THE STATE-MYSTERIES OF THE IESVITES, By way of Questions and Answers. Faithfully extracted out of their owne Writings by themselues published. AND A Catalogue prefixed of the Authors names which are cited in this Booke. Written for a Premonition in these times both to the Publike and Particular.

Translated out of French.

REVEL. 3. 24. 25.
Ʋnto you I say, who haue not knowne the depth of Satans, that which you haue already hold fast till I come.

LONDON, Printed by G. E. for Nicholas Bourne. 1623.

TO THE RIGHT VVORTHY, AND euery way most accomplished, Sr. Thomas Penystone Knight and Ba­ronett, my euer-honored Master.

SIR:

ALthough wee haue seene in these our later dayes, and may euery day more and more perceiue in the affliction of Ioseph, and in the pitifull and lamenta­ble estate of a great many of the Reformed Churches of the world, the fearefull effects of the cruell and bloudy do­ctrine of those, who vnder the sweet name of Iesus, preach and teach little else then fire, murther, and sedition: Yet because there are many, which eyther haue neuer heard of the damnable points these dangerous men doe [Page] teach and maintaine, or hauing heard of them, will not at any hand beleeue, that such holy-seeming Fathers haue in such manner sharpned their tongues like Serpents, & that the venome of Aspes is hidden vnder their lips; Therefore this Treatise (by the proui­dence of God) fallen into my hands, discoue­ring at large those secret and abhominable positions of theirs, which no Rack, nor grea­test torments could euer yet extort out of any of them, I thought good to learne it to speake the English Tongue, both to instruct them, which are not yet acquainted with their in­accessible mysteries; as also to informe them better, which are so caried away by the blind loue of these persons, as they will not be per­swaded that euer they haue been the Authors of those wofull and miserable Tragedies, newly acted vpon the Theaters of France and Germany: To the end that the truth being knowne, it may appeare in the face of all the world, what they are, who in stead of the wholsome milke and meate of the word of God, doe feed them, which are committed to their charge, with the poyson of their de­testable [Page] blasphemies, applying to their In­stitutor many passages of the holy Scriptures, which are onely proper and appertaining to the Diuinity: with their impious and abhor­red doctrine of deposing and killing Kings, whereof there is in no other booke extant whatsoeuer, so much found briefly together; with their perfidous and pestilent distincti­ons, for Princes to violate their faiths giuen vnto others, vpon that wicked Maxime of theirs, That faith is not to be kept with hereticks; with their pernitious Equiuocations, & most leud mentall Reseruations. In all which, and the rest, the Author hath not belyed the So­cietie, for he hath cited all his affirmations out of their owne writings (iudging them like wicked seruants out of their owne mouthes) the quotations wherof, appearing in the mar­gine, haue beene most punctually examined with the originals themselues, by three lear­ned Doctors of Oxford, who haue both re­ported them for faithfull, and the booke in generall most vsefull, and to that purpose for which the Author wrote it, which was, not so much for a Discouery, as for a Caueat to [Page] all such, who being not able to weigh their reasons, are the easier to be abused by their dissembling allurements: to which end also hauing now diuulged it, I present it in all hu­militie vnto your noble Patronage, as a testi­mony of my dutie and thankfulnesse for so many f [...]uours and benefits receiued, since it pleased you to take me into your protection and seruice, after the miserable dissipation of the most part of the Reformed Churches of Normandy. So wishing you heauen vpon earth in this world, and eternall blisse in the life to come, I rest euer in all submission,

Your humble and truly-deuoted Seruant, PETER GOSSELIN.

TO THE READER.

THE Bookes which are cited in this Dis­course, are for the most part common, and haue beene diuers times printed in sundry places: there is one cited in the beginning, which was first published in Spanish, and since translated into Latine and French, wherein are contained three very excellent Sermons preached on the feast day of the Bea­tification of the glorious Patriarch blessed Ignatius, founder of the Society of Iesus.

By the Reuerent Doctor, Petrus de Ʋalderama, an Au­gustine Frier.

The Reuerent Doctor Petrus Deza of the order of the Do­minicans.

The Reuerent Father Iacobus Rebuttosa, of the same Oder.

In this Discourse I haue followed the edition of the French translation made by Father Francis Solier a Iesuite, imprinted at Poitiers by Anthony Mesnier, Printer to the King and the Vniuersity, the yeare 1611.

Now although the said Sermons were composed by such as were no Iesuites; yet by translating, publishing, and re­commending them, they haue made them theirs; and enga­ged their credits for all that is said in them concerning the founder and Society of the Iesuites. For the other Bookes that are cited, here is a List of them.

Arturi de Ecclesia libri.
Becanisumma Theol.
Bellarmini Controuersiae.
Idem contra Barclayum.
[Page] Caniloci Theologici.
Delrij disquisitiones Magica.
Discipuli de tempore sermones.
Eudaem [...]-Iohannes Apol. pro Garneto.
Eiusdem Resp. ad Anticot.
Ignatij Epist. de virtute Obed.
Maphau [...] de vitae Ignatij Loyolae.
Marian. de Rege & Regis Iustitutione.
Possevini Bibliotheca selecta.
Ribadeneira de vita Ignatij Loyolae.
Suare [...]ii defensio [...]id. Cathol. contrasectam Anglicanam.
Eiusdem disp. in Thomam.
Sa Aphorismi confessariorum.
Scribanij Amphitheatrum honoris.
Sanctius in Isayam.
Toleti instructio Sacerdotum.
Ʋalentia in summam Thoma.
Vasquez in tertiam partem Thoma.

Page 49. Line 17. for som any, reade so many.

THE MYSTERIES OF THE IESVITES, by Questions and Answers.
Where the Nouice demandeth, and the pro­fessed Iesuite answereth.

NOVICE.

FATHER, being resolued to vow my selfe to a religious life in your Societie, I entreat you would be pleased to giue me leaue, for my instruction, to aske you some Questions, to the end, that by your An­swers I may not onely be con­firmed in my resolution my selfe, but also prepared to informe others, whereby they likewise may bee drawne to the same deuotion.

IESVITE.

Speake on boldly, my Sonne, for no part of our mysteries shall be concealed from thee, prouided thou promise to receiue them at my hands vnder the seale of Confession, and not to reueale any more thereof, then what we are contented to haue [Page 2] publike, reseruing in secret the Theory of many things, whose practice cannot be hid, and yet it may not easily be perceiued from whence they procced.

NOVIE.

I will carefully obserue the silence, which I am ready to vow, and will neuer speake word of any thing, but when you shall please to open my mouth, vnlesse it be now, that for to learne of you, I make some demands. And first of all I beseech you let me vnderstand the originall of our Society: for some there be, and those too among other religious Or­ders, that hold it to be but new.

IESVITE.

It is true indeed that it hath been renewed in our time, wherein it was necessary to institute some new Orders, Bellarm. de Monach. l. 2. cap. 6. Because that feruor which is found in the be­ginning of a new Order, exciteth many men to pietie, which by little and little waxing cold, it is needfull that new should be raised, whereby that feruor may be enter­tained: But if wee regard the first originall of this Societie, it will appeare to be very ancient.

NOVICE.

I pray you shew me how; for I should be glad to be furnished with meanes to stop their mouthes which termes vs New-men.

IESVITE.

So farr is our Society from being to be accounted new, that there is not any one so ancient; for it was before the Apostles time: and to proue it, The [Page 3] Societie of Serm. de Val­derama pag. 10.Iesus was founded euen at the very point of his admirable Conception, vniting in his diuine person his humanitie with his eternall nature: And that was the first societie which God had with men, and the first Colledge thereof was the virginall womb of the Virgin.

NOVICE.

I should neuer haue dreamed of this Colledge, nor of so authenticall an originall of our Societie without your direction: But is it not spoken of in the Gospell, or in the writings of the Apostles?

IESVITE.

Yes. For S. 1 Cor. 1. 9.Paul speaketh of it in these words, in the first to the Corinthians, God is faithfull, by whom yee haue beene called to the societie of his Sonne Iesus. And S. 1 Ioh. 1. 3.Iohn, To the end our societie may be with the Father, and with his Sonne Iesus Christ. By which words it followeth, saith Father Arturus, Lib. 1. de Ec­clesia.that the Societie of Iesus hath beene euer since the time of the Apostles, and is not new, as Sadeel doth maliciously slander it. Neither is any credit to be giuen to Locor. Theol. lib. 4. cap. 2.Mel­chior Canus Bishop of Canary, saying, That that so­cietie being the Church of Christ, they which doe attri­bute that title vnto themselues, are to consider whether like vnto the Heretikes they doe not vainly boast, that the Church is no where abiding but with them. For you must obserue my Friend, that this Canus was of the Order of the preaching Friers, of whom Father Praefat. ad lib. disquis. Magic.Delrio writeth truly, That openly they carry them­selues as enemies and opposites to our Societie, and in secret by their deuices they traduce it, labouring all they can, both in Italy, Spaine, and throughout the [Page 4] whole world, to make it to be enuied, and seeke not one­ly by themselues, but by certaine lying Historians their instruments, to blemish it in what they may; and striue with all their might, either to cause their bookes to be prohibited, or the reading of them to be suspended, or at leastwise they charge them with some note of infamy: Whereupon it may be reasonably concluded, that these men are not to be held eyther for competent Iudges, or witnesses against them of our Societie, nor against any of their writings whatsoeuer, but are to be ranked in the number of our accusers and aduersaries.

NOVICE.

It is no maruell then if this Spanish Bishop hath snarled so at our Societie: and without doubt from the same spirit proceedeth that which hee saith in another Locor. Theol. lib. 11. cap. 16.place speaking of fabulous Legends, wherewith he compareth certaine Histories, which he calleth fables, published not long since by some that came from farre, vnto whom hee applyeth the Spanish prouerbe, De luengas vias, luengas men­tiras, Great trauellers, great lyers. For I suspected that thereby he meant that which is read in the E­pistles of the Fathers of the Societie, sent from the East-Indies.

IESVITE.

Thine opinion was not improbable. But to leaue these enuious fellowes, I will returne to the original of our Societie, which though it be as ancient as I haue deliuered, yet that must be vnderstood onely of the first and farthest foundations thereof; for else it cannot be denyed, but that in many things it is of a new institution; and also it doth acknowledge for [Page 5] Institutor an holy personage, that beganne his Or­der not aboue fourescore yeares since; for Father Bellarmine in his Chronologie doth attribute the confirmation thereof to Paul the third, in the yeare 1540.

NOVICE.

Who was the Institutor of it?

IESVITE.

St. Ignatius Loyola borne in Biscay, and a subiect of the Kings of Spaine.

NOVICE.

What life had he lead before?

IESVITE.

Why he had beene a debauched Souldier, and borne armes at Pampelune against the French, where hee was maymed, with an hurt that he receiued on both his knees, whereof hee halted euer after, but in such manner that it was hardly perceiued, as Fa­ther Maphaeus well obserueth in his life.

NOVICE.

I feare that the Heretickes will draw some bad consequence from thence, and say that he is the fa­ther of a Societie, which halteth on both sides, as sometimes the 1 Kings 18. 21▪Prophet Elias obiected to the Ido­laters amongst the Israelites.

IESVITE.

I make no question but they will, but we must not regard what they say; howsoeuer, though we halt on both sides, I am sure we runne fast enough to cut them out as much worke, as they can turne their hands vnto. But to returne to Saint Ignatius our In­stitutor, [Page 6] it was he that enflamed with zeale, first thought vpon the enrolling of so holy a Society.

NOVICE.

It seemeth also that his name taketh its significa­tion from fire.

IESVITE.

Thou art in the right, and thereupon I will disco­uer great mysteries vnto thee. First of all: Serm. de Val­derama pag. 10.As the Psalmist saith, According to thy name O Lord, so is thy prayse throughout all the earth, thy right hand is full of iustice: As much thinke I may I say of Father Igna­tius, which signifieth a Saint composed of fire, and that is one of the names proper to God, Our God is a consu­ming fire: and on the other side I perceiued, that in his right hand he carrieth the name of Iesus, who was our Sauiour and sanctification.

NOVICE.

Now I learne of you, that one may say as much of a man as of God without sinning, which is a deepe point.

IESVITE.

Thou sayest true, my Sonne, and this I will adde further, Serm. de [...] [...]a pag. 112.That in these last times God hath spoken vn­to vs by his Sonne Ignatius, whom he hath constituted heyre of all things, and in whom nothing is wanting, but onely that word whereby he made all ages.

NOVICE.

Verily, though he did not make all ages by him, he hath renewed the world by him, and hath made [Page 7] another age of it: And as Gen. 1. v. 2. the Spirit of the Lord moued vpon the waters, before the world was for­med, as it were sitting vpon that confused masse, for to hatch it such as it was at last: euen so is it true, as Father Pag. 74. Valderama preached, That when Saint Ignatius plunged himselfe in the water vp to the very chin in the heart of winter, for to diuert a young man from certaine filthy desires, one might say, that Spiri­tus Domini ferebatur super aquas, the Spirit of the Lord was carried vpon the waters.

IESVITE.

This indeed is a pretty obseruation, and there is no doubt, but that the coldnesse of the waters was well warmed by the touching of his body: for as the same Pag. 10. Preacher saith, When he resolued to quit the Souldiers life, the very house wherein he then was, moued, the wals shaked, the posts and beames trembled, and all that were in it betooke themselues to flight, and ranne out of doores as fast as their legges could carry them: euen as when some strange eruption of fire doth sodainly burst out with furious flames in some high mountaine; so when this interior fire began to be disco­uered in him, who before (young Souldier) was cold and frozen in the things of God, it lightned forth in such sort, that it caused a thousand feares, a thousand amazements, a thousand firings of houses &c. there was neuer any Montgibel, or flaming mountaine that did the like.

NOVICE.

I heard an Hereticke not long since make strange Glosses vpon this. Heesaid vpon occasion of Fa­ther [Page 8] Bellarmins reason that it was needfull to haue new Orders, because the feruor of the old by little and little grew cold, how we held a good course that the like should not arriue vnto ours: for besides the care we prouidently take, that the great pot may be alwayes boyling, which is a perpetuall meane to pre­serue the feruor of our mercinary Religion, we ex­ercise the trade of incendaries in all places; and not contented with a thousand firings of houses, made by our Institutor, we haue set all Christendome on fire: neither is there any Kingdome, Common­wealth, City, or Prouince, which we haue not en­flamed with warres and seditions; and therefore said he, was our Father Ignatius most properly compa­red to a Montgibel, the very tunnell of Hell.

IESVITE.

For hearing these things, and repeating them a­gaine, thou deseruest to be imprisoned in the cham­ber of meditations, there to fast with bread and wa­ter, and be disciplined twice a day, and after all that, be forced to haue recourse vnto his Holinesse for an Absolution, as of a case reserued. But because I find thee docible, I will proceed in instructing thee, and seeke to cleare thee of all such doubts, as these blas­phemies may happely haue left in thee: And first of all, for answer vnto those which accuse vs for the care we take of our pot, I must remember vnto thee the worthy discourse which Father Deza made thereupon. The designe 1 Serm. de Deza pag. 152. saith he, of these good Fa­thers, when as they seeke the commodity of their Col­ledges, is like the aduice which Ioseph gaue to Pharaoh for the storing vp of corne into his Garners against the [Page 9] time of necessity and famine. The maruell is how these Fathers in such hard and peruerse times can possibly find the meanes to furnish themselues with all that they want. It is a miracle that men being so miserable and pinching, yet should not haue the power to deny these Fathers; a miracle like vnto that which God wrought vpon the Egyptians, in fauour of his people, when they lent vnto the Israelites whatsoeuer they asked, and God would haue them to carry it all away: such is euen right the case of these good Fathers, for it is a signe that God hath a care of them, that they are his people, and that he tenderly loueth them, when they that are so neere and couetous take a pleasure to furnish them with all that they stand in need of.

NOVICE.

I should feare that many good Catholikes would be much offended with this speach, when in recom­pence of their liberality they shall see themselues compared to the Egyptians, which may indanger their affection to our Society.

IESVITE.

Neuer feare it: for good Catholikes will not bee offended if any thing be derogated from them to magnifie so holy a Society. Now touching the o­ther obiection of Montgibell, and incendiaries, whereof they accuse vs, for answer I say, that those Sophisters take that literally, which wee meane spiritually.

NOVICE.

I submit my selfe in all humility to your exposi­tion. [Page 10] But I intreat you to tell me why our Father Ignatius gaue the name of Iesus to his Society.

IESVITE.

There be many reasons for it. And the first is, Valderama pag. 10.That as our Lord Iesus, who being the Sauiour of our soules, from the time of his natiuity into the world, vnto his death, neuer dealt in other businesse then that which concerned our saluation; so the life of our Igna­tius was wholly bestowed about the sauing of soules. The life of Iesus was manifested in his workes, and Ignatius was transformed into him, whose name the Societie beareth.

NOVICE.

I thought there had beene none but Saint Fran­cis, that had beene transformed in such manner into Christ, that the one could not be knowne from the other, but by their difference of habit, as father Horat. Tur­cel. in Iesuit. apud Poss. Ho­race Turcelin hath daintily expressed it in these foure verses.

Exue Franciscum tunica laceroque cucullo,
Qui Franciscus erat iam tibi Christus erit:
Francisci exuvijs, si qua licet, indue Christum,
Iam Franciscus erit qui modo Christus erat.

That is to say, take the frocke and the gowne from Saint Francis, and he shall be Christ: and put on the frocke and gowne on Christ, and he shall be Saint Francis: but now I learne that the same also may be said of father Ignatius; take from him his cloake and his buckle, and he shall be Iesus: or at­tire Iesus like a Iesuite, and he shall be Ignatius, see­ing [Page 11] Ignatius is transformed into him.

IESVITE.

No question but it may be said with as much rea­son, as that which father Gaspar Sanctius, dedicating a Booke to StIgnatius assureth, namely, that the iudgement of father Ignatius, Nihil omnino discrepat à Diuine, is in nothing different from the iudge­ment of God.

NOVICE.

Is there no other reason why the name of Iesus was giuen to our Societie?

IESVITE.

Yes; and this it is, Father Ignatius going to Rome for to obtaine the approbation of his Order, and finding himselfe much perplexed about that which might befall him there, Iesus appeared vnto him carrying a Crosse, and in the same vision also God the Father was seene recommending our Society vnto his Sonne, who promised him in good Spanish termes, that he would be propitious and fauourable vnto him at Rome, as father Maphae. in vit. Loyala lib. 2. Et Rib lib. 2. cap. 20. Maphaeus and Ribade­neira relate. These speeches fortified him, and gaue him occasion to name his Company the Society of Iesus.

NOVICE.

The same Hereticke of whom I spake before, ob­iected vnto me, that that Iesus which spake to our father Ignatius, was but an imaginary Iesus, and that whereas the true Iesus maketh intercession to his Fa­ther for the faithfull, the imaginary father of our Ignatius maketh intercession to his sonne for vs; and whereas the true Iesus promiseth to bee propitious [Page 12] vnto his in heauen, the imaginary promised to bee propitious to his at Rome. But to leaue these scof­fers with their blasphemies, did not Iesus that ap­peared to father Ignatius performe his promise?

IESVITE.

Dost thou doubt of that? certainly the Apostles haue not more credit in heauen, then we haue vpon earth, especially at Rome, where after this appari­tion, Serm. de Val­derama. pag. 48. The Pope hauing well considered Ignatius hands, he found them all printed ouer with the name of Iesus, whereupon he said, Digitus Dei hic est, In these hands is the finger of God.

NOVICE.

Indeed I haue beene told that this good Saint wrought great miracles as well as Moses, of whom the Magicians of Egypt sayd that which the Pope said of Ignatius.

IESVITE.

What sayest thou, as well as Moyses? Serm. de Val­derama pag. 11.It was no maruell if Moyses wrought such great miracles, for he did them by vertue of the ineffable name of God en­graued in his rod: it was no maruell if the Apostles wrought such miracles, seeing they also did them in the name of God: But that Ignatius, with his name writ­ten in paper, should doe more miracles then Moyses, and as many as the Apostles, &c. is that which sheweth so wonderfull vnto vs.

NOVICE.

What particular office hath father Ignatius? or [Page 13] what part is there commonly assigned vnto him for the succour of men? for I make no doubt, but as God hath assigned to euery orher Saint the cure of some one disease or other, as to St. Roch the plague, to St. Petronel the feuer, to St. Main the itch, so St. Ignatius hath some certaine one vnto which hee is maruellously assisting.

IESVITE.

Thou art in the right: Valderama. pag. 51.Father Ignatius doth as­suredly and most readily assist all women that are in labor: for this vigilant Pastor doth alwayes accompa­nie the sheepe that are great with young, for to helpe them to be deliuered, as it is written in Esay, Foetas ipse portabit, that is to say, he will looke to the Ewes, for to haue their wooll and their lambes.

NOVICE.

Now here is a passage of Esay most subtilely in­terpreted, and sure none of the Ancients euer discer­ned that it was spoken of Ignatius, and of the care which he hath of women with child. But it is not strange that Ignatius should haue such a care of good women, for the holy Virgin her selfe, accom­panied with two Angels, made it not squeamish to goe and visit a gentle Abbesse, that had suffered her selfe to be gotten with child, and for the preserua­tion of her honor, commanded those two Angels to deliuer her of her burthen, and to carry it to an Hermit to bring it vp, which in time became a Bi­shop, as it is at large related in the Booke of the miracles of the Virgin Mary, printed certaine yeares since at Cum sec. parte Serm. discip. de tempore. Apud Ioh. Albinum▪ 1612. Mentz.

IESVITE.
[Page 14]

Father Ignatius taketh not that course, nor hath any need of Angels for the matter: Valderama. ib.For doe but onely lay the blessed Fathers signet vnto the patient, and she will soone be rid of her paine. The onely sight of his name hath giuen eyes to the blind, hands to the maimed, legs to the lame, hath consumed the stone in the kidneyes, and very easily brought women to bed.

NOVICE.

Why this indeed is the very finger of God. But doth he not cast out deuils?

IESVITE.

Valderama pag. 55. It happened one night, that the deuill had almost strangled him, and twice or thrice he beat him cruelly: but since he had a full reuenge of him: For it hath beene often seene by experience, that after many prayers haue beene made, many Saints inuoked, many and sundry relickes applied, the last remedy hath beene the image of blessed Ignatius, laying it on the patient, or one of his signets, shewing it vnto him, and saying, Permerita B. Ignatii abi hinc Spiritus maligne, and presently he departed.

NOVICE.

Is not this good Saint dead?

IESVITE.

Yes, that he is, and his body was laid in the earth, whence he is not yet risen againe: Idem pag. 89.But in his Sepul­cher was heard most melodious singing: his Sepulcher [Page 15] seemed a new heauen, the Angels made such musicke there, and for that effect they descended downe in squa­drons from heauen. Now though no Angell euer ap­peared vnto him in his life time, yet the blessed Virgin, Saint Peter, the eternall Father, and his Sonne carry­ing his crosse, appeared vnto him.

NOVICE.

Why did no Angels appeare to him during his life?

IESVITE.

Fol. id. ibid. It arriued vnto him at his death, as it arriueth vnto great Potentates of the earth: As long as Kings are in their Palaces and houses of pleasure, the Guard suffer none to enter but men of note, vnlesse it be some necessary attendants: but when the King is dead, and that hee is laid on an hearse in the great Hall of the Court, then euery one is admitted to come in. As long as Ignatius liued, there was none but Popes, as St. Peter; Empresses, as the Mother of God; or some Soue­raigne Monarch, as God the Father, and his Sonne, which had the fauour to behold him: but as soone as he was dead, euery Courtier belonging to the eternall King was admitted, all the celestiall people ranne to see him, Angels, Archangels, Thrones, &c.

NOVICE.

This indeed was admirable, and verily I doe not thinke that the like can be said of any other Institu­tor of an Order. But tell me, I pray you, was hee author of any rule more austere then others that went before him?

IESVITE.
[Page 16]

He desired, Ignat. Ep. de virtute obedien. Sect. 3.That we should suffer our selues to be surmounted by other religious Orders, in watching, fasting, and other austerities both in diet and habit, and hath exempted vs from singing day and night in the Quire as others doe: And that for great reasons: He would not haue vs subiect to singing day and night, Valderama pag. 30. & 31.Because as the Angell wrastling with Iacob, said vnto him, Let me goe, for behold the day appeareth; to make him consider that he had many droues of sun­dry kindes of cattle, that he had children in his traine, and was to prouide meat for some, and drinke for o­thers; so that to a man which had such a charge vpon him, it was fit the night should be allowed free for con­templation: so it is not possible for vs to bestow the day in the Quire, that are to furnish the flocke with pasture and cleare water.

NOVICE.

Here is a reason as cleare as water, and therefore I see that that was the cause, why he did not thinke it fit to charge vs with such austerity of watching, fasting, and diet, lest by too much weaknesse of bo­dy, we should be made vncapable of the guiding and gouernment of so many Beasts, as are com­mitted vnto vs.

IESVITE.

It is right. But in one thing hee would haue vs not to suffer our selues to be surmounted, but rather that we should surmount all others, And that the true and lawfull posterity of our Society should thereby be distinguished, as by their marke.

NOVICE.
[Page 17]

What marke is that I pray you? for I very much desire to carry it, though the heretickes should hold it for a marke of the Beast.

IESVITE.

Thou doest wisely not to regard their prattle, nor that neither of some Politicians as bad as they, who hold that for sottishnesse, which we account the greatest vertue of all, and that is, Ignat. de obed. virtute, Sect. 3 the renunci­ation of all will, and all iudgement, for to depend wholly vpon the iudgement and will of another.

NOVICE.

If by that other you meane God, it is a great im­pietie to gainsay that we should not altogether sub­iect our will to his will, and our iudgement to his iudgement; and I hold him for a manifest Hereticke that denyeth it.

IESVITE.

Nay, now thou shewest that thou art but a No­uice; it is not that which we blame in the Heretikes and Politicians, for they confesse as much as thou sayest: but by another, wee meane our Superiours, whose will our Father Ibid. Sect. 1.Ignatius would haue vs hold to be Diuine. And we are not to regard, Ibid. Sect. 3.Whether this Superior hath wisdome, or goodnesse, or other gifts of God, that our obedience may not in any thing be di­minished: or whether he be not capable of great counsell, or whether he be not prudent: because wee are to re­gard, that he holdeth the place of him which cannot be [Page 18] deceiued, who will supply any defect he may haue of prudence and probitie. And it is to be noted, Ibid. Sect. 5.That your obedience shall be imperfect, if it mount not to that degree, not onely to execute the action, which hee com­mandeth you exteriourly, but also that you transforme your will into the will of your superiour, otherwise it will not merit the name of vertue. And therefore it is, that we reade how obedience is better then sacrifice: the rea­son whereof is deliuered by S. Gregory, because in sa­crifices the flesh of a thing was offered, and by obedience one offereth his owne will, which is an excellent part of the soule.

NOVICE.

I had thought till now that sacrifice was not to be offered to any but onely vnto God, which was the cause why I beleeued that when you spake of re­nouncing all a mans will for to obey another, which is, as you teach me now, to sacrifice ones owne will, it was not to be done to any but vnto God alone.

IESVITE.

Therein thou wert mistaken, not to regard in the person of thy Superiour, Iesus Christ himselfe, who is supreme wisedome, immense goodnes, infinite charitie, that cannot be deceiued, neyther will deceiue thee. And this we must doe according to the instruction of S. Ibid. Sect. 16.Ignatius, who would not haue vs question Sect. 12.whe­ther he that commandeth vs, doth it well or ill, Recté­ne, an secus: for then Sect. 7.by obedience wee render our freewill vnto him, from whom we receiued it. Now, Tollet. instruc. sacerd. l. 4. cap. 3. Sect. 4.if (as Cardinal Tollet teacheth) a simple Countriman, that beleeueth his Bishop, propounding some Hereticall doctrine vnto him in the articles of faith, meriteth [Page 19] in beleeuing it, although it be an error, because hee is bound to beleeue vntill he knoweth that it is repugnant to the Church. Why should not we yeeld as much to our Superiours; and why should not we hope to merit, if we doe that which they command vs, with­out farther inquiry, euen when they command euill? It is they that shall answer for it.

NOVICE.

I wholly submit my selfe to beleeue you, that I may not lose the fruit of obedience; and renounce mine owne vnderstanding to approue this doctrine, which I would entreat you to declare me somewhat more particularly, in regard that therein consisteth our Proprium quarto modo, our principall marke.

IESVITE.

I will doe it in our Father Ignatius owne termes, who hath prescribed vnto vs, for an article of faith, Ibid. Sect. 18.How wee are to hold for most infallible, that whatsoeuer our Superiour commandeth, is the comman­dement and will of God, and by consequent, that with all our heart, & with all our consent, wee labor to do all that the Superiour biddeth, out of a certaine blinde impetuositie of the will, desirous to obey, without any enquiry at all; as wee imploy all our consent to beleeue The Articles of our Faith, and as Abraham did, when God commanded him to offer his sonne Isaac.

NOVICE.

This being once granted, as needs it must, seeing the iudgement of our Father Ignatius is diuine, no­thing shall be impossible to our Societie: and as [Page 20] long as there are those which haue vowed this obe­dience, so long shall wee haue men capable to exe­cute the most difficult and hazardous enterprises. But be pleased, I pray, to tell mee whom wee are to take for our superiours, which haue this power ouer vs.

IESVITE.

Blessed Ignatius shall answer thee himselfe; Ibid. Sect. 20.That which I haue said of obedience, equally appertaineth to priuate persons towards their nearest superiours: as to Rectors of Colledges, and such as are ordained for Pre­sidents in each place towards their Prouincials; to Pro­uincials, towards their Generall: to the Generall, to­wards him, whom God hath established ouer him, namely his Vicar vpon earth.

NOVICE.

What are wee to beleeue of this Vicar, which is our holy Father the Pope?

IESVITE.

That he is the vniuersall Monarch of the whole Church; her head, her spouse, and consequently a­boue her. That hee is the fundamentall stone, of which Esay speaketh, saying; Esay 28. 16. I will send into Sion a stone, a tryed stone, a pretious corner stone, a sure foundation, hee that beleeueth shall not make haste. For although the Apostles 1 Pet. 2. 6. S. Peter, and Rom. 9 33. S. Paul haue applyed it to Christ, yet so it is, that it is spoken there of a foundation after a foundation, of the second foundation, not of the first, as Cardinall Praesat in lib. de sum. Pontif. Item in eod. lib. per totum. & de concil. lib. 2. [...]. 17 Bellarmine learnedly obserueth.

NOVICE.
[Page 21]

Must it be vnderstood that the holy Father is a­boue the whole Church, both in spirituall and tem­porall things?

IESVITE.

It must: howbeit with this moderation, whereof we make vse to content the scrupulous; that tempo­rall things depend on him, so farre forth as they serue to spirituall, and that for the good of them the Pope Bellar. de pon­tif. lib. 5. cap. 6. §. Explicanda. hath soueraigne power to dispose of the tem­porall estates of all Christians: Because Ibid. cap. 7. §. Prima ratio. the Ciuill po­wer is subiect to the Spirituall, and euery superiour may command his inferiour.

NOVICE.

Doe you apply this to Kings and Kingdomes?

IESVITE.

It is to that vse for which this doctrine chiefly ser­ueth, and it needeth no further explication, seeing that so many effects haue sufficiently declared the application thereof.

NOVICE.

I, but yet I would desire you to furnish me with some Maximes for the ease of my memory, accor­ding as they haue beene registred by the most ap­proued Authors of our Societie.

IESVITE.

With all mine heart: And in the first place Car­dinall Desum. Pont. lib. 5. cap. 7. Sect. Item potestBellarmine shall teach thee, That the spiritu­all power may depose Princes, and place others in their [Page 22] steads, when as it cannot otherwise conserue its spiritu­all estate. And Father Suarez, Defen. [...]id. Cath lib. 3. cap. 23. §. 10.That the power of the Pope extendeth to the repression of Kings by temper all paines, and by priuation of their Kingdomes when ne­cessity requireth. Also, Ibid. §. 18.That the Pope hath as much power ouer temporall Princes, yea ouer such as are ab­solute and soueraigne, as ouer the other faithfull or baptised Christians, not onely to represse them by cen­suring their faults, but also to punish them with tempo­rall and corporall paines. Further, That this power is much more necessary for the repression of Princes, then of subiects.

NOVICE.

This it may be is meant of hereticall Princes.

IESVITE.

Indeed it is first meant of them. And if our Ca­tholikes in England, and other places, had as much power as they haue right, they would not endure he­reticall Princes, as they are constrained to doe, till such time as opportunitie shall serue to free them­selues from them: for otherwise they are taught by vs, that Bellar. de sum▪ Pont. lib. 5. cap. 7 Sect. Praeterea.to suffer an hereticall or infidell Prince, who laboureth to draw men vnto his Sect, is to expose Reli­gion vnto euident perill, which Christians ought not to doe. And Father Vbisupr. §. 21Suarez worthily proueth, That it appertaineth vnto the Pope to defend the subiects of an hereticall Prince, and that by his power he may de­priue such a Prince of his Kingdome, chase him out of it, & absolue his subiects from their oath of allegeance. And herewith agreeth Father Gregory of Valentia, writing Tom. 3. Disp. in Thom. disp. 1. [...]. 12. punct. 2.That temporall domination and superioritie ouer subiects, by the sentence of the Pope may be taken [Page 23] away from Heretikes: And the reason of it is, That if they may bee depriued of their liues, much more of their estates, and consequently of all superioritie ouer others; and that they which are excommunicated for Heresie, incurre de facto the depriuation of politicke power, and that their subiects are not onely absolued from their oath of allegeance, but are also forbidden to keep it: And that if the Iudge hath not yet pronounced the sentence of Excommunication, this paine is neuer­thelesse incurred, if the crime of Heresie be so notorious that it cannot be hid; and then it is lawfull for the sub­iect to deny obedience to his hereticall Lord, much lesse is he bound thereunto.

NOVICE.

Truly these are notable Maximes, insomuch that although the Pope hath not pronounced expresse sentence of Excommunication against the Kings of Great Britaine, of Denmarke, and others such like, and though their subiects are not expresly forbid­den to obey them, yet now I learne of you, for to teach them vpon occasion, that it is in their libertie, eyther to doe, or not to doe it, without scruple of conscience.

IESVITE.

I haue giuen thee for it the very words of our Ma­sters.

NOVICE.

But doe they extend this power also against Ca­tholike Kings and Princes.

IESVITE.

They doe: for Father Suarez conioyneth him [Page 24] that is peruerse in his manners, with the hereticall Prince. And Cardinall Bellarmine cleareth thee of all doubt, Vbisup. Sect. Alterum.The Prince (saith he) when he is Catho­like in faith and beleefe, but of such euill manners, that he is hurtfull vnto Religion, or to the Church, may be remoued, and reduced to the ranke of other sheepe, by the Pastor of the Church.

NOVICE.

May this be done in any other case?

IESVITE.

The Bellar. lib. 5 cap. 7. Sect. Ter­tium.Pope may also command Kings to punish He­retickes and Schismatickes; and if they doe it not, he may constraine them by Excommunication. Now I taught thee before the consequences of Excommu­nication, which wee haue sufficiently demonstrated in the proceedings against Henry the third King of France, concerning whom Charles Scribanius one of our principall Fathers at Antwerp, in his Amphith. ho­noris, cap. 12.Am­phitheater of Honor, thus refuted those which found fault with the Popes euill-entreating him. If (saith he) a Denis, a Machanidas, an Aristotimus, monsters of ages, should oppresse France, shall there be no high Bishop found so hardy as to animate a Dion, a Timo­lcon, a Philopoemon, an Helematus? If more monsters held the Commonwealth in captiuitie, shall no Thrasi­bulus set to an helping hand? The violence of Tarquin in the bed of Collatine gaue a iust cause, and shall there none be met withall to depose and abolish out of France, a tyrant King, that oppresseth the liberty, &c? Shall there not some sword-man at least rise vp against this beast? No Pope that will deliuer so noble a Kingdome?

NOVICE.
[Page 25]

It seemeth to me, that they of our Society which answered Anti-Coton, deny Charles Scribanius to be the Author of that Booke: and albeit Father Resp. ad An­tic. cap. 3. pag. 48. Eu­daemono-Iohannes confesseth that our Society is much indebted to the Author, for defending it with so learned a volume, yet hee maintaineth, how Anti-Coton cannot proue his coniecture, that Scribanius was the Author of it, by any euidence.

IESVITE.

Therein he was deceiued: for by the Index of the Bookes of our Societie, composed by Father Ri­badeneira, hee shall finde that Charles Scribanius hath shewed what knowledge hee had in humane learning, by his bookes of the Amphitheater of Honor, against the accusations of the Caluinists.

NOVICE.

Are wee the subiects of Princes where wee were borne, or where we liue?

IESVITE.

Of neyther: for wee are Clerkes.

NOVICE.

Doth it necessarily follow, that if we be Clerkes, then wee are not their subiects?

IESVITE.

Yes, very clearly: For it cannot be proued (saith our De Clericis. lib. 5. cap 30. Sect. Quarto obijci­unt.Bellarmine) that the Kings of this age are lawfull [Page 26] superiors and Iudges of Clerkes, if by the same meane it be not proued, that children are aboue their fathers, sheepe aboue their pastor, things temporall aboue spiri­tuall.

NOVICE.

But is it not to be vnderstood of spirituall things only, that Clerks are not subiect to secular Princes?

NOVICE.

Not onely (saith the same De Clericis lib. 2. cap. 17. Sect. Ad primam Author,) in spirituall things, but also in temporall, is the Priest to be gouer­ned by his Ecclesiasticall superior: and it cannot bee, that in temporall things hee should acknowledge the secular Prince, because no man can serue two Masters. And as Father Defens. contra Ang. lib. 4. cap. 17. Sect. 16. & 18.Suarez writeth, The ciuill Lawes of Princes and Magistrates doe not oblige Clerks, neyther as touching the power of constraint, nor as touching the power of direction, by force of the laicall iurisdicti­on, onely they oblige them by force of reason: nor can Kings oblige Clerkes to those lawes particularly impo­sed. Now wee vnderstand obligation by force of reason, when the authoritie of the Canons or daineth, that such lawes are to be obserued by Clerkes: but they are free from the vertue and proper obligation of such lawes. The same man Ibid. lib. 4. cap. 9. Sect. 17. & 18. after hee hath proued that Clerkes were committed to Peter, draweth this necessary consequence from those words of our Sauiour, No man can serue two Masters, Mat. 6. that Clerkes are exempted from the temporall iurisdiction of Prin­ces, iure diuino: because the same morall impotence noted in those words, Hee shall hate the one, and loue the other; he shall cleaue to the one, & despise the other, would be found, if Clerkes were subiects according to [Page 27] the body, both to the pope and to the King. Whence he euidently concludeth, that Clerkes are absolute­ly exempted from the temporall Iurisdiction of princes, by reason that that Iurisdiction is exercised towards subiects in regard of the body, and consequently in re­gard of all things which are ordained for a conuenient conseruation of the body: if Clerkes then be exempted from the iurisdiction of Princes as touching their bo­dies, certainly they are exempted from their temporall Iurisdiction.

NOVICE.

Doth it not follow now of this, that so many Ec­clesiasticks as are made in a Kingdome or Common­wealth, so many subiects is the Prince depriued of?

IESVITE.

Cardinall De Clericis lib. 1. cap. 38. Sect. Quarto obijciunt.Bellarmine teacheth, that as he which transferreth his dwelling into another towne, or pro­uince, ceaseth to be the subiect of that prince vnder whose domination he was before, without doing him wrong: So Princes haue no reason to complaine, if they be depriued spite of their teeth, of the right which they had vpon Clerkes, before they were Clerkes, because he vseth but his owne right, that chooseth an estate, which he thinketh most conuenient for him, although by acci­dent it followeth thereupon, that the Prince be depri­ued of his subiect.

NOVICE.

I would be loath that all Princes should know this secret: for from thence I learne, that they haue a State within their State, no more depending on them, then that of France doth on that of England. [Page 28] And that their subiects without stirring out of their Countryes, there enioying their estates, may ex­empt themselues from their subiection: and by o­ther Maximes, that they may also make themselues their superiours, euen in temporall things, though indirectly.

IESVITE.

Thou sayest right, and vnderstandest the case well. For iure ordinario, as Father Defens fid. contra Ang. lib. 3. cap. 17.Suarez will teach thee, not onely the Pope, but the Bishop likewise is the Kings superior, and euery King is subiect to his Bishop in spirituall things, if he be not exempted from it by the pope, and immediatly receiued vnder his pro­tection and iurisdiction. Now temporall subiection necessarily followeth spirituall, as wee haue declared before. For as the same man teacheth, Eiusdem lib. cap. 23. Sect. 18. & 20.If the Church could not punish those that are spiritually sub­iect, with temporall paines, they would soone contemne the spirituall: and that would fall out which is spoken of in the Prouerbs, chap. 29. vers. 15. The child which is left to his owne will confoundeth his mother. Whence would ensue, that the state of Christendome would not be well ordered, nor had beene sufficiently prouided for, if the Church had not power to constraine such re­bels, as will not obey her censures. And it must not be said, that the vengeance of crimes appertaineth to secular Princes, and that it is enough that they haue this power, because they themselnes may offend, and haue need of correction. And further, because this vengeance doth not of it selfe appertaine to the ci­uill Magistrate, but so farre forth as the faults are contrary to ciuill ends, the peace of the Common­wealth, [Page 29] and humane iustice: but to punish them as con­trary to Religion, and the saluation of soules, that of it selfe appertaineth to the Ecclesiasticall power, vnto which Principally appertaineth the faculty of vsing temporall paines for such corrections: which power is much more necessary for the repression of Princes, then of their Subiects.

NOVICE.

You teach mee great mysteries, which I should not easily haue apprehended without your directi­on, and haue made mee to see, that they which will betake themselues to our Order must subiect their vnderstanding by the vow of blind obedience. But declare vnto me, I pray you, the ground of the ex­emption of Clerks from the subiection of Princes in the States where they were borne.

IESVITE.

Why it is grounded vpon the very law of Nature it selfe, Bellarm. de Clericis lib. 1. cap. 29. Sect. Alterum.For the Ecclesiasticall power, which is spiri­tuall, is in consequence by nature aboue the secular, and therefore when need requireth, can direct, iudge, and correct it: but there is no reason that permitteth the se­cular to direct, iudge, or correct the spirituall.

NOVICE.

I but if the election, which one may make of an Ecclesiasticall estate, doth not exempt the seruant from the subiection of his Lord, why should the same estate depriue the King, Prince, or Common­wealth of their subiects?

IESVITE.
[Page 30]

The Bellarm. de Cleric. lib. 1. cap. 30. Sect. quarto obijciunt.tie which is betweene the Lord and the seruant is all in all farre greater then that which is betweene the Prince and the Subiect: And that is the reason why clericature exempteth the Subiect from the subie­ction of the Prince, or from the ciuill power, yea though the superior opposeth it, but not the seruant from the power of his Lord. Cardinall Bellarmin saith as much of the obligation betweene the debtor and the creditor.

NOVICE.

If it bee so, may a Clerke, whatsoeuer hee doth or vndertaketh, euen against the very persons of Princes themselues, be guilty of humane treason?

IESVITE.

Father Aphoris Con­fess. Tit. Clericus.Emanuel Sa hath satisfied this question in few words: The rebellion, saith hee, of a Clerke a­gainst his Prince is not treason, because he is not his subiect.

NOVICE.

I thinke those words were left out in the edition of Paris.

IESVITE.

They were indeed, because at that time this mat­ter was much stirred in by certaine Politicians, who a great coile about it; howbeit they continue still in the editions of Antwerp and Cullen. But say hee had not written it, it followeth well enough from this Maxime, whereof we are agreed, that Clerkes are not the subiects of Princes, nor Princes, in re­gard of them, superior powers. And then Suarez. Defens. fid. [...]b 4. cap. 15. Sect. 1. 9. & 10.It is a ge­nerall [Page 31] rule, that Ecclesiasticall persons are exempted from the secular iurisdiction, not onely in Ecclesiasti­call crimes, but also in ciuill, which cannot be denied, saith Father Suarez, without denying a principle of faith. And so generall, that it suffereth not, accor­ding to him, any exception of crime whatsoeuer. Now if it be obiected, That in some Kingdomes, certaine crimes of Clerkes are excepted, which the ciuill Ma­gistrate may take knowledge of, as the crime of high treason, of coyning false money, &c. That is not by common right, but by a particular priuiledge, which Kings haue receiued from the Pope; for there is no King nor secular Prince that can giue it.

NOVICE.

But the Apostles, and the first Ministers of the Christian Church, subiected themselues to Kings and Princes, payd them tribute, and neuer went about to depose them.

IESVITE.

The times are to be distinguished: Bellarm. de Pont lib. [...]. cap. 7. Sect. Quod si.For if the Christians did not in times past depose Nero, Diocle­sian, Iulian the Apostata, Valens the Arrian, and such like, it was because they wanted temporall forces; for otherwise by right they might, seeing that the A­postle in the 1. to the Cor. chap. 6. commandeth that new Iudges be established amongst the Christian, to the end that the Christians might not bee constrained to plead before a Iudge that was a persecutor of Christ, so would he haue commanded new Kings and Princes to haue beene made for the same reason, if they had had power enough in their hands.

NOVICE.
[Page 32]

But why did not they vse cunning where power wanted?

IESVITE.

It Mariana de Reg. lib. 1. cap. 6.was expedient then, that the foundations of the Church should be laid in patience, and suffering of death; with so much the more miracle, that it grew the greater being oppressed, and diminishing in num­ber, yet euery day encreased. Moreouer in those times it was not expedient to doe all, that law and right per­mitted.

NOVICE.

What doe law and right permit according to the doctrine of our Society?

IESVITE.

In all memory of men, such as haue vndertaken the killing of Tyrants, haue euer beene held in high esti­mation.

NOVICE.

Whom meane you by tyrants that may be killed?

IESVITE.

The Theologians, saith Father Def▪ fid. lib. 6. cap. 3. Sect. 1.Suarez, thus di­stinguish Tyrants; the first sort is of those, which by force & iniustly, without all title, occupy a Kingdome, which truly are neither Kings nor Lords, but onely hold the place, and are as it were the shadowes of them. The other sort is of those, which though they be true Lords, and possesse the Kingdome with a iust title, yet as touching their cariage, and manner of gouernment, reigne tyrannically, namely, because that either neg­lecting [Page 33] the publike good, they conuert all to their owne particular commodity, or iniustly afflict their subiects with spoyling, killing, and peruerting, or iniuriously commit such things, or the like, publikly and fre­quently.

NOVICE.

May one with a good conscience kill both the one and other of these Tyrants?

IESVITE.

Of the first sort no man doubteth: Marian. de Reg lib. 1. cap. 6.For all Theo­logians and Philosophers agree that they may be killed, depriued of their liues, and Principalities, by any one whosoeuer. For seeing that such a one rightly carrieth the name of a Tyrant, and hath put on the humor of one, let him at any rate be taken away, and dispoiled of the power which he hath vsurped by violence. So by good right Ahud hauing insinuated himselfe by pre­sents into the fauour of Eglon King of the Moabites, he killed him with the stab of a ponyard in his belly, and deliuered his Countrimen from a cruell seruitude. Fa­ther Suarez defendeth this opinion as the most com­mon and receiued, Defens cathol▪ lib 6. cap. 4. Sect. 7.That such a Tyrant may be killed by any priuate person whatsoeuer, that is a member of the State, which suffereth vnder the tyranny, if other­wise it cannot be deliuered from it. And to that which Saint Augustin saith in the first Booke of The City of God, how it is not lawfull to kill any person with­out publike administration, he answereth learnedly; That a priuate man, which killeth such a Tyrant, doth it not without publike administration, because he doth it either by the authority of the Common-wealth, ta­citely consenting thereto; or he doth it by the authority [Page 34] of God, who by the law of nature hath giuen vnto euery one power to defend himselfe and his Commonwealth from the violence which is done them by such a tyrant.

NOVICE.

But what say you of Kings and Princes that are lawfull, but yet administer tyrannically as touching their cariage?

IESVITE.

The Vbi▪ sup. Sect. 2present question regardeth chiefly such a Prince, and the King of England (as Suarez saith) spake also of such Princes, because we hold them in the ranke of lawfull Princes. Father Mariana, hauing vsed all the ordinary precautions, wherewithall I will hereafter instruct thee, came at length to this, not to leaue that power of killing such a Prince in the pleasure of any priuate man whatsoeuer, Vnlesse the common voyce of the people be such, and that graue and vnderstanding men haue beene consulted with vp­on it. For in that case he iudged, that it would bee good for humane affaires, if valiant and couragious men were found, that despising their owne proper safe­ty and liues, would for the liberty of their Country, and sauouring the publike wishes, deliuer it from the Tyrant.

NOVICE.

Is this opinion approued?

IESVITE.

The stirre which our Aduersaries made about it, especially in France, where they insisted vpon those words. as the causes of attempts vpon their Kings, and affirmed, that Mariana by graue and vnderstan­ding [Page 35] men consulted with vpon it▪ meant Confes­sors, and especially those of our Society, giuing them all power ouer the liues of Kings, hath beene the cause that wee were constrained to qualifie that saying a little: and although Marianaes booke had passed for currant, and had beene published accor­ding to order by permission of the superiors, yet at the instance of the Fathers of our Society, which in France found themselues in trouble about it, the Generall Apud Eudaem. in Res. ad Antic. cap. 1. Aquauiua made a De [...]ree, whereby hee forbad, but without naming Mariana, to teach ey­ther by word of mouth, or writing, that it was lawfull for any person whatsoeuer, vnder any praetext of ty­ranny that might be, to kill Kings, or to plot their death. Father Eudaemono-Iohannes writing against the Ibid. pag. 32.Wolfe (as he calleth him) of Chichester, hath refuted this opinion of Mariana, howbeit with this excuse of him, that hee wrote it not as an Oracle, but as a man that deliuered his opinion with doubt; neuerthelesse hee saith, that all the rest of the Iesuites disallowed it.

NOVICE.

Teach mee then, I pray you, what others say that speake best of it.

IESVITE.

I cannot doe it better then by the doctrine of Fa­ther Suarez, who answering the King of England vpon this matter, spake the most correctedly hee could. Hee Defens. fid. lib. 6. cap. 4. Sect. 2.holdeth then this Maxime for resol­ued, that the lawfull Prince ruling tyrannically, or for any crime whatsoeuer, cannot be killed by any pri­uate authority.

NOVICE.
[Page 36]

Doth he meane this in any case whatsoeuer?

IESVITE.

There are but three cases, which may be conside­red in it. Eyther Ibid. Sect. 5.the little of iust vengeance and pu­nishment, or the title of iust defence of himselfe, or the title of iust defence of the Common-wealth. The first title appertaineth to no priuate man. As touching the title of a iust publike or particular defence, distin­ction must be vsed, and consideration had, whether a man defendeth himselfe or the Common-wealth: if himselfe, whether it be his life, his members, some grie­uous mutilation of his body, or his goods. For it is not lawfull to kill his King doing violence for his goods. But if there be question of the defence of his owne life, which the King would take away from him by violence, then, ordinarily it is lawfull for the subiect to defend himselfe, although the death of the Prince doth there­of ensue: because the right of the conseruation of a mans owne life is the greatest of all others; and then the Prince is not in any necessity that obligeth the subiect to lose his life for him, who voluntarily and iniustly thrusteth himselfe into that perill.

NOVICE.

But may not one from thence draw that con­sequence, which Mariana maketh? If thou seest (saith hee) De Reg. lib. 1. cap. 6. pag. 51.thy Mother, or thy-dearest Wife vexed in thy presence, and dost not succour them being able, shalt thou not be cruell, and incurre the reproach of co­wardise and impiety? and wilt thou let thy Countrey [Page 37] be vexed and tormented by a Tyrant at his pleasure, vnto which we owe more then to our parents?

IESVITE.

The consequence is good in the like case. For (saith Father Ibid. vbi supra lib. 6. cap. 4. Sect. 6.Suarez) grant that the King doth actu­ally set vpon the Citie for to ruine it iniustly, or to kill the Citizens, or some such like thing, then it shall be lawfull to resist the Prince, euen in killing him, if the defence cannot otherwaies be made. For if it be law­full to doe it for a mans owne life, much more for the publike good, because a City or Common-wealth doth then make a iust defensiue warre against an iniust op­pressor, though its owne proper King, and so euery Citizen as a member of the Common-wealth, and mo­ued by it eyther expresly or tacitely, may defend the Common-wealth in that conflict, in any manner that he can. But it is otherwise of a King that raigneth in peace, and that vexeth the Common-wealth, and is hurtfull vnto it by other meanes, for then there is no place for defence by force, or for plots against the life of the King; because the Common-wealth doth not then suffer any actuall violence, which it were lawfull to re­pell with violence.

NOVICE.

What must be done then in this case, where the Prince otherwise lawfull, commeth to such a passe, That hee ruineth the Common-wealth, spoyleth men of their goods, despiseth Religion, and the pub­like Lawes, maketh a vertue of pride, and holdeth impietie against God to be the greatest valor?

IESVITE.
[Page 38]

Thou knowest what Father De Reg. & Re. Inst. lib. 1. cap. 6. pag. 59. & 6.Mariana, from whom thou hadst this question, bringeth for answer thereunto, namely, That it is not to be dissembled, but the surest meane to remedy it, is the publike way of Assemblies, wherein by a common consent may be deli­berated what shall be done. The Prince shall first be admonished, and if he reiect the medicine, and that there resteth no farther hope of amendment, the sen­tence being pronounced, it shall be lawfull for the Common-wealth to deny him obedience: and because that warre will necessarily ensue thereupon, armes must be taken vp, money raised, and if otherwise it cannot be done, by the right of defence the Common-wealth, by its owne proper authoritie, or by a grea­ter, may kill the Prince declared a publicke enemy.

NOVICE.

But is not this a priuate opinion of that Father, which is not to be followed.

IESVITE.

No: for if hee had not proceeded farther, none of ours would euer haue contradicted him. Father Def. fid. lib. 6. cap. 4. Sect. 15.Suarez teacheth the same doctrine very amply, whereof behold here the first ground, which is, That if a lawfull King doth gouerne tyrannically, and that the King dome hath no other meane of defence, but by deposing and expelling the King, the whole Common-wealth, by a common consent of the Townes and principall persons of the Kingdome, may depose the King, as well by vertue of the law of Nature, where­by [Page 39] it is permitted to repell force with force, as because that necessary case of the proper conseruation of the common-wealth, is alwayes held to be excepted in that first accord, by which the Common-wealth transferred its power to the King.

NOVICE.

Doth it follow hereupon that the Common-wealth hath power to put this King to death?

IESVITE.

That Ibid. Sect. 18.ground being laid, we must say, that after the sentence of condemnation, touching the depriua­tion of the Kingdome, giuen by a lawfull power: or (that which is all one) after a declaratory sentence of the crime, which of right hath imposed such a paine, he which hath pronounced the sentence, or he vnto whom he hath giuen commission to execute it, may de­priue the King of the Kingdome, euen by putting him to death, if otherwise he cannot, or if the iust sentence doth also extend to that paine. Howbeit the deposed King cannot be killed by any priuate person whatso­euer, no nor be expelled by force, till he be commanded vnto it, or that the generall commission be declared by sentence, or of right. The first part euidently followeth vpon that precedent principle: for hee that may iust­ly condemne any one, may likewise execute the sentence eyther by himselfe, or by helps necessary thereunto: o­therwise that power would be frustratory, in being able to decide the right, without the ability of an efficaci­ous constraint. And as the minister of a King doth well to kill a man by the Kings commandement, be­cause that then he executeth the Kings power rather [Page 40] then his owne: so when the Common-wealth may iust­ly depose the King, the ministers thereof doe well to con­straine the King, or to kill him, if it be necessary, be­cause then they doe it no longer by priuate, but by pub­like authority. And therefore Soto said well, That al­though it be not lawfull for any priuate man whatso­euer to kill him that is a Tyrant in his gouernment, yet when the sentence is giuen, one may establish for the minister of the execution thereof whomsoeuer one will.

NOVICE.

But what meaneth Mariana by that speach, where he saith, By the authoritie of the Common-wealth, or of a greater: what is that greater?

IESVITE.

He meaneth that which we all hold for most cer­taine, namely, that that Ibid. Sect. 17. power appertaineth to the Pope, as to the superior, hauing iurisdiction to correct Kings: yea such as are soueraigne as well as their sub­iects. Now though the Common-wealth or Kingdome considered in its owne nature, and as it was amongst the Gentiles, or as it is at this present amongst them, hath the power, as we haue said, to defend it selfe from a tyrant King, and for that effect to depose him, if it be necessary: yet Christian Kingdomes, as touching that point, haue some dependance on the soueraigne Bi­shop. First, because the Pope may forbid a Kingdome to depose the King without his knowledge and aduice, and vnlesse he hath first beene informed of the cause, &c. Wherupon we read in Histories, that alwayes in such cases Kingdomes haue consulted with the Pope, or haue euen implored him to depose vnworthy or tyrant kings, [Page 41] as we haue declared of Childeric King of France in the time of Pope Zacharie, &c. Secondly, the Christian kingdome dependeth also on the Pope in this, That the Pope may not onely counsell, or consent, that the king­dome may depose the King, which is pernicious to it, but may also command and constraine it to doe it, when he iudgeth it necessary for the spirituall safety of the kingdome, but especially to auoid heresies and schismes.

NOVICE.

If the holy Father▪ hauing consented to the depo­sition of a King, or hauing ordained it, yet doth not declare himselfe for the execution thereof, shall it bee lawfull for the first Prince, that will, to make warre vpon him, and inuade his kingdome?

IESVITE.

No. Ibid. Sect. 19.But then his lawfull successor, if he be a Catho­like, hath that power; or if he neglect it, or that there be none; the Cominalty of the kingdome shall succeed him, prouided they be Catholikes, and if they craue as­sistance of other Princes, they may assist them: howbeit if the Pope giue other Kings power to inuade the king­dome, they may iustly doe it, because then they shall nei­ther want iust cause nor power.

NOVICE.

What shal I answer vnto those, which alledge Da­uid that would not kill Saul, but caused the Amale­kite to be put to death for vaunting that he had slain him: which obiect the mischiefes arriuing vnto the Common-weath by such facts: which say that [Page 42] the reuerence of subiects towards their Princes is in danger, if once they bee perswaded that they may punish their faults; and that vnder such pretexts the publike peace shall often be disturbed by seditions and commotions, one part of the people arming themselues against the other, &c.

IESVITE.

So they dispute which take the tyrants part, saith our De Rege lib. 1. pag. 57.Mariana, but the aduocates for the people pro­duce as many, and as great reasons for them. For the Common-wealth, from whom the Royall power tooke its originall, may according to the necessity of the case call their King in question, and if he reiect the remedy, they may despoile him of his kingdome: for they haue not transferred their right in such manner to the Prince, but that they haue reserued a greater power vnto themselues. Cardinall De Concil. lib 2 cap. 16. & 19.Bellarmine teacheth the same, That in the kingdomes of men the power of the King commeth from the people, because the people made the King, which otherwise had beene a priuate man like another. And that if he degenerate into a tyrant, albeit he be the head of the kingdome, he may notwithstanding be deposed by the people, who may elect another. He commendeth Recog. lib de La [...]cis §. Addo. also that which Nauar­rus saith, How the people neuer make such a transport of their power to the King, that they doe not reserue it in habitude, to re-assume it in certaine cases.

NOVICE.

What shall I answer vnto those, which alledge the decree of the Councell of Constance, condemning this proposition; That the tyrant may and ought to [Page 43] be killed by any one of his subiects whatsoeuer, not onely by open force, but by secret practices and fraud.

IESVITE.

There be answers enough, for as Vbi supra. pag. 62. Mariana saith, I doe not find that Pope Martin the fifth approued that Decree, nor Eugenius or his successors. But Father Suarez, without wronging the Councell, speaketh thus to the King of England, Where doe you finde in the acts of the Councell of Constance, Princes excom­municated by the Pope, or degraded, or this other particle, By his subiects, or any other whatsoeuer? Seeing then that the addition of such particles to the proposition giueth it a diuerse sense, it is an illusory in­ference to attribute such a proposition vnto that Coun­cell.

NOVICE.

And what shall I answer if that be obiected vnto me, which Saint Paul saith, Let euery person be sub­iect to the higher powers?

IESVITE.

That Saint Paul Suarez. vbi supra Sect. 20. neuer added, That euery one should be subiect to powers excommunicated, or depo­sed by the Pope; And that the one cannot be inferred from the other, seeing they are diuers things, nay meere contraries; for a deposed King is no longer an higher power. And as Cardinall Bellarmine Contra Bar­clayum cap. 3. introduceth the Pope answering the people, which would con­tinue in the obedience of the deposed King; I doe not free thee either from the naturall, or diuine com­mandement, when I absolue thee from the tye of obedi­ence: for I doe not permit that thou shouldest▪ not obey [Page 44] thy King, which were against the diuine Law, but I make him that was thy King not to be so any longer: as he that setteth a seruant at liberty, doth not agree that the seruant should not be tyed to obey his Lord, which would be against the diuine Law, but he dealeth so, that he hath no Lord any longer to obey.

NOVICE.

It followeth then, that Iaques Clement, which killed Henry the third King of France, did not kill his King, but onely a priuate man, seeing the Pope had excommunicated him, and exposed his King­dome as a prey.

IESVITE.

The consequence is necessary. Also De Reg. lib. 1. cap. 6. pag. 53. & 54.Mariana saith, That that young man of a simple spirit, and weake body, but in whom a greater vertue, Vis maior, had confirmed strength and courage, got himselfe no small renowne by killing that King. That it was a me­morable act: and he accuseth them of barbarousnesse and cruelty, feritatis & seuitiae, that thronging in gaue so many blowes to a man that was dead before: and he assureth, that in his face it might haue beene read, how ioyfull and glad he was, amidst his blowes and wounds, that with his bloud he had bought the li­berty of his Country. For hee had learned of Diuines, with whom he had consulted, that the: Tyrant might iustly be killed.

NOVICE.

Is it lawfull to kill the Tyrant with poyson, or mortiferous hearbs?

IESVITE.
[Page 45]

We Mariana de Reg lib. 1. cap. 7. per totum.know that it hath beene often done, nor are we to thinke, that any man, which is assured to kill him, neglecting a meane so fairely offered to dispatch him, will stay the aduice of Diuines, and rather make vse of steele, considering the danger that way is lesse, the hope of impunity more, and the publike ioy much increased, the enemy being killed, and the author and architect of the publike liberty preserued.

NOVICE.

The question is not of that which men would do, but of that which may be iustly done.

IESVITE.

There be arguments on eyther side: For what diffe­rence is there, whether thou killest him with poison or with steele? There be many examples both ancient and moderne of enemies killed this way. Indeed it is a diffi­cult thing to poyson a Prince, but if a fit occasion present it selfe, who is there, so sharp-witted, or clear-sighted, that can shew any difference betweene the one and the other death? I do not deny but that these arguments are of great force, howbeit I deny that one may iustly kill him with poyson, whom, we haue said, may be killed by fraud.

NOVICE.

Why so?

IESVITE.

Because Christians haue thought it to be an inhumane thing in presenting men with poyson, eyther in meat or drinke, to make them the instruments of their owne death, as if one should constraine them to stab them­selues with their owne hands.

NOVICE.
[Page 46]

Is there no way to remedy this, and in the meane time to make vse of poyson without scruple of con­science?

IESVITE.

There is. And this is the moderation which I would bring vnto it. That he, whom we would haue killed, be not constrained to be the instrument himselfe of sending downe the poison into his owne bowels, but that it be applyed outwardly by another, without the help of him that is to be killed. Which may be done when the force of the poyson is so great, that the robe, or seate whereupon one sitteth being infected with it, hath the power to kill him; which I haue read hath beene vsed by some Moore Kings towards other Princes.

NOVICE.

I find my selfe sufficiently instructed herein. But calling to mind that which you decided heretofore, How the Pope may constraine Kings by excommu­nication to punish Heretickes and Schismaticks, I would pray you to tell me, whether it bee lawfull for a King to permit diuersity of religions in a King­dome, and if he hath permitted or tolerated it, whe­ther he ought to continue it?

IESVITE.

The Common-wealth cannot subsist, where the Citi­zens doe not agree in religion. In one house the Wife doth neuer agree with a concubine, and in a City or Prouince it is not well done to tolerate a false religion with the true. For to what end serueth this profane li­berty [Page 47] whereby the people are brought to shake off all feare? vnlesse it be, that religion being violated, the order of Priesthood abased, and Churches spoyled, this fire gaining farther and farther, commeth at length to consume euen the very Nobility it selfe.

NOVICE.

What must be done then?

IESVITE.

Princes Mariana lib. 1. cap. 2. de Reg. in [...]it.are to be admonished and exhorted, That if they desire to haue their affaires prosper, they must represse heresie at the beginning, and stifle the growing Fury in the cradle, to the end they may not too late re­pent their passed negligence: Let the Prince feare, lest after the course of this life he be not condemned as cul­pable of for saking his charge, and so consequently of a most grieuous crime, and infinite mischiefes; and that he be not very iustly punished for neglecting the publike and particular good.

NOVICE.

This being well vrged to Catholike Princes, they whom we hold for Heretickes, cannot thinke them­selues safe in a kingdome, whose Prince maketh ac­count of such admonitions.

IESVITE.

I will tell thee in few words what father Theol Schol. part. 2. Tom. 2. Tract. 1. cap. 16▪ q. 4.Becan teacheth hereupon. First, that liberty of Religion is altogether vnlawfull and repugnant to the Law of God. Secondly, that it is pernicious to the Common-wealth. Thirdly, that the Prince ought not to command, ap­proue, [Page 48] or introduce it, but rather by all meanes, if com­modiously it may be done, impeach and extirpe it. Fourthly, if commodiously it cannot be done, but with great preiudice to the Common-wealth, he may tolerate it for a time. Lastly, that if it be so tolerated, and that thereupon an accord be made, he must obserue it.

NOVICE.

Doth not this last clause make well for those, who haue their Kings perpetuall and irreuocable Edicts for it?

IESVITE.

First of all we say that this toleration ought not to be but for a time. Secondly, that though in words we giue the lie to such as charge vs for saying, that faith is not to be kept with heretickes: yet in effect we haue alwayes reserued two meanes for Catholike Princes and Common-wealths to break with them: because whatsoeuer they doe, or promise, wee say, that Becanus vbi supra. q. 6.they doe not grant▪ security vnto Hereticks, but onely against vniust violence, alwayes excepting iustice, and the execution of right: and by this meane was Iohn Hus and his companion caught: for whatso­euer safe conduct was giuen him against vniust vio­lence, that made nothing to saue him from the fire, which he had iustly merited. The other meane is, that we let Princes know, Becan Ibid.How when there are two Princes, whose iudgements and tribunals are different, and that the one is inferior to the other; the inferior, whatsoeuer he promiseth, cannot hinder the superior from the execution of his iurisdiction, and therefore he is quit of his promise, because he hath done all that he can. Now the Pope being the superior of all Chri­stian [Page 49] Princes principally, he may, notwithstanding any promise of theirs, exercise his iurisdiction in their Kingdomes. And forasmuch Suarez Desen. fid. lib 4▪ cap. 22.as Christian kings not onely as touching their persons, but also as touching their Royall power; not onely as men, but also as Kings, are vnder his power. It is then in him to direct them in the vse of their power, and to command, forbid, or hin­der them in any thing which he shall see conuenient for the spirituall good of the Church. And so, he may a­mend and correct the ciuill lawes, when they are not agreeable to good manners, make others, or command Princes to reuoke and reforme them. This being, there is no Edict can hold good, when oportunity serueth, and that Kings will obey the Pope, as they ought.

NOVICE.

It were an hard thing to draw this obedience from som any Kings, that haue such seuerall and diuers interests, whereby they are gouerned in these mat­ters; wherefore me thinkes it were good for that purpose, there were one onely King, which might be the Superiour of all the rest of the whole world, as there is one Pope aboue all Bishops. For those two agreeing, wee should haue a dainty harmonie, though not very pleasing to the eares of the Here­tickes.

IESVITE.

Cardinall Bellarmine hath thus spoken of it, Bellar. de Pont. lib. 1. cap. 9.Me thinkes it were very expedient, if it could be effected without iniustice and warres, that all Prouinces of the world were gouerned by one soueraigne King in politick matters: especially if this soueraigne Monarch had vn­der him, not Deputies and Vice-roys, but▪ true princes, [Page 50] as the Pope hath vnder him▪ true Bishops. We trauell with all our power to attaine hereunto.

NOVICE.

If this could once be brought about, to whom should we giue our voyces for that vniuersall Mo­narchy?

IESVITE.

Nay, now thou touchest a shrewd point I tell thee, and which is not fit to be diuulged, for feare lest they, which shall see themselues excluded, do mainly oppose it; and therefore it must be kept secret, as a most reserued article. Howbeit for thine owne par­ticular content, read the Preface of our good friend Henry Doerhangk professor of the Spanish, Italian, and French Tongues at Cullen, vpon his Spanish Grammar, which will teach thee what hope thou art to haue in the matter: Looke here is the Booke prin­ted by Peter Brachel, 1614. Read this clause.

NOVICE.

All the people of the earth doe see that the Name of God is called vpon by the Spaniards, that is to say, that God is in the middest of them, and is their protector, which is the reason why all men feare and tremble vn­der them. And I doubt not, if they continue so constant and zealous to amplifie and defend true Religion and pietie, to obserue both diuine and humane Lawes so strictly, and to abstaine from the most enormous sinnes, but that by the blessing of God they shall possesse the Mo­narchy of the whole world, and subiect all countries, people and nations vnder the most sweet and glorious yoake of Christ, and then shall they accomplish that [Page 51] which our Lord and Sauiour said, And there shall be but one shepheard, and but one fold.

IESVITE.

This is a mystery not to be published till the euent appeare, for which we labour so much. I haue many others besides to impart vnto thee; but that shall be at another time: for now thou hast enough to em­ploy thy meditation vpon yet a good while, that so thou maist be made capable of the practice of these good instructions.

NOVICE.

I thanke you, good Father: now I finde indeede that Father Deza did not mock, when in his Sermon he said, that our Father Ignatius was that Angell, of whom S. Iohn speaketh in the Apocalyps, chap. 10. vers. 1. And I saw a mighty Angell come downe from heauen, clothed with a cloud, and a rainbow vpon his head, and his face was as the Sunne, and his feet as pil­lars of fire, &c. For, by that which is said, how he was clothed with a cloud, is meant, that he couered his high and generous enterprises and designes: which also re­presenteth the gouernment of our Societie, that mani­fest their effects by concealing the rules and manner thereof. And as in times past, a cloud couered the ta­bernacle of the Congregation, & the glory of the Lord filled the Tabernacle, Exod. 40. 34. So God, who hath built this Tabernacle of ours here vpon earth, to the end so holy a thing might be respected as it deserueth, hath ordained that its manner of gouernment should be so secret, as no man should be able to pierce into it. Lo, that which is meant by, amictum nube. I shall [Page 52] neuer forget this dainty Allegory, which will teach me to obserue secrecy, especially in Confessions, though it should concerne the liues of Kings, what­soeuer the Heretickes say of that same sentence of Father Binet. How it were better all kings should perish, then that the seale of Confession should be violated. And that which our father Apol. pro Gar­neto cap. 13.Eudaemono-Iohannes teacheth, How there can be no mischiefe so great, for the auoyding whereof a Confession is to be disclosed. In some case, saith De paenit. disp. 33. Sect. 1.Suarez, it is not lawfull, no not for any end, were it euen to preserue a whole State from a great temporall or spirituall mischiefe. In like manner Car­dinall Tolet, The obligation of the seale is so great, that for no cause, no not for to saue his owne life, nor for the safety of the whole State, may the Confessor reueale the confession of the penitent. lib. 3. cap. 16. Inst. Sacer.

IESVITE.

This I assure thee is a very good instruction, my Sonne, and of great importance: But because it may happen sometimes that thou maist be called before a Iudge, or a Tyrant, who may demand of thee, whether thou knowest any thing of that which thou hast heard in Confession, in which case thou maist boldly answer without lying, that thou know­est nothing, because his demand is vniust, and that to such a demand answer must be made, not to that which is demanded, but to that which ought to bee demanded. And then againe, thou knowest it as God, not as man. But if he should presse thee further, and demand of thee formally if thou hast heard it in confession, then thou canst not say thou hast not heard it, for so thou shouldest lye: neyther art thou [Page 53] likewise to answer that thou wilt not tell, nor to re­prehend him that makes thee that demand, for there­by the Confession may come to be suspected. What shalt thou doe then? Thou must deny that thou hast heard it in confession, but meaning in thy minde, for to tell you, or euer to speake of it: By which meanes thou maist escape. This is the doctrine of Equiuo­cations and Reseruations, whereof another day I will make thee a more ample discourse. Onely I will aduertise thee, according to father Vasq. in 3. part. Thom. Tom. 4. Quaest. 93. art. 4. Vasquez, from whom I haue drawne most of that aforesaid, how thou art not to be abashed if thou art told, that which indeed is true, namely that none of the anci­ent Doctors euer thought of this answer, vpon oc­casion of such difficulties, and that they all beleeued, that if the matter be denyed, eyther before a Iudge, or any other body, it is a lye: and they neuer found out any other meane but not to answer at all: which is no maruell, because in those times this doctrine was not knowne, but is come to light since by continuall disputa­tions.

NOVICE.

I will not faile to make vse of this instruction for the concealment of Consessions.

IESVITE.

Thou maist also make vse of it in other things▪ and teach it vnto others, according as father Lib 4. de inst. Sa [...]er. cap. 21.Tolet de­cideth it. It is lawfull somtimes to vse Equiuocations, and deceiue him that heareth you; not alwayes, but when the Iudge calleth you to sweare contrary to iustice, then it is lawfull for you to sweare according to your owne meaning, against that of the Iudge: As if he should ask you, did you that? you may answer▪ I did it not, mea­ning [Page 54] to your self, for to tell you, or at that time, or some such thing. And if the husband asketh his wife whether she haue committed adultery, she may answer, that she hath not, although she hath, meaning to reueale it vn­to him. If any one be constrained to sweare that he will take such a woman to wife, he may sweare he will, mea­ning to himselfe, if afterwards he thinketh good so to doe. In like manner he that is in the hands of theeues, or he that is vniustly detained, may promise mony, but meaning to himselfe, that he will pay it, if it pleaseth him; or promise to returne againe if he be let goe, and yet not performe though he haue sworne it, if first hee haue vsed equiuocation.

NOVICE.

I will endeuor to make a commodious vse of these good precepts, and as a precious treasure will keepe what you haue taught me, attending till you thinke me capable of the rest, at such time as you shall see how I haue profited in this, wherein you haue instru­cted me already, vpon which I will goe and meditate very diligently.

IESVITE.

Doe so, and giuing vp thy selfe wholly to Father Ignatius, deuoutly pray him, Gaspar Sanc. Epist. dedic▪ ad Ignat. Loyol. Comment. in E­sayam.That being the least of his, and the most vnworthy of those which are the com­panions of Iesus in this religious warfare, he wil be plea­sed to imbrace, entertaine, and assist thee, & that also he will often commend thee to Iesus thy head, & standard­bearer, vnder whose Colours thou fightest, and with whō he hath continuall familiarity & communication.

NOVICE.

I humbly thanke you for this aduertisement, good Father, and so God be with you.

FINIS.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.