THE MARROW OF DIVINITIE Thomas or Harris A Golden Chaine of diuine sentenses Written By Iohn Gerhard Doctor of Diuinitie and Superin­tendent of Heldburg.

Buy the trueth▪ Prov. 23.23.

LONDON Printed [...] 1632 [...]

A GOLDEN CHAINE OF DIVINE APHORISMES Written By JOHN GERHARD Doctor of Divinitie and Superintendent of Heldburg.


Printed by the printers to the Vniversitie 1632.

TO The Right Worshipfull his most worthy friend and Benefactour Sir John Hanbu­rie of Kelmersh in North­amptonshire, Together with his Sonne and heire Edward Hanburie Esquire, & Mary his daugh­ter Lady to Sir Miles Sandys of Brimsfield in Glocestersh. and all that are de­scended from them, Gerhards Interpreter wisheth what Tem­porall happinesse this world can af­ford, and Eternall happinesse in the world to come.


FRom me perhaps you expected Physicall Aphorismes, rules and directions for health, as [Page] from a Physician; rather then Theologicall Aphorismes, doctrines of salvation, as from a Divine. And, I confesse, con­sidering my Profession, it had been more proper for me to have sent over such unto you. But such is the nature and condition of man, whilest he lives here be­low, under the clouds, that no Profession can Priviledge him from storms and tempests, and from injuries of weather: Inso­much that even Physicians themselves many times become Patients. The Great world is a Theatre in which are Acted nothing but Tragedies of hu­mane miseries: Every man hath his Intrat, as soon as he is born: He Acts (if I may call it Act­ing, and not rather Suffering) all his life: He findes no Exit, till he descends into the cham­bers of death, to put off his dresse. [Page] I may truely call The Great world, The Common school of Patience; and every Socie­tie, a Private; and every Per­son in each Societie being a Little world within himself, an Epitome, or Module of the Great. To School we must, to learn Patience: And where should a man learn Christian Patience but in the School of Christ? And where is that but in the Scripture and Books of Devotion? I for one have been so exercised in a World of Suf­ferings, that it hath driven me to the School of Christ to learn Patience, and according to the counsell of the Apostle, In all estates to be content, and trou­bled at nothing whatsoever can happen to me from without, con­sidering that nothing comes to passe without a divine Provi­dence. Apollonius, as Philo­stratus [Page] reports, being asked if he did not tremble at the sight of the Tyrant, made this answer, [...] God which hath given him a terrible Countenance, hath given also unto me an undaun­ted Heart. And it is the say­ing of Saint Chrysostome, [...] It is not so much the nature of Things, as the weaknesse of Persons. Troubles happen alike to all: but all are not alike troubled. Fire is one and the same for Nature: but for Ef­fect it is not alwaies the same. It consumes wood and cole: but it purifies gold and silver. The Sunne softens wax, and hardens clay. The Light is comfortable to the sound, but troublesome to [Page] the diseased. The saying of A­pollonius I may apply thus un­to my self, Though God hath suf­fered storms and tempests to a­rise and to be stirred up against me, yet he hath not suffered me to be removed or cast down. Though Fortune frown upon me, yet (I thank God) having a chearfull heart I can smile upon her. And the saying of Saint Chrysostome I may thus apply, Though troubles have come upon me, yet (I thank God who hath given me Pati­ence) I have not been trou­bled. But amongst many crosses nothing hath more afflicted me then the death of him who true­ly honoured you in his life, and was truely beloved by you to his death, my deare brother Fran­cis Winterton late one of her Majesties Privie Chamber. Vn­happy man! But shall I call [Page] him unhappy in his death, who was most happy in his life? That I cannot: He that lived well, certainly could not but die well? Shall I call him unhappy, because he died in a strange Countrie? Nay rather happy in this, because he died for his Coun­trie. Shall I call him unhappy in this, because he is taken from me? This were to love my self more then him, and to envie his happinesse. Or shall I grieve that I my self was not with him to take care for him for things necessarie in time of life, and for his funeralls after death? He wanted neither comfort in life, nor honourable buriall after death. Ever let my tongue be tyed and my hand dried up, If I do not as a poore scholar serve him with both who was so care­full for him, I mean that most Heroicall worthie, (with the [Page] splendour of whose Titles and Greatnesse I dare not presume to set a lustre on so small a work as this, but shall ever admire, and proclaim his Vertues & Goodnes) who of his innate and noble di­sposition loved all his followers in generall, as his fellow-souldi­ers, and my brother in speciall; who to his power provided for all, as for his own familie, but made much of him in health, as a faithfull servant; took care for him before his death, as for a friend; lamented for him a [...] his death as for a brother; and after death, saw him honourably buri­ed, as a souldier. I will not then lament his death, who is trans­lated to a better life: Neither will I weep for him, that is in joy: Nor put on mourning clothes for him that is clothed with im­mortalitie. If it was any unhap­pinesse for him to die, it is his [Page] friends not his. I wept for him when he was alive: and then he seemed to me to die when I left him on shipboard at Graves-end. The next news I heare, he lies buried at Custrin in Silesia. Whom sea and land and death hath parted, I hope blessed Eternitie shall at length bring together again. So I leave him and return to you. Sir, I hope you will pardon this di­gression, or rather count it no digression at all, to speak of him whom I know you dearely loved. But I was speaking of my trou­bles: for which still I finde a Re­medie in the Sanctuarie. For my manner is, when troubles seize upon me, presently to re­tire my self into my studie, and take in hand some book of devo­tion. So presently after I parted from my brother I took in hand Drexelius his Enchiridion of [Page] Eternitie: And since, upon a new occasion offered, I renewed my acquaintance with Doctor Gerhard. It were fit that I should present my service unto you my self in mine own person, consi­dering my many obligations to you, and your kinde invitations of me. But being otherwise hin­dred I have sent Gerhard in my place, who dedicates himself and his best service to honour you and your progenie. Concerning whom I may truely say thus much, If you make him your Counsellour and Companion, you shall never be without a walking Library: So full is he of Scripture Fathers and Schoolmen. Con­cerning my self I can say no more but this (for I know not how to complement) I am and ever shall be in all hearty affection


¶ To the Translatour of GERHARDS APHORISMES.

DO; Let the Antichristian Clergy keep
Their Owl-ey'd Laitie pris'ners in the deep
And horrid shades of everlasting night,
Whil'st thy cleare beams, & more illustrious light
Disperse these clouds of Language, and display
The close-drawn Curtains of thy new-born day:
Shine forth (bright Lampe) & chase these shades of night:
Truth seeks no corners; Errour baulks the light.

¶ TO THE READER, concerning the Authour and In­terpreter of this Book.

BEhold choise Aphorismes here like rings beset
With Pearls lockt up in this rich Cabinet.
If worth not number doth commend the store,
Viewing but one, me thinks I need no more.
Yet in this volume many hundreds dwell:
And every one's a volume to live well.
Each leafe's a perfect book: each line is such,
Each part's enough, yet not the whole too much.
[Page]Gerhard his Aphorismes like starres do shine:
Thou giv'st them lustre; let me call them thine.
Most bright themselves, by thee they shine most bright:
As if the sun had borrow'd greater light.
Apollo needs not to renew his fame,
Who twise is made immortall by thy name.
DOVE WILLIAMSON, Fellow of Kings Colledge.

Upon the Golden chain of divine Aphorismes.

AS no such Maladie, so no such Balm
Like that which can the souls distempers calm
What soul is not diseas'd? How hard to finde
A salve to cure diseases of the minde?
This, Winterton hath found. Who but he knew
That such an herb in Ger [...]ards Herball grew?
(No Empirick, no Chymicks daring Heart,
Who sets poore Nature on the wrack of Art,
Descri'd such med'cines) Sure in this he can
Approove himself a true Physician.
Each Aphorism's an antidote to thee
'Gainst the old Serpents sting: the book may be
A Garden richly stored; in which place
Grows the true Hearts-ease, and the Herb of Grace.
These now translated are: because tis guest
That plants translated oft times thrive the best.
He then undoubtedly thrice happy is,
Who being immur'd from men, can chuse out this▪
Garden to be his prison. Who would disdain
Thus to be fetter'd in a Golden Chain?
ROBERT NEVVMAN, Fellow of Kings Colledge.
MOst men that put forth Books have thi [...] main art,
First for their Credit, then their better Mart,
With Title faire, with fine Inscription
To deck their work their onely Minion.
This man forsooth with Amalt [...]ea's Hor [...]
Doth of his Book the Frontispice adorne:
This writes, A Honycombe: A third doth call
His works the Pandects, as comprising all.
The Muses here the Reader waiting stand:
There is an Enchiridion for his hand.
Such Titles serve to please the Readers eye,
And strangers do invite the books to buy.
But yet (alas!) within what do they finde?
Scarce ought that can content or ease the minde.
The Pandects having all, cannot the Will;
The Enchiridion scarce the Hand doth fill.
The Hony cloyes: The Horn is quickly drie:
At best The Muses do but sweetly lie.
Take then into thy hands Gerhard divine
Who saving doctrine hath in every line:
He in his text more truth doth comprehend,
Then others Titles vainly do pretend.
In him all Authours are both new and old,
Fathers and School-men faithfully enroll'd.
If all these Authours severally do please:
How then shall he who joyntly hath all these?
HENRY WHISTON, Fellow of Kings Colledge.
WHo list to glance a gentle look
Upon The Golden Chain this book,
As in a Crystall first, may see
The secrets of Eternitie.
Such as in Time should come to passe,
Decreed by God before Time was:
Such as transcend the Hearts desire,
And onely Silence can admire.
But next doth entertain the sight
An Emblem of our wofull plight,
He that ere long Heav'ns darling was,
Gods Archetype, Mans Looking-Glasse,
Which being dim'd, Nature no more
To its first brightnesse could restore:
He that enjoy'd so rare a blisse,
Made happy with a Paradise:
Behold him now cast out from thence,
Disrob'd of milky Innocence.
Poore naked man! naked alas,
Who onely cloth'd with fig-leaves was!
But Jesse's branch our souls arraid,
And wrapt our sinnes in mercies shade:
Since when is ceast that fatall strife
Of tree of Knowledge and of Life.
One Book contains them: let one breast
Reade, know, enjoy Eternall rest.
THOMAS PAGE, Fellow of Kings Colledge.

¶ The TRANSLATOUR To the Reader.

THis book when first I read; It pleas'd me well:
I sought another; There was none to sell.
When others read it; They were of my minde:
They sought as I; for what they could not finde.
Had not it been by me interpreted,
For ought I know, it might have perished.
Was't not great pitty that a book so good
By English Men should not be understood?
I challenge nothing but what is mine own:
Had not one been, I never had it known.
'Twas Mr. Carew that did give it mee.
I, in plain English, Reader, give it thee.
(He lov'd good books, and often turn'd them ore:
I think no young man of his time had more.
He liv'd as if he lookt alwaies to die,
And died to passe to immortalitie.
I flatter not: A dead man I commend,
Who godly liv'd, and made a godly end.
He's now with God in blest eternitie:
But late was one of our Societie.
He was my friend, whilst we did live together:
And, once my friend, he is my friend for ever.)
READER, This book was Gerhards, Carews, Mine:
Now 'tis a common good; and therefore Thine.

The Contents of this Book In VERSE.

BEfore Time was, [...]ere are divine decrees,
Fulfill'd in Time; and after, P [...]omises
To be fulfill'd, when Time shall cease to be,
And in its place succeed Eternitie.
Reader, Behold the Worlds Nativitie,
And Adam in his happy Infancie.
He was created at the first Upright▪
His Understanding filled was with Light,
His Will with God's did hold Conformitie,
And his Affections kept good Harmonie.
Yet such [...]e was that he might stand or fall.
He fell; We feel't: In him we perisht all.
His Understanding, Will, Affections: All
Lost what they had at their Originall.
His Understanding was depriv'd of Sight,
And Darknesse did succeed in place of Light:
His Will fell from the first Conformitie,
And tended altogether to Obliquitie:
His jarring did Affections disagree,
And Discord did break off their Harmonie.
His Body, which disease none knew before,
Let in diseases now at every Pore.
His Body made Immortall for to be,
Became now Subject to Mortalitie.
And thus he was depriv'd of End [...]esse joyes,
And plung'd into Eternall Miseries.
By Nature such are we which from him come,
Blinde, Crooked, Froward from our mothers wombe
Conceiv'd in sinne; Borne in iniquitie;
Acting in Life a Sinnefull Tragedie.
We for our Parts deserve no other due
But Death; and that of Soule and Body too.
[Page]But God of his meer Mercie Promised,
The Womans Seed should break the Serpents head
He gave his Law, a Glasse for man to see
His Spots and Stains, and his Obliquitie:
He gave his Law, a Rule for man to be,
That he thereby might learn Conformitie.
He gave his Law, a Light for man to see
T [...]e Way to Life, and blest Eternitie.
Do this: and live. Do this: and Life is due.
But no man living ever this could do;
No man but one: And, that [...]e this might do,
As he was Man, so was [...]e God most true.
God sent his Sonne, as he had Promised,
According to the Time determined.
He was Conceiv'd and Borne, and Liv'd and Died,
All without sinne: And we are justified.
He did fulfill the Law, which none could do,
And freed us from the Curse to us most due:
He by his Life for us hath merited
Eternall Life to be inherited:
And by his Death, which he once suffered,
From Death for ever us delivered.
But that we may these benefits partake,
We must Repent, and all our Sinnes forsake.
We must by Faith in Christ be Justified,
And by the Holy Spirit Sanctified.
Now to this end Christ left his Testament,
The Gospell, and a Twofold Sacrament:
And sent his Spirit for to Sanctifie
Those whom hereafter he will Glorifie.
Heare, and obey Christs will and Testament,
Wash and be clean, Receive his Sacrament:
Obey the inward Calling of the Spirit,
Be Constant: And Eternall Life inherit.
READER, I have presented to thine eye
The Summe of Gerhards whole Divinitie.

The Contents of each Chapter in this Book.

The First Chapter containeth the Summe of all the rest.

  • Chapter. Concerning Page.
  • 2 The Holy Scripture. 1
  • 3 God, and his Attributes. 18
  • 4 The Person, & Office of Christ. 33
  • 5 The Creation, and the Angells. 52
  • 6 The Providence of God. 66
  • 7 Election, and Reprobation. 81
  • 8 The Image of God in Man be­fore his fall. 91
  • 9 Originall sinne. 105
  • 10 Free-will. 122
  • 11 The Law. 136
  • 12 The Gospell. 150
  • 13 Repentance. 174
  • 14 Faith. 197
  • 15 Good Works. 217
  • 16 The Sacraments. 239
  • 17 Baptisme. 260
  • 18 The Lords Supper. 283
  • 19 The Church. 306
  • 20 The Ecclesiasticall Ministerie. 324
  • 21 The Civill Magistracie. 345
  • 22 Wedlock. 361
  • 23 Our latter end, or The foure last things. 37 [...]

CHAP. I. A DESCRIPTION OR REPRESENTATION of the Theologicall places, or Heads of Divinitie, contained in this book, together with their order and con­nexion.

1 THe onely and proper Prin­ciple of Divinitie, is the word of God.

2 For God came forth from the secret throne of his Majesty, and manifested himself unto men, in the word.

3 At sundrie times, and in di­verse manners God spake in time [Page] past unto the fathers by the Pro­phets. In these last dayes he hath spoken unto us by his Sonne, and his Apostles. Hebr. 1.1, 2.

4 That word of God was first preached by the Prophets and Apo­stles: and afterwards the chief and necessarie heads of divine revelation were penned by them, according to the will of God. Iren. lib. 3. cap. 1.

5 Therefore the undoubted word of God cannot at this day any where be found, but in the writings of the Prophets, and Apostles.

6 From this word of God flow­eth Theologie, and is busied about it, propounding unto us the oracles of God. Rom. 3.2.

7 Now Theologie is, as the name it self imports, A doctrine concern­ing God.

8 And by this doctrine men are instructed, concerning the essence and will of God, unto their salvation.

9 And this is life eternall, To [Page] know the onely true God, and Je­sus Christ, which came in the flesh. John 17.3.

10 The doctrine concerning the Essence of God, is absolved in this question, What God is: to wit, Je­hova Elohim, One in Essence, three in Persons.

11 For God hath so manifested himself; that in the divine Essence be­ing but one, and that undivided, there are three Persons, neither more nor lesse, to wit, the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost.

12 The Father is the first Per­son, neither made, nor created, nor begotten, nor proceeding.

13 The Sonne is the second Per­son, not made, nor created, but be­gotten of the Father from all eter­nitie.

14 Who in the fulnesse of time took upon him our humane nature, in which and through which he payed the price of our redemption.

[Page] 15 The Holy Ghost is the third person, not made, nor created, nor begotten; but proceeding from the Fa­ther and the Sonne from all eternity.

16 We must judge of the Will of God, by his decrees made from all eternitie.

17 Whereof there are two more principall, The decree of Creation, and the decree of Reparation: or (as the Greek words signifie) Creation and Recreation; Formation and Re­formation.

18 What those decrees were, the fulfilling of them in time doth de­clare.

19 For what God doth, and in what manner he doth in time, the same thing, and in the same manner he decreed to do from all eternitie.

20 The reason of which assertion depends upon the immutabilitie of Gods will.

21 Creation made in time, is the manifestation of the decree, concern­ing [Page] the creation of all things, made from all eternitie.

22 And it is the production of the Angels, Men, and all other creatures in the six first dayes of the world, wrought by God the Father, through the Sonne, in the Holy Ghost, to his own glorie.

23 A great part of the Angels fell away from God: The rest being con­firmed in goodnesse, do laud and praise God, and are ministring Spirits for the good of men.

24 Our first parents, Adam and Eve, in like manner, at the instigati­on of Satan, transgressed the law of God, which was written in their hearts, and proclaimed by the mouth of God.

25 So then by this fall of theirs the image of God was quite defaced in them, and their nature was corrupted with sinne.

26 Whereupon their posterity al­so were and are to this day born stark-naked of originall righteousnesse, and [Page] in a miserable manner corrupted with sinne.

27 Through the contagion whereof all the powers and faculties in the soul of man are so infected, that there is little or no light of Reason left, and scarce any power at all in the will, even about external things.

28 God who is omniscient could not but know that our first parents would fall: and therefore of his in­finite mercie, he made a decree, con­cerning the Reparation or Re­demption of man, from all eternity.

29 What that decree was, the ful­filling of the same in like manner doth declare. He sent in time his Sonne to be our Redeemer and Mediatour: There­fore he decreed to send him, from all eternitie.

30 God by his word offereth the benefits of a Mediatour unto all, and applieth them unto those that beleeve: Therefore from all eternitie he de­creed to offer them unto all by the [Page] word, and to apply them unto those that beleeve.

31 This decree, in Scripture is called Predestination: of which we must not judge but (à posteriori, that is) by the manifestation thereof.

32 For the fulfilling of the de­cree, concerning the Reparation of man, God hath appointed the Word and the Sacraments.

33 The Word is reduced to two chief heads, the Law and the Go­spel.

34 The Law is, the doctrine of works: Therefore it manifesteth unto us the corruption of our nature; it ter­rifieth us, and prescribeth unto us the rule of well-doing.

35 The Gospel is, the doctrine of faith: which pointeth at Christ our Mediatour, who hath made satisfa­ction for our sinnes, and raiseth up the conscience of man.

36 The practise of the Law and the Gospel consisteth in true Repen­tance.

[Page] 37 Whereunto there is required Contrition, to be wrought in us by the Law; and Faith, by the Gospel.

38 Faith apprehendeth the Righ­teousnesse of Christ offered in the word of the Gospel: by which man, after Contrition wrought in him by the voice of the Law, is justified be­fore God, and beginneth to be renew­ed by the receiving of the Holy Ghost.

39 For by faith our hearts are purified. Acts 15.9.

40 Therefore the fruits of true Repentance are good works.

41 For, Faith worketh by Love. Gal. 5.6. And Christ giveth unto us not onely his righteousnesse, but also his Holy Spirit, which beginneth to renew our nature, and bridle in us the concupiscences of the flesh.

42 Of Good works there are three ranks: some have respect unto God, some unto Our selves, and others unto our Neighbours.

43 For the Summe of Pietie and [Page] Christian Religion is this, That we live soberly, righteously, and god­ly in this present world. Tit. 2.12.

44 The Sacraments are the Seals of the word, appointed for the con­firming and strengthening of our Faith: And they are the Visible word.

45 Such in the Old Testament were, Circumcision and the Paschal Lambe: and such in the New Testa­ment are, Baptisme and the Lords Supper.

46 By the Audible and Visible word, God gathereth together his Church here on earth.

47 Whereof there are three Hie­rarchies, ranks or orders: The Eccle­siasticall, Politicall, and Oecono­micall.

48 Of the Ecclesiasticall Hie­rarchie the Pope of Rome makes him­self Monarch and Head.

49 But inasmuchas he setteth him­self against Christ, he makes himself Antichrist.

[Page] 50 The Ministerie of the word, or the Ecclesiasticall Hierarchie is or­dained at this day by a mediate voca­tion.

51 The Politicall Hierarchie comprehendeth Magistrates both in­feriour and superiour.

52 Vnto the Oeconomicall Hie­rarchie belongeth Matrimonie, which is, (as I may so call it) a certain Semi­narie or Nurserie of the Church.

53 God in this life puts his Church under the Crosse: and that for many waightie and urgent reasons.

54 But at length he will glorifie it in the life to come, being delivered and freed from all enemies; from all evills, perills, and dangers.

55 Death, and the Last Judge­ment, without going through any Purgatorie, is to the godly and those that beleeve, the entrance into ever­lasting life.

56 But the ungodly and unbelee­vers shall at length be cast into ever­lasting fire.

CHAP. II. Wherein are contained Theo­logicall Aphorismes concerning the HOLY SCRIPTURE.

1 THe onely Principle of Theologie is, The WORD of God contained in Holy Scripture.

2 By the name of Holy Scripture properly and strictly taken, we un­derstand the books of the Old and New Testament, which undoubted­ly are Propheticall and Apostolicall

3 Which also are called Canoni­call: because they are a full and perfect Canon or Rule of the know­ledge of God and his worship.

4 Such in the Old Testament are, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Num­bers, Deuteronomie, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, two books of Samuel, two of the Kings, two of the Chronicles, [Page 2] Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, the Psalmes, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremi­ah, Lamentations, Ezechiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zepha­niah, Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi.

5 The rest of the books of the Old Testament are called by S. Je­rome Apocrypha: because they were neither wrote by the Prophets, nor received by the Jews for Canonicall

6 Again, they want the testimo­nie of Christ and his Apostles.

7 Moreover, by the most appro­ved Councells ▪ and Fathers, they are reckoned without the Canon.

8 And besides, there is to be found in many of them places ei­ther expresly repugnant to the Ca­nonicall Scripture; or else peccant against the truth of Historie and Chronologie; or else Contradictorie one to the other.

9 In the New Testament those [Page 3] are called Canonicall which at all times, and by all the Churches have been received without doubt­ing for Apostolicall, truely and cer­tainly so called.

10 Such are, The Gospell accor­ding to S. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; the Acts of the Apostles; the Epistle of S. Paul to the Ro­manes, two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians, one to the Ephesi­ans, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two to the Thessaloni­ans, two to Timothie, one to Titus, one to Philemon, the First of Peter, and the First of John.

11 The rest have not been here­tofore received by all with such a common consent as the former: in which respect they are called by some Apocrypha.

12 Such are the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistle of James, the Second of Peter, the Second and Third of John, the Epistle of Jude, [Page] [Page] [Page 2] [...] [Page 3] [...] [Page 4] and the Revelation of John.

13 But forasmuch as most of the ancients do not so much doubt of their Primarie authour, which is the Holy Ghost, as of their Secundarie authours: therefore for their Au­thoritie I willingly suffer them to be equall with the Canonicall; nei­ther will I contend with any man about this matter.

14 All Scripture is given by in­spiration of God. 2. Tim. 3.16. And holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2. Pet. 1.21. Neither spake they onely, but they wrote also.

15 The same word of God which with a lively voice was preached, and preserved unwritten for a long time in the Old Testa­ment, and likewise in the New Testament; but not so long: The same word, I say, was afterwards by the will of God written, and became Scripture. Iren. lib. 3. cap. 1.

[Page 5]16 Therefore between the word of God preached, and the word written, we make no reall differ­ence.

17 For it is but an Accident un­to the word of God, either to be preached, or to be written.

18 But although the Prophets and Apostles moved by the Holy Ghost have not wrote their whole sermons: yet they have made such a choice of what they wrote, that it is sufficient for the salvation of those that beleeve. August. tract. 49. in Joan.

19 And therefore we say that the Holy Scripture is perfect, and con­taineth in it all things necessarie for those that strive for the prize of eternall life which is set before them: both for the instructing of them in the faith; and the inform­ing them in life.

20 That it is perfect, it is pro­ved by evident testimonie. 2. Tim. [Page 6] 3.16, and 17. where it is said that the Holy Scripture is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousnesse: That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. And therefore also the Holy Scriptures are able to make us wise unto salvation. 2. Tim. 3.15.

21 Seeing therefore that which is Profitable, in relation to Indigen­cy and want, is taken two wayes: either for that which of it self a­lone is All-sufficient, excluding all want; or else, for that which is but In part profitable, and not suffici­ent of it self without the help of something else: It is manifest that the Apostle here speaketh of that which is profitable taken in the first sense.

22 By those things which are written we may be taught to be­leeve on Christ. John 20.31. And, [...]e furnished unto all good works. [Page 7] 2. Tim. 3.17. And the brethren of the rich glutton by hearing Moses and the Prophets in the Scriptures might have escaped the torments of Hell. Luke 16.29.

23 Whereupon it follows with­out forcing, that the perfection of the Holy Scripture is such as we assigne unto it: For whosoever be­leeveth on Christ, and is furnished unto all good works, and made par­taker of eternall life, what can he desire more?

24 This also is an Argument worthie our consideration, That the Apostle Saint Paul declared un­to the Church of Ephesus all the counsel of God ▪ (to wit, concerning our salvation) Acts 20.27. Again, the same Apostle said none other things then those which the Prophets and Moses did say should come. Acts 26.22. Therefore in Moses and the Prophets is contained all the coun­sel of God concerning our salva­tion.

[Page 8]25 Now if the Scripture be per­fect (as indeed it is) Away then with Traditions, which some would thrust upon us to be received with like affection, and to be beleeved with like authoritie as the Scri­pture.

26 For they are full of doubts, and sometimes also contradictions, being very apt to be corrupted, and many waies subject unto er­rour.

27 The Eccl [...]siasticall Historie witnesseth that in the time of the Primitive Church under the name of Apostolicall Traditions many falsities were broached: and that men of great note have been de­ceived in former time by the opi­nion of Traditions.

28 Furthermore, seeing that the Holy Scripture was by God given unto men to this end, to instruct them unto salvation: from hence we conclude, that The Scripture is perspicuous.

[Page 9]29 What? Could not God which made both minde & tongue speak plainly and perspicuously? Yea certainly he used great care and providence that all men might un­derstand what he spake unto all men. Lactant. lib. 6. Div. Institut. cap. 21.

30 Ought not that which is to instruct the rude and ignorant, and make them wise and learned, ought not that, I say, be perspicuous?

31 It is perspicuity which is fit to teach and instruct, not obscurity or perplexitie.

32 Yet, when we say that the Holy Scripture is perspicuous, we would not have it so understood, as if we meant, that whatsoever is contained any where in Scripture, were so easy and plain, that any man at the first sight may under­stand it.

33 But this is our meaning, that The perspicuity of Scripture is such, [Page 10] that from thence a man may learn sure and infallible grounds and prin­ciples of religion; the knowledge whereof is necessary unto every man, toward the attainment of everlasting salvation.

34 The books of the Prophets and Apostles are the integrall parts of Holy Scripture: And that both those are perspicuous, it is proved by good testimonies. If the parts of Scripture then be perspicuous; how can the whole be said to be obscure?

35 The Propheticall word in the Old Testament is compared unto a Lamp, Light, or Lantern. Psalme 119.105. And, as much is said of the Apostolicall word. 2. Pet. 1.19. And again, If our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost. 2. Cor. 4.3. Whereby it appeareth, that if the Scripture be obscure, and hid, it is so onely by Accident: But of it self, and by its own nature it is perspi­cuous.

[Page 11]36 Seeing therefore it is de­monstrated that the Scripture is perfect and perspicuous: It follows, that It is and ought to be the certain, infallible, and onely rule and judge of all controversies, that are moved about points of Christian religion.

37 What David saith concern­ing the Apostles, Psal. 19.4. Their line (or, their rule, or direction) is gone out through all the earth: the fame, Paul applies to the doctrine of the Apostles, Rom. 10.18. Their sound went into all the earth. But the Apostles wrote & taught the same things.

38 Christ also and his Apostles for determining controversies of faith, appealed unto no other Judge, went by no other Rule but the Holy Scriptures; and they send us also to search the Scriptures: And what sheep will not follow Christ his Shepherd and Leader, and the Apostles his followers?

[Page 12]39 The word of Christ con­tained in the Holy Scriptures Pro­pheticall and Apostolicall shall judge all men in the last day. John 12.48. Rom. 2.16. Revel. 20.12. What hinders then, but that it may be unto us in this life a Perfect Rule?

40 For if there be any part of celestiall doctrine not contained within the Canonicall books: How shall the judgement which shall be passed hereafter according un­to them, be entire?

41 Furthermore, seeing that it is not onely permitted, but also commanded to all Christians to try the Spirits, 1. John 4.1. to be­ware of false prophets, Matth. 7.15. to prove all things, 1. Thess. 5.21. and thus it lies upon them to di­scern between divine truth and humane dreams: certainly the rule of truth, that is, the Holy Scri­pture belongeth unto all men. And therefore, The common people ought [Page 13] not to be debarred the reading of the Scripture.

42 What the Spirit of God ap­proveth and commendeth, let not any man say, It is forbidden: But the Bereans are commended for this, that they examined Pauls ser­mon by the Rule of the Scriptures. Acts 17.11. The elect, strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, 1. Pet. 1.1. are commended for at­tending unto the word of prophesie as unto a light. 2. Pet. 1.19. And, Coloss. 3.16. the diligent study in the Scripture is commended to all Christians.

43 And seeing that the com­mon people are altogether igno­rant of the Hebrew & Greek tongue, wherein the books of the Old and New Testament were written; and yet are bound to reade the Scri­ptures: Therefore their pains is to be commended, who have trans­lated [Page 14] the Holy Scriptures into the vulgar tongues.

44 But yet the Hebrew text one­ly in the Old Testament, and the Greek in the New Testament, is Authenticall: because they were both written in those tongues.

45 Whatsoever floweth not from those fountains, hitherto hath not, cannot, neither must it be accounted Canonicall: seeing that it is not inspired by God.

46 Therefore that vulgar inter­pretation, which may sooner be said then proved to be Saint Je­roms, is without cause exalted to that high throne of authenticall authoritie.

47 For there are in it many faults both Graphicall, Ellipticall, Chronographicall, and Dogmaticall: faults in writing, in leaving out many things, in Chronographie, and in points of doctrine.

48 They have a corrupt judge­ment, [Page 15] that say that the Hebrew text is corrupted.

49 Neither do they love pure truth, who say that the fountains do not flow pure.

50 The end and use of Holy Scripture is attained by the true and lawfull interpretation thereof.

51 Seeing that the Scripture is perfect, and perspicuous: therefore It is to be interpreted of it self, and by it self.

52 For that which is perfect, ought not to be patched with things of another kinde: and that which is perspicuous of it self, doth not stand in need of anothers light.

53 Yet notwithstanding the Scripture is of it self perspicuous; the blinde eyes of our understand­ing are dazled at the light of it.

54 Whosoever therefore will take in hand to interpret Scripture: let him with earnest prayers and grones desire to have his under­standing [Page 16] enlightened by the Holy Ghost.

55 Let the glory of God, and the instruction of men unto salva­tion, be the supreme law of inter­pretation.

56 And seeing that every head of celestiall doctrine is in Scripture, in one place or other: therefore let the interpretation of other pla­ces be conformable unto it. So shall the Analogie, or proportion of faith be kept. Rom. 12.6.

57 Observe diligently the na­turall significations of words.

58 In matters of doubt have re­course unto the fountains: the He­brew in the Old Testament, and the Greek in the New.

59 Have respect and regard to the scope of every word, to the circumstances, to that which goes before, and that which follows af­ter.

60 Let the obscurer, and fewer [Page 17] places of Scripture be expounded by those that are more cleare, and more in number.

61 Depart not from the letter▪ in articles of faith especially: un­lesse the Scripture it self sheweth some impropriety of speech, and also expound it.

62 Use the writings of the Fa­thers for an help to leade thee by the hand as it were, in the inter­pretation of the Scripture: but see that thou usest them aright.

63 Yet count them not for Ca­nonicall, but examine them by the Canonicall. What in them is agree­able unto the authoritie of divine Scripture, embrace with due com­mendation of them; what is not agreeable, by their leave reject and refuse. August. lib. 2. cont. Cresc. cap. 32.

CHAP. III. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning GOD.

THe chief end of all the Scripture is, To know God, and worship him be­ing known.

2 From him alone are all things: and, To him alone are all things.

3 That there is a God, even the book of Nature sheweth: For, The world is the school of the knowledge of God. Basil. in Hexam.

4 The leaves of this book are especially three, Heaven, Earth, Sea, and all things therein contain­ed, as Clemens Alexandrinus speak­eth.

5 But there is a more certain, evident, and perspicuous know­ledge to be fetcht out of the book of holy Scripture.

[Page 19]6 The eyes of our understand­ing are blinded by our fall: and from thence it is that we cannot so readily make progresse and profi­ciency in the book of Nature.

7 The end of that Naturall knowledge of God is according to the Apostle, To seek the Lord, Acts 17.27.

8 Nature herself confesseth that her book is imperfect: and there­fore she must, as it were, leade us by the hand, to finde out a more perfect revelation in the Church.

9 The Essence of God tran­scendeth all created things: There­fore the perfect knowledge of God surpasseth all understanding▪ God is incomprehensible: so saith Da­mascen, lib. 1. Orth. [...]id. cap. 1.

10 And from hence it follows, That as God is a Spirit above all, and cannot properly be found out, or comprehended by any under­standing: So likewise he cannot be [Page 20] defined or determined by any de­finition. August. de cogn. ver. vit. cap. 7.

11 We cannot in any words so fully expresse what God is, as by confessing our ignorance, That we know not what God is. Scal. Exerc. 365. Sect. 2.

12 What therefore God would have hidden from us, that must we not search into: But yet notwith­standing so much as he hath mani­fested unto us by revealing of him­self, we must in no wise neglect; for fear lest we be found on one side more curious then is lawfull, & on the other side damnably ingrate­full. Ambros. 1. de vocat. Gent. cap. 7.

13 God gave being unto all things: Therefore he is the first, chief and independent Being.

14 He is [...], that is, He hath his Being from himself. Scal. He is a Being above all beings. Di­onys. lib. 1. de divinis nom. cap. 1.

[Page 21]15 He is the Essence of all essen­ces, the Creatour of all creatures, the Life of all lives, the Cause of all causes.

16 He it is that giveth all unto all, but receiveth not ought from any.

17 Above him, is nothing; with­out him, is nothing; beneath him, is nothing: Vnder him, is all; in him, is all; with him, is all: From him, are all things; by him, are all things; in him, are all things. Aug. de Spec. cap. 33.

18 Between the Essence of God and the essence of the creatures there is an infinite difference: Gods Es­sence is after a singular, peculiar, and supereminent manner.

19 God is a Spirit, John 4.24. A Spirit hath not flesh and bones. Luke 24.39. Therefore God is in­corporeall.

20 Whatsoever corporeal things are attributed unto God, they are to be understood as it beseemeth the majestie of God: not proper­ly [Page 22] spoken, but by (an Anthropopa­thie) a figure by which that is im­properly said to be in God, which properly belongeth unto man.

21 God condescendeth unto us, that we may ascend up unto him: and seeing that we are men, he vouchsafeth to speak unto us after the manner of men.

22 The Scripture by things cor­poreall teacheth us spirituall, and likewise by things visible, things that are invisible.

23 So God is said to have Eyes, which are over the just; an Hand, by which he giveth food unto all flesh; Feet, whose footstool the earth is: All these are in God in Effect, not in Affect. Bern. Serm. 4. sup. Cant.

24 He is therefore All-eye; be­cause he seeth all: All-hand; be­cause he worketh all: All-foot; be­cause he is every where. August. sup. Psalm. 136.

[Page 23]25 God is Eternall, without be­ginning or end: From him are all things; but he is from nothing: He is subject to no change or successi­on: He alone it is that can say, I AM THAT I AM. Exod. 3.14.

26 If God had a beginning, then he should be subject unto change: But he is uncreated, without time, without beginning, without end, not subject to alteration: Therefore he is truly Eternall.

27 But if God be without change or alteration; he is also void of all composition whatso­ever.

28 He alone is truly and pro­perly Simple: Besides him all things else are compounded. (At least Ex Actu & Potentia, Ex esse & Essen­tia) as the School speaks?

29 The Essence of God is not onely most Simple, but also most Infinite, and Immense. God is pre­sent with all things: not onely by [Page 24] his Power, by which he conserveth all things; but also by his Essence, by which he is present with all things created, after a more neare and intimate manner then they are with themselves.

30 In those words, in which it is said, That God is every where by his Essence, we are to beleeve that there is more contained, then any living man is able to conceive. Lomb. 1. Sent. Dist. 37.

31 Neither yet must we con­ceive that God is as it were dif­fused through space of places by any corporeall substance, so that he is half in one part of the world, and half in the other; and all in all: But he is all in heaven, all in earth, every where all in himself, and contained in no place. August. Epist. 57. ad Dard.

32 Neither yet suffereth he mix­ture with other things, nor is in­fected by other things: But he is [Page 25] within all creatures, and yet not in­cluded; without all creatures, and yet not excluded.

33 The Goodnesse, Wisdome, and Power of God is understood by his Providence over the creatures; His Mercie, Justice, and Truth, by the Government of the world: where­by those which were more wise a­mongst the Gentiles were brought to acknowledge all these.

34 In the book of Scripture, con­cerning these and other attributes of God, there are testimonies ex­tant for number more, for authori­tie more waightie, and for perspi­cuitie more cleare.

35 Forasmuch as God is Immu­table: therefore these Attributes of God are not qualities in God; but they are the very Essence of God. Wisdome is not any thing super­added unto Gods Essence, but his very Essence.

36 There is nothing in God, [Page 26] which is not God himself. Bern. Serm. 80. sup. Cant.

37 Let us understand if we can, and as farre as we are able, That God is Good without Qualitie, Great without Quantitie, Creatour with­out Indigencie, Present without Position of place, Containing all things without Habit, Every where all without Place, Everlasting with­out Time, Making all things muta­ble and yet himself Immutable, and suffering in nothing. August. 5. de Trin. cap. 1.

38 That there is One onely true God, The Catholike Church be­leeveth & professeth, being taught it of God himself in the Holy Scriptures.

39 With this Vnitie of unities (that I may so speak) in the Divine Essence, the Trinitie of Persons doth well agree without repugnancie. The Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost are that One onely true God.

[Page 27]40 We say that there are Three Persons; but not to the prejudice of the Vnitie in Essence: We say that there is One God; but not to the confounding of the Trinitie. Bern. lib. 5. ad Eugen.

41 Doest thou demand how this can be? Let it be sufficient for thee to beleeve that it is so: To make search beyond the bounds and limits of the word, it is Rashnes; To beleeve that it is so as it is said, it is Pietie; To know it, it is Life eternall. Bern. l. d.

42 The Essence of the Father, of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost is all one: but to be the Father, and the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost, is not all one.

43 I and my Father are one, saith the Sonne, Joh. 10.30. In that he saith One he hath respect to the Vnitie of Essence; and delivereth thee from Arius: In that he saith Are, in the plurall number, he hath [Page 28] respect unto the Distinction of Per­sons; and delivereth thee from Sa­bellius. August. lib. 5. de Trin. c. 9.

44 Neither must we so think upon One God, as to forget the glo­rie and brightnesse of the Three Persons: Nor must we so distin­guish the Three Persons, but that still we have our thoughts upon One God. Nazianz. Serm. de Sacr. Bapt.

45 Let us beleeve one Divinitie without separation of confusion distinct: So that we neither think that there is a single Person in the Trinitie, nor a threefold substance in the Unitie; but so assigne a Plu­ralitie unto the Unitie, that we take not an equalitie from the Trinitie. August. Serm. 29. de temp.

46 The Father is made of none; neither created, nor begotten, nor proceeding. The Sonne is of the Father alone; not made, nor crea­ted, but begotten. The Holy Ghost [Page 29] is of the Father and of the Sonne; neither made, nor created, nor be­gotten, but proceeding. Athanas. in Symb.

47 We must so avoid, in these divine matters, the name of diver­sitie; that we take not away the Vnitie of Essence: We must avoid the name of Separation and Divisi­on; that we take not away the Sim­plicitie of the Divine Essence: We must avoid the name of Disparitie; that we take not away the Equali­tie of Persons: We must avoid the name of Alienietie or Discrepancie; that we take not away the Identitie of Essence: We must avoid the name of Singularitie; that we weaken not the Deitie, which being but One, is common to the Three Persons.

48 We must so avoid Termes of Vnitie; that we take not away the Number of Persons: We must so avoid Termes of Confusion; that we take not away the Order of Persons: [Page 30] We must so avoid the name of So­litarie; that we take not away the Fellowship of the Three Persons. Th. p. 1. q. 31. art. 2.

49 It is well said by S. Augu­stine, that the Essence is predicated of the Father, of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost; but neither as a Ge­nus of his Species, nor as a Species of an Individuum, nor as the Whole of its Parts; but after another inef­fable, and incomprehensible man­ner.

50 We must not therefore de­nie the Sonne to be Eternall; be­cause he is begotten of the Father: For he is begotten from all Eter­nitie.

51 The Eternall Father beget­teth the Eternall Sonne.

52 We must understand the Be­getting of the Sonne without passi­on, without time, without flowing, without separation. Damasc. lib. 1. Orthod. fid. c. 8.

[Page 31]53 Notwithstanding the Sonne is properly said to be begotten. The Word is properly the Sonne of God: And therefore he is truely & properly begotten of the Father.

54 But observe both here and elsewhere, whatsoever is transla­ted from the creatures unto God, is first to be purged from all imper­fections: and then at length that which is perfect is to be attributed unto God. Zanch. 6. de trib. Elo­him, cap. 7.

55 The sayings of the ancients, That the Sonne proceeded out of the intellect or minde of his Fa­ther, are not bitterly to be inveigh­ed against: for they intended chief­ly to shew his impassibilitie in that he was begotten. Nazianz. Orat. 2. de Filio. Basil. sup. 1. Joan.

56 Neither yet are these things to be stretched too farre; but pi­ously they ought to be expounded

57 To speak worthily of the [Page 32] Persons, it surpasseth the strength of reason, and goeth beyond the wit of man. What it is to be Begot­ten, what it is to Proceed, I professe I know not. Rob. Holcoth. q. 10. determin. referent. Biel. 1. Sent. dist. 13. q. un.

58 Let us gather from what hath been said, this Definition: GOD is a Spirituall Essence, Simple, Intelligent, Eternall, True, Good, Just, Holy, Chast, Mercifull, Most free, of Infinite Wisdome & Power: another from all creatures of the world, and all bodies: The Father Eternall, who of his own Essence from all Eternitie begot the Sonne his sub­stantiall Image; And the Sonne be­gotten of his Father from all Eter­nitie; And the Holy Ghost proceed­ing from the Father and the Sonne: Creatour and Conserver of all things Redeemer and sanctifier of the Church, one onely true God blessed for ever.

[Page 33]59 In brief thus: GOD is Jeho­vah Elohim, that is, one Divine Essen [...]e of Three Persons: The Holy and undivided Trinitie in Vnitie.

CHAP. IV. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the PERSON and OF­FICE of CHRIST.

1 AS saving as the know­ledge of Christ our Sa­viour is: so acceptable ought the explication of the doctrine of Christ be unto us.

2 Christ is ( [...]) true God and true Man.

3 Therefore, whether a man denie Christs Divinitie, or Christs Humanitie, it is a matter of like danger.

[Page 34]4 He is God, by eternall genera­tion of the Father: He is Man, by assumption of the flesh, from his Mother.

5 For the Word brought not flesh with him down from heaven, but assumed the true Humane na­ture from the bloud of Marie being purified.

6 This Assumption farre exceeds the course of nature, and the reach of mans understanding: For it was wrought by the Holy Ghost after a peculiar manner.

7 Not after the manner of men: but by a wonderfull overshadow­ing.

8 That a Virgin should conceive without the seed of man; That a Virgin should be the Mother of a most holy ofspring; That a Virgin should bring forth God: This ex­ceeds the bounds of Nature, but not the operation of the Holy Ghost

9 The Word assumed the Hu­mane [Page 35] nature, not onely true but al­so entire; that is, both perfect and free from all stain of sinne.

10 But he assumed it into the Vnitie of his Person: And there­fore the Assumption of the Flesh, is the very Personall Vnion of the Word and the Flesh.

11 One Person did not assume another: But the second Person of the Trinity assumed the Humane nature.

12 Therefore in Christ God is not one, and Man another: But one and the same is God and Man.

13 In Christ there is not ( [...]) one person and another, that is, two Persons: But ( [...]) one thing and another, that is, two Natures.

14 For so must we hold a Du­ [...]litie of Natures, that we deny not the most neare and indissoluble V­nitie of Person.

15 It is said by the Ancients, [Page 36] That the Person onely of the Sonne was incarnate.

16 In which manner of speak­ing the name of Person is not op­posed to the divine nature of the Sonne; but to the Person of the Fa­ther and the Holy Ghost.

17 For elsewhere it is said, and that truly, That all the Divinitie was incarnate; but yet onely in on [...] of the Persons.

18 The Person of the Word▪ & the divine Nature of the Word, do not really differ.

19 The Divinitie is entire and perfect in each Person.

20 Therefore inasmuchas one of the Persons was incarnate, all the Divinitie is said truly to be incar­nate: to wit, in that one Person of the Word.

21 The Vnion of the divine and humane Nature in Christ is Perso­nall, but not of Persons: It is an V­nion of Natures, but not Naturall.

[Page 37]22 It is also an Vnion inseparable, both in respect of time and place.

23 For the Flesh which the Word once assumed, he shall never put off.

24 The Nature which he once united unto himself, that doth he never put off.

25 The humane Nature assumed doth neither consist by it self, nor subsist of it self: nor is it without subsistence, but having a subsistence in another.

26 It hath a subsistence after no [...]light manner, being supported in the Word, but by a most plenarie communication of the whole Per­son of the Word.

27 Therefore since the Incarna­tion, neither must the Person of the Word be said to be without the Flesh, nor the Flesh without the Person of the Word.

28 What God hath joyned to­gether, and what is joyned toge­ther [Page 38] in God, let no man separate, or put asunder.

29 Neither must we judge it to be a bare and naked Peristasis, ap­proximation, or neare position of the united Natures, but a most in­timate and neare Perichoresis, Con­junction or Vnion.

30 To note the Vnitie of Per­son the Ancients say, That this Vnion was made indivisibly, insepa­rably, indistractibly.

31 To note the Dualitie of Na­tures they say, That this Vnion was made without confusion, without con­version, without alteration, without mutation.

32 The Flesh remains finite even in this Vnion: Therefore there is not an exequation, or coextension of Natures.

33 The Flesh is made partaker of an infinite subsistence by the V­nion: Therefore there is no sepa­ration of the Natures through di­stance of places.

[Page 39]34 By reason of this Hypostati­call Vnion it is truely said, The Sonne of God is the Sonne of Mary; and again, The Sonne of Mary is the Sonne of God: God is Man; and Man is God.

35 And these Propositions are fit­ly called Personall.

36 For their foundation con­sisteth in the Personall Vnion: and all their force, veritie, proprie­tie, and connexion is to be judged by the Personall Vnion of the two Natures.

37 Neither can they, neither ought they to be referred to Logi­call rules: seeing that the Incarna­tion of the Word farre exceeds the understanding of Men and Angels.

38 These are not therefore Re­gular Propositions: for they go farre beyond the rules of reason and Lo­gick.

39 Neither are they to be cal­led Figurative: For the Sonne of [Page 40] God is the Sonne of Man, not in a figure, but truely and properly.

40 Upon the Personall Vnion follows the Communication of pro­perties.

41 For seeing that the Deitie and Attributes of God are the self-same thing; and the Humanitie hath its own properties nearly pertain­ing to its Nature: Therefore the Vnion of the divine and humane Nature in Christ brings with it a certain Communication of Proper­ties.

42 For the two Natures do not subsist apart one from the other: but they are united into one Per­son.

43 Therefore neither do they apart or alone each what is proper to its own nature: but the Person doth all according to the Properties of each Nature.

44 Hence it is that the Proper­ties of one Nature are attributed to [Page 41] the Person, in the Concrete.

45 The Ancients call this Com­munication of properties [...], and most usually [...], a mutuall reciprocation, when each makes that its own which is proper to the other.

46 The name of the Person is put in the place of the Subject in these Propositions: to vindicate the unitie of the Person.

47 And words of distinction are added in the Praedicate, some­times expressely; but they are al­waies implied, and to be under­stood: to prove the distinct Proper­ties of the Natures.

48 These Propositions are Reci­procall, that is, As well that which is divine is praedicated of man, as that which is humane is praedicated of God.

49 For the Vnion is equall: The humane Nature is as well united un­to the divine; as the divine Na­ture [Page 42] unto the humane.

50 The Sonne of Man is Crea­tour of Heaven and Earth: The Sonne of God suffered. Both these are most true.

51 Creation is not competent to the Humanitie assumed, by condi­tion of Nature: but yet it is most truely attributed unto the Sonne of Man, by reason of the Identitie of Person.

52 Suffering, in like manner, is not competent to the Divinitie, by condition of Nature: but yet by reason of that intimate, and inef­fable Vnion of Natures it pertain­eth to the Sonne of God no lesse then if the divine Nature it self had suffered.

53 For the Word, by assuming the humane Nature into the Vnity of Person, appropriated Personally unto himself all the Properties thereof.

54 That is expressed thus by Vi­gilius [Page 43] (Lib. 2. contr. Eut.) God suf­fered, not in the Propertie of Nature, but in the Vnitie of Person.

55 Again, that Personall Vnion was made for the Office of the Me­diatour.

56 In which, one Nature doth not rest idle, or else privately work­eth, and apart, the other doing no­thing, or somewhat else: But each Nature worketh by Communication with the other.

57 From hence it is that the names of this Office are competent to Christ, and are praedicated of Christ according to both Natures.

58 For the actions of both Na­tures do concurre to one common effect or perfection: and the action is, of both God and Man.

59 The ancients call it a Coeno­poeia, or a making common, and a Periphrasis or Circumloquution.

60 Thirdly in the Office of Me­diatour the humane Nature doth not [Page 44] onely the actions of the Humanitie; but because it is enriched with di­vine energies by reason of the most pure Vnion unto the Word, There­fore it both is, & also is called the organ or instrument of the Deitie, not separated or divided, but Per­sonally united; in which, with which, and by which the Word worketh in the Office of the Mediatour. Da­masc. 3. Orthod. fid. cap. 17.

61 The Divine Nature in Christ, inasmuchas it is most perfect, was nothing enriched in this union: but there was a great addition made unto the Humane Nature, in­asmuchas besides, above, and be­yond its own Essentiall Properties, it hath received Divine excellencies in and from this Hypostaticall union, which excellencies it retaineth for ever.

62 The Ancients call it Super­exaltation, glorification, participati­on of divine dignitie, participation of [Page 45] divine power, melioration, riches, ascent.

63 That this collation of excel­lencies upon Christ was according to the Humane Nature, the Scri­pture doth evidently witnesse, and all the godly of old with great consent approve.

64 When as therefore such things are said to be conferred by the Father upon the Sonne in time: we must understand that they are conferred according to the Humane Nature.

65 That so the relation may be between the Father giving and the Sonne receiving in time, not in respect of the Divine Na­ture, according to which he is Es­sentially one with the Father, and doth likewise the same things that the Father doth, Joh. 5.19. but in respect of the Humane Nature, which is capable and hath need of these things.

[Page 46]66 Now there are conferred im­mense and infinite gifts indeed, to wit, All power, divine glorie, all the treasures of wisdome, a quickning efficacie, power to execute judgement, present rule in heaven and earth.

67 Neither yet must we here once think of, or imagine a naturall effusion of divine properties: But as the Vnion is Personall, so likewise is the Communication Personall.

68 The Divinitie of the Word suffred no falling off of its own pro­perties: neither are those properties made proper to the flesh by this com­munication.

69 But the Divine Nature of the Sonne retaining its own pro­perties within the most neare com­plexure of the Person, and notwith­standing assuming the Humane Na­ture unto the communion and Vnitie of the Person, assumeth also the same Nature unto the communication of the divine properties; that is, In and [Page 47] with the Humane Nature, and by it as by an Hypostaticall organ or in­strument, exerteth, or sheweth forth its properties.

70 Therefore the foundation of that Communication consisteth pro­perly in the Assumption.

71 For the Humane Nature did not assume the Divine: But the Word is the Person assuming; and in it, and by it is the Humane Nature assumed.

72 The union of the Natures is equall: but so, that in this union the Word is truely said to assume, and the Flesh to be assumed.

73 And therefore although the union of the Natures is equall, yet the condition of the Natures united is unequall.

74 That the Flesh is glorified by the Majestie of the Deitie assu­ming; that I know, and confesse: But, That the Deitie suffred any in­jurie by the Flesh assumed ▪ that I [Page 48] deny. August. cont. Fel. c. 11.

75 To conclude, That communi­cation was made in the very first moment of the Incarnation, foras­much as it is an Essentiall consequent of the union.

76 Yet the state of his Exinani­tion, or emptying of himself, interce­ded for us and for our salvation.

77 For Christ our Mediatour, that he might suffer and die for us, in the dayes of his flesh shewed not forth the full light of the glorie and Majestie communicated unto him according to his Humane Nature.

78 I say, He did not shew it forth, and yet I do not say that he was al­together without it: He emptied himself, not by laying aside his glo­rie and power altogether, but by withdrawing the use of his splen­dour and glorie.

79 To this State of his Exinani­tion or emptying of himself pertain his Conception, his Being born in the [Page 49] wombe, his Nativitie, his Increase in Age, and Wisdome, his Obedience in the form of a servant even unto the death of the crosse, and, after that, his Buriall.

80 After the Exinanition fol­lowed Christs glorious Exaltation: to which pertain his Descent into Hell, his Resurrection from the Dead, his Ascending into Heaven, and his Sitting at the right hand of God.

81 All which pertain to the Office of Mediatour: for which that wonderfull Vnion was made, of the Divine and Humane Nature, and which also Christ fulfilleth according to both Natures.

82 The diversitie (or dualitie) of Natures in Christ, and the Vni­tie of Person was available unto this, That what was needfull for the redemption of man, if the Hu­mane Nature could not, the Divine might effect; and what was not be­seeming [Page 50] the Divine Nature in any wise, that the Humane Nature might do or suffer.

83 And so he was not to be one and another; but one and the same both perfect God, and perfect Man: that by the Humane Nature he might pay what was due; and by the Divine Nature effect what was expedient. Anselm. 2. Cur Deus Homo. cap. 18.

84 Bare Man could not satisfie; and God owed nothing: Therefore God was made Man, that he which owed nothing for himself might make satisfaction for us.

85 This Office of a Mediatour Christ so executeth, that he is un­to us both a Prophet, a Priest, and a King.

86 The Propheticall office con­sisteth in the Revelation of the Go­spell, and in the institution and con­servation of the Ministerie.

87 The parts of his Priestly of­fice [Page 51] are Satisfaction and Intercession.

88 The Kingdome of Christ is considered either in this life, or in the other.

89 In this life is the Kingdome of Power and Grace: That is his gene­rall rule over all things; but This comprehendeth the speciall works of his grace in the Church.

90 In the other life shall be the Kingdome of glorie: into which all the elect being raised out of the dust shall be received. Of which Kingdome Christ make us parta­kers, who is our King blessed for ever.

CHAP. V. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the CREATION, and the ANGELS.

1 GOd who by Nature is in­visible, that he might be made known by things visible, wrought a work, which by the visibilitie thereof might manifest him whose work it is. Ambr. in cap. 1. Rom.

2 This work of God wrought in time is, & is also called, Creation.

3 Which is nothing else but the production of the whole Vniverse out of nothing, in six distinct dayes, being wrought by God through the Sonne in the Holy Ghost, for the glo­rie of God, and salvation of men.

4 The Authour then of Creati­on is God, One in Essence, Three in Persons.

[Page 53]5 Moreover that Creation of all things, is the immediate work of God alone.

6 The Father created all things by the Word: which, as the Evange­list teacheth us, is to be understood of the Hypostaticall and consubstan­tiall Word of God. Joh. 1.1.

7 The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters, Gen. 1.2. That, as the Psalmist sheweth, is to be understood of the breath of his mouth Psal. 33.6. that is, the Hypostaticall and consubstantiall Spirit of God.

8 Therefore, where Moses cal­leth the Creatour Elohim: it is rightly referred to the Trinitie of Persons.

9 Whereas it is said, That the Father by the Sonne, in the Holy Ghost created all things: we must beware, that we understand it not of inequality of Essence, or Power in the work of Creation.

10 For what things soever the [Page 54] Father doth: the same doth the Sonne likewise. John 5.19.

11 But all this ought to be refer­red to the reall distinction of Persons and the order of working in works (ad extra, or) externall, which re­sults from thence.

12 The Father therefore crea­ted by the Sonne, not as by one that worked not, or an instrument se­parate, but as by his coëternall, and consubstantiall Image.

13 And he created all things out of nothing.

14 Some things indeed imme­diately, but other things mediate­ly. Damasc. 2. Orth. fid. cap. 5.

15 And all in six distinct dayes: whence it is, that the Ancients call CREATION the six dayes works.

16 That all things were cre­ated in a moment it seems indeed agreeable unto reason: but it is a­gainst the Mosaicall Scripture.

17 On the First day were cre­ated [Page 55] the Heaven and the Earth, that is, the matter of all things to be made, rude and without form.

18 Light also was created, to dispell the darknesse of the deep, and to inchoate or beginne the vi­cissitude or intercourse of day and night.

19 That Light without doubt was something obscure: And there­fore the question concerning the Nature thereof is also obscure.

20 On the Second day was the Firmament made, that is, the whole System or comprehension of the ce­lestiall bodies.

21 Above which that there are waters, the Holy Spirit speaketh ex­pressely: To what use, that onely knows he which made them.

22 Let us herein beleeve the Scripture, whose authority is grea­ter then the capacitie of mans un­derstanding. August. 2. de Gent. ad lit. cap. 4.

[Page 56]23 On the Third day at the com­mand of Almighty God were the waters under the heavens, gathered together unto one place, and the dry land appeared. Gen. 1.9.

24 And what are the Bases or foundations of the Earth? what are the banks of the Sea? They are The Almighty word of God.

25 Neither would God have the earth to be unfruitfull; but caused it to bring forth every kinde of herb. Gen. 1.12.

26 And yet, not all for the food of man; but yet all for the use of man.

27 One the Fourth day God set the greater and the lesser Lights in the firmament of heaven. Gen. 1.17.

28 Which are nothing else but as it were the Chariots of the Light which was first made.

29 The starres, as well those that are fixed, as those which are called Planets, or Erraticall, do work [Page 57] upon these bower bodies, by their motion, light, and influences.

30 What these influences are, it is very obscure and past our find­ing out.

31 We must beware therefore that we do not ascribe unto the starres the causes of humane wicked­nesse: seeing that he which made the starres is free from all wicked­nesse.

32 He that is wise shall have do­minion over the starres: Under­stand this of true and divine wis­dome, which consisteth in the fear and sincere worship of God.

33 It is not therefore to be cal­led Mathesis but Mataeologie, not skill in Astrologie, but Vaniloquie, to go about by the starres to fore­tell humane actions and events. Scal. Exerc. 251.

34 On the Fifth day was the Wa­ter replenished with Fishes, and the Aire with Fowles, Gen. 1.22.

[Page 58]35 Out of water God produced the things which cannot live within the water, and the things which can­not live but in the water: which is an Argument of his Almightie Power and Wisdome.

36 The Sixt day was the Birth­day to all terrestiall living creatures, and to Man himself likewise, Gen. 1.24, 25, 26, 27.

37 All which were created for Man; and Man for God.

38 No Creature had ever been hurtfull unto Man ▪ yea rather all the Creatures had been at Mans service, had not Man sinned. August. lib. 3. de Gen. ad Lit. cap. 15.

39 Man by not doing his bound­en duty and service to his Creatour, lost the dominion which was given him over the Creatures.

40 God being about to create man, called as it were a Councel be­fore hand: because he was to create a living creature capable of reason and counsel.

[Page 59]41 After that all other things were created, God in the last place created Man: because he was to be the Epitome, Centre, Abridgement, Complement, and Perfection of the whole Vniverse.

42 Man was made in the Earth, and of the earth, but not to the earth, and for the earth: but he was made to Heaven, and for Heaven.

43 God which is the Creatour of Heaven and Earth would end his work in Man: Therefore he rested when he had made Man.

44 He made all things, I say, for Man: insomuch that the very Angels themselves farre superiour both for Nature and Dignitie, do at Gods appointment minister as ser­vants unto Man.

45 And what wonder is it, that God made all things for Man, when as for Man even God himself was made Man?

46 Moses describeth not the [Page 60] Creation of the Angels: but ye [...] notwithstanding he doth not ex­empt them from the number of the creatures.

47 There is more subtiltie in enquiring, then fruit in finding, on what day they were created.

48 In respect of their Nature which is incorporeall, they are cal­led Spirits: and in respect of thei [...] Office they are called Angels.

49 They are indeed Spirits: but yet they are not Simple, as God is.

50 For their (Esse and Essentia, Actus and Potentia) Nature and Actions are in them distinguished.

51 Sometimes they appeare in bodily shapes, and yet they are not corporeall: For they are but the Forms Assistent and not Forms Informant of the bodies which they assume.

52 The Angels understand by Species as well Connate as Superad­ded.

[Page 61]53 Which Knowledge of the Angels is called Vespertine: unto which is added that which is called Matutine; by which in the light of the Word they are said Intuitively to know all things.

54 But what can the Intellect of poore man that crawleth upon earth know or conceive concer­ning the Intellect or understanding of the Angels?

55 Alas! we know not the man­ner of our own knowledge: And why do we begin to babble like chil­dren about the knowledge of the Angels.

56 Neither are the Angels en­dued onely with understanding, but also with power: And therefore they are called Vertues and Powers.

57 But yet this Power of theirs is finite, as is also their Essence.

58 They are Finite, not by cir­cumscription of any bodily place, but by designation of a certain Vbi.

[Page 62]59 Some say that the Eternity of God is the Measure of the Angel [...]. Scal. Exerc. 359. Sect. 7.

60 This is to be understood of the Measure of Perfection and not the Measure of Duration.

61 That there are certain Hie­rarchies or Orders amongst the Angels, we deny not: But that we are able to know what they are, That we deny.

62 The Order of the Angels is onely known unto him that did or­dain them.

63 Whom we shall hereafter behold face to face, when we shall be equall unto the Angels. Luke 20.36.

64 All the Angels were created by God, good and perfect: For from him which is good and perfect no­thing can proceed but that which is good and perfect.

65 But some, yea a great part of them by a voluntary fall fell away [Page 63] from that goodnesse in which they were created.

66 Which fall of the Angels, what it was, seeing that the Scri­pture sayes nothing of it, who shall declare it? The Ancients di­spute that it was either Pride, or Envie.

67 The evil Angels fell without all hope of recovery: But the good Angels are confirmed in goodnesse, and freed from all fear of falling.

68 Which Confirmation of theirs was not the Adequate and due re­ward of any merit; but the free gift of God rewarding beyond all con­dignitie.

69 From the Confirmation of some of the Angels in goodnesse, and the obstinatenesse of others in malice, there arise contrary works on both parts.

70 The good Angels are praising and lauding God, and sent as mini­string Spirits for the good of men.

[Page 64]71 The Angels are present with us, for good: to protect us, and to fight for us. Bern. Serm. 10. in Psalm. 92.

72 The number of the Angels is innumerable, as concerning us.

73 How the Angels conferr [...] and discourse one with another, let them discusse and determine, who are present at their conferences and discourses.

74 The Divels by the subtiltie of their nature, and their experi­ence for time, and also by superiour revelation may foreknow some things, but yet not all.

75 They may do many things to be admired: but they cannot work Miracles properly so called.

76 They do what they can, by Gods permission: They do not, what otherwise they can, at Gods prohi­bition.

77 And this is, such as it is, The description of the first work of [Page 65] God, which was wrought in time, that is, the Creation: whereof there can be no other moving cause given but onely the superabundant riches of his goodnesse. Damasc. 2. Orthod. fid. cap. 2.

78 For God wrought his works not out of any indigencie, but of his meere beneficencie: Nothing is added unto him by our praises; but he is manifested unto us by his works. Euch. lib. 1. in Gen.

79 He is the Finall Cause of the Vniverse in respect of his Good­nesse; the Exemplarie Cause in re­spect of his Wisdome; and the Effi­cient Cause in respect of his Power. Thom. 1. q. 46. art. 1.

80 Therefore the Glorie of God is the Vltimate and chief end of Creation: and the good of Men is the Mediate and secundary end.

81 God which is Good, yea Goodnesse it self, did all things well, and made all things good, whatso­ever [Page 66] he made. To him be praise honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. VI. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the PROVIDENCE of GOD.

1 GOD which is Almigh­tie is not onely the Creatour of the Vni­verse, but also the Vp­holder, Conserver, and Governour of the same.

2 He did all things well, and doth guide and govern all things well whatsoever he at first made.

3 As nothing was made but by Gods creating Essence: So nothing is able to stand or endure but by his conserving Power. Ansel. in Monol.

[Page 67]4 Gods upholding, supporting, and governing all creatures, is usually called Gods Providence.

5 Concerning which, Nature it self giveth an evident testimony: But the Holy Scripture giveth a te­stimonie much more evident.

6 The Laws therefore of true Religion do proclaim it, that All things have their being and exi­stence, and are governed by the Pro­vidence of God. Euseb. 6. de praepar. Evang. cap. 5.

7 Now the Providence of God consisteth in these three things, His Foreknowledge, his Purpose, and his Administring and Governing all things.

8 Which is expressed by Hugo (de Sancto Victore) after this man­ner: In the Providence of God we must consider his Knowledge dire­cting, his Will commanding, and his Power exequuting.

9 His Foreknowledge is, a most [Page 68] present and cleare sight of all things past, present, and to come.

10 God in a moment, fixed, and not sliding; stable and immoveable, and not successive, beholdeth all things clearly alltogether all at once.

11 God by the propertie of his Eternitie excludeth all space, and distinction of time.

12 As God is not said properly to Remember that which is past: so neither is he said properly to Behold afarre off the things which are to come. For to him all things are present.

13 The things which are known are mutable, transitorie, and succes­sive: but the vision of him that knoweth, knoweth no change, alte­ration, or succession. Polycrat. lib. 2. cap. 21.

14 By this knowledge all things are known unto God, better then they are unto themselves.

[Page 69]15 God beholdeth himself in [...]imself, and all other things like­wise in himself: For from him and in him are all things.

16 This knowledge of God is immutable: But yet notwithstand­ing some things unto which Gods knowledge extends it self are in themselves mutable.

17 All things are Necessary by a necessitie of Consequence, but not by a necessitie of the Consequent.

18 For it cannot be unknown unto God, who is Omniscient, which way the force of action, in causes or Agents working contingently and freely, will incline.

19 Yet God by this his Vision doth not inferre upon them any ab­solute necessitie: For then should they not be free and contingent A­gents.

20 It is a most greivous and hainous sinne, to make the Provi­dence of God to be the authour and [Page 70] cause necessitating man to sinne.

21 If Gods foreknowing a man will sinne, be the cause why man sinneth; then Gods foreknow­ledge, is not of mans sinne, but of his own: which is impious once to imagine.

22 God doth not onely fore­see (the [...]) things to be done; but also (the [...]) the cause and manner of doing.

23 He foreseeth things; he fore­seeth the causes of things: What things therefore are from their causes voluntarie or contingent, not­withstanding Gods Providence, cease not to be such as they are of their own Nature.

24 How should the Order of causes, which is certain in the Fore­knowledge of God, be the cause that nothing should be in our will, when as even our wills have place in the Order of causes? August. 5. de civ. Dei, cap. 9.

[Page 71]25 Neither is the Providence of God a bare Foreknowledge; seeing that God is not an idle spectatour of things: But also (a [...] or [...], Predestination or Purpose) a will and decree to use Providence, and take care for all things.

26 It is the part of him that is provident, not onely to have know­ledge, but also a will to provide for, and to do good,

27 That Eternall Purpose, after a most exact manner hath respect unto the Actuall Administration and governing things in time.

28 For whatsoever God doth, and after what manner soever he doth In time, by way of this Ad­ministration; That, by his Purpose he decreed to do, and in the same manner, From all Eternitie.

29 Gods Administration, is his Actuall and Temporall supporting and governing all things: by which he guideth and directeth all things [Page 72] well, wisely, freely, and powerfully.

30 This Administration extend­eth it self to all things, at all times, and in all places: it reacheth from one end to another mightily, and sweetly doth it order all things. Wisdome 8.1.

31 For if it be no injurie or shame to God to have made the least and meanest things that are: then certainly it is not unbeseem­ing Gods majestie to govern them being made. Ambros. 1. de Offic. cap. 13.

32 All things were made of no­thing: All things again would re­turn to nothing, did not that Chief and True Being sustain and uphold all things. Which Conservation is nothing else but the Continuation of their Existence and Being. Scal. Exerc. 135. sect. 1.

33 As the Being of the sunne­ [...]eams dependeth on the Sunne, and the Being of the shadow, on the [Page 73] Body: So the Being of all Creatures dependeth on the Providence of God conserving them. Raim. de Sabaud. in Theolog. Natur. cap. 16.

34 Neither doth God onely con­serve things created, but also he doth guide, govern, and direct them.

35 And although all things are under Gods guidance and gover­nance: yet he hath a care of man­kinde after a more speciall and pe­culiar manner; and yet after a more speciall and peculiar manner he hath a care of his Church which he ga­thereth out of mankinde.

36 According to this his Provi­dence, God ordinarily conserveth the appointed course of Nature.

37 For God so administreth and governeth all things, that he suf­f [...]rs them to exercise their own proper motions. Aug. 7. de Civ. Dei. cap. 30.

38 Gods Providence ordinarily worketh by means: but yet our [Page 74] trust and confidence must not re­lie upon them.

39 For there is no efficacie of the Second causes, which descend­eth not from the First.

40 And yet the Providence of God is not so tied to means, but that he can work without means.

41 The vertue of all Second cau­ses is Eminently and Causally in the First.

42 Therefore the defect of Se­cond causes may be easily supplied by the vertue of the First.

43 Suppose the Second causes were in Act: yet notwithstanding the divine Providence can change and hinder their Effect.

44 But the Second causes cannot work without the influence of the First.

45 Moreover the divine Provi­dence can by the Second causes pro­duce another manner of Effect, then that which is agreeable to [Page 75] their naturall properties.

46 He which gave the Laws, and order of Nature, is not bound to the Laws and order of Nature.

47 The very brute beasts them­selves by a kinde of Naturall in­stinct have a sense of this Provi­dence, by which they are sustained and directed.

48 God hath a peculiar and speciall care of Man in the whole course of his life: in his Ingresse, Progresse, and Egresse.

49 Thine hands have made me and fashioned me together round about. Job 10.8. And again, Thou art he that took me out of the wombe. Psal. 22.9.

50 God doth so govern our whole life, that not so much as one hair of our head doth at any time fall without his will and provi­dence. Matth. 10.30. Luke 21.18. Act. 27.34.

51 He hath appointed Man his [Page 76] bounds that he cannot passe. Job 14.5.

52 Yet the divine Providence doth so guide and govern man in the whole course and end of his life, that it doth neither exclude the second causes, neither yet is tied unto them.

53 Hence we may learn, That Marriages are in such manner Fa­tall, that notwithstanding they prove sometimes Fatuall.

54 And, That the bounds of mans life are appointed which he cannot passe: but yet, not by any Law or decree of the (Parcae, or) Fatall sisters, nor by any Stoicall necessitie.

55 As the divine Providence go­verneth mans Life, so all his Acti­ons.

56 But yet God concurreth to good and bad Actions after a farre different manner.

57 Actions civilly good he doth govern in such manner, that he [Page 77] doth not onely conserve the Natu­rall Agent, and furnish him with abilitie and power for action; but doth also approve and set forward the actions themselves, and in a speciall manner sometimes moveth men unto them.

58 Actions spiritually good he doth both command and approve in such manner, that he effecteth them in us and by us, by his Holy Spirit.

59 As for evil Actions he neither commandeth, nor willeth, nor fur­thereth, nor inciteth or moveth un­to them.

60 For in Evil we are not to seek so much the Efficient cause, as the Deficient. August. 14. de Civ. Dei, cap. 7.

61 Because it is rather a defect from Gods work, then any work it self. August. 14. de Civ. Dei, cap. 11.

62 God who is a most perfect and pure Act, cannot be deficient: [Page 78] Therefore he cannot be the cause of evil.

63 Gods Providence concurreth in Evil actions, by foreknowing them, sustaining and upholding the Nature of the Agent, permitting, forsaking, delivering to Satan, set­ting bounds, and drawing good out of them.

46 He hardneth Negatively, that is, by not softning; Privatively, that is, by taking away such softnes as there is; Traditively, that is, by delivering a man unto himself and unto Satan to be hardned; Materi­ally, that is, by showing signes and wonders; and Dispositively, that is, by ordering and directing the indu­ration or hardnes to a good end.

65 Hereupon saith Suidas out of the Ancients, God doth admini­ster all things according to his Di­spensation & his good will & pleasure, in that which is Good: and by way of Permission onely, in that which is [...]vil.

[Page 79]66 This Permission is not as of one imprudent, or simply unwilling, or not caring, or idly looking on, or opening a wide field to the Plots and machinations of men and Satan: but it is the Permission of a most just judge and avenger, and also a most wise ruler and governour.

67 God doth in such manner punish sinnes with sinnes, that yet he is not the cause of sinne.

68 And seeing that the divine Providence doth not exclude the Second causes, neither change their qualitie, according to the ordina­rie manner: Hence it is that in re­spect of the Particular causes some things may be said to be fortuitous and casuall, which yet come under the order of the Vniversall cause.

69 Chance and Fortune are the voice and words of Humane igno­rance. August. 5. de Civ. Dei, cap. 9.

70 The holy Meditation upon [Page 80] the divine Providence may effect thus much in us, That we be nei­ther lift up in prosperitie, nor cast down with despair in adversitie.

71 Let us wholly commit our selves, and all that is ours, unto his care, who hath such a care of every one of us, as if he had but one to take care of; and such a care of all, that he forgets not to take care of every one.

CHAP. VII. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning ELECTION and RE­PROBATION

1 PRedestination is a cer­tain peculiar act of the divine Providence, a­bout the salvation of men.

2 By it the reasonable crea­ture is directed to an end which exceedeth its proportion, to wit, unto eternall life.

3 In which sense Predestination is made part of the divine Provi­dence. Thom. p. 1. q. 23. art. 1.

4 The doctrine of Predestination is not to be involved or concealed in the cloud of silence, seeing that it is in Scripture evolved or reveal­ed by the Holy Ghost.

[Page 82]5 But we must handle it soberly, reverently, and prudently.

6 Let us speak; not what, and as much as the curiositie of mans heart desireth: but what, and as­much as the Holy Ghost teacheth.

7 Predestination or Election is called, The Enrolling, Registring, or writing of our names into the Book of life.

8 But yet this Book of life ser­veth not to put God in minde of some, lest he forget them: but it signifies the Predestination of those which shall inherit everlast­ing life. Aug. 20. de Civ. Dei, cap. 15.

9 As therefore none of those that are elected do perish: So of those that have their names writ­ten in the Book of life, none are ever blotted out.

10 But they are Properly, and according to the phrase of Scri­pture said to be written in the Book of life, who cleave unto [Page 83] Christ by Faith and Perseverance.

11 Election as well as Creation is the immediate action of one and the onely true God alone.

12 Which belongeth also to the Sonne of God, not onely as he is one with the Father and the Ho­ly Ghost, but also as he is appointed to be the Mediatour.

13 In which sense we are said to be elected not onely by Christ, but also in Christ. Ephes. 1.4.

14 And it is an Action, not Emanant but Immanent.

15 And it is also Ordinate: whence it is, that the elect are said to be ordained to eternall Life, Act. 13.48.

16 The reason and manner of this order is made manifest unto us by the Gospel: by which the Mystery of our salvation, which was kept secret since the world began, is now made manifest. Rom. 16.26, 27.

[Page 84]17 In which sense we are said to be elected according to the Purpose and Foreknowledge of God, Ephes. 1.11. and 1. Pet. 1.2.

18 That Purpose is the counsel and good pleasure of God con­cerning the salvation of men, by faith on Christ.

19 Gods Election is meerly of his grace, not according to any merits of works foreseen.

20 The onely cause and foun­dation of this grace, is Christ. In him the beloved we are freely be­loved. Ephes. 1.6.

21 But inasmuch as Christ pro­fits no man without Faith: There­fore the mention of Christ in this businesse doth include the action of Faith.

22 In which sense we are said to be elected not onely in Christ, but also through Faith. 2. Thes [...]. 2.13.

23 Again, Because the end of [Page 85] Faith (I do not mean such Faith as is temporarie, and endureth but for a time; but that which perse­vereth and continueth unto the end) is Eternall Life: Therefore, when we name Faith, we under­stand Perseverance also.

24 The end of Election in respect of our selves, is sanctification in the kingdome of Grace, and glorifica­tion in the kingdome of Glory.

25 The end of our Election in re­spect of God, is the glory of God, and the cleare manifestation of his mercy.

26 God willeth and earnestly willeth the life of a sinner: but he willeth also his conversion by the word and the Holy Spirit.

27 If the sinner refuseth and re­jecteth the word, and resisteth the Holy Spirit, and so is not convert­ed: then God willeth the death of the sinner, and that most justly.

28 These things are not repu­gnant, [Page 86] the one to the other; but do manifest unto us the wonderfull temper of Gods mercie and ju­stice.

29 What some produce, con­cerning the hidden will of God, contrary to his will revealed in his word: That inasmuchas it is not revealed, is not without just cause hidden from the godly.

30 Neither doth God in word onely testifie unto us that he ear­nestly desireth the salvation of all men; but also in deed and in truth.

31 The first Adam was created after the Image of God: whereof immortality was a part.

32 All men were in the loins of their first Father Adam: There­fore in him they may be all said to have been created after the Image of God unto immortalitie.

33 What Christ by his preci­ous bloudshedding purchased for all, That the Holy Ghost in the [Page 87] precious treasure of the word of­fereth unto all.

34 The Gospel is offered unto all; and in the Gospel, the bene­fits of Christ; and in them, the grace of God; and in that, eternall life.

35 And thus the love of the Father, the satisfaction of the Sonne, and the calling of the Holy Ghost are allwaies joyned together.

36 That calling in it self, and of it self, in respect of God which calleth, is Vniversall: For it is his good will and pleasure that the Gospel should be preached unto all.

37 But it is made Particular by the fault of men, who by their de­testable contempt of the word rob themselves and their posteritie of so great a treasure.

38 In which sense such are said to judge themselves unworthy of everlasting Life. Acts 13.46.

[Page 88]39 If we descend unto parti­culars: we confesse that there are many things yet obscure, which hereafter shall be made manifest unto all in the light of glory.

40 Neither is the Grace of God, which calleth all, to be depressed: nor the Power of Freewill ac­cepting Grace to be extolled.

41 Let the salvation of men be acknowledged to be the meere gift of Gods grace: But let the damnation of men be attributed meerely to their own fault.

42 The judgements of God we must allwaies acknowledge to be just, allthough they are not all­waies manifest unto us.

43 Gods grace preventeth and prepareth us before we can be able; it worketh in us, that we may be able; and it worketh with us, whensoever by his gift we are enabled to do any thing that is good.

[Page 89]44 As God in time doth justifie men and save them: So also from all eternitie he decreed to justifie them and save them.

45 The action of God in time is as it were a Glasse wherein we may behold his decree concern­ing that action made from all eter­nitie.

46 The reason whereof is, the immutabilitie of his divine will.

47 Therefore as God saveth all those and onely those that with perseverance beleeve on Christ in time: So also he purposed from all eternitie to save all those and onely those that with perseverance unto the end shall beleeve on Christ, that is, He elected them unto eternall life.

48 Therefore let us with so­brietie beginne the doctrine and meditation of Predestination from the wounds of Christ.

49 In the light of the word [Page 90] there shineth unto us the true light which is Christ; and in Christ, the love of God electing us unto sal­vation.

50 Without the path and light of the word, whatsoever we can think or imagine in our hearts, whatsoever we can speak or utter with our lips, is but darknesse and errour.

51 But on the other side if we follow the light of the word, we shall neither decline to the right hand of presumptuous temeritie, nor to the left hand of carnall se­curitie.

CHAP. VIII. Wherein are contained Theo­logicall Aphorismes concerning the Image of GOD in MAN before his Fall.

1 THe Creation of man, af­ter the Image of God, in time, followed after the decree of Predesti­nation made without time.

2 I could wish that this Image of God, in the first man, were so ob­vious to our understanding, as it was sometimes glorious, to the procuring of grace and favour to the whole stock of man.

3 But alas! (to our grief we may speak it) The knowledge of that is quite fled from our under­standing, the possession whereof we lost long agoe.

4 And our discourse concern­ning [Page 92] that, is not unlike unto theirs, who being prisoners in a dark and deep dungeon make enquirie after the excellencie of the light which is altogether unknown unto them.

5 That Image of God, according to the Apostles exposition, is the Image of Righteousnesse and true Holinesse. Ephes. 4.24.

6 The Image of God is repair­ed in those that are regenerate and born again, by the renewing in knowledge. Coloss. 3.10.

7 That light of divine know­ledge is not a propertie created to­gether with the soul of man after the fall: but it is the conformitie of the regenerate unto God by the gift and illumination of the Holy Ghost.

8 Whereupon it follows, that the Image of God is not to be de­fined by those things which essen­tially may be found in the soul of a man unregenerate.

[Page 93]9 That Primitive righteousnesse and holinesse in which the Apostle placeth the Image of God, doth comprehend the light of divine knowledge, in the minde; full con­formitie unto the Law of God, in the will; and rectitude of all the powers and affections of the soul, in the heart.

10 Man was a lively mirrour of divine wisdome, goodnesse, chari­tie, righteousnesse, holinesse, and pu­ritie.

11 His Reason was perfectly subject unto God; his Will, unto his Reason; and his Affections and other powers, unto his Will.

12 There was in man no servile fear, no sorrow; but blessed rest and perpetuall exultation in God his Creatour.

13 He had the knowledge of God, not onely from without, in the book of the creatures; but he had also within himself inward [Page 94] impressions and lively characters of divine knowledge.

14 Man bore the Image of God, as a Sonne doth his Fathers, to whom he oweth duty and love; as a Servant his Masters, to whom he oweth reverence and fear; as a Souldier his Captains, to whom he oweth obedience and fidelitie; as a Steward his Lords, to whom he is bound to give an exact ac­count of his stewardship.

15 Mans outward nakednesse was a signe of his innocencie, and inward puritie: His dwelling in Paradise did manifest his inward rest and felicitie.

16 There was no motion in his body, whereof he needed to be ashamed: He thought there was nothing in him stood in need to be covered, because he felt with­in himself nothing that stood in need to be bridled. August. 11. de Gen. ad lit. cap. 1.

[Page 95]17 It cannot stand with the per­fection of the first man, that we should attribute unto him any di­scord or jarre of the superiour and inferiour powers of his soul.

18 Neither do they teach sound doctrine, that say, That any disease or maladie was cured or repressed in the first man by the Antidote of originall righteousnesse.

19 They deserve to be hated of God, whosoever dispute and hold, That any evil concupiscence and such as was odious unto God, was to be found in man at the first, considered in his pure Naturals, by reason of the matter whereof he was made.

20 To hold and say that from the condition of the matter where­of man was made, any concupi­scence of it self evil did arise in him, is injurious to the God of Na­ture.

21 Neither can it stand with the [Page 96] wisdome and power of God, that beside his intent any evil concu­piscence should arise from the con­dition of the matter.

22 For who can with patience heare the works of God thus blas­phemed?

We looked for an Amphora;
The wheel went round about:
In stead of look't for Amphora;
A Pitcher there came out.

23 What can arise beside his in­tent, without whose intent no­thing can arise?

24 Those reliques of the di­vine Image, which, such as they are, are still in man ever since his fall, are naturall unto him. There­fore certainly that originall and primitive rectitude was naturall unto the first man.

25 For in those things which are Homogeneall, or of the same kinde, we argue truly from the Na­ture of the part unto the Nature of the whole.

[Page 97]26 The Image of God might have been propagated (if man had stood) unto his posteritie by naturall ge­neration: And now those things which are propagated naturally, are themselves also naturall.

27 From all which it is appa­rant, That the Image of God was not any externall & supernaturall ornament of the first man, as a Vir­gins garland or Sampsons strength, but a kinde of beauty internall, and created together with him.

28 And yet it is not the very substance of man, or any essentiall part of him.

29 Man is said to have been created after Gods Image: There­fore Man himself is one thing, and the Image of God in him is ano­ther.

30 Holinesse and Righteousnesse are onely in God by way of Essence ▪ in Man they are not but by way of Inherence.

[Page 98]31 Immortalitie was a part of that divine Image: For God created man to be immortall, and made him to be an Image of his own Eternitie. Wisd. 2.23.

32 That death of the body un­to which we are all subject, since the fall of Adam, is not the natu­rall condition of man: But it is de­rived upon us as a punishment, for the wickednes of his transgression.

33 It is not a debt due unto our nature as it was at first created by God: but it is our just merit and wages for falling away from God.

34 At what time man opened the gate of sinne unto Satan knock­ing, death entred in upon him, and so passed upon all men. Rom. 5.12.

35 That immortalitie unto which man was created, as like­wise the whole Image of God was a naturall and internall propertie of the humane nature.

[Page 99]36 In the body there was a most exact harmonie of all the qua­lities, and it was governed by the soule, which was created after the Image of God unto immortalitie.

37 As therefore since the fall, VVee are by nature the children of wrath, Ephes. 2.3. So before his fall, the first man was by nature the Son of grace and life.

38 But the Degree of Immorta­litie, which was in our nature at the first institution, and the degree that shall be at the perfect restitution are farre different the one from the other.

39 The Immortalitie of the first man was, That hee had power not to die: but the Immortalitie of the Elect shall be hereafter, That they cannot die. August. 6. de Gen. ad lit. cap. 25.

40 And further seeing that Im­mortalitie is a part of the divine Image, from hence it is apparant, [Page 100] That even in the body of man there is some glimpse of the divine I­mage.

41 The comlinesse of the clay did argue also the beauty of the soul. Bern. Serm. 24. Sup. Cant. Col. 564.

42 If any one ask whether Eve was made after the Image of God, or no: we answer that the name of Image is taken two wayes.

43 Primarily and properly the Image of God was resplendent in the conformitie of the soule and all the powers & faculties of man with the Law of God: which was com­mon to both sexes, saving the diver­sitie of degrees.

44 Secundarily, the Image of God was resplendent in that ex­ternall priviledge of Dominion and rule, the eminencie whereof pro­perly belonged unto the man.

45 And that there might be no­thing wanting to mans felicity; be­side [Page 101] the grace of soule and body, God added also the grace of place: for he gave him his dwelling-place in Paradise.

46 Man was created by God partly Spirituall and partly Corpo­reall. Therefore God gave unto him also a twofold Paradise, both a Spirituall and a Corporeall.

47 The Corporeall or Terrestriall Paradise, was a Type and School of the Spirituall and Celestiall Para­dise, that is, great tranquillitie and joy in the minde of man.

48 If any man be desirous that we should show unto him, in what part of the earth the Corporeall Pa­radise was situate: That we will doe, if he will first plainly show unto us the situation of the earth as it was before the floud.

49 That the garden of Paradise is yet extant and to be seen: then will wee beleeve, when any man can bring us a bough or a branch [Page 102] from thence, or else demonstrate it unto us upon a good foundation.

50 It is certain that Henoch and Elias live in Paradise: But in what Paradise? Not the Terrestriall, but the Celestiall, where Christ pro­mised the good thief that hee should be. Luk. 23.43.

51 There were two trees espe­cially, which were a great grace to the garden of Paradise: to wit, the tree of Life, & the tree of Knowledge of good and evill. Gen. 2.9.

52 In the tree of Life there was set before man a Preservative a­gainst sicknesse and old age, as also a Type of eternall beatitude.

53 The tree of Knowledge was mans Temple and Altar: and the service which he was to have per­formed unto God was, To ab­stain from the fruit thereof.

54 After mans fall it was so called from the Event: For by ta­sting of the fruit thereof man learnt [Page 103] by wofull experience, what a great good he had deprived himself of, by reason of his sinne; and what a great evil he drew upon himself by his disobedience.

55 As concerning the question about the production of souls whether by way of Propagation, or by a dayly and immediate Creati­on: we do not dislike the modestie of those, which say, That it is suf­ficient for them to beleeve and know whither they shall come by living a godly life, although they be ignorant from whence they came. August. 10. de Gen. ad lit. cap. 23.

56 Let me be ignorant of the originall of my soul, if so be that I can come to the knowledge of the propagation of originall sinne, and the redemption of souls. Aug. Epist. 157. ad Optat.

57 If by the Image of God we understand, according to the Scri­pture [Page 104] phrase, true righteousnesse and holinesse, The Holy Ghost wit­nesseth that we have lost it, and we finde it true by wofull experi­ence.

58 For what is Originall sinne, but the losse and want of the di [...]vine Image, which succeeded in the place of Originall righteous­nesse?

59 This doctrine concerning the Image of God leads us as it were by the hand, that so we may come to the knowledge of Gods mercy, and our own misery: and further establisheth our hope.

60 All laud and praise be given to God the Father, God the Sonne, and God the Holy Ghost: To the Fa­ther, which created us in Adam af­ter his own Image; to the Sonne, which merited for us the renew­ing of that Image; and to the Holy Ghost, by whom this Image beginneth again to be renewed in us.

CHAP. IX. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning ORIGINALL SINNE, That is, The Fall of our first parents, and the corruption of nature which followed thereupon, and is propagated unto their posteritie.

1 THe first man continued not in the integritie and perfection wherein he was created: and there­fore it descended not upon his po­steritie by any right of inheri­tance.

2 He followed the deceitfull perswasion of the Serpent, and so fell into sinne and the transgressi­on of Gods commandment.

3 In that naturall Serpent the [Page 106] infernall Serpent lay lurking.

4 So then the Serpent, which by his subtiltie deceived our first pa­rents, was disguised: For there was a Divell in the shape of a Ser­pent.

5 He sets upon the woman first being the weaker, and not to be compared with man for the gift and endowment of wisdome.

6 By a treacherous and deceit­full question, about the meaning of Gods commandment, he solli­cits her to a very dangerous kinde of doubting.

7 Outwardly with a faigned voice he propounds a question unto her: Inwardly he wounds her soul with venomous darts, and inspires into her the poison of doubting.

8 Afterwards being grown more audacious and bold by rea­son of his successe, he turns Eve [...] doubting into an open deniall.

9 He accuseth God of Envie [Page 107] and Malice, being himself more malicious: By a faigned pretence and promise of divine excellency and wisdome he deceived her, be­ing himself most remote from di­vine wisdome.

10 The Causes then of our first Fathers fall were, the Devill sedu­cing, and himself freely and wil­lingly consenting.

11 We must not in any case make God to have an hand or beare a part in mans fall: because God is good, and the authour of no­thing but that which is good.

12 As God created man at the first, so it was his will that he should alwaies have continued: And therefore God did not by any secret decree or command force him to fall.

13 God is not the authour of that thing, whereof he is the pu­nisher and avenger: The iniquitie which he punisheth is not of his [Page 108] doing. Fulgent. lib. 1. ad Monim.

14 God gave unto man, before his fall, a perfect power that hee might have not fallen; and an entire will that, if he would, he might have had no will to fall: and fur­ther he added a most severe commi­nation of death, that so he might have been kept from falling.

15 Man was not created that he should have a will to sinne; and yet he was set in that libertie that he might have a will; but he was also furnished with such light, that, if he would, he might have had no such will.

16 For God hath no need of the righteousnesse of the upright and straight, or the iniquitie of the crooked and perverse. August. 11. de Gen. ad lit. Cap. 7.

17 No perfection is added unto God by his externall works, which are but the prints and footsteps of his inward perfection.

[Page 109]18 Incredulitie and unbelief, ac­cording to the order that Moses hath set down in his description, was the first sinne of man.

19 As long as the word and faith is retained in the heart, there is no proud swelling or lifting up of ones self against God.

20 Whatsoever was first for or­der of internall intention: certainly incredulitie was the first sin for or­der in the act of externall commis­sion.

21 Neither had the minde of man, being illuminated with such divine light as it was, ever turned away from God by pride, unlesse first it had made a secession or re­volting from the word.

22 The Apostle denies that A­dam was deceived. 1. Tim. 2.14. which wee must understand, of the manner and order of being decei­ved.

23 Though wee should grant [Page 110] that Adam was not deceived by another; yet he was deceived by himselfe.

25 It is an idle question, to ask whether of the two sinned more grievously, Adam or Eve. They sinned both, unlike indeed for Sex, but alike for Pride. Aug. 11. de Gen. ad lit. cap. 35.

26 The opening of their eyes, which followed immediately up­on their fall, was nothing else but the sense of their sin, and the sting of a terrified conscience.

27 They saw that they were na­ked, that is, bestripped of the robe of integritie & innocencie, with which they were invested at their first creation. They knew before their fall that they were naked: but their nakednesse was such as was neither shamefull nor disgracefull.

28 They felt after their fall, that their flesh was incited to lust, and that the law of their members [Page 111] was shamefully repugnant to the Law of their minde.

28 What great darknesse seized upon their understanding presently after their fall, it is apparant from hence, in that they thought with fig leaves to hide themselves from his sight, whose eyes are much clea­rer then the sunne.

29 Fain would they have been concealed from him, from whom nothing can be concealed: and hide their flesh from his sight, who is the beholder of the heart. August. 11. de Gen. ad lit. cap. 34.

30 With their blindnesse of minde there was also joyned the trembling of heart: For they were affrighted with the shaking of a leafe; who before were delighted with the presence and conference of God.

31 They are called before Gods Tribunall, or Judgement-seat, and before him their cause is examined: [Page 112] and so punishment follows close upon their sinne.

32 This sinne of our first pa­rents corrupted and putrified the humane nature, which was all in them, and no part in any other. Anselm. conc. virg. cap. 2.

33 Adam was, and in him were we all: Adam was undone; and in him are we all undone. Ambros. in cap. 15. Luc.

34 If the parents lands be con­fiscate, their children lose their in­heritance.

35 From a corrupted root spring forth evil fruits; from an impure fountain flow forth filthy waters; and of parents which are leprous, children also are begotten which are leprous.

36 Even so, of our first parents being destitute of originall righ­teousnesse, and infected with the pollution of sinne, such children are begotten as they themselves; [Page 113] that is, destitute of righteousnesse, and infected with sinne.

37 For Adam begat a sonne: not after the Image of God; but in his own likenesse, that is, corrupted with sinne.

38 The Personall sinne of Adam corrupted his Nature, and the cor­ruption of Nature is by carnall ge­neration propagated unto the per­son of his ofspring.

39 Adam sinned; not as a private man: but as the lump, masse, and head of all mankinde.

40 As his Nature; so likewise the corruption of his Nature is pro­pagated unto his posteritie: As his sinne; so also the guilt, which is a consequent of his sinne.

41 And this is that which we call Originall sinne: which whoso­ever they be that deny or extenu­ate, they detract exceedingly from the grace of God.

42 They which plead so much [Page 114] for Nature, are enemies unto Grace.

43 Concerning this Originall sin not onely the most cleare oracles of the Holy Ghost beare witnes, but also all Actuall sins, & the grievous weight and burden of divers cala­mities, and death it self, and like­wise regeneration which is necessa­rie for all men towards the attain­ment of eternall life.

44 Therefore vain and frivo­lous is that which is said by Pelagi­us, That sinne came into the world by imitation, not by propagation.

45 For death, which is the wa­ges of sinne, raigned even over them that had not sinned after the simili­tude of Adams transgression. Rom. 5.14.

46 And we are by nature the children of wrath and not by imi­tation, as the Apostle teacheth Ephes. 2.3.

47 This sinne is called Originall [Page 115] not from the originall of the uni­versall nature, or the humane na­ture, but from the originall of eve­ry person descended from Adam since his fall.

48 Moreover it is called Origi­nall in reference to Actuall sinnes, whereof it is the common head and fountain.

49 As for the quidditie of the thing, it is not onely the privation of originall righteousnesse, but it is also the position of a vitious qua­litie, and guilt which is a conse­quent or follower of them both.

50 Hence it is, that from ou [...] parents we are damned before we are born. Bern. in Med. cap. 2. Col. 1190.

51 Evill concupiscence, in which the power and force of originall sinne doth chiefly appeare, is not onely the punishment and cause of sinne, but it is also sinne it self.

52 For there is in it disobedience [Page 116] and rebellion against the dominion and law of the minde. August. lib. 5. contra Julian. cap. 3.

53 Neither hath the veice of evil concupiscence place in the in­feriour faculties of the soul onely, but also in the superiour.

54 For the will of a man not yet regenerate is prone to evill and to vanities.

55 Amongst the works of the flesh these are reckoned, Heresies, Idolatrie, Strife, Variance, &c. Gal. 5.20.

56 From whence we may ga­ther evidently, That the Flesh is to be taken for the whole man, such as he is since the fall without the grace of God and regeneration.

57 By Originall sinne the whole nature of man was most intimate­ly and inwardly corrupted: But yet we must distinguish between the vice, and the very substance of man. For the substance of man is the [Page 117] good work of God and Nature.

58 Sinne is an evil Adjunct, or evil present with me, saith S. Paul Rom. 7.21. Therefore it is not any thing consisting or subsisting of it self.

59 Men are conceived in sinne: Therefore they are not very sinne itself.

60 The whole man is the subject of originall sin, with all the pow­ers of the soul and members of the body.

61 Originall righteousnesse was not onely an equall and just tempe­rament of the body, but also a re­ctitude of all the powers of the soul, and an intrinsecall orna­ment.

62 So Originall sinne, which succeeded in the place of origi­nall righteousnesse, is not any dis­eased qualitie of body, but an in­fection of all the powers of the soul.

[Page 118]63 For, Habit and Privation are to be considered with reference to the same Subject.

64 This evil is propagated by carnall generation.

65 Therefore Man since the fall, is flesh, because he is born of flesh. John 3.6. He is by nature the childe of wrath. Ephes. 2.3. By being born then he contracts sinne, for which he becomes the childe of wrath.

66 Whosoever therefore are born of parents according to car­nall generation, are also guilty of originall sinne.

67 Therefore even the children of the faithfull, and those that are born again, bring this originall sinne and pollution with them in­to this world.

68 For it is Regeneration, and not Generation that maketh Chri­stians. August. 3. de peccat. merit. & remiss. cap. 9.

[Page 119]69 Men are made, and not born Christians. Tertull. in Apol. cap. 17.

70 Onely He was born with­out sinne, who without the seed of man was conceived by the Holy Ghost in the wombe of the Vir­gin.

71 He is not infected with the pollution of sinne, who was born holy and sanctified from the san­ctified wombe of the Virgin.

72 To the participation of this priviledge and dignitie (that is, To be free from Originall sinne) we do not admit the blessed Vir­gin herself.

73 We say, That the glorious Virgin Mary conceived by the Holy Ghost; not, That she was con­ceived by the Holy Ghost: We say, That a Virgin brought forth; not, That she was brought forth of a Virgin. Bern. Epist. 174. ad Lugdun.

74 Some effects of Originall [Page 120] sinne are onely punishments: some are both punishments and sinnes.

75 Punishments are both Tem­porall and Eternall: as sundry ca­lamities, innumerable swarms of diseases, temporall death, the wrath of God, & eternall damna­tion.

76 Punishments and sinnes both, are evil motions of concupiscence, damnable desires of the heart, and an heap of actuall sinnes.

77 The pravitie of originall sinne draws us headlong into vice▪ Cassiodor. in Psalm. 118.

78 The number of these actu­all sinnes, are in respect of us al­together numberlesse. For who can understand his errours? Psalm. 19.12.

79 The bloud of Jesus Christ cleanseth all those that beleeve, from all sinne, both Originall and Actuall. 1. John 1.7.

80 With which we are sprin­kled [Page 121] in Baptisme, which is there­fore called the holy and saving la­ver, or the washing of regeneration. Tit. 3.5.

81 Unto which Regeneration, Renovation, or renewing, is added as an inseparable companion: though it be not altogether absolute and perfect in this life.

82 For if there were a perfect renewing in Baptisme, then would not the Apostle say, That the in­ward man is renewed dayly. Aug. 2. de peccat. merit. & remiss. cap. 7.

83 Knowing therefore the ex­treme corruption of our nature, let us send up our prayers and sighs unto Christ our Physician, to re­new us every day more and more, till at length we be perfectly re­newed in the life to come which is eternall.

CHAP. X. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning FREE-VVILL. That is, The Power which is left in man since the fall.

1 THe poyson of Ori­ginall sin hath quite overrun, and inwardly infected all the pow­ers and faculties of man.

2 Whereupon there must needs follow great Detriment and Decre­ment, or losse and decay in them all.

3 The Powers and Faculties of man are chiefely to be estimated by the Reasonable Soule, which was created after the Image of God.

4 The Faculties of the Reaso­nable Soul are two; a Mind, to [Page 123] know and understand; and a Will, to elect and choose.

5 From the concurse of these two faculties ariseth that which is commonly called Free-will.

6 Which is a Facultie both of the Minde and the Will: For the arbitrement or judgement is of the Minde, and the Freedome or Li­bertie is of the Will.

7 Libertie or Freedome is attri­buted unto the Will, first having a respect unto the Manner of Wor­king, which is Free and Voluntarie.

8 For it is not compelled or vio­lently carried away by any Exter­nall motion, neither doth it work onely by a Naturall instinct, but it hath an Internall and Free principle, or cause, of its owne motion.

9 This Libertie is a naturall and essentiall propertie of the Will.

10 And therefore it was not lost by the fall.

11 For the Will did not cease [Page 124] to be a VVill by reason of the fall.

12 This Libertie from coaction or necessitie, is called Interior Li­bertie, or Libertie in the Subject.

13 Therefore the VVill of man in this respect is alwayes free, though not alwayes good. August. in Enchirid. cap. 30.

14 But yet the will of man is so free, that still it must needs ac­knowledge the all-ruling power of God.

15 And therefore it is not free from Law and Obligation.

17 For God hath imprinted in the minde of man certain Naturall Motions, the light and leading whereof the VVill must follow.

17 If it follows them, it is free.

18 For the True Libertie and Freedome is, to serve God, and to obey his Law.

19 In which sense Tullies saying is very good, in his Oration for Cluentius, VVe are servants to the [Page 125] Lawes, that so we may be freemen.

20 Therefore, as in respect of Libertie or freedome from coaction man hath allwaies free-will, yea since his fall:

21 So in respect of Libertie or Freedome from obligation man hath never free-will, neither had he be­fore his fall.

22 Againe this Libertie or Free­dome of the VVill is estimated, in respect of the Object, which is ei­ther good or bad.

23 This is called Libertie unto the Object, and Interiour.

24 What this Libertie or Free­dome of mans Will is, it will best appeare from the consideration of the divers states of man.

25 The Libertie in man before his fall, was a facultie of his Reason and his Will, by which he might sinne, or not sinne, stand or fall. Anselm. de lib. arbitr. cap. 7.

26 For his Will, even then, was [Page 126] not immutably determined to that which is good.

27 The Will of man was set as it were between two pathes: There was set before him life and death. Ecclus. 15.17.

28 In his Minde there shined the light of Wisdome; in his Will there was conformitie to the will of God: But yet notwithstanding there was left in him a Libertie, ei­ther to persevere in the goodnesse wherein he was created, or to fall away from it.

29 This may be called a Libertie of rectitude, a Libertie from servitude and miserie.

30 But it was not any essentiall propertie of the Will, but a separable accident.

31 For as by falling it might be lost: so too truely may we speake it, and not without griefe, it was lost.

32 Man abusing his Free-will lost [Page 127] both himself and it. August. in En­chir. cap. 30.

33 In which respect the Will of man is no longer free, but servile and captivated.

34 VVhosoever committeth sin, is the servant of sin. Ioh. 8.34.

35 The Image of God being lost by the fall, the Libertie of recti­tude and power of choosing good was also lost.

36 In place whereof there suc­ceeded extreme corruption of the faculties and powers, and an un­bridled propension and greedinesse to that which is evill.

37 Hence it is, that the Will of man since the fall is onely free to that which is evill; which is a wretched and miserable kind of freedome.

38 Or rather it is to be accoun­ted a most heavy and grievous kind of servitude.

39 The Apostle calls it a Free­dome [Page 128] from righteousnesse. Rom. 6.20. For man refusing to be a ser­vant unto righteousnesse, became subject to the yoke of sin and ini­quitie, and so a servant to an ill Mistresse. August. de verb. Apost. serm. 12.

40 The Soul of man, under this voluntarie, and unhappily free ne­cessitie, is held both as a Bond-wo­man, and a Free.

41 A Bond-woman for necessitie, but for Will free. Bernhard. Ser. 81. Sup. Cant.

42 The Will of man since the fall is prone to that which is evil; and yet it ceaseth not to be free: because it is not forced by com­pulsion to that which is evil, but doth freely and willingly chose and embrace it.

43 From whence it appeares, that the inward Libertie of VVill may consist and stand together with the servitude of sinning.

[Page 129]44 As the Libertie doth consist with the immutabilitie of doing [...]ood, and with the confirmation in [...]oodnesse.

45 Whereof the former is onely [...]elonging unto God, and the latter [...]nto the good Angels.

46 There remained therefore [...]n man, yea after the fall, Freedome [...]f VVill: but we must understand it of Freedome from coaction.

47 The Freedome of Will pe­ [...]ished in man: if we understand it of the power of choosing good, and [...]schewing evill.

48 For in the place of Light, which shined in the understanding of man being created together with him, there succeeded dark­ [...]esse. Ephes 5.8.

49 Wherefore the understan­ding of man, as concerning the sa­ [...]ing knowledge of God, is not onely blinde, but quite obscured and [...]ut out.

[Page 130]50 The Will is become subject unto the tyrannie of sin, and waiteth upon it as a slave.

51 In which respect men are said to be dead in their sins. Colos [...] 2.13.

52 Because by nature they ca [...] doe nothing, but lye rotting and stinking in the grave of their sins.

53 Wherefore Conversion is the work of God alone, in which worke man is meerely and altogether pas­sive.

54 It is God which openeth the heart of man at his conversion: it is he which doth soften it, cir­cumcise it, and renew it.

55 It is God that worketh in us both to will and to doe, of his good pleasure. Philip. 2.13.

56 Man indeed hath an externall power, freely to move himselfe from place to place, and so may performe some civill act of ju­stice:

[Page 131]57 Which of itself indeed, as it [...]s an act, is no sin: but because the person is not yet reconciled unto God, in another respect, is a [...]in.

58 So that the saying of the A­ [...]ostle stands firme and sure: What­soever is not of faith, is sin. Rom. 14. [...]3.

59 For, That works may be [...]ruely good, and that in the sight of God: It is necessarie, that they be [...]one after a good manner, by those [...]hat are good, and to a good end.

60 Although then, as concer­ [...]ing outward actions belonging to [...]he life of man, or the outward [...]xercise of religion, there is left [...]ome libertie to the will of man:

61 (For, as the Apostle wit­ [...]esseth, The Gentiles which have not [...]he Law doe by nature the things con­ [...]ained in the Law. Rom. 2.14.)

62 Yet, as concerning the begin­ [...]ings of spirituall motions, and the [Page 132] performing of acceptable service unto God, man hath no power lef [...] unto him; no, not at all.

63 For, We are not sufficient o [...] our selves to think any thing that i [...] good, as of our selves: but our suffi­ciencie is of God. 2 Cor. 3.4.

64 Therefore every good though [...] every godly resolution, every go [...] purpose, every good motion of Will i [...] from God: by whom we are abl [...] to do something that is good▪ bu [...] without him, nothing. August. [...] dogm. Eccl. cap. 17.

65 And yet that libertie in exter­nall works and actions of this pre [...]sent life, is not without some hi [...]derance and impediments.

66 Men often take counsell to [...]gether, but God which guideth and governeth all things, ofte [...] bringeth it to nought. Isai. 8.10▪


We may propound; it's Go [...] that doth dispose:
We wish for what we should not [...] God knows.

[Page 133]68 Moreover great is the tyran­nie of Satan, who by Gods per­mission draweth, whither he list­eth, the wills of the reprobate be­ing intangled in the cords of their sinnes.

69 The weight and burden of sundry businesses doth often disturb the judgement of the Understand­ing, and the arbitrement of the Will.

70 Unto which externall impe­diments is also added an internall weaknesse in the powers of man, even in externall things, arising from sinne.

71 With which weaknesse there is also joyned a disorder of the af­fections, which like a torrent often­times carries away the Will, and perverts the judgement of the Un­derstanding.

72 Which consideration of our powers in spirituall things altoge­ther abolished, and even in exter­nall [Page 134] things much weakened, sets be­fore us the greatnesse of Gods grace to be acknowledged by us in our conversion and salvation, driveth securitie out of our hearts, pulleth down the crests of pride, and ma­keth us more diligent in praying, and keeping the gifts of the Holy Ghost.

73 After Conversion, the Will of man being freed is not idle, but through power given from above is made operative, and a fellow-wor­ker with God.

74 The Holy Ghost, without us, worketh in us to will that which is good. And when we will, and will after such and such a manner, it is he that worketh together with us, to enable us to work.

75 For the children of God are so moved to working, that they also have a part in the working. August. de corrept. & grat. cap. 2.

76 This may be called Libertie [Page 135] or freedome from the service of sin: For where there is the Spirit of God regenerating and illuminating a man, there is Libertie or free­dome. 2. Cor. 3.17.

77 But yet that Libertie or free­dome of the Will being freed stan­deth still in need of the aid and guidance of the Holy Ghost.

78 For seeing that even in the regenerate the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh. Gal. 5.17. Therefore they are not fully free from all sinne.

79 In the spirit of the regene­rate there is a free servitude, and in the flesh of the regenerate there is a servile freedome.

80 In the other life at length the regenerate shall obtain full and plenarie libertie or freedome of will, by which they shall be freed not onely from the service of sinne, but also from all manner of sinne, from all miserie, and from all fear of falling.


[Page 136]81 Which may be called a Li­bertie or freedome from sinne and mu­ [...]abilitie.

82 By which they shall not onely not sinne, nor onely have power not to sinne, but also have no power to sinne at all. To that Libertie & freedome Christ bring us, who is the authour of our Li­bertie and freedome.

CHAP. XI. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the LAVV.

1 THe Word and the Sa­craments serve for the repairing of man, being soveraign Antidotes and preservatives against the poyson of sinne, and our spirituall diseases.

2 The Word is reduced to two [Page 137] chief heads, the Law and the Go­spell.

3 By the Law we come to the knowledge of our diseases: and by the Gospell we are directed to our Physician.

4 For the Law was given by Mo­ses, but Grace and truth by Jesus Christ. John 1.17.

5 The Law which was given by Moses is divided into the Mo­rall, the Judiciall, and the Ceremo­niall.

6 The Morall Law was onely re­peated by Moses, by a solemn pro­mulgation: for it was at first in­graven in the heart of man.

7 And it is the Glasse of Gods Eternall justice; The glasse of Na­tures perfection, such as it was be­fore the fall; The glasse of Sinne and the inward corruption of Na­ture since the fall; The glasse of Obedience, which the regenerate are to perform; and The glasse of Per­fection, [Page 138] which shall follow in the life to come.

8 They which would have this Law to be thrust out of the Church, deserve themselves to be thrust out of the Church.

9 For they gainsay Christ, who began his preaching from the ex­pounding of the Law. Matth. 5.6, 7.

10 They gainsay the Apostles, who preached Repentance and Re­mission of sinnes in the name of Christ.

11 The Law is indeed a Glasse to behold Sinne, but it is not a re­medie to cure sinne.

12 But yet unlesse we first come to a sight of our sinne, we can have no desire or will to seek for a re­medie.

13 For They that be whole need not a Physician. Matth. 9.12. that is, They that think themselves to be whole: for indeed all men are not [Page 139] onely sick, but even dead in their sinnes.

14 The Law was given, that we should seek for Grace. August. d [...] Spir. & lit. cap. 15.

15 What the Law commands, Faith obtains. Idem Homil. 29. in Joan.

16 By the Law sinne is made known unto us, and by Faith it is abolished. Ambros. in 3. cap. Rom.

17 And therefore the ministe­rie of death was in this regard ne­cessarie: that we might desire and seek for life in Christ.

18 God poureth not the oyl of of Mercie but into the vessell of an humble and contrite heart. Bern. serm. 3. in Annun [...]. Col. 113.

19 God doth not pardon, un­lesse thou dost first acknowledge thy sinnes: neither doth he cover them, unlesse thou dost first lay them open: neither doth he send [Page 140] comfort, unlesse thou beest first grieved for them.

20 The Law is the perfect way to Eternall life, but it was weak through the flesh. Rom. 8.3. And therefore it is not available for us unto Eternall life.

21 The Law is spirituall. It re­quires intire obedience of body ▪ of soul, and spirit, inward and outward, throughout all the parts of our life: It requires that our thoughts words and deeds be spirituall: It re­quires soundnesse and perfection of Nature every way.

22 But we are carnall. Rom. 7.14. We are born flesh of flesh. John 3.6. Neither are we altogether freed from the old flesh in this life.

23 Therefore we cannot ful­fill the Law in this life.

24 There is no man that sinneth not. 1. Kings 8.46. Now we know that, To sinne, and To fulfill the Law[Page 141] these are contrarie the one to the other: Therefore there is no man that can fulfill the Law.

25 That every mouth may be stop­ped, and all the world may become guilty before God▪ Rom. 3.22.

26 God by the word of the Law hath concluded all under sin. Rom. 11.32. Galat. 3.19.

27 The Rule of the Affirmative precepts, or commandments, is tha [...] First, Of the loving and fearing God above all things.

28 The Rule of the Negativ [...] precepts, or commandments, is that Last, Of not coveting. August. de perfect. just.

29 Therefore the Affirmative precepts, or commandments, are not satisfied or fulfilled by the love and fear of God begunne in us, in any kinde whatsoever.

30 Neither are the Negative pre­cepts, or commandments, satisfied or fulfilled by our abstaining from [Page 142] outward offences in any kinde whatsoever.

31 Though we should begin our outward obedience in never so great a measure, and eschew out­ward offences: yet still we should fail in the first and last command­ments.

32 Therefore in the Decalogue ▪ or Ten Commandments, there is expresse mention made of the out­ward and grosser offences: that the minde of man may conceive by the judgement of God, what to judge of the grievousnesse of inward of­fences.

33 Before God he is an Adulte­rer, not onely that lies with ano­ther mans wife, but whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her. Matth. 5.28.

34. Before God he is a Thief, not onely that takes another mans goods from him by force, but whosoever doth usurp them, by [Page 143] coveting them in an unlawfull manner.

35 Gods Laws and command­ments do not onely binde the hand and the other outward members, but the whole man.

36 Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from sinne, my heart is free from concupi­scence? Prov. 20.9. Who then can boast, that he is not a transgres­sour of the Law?

37 Therefore the promises of the Law profit us nothing.

38 But, in Christ, All the promi­ses of God are Yea, and Amen. 2. Cor. 1.20.

39 For, what the Law could not do, God sending his Sonne hath done for us. Rom. 8.3.

40 But, if righteousnesse come by the Law, then is Christ dead in vain. Gal. 2.21.

41 And if the regenerate do perfectly fulfill the Law, why [Page 144] do they pray dayly, Forgive us our trespasses, according as they are taught by Christ? Matth. 6.11.

42 If there be no trespasse com­mitted, why is forgivenesse re­quired?

43 Moses hands are heavy, and the yoke of the Law is unsupport­able. Exod. 17.12. Bern. serm. 3. in Cant.

44 Moses face shineth so, that we are not able to look on it. Exod. 34.29. 2. Cor. 3.13.

45 Moses is of a slow tongue, his words are harsh: we cannot heare and obey them▪ Exod. 4.10.

46 The Tables of the command­ments are of stone: Exod. 24.12. They break our hearts in pieces, but they do not cure them.

47 It was not Moses, but Joshua, that brought the children of Isra­el into the promised land: It is Christ and not Moses that leadeth us unto eternall life.

[Page 145]48 The Law is the Hammer of Death, the flashing of Hell, and the Thunderbolt of Gods vengeance.

49 This profit the Law brings with it, That it convinceth a man of his infirmitie and weaknesse, and compelleth him to sue unto Christ for the medicine and remedie of grace, to strengthen him. August▪ Epist. 200. ad Asell.

50 Let us therefore learne to know the voyce of the Law, that so we may come to know the com­fortable voyce of Christ our She­pherd.

51 Whatsoever sheweth unto us sinne, vengeance, and death, it is in the place and steed of the Law, and doth the office of the Law, whether it be in the Old Testament or in the New.

52 We must not therefore ap­propriate the Law to the Old Testa­ment, and the Gospell to the New.

53 There was indeed a solemne [Page 146] promulgation of the Law, made in the Old Testament, and of the Go­spell in the New.

54 But yet the Doctrine as well of the Law as of the Gospell soun­ded in both Testaments.

55 Neither in the New Testament onely, but also in the Old, come we to the knowledge, of sin by the Law, and the abolishing of sin by Christ.

56 The Ceremoniall and Judiciall Lawes in the Old Testament, are ab­rogated.

57 For the Ceremoniall were but Shadowes and Types of Christ: and therefore at the coming of Christ they expired.

58 The Judiciall were fitted for the Common Wealth of the Jews: which God would have to be kept within such bounds untill the coming of Christ.

59 But yet the Ceremoniall and Judiciall Laws are so abrogated, [Page 147] that whatsoever in them is Morall, still abideth.

60 And the Mosaicall Ceremo­nies, by an Allegoricall exposition, may be fitted to serve for our edi­fication.

61 So much of the Law in Ge­nerall. Now we are to make en­quirie in Speciall concerning the Decalogue, or the Ten Command­ments, and concerning Images.

62 The Number of the Com­mandements is certaine, but the Or­der of them is not so certaine.

63 As concerning their Order then, it is but a matter of question, and not a matter of faith.

64 We must not therefore move unnecessarie stirres, and conten­tions about it, to the disturbing of the peace of the Church: neither must we suffer our Christian Li­bertie in such things to be capti­vated by our adversaries.

65 Christian Libertie admitteth [Page 148] of Historicall Images: But as for Idolatrous, Superstitious and Lasci­vious, them the Law of God abo­lisheth: And as for such as truely cause Scandall, Charitie taketh them away.

66 As often therefore as there accreweth unto them an opinion of worship, insomuch that divine honour is given unto them; or, that they are thought to have in them any peculiar sanctitie; or, that men imagine that God is so tyed unto them that he is there present in a more peculiar manner, and heareth mens prayers more effectually there then elsewhere: The use of them is no longer indifferent.

67 Neither yet doe I commend the saying of that Greek Pelusiote, in the seventh Synod, to this pur­pose; That, A temple unles it were adorned with Statues, images and pi­ctures was nothing worth, and not to be regarded.

[Page 149]68 For my part, I like not the multitude of sumptuous and cost­ly images. For feare lest it come to passe, as Bernard complaineth, that whilst the Church shines glo­riously in the wals, it looke piti­fully in the poore; lest, whilst the stones are covered with gold, the children starve for want of clothing; and whilest rich mens eyes are pleased, poore mens purses be exhausted.

69 As therefore in other things which we call indifferent, so also in this there is a Christian prudence required, that we give no scandall to ou [...] weake brethren, by the un­seasonable use thereof: neither yet must we give place to those, Which come in privily to spie out our libertie which we have in Christ Jesus, that they may bring us into bondage, Gal. 2.4.

70 He which heretofore wrote his Law in tables of stone with his [Page 150] own finger, write them likewise in our hearts by his Holy Spi­rit.

CHAP. XII. Wherein are contained Theo­logicall Aphorismes concerning the GOSPELL.

1 THe Gospell is Parallell to the Law.

2 The Doctrines of both have a celestiall Originall.

3 In both, there is life eternall promised: but in a different man­ner.

4 In the Law it is promised to those that performe perfect obe­dience: but in the Gospell it is pro­mised to those that truely beleeve on Christ.

5 The Doctrines of both are to [Page 151] be propounded unto us in the Church.

6 For both of them are of ne­cessarie use in the conversion of man.

7 Both of them are most nearely joyned together in the heart and practise of a Christian man.

8 But yet they are so conjoyned, that notwithstanding they are ac­curately to be distinguished.

9 For if we either take quite away, or else weaken the diffe­rence which is between them, we pull downe the very Tower or Pillar of Christianitie.

10 Neither yet must we make them so contrarie the one to the other, as that the one should de­stroy the other.

11 For, The Law is not against the promises of God. Gal. 3.21.

12 But, The Law is established through faith. Rom. 3.31.

13 What the Law requireth of [Page 152] us, that hath Christ fulfilled for us: as it is declared unto us in the Go­spell.

14 For Christ is the end, and ful­filling of the Law for righteousness [...] to every one that beleeveth. Rom. 10.4.

15 The righteousnesse of the Law is fulfilled in us by Christ. Rom. 8.4.

16 Moreover Faith kindled in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, through the voice of the Gospell, worketh by love. Galat. 5.6.

17 And Love is the summe, or fulfilling of the Law. Rom. 13.10.

18 And thus the Law is written in our hearts. Jerem. 31.33.

19 But yet this love is not per­fect in this Life.

20 And therefore we cannot perfectly fulfill the Law.

21 Our Obedience here is but Inchoate, or begun: it shall be com­plete and consummate in the Life to come.

[Page 153]22 The Gospell, according to the Etymologie of the Greeke name in­ [...]erpreted, signifieth, a good message, or good tidings.

23 For it brings unto us the good [...]idings, How that by the counsail of the most sacred and Holy Tri­nitie, Christ both God and Man was appointed to be our Media­ [...]our, and Redeemer.

24 And againe, How that Christ by his most holy obedien [...]e hath perfectly fulfilled the Law for us; and merited the grace of God, re­mission of sinnes, the gift of the Holy Spirit, righteousnesse, and life eternall for the whole world.

25 And againe, How that those benefits obtained by Christ are ap­plied unto those that beleeve, and are bestowed meerely of grace.

26 Therefore, because the prea­ching of this Doctrine bringeth with it most plentifull matter of [...]oy, The Prophets and Apostles, [Page 154] the better to expresse it, have made choyse of these two words Bisser and [...], which sig­nifie good tidings.

27 Some derive Bisser from Ba­sar signifying flesh, which signi­fieth, To declare fleshy and soft things.

28 Others give another reason of the name: because Bisser signi­fies, To declare joy unto all flesh.

29 That so the condition and nature of this doctrine may be de­clared· How that in it all good things are freely offered unto us.

39 And againe, That the condi­tion of the hearers thereof may be expressed: How that they are flesh, and so subject to many infirmities; and therefore must not in any case neglect this so great salvation offered by God.

31 Bisser and [...], words of good tidings, are commonly used, when we heare of enemies put to flight, from whome there was [Page 155] great feare of imminent and appa­rent danger; and likewise when it is declared that peace is restored. 1 Sam. 4.17. 1 Sam. 31.9. 2 Sam. 1.20. 2 Sam. 4.10. 2 Sam. 18.19.

32 So the Gospell declareth unto us, That God hath delivered us out of the hands of our enemies. Luk. 1.74. That he hath delivered us from the power of darknesse. Colos. 1.13. That he hath spoiled principalities and powers, and made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them. Col. [...].15.

33 Bisser and [...] are also used, when tidings are brought that a Child is borne. Jerem. 20.15.

34 So in the Gospell good tidings are brought unto us: Vnto us a Child is borne, unto us a Son is [...]iven. Isai. 9.6. As many as received [...]im, to them gave he power to be­ [...]ome the sons of God, even to those that [...]eleeve on his name. Ioh. 1.12. That [...]o through him we might receive the [Page 156] adoption of sonnes. Galat. 3.5.

35 Again these words are used▪ when deliverance is declared unto ca­ptives, and consolation to those that mourn. Isai. 61.1, 2.

36 So in the Gospell it is de [...]clared unto us, That Christ hath sent forth the Prisoners out of the [...] wherein is no water. Zach. 9.11.

37 Hence is that most joyful [...] Acclamation, Isai. 40.1. Comfort [...] comfort ye my people, saith your God▪ 2. Speak ye comfortably to Jerusa [...]lem, and cry unto her, That her warre [...]fare is accomplished.

38 Hence also flow these swe [...] Elogies & appellations of this Do­ctrine, to wit, That it is The Gospe [...] of the grace of God. Acts 20.24▪ The knowledge of salvation. Lu [...] ▪ 1.77. The word of the kingdome Matth. 13.19. The power of God [...] to salvation to every one that bele [...]veth. Rom. 1.16. The word of lif [...] Acts 5.20. Philip. 2.16. The wo [...] [Page 157] of eternall life. John 6.68. The word of salvation. Acts 13.26. The word of reconciliation. 2. Cor. 5.19. The law of the spirit of life. Rom. 8.2. The Gospell of our salvation. Ephes. 1.13. The promise of inheriting, or heirship. Rom. 4.13. A well of wa­ter springing up into everlasting life. John 4.14. Green pastures, still wa­ters. Psal. 23.2. A table prepared, a cup that runneth over. 5. A rodde, and staffe. 4. The savour of life unto life. 2. Cor. 2.16.

39 Therefore that joyfull voice of the Gospell is not to be changed into the voice of the Law accusing and terrifying.

40 Which thing they do, who­soever dispute that the Law deli­vereth imperfect precepts onely concerning outward works, to be performed out of fear: And that the Gospell sets before us precepts more severe, more excellent and perfect.

[Page 158]41 As if the Law were not long ago a yoke, which our fathers were not able to beare. Acts 15.10. The yoke of burden, the staffe of the shoul­der, the rodde of the oppressour. Isai. 9.6. insomuch that we stood in need of another Lawgiver.

42 Therefore we are to seek out other differences of the Law and the Gospell, which the Scripture expresseth thus.

43 The Law is in some sort known by nature. Rom. 2.14.15. The Gospel is a mysterie altogether hid­den from our reason. Rom. 16.25. 1. Cor. 2.7. Ephes. 1.9. Coloss. 1.26.

44 The Law is the doctrine of works, and preacheth unto us what we are to do: The Gospel is the do­ctrine of faith, and preacheth unto us what is already done, that is, declareth unto us, That Christ hath performed for us what the Law re­quires. Rom. 8.4.

45 The Law requires of every [Page 159] man perfect obedience to all Gods commandments: But the Gospell requires faith, teaching us to be­leeve on Christ our Mediatour.

46 The Law hath concluded all under sinne. Galat. 3.22. That all the world may become guilty before God. Rom. 3.19. The Law worketh wrath. Rom. 4.15. It makes us sub­ject to the curse. Galat. 3.10. There­fore it is the ministerie of death and condemnation. But the Go­spell is the word of salvation, peace and reconciliation.

47 Therefore the doctrine both of the Law and of the Gospell is bu­sied about sinne, but yet in a diffe­rent manner.

48 The Law layeth open, ac­cuseth, and condemneth sinne: But the Gospell pointeth at him, which made satisfaction for sinne. And therefore it covereth, taketh away, and remitteth sinne.

49 The promises of the Law re­quire [Page 160] perfect obedience of works: But the promises of the Gospell are of free grace.

50 Hereupon it is, that the pro­mises of the Law do nothing pro­fit us, by reason of the weaknesse of our flesh. Rom. 8.3. But in Christ all the promises of God are Yea and Amen. 2. Cor. 1.20.

51 The Law sheweth unto us what are good works, but it doth not give us strength and power to do them. The Gospell containeth the promise of the Spirit of reno­vation, which writeth the Law in our hearts. Jerem. 31.33.

52 Both these benefits there­fore, to wit, of Justification and Re­novation belong unto the Gospell: Grace, and the gift by Grace, the imputation of Christs righteous­nesse, and the donation of the Ho­ly Ghost.

53 But yet they are not to be confoun [...]ed: neither is Justification [Page 161] to be placed in Renovation: for Renovation is the consequent of Ju­stification, and not the cause.

54 For God doth not receive us into grace, and justifie us, for our Renovation or Inchoate obedi­ence: but being justified and recei­ved into grace, he reneweth us by his holy Spirit, that our obedience, according to the Law, may be In­choate.

55 Which Inchoate obedience al­though it be imperfect, and many waies polluted and defiled: Yet the Gospell teacheth us that it plea­seth God, in as many as are justi­fied by faith in Christ.

56 The Law is to be thunder­ed out to those that are secure, and unto hypocrites: But the Gospell is to be preached to those that are contrite, and broken in heart.

57 The Law bridleth and keep­eth in the Old man: But the Gospell keepeth the New man under grace.

[Page 162]58 And because the regenerate are not altogether freed from the old flesh, but there remaineth still in them a fight between the flesh and the Spirit. Galat. 5.17. There­fore also they stand in need of the ministerie of the Law.

59 And that for a twofold end: That the flesh or the Old man may be in them kept under: and that the New man may learn, in what works to exercise himself.

60 But it is very worthy to be noted and observed, That the pro­mises of the Gospell are Vniversall in a twofold respect: both in re­spect of the Time; and also in re­spect of the Object.

61 By the Vniversalitie of time we understand, That it is one and the same Gospell by which all the saints, of all ages from the begin­ning of the world, are saved.

62 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and for ever. Hebr. 13.8. [Page 163] Therefore the passion of Christ was usefull and profitable, before he suffered.

63 For he is the Lamb [...]lain from the foundation of the world. Revel. 13.8. that is, in respect of Gods eter­nall decree, in respect of his promi­ses, in respect of the types, and in respect of the efficacie.

64 Therefore we beleeve with the Apostle, that through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved even as our fathers. Act. 15.11.

65 Neither onely in the New Testament, but also in the Old, as many as seek for righteousnesse and salvation in the works of the Law are under the curse. Galat. 3.10.

66 Presently after the fall there was a promise made, That the seed of the woman should bruise the serpents head. Gen. 3.15. Which was the first Gospell, by which our first parents were supported and sustained.

[Page 164]67 How this promise was in after times more clearely expound­ed and repeated by divine reve­lation made unto the Patriarchs and Prophets, it is excellent well declared by Chemnitius part. 2. loc. pag. 579, &c.

68 And as the Gospell is one, so is faith one, and the way and meanes of attaining righteousnesse and sal­vation is also one.

69 And therefore it is but a meere fiction, and without any ground of truth, That men were saved in the time of Moses, by the Law of Nature; after the time of Moses, by the Leviticall Law; and in the New Testament, by the E­vangelicall Law.

70 And that likewise is false, which is said by some, That the latitude of the Law with the Old Testament, and the Gospell with the New, is equall: if the mean­ing be this, That whatsoever is [Page 165] propounded in the Old Testament appertaineth unto the Law, and whatsoever is propounded in the New appertaineth unto the Gospel

71 For the Gospel was promised be­fore by the Prophets in the Holy Scri­pture. Rom. 1.2. And To him give all the Prophets witnes, That through his name, whosoever beleeveth in him shall receive remission of sinnes. Acts 10.43.

72 In a word, whatsoever the Prophets foretold should come to passe, the same do the Apostles declare to be fulfilled.

73 By the Vniversalitie of the Object we understand, that the pro­mises of the Gospel belong unto all men.

74 But here we must distinguish between the Promise, and the Ap­plication of the promise. The Pro­mise belongeth unto all men, but the Application of the promise is onely made unto those that do be­leeve.

[Page 166]75 For the question is not here, Whether all men are actually made partakers of the benefits of the Gospell, which by the preaching thereof are offered unto all: for it is too manifest to be denied, That all men are not partakers of them.

76 But the question is, Whe­ther the Promises of the Gospell, of themselves, and in themselves are Universall, or else so restrained that by the counsell and decree of God they belong not but to some certain men absolutely chosen, by the good will and pleasure of God, before others.

77 For answer hereto we say, That God doth seriously desire the salvation of all; That Christ made full satisfaction for all; and there­fore That God doth by the Go­spell seriously offer the benefits of Christ unto all.

78 Christ commandeth his A­postles to go and preach the Go­spell [Page 167] to every creature. Mark 16.15. Therefore it is his will, that they preach the Gospell every where all abroad unto all, and offer it un­to all; and in the Gospell, the be­nefits of his death and passion; and in them, remission of sinnes; and in remission of sinnes, the grace of God; and in the grace of God, sal­vation, and everlasting life.

79 Whosoever therefore be­leeveth (that is, Whosoever by faith, which by the preaching of the Gospell the Holy Ghost work­eth in all those that heare, and do not stubbornly resist) receiveth the benefits which are offered unto him, he shall be saved. Mark 16.16.

80 Therefore God offereth the Gospell unto all to this end, That by the hearing thereof, they may conceive Faith, whose Forerunner is Contrition, and whose Followers are Good works, which are the fruits of [Page 168] Renovation, and Faith kindled by the Holy Ghost.

81 But by the Consequent and Judiciall will of God, the preach­ing of the Gospell becomes un­to some the savour of death unto death. 2. Cor. 2.16.

82 Concerning this Vniversa­litie of Object, it is to be marked and observed, that it doth not ex­clude Faith, but rather include it.

83 For Faith and the Promise are as Correlates, they have relation one to the other.

84 Whereupon the doctrine of the Gospell is called the word of Faith. Rom. 10.8. 1. Tim. 4.6. and again, Gal. 3.2. it is called, the hearing and preaching of Faith.

85 Which condition of Faith is not Aitiologicall, or shewing the cause; as the promises of the Law are Conditionall: but it is Syllogisti­call, or shewing the instrument: For the manner and instrument is ex­pressed [Page 169] by which we come to em­brace the good promises.

86 The voice of the Law is, If thou shalt perform perfect obe­dience, thou shalt be saved: Here the Condition is Aitiologicall, or Causaell: because perfect obedience is the cause for which eternall life is promised to those that keep the Law.

87 But the voice of the Gospell is, If thou doest beleeve, thou shalt be saved: Here the Condition is Syl­logisticall, or Instrumentall: because the Gospell pronounceth that we are justified before God, and saved, not for Faith, but by Faith.

88 By the definition of the Go­spell it is easy to be understood, whether, to speak properly, the Gospell be the preaching of re­pentance or no.

89 When the Gospell is taken generally for all the doctrine preached by Christ and his Apo­stles, [Page 170] It is most true, that the Go­spell is the preaching of Repentance.

90 Moreover, The Gospell doth onely declare the grace of God to those that repent, that is, to those that are humbled through the ac­knowledgement of their sinnes, and the sense of Gods wrath.

91 And inasmuch as it pro­nounceth that salvation is to be sought for onely in Christ, it pre­supposeth that without Christ all is concluded under sinne.

92 Besides, The Gospell doth demonstrate and expound unto us many places in the Law, which we cannot easily and evidently gather from the Law it self.

93 In this sense therefore and in these respects the Gospell may be said, and truely understood to be the preaching of Repentance: But yet we must know that the proper doctrine of the Gospell is about the free remission of our sinnes [Page 171] through Jesus Christ.

94 Thou wilt say perchance, Faith is by the Gospell: Therefore unbelief is reproved by the Go­spell: For the Law knew not Christ to be the Mediatour.

95 I answer: The Law bids us beleeve all the word of God. The Gospell propoundeth unto us this word, That Christ dying on the crosse for our sinnes is become our righteousnesse before God. Let the Law conclude: Therefore be­leeve this word of God.

96 The Law reproveth all sins: therefore also unbelief: The Go­spell declareth by the Antithesis thereof, that not to beleeve on Christ the Mediatour is a sinne and the head of all sinne: as Chem­nitius teacheth. p. 2. loc. pag. 570. The Law concludeth: Therefore for this sinne thou art accused and condemned.

97 In this sense said Holy Lu­ther, [Page 172] That the Law and the Gospell, in the practise, are more nearely conjoyned then any Mathematicall point.

98 And yet the proper work of the Law remaineth, which is, To reprove sinne, to work wrath, and to condemne: But the proper work of the Gospell is, To comfort, to raise up, and to save.

99 When the Law propounds the Major, Whosoever stealeth, is un­der the Curse: The Conscience of the Theef assumeth the Minor, But I have stollen. Hereupon the Law inferreth the Conclusion, Therefore thou art under the curse.

100 Here the whole Syllogisme accusing and condemning is a [...]tri­buted to the Law, although the Conscience of the Theef make the Assumption.

101 So again the Law pro­poundeth this Major, Whosoever is under sinne, is under the Curse: The [Page 173] Gospell propoundeth the Minor, But whosoever doth not beleeve on Christ, is yet under sin, and the wrath of God abideth on him. Joh. 3.36. Hereupon the Law inferreth the Conclusion, Therefore he is under the Curse.

102 Here again the whole Syllogisme accusing and conde­mning is attributed to the Law, al­though the Gospell make up the Assumption.

103 The Law concludeth all un­der sinne. Galat. 3.22. Whosoever therefore doth not beleeve the Gospell, which pointeth at Christ, he is under the curse of the Law, and over him doth the Law exercise the office of accusing and condemning, with all severitie and rigour.

104. Therefore the Accusation of Vnbeleef belongeth to the Law, as it is illustrated by the light of the Gospell.

[Page 174]105 Hereupon Holy Luther writing upon Genesis, cap. 22. f. 303. saith thus, That the work of Faith on Christ, and the sinne of Un­belief opposite unto it, are reduced to the first commandement.

106 The Lord Jesus by the voice of his Gospell lift up our hearts, and uphold us in all tenta­tions, and specially in the houre of death. Amen.

CHAP. XIII. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning REPENTANCE.

1 THe Practise of the Law and the Gospell consists in Repentance.

2 For it is not e­nough for us to know what is the Office of the Law, and what is the [Page 175] Office of the Gospell: but the Pra­ctise of them both is required at our hands. Theologie, or Divinitie, is a Practicall Doctrine.

3 Repentance is attributed either unto God, or unto Men.

4 It is attributed unto God after the manner of men, not that it is in God: it is in God Figuratively, not Properly ▪ in Effect, not in Affect. We see the Effects of it: God feeleth no such Affect, or Passion in him­selfe.

5 For as the Anger of God is no perturbation of his minde, but the judgment by which he inflicts punishment upon sinne: So the Re­pentance of God is his immutable disposition of things mutable. August. 15. de Civitat. Dei, cap. 25.

6 Gods thoughts are not as mans thoughts, as if he at any time altered his purpose; neither is he angry as one that is mutable: but [Page 176] these things are therefore written, that we may thereby learn the grievousnesse of our sinnes. Ambr. lib. de arca, & N [...]ah, cap. 4.

7 Repentance is attributed unto men in a farre different sense then it is to God. For God is not a man, that he should repent. 1 Sam. 15.29.

8 Repentance, as it is attributed unto man, is in Scripture taken two wayes, either Totally or Partially.

9 Totally, for the whole act of Conversion: Partially, for Contrition onely.

10 The force and meaning of the word doth incline rather to the latter sense. For To Repent, is as much as to be ashamed and grieved for some thing committed. Gell. 17. cap. 1.

11 But, as it is used in Scripture, and received by our Churches, it is to be taken rather in the for­mer sense.

12 Wherefore some of the An­cients, [Page 177] in stead of Repentance thought it fitter to use the word Resipiscence, which signifies a­mendment, returning unto ones self again, and after going astray coming into the right way a­gain. Tertull. 2. contra Marc. La­ctant. 6. Instit. cap. 24.

13 The Hebrews call it by a most apt and fit name Theschubah, which the Greeks call [...], and we call Conversion.

14 Phavorinus expounds this well after this manner, That it is A Conversion from sinnes and offences unto the contrarie good.

15 Understand Goodnesse it self, and the true and chief good.

16 But Damascene expounds it exceeding well, That it is, A return­ing from that which is against na­ture, unto that which is according unto nature, and from the Divell unto God. 2 de Orthod. fid. 30.

17 That which we call Peni­tence [Page 178] or Repentance, is by the Greeks called [...], and [...], that is Grief for what is past, & Change of minde for the time to come.

18 But yet so, that [...] (which is griefe of mind not mixed with faith. Heb. 4.2.) doth answer Penitence or Repentance, which is taken for Contrition onely: And [...] (which is Repentance unto salvation not to be repented of. 2 Cor. 7.10.) doth answer Penitence, or Repentance as it is taken Generally.

19 And yet this difference is not alwaies constant, and every where to be found, as it appeareth out of Matth. 21.29. and Heb. 12.17.

20 But yet most an end [...] noteth true and saving Repentance; and [...], false Repentance, and such as leadeth to destruction.

21 That false Repentance is two­fold: One is Hypocriticall, and coun­terfait consisting meerely in out­ward shew and appearance, which [Page 179] the Prophet calleth Theatricall, to be seene of men: which Christ himselfe expresseth in the 6 of Matth▪ vers. 1. where he forbiddeth To do almes before men to be seene of them. And, in the 16 verse, he saith that some fast & are of a sad counte­nance, that they may appeare unto men to fast.

22 The other is but Lame Repen­tance and by the halfes, deploring sinne, but without grace and faith.

23 But true and saving Repen­tance consists in serious Contrition and Faith.

24 Some call it Evangelicall: But here we must adde this expli­cation, That in respect of the bet­ter part, that is, Faith, which is from the Gospell, it is so called.

25 True Repentance is a motion of the heart, kindled by the Holy Ghost, by which a man coming to the knowledge of his sinnes and the wrath of God, doth earnestly grieve; and by [Page 180] faith in Christ, who made satisfaction for his sinnes, is again raised up, being certainly perswaded, that for Christ his sake his sinnes ar [...] forgi­ven.

26 For Repentance is a kinde of Conversion from darknesse to light, and from the power of Satan unto God. Act. 26.18.

27 Therefore the Term from whence, is our sinnes; from the con­sideration whereof there ariseth Contrition: and the Terme unto which, is God; unto whose Mercie we have accesse by the merit of Christ.

28 As many Kindes of Celestiall Doctrine as there are, by the mi­nisterie whereof God preacheth unto men Repentance and Remission of sinnes, and worketh the same in men; so many are the Essentiall parts thereof: But there are two kindes of Celestiall Doctrine, to wit, the Law and the Gospell. Therefore also [Page 181] there are two parts of Repentance.

29 Each of these Doctrines hath its proper and peculiar effect in the conversion of man: The Law striketh fear and terrour, whilest it manifesteth sinnes, and the wrath of God against them: The Gospell giveth comfort, whilest it sets be­fore the man that is cōtrite, Christ the Mediatour, that Lambe of God which taketh away the sinnes of the world.

30 These Effects of the Law and the Gospell, although they be di­stinct, yet they both concurre in this, to make up the complement and perfection of Repentance.

31 We do not call good works, or new obedience, a part, but the Fruits worthy of Repentance, as the Scripture witnesseth. Luk. 3.8. Acts 26.20.

32 Some dispute, That there are two parts of Repentance, to wit, Mortification of the flesh, and [Page 182] Vivification of the Spirit.

33 For my part I am not against them, if by Mortification they un­derstand Contrition or griefe con­ceived upon the acknowledgement of sinnes, and the sense of Gods wrath: and by Vivification likewise, Consolation ▪ which is from Faith.

34 But if they understand that perpetuall studie of the converted and regenerate in mortifying the old man, & following the fruits of the Spirit: Then I say it belongs to new obedience.

35 Which forasmuchas it is not perfect in this life, therefore The whole life of a Christian man is called a continued act of Repen­tance. Luther. in prim. suis propos. de Indulg. th. 1.

36 Those three parts of Repen­tance according to which it is di­vided into Contrition of heart, Con­fession of mouth, and Satisfaction of work, have no place in that saving [Page 183] and inward Conversion unto God, by which we return unto God: but they have place onely in that publike and Ecclesiasticall Pe [...]ance used by the Ancients.

37 For in time past those which by their publike offences had gi­ven [...]and all unto others, and were therefore excluded out of the communion of the Church, were required to give publike testimo­nie and signes of their repentance, beside inward contrition of heart, to wit, by their sorrow, confes­sion, and begging pardon and for­givenesse, &c. To give the Church satisfaction. B. Rhe [...]anu [...], [...] Schol. ad Tertull▪ d [...] Poenit.

38 Therefore they abuse that division▪ whosoever say that those are the parts of that saying Repen­tance, by which we return unto God.

39 For from that can Faith by no means be excluded: for without [Page 184] Faith, Repentance cannot be Repen­tance unto life. Act. 11.18.

40 Teares are good, if thou doest acknowledge Christ. Am­bros. in cap. 24. Luc. 17.

41 But that which is annexed is farre worse, If those actions of the Penitent or Repentant are made to have the force of an Element or the Materiall not onely signifying, but also causing and effecting re­mission of sinnes, in the Sacrame [...] of Penance: and the voice of the Confessor absolving be added thereunto as the Formall. Concer­ning which there is wonderfull great difference amongst writers.

42 For thus we should attri­bute unto our owne endeavours and merits, that remission of sinnes which the Scripture appropria­ [...]eth unto Christ, and his merit ap­prehended by Faith.

43 Contrition is required in our Conversion, not as the cause & merit [Page 185] of our reconciliation with God, out in respect of order.

44 Christ preacheth the Go­spell, but it is to the poore; he heal­eth, but it is the humble in heart; he preacheth libertie, but it is to the captives; he preacheth sight, but it is to the blinde; he preach­eth binding-up, but it is to the bro­ken in heart. Isai. 61.1. Matth. 11.5▪ To the broken in heart, that is, to those that know and acknowledge their own spirituall povertie, ca­ptivitie, and blindenesse, and there­fore are contrite and broken in heart.

45 To this Contrition belong, Acknowledgement of sinne, sense of Gods wrath, grief and anguish of a terrified conscience, detestation and [...]light of sinne; as also outward signes of Contrition, Teares, fast­ing, beating of the breast, sackcloth, &c.

46 But there is a great diffe­rence [Page 186] between the Contrition of the Good and Godly, and the Contrition of the Hypocrites and Vngodly.

47 The Contrition of the Godly ariseth from the speciall operation of the Holy Ghost: but the Contri­tion of the Vngodly and Hypocrites ariseth for the most part from the old man, & from the naturall pow­ers of free-will.

48 The Godly in the terrours of Conscience have an eye unto the principall Object of sinne, that is, God himself; and are onely grie­ved that they have offended him: But the Hypocrites contrarily are more afraid of the judgement of their own mindes and the judge­ments of other men, and they are vexed more with the considerati­on of the punishment, then of the sinne.

49 The Godly have an eye not onely to their Actuall sinnes, but also to Originall the fountain of all [Page 187] Actuall; not onely to outward of­fences, but also to their inward cor­ruptions; not onely to the punish­ments of this present life, but also of the life to come: But the Hypo­crites make confession onely of their outward offences, and that in a negligent manner; and for the most part they think onely upon the pu­nishments of this present life: but if at any time their thoughts be bent upon the consideration of eternall punishments, they are carried headlong into the gulf of despair.

50 The Godly confesse and ac­knowledge God to be just, and that his judgements are just: But it is the propertie of Hypocrites to extenuate their sinnes, and to chal­lenge Gods justice.

51 But yet, we must beware that we make not one Contrition Legall, and another Evangelicall.

52 For even that Contrition of the godly (which they call Evan­gelicall) [Page 188] is of the Law, and not of the Gospell.

53 Unto the preaching of the Law, God sometimes addes reall and ocular preaching concerning the greatnesse of sinnes and his wrath, to wit, publike and private calamities, both upon our selves and others.

54 For to this end doth God send upon us punishments in this life, that he may bring us to the acknowledgement and detestation of sinne.

55 The doctrine of Contrition is perverted, if it be denied to be a part of Repentance, and terrour conceived from the threatnings of the Law: and if it be further aver­red, that it is a grief for sinne vo­luntarily apprehended.

56 And again, if men teach such doctrines as these, That a man yet in the old flesh doth work together with God truely in his Conversi­on; [Page 189] That Contrition doth especi­ally belong unto the Gospel; That it is the cause of remission of sins; and That the purpose of leading a good and godly life is included in it.

57 For all these are averred and maintained, contrary to the truth of the Holy Scripture.

58 What the Schoolmen dispute concerning grief and sorrow in the highest degree, Appreciatively and I [...]ensively: and how that the grief and sorrow for sinne should exceed or equall the joy and pleasure con­ceived in sin, &c. This I say tend­eth to the butchering and slaugh­tering of souls.

59 The Contrition that is re­quired must not be Hypocriticall, and Superficiall; but serious, and from the heart.

60 God forbid that we should say that it can be correspondent or unswerable to the greatnesse of [Page 190] sinne, Gods wrath, and [...]he punish­ments deserved.

61 God which is offended, is an infinite good: the sinne ▪ which is committed, is an [...] the punishment which is prepared, is likewise infinite.

62 How then can God who is infinite, whose justice is infinite, whose wrath is infinite against sin, be appeased and satisfied by a finite Contrition?

63 As concerning Confession, take notice of these errours: That a man after diligent premeditation and strict examination, is bound by the Law of God to make confession of all his sins that he can call to minde, together with their severall circumstances, in the eare of the Priest: and, That by such confession a [...] this, sinne is blotted out: and, That by a little confusi [...] of face for the present, which those that confesse their sinne [...] before the Priest do s [...]ffer [...] they are delivered from [Page 191] that great confusion which they should otherwise suffer at the day of Judge­ment, &c.

64 But yet there is a great deale of variance and dissension betwixt those that stand for this Confessi­on: For some extend this precept to Veniall sinnes, as they call them; and others restrain it onely unto Mortall. Some seek the Originall thereof in the Law of God; and o­thers seek it in the Constitutions of the Church. Some extend the force of Contrition to the Remission of the sinne; others restrain it to the Re­mission of the punishment, either in whole or in part. Vid. de hac. tota reomn. Biclem 4. sent. dist. 17. q. 1.

65 We say that private Confessi­on is very usefull and profitable, both for the Minister of the Church, and for those that do con­fesse.

66 For by this means order may be taken, that those which are [Page 192] unworthy be not admitted unto the participation of the Lords Supper; those that are delinquent may be corrected; those that are negligent may be stirred up; to those that are terrified, remission of sinnes may be preached; to those that are doubtfull counsell may be given; and that the ruder fort may be instructed.

67 Well therefore saith D [...]. Philip. in his explication of the Go­spell (Miser.) on the first Sunday after Easter, which he delivered to his Auditors the last yeare of his life, in these words. Love that custome of private absolution: For if that custome be abolished, what will the Church become? yea, saith he, that custome is a testimonie that in the Church there is remissi­on of sinnes.

68 Neither do we mislike the reckoning up of certain sinnes, es­pecially those which most trouble the conscience.

[Page 193]69 But yet we altogether deny that the reckoning up of all sinnes is necessarie by the Law of God.

70 Neither do we acknowledge any merit of confession for the ob­taining of remission of sinnes.

71 Some indeed there are that teach such a kinde of satisfaction by which a man may satisfie either for the sinne or at least for the tem­porall punishment due unto it; and that by indulgencies he may be freed and delivered from it: but if he do not fully satisfie, that then he is to sweat it out in Purgatorie.

72 But we acknowledge no o­ther satisfaction but the satisfacti­on of Christ: and we say that sinne is forgiven to the penitent freely for that satisfaction of Christ.

73 The calamities which God sends upon the godly after their reconciliation with him, are not properly to be called punishment [...] as of an angry and severe judge, [Page 194] but rather fatherly castigations.

74 Which castigations are not therefore imposed upon them, [...] if by suffering them they could make recompense and satisfaction for their sinnes: but That they may more and more detest sinne; That the fear of God may increase in them; That they may shake off securitie; That they may mortifie the flesh with the lusts thereof; That thereby they may understand that otherwise they should perish for ever, were they not received into grace through Christ their Me­diatour; That they may be humbled under the powerfull hand of God; and That others may be put in minde of Gods judgement against sinne.

75 In a word, That there may in­crease in them Patience, Hope, Desire of eternall Life, Prayers, Mortifi [...]a­tion of the old Adam, &c.

76 Admirable well speaks Na­zianzen of the calamities of the godly, That they are bitter arrows [Page 195] sent by the sweet hand of God ▪ In [...]

77 Thus much concerning Re­pentance, which we may very well call the Haven of Salvation, with Lactantius 6. div. Institut. cap. 24. God, saith he, knowing our great weaknesse and infirmitie hath in his pittie opened unto us the Haven of salvation, that the medicine of Re­pentance might remedie the neces­sitie, whereunto our frailty is sub­ject.

78 Which that we deferre not, many things there are which ought to invite us: There is no accesse un­to the grace of God, but by the way of Repentance.

79 The impenitent heart treasu­reth up unto it self Gods wrath: and an impenitent life is the slaverie of the Divell.

80 We are not certain that we shall live till to morrow: Why then do we deferre our Repentance till tomorrow?

[Page 196]82 Late Repentance is seldome true: and they which persevere in their sinnes even to the end of their life, are not said to leave their Sinnes; but their sinnes are said to leave them.

83 Convert us, O Lord; and we shall be converted: and what we cannot do of our selves, that work thou in us by thy Holy Spi­rit. Amen.

CHAP. XIV. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning FAITH. Whereby we are justified before God.

1 FAith is not onely a know­ledge & Assent but also a Sure Confidence.

2 That it is a Knowledge, it is manifestly shewed by these appel­lations, whereby it is denoted un­to us in Scripture, of Science, Wis­dome, Vnderstanding, Light, &c.

3 Neither can Sure Confidence of heart be carried to an Object not knowne to the Understanding.

4 Away then with that Implicite Faith, by which we are freed from this labour to try the Spirits, whe­ther they be of God or no. 1 Ioh. 4.1. And, to beware of false Prophets. Matth. 7.15.

[Page 198]5 Away with that fiction & new invention, That Faith is better defi­ned by ignorance them by knowledge.

6 For though Faith be not a Knowledge drawn from principles of reason, and built upon them: yet it is the light of Knowledge ari­sing from the revelation of God by the Gospell. In this light do we see light. Psalm. 36.9.

7 Manifest it is, that Faith is [...]n assent, and approbation: For it is not sufficient to know what God hath revealed, but we must also give assent and approbation to what God hath revealed.

8 That Faith is a Sure Confi­dence, it is manifestly shewed by these appellations whereby it is denoted unto us in Scripture, viz. Substance. Hebr. 11.1. Assurance. Hebr. 10.22. Confidence. Ephes. 3.12. Boldnesse. Heb. 16. and in many other places.

9 The same also is declared by [Page 199] the Practicall Descriptions of Faith. The Faith of Abraham is thus de­scribed: That he against hope belee­ved in hope. Rom. 4.18. That he was not weak in Faith. 19. That he stag­gered not at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strong in Faith, giving glory unto God. 20. That [...]e was fully perswaded tha [...] what he had promised, he was also able to perform. 21.

10 The Faith of the Woman which was troubled with the issue of bloud, which Christ so commen­deth, is thus described: That she said within her self▪ If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole. Matth. 9.21.

11 The Faith of the Canaanitish Woman, the greatnesse whereof Christ proclaimeth, is thus descri­bed: That she fought and struggled within herself, against the tenta­tion about the deferring of help, the particularitie of the promises, [Page 200] and her own unworthinesse. Matth. 15.22.23. &c.

12 So Faith receiveth Christ. Ioh. 1.12. It is the Spirituall food of the Soule. Ioh. 4.14. Ioh. 6.35. Revel. 21.6. It is the Seale of di­vine promises. Ioh. 3.33. It is the beholding of Christ hanging on the crosse. Ioh. 3.15. These things certainly cannot be attributed to a bare knowledge.

13 Adde hither, that they are Opposites under the same next G [...] ­nu [...]: Unto Faith there is opposed not onely ignorance and darknesse of understanding, but also little Faith, and Feare. Matth. 8.26. Wa­vering or doubting. Matth. 14.31. Feare. Luk. 8.25. Staggering through unbeliefe. Rom. 4.20.

14 The Adequate Object of Faith in respect of Knowledge and Assent, is the Word of God contained in the Propheticall and Apostolicall Scripture.

[Page 201]15 Whatsoever is without the Spheer or compasse of this Object, cannot be a foundation or ground of Faith.

16 Therefore farre be it from us to beleeve, or to be perswaded that traditions are to be received of us with the like affection and pietie as the written Word of God.

17 Neither can humane reason be the measure and rule of Faith; but it is to be conformed accor­ding to the prescript of the Word. For every thought is to be brought into captivitie, to the obedience of Christ. 2 Cor. 10.5.

18 The Adequate Object of Faith in respect of Confidence, is Christ the Mediatour and Redeemer, or, which is all one, The promise of the Go­spell concerning the satisfaction and merit of Christ.

19 But yet we deny not but that Faith also doth apprehend the [Page 202] promises concerning other Spiri­tuall and Corporall goods: Yet in this respect it doth not justifie.

20 For it is necessarie that firs [...] it rely on Christ, and seek recon­ciliation in him and by him, before it can apply unto it self the other promises of God.

21 For in Christ alone are all the promises of God Yea & Amen. 2 Cor 1.20.

22 But Faith doth justifie, in­asmuchas it apprehendeth the Merit of Christ offred unto it in the word of the Gospell.

23 Those things which in Scri­pture are set before us to be belee­ved are indeed of divers kinds: But yet Christ as concerning his Office of Mediatourship is the Scope and end of all Scripture; as in the volume of the Book is written of him. Psal. 40.7.

24 So also Faith doth in such manner assent unto the whole [Page 203] Word of God, that chiefly it hath respect unto the promise of grace propounded in the Gospell.

25 Now if Faith be a Sure Con­fidence, relying on the merit of Christ: It followes, That a man which doth truely beleeve on Christ may & ought certainly re­solve, that for Christ his sake his [...]innes are forgiven him; that God is mercifull unto him▪ and that he shall be made an heir of everlasting life.

26 And this, the firmenesse of Gods promises, the certainty of his oath, the truth of the Holy Spirit witnessing and sealing the infallibilitie of Gods promise con­cerning the hearing of our prayers; and the propertie of true Faith, do evidently prove.

27 Hither may we adde very [...]tly that most excellent pla [...]e of Saint Bernard (Serm. 3. de fragm. sept. miser.) Where he saith thus, [Page 204] I consider three things in which all my hope consisteth; to wit, Gods Love in my adoption, the Truth of his promise, and his Power of Per­formance. Therefore let my foolish cogitation murmure, as long as it list, saying, Who art thou? and, What is that glorie? or, By what me­rits doest thou hope to attaine it? For I can answer with sure Confidence, I know on whom I have beleeved, and I am certaine, that in his Love he adopted me; that he is true in his pro­mise; and that he is able to performe it. This is the Threefold chord, which is not easily broken, which God letteth down from heaven unto us into this prison, which I pray God we may apprehend and firmely hold; that it may raise us up, and draw us unto the sight of the great God of glorie.

28 This true and saving Faith is the free Gift of God. Ephes. 2.8. Phil. 1.29. The Operation of God. [Page 205] Colos. 2.1 [...]. Whose Authour and Finisher is Christ. H [...]br. 12.2.

29 Therefore Fai [...]h is not the merit of works foregoing, but the foundation of works following.

30 Neither doth God imme­diately worke it in our hearts: but the Holy Ghost by the Word of the Gospell, as by an heavenly light, doth kindle the light of Faith in our hearts, which by na­ture are altogether darke. Faith co­meth by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God. Rom. 10.17.

31 Unto the Word there are also added the Sacraments, which serve for meanes to beget and nou­rish Faith in us.

32 Therefore to looke for hea­venly raptures, without and beside the Word of God, Is the propertie of those that will not be contented with the meanes that God hath in­stituted and ordained.

33 True Faith is not dead. Jam▪ [Page 206] 2.17. For the Spirit of God wor­keth it in our hearts by the lively Word of God.

34 Yea rather it is Operative and Working. Galat. 5.6.

35 That Energie or working of Faith is Twofold: One, by which it relieth on Christ the Mediatour declared in the word of the Go­spell, and apprehendeth and layeth hold on his benefits; and Another ▪ by which it worketh through love.

36 When as we say the [...], that Faith doth justifie, and Faith alone: we are to expound these two pro­positions.

37 Faith doth justifie; not in re­spect of the excellencie or digni­tie thereof, nor in respect of the latter Energie or working: but be­cause it apprehendeth and layeth hold on Christ the Mediatour.

38 Therefore there is no reall difference betweē these, Whether [Page 207] we say that Faith doth justifie, as some say, Instrumentally; or, as others, Formally.

39 In the former acception, it is taken for the Gift of God, kindled in the heart by the Gospell, or the faithfull heart: and so it is an In­strument by which Christ is appre­hended.

40 In the latter acception, it is taken for the very Apprehension of Christ by Faith: and so it is the Formall cause, that is, the reason and manner of our Justification.

41 Neither is there any reall difference, whether we say, as some doe, that Faith doth justifie For­mally; or, as others, that it is Christ; or, as others, that it is Christs merit.

42 For it is all one, as if you should say, Faith, which apprehend­eth Christ, doth justifie; or, Christ being apprehended by tr [...]e Faith is [...] justification; or, The merit [...]f [Page 208] Christ through Faith is imputed un­to us to justification.

43 For the proper Object of sa­ving Faith is Christ with his merit: and again Christ doth nothing pro­fit us, unlesse through Faith his righteousnesse be imputed unto us.

44 To speak properly then, The Formall cause of our Justification is Christs righteousnesse, that is, his active and passive obedience appre­hended of us by Faith, & by God imputed unto us.

45 God in his Judgement doth exact of us an account of all his gifts bestowed upon us, that is▪ of that perfection and integritie in which we were created after his Image.

46 But he found not in us that integritie, wisdome and righte­ousnesse wherein we were created; but in stead thereof sinne and ini­quitie: for which by the [...] [Page 209] which is the rule of justice, we are accused and condemned.

47 But here the free Mercy of God steps in unto judgement, and exhibiteth unto us Christ our Me­diatour and Redeemer: He taketh from us that which is ours, that is, sinne and iniquity; and bestoweth upon us that which is his, that is, his obedience which he perform­ed unto the Law.

48 From this foundation, God who is both Mercifull and Just, by a most excellent temper of his mercie and justice, imputeth no [...] unto us our sinnes, but imputeth un­to us Christs righteousnesse, through Faith, which resteth and relieth upon Christ, as the onely Propitia­torie.

49 This Imputation of Christs righteousnes unto us through Faith, is as true and reall, as it is true that Christ took upon him our ini­quities. Isai. 53.5.

[Page 210]50 Remission of sinnes is ground­ed on Christs righteousnesse: For God doth not remit sinnes out of errour or ignorance, levitie or ne­gligence, but for Christ appre­hended by Faith.

51 And thus the Justice and Mercie of God shew themselves in our Justification. His Justice shineth in that most perfect satisfaction which Christ made for our sinnes▪ His Mercie appeareth in his acce­ptation of Christs satisfaction, and the applying of it unto us through Faith.

52 Again, the Imputation of Christs righteousnesse is made, in that our sinnes are remitted: for the guilt of the person cannot consist with the imputation of Christs righte­ousnesse.

53 Therefore, as Originall sinne is not onely a want or privation of Originall righteousnes, but also an evill Concupiscence: So likewise [Page 211] our Justification before God, con­sisteth in the Remission of sinnes, and the Imputation of Christs righteous­nesse.

54 With this Remission of sins, Imputation of Christs righteous­nesse, Regeneration, and Adoption, there is allwaies joyned Renovatio [...] by an inseparable union: For Christ doth not onely bestow upon us his righteousnesse, but his Spirit also, which reneweth our nature.

55 But yet our Justification be­fore God doth not consist in both these joyned together.

56 But Renovation is a Conse­quent of Justification: and, because through the imbecillitie and weak­nesse of our nature it is never full and perfect, therefore we cannot attribute unto it the glory of righ­teousnesse, as if it were able to sub­sist before Gods judgement.

57 And this is it which we la­bour to shew, when we say that [Page 212] we are justified by Faith alone.

58 Where the word Alone doth not determinate Faith the Subject, as if justifying faith were at any time alone, and separate from charitie, and other Christian vertues.

59 For True Faith is a Lively Faith, & not a dead Faith: It work­eth by Love, and is not without works.

60 But that Exclusive particle, or word Alone doth determinate the Predicate; because the Righte­ousnesse of Christ alone (the power of apprehending whereof belongs to Faith alone, and not to works) is imputed unto us to Justification.

61 We do not deny then that the Holy Spirit doth kindle new motions in the regenerate, and that those that are justified do walk in good works.

62 Nay rather we say plainly, Where there are not those new motions stirred up by the Holy [Page 213] Spirit, neither is there true Faith as yet kindled. We say plainly, that Good works must follow in those that are justified.

63 But this it is which we de­ny, That either these new motions are habituall righteousnesse of force before God; or that these good works are actuall righteous­nesse, on which we may rely be­fore Gods judgement.

64 But indeed all the certitude of our confidence is in the precious bloud of Christ. August. In Me­ditat.

65 For woe unto men even of the best and most laudable life, if God setting aside his mercie, pro­ceed to their examination in his justice.

66 We therefore urge Exclu­sive particles in matter of merit, in application, and in form of justifi­cation.

67 For fear lest that works [Page 214] should seem to be set up, either as the merit, or means, or form of our Justification before God.

68 But it is the grace of God onely, which through Christ alone by Faith alone apprehended, doth justifie us.

69 The end of this saving Faith is the salvation of our souls and life everlasting. 1. Pet. 1.9.

70 For by Faith we have not one­ly acc [...]sse unto grace, but we also stand in grace. Rom. 5.2. And we are kept by the power of God through Faith unto salvation. 1. Pet. 1.5.

71 But yet, notwithstanding Faith can be no more separate from love and Charitie, then the Rayes from the Sunne, and the Heat from the Fire: Farre be it from us to say, that Faith is formed by Love and Charitie.

72 For Faith without works is said to be dead, not as if works were the life thereof; but because that [Page 215] profession and boasting of Faith which hath not the testimonie of good works, is no better then an image or karkeise altogether with­out life.

73 Therefore works do testifie that there is true Faith, as breathing doth testifie that there is Life: but yet they are not the life of Faith.

74 As good fruits do testifie that the tree is good, but do not make & constitute the tree to be good.

75 Justly therefore is it reckon­ed amongst those causes for which good works are to be done: that Faith and the Holy Spirit be not shaken off.

76 For the Scripture witnesseth both by word and by example, that those which through Faith in Christ are justified before God, if they afterwards cherish & make much of their sinnes contrarie to conscience, they do both lose Faith, and consequently also the [Page 216] grace of God, righteousnesse, the Holy Spirit, and eternall life, and also incurre eternall damnation, unlesse by true repentance they re­turn again unto God.

77 Therefore let these admo­nitions of the Apostles alwaies sound in our eares, and sink into our hearts: Work out your salvation with fear and trembling. Philip. 2.12. Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall. 1. Cor. 10.12. Give diligence to make your calling and election sure. 2. Pet. 1.10. Examine your selves whether you be in the Faith, prove your own selves: Know you not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates? 2. Cor. 13.5.

78 The Lord Jesus the authour of our Faith, be also the finisher thereof. Hebr. 12.2. To him be glorie for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. XV. Wherein are contained Theo­logicall Aphorismes concerning GOOD WORKS, That is, Renovation of the man that is regenerate by Faith in Christ.

1 WIth Regeneration and Adoption by Faith in Christ, is Renovation alwayes joyned as an inseparable companion.

2 For even as a man by Carnall Generation, is made partaker of Naturall Life, after which do fol­low Naturall motions:

3 So he that is borne againe of the Holy Spirit by Regeneration, is made partaker of Life Spirituall, after which doe also follow motions Spirituall.

[Page 218]4 Neither Generation, is without Life: neither Life, is without Mo­tion.

5 This inward Renovation is oftentimes denoted unto us by the name of Good Works, and that by a figure which is called Synecdoche.

6 For Renovation consists not onely in Outward good Works, and actions transient, but also (and that more principally) in the Inward re­newing of the mind, will, and all the faculties of the Soule.

7 From this Inward renewing flow forth Good actions: and Out­ward good Works beare witnesse of it.

8 But it pleased the Holy Ghost by the name of Good Works to de­scribe Renovation, and that for our sakes: Because Outward good Works are better knowne unto us▪ then In­ward qualities of the minde, and affe­ctions of the heart.

9 Moreover, All the praise of ver­tue [Page 219] consisteth in action: Therefore we are renewed by the Holy Ghost within, that the fruits of the Spirit may appeare without.

10 And last of all, By this meanes deceitfull Hypocrisie is excluded, which is a counterfeit shew of in­ward pietie: which indeed is none at all, unles it be also demonstrated by good Works.

11 As therefore Faith the Queen hath Contrition for her Vsher or Forerunner, so she also hath Good Works for her waiting Maids or Followers.

12 For Good Works do not goe before Justification, or before a man be justified; but they follow after Justification, or when a man is justified. It is the saying of S. Au­gustine, cap. 14. de fid. & operibus.

13 But, Where Good Works ap­peare not without, neither will I beleeve that there is Faith within. It is the saying of John Husse.


[Page 220]14 Neither is it any hard matter to assigne the cause of this neare Union, and indissoluble knot, which is between true Faith and Good Works.

15 For this is the Nature of True Faith, That it doth demonstrate it selfe by love and charitie.

16 He that beleeveth is borne of God. Ioh. 1.13. He will therefore resemble the nature of his Spiri­tuall Father. Now God is Love. 1 Ioh. 4.8. And, He that loveth not, knoweth not God.

17 Faith is an inward, saving, and efficacious knowledge of God: How then can that chiefe good choose but be beloved, if it be once truely knowne? If any man love mee, he will keepe my words. Ioh. 14.23. He that hath my commandments (saith our Saviour) and keepeth them, he it is that loveth mee. 21.

18 From hence the Apostle concludeth: Hereby we do know that [Page 221] we know him, if we keep his com­mandments. 1. Ioh. 2.3. And again, He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a Liar, and the truth is not in him. 4.

19 Faith is the spirituall Light of the Soule: But, if there be Light within, it will shew forth the Rayes without. Matth. 5.16. Let your Light so shine before men, &c.

20 By Faith Christ dwelleth in our hearts. Ephes. 3.17. Where Christ is, there is the Holy Spirit; and where the Holy Spirit is, there also are seene the Fruits of the Spirit.

21 Our Faith is the victorie which overcometh the World. 1 Ioh. 5.4. And, What is the World? The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life. 1. Ioh. 2.16. Where these are cherished & made much of, there the world is not yet over­come; and therefore there is not true Faith.

[Page 222]22

That Faith is saving and most true,
Which living is and con­quering too.

23 Our hearts are purified by Faith. Act. 15.9. Therefore they which live in securitie, and delight themselves in filthinesse and impu­ritie; How can they have inward puritie of heart? For, Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth spea­keth. Matth. 12.14.

24 These things were thus plainly to be expounded, That we might not onely be freed from the Tridentine accusation, as if we prea­ched onely Confidence and Assu­rance remote from all pietie; but also that all vain opinion and per­swasion of Faith might be taken away from all sinners that live in securitie.

25 We may make answer to them out of S. James, 2.26. As the Body without the Spirit, (that is, [Page 223] without breathing) is dead: So Faith without works is dead also.

26 Neither onely doe Good Works proceed from Faith; but, to speak the truth, there are no good works unles they proceed from Faith.

27 Seeing therefore Faith hath respect unto the Word as unto its Correlate: Therefore the Law of God, or the ten commandments are the Rule of Good Works.

28 Therefore superstition and will-worship pleaseth not God but those works onely which are done according to the Canon and; rule of the morall Law comprehended and contained in the ten com­mandments.

29 And we are to understand the Commandments, according to the exposition of the Prophets, of Christ, and his Apostles.

30 Moreover, seeing that Faith doth not arise from any naturall [Page 224] power of free-will, but is the Gift of the Holy Ghost: Therefore [...]rom what we said, that works must proceed from Faith, we in­ferre further that there are no works good indeed done by men, except they be regenerate by the Holy Ghost.

31 For men by nature are dead in sinnes. Ephes. 2.5. Coloss. 2.13.

32 As therefore those which are not yet regenerate have no spiri­tuall life: So also they haue no spi­rituall works pleasing God.

33 Rightly therefore disputeth S. Augustine, and with much vehe­mencie: Those works, which seeme to be good, if they be without Faith, they are no better then Sinnes, or, at best, but shining sinnes. Lib. 3. ad Bonifac. cap. 5. as also in many o­ther places.

34 Anselme disputeth thus, That all the life of infidels and unbe­leevers is sinne: because without [Page 225] the chief good nothing is good. Vpon the 14 Chapter to the Romanes.

35 Which opinion of his who­soever hold to be cruell, they themselves are cruell against the truth, Cens. Colon. pag. 29.

36 A corrupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit. Matth. 7.18. So neither can a person not reconciled unto God be accepted of him, neither can his works please him.

37 From this Conclusion, That it is necessarie that those works which are truely good proceed from Faith, we might gather many other things. For from thence it followes, That Good Works, although they reach not to that high pitch of perfection, which is prescribed in the Law, yet they are pleasing unto God.

38 Christ apprehended by true Faith, makes a man and his works done in Faith acceptable before God.

[Page 226]39 And thus is that to be un­derstood, which is said in our Churches, That Faith is the form of Good works.

40 For this is not our meaning, That Christs satisfaction is so im­puted to our works, that for those works of ours we are justified be­fore God.

41 For seeing that they them­selves stand in need of justification (as I may so speak) certainly they cannot justifie us.

42 But this we say, That those good works are therefore & from thence acceptable and pleasing unto God, because the person re­conciled by Christ worketh good works through Faith.

43 The Good Works of the rege­nerate do please God, but they do not appease God.

44 To conclude: Because Good Works proceed from Faith, we are not therefore by them and for [Page 227] them justified before God.

45 For what we have already obtained by Faith in Christ, what need have we to seek for by Good works?

46 When the question there­fore is moved, Whether we be justi­fied by Good works, and so merit sal­vation: Let us diligently examine the Terms, and words of the Que­stion.

47 Good works are the works of those that are already justified: Therefore they are not works (if I may so speak) Justifying. Even as fruits are good: because they are the fruits of a good tree; but do not yet make the tree good.

48 I know the common an­swer: It is by way of distinction, between the First and Second Justi­fication.

49 But beside other things, even this one thing doth take away quite that distinction; where­as [Page 228] the Apostle denyes that Abra­ham in the very midst of his Good Works was justified before God by his Works. Rom. 4.1, 2, 3. If any where, then certainly in Abra­ham, that Second Justification by Works (if there were any such) should have found place.

50 Moreover all places of Scri­pture, which deny that we are ju­stified by Works, overthrow that difference.

51 Our Good Works are due Debts unto God: Luk. 17.10. There­fore we merit nothing by them.

52 Our Good Works are imper­fect and unclean, forasmuchas our Renovation it self is not altogether absolute and perfect in this life: How then can we by them merit eternall life? What are all our me­rits to so great glory? Bern. serm. 1. in Annun. Col. 106.

53 Good works are the fruits of the Spirit leading and drawing the [Page 229] regenerate, and working effectual­ly in them: Therefore man is so farre from meriting by them any thing at Gods hands, that he is ra­ther indebted to God for them. Bern. ibid.

54 If Good works could merit eternall life, then they ought and might be done to that end and with that intent, that thereby we might obtain the reward of eternall life: But works done with such intent are not truely good works. For true love is not mercenarie, al­though it never be unrewarded.

55 So much for the Subject of the question. I come now to the Predicate or Attribute, which is, To justifie, and to merit eternall life.

56 But if Righteousnesse be by Christ, then is also Salvation by Christ: For, He that beleeveth on the Sonne, hath everlasting life. John 3.36.

[Page 230]57 The nature of a merit requi­reth, that the work by which we merit be freely performed by us, and in no wise due from us unto him to whom it is performed: But whatsoever we do, it is but a part of that duty and service which we owe unto God: And therefore no merit.

58 Again, The nature of a me­rit requireth, that it be profitable & usefull for him, at whose hands we are to merit: But God stand­eth not in need of our goods: And therefore they are not meritori­ous.

59 Last of all, The nature of a merit requireth, that the thing of­fered by us, for worth and price, be equall unto the thing which we are to receive in lieu of it: But what proportion is there between our works and eternall life? And therefore they cannot merit.

60 Eternall life is the free gift [Page 231] of God. Rom. 6.23. Therefore it is not the merit of our works.

61 Thou takest from Grace, whatsoever thou givest unto Me­rit: Away therefore with that Me­rit, which excludeth Grace, Bern. serm. 67. in Cant.

62 We cannot merit at Gods hands so much as a crust of daily bread, but we are compelled to pray unto God every day, Give us this day our dayly bread. How▪ then can we merit eternall life?

63 Let others, if they will, seek [...]fter Merit: but let us study to finde Grace. Bern. serm. in nativ. Mat. Col. 213.

64 If, what some call Merits, we will call by their proper names: They are the Seminaries of Faith, the Incentives of Cha [...]itie, the To­kens of secret Predestination, the Presages of future felicity, the Wa [...] to the kingdome, but not the Cause of raigning there. Bern. tract. de [Page 232] Grat. & lib. Arbitr. sub finem.

65 Although yet Good works are not necessarie to merit justification and salvation: Notwithstanding, they are necessary for the regenerate. First, in respect of God: Secondly, in re­spect of our neighbours: And lastly, in respect of the regenerate themselves.

66 In respect of God, they are necessarie many wayes. 1 Because it is Gods will and commandment, That the regenerate should walk in Good Works. 2. Because he is our Father, and we are his children; and therefore we ought to be like unto him. 3. Because we were created to this end. 4. Because we are redeemed by Christ. 5. Because we are regene­rate, and sanctified by the Holy Ghost, to walk in Good Works. 6▪ Because we are to glorifie God by our Good Works. 7. That the most Holy name of God and his Word be not for our sakes evill spoken of.

67 In respect of our Neighbours, [Page 233] they are necessarie. 1. Because we are to help them according to our abi­litie. 2. Because we are to edifie them by our good example. 3. Because we are to avoid scandall. 4. Because we are to stop the mouths of Backbiters and Slanderers, by doing good.

68 In respect of the regenerate themselves, they are necessarie. 1. Because they are to testifie by newnes of life, that they are a new creature in Christ. 2. To prove by their walking as children of the Light, that they are delivered out of darknesse. 3. To shew forth the true fruits of Faith, and to make their calling and election sure. 4. To avoid the suspicion of Hypo­crisie. 5. To escape paines temporall and eternall, which are the rewards of evill Works. 6. That by sin they do not shake off Faith, grieve the Holy Spirit, and lose the grace of God. 7. That they may obtaine of God re­wards Corporall and Spirituall.

69 Faith is exercised in Good [Page 234] Works, and by them increaseth, and as it were waxeth fat. Luther. in cap. 17. Gen.

70 These things are o [...]ten to be urged, and earnestly insisted upon, That we entertaine not once any such thought, as if remission of sinnes, and justification by grace, were any priviledge for ungodli­nesse.

71 When as God of his meer goodnesse unto us in Christ doth receive us into Grace, that he may have a peculiar people zealous of Good Works. Tit. 2.14.

72 Where the Apostle, in the verse next but one going before, maketh three rankes or degrees of Good Works. For he requireth that we live Soberly, Righteously, and Godly in this present world.

73 To live Godly, hath respect unto the Worship due unto God, ac­cording to the first Table of the Commandments: And it compre­hendeth [Page 235] the Love & Feare of God, Confidence in him, true Invocation, Confession, and Giving of thanks.

74 To live Righteously, or justly, hath respect unto our Neighbour ▪ And it comprehendeth all good offices of humanitie due unto our Neighbour, according to the se­cond Table of the Commandmēts, to wit, That we give all due Obe­dience and Reverence to our Supe­riours, that we afford Counsell and help to our equals, and that we de­fend and instruct our inferiours. Ber­nard. Serm. 3. de adv. Domini.

75 To live Soberly, hath respect unto Our selves: And it requireth the Keeping of our bodies under, and the moderating of our passions. There is no victorie more glorious then for a man to overcome himself.

76 After the same manner doth our Saviour, (being about to shew the manner of doing Good works, contrarie to the practise of the [Page 236] Hypocriticall Pharisees) He doth, I say, make three kinds of Good Works: Almes, Prayer, and Fasting.

77 By the name of Almes, (by a Figure called Synecdoche, by which, A part is put for the whole) we are to understand all offices of Love and Charitie due unto our Neighbour: From whence procee­deth the difference between Cor­porall and Spirituall Almes, com­prehended in these verses:

Visito, Poto, Cibo, Redimo, Tego, Colligo, Condo:
Consule, Castiga, Solare▪ Re­mitte, Fer, Ora.

In English thus:

To visit sick, and Prisoners:
To give drinke to the drie:
To feed the hungrie: To redeem
Men in captivitie:
To cover them that naked are:
Poore strangers to invite:
The harbourles within thy house
To lodge with thee at night.
[Page 237]To Counsel such as counsel need:
The faultie to chastise:
To comfort such as comfort want:
To forgive injuries:
To beare with such as froward are
In their infirmitie:
To pray for such as are cast down
In their adversitie.

78 By the name of Prayer like­wise we understand all religious & devout service which we owe unto God: For, That our Prayers may be accepted of God, and be pleasing unto him, it is necessarie that they proceed from true Faith, Feare, and Love of God.

79 By the name of Fasting, we understand the keeping of our Bodies under: For we are so to nourish our flesh, that it may serve us; and so to tame it, that it wax not proud, and lift up the heel against us, Ac­cording to the counsel of Hugo.

80 From what hath hitherto been said, we gather this Defini­tion. [Page 238] Good Works are the actions of men regenerate commanded by God, and done to the glorie of God, through Faith in Christ, according to the rule of the divine Law.

81 That we may be rich in them▪ God of his infinite mercie grant unto us, for Christ his sake who is the Authour and Finisher of our Faith & Good Works: who together with the Father and the Holy Ghost is to be blessed and praised world without end. Amen.

CHAP. XVI. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the SACRAMENTS.

1 UNto the Word of the Gospell God hath ad­ded the Sacraments, which are the Visible Word.

2 And, The visible signes of invisible grace. August. Libr. 19. contr. Faust. cap. 16.

3 For by the Sacraments is re­presented unto our Eyes, what by the preaching of the Word we heare with our Eares.

4 The word Sacramentum (which we translate Sacrament) is exta [...]t indeed in Scripture: (I meane in the vulgar Latin)

5 But not in that sense in which it is here used.

[Page 240]6 And yet we are not to inter­dict or forbid the Church the use of the word, as Carolstadius would have us.

7 For it were a miserable servi­tude, absolutely to be forbidden the use of all words unwritten.

8 Amongst profane authours this word Sacramentum is used first for mony layd (in deposito) in the hands of the Pontifex, by the Plaintiffe & Defendant, by way of caution, that he which was over­come in judgment should forfeit his mony, and he which over­came should againe receive his owne.

9 Againe it is used for that So­lemne Oath, which Souldiers take according to a prescript form of words, to bind them to their alle­giance and fidelitie to the State, and Governours thereof.

10 From whence afterwards it came to signifie generally any kind of oath.

[Page 241]11 In the Scripture, according to the Latine interpreter, Sacra­mentum is that which the Greeks call [...], the Chaldees Rasa, and the Hebrews Sod.

12 Ecclesiasticall writers by the name of Sacrament understand a Ceremonie of divine institution, by which the good promises of the Gospell are offered and applyed to those that beleeve.

13 These our Sacraments are Holy and undefiled Mysteries, as Da­mascen speaketh (4. Orth. fid. cap. 14.) or, as out of the ancients speaketh Jeremie Patriarch of Constantinople (Resp. 1. ad Theol. Wirteh.) Mysteries to be trembled at. Therefore not without just cause is the name of Sacrament given un­to them.

14 By the Sacraments we are bound unto God, to beleeve on him, and to obey him; as Souldiers are bound unto [...]heir Generall, by [Page 242] an oath. By the Sacraments we are also bound to love one ano­ther, as they which contended in judgement, having first laid their money (in deposito) in the hands of the Pontifex.

15 Furthermore, the word Sa­crament is properly and most fre­quently taken for the whole Sa­cramentall action: but sometimes improperly, and by a Synecdoche it denoteth one essentiall part of the Sacrament, to wit, the outward and visible signe; or (as Ireneus speak­eth, lib. 4. cap. 34.) the terrene matter.

16 So also the Matter of the Sa­crament, or the Sacrament as con­cerning the thing, denoteth the saving fruit of the Sacrament: and sometimes the other essential part of the Sacrament, to wit, the hea­venly matter.

17 But the Sacraments are to be defined by actions: For whereso­ever [Page 243] the Sacraments are instituted, there are certain actions prescribed and required; neither have the Sa­craments their essentiall integritie unlesse those actions prescribed by God be also added.

18 Now these actions are sacred and solemn; because instituted by God: because in them God work­eth with us; and in them we have to do with God.

19 God it is, who not onely at the first did institute the Sacraments, and commend them unto his Church: but also doth even to this day dispense heavenly benefits by them, by the mediation of mans ministerie.

20 The Sacramentall dispensati­on doth consist in Giving and Re­ceiving.

21 The Giving, doth denote the action of him that doth admi­nister, prescribed by God: The Receiving, doth denote the taking of the Sacrament.

[Page 244]22 In both, we must distinguish between the Thing, and the Manner of the thing. Giving and Receiving are simply necessarie: but the Man­ner of giving and receiving admits of some libertie.

23 To God alone is the power of instituting Sacraments to be ascribed

24 For it is one and the same, who doth conferre grace, and in­stitute the means of grace.

25 Well therefore saith Tho­mas (p. 3. q. 64. art. 2.) The vertue of the Sacraments is from God a­lone: Therefore God alone is the Institutour of the Sacraments.

26 Where also he addeth these things worthy our remembrance: The Apostles and their successours are Gods Vicars, as concerning the regiment of the Church instituted of God by Faith and the Sacra­ments of Faith: Wherefore, as it is not lawfull for them to constitute another Church; so neither is it [Page 245] lawfull for them to deliver any o­ther Faith, or institute any other Sa­craments. But the Church of God is said to be built and constituted by the Sacraments which flowed from the side of Christ hanging on the Crosse.

27 God also doth dispense the Sacraments, not Immediately, but Ordinarily by the Ministers of the Church.

28 For they are the dispensers or Stewards of the mysteries of God. 1. Cor. 4.1. and, Labourers together with God. 1. Cor. 3.9.

29 Seeing then the Minister is here an Agent not in his own name, but in Gods name: Therefore his worthinesse or unworthinesse can nothing adde to or take from the efficacie of the Sacraments.


The Sacraments for vertue are the same:
Although the Minister be too too blame.

31 The Ministers work here [Page 246] but as Instruments. Now we know that instruments work not accord­ing to their own proper form, but according to the vertue of him that moves them. Thom. p. 3. q. 64. art. 5.

32 From whence are these simi­litudes of the Ancients. How that the life of the Minister doth no more take away the benefit of the Sacraments; no more, I say, then a dunghill or dirty place, by which the sunne passeth, doth pollute and defile the light thereof. And a­gain, How that it matters not whether the water be conveyed through a pipe of stone, or a pipe of silver. And again, How that the figure and impression of the seal is all one, whether it be made with a gold ring, or one of iron. August. Tract. 5. in Joan. lib. 3. de Bapt. cap. 10. & Nazianz. orat. de Bapt.

33 And this also we adde con­cerning the Intention of the Mini­ster, That it is not absolutely & ne­cessarily [Page 247] required to the perfecti­on and fruit of the Sacrament.

34 For that Non-intention (if I may so speak) is a species of blemish or malice in the Minister. What then is true of the Genus, is also true of the Species.

35 Furthermore the Sacraments were instituted onely for men, and such men as are living: Therefore they are onely to be administred unto such.

36 Two things are required un­to a Sacrament: The Word, and the Element or outward visible thing.

37 Let the Word be added unto the Element, & it becomes a Sacra­ment. Aug. de cat. c. 3. tract. 80. in Joan.

38 By the Word is understood, 1. Gods institution, by which the E­lement (having received the cal­ling of God as Ir [...]neus speaketh l. [...]. cap. 34.) is separated from common use, & destinated to a Sacramentall use: 2. The proper promise of the Go­spell [Page 248] which is to be applyed and sealed by the Sacrament.

39 And therefore we must judge of every Sacrament, by Gods insti­tution, or (which is all one) by the proper place in which Gods insti­tution is described and set down.

40 And, because every Sacra­ment hath its own peculiar institu­tion, therefore also it hath its own peculiar administration, as its pro­per form.

41 And therefore the substan­tiall words of the institution of the Sacrament are in no wise to be al­tered or changed.

42 The Sacraments in the Old Testament are two, as likewise also in the New: 1. Circumcision in the Old, unto which answers Baptisme in the New; and the Paschall Lambe in the Old, unto which answers The supper of the Lord in the New.

43 If any other be added unto these, they want either Gods insti­tution, [Page 249] or the outward Element, or the proper promise of the Go­spell.

44 The Ends of the Sacraments are many: but two onely are Prin­cipall; the rest are Subordinate, and lesse-principall.

45 The First Principall end is, That the Sacraments may be the instruments, means, and convey­ances, or conduits by which God exhibiteth offereth and applieth unto those that beleeve, the pro­per promise of the Gospell con­cerning remission of sinnes, justifi­cation, and life everlasting.

46 Whatsoever is competible and agreeable unto the Word, that also is not to be denied unto the Sacraments, which are the visible word: But the word of the Gospell is such an instrument: And there­fore also the Sacraments.

47 By the Sacraments we are received into the Covenant of God, [Page 250] and are preserved in it: But that Covenant, is the Covenant of grace: And therefore the Sacraments are instruments of grace and salvation.

48 Therefore we dissent and depart from those, who derogate and detract from the Sacraments, making them onely bare signes si­gnifying grace.

49 The Ancients indeed some times call the Sacraments, Signe ▪ But they understand Signes sealing or (as it is expounded in Augus. Confess. art. 13) Signes testifying co [...]cerning the grace of God toward us.

50 In which sense the wor [...] Signe or token used in Gen. 17.11 the Apostle expoundeth by th [...] word Seal. Rom. 4.11.

51 So also sometimes the out [...]ward Element of the Sacrament i [...] called a Signe; yet not barely signi [...]fying an heavenly thing absent: bu [...] offering and delivering an heaven­ly [Page 251] thing present, and Sacramental­ly united unto the Element.

52 For it is a Signe that signifi­eth or signeth the invisibilitie of the thing signified or signed; but presupposeth not the absence thereof.

53 A Signe, is a Thing beside the Species which it representeth to our senses; and of it self causeth us to call to minde somewhat else. August. 2. de doctr. Christ. cap. 1.

54 Therefore they that from hence, That it is a Signe, do gather that one essentiall part is absent, do it certainly for lack of wit, and want of learning.

55 We dissent and depart like­wise from those also who attri­bute too much unto the Sacra­ments; in that they affirm and a­verre, that they conferre grace (ex opere operato) even upon the out­ward act and administration there­of.

[Page 252]56 Which their Position, or Opi­nion they expound thus, That there is not required any good motion in the Receiver, but that the Sacra­ments have a supernaturall vertue in themselves, by which they are the cause of Grace, as fire is the cause of Heat.

57 But as the Word profits not, not being mixed with Faith. Hebr. 4.2. So neither do the Sacraments, which are the Visible Word.

58 Neither doth it profit any thing, To have a benefit offer­ed, unles there be one to receive it: The Word and the Sacrament: are Gods Hands, by which he offer­eth unto us: But it is the Hand of Faith, which must receive what is offered.

59 Well saith Hugo (5. de Sacra­ment. pag. 9. cap. 2.) The spirituall Gifts of grace, are as it were certaine Invisible Antidots: In the Visible Sacraments they are as it were in [Page 253] certaine Vessels offered unto man. Now, As that which is in the Ves­sell is not of the Vessell, but is drawn with it: So Grace is not from the Sa­craments, or, of the Sacraments, but is derived from an eternall foun­taine; and is sucked from thence by the Soule, in the Sacraments.

60 And seeing that the Sacra­ments in generall have assigned unto them this end: from hence it may be gathered, That we are to attri­bute the same unto the Sacraments of the Old Testament.

61 For unto Circumcision was added that promise, Of being re­ceived into the Covenant of Gra­ce, which is Emphatically set down in those words, I will be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. Gen. 17.7. Which words are to be ex­pounded out of Leviticus ▪ 26.12. Jerem. 31.1. Matth. 22.32. And it will appeare that in them is con­tained a promise of Gods grace, [Page 254] his speciall inhabitation, or in­dwelling, and eternall life.

62 Therefore we dissent and depart from those, who dispute, That the Sacraments of the Old Te­stament were not Instrumentall cau­ses of Grace: as if they had not some vertue from the Passion of Christ, &c.

63 The lesse-Principall end of the Sacraments is, To be Signes and Seales of Gods love towards us, instituted and ordained for the confirming and strengthening of our Faith.

64 For the Apostle calles Cir­cumcision, A Seale of the Righteous­nesse of Faith. Rom. 4.11. And the proper use of a Seal is, as we know, to testifie, confirm, and seale that thing unto which it is annexed.

65 Whereupon the Godly of former ages in time of danger did fetch solid comfort and consola­tion out of Circumcision. 1 Sam. [Page 255] 14.6. and again, 1. Sam. 17.16, 36.

66 Moreover, what is said of the end of Circumcision, that also is rightly referred to the other Sacra­ments: For all the Sacraments agree in their Efficient, and Finall Gene­ricall cause.

67 From hence it is that Bap­tisme is said to be A Good Consci­ence's going unto God for counsell. The word by which it is expressed is in Greek [...], which the Septuag [...]nts in the Old Testament do use, when there is signified asking counsell at the mouth of God. Oecumenius, by this word understands an Earnest or Pledge.

68 The meaning then is, Th [...]t Baptisme doth testifie unto our Consciences, and confirme the grace of God. And here observe that the foundation of this obsi­gnation or [...]ealing consists in the resurrection of Christ: For (as it is, Rom. 4.25.) He was raised again for [Page 256] our Justification: Upon which fol­lowes peace of Conscience, or Peace with God. Rom. 5.1.

69 Hither do we referre that place. 1 Iohn 5.8. There are three that beare witnesse in earth, the Spirit, and the Water, and the Bloud. The Paraphrase of which place, accor­ding to the Scope of the Text, and the Analogie of Faith, is this, That the Holy Spirit in the ministerie of the Gospell (which is The mini­stration of the Spirit. 2 Cor. 3.8.) And the Water in Baptisme (which is The washing of water, by the Word, Ephes. 5.26.) And the Bloud (which in the Lords supper is of­fered unto us to drink▪ 1 Cor. 11.15.) do testifie and beare wit­nesse concerning the Fatherly goodnesse, and love of God to­wards us.

70 Hereupon Tertullian (Libr. de poenitent.) calleth Baptisme the Obsignation or Sealing of Faith: and [Page 257] Augustine (de Catech. rud. cap. 26.) calleth the Sacraments, Seales.

71 We dissent then and depart from those, who deny that the Sa­craments are Seales sealing unto us the promise of Grace.

72 Secundarie and Lesse-Principall ends of the Sacraments we may reckon up many: as, That they are the very Nerves and Sinewes of pu­blike Societie, concord, and agree­ment; That they are the Badges and cognizances, by which the Church is distinguished from other assem­blies; That in them we are tyed & bound unto God, to Faith and to Obedience; That they are the Types and resemblances of vertues, but especially Love, &c.

73 The Schoolemen dispute, That in, or by some Sacraments there is a Character imprinted.

74 Which they describe after this manner, That it is a spirituall stampe imprinted by God alone [Page 258] in the soule of man at the recei­ving of the Initerable Sacrament, (that is, the Sacrament of Baptisme which is not to be reiterated or re­peated) remaining Indelible, Ordi­narily.

76 About the Quidditie, Subject, and End of this Character, we might reckon up their wonderfull strange and miserable jarrs & contentions.

77 But we conclude with Biel (4. Sentent. dist. q. 2.) That neither necessarie reason doth demon­strate, not evident authoritie pro­ve, that we are to hold any such Character.

78 For all the authorities brought out of Dionysius, Augu­stine, Damascen and Lombard, are expounded truly, and more perti­nently unto the minds of their au­thors, of the Sacrament or Sacra­mentall forme of Baptisme, then of any Character imprinted really in the Soule. This saith Biel.

[Page 259]79 Therefore that Character of theirs is Indelible indeed: because it is not written at all.

80 And thus much concerning the Sacraments in generall. Out of that which hath bene said we ga­ther their definition, after this manner, The Sacraments are sacred and solemne actions instituted by God, in which God, by the ministerie of man mediating, doth dispense a cer­taine thing, instituted by his peculiar word, to offer, apply and seale unto those that beleeve, the proper promise of the Gospell.

81 Of which that we may worthily partake, and to our salva­tion, God grant unto us who is the onely authour of them, blessed for ever. Amen.

CHAP. XVII. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the Sacrament of BAPTISME.

1 BAptisme is the Porch, or first Gate of Grace, the Entrie into the Church, the Key of the kingdome of heaven, and the In­vestiture of Christianisme, or the putting on the robe or liverie of Christianitie.

2 And therefore being the first Sacrament of the New Testament, it is for that cause called the Sacra­ment of Initiation.

3 Baptisme, generally taken, si­gnifieth any washing, dipping, or dying, whether it be done by im­mersion, [...]ffusion, or aspersion.

4 It is taken Metaphorically in [Page 261] Scripture, for the Crosse and ca­lamities. Matth. 20.23. for the vi­sible and large effusion of the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Acts 1.5. for the miraculous passing of the Isra­elites through the sea. 1. Cor. 10.2.

5 It is taken Synecdochically, for the doctrine, and indeed the whole ministerie of John the Proto [...]Baptist, that is, which first baptized. Matth. 3.11.

6 Specially and by way of Excel­lencie, yea and by the common use of the Church it is taken for that solemne mysterie of Initiation, to wit, the first Sacrament of the New Testament.

7 Which, in respect of one of the Essentiall parts thereof, is called Water. John 3.5. In respect of its Essence, The washing of water, by the Word. Ephes. 5.26. In respect of the Effect thereof, The washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. Tit. 3.5. In respect [Page 262] of the Type thereof which wen [...] before Circumcision made without hands. Coloss. 2.11.

8 The Prime authour of Baptisme, and therefore the Proper and Prin­cipall Cause, is God.

9 For God by his Prophets in the Old Testament did preach by Types and Prophecies concerning this saving Laver or washing of Baptisme.

10 The Types are, Noahs ark in the floud. 1. Pet. 3.20. Circum­cision. Coloss. 2.11. The passing of the Israelites through the red sea. 1. Cor. 10.2. Waters mixed with the bloud of the bird that was killed, which cleansed the leprosie, Levit. 14.6, 7. The water of Ex­piation, or Separation, whereinto were strewed the ashes of the red heifer. Numb. 19.17. &c. Divers washings, ablutions, and aspersions used by the Jews. Heb. 9.10. The water of Jordan, by which Naaman [Page 263] was cured of his leprosie. 2. King. 5.14.

11 The Prophecies consist partly in proper words, and partly in words Allegoricall. THE Lord sitteth upon the floud. Psal. 29.10. There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the citie of God. Psal. 46.5. The Gentiles shall bring thy sons in their armes. Isai. 49.22. I will sprinkle clean water upon you: and you shall be clean from all your filthinesse. Ezech. 36.25. It shall come to passe that every thing that liveth, which moveth whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live. Ezech. 47.9. In that day there shall be a fountain o­pened to the house of David, & to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sinne and for uncleannesse. Zechar. 13.1. A fountain shall come forth of the house of the Lord, and shall water the valley of Shittim. Joel 3.18.

12 The same God it is, which sent John to baptize, or to baptize [Page 264] with water. Joh. 1.33. From whence it is said, That his Baptisme is from heaven. Matth. 21.25. and the Pha­risees, refusing to be baptized of him, are said to have rejected the counsel of God. Luke 7.30.

13 This divine Institution of Ba­ptisme, Christ after his death and resurrection did as it were renew, by a solemne promulgation, and command to continue the same throughout the whole world.

14 Therefore the Baptisme of John was the same Sacrament with [...]he Baptisme of Christ, that is, which Christ administred by his Apostles, and doth at this day administer by the Ministers of the Church: It had also the same efficacie; neither was it necessarie that, after the Ba­ptisme of John, the Baptisme of Christ should be received.

15 The same Causes and the same Effects do argue that the Sacrament of Baptisme, both Johns & Christs, was the same.

[Page 265]16 Yet notwithstanding we do not deny but that with the Ba­ptisme of the Apostles there was joyned also the visible effusion of the miraculous gifts of the Holy Ghost: which was wanting to Johns Baptisme.

17 Now God administers this Sacrament, not Immediately, but by the Ministers of the Church, unto whom this doth Ordinarily belong, as unto the Stewards of the mysteries of God. 1. Cor. 4.1.

18 Again, Forasmuchas they are the Ministers of anothers good, their vices do not take away the essence and benefit of Baptisme.

19 And therefore even Here­ticks themselves, if they do ob­serve the Substantialls of Baptisme, they do administer true Baptisme.

20 Which also we determine in that case, when the Minister of the Church privately and secretly doth favour and cherish an here­sie [Page 266] contrarie to the truth of Ba­ptisme, and the doctrine of the Church.

21 But those which are bapti­zed by Hereticks without the in­vocation of the Holy Trinitie, and afterwards come unto us; we pro­nounce that such are to be Bapti­zed; but we do not say Rebaptized: For it is not to be beleeved that they were ever baptized, whoso­ever were not baptized In the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost.

22 The externall Element of Baptisme is water; water naturall and elementarie.

23 Whosoever therefore do either substitute, and use in stead of water any other liquor, or any o­ther externall Element; or else are of opinion that they may be substi­tuted and used in the stead there­of: They depart from Gods insti­tution.

[Page 267]24 But yet Baptisme is not sim­ply water; but the washing of Water, by the Word. Ephes. 5.26.

25 Therefore neither Water without the Word, nor the Word without the Water hath the nature, force, and vertue of Baptisme.

26 That Word is the word both of Command, and of Promise.

27 For the Apostles are com­manded to goe and teach all nations, Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost. Matth. 28.19. And there is a promise added, That he that beleeveth and is Baptized, shall be saved. Mark. 16.16.

28 Therefore, according to this word, all the Holy Trinitie, The Father, the Sonne and the Holy Ghost are present at Baptisme, as at the Baptisme of Christ, who is the Head of the Church. Ephes. 1.22.

29 The Father, for his Sonne our Mediatours sake, doth receive [Page 268] him that is Baptized, into grace: The Sonne by his owne bloud doth cleanse him from all his sinnes: The Holy Ghost doth regenerate and renew him unto eternall life.

30 And, if all the most sacred and Holy Trinitie be present; then also Christ God and Man is certainly present, and by his bloud washeth him that is Baptized, from all the filthinesse of his sinnes.

31 From whence it is, that the Ancients say, and Luther repeats it, That Baptisme is red with the bloud of Christ. August. tract. 11. in Joan. Bed. in Psalm. 80.

32 We must not therefore look upon the water of Baptisme accor­ding to the naturall properties, and use that it hath in common life: But we are to have an eye unto it as it is a Sacrament, and means sancti­fied by the word of God, with which and by which all the most sacred, and Holy Trinitie doth [Page 269] work in those that are Baptized, unto their salvation.

33 The Forme of Baptisme is, to Baptize a man with water, That is, to sprinkle the water upon him, or to dip him in the water, In the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost.

34 And forasmuchas it is the Forme, which gives being unto a thing: Therefore, if this Forme of Baptisme be changed, it shall be no longer a Sacrament.

35 Whether the party Baptized be sprinkled or dipped Thrice, or but Once it matters not to the inte­gritie and perfection of Baptisme. The usuall rites and custome of the Church, in these indifferent things, is to be observed.

36 By the Three sprinklings, or dippings, the Trinitie of Persons is signified; and by One onely, the Vnitie of the Divinitie, or God­head.

[Page 270]37 Those words, In the name, or On the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost, have a great Emphasis, which is accurately and frequently to be expounded to the godly and devout audito­rie, or congregation.

38 For the Minister professeth▪ that, what he doth in this part, he doth not in his own name, but in the name of God, & at his cōmand.

39 For he declareth that the true God, which is One in Essence, and Three in Persons, is called upon, over him that is Baptized.

40 Moreover those words do evidently witnesse that every Per­son of the most sacred and Holy Trinitie is present at Baptisme, by the presence and efficacie of grace▪ to wit, The Father for the merit of his Sonne doth re [...]eive him that is Baptized, into grace; and doth seale him by his Holy Spirit, unto salvation.

[Page 271]41 Whereupon those that are Baptized are called the Sonnes of God, Christians, and Spirituall men, in respect of the Father, of the Sonne, and of the Holy Ghost.

42 Whereunto belongeth the Collation, or comparing of Creation and Re-creation, Formation, and Re­formation. For, As the Father, by the Sonne, through the Holy Ghost created the first man: So is it at the Sacrament of Regeneration, where all the most Holy and bles­sed Trinitie doth worke in like manner.

43 Last of all, By those words, he that is Baptized in the name of God, is bound to acknowledge him, and to call upon him as the true God, and serve him all the dayes of his life.

44 For you must be Baptized, as we have received, and beleeve, as we are Baptized; and glorifie the Father, the Sonne, and the [Page 272] Holy Ghost, as we have beleeved. Basil. Epist. 78.

45 From this Fountaine [...]low forth all the prayses which are extant in the writings of the A­postles concerning the saving fruit of this mysterie.

46 As for example, That it is The washing of Regeneration, and re­newing of the Holy Ghost. Tit. 3.4. By which the Church may be cleansed. Ephes. 5.26. Sinnes may be washed away. Act. 22.16. Christ may be put on. Gal. 3.27. And, in a word, salvation may be obtai­ned. 1 Pet. 3.21.

47 By way of Comparison, it will not be amisse, to consider the Baptisme of Christ, by which Our Baptisme is consecrated: For what was done there in visible signes, we must not doubt but that the same is done at our Baptisme after an invisible manner.

48 The Father for Christ his [Page 273] sake receiveth us to be his Sonnes: The Sonne by his bloud washeth [...]s: The Holy Ghost regenerateth and [...]eneweth us, and prepareth him­ [...]elf a dwelling-place in us, and openeth the gate of Paradise unto [...]s.

49 We sticking close to the li­terall sense of the words (as we must alwayes do in articles of Faith) do firmly beleeve that Bap­ [...]isme is an effectuall means by which man is regenerated and re­ [...]ewed unto eternall life.

50 Which end comprehends [...]n it, Adoption, Remission of sinne, [...]ngraffing into Christ, Sanctifica­ [...]ion, and the Inheritance of eternall [...]ife.

51 But we deny that Baptisme doth either imprint an indelible character; or, conferre grace (ex [...]pere operato) upon the work done, or outward act of administration; or that it doth take away, and al­together [Page 274] together blot out both sin and the punishment thereof. For concer­ning this matter the Scripture is silent.

52 Furthermore, seeing that in Baptisme God doth make a Cove­nant of grace with man: certainly the efficacie thereof endureth throughout a mans whole life.

53 For the Covenant of God i [...] not made of no effect by reason o [...] our unbeliefe. Rom. 3.3.

54 Therefore though we should for our parts go never so farre a­stray from this covenant, yet by true and serious conversion we may return, and be received agai [...] into it.

55 Unto whom this Sacramen [...] appertaineth and belongeth, we learn even from Gods own insti­tution: by which it is commanded that all nations should be ba­ptized.

56 Yet the order and manner, [Page 275] which Christ there hath prescri­bed, is to be observed: that is, That they which are of age to heare the Gospell, should first be taught, and then baptized.

57 Seeing then all are either infants, or of yeares: we must an­swer distinctly concerning both.

58 Those infants are to be ba­ptized who are either born of Christian parents, (it matters not whether one or both the parents be Christians) or else are to be brought up under them.

59 Therefore Bastards, and chil­dren that are found, whose parents are not known, are not excluded from the benefit of Baptisme: (al­though it be doubted of by some) nor yet those who at their birth have some externall defect, &c.

60 But those which are no [...] yet born, are excluded: For a man can­not be born again, unlesse he be first born. And so are also the chil­dren [Page 276] of Infidells and unbeleevers to be excluded, as long as they are under their tuition.

61 Those of yeares are to be baptized, who being instructed concerning Christ do professe the Christian religion.

62 Neither here are women excluded: as it is confirmed by the practise of the Apostles, beside other arguments. Acts 8.12. and 16.15.

63 For the confirming of this our opinion concerning the bapti­zing of infants, out of Scripture serve many things: and it will be usefull for us to consider these following Hypotheses or supposi­tions.

64 First, Infants are conceived and born in sinne: And therefore they are by nature the children of wrath.

65 Secondly, God would have little children to be brought unto [Page 277] him: For it is not the will of him, that one of the little ones should perish.

66 Thirdly, There is no deal­ing with them by the preaching of the word: Therefore there re­mains onely to them that means, to wit, Baptisme which succeeded in the place of Circumcision.

67 Beware of saying, That Ba­ptisme is not profitable unto in­fants, forasmuchas yet they nei­ther do nor can beleeve:

68 Because in Baptisme, and by Baptisme, the Holy Spirit doth so work in infants, that it is, no lesse then Circumcision, A seal un­to them of the righteousnesse of Faith. Rom. 4.11.

69 For, although we cannot understand after what manner the Holy Ghost worketh: yet we must not therefore deny the work­ing of the Holy Ghost.

70 If a question be moved con­cerning [Page 278] infants departing without Baptisme: we must proceed di­stinctly.

71 Those which are without the Church, are left to the judge­ment of God.

72 But those which being born of Christian parents, by reason of some case of urgent necessitie, could not be baptized; or those which die in their mothers wombe: those, I say, by the prayers of their parents and the Church may be commended unto God; but are not excluded from the fellow­ship of the kingdome of heaven.

73 It remains now that we speak something concerning cer­tain Circumstances ▪ which are wont to be observed at the administrati­on of Baptisme.

74 Impious and superstitious ce­remonies are to be rejected.

75 But what rites and ceremo­nies are of their own nature indiffe­rent, [Page 279] and of a middle rank, and not repugnant to the Analogie of faith, but rather commended by the au­thoritie of the Apostles & the Pri­mitive Church, and further doe make the action, use, and efficacie, yea the necessitie and dignitie of Baptisme more conspicuous to the eyes of the ruder sort: such as these are not Simply, and to the scandal [...] of the Church, to be rejected.

76 Exorcisme is to be expound­ed after this manner, That it is a te­stimony that infants are by natur [...] under spirituall captivitie in the kingdome of the Divel; That by the vertue & efficacie of Baptisme they are translated from the king­dome of Satan unto the kingdome of Christ; That the end of the Ec­clesiasticall ministerie consistet [...] not onely in the application of Christs benefits, but also in a con­tinuall warring and fighting against Satan.

[Page 280]77 But the Church hath liber­tie to propose and expound the do­ctrine concerning originall sinne, the power and kingdome of Satan, and the efficaci [...] of Baptisme in o­ther words more agreeable unto Scripture. Chemnit. part. 3. [...]. Theo­log. pag. 178.

78 It is a most ancient custome, at the Baptisme of infants, to have Sureties, which we call Godfathers and Godmothers: Whose office it is, First, to pray for them, that God would receive them into grace by Baptisme; Secondly, by their an­swering to repeat that, which Christ, as the mouth of the infants, hath witnessed for them; Thirdly, to instruct them in the principles of religion, if their parents be dead.

79 Imposition of names is right­ly used in Baptisme, not onely be­cause it was formerly used in Cir­cumcision: but especially, because [Page 281] it puts us in minde, that in Baptisme our names are written in the book of life. Luke 10.20. Revel. 20.15. and that our names are enrolled ▪ in the Catalogue of Christian souldiers, from thenceforth alwaies to fight under the banner of Christ.

80 Concerning other ceremo­nies and circumstances, more shall be said in another place: On [...] thing onely we adde, That it were to be wished that at a full congre­gation in the Church at Morning-prayer children were baptized; that so the administration of this most sacred mysterie might be performed with more attention and devotion.

81 Neither yet do we say, that rashly and unadvisedly any man out of his own private fansie may depart from the custome of the Church wherein he lives: nor do we prescribe Laws for cases of ne­cessitie.

[Page 282]82 From all that hitherto hath been said, we gather· That Ba­ptisme is the first Sacrament of the New Testament, in which a living man is dipped into water, or sprinkled with water, In the name of the Fa­ther, and of the Sonne, and of the Ho­ly Ghost; that being regenerated and renewed he may be made an heire of everlasting life.

83 God, who by Baptisme hath received us into the cove­nant of grace, keep and preserve us in the same even unto the end▪ Amen.

CHAP. XVIII. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the LORDS SUPPER.

1 THe latter Sacrament of the New Testament is, The Lords Supper, so called frō the Authour & time of the institu­tion thereof. 1. Cor. 11.20, 21. &c.

2 It is also called the Lords Ta­ble, to distinguish it from profane eating & drinking. 1. Cor. 10.20.21, &c. And again, The communion of the body & bloud of Christ. 1. Cor. 10.16. because therein consisteth the essence of this Sacrament. And a­gain, The Testament of Christ. Luke 22.20. 1. Cor. 11.25. because therein do appeare all the requisites of a Testament. And again, The breaking of bre [...]d. Acts 2.42. & 20.7. because by it the bread in the Eucharist was prepared of old to be distributed.

[Page 284]3 It was called by the ancients, the Eucharist, or Giving of thanks. 1. Cor. 11.24. Because [...]olemne thanks were to be given to Christ at the celebration of this Sacra­ment. Again, It was called, a Syna­xis, or coming together. 1. Cor. 11.20. Because this Holy Supper was wont to be celebrated in a full con­gregation in the Church, and was a signe and pledge of their mutu­all conjunction in Christ. Again, It was called, an [...], or a feast in Love and Charitie, by reason of Holy feasting instituted and made of gifts conferred in common. A­gain, It was called [...], or Li­ [...]urgie: because it is no small part of publike and common service.

4 The name of Missa which is taken for the Masse, had its be­ginning from the forme of dismis­sing the people used by the an­cients, when they sayd unto the Catech [...]m [...]ni, to the possessed of [Page 285] vill Spirits, and to the Excommu­nicate, Ite: Missa est. Beat. [...] ▪ Super. 4. Libr. Tertull. adv. Marc.

5 The Types of this Sacrament in the Old Testament are sundrie and divers; but the best are these: The Paschall Lambe. Exod. 12.27, &c. 1 Cor. 5.7. and, Manna. Exod. 16.15. Ioh. 6.49. The corn [...] of heaven. Psalm. 78.24. Angels food, vers. 25.

6 The Authour of this Sacra­ment, who did both institute and commend it unto his Church, is Christ. Matth. 26.26. Luk. 22.19. 1 Cor. 11.23.

7 Who, seeing that he is true God, and One with the Father and the Holy Ghost, Omnipotent, True, All-wise, our Mediatour & Saviour: Therefore, if we desire truely to be his Disciples, we must without any tergiversation backsliding or unwillingnesse beleeve his words and rest on them. Joh. 8.31.

[Page 286]8 And the Sonne it is, who still [...]o this day doth exhibite unto us his Body and Bloud, at the distri­bution of the bread and wine in the Eucharist, to [...]e eaten and drunke by us.

9 Beleeve ye all therefore that even now th [...] Supper, at which Christ sat down, is here celebra­ted: For there is no difference be­twixt this and that: They have both one Authour. Do not think it is the Priest or Minister, but Christ himself that stretcheth forth his hand unto thee. Chrysost. Hom. 51. in Cap. 24. Matth.

10 Yet he doth not administer [...]his Supper now immediately by himself, as he did at the first Insti­tution: But it hath pleased him to use the Ministers of the Church to [...]his purpose; because they are The Stewards of the Mysteries of God. 1 Cor. 4.1.

11 The Eucharist consists of two [Page 287] things; an Earthly ▪ and an Heavenly: The Earthly is Bread and Wine; the Heavenly is the Body & Bloud of our Lord. Iren. Libr. 4. Cap. 34.

12 That which we see, is the Bread, and the Cup, as our eyes de­clare unto us▪ but the Bread and Wine, which we are to look up unto with the eye of Faith, is the Body and Bloud of Christ. These therefore are called Sacraments; because in them one thing is s [...]ene, and another understood: That which is seen hath a Corporeall spe­cies, or bodily shew; but that which is understood, hath a Spiri­tuall fruit. August. Serm. ad Neoph. Bed. in 1 Cor. 10.

13 Because therefore Bread and Wine are by Christs own Institution ordained and appointed for this Sacrament: Neither of these Ele­ments are to be changed for any other, which may have some re­semblance with them.

[Page 288]14 Nothing can be better here, nothing more holy, nothing more safe, then for us to be content with Christs authoritie alone.

15 But, as concerning the Bread, whether it be Long or Round, Great or Small; and as concerning the Wine, whether it be Red or White: It matters nothing to the integritie or Perfection of the Sacrament, in­asmuchas it detracts nothing from the Institution of the Sacrament.

16 The Nicene Canon we ex­ceedingly approve. We take not much, but little: that we may know that these things are not taken for Sa­tietie, but for Sanctitie.

17 In like manner whether the Bread be Leavened or Vnleavened, we think it not much materiall: neither do we like of that wrang­ling and jangling about the Bread; which was of old so frequent in the Greek and Latine Churches.

18 But yet we following the [Page 289] custome of the Church do use Bread Vnleavened, for the example of Christ, and many good lessons not to be contemned, which the Unleavened Bread doth afford.

19 To mingle water with the Wine in the Eucharist we hold it not necessarie, forasmuchas there is expresse mention made onely of the Fruit of the vine. Matth. 26.29.

20 But this we hold necessarie, That not onely the Bread, but the Wine also is to be distributed to all those that come with reverence to this venerable Sacrament.

21 Either let them receive the Sacrament in both kinds, or in nei­ther: For there can be no division of one and the same mysterie with­out grand Sacriledge.

22 Eating and drinking i [...] di­stinctly instituted and ordained by that wisdom, unto which all hu­mane wisdome concerning the in­separabilitie [Page 290] of the Living Bloud from the Living Flesh, must give place: For here we are not to dis­pute out of humane reason; but we are to look unto the will of Christ, who instituted no imperfect Feast, but with the meat added drink also. Andr. Fric. 4. de Rei [...]. emend. Cap. 19.

23 What God hath joyned together, let no man put asunder. Matt. 19.6.

24 We do not dislike searching out divers Analogies or Resem­blances between the Bread and the Body of Christ, and between the Wine and the Bloud of Chrst: but we must beware that we place not therein all the Sacramentall Office of the Bread and Wine in the Eu­charist.

25 For herein doth that consist, That the Bread in the Eucharist be the Communion of the Body of Christ; and the Cup of Blessing, the Commu­nion of the Bloud of Christ. 1. Cor. 10.16.

[Page 291]26 We hold no Locall Inclosing of the Body into the Bread, or the Bloud into the Wine; nor any Im­panation, or Incorporating into Bread; nor any naturall Inexistence; nor any Delitescence, conceale­ment, or lying-hid of the Body under the Bread; nor any Penetra­tion of two Bodies; nor any Caper­naïticall Creophagie, or eating of flesh which the Capernaïtes did hold.

27 For all these are but the dreams of humane Reason being too curious to enquire into the manner of the Sacramentall pre­sence: and they proceed for the most part from a lust and desire to calumniate.

28 But this we hold, according to the Apostle, That the Bread in the Eucharist is the Communion of the Body of Christ; and the Wine, the Communion of the Bloud of Christ.

[Page 292]29 The Forme of this Sacrament consists in the Blessing of the Bread and Wine; and in the Distributing of the Bread and Wine so blessed; and in the Eating and Drinking of the Bread and Wine so distributed.

30 This Sacramentall Blessing consists not in any Magicall con­version of the Bread into the Body of Christ, and the Wine into his Bloud by any vertue lying hid in the words.

31 But it is a sacred & efficacious destinating or setting apart of the externall elements to a Sacra­mentall use: which is therefore called Consecration.

32 When the Minister therefore of the Church, following the in­stitution of Christ & the example of his Apostles (concerning which speaketh Gregorie. Lib. 1. Cap. 63. in Registro: and Platina in the life of Sixtus the first, and many others) when the Minister, I say, [Page 293] doth repeate the words of institu­tion, saying first over the Lords Prayer: we must not in any case thinke that it is a meer Historicall reading of the Text.

33 For, First, The Minister doth testifie, that he neither doth nor hath any will to do any thing ac­cording to his own will and plea­sure, or in his own name; but, that as the lawfull Steward of the My­steries of God he doth exequute his function in performing this sa­cred and solemne action in the name of Christ.

34 Secondly, He doth by this meanes set apart the Bread and Wine for an Holy use, that after­wards they are no more meere Bread and Wine, but the Sacra­ments of the Body and Bloud of Christ.

35 Thirdly, He doth earnestly pray, that Christ would be mind­full of his promise, and vouchsafe [Page 294] to be present at the Sacramentall action, and distribute both his Body and Bloud together with the externall Elements, or the Bread and Wine.

36 Last of all, He doth testifie that by vertue of the Lords insti­tution and promise, the Bread in the Eucharist is the Communion of the Body; and the Cup of Blessing, the Communion of the Bloud of Christ: and further doth admonish all those that intend to receive the Sacrament, to remember that they are Christs Guests, to rely on his words with true Faith, & to come with due preparation, that so they may receive it unto their salva­tion.

37 But thus much we must know, That the Scripture doth not in any place say, that by consecra­tion or blessing, the Bread is turned into the Body, and the Wine into the Bloud of Christ. Yea the Scri­pture [Page 295] is expressely against it.

38 And Transubstantiation, (a thing barbarous both for Name and Nature) gathers little strength from the Disputation of some of our moderne writers, who thus expound it, That the Body of Christ is made of the Bread, not as of the Matter; as it was made of the flesh of the Virgin Marie; but as from a Terme (à Qu [...], or) from whence, as Heaven was made of Nothing, the Night is made of the Day, and the Wine was made of Water.

39 For besides that they di­gresse from the opinion of their predecessors (for they held the Essentiall conversion of the Bread and Wine into the Body & Bloud of Christ) they do also involve and intangle themselves in very great difficulties.

40 For whosoever saith, that one substance is converted into [Page 296] another, when it onely succeeds in the place thereof, he abuseth names.

41 Who ever said, that Nothing was transubstantiated into Heaven, or that the Day is transubstantiated into Night?

42 But if the Body of Christ is made of the Bread after the same manner as Wine was made of Wa­ter: It followes, That the Essence of the Bread is converted into the Body of Christ; that the accidents of the Bread do perish; that the Masse-Priests by the same power do turne the Bread into the Body of Christ, as Christ turned the Water into Wine: And so they be­come the Creators of their Crea­tor, and Makers of their Maker. Stella Clericorum.

43 It was a Sacrament that Christ would institute, and not a New creation: It was the Commu­nion of his Body and Bloud by the [Page 297] externall Elements of Bread and Wine, that Christ would institute, and not the Transubstantiating of them into an heavenly matter.

44 And that it may appeare how little or no foundation there is for Transubstantiation in these Words of Christ, This is my Body, We will passe by all others, & heare onely what Biel, the Compiler of Schoole-Divinitie, sai [...]h concer­ning this matter.

45 Thus saith he (Lib. 4. Sent. Dist. 11. q. 1. Art. 3. Dub. 1.) All Affirmative Propositions, in which the Termes signifying Bread and Wine are put in the Nominative case, are false. As, Bread is the Body of Christ; That which is Bread, is, was, shall, or can be the Body of Christ. (He disputes upon the Hy­pothesis of Transubstantiation) Again, Those Propositions are true, in which the Terme (à Quo, or) From whence, that is, the Bread and [Page 298] the Wine is expressed by the Abla­tive case with a Praeposition (Ex, or De) Of, or From: or the Terme (ad Quem, or) Whereunto ▪ that is, the Body and Bloud of Christ is ex­pressed by the Accusative case with a Praeposition. So then these Propo­sitions (if they be found in Scrip­ture) are true: Of Bread is made the Body of Christ, Of Wine is made the Bloud of Christ; and these like­wise are true (if they be found in Scripture) Bread is changed, con­verted, or Transubstantiated into the body of Christ; &c. So saith Biel.

46 Therefore down falls all their work, which for the rearing up of their tower of Transubstan­tiation, they build upon the words of Christ. For there is not any place to be found in Scripture, where Christ saith, Of this bread is made my Body, Of this Wine is made my Bloud.

47 Upon their Transubstantia­tion, [Page 299] the superstructure is, The Repo­sition, or laying up, Circumgestati­on, or carrying about, Adoration ▪ or worshipping of the externall Elements. Therefore we may passe the same judgement upon them.

48 The second Sacramentall a­ction is, the Distribution: before which goes Fraction, or breaking of the bread.

50 Whether the bread be broke before the blessing or after, it mat­ters not much, if so be that it be distributed.

51 For the breaking of the bread doth not constitute a peculiar Sa­cramentall act, but it is an act of the Minister preparing it to be di­stributed.

52 Again, It neither addes to, nor takes from the integritie and perfection of the Sacrament, whe­ther the externall Elements of bread and wine be given into the hands or put into the mouthes of [Page 300] the Communicants.

53 For we are alwaies to distin­guish between the Thing and the Manner of the thing, Giving and the Manner of giving.

54 The Third Sacramentall acti­on, is eating and drinking: which hath not respect unto the bread onely and apart, or to the wine onely and apart, but unto that Bread which is the communion of the Body of Christ, and to that Wine, which is the communion of the Bloud of Christ. 1. Cor. 10.16.

55 This eating is neither meer­ly naturall, nor meerly spirituall, but Sacramentall, depending on the Sacramentall union of the bread and body of Christ.

56 As therefore the Sacramen­tall union, by which, in the true and lawfull use, the body of Christ is united with the bread; and the bloud of Christ is united with the wine; So also the Sacramentall eat­ing [Page 301] and drinking depends on the institution of Christ, who is true and omnipotent; but it cannot be comprehended by humane rea­son, neither must it curiously be searched into.

57 If then thou opposest the spirituall eating, to the naturall, carnall, physicall, locall, and Caper­naiticall: then rightly do we say, that the eating of the body of Christ with the bread is spirituall.

58 But if by spirituall eating thou understandest that whereof John speaketh in the sixt chapter: That appertaineth to the fruit of the supper, and therefore undoubt­edly not to the essence thereof.

59 The end of the Holy Supper is set down in these words of Christ, Do this in remembrance of me. 1. Cor. 11.24.

60 Which remembrance hath respect unto the words foregoing, to wit, How that body is eaten [Page 302] in the Supper, which was deliver­ed to death for us, and that bloud is drunk, which on the altar of the crosse was poured forth for our sinnes.

61 From whence it appeareth, that the primarie and principall end of the Holy Supper is, the confirming of our faith.

62 Which comprehendeth in it these fruits, That in the true and saving use of the Holy Supper the promise of the forgivenesse of sinnes is sealed unto us; That the grace received in Baptisme is con­firmed in us; That the covenant of friendship and reconciliation be­tween God and Man is renewed in us; That we are again ingrafted into Christ; and, That we are fed with incorruptible food, by faith, unto everlasting life.

63 To speak all in few words, These taken and drunk by us, make Christ to abide in us, and us in [Page 303] him. Hilar. 8. de Trinit.

64 The bread in the Eucharist is called by Ignatius, The Medi­cine of Immortalitie, and an Anti­dote against the poison of sinne. By Basil it is called, The viaticum or viand of eternall life, and an A­pologie which is well accepted before the judgement-seat of God. By Da­mascen it is called, The pledge of the kingdome and the life to come.

65 Lesse-principall ends we may reckon up many: For by the use of this Sacrament we approve un­to God our Obedience ▪ unto Christ our Thankfull remembrance of his great benefit▪ unto Men our Repen­tance, our Consent in doctrine, and our earnest studie and desire after Love and Charitie.

66 But that this mystery is ei­ther a Propitiatorie, or Impetratorie Sacrifice, this we utterly deny.

67 For there is but one Priest of the New Testament, one Propitia­torie [Page 304] sacrifice, one oblation.

68 Unto the use of the Holy Supper are to be admitted onely Christians, and such Christians as can try and examine themselves. 1. Cor. 11.28.

69 From hence is to be under­stood, what we may judge of no­torious sinners, which will not try and examine themselves: and what also of children, and others, which cannot try and examine them­selves.

70 This true examination consist­eth in the earnest acknowledgement of sinnes, and detestation of the same; in true faith in Christ; and a stedfast purpose and resolution of amendment of life.

71 He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh dam­nation to himself, not discerning the Lords body. 1. Cor. 11.29.

72 For whosoever shall eat this bread (which is the communion of the [Page 305] body of Christ. 1. Cor. 10.16.) and drink this cup of the Lord (which is the communion of the bloud of Christ. 1. Cor. 10, 16.) unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and bloud of the Lord. 1. Cor. 11.27.

73 Therefore, as concerning the integritie and perfection of the Sa­crament, it matters not with what faith a man comes to receive it: but as [...]oncerning the fruit and be­nefit of it, surely it matters very much. Aug. 3. contr. Donat. cap. 14.

74 Concerning the time, place, and other circumstances of the Ho­ly Supper if we be asked the que­stion: Our answer is according to the counsell of the Apostle, Let all things be done decently and in or­der. 1. Cor. 14.40.

75 God graunt, that our bodies which are fed with the body and bloud of Christ, may at the last day be raised up unto everlasting life. Iren. lib. 4. adv. b [...]r. c. 34. Amen

CHAP. XIX. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning the CHURCH.

1 BY the Word & the Sacra­ments, the Holy Ghost also working together effectually, God gather­eth himself a Church here on earth.

2 Which Church is in Greek called [...], because it is called out of the whole race of man­kinde, and gathered together into an holy Assembly.

3 For the Church is an Assem­bly or company of men gathered together unto the kingdome of God by the ministery of the Word & the Sacraments: amongst whom there are alwaies some true godly which persevere in the true faith even unto the end: with whom al­so [Page 307] are mixed many not holy, but yet agreeing in the profession of doctrine.

4 This Assembly or company, because it must alwaies fight un­der Christs banner against the Flesh▪ the World, and the Divell, is therefore called the Church Mi­litant.

5 And because the ministerie of preaching the Word, and admini­string the Sacraments is obvious to our senses, it is also called the Visible Church.

6 But yet again, Forasmuchas it is not conspicuous to the eyes of men, who be true beleevers, and godly: in respect of them it is cal­led an Invisible Church.

7 Therefore that distinction of the Church into Visible and Invi­sible doth not introduce two as it were distinct Churches, or divers companies:

8 But it considereth the Church, [Page 308] or the companie of those which are called after a diverse respect and in a different manner, that is, Inward and Outward.

9 The Inward beauty and glo­ry of the Church doth consist in Faith, and Renovation, or renew­ing, with which is immediately joyned the Inheritance of eternall life.

10 This spirituall Regeneration, and Renovation is hidden under the infirmities of the flesh: and this communion or Inheritance of eternall life is, by the scandall of the crosse and death, covered as it were with a vail here in this life. And in this respect the Church is said to be Invisible.

11 The Outward beauty and glo­ry of the Church doth consist in the sincere preaching of the Word, and the profession thereof, and the law­full administration of the Sacra­ments: In which respect the [Page 309] Church is said to be Visible.

12 To make a man therefore a true and living member of the mysticall body of Christ, the ex­ternall profession of the same do­ctrine, and the participation of the same Sacraments is not sufficient: but there is required also, and that necessarily, inward regeneration; and the inward dwelling of the Holy Ghost.

13 But yet we are not to seek for the Invisible Church without the Visible, seeing that it is inclu­ded within it: For the elect are not to be sought for without the companie of those which are cal­led.

14 Neither are we in any na­tion under heaven to seek for that Invisible Church of the elect, pure, unspotted, undefiled, outwardly separate from all hypocrites.

15 For here in this life the Je­busites, and they of Jerusalem dwell [Page 310] together; in the same garden ▪ the Nettle and the Myrtle, in the same wood the low Shrub and the lof­ty Cedar grow together; in Jacobs flock the white and the speckled, the Lambs and the Kids feed together; in Peters net fishes Good and Bad are caught together; in the Lords field the Lillies and the Thornes spring up together; in the Lords floore the Corne and the Chaffe are mingled together; in Christs cellar the Wine and the Oyle have both their Lees and Dregs; in Noahs ark there were beasts Vnclean as well as Clean.

16 This companie of the elect, this Church, is by the Holy Ghost in Scripture adorned with most honourable Titles.

17 For it is called, The body of Christ, The spouse of Christ, The king­dome of God, Gods peculiar, Gods beloved people, &c.

18 But all these Titles and ap­pellations [Page 311] are to be understood by a Synecdoche, as not belonging to all in the Church: For they are attributed unto the Church for the truely regenerate and elects sake, which are in and of the Church.

19 For there is a manifest and evident difference between the truely regenerate, and the hypo­crites, which are onely joyned un­to the Chuch in an outward pro­fession.

20 The Truely regenerate are True and Living members of the Church, because from Christ their Head they draw both Spirit and Life; The Hypocrites, are but rotten and dead members: Those belong unto the Church Internally; These, onely Externally: Those, in Heart; These▪ onely in Outward shew: Those, In deed ▪ These, In thought onely: Those, in the Judgement of God; These, onely in the Judgment [Page 312] of Men: Those, as True and sound parts of the Body; These, as Scabs and Ill humors: Those, to speake properly, are of the Church; These, are onely in the Church. August. in Brevic. Collat. Collat. 3. in Ioan. Tract. 6. De Bapt. lib. 3. cap. 18. &c.

21 The Church, in the Creed, is called, One, Holy, Catholike, and Apostolike.

22 It is called One, for the Uni­tie of the Spirit, which the Apo­stle expounds, Ephes. 4.3. &c. There is one Body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling: One Lord, on [...] Faith, one Baptisme: One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

23 It is called Holy, because it is sanctified of Christ, by the Spirit and the Word: Which Sanctitie, or Holines consists, in this life, in the imputation of Christs Sanctitie, and the Studie of true Sanctitie; [Page 313] but at length it shall be made per­fect and absolute in the life to come.

24 It is called Catholike, in re­spect of the Catholike Faith, which is to be estimated by the common consent of all the Godly, and their agreement in the true Doctrine, at all times, and in all places, whether they lived in for­mer ages, or whether they be at this day yet living.

25 But it is necessarie that this consent be grounded on the Ca­tholike writings of the Prophets and Apostles, which are the onely foundation of the Church.

26 It is called Apostolike in re­spect of the Doctrine of the Apo­stles; because it began in the New Testament to be propagated by the Apostles (which taught none other things then those which the Prophets and Moses did say should come. Act. 26.22.) And because it is yet at [Page 314] this day gathered together by the Doctrine of the Apostles sounding in the Scriptures.

27 From whence it may be ea­sily gathered, what are the true Characters and signes of the True Church, to wit, The pure preaching of the Word, & the Lawfull admini­stration of the Sacraments.

28 For seeing that the Church is nothing else but a Companie of such as professe the true Doctrine of Christ publikely, and use the Sa­craments lawfully; and there is no surer note of a thing thē its Forme: Therefore we conclude that these and no other are the true proper and genuine Characters, tokens, and cognizances of the Church.

29 If there be assigned any other; as the Catholike name, Anti­quitie, Duration, Amplitude, Suc­cession of Bishops, Temporall felicitie, &c. I say, These are common to other Societies and Companies as [Page 315] well as to the Church; neither are they of any force to prove a true Church, unles they exactly agree, and are joyned with the other notes before mentioned by us.

30 Wherefore we thought good to note the words of Staple­ton (in relect. princ. fid. Controv. 1. Quaest. 4. Art. 5. pag. 113.) Even as, saith he, little children do distin­guish a man from a beast, by the externall lineaments of body, and outward figure of a man; because they are led onely by their sense: And those which are of riper yeares and have the use of reason, but yet are rude and unlearned, do it by operations of life & functions which are onely proper to a man▪ as to speak like a man, to walk like a man, &c. But they which are wise & prudent whose judgement pierceth deeper, do it by prudence and understanding, and other en­dowments which are proper unto [Page 316] man after a farre more excellent manner.

31 So the Church of Christ is by those that are wise and Spiri­tuall, (such as are the Teachers and Pastors of the Church) known by the sound Do [...]trine and the right use of the Sacraments: But as for those which are unlearned, weak, and little in Faith, who are not able to judge of the Doctrine it selfe considered in its causes, principles, and meanes; as also those which are without Faith, who know little or nothing of the Church: they judge onely by the outward face and appearance, and by the multitude of the people which beleeve, and their Pastors.

32 This Similitude or Compa­rison of Stapletons, we thought worthy to be noted. For from hence it may be concluded, that our notes of the true Church are proper, genuine, & well beseeming [Page 317] spirituall men; but theirs are doubtfull and uncertaine.

33 The outward shew and face of the Church shadowed ou [...] by lineaments, we willingly grant unto them: But as for the Soule thereof, that must they leave unto us.

34 Hither belongeth that which Bellarmine himself openly con­fesseth, That by those notes and markes by him assigned, it is not prov [...]d evidently to be true, That the Church of Rome is the true Church of God, but yet it is made eviden [...]ly credible. Libr. 4. de Eccl. cap. 3. Col. 210.

35 Furthermore seeing that the Gospell is not preached, nor the Sacraments administred with like sinceritie in all particular Churches; but the [...]eaven of hu­mane traditions and inventions is mixed with the pure masse of Gods Word: Therefore in this re­spect, [Page 318] and in this sense, the Church is said to be more pure, or more impure, comparing one with ano­ther.

36 So Christ would have the Scribes and Pharisees to be heard, Sitting in Moses Chaire. Matt. 23.2. that is, delivering the Doctrine which Moses delivered (according to the interpretation of Biel. 4. Sent. Dist. 1. Quaest. 4. Art. 3.) But withall he gives an Item, to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, that is, their false Doctrine. Mat. 16.6.

37 God can even by a corrupt Ministerie beget spirituall chil­dren unto himself. Ezech. 16.20.

38 The eares of the hearers are many times more pure then th [...] lips of the teachers.

39 So the Popish Church is not a true and pure Church: But yet in former ages under Poperie did God gather, and even at this day still doth gather unto himself a Church.

[Page 319]40 Our Churches are gone out of the Romish Babylon according to Gods command. Jerem. 15.19. They have taken forth the precious from the vile; They have accepted, and do still professe and maintain the writings of the Prophets and Apostles, and the Doctrine which is conformable and agreeable unto them, separating them from the leaven of humane traditions.

41 Can any one then deny that our Church is Apostolike? Such as the doctrine is, such is the Church: The Doctrine is Apostolike; And therefore our Church is also A­postolike.

42 Let them therefore either convince us, out of the writings of the Prophets and Apostles, to have departed from the Doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles: or let them not deny unto us the name of Catholike and Apostolike Church.

[Page 320]43 And here we would have it accurately to be observed, what the Acts of the Dyet at Ausburg Ann. 1530. do witnes, How that the chiefest of our adversaries there confessed that the confession of our Faith could not be refuted out of Scripture.

44 Hither will we adde out of S. Augustine (Epist. 166.) that, In the Scriptures we have learned Christ; in the Scriptures we have learned the Church· And, why then do we not in them retaine both Christ and the Church?

45 And againe, we have another saying out of S. Augustine (De uni­tat. Eccl. Cap. 2.) which makes against them: Between us, saith he, and the Donatists (the Romanists) the question is, Where the Church is. What then shall we do? Shall we seek it in our owne words, or in the words of our Lord, which is the Head of the Church? In my [Page 321] judgement, we ought rather to seek it in his words, who is Truth it self, and best knows his own body.

46 And further we urge upon them that Exclusive particle of Saint Chrysostome (Hom. 49. oper. imperf. in Matth.) They which would know which is the true Church of Christ, can know by no other means but Onely by the Scriptures.

47 The word of God, which this day is not extant but in the writings of the Prophets and A­postles, is the seed, the foundati­on, and, as it were, the soul of the Church: If the Church depart­eth from the tract thereof, it de­parteth into errour, and that so much the more grievous, by how much the more remote and distant from the sinceritie of the word.

48 From whence it may be ea­sily gathered, what we are to de­termine [Page 322] concerning that question Whether the Church can erre or no.

49 For we are to distinguish be [...]tween the Catholike Church, and Particular Churches.

50 Againe we are to distinguish between errours overthrowing the Foundation, and stubble buil [...] upon the Foundation.

51 And againe we are to distin­guish between the Visible Church, and the Invisible.

52 The Romanists; after long and tedious disputation about the infallible judgement of the Church, bring us at length to the Pope alone. The Infallibilitie, saith Bellarmine (4. de Pointif. cap. [...].) is not in the assembly of the Coun­sellers, or in the Councell of the Bishops, but in the Pope alone.

53 The faithfull people erre not, as long as they follow their Pastors; The Pastors erre not, as long as they follow their Bishops; [Page 323] The Bishops erre not as long as they follow the Pope. Therefore accor­ding to them, the immunitie of the Church from errour descendeth from the Pope alone.

54 What they attribute unto the Pope, that do we attribute un [...]Christ, who teacheth his Church by the Scriptures and in the Scrip­tures: The Church doth not erre as farre forth & as long as it follows the voice of Christ, and is ruled by the Holy Ghost.

55 To conclude, To this end doeth God gather himself a Church, that he may have an as­sembly or company to acknow­ledge, to praise, and to glorifie him aright, both in this life and in the life to come.

56 The Militant Church here on Earth is the Seminary of the Church Triumphant in Heaven. Unto which Christ bring us, who is the Head thereof: To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. XX. Wherein are contained Theo­logicall Aphorismes concerning the ECCLESIASTICALL MINISTERIE.

1 THere are in the Church three states or orders, instituted all by God: The Ecclesiasticall, Po­liticall, and Oeconomicall: The First, of the Church; the Second, of the Common-wealth; the Third, of the Private familie.

2 They are commonly called three Hierarchies.

3 The Ecclesiasticall order is called in Scripture ( [...]) The Ministerie, and Ser­vice.

4 Therefore it is not any De­spoticall or Lordly dominion.

5 In this Ecclesiasticall Mini­sterie, [Page 325] we are to consider the law­full Vocation thereunto, and the faithfull Discharge thereof.

6 Vocation is certainly necessa­rie for Ministers of the Church, and that such as is lawfull.

7 For, How shall they preach, ex­cept they be sent? Rom. 10.15.

8 The power and right of cal­ling Ministers is Gods own: It is he, who as the Lord of the harvest sendeth forth labourers into his har­vest. Matth. 9.38.

9 Now God calls the Ministers of his Church both Immediately, and Mediately.

10 Immediately he called the Prophets in the Old Testament, and the Apostles in the New.

11 Which manner of calling the Apostle, Gal. 1.1. describeth thus, That it was neither of man, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father who raised him from the dead.

[Page 326]12 With which description this is nothing repugnant, That some­times by some Prophet or Apo­stle, or else by Lot, this immediate vocation or calling of God is out­wardly declared.

13 The Immediate vocation or calling is alwayes accompanied with some extraordinarie Testi­monies and Gifts of God.

14 But yet by Testimonies and Gifts we would not have miracles to be understood.

15 For John the Baptist did no miracle. Joh. 10.41. And yet it is certain that he was Immediately called.

16 But by these Testimonies of Immediate Vocation, we understand the peculiar declaration and mani­festation of the Spirit, and the sin­gular power and efficacie of their ministerie.

17 The doctrines of those which are Immediately called by God, [Page 327] forasmuchas they speak as they are moved by the Holy Ghost, are simply and absolutely to be belee­ved. 2. Pet. 1.21.

18 Whereupon we are said to be built upon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles. Ephes. 2.20.

19 They which are called after this manner, have this priviledge, That they are not tied and bound to any certain and particular Church, but they are furnished with power & authority to preach every where.

20 From whence it appeares that this Immediate vocation hath especially place, either in the con­stituting of a Church, or in the purging of it from errours.

21 The Mediate Vocation is also the calling of God: but it is by fit men, according to the Canon and rule expressed in the word of God.

22 Where we must very accu­rately [Page 328] observe, that the Mediate Vocation also as well as the Imme­diate belongeth unto God.

23 For it is God that hath set in the Church, not onely Prophets, A­postles, and Evangelists, but also Pastors and Teachers. 1. Cor. 12.28. Ephes. 4.11.

24 The Ministers of the Church of Ephesus are said to be made by the Holy Ghost, although Paul by the imposition, or laying on of hands commended the ministerie unto them. Acts 20.28.

25 The Holy Ghost even at this day reproveth the world of sin, by those which are called by a Me­diate Vocation. John 16.8.

26 God, when he calleth by a Mediate Vocation, useth the mini­sterie of the Church.

27 For unto the Church hath he committed the pledge of his word. Rom. 3.2. He hath delivered unto her the Sacraments, and un­to [Page 329] her as to his spouse he hath gi­ven the keyes of the kingdome of heaven. Matth. 18.18.

28 So then the Church hath power and right to call Ministers: but it is from God, and it must be in such manner and order as is ex­pressed in the Scriptures.

29 What manner and order of calling we here understand, it is declared by the precepts and pra­ctise of the Apostles.

30 Whomsoever you shall approve by your letters (saith the Apostle, 1. Cor. 16.3.) them will I send. A Bishop must have a good report. 1. Tim. 3.7. Lay hands suddenly on no man. 1. Tim. 5.22. suddenly, that is, before thou hast the te­stimony & consent of the Church.

31 Adde hither also the Practise of the Apostles. At the ordination and election of Deacons, the Apo­stles speak after this manner, Bre­thren look ye out among you seven [Page 330] men of honest report, full of the Ho­ly Ghost and wisdome, whom we may appoint over this businesse. Acts 6.3. and again, Elders were ordained in every Church by suffrages, or voices Acts 14.23.

32 Whereupon were made those old Canons. No reason it is that any should be suffered to be re­ckoned and accounted amongst Bi­shops unlesse they be elected by the Clergie, desired by the People, and consecrated by the Bishops of the same Province with the judge­ment of the Metropolitane. (c. null. dist. 62. ex Leon. Episc. Rom.)

33 Item, Let them be desired by the People, elected by the Clergie, and ordained by the judgement of the Bishops.

34 Item, Whosoever are to be made Priests, for such let a postula­tion be made unto the Bishops, let them have the hands of Clergie­men of good credit, and let them [Page 331] also have the testimonie and con­sent of the People.

35 That place of Cyprian (Lib. 1. Epist. 4.) is e [...]pecially to be noted, where it is said, The people especially have power of electing such as are worthy, and refusing such as are unworthy to be Priests, and we see apparantly that it de­scends by authority from above, That the Priest be elected in the [...]ight and presence of the people, and be approved and thought wor­thy by publike judgement and te­stimonie.

36 Wherefore seeing that the power and right of calling Mini­sters belongs unto the whole Church: Neither let the Presby­terie alone, nor the Magistracie alone, nor the rest of the multitude alone, usurp & challenge to them­selves this power.

37 For what concerns all, That must all have a care of.

[Page 332]38 But let all things be done de­cently and in order. 1. Cor. 14.40.

39 The publike and solemne testification of this Mediate Voca­tion, is the rite of Ordination, by which in the sight of God and in the presence of the whole Church, the person lawfully called is sepa­rated from the rest of the multi­tude to this charge and office, and is commended unto God by pray­ers, and hath a publike testimonie of his foregoing Vocation.

40 We deny that Ordination is a Sacrament, if the word be pro­perly and strictly taken.

41 For it wants the outward Element expressely instituted by Christ himself in the New Testa­ment: It wants also the promise of application and obsignation of grace proper to the Gospell.

42 Before Ordination there goes diligent Examination of the party to be ordained, by which enqui­rie [Page 333] is made concerning his confessi­on, learning, aptnesse to teach, and order of life.

43 The Rule of this Examina­tion is set down unto us 1. Tim. 3.2▪ &c. Tit. 1.6, 7, 8, &c.

44 In which places such ver­tues are required of him, that hath committed unto him the office of teaching in the Church, as are ei­ther Common to him with other true godly, or else are Proper and peculiar unto him.

45 The Common are these, That he must be blamelesse, the husband of one wife, vigilant, s [...]ber, of good behaviour, given to hospitalitie, Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre, but patient, not a b [...]aw­ler, not covetous, &c. 1. Tim. 3.2, 3, 4, &c. Tit. 1.6, 7, 8, &c.

46 Now the reason, why the Apostle maketh mention of these common vertues, is: Because in­tegritie of life is required of Mi­nisters [Page 334] not onely for the same causes for which they are required of other private Christians; but also in a peculiar name: That their ministerie be not calumniated, re­proached, and ill spoken of, and so the fructification of the word be hindred.

47 The Apostle requires that a Bishop be the husband of one wife, to stop the mouthes of Heretikes, which speak against their marry­ing: shewing thereby that marri­age is no impure thing, but so ho­nourable, that it is no hindrance to a man from ascending up unto the Bishops chair. Chrysost. in cap. 1. Tit.

48 Therefore the Ecclesiasticall Order, or the Clergie are not by Gods law forbidden marriage.

49 For the temperance or con­tinencie which the Apostle re­quires in a Bishop (Tit. 1.8.) can­not be proved to be understood of [Page 335] the vow of Continencie, or living unmarried; untill it be first shew­ed that there is no temperance or continencie in the married life of the Godly. Ecclesiasticus 26.22. Galat. 5.23.

50 Neither doth the Apostle hereby hinder those from the mi­nisterie, who after they have bu­ried one wife, have lawfully mar­ried another.

51 But he forbids those to be chosen unto the Ministerie, who in any sort sinne so against the [...]e­venth commandment, that they are not the husbands of one wife.

52 As for example, If they live in adulterie: If at the same time they have more wives then one: If putting away and divorcing from them a lawfull wife (except it be in case of adulterie) they marry another, or choose unto them­selves one that is divorced from another.

[Page 336]53 Neither yet doth he pre­scribe marriage unto all Ministers of the Church as a thing abso­lutely necessarie: but he leaves it as a thing arbitrarie, either to mar­ry or not to marry; and makes married Ministers subject unto the laws of Matrimonie established by God.

54 The Proper and peculiar ver­tues, which the Apostle requires of the Ministers of the Church are these, That they must be apt to teach. 1. Tim. 3.2. That they be furnished and instructed with the gift to teach, & be able by sound do­ctrine both to exhort and to convince the gain-sayers. Tit. 1.9.

55 So much concerning the lawfull vocation or calling unto the Ministerie: Now follows the faith­full discharge of the same.

56 By the faithfull discharge of the Ministerie, we understand all duties of Ecclesiasticall ministra­tion, [Page 337] according to the Apostle. 1. Cor. 4.1. Let a man so account of us as of the Ministers of Christ, and the Stewards of the Mysteries of God. and in the 2. verse, Moreover it is required in Stewards, that a man be found faithfull.

57 Which faithfulnesse con­sists in this, That the things of the Church wherewith the Mini­ster is entrusted by God, be or­dered and administred according to the prescript will of God.

58 The things of the Church either concern Doctrine, or the Sacraments, or Discipline.

59 The Office then of a Minister, is contained in these three things▪ the lawfull administration of Do­ctrine, the Sacraments, and Disci­pline.

60 The administration or dis­charge of the Ministers office as con­cerning Doctrine consisteth in the Confirmation of the Truth, and [Page 338] the Refutation of Errours.

61 The Rule both of Doctrine and Reproofe is the onely Word of God. 2. Tim. 3.16.

62 Unto Doctrine pertaineth the interpretation of the Holy Scripture, and the applying of the same unto the use and benefit of the Church.

63 In the Administration of the Sacraments we are to consider both the Object, and the Manner.

64 By the name of Object we understand that provident care of the Minister, by which he is held to have regard and foresight unto whom the Sacraments are to be administred, and who are to be kept backe from them.

65 And this is the chiefest cause why private Confession and Absolu­tion are still held in some Churches, although there are not wanting many other reasons.

66 By the name of the Manner [Page 339] is understood that all things are to be administred according to the prescript rule of Christ, and, as the Apostle saith, decently and in order. 1 Cor. 14.40.

67 The Ecclesiasticall Discipline is exercised in correcting faults, and passing Ecclesiasticall Judge­ment and Sentence.

68 Faults are to be corrected according to the order & degrees prescribed by Christ. Matt. 18.15.

69 Let Private and Publike ad­monition and warning go before: and if those will not serve the turne, let the severe Administra­tion of Ecclesiasticall Judgement and Sentence succeed in the place thereof, which consisteth in Ex­communication.

70 Excommunication (the latter part of the keyes) is either that which is called the Lesser, or else that which is called the Greater.

71 The Lesser is that, by which [Page 340] the Sinner is interdicted the parti­cipation of the Lords Supper for a time.

72 The Greater, is that by which, Lawfull Knowledge going before, the obstinate and contumacious sinner is excluded from the So­cietie of the Church, and is deli­vered up unto Satan.

73 The first is called ( [...], or) Excommunication of Separation for a time: The second is called ( [...] or) Excommunication of Execration.

74 It were to be wished that in this last & worst age of the World the reignes of Ecclesiasticall Disci­pline were held with a stiffer hand, then commonly they are.

75 The Power of Excommuni­cating belongeth unto the whole Church, and is pronounced by the Minister in the name of the Church.

76 Therefore the expresse or [Page 341] silent consent of the Church is re­quired. When ye are gathered to­gether (saith the Apostle 1 Cor. 5.4, 5.) and my Spirit, with the power of our Lord Iesus Christ, deliver such a one unto Satan, &c.

77 The Pope of Rome as he of­fends against the Lawfull Vocation of Ministers: So also he offends against the Administration of Eccle­siasticall Discipline.

78 For he derogates too much from the Magistracie, & from Chri­stian People in taking from them the right and power of electing Mini­sters: and arrogates too much unto himself, in taking upon him to give the Sole power unto Bishops, and reserving it more especially unto himself.

79 He boasts and glories that he is the Monarch, the Head, and Bridegroome of the Church.

80 But by this and many other marks we know him to be the very Antichrist.

[Page 342]81 For what markes soever the Scripture hath given to know An­tichrist by, they all meete together in the Pope of Rome, as Histories do witnesse, and experience teach­eth.

82 In like manner the Pope of Rome offends against the Admini­stration of Ecclesiasticall Discipline, many wayes.

83 For he challengeth unto himself the Supreme power of Ex­communicating, absolving, dispen­sing with, reserving cases, conferring indulgences, benefices, and such like, of propounding Lawes, of determi­ning, punishing, and governing the Ecclesiasticall Hierarchie, &c. Franc. Vargas. de Jurisdict. Episc.

84 He boasts and glories that this power is seated in himself as in the Head and Fountaine, and that it is derived from him unto the Bishops as unto the Armes and Streames.

[Page 343]85 He puts the Presbyterie in subjection under the Bishops, and grants unto them farre lesse power of Jurisdiction.

86 This also is to be disliked in the Papall Excommunication, that he thunders it out against whole Cities, whole Provincies, yea whole Kingdomes, for one, or some few mens sake.

87 Neither doth he exercise Excommunication against Atheisme and notorious offences: But, as Histories do witnesse, it proceeds for the most part from private ha­tred, levitie, ambition, and desire of domineering.

88 For he confounds the Eccle­siasticall Discipline with civill pu­nishments: For after that he hath Excommunicated Kings and Empe­rours, he thrusts them out of their Kingdomes and Empires, he absolves their Subjects from their Homages and Services, and from their Oath [Page 344] of Allegiance, and exposeth their goods unto all men for a pray.

89 What the end of Papal Ex­communication is, Let us consult with Histories, but especially let us have recourse unto Rodericus Z [...]morensis (in speculo vit. Human. Lib. 2. Cap. 3.) and Nicholas de Cle­man. (Lib. de Ruin. & Reparat. Ec­clesiae) whose testimonie is most true on this part.

90 By these and the like abuses without doubt it is so come to passe, that the most wholesome part of Ecclesiasticall Discipline is at this day fallen to decay and come to ruine. See other causes thereof in Luthers Commentaries (Supr. 3. Joel. Tom. 4. Jen. Fol. 801. &c.) Reade them and perpend them.

91 O Christ thou which thru­stest forth Labourers into thy harvest, Thrust in thy sickle, and reape: for the time is come for thee to [Page 345] reape: for the Harvest of the Earth is ripe. Revel. 14.15. and The grapes are fully ripe. 18. Whosoever lo­veth thee, let him say, Come. Amen.

CHAP. XXI. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning The POLITICALL ORDER, OR The CIVILL MAGI­STRACIE.

1 THe goods, not onely of the life to come, which are eternall, but even those of this life, which are temporall, the hope of fruition whereof man lost by his Apostasie and falling away from God, are by God restored again to mankind [Page 346] for the merit and intercession of the Sonne.

2 By the Ministerie of the Word God gathereth unto himself a Church, by which he may be rightly and duely acknowledged and praised, in the true members whereof he may restore his de­cayed image, and inchoate or be­gin eternall life.

3 But, because this gathering to­gether of the Church, and the re­storing of the divine Image is wrought in this life: Therefore God hath instituted and ordained the Politicall Order or the Civill Magistracie, to be as it were an Hedge to the Church.

4 For to this end hath God ap­pointed Kings, and all that be fet in authoritie, & given them rule and power, that under them we may leade a quiet and peaceable life in all godlinesse and honestie. 1 Tim. 2.2.

5 The Church is gathered to­gether [Page 347] out of mankinde. Mankinde being miserably corrupted since the fall cannot possible consist without civill government. There­fore was it necessarie for the Churches sake, that the Politicall Order, or Civill Magistracie should be instituted and appointed.

6 The parts of the Politicall Or­der are two: The Magistrates and the Subjects.

7 The Magistrates rule; The Subjects obey.

8 The Magistrates are either su­preme or subordinate. Submit your selves to every ordinance of man for the Lords sake: whether it be to the King, as Supreme; or unto Gover­nours, as unto them that are sent by him. 1. Pet. 2.13.

9 The Supreme Magistrate hath soveraigne and full power and au­thoritie, under God: The Subor­dinate is so set over others, that he is still set under the Supreme.

[Page 348]10 Both are Gods own institu­tion: For there is no power but of God. Rom. 13.1.

11 Therefore a Christian man is not forbidden to be a Magi­strate, and to beare rule and autho­ritie.

12 The Gospell doth not take away Civill Government: neither do Gods institutions overthrow one another.

13 God calls men unto the Ma­gistracie either Immediately or Me­diately.

14 Examples of Immediate cal­ling we have in Moses, David, &c. For God by his own voice called them Immediately and Extraordi­narily unto the rule and governing of his people.

15 Mediate calling is especially two waies, either by Hereditarie succession, or by Mens election: Unto these two waies of calling may all other be referred.

[Page 349]16 They which are called unto the Magistracie Mediately, are no lesse to be accounted as instituted and appointed by God, then those which were called by the voice of God himself Immediately.

17 For whereas Peter calleth them the Ordinance of man. 1. Epist. 2.13. he doth it not therefore, as if they were onely an humane or­dinance: but because they are or­dained by men, because they are men, and because they are made and appointed for the good of men, and common benefit of hu­mane societie.

18 The Office of a Magistrate is seen or considered, either in Peace or Warre.

19 In the time of Peace let him administer Justice and Judge­ment.

20 By Justice we understand externall obedience to both Tables of the commandments.

[Page 350]21 For it is the Magistrates charge and care, to see that both the Tables of the commandments be kept and observed, as farre as it concernes Externall Discipline.

22 He may and must hinder false and blasphemous opinions from being spread abroad: He may and must punish those which are seducers of Soules, especially such as are seditious: He may and must hinder the profanation of the Sab­bath.

23 But yet he must not take upon him authoritie and power over the Consciences of men, whereof God onely is King.

24 Therefore neither must the Magistrate compell the Subjects to any false religion, neither must the Subjects obey, if he goes about to compell them.

25 Unto the Administration of Justice, there belongeth also the power of making Civill Lawes, to [Page 351] be the determination of the Law of nature.

26 For Christian Commonwealths are not simply tyed and bound to the Judiciall Lawes of Moses.

27 Unto the same also belong Contracts, which are to be mode­rated by Charitie & Equitie: From whence it is easily gathered, what we may determine in the question, about Vsurie.

28 The Scripture simply for­biddeth Vsurie: But what be Con­tracts of Vsurie, that we must learne from the end of the Law, which is Charitie; and from the description of the Prohibition, as also from the incorrupt judgement of the prudent.

29 By the name of Judgement forementioned, we understand the defending of the good, and the pu­nishing of those which do that which is evill. Rom. 13.4.

30 To which end and purpose [Page 352] were judiciall Lawes invented, for the hearing & judging both Civill and Criminall causes.

31 Therefore a Christian man is not forbidden to go to Law, so he do it in a lawfull manner.

32 The Punishment which the Magistrate inflicteth upon the transgressours of the Lawes, and the troublers of humane societie, must be Correspondent to the Fault committed.

33 For it is not free for the Ma­gistrate at his pleasure, to let de­linquents and offenders, especially such as are in any enormous crime, escape and go unpunished.

34 Yet sometimes Equitie and Moderation of the rigour of the Law is to be used: but still with a respect unto the Delinquent or Of­fender, and the Offence it self.

35 As Extreme rigour of the Law is sometimes, Extreme injuries: So likewise Extreme indulgence [Page 353] and remissenesse doth Dull the Edge of the Law and much dimi­nish the power and authoritie of the Magistrate.

36 Here a question is moved about Heresie, Theft, and Adulterie, Whether the Punishment thereof ought to be Capitall.

37 Whosoever doth maintaine an Heresie Privately, or else doth spread it abroad but not seditiously: we deny that such a one is to be put to death.

38 Other wayes of sowing, and spreading abroad heresies, we leave unto the Magistrate to pu­nish.

39 To say that the punishment of simple Theft ▪ especially if it be but of a light and petty matter, ought to be Capitall: that's very hard.

40 Yet we do not mislike that the rigour of the Law should be ex­ecuted upon such as are common [Page 354] robbers, breakers into houses, and such as have often escaped for stealing, and yet steal againe.

41 The Law of God hath ad­judged Adulterie to be punished with death.

42 In the time of Warre let the Magistrate be mindfull of his office and duty, that he wages Warre lawfully.

43 For neither is the Magistrate forbidden to Denounce Warre, nor the Subjects to take up armes: If the Warre be Lawfull.

44 The Conditions of a Lawfull Warre are these, That it be under­taken upon Authoritie of superious, upon a good Cause, and with a good Intention. Thom. 2.2. q. 40.

45 Warre is not warre but rob­berie, if it be undertaken without lawfull Authoritie of him that de­nounceth it.

46 The Just causes of warre are Three, Either Just defence, or Just [Page 355] Punishment, or Recovering what is unjustly taken away.

47 There must also be added an Intention of a fit and convenient end. The Will must be for Peace, and Warre is not to be undertaken but upon necessitie: The End of going to Warre is or ought to be the procuring of Peace. August. Epist. 205.

48 To a right Intention we re­ferre also the Lawfull manner of waging warre.

49 It was worthily spoke by Aurelianus to a certaine Tribune of Souldiers, If thou wilt be a Tri­bune, if thou wilt live, hold thy Soul­diers in, that they cōmit no outrages. Let none of them st [...]ale an hen, take away another mans sheepe, pull of a grape, [...]read down the standing corn, exact oyle, salt, or wood, but let them be content with their owne wages: If they go a forraging and boothaling, let them do it in their enemies countrie [Page 356] and not in the countrie of their friends and allyes.

50 For it can never be hoped, that those souldiers should be prosperous in warlike enterprises, and feats of armes, which at their departure carry away with them curses and teares for their Viati­cum to feed upon by the way. Gregor. lib. 6. Histor. cap. 12.

51 Let them try their strength against their enemies: But even a­gainst them let the stratagems of warre which they use be law­full.

52 But yet it behooves a Ma­gistrate to try all courses before he goes to warre: For he may not do it, but when the extreme ne­cessity of the commonwealth calls for it. As Physicians are wont to do, when other remedies will not serve, at length to come to searing and lancing.

53 As in playing at Dice, when [Page 357] mony is laid once at stake, it is a question upon the cast whose it shall be: So is it in warre, The chance is doubtfull; what the event will be, it is uncertain: The king and the countrie lies at stake.

54 The other part of the Poli­ticall order, or Civill state, is made up by the Subjects, which are Re­latively opposed to the Magi­strates.

55 And they are either meere Subjects, or else they are joyned al­so in some power.

56 The Subjects owe unto their Magistrates honour, fear, fidelitie, obedience, tribute, and prayers for them.

57 This honour must be per­formed in heart and minde, in mouth and word, in work and deed.

58 We must look upon the Ma­gistrates as the ordinance of God: neither must we detract from them with a black mo [...]th, nor deny [Page 358] unto them outward reverence.

59 The Obedience which is to be performed hath certain bounds and limits: For those Subjects which also themselves are joyned in some power, may inhibit the Magistrates from usurping too much power and authoritie over them.

60 Yea those also which are meerly Subjects are not bound to obey the Magistrates in all things: that is, If they shall command any thing against pietie and honestie.

61 Subjects are to fear their own Kings; For they have rule and authoritie over them: But Kings also must fear God; For his kingdome ruleth over all. Psalme 103.19.

62 We must Fear God rather then Man: God, whose commands are alwaies just, rather then Man commanding that which is un­just.

63 If any thing be commanded, [Page 359] which seems hard and grievous to be born, yet we must beare it: But if that which is commanded be impious and unjust we are bound not to obey it.

64 We owe Tribute unto Kings and Magistrates: because they la­bour for us; because they rule and govern us; and because they defend us.

65 But here a due moderation is required: For the tribute must be such as the Subjects are well able to pay, and such as the ne­cessitie of the commonwealth re­quires.

66 Here the question is moved, whether that place 1. Sam. 8. is to be understood of Right or Custome. It may be answered, by distin­guishing between the Necessitie of Government, and the Pleasure of the King.

67 Prayers also are a due which subjects are to pay unto kings and [Page 360] those that are in authoritie, as the Apostle teacheth expressely. 1. Tim. 2.2.

68 It was well said by B [...]gen­hagius, That if we were as ready to pray for the Magistrates, as we are to d [...]ract from them, then certainly things would go better with us, and it would be the bet­ter for us.

69 The Hebrew Rabbies have such a saying as this, Wo unto tha [...] people which bury their own Lords. Rabb. Solomon Jar▪ in Com­ment. Hos. 1.

70 And Antigonus after his death is often digged up again by his Subjects.

71 And thus much concerning the Politicall Order, or Civill State. That which remains concerns the Politicall Doctrine.

72 God who establisheth king­domes, grant unto all Christian Kings Princes and Governours [Page 361] peace and tranquillity both in bo­dy and minde here in this life, and eternall salvation both of bo­dy and soul in the life to come. Amen.

CHAP. XXII. Wherein are contained Theolo­gicall Aphorismes concerning WEDLOCK, OR MARRIAGE.

WEdlock is a state which was ordained by God even then when man stood in his integritie, and before his fall.

2 Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled. Heb. 13.4.

3 But to speak properly and ac­curately, it is no Sacrament, ac­cording to the definition which is [Page 362] given unto Baptisme, and the Lords Supper.

4 For it wants the externall and visible element according to Gods institution, and likewise it wants the promise which is pro­per to the Gospell.

5 But if we speak generally and in a large sense, so it may be called a Sacrament, that is, a signe of an holy thing. Ephes. 5.32.

6 The proper place and seat of the doctrine concerning marriage is to be found in Gen. 2.18, &c.

7 Unto which Christ calling us back, Matth. 19.5. sheweth that the answer and solution of all questions and doubts concern­ing Marriage is to be fetcht from that place.

8 There it is taught that Mar­riage is the lawfull & indissoluble knot and joyning together of two onely, to wit, the man and the wo­man.

[Page 363]9 There, Digamie and Polyga­mie, that is, having two wives or more is against the institution of marriage.

10 Digamie is not, when a man after the death of the first woman marrieth a second, but when a man at the same time hath two wives. Chrysost. in 1. Tim. 3.

11 For neither are second mar­riages, nor third, nor more then these forbidden by the Holy Ghost, if so be that those that marry marry in the Lord.

12 Again, The woman after the death of her first husband may be married again as before, and yet oftener.

13 God tolerated in the fathers in the Old Testament Polygamie or having many wives, but he no where commanded it.

14 God tolerated it, I say, not for unbridled lusts sake, but for pro­pagating of the Church, and pro­moting [Page 364] the promise concerning the blessed [...]eed.

15 And so God used that, which was evill in them, to a good end.

16 That the Marriage-knot may be lawfull, there is required the mutuall consent of both parties.

17 Therefore there must be no violence used, neither must there be any errour, especially such as toucheth the substantialls of marriage.

18 The Consent which is re­quired must be lawfull, honest, just, free, full, and sincere.

19 But, though we said there must not be any errour, yet if the faith be once pledged, and the pro­mise of marriage once made, it is not to be broken upon every er­rour.

20 Neither is the Contract to be made void and of none effect, for want of every condition which is required in the Consent.

[Page 365]21 And further the Consent of the parties is without force and efficacie, if there be not also the Consent of their parents.

22 And therefore we say that the Consent of the parents is as well required as the mutuall Consent of the parties, and that not onely for honesties sake, but also for neces­sitie.

23 And this we say following the authoritie of the Divine, Na­turall, and Civill law.

24 Which also some Canons of the Pontificiall law, especially the more ancient, do approve.

25 If the Parents forget the du­ty which they owe unto their chil­dren, or if they will abuse their power: the Magistrate is to succeed into the place of the parents.

26 Unto the lawfull joyning to­gether in Matrimonie this is also required that the degrees of kin­dred be not violated.

[Page 366]27 Who may lawfully be joyn­ed together in Matrimonie, and who are forbidden we are taught in Leviticus, chapt. 18, and 20. by an expresse limitation of degrees both of Consanguinitie and Affi­nitie.

28 Which Texts we say are to be taken and understood not onely of the Persons, but also of the Degrees.

29 And we expresly and plainly affirme that these are the Constitu­tions of the Law of Nature.

30 In these therefore there is no place for Dispensation.

31 To these Divine Lawes, not without good and wholesome counsell and advice, for greater re­verence, there are also added by godly Magistrates Prohibitions even to the third degree of an une­quall line.

32▪ Which we also hold fit to be observed; but yet so, that upon [Page 367] a good and probable cause they may be relaxed.

33 But still there must be a Pro­viso, or care had, that Dispensation be not turned into Dissipation.

34 In the Computation or recko­ning of the Degrees, we follow the Disposition and order of the Canon [...].

35 Not that we acknowledge our selves to be bound unto the Canons of the Pontificiall Law: but because herein it is sound and good.

36 In a right line there is given this Rule: As many as the Persons are; so many are the Degrees, ex­cepting one.

37 In a Collaterall equall Line this Rule is given: As many de­grees as one Person is distant from the stock; so many degrees is it di­stant from the other.

38 In a Collaterall unequall Line, In what degree the Person more remote is distant from the stock, [Page 368] in that likewise it is distant from the other.

39 In respect of Affinitie also some there are which are not to be married together.

40 But this Affinitie, which hin­dreth marriage, doth not stretch it self farre.

41 For betweene the kindred of the husband and the kindred of the wife, there is no such Affinitie but that they may marry one ano­ther.

42 But betweene the Wife and the Kindred of the Husband, as also between the Husband and the Kindred of the Wife, there is such Affinitie that they may not marry one another.

43 Therefore, according to the Constitutions of all Lawes, in a right Line Prohibition extends it self In­finitely.

44 In a Collaterall Line, by the Provinciall Lawes, Prohibition is ex­tended [Page 369] to the Third degree.

45 And it respects not onely Consanguinitie but also Affinitie.

46 And it is good counsell which is given by Ictus, That in joyning together in matrimonie, we are not onely to consider what is Lawfull, but also what is Ho­nest.

47 The Principall end of mar­riage is the propagation of man­kind, and of the Church conse­quently.

48 The Lesse-Principall ends are, That the Man and the Wife may be mutuall and faithfull helps the one to the other, and that they may be a Type of Christ and his Church.

49 The Accidentall end is, The avoiding of fornication.

50 For what before the fall was instituted for an Office or Duty, after the fall became an Help or Remedie.

[Page 370]51 Before Matrimonie, not with­out good reason, there must go Be­trothing.

52 Which is the Promise of fu­ture Marriage.

53 After Betrothing, there may be a Separation, for sundrie causes▪ which are to be judged in the Con­sistories by godly learned and pru­dent men.

54 In generall, we say that Re­fusalls may be made for more causes and reasons, then Divorces may.

55 For many things may hinder Matrimonie to be contracted, which cannot dissolve it when it is contracted.

56 Matrimonie is dissolved by Death and by Adulterie.

57 By Adulterie the very Knot of Matrimonie is dissolved, inso­much that the party innocent may marrie againe.

58 Jerom thinks that the Adul­teresse [Page 371] may not be retained: Augu­gustine thinks that she may not be dismissed, and put away: But we go in a middle way.

59 If one partie forsake the other and go away out of malice: the Magistrate doth well in pro­viding and taking care for the par­tie innocent.

60 But still we must remember Christs Exclusive, That there is no other just Cause of Divorce but onely Adulterie.

61 A Statute speaking Excep­tively is not extended to other causes. Bald. Lib. 28. C. de Adult.

62 Inhabilitie of body for the use of Matrimonie doth not make a Divorce, but it shewes that no true Matrimonie went before.

63 It is proved by this Argu­ment: Because that Inhabilitie hap­ning after marriage doth not admit of a Divorce.

64 We may judge the like con­cerning [Page 372] any errour in the Substan­tialls.

65 Violence is counted equall to Desertion.

66 That Matrimonie is to be dissolved for Heresie, we do not hold, neither do we grant it.

67 Virginitie is Subordinate to Wedlock: for chastitie in both states is pleasing unto God.

68 The Apostle preferres Virgi­nitie before Wedlock, to wit, in ido­neous and fit persons, which have the Gift of Continencie: Not abso­lutely, but in some respect; by reason of troubles, which follow those that are married, and the circum­stances of times.

69 The yoke of Virginitie is not to be imposed upon any a­gainst their wills: for all are not able to beare it.

70 Therefore it is free for all to marrie: But, as for those that burne, it is necessarie.

[Page 373]71 If the Spirit voluntarily make thee a Virgin, then art thou a Vir­gin indeed: There is no need of a Vow, or any Coaction.

72 If thou art a Virgin upon Coaction, before God thou art no Virgin: neither doth thy Vow pro­fit thee.

73 Virginitie of Body without Vir­ginitie of Minde is but Hypocriticall

74 Which is not to be com­pared with Holy Wedlock, but is to be put farre after it.

75 It profits nothing to keep the Body Impolluted without, and to have the Minde Fuming and Flaming with lusts within.

76 What doth it profit to have the Flesh sound, and the Minde corrupted?

77 And yet what one of a thou­sand is there of those that Vow Vir­ginitie, which keeps his body al­together impolluted?

78 But certainly there is not [Page 374] any that hath his Minde free from the burning of lust within.

79 Paul himself that great A­postle would here make no Law, nor cast a snare upon any man.

80 It were to be wished therefore that they which cannot containe themselves, would not give up their names to Virginitie, and vow to live a single life: It is a sump­tuous tower, and a great word which all cannot receive. Bern. Serm. ad Cler.

81 I know no woman, and yet I am no Virgin. (Cassianus cites this saying out of Basil. Lib. 6. de Spir. fornic.)

82 A good man useth Wedlock well: But an evill man useth neither Wedlock nor Virginitie well.

83 Christ, who is the Bride­groome of the Church, be present by his grace with all those that are married, that they may leade a godly life; and vouchsafe at length [Page 375] to bring us all unto the celesti­all Marriage. Amen.

CHAP. XXIII. Wherein are contained Theo­logicall Aphorismes concerning the foure last things: DEATH, the RESURRECTION, the JUDGEMENT, and the PLACE either of Eter­nall JOY, or Eter­nall TORMENT.

WE have seen the estate of Christs Church Mi­litant here on Earth. It remains now that we lift up our mindes, and elevate our thoughts to the consideration of the Church Triumphant in the Heavens.

2 The Passage of the godly out of the Militant Church into the [Page 376] Church Triumphant is by the gate of Death. In which consideration Gregorie Nyssen in his oration con­cerning Death, wittily compareth it to a Midwife which brings us forth into another world unto a life truely so called.

3 After Death follows the Judge­ment: whose Forerunner is the V­niversall Resurrection. It is appoint­ed unto all men once to die, but after this follows the Judgement. Hebr. 9.27.

4 They that have done good shall come forth, unto the resurrection of life: and they that have done evill, unto the resurrection of damnation. John 5.29.

5 Foure things there are which are called a mans last; the consider­ation whereof should never de­part out of our memorie: and these are they, Death, the Resur­rection, the Judgement, and the Eternall Mansion, and habitation, [Page 377] of the godly in Heaven, and the damned in Hell.

6 By the name of Death here we understand not the continuall Miseries of this present life. 1 Cor. 15.31. Nor the Death of the Soule in trespasses and sinnes. Ephes. 2.5. Nor that Blessed Death by which being dead unto sinne, that is, freed and delivered from the dominion thereof, and so from damnation, we live unto God. Rom. 6.2. Nor that Eternall Death, or second death of the damned. Revel. 2.11.

7 But we understand the Death of the Body, which is the separa­tion of Soule from Body, the pri­vation of carnall life, and the pas­sing away of the little World.

8 He that Dies unto Vices, be­fore he dies the Death of the Body, doth not die an Eternall Death, when he dies the Death of the Body. Sphinx Phil. Cap. 36.

9 By the gate of Sinne Death [Page 378] entred into the World, and so passed upon all men. Rom. 5.12.

10 Which Death is not the dis­solution and reduction of the Soule into nothing, but the de­parting of the Soule out of the House of the Body. The Soule cannot be destroyed. Matth. 10.28.

11 The Scripture maketh men­tion but of two receptacles of Soules separated from their bo­dies: The one, of the godly; the other of the wicked.

12 Away then with Purgatorie; away with that [ [...] or] night and sleeping of Soules, be­tweene the Day of Death and the Day of Judgement: Away with Pythagoras his ( [...], or) Transmigration of Soules; away with Apparitions of Soules.

13 For there is no middle place, where one can be out of Punish­ment, if he be not in the Kingdome: no place, where one can be out of [Page 379] the Divells companie, if he hath not Fellowship with Christ. August. de Pecc. Mor. & Remiss. Cap. 2.

14 Before the Vniversall Resur­rection, the greater world shall passe away: and after that shall follow the Vniversall Judgement.

15 Many of the ancients were of opinion that the World should passe away, by the Change of Qua­litie onely, and not by the Aboli­tion of Substance.

16 But the Scripture useth words very Emphaticall. Heaven and Earth shall passe away. Matth. 24.35. Luk. 22.33.

17 The Key which is to open our Graves, and the Pledge of our Resurrection, is the Resurrection of Christ our Head.

18 The Resurrection of our bo­dies is confirmed by manifest Te­stimonies of the Holy Spirit in the Scripture, and they are often re­peated.

[Page 380]19 The Preludes, or forerunners of our Resurrection are the parti­cular examples of those which were raised up againe to life in the Old and New Testament: whom Tertullian calls the Candidates of immortalitie.

20 Man was at the first both in Body and Soule created for im­mortalitie: The Body is the Soules instrument, by which it worketh in actions good or bad. The body of the godly is the Temple of the Holy Ghost: Yea our bodies are fed with the quickning Body and Bloud of Christ. And how then can they alwayes remaine in the Grave?

21 God is the Authour of our Resurrection: But Christ is the Fi­nisher thereof, in and with his hu­mane nature assumed.

22 Not onely all flesh, but even the same flesh that was, shall be raised up againe.

[Page 381]23 Their change in a moment, which shall be found alive upon Earth at the last day, shall be to them in stead of Death and Resur­rection from the dead.

24 Neither shall Christ onely raise us up, but he shall be also our Judge. Joh. 5.27. The Father hath given him authoritie to exequute Judgement.

25 Christ, when he cometh to Judge the world, shall appeare in the same nature, which he united unto himself by his Incarnation. That Flesh shall sit & Judge, which stood before the Judge: That Flesh shall Judge, which was it self for­merly Judged.

26 This Vniversall Judgement Gods Truth & Justice do require.

27 The exact Forme, Manner, and Proceeding in Judgement at the last day, Experience it self will then better teach, then any hu­mane understanding can now con­ceive.

[Page 382]28 Let us, whilst we are here, pray unto God with sighes and grones, to be delivered from the Sentence of Condemnation in that day: Let us now heare the Voice of Invitation, that then we may heare the Voice of Consolation.

29 After Sentence is once passed, immediately followes Execution. Then shall they, which are set at the right hand of the Judge, enter into Life everlasting, and they which are on the left, shall be cast into Everlasting fire. Matth. 25.34.41.

30 The Blessednesse of eternall Life comprehendeth in it the Pri­vation and Absence of all Evill, and the Presence and Fruition of all Good.

31 Wee shall be Freed and deli­vered from all Sinne, and from all Punishment due unto sinne.

32 Our vile Body shall be fashioned like unto Christ his glorious Body. [Page 383] Philip. 3.21. But there shall be great difference in glorie.

33 We shall see God Without end, we shall Love him alwayes Without loathing, and praise him evermore Without being wearied. August. 22. de Civit. Dei cap. 30.

34 Vision shall succeed in the place of Faith, Fruition in the place of Hope, and Charitie here onely Inchoate, shall be there Consum­mate.

35 God shall be fulnes of Light to the Vnderstanding, superabun­dance of Peace to the Will, and con­tinuance of Eternitie to the Memo­rie. Bern. Serm. 11. Super. Cant. Col. 519.

36 The Saints shall Rejoyce for the Pleasantnesse of Place, which they shall possesse; for the sweet Companie, with whome they shall raigne; for the Glorie of their Bo­dies, which they shall put on; for the World, which they have con­temned; [Page 384] and for Hell which they have escaped. Bonavent. in Dioet. Cap. 50.

37 Let us then Pant and Breathe for earnest desire after that Life, whose King is the Trinitie, whose Law is Charitie, and whose Measure is Eternitie.

38 Neither shall our Being be subject unto Death, nor our Know­ledge unto Errour, nor our Love unto Offence. Sphinx Phil. pag. 5.

39 We shall see God face to face: we shall heare him speake immediately unto us.

40 The Elect shall have Wisdome in the highest degree; Righteousnesse in full perfection; Joy which is everlasting; and shall Sing Prayse and Glorie unto God without end.


All the Elect Salvation shall see:
But Glorie in a different degree.

42 It hath not at any time entred into the heart of man to conceive, what glorie God hath prepared [Page 385] for his Elect. 1 Cor. 2.9. And if his Heart is not able to conceive it, much lesse is his Tongue able to expresse it.

43 To the Eternall Life of the blessed is opposed the Eternall Death of the damned, which in the Revelation is called the Second Death.

44 The life of the damned shall be, to be alwayes dying: and the death of the damned, to be alwaies living. If it be life, why doth it kill? and if it be death, why doth it endure?

45 The damned shall so live, that they shall be alwayes dying, and so dye that they shall be al­wayes living. Bern. in Med. Devot. Cap. 3. Col. 193.

46 In the Flesh shall they be tormented with Fire, and in the Soule with the Worme of Conscience. Ibid.

47 It is the Eternitie of the Pu­nishments [Page 386] which beyond all mea­sure increaseth their torments, laying upon them a weight unsup­portable.

48 For to be tormented with­out end, this is that which goes beyond all the bounds of despera­tion. Isidor. Clar. Orat. 12.

49 Grievous is the Torment of the damned for the Bitternesse of th [...] Punishments: But it is more grie­vous for the Diversitie of the Pu­nishments: But most grievous for the Eternitie of the Punishments. Dionys. in 18. Apocalyps. fol. 301.

50 The Gate shall be shut upon them. Matth. 25.10. Understand the Gate of Indulgence, the Gate of Mercie, the Gate of Hope, the Gate of Consolation, and the Gate of Good Works.

51 To be for ever deprived of the beatificall vision of God, goes beyond all the Punishments in Hell.

[Page 387]52 Being squeezed under the unsupportable weight of Punish­ments they shall wish they had no being: but it shall be all in vaine. They shall desire to die; but death shall [...]lee from them. Revel. 9.6.

53 They shall roare for the very disquietnesse of heart; they shall rage for madnesse, and gnash their teeth: There shall be weeping for griefe, and gnashing of teeth for madnesse. Bern. Ser. 8. in Psal. 91.

54 Of all which some have a tast even in this Life.

55 The Companie of the Divells, and the Qualiti [...] of the Place do exc [...]edingly increase the Tor­ments of the Damned.

56 Neither shall the Torments of the Damned be onely Eternall, but they shall also be Without all Intermission at any time. The smoake of their Torments ascendeth up for ever and ever. Revel. 14.11.

[Page 388]57 As in Heaven one is more glorious then another: So likewise in Hell one shall be more miserable then another. August. in Enchirid. Cap. 3.

58 We are very curious to know where Hell is: But we are not so carefull to learne how we may escape it. Our thoughts were better spent in meditating upon it.

59 When we sit downe to eat and drink, and when we rise from table againe; when we lye downe to sleepe, and when we rise up a­gaine: at all times, and in all places, it is very good to thinke upon Hell.

60 For, To thinke upon Hell preserves a man from falling into it. Chrysost. Hom. 44. in Matth.

61 Doest thou think to quench the flames of Hell by not speaking of it? or, Doest thou think thou kindlest the flame thereof by speaking of it? Whether thou [Page 389] speakest of it or no, the flame is alwayes there alike. Idem in Ho­mil. 2. in 2. Thess.

62 He deliver us from eternall death, who himself died for us: He bring us unto eternall Life, who himselfe is the Prince of Life blessed for ever. To whome with the Father and the Holy Spirit be all honour and glorie World with­out end. Amen.


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