The Trumpet of VVarre.

A Sermon preached at Paules Crosse the se­uenth of Maie 1598.

By M. Steph. Gosson Parson of Great Wigborow in Essex.


Printed at London by V. S. for I. O. dwel­ling in Paules churchyard at the signe of the Parot.

To the most reuerend Fa­ther in God, Richard Bishop of London, my verie good Lord, health and happinesse heere, and in the world to come.

RIght reuerend my verie good Lord, euerie diuine knowes, that there is a store-house in the Church of God, into which euerie good christian brings some affliction suffered, or some trauell vndertaken for Gods sake. And although that from Abel to Christ, and from Christ Iesus to this present day, there haue beene many prizes of both sorts carried into this treasurie yet will it not be full before the ende of the world, vntill which time, neither the teares nor the trauels of the Church are like to cease. Therfore seeing it hath pleased God of his goodnesse to make mee a little Naile in his Temple, to hang some part of his seruice vppon, and hath from time to time af­foorded me a place among many learned men, called out from their studies in the Vniuersities, or from their particular charges in the country, [Page] to the publike seruice of the church at Paules Crosse, where euerie man bestirres him like a Bee, to carrie waxe and honny to the hiue, and euerie man is profitable in his paines: I haue brought in these labours to the church, fitted as well as I could, both to the time wherin we liue, and to that honourable assemblie to which I spake.

And because S: Augustine confesses, that when he beholdes men carried away with a loue of this present world, he cannot tel how wisdome should come in season to do them any good, in that people blowen vp with prosperitie despise all that is saide vnto them: finding a great parte of the ancient glorie of this kingdome blasted with the breath of schisme, and with an expectation of warres and troubles, and espying also with the Prophet Ieremie, that there is no taking the wilde Asse in the wildernesse before she be with foale, I haue slept in in such a time, as wisedom may happely come in season.

The matters I intreated of are great, and I am little, but God (which when he was great be­came little to preach vnto the world) hath assi­sted me: and what I haue deliuered, men shall best see to be true, when reading and preaching shall be remooued, the cloude of this bodie rent in peeces, and wee with purified and glorified bo­dies [Page] shall looke vppon the Lorde. I knowe, that whilst wee liue here below, as preaching is com­pared in the Reuelation vnto thunder, so it is like it in the cause and effects of thunder Thunder proceedes from a vapor lifted vp from the earth, and compassed with a colde cloude, in the motion and agitation, it catcheth fire, which breaketh out presently where the cloude is thin­nest, and being out, sometime it strikes the bodie of a man, and not the cloathes, sometime the cloathes, and not the bodie. Preaching proceedes from the meditation of the heart, lifted vp from earth to heauen, cold flesh is the cloud that keeps it in in the motion and agitation of the minde, it catches fire, while I missed (saith Dauid) the fire kindled, being streightned within vs, it striues to vente it selfe, and breakes out at the lippes of the preacher where the cloude is thinnest and being forth, somtime it strikes the princes of the earth, and not the people that stand about them: sometime againe it hittes and mooues the poore people, and not the Potentates. When these ar­rowes of the almightie flie abroade, a preacher must not be dismaide to see them glaunce in the going for they sticke not euerie where.

Nay, it falleth out sometimes, that the hearers deale with vs, as Saul did with Dauid, who threw a speare at him when he plaide vppon his [Page] harpe, to charme the eiull spirite that was in Saul. Of which action it was wittily deuised and written by him that cutte the whole Hi­storie of Dauid for the King of Spaine, and sette it out in pictures. Dura est mens hominis ac sancto ingrata labori, The heart of man is harde, and vnkinde to holie labours.

I speake not this in respect of any crooked measure laide vnto my trauailes, for then I should detract from that religious auditorie which gaue me gracious hearing & acceptance, the glory shal be Gods, which wrought it in their hearts, and I trust, their answeres a rewarde to them in heauen, for the heede and regard they gaue vnto me. And that my sermon might re­maine somewhat longer with them then the time wherein it was deliuered, I haue at the request of my friendes put it foorth in print, to the view of all, dedicating it vnto your Lo. partelie to submit it to your L. graue and learned censure, and to the censure of the Church of England, according to the rule of the holie ghost, which will haue the spirits of the Prophets subiect to the Prophets: which course if euerie man could be content in humilitie to take, the controuersies of our church would quikly be composed: partly to giue some publike testimonie of my thankeful heart and dutifull affection to your Lordshippe, [Page] which hath enabled me to do some good in the church of God, in some inferiour seruices therof, according to the talent bestowed vppon me. Thus humblie beseeching God, which is the beginning and the ende of all things, to giue peace to his church and to our country, and to blesse and con­tinue your honourable labors in them both, and to crowne them in heauen when your race is runne, I humbly take my leaue.

Your Lordships most humble seruant, Stephan Gosson.

The Trumpet of VVarre.

The Text. 2. Chro. 20. vers. 20▪‘And when they arose early in the morning, they went foorth to the Wildernesse of Tekoa, and as they departed, Iehossaphat stood & said, Heare ye me O Iudah, and ye inhabi­tants of Hierusalem, putte your trust in the Lord your God, and ye shalbe assured beleeue his Prophets; and ye shal prosper▪’

IT is a wonder Right honoura­ble) to sée the base feare of man, the people of God may somtime be cast into, when they heare the e­nimy is in arms, or approacheth the Land, or hath taken [Page] some fort to intercept the passages and annoy the land: It was Asa his case, king of Iuda, when Baasa King of Israel was come to Rama, and had fortified there in such sort, that hee stopt the passages of Asa his kingdome, and none coulde safelie gette in or out. This did cast Asa into a feare, and Hananie the prophet reproued him for it, 2 Chro. 16, 7. Indèede as Ham­bal neuer sawe Fabius appeare vppon the mountaines, but he likened him to a cloud that threatned raine: So when the ene­mie is possessed of places of aduantage, it is humane wisedome to reckon vppon a storme, but if hee bee Gods enemie, it is humane weakenesse to stande in feare of him. In this case the heathen Poets haue had theyr times to turne their pa­storall tunes into sounde of Trumpets, and the holie Prophets and Priestes of God haue had their times also to change their exhortations to mercie and compas­sion, into charges and allarmes, and ei­ther with Azariah incourage both the Prince and the people to bee strong han­ded, 2. Chro. 15. chapter 7. vers. Or with Iehaziel in the 15. verse of this chapter, euen in the name of God commaunde [Page] both the Prince and the people not to feare the multitude of men, but to march for­wardes boldlie towardes the enemie, and looke him in the face. I will follow the example of the Prophets and Priestes of God at this time, and make you such musicke vppon this grounde, as it shall please God to minister vnto mee. This Scripture which I haue read vnto you, is a verie Trumpet of warre: herein wee find Iuda and Hierusalem marching to­ward the enemie, vnder the conduct of Ie­hoshaphat, vppon intelligence giuen, that there was a great combination of forraign Princes, the Moabites, the Ammonites, the inhabitants of Mount Seir were come from beyonde the seas to inuade Iehosha­phat. The place in the wildernesse where the armie sate downe was discouered.

That which offers it self to be discoursed,The diui­sion. stands vpon these two parts in general, the first is the action of warre, in these words, And whē they arose early in the morning▪ they went forth into the wildernes of Te­koa: The second is the exhortation to this action in these words, And as they depar­ted Iehoshaphat stood & said, heare ye me O Iudah, & ye inhabitants of Ierusalē, put [Page] your trust in the Lord your God, and yee shall be assured, beleeue his Prophets, and ye shall prosper. In the action of warre there arise these foure poynts in particular to be handled: first, the equitie of the action: secondly, the cause that makes the action of warre to be iust and lawfull: thirdly, the persons concurring to this action: fourth­ly, the execution of it, that is, the manner howe it must be executed. These foure I must fetch a little further off, yet not so far, but that I may easily drawe them out from the verses going before, and immedi­atly following after in this chapter. In the exhortation to this action, there be also two acts of the soule, two obiects, two conse­quents: the first act is to trust: the first ob­iect is God, the first consequent is safetie. Put your trust in the Lord your God, and ye shall be assured. The second act, to be­léeue: the second obiect, the Prophets: the second consequent, Prosperitie. Beleeue the Prophets, and ye shall prosper. That I may speake of all these parts in order, to Gods glorie, and the opportunitie of the times wherein wee liue, I beséech you to ioyne with mée in humble and heartie prayers, &c.

1 The equitie of the action of Warre.

TO giue you a view of the equitie of this action, you shall finde it to be iust in rea­son, in religion, and in the practise of the church. It is iust in reason. Thomas 1. p. q. 76. a. s. disputing how fitte a receptacle the bodie of man is for the soule of mā, shewes that Natura non deest in necessarijs, Nature is not wanting in things necessarie. But as nature hath giuen to bruit beastes hornes and hoofes, téeth & talants, for defence and offence: so hauing giuen vnto man none of these, she hath giuen him reason and hands in stéede of these. Man naturally consists of a bodie and a soule: his soule is compre­hensiue of vniuersalities; and hath Uirtu­tem ad infinita, it is able to deuise and con­triue infinite things: nature hath sette no bounds nor limits to the thoughts or opi­nions of the soule, neither hath she set any boundes to the couerings of the bodie, but as the soule is able to deuise a couering for the bodie of such a temper as shal hold out the dint of sword, and smaller shotte, and to deuise engins of warres for batterie and assaults, so hath shee giuen handes to the [Page] body, which are organa organorum, instru­ments of instruments to frame these whē they are deuised. Nature not being wan­ting in things necessary, there may bée a time wherein it shall be iust and necessary for the soule of man to contriue weapons, & engins of offence, for the hands to worke them, the body and armes to weare and weild them, and to put them in execution: such is the time of warre. It is iust in re­ligion, for the spirite of God which is a ho­ly spirite, that neuer persuades men vnto any sinne, was vpon Iehaziel verse 14. of this chapter, exhorting Iudah and Ierusa­lem to this action at the putting on of their armour, Exodus 15. this is Gods Title: The Lorde is a man of warre. In the Psal­mes, he is saide to teach the fingers of the warrier to fight, and to couer his head in the day of battell; in the time of warre the battells fought, are saide to be Gods bat­tels, and the ouerthrowes giuen, are saide to be giuen by him. It is iuste in the prac­tise of the Church. Deut. 20. 2. When the armies are come to an enterview, and the battell readie to ioyne, God commaundes the Priest to stand forth and encourage the souldier. God hath so disposes of our function, [Page] that wée shal carie the harts of the peo­ple in our handes, and either discourage them from the fight when God i [...] angry, as Michaiah the Prophet did 2 [...]. 18. 16. I saw all Israell scattered in the moun­taines as sheepe that haue no shephearde, let them returne euery man to his house in peace: Or animate and harten them on to the fight when God is with them, as the Priests did in the 6 of Iosua, when they blew the trumpets and the walls of Ieri­cho fell before them. This hath béene the practise of the Church of England by the te­stimonie of our owne Chronicles, when the honour of our nation, the chiualrie of England hath béene in the fielde, it hath béene vsed for a sufficient argument of en­couragement vnto the Souldier, before the actuall encounter with the enimie, to saye thus much, This daye is the Church of England vppon her knees for vs. The acti­on of warre béeing thus found to be good & lawfull in reason, in religion, and in the practise of the Church: it followes in the second place, to discouer the cause y makes it to be iust and lawful.

The cause of Warre.

Warre is of the nature of iust iudgemēt, [Page] and the calamities that waite vpon warre be very great: therefore as a Judge doeth not punish euery light offence, but such as are against the good of the common weale, so warre is not to be vndertaken vpon eue­ry light occasion, but vpon such as shall bée proportionable to the dammage & distresse of warre. Because there are many false claimes and titles laide vpon the action of warre to iustifie the same, it shall not be a­misse to shut out the false titles as I passe along, and let in the true. The first of themFalse titles of warre. is infidelitie: the second is, the reuenge of the iniuries done vnto God by the sinne of Idolatrie, because Deut. 2. 34. the children of Israe warre vppon Sehon king of Hes­bon an Idolater, they destroy his people, and take his citties. And Deut. 13. 13. this title séemes to be expressed, God chargeth his people, that when they shall heare anie hath gone out from among them and dra­wen other to the worship of strange gods, they shall destroy the inhabitantes of that cittie, and race the cittie. The third is, su­preame authority in things tēporall. They that holde this opinion, imagine the hea­then not to be Lordes of their owne lands, but either the Emperor or the Pope. The [Page] fourth is, vnaptnesse to gouerne, because the heathen are barbarous and vnfit to go­uerne, and the lawe of Nature willes that such shoulde bée ruled by wiser than them­selues; Aristotle saith, that warre vnder­taken4. Polit. cap. 5. against such, is iust and lawfull, bi­cause it is attempted against those that are borne to obey, and will not. This title is vphelde by Maior 2. d. 44. and by Sepul­peda 7. polit. cap. 3.

They are all foure false and erroneous: the two first, because God hath not giuen euery man authoritie to reuenge the iniu­rie done to him, but saith, Mihi vindicta, & ego rependam. Neither is it expedient for the race of man that it should be so, for, by this meanes the garboiles and troubles of the earth would be so great, that Gods iniuries woulde rather bée wultiplied than auoided. And séeing this cannot be demon­strated, Idolaters might lawfully betake themselues to armes in their own defence, wherby warre should be iust on both sides, which is vnpossible. As in things naturall, Simile non agit contra simile, Fire doeth not fight with fire, but fire against water, one contrary struggles with an other: so in things morall, [...]nnocens non agit contra inno­centem, [Page] The innocent striues not with the innocent, but the innocent with the offen­der, and the offender with the innocent, the warre can be iust but of one side.

As for the instance of the wars of Gods people vpon Idolaters, diuers titles haue bin sifted, and soght out by diuers authors to iustifie them, of which I will yeeld you but two, both discouered in the scriptures. The one is Gods donation. Psal. 105. 44. He gaue them the lands of the heathen, & they tooke the labours of the people in pos­session. Iphtah pleades this title against the king of the Ammonites, Iudg. 11. 24 Wouldest not thou possesse that which Chemosh thy God giueth thée to possesse? So, whomsoeuer the Lorde our God dri­ueth out before vs, them will wee possesse. The other is the wrong first done vnto Is­raell in their passage as they went out of Egypt, for which God gaue Sihon and his people into the handes of Israel, and they possessed their landes. 27 verse of the same chapter. The third title is as false as the former, in that all the kinges of the earth doe holde their crownes of GOD that [...]aith Per me Reges regnant, by me Kinges rule and Princes decree Justice, in their [Page] landes and dominions temporall, neither Pope nor Emperour haue any thing to do. And Caietan auoucheth, that to giue a­nyQ. 59. a. 8. such right to Pope or Emperour, is to take away the distinction of iurisdictions, and to bring in a confusion into the world. Last of all, how vntrue and erronious the fourth title is, may easilie appeare, in that many pagans and infidels are more ingenious, politike, and apt to gouerne, then many christiās. Neither is it inough to iustifie the warre, that the people vpon whome the warre is made, are inferi­our in witte vnto the warriour, except they be so poore that they liue like bruite beastes, or feede vppon humane flesh. In which case peraduenture it may bee lawfull to inuade them, not to kill them, as the Spaniardes did the naked Indi­ans, but to bring them in order to liue1. Polit. cap. 5. like men. Aristotle holdes this to bee lawfull, when such people differ as farre from men, as the bodie differs from the Soule. Yet is this either seldome or neuer to bee admitted, except vpon some occasion of innocents or wrong, and the warre rather reuoked to a defensiue, then an offensiue warre.

[Page]The false titles excluded, there remaines but one iust in generall, that is, Necessitie. Nullum bellum iustum nisi necessarium. It may be iust and necessarie twoo wayes, the one is in defence of the innocent, the other is in reuenge of iniuries. In defence of the inno­cent, because God hath giuen all the king­domes of the earth to his sonne Christ Je­sus, Ps. 2. Princes are exhorted to kisse the sonne of God, least he be angrie, and they perish. In another place of the Psalmes, Princes are commanded to set open their gates, that the king of glorie may come in. Therefore if either Turke, or Pope, or I­delatrous Princes force the law of Maho­met or Idolatrie vpon their poople, when they are desirous to embrace the Gospel, the Gospel may then bee bronght in by armes: but if the Turke or Pope, or Ido­latrous Princes beguile their people, and their people willingly entertaine a false religion, there is no violence offered, and Vbi non est vis non habet locum defensio: where no violence is offered, defence can take no place. On the contrarie, if the Turk, Pope, or Idolatrous Princes conspire to driue out the Gospel from those Christian king­domes where it is preached, Non est simile [Page] ius, The case is not alike: to banish the Go­spel is to do an iniurie.

The iniuries that may make warre to be iust and lawfull, are of diuers sortes.In iuries. Either when one Prince withholdes that which is anothers, or when iura gentium, 1 the lawes of nations or passages are de­nied,2 Deut. 25. 17. When Amele [...] had vexed the Israelites as they went out of Egypt, and smote the hindmost of them, God commanded them to reuenge it, and to roote out the remembraunce of Amelec from vnder heauen.

Moreouer, if the fame and honour of a Prince be hurt, or disgrace and indignitie offered to his embassadours, warre may lowfully be waged to reuenge it, 2. Sam. 10 Uppon the like wrong doone to Dauids Messengers sent to the King of Ammon, when their cloathes were cutte, and their beardes shaued, Dauid reuenged it by armes. Yea, it is sufficient if iniurie bée done to a Princes friend, Gen. 14. Iniu­rie was done to Lot in surprising him, and Abraham rescued him by sword. 1. Macha. 11. 27. Demetrius promiseth succor to Io­nathan against them that kept the Castle of Hierusalem, and commaunded the forts [Page] that annoyed the Jewes; Ionathan reciprocally sent a supplie of thrée thousand braue souldiers to Demetrius when his owue companies had forsaken him. The reason of it is this, Amicus est alter idem. Wrong done to a princes friend is done vnto him­selfe, but this caution must be added, that is, that he that standes in néede of succour doe request it, as the menne of Gibeon did in the tenth of Iosua, or at least be wil­ling to be succourd voluntate expressa aut in­terpretatiua, to giue aide to such, is to set the helping hand to a iust and honest acti­on. The last iniurie of all is inuasion, and this is the Title of the Warre in this place, Iehoshaphat and his people fight for their wiues, children, goodes, landes, their owne liues, & their religion, against the inuader.

3 The persons concurring to the acti­on of warre.

THe third consideration is of the persons that concurre to the action of warre, which in this chapter are of foure sortes, [Page] the Prince, the péeres, the priests and the common souldier. As warre must haue a iust title to make it lawfull, so it must also be vndertaken by lawfull authoritie, that is, the authority of the Prince, who as he carries the sworde of Justice to punish do­mesticall disturbers of the common weale, in respect whereof he is said Rom. 13. not to beare the sworde in vaine: so he defen­deth his people from the sorraine enimy by the sworde of warre, and is bound so to do Psal. 82. 4. He is charged to saue the poore and oppressed, from the hand of the wicked that oppresseth them. The reason of it is this, that as in a common weale it is re­quisite there should be an authoritie, to pu­nish offences, and to kéepe the same in or­der: so in the wide worlde, that all king­domes and commonweales might be pre­serued, it is requisit there shuld be a power & authority to punish iniuries, this power resting in no one Prince in the worlde as superiour to al other Princes, war steps in in the place of iust vindicatiue iudgement, God hath left no other meanes vnto Prin­ces to flie vnto. Howsoeuer, this may séeme to bée controlde by scripture, and reason, in that Rom. 12. the Apostles councell is, [Page] Render to no man euill for euill. And if priuate reuenge be not to be admitted, be­cause the selfe and same person is both a Judge and an actor in his owne cause, it may peraduenture be thought as vnfitte for a Prince to be a Judge and an actor in his owne cause. Yet is not the reuenge of a Prince cutte off by this. The Scripture Rom. 12. forbids priuate reuenge, because Reuenge is an acte of vindicatiue Justice, which is Actus iurisdictionis an acte of iuris­diction, which no priuate person obtaines by reason of any wrōg done to him: neuer­thelesse, if reuenge be taken by authority, it is not only not forbiddē by the apostle, but commended as a thing necessarie, in that he saith, Princes and Magistrates are theThe diffe­rence be­tweene Princes & priuate persons in reuenge. ministers of God to take vengeance vpon them that doe euill. The argument drawn from a priuate person, holdeth not in com­parison with a Prince. A priuate person hath a speedie waie to redresse his owne wrongs, by recourse to the authoritie of his superiours: a Prince hath no superior vppon earth, nor any other redresse than warre if satisfaction haue beene expected, and denied. A priuate person in taking re­uenge in his owne cause may excéede the [Page] boundes of iustice, there is no such feare in the person of a Prince, his authoritie is publike and administerd by publike coun­cell, whereby the affections of Princes are easily restrained: A priuate person cannot reuenge himselfe, because he may not be a Judge and an actor in his owne case; a Prince may be a Judge and an actor in his owne case: Princes are gods, the autho­ritie of a prince is a little arme of the broad sea of authority which is in God, & as God reuenging the iniuries done to him and his kingdome, is a Judge and an actor in his owne case: so a Prince reuenging the iniuries done to him, and his dominions, may be a Judge and an actor in his owne case.

The second sort of persons are the Péers,2 which may be diuided into two rankes, ei­therThe Peers they are such as are called to councell of state, they are all bounde to giue faith­ful councell, not to deale with their master as Hushai dealt with Absalon when he taught him a trick to ouerthrow himselfe, or such as be leaders & commanders in the fielde, and they are all bound to the acte of fortitude, to fight manfully, and nei­ther for feare, nor flattery, nor corruption, [Page] nor losse of life, giue vp the townes and castles committed to their charge, without the consent of the prince that committed them to their trust.

The third be the priests, we concurre to3 this action, not to manage armes, our war­fare is spiritual, our weapōs spiritual, theyThe Priestes be praiers and teares: and as Dauid was vnfit to build the temple, because he was a warriour, so are we vnfit to fight, because we are of the temple. Yet we cōcurre with the action of warre thus farre, we conuerse with the souldier in the field, we blesse him and pray for him before the fight, and wee praise god for him when the fight is ended.

The fourth & last is the common souldier, whose duty S. Iohn Baptist describes, Luc.43. 14. it is to do violence to no mā, but to beThe Common Soul. dies. contented with their pay: war being of the nature of iust iudgement, souldiours are of the nature of executioners, whē they are called forth by authoritie to fight, they must remēber that in this case they are inferior instruments vnto God to punish the offen­ces of the wicked, & fetting him before their eies in these actions, they may not conse­crate the first fruites of their fingers with robberies & outrage vpon their friends, as [Page] they march along the countries, but ioyne with the priest and the Leuite, & the sin­gers, as the souldiers do in this chapter, to call vpon the Lord whō they serue in war.

4. The execution of the action of warre.

The last point to be discoursed in the ac­tion of warre, is the manner how it must be executed, which in diuers places of the scripture is verie differēt. In this ca. Ieha­ziel willes them to stand still and looke on, without striking stroake, but this being a particular direction of Gods spirit for this warre of Iehoshaphat. and liable onely to that time, it cannot be a president for all o­ther warres at all other times, therefore in the execution of warres there be three dif­ferences of times to be considered: the be­ginning, the progresse, and the ende of it. In the beginning, because reason requi­reth in the ordinarie affaires of this life, aduice and diligence should be vsed answe­rable to the qualitie of the busines in hand, war being the most weighty of all humane affaires, there must be counsel & deliberatiō to begin it, Pro. 24. 6. Thou shalt enter­prize thy warre with councell,. In the 21 [Page] verse of this chapter Iehoshaphat entersFiue things to bee consi­dered in the begin­ning of warres. into consultation about the warre. [...] here be fiue things in the beginning of warre to be thought vppon, the losse of the coun­try against which we fight, the losse of the countrie that goes to fight, the losse of the church, the probabilitie of the victorie, and the intention of the warrior. If the losse of of the enemy be likely to fall out to be grea­ter than the hurte he hath done, I finde no great reckoning made of it, because the wilfulnesse of the enemie is the cause of it, which may haue peace and will not. If the losse bee of the second or third fort, that is, the losse of the warriour, or the losse of the church be likely to be greater, then the hurt alredy receiued, there is som care to be had of it, for war hath the property of phisicke, if the phisitian by healing the present infir­mitie, bring the bodie into worse case then it was before, his phisicke is very dange­rous. Concerning the probabilitie of the victorie, which is the fourth poynt. Caietan holds that in the enterprise of war, the pre­paration must be so great, that the warrior maye be Moraliter certus de victoria: sure of the victorie. He brings in two examplesG: 55. a. 3. for it, one of a Judge, another of the Agent [Page] and the Patient. If a Judge (saith he) send to apprehend a malefactor, and do not send so strong a companie that he may be sure to take him, he doth more hurt then good. In the time of war the reuenger is the A­gent, the offender is the Patient, and in things natural Agens debet esse potens ad su­perandum passum, The agent must be pow­erfull and able to ouercome the patient: the medicine must bee stronger then the humour. But this is not absolutely necessarie, because it is impossible: Psa. 33. The king is not saued by the multitude of an hoast, nor the mightie man deliuered by his great strength. How pusian [...] soeuer the preparation of princes be, if God be not with them it is nothing woorth, 2. Chro. 25. 8. The Armie of Amafiah consisted of an hundred thousande verie valiaunt men, but the man of God tolde him, that how strong soeuer hee made himselfe, hee should surely be ouerthrowne if he did pro­ceede, because God was not with him. Dauid obserues it, Psal 89. 43. That it is God that turnes the edge of the sworde of the warriour, & makes him vnable to stand [...] the day of battel. Remember the great Armada in the yéere 1588. The preparati­on [Page] was such, that the inuader assured him­selfe o victorie & termed it inuincible, yet was it in so short time with so few strokes & skirmishes, & with so smal ships scattered and defeated, that to the eternal memory of gods high hand, & the vtter scorne and re­proach of the inuader there was after the maner of the old Romanes, a monument made of it, in certain coyn stamped beyond the seas, with a resemblance of a nauie, and this word fastned to it, venit, iuit, fuit, it came, it went, & it came to nothing. And there was not one ancient or honourable house in Spaine but lost a son, or a brother, a kinsman or a friend in that voyage. If it should neuer be lawful to war but vpon as­surance of the victorie drawne from the preparation, it should neuer be lawfull for the smaller number to fight with the grea­ter, or the weaker with y stronger, so shuld it haue bin vnlawful for the Israelites to encounter the Aramites, 1. King. 22 27. when the Israelites pitched like two little flocks of kids before the Aramites, and the Aramites filled the country: So should it haue bin vnlawful for Iehoshaphat in this place to resist the inuader, for he confesses vers. 12. of this chap. There is no strength [Page] in vs to stande before this great multitude that commeth against vs, neither doo wee know what to do, but our eies are towards thee. Wherby you may perceiue that in the action of war a case may so fall out, that it shal not be néedful for y warriour to expect any great assurance of the victory, but put the matter in triall, euen when the successe is doubtfull. Neuerthelesse I will say thus much vnto you, that if a prince can find a­ny means to assure himselfe of the victory before the war begin, he may vse it. 1 Sam. 30, 8. When the Amalekites had sackt and fired Z [...]klag. Dauid asketh counsel of God, whether he shal pursue them, & god assures him of y victorie, he shal recouer al. 1. Ch [...]. 14. Before he set vpon the Philistines, god prescribes vnto him which way he should go to work, he should recoile, & fetch a com­passe about by the mulbery trees, and when he heard a noise or a rustling of one going in the tops of the mulberie trées, then God cōmanded him to charge his enemies, for God was gone out before him. The like we find in Gedeon, God gaue him signes and tokens to assure him that hee shoulde preuaile, Iudg. 6. The signe was by the fléece wette when the grounde was drie [Page] and the ground wet when the fleece was drie. Iudg. 7. 11. God sendes him by night to the hoast of the Midianites, and by a dreame of the enemie touching a barlie cake, that tumbled downe into the hoast of Midian, and destroyed it, God assured him that he would deliuer his enimies into his hand. This assurance is not gathered from the preparation of man, but from the fauour and power of God. Therfore when this certaintie cannot be attained, princes are bound to attaine to the greatest proba­bilitie they can, and comparing the hope of their victorie with the danger of their losse, aduenture as far as shall be good for the cō ­mon weale. If the probabilitie be slender and the warre offensiue, they ought to giue it ouer, because the warre is voluntarie: if the probabilitie be slender, and the war de­fensiue, it may not be giuen ouer, because the warre is necessarie, It is Iehoshaphats case heere, the probabilitie of the victorie is very smal in respect of his owne forces, yet because he is inuaded, & the war necessary, he makes head to resist the enemie, & com­mits the cause to God. The fift & last poynt concerning the beginning of this action, is the intention of the warriour. I ho. 2. 2. q. [Page] 40. a. 1. defines it to be Studium Pacis, desire of peace, for peace is the end of war, & v [...] Mali coerceantur, & boni subleuentur, That the wicked may be bridled, & the good relée­ued. War may be vndertaken vppon good cause and law full authoritie, yet the inten­tion of the warriour may be euil. HereuponCont. Faustum. S. Aug. condemnes in a warriour Nocendi cupiditatem, vlciscendi crude litatem, animum implacabilem, feritatem, dominandi [...]ibidinem, A desire to do mischiefe, cruelty in reuenge, an implacable minde, a fell spirit, & an ambiti­ous humor, séeking after rule & domination

The second difference of time, is the pro­gresse of warre before the victorie: during which time, al the meanes are lawful that are requisite to the attaining of the victory, sleights, shifts, stratagems, burning, wast­ing, spoiling, vndermining, battery, blows and bloud. I will giue you one example in Scripture for al, [...]ol. 8. In the taking of Ai there is a stratageme, an ambush laide be­hind the cittie, an assault giuen before it, semblance of flight, by retiring to draw the enemy out, the citie fierd, the enemy enclo­sed, and then slaughterd before and behind. S. Aug. q. 10. vpon Iosua determines this matter in few wordes.

[Page]The third and last difference is, the time3 after victorie. Uictorie atchieued, and the e­nemyThe time after vic­torie. subdued, bicause the bloud of the con­querour begins to coole, and it is against humanitie to kill more than néedes, the slaughter ceaseth. There be many things in colde bloud to be required: first, to spare the innocents, Thou shalt not slay the iunocent. Exod. 23. 7 The innocents are reputed to be yong, and olde, women, and children, which are by reason of sex, or yeares, or infirmitie, vn­able to carry armes, strangers, and Mar­chants, which are no partes nor members of the commonweale that hath offended, if it may be found they haue stirred no coles in setting Princes together by the eares, nor caried armes in the restance made du­ring the time of the fight. The nexte thing is satisfaction for the wrongs done, where­in the spoile and waste of the countrie is to be reckoned for a part, because it is a parte of the punishment. Last o fal, hostage may be taken for securitie of peace, & the spoile may be diuided among the souldiers, who deserue aswel to be partakers of the swéet, as of the sowre & bitter brunts of war. Ie­hoshaphat 2. Chron. 20. vers. 25 giues the spoile of the enemie to his army, euery man carries for himselfe [Page] vntill hee is wearie.

Now, seeing we do not make Sermons as beggars make tape vpon a stickes end, wherein there is no taste, to giue you a re­lish of all that hath béene spoken about this action, cast your eies vppon the warres of your enemie, and your owne warres. You shall finde the warres of the enemie, in the Indies, in Portingale, in Granado, in the low countries, in France, and against vs, to be vncharitable and vniust, vncharita­ble, in that they are enterprized without care or consideration of the losse of the countries, vpon which he maketh warre: or of the losse of the Church, whilest by his tur­bulent spirite christian kingdomes are da­shed one against another, the professours of Religion extinguished, Christendome weakened, and the Turke strengthened: without commiseration or care also of his own country or forces by which he fights, leading thē forth like shéep to the shambles to apparant slaughter, his own eies behol­ding them suncke into the bottome of the seas like a stone, as the hoast of Pharao, or to lie pitifully bléeding at the feete of the re­uenger, as the Midianites lay at ye féet of Gedeon. That his wats are as vniust as they [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] are vncharitable, appéeres by the rough re­giment of his warriers, that breake all the ancient lawes and priuileges of the Coun­tries where they enter, and turne the glo­rious and golden administration of iustice, into a hard and yron gouernement of war, administred by violence of arms: so that I may very wel liken the féet of his soldiers to the féet of the wolfe, of whō it is writtē, that whatsoeuer he treads vpon neuer pro­spers after. Looke vpon your owne warres another while, you shal find thē to be very charitable and iust, charitable in that they are vndertaken with greater care of y losse of ye enemy, than the enemy hath deserued, & with such a regard of our own losse & the losse of the church, that it is the prayer and desire of our superiors, that it may be per­formed with the least losse of English blod. The equitie and iustice of your warres ap­péeres, in that they are vndertaken, either in the defence of the innocent in those do­minions that are bound to sette open theyr gates, that the King of Glory may come in, or in defence of your selues at home, your wiues, your children, your lāds, your liues, your countrie, and an innocent mai­den Quéene, whose glorious life hath iniu­riously [Page] and dishonourably been sought and thirsted after these many yeers: and to this purpose, mercenarie murderers, Jewes, vnnaturall English, and hatefull traitors hyred by the enemie from time to time to destroy it. These iniuries not ceasing, but increasing yet euery day more and more, Crescente iniuria crescit ius ad satisfactionem, The more her Maiesties wrongs and in­iuries increase, the more her Maiesties right, and the right of the whole kingdome increaseth to redresse it. And if you be not able in al this to conceiue what a price god hath set vpon the head of her Maiestie, doo as the countryman doth that knowes not the price of a pretious iewell: stand by the buier and the seller, marke what the chap­man bids for it, and the Marchant refuses, and you shall finde it. Spanish yron hath béene many times aduentured with great preparation of sword and shot, but all scat­terd and defeated: Spanish gold hath béen offerd, aske what ye will to kill & murder, but stil preuented: Spanish policies distild euery day into driftes to compasse it, but disappoynted. Blessed be God that hath set such a price vpon the head of her Maie­stie, that the forces of this worlde are too [Page] weake to conquer her, the treasure of this world too base to buy her, and the wisedom of this world too crazde to circumuent her. In respect of these high fauours of almigh­tie God, this word may well be written vpon the crowne of England, in great ca­pitall letters, set with shining diamondes, that euerie one may reade it running, vi­dentis & viuentis, It is the emperial crown of that Ladie, which by Gods great mercy sees and outliues her enemies. To encou­rage you in so honorable wars as these, I know that if her maiestie only were seated in some eminent place betwéene heauen & earth, & did but cast downe one princelie regard vpon you whē you begin to march, it would giue wings to your harts, & hāds, and féet, to flie about this action. But I can tell you of a greater then her maiestie. As in publike Theaters, when any notable shew passeth ouer the stage, the people arise vp out of their seates, & stand vpright with delight and eagernesse to view it well: so is God described in the scripture to stand vp­right at the passions of his Church (as at the stoning of Stephen) to marke euerie mans carriage in the same. Assure your selues therefore that in these inuasions and [Page] wrongs of the enemie still attempted a­gainst our countrey, the God of S Stephen, the God of S George, the God of her ma­iestie, the God of vs all stands in the con­fines of heauen and earth, to see & marke, who sendes his strokes nearest to the face of the enemy. And because the enemie hath but two waies to quaile your courage, flat­terie and spanish facing, I will shut vp all that I haue spoken to this purpose, with a short exhortation of S. Aug. Exhorresce quod minatur omnipotens, & ama quod pollice­tur omnipotens, & vilescet omnis mundus, siue promittens, siue terrens, Feare that which the almightie threatens, and loue that which the almightie promises, & the whole world shall become so base and contemptible in your eyes, that you shall neither loue nor feare that which the worlde promises or threatens.

The seconde parte. The exhortation to the action of warre.

THe action of war being thus discour­sed, we are now come to the exhortati­on, wherein the first acte of the soule is, to Trust. The hope of a Christian is compared sometime to a helmet, 1. Thes. 5. [Page] because it breaks many a blow that would astonish him: sometimes to an anchor, He­brewes the sixt chapter, because it stayes him when the sea workes, and the winde blusters. Gregorie likens it to the fasting day that goes before a great holiday, be­cause in the midst of our heauinesse it puts vs in minde, that ioy and saluation is at hand. Bonauenture obserueth that it in­cludes two things, it hath two acts, which are the very wings that moue it: one is an expectation or longing for the thing it selfe3. d. 26. g. 4. & 9. that is hoped for, Esay 40. ver. 21. They that waite vpon the Lord shall renew their strength, they shall lift vp the wings as the Eagles, they shall runne and not be weary. This act is pro­per vnto hope. The other is Trust, the act which Iehoshaphat calles for héere: this is a perswasion wherby we iudge in distresse that we shal haue help at Gods hand, and that without him wée can haue no helpe at all, Esay 30. 3. there were some that thoght vpon help from Egipt, to whom God saith that the strength of Pharao should be their shame, and their trust in the shadow of E­gypt their confusion. This act is not so pro­per to hope as the former, but is borrowed of faith. And if you will sée the necessity of [Page] it in the time of warre, looke into your own weakenesse. What is man but a worme crawling vppon the earth? Dauid was a mightie king, yet he confessed himself to be a worme and no man. As when little chil­dren first learne to goe alone, feeling the féeblenesse of their owne feete, nature tea­ches them to thrust out the hande to the wall, and trust to it to stay them: so beeing once made acquainted with our owne weaknesse, both nature and religion teach vs to trust to a strenger then our selues. This may not be, the faire spéech of man, Hier. 7. 4. Trust not in lying words, nor his faire looks, Ezech. 16. there were some that trusted in beautie, and were deceiued; nor his strength, Hier. 17. 5. Cursed is hee that trusteth in man, and makes flesh his arme; nor his wealth, 1. Tim. 6. 17. Trust not in vncertaine riches: nor his witte, God is able to turne it into foolishnesse, as he did the wisedom of Ahitophel. Séeing no trust may be reposed in any of these, wee must séeke out a better obiect, that is heere sette downe to be God himselfe.

The first obiect [God.]

THe reason of it is this, that all natu­rall effects haue recourse to their cau­ses when they stande in neede, and they become the stronger. The fish distressed slides into the water, and it is reléeued: the birde flies to the dam, and it is shrou­ded vnder her wings: the Childe runnes to his parents: the Shunamites Childe complained to his Father, hee sent him to his Mother, shée layde him vppon her Lappe, and forsooke him not in death. Strike the dogge, he runnes to his master: wounde the Souldiour, he flies to the ar­mie. The Antiperistasis of the cold makes the heate retyre into the fire, and the force thereof is greater. God is the first cause of all things, and all things haue recourse vnto him, Psalme, The eyes of all things doo looke vppe and trust in thee O Lorde.

If naturall causes, whose goodnesse is finite doo cherishe their effectes, howe much more shall God, whose goodnesse [Page] is infinite? Sometimes man lookes about him for the helpe of man, and finds none: Psal. 142. 4. Dauid sayth hee looked about vppon his right hand for helpe, and no bo­die would knowe him, and espying man to faile, hée turned him to God that ne­uer failes. The Prophet Hieremie blesses him that takes this course, he likens such a man to a trée, his trust to the roote, Gods fa­uour to the sap that lies continually at the roote to féede it and defend it. The diuell knowes this verie well, therefore hath it euer béene his practise to strip vs of this ob­iect. You may sée it in ye spéech of Rabsakeh, 2. Kings 18. 29. when the enemie lay be­fore Hierusalem. Let not Ezechia (saith he) deceiue you, neither let him make you to trust in the Lord, saying, the Lord wil sure­ly deliuer vs, and this Cittie shall not bee giuen ouer into the handes of the king of Assur. Uerily the people of Hierusalem were pitifully streightend when this was spoken, and their trouble so ineuitable in mans eye, that they sawe no present way to escape, nor conceiued any likeli­hood to auoyde them in time to come.

The successe of the ennemie many times is so great, that hee séemes to bée [Page] placed at the right hand of God, & to pro­sper in all his actions, such a matter it was Rabzakeh vaunted of in his speech, that God was on his side, in suffering him to come so neare as to whet his tuskes vppon the walles of Hierusalem. Gods own peo­ple in this case, appeare to be at his left hādGen. 4. 8. miserable and vnregarded. Yet as Manas­ses and Ephraim standing one at the right hand of Iacob, the other at his left, both readie to receiue his blessing▪ Iacob so­dainely crossed his handes, laying his right hand vpon Ephraim, and his left vppon Manasles: so God sodainly shifts his hands in the daies of trouble, hee laies his right hand vppon his people, and deliuers them, and his left hand vpon his enemies, pow­ring an vnexpected contempt and confusi­on vppon them all. I will giue you twoo examples of it in the Scripture. Euen in one night, when Ezechiah stoode in feare of all, and Rabsakeh thought him­selfe sure of all, the whole armie of Sen­nacherib was defeated by an Angell. In one day, when the forces of Iehoshaphat were verie small, and the armie of the inuaders was verie great, the whole power of the enemie was sodainely bro­ken, [Page] they sell one vppon another, and Iehoshaphat founde their carcasses dead vppon the grounde, before hée could come at them.

It is a rule in Rhetorique, that if a man make choyse of a friende to flie vnto in time of néede, hée shoulde surueigh his power in him, whether he be able, and his kindnesse, whether hee bée willing to yéeld him any succor. In this maner when wée haue singled out God from all other things in heauen or in earth to trust vnto, it is good Rhetorike and good Diuinitie to take a viewe in him of his power, whe­ther hée bée able, of his knowledge, whe­ther hée bee skilfull, and of his goodnesse, whether hée be willing to releeue vs.

His power, without question is farreGods power. aboue the power of man, for mans pow­er is finite, and Gods power is infinite, Psalme 89. O Lorde of hoastes who is like vnto thee which art a mightie Lorde. Dauid acknowledges him to haue such a power as cannot bee matched. Ephesi­ans 1. 19. Paul desires God te lighten the eyes of their vnderstanding, that they may knowe what the exceeding greatnesse of his power is towardes them that beleeue. [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] In Arithmetike set one against tenne ten against a hundred, a hundred against a thousand, a thousand against tenne thou­sand, although there be great oddes, yet there is some comparison, but if you could set downe an infinite number, then there could be no comparison at all, because the one is finite, the other infinite: so is it betwéene the power of God and man: sette all the Princes of the earth in opposition against God, they shall neuer bee able to withstand him. Pompey was wont to say, that with one stampe of his foote hee could haue all Italy in armes. God may say that with one stampe of his foote hee can ouer­throw all Italy, and all the worlde beside when it is in armes, Psal. 68. 1. Let God but arise▪ his enemies shall bee scattered, and they that hate him shall flie before him. God is said Psa. 149. to bind kings in chaines, and their nobles in fetters of iron. if he once fal into fettring of princes, it shal be done so sure, that no flesh shal be able to knock off their bolts again. P [...]. 147. God is reported to make fast the bars of your gates. If he once make the barres of your gates fast, trust to it, they shall be so fast, y no preparation of the inuader shall breake [Page] them open. We haue thrée rules in Philo­sophie, that will make this plaine vnto you.

The first is, that where there be two a­gents, a superiour, and an inferiour, the in­feriour can neuer ouercome the superiour, because the superiour is more actiue. Wée say in Philosophie, that that is most actiue which is most seperated from earthly parts, most eleuated à materia. The phisiti­on distilles his simples into waters, hee makes his extractions and quintessences, that the more they bee eleuated à materia, they might be the more actiue, and worke the better. Water is stronger then earth, because it is more actiue, and more eleua­ted à materia. Fire is stronger then water, because it is yet more actiue and eleuated à materia. You shall finde it in the sacrifice of the Prophet, where the fire lickt vp the wa­ter, burnt the wood, and consumed the sa­crifice: Angelles are stronger then men, because they are much more eleuated à materia. God is stronger then the An­gelles, because hee is most eleuated, hée is aboue earth, aboue water, aboue ayre, aboue fire, aboue men, aboue An­gels, aboue all, and ouer all Actus purus, [Page] so ful of actiuitie, that none is able to inflict any passion vpon him. The second rule is that variante materia, forma manet eadem, ac­cording to the change & alteration of your diet, according to the variation of the ayre, wherin you liue, your blood, your humors, your bodies, your complexions doe change and alter, but your soule is the same still. A mans ennemie may cutte off a péece of his bodye, a legge, or an arme, but hee cannot cutte off a péece of his soule. Looke what the soule is to the bodie, that is God vnto his church: all the prophets and apostles, thousands of holy and learned bi­shops and preachers haue béene cutte off, some by persecution, some by naturall death, yet religion stands, and the Church stands to this day, which is a signe that it is maintained by such a forme as can not varie. Séeing then that all worldly things be transitorie, men vary, the times varie, the pollicies of warre varie, the weapons varie, the squares and orders of fight vary, the places of aduantage and disaduantage varie, it is best trusting to such an obiect as cannot varie: such a one is God that hath esse quoddam magnum, such a great and in­uariable essence, that a man safely say vnto [Page] him Pone me iuxta te, & manus cuiusuis pugnet contra me, Lord set me by thee, & then let e­uery hand fight against me, I feare no va­riation. The third rule is this, Animalia multa agūt & patiuntur per phantasiam, liuing creatures here beneath, doe many things, and suffer many things, by reason of their apprehension of their obiect. The sheep at the first sight of the wolfe apprehends him for a terrible obiect, and naturally feares & flies him: the lion quite contrary apprehēds no terror in the wolfe at all, but passes by him, and by all the beastes of the forrest, with an honourable scorne and disdaine of all.

About mans apprehension of feare or courage, the situation of his eie either ma­keth all, or marreth all. When you stand here below vpon the ground, and looke vp to the top of Paules, they that stand vpon the stéeple, appéere small of stature to you, although they be tall & great, and they that are next to you séeme great, by reason of the distance of the one, and the néerenesse of the other: but if you stood vpō the top of Paules and looked downe, then they that are aboue woulde séeme great, and they that are be­neath woulde séeme little: So is it with [Page] men in the time of trouble, if their eyes be fastned vpon the earth, their enemies wil appeare vnto them to be great and migh­tie, and God which is so high will appeare little. Neuerthelesse, if their eyes be in hea­uen, as Iehoshaphats eyes were, 2. Chro. 20. 12. Our eyes are towardes thee, and looke downe from thence vppon their ene­mies, God will appeare strong and migh­tie, and the enemie weake and withe­red. I will giue you thrée instances of it in the scriptures. Numbers 13. Espialles were sent out to discouer the land of Pro­mise, some of them hadde a shéepes eye, they no sooner sawe the great stature of the Inhabitaunts, all Giants or Giants fellowes, the high wals of their citties rea­ching vp to heauen, but they were afraide, they tooke the people to be inuincible, & the towns impregnable. Caleb quite contrarie hauing his eie in heauen vppon Gods power and promise, and looking downe thence vpon the people, and the Cities, ap­prehended no terror in them at al: let vs go vp (saith he) without doubt we shall ouer­come them. Caleb had a Lions eye, he pas­sed by the people and their Cities with an honorable scorne of all. 2. King. 7. Samaria [Page] was in great distresse, a mighty enemie be­for it, a sore famine within it, there was a noble man vppon whome the king leaned, that had so base an eye, that looking vppon the present miseries, hée tooke them to bee greater then God, he perswaded himselfe that although God should raine vittailes out of heauen, the famine could not be spee­dily remooued: But E [...]a had his eyes in heauen, and looking downe from thence, di­spised the present calamities, in respect of the present helpe and hand of God, that by next day would make the price of corne to stoupe so lowe at the gates of Samaria, that it should be there at a very easie rate, and the siege remooued. 1. Esdras 4. there was a flattering courtier, that looking vpon the royall person of the King, helde a paradoxe that the King is the strongest thing in the worlde, because hée sendeth out his war­riours that slay and kill, and ouerthrow Castles, Townes, and Towers, and digge vp the mountaines as they go: but Esa. 40. 22. the man of God apprehendeth no such greatnes in kings & princes, when they be compared with God: and looking downe from heauen vpon the Kings of the earth he saieth they be crickets in respect of God. [Page] Euen then when they are in their chiefest ruffe, with their chariots, and horse, & men at armes marching to the battell, they are but as grashoppers trouping out, skipping and leaping vppe and downe the field. By these things you may perceue that as Mo­ses serpent did eate vp the serpents of the Inchanters, so Gods power deuoures and swallowes vp all the power and strength of man.

There may be power where there is no skil to vse it: If the Oxe knew his strengthGods knowledge. he woulde not suffer a childe to driue him: if the horse were priuie to his own force, he would not suffer a boy to ride him. But it is not so with God, as he hath might, so hée knowes when, and where, and how to vse it, Iob 12. 13. With him is wisedome and strength. The Schoole menne say that hée knowes non entia, thinges that are not. They take it out of the fourth chapter to the Romans 17 vers. He calles things that are not as if they were. These are of two sorts, either such as are not now in acte, but either haue béene in time passed, or shall be in time to come. A second sort of things that are not, is such, as neither are nowe in acte, nor euer were, nor euer shall be. [Page] Séeing then it is the cowardice of man, e­specially in the times of warres, to feare many things that neuer were, nor are, nor shalbe, it is good at such times to make God the onely obiect of our trust which sees and knowes, that many things which we feare shall neuer fall vpon vs.

Last of all there may be power and skillGods goodnes. to helpe when there is no will to vse it: let vs search then whether God be as willing to succor his people as he is powerfull and skilfull. Surely if he were not, he might be saide to be lesse kinde vnto his children, than man and beast is vnto their young, they cherish their yong, they fight for them and defend them. Gods goodnesse towards his people can not be deliuerd vnto you by a better hand than by the doctrine of his prouidence which includes both his know­ledge and his wil. Concerning which, sée­ing there haue béene diuers errors, and I perceiue the dayes and times require they should be touched and opened, I wil deale with them as the venerable Judges of our Country deale (in care and compassion of the Quéenes liege people) with those attur­nies whom they find to be loose in the haft, and fitte for nothing but to disquiet a king­dom, [Page] I wil disgrace them, and disable them to do any more mischiefe, race them out ofErrours about the prouidens of God. the rowle and let them go. There be 6 of thē in number. The first is, the error of the Stoikes, setting down a kind of prouidēce which they call Fate or Destiny, which runnes thorow a ranke of causes, & brings in an absolute and ineuitable necessity that pinions the armes and the actions of God and man. This error Theodoret discoue­reth in his sirt book of curing the affections of the Gréekes, and Alphonsus de Castro in his seuenth booke of Heresies, in two se­uerall Treatises, one of Fate, the other of Future contingent, beates the nose of this error flat to the face of the deuisers & amin­tainers of it. The second is y error of Auer­roes Metaph. 12. tying Gods prouidence only to celestial things, al terrestrial & cor­ruptible things exempted. This is bewrai­ed by Cyril. Hierosol. catach. 8. Clemens Alexandr. li. 5. S [...]rom. and saint Hierome vpon the eight chapter of Ezechiel, and the twelfth verse (where the Jewes sayde, Dominus dereliquit terram, the Lord hath forsaken the earth) auowcheth that this errour was crept into the heartes of the Jewes, for which God threatned in the [Page] ninth chapter of Ezechiel that his eie shuld not spare them. The third is, the errour of some that helde, that Gods prouidence stretcheth it selfe to corruptible things, one­ly after a generall manner, and Ad rerum genera & species, non ad singularia. Nicenus sheweth it in his eight booke of Philosophy and the fourth chapter, this is against the doctrine of the holighost, that teacheth, that a sparrow lightes not on the ground, nor a haire falleth from our heads without his prouidence. The fourth is, the errour of Rabbi Moses the Jew, laide open by Tho. 1. p. q. 22. a. 2. Rabbi Moses thought, that among corruptible things, man onely ap­pertained to the prouidence of God, which the Prophet Hieremie confuteth in his two and thirtie chapter and the seuen and twentie verse, Ego Dominus Deus vniuersae carnis, I am the Lord of all flesh, both man and beast. The fift is the error of the Pla­tonists, which distinguish thrée kindes of prouidence, one of the supreame and high god, which stretches primarily to spirituall things, and secondarily to al the world: an­other of separated substaunces that mooue the heauens circulariter: a third of certaine daemones, which the Platonists place in the [Page] betwéene God and man. Of these I may say as the Prophet Esay saith, chapter 28. They haue made falshood their refuge, they haue shrouded vnder vanitie, and haue trusted vnto lies. The sixt is the er­ror of Atheists, which vtterlie denies anie God, any care or prouidence concerning the creatures, but will haue all things to be ruled by fortune and chaunce. This is disclosed by Lact li. 1. instit. ca. 2. Nicen, [...]. 8 Philos. ca. 3. and others. The best way to disgrace and disable this, is to sette a cocks-combe vpon the head of it, as Da­uid doth, The foole hath saide in his heart there is no God. Looke vppon all the crea­tures in the world, you shall find them all make vppe one great and glorious armie, whereof God (like a Monarch) is the high commaunder, they are all marshalde into their seuerall rankes and orders, wherein they march and mooue obedient to his becke. Looke vpon the actions & operations of insensible things, stones, plants, and hearbs, you shall sée them all tende to their peculiar ends for which they were created, of which endes they haue no knowledge thēselues, but are directed vnto them by the hand of God, as the arrow is directed to [Page] the marke by the eye, and the arme of the Archer. Our faith acknowledgeth him. I beleue in God.

The Scriptures discouer him. Ps. 70. 90. 1. O Lord thou hast bin our habitatiō from generation to generation.

Comparisons bewray him, Wisd. 7. Golde is but Grauell in respect of him: the creatures confesse him, Ipse fecit nos, et non ipsi nos, it is he that hath made vs, and not we our selues.

What a shame is it, that the younge, both of menne and beastes are no sooner borne into the world, but by & by nature teacheth them to turne their mouth to the breastes that brought them foorth, and men should liue in a religious kingdome vntill they come to the yéeres of discreti­on, and neyther by nature nor religion yet be taught to turne the mouth of con­fession vnto God to finde him out, that set his hande to the wombe to bring them foorth? I will leaue all other proofes and examples that may serue this purpose, to bring you néere to our owne times.

There was but few yéeres since a pro­phane company about this Cittie, which were called the damned Crewe, menne [Page] without feare, or feeling, eyther of Hell or Heauen, delighting in that title: It pleased God to drawe them all into one net. They were shipt all into one Bark, and passing downe the Riuer with sound of Trumpets, in a faire day, a faire tide, a faire winde, and a faire new bark, so­dainly about one of the Reaches a perry of winde came from the lande, & so filled the sailes, that they were all run vnder water before they came to Graues­ende, I coulde neuer heare to this day that any one of them escaped. Yf that the Bark did appertaine to any of this hono­rable city, you may remēber this great iudgment of God by your owne losse.

I doe but gather it vp as I goe, to put you in minde that if God did bles Laban, for Iacob, and Putifar for Ioseph, he shal blesse you and your affaires for receiuing of such as receiue him, and curse and crosse you and your affaires for enter­taining of such as doe not entertaine him. It is wel noted in Gregorie that the performance of things past bréeds an assurance of things to come. The experi­ence of Gods Judgments executed vpon his enemies, and of his fauors and deliue­rances [Page] extended to them that feare him, are sufficient arguments of the care he hath of vs, Tho. 1. 2. q 40. a. s. shewes yt experience makes a man cōfident two waies, the one is by making a matter easie, that which a man hath doone often he can easely doe againe, he hath no dis­trust at all to worke it; Eth. 3. ca. 8. He that hath often ouercome in war, trustes to ouercome againe. The other is the perswasion experience breeds, that the thing which we goe about may be com­passed. Both these are in Dauids experi­ence, and in Paules. Dauid hauing found deliuerance by Gods hand out of many trobles, saith: yt in the name of his God he wil leap ouer the wal. His experiēce had made the matter so easy to him that it was but a skippe or a iumpe in his con­ceipt. Paule confesseth. 2. Cor. 1. 8. of the troubles that hapned to him in Asia, wherwith he was pressed out of mesure, that they were cast vpon him to this end, that he might not trust in himselfe but in the Lord which hath deliuered him, and doth deliuer, and wil deliuer him hearaf­ter. Séeing then God hath a care to saue [Page] and defend his seruants, as it was a base feare of the Israelits, after so long experi­ence of his mighty hand, so many mira­cles wrought, signes and wonders shew­ed on their behalfe, in Egypt, in the red sea, and in the wildernesse, to distrust of their entrie into the land of promise: So after so many tryals of Gods fauour in the deliuerie of this kingdome from the hands of the enimy, it were a vilde and contemptible cowardize, to distrust of the like hereafter. And because in the time of warre the feare of one makes many fear, and the running of one makes many flie, I wil end the discourse of this obiect with the speach which Vitalis a souldier and a martyr, vsed to Vrsicinus a Phisitian which suffered many bitter torments for religion, but at last, Vitalis perceiuing that as his paines began to encrease, his corage & coūtenance began to be abated; Noli Vrsicine (saith he) quialios curare con­sueuistite Antonin 1. p. hist. cit. 6. c. 25. ipsū perdere, & post tot vulnera ac­cepta, corona frandari sempiterna. Do not now Vrsicinus which hast vsualy healed o­thers, destroy thy selfe, and after so many wounds receiued, loose an eternall crowne of glorie. Uerily the attempts of the eni­my [Page] vppon this land haue béen many, hi­therto your courage and forwardnes in the defence of your Country hath encora­ged others, if you chance at any time to espy the drifts of the enimy to encrease, or his rage grow greater and greater, be notnow apalled, & after so many and furi­ous brunts manfully withstood, loose an eternall crowne of glory.

The first consequent [safety.]

THe first consequēt, flowing frō this act and this obiect, you sée is safety, [you shalbe assured.] To vnderstand this secu­rity aright, you must consider that our trust lookes two waies, one is towards God, and there it hath assurance, because his power is such as cannot be masterd, his knowledge such, that none can go be­yond him, and his goodnesse such that he is euer ready and willing to help his ser­uants. Es. 28. 6. He is a strength vn­to them that turne away the battell from he gates.

They that trust in the lord (saith Dauid) shall be as mount Sion that cannot be moued. Psa 125. Dauid found him to [Page] be his viceadmirall, that caried the light before him in the darkest times of trouble and guided him with wisdome out of hea­uen. Ps. 27. 1 The lord is my light and my saluation. The other way it looks is, to the thing hoped for, which is saluation, and this is of two sorts, eyther eternall, or temporall: God promises neyther of these absolutly, but vpon condition. The condition of the former is Ro. 8: Si tamen compatimur. If we suffer with him▪ we shalbe glorified with him. The condi­tion of the latter is Inuoca me & eruante, God enters into a couenant with his people. Exo. 23. to cast out their enemies by little & little; the people enter into a co­uenant with God also Ex. 24. to do al that he commandeth. It was the order that God & Salomon tooke one with another, 1. kin. 8. 44. That when the people went to war, they should pray towards ye tem­ple. Therefore if you trust to receiue at Gods hands any of these two things, you must do it per debita media & debito speran­di mod [...], otherwise it is presumption. But if you goe the right way to worke in the time of warre, if euery man reforme his own life, it was it that A chior told Olo­phernes, [Page] If there were no sin in the inha­bitants of Bethnlia, hee should fall before them and become a reproch and a scorne onto all the world: if euery man betake himselfe to such a care and preparation of defence, as if all lay vppon man and god did not concur, and then with praier and deuotion so commend the cause to God, as if all lay vpon God and man did not cencur. You shall then find that to be ve­rified in you, which Socrates found in the Lacedemoniens, whoe perceiuing that in certaine wars betwéen the A thenians & them, the A thenians offered much golde vnto their Idols, yet they departed still out of the field beaten. He asked the Ora­cle what might be the cause of it? and it was answered, that the praiers of ye La­cedemonians preuailed more than ye gold of the A thenians. No doubt but much cost hath béen laid vpon al the actions and at­tempts of the enimy against you, yet hée goes away beaten, if you wil knowe the reason, the praiers of the church of Eng­ [...]nd, haue preuailed more than the gold of Spaine.

The seccond Act [Beleeue.]

THis act in the handling of my Text comes after, which in order of gene­ration goes before the former. Heb. 11. Faith is the foundation of things hoped for, and the euidence of things not seene. The foundation goes before the building, and the euidence before possession. The glosse vpon the 1. Matt. saith, that as Abraham begat Isaac, so faith begets hope. Praier is the interpreter of hope, and Rom. 10. We cannot pray except we beléeue. How shall they call vppon him, in whome they haue not beleeued? ver. 14. Intellectus est prior potentia quā voluntos. Mans appetite moues him not to hope for any thing be­fore he knowes it either by sence and fée­ling, or by an apprehension of vnderstan­ding. Therefore as 2. Kin. 6 the seruant of the Prophet feared vntil his eies were opened, by which he saw the helpe God had prouided, and when hee sawe it his feare vanished: so vntill the mind be lightened by faith, we are distrustfull & stant in doubt, but if wee beléeue our doubt is ouer. Beléeue we cannot but by prea­ching, [Page] whereby it growes that the obiect of this act in this place, is the Prophet.

The second obiect. [The Prophet.]

AMos. 3. 7. God will doe nothing but he reuealeth his secrets vnto his ser­uantes the Prophets. In this respect the Prophet is cald a seer. 1 kin. 9. He sees sai­eth Isidore many things that other men sée not. Sometimes he sées thinges be­longing to the Maiestie of God. Esa. 6. He sées God sitting vpon a high throne; som­times he sées thinges appertaining vnto the manners of men. Esay. 58. 7. He sées it necessarie to the fasts of the Jewes to ioine workes of mercy, in féeding the hungry, and releasing the handes of such as were oppressed; somtimes he sées things present. 2. king. 5. Elizeus sées Gehesi ta­king rewards althogh he were not with him: and 2. kin. 6. although he were not in the counsel chamber of the king of Sy­ria, yet he discouered all the plottes and practises of the king of Syria to the king of Israel, s [...] that the king of Syria wondered at it, and mistrusted that some of his own counsell had béene false vnto him, vntill [Page] they tolde him there was a Prophet in Israell which bewraid al to the king of Is­raell which the king of Syria spake in his priuy lodgings. Somtimes he sees things to come, Es. 47. 12. The prophet foresees the destruction of Babylon, and tels them of it, that two things shal com vpō them in one day, losse of children & widowhood. The light where with the prophhetes saw so much, was a light aboue nature, con­firmed with arguments aboue nature, it was confirmed by myracles. And as the doctrine of the prophets came down from heauen confirmed by myracles, so ye gos­pel which we preach to you came downe from heauen and was confirmed by my­racles. Mar. 16. it is said that the Lorde wronght with the Apost and confirmed the word with signes that followed: yea, there is a kind of myracle wrought by it vnto this day. What a wonder is it to sée a greeuous sinner that hath frozen in his wickednes many yeares suddenly cōuerted with one sermon, with one sentence in a sermon? Al the wisdom of the phylo­sophers could neuer do it without a moū ­tain of books, much time, much teaching, much practice ex frequentatis actibus, and [Page] when they had done their best, they could neuer attain vnto it. It may seem strāge that the office of the Prophets & Prea­chers being so excellent an office, & their doctrine so confirmed from time to time, that neither prophet nor preacher should in this declining age of ours be regarded, and we may say as the prophets did Quis credidit auditu nostro? Who hath beleeued our report? The people are grown like to springs in summer, the more heat with­out, the more cold within, the more prea­ching the lesse deuotion. They may be cō ­pared to the pinnacles of the belfry, begin to ring they beginne to quake, as if they were afraid, continue ringing, they stād still, their feare is past.

In the beginning of her Maiest. raign euery man began to tremble at the word of God and to giue heed to the preaching of the same: but the happy continuaunceSeauen reasons of [...]he con­tempt of [...]he Pro­phets and Preachers of Gods worde. thereof hath made it so familiar vnto you that you care not for it. Methinks I could yéeld som reasons of these euentes, 5 on your part, 1. of ours, & ye last on gods part

The 1. is the disposition yt is in men. As between the face of a mā & a glasse, so is it between ye precher & the hearer. The [Page] face of a man, is the same face, but acor­ding to the disposition of the glasses wheron it hath reflection it appeares different, in some it seemes smooth, in some wrinck­led, in some long, in some rounde, there be some preposterous glasses, that make that which is streight, appeare crooked. Some will inuert the partes of man, and set his head downe and his heels vp.

Such a glasse was Amasia to the pro­phet after the slaughter of the Edomits, the prophet reproued him for offering Incens to Idoles after the vctorie, he shooke him vp like a dishclout.

Art thon become the Kings counceller? such a glasse was Ahab to Michaia when hee fedde him with the bread of afflicti­on: such glasses were the people to Hie­remy lament Raita Iehoua gna uatati it is as much as if the Prophet said, Lord thou hast seene that that which is right in me they haue made crooked. Such a glasse was Harding to Iuel, the lerned Bishop complaind of it, that whatsoeuer he spak was to long or to short, or one way or o­ther it stoode awry. Such a glasse is the new Presbyterie couching downe at the gates of great personnes, with her bel­lie [Page] full of barcking libells to disgrace the persons of the best men, and the labours of the best learned in the Church of Eng­land. And to be plaine with you, because I trust you loue plaines, such glasses we that are preachers in the country meet withal. You may see it by the practisse the holy ghost discouers Hier. 18. 18.

Let vs smite Hieremie with the toong, and giue no heed to his worde.

The best way the diuell can finde to disgrace preaching, is to disgrace yt prea­cher. Concerning this practise, I assure my selfe that much water goes by the Mill, which the Miller knowes not of, therefore standing before the honorable Judges of our Cuntrey, I will open some thinges to this purpose as I passe along.

The last Assises in the Cuntrey where I dwell, there was a Minister, a bachi­ler of Diuinitie, that had a cause against one that held his benefice as farmor, and woulde kéepe from him both his liuing and his rent that shoulde maintaine him, and doe it by law. But there was a base generation then present, which belike haue some inferior seruices to courtes of iustice, whom I cannot beter liken than [Page] vnto Florus an idle fellow, that saide of Cesar, Ego nolo Caesar esse, I will not be Cae­sar to march vp and downe in armour a­mong the Britaines, and so leade a labori­ous and painfull life: to whom Cesar an­swered, ego nolo Florus esse, ambulare per po­pinas, &c. I will not be Florus to créep in­to euery kitchen, or to be shrouded vnder the roofes of victualing houses, woorried & and eaten vp at last with lice and lazi­nesse.

This generation is such as haue had ho­nest trades and occupations to get their liuing, but per aduenture by some euil ca­riage in their trades, hauing loste both credite and custome, and now scorning the sweat of their occupation, haue found out a new occupation, to liue by ye sweat of other mens browes: and to compasse this the better, haue ioyned themselues to some crackt Attourney, which since his disgrace and rasing out of the roll, hath wandered a while in France, vntill his face, or his fortune, or ill fashion of life might be forgotten, and so returns close­ly to his old byas. This kind of people es­pying but one minister to be drawn forth into sutes and quarels, gaue it out lusti­ly [Page] that they would haue the next assises better furnisht, they would haue three or foure of our brethren there. I will say to your Honors of these people, as Dauid said to Salomon concerning Semei. 1. kin. 2. 8. With thee is Semei that cursed mee with a horrible cursse. Although my hand be not vpon him, yet thou shalt not count him innocent, for thou art a wise manne and knowest what thou oughtest to doe vnto him. When any of these caterpil­lers and coosners of the Quéens léege peo­ple, shall hale any of the Clergie by vio­lence into the courts, as you are wise & learned in the lawes of our Countrey, mark well the nature of the action, and the qualitie of the persons, and doe accor­ding to the wisedome God hath put into your harts, you know what you ought to do in these cases better than I can teache you.

I dare be bold to say, that you shal find the Cleargy of England haunted at this day with thrée cumbers that troubled the Prophet Ieremy, Lament. 3. The first is, that his enemies chased him like a birde from tree to trée. The second was, they woulde not tarrie vntill hee was dead, [Page] but cast him quick into a pit, the third a­gainst all humanity, when they had him downe they threw stones vppon him pre­sently to kéep him down, a barbrous cru­elty passing the cruelty of the Italian, the heathen, and the spaniard. The I­talian hath a tricke in the art of the rapi­er & the dagger to teach his scholer with a trauace or two to get the pointe of his aduersaries weapon, and hauing that, to locke him vp so sure that he may turne a­way his face from him and runne him through, which he saith he doth Per non veder crudeltà because hee will behould no cruelty. The tragedies of the heathen poets are stuft full of murder, inhmanity and horrible actions, yet are they perfor­med with such a care and compassion of the people, that they are al conuayed frō the peoples eyes. The spanish inquisi­tion hath bene so kinde in some cruelties, that they haue of grace and fauor greas'd the halter for some that weare strangled for religion, that they might be dispatcht the sooner. Let vs craue any of these fauors at the hands of our enemies, let them turne away their faces from vs when they kill vs, that their eyes delight [Page] not, and their chéeks blush not at their owne cruelty: or conuey the horror and inhumanity of their▪ actions behinde the stage, that the people be not sxandald: or grease euery halter that stops our breath that the rope may ride, and make a quick riddance of vs al. Or if they be so gallant faulkners that they make it their pas­time and recreation to pursue vs like a quaile or a partridge from place to place, and such huntsmen as haueing once streightned their game be desirous to tumble it into a pit, let them tarry vntill we be colde in the mouth, and then throw Pelion and Ossa the Giants weight vpon vs, we know we shall rise againe. By these practises both you my Lords, and you good people may easily discerne, that this world is a very sea of trobles, wher­in there be two ships vnder saile, both men of warre. The one is the church, where Christ is the maister, his crosse the maste, his sanctimony the sailes, the tackle is his patience and perseuerance, the caste peeces are the Prophets, Apost­els, and preachers whose sound hath béen hard ouer all the world, the mariners be the Angels singing their Celeumata glo­rie [Page] be to God on high, the fraught is the soules of iust men, woemen, and children, And the rich gifts and deuotions bestowed vpon churches and colledges bound vp in baggs that shall neuer perish. The rudder is charitie, all the motions and actions of the church are wroght in loue, the ancor is hope, the flagge in the top of her is faith, the worde written in it, Pre­mimur non oprimimur. We are cast downe (saieth the Apostle) but wee perishe not. There is another ship at sea which hath this ship in rhace, that is the Pyracy of hel, a hot ship and full of wild-fire, where the Diuell is maister, pride the mast, im­purity the saile, the wisdome of flesh the Card, the mysterie of iniquity the com­passe, Diagoras the Atheist, Indas ye tray­tor, and the whole rabble of hel the Mar­riners: two tyre of Ordnance planted in her, one mixt of hereticks & schismatiks, another of persecuting heathen princes, that spit smoke & sulphur at the church of God. There belonges no anchor to this vessel, to stay it when the stormes of the wrath of God arise, for it is subiect to de­spaire. The flag in the top is infidelitie, the word written in it, Lu [...]rum est pietas. [Page] Gaine is godlinesse. You may sée it in the continuall chace of the Church, for the churches treasure, landes and leases gi­uen in Pios vsus. The daies haue béene, the question was, What shall we bring1. Sa. 7. 9. to the man of God? The daies are now, the question is in euerie Court of iustice, in euery high court of Parliament, what shall we take from the man of God?

In the noble Shunamites daies, they deuised to build vp a chamber for the pro­phet, to set him vp a stoole, a table, and a candlesticke. In these noble daies, men deuise howe to pull downe the chambers of the prophets, to ouerthrow his stoole and his table, and break his candlestick in péeces. In the daies of the Leuites whē the portions of the priests were detained and the Leuites scattered, there was a good Nehemiah that reproued the Judges and Elders, and set the house of God in order, and brought the tythes barke a­gaine vnto the priest. In these daies, if God stirre vp a good Nehemia to deliuer vs our portion into our handes, the Kite catcheth it before wee can put it to our mouth. The Cleargie of Englande may nowe ioyne hande in hande in a [Page] faire roundelay and sing and record one to another, as little children do in the stréets, When shall we eat white bread? when the puttock is dead. Tobiah and Sanaballet perceiuing the walles of Hie­rusalem begin to rise, asked whether the walles were so high that a Foxe might not get ouer them: and in these daies of ours, if any tricke of a Fox may be foūd to crosse the Church, we shall bee sure to haue it put in practise.

To this purpose it may be you shal perceiue some broker belonging to the com­mon Law, or some iester hanging vpon the Court, or some Lyris Poet and com­mon Rimer houering about this Cittie, subborned and bolstered to deale in deri­sion of the Church in time of parliament as Italians do in their plaies, that come huffing in on a sudden with flights, shifts iugling, packing, tricks of legier de main, all cast and contriued to no other end but to intoxicate the whole Sceane, and to make game and laughter for the lookers on. But let the graue affaires of this church and kingdome be once turned in­to sport, and you shall quicklie sée by the multitude of iudicious eies fastened vpō [Page] the actions of all kingdomes, by ye bookes of intelligences daily printed, and by the innumerable company of learned heads and pens, working and walking day and night, that all Christendome shortly will ring of the pageants plaide among vs, & shortly all Christendome will abhor vs, as a people prophane and irreligious. A great part of this mischief being hatched by the presbyterie.

2 The second reason is, the mistaking of the physicke that should haue béen ad­ministred vnto the presbyterie. Confe­rence, conniuence, tolleration, disputati­on, printing of bookes, and preaching of sermons, haue béene applied vnto them, these are all wrong Apozems, one dram of Elleborus would haue purged this hu­mour. It was the iudgement of a verie learned Bishop many yeares agoe, that correction would amend it.

By fauour and support these Uermine that were long since, by the labours of learned bishoppes hewen in péeces, haue crept out of their holes, from Leidon and other places, and by continuall rolling recouered their taile, their torne papers and maimed pamphlets haue bin sticht [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] togither againe with a skaine of Sisters thred, and wrought round with a white seluedge of reformation to grace them, whereby the eares of the Church haue béene filled with a newe hissing, to the very mockerie of religion, and the impu­dent slander of the church of Englande, which is by Gods great blessing at this day (euen in her ruines) the most famous church in Europe.

It is said of S. Antonie, that two yéers before the heresie of Arrius brake foorth, being in his deuotions and casting vppe his eies towards heauen, he had a vision, wherein he saw Gods altar compassed a­bout with a company of brute beasts, kic king and striking at it with their héeles, vntill they ouerthrew it, and trampled al the holy things vnder their féet. He wept when he beheld it, and perswading him­selfe that some troble in the church would follow, he praied vnto God to turn away the mischéefe. Were S. Anthony now aliue, he should not sée these matters by shaddows or representations in the ayre, but in liuely acts and déedes, Gods altar inuironed with a company of proude Mules, striking at it with their héeles, [Page] the altar it selfe battered by violence and beaten downe, holy things troden on and trampled with foule féet. Those things which in all religious ages haue béene counted Phobera cai phricodestata, feareful and terrible, are nowe of no reckoning nor reputation, religion scorned, ye préest derided, those conflictes betwéen the prea­chers and the people that Paule tasted at Ephesus, where he fought with beastes in the shape of men.

All these miseries springing from a wrangling humor of the Presbyterie, that hath broght religion into contempt. Ne­uer a good S. Antony weepes ouer it, ne­uer a good Mattathias rentes his clothes, no mans bowels work like the wine that hath no vent, to inueigh against it with that egernesse the cause requires. It is a signe that religion decaies, and deuotion growes cold among vs.

When the weather is hot euery man opens his mouth, but when it is colde hee shuttes it so close that his téethe chatter: where zeale is there is heate, and where heate is men will quest and open, Psal. 77. Aperiam os meum, I will open my mouth (saieth the Prophet Dauid.) We [Page] cannot (saith Peter) but speak the things that we haue seen and heard. Where no zeale is, there is no heat, where no heat, no spéeche but chattering and vnperfect soundes, hollow and minced between the téeth, as if men were afearde to speake: surely such are vnfit for Gods seruice, he cannot abide to see a quaking hand in his quarrell. As it is a signe of faintnesse to see this & to be silent, so it is a sign there is somthing in mē vnnaturall. For we say in Phylosophie, vnum quod que magis incli­nots in id cuius est. Euery thing is naturally inclined vnto that to which it apertaineth. If the body be in daunger, the arme is presentlie lifted vp to receiue the blowes comming vpon it selfe, that with the ha­zard of it selfe it may saue the body, be­cause it is a member of the body. This Honorable Citty is a body pollitike, eue­rie good cittizen which is a member of it, when he spies the Charters, priuileges, and immunities thereof graunted by the grace and fauour of our Princes, to be in danger, will with the hazzard of his own substance séeke to defend and kéep it.

The Church is a bodie mysticall, eue­ry one of you if you appertaine to God is [Page] a Citizen of this Jerusalem, & when you see the church in danger, if there be anie kinde or naturall affection in you at all, euery man when the daunger doeth ap­proch, will with the hazzard of his owne person, obiect and cast himselfe betwéen the church and it. But the want of this affection, and the neglect of this physick, is a reason of the contempt that growes vpon vs.

3 The third is, the difficultie of mans attaining to his ende, trées and plants, & all inferiour creatures, attaine their per­fection and end with fewe motions, with nourishment and augmentation. The holy Angels of god attained vnto their end with one motion, with one conuersi­on vnto god, in instanti, euen at the instāt of their creation became blessed. But Man is cōpared in the ps. to a watch, he hath a great many gimols appertaining to him to mooue him, hee mooues like a watch or a coatche with many whéeles. The act of his vnderstanding giues him one motion, presenting the obiect to him which he must embrace, his appetite sen­sitiue giues him another motion cōtrarie to the former, caro concupiscit aduersus spi­ritum [Page] the flesh lusteth against the spirite. His own will giues him another motion, God created it to moue it selfe ad opposita, the external obiect giues him another motion, The view of the forbidden fruit mo­ued Eue to taste and eate it. God himselfe which hath the hart of man in his hands and turnes it as the riuers in the South, giues him another motion: among all these, some mouing regular, some retro­grade, some forward, some backwarde, some towardes heauen, some towardes earth, It is no hard matter to tune an in­strument of musick, A paier of virginals or a payre of Organs when euery string and pipe is out of tune, but man being a creature so witty, so subtle, so proude, so surlie, so wedded to his own will & opini­ons, & rolling vpon so many whéeles, to set euery string & pipe of man in tune, to make al his motions concur and agrée to gither Hic labor hoc epus est, It is the har­dest professiō in ye world to be a preacher.

The 4. reason is a riddle. I pray you riddle me what is that, that is the high­est the lowest, the fairest the foulest, the strongest the weakest, the richest the po­rest, the happiest the vnhappiest, the sa­fest [Page] and the most in danger of any thing in the world? I will not promise euerie one of you as Samson did, a new sute of apparell to expound it. It may bee this age wil take order for the Cleargies libe­rality, yet I must tell you, that as Sam­sons riddle was not expounded but by ploughing with Samsons Heifer, so this cannot be declared but by ploughing wt Gods own Heifer. And that I may not hold you long in suspence, it is all but one thing, it is a good Christian. He is the highest thing in the world, his conuersa­tion is in heauen, Col. He is the lowest thing in the world, euery man treads vp­on him, he may say with Dauid, De pro­fundis ad te clamaui. From the deapthes haue I called vnto thee. This is very low. He is the fairest thing in the world, he is a member of the church of God, which for her beautie is compared in the Canticles to the Sunne and the Moone, and to an Armie well ordered and set in good aray, thrée things very beawtifull to looke vp­on. He is the fowlest thing in the world, so disguised with Watching, Weeping, Fasting, Pennaunce, and manie other voluntarie afflictions of bodie and mind, [Page] that he lookes like a bottle dried in the smoak, and tanned many times with the sun of persecution he growes as black as if he had lien among the pots. He is the strōgest thing in the world, he hath faith, he hath hope, he hath loue, thrée strong thinges; faith hath a force to remoue mountaines, hope is an ancor that staies the greatest ships in the greatest storms, loue is as strong as death, it enters the strongest holde, neither walles, nor bul­works, nor rampiers can keepe it out; what a strength had Dauid? Non timebo quid faciat mihi homo, I will not feare what man can do vnto me. What a strength had Eliah the Prophet that durst go to a king and face him and tell him that it was he that troubled all Israell. A good christian hath sometime a strength and a power in his eie passing the eie of Planti­anus. Herodian saith of Plantianus, Seue­rus the Emprors minion, that he had such a teror in his couetenance that men durst not looke him in the face, if they did, they were so dawnted that it droue them to cast their eies downe vnto the ground. For this cause when he went abrode he had certaine Anteambulones, some that [Page] ran before him to marshall the way and giue warning of his comming, that men might cast their eies to the earth as hee passed by; but this terror was vnto his inferiors. It is said of S. Benedictus, that he had such a power and terror in his eie, euen to his superiors, that casting but a look vpon Totylas the king of the Gothes, afurious & an audacious king, hee made him quake and tremble. Marke it when you wil in the persecutions of the church, you shall many times discouer such a glo­rie and maiestie in the countenaunce of them that are put to death, as was in the face of Stephē when he was stoned, their torments are more afraid of them, than they are of their torments. Yet are they againe so weake at another time, if God do but hide himselfe a while, that eyther they complaine with Dauid, Quare tristis incedo dum affligit me inimicus? Why goe I thus heauily while mine enemy oppresses me? Or couch down with Eliah vnder a Juniper trée, wearie of themselues, and desire God to take awaie their life. He is the richest thing in the worlde, hee hath Christ Jesus the very treasure & riches of God, and in him all thinges: he is the [Page] poorest thing againe, hee hath his good name and his goodes taken from him. Heb. 11. 37. He is destitute, afflicted, and tormented, euen to the losse of life it selfe at last.

He is the happiest thing in the world, he hath a good conscience, which is a continuall feast. Prou. 15. He is againe the vnhappiest, his handes be tied, hee may not be reuenged: his eies be muffled, he may sée no vanitie: his lips be sealed, hée may not render rebuke for rebuke, and liuing here in this world which is a kind of Paradice to carnall men, full of Ho­nour and wealth, and pleasures, which many other men embrace, while GOD hath set him (as the Poets fained of Tan­talus) vppe to the chinne in these thinges, and will not suffer him to taste them. Touch not, taste not, handle not. What a miserable life is this?

Last of all, he is the safest thing in the world, he is euer vnder the shadowe and protection of the winges of God: he is al­so the most in danger in soule and in body of any thing in the world, his soule is the very But against which Satan dischar­geth all his shot of temptations, his bodie [Page] manie times in perils by sea, by lande, among false brethren, compassed about with daunger, on the right hand and on the left. Being the office of the preacher to bring both these endes togither, and e­uerie man being desirous to be partaker of the heigth, the beautie, the strength, the riches, the happinesse, and the safety that accompanies religion, but fewe or none willing to tast of the basenesse, the deformitie, the weaknesse, the pouertie, the miserie, and the daunger that waites vpon religion, Many deale with vs as Demas did with Paule, that forsook Paule and be tooke himselfe to the present world.

The fift reason is, the combat of contra­ries: when fier and water méet, you shal heare a ratling and hissing in the water, which procéedes from the encounter of two contraries, the one striuing to de­stroy the other. The end of Gods word is to reforme mans iudgement, and his life: Gods worde is true, but Omnis ho­mo mendax, Euery man is a lyar, his iudgement erroneous and his life erroneous. When truth and falshood, the word of god and the word of man doe méet, there be­gins the conflict, the one striues to de­stroy [Page] the other. Gods word is a fier, mens affections are water, when fier and wa­ter ioine, they begin to rattle and bisse one at another. Paint a fier vpon a péece of cloth, and cast that into the water, you shall heare no hissing at all, because it is no true fier. Paule preaching at Ephesus against their idols, hee scatterd true fier among them, Demetrius startles at it and stirres vppe sedition among the people, there the contrarie roares and rattles: in comes the Towne-clarke with the magnificence of Diana, a false fier, a counterfait fier, there is no contradiction to him at all. It is the very case oftentimes, if the preacher come to you with a pain­ted fire, and stroake your spléene, and tell you that all is well, because you are pre­destinate you shall goe to Heauen slee­ping, as men carried in a Coatch with­out any action or motion of your owne, we shall neuer be gainsaide. But come to you with a true fire, and tell you▪you muste worke out your saluation with feare and trembling, you beginne to murmur, because you are contrarie vn­to vs.

[Page]The word in vs labours to destroy sin in you, sin in you labours to destroy the word in vs, and thus we become despised. These fiue reasons are on your part.

The next is on our part, and it is drawne from generation. Preaching is an acte of generation, it begettes faith. Among other things in the talke of Esdr as with God, 2. Esd. 5. 49. Gods tels him, that in generati­on, Infans non parit ea quae sunt senum, a childe cannot performe that which a man per­formes. Therfore Paul would not haue a preacher to be a yong scholler. A great part of ye troubles of the church of England hath sprung out of gréene heads, that haue much busied thēselues about the state of bishops, these are yong cockerels, that haue learned only to clap their féeblewings, & to crow vpon the roost in time of peace, but when religiō is in danger, they dare not come in­to the cockpit, to trie masteries for religion as M. Iewel and many other good bishops haue done that are gone to God. As prea­ching is an act of generation, that requires growth, so it is an exercise of artilery, that requireth strength and knowledge. The souls of men are the fairest marks that can be shotte at: and we must do as archers do [Page] The archer first takes a viewe of his marke, then considers the distance of the ground, after that he carries his eye ouer all the shafts in his quiuer, he pulles out, and puts in one after another, vntill hee haue made choyse of his arrow: then hee prooues it with his finger, and iudges by his eare whether it bee drie and fitte to flie vnto the marke: then he markes how the winde sittes, to helpe him or to hinder him: when he hath put his arrow into the bow, and begunne to draw, if there come a guske of contradiction in his way, he hath the discretion to pawse and to beare with it, vntill it haue spent it selfe: when the blast is ouer, he settes his foote to the grounde, lies close to his bowe, drawes his arrow vp to the head, and sticks it vp to the feathers. Either want of yeares for the act of generation, or want of growth to draw the bowe of the Prophets and Apo­stles, & want also of skill to shoote, and care to shoote when wee haue taken our aime, makes vs many times to misse the marke, and so we become despised.

The seuenth and last reason is on Gods part, and this is fearefull. When God is determined to destroy a people, he makes [Page] their harts fat, and their eares heauie, and they become carelesse of the word of God. It was it that the Prophets noted in A­ma [...]a [...]. By this I know (saith he) that God is determined to destroy thée, Quia non ac­quieuisti consilio meo, Because thou hast not followed my councell. I pray you thinke vpon it in this opposition of yours against the Church of England▪ it is verie omi­nous, a feareful signe that God is determi­ned to destroy you, Quia non acquieuistis consilio nostro, Because you haue bin taught the trueth euer since the beginning of the blessed raigne of her maiestie, and you haue not hearkened vnto our counsell. Lette vs yet obtaine the credit at your hands which you ought to yéeld vs, and you shall see what wilfoow of it, euen this consequent, which he, Iehoshaphat, speaketh of [You shall prosper.]

The second consequent [Prosperity.]

THis may séeme strange that Iehosha­phat in this busie time of warre drawes the people to haue regarde vnto the Pro­phets, with an expectation of prosperitie: at such times men commonly dare not giue a­ny countenance to the prophets, for feare of [Page] the trouble that is annexed to religiō. This is to exhort the faithful to build vpon the sand. A man would think hee should rather haue mooued thē to prepare themselues vn­to temptation, as Saint Iames doth, or for trouble, as our Sauiour Christ doeth pressuram habebitis, you shall haue trou­ble, or to look for persecution, as Paul doth: He that wil liue godly (saith he) must suffer prsecution. Of which kind of spéech Saint Augustine saith, Qui hoc loquitur confortat infirmum vt non cum ille crediderit prospera huius saeculi speret. Si autem doctus fuerit pro­spera huius saeculi spcrare, ipsa prosperitate cor­rumpitur, & superuenientibus, aduersitatibus sauciatur aut fortassis extinguitur. Hee that speaketh this, speaketh not this to the end that a man when hee hath beléeued, shoulde looke for the prosperitie of this worlde, for if hee bee taught so to doe, prosperitie it selfe corrupteth him, and when aduersitie commeth, either it woun­deth him verie sore, or dispatcheth him outright.

A Preacher of the worde of GOD builds not vpon the rock▪ whē he builds so, but vpon the sand, and when the raine fal­leth, the wind blows, and the waues of ad­uersitie [Page] beat vpon his worke, the fall of his house is great. But if ye looke well into the scriptures, you shal finde that according to the difference of times, and of the affections of people, the exhortatiōs differ. They that haue already beléeued, are so affected with heuenly things that they despise the world, & such are exhorted to looke for trouble & ad­uersitie before it comes: so deales our Saui­or, Iames, & Paul with their schollers: such as are affected with the world, and doe not yet stedfastly beléeue, God is contented to drawe them vnto him, with promises of worldly prosperitie, that by these steppes they may ascend by little and little to loue him for himselfe at last. Such were they that Iehoshaphat spake vnto, men affec­ted with their peace and prosperitie, hee therefore exhorts them, to beléeue the pro­phets, with an expectation of prosperitie. S. Iohn Ep. 3. discouers two kindes of pro­speritie to his friend Gaius, one of the soule, another of the body, and he wishes both to him.

Where the holy prophets and priests of God haue their due regard & credite, both these folow, the soul prospers: the prophets doctrine is likend in scripture to raine, mās soule [Page] is the ground into which it falleth, and by the watering thereof many a goodlie flowre of Fayth, Hope, Loue, Tempe­raunce, and such like heauenly vertues créepe out of the paradice of the soule. The bodie prospers also, Ps. 8. 13. O that my people had hearkened vnto me (sayth God) I would haue humbled their ene­mies, and turned my hand against their ad­uersaries. The reason of it is the same▪ by which we say trees and plants do prosper, which standing with the roote in the mire, & in the water, draw that to them which is good for them, and refuse that which is hurtfull: and so they grow and prosper, not by any vnderstanding of their own, but be­cause they are guided, ab intelligentia non er­rante, they are guided by god, whose vnder­stāding neuer erres. The knowledge of the prophet is a light streaming out of Gods own bosome into the breastes of ye prophet, & as the learning of the scholer is a paterne of the learning of the master, so the know­ledge of yt prophet, is a bright heame of the knowledge that is in god: they that will beléeue the prophets shall be guided, ab in­telligentia non errante, by an vnderstanding yt neuer erres, & they shall prosper in their [Page] actions. Contrariwise, they that despise and reiect the Priestes and the Prophets sent vnto them, are like vnto a beaten bark in the maine sea, without rudder, without maister, without Card or Compasse, snat­ched away with euery flaw, and rent vpon euery rocke, they can neuer prosper. It shal be good for you in these dayes wherein men haue laide all their batterie against the Church, as if there were nothing in this kingdome out of order but the Church, to considder somewhat better of your owne selues, and doe it in time. For I dare bée bolde to tell you, that God can not abide to sée that kingdome prosper, which cannot a­bide to sée his church prosper. 2. Chron. the foure and twentieth chapter, and twentith verse, Why transgresse ye the commande­ments of the Lord (saith Zechariah) surely ye shall not prosper. The worde was no sooner out of his mouth, but the people con­spired against him, they got him to be made away by the kings commaundement. The holy man saide no more to it at his death, but this, The Lorde looke vpon it and re­quire it: and the yeare was no sooner come about, but God sent an army against them smaller in number than themselues, closed [Page] them all in their enemies hands, the king­dome was spoyled, the nobilitie destroyed and rifled, the pray sent to Damascus, the king himselfe murdered in his bed by his owne seruauntes, and all this was done (saith the holyghost) for the blood of the chil­dren of the Priestes. As many of you as take our prosperitie to bee a pricke in your eies, laye this to your heartes, and thinke vpon it. It grieueth me to speake it, and it grieueth me more to thinke it: you may see it if you will, that whilest you are whet­ting of a knife for to cutte our throates, God is whetting of a sworde to cut your throats.

It was the promise of our Sauiour, that the Faith of the Church shoulde remooue mountaines: and indeede the persecuting heathen emperors were very great moun­taines that stoode verie high, and very stiffe in the churches way, but the faith of the Church hath remoued them all out of her way. It was the praier of the Church a­gainst her ennemies long since, Dorsum e­orum incurua, Lord bow down their backs, looke vpon Domitian, Decius, Dioclesian, Iulian the apostata, Herod and Antiochus, and a number such like Princes persecu­ting [Page] of the church, all their backes haue bin sodainely bowed downe or broken by one feareful death or other. Valerian the em­perour was a bitter enemy of the Church, and it pleased GOD in his life time so to bow downe his backe, that he made him a footestoole for his prowd ennemie the King of Persia, to get vp to horse. Looke vppon the liues, or vpon the deaths of all the prin­ces of the earth that euer stoode vp in oppo­sition against the church, you shal find that verified in them that Dauid noted, Uinde­miat spiritum principum, he cuttes off the spi­rits of Princes. In which maner of spéech he likeneth GOD to a vinerole, and the Princes of the earth to great clusters of Grapes in the time of Uintage, when they are ripe, and the measure of their sins full, then commeth God in with his pa­ring knife, he shareth off these great clu­sters one after an other, and sweepeth them awaye quite from the face of the earth.

My Text hauing thus ledde mee by steppes and degrées vppe to the chinne in the Churches quarrell, because that after the last seruice I perfourmed to the Church in this place, it was told me to my [Page] head fortie miles hence in the presence of an honourable man, that I had stricken at some great person, and should be called in question for it: I do not thinke but my in­nocencie was lookte into, in that it was al­most two yeares since, and from that daye to this I neuer heard more of it. Neuer­thelesse, that I be no more mistaken, I wil speake a word or two to this purpose, and so commit you to God.

I remember the Prophet Hieremie in his fourth chapter and fourth vers. finding his speach to be of little force amongest the common people, said thus to himselfe: sure­ly they are poore and foolish, and knowe not the way of the Lorde, I will get mée to the great men & speake to them, for they know it. But when he had taken a view of them, he confessed, that they also had cast away the yoke of their obedience vnto god. This was not my drift at that time, neither is it my intent now. I do rather set before mine eies the complaint of the Prophet Hiere­mie Lament. 3. where he compareth great persons to fine gold, and to the stones of the sanctuarie, and bewailes to sée them in dis­grace. If it be the commēdation of the two Tables that they were written with gods [Page] owne finger, it can not but be a matter of high reckoning and reputation, that men doe rise to honour and authoritie, eyther in the church or in the commonweale, it is a curious parcell guilt laide vppon them by Gods owne finger, and no wicked tongue may licke it off againe. Yet I must tel you thus much, that as euery man hath a par­ticular end of his actions, and embraceth all the honest meanes hée can to attayne to it; the end of the Marchant is gaine, the end of the Souldier is victorie: so the ende of the Preacher is Gods glorie: the means we vse to attaine vnto it, is preaching, and preaching is haile-shot; we send it among the thickest of you, desirous to hitte you all. And if we can strike, and strike kindly here a Judge, and there a Magistrate, héere a Nobleman, there a Gentleman, héere a Courtier, there a Countrieman, héere a Lawyer, there a Client, it fareth with vs as it did with the Troians, when the siege was raised, and the Grecians returned to their ships, they delighted to view the void places where they fought: when our work is ouer, it doth vs good as wée come this way, to cast vp our eyes to these places where we haue tried our strength in Gods [Page] seruice, and may say vnto our selues, Here we tilted, there wée tourneyed, here wée thundered, there wee lightned, heere wee fought, and there we ouercame, bearing vp a rich conquest of soules vpon the poynt of our speares to heauen. The Philosopher saieth of naturall bodies, that the nearer they come to their sphere, the faster they moue. Throw a stone from aboue, the nea­rer it comes to the earth, the faster it mou­eth: the dogge when he follows the hare, the nearer he is to it, the faster he runnes to pinch and take holde of it: the Falcon, soa­ring in the ayre, and spying his game be­neath, strikes the wing, and comes downe with such a force, that the ayre suffers vio­lence in his passage, the nearer he comes to it, the swifter he flies, and makes his point brauely when he stowps. By this long continuance of the gospel among you, the kingdome of heauen is nearer to you now than when you first beléeued: God stands at the end of your race, as he did at the top of Ia­cobs ladder to allure you: put your trust in him, and you shall be assured: he hath sent out his Prophets and Preachers to halow the game vnto you, If you cling somwhat close vnto vs, you shall mooue spéedily to­wards [Page] your sphere, you shall runne well, and stoppe well, liue wel, and die well, and make a gallant point. As for my selfe, be­cause it is no small matter for God to sepa­rate a Priest from the people, and to take him néere to himselfe to do the seruice of the tabernacle, and to stand before the congre­gation,Num. 16. 9 standing here in the sight of God, of Angels, of men, we speake presente Scaeuo­la. And the Wiseman saith Eccl. 43. that al things are directed by God to a good end, and when wee haue spoken much, yet we cannot attaine to them: but this is the end of all, that God is all, and there wil come a time (saith Augustine) when we shal en­ter into the presence of God, wherein ma­ny things we talke of nowe shall cease, and God shal be one in all, and wée shall be all one, and speake one thing, and praise one God. I will therefore winde vp al that I haue spoken this day with that short pray­er wherewith Saint Augustine makes an end of a laborious disputation of the holie Trinitie, Domine Deus vnus, Deus Trinitas, quaecunque dixi in his libris de tuo, agnoscant & tui: Si qua de meo, & tu ignosce & tui. O Lord my God, which art one God, God the Tri­nitie, if I haue spoken any thing héere that [Page] is thine, I humbly beséech thée and thine to accept it at my handes: If I haue spoken any thing that is mine, or followd the sway of flesh and bloud, I humbly beséech thée and thine to forgiue it me, in the name of the Father, the Sonne, and the Holighost; three glorious persons in Trinitie, one e­ternall God in substance, to whom be all honour and glorie, praise, power, and dominion, now and euer,



THE LECTVRES OF SAMVEL BIRD OF IPSWIDGE VPON the 8. and 9. chap­ters of the second E­pistle to the Co­rinthians.

Printed by Iohn Legate, Prin­ter to the Vniversitie of Cambridge.


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