of Christ. For Christ, the great things that he hath done and suffered, and the many great benefits which issue from thence are not for hogges, that as vile things will trample them vnder feet.Phil. 3. 8. Saint Paul accounted all things but losse and dung in comparison of Christ.

11. Hungring and thirsting after Christ and his righteousnesse. Luke 1 53. These are they that shall be satisfied and filled; Math. 5. 6. and in that re­spect are blessed.

[Page 215] 12. Faith in the pardon of sinne. All the forenamed points without this,Ioh. 5. 24. will but aggrauate a poore sinners misery. This is it that bringeth a quietus est, Luke. 7. 50. a full discharge with it. In the disease and distresse of the soule thorow sinne, Christ will say as he did to such as were afflicted in body,Math. 8. 13.—9. 22. As thou hast belee­ued, so be it vnto thee: Thy faith hath made thee whole.

13. Peace of conscience. Rom. 5. 1. This followeth faith, and giueth good euidence to the soule of the discharge thereof from sinne.

These are especiall graces, that respect the pardon of our owne sinnes.

§. 162. Of graces to be prayed for in regard of the pardon of others sinnes.

Q. VVHat things in regard of the pardon of others sinnes are to be prayed for?

A. 1. Compassion by reason of them. Considering the wo­full plight where into sinne bringeth men, our bowels ought to be moued thereat.Mar. 3. 5. It is noted of Christ that he grieued for the hardnesse of the Iewes hearts. Was there not great compassion in him that thus prayed for others,Exo, 32. 31, 32. Oh this people haue sinned a great sinne: yet now if thou wilt forgiue their sinne: and if not, blot me out of thy Booke. This compassion will make vs as earnest for the pardon of the sinnes of others as of our owne.

2. Humiliation for them.Ezr, 9. 3. Good Ezra was so deiected and humbled for the sinnes of others, as hee rent his garment and Mantle, and pluckt off the haire of his head, and beard, and fell downe astonied.

3. Confession of them. It was vsuall with the Saints to con­fesse vnto God the sins of others. For which purpose the con­fessions ofExod. 32. 31. Moses, ofEzr. 9. 6, 7. Ezra, ofNeh. 1. 6. Nehemiah, ofNeh. 9. 16, &c the Leuites, of Dan. 9. 20. Daniel, and of others are worthy to be obserued. Humiliati­on and confession of others sinnes is an euidence of an holy zeale of Gods glory. Feare of the iust vengeance of sinne may make vs humble our selues for our owne sinnes, and penitently confesse them to God. But to be so affected for others sinnes, as it sheweth a brotherly fellow-feeling, so an holy indigna­tion [Page 216] against sinne, as it is a sinne offensiue to the diuine Ma­iestie.

4. Supplication for the pardon of them. This is the maine dutie expressely taught in this Petition. It is an especiall meanes of obtaining pardon for others sinnes. But it is not in our own power to doe it?Zac. 12. 10. It is a gift of the Spirit, and a gift promised. We may therefore, yea and we must pray for it. And hauing it, then say to God as Moses did,Num. 14. 19. Pardon, I beseech thee, the ini­quitie of this people: and as Christ did,Luke 23. 34 Father, forgiue them: and as Stephen did,Act. 7. 60. Lord lay not their sinne to their charge.

These are principall graces to bee prayed for, by vertue of the maine Petition.

§. 163. Of the graces which are to be prayed for by reason of the condition annexed to the Fift Petition.

Q. VVHat graces are to be prayed for by vertue of the con­dition annexed to the Fift Petition?

A. In generall, such a minde to our brother as wee desire God to beare to vs. This Christ implyeth vnder this one word mercifull, where he saith,Luk▪ 6. 36. Be yee mercifull as your heauenly Fa­ther is also mercifull. Hereby as in a Looking-glasse shall we set out Gods minde to man, and1. Pet. 2. 9. shew forth the praises of God: yea andLuke 7. 47. gaine good euidence of Gods good minde to our selues.

In particular, such graces as follow.

1. Loue. This is a dutie that hath beene required1. Ioh. 3. 11. from the beginning: and it is theMath. 5. 44. ground of all goodnesse, kindnesse, and forgiuenesse.Ephes. 4. 32. Where the Apostle exhorteth to forgiue, he addeth this direction,—5. 2. walke in loue, shewing thereby that loue will make men forward to forgiue.

2. Meekenesse. 1. Pet. 3. 4. This is in the sight of God of great price. It is of speciall vse to keepe a man from being prouoked, and from desire of reuenge. Christ being of a meeke spirit,—2. 23. when he was reuiled, reuiled not againe. Moses being commended for a very meeke man, Numb. 12. this is giuen as an euidence and proofe thereof, that hee was not prouoked to wrath by the wrong [Page 217] which Aaron and Miriam did him.

3. Compassion: or, to vse the Scripture phrase, bowels of mer­cies. Col. 3. 12. [...]. This maketh vs pitie such as wrong vs. And because in doing wrong to vs, we know they doe themselues the greatest hurt, a compassionate spirit wil worke in vs more pitie towards them, then reuenge against them: and in that respect to pray for them euen when they are wronging vs,Luke 23. 34. as Christ and Ste­phen did.Acts 7. 60.

4. Long-suffering. That doth the Apostle adde to the fore­named meekenesse, Col. 3 12. and bowels of mercies. This keepeth a man from being ouercome with multitudes of wrongs. God him­selfe is said to be a God of long-suffering, Psal. 103. 8. in that hee continueth to passe by many wrongs time after time, without executing iudgement and reuenge vpon the doers thereof. In regard of the many wrongs whereunto, while we liue in this world, wee are subiect, long-suffering is necessary.

5. Power ouer wrath. Hereby though it doe so fall out that anger be stirred vp in vs by the iniuries of wicked men, yet by holding it in, as it were with bit and bridle, wee may bee kept from excesse, and from sinne, according to this intimation of the Apostle,Ephes. 4. 26. Be angry but sinne not. Herein lyeth a maine difference betwixt naturall men, and men regenerate. Because in naturall men there is flesh onely, when anger is kindled, it burneth more and more. But because in men regenerate there is spirit as well as flesh,Gal. 5. 16, 17. by that spirit the lusts of the flesh are suppressed and quenshed:1. Sa. 25. 32, &c. as is euident in the case betwixt Dauid and Nabal.

6. Forgetfulnesse of wrongs. That wee suffer not them to a­bide continually in our minde and memory. Thus doth God deale with trespasses committed against him. I will remember their sinne no more, saith hee.Ier. 31. 34. It is a part of the renouation of memory, to let slip, forget, and not to hold and retaine euill things, 1. Kin. 11. 14. &c and in particular reuenge. Remembrance of wrongs, encreaseth desire of reuenge. But forgetfulnesse thereof cau­seth fullest forgiuenesse.

7. Readinesse to forgiue. Ephes. 4. 32. This is the maine thing intended in this condition. All the other graces before mentioned are but preparations hereunto.

[Page 218] 8. Truth in the act of forgiuenesse. 1. Ioh 3. 18. Herein lyeth the liue­lyest, and best resemblance betwixt Gods forgiuing and ours. This is especially intended in this Particle of resem­blance, As.

Hitherto of the good things which by vertue of the Fift Petiti­on, and the condition annexed thereto, are to be prayed for.

§. 164. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen by vertue of the Fift Petition.

Q. WHat are the particular good things for which by vertue of the Fift Petition we are to be thankefull?

A. 1. Such as concerne Gods forgiuing vs our trespasses.

2. Such as concerne our forgiuing other men their tres­passes.

They which concerne Gods forgiuing vs, are such as follow:

1. Gods free grace, In that for his owne sake, without any desert of ours he passeth by and pardoneth our sinnes. In this respect doth the Prophet magnifie him,Mic. 7. 18. and say, Who is a God like to thee, that pardoneth iniquitie, &c. He retaineth not his an­ger for euer, because he delighteth in mercy.

2. Gods rich mercy: In that notwithstanding our many, foule, and hainous sinnes, the spring of his grace is not dryed vp, but he is pleased to forgiue them all. This incited Paul to make knowne his thankefull minde to God.1. Tim. 1. 12, 13, 14, &c.

3. Gods long-suffering, In that he hath not taken that aduan­tage against vs, which we from time to time haue giuen him: but rather by his patience hath led vs vnto repentance.Psal. 103. 8. The person that duely considereth how many iust occasions hee hath giuen to God to cut him off, and to giue him his porti­on with the damned and Deuils in hell, being brought to some assurance of the pardon of sinne, cannot but heartily blesse God for his good and great patience towards him.

4. Christ Iesus. Math. 1. 21. Hee it is that saueth people from their sinnes. This is the greatest matter of thanksgiuing that euer was, or can be giuen to sonnes of men.Luke 1, 46, 47. The Virgin Mary therefore at her first conception of him,Luke 2. 10. magnifyeth the Lord. The Angell that first brought the newes of Christs Birth, proclaimeth it to [Page 219] be a glad tidings of great ioy. —14. Yea a Quire of heauenly spirits sang praise thereat, saying, Glory to God in the Highest.

5. The obedience which Christ yeelded to the Law. For our sakes it was:1. Cor. 30, 31. vnto vs is he made righteousnesse, that we might glory in the Lord.

6. The ransome which hee paid for vs. Among many other blessings for which the Apostle giueth thankes,Col. 1. 12. 14. the bloud of Christ by which wee haue forgiuenesse of sinnes, Heb. 9. 12. is one. And well may it bee one. For by it eternall Redemption is obtained.

7. The Intercession which Christ continueth to make for vs. Rom. 8. 34. Herein doth the Apostle after an holy manner triumph, which is an especiall kinde of glorifying God. Great cause haue wee so to doe. For hereby all the vertue and efficacy of Christs sa­crifice, is applyed to vs.

8. The Gospell, whereby all the forenamed blessings are reuealed.Col. 1. 3, 5, 6. Expressely doth the Apostle giue thankes for this. All the rich treasures of the mysterie of Godlinesse would be of no vse to vs, if by the Gospell they were not opened to vs.

9. The Sacraments, whereby remission of sinnes is sealed vp,Acts 8. 39.—16. 33, 34. and so ratified and assured vnto vs. When the Eunuch, and the Iayler were baptized, they reioyced: which being done spiritually in the Lord, it includeth a praising of God. And to shew that the holy communion is a matter of thanks­giuing, the Apostle stileth it,1. Cor. 10 16. [...]. the cup of blessing: And from the Primitiue times of the Church vnder the Gospell it hath beene called the Eucharist, [...] Grata beneficij recordatio. that is A gratefull commemoration of a thing.

10. Sight, and sence of sinne, and sorrow for the same. These are preparing graces, needfull for such as expect pardon of sinne.2. Cor▪ 7. 9. The Apostle reioyced and thanked God for these graces in the Corinthians. Luke 7. 47. They are euidences of remission.

11. Vnderstanding of the mysteries of the Gospell. The Gos­pell is a light that reuealeth those mysteries. But what is light without sight? A blind man in the brightest sun-shine recei­ueth no benefit by the Sunne. The Apostle therefore that prea­ched the Gospell to the Corinthians, 1. Cor. 1. 4, 5. thanked God that they were enriched in all knowledge.

[Page 220] 12. Faith in the Lord Iesus. Luke 7. 50. By it pardon is obtained. Con­cerning it thus saith the Apostle,Ephes. 1. 15, 16. After I heard of your faith in the Lord Iesus, I cease not to giue thankes for you.

13. The fruits of faith, as a quiet conscience, a ioyfull heart, and comfortable spirit and such like.2. Cor. 1. 4. These being kindely wrought, giue euidence of our discharge of sinne.

14. Meanes and euidence of pardon giuen to others. As wee pray for the pardon of others sinnes, so wee must be thanke­full for the euidences which wee see thereof. In this respect the Church of the Iewes glorified God for repentance to life granted to the Gentiles. Acts 11. 18. This their repentance was an euidence of Gods mercy in pardoning their sinnes.

These are good things for which God is to be praised by vertue of the Fift Petition.

§. 165. Of the things for which thankes is to be giuen by vertue of the condition annexed to the Fift Petition.

Q. VVHat are the particular good things for which thankes is to be giuen to God by reason of the con­dition annexed to the Petition?

A. 1. All the euidences of Gods indulgences towards vs in pardoning our sinnes. For to this end is our profession of for­giuing others heere expressed: where therefore there is such an euidence, as we may boldly make profession thereof, wee ought to be thankefull for it. Thus doth S. Paul giue thankes, as for faith in the Lord Iesus, Col. 1. 3, 4. so for loue to all the Saints, an eui­dence thereof.

2. The meanes whereby wee are kept from taking reuenge. Thus did Dauid blesse God for sending Abigail to keepe him from auenging himselfe with his owne hand. 1. Sam. 25. 32, 33.

3. The alteration of our wrathfull and reuengefull nature. We could not in truth make this profession,Rom. 6. 17. We forgiue, if our na­ture were not altered.1. Tim, 1. 13.

4. That measure of brotherly loue which we haue.2. Thes. 1. 3. Without loue all shew of forgiuing is but a meere shew.

[Page 221] 5. A spirit of meekenesse, Iam. 3. 17. and patience. These and other like graces make vs readie and willing to forgiue. This Spirit com­meth from aboue: Eph. 1. 3. and is one of those spirituall blessings for which God is to be blessed.

6. An heart seasoned with truth. 1. Chro. 29. 13, 17. By vertue thereof we are em­boldned, euen in relation to Gods forgiuing vs, to say, As we forgiue.

Hitherto of the matter of Thanksgiuing which the fift Petition affordeth.

§. 166. Of Duties required in regard of desire of pardon of our owne and others sinnes.

Q. VVHat Duties are we to endeuour after by vertue of the fift Petition?

A. Both such as concerne the Petition it selfe, and also the Condition annexed to it.

In regard of the Petition we ought

1. To acquaint our selues with the Law of God. This is need­full because 1.Rom. 3. 20.—7. 7. By the Law is the knowledge of sinne. See the whole Armour of God. in Eph. 6. 16. Thereby therefore wee shall know what sinners we are, and in how great need we do stand of pardon. 2.2. King. 22. 19. Acts 2. 37.—24. 26. By the Law is mans soule humbled,Treat. 2. part. 6. § 20. pricked and broken, and thereby prepa­red to seeke pardon. 3. By the Law man is stript of all selfe-conceipt. Rom. 3. 19. Euery mouth is stopped and all the world made guiltie thereby.

2. To be well instructed in the Gospell, and in the promises thereof, asLuk. 1. 4. Theophilus was. For 1.Acts 26. 18. by the Gospell the grounds of pardon are reuealed. 2.Rom. 10. 8. Eph. 1. 13. By it faith is wrought. 3.Rom. 10. 15. Eph. 6. 15. By it the conscience is quieted.

3. To partake of the Sacraments. ForRom. 4. 11. they are seales of our discharge.

4. To confesse our sinnes to God. For 1. Ioh. 1. 9. if we confesse our sinnes, God is faithfull and iust to forgiue vs our sinnes.

5. To aske pardon. This is the dutie here expressely set downe.

6. To beleeue pardon. ForMar. 1. 15. faith is a dutie required of all to whom the Gospell is Preached.

[Page 222] These are duties that concerne the pardon of our owne sinnes.

Duties required in regard of the extent of this Petition for the pardon of others sinnes as well as our owne, are these that follow.

1. To take notice of the sinnes of others, That so we may the bet­ter discerne what great cause there is to pray for them. For this end they which espied the great sinnes of the Iewes, told Ezra thereof.Ezr. 9. 1.

2. To make knowne to other men sinning, their sinnes. Thus may they be brought to be humbled and to find mercy for them; as Dauid was humbled and found mercy.2. Sam. 12. 7, 8.

3. To make confession of them to God, Exo. 10. 6. As Ezra, Daniel and o­thers did, and procured pardon.

4. To pray for pardon for them, Dan. 9 [...] As the forenamed Saints did. For by a faithfull and feruant prayer of the righteous, if one haue committed sinnes they shall be forgiuen him. Iam. 5. 15, 16.

These duties the Petition it selfe requireth.

§. 267. Of Duties required by reason of our Profession to forgiue others.

Q. VVHat Duties are required by vertue of the Condition annexed to the fift Petition.

A. 1. To take notice of Gods mercifull dealing with vs. For this is the ground of the kinde of profession here made, As we forgiue. Gen. 50. 20. Ioseph taking notice of Gods good prouidence towards him, made him the more kind to his brethren.

2. To follow God in his goodnesse. Eph. 5. 1. A point expressely enioyned by the Apostles. They that do not imitate God, cannot make this profession, As we forgiue.

3. To put on such graces as may make vs readie to forgiue. These are Bowels of mercies,Col. 3 12, 13. kindnesse, humblenesse of minde, meeknesse, long-suffering, forbearing one another, &c. Without these a man will not be brought to forgiue wrongs.

4. To put away reuengefull passions. Col. 3. 8. As water extinguisheth sparkes of fire, so a reuengefull humour putteth away all good [Page 223] motions and intentions of forgiuing.

5. To accept of all meanes of attonement offered, 1. Sam. 25. 35. As Dauid accep­ted to the meanes which Abigail vsed to pacifie his wrath. This will bring vs to forgiue.

6. To offer reconciliation, Gen. 13. 8. as Abraham did. There are some of so crabbed a disposition as they will neuer be reconciled, though they bee the wrong doers, except they be sought vnto. Except therefore we seeke to them, there will be no reconcilia­tion: and if there be no reconciliation how can it be thought that we can say in truth, Wee forgiue?

7. Not to yeald to such as incite vs to reuenge. 1. Sam. 25. 8, 9. Hereof we haue a worthie patterne in Dauid. 2. Sam. 29. 21, 22 23. If we hearken to such as stirre vs vp to reuenge, we may be brought euen against our owne mind and disposition to take reuenge.

8. Actually to forgiue. Col. 3. 13. This is it which we plainly professe. We mocke him, who will not be mocked, and the truth is not in vs, if wee vtter this condition, and do not indeed for­giue.

9. To make peace betwixt others. For wee professe in the plu­rall number of others as of our selues that WE forgiue; we must therefore endeauour that others may so do. And herein shall we be blessed.Mat. 5. 9. Blessed are the peace-makers.

Hitherto of the Duties which both the Petition it selfe, and also the Condition annexed thereto require.

§. 168. Of that matter of Humiliation which the fifth Petition affordeth.

Q. VVHat are the things to be bewailed by reason of the fift Petition?

A. 1. Such as are against the Petition it selfe.

2. Such as are against the Condition.Eccl. 7. 29.

Against the Petition are such as these.Infinitas rationes mali quibus im­plicatur homo, fa­teatur à se ipso proficisci, deplo­ret, abdicet [...], Trem. & lun. in hunc. loc.

1. Adams sinne. Thereby did man first come to be endebted to the reuenging iustice of God. On this ground the wise man thus complaineth, Loe, this onely haue I found, that God hath made man vpright: but they haue sought out many inuentions.

2. The guilt of Adams sinne. This iustly is imputed to vs, be­cause [Page 224] he was a publicke person, and did beare in his loynes all that shall come from him to the end of the world. This there­fore doth the Apostle complaine of, where he saith, By the offence of one, Rom. 5. 18, 19. iudgement came vpon all men to condemnation. And, By one mans disobedience many are made sinners.

3. The many offences of our fore-fathers. By them are wee the more deepely endebted to God.Nehe. 9. 16, 17. These therefore do the people of God bitterly bewaile.

4. Originall sinne: euen that corruption of our nature where­in all are conceiued and borne. This containeth in it the seed and spawne of all sinne. And so desileth vs throughout as in euerie power of soule and part of bodie we are made loath­some, odious, and abominable in Gods sight. This therefore doth Dauid with much compunction of heart acknow­ledge.Psal. 51. 5.

5. All our actuall sinnes. These are plaine, palpable debts: which the most ignorant that be cannot denie to be so. Vnder the burden of these the Saints in all ages haue much groaned. The more in number, or the more hainous they haue bene, the more grieued and perplexed the Saints haue bene for them. Marke Dauids bitter complaint in this kinde.Psal. 38. 3, 4. There is no rest in my bones because of my sinne. For mine iniquities are gone ouer my head: as an heauie burthen they are too heauie for me.

6. Our accessarinesse to the sinnes of others. Thus we adde to the heape of our owne debts, the debts of others, whereby the heape is made much greater.Psal. 51. 14. The bloud, which Dauid with much griefe acknowledgeth, was that which at his appointment Ioab had caused to be shed.2. Sam. 2. 29, &c. By his direction he made himselfe acces­sarie thereto.1. Sam. 3. 13. So Eli by his too great indulgencie and lenitie to­wards his wicked sonnes, made himselfe accessarie to their sin, and liable to iudgement for the same.

7. Our disabilitie to discharge our debt of obedience. God gaue vs power at first to fulfill all righteousnesse. But now there is, while wee liue in this world,Rom. 8. 3. an impossibilitie thereto. Of this doth Saint Paul thus complaine,Rom. 7. 18. To performe that which is good I find not.

8. Ignorance of the Gospell. By the Gospell the onely meanes of discharging our debt is reuealed. How then can they be dis­charged [Page 225] who know it not. In this respect doth the Apostle with great griefe thus set forth the doome of such ignorant persons: If our Gospell be hid, 2. Cor. 4. 3. it is hid to them that are lost, &c.

9. Hardnesse of heart. This makes men sencelesse both of the burther of sinne: and also of Gods wrath and vengeance against sinne: which maketh God to thinke of greater and greater ven­geance. When Christ obserued hardnesse to possesse the hearts of the Iewes,Mar. 3. 5. he mourned for it.

10. Infidelitie. This makes all the meanes of pardon prepared and offered on Gods part, to be void on our part. In regard of this,Isa. 53. 1. the Prophet thus complaineth, Who hath beleeued our report?

11. Euidences of Gods wrath vpon vs. These are signes of the debt of sinne lying on our accompt, as not discharged. This was the ground of the Prophet Ieremiahs Lamentation. Lam. 1. 1. &c.

12. Gods wrath on others: especially for our sinne. We that pray for the discharge of others sinnes, haue cause to mourne when we see the wrath of God lying on them for sinne: especi­ally if wee our selues haue bene any cause of procuring it. This humbled Dauid, 2. Sam. 24. 17. and made him say, Loe, I haue sinned, and I haue done wickedly: but these sheepe, what haue they done? Let thine hand be against me, &c.

These are things to be bewailed by reason of the fift Petition.

Against the Condition vices to bee lamented are such as these,

1. The teachinesse of our nature: whereby it cometh to passe that passion is soone stirred vp: and euery small wrong maketh vs thinke of reuenge.Gen. 37. 4, 18, 19. Small was the occasion that Iosephs bre­thren tooke to execute reuenge vpon the youth.

2. The violence of our passion. If passion bee once moued (as soone it is moued) it is very readie to exceed and to grow into extremitie.2. Tim. 3. 3. [...] immites. Among other naturall corruptions of men the Apo­stle reckoneth this, that they are fierce. How fierce was Saul a­gainst Dauid?

3. Our Implacablenesse. 1. Sam. 20. 30. After men are once prouoked, they are hardly pacified againe. This is another corruption of natu­rall men reckoned vp by the Apostle,Rom. 1. 31. that they are implacable. Though the Debter in the Parable fell downe at his Creditors feete, [...] qui nul­las [...] admit tunt implacabiles, irreconciliabiles. and besought him, saying, Haue patience with me, and I will [Page 226] pay thee all, Mat. 18. 28, 29, 30. yet he would not: But after he had laid hands on him, and taken him by the throate, he cast him into prison till hee should pay the debt.

4. Our vnsatiablenesse in taking reuenge. No reuenge seemeth sufficient to a reuengefull spirit (such are all our spirits by na­ture.) So much doth the Apostle imply in this description of na­turall men,Rom. 3. 13, 15, 16. Their throate is an open sepuchre; the poyson of Aspes is vnder their lips; their feete are swift to shed bloud; destruction and mi­serie are in their waies. Est. 3. 5, 6. Haman, onely because Mordecai refused to bow vnto him, Thought it a light matter to lay hands on Mor­decai alone, but thought to destroy all the Iewes throughout the whole kingdome.

To these vices,Eradicariaut ex­tirpari à cordi­bu [...] nostris omni­no non poterit malitia donec in mundo fuerimu [...]. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6. Teachinesse, Fiercenesse, Implacablenesse, Vnsatia­blenesse in reuenge, wee are all by nature exceeding prone. Few there be that, as occasions are offered, doe not some way or o­ther manifest as much. Very hardly, if it all, will all malicious­nesse be rooted out of vs, while flesh remaineth in vs. These vi­ces therefore afford vs much matter of griefe and humiliation, and that both in regard of our selues, and of others also.

Hitherto of the Fift Petition.


§. 169. Of the Summe and seuerall parts of the sixth Petition.

Q. VVHich is the sixt Peti­tion?

A. And leade vs not into temptation:Some distinguish these words, And leade vs not into tempta­tion: but deliuer vs from euill, into two seuerall Petitions: making the subiect matter of the one to bee malum futurum, tuill to come, and of the other, malum praesens, euill present, and alreadie fallen out. But this distinction in this place cannot hold. For the latter branch respecteth euill to come, as well as euill present. And the discretiue particle [...], but, shew­eth that they are not, as the other, distinct Petitions; for then would the last clause haue bene distin­guished from the former, as the former is from the fift Petition, and the fift from the fourth, thus, AND deliuer vs from euill, Ma­ny of the ancient Fathers (follow­ing the old Latine translation) leaue out this last clause, and that because they conceiue (as Saint Augustine expresseth their mind and meaning) it belongeth to the former concerning temptation: whereby they imply, that if both the clauses were expressed, they would make but one Petition. Yet are they not to be taken as a repetition of one and the same point, but as two distinct parts and branches of the same generall matter: and so do most of the ancient Fathers and later iudicious and Orthodoxe Diuines take them. See §. 2. But deliuer vs from euill.

Q. What is the Summe of this Pe­tition?

A. Our Sanctification. For as the former did set out our Iustifica­tion, so doth this our Sanctification: vnder which two heads all our spi­rituall good to be expected in this world,Ideo quìppe ait, Sed libera, non ait, Et libera, tanquam vnam petitionem esse demonstrans. Aug. in Enchir. cap. 16. is comprised.

Q. Of how many parts doth this Petition consist?

A. Of two. The first is in these words, And leade vs not into tempta­tion: which importeth a preuenting of euill feared. The other is in these words,Quod ille in vl­timo posuit, Sed libera nos à ma­lo, iste non posuit, vt intelligere­mus ad illud su­perius quod de tentatione dictū est pertinere. Aug. ibid. But deliuer vs from euill: which implyeth a Recouering from euill fallen out. So as our desire in this Petition is, that God would be so farre from giuing vs ouer, like a iust and seuere Iudge, into the power of the execu­tioners of his wrath, as rather, like a pitifull and mercifull father, if at [Page 228] any time wee bee ouer-taken by them, he would rescue and deliuer vs.

Q. What points are to be considered in the first part?

A. 1. The Matter whereabout it is made, Temptation.

2. The Action which is prayed against, Leade not into.

3. The Person to whom the deprecation is directed.

4. The Parties on whose behalfe it is made. Vs.

§. 170. Of Temptation, and Tempters.

Q. WHat is Temptation?

A. In generall it is a proofe or triall: as the [...] in Piel pro­bare. Inde [...] probatio, tentatio. [...] conatus. Inde [...] & [...]. Et inde [...] tenta­tio. notation of the word in both the originall languages doth shew. Dauid therefore ioyneth these two words together, Psal. 95. 9. [...] tempted, proued: which theHeb. 3. 9. [...]. Apostle translateth by two di­stinct words, whereof one signifieth to tempt, the other to proue. And another Apostle applyeth the word commonly put for temptation to that proofe and triall which is made by fierie perse­cution (1. Pet. 4. 12.) Thinke it not strange (saith he) concerning the fierie triall, which befalleth you [...]. for temptation: which is to trie you.

Temptation then generally or indefinitely considered is of an indifferent nature: nor simply good, nor simply euill: but good as it is well vsed: euill as it is ill vsed. It is therefore in Scripture attributed toExod. 16. 4. God, from whom nothing but that which is good can come, and to the1. Thes. 3. 5. Diuell, from whom proceedeth nothing but that which is euill: and also to men who some­times are guidedReu. 2. 2. by the Spirit of God, and sometimesMat. 22. 18. by the spirit of Satan.

Temptation, when it is attributed to God is to be taken in the best sence: and that to proue, discouer, & make knowne what is in man: as Moses said to Israel,Deut. 8. 2. [...] Thou shalt remember the way which the Lord thy God led thee to tempt thee (or to proue thee) to know what was in thine heart. Quod scriptum est, tentat vos do­minus deus ve­ster, vt sciat si diligatis cum, illa locutione positum est, vt sciat, pro eo quod est vt scire vos faciat. Aug. de Serm. Dom. in monte. lib. 2. Not as if God were ignorant thereof (for he vnderstands our thoughts afarre off. Psal. 139. 2.) but that he might make knowne to them what indeed was in them. Now [Page 229] God by tempting men maketh known, sometimes such graces as are in them: (so heGen. 22. 1, 12. tempted Abraham:) and sometimes such corruptions as lurk in them: so he2. Chro. 32. 31. tempted Hezekiah. Neither of these temptations can be thought to be vniust, or any way euill.

Temptation when it is attributed to Satan is alwayes to bee taken in the worst sence that can bee: for his temptations in his intent are as bad as may be. The Diuels areMa [...] 1. 2. vncleane, Luke 8. 2. euill spirits. Ephes. 6. 12. Spirituall wickednesses: Math. 1 [...] 19. Satan is the wicked One. He euer tempteth men to sinne: endeauouring by his temptations to draw men in to sinne. And because hee neuer ceaseth so to tempt, by a kinde of property hee is called [...]. Math. 4 3. 1. Thes. 3. 5. the Tempter. For he tempteth sometimes immediately by himselfe (soMath. 4. 3. he tempted Christ) sometimes mediately by his Messen­gers (for a2 Cor. 12. 7. Messenger of Satan was sent to tempt Paul) His Messengers are of seuerall sorts. Some with Syren-Songs, and Dalilah delights lull men asleepe (as Sampson Iudg. 16. 19. was lulled) and bewitch them (as theGal. 3. 1. Galatians were bewitched:) Others with thundring threats, and boisterous buffets terrifie men, as Ioh. 3. 2.—9. 22.—19 38. many of the Iewes were kept from making open profession of Christ by reason of the terrible Edicts that were made a­gainst such: and2. Tim 4. 16. Quocuaque me vertam nulla vs quam securitas est. & quae mul­cent, & quae mo­lestant limeo. Bern. Quadr. Serm. 6. Malleus caelestis opificis factus est, malleus vniuersae ter [...]ae. Terit electos ad eorum vtilitatem: re­probos conterit in corumdomna­tionem: Bern. Serm. in Trans. S. Mal. many Christians forsooke Paul by reason of the fierce persecution raised against him. Hence hath risen the distinction of temptations on the right hand, and on the left hand. All enticing allurements to wickednesse being counted temptations on the right hand: and all violent discouragements from goodnesse being counted temptations on the left hand. Thus doth Satan, as he thinkes may most make for his aduan­tage, either insencibly like a wily Serpent winde himselfe into men, or violently like a roaring Lyon, beare all before him. Not vnfitly is he called the Creators maule: his maule for the whole earth. He knocketh the Elect for their profit, he knock­eth downe the Reprobate vnto their perdition.

Temptation attributed to men must bee examined according to their different kindes, and accordingly censured.

Men tempt God, Themselues and other men: all which may be well or ill done.

They may tempt God well, by making proofe of his power and truth, for strengthening of their faith, when they are called [Page 230] to an extraordinarie worke (as in this caseIudg. 6. 36, &c. Gideon did) or haue some extraordinarie promise made vnto them (as in this case2. King. 20 8, &c. Hezekiah did) or haue some speciall warrant: in which case becauseIsa, 7. 11, &c. Ahaz refused to tempt God, hee is blamed.

Men may euilly tempt God by presuming too much, when they haue no good ground and sufficient warrant for their pre­sumption (as theMath. 4 6, 7. Diuel would haue had Christ to haue done: and as the1. Sam. 4. 3. Israelites did when they carried the Arke into the Armie) or by an vndue doubting, and despairing of Gods helpe in time of need (as theExod. 17. 2. Numb. 14. 22. Israelites oft did in the Wildernesse.) Both these wayes did the Israelites tempt God after the Spies returned from searching the Land of Canaan. For first tho­row despaire theyNumb. 14. 1, &c. thought of returning backe againe to E­gypt: and being blamed for that, they fell into another ex­treme, and—44. presumptuously would needs goe against the Ca­naanites without the Arke, and without Moses their guide.

2. Men tempt themselues well, when they search and exa­mine themselues to finde out the secret corruptions of their soules, or the truth and strength of grace in them.2. Cor. 13. 5. [...]. Hereunto they are expressely exhorted. But they doe euilly tempt them­selues, when by presuming too much vpon their own strength they cast themselues into vnnecessary dangers (asMat. 26. 35, 58. Ioh. 18. 18. Peter did) or when by the inward corrupt motion of their own soule they are entised and drawne vnto any euill,Iam. 1. 14. Euery man is tempted, when hee is drawne away of his owne last, and entised.

3. One man tempteth another well, when on iust ground they assay to finde out some excellency in them (1. King. 10. 1. [...] to which end the Queene of Sheba came to Salomon to tempt him) or else some hidden corruption in them; thus the Church of E­phesus Reu. 2. 2. [...]. tempted them which said they were Apostles, but were not: and so found them lyars. But euilly doth one man tempt another, when he enticeth him to sinne (Gen. 39. 7, 10. whereunto Io­sephs Mistris tempted him) or when he assayeth to ensnare him, and to bring him into any danger.Luk. 20. 20, 23 Thus the Ministers of the Pharisies tempted Christ.

These are the seuerall kinds of temptation mentioned in the Scripture.

§. 171. Of the kinde of temptation here meant.

Q. VVHat kinde of temptation is here meant?

A. Temptation vnto sinne, whether it arise from Satan, our selues, or other men.

Q. Is temptation to sinne simply euill?

A. No: not in the party tempted, if he yeeld not thereto, but resist it:Math. 4. 9. For Christ, who was free from all sin,Petimus ne ali­cui tentationi vel consentiamus decepti, vel ceda­mus afflicti. Aug. Epist. 121. was temp­ted vnto sinne.

Q. Why then are we taught to pray against it?

A. The principall thing against which wee are here taught to pray is the power of that temptation, as is euident by this Particle173. into. Yet great cause there is why we should also pray against the very act of temptation, that at all we be not temp­ted to any sinne, both because the act it selfe is euill in them that tempt to sinne, and also because by nature wee are as prone to yeeld to euery euill whereunto we are tempted, as dry Tinder is apt to be set on fire by euery sparke that falleth vpon it:Gen. 6. 5. For Euery imagination of the thoughts of mans heart is onely euill continually. Herein lyeth a maine difference betwixt the quality of Christs humane nature, and ours. His was so per­fectly pure as no temptation could fasten vpon it. It was to temptation as a sea of water to sparkes of fire, which soone extinguisheth them. Ours is as dry Tinder, yea as dry Gun­powder.

§. 172. Of mans subi [...]ction to temptation.

Q. WHat obseruation may bee gathered from the mention of temptation in this deprecation?

A. Men in this world are continually subiect to temptations. Rom. 7. 21. This complaint of the Apostle, (I finde a law that when I would doe good, euill is present with mee: and, O wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer mee from the body of this death?) verifieth as much: so also doth wofull experience in all men. If there bee a man that findes not this true in himselfe, his case is desperate: for either hee is depriued of all spirituall vnderstanding and [Page 232] sence, that he is not able to discerne a temptation: or his whole course of life is so full of temptations, and hee such a slaue to them, they so frequent on him, and he so free towards them, as hee cannot see the wood for trees. He cannot tell when he is tempted, because he is neuer but tempted. Temptations are not as enemies to him to be resisted: but as his best friends to haue the best entertainment that hee can afford vnto them. Thus a man accounting temptations to be no temptations may in his owne imagination be free: but indeed no man is free.

See the whole Armour of God Treat, [...] part. 5. §. 13. on Ephes. 6. 15. This is thus ordered partly byMath. 10. 29. Gods wise prouidence (to 2. Cor. 12. 9. manifest his owne diuine properties, toIob 1. 8. make knowne the graces which are in his children, toMat. 26. 34. discouer their weake­nesses, to2. Cor. 12. 7. preuent secret corruptions, and toReu. 14. 13. declare a diffe­rence betwixt this present life, and that which is to come) and partly by theIob 1. 7. malice of Satan, both toIob 1. 11. deface the image of God in men, and also to1. Pet. 5. 8. bring them to eternall destruction. For he is a professed enemy both of Gods glory, and also of mans saluation.

A due consideration of this our condition in this world to be so subiect vnto temptations may well moue vs toEphes. 6. 10, 11 See more of this direction in the whole Ar­mour of God. be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might, and to put on the whole armour of God, that we may be alwayes well prepared to stand against all temptations. Yea also (Mat. 26. 41. according to Christs di­rection) to watch and pray that we enter not into temptation: and (1. Pet. 5. 8. according to Saint Peters direction) to be sober and vigi­lant: (for Satan taketh great aduantage both from intemperan­cie, and also from securitie: witnesseGen. 19. 33. Lots Incest for the one: and2. Sam. 11. 2, &c. Dauids Adultery and murther following thereupon, for the other) and because of the continuall danger wherein we are by reason of the manifold temptations whereunto we are sub­iect while we are on earth, we ought to aspire after heauen, and to say with the Apostle,Rom. 7. 24. O wretched man, that I am, who shall deliuer me from the body of this death?

This of Temptation. The Action deprecated is, Lead not into.

§. 173. Of leading into.

Q. WHat is meant by leading into? Non hac Sonat Ne nos indu­cas in tentatio­nem, quasi non permittat nos aliquando ten­tari, sed ne per­mittat in tenta­tione positos su­perari. Ab. Isa. de Orat. Dom. c. 23.

A. Giuing of one ouer to the power of that whereunto he is brought. In this sence the Psalmist making by diuine instinct imprecation against a reprobate enemy, saith, Set a wicked man ouer him, to doe with him at his pleasure. Our English maketh a manifest difference betwixt VNTO and INTO, which is worth the noting in this place. The latter im­plyeth a degree further then the former.Psal. 109. 6. [...] Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. A man that canno [...] swimme, may be led vnto a deepe poole & yet be safe enough; but if hee be led into it he is in great danger of drowning, ex­cept he be pulled out againe. They who translate it, Cast vs not into temptation, doe well expresse the sence.

§. 174. Of being in the power of temptation.

Q. WHen are men in the power of a Temptation?Ne [...]s [...] in tentationem. Aug. de [...] Dom. in mont. l. 2 Qui Orat, ne no [...] induc as in tenta­tionem, Orat [...]t mon Peccet. Aug. Epist. 95.

A. When thereby they are brought into sinne. For sin is the downefall of the soule into the tempters pit. It is therefore in the Greeke stiled [...]. a slip or a fall. The word most properly signifieth the very act of falling. The Apostle saith of couetous men, that1. Tim. 6. 9. [...]. they fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtfull lusts, which drowne men in perdition and destruction. The first sinne which Adam committed, whereby hee apparantly sell into Satans snare, is oft termedRom. 5. 15. [...] afall. In regard of this power which temptation hath ouer a man, Saint Iames saith,Iam. 1. 14. Euery man is tempted when he is drawne away of his owne lusts.

The Action being declared.Quicunque ten­tatione vinciti [...] peccatum ipse committit. Aug. hom. 42. [...] l. 50. Hom. The Person to whom it is di­rected is to be considered. The Person is hee to whom all the other Petitions are made.

§. 175. Of Gods leading into temptation.

Q. HOw can God be said to lead into temptation?

A. Both in regard of them that tempt, and of [Page 234] them also that are tempted. In regard of them that tempt, by permission and instigation. Nihil contra no [...] [...] po­test nist Deus ante permiserit. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 19. Nor Satan nor any other, be they neuer so mighty or malicious, can tempt a man, except God permit them (instance Iobs case: yea instance the case of the Swine into which vncleane Spirits entred, and forced them into the Sea.) And when they are permitted, they cannot go beyond those limits which the Lord appointeth to them:Iob. 1. 12, &c. instance a­gaine the case of the said Iob. Mat. 5. 12, 13. This made much to the glory of Iob. Iob 1. 12. Besides this permission,—2. 6. the Lord doth also make them which tempt men,Po [...]estas Satanae dupliciter aduer­sus nos datur. vel ad gloriam cum probamur, vel ad [...] cum de­linquimus. Cypr. loc. citat. Executioners of his wrath and iustice: and in that respect may be said to1. Kin. 11. 14, 23 instigate and stirre them vp. For 1. King. 22. 19, &c. God dealeth with obstinate sinners as Iudges doe with con­uicted Malefactors. They giue them ouer to the power of the Hang-man. Now God hath many executioners of his wrath. The chiefe of all is the Diuell. Among others may bee recko­ned vp mans owne lusts. In this respect therefore it is said of the Gentiles, thatRom. 1. 24, 26 God gaue them vp to vncleannesse tho­row the lusts of their owne heart: and againe, that God gaue them vp vnto vile affections.

In regard of them that are tempted God may bee said to leade them into temptation, partly by leauing them to them­selues,Homines sine gratia nullum prorsus siue co­gitan do, siue v [...] ­len [...] out a [...]an­do siue agendo faciunt bonum, Aug. de Cor. & Gra. c, 2. and partly by withdrawing his grace from them. Man in regard of spirituall strength is as weake as water which cannot vphold it selfe but runneth all about: without grace he can neither thinke, will, affect, nor doe any good. If therefore hee be left to himselfe, how can hee stand against a temptation. 2. Ch [...]o. 32. 31 God leauing Hezekiah, hee soone fell. Yet Gods grace is able to establish vs against all temptations, euen the most vio­lent that can be.2. Cor. 12. 9. My grace is sufficient for thee, saith God to Saint Paul, when a Messenger of Satan was sent to buffet him. Now in that God permitteth and instigateth Tempters to tempt men, and withdrawing his Grace which is sufficient for them, leaueth them who are not able to stand of themselues, he is said to leade them into temptation

§. 176. Of freeing God from being Author of sinne.

Q. CAn God be an Author of sinne?

A. No verily. It is the greatest blasphemie that can be to auouch, or conceit any such thing of God. There is no one thing so contrarie to another, not white to blacke, not darknesse to light, not death to life, as sinne to God. That which is said of lying, may more generally bee said of sinne,Heb. 6. 18. It is impossible (and that in the most strict and absolute kinde of impossibilitie that can be) It is impossible that God should sinne,Why it is im­possible that God should be accessarie to sinne. or be a cause, or Author of sinne. This we ought to beleeue and professe, 1. because his supreme and absolute power is such as it ought not to bee called into question. Is it fit to say to a King, thou art wicked? and to Princes, ye are vngodly? Iob 34. 18, 19. how much lesse to him that accepteth not the person of Princes, &c? 2. because the perfection of his puritie is such as it admitteth no mixture.1. Ioh. 1. 5. God is light, and in him is no dark­nesse at all. Iam. 1. 17. 3. Because he is the originall fountaine of all good­nesse:Iam. 3. 11. so as if this principle (doth a fountaine send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter?) bee infallibly true of any fountaine, it is without contradiction most true of this origi­nall fountaine. On these and other like grounds, wee may well know that God hath power to giue, with-hold, or with­draw what hee will, and when hee will: and to support or forsake whom hee will: and that he is not bound to that law which hee hath set to his creatures, nor to giue an account to any. Yea we ought to acknowledge God to bee as most pure in his nature, so most iust in all his counsels, words and workes: and if wee cannot fully and clearely vnderstand how the fore­named actions concerning leading into temptation can bee at­tributed vnto God, and yet God freed from all accessarinesse to sinne, to lay our hands vpon our mouthes, and to ascribe it to the shallownesse of our owne apprehension: but no way to charge God with folly or sinne. Among the Principles which without all gaine-saying ought to bee beleeued, this is one of the prime,Psal. 5. 4. that the Lord is a God that hath no plea­sure [Page 236] in wickednesse: hee can no way be accessarie thereto. But besides this absolute soueraignty and perfect puritie of God, other particular reasons of Gods dealing with men in this kinde may bee giuen, and those so clearely iust and equall, as any one, but such an one as is blinded in his minde by the god of this world, may discerne the iustice and equitie thereof. For

1. Where God permitteth Tempters to tempt men,The ends of all Gods actions most iust, it is for good and iust ends, as to try and proue mens faith, cou­rage, wisedome, patience, and other like graces, all which were by this meanes proued to bee sound and great in Iob: Deut. 13. 3. or else to discouer their weakenesse and secret wickednesse, that they may neither bee too secure, nor ouerbold and selfe-con­ceited. By this meanes and for these ends wasMat. 26. 33, &c Peters weake­nesse discouered.

2. Where God biddeth,God sendeth tempters as a iust Iudge. sendeth or instigateth Tempters to tempt men, as in the cases of1. Kin 22, 20. Ahab, of theRom. 1 24, 26. Gentiles, and of2. Thes. 2. 11, 12. Antichristians, it is as a iust iudge to punish former transgressions, so as these Tempters are therein executioners of Gods iustice.

3. Where God leaueth men to themselues, and with­holdeth his assistance,God with-holds his assistance to make man know himselfe. it is to giue euident demonstration that man without God is nothing: no more able to stand of him­selfe then a child that is new-borne. Now there is great need that man should bee euidently conuicted hereof,2. Chro. 32, 31. lest hee be too presumptuous of his owne strength, and neglect God.

4. Where God with-draweth his Spirit, or any grace from man,Mat. 4. 25. it is as a iust punishment for abuse thereof. In this respect God tooke away his Spirit from Saul. Mat. 25, 28. Compare 1. Sam. 10 9. & 11. 6. with 1. Sam. 16. 14.

To conclude this point,God turnes all to good. so farre is God from being any way accessarie to sinne by leading into temptation, as contrarily he tur­neth the euill thereof vnto good.2. Cor. 4. 6. For as at first he brought light out of darknesse, so euer since by his Almightie power, vnsearcha­ble wisedome, and perfect puritie hath he brought good out of euill. Good to himselfe, by making the glorie of his iustice in pu­nishing, of his pittie in succouring, of his power in supporting, of his faithfulnesse in deliuering, of his wisedome in catching [Page 237] the subtill in their owne craftinesse, and disappointing their plots and practises, and of other his properties to shine forth the brighter. Good also to his Saints, as Ioseph said to his brethren, Ye thought euill against me, Gen 50. 20. [...] but God meant (or disposed) it vnto good. Thus though the temptation be euill, yet God is good euen in leading into temptation.

§. 177. Of mans disabilitie to resist temptation.

Q. WHat doctrines doth praying vnto God, not to leade vs into temptation, teach vs?Frustra rogantes deum dicimus, ne nos inducas in tentalionem, si hoc in nostra posi tum sit potestate. Aug. Epist. 89.

A. 1. Man is not able of himselfe to stand a­gainst temptations. If he were, what cause of feare had he to bee lead into temptation? The Prophet well knew this, who said, Ier. 10, 23. O Lord, I know that the way of man is not in himselfe [...]it is not in man that walketh to direct his steps: and the Apostle, who said,2. Cor. 3. 5. Wee are not sufficient of our selues to thinke any thing of our selues. If man cannot direct his steps, nor of himselfe thinke any thing, can he withstand all tempters, & keepe himselfe from all temptations?

This disabilitie is come vpon vs by sinne, which hath depri­ued vs of all that spirituall strength which God at our first creation gaue vs.How man came to be disabled. ForEccl. 7. 31. God made man righteous, euenGen. 1. 27. after his owne image: by vertue whereof man had power to remaine sted­fast in that estate, and to withstand all Tempters, so, as not to be ouer-come with any temptation: onely that power was left to his owne power and free will: which he abusing, voluntarily yealded to the temptation of Satan, and depriued himselfe of all spirituall strength and life: and now by nature isEphe. 2. 1. dead in sinne: no way able to resist any temptation further then God doth giue him grace and strength so to do. Therefore he saith not, without me ye can do little, but, nothing. Non ait, sine m [...] parum, sed nihil potestis facere. Aug in Iob. tract. 81.

Hereby the vanitie of such as are presumptuous in their owne strength (whereinMat 26. 35. Peter failed too much) and of such as arrogantly boast of any thing that is in man, is discouered. Rom. 11. 18. S. Paul fore warneth Christians to take heed hereof,The follie of presumption. and very emphatically thus enforceth this point,1. Cor. 4. 7. what hast thou that thou diddest not receiue? Now if thou diddest receiue it, why doest thou glorie as if thou hadst not receiued it?

[Page 238] Hereby also we are taught both Humiliation for this naturall impotencie which man hath brought vpon himselfe:Matter of hu­miliation. and Abne­gation of all goodnesse,Quandorogamus ne in tentationem venianius, admo­nemur infirmi­tatis nostrae. Cypr. de orat. Do. §. 19. and confidence in our selues. IfReu. 5. 4. Iohn saw cause to weepe for mans disability to search into the Records of Gods counsell: how much more cause haue we to weepe, and to be humbled euen in dust & ashes for our naturall impotencie to withstand temptations which are so dangerous to our soule? and in denial of our selues to say,Rom. 7. 18. I know that in me dwelleth no good thing.

§. 178. Of Gods ouer-ruling power in Temptations.

Q. VVHat other doctrine maybe gathered from this depre­cation directed to God?

A. God hath an ouer-ruling hand in all tempta­tions. Potens est domi­nus qui abstulit peccatum vesti [...] & delicta vestra do­naui [...], tueri & custodire vos ad­uersum diaboli aduersantis insi­dias. Aug. de verb. Dom. c. 28. The Lord who hath taken away your sinne, and pardo­ned your offences, can preserue and keepe you from the wiles of your aduersarie the diuell. He can either keepe vs safe from all: or he can giue vs ouer into the power of euery one. Other­wise there would not be such cause of flying to him in time of temptation, as in this Petition is implyed. But true is that of Saint Peter, The Lord knoweth how to deliuer the godly out of temp­tations: and this of Saint Paul, God is faithfull, who will not suffer you to be tempted aboue that you are able. 2. Pet. 2. 9.

As the supreme soueraigntie and absolute power which God hath ouer all creatures doth euidently proue the point (For who hath resisted his will? 1. Cor. 10. 13. If he say to a Tempter go, he goeth: or come, Gods power o­uer tempters. he commeth: or do this, he doth it.) so the care which he taketh of his Church to prouide for it,Rom. 9. 19. to protect it, to keepe it safe from all dangers,Mat. 8. 9. and to bring it to rest and glorie in hea­uen, doth shew the reason why he retaineth an ouer-ruling hand in all temptations.Gods care ouer his Church. Though in wisedome he suffer tempters to assault his children, yet he will order the assault so as it shall not preuaile against them, no nor turne to their damage, but rather to their aduantage: for the effecting whereof he holds the raines in his owne hands, to let them loose, or hold them in, as hee seeth cause.2. King. 19. 28. That which God said to Semacherib, (I will put my [Page 239] hooke in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips) he doth to all the temp­ters of his Church. This care of God ouer his Church the Psalmist doth thus excellently set forth in these words,Psal. 105. 14, 15 He suffe­red no man to do them wrong, yea he reprooued Kings for their sakes, saying, Touch not mine annointed, and do my Prophets no harme.

Learne we hereby in all temptations,Trust in God▪ & feare him more then tempters. and in all straits, where­unto thereby we are brought, to looke vnto God, (as Iehosaphat did,2. Chro. 20. 12. when by reason of the multitude of his mightie enemies he knew not what to do,Qui deo se com­mittit diabolum non timet. Aug. loc. citat.) and to feare God more then them which tempt vs: for on this ground we may with confidence say, The Lord is my helper, I will not feare what any Tempter can do. For there may be sure and safe defence from all those euils which Satan doth plot and practise against vs,Heb. 13. 6. if God deliuer vs.A cunctis aduer­sis quae contra nos molitur ini. micus potest esse fida & firma tu­telo, si nos deus liberet. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 19.

§. 179. Of the restraint of the power of Tempters.

Q. VVHat third Doctrine doth the direction of this depreca­tion vnto God teach vs?

A. The power of such as tempt vs is limited. This is euident by the restraint of the arch-tempter Satan, who setteth all on worke,Reu. 20. 23. euen he, when God pleased, was bound a thousand yeares. And though he desired to haue the disciples,See the whole Armour of God Treat. 1. Part. 3. §. 22. in Eph. 6. 12. that he might sift them as wheate, yet could he not, as he desired, preuaile ouer them. Something hee did: but hee came farre short of his desire.

By this meanes the Lord giueth euident proofe that his po­wer extendeth it selfe ouer the most mightie and malicious ene­mies that his Church hath:Gods enemies forced to see his power. and forceth them to say, This is the finger of God. Exod. 8. 19. Yea by this meanes his Church euen in this world is kept safe,The Church kept safe. so as the gates of hell cannot preuaile against it. For if Satan and his instruments had power to do what they will,Math. 16. 18. the whole Church should soone be deuoured.1. Pet. 5 8. Her aduersarie the di­uell, like a roaring Lyon, walketh about, seeking whom to de­uoure.

We all who are members of the true Church,Encouragemēt against temptations. though euen in that respect we are the more tempted and assaulted, haue iust [Page 240] cause to reioyce, and to comfort and encourage our selues a­gainst the many temptations of Sathan, and other tempters. Though they desire and seeke our vtter ruine, yet are they re­strained: they cannot at cheiue what they desire and seeke. They are like to a fierce masty dog that is chained, and can go no fur­ther then to the length of his chaine. On this ground the Lord giueth this aduice,Reu. 2. 10. Feare none of these things which thou shalt suf­fer: behold the diuell shall cast some of you into prison, that you may be tried: and yee shall haue tribulation ten daies, &c. The parti­cular number (Some of you, not all) The kinde of persecution (cast into prison, not, put to the sword) and the determinate time (ten daies not perpetually) doe all imply a restraint: and thereupon he inferreth his exhortation, Feare none of those things, &c. on the same ground Christ hauing foretold his Disciples that in the world they should haue tribulation,Iohn 16. 33. addeth this en­couragement, be of good cheare, I haue ouer-come the world.

This restraint of the power of tempters doth further mini­ster iust occasion of praising God,Blesse God for restaining tēp­ters. and saying, Blessed bee the Lord: Psal. 124. 6, 7. who hath not giuen vs as a prey to their teeth. Our soule is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the foulers: the snare is broken, and we are deliuered. Fitly, to enforce the equity of this duty, I may apply to our present purpose, that which Christ said of the fierce persecution of the Iewes, Except the tempters power were limited,Mat. 24. 22. there should no flesh be saued; but for the Elects sake it is restrained.

Next to the Person leading, The Parties lead into temptation are to be considered. They are comprised vnder this particle vs, which being a word of the plurall number includeth more them our selues: and it being of the first person hath relation to the Preface.

§. 180. Of the extent of our desires for others freedome from Temptation.

Q. VVHat instruction doth this particle vs, being of the plurall number, teach vs?

A. Our desire must bee for the spirituall freedome of others as well as of our selues. Mutuis vaetis nos inuicem fouea­mus, [...]ustodia­mus: oremus pro lapsis vt erigan­tur: oremus pro stantibus, vt non ad ruinas vsque tententur, &c. Cypr. Epist. 31 §. 6 This desire made S. Paul send to know the [Page 241] faith of the Thessalonians,1 Thes. 3. 5. lest by some meanes the Tempter had tempted them. This also made him2 Cor. 11. 2, 3 iealous ouer the Corinthi­ans, andGal 5. 12. When Temp­ters preua [...]le God is dishono­red. zealous against those tempters that had crept in a­mong the Galathians.

Tempters seeke to deface Gods Image in his Saints, which if they doe, they impeach his glory: yea if they get any of the Saints into their snares, they willIsa 52 5. continually blasph [...]me the Name of the Lord, and say in scorne and derision,Ezek. 36. 20. Tempters en­boldned. These are the people of the Lord.

The snares also which tempters lay,1 Tim. 6. 9. drowne men in perdition and destruction, if they be fast held thereby. And if they preuaile against some; they will be the more bold to set on others, as Senacherib who by the victories which he had got against other nations was so fleshed, as he thought God could not deliuer Ie­rusalem out of his hands. Thus by the aduantages which Satan getteth against others,2 King. 18. 33. &c. wee our selues are in great dan­ger.

The zeale therefore which we ought to haue of Gods glory, The loue we owe to our brethren, and the care which lyeth on vs for our owne safetie, require that we seeke others spirituall freedome as well as our owne.

When [...]oeuer thou feelest the burden of any temptation,In thy triall [...] think of others. or discernest the danger thereof, think of others that haue the same common enemies that thou hast, and by reason thereof are in the same common condition: and thinke not all well enough when thou hast found some assistance against them or freedome from them.Ioh. 17. 11, &c. Remember how mindefull of others Christ was in the houre of his triall and temptation. Expressely it is said of him,Heb. 2. 18. In that he himselfe hath suffered being tempted, hee is able to succour them that are tempted. Though we haue not such power to succour, yet according to our power wee ought to haue such a minde.

§. 181. Of that subiection wherein Saints are to Temptations.

Q. VVHat instruction doth the relation of this particle vs to the Preface, teach vs?

A. Gods children are not exempted from temptations. They who call God Father, and who testifie their due respect to him, are taught to pray against temptations, which were not needfull to be taught, if they were not subiect thereto. Runne thorow the Scripture, obserue the liues of those Saints which are there recorded, and you shall finde the Doctrine abundantly proued. Take one example, which may be in steede of all. Christ the dea­rest of Gods children, the Sonne of his loue, in whom his soule delighted, was oft soarely tempted, both byMat. 4. 1, &c. Satan himselfe, and also by hisMat. 16. 1.—22. 18. instruments. If hereupon it be demanded, what the priuiledge of Saints ouer and aboue the wicked is in regard of temptation, I answer, very great: both in that they are assu­red of1 Cor. 10. 13. sufficient strength, so as they shall not be vanquished by any:Rom. 8. 28. and also that euery temptation shall in the issue turne vnto their good.

TheHeb. 12. 5. &c. lo [...]e which God beareth to his-children, and the father­ly care that he taketh of them,Flagellatum vi­deo & emenda­tum, & alium suspicer quàm vnum essè [...]x fi­lys? Bern. Epist. 23. moueth him to proue them, to exercise them, to scoure them, to keepe them vpright, to make them wise, watchfull, and euer well prepared by temptations. BesidesReu. 12. 4. Satans greatest malice is against them.

It is therefore no good inference which many make, that God is angry with them, and loueth them not, that hee is not their Father,God is not an­gry with all that are tempted. nor they his children, because hee suffereth them to be tempted. This was the inference which the friends of Iob made of his trialls and temptations. ButIob. 42. 7. Gods owne censure of their disputation sheweth the non-consequence thereof. The truth is, that they who finde themselues wholy freed from temptations haue most cause to doubt of Gods fatherly loue to them, and care ouer them. The Apostle pronounceth such to be Heb. 12. 8. bastards, and not sons. If wee well consider the estate of the Church,Si inagnum illud ecclesiae corpus considerare libet, facile satis ad­uertimus, longè acrius impugnari spirituale, viros ipsius ecclesiae, quam carnales. Bern in Psal. 91. Serm 7. we may soone finde that such as are spirituall are much more feircely assaulted then such as are carnall. The more sure [Page 243] Satan is of any, the more quiet, and secure he suffers them to be. A Lyon runneth and roareth after that prey which is out of his clutches: but that which he hath brought into his den, and is sure of, he can suffer to be still, and quiet, till he meane to de­uoure it. So Satan.Luk. 11. 21. [...]. While a strong man armed keepeth his Palace, the things which he hath, are in peace. Woe to them that are in such peace within Satan that strong mans palace.

§. 182. Of the freenesse of mans will in sinne.

Q. VVHat may bee obserued from the relation of the par­ties tempted to the action of leading into tempta­tion?

A. Man is not forced to sinne. For it is implied that if man yeeld not,Qui dueitur vo lens ducitur. the tempter can haue no power ouer him. Hee that is led goeth along with him that leadeth him.lam, 1. 14. Euery man is tempted when he is drawne away of his owne lusts and is entised. This phrase (own lusts) implyeth a voluntary yealding. On this ground are the exhortations in Scripture made to men toIam. 4. 7. resist the diuel, and toEph. 4. 27. giue no place to him. Whereby is implyed that if we stand against him,Sine voluntate nullum est pecca­tum. Aug. Re­tract. l. 2. c. 15. Naturae human [...] nec substantia erepta est in illa vniuersalis prae­uaricationis rui­na, nec v [...]luntas, lumen decusque vir tutum. Amb. in Luc. lib. 7. he cannot preuaile against vs. Many like ex­hortations are giuen to withstand, and not to yeald vnto other tempters, as the world and the flesh.

Sin is of the will, which cannot bee forced. Though the will by Adams fall hath lost all that liberty and freedome to good which it had by creation, and by corruption is made a slaue to sinne: yet as the minde retaineth vnderstanding, so the will free­dome. For freedome is as essentiall to the will, as vnderstan­ding is to the minde. IndeedeGen. 6. 5. the corrupt will of man can will nothing but that which is euill: yet the euill which it willeth, it willeth freely, and is not forced thereto. Freedome of will is not opposed to restraint in one kinde, but to constraint in that kinde:Liberum arbitri­um captiuatum nō nisi ad peccā ­dum valet. Aug. contr. Epist. Pe­lag. l. 3. c. 8. to compulsion & coaction. The wil of Dieuls is restrained to euil, they cannot will good, but euill only: yet the euill which they will they will freely and willingly: they are not constrai­ned and compelled thereto. Yea Gods will, which is most absolutely free,Wherein free­dome of will consisteth. is restrained to one kinde, which is good. He hath not in his will a liberty to euill. To will euill is against the [Page 244] perfection of his wil. Wherfore though the wil haue not a liber­ty to choose either of the contrary parts, good or euil, yet a free­dome and willingnesse it retaineth in that whereunto it yeal­deth: it neither is,The meanes whereby Satan tempteth. nor can be constrained thereto. All that Sathan doth or can doe, is by some meanes or other to moue men to yeeld to that whereunto he tempteth them. Where­upon faith the Apostle,2. Cor. 11. 3. I feare lest by any meanes as the Serpent be­guiled Eue through his subtilty, so your mindes should be corrupted, &c. To effect this the old wily Serpent hath many and mani­fold meanes. Some inward, some outward.

Inward meanes are such as delight, or affright men. Hee worketh delight by stirring vp their corrupt humours and so inclineth their will to his temptation. Thus hee stirred vp the corrupt humor of pride in Dauid, and thereby1. Chro. 21. 1. proucked him to number Israel: and the corrupt humor of couetousnesse in Iudas, in which respect hee is said toLuke 22. 3. enter into him. The meanes which in this kinde Sathan vseth are drawne to three heads:

1. Ioh. 2. 16. expounded. 1. The lust of the flesh: which is voluptuousnesse, whereby the flesh is so tickled and delighted as it draweth the will to any thing.2. Tim. 3. 4. Such persons the Apostle stileth louers of pleasures more then louers of God.

2. The lust of the eyes, which is couetousnesse. A couetouse man is euen rauished at the sight of wealth. When Achan saw siluer,Ios. 7. 21. gold, and other pretious things in Iericho, he coueted them and tooke them, though they were accursed. There is not a thing of price which a couetous man casteth his eye vpon, but instant­ly he coueteth it, and so doteth thereon, as hee will doe any thing to haue it.

3. Pride of life, which is ambition, and vaine affectation of the honours and promotions of this life. This puffeth vp aboue their mortall condition, as is euident in the examples ofEst. 3. 5. &c. Ha­man, Pan. 4. 27. Nebuchadnezzar, Ezek. 28. 2. Tyrus, andAct. 12. 22, 23 Herod. Such,Psal. 10. 4. thorow their pride, will not seeke after God.

As by these pleasing temptations Satan allureth so, by in­ward feares, frights, and terrors he draweth others to yeeld to him, asIob. 1. 11.—2. 5. hee assayed to draw Iob: and as heeIoh. 7. 13.—9. 22. preuailed with many of the people in Christs time.

[Page 245] The outward meanes which hee vfeth are such externall ob­iects as he conceiueth to bee agreeable to their humour, and therefore setteth them before them, (as he set before Christ all the Kingdomes of the world and the glory of them: Math. 4. 8.) or such as he conceiueth to be of force to terrifie them, as are all manner of troubles and afflictions. Thus it is said that the Diuell cast some of Smyrna, Reu. 2. 10. into prison. Whether the meanes which are vsed to draw men to sinne be faire or foule, by none of them is the will forced: but only moued to yeeld it selfe to the temptation.

This point affordeth two vsefull directions.The blame of sinne to be laid vpon ones selfe. One is in regard of sinnes past to iudge our selues for them, and vpon our selues to lay the whole blame: and not to thinke it a sufficient excuse to lay the blame vpon any other. Many will say when they are taken in some notorious sinne, The Diuell owed mee a spight, and now hath paid mee it, thinking thereby to extenuate their sinne;Gen. 3. 13. which conceit Eue had, when shee said, The Serpent be­guiled mee. And if any man haue beene any occasion of their sinne,—12. they will lay the blame vpon them, as Adam did vpon Eue. But had they beene resolute in their owne will, nor Satan, nor any of his instruments could haue made them to sinne. They who thus thinke to shift off sinne, doe bring the greater load vpon their owne soules. For this keepes them from that degree of humiliation and contritionIsa. 66. 2. which would moue God to pitie them. When men in truth lay loade on themselues,Math. 11. 28. God is ready to ease them. For to such as Labour and are heauy loaden Christ saith, Come vnto mee, I will giue you rest. But on such as by the shifting of sinne thinke to ease themselues, God will lay loade. WhatMath. 23. 13. loades of woe did Christ lay vpon the hypocriticall Scribes and Pharisies, who put off all burdens from themselues? What a loade was laid on1. Sam. 15. 20, 21, 22, 23. Saul, that by mincing his sinne sought to ease himselfe? and2. Sam. 12 13 what ease was giuen to Dauid, that laid the burden of sin vpon himselfe?Vera confessions, non falsa defen­sione opus habet. Aug. de Nat. & gra c. 53. Now whether it be safest so to shift off sin, as to prouoke God to lay the burden of it on vs, or so to burden our selues as to moue God to ease vs, iudge you. Is there not now more need of true confession, then false iustification.

The other direction is in regard of such sinnes as wee are tempted vnto,Be resolute a­gainst yeelding to tempters. but haue not yeelded vnto, that we take courage [Page 246] and boldnesse to our selues, and, with a resolued purpose neuer to yeeld, resist the temptation. Mans will, if he stand stoutly, and yeeld not, is an impregnable fort. Satan must by some meanes or other, faire or foule, bring a man to yeeld vp his fort, before he can enter into it. What stronger motiue to resist, to stand out, to hearken to no parlie, to endure the vtter-most assault, then this? Wherefore in this spirituall combate against temptations,1 Cor. 16. 13. Watch yee, stand fast in the faith, quit ye like men bee strong.

Thus farre of the meaning of the first part of the last Petition, and of the Instructions thence arising. The second part followeth.


§. 183. Of the extent of this word Euill.

Q. VVHerein differeth the latter part of the last Petition from the for­mer?

A. 1. In that the former part re­specteth especially euill to come, Some restrain this only to Satan, because in the Greeke [...]. an Article is prefixed, which they thinke re­straines the word to one euill one. But they are deceiued that imagine that Article alw [...]ies to imply such a restraint. Sometimes indeede it is vsed [...]. Ioh. 1. 29. demonstratiuely, poin­ting at one speciall one: sometimes [...]. Ioh. 1. 20, 21. discretiuely, distinguishing one speciall one from all others of the same sort: Sometimes [...]. Mat. 3. 17. by way of excellency: Sometimes [...]. Mat. 12. 35. [...] ­nitely mecrely for grace of speech: and sometimes in meere redundan­cie. The Article therefore doth not necessarily imply that the Diuel onely should be heere meant. Yet I denie not, but that he may be inclu­ded among other euils. The word is of all genders, and may comprise all euils vnder it. And without con­tradiction it is best (where there is no circumstance of restraint, as here is none) to expound the Scripture in the largest extent: especially in such a summarie as the Lords prayer is, where so much matter is comprised vnder so few words. to preuent it: This latter euist past or present, to redresse it.

2 In that, that noteth out the cause of sinne, which is temptation, This the quality and effect of sinne, which is euill.

Q. How many things are to bee considered in this latter part?

A. 1. The thing praied against, Euill.

2. The thing prayed for, De­liuer.

3 The Person to whom the one and the other is directed.

4 The Persons for whom they are made.

Q. What is comprised vnder this word EVILL?

[Page 247] A. 1. Satan the principall Author of euill.

2. All other kinds of euill.

Satan is thus in other places stiledMat. 13. 19. 1. Ioh 2. 13, 14. Euill one: and this word Math. 5. 39. [...]. Euill is oft put for euery thing that is contrary to good, and that with the article prefixed before it.Rom. 12. 9. [...]. Now as this title good is of a large extent,2. Thes. 3. 3. [...]. so on the contrary isGen 48. 16. Euill. 1. Ioh. 5. 19. [...]. The greatest euill of all isMa [...]. 7. 23. Acts 28. 21. Sinne. Iudgements also for sinne, and those bothZeph 3. 15. temporall andLuke 16, 25. eternall, are stiled euill. In this large extent is the word here to be taken. And because it compriseth vnder it all manner of euils, it is fitly set in the last place.

§. 184. Of euill the onely thing to be prayed against.

Q. VVHat Doctrine ariseth from the expresse mention of e­uill in this deprecation?In nouissimis ponimus, sed li­bera nos à malo, comprehenden­tes aduersa cun­cta. Cypr. de O­rat. Dom. §. 19.

A. Euill is the onely thing to be prayed against. Obseruantly marke all the deprecations mentioned in Scripture, and by a particular induction of them you shall finde this generall posi­tion abundantly proued. Take one instance which may be in­steed of all, because it is the best of all, that which Christ made a little before his death, I pray not (saith Christ to his Father) that thou should'st take them out of the world, Ioh. 17. 15. but that thou should'st keepe them from the EVILL.

Euill is the venime,By euill, things come to bee hurtfull. the poison, the sting, that maketh any thing to be hurtfull. Euill is it that makes so great a difference, as there is, betwixt Angels and Angels, Men and Men, Actions and Actions, Temptations and Temptations: some are good some are euill. No opposits are more directly contrary one to another then good and euill. As nothing therefore but that which is good is to be prayed for, so nothing but that which is euill is to be prayed against.

Learne hence wisely to obserue what is euill in any thing,Obserue what is euill in any thing. and accordingly pray against it: yea as it is more or more euill, so more instantly and earnestly pray against it. Of all euils sinne is the greatest: greatest in the kinde and nature of it: greatest also in the effects and fruits of it. It is the cause of all euill. No­thing but that which is effected or infected by it, is euill. The [Page 232] diuell, the world, wicked men, and other creatures of God which are stiled euill, are infected therewith. All manner of punishments and paines which are indeed euill, whether tem­porall, spirituall, or eternall are caused by it. Of all other euils this ought most of all to be prayed against. All things also that are causes hereof, or occasions hereto are to bee prayed against, as being in this respect euill. ThusMat. 26. 41. temptations, andPro. 38. 8. Afflictions how they are matter of deprecation and thanksgi­uing. afflicti­ons are to be prayed against: not simply and absolutely: for Iam. 1. 2. Saint Iames willeth vs to account it all ioy, when we fall into diuers temptations: and theActs 5. 41. Apostles reioyced in their sufferings: yea Iob 1. 21. Iob expressely blesseth God for taking away, as well as for giuing. For by the good and wise prouidence of God, temporall crosses doe oft turne to our good and profit.Psal. 119. 71. It is good for me that I haue bene afflicted (saith the Psalmist)Heb. 12. 10. God chasteneth vs for our profit (saith the Apostle.) In regard of this fruite which by the ouer-ruling prouidence of God, ariseth out of afflictions they are indeed matter of thanksgiuing, when God doth so order them: and therefore they are not simply and absolutely to bee prayed against. Yet because through the weakenesse of our flesh they oft cause discontent, impatiencie and other sinnes (in which respect they are euill) so farre forth as they cause any such euill effect they may be prayed against: at least we must pray that they bring not forth any sinne in vs. Thus are wee to pray against companie keeping, against feasting, against plea­sures and pastimes, and against all other things that are vsuall occasions of sinne. Yea against the abuse of euerie good thing. For the abuse of a good thing is euill. And because wicked men are oft made Satans instruments of working much euill, wee may also pray against all their euill plots and practises, not against their persons: they are to be prayed for (ex­cept we know them to haue sinned against the holy Ghost, or to be vtterly reiected of God, or haue some particular war­rant, as the Prophets oft had, not to pray for them.) More di­rectly wee are to pray against all sp [...]rituall iudgements, which are not onely punishments of sinnes, but sinnes themselues, as hardnesse of heart, errour of iudgement, inordinate lusts, de­spaire, and such like. These are directly euill. Thus are wee to pray against eternall damnation, a dreadfull euill. Finally, [Page 249] though Satan bee not the onely euill here meant, yet is hee an especiall and principall euill one. [...] Mat. 13. 19.

§. 185. Of the respects wherein Satan is stiled the euill one.

Q. HOw is Satan an especiall euill one?

A. 1. He is the primarieIoh. 8. 44. author of euill.

2. HisEph. 6. 12. disposition is onely to euill.

3. HisGen. 3. 5. temptations are all to euill.

4. His1. Pet. 5. 8. continuall practise is in euill.

5. All1. Ioh. 3. 8. euill doers are of him.

6. He hath hisEph. 2. 2. hand in all euils: as may be exemplified in these particulars following.

Iob 1. 15, 17. Outward mischiefes done by men,

Iob 27. Bodily diseases,

1. Sam. 16. 14. Vexation of spirit,

Iob 1. 16, 18, 19 Extraordinarie iudgements from heauen,

Acts 5. 3, 4. Euill thoughts of the heart,

1. King. 22. 21, 22. Euill words,

Ioh. 8. 41, 44. Euill actions,

Mat. 16. 23. Disswasions from good,

1. Thes. 2. 18. Hinderances of good,

Gen. 3. 5. Prouocations to euill.

Satan therefore may not bee excluded out of the euills here intended, but our deprecation rather is especially to be directed against him.

Thus much of Euill prayed against. That which is prayed for, is in this word DELIVER.

§. 186. Of the many wayes of deliuering from Euill.

Q. HOw may one be deliuered from euill.

A. 1. By keeping away that euill which is readie to fall vpon him.Exod. 14. 13. Thus were the Israelites deliuered from the hoast of the Egyptians that eagerly pursued them.

2. By assisting him on whom the euill is fallen, so as he is not [Page 250] ouerwhelmed,A malo deus li­berat, quando su­per id quod possu­mus, non nos per­mit [...]st tentari. Aug. de Temp. Serm. 26. and ouercome therewith. For this purpose reade Psal. 69. 14, 15.

3. By altering the nature of the euill, and turning it to a mans good. ThusGen. 50 20. God turned Iosephs abode in Egypt to much good. Herein this Prouerbe is verified, I had perished if I had not perished.

4. By taking away the force of the euill:Perijssem n [...]si pe­rijssem. as the force of the fire was taken away so as it burned not Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. Dan. 3. 27. This deliuerance Christ promised to his dis­ciples.Mar. 16. 18.

5. By remouing the euill cleane away.2. Sam. 24. 25. Thus God deliuered Israel from the deuouring Pestilence.

6. By taking one away from the euill to come.1. King. 14. 13. Thus the good sonne of wicked Ieroboam, 2. King. 22. 20. thus the good King Iosiah, Isa. 57. 1. thus many righteous men haue bene deliuered.

§. 187. Of that hope of recouerie which remaineth to them that fall.

Q. VVHat doctrine may be gathered from praying for deliue­rance?

A. There is hope of recouerie to such as are fallen. For deliuerance from euill presupposeth a fail into euill: and prayer for this de­liuerance implyeth that we may be recouered out of it. This is verified as by manifest experience of many Saints that in all a­ges haue bene recouered,Pro. 24. 16. so by this approued Prouerbe. A iust man falleth seuen times and riseth vp againe: which though it bee principally intended of affliction, yet may it also be extended to sinne.

The ground of this hope ariseth from God himselfe:Reasons. euen from his mercie, 1. Gods pittie. (whereby he is moued to pittie his children in all their miseries:Lam. 3. 22. whereupon saith the Prophet, It is of the Lords mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions faile not:) and from his power (whereby he is able to helpe them whom he pittieth:2. Gods power. whereupon saith the Apostle,Rom. 11. 23. of the Iewes, They also, if they abide not still in vnbeliefe shall be graffed in: for God is able to graffe them in againe.)3. Gods truth. And from his truth, for he that is faithfull and will do it, 1. Thes. 5. 24. hath made many promises of deliuerance.

[Page 251] This point concerneth such as stand,Comfort to feeble. & such as are fallen. In regard of this hope of recouerie they which stand ought to com­fort the feeble minded, 1. Thes. 5. 14. who are troubled with feares of vtter de­sertion, as if God were implacable, and irreconciliable towards them that are at any time ouercome by any temptation. The caueat which Christ gaue to Peter, is to be practised by all that haue any spirituall strength,Luke 22. 32. Strengthen thy brethren. Yea also they ought in the spirit of meekenesse to restore such an one. Gal. 6. 1.

As for those which are fallen,Who fallen, rise againe. they are taught not to despaire, but to say as the Spirit teacheth them, Come, let vs returne vnto the Lord: for he hath torne, and he will heale vs: Ose 6. 1. hee hath smitten and he will binde vs vp: and withall not to continue in Satans snares, but to do what they can to come out of the same,Reu. 2. 5. accor­ding to that pithie perswasion of the Lord, Remember from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first workes. Nouatiani paeni­tentiam saluta­rem negant. Aug. Quaest. mixt. Cll. Nouatiani communicarecum e [...]s noluerunt qui sub Decij persecutio­ne fidem abnega­rant & post a rescipiscentes ad eam redierant. Niceph. Eccl. Hist. l. 12. c. 28.

As for the rash, and peremptorie censure of Nouations on such as fall, it is the lesse to be regarded because it is directly con­trary to the maine scope of this latter part of this last Petition. It is not without cause iudged heresie by the Ancients.

Hauing noted the things prayed against, and prayed for, we are further to consider to whom our desire herein is to bee di­rected.

§. 188. Of God the onely Deliuerer.

Q. VVHat Doctrines may be obserued from directing this part of the Petition to God?Potens est domi­nus qui abstulit peccalū vestrum, tueri & custod [...]e vos aduersum diabolt aduersan­tis insidias. &c. Ambr. de Sacra. l. 5 c. 4.

A. 1. God is a deliuerer from euill.

2. God is the onely deliuerer from euill.

Were not God able and willing to deliuer, why should this Petition be directed to him? (But he that hath taken away our sinnes, is able to keepe vs from the snares of Satan.) Could any other deliuer, why should that other in this perfect plat-forme be left out?—70. 5.

Among other titles,—144. 2. euen thisPsal 18. 2. (Deliuerer) is oft attributed to God: andDeut. 32 39. 2 King. 19. 19. Isa. 43. 11. hereby is the Lord proued to the God onely.

Iust cause there is therefore that in all euils we shouldPsal 50 15. flie vnto the Lord, and call vpon him in the day of trouble: and2. [...]hro 20 [...]. when [Page 252] we know not what to doe, to fixe our eyes vpon him: and in faith ex­spect deliuerance from him.Lam. 3. 26. It is good that a man should both hope, and quietly waite for the saluation of the Lord. And as wee haue deliuerance from any euill,Psal. 28 6, 7, 8. Folly of Papists in seeking deli­uerance of o­thers then God. giue all the praise thereof to this Deliuerer.

Is not their follie hereby euidently discouered, that in their troubleIsa. 31. 1. Looke not to the Holy one of Israel, nor seeke the Lord, but looke and trust to such as cannot deliuer? Some toIsa. 31. 3. weake flesh, others1. Sam. 28. 7. &c to wicked fiends, Ier. 11. 12, 13. others to false gods. Much like to these are our aduersaries the Papists, who in seuerall euils haue seue­rall Saints to flie vnto, as in danger of shipwracke to Saint Ni­colas, in time of warre to Saint George, In captiuitie to Saint Leo­nard, In infection of plague to Saint Rochus, In feare of fire to S. Laurence, in trauell of child-birth to Saint Margeret, in the fit of an Ague to Saint Petronil, in tooth-ach to Saint Rombal or Saint Apollonia: and in other distresses to other Saints.Libera me Domina. Vsq quo, Domina, ob­liuisceris me, & non liberas me in die tribulatio­nis? Ad te, Do­mina, leuaui ani­mam: non praeua­leant aduersum me laquei mor­tis. In te, Domi­na, speraui: non confundas in ae­ternum. O bene­dicta, in manibus tuis reposita cst nostra salus. Bo­nauent. In Psalt. Yea in their Ladies Psalter they haue turned all the Petitions made to God for deliuerance to the Virgine Marie, thus: Deliuer me, ô Ladie. How long doest thou forget me, and doest not deliuer me in the time of trouble? To thee, ô Ladie, do I lift vp my soule, let not the snares of death preuaile against me. In thee, ô Ladie, haue I hoped, let me not be confounded for euer. O thou blessed Ladie, in thy hands our saluation is laid vp. Haue we not now iust cause to crie out against them, as the Prophet Ieremiah did against the idolatrous Iewes, and say,m ‘Be astonished, ô ye heauens, at this, and be horribly afraid: for my people haue committed two euils: they haue forsaken me the foun­taine of liuing waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisternes that can hold no water.’ 180, 181.

Thus much of the person of whom is sought deliuerance from euill. The last point concerneth the parties for whom it is sought. Hereof see §.

The meaning of the Petition being opened, the order is next to bee considered.

§. 189. Of Sanctification accompanying Iustification.

Q. VVHat may be obserued from the connexion of this Petition with the former?

A. Sanctification accompanieth Iustification. For as the summe of the former is Iustification, so the summe of this latter is San­ctification, and in our prayer we are taught to ioyne them toge­ther, [...]. as this particle AND doth import. Reade for proofe of the indissoluble connextion of these two, Rom. 6. 1, 2, &c. 1. Cor. 6. 11. Eph. 5. 25.

The grounds hereof are,

1. The manifestation of mercie and puritie in God.

2. The cleansing vertue which accompanieth the merit of Christs sacrifice.

3. The operation of the Spirit immediatly issuing from our incorporation into Christ.

4. The efficacie of the Gospell.

5. The vertue of faith.

All these are euidently set out by the coniunction of Sanctifi­cation with Iustification.

1. Iustification commendeth the rich mercie of God in acquit­ting sinners freely and fully of all that debt wherein they stand obliged to his reuenging iustice.Gods mercie & puritie manife­sted by mans Iustification and Sanctification. And Sanctification setteth out his puritie: shewing thatExod. 34. 6, 7. that God which pittieth sinners, will not boulster vp sinners in their sinnes. His pittie moueth him to iustifie them, and his puritie moueth him to sanctifie them.

2.A merit and a vertue in Christs bloud. That bloud of Christ which isMat. 26. 28. Shed for the remission of sinnes, Heb 9. 14. doth purge our conscience from dead workes to serue the liuing God. This double vse of Christs sacrifice was manifested by thatIoh. 19. 34. bloud and water which issued out of Christs side while he was on the crosse. They therefore who are iustified, are also sanctified.That spirit which vniteth to Christ sancti­fieth.

3. By the Spirit of sanctification we are vnited vnto Christ: and this spirit by vertue of that vnion is conueyed into euery of the members of Christs mysticall body.Rom. 8. 9. Now if any man haue [Page 254] not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. But if his Spirit be in any, it sanctifieth them.

4. The grace of God which bringeth saluation (that is,The Gospell a word of righte­ousnesse. the Gos­pell) teacheth vs that denying vngodlinesse and worldly lusts, we should liue soberly, Tit. 2. 11, 12. righteously, and godly. That word therefore whereby we are iustified giueth no libertie to any licentiousnesse, but doth both direct vs in the way of righteousnesse, and also gi­ueth vs abilitie to walke in that way. Hereby it appeareth that the Gospell is as pure and incorrupt as the Law.Difference be­twixt Law and Gospell. Indeed the Law is so perfect a rule of righteousnesse as it curseth euery one that in the least degree swarueth from it:Deut. 27. 26. which the Gos­pell doth not, but offereth pardon to the transgressor. Yet doth it no more tolerate, or countenance the least sinne, then the Law doth: nay rather it bringeth the sinner that hath gone astray, into the way of righteousnesse againe, and enableth him to walke in that way, which the Law cannot do. So as herein the Gospell hath an excellencie ouer the Law. But if the Gospell in shewing mercie, should boulster vp a sinner in any one sinne, the Law would triumph ouer the Gospell, yea and condemne it. It is therefore necessarie for iustification of the Gospell that sanctification continually follow iustification, as an hand-maid her mistresse; or rather that, as two sworne friends and fellowes, they alwaies keepe company together.

5. Faith purifieth the heart. Faith purgeth. For that man which in truth belee­ueth his sinnes to be pardoned,Acts 15. 9. will not like a swine wallow in the mire. A true apprehension of Gods Fatherly loue worketh a filiall loue in mans heart: which loue maketh him as truly to desire and endeauour after Sanctification as Iustification.

They therefore who boast of their iustification and are not truely sanctified,Reproofe of carnall Gospel­lers. seuer Gods purity from his mercy, and the vertue of Christs sacrifice from the merit thereof, yea the ope­ration of his Spirit from the vnion of his members vnto him: they turne the grace of God into wantonnesse, and proclaime their faith to be a fruitlesse and a liuelesse faith, and in fine giue too iust cause to suspect that their pretence of iustification is a meere pretence.Euidence of iustification.

Learne we then both to gaine sound assurance to our owne soules,Iam. 2. 18. and also to giue good euidence to others of our iustification by sanctification.Luke 7. 47.

§. 190. Of maens pronenesse to sinne after forgiuenesse.

Q. VVHat may be obserued from the inference of the Si [...]t Petition in the Fift.Ne fortè in ea­dem recidamus post acceptam veniam peccato­rum, orandus à nobis idem ipse est, ne nosinducat in tentationem, &c. Bern. in Quadr. Serm. 6.

A. After pardon men are proue to fall againe. Otherwise there were no need for such as haue assurance of the pardon of sinne to pray against temptation, or for deliuerance from euill. As wofull experience in all Saints, euen the best that euer liued, doth verifie the truth hereof, so also the dayly sacrifices which vnder the Law were appointed. For euery propitiatorie sacri­fice gaue the beleeuer assurance of a full discharge for his sinnes, yet after one was offered vp, another, and another, time after time was to be offered.Ioh 13. 10. Grace of iustification rooteth not out all re­mainder of sin. He that is washed needeth not, saue to wash his feet. His feet therefore need to be washed. And why should he that is iustified need to wash his feet, if he were not subiect to foule them againe and againe?

The grace of iustification doth not vtterly root out all re­mainder of sinne.Ne ipsis quidam apostolis licet Sanctificatis de fuit malitiae. The flesh abideth in the best so long as they abide in this world. WitnesseRom. 7. 18, &c the complaint of that iustified Apostle Saint Paul. Hilar. apud Aug. l. 2 cont. Iuu. [...] Wickednesse remained in all the Apostles, notwithstanding they were truely sanctified.Aug. Har. 38.

There were of old a certaine Sect called Puritans, who in­deed were plaine Hereticks,Isidor. Elym. l. 8. c. de her. and so adiudged by the Church, who professed themselues to be perfectly holy and pure. Their Heresie is plainely confuted by this Petition.Rhem. on Luk. 15. 1. & on Gal. 3. Yet is it againe reuiued by Familists, yea and by Papists too. For they hold that some are so righteous in this life as they need no repentance,Ne quisquam si bi puro & im­maculo pectore blanaditur. Quia nemo esse sine peccato potest, quisquis se incul­patum esse dixe­rit, aut superbus, aut stultus est. Cypr. ap [...]d Aug. l. [...]. cont. Iul. but keepe the Law of God, and by their righteousnesse free themselues from the curse thereof. If these be not Puritans, I know not who be.

For our parts, let none boast of a pure and immaculate heart; Seeing no man is without sinne, whosoeuer saith hee is without fault▪ is either proud or foolish.

Let vs euen after wee haue good euidence and assurance of the pardon of our sinne, remaine watchfull against all entice­ments and temptations to sinne, and well remember that ca­ueat, [Page 256] which Christ gaue both to him that he healed at the poole of Bethesda, Ioh. 5. 14. and also to her whom, notwithstanding she were taken in the act of adulterie,—8. 11. he absolued, Sinne no more. This caueat doth not imply that a man may keepe himselfe pure from all sinne, but that hee ought with the best care and grea­test watchfulnesse that hee can endeuour to bee so pure. Care therefore must be taken to preuent sinne to come, as well as to seeke redresse for sinne past: otherwise sinne will soone creepe vpon vs againe. If Satan be cast out of a man, he will endeuour to returne into the house from whence hee was cast out;Math. 12 43. 44, 45. and if hee finde it empty he will soone take his opportunitie, and enter with seuen other spirits more wicked then himselfe. They who take notice of Satans subtilty in this kinde, doe by wo­full experience finde, that after their most frequent prayers, strictest obseruation of the Sabbath, sincerest participation of the blessed Sacrament, solemnest humiliation of their soules on a day of Fast, in and by which holy duties, they haue obtained great assurance of the pardon of their sinnes, and much comfort to their soules, Satan hath beene very busie in tempting them afresh, and drawing them to wallow in the mire of sinne. Though therefore Christ himselfe should say to vs at once hee did to the man which was brought on a bed to him,Math. 9. 2. Be of good cheere, your sinnes are forgiuen you, yet haue we no cause to bee carelesse and secure, but rather to bee the more watchfull, lestMath. 12. 45. Opus est nobis quotidiana san­ctificatione vt qui quotidie de­linquimus, delicta nostra sanctificatione assidua repurge­mus. Cypr. de Orat. dom § 9. Satan by a re-entry make our last e­state worse then the first. Wee haue need therefore of dayly sanctification, that wee who sinne dayly may cleanse away our sinnes by continuall sanctification.

§. 191. Of Mans answering Gods Mercy by dutie.

Q. VVHat other Doctrine may bee obserued from the infe­rence of the Sixt Petition on the Fift?

A. The mercy of God to man requireth dutie of man to God. The Fift Petition noteth out Gods great mercy in discharging our debt: and the sixt, our bounden duty in auoiding that which displeaseth and dishonoureth him: and, by the rule of [Page 257] contraries, in endeuouring after that which pleaseth and ho­noureth him. It is said of them, to whomZac. 13. 9. God saith, It is my people, that they shall say, The Lord is my God.

Equitie, and gratefulnesse require as much. Most iust and e­quall it is that the goodnesse of a Soueraigne should bee re­quited with all the duty that a subiect can performe: and not to do it, is a great point of vngratefulnesse.

The vnrighteousnesse therfore,Mans vngrate­fulnesse. & vngratefulnes of man to God is too manifestly declared. Though man haue rebelliously risen vp against the Lord, & taken part with his enemie, yet hath the Lord graciously offered pardon to man: and notwithstand­ing his gracious offer of pardon, man will not be drawne from the enemies side, but as a sworne Slaue continueth to fight vn­der his colours.Deut. 32. 15. God doth much complaine hereof.

Let vs be better aduised: and firstEphes. 3. 18, 19▪ take notice of the kind­nesse of the Lord to vs, and then endeuour toCol. 1. 10. walke worthy of the Lord. Let vs therefore bee as conscionable in performing duty to God, as wee are desirous to receiue mercy of God. That so wee may manifest a true childlike disposition to God, and shew we respect him as well as our selues in our desires and endeauours.

§. 192. Of auoiding temptations.

Q. VVHat may bee gathered from connexion of the lat­ter part of the Sixt Petition with the former part?

A. For auoiding euill, temptations must bee auoided. To this purpose tend the many disswasions in Scripture from temptati­ons, as, Prou. 1. 15. Walke not in the way. Refraine thy foot.—5. 8. Come not nigh the doore.—4 15. Auoid. Passe away.Isa. 52. 11. Touch no vnclean thing. Ephes. 5. 11. Haue no fellowship with the vnfruitfull workes of darknesse. 2. Cor. 6 17. Come out from among them.

Temptations to sonnes of Adam are as fire to dry stubble,Danger of temptation. dry Tinder, yea and dry Gunpowder. A little sparke soone cau­seth a great flame. Temptation first brought man, euen in his innocent estate to euill. If then corrupt man auoid not temp­tation, how can he be free from euill? Obserue the great euils whereinto the Saints in any ages haue fallen, and you shall find them to be occasioned by temptations.Gen. 9. 20, 21. Noahs drunkennesse, [Page 258] —19. 33. Lots Incest, 2. Sam. 11. 2. Dauids Adultery, 2. Kin. 11. 4. Salomons Idolatry, Mat. 26. 69, &c Pe­ters deniall of Christ, were all euill effects of temptations.

Be wise now therefore, O sonnes of men. You especially that indeed desire to be free from euill.Meddle not with tempta­tions. Dally not with temp­tations: but rather, as Christ Mat. 4. 4, 7, 10. did, resist them manfully and put them away as farre from you as you can. Men will not bring barrels of Gunpowder neere the fire, but lay them in places farre from fire. Shall they be more carefull for their earthy hou­ses, then you for your heauenly soules? Boast not of thine abili­tie to quench the fire of all temptations. Thine abilitie in this kinde must then be greater then Peters, or Salomons, or Dauids, or Lots, or Noahs, yea or Adams in his innocencie. For a man to cast himselfe into temptations, and to receiue no euill from those temptations is as great a miracle as the preseruation of Shadrach, Dan. 3. 26, &c. Meshach, and Abednego in the midst of the hot fiery furnace, was.

§. 193. Of calling on God for all things.

Q. WHat may bee obserued from directing all the Petitions, which any way concerne our good, to God?

A. God is all in all. The fourth Petition setteth him out a [...]. Giuer of good things. The fift a [...] forgiuer of debts. The former part of the sixt, a [...]. preseruer from danger whereunto wee are subiect. The latter part of the sixt, a [...] deliuerer from euill where­into wee are fallen. On this ground might Dauid well say, Whom haue I in heauen but thee? Psal. 73. 25. and there is none vpon earth that I desire besides thee.

They who know and beleeue God to be as hee is, all in all, cannot but detest that heathenish and blasphemous distinction of white and blacke gods: the former of which they made Be­stowers of good things, 1. Cor. 8. 6. the latter Deliuerers from euill things. But to vs there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and wee in him. Of him wee ought to seeke euery good thing wee want. To him we ought to fly for succour against all euill. So we are here taught: so let vs doe.

§. 194. Of the general points for which wee are taught to pray in the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are wee to pray for by vertue of the last Petition?

1. Such things as concerne the whole Pe­tition in generall: or the distinct parts thereof in particular,

1. In regard of the whole, we ought to pray for Sanctifica­tion. Thus doth Saint Paul pray for the Thessalonians, 1. Thes. 5. 23. The very God of Peace sanctifie you wholly. As our owne happinesse mo­ueth vs to pray for Iustification, in the former Petition, that wee may be acquitted of sinne, for which we should otherwise be damned: so the honour of God should moue vs to pray for sanctification.1. Thes. 4. 3. For this is the will of God, our sanctification, and thereby is the holy God much honoured.

2. In regard of the manner of setting downe this Petition negatiuely, we are taught to pray for Freedome against the power of sinne, Psal. 19. 13. 13. as the Psalmist doth where hee saith, Cleanse meè from secret faults: keepe backe thy seruant also from presumptuous sins; let them not haue dominion ouer mee. For in sinne there is a guilt which maketh vs lyable to Gods vengeance (this is prayed a­gainst in the Fift Petition) and a power which holdeth vs in bondage, and maketh vs such slaues thereto, as wee cannot serue God.

3. For this end we are taught to pray for Participation of the power of Christs death, and

4. Participation of the Spirit of Christ. For in Christs death there is distinctly to be considered a Merit, and a Power. The Merit thereof freeth from the guilt and punishment of sinne. The Power thereof from the dominion, yea and by degrees from the very act of sinne: which in the Saints after the death of their body shall vtterly cease. Of this power of Christs death thus speaketh the Apostle,Rom. 6. 4, 6. We are buried with Christ by Baptisme into death, &c. And againe, Our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sinne might be destroyed, that henceforth wee should not serue sinne. This power of Christs death is conueighed into vs by the Spirit of Christ.Ephes. 2. 1. For wee are dead in sinne. Rom. 8. 11. But if the Spi­rit [Page 260] of him that raised vp Iesus from the dead dwell in vs, it will quicken vs. Wherefore that wee may partake of the power of Christs death, wee must pray for participation of the Spirit of Christ. Dauid well knew how requisite this Spirit was to keep downe the power of sinne, and therefore hauing prayed for pardon of sinne,Psal. 51. 11. further prayeth that God would not take his holy Spirit from him.

These are the generall things which by vertue of this whole Peti­tion we are to pray for. We will further note out such parti­culars as concerne the distinct parts.

§. 195. Of the particulars for which we are to pray by vertue of the first part of the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are the particulars to be prayed for vnder the first part of the Sixt Petition?

A. 1. Knowledge of our spirituall enemies. Without knowledge of them, there will be no feare of them, no desire of helpe and succour against them, or of freedome from them.Iudg. 18. 28. The people of Laish not knowing that the Danites were their enemies, or that they had any purpose to surprize them, were secure, and made no preparations for their owne defence: and so were vtterly vanquished. Such ignorance ma­keth most in the world so secure as they are Experience sheweth that the more ignorant any are, the more deepely they are im­plunged into Satans snares, and the faster held thereby. Here therefore we must pray for knowledge of the distinct kindes of our spirituall enemies: of their number, might, malice, subtil­tie, and sedulitie. That we may the better know all these, the Apostle doth largely and distinctly describe them, Ephes. 6. 12.

2. Sight of the danger wherein wee are by reason of them. To know that there are enemies, pernicious, and dangerous enemies little moueth them who see no danger wherein themselues are by reason of such enemies.2. Kin. 6. 15. When Elisha's seruant saw the hoste of Aram that compassed the place where he was, then he cryed out, Alas my Master, how shall we doe? Thus will they bee af­fected [Page 261] that are able to discerne the danger wherein they are by reason of their spirituall enemies. They will enquire what to doe. But the danger which is not seene, is not feared. Where­fore God sends Ministers to people.Act. 26. 18. To open their eyes that they may come from the power of Satan to God.

3. Wisedome to discerne their wiles, their many cunning stra­tagems, and kindes of assaults: and to finde out where their strength lyeth: and how they may be withstood. Thus shall we be kept the more safely from them, that wee fall not into their temptations,Psal. 119. 98, 99, 100. and be ouercome by them. Dauid who obtained such wisedome vndoubtedly prayed for it.

4. Vnderstanding of our owne weakenesse. How vnable we are to stand of our selues: much more vnable to withstand such enemies as we haue,Ephes. 6. 12. which are not, as we, flesh and bloud, but Spirits, Math. 26. 41. yea Principalities and powers, &c. When the Spirit is ready, the flesh is weake: how much more weake will it be when the spirit is secure. Such as know not their owne weakenesse will be so ouer-bold and presumptuous as they will not feare to cast themselues into temptations.

5. Knowledge of the almightie power of God. Thus doth the Apostle expressely pray in behalfe of the Ephesians, that they may know what is the exceeding greatnesse of his power towards them that beleeue. Ephes. 1. 18, 19. Knowledge of the enemies power, and of our owne weakenesse cannot but affright vs, and make vs fain­tingly fall into their temptations, vnlesse withall we know the power of God to bee able to make vs stand, and to subdue our enemies, and cleane to free vs from all their temptations. Knowledge hereof will raise vp our hearts to God in all dan­gers.2. Chro. 14, 11.

6. Restraint of Satans power. This the Angell intended when hee said to the Diuell,Iude verse 9. The Lord rebuke thee. So malicious and audacious is Satan as hee will not sticke to assault the best, if the Lord doe not restraine him. It is most likely that hee could not be ignorant that Christ was the Sonne of God, and yet did hee venter to set vpon him.Math. 4. 3. Now when God hath giuen vs vnder­standing of his owne power, of our owne weakenesse, and of Satans might and malice, then shall wee see iust cause to pray to God to rebuke Satan.

[Page 262] 7. Assistance from God: for though Satan be restrained, yet cannot wee stand of our selues, but shall fall euen thorow our owne weakenesse.Psal 109. 23, 26. The consideration of his owne weakenesse made the Psalmist seeke helpe of God.Rom. 8. 31. For If God be for vs, who can be against vs? Great reason there is therefore to seeke as­sistance of God.

8. Confidence and courage in God. This is it which the Apostle intendeth,Ephes. 6. 10. where he exhorteth to be strong in the Lord. For nene of them that trust in God shall be desolate. Psal. 34. 22.—18. 30. He is their buckler. Hee saueth them. It is therefore most requisite to pray for affiance in him.

9. Sufficient grace to beare out assaults when wee are tempted. For sometimes it is needfull for vs to be tempted. Then our re­quest ought to bee that that which is needfull may proue vse­full and profitable:2. Cor. 12. 9. which cannot be without Gods grace. This therefore God gaue in the time of temptation to his Apostle:Primus hostis ca­ro est aduersus spiritum concu­piscens. Hostem hunc crudelissi­mum nec fugere possumus nec fu­gare: circum [...]erre illam necesse est, quoniam alliga­tus est nobis. Nam quod est m [...]sera­bilius, hostem nostrum ipsi cogi­mur sustentare, perimere eum non licet. Bern. de Euang. 7. Pan. Ser. 3. teaching vs thereby in the like case to pray for the like grace.

10. Power ouer the flesh. The flesh is a secret inward tempter, whereby Satan gets great aduantage. It continually lústeth, and fighteth against the Spirit. If it preuaile we are gone. Now in that this flesh is euer in vs so long as we retaine flesh vpon vs, who hath not cause to pray, and cry as the Apostle did, O wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer mee from the body of this death! Rom. 7. 24. We can neither fly from, nor put to flight this cruell enemy. Wee cannot but carry it about with vs, because it is bound to vs. And which is more miserable, wee are forced to nourish this enemy: destroy it we cannot.

11. Contempt of the world. The world is another tempter, which hath sundry baits of pleasures, profits, and promotions to allure vs vnto it: and thorow fiue gates, the fiue sences, it woun­deth vs.Praesens seculum per quinque por­tus, quin (que), viz. corporis sensus [...]aculis suis vul­nerat [...]e. Et [...]ors intrat per senestras meas. Ibid. If they be opened, and our hearts attentiue to the al­lurements thereof, wee are in great danger to bee ouer-taken therewith: death may enter by those windowes. So as there is great need we should pray as the Psalmist did, Incline not my heart to couetousnesse. Turne away mine eyes from beholding vanity. Psal 119 36, 37.

12. Patience vnder all crosses. Crosses are a kinde of tryall and temptation. By impatiency wee are brought to faint and sinke [Page 263] vnder them which is to be ouercome. This is it which Sathan watcheth for. For so soone as hee obserueth any to faint and fall, hee presently seazeth vpon them. Not without cause therefore did the Apostle Pray for the Colossians that they might bee strengthened with all might vnto all patience. Col. 1. 11. Vnder this head are comprised Hope, Comfort, Ioy and Glory in afflictions: all to bee prayed for:Act. 4. 29. and withall an inuincible courage against perse­cution for the Name of Christ.

13. Moderation of all afflictions. Though we haue some pati­ence, yet if afflictions increase, they may so try our patience, as to bring it to naught. For they which haue the greatest measure haue but their measure: and afflictions by continuance and in­crease may exceed that measure:Ier. 10 24. [...] which the Prophet well knew when he thus prayed, O Lord correct me, but with iudgement. By iudgement is not there meant vengeance and indignation (for it is opposed to wrath.)In modo Castiga me Iehoua, ve­runtamen mo­dicè. Tremel. & Iun. But wisedome, discretion and moderation. Hereby we are kept both from fainting when we are chastened: and also from murmuring against the rod.

14. Preseruation from a reprobate sence. For if we be once gi­uen vp thereto, then hath Satan fast hold of vs. God hath vtterly forsaken such. Euery temptation is to them as a snare to hold them fast, and as an hooke to pull them downe to destruction. Most fitly may that which the Apostle saith of them that will be rich, be applyed to such as are of a reprobate sence,1. Tim. 6. 9. They fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtfull lusts, which drowne men in perdition and destruction. For men of a re­probate sence are such, as, being depriued of all iudgement and conscience, runne headlong into such euils as are against the in­stinct of nature. Because blindnesse of mind, hardnesse of heart, deadnesse of conscience, peruersnesse of affection, pride, pre­sumption, selfe-conceitednesse, idlenesse, carelesnesse, securitie and such like vices are fore-runners vnto a reprobate sence, wee ought also earnestly to pray against them all.

§. 196. Of the particulars for which we are to pry by vertue of the second part of the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are the particulars to be prayed for vnder the second part of the Sixt Petition,

A. 1. Recouerie from sinne being fallen into it. Psal. 51. 10. This is one maine point desired in Dauids penitentiary Psalme, especially in this phrase, Renew a right spirit within mee. Repentance is that grace whereby such as are fallen recouer themselues, as is euident by this aduice which Christ giueth, Re­member from whence thou art fallen, Reu. 2. 5. and repent. Repentance there­fore is heere to be prayed for. Satan is as much disappointed by repenting of sinne, as by not yeelding to sinne.

2. Dispossession of Satan. Satan is that Euill one that hath his finger in euery euill thing. So long as hee abideth any where, freedome from euill cannot he expected. If hee therefore haue really entered into any,Mat. 15. 22. as he did into the woman of Canaans daughter, we must pray, as she did, to haue him dispossest. For by prayer and fasting he may be cast out. Mar. 9. 29. If otherwise hee seaze on vs by putting into vs euill thoughts, or stirring vp corrupt hu­mours, or setting before vs euill obiects, or affrighting vs, or vexing vs any way in soule or body, we are taught to pray for deliuerance from him.

3. Alienation of heart from the world. They who haue beene bewitched by the world, so as they haue loued the same, and haue beene entangled therein, which is a great euill, ought to pray to bee pulled out of it: and to haue their hearts turned from it, as the heart of Amnon was from Tamar: so that the hatred wherewith they hate it,2 Sam. 13. 15. may bee greater then the loue wherewith they loued it. This wee ought to pray for in regard of lewd company, vnlawfull games, vndue honours, vniust gaine, immoderate pleasures, or any other like thing where­with wee haue beene bewitched. Till our hearts bee alienated from the world, we shall neuer bee throughly deliuered from the euill of the world.

4. Suppression of all the lusts of the flesh, after they are risen vp. [Page 265] Preuention of them is implied in the former part of this Petiti­on. If that be not obtained but that the flesh doth rise vp & lust and rebell against the Spirit, our desire ought to bee, to haue those lusts beaten downe againe, and we freed from the thral­dome of them. Saint Paul reckons vp 17. particular lusts of the flesh together.Gal. 5. 19, 20, 21. Those and other like to those are all simply e­uill, such euills as if they be not beaten downe and we deliue­red from the bondage of them, will bring vs to eternall death.

5. Remouall of iudgements. Such afflictions as come from the wrath of God, and so long as they lie vpon vs, manifest his in­dignation against vs, are as euills to be prayed against. In which respect thus prayeth the Church, Turne vs againe, O God: and cause thy face to shine. Psal. 80. 3, 4. O Lord God of Host▪ how long wilt thou be angry? Such a iudgement was that Plague for the remouall whereof Dauid built an Altar,2 Sam. 24. 25. and offered Sacrifice. Among these, spirituall iudgements are most earnestly to be prayed a­gainst: such as were mentioned in the end of the last §. If the preuention of them be to be prayed son much more deliuerance from them. For they are doubly euill. 1. As they are sinnes. 2 As they are punishments of sins, and effects of Gods wrath. To this head may be also referred all manner of crosses, asPsal. 46. 9. war, Ioel. 2. 19. famine,2 Sam. 24. 25. plague,Pro. 30. 8. pouerty,Dan. 9. 17. captiuity,Act. 12. 5. imprisonment,Psal. 119. 22. re­proach, 2 King. 20. 3. sicknesse,Psal 38. 1, &c. paine and such like afflictions for remouall whereof we may pray, as was shewed§. 124. before.

6. A blessed departure out of this world. So long as wee are in this world we are subiect to many euills, which lie and presse sore vpon vs. But by death we are deliuered from them all: at lest if our death be in the Lord. For they only are blessed that die in the Lord. They which die not in the Lord, are not deliuered from euill: but like the fish which leapeth out of warme water into flaming fier,Reu. 14. 13. go from the lesse euill into the greater by ma­ny degrees.

Q. May a man then pray for death?

A. Not simply and absolutely, with desire to haue the time appointed by God, preuented, but with submission to the good pleasure of God. Concerning our departure out of this world two things are here intended. 1. That we be willing no depart. 2. That our departure be in the Lord. Both these are [Page 266] manifested in old Simeons swanlike-song: where hee sheweth his willingnesse to depart, Luke 2. 29. and his desire to depart in peace. So much also is euident in Saint Pauls desire.Phil. 1. 23. I haue (saith he) a desire to depart. This was not an absolute prayer for death. It was a manifestation rather of what he could willingly haue wi­shed,Votum affectus, non effectus. in his owne behalfe, then of what he peremptorily or ab­solutely would desire. Now where hee addeth, and to bee with Christ, hee sheweth what kinde of death hee desired. And this we must absolutely desire, that when we dye, we may dye the death of the righteous, an happy death: which is a finall deliue­ry from all the euill whereunto in this world wee are sub­iect.

7. Resurrection of the body. For death in it selfe is an euill, hol­ding the body in the graue as in a prison where it rotteth and consumeth. The resurrection of the body is it that maketh a mans dissolution to be a blessing. Thus is his body by death as seede sowne in the ground which bringeth forth an haruest. This Christ hath promised:Ioh. 5. 28. this therefore wee may and must pray for.

8. Absolution at the day of iudgement. When our bodies are raised, they together with our soules shall be presented be­fore Christs tribunall seate. There to bee condemned for our sinnes, is a farre greater euill then any that in this world can befall vs. And better it were that our bodies should neuer be raised, then bee raised to condemnation. Oft therefore doth the Apostle pray for the Saints that they may be kept blamelesse vnto the comming of Christ. 1 Thes. 3. 13.—5. 23.

9. Aeternall glory in heauen. They who are aduanced there­unto are fully deliuered from all euill, and from all feare of all euill.Reu. 21. 4. In which respect it is said that God shall wipe away all teares from their eyes: that is, hee shall take away all occasions of mourning: therefore by way of explication it is added, There shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, &c. This was it that the penitentiary thiefe prayed for in these words, Lord remember me when thou commest into thy Kingdome. Luk. 23. 42. Thus we see how this prayer directeth vs to pray for al things that are need­full for vs, from that corruptible bread whereby our mortall bodies are nourished, to that glory of soule and body which [Page 267] endureth for euer.Quando dicimu [...] libera nos à malo, nihil remanet quod vl [...]ra ad­huc debeat postu­lari. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. §. 19. For when we say, Deliuer vs from euill, there remaineth nothing that further we may aske.

§. 197. Of the things for which we ought to giue thankes in the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are the things for which thanks is to be giuen by virtue of the last Petition?

A. 1. Euery sanctifying Grace.

2. Freedome from the power of darknesse.

For both these we haue the expresse patterne of the Apostle:1 Cor. 1. 4. In regard of the former hee saith I thanke my God for the grace of God. —5. Vnder this indefinite word Grace, he compriseth euery particular sanctifying grace. Wherefore hee addeth, In euery thing (that is in euery grace) ye are euriched. —7. And yee are not de­stitute of any gift. Col. 1, 12, 13. In regard of the latter he also saith, I giue thankes to the Father, who hath deliuered vs from the power of darknesse. We heard§. 169. before that San [...]lification was the Summe of this Petition. But particular sanctifying graces (whereof nine are reckoned vp together, Gal. 5. 22, 23.) are the parts and members which make vp that Summe. Of these therefore wee must take notice, and for these wee must giue thankes. Now because that Summe is implyed vnder the negatiue, we are an­swerably to giue thankes for freedome from the contrary, which the Apostle stileth power of darknesse. Vnder darknesse he compriseth sin, death, diuell, and damnation. While wee are vnder the power of these, we are their vassalls. It is therefore a blessing worthy of all praise to be freed from them.

Other particulars seuerally concerne the distinct parts of this Pe­tition.

§. 198. Of the particulars for which thankes is to bee giuen by virtue of the first part of the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are the particulars for which the first part of the sixt Petition requireth thankes to bee giuen.

A. 1. Vnder standing of the law, whereby we know what sin is, when we are tempted thereto, how fearefull a thing it is to yeeld to such temptations, how wretched their case is that are left to the power of temptation.Rom. 3. 20. By the Law is the knowledge of sinne. That therefore which giueth vs notice of so great dan­ger, is a thing praise-worthy: especially if we haue vnderstan­ding thereof.Psal. 119. 99, 100 In way of thankfulnesse doth Dauid oft acknow­ledge this.

2. Wisedome to discerne our enemies and their assaults. This proceedeth from the former, and goeth a degree farther; and in that respect it bindeth vs to more thankfulnesse. With thank­fulnesse saith the Psalmist to God,Psal. 119. 98. Thou thorew thy commande­ments hast made me wiser then mine enemies.

3. The victory which Christ hath go [...]ten ouer spirituall ene­mies. It is in praise of Christ that the Psalmist saith to him, Thou hast led captituity captiue. Psal. 68. 18. By captiuity hee meaneth the world, the flesh, sinne, death, the diuell and all other enemies of our soule. Were not these by Christ made captiues, and so chained, restrained and kept in, we could not stand against them, they would soone leade vs captiues. For our sakes did Christ enter combate with them, and get victory ouer them. We reape the benefit thereof: wee therefore must giue the thankes to Christ, and say (as the heauenly Spirits doe) we giue thee thankes because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, Reu. 11. 17, 18. and hast raigned: and de­stroyed them that destroy the earth.

4. Strength to withstand our enemies. As Christ himselfe hath ouercome them, so by his spirit hee giueth vs power to ouer­come,2 Tim. 1. 7. in which respect it is said, Hee hath giuen to vs the Spirit of power. On which ground saith the Apostle, I thanke him who hath enabled me. 1 Tim. 1. 12.

[Page 269] 5. Resolution to yeeld to no allurements whether they come from the flesh or the world. Gratias deo, qui iam harum re­rum in vobis glori [...] transito­riae gloriosum est operatus con­temptum. Bern. Epist. 23. A true, setled resolution is a great meanes to keepe vs safe. This comes from God. For by na­ture our disposition is wholy inclined to the world and to the flesh. Wherefore as1. Sa. 25. 32, 33 Dauid blessed God for asswaging his passi­on, and keeping him from shedding blood, so wee must praise God (whensoeuer our minde is alienated from the world and flesh) for that alteration of our disposition.

6. Patience to beare out all brunts. Afflictions to our weake flesh are soare temptations: but by patience wee are kept from being swallowed vp by them. In which respect the Apostle saw great cause to thanke God for the patience of the Thessaloni­ans.2 Thes. 1. 3, 4.

7. Power in all conflicts to ouercome. Such, though they bee led vnto temptation, are not led into temptation. It is expresse­ly noted of them that had gotten victory, that they sang a song of praise. Reu. 15. 2, 3.

§. 199. Of the particulars for which thankes is to be giuen by virtue of the last part of the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are the things for which the second part of the last Petition requireth thankes?

A. 1. Repentance after sinne committed. This is a sure euidence of deliuerance from a great euill. Therefore the Church glorified God because hee had granted repen­tance. Act. 11. 18.

2. Rescue out of Satans clutches. If Satan haue at any time got any aduantage against vs, as he getteth great aduantage a­gainst witches and sorcerers, yea and against other impudent, and audacious sinners whom he hath fast in his clutches, to bee rescued and recouered out of his hands affordeth iust cause of much thankes:Luk. 8. 2, 3. which Mary Magdalene, out of whom went se­ [...]en diuels, well knew to be most due, and therefore in testi­mony of thankfulnesse shee followed Christ and ministred to him of her substance.

[Page 270] 3. Recouery out of the world. Gal. 1. 4, 5. The Apostle ascribeth glory to Christ for deliuering vs from this present euill world.

4. Conquest of the Spirit ouer the flesh. For by the Spirits con­quest,Rom. 7. 25. are we freed from the dominion of the flesh. For this therefore the Apostle giueth expresse thankes.

5. Remouall of iudgements. Iudgements and all manner of crosses are in their kinde euills: and remouall of them is a de­liuerance from those euills: Whereupon the Saints haue beene thankfull for such deliuerances.Exod 15. 1, &c. The Israelites giue thankes to God for freeing them from the Egyptian bondage:1. Chro. 21. 28. And Da­uid for causing the Plague to cease: And Hezekiah for taking away a deadly disease;Isa. 38. 9. &c. And the Church for returning her cap­tiuity.Psal. 126. 1, 2.

6. Victory ouer death. Death in it selfe is a dreadfull euill: the very e [...]trance into damnation. But by Christ the sting of it is pulled out, the nature of it is altered. It is made a gate into eternall glory.1. Cor. 15. 57. This is that victory for which Saint Paul giueth thankes.

7. Hope of resurrection to life.

8. Hope of eternall glory. These are full and small deliue­rances from all euill. Gods promise of these to such as beleeue, is as a performance of them. Our hope therefore resting on Gods promise for these affordeth iust occasion of reioycing and praising GOD,1. Pet. 1. 3, 4. as Saint Peter doth, and Saint Paul also.Col. 1. 12.

§. 200. Of duties required in the last Petition.

Q. VVHat duties are we to endeauour after by virtue of the last Petition?

A. 1. To abstaine from all sinne. For this is the maine thing heere prayed against. This is it which maketh temptation so hurtfull as it is. The more we forbeare sinne, the lesse damage shall we receiue from any temptations.Psal. 34. 14. Many,Am. 5. 15. many there­fore are the dehortations of Scripture against sinne.Rom. 12. 9.

[Page 271] 2.2. Cor. 7. 1. To perfect holinesse. For vnder the auoiding of any euill, an endeauouring after the contrary good is alwayes in Scrip­ture implyed. YeaIsa. 1. 16, 17. they are very oft ioyned together.3. Ioh. ver. 11. Now holinesse is perfected both by2. Pet. 1. 5, 6, 7. adding one grace to another, and also by1. Pet. 2. 2. continuall growth in euery grace.Eph. 4. 15.

These two duties arise from the generall Summe of the last Petition.

3. To be iealous ouer our selues, Heb. 3. 12.—4. 1. fearing lest at any time wee should be ouercome by any temptation. For we are not onely weake, easie to be ouertaken, and ouerthrowne by euery temp­tation, but also very proane to yeald to Satans temptations, be­cause they are either agreeable to our corrupt humour, or else we so fearefull, as to thinke we shall neuer stand out against them. This Christian iealousie will make vs the more instantly and constantly to seeke helpe of God.

4.See §. 192. To auoide all occasions of euill. Occasions of euill are temp­tations to euill. Should not they then who pray against temp­tations, auoide them as much as possibly then can?

5. To withstand beginnings. So did the Apostle whenGal. 2. 5. hee would not giue place to false brethren (who were dangerous temp­ters) no not for an houre. Thus much also he intendeth in this ex­hortation, Eph. 4. 27. Giue no place to the diuell: which is as if he had said, If Satan at any time tempt you, yeald not an inch to him, let him get no aduantage at all, which he cannot but get, if at the beginning ye yeald any whit at all to him. Much good is got by a due obseruation of this dutie, and much wisedome is mani­fested thereby. For that euill which in the beginning is easily preuented,Obsta principijs serò medicina paratur, Cum mala per longas conualuere mo­ras. Ouid. de Trist. can hardly, if at all, without very much dammage be redressed, after it hath found some entrance. Instance poysonous and pestiferous diseases, fretting and festering soares, fiers, brea­ches of water, and enemies entring within the walls of a Citie.

6. To watch continually. Mat. 24. 42. This is a dutie whereunto in Scrip­ture we are much exhorted: and that not without cause. For our spirituall enemies are alwayes readie to tempt vs,Turpius eijcit [...] qu [...]m non admit­titur hoslis. narrowly prying where to get any aduantage against vs. And soone they will get too great aduantage, if we be not the more watch­full.Acts 20. 31. To shew that this dutie is fitly inferred out of this Peti­tion,1. Cor. 16. 13. Christ expresly ioyneth it with prayer against tempta­tion,2. Tim. 4. 5. [Page 272] saying, Watch and pray that yee enter not into temp­tation.

7. To be 1. Pet. 5. 8. sober and Luke 21. 34. temperate: where these are not, euery tempter will rule as he list. For intemperancie and all excesse blind the vnderstanding, and open a passage to all manner of euill desires and filthy lusts, and make vs vnfit to pray, to watch, to fight, and to defend our selues against our spirituall enemies.

8. To cast off euery burden. Heb. 12. 1. By burdens are meant not onely such things as are simply euill in themselues, but such also as being in their nature good, and may lawfully bee vsed, yet through our weaknesse and inabilitie to vse them well, proue impediments to vs in our spirituall combate: as the riches of that Ruler whom Christ aduised to sell all that he had,Luke 18. 22. and to giue it to the poore. Thus if honours, offices, recreations, com­panies which we frequent, or any worldly thing wherein wee delight proue a burden to vs, and make vs vnfit to resist temp­tations, yea rather make vs yeald to temptations, we are to cast them off, to auoide and forsake them.

9. To mortifie our members on the earth. Col. 3. 5. The flesh, that is our corrupt nature,Exponded. which containeth in it the masse of all sinne, is stiled aRow. 6. [...].—7. 24. Body. This bodie is made vp of seuerall particular lusts, and euill motions, as a body of members. And as a bodie exer­ciseth all functions by the members, so the flesh executeth all mischiefes by particular lusts: and one lust helpeth another, as one member another, and as deare are these lusts to the naturall man, as the members of his body. Those particular lusts are therefore fitly stiled members, and they are said to be members on the earth, [...]. 1. In opposition to the spirit, and the graces thereof which come from heauen, and bring men to heauen. 2. In their own condition, which is, as the earth, base, filthy, corrupt, and vaine: 3. In their operation, whereby they make men grouel and dote on the earth, and the things therein. By mortifying these, the foresaid Bodie (which is a dangerous tempter) will in time be depriued of all strength, & we freed from the danger of the temptations thereof. Be diligent therefore in searching them out, and hauing found them spare them not as1. Sam. 15. 9. 33. Saul did the fat beasts: but deale with them as Samuel did with Agag: and [Page 273] Ios. 10. 26. Ioshua with the kings of Canaan.

10. To beate downe our bodie. This is done by forbearing to pamper our selues,1. Cor. 9. 27. and to satisfie our carnall desires, that so the flesh may not waxe wanton, and like a pampered iade become vnruly: but that wee may liue within the compasse prescribed and limited by Gods word.

11. To renounce the world. The world is such a tempter, as Iam. 4. 4. the friendship of it is enmitie with God. 1. Ioh. 2. 15. If any man loue the world, the loue of the Father is not in him. 2. Tim. 4. 10. Demas, that old Disciple Demas by embracing the world was brought to renounce his Christian profession. It is therefore most meete thatGal. 6. 14. the world be crucified to vs, and we to the world: that our hearts bee cleane alienated one from another, and that wee haue no more to do one with another then the liuing with the dead. Thus shall wee bee sure not to bee ouertaken by the temptations of the world.

12. To resist the diuell. 1. Pet. 5. 9. This is the onely way to escape his temptations. He is like a wolfe, which fiercely pursueth and ne­uer leaueth such as fearefully flie from him: but flieth from such as manfully stand against him.Iam. 4. 7. So saith the Apostle, Resist the diuell, and he will flie from you.

13. To put our trust in God. Psal. 62. 5, 6, 7, 8. To what end do we else pray vn­to God?

14.Iam. 5. 8. To suffer afflictions patiently. All crosses and afflictions are temptations.Reu. 2. 3. By a patient enduring of them, wee keepe our selues from being ouercome by them.See the whole Armour of God, on Eph. 6 15. Let patience there­fore haue her perfect worke.

The last 12 duties arise from the first part of the last Petition.Treat. 2. Part. 5. §. 16.

15. To auoide that which is any way euill. This we praying a­gainst, must carefully auoide.1. Thess. 5. 22. The Apostle exhorteth to abstaine from all appearance of euill.

16. To returne from that euill whereinto we are fallen. Ier. 3. 1. For they which pray to be deliuered from euill, must not lie in euill. All the exhortations in the Scripture to repent, Reu. 2. 5. tend to this pur­pose.

17. To take heed of relapse. A relapse in bodily diseases is dan­gerous: much more in the soules disease. It is a doggish tricke [Page 274] to turne to his owne vomit againe. 2. Pet. 2. 22.

18. To keepe the enemie from returning after he is cast out. Mat. 12. 43, 44, 45. Hee will seeke to reenter. If he get what he seeketh, our last estate will be worse then our first.

19. To stand alwayes armed. Eph. 6. 13. While we liue we shall be temp­ted. Though the tempter be repulsed neuer so oft, he will still be prying where to get an aduantage. Therefore saith the Apo­stle, Hauing done all, stand.

20. Be faithfull vnto death. Reu. 2. 10. Death bringeth a finall end to all assaults.1. Cor. 15. 26. It is the last enemie. He who is faithfull vnto death, by death receiueth full deliuerance from all euill.Perseuerantia tantum electorū est. Bern. in Serm. paru. Serm. 61. Perseuerance giueth euidence of election to life: for it is proper to the elect.

These sixe last duties arise from the last part of the last Petition.

§. 201. Of duties required in the last Petition in regard of others.

Q. VVHat duties doth the last Petition teach vs in the be­halfe of others?

A. 1. To consider one another. Heb. 10. 24. We ought to take notice of one anothers spirituall estate, that so we may the bet­ter know how to do good mutually for one another. This is a generall dutie whereby way is made vnto other duties.

2. To keepe others from sinne. Thus will they bee kept from being hurt by any temptation.2. Chro. 28. 12, 13. The Captaines of Ephraim, that stood vp against them that came from the warre with sundrie captiues of Iudah, and suffered them not to carrie their captiues away, render this reason, Ye intend to adde more to our sinnes, and to our trespasse. Their intent therefore was to keepe their brethren from sinne.

3. To edifie others. 1. Thes. 5. 11. They who are well built vp in grace, are well armed against all temptations. This is an especiall fruite of loue.1. Cor. 8. 1. For loue edifieth: and that by instruction, exhortation, ad­monition, and other like duties.

4. To encourage others against their enemies. What a notable encouragement is this of the Apostle,1. Cor. 16. 13. Watch you, stand fast in the [Page 275] faith, quit you like men, [...]e strong. Another like, but more large encouragement is set downe, Eph. 6. 10, 11, 12, 13, &c. By good encouragement life and spirit is put into men: and they are en­boldened like Lions to stand against their enemies. For this, the true grounds of good encouragement must bee laid downe: which are Gods presence, Gods promises, Gods properties, the necessitie of standing out and fighting valiantly, the glorie of the conquest, the damages of yealding, the miserie of being o­uercome, with the like.

5. To strengthen the weake. Luke 22. 32. This did Christ expresly giue in charge to Peter. And this is done not onely by encouragement, but also byRom. 15. 1. bearing their infirmities, andGal. 6. 2. burdens. Thus they which through their owne weakenesse might haue bene made a prey to tempters, may be kept safe from them.

6. To keepe others from falling from the grace of God. Heb. 12. 15. The Apo­stle aduiseth to looke diligently hereunto. There is no place of standing betwixt Gods grace and Satans snare: he that falleth from that, falleth into this.

7. To restore such as fall. Gal. 6. 1. We may not leaue such as are fallen: for wee pray that they may be deliuered. Deut. [...] 4. The Law teacheth to helpe vp a beast being fallen.1. Cor. 9. 9, 10. Doth God take care for beasts? Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written.

8. To saue the obstinate with feare. Iude ver. 23. Though men blinded in mind, and hardned in heart, wilfully giue themselues ouer to Satan, yet ought we not to suffer them to abide in his clut­ches. [...]. But as we would snatch, and with violence pull men out of the fire, so ought wee to pull such out of the temptation wherein they lie.1. Cor. 5. 5. Thus dealt Saint Paul with the incestuous Corinthian,Si, qui in tenta­tionem incide­runt, ceperint in­firmitate adpre­hendi, & agant paenitentiam fa­cti sui, & deside­rent communio­nem, vli (que) sub­ueniriijs debet. Cypr. episl. 3. §. 2. He deliuered him vnto Satan for destruction of the flesh, that the Spirit might be saued. Was not this to saue him with feare?

9. To receiue the penitent. If a man haue beene ouertaken with a temptation, and by his repentance manifest a recouerie from the same, wee ought so to account of him, as if he had not fallen at all. So S. Paul requireth the Corinthians to receiue the forenamed incestuous person: and to forgiue him and comfort him. This is an especiall meanes to make his deliuerance firme and stable.2. Cor. 2. 7.

[Page 276] 10. To pray for others. Iam. 5. 16. This is the maine duty here inten­ded.See §. 180. This I referre to the last place, because it is a duty which may be performed when no other can be: euen to such as will not accept any other duty, of all the rest it is the most ef­fectuall.

§. 202. Of the matter of humiliation gathered out of the last Petition.

Q. VVHat are the things to be bewailed by reason of the Sixt Petition?

A. 1. Our first Parents yeelding to the Diuell. 2. Cor. 11. 3. This is the originall ground of all that spirituall slauery where­in we are, and of that need wee haue so earnestly to pray against temptation.

2. The power, 1. Pet. 5. 8. malice, subtiltie, and sedulitie of Satan. For Satan is the chiefe Tempter, who hath a finger in all temptati­ons; in which respect the more powerfull, malicious, subtill, and sedulous he is, the more dangerous is temptation. Not without cause therefore did the diuine voice cry,Reu. 12. 12. Woe to the in­habitants of the earth, and of the Sea, because the Diuell is come downe to you, hauing great wrath.

3. The many stumbling blockes in the world. Math. 18. 7. In regard of these Christ cryeth,Heu me, quot obstacula sepa­rant, quot prohi­bent impedimen­ta? Bern. In Quadr. Serm. 6. Woe to the world. These are so much the more to be bewailed by reason of the deceitfulnesse of the world which so bewitcheth many, as it draweth them to those stum­bling blockes, and maketh them to stumble and fall thereat, as Demas did. Yea on this ground our loue, euen too too inordi­nate loue,2. Tim. 4. 10. of this world is to be bewailed.Iam. 4. 4.

4. The prauitie of our nature. Gen. 6. 5. God himselfe doth much com­plaine hereof. This is it that maketh all manner of temptations, much more dangerous then otherwise they would be.

5. Our spirituall blindnesse. Reu. 3. 17. By reason hereof we cannot dis­cerne the temptations wherewith we are assaulted, but are ea­sily led into the midst of them,2. Kin. 6. 18, 20. as the Aramites were into the midst of Samaria,

6. Our foolish pro [...]enesse to yeeld to euery temptation, Pro. 7. 7, 8, &c. as the fish to snatch at euery bait. Thus are we oft taken.

[Page 27